1- Sir James Jeans 2- Stars 3- Life on earth 4- Simple organisms 5- Milky Way 6- Earth 7- Warmth of stars 8- Study universe

9- Physical Conditions 10- Millions of mile 1- Darred Barnard and Lon Edward 2- Infectious diseases 3- Preservation of food 4- Preservation of meat in past 5- Dirty water 6- Garbage 7- Less average age 8- Age of six of a child 9- Epidemics 10- Attitudes 1- Herbert E. Hawkes 2- Financial Pressure 3- Mistaken ambition 4- Intelligent school students 5- Lazy bluffers 6- Nervous habits 7- Hidden diseases 8- Main idea of the lesson 9- Main objective of a college 10- Sports and athletic 1- David Daiches 2- Friday morning 3- Respites 4- Hard frost 5- Christmas holidays 6- Dismal feeling fro school 7- Sunday night 8- Bicycle 9- Ice cream Barrow 10- Glorious Vehicle 1- On destroying books 2- Public duty 3- The British troops 4- The writer lived 5- River bridge 6- Fear at bridge 7- Non-bookish people 8- Felt sorry for books 9- Police constable 10- Cannot burn books 1- Jerome K. Jerome 2- Housemaid Knees 3- Pharmacology 4- Medical advertisement 5- British Museum Library 6- The man was a hospital 7- Writer came out of the library 8- The writer 9- Writers doctor 10- Don’t stuff your head 1- My Financial Career 2- 56 dollars 3- Pinkerton 4- Gould 5- Baron Rothschild 6- Rattled 7- 6 dollars 8- Mistake on the cheque 9- Mr. Montgomery 10- The Manager 1- Hunger And Population Explosion 2- Rate of population increase in the west 3- Russian Famine 4- Robin Hood 5- Famine in North China 6- European Famines from Christ to 1800 7- Worst famine of the century 8- The population of world is expected to double 9- Population of the world at the time of essay writing 10- Growth rate of the world population as told by the writer 1- Mr. Weldon 2- Sir Winston S. Churchill 3- Mr. Somervell 4- Sentence Structure 5- School’s Name of the Author 6- 12 Years 7- Tested Subjects 8- Taught Language to less intelligent students 9- Latin paper 10- Practical Life 1- Sir Alexander Fleming 2- Fleming’s Graduation

The Dying Sun Grains of sand Simple organisms Produce before death Galaxy Solar system Sun Feel fear Moderate temperature Distance between stars Using the scientific Method Lack of sanitary system Dehydration and processing of food Pickling and Salting Dysentery Infectious diseases Around 30 years Fatal infections to surround a child god and goddesses Signs of good and bad luck Why Boys Fail In College Long hours job Lose interest in studies Poor students in college No serious interest in life Waste time Low performance in studies Reasons of mass failure of students in college Studies and education Part of college life End of Term Rose coloured Football match Skating holiday Three weeks Hard routine of school Full of threat Prize money Slider and Cornet Taxi J. C. Squire Destroy useless books Useless volumes Flat in Chelsea Throw books Splash of water Keep useless books On his way back to home Accuse of theft Study Fire The men was a hospital Not found in the writer Book of drug use Liver pill Writer went to study treatment of diseases Gives lesson that little knowledge is dangerous Descript wreck Equal to 1700 patients Suggestion and daily routine Little knowledge is dangerous Stephen Leacock Increased salary of the writer detective agency A milliner Rich Person Confused and nervous The writer wanted to draw 56 dollars in spite of 6 dollars Accountant Calm and considerate Anna Mckeni 0.6 1921-22 Folk stories 19th century 350 1964-65 40 years Over 3000 million 6.6 Headmaster First Year at Harrow English Teacher English Class Harrow Time of Admission of Churchill Latin, Greek English Letter ‘I’ Use of English Language Patrick Pringle 1906

3- Discovery of Germs 4- Antiseptic Method 5- Leucocytes 6- First use of Penicillin 7- 6th August, 1881 8- Sterilization 9- White Cells 10- Oxford Team 1- Mustafa Kamal was declared President 2- General Ismat became Prime minister in 3- Rebels 4- Attacked Turkey in 1921 5- Five year plan in of Development in Turkey 6- Roman Script 7- Exile of Mehmet 8- Capital of Turkey 9- Mustafa Kamal was sent to crush rebels 10- l1zmir

Louis Pasture J. Lister Metchnikoff 1941 Birth of Fleming Antiseptic Method Fight against disease Concentration of Penicillin 29th October 1923 1923 Mehmet Greeks 1934 Arabic Script November, 1922 Ankara Anatolia Rich city of Anatolia

Introduction: In this short essay The Dying Sun sir James Jeans presents his theory of the origin of life and solar system. He says that the Universe is very vast and the sun the moon and millions of other stars are wandering about in space according to a set plan. These stars are so big that each of them can contain millions of earth in them. Usually these stars moves lonely and it is seldom that a star comes nearer another star during its journey in space. There are many kinds of stars in the Universe. Only very few stars are smaller than the earth. Majority of the stars are much bigger than our earth. The total number of the stars in the Universe is like the total number of the particles of sand on all the sea shores of the world. Vastness of the Universe: The writer believes that some two thousand years ago a rare event took place when a wandering star came near the sun, and this raised huge tides on the surface of the sun as the moon raises tide on oceans. These tides traveled over its surface in one direction & formed a mountain. As the star came nearer & nearer the sun this mountain would raise higher and higher. As the star came closer the tidal pull of the second star became so strong that the mountain was burst into pieces. These pieces began circulating round the sun and are called planets & stars, some of these are small & some are great. Our earth is also one of them. Creation of Solar System: The sun and the other stars, we see in sky are extremely hot hence there can be no life on them. The pieces, which were thrown by the sun, were too hot in the beginning. As the times passed they cooled down because whole the space is much cold, now they have a very little heat of their own. They are still moving round the sun. They get warmth from it. In the course of time our earth gave birth to life. Creation of Life: We cannot say any thing with certainty but the author believes that life has started in form of simple organism. These organisms had ability to reproduce next generation before they die. Thus started the chain of life, finally resulted in form of human beings who have feelings, emotions, ambitions and religious beliefs. Feelings of Human Beings: The author says that when we try to understand the nature and purpose of the universe we are frightened because of its boundless distances and long vistas of time. We are also frightened because of our loneliness and insignificance of our earth in space. The whole picture is also frightening for us when we think that our earth is the only place where life exists and we do not know about any other planet that may have our climate and conditions. For the most past of the empty space is either too hot or too cold that no life is possible in it. Possibility of Life: The author says that the accident which produces our planetary system is extremely rare. He says that at the most only one star in a hundred thousand has a planet round it at the right distance for life to be possible on it. The kind of life we know is only possible on the earth because of its moderate temperature, water and oxygen the stars are too hot as they would melt the entire solid and boil all the liquid. In 1000,000 stars only one star has suitable conditions for life but in his views life is not the part of the planetary system.

1- The Dying Sun (Sir James Jeans)

2- Using the Scientific Method (Darrel Barnard & Lon Edwards)
Introduction: In this short essay, the author describes the ways in which scientific method has helped us in our daily life. It is because of the use of scientific method that we have controlled diseases, provided better sanitary conditions, better food and better means of communication. Scientific method has enabled us to have a better control over various diseases. The death rate due to diseases like smallpox, measles, diphtheria, scarlet fever, typhus, typhoid fever and influenza has greatly decreased. Health Conditions in Past (Better control of disease): Two hundred years ago, the world was full of disease. Little children died before they could attain the age of one year. Those children, who survived, suffered from small box. At the age of twelve they suffered from measles, whooping cough scarlet fever and diphtheria. Then the men in older times caught by other diseases like yellow fever, malaria, typhus, cholera, typhoid and influenza. In those days people died young. Most of the people died before the age of thirty years. There was no concept of cause and cure of a disease. However, today science has changed the whole picture of health and disease. The science has taught us to protect ourselves against harmful diseases. Now, the babies are born in the hospital. The doctors and the nurses take care of them so that they do not catch any disease. These babies are vaccinated for deadly diseases. Then the average age of man has increased. Cleanliness and Sanitation (Better sanitary conditions): The scientific method has brought great change in sanitary conditions of our cities. In past, drain water and garbage remained in streets, causing various diseases. The streets were very narrow and dirty. People used to throw all the waste material in streets and out door toilets were common. The human wasted were drained in wells and people used the water of these wells. However, Today the situation has been changed now the city governments manage to keep the cities clean by good drainage system. The result is that the diseases are not spread. Dirty water and waste material is carried through pipes to distant places for disposal. The scientific method has proved that diseases like cholera, fever and dysentery spread because improper system of sanitation. Hence, it is not as much harmful as it used to be in past. The spread of many deadly diseases has been made impossible through this system. Now we can easily have clean water in our homes. Century earlier water had to be carried from the well to home but now the modern water systems provide enough water to huge population. Production and Preservation of Food (more food and better food): The scientific method has also helped us to increase production and preservation of food. The quality of food is also much improved. In past, food preservation was a serious problem. But with the help of scientific method, the food is preserved in tin boxes for a longer period of time. In past the people did not eat many kinds of food at a time. They could have fresh vegetables and fruits only in the growing season. They preserved meat by salting it and dried vegetable for winter season. But these things often turned bad or they got poisonous. Now with the help of scientific methods of selecting, grading and freezing we can preserve food for a long time. Change in the Mind of Men (Better attitudes): The scientific method had also changed our ideas and



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