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F.Sc Part 2nd English Prose Book (Balochistan Board Quetta) by Sajid Ali Baloch Gichki

F.Sc Part 2nd English Prose Book (Balochistan Board Quetta) by Sajid Ali Baloch Gichki

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Published by: Sajid Ali Baloch Gichki on Nov 03, 2012
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09/01/2013

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Greeks.

Mustafa Kamal, as supreme commander of the popular nationalist army, cleared the resistance, abolished the Kingship and changed Turkey into a Republic. The author tells that the First World War had put Turkey in a difficult position. The country had been conquered and occupied by the ALLIED FORCES. It had become difficult for this Muslim State to remain free and independent. The Turkish Monarch had been a puppet in the hands of the ALLIED FORCES. The government at Istanbul could not help cooperating with the enemy forces. It could not take any step without the permission and advice of the foreign authorities. Revolt: In these circumstances, the province of eastern Anatolia refused to bow before the Allied control officers. An undefeated portion of the Ottoman army was still active here; this caused great concern for the Allies, as well as the Turkish King. Mehmet IV. A strong and capable soldier was needed to put down the revolt. Mustafa Kamal was considered the most suitable man for this job. On May 15, 1919, the King ordered him to go to Anatolia as the Governor General of the Eastern Provinces. But his ship had not yet touched the coast of Anatolia when the authorities at Istanbul got suspicion of his intensions. Thus the Sultan issued ordered for the ship to be intercepted but it was too late now. The ALLIES were bent upon to divide the Ottoman Empire of Turkey. They wanted to give a part of Turkey to the Greeks. Thus on 15th May, the British Admiral in Turkey invited the Greek troops to occupy the rich province of Izmir. This enraged the Turks. They declared that they would like to die instead of being ruled by the Greeks. Mustafa Kamal got an opportunity to awaken and organize his people against the foreign occupation of their motherland. When Mustafa Kamal reached Anatolia, the true patriot rallied round him. Here he met the commander of Turkish forces of Ankara. In this meeting he sketched out his plan of resistance. It was decided to prepare guerilla groups of fighters and a national army to fight against the Greeks. It was made clear to the world that since the Sultan and the government at Istanbul were in the hands of the enemy, all ordered from Istanbul would have no importance. To put his plans into practice Mustafa Kamal made an extensive tour of the villages and organized people for resistance. The Turkish Sultan and Mustafa Kamal: It happened that when the Turkish Sultan came to know the situation, he ordered Mustafa Kamal to return to Istanbul at once. But Mustafa Kamal sent a telegram to the King, urging him to come over to Anatolia and lead his country people in their struggle against the foreign rulers. He made it clear to the King that he would stay in Anatolia until the nation had won its independence. The King saw that Anatolia was going out of his control for good. He tried to win over Mustafa Kamal by a deceitful measure. He ordered the nationalists to form a government of their own choice and to transfer their activities from Anatolia to Istanbul. But Mustafa Kamal was intelligent enough to see through the game. He wanted to keep his freedom movement free of all intervention. Therefore, he insisted on having the national parliament at Ankara, where it could work independently of the King or the Allies. Mustafa Kamal’s leadership: Once again he got busy in working up resistance in the very presence of the enemies. For the next few weeks he built up army formations in the interior parts of the country. People from all fields of life were ready to sacrifice their lives for this noble cause. Mustafa Kamal’s leadership infused a new spirit in patriots and the situation became more serious for allies and they had to withdraw their troops from many places. The Sultan’s assembly was dissolved and the allies put Istambul under collective arrest. On 23rd April 1920, the revolution Turkish Grand National Assembly held its meeting in Ankara and its president was Mustafa Kamal. In May 1920 the Allies published their terms of peace which they wanted to make with Sultan. It was in fact a definite plan to dismember the Ottoman empire, which was not accepted by the patriots. In the meantime, the ALLIES tried to have a political settlement with the Turkish Emperor, Mehmet IV. They wanted to create a small and helpless Ottoman Empire, which was to be completely under the control of the allied powers. The Turks could not agree to this division of their county. It would have no meaning even if it were signed by the King. On the 2l August 1921, the Greeks attacked. There was a fierce fighting between the two sides, which continued for two weeks. The allies were rendered helpless by the supreme strategy of Mustafa Kamal. The Greek troops were forced to withdraw. By the end of August, the Turkish soldiers advanced as far as Mediterranean and freed Izmir from the Greeks. The battleships of the ALLIES could do nothing except to take away their own people. On the 9th September, 1922, Mustafa Kamal entered Izmir in the form of a procession. He was hailed as the "Saviour of Turkey". Three days after the change of government, a fearful fire broke out in Izmir. A greater part of the city was reduced to ashes. Mustafa Kamal felt satisfied that he had full control over the whole country and had it done away with the traitors. As last, he persuaded the Grand Turkish National Assembly to abolish the Sultanate. On the 4 November 1922, the government at Istanbul resigned office. Having dealt with the external threat, Atatürk turned to the internal one posed by the conservative forces around the sultan. The sultanate was abolished on November 1, 1922, and the Republic of Turkey proclaimed on October 29, 1923, with Atatürk as president and General Ismat Inonu were elected as the Prime Minister of the new republic rspective1y. He founded the People's Party (renamed Republican People's Party in 1924) in August 1923 and established a single-party regime that, except for two brief experiments (1924-1925 and 1930) with opposition parties, lasted until 1945. Mustafa Kamal as a Reformer: Mustafa Kamal was a great reformer. Atatürk initiated expansive reforms, such as abolishing polygamy and granting new rights for women. He also abolished corruption, improved public education, and modernized industries. He wanted to put his country on the road to progress and prosperity. Soon after assuming power, he decided to carry out certain revolutionary reforms. His first object was to educate the people. He introduced the system of State education, and trained a large number of teachers to educate the people. The old and difficult Arabic script was replaced by the Roman script. It was done to make reading and writing easier to learn. He also simplified the Turkish language by freeing it of the Arabic and Persian words in it. Nobilities and old titles were abolished. The wearing of national head-dress called the Fez for men and the veil for women were also done away with. Women were asked to come out of their houses and take part in national life side by side with men. Steps were also taken for the economic welfare of the people. New roads and railways were constructed. The banking system was organized. New factories and industries sprang up day by day. These reforms ensured rapid progress both in the economic & social spheres of national life. Turkey achieved the stage of development in a few years, which other European countries took in 150 years. Thus, Mustafa Kamal proved to be the Saviour of Turkish nation and the architect of the modern Turkey. Atatürk created a modern and secular state, using his great prestige and charisma to introduce a vast program of reforms. These included abolishing the caliphate, which embodied the religious authority of the sultans, and all other Islamic institutions; introducing Western law codes, dress, and calendar; using the Latin alphabet; and, in 1928, removing the constitutional provision naming Islam as the state religion. By 1931 the ideology of the regime, known as Kemalism or Atatürkism, was articulated and defined by six principles: republicanism, nationalism, populism, statism, secularism, and revolutionism. In 1919 Atatürk had been first among equals, but by 1926 he had eliminated all political rivals, using an alleged assassination conspiracy as the excuse. Thereafter, although he ruled as an autocrat, his regime was in fact based on an alliance of the civil and military bureaucracy, the newly developed bourgeoisie, and the landowners. Atatürk's principal aim had been to save his people from humiliation and to transform Turkey into a modern, 20th-century nation. He pursued this aim with total determination and political finesse. Perhaps his most essential trait was his political realism; it enabled him to carry out his reforms without disastrous adventures and allowed Turkey to live at peace with its neighbors.

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