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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Li m u
Trong xu hng hi nhp chung c mt v th cnh tranh vng chc i hi phi kt hp nhiu yu t. Knh phn phi l mt phn quan trng trong hot ng kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. N l mt cng c gip doanh nghip to lp v duy tr c li th cnh tranh di hn. Vic t chc knh phn phi thnh cng trong nn kinh t th trng ngy nay l mt cng vic v cng kh khn v phc tp. Qua gian thc tp ti cng ty c phn nha Nng, thm nhp thc t, nm bt tnh hnh kinh doanh v thc trng knh phi ti cng ty. Bn thn ti nhn thy trong nhng nm va qua cng ty c nhiu c gng v i mi trong hot ng kinh doanh, nhng thc t cho thy knh phn phi ca cng ty cha tng xng vi quy m v tim nng. V l do ti chn ti Hon thin h thng knh phn phi ti cng ty c phn Nha Nng lm chuyn thc tp. c th hon thnh c ti ny em nhn c s gip v hng dn tn tnh ca thy hng dn cng nh cc anh ch cc phng ban ca cng ty c phn Nha Nng. Do kin thc cn hn ch v thiu kinh nghim trong thc tin nn chc chn khng trnh khi thiu st. V vy ti rt mong nhn c s ng gp kin ca thy c. Em xin chn thnh cm n: - Qu thy c khoa Qun Tr Kinh Doanh trng i Hc Kinh T Nng -Thy gio: ThS Nguyn Vn Long -Ban gim c cng ty c phn nha Nng Nng, thng 5 nm 2009

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PHN 1: C S L LUN V HOT NG PHN PHI I. Mt s vn v hot ng phn phi. 1. Khi nim. Phn phi l mt khi nim ca kinh doanh nhm nh hng v chuyn giao quyn s hu gia ngi bn v ngi mua, ng thi thc hin vic t chc cc trung gian khc nhau nhm m bo cho hng ha tip cn khch hng v khai thc ti a cc loi nhu cu ca khch hng (1) 2. c im L con ng ni lin t ngi sn xut n ngi tiu dng cui cng, knh phn phi c ba c tnh sau: 2.1. Khi im t nh sn xut, kt thc nhng ngi tiu th. c trng ny ca knh phn phi c ngha v cng quan trng, v n ch r ai l ngi pht ra ng lc ca cc tc ng ca knh, ai l ngi chu lc, nhng hu nh phn ln cc nh kinh doanh tiu th u b qua im ny, h ch coi knh phn phi l cc nh kinh doanh trung gian v l v i hot ng m b qua a v quan trng ca ngi sn xut v ngi tiu dng trong knh.(2) 2.2. L mt trong nhng yu t t hp to nn th trng tiu th. Hc gi Mc Carthy khi qut t hp sch lc th trng tiu th thnh bn yu t c bn m mi ngi vn quen gi l 4P. -

Sn phm (product) Gi c ( price) Knh phn phi (place) Xc tin (promotion)

Sn phm mun c ngi tiu dng s dng thun li th khng th tch khi bt k khu no trong t hp 4P (3) 2.3. Thc hin chuyn giao s hu. Trong qu trnh lu thng t tay ngi sn xut n tay ngi tiu dng hoc cc h thng nghip c t nht mt ln phi chuyn giao quyn s hu, nu ngi SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 2

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sn xut trc tip a hng ha n tay ngi tiu dng m khng qua bt k mt c cu trung gian no th ch chuyn quyn s hu mt ln. Nhng i vi phn ln cc nh sn xut th s tham gia ca cc c cu trung gian l khng th thiu. Cc c cu trung gian bao gm: cc nh i l, cc nh bn bun, cc nh bn l, cc c cu dch v trung gian. Trong trng hp ny, sn phm t tay nh sn xut ti tay ngi tiu dng cui cng th quyn s hu c chuyn giao nhiu ln. (4) 3. Vai tr ca phn phi. L cng c quan trng ni lin ngi sn xut v ngi tiu dng, tao nn s n khp gia cung v cu. Theo ngha th phn phi l hot ng to ra dch v cho x hi. - Phn phi cho php gim bt u mi giao dch v thc hin tit kim nhiu ln cho cc nh sn xut. - Thc hin ci tin ng b mu m hng ha, khc phc s hn ch v mt hng, k thut v ti chnh ca nhng nh sn xut ring l. -Lm tho mn tt hn nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng do i hi ngy cng cao, t m v chnh xc nhng yu cu dch v tiu dng hng ha theo xu hng c nhn ha th trng. -Trong hot ng marketing chnh sch phn phi gi vai tr quan trng i vi doanh nghip, n l cha kha thit lp marketinh v marketinh h hp. To nn s nht qun ng b v hiu qu gia chnh sch gi, chnh sch truyn thng, khuyn mi v xc tin bn hng. Chnh v vy, s la chn knh phn phi v phng thc phn phi hng ha lun lun l ni dng c bn v ch yu ca chnh sch kinh doanh mi cng ty.(5) 4. Chc nng phn phi. Phn phi lm nhim v vn chuyn hng ha, dch v t nh sn xut n ngi tiu dng. H lp y khong cch v thi gian, khng gian, quyn s hu ca ngi tiu dng vi cc loi hng ha, dch v i hi. V vy phn phi m nhn nhng chc nng sau: - Thu thp thng tin: Thu thp thng tin cn thit hoch nh marketing v to thun tin cho s trao i sn phm v dich v. - C ng: Trin khai v ph bin nhng thng tin c sc thuyt phc v sn phm nhm thu ht khch hng -Tip xc: Tm ra v truyn thng n khch hng tng lai

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CHUYN TT NGHIP
(2,3,4) (1,5)

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Qun tr Marketing: Philip Kotler

Qun tr Marketing: L Th Gii (ch bin)-Nguyn Xun Ln)

-Cn i: nh dng nhu cu v phn phi sn phm thch ng vi nhu cu ca khch hng. Vic ny bao gm cc hot ng nh sn xut, xp hng, tp hp v ng gi. -Thng lng: C gng t c s tho mn cui cng v gi c v nhng iu kin lin quan c th thc hin c vic chuyn giao quyn s hu hay quyn s dng sn phm. -Phn phi vt phm: Vn chuyn v tn kho hng ha. -Ti tr: Huy ng v phn b ngun vn cn thit d tr, vn chuyn, bn hng v thanh ton cc hot ng ca knh phn phi. -Chia s ri ro: Chp nhn ri ro lin quan ti vic iu hnh hot ng ca knh phn phi. Hu ht cc nh sn xut u hp tc vi cc trung tm phn phi chuyn hng ha hc dch v ca h ti cc khu vc th trng khc nhau. y chnh l xu hng m rng phm vi v tng cng cc chc nng hot ng ca h thng trung gian.(6) II.Ni dng c bn ca hot ng phn phi 1. Nhng dng lu chuyn trong knh phn phi. Nhng b phn trong knh phn phi kt ni vi nhau bng nhiu dng lu chuyn. Quan trng nht l nhng dng lu chuyn vt cht, lu chuyn s hu, lu chuyn thanh ton, lu chuyn thng tin v lu chuyn c ng. - Lu chuyn vt cht l vic chuyn sn phm vt cht t khi cn l nguyn liu th cho n khi ch bin thnh sn phm thch hp cho vic tiu dng ca khch hng. - Lu chuyn s hu l vic chuyn dng s hu sn phm t mt b phn ny sang b phn khc trong knh phn phi. - Lu chuyn thanh ton l qu trnh khch hng thanh ton ha n qua ngn hng hoc cc c s ti chnh khc cho nhng ngi phn phi, nhng ngi phn phi thanh ton cho ngi sn xut, ngi sn xut thanh ton cho cc nh cung ng.

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- Lu chuyn thng tin l qa trnh cc b phn trong knh phn phi trao i thng tin vi nhau cc giai on ca tin trnh a sn phm v dch v t ni sn xut n ni tiu dng
(6)

Qun tr Marketing: L Th Gii (ch bin)-Nguyn Xun Ln

.- Lu chuyn c ng l nhng dng nh hng c nh hng (qung co, bn hng c nhn, khuyn mi, tuyn truyn) t b phn ny n b phn khc trong knh phn phi.(7) 2. Cc dng knh phn phi. Knh phn phi c hiu l nhng cch thc, nhng con ng kt hp hu c gia nhng nh sn xut vi nhng trung gian khc nhau trong qa trnh vn ng v phn phi hng ha n ngi tiu dng cui cng. Cc knh phn phi c th c m t bng s lng cc cp trung gian ca n. Mi ngi trung gian s thc hin mt s cng vic nht nh nhm a sn phm n gn ngi tiu dng hn v to thnh mt cp trong knh phn phi. V nh sn xut v ngi tiu dng l im u v im cui ca mi knh phn phi, nn h cng l mt b phn ca knh phn phi. Chng ta s dng s cp trung gian ch di ca mt knh phn phi:
Ngi sn xut Ngi sn xut

Knh khng cp

Khch hng Ngi bn l Ngi bn l Ngi bn l Khch hng Khch hng Khch hng

Knh mt cp

Ngi sn xut

Ngi bn s Ngi bn s

Knh hai cp Knh ba cp


Ng. bn s nh

Ngi sn xut

Hnh 1: C cu cp bc knh phn phi Cp bc ca knh phn phi l cc knh phn phi trung gian, phi gnh vc mt s nhim v trong qu trnh chuyn quyn s hu sn phm tng bc ti tay ngi tiu dng. Ngi ta thng dng cc cp bc knh biu th di ca knh phn phi.

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2.1. Knh khng cp. Knh khng cp l trng hp sn phm c tiu th trc tip t nh sn xut n tay ngi tiu dng, m khng phi qua bt k knh trung gian no. Knh khng cp cn c gi l knh tiu th trc tip. Knh tiu th trc tip thng dng tiu th cc sn phm cng c sn xut, bi v nhiu sn phm cng c sn xut c ch to theo nhu cu c bit ca h s dng, c tnh k thut cao. Nh ch to phi c chuyn gia ti ch o vic lp t h s dng, hng dn thao tc, bo hnh thit b. n gi sn phm cng c thng tng i cao, lng mua trong mt l hng thng ln. Tt nhin, cng c nhng sn phm tiu dng c th tiu th qua knh phn phi tiu th trc tip. Phng thc tiu th ch yu l: n tn nh, bn qua bu in , qua thng mi in t.(8) 2.2. Knh mtcp. Knh mt cp l knh trong ch c mt cp trung gian tiu th. th trng hng tiu dng, cp trung gian ny thng l cc ca hng bn l. Sau nh bn l cung cp hng ha n tay ngi tiu dng trn th trng tiu th nh bn l thng l cc i l.(9) 2.3. Knh hai cp. Knh hai cp l trong h thng tiu th c bao gm hai c cu tiu th trung gian. Trn th trng hng tiu dng hai c cu trung gian thng l nh bn s v nh bn l. Trn th trng hng cng nghip, th c cu trung gian l nh bn bun v i l tiu th ca cng ty. Cc nh sn xut cc sn phm nh nh sn xut thc n, dc phm v cc sn phm khc thng dng knh ny.(10) 2.4. Knh ba cp. Knh cp III l knh gm c 3 c cu tiu dng trung gian,v d nh bn s v bn l thng c mt nh trung gian hoc bn s nh chuyn nghip. Nh trung gian ct hng bn bun v bn li cho cc nh bn l, thng thng ct hng t nh bn s bn li cho cc nh bn l. Mt s knh tiu th khc cn c th c nhiu cp trung gian hn, nhng thng t gp. i vi nh sn xut, nu cung cp trung gian cng nhiu th knh tiu th cng tng, nhng li kh khng ch.(11) 3. Cu trc knh phn phi 3.1. Khi nim:

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Cu trc knh l tp hp cc thnh vin ca knh m cc cng vic phn phi c phn chia cho h c t chc nh th no. Mi cu trc knh khc nhau c cch phn chia cc cng vic phn phi cho cc thnh vin ca knh khc nhau C 3 yu t c bn nh hng n cu trc knh: - Chiu di ca knh: c xc nh bi s cp trung gian c mt trong knh. Khi s cp tng ln knh nh c tng ln v chiu di - B rng ca knh: Biu hin s lng trung gian mi cp ca knh - Cc loi trung gian mi cp ca knh. 3.2. Cc thnh vin ca knh Cc thnh vin ca knh bao gm: Ngi sn xut (Ngi nhp khu ) Ngi trung gian Ngi tiu dng cui cng Ngi sn xut : Ngi sn xut c coi l ngi khi ngun ca cc knh. H cung cp cho th trng nhng sn phm v dch v. Ngi sn xut bao gm rt nhiu loi thuc nhiu ngnh kinh doanh t cng nghp, nng nghip, lm nghip v xy dng... n ngnh dch v. Mc d c s khc nhau nhng cc doanh nghip sn xut hay cc cng ty thng mi dch v u nhm tho mn nhu cu ca th trng. Mun vy sn phm ca h phi sn sng cho th trng . Hn na, ngi sn xut phi m bo sn phm ca h p ng nhng th trng mc tiu nht nh. Tuy nhin phn ln cc doanh nghip sn xut hay cng ty thng mi dch v c ln ln nh khng trong v tr thun li phn phi sn phm ca h n tay ca ngi tiu dng, ngi s dng cui cng. H thiu c kinh nghim ln quy m hiu qu thc hin tt c nhng cng vic phn phi cn thit cho sn phm ca h.

Ngi trung gian

Ngi trung gian bao gm cc doanh nghip v c nhn kinh doanh thng mi c lp tr gip ngi sn xut v ngi tiu dng cui cng thc hin cc cng vic phn phi sn phm v dch v. H chia lm hai loi bn bun v bn l Trung gian bn bun :

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Cc nh trung gian bn bun bao gm cc doanh nghip v c nhn mua hng ho bn li cho cc doanh nghip v cc t chc khc (cc nh bn l, cc nh bn bun, cc doanh nghip sn xut, cc t chc x hi v c quan nh nc). Trong thc t cc doanh nghip c th va bn bun va bn l, h c coi l bn bun nu t trng bn bun l ch yu trong doanh s. Ngi bn bun c chia lm 3 loi chnh: Ngi bn bun s hu hng ho thc s. i l, mi gii v nh bn bun hng hoa hng. Chi nhnh v i din bn.

Trung gian bn bun thc hin nhng sn phm sn xut hoc nhp khu a vo th trng. c im c bn l qu trnh tp trung vi s lng sn phm ln hng hiu qu ngun lc c phn chia t nh sn xut. Nh bn bun m bo chc nng d tr ti cc trung tm d tr ln thc hin hot ng vn chuyn v iu ho hng ho trn th trng. Nh bn bun thng thng c chuyn mn cao trong t chc vn ng hng ho nn c iu kin hp l qu trnh vn ng hng ho cho vic phc v khch hng ca h ni ring v nng cao cht lng phn phi ni chung. Nhng nh bn bun tn ti v pht trin trong mi quan h hot ng rng ri hn nhiu so vi cc nh bn l. Trung gian bn l: Ngi bn l bao gm cc doanh nghip v c nhn hng ho bn trc tip cho ngi tiu dng, c nhn v h gia nh. Vai tr ca ngi bn l trong knh l pht hin nhu cu ca khch hng, tm kim v bn nhng hng ho m cc khch hng mong mun, thi gian a im v theo cch thc nht nh. Ngi bn l hnh thnh cc tp hp hng ho ph hp vi ngi tiu dng, sn c mi thi gian cho ngi tiu dng. Cc chc nng ch yu ca ngi bn l l: -Tip xc vi khch hng, pht hin nhu cu tiu dng, thu thp thng tin th trng v chuyn cc thng tin ny tr li ngi sn xut. -Thc hin bn hng, qung co v trng by sn phm. - Phn chia v sp xp hng ho thnh nhng khi lng ph hp vi ngi mua -D tr hng ho sn sng cung cp cho ngi tiu dng.

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-Cung cp cc dch v khch hng Nh bn l trn c s quan h vi cc nh bn bun a sn phm n ngi tiu dng nhm tho mn nhu cu ca khch hng thng qua vic mua v bn li. tn ti trn th trng th nhng nh bn l khng nhng thc hin nhng chc nng cn thit m cn tin hnh cung cp cho khch hng nhng dch v khc nhau m nhng dch v v c bn cung cp cho khch hng s thun li trong mua sm v tit kim thi gian cng nh chi ph mua hng. Ngy nay, khi lu thng v phn phi pht trin nh bn l cng khng nh v th ca mnh trong hot ng thng mi. Cc trung gian bn l nh ngi ta khng nh l im cui cng cu qu trnh phn phi trn th trng ni ring v trong h thng phn phi. S i mi ca hnh thc phn phi trn th trng ni ring v trong h thng phn phi ni chung u ph thuc vo s i mi ca h thng bn l, ni dung v phng thc bn Ngi tiu dng cui cng Ngi tiu dng cui cng bao gm ngi tiu dng cc nhn v ngi tiu dng cng nghip l im cui cng, ca hng ho v dch v. Ch khi no hng ho ti ngi tiu dng cui cng, qu trnh phn phi mi hnh thnh. Ngi tiu dng c vai tr quan trng trong knh v h c quyn la chn nhng knh khc nhau cung cp hng ha cho h. Tp hp ngi tiu dng cui cng v hnh vi mua ca h thay i s ko theo s thay i ca knh. Trong mt s knh phn phi hng tiu dng c bit, ngi s dng cui cng c th ng vai tr lnh o knh 4. T chc v hot ng knh phn phi 4.1. T chc knh phn phi. a. Knh marketing truyn thng. Mt knh marketing truyn thng bao gm nh sn xut , nh bn s , nh bn l c lp, trong mi ngi l mt thc th kinh doanh ring bit lun tm mi cch tng li nhun ti a cho mnh, cho d lm gim li nhun ca c h thng. Khng c thnh vin no trong knh phn phi c quyn kim sott hon ton hay ng k vi cc thnh vin khc. Nhng knh truyn thng thiu s lnh o mnh, c c im l hot ng km hiu qu v c nhiu mu thun phc tp.(12) Ngi sn xut Ngi bn s Ngi bn l Khch hng Trang 9

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Hnh 2: Knh phn phi truyn thng


(7-12)

Nguyn l tip th: Philip Kotler

b. H thng marketing dc. Mt trong nhng bc tin c ngha trong thi gian gn y l s xut hin ca nhng h thng marketing dc, h thng marketing ny ang thch thc vi cc knh marketing truyn thng. Mt h thng marketing dc (VMS), bao gm nh sn xut, nh bn s v nh bn l hot ng nh mt th thng nht. Hoc mt thnh vin ny l ch s hu ca cc thnh vin khc, hoc trao cho h c quyn kinh doanh, hoc c quyn lc n ni cc thnh vin khc phi hp tc.(13)
Ngi bn l Ngi bn s Ngi sn xut

Khch hng

Hnh 3: Knh phn phi dc. c. H thng marketing ngang. Mt bc pht trin na v mt t chc knh l s sn sng ca hai hay nhiu doanh nghip mt cp hp li vi nhau khai thc mt c hi marketing mi xut hin. Mi doanh nghip u c th thiu vn, cng ngh, nng lc sn xut v cc ngun lc marketing kinh doanh c lp, hoc l lo ngi ri ro, hoc l nhn thy tc dng to ln khi hp tc vi cc doanh nghip khc. Cc doanh nghip c th lm vic vi nhau trn c s tm thi hay lu di, hoc lp mt doanh nghip mi. Ngi ta gi l marketing cng sinh.(14) Nh sn xut

Trung gian1

Trung gian 2

Trung gian 3

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Hnh 4: Knh phn phi ngang d. H thng marketing a knh. Marting a knh l cch thc phn phi, theo mt doanh nghip c th s dng hai hay nhiu knh phn phi cho nhng nhm khch hng khc nhau. Tuy nhin nhng knh phn phi ny thng lm ny sinh nhng mu thun khi cc knh phn phi tranh ginh nhau cng mt s khch hng v vic kim sot cng tr nn phc tp hn khi nhng knh phn phi mi mang tnh c lp hn.(15) 4.2. Hot ng ca knh phn phi. Mt knh phn phi l s lin kt cc c s khc nhau li v li ch chung, mi thnh vin trong knh gi mt vai tr ring v chuyn thc hin mt hay nhiu chc nng. Mt cch l tng, s thnh cng ca mt thnh vin tu thuc vo s thnh cng chung ca c knh, nn mi thnh vin trong knh phi hiu v chp nhn phn vic ring ca mnh, phi hp mc tiu v hot ng ca mnh vi mc tiu v hot ng ca cc thnh vin khc, v phi hp hon thnh mc tiu chung ca c knh. Bng s hp tc h c th nn bt nhu cu, cung ng v tha mn th trng mc tiu ln hn. a. Cc loi mu thun trong knh phn phi. Mu thun chiu ngang l nhng mu thun ny sinh gia cc thnh vin cng mt cp ca knh phn phi. Trong nhng trng hp nh th ny ngi ph trch knh phi xy dng nhng chnh sch r rng c tnh kh thi v p dng ngay nhng bin php khn cp kim sot v gii quyt mu thun. Mu thun theo chiu dc: y l loi mu thun thng thy hn v xy ra gia cc cp khc nhau trong cng mt knh phn phi. Mu thun a knh thng sy ra khi ngi sn xut thit lp hai hay nhiu knh cnh tranh vi nhau trong vic bn hng trn cng mt th trng. Mu thun a knh c th tr nn gay gt hn khi cc thnh vin ca knh phn phi hoc l hng gi thp hn do mua vi s lng ln, hoc l sn sng bn vi gi t mc li nhun thp hn.

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My s xung t trong knh cng to nn s cnh tranh lnh mnh. S cnh tranh ny c th tt cho c knh m nu khng c n knh s tr nn l v thiu ci tin, Nhng i khi xung t cng lm hi knh.(16) b. Cc nguyn nhn gy mu thun trong knh. Nguyn nhn ch yu l s sung khc mc ch. Chng hn, khi ngi sn xut mun gia tng khi lng bn gia tng th phn bng mt chnh sch nh gi thp, th cc i l li mun c mc li nhun cao v cht theo kh nng sinh li trc mt. y l loi mu thun kh gii quyt. Mu thun c th pht sinh do vai tr v quyn hn ca cc thnh vin c xc nh khng r rng. Phm vi lnh th ca th trng v cc iu kin bn hng tn dng l nhng yu t gy nn mu thun. Mu thun cn pht sinh do li ch ca cc trung gian phn phi ph thuc qu nhiu vo ngi sn xut. Nhng i l c quyn thng chu nh hng ca nhng ri ro do nhng quyt nh v mu m, mt hng v gi c ca ngi sn xut.(17) c. Gii quyt mu thun tronh knh phn phi. Nhng mu thun trong knh thng gy tr ngi cho vic vn hnh c hiu qu hot ng phn phi sn phm ca doanh nghip. Nhng cng c mt s mu thun to nn s cnh tranh lnh mnh trong hot ng ca knh. Chng c th i hi phi ci tin knh phn phi, lm cho n nng ng hn v thch ng hn vi mi trng thay i. Gii php quan trng nht qun l mu thun c hiu qu l chp nhn nhng mc tiu c bn. Cc thnh vin trong knh phn phi phi tho mn c vi nhau v mc tiu c bn m h cng theo ui. Mc tiu c th l tn ti, gia tng th phn, nng cao cht lng sn phm hay tha mn khch hng. Mt cch khc na x l mu thun l tin hnh vic trao i ngi gia hai hay nhiu cp ca knh phn phi, tc l ngi ca cp ny c th lm vic mt cp khc hay ngc li. Xy dng t tng ch o ng n giiquyt mu thun: Cc nh sn xut cn phi nhn thc c mt iu l trong hot ng kinh doanh hng ha, quan h gia hai bn sn xut v tiu dng c xy dng trn c s li ch, ch khi cng c li ch th c hai mi c th chung sng mt cch ha hp. Li thot c

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

bn gii quyt mu thun cn ch nh sn xut phi sn xut ra c nhng sn phm ng yu cu ca ngi tiu dng. Hai bn phi kp thi c c thng tin ca i phng: Cc bn ny sinh mu thun cng l do khng c c thng tin ca i phng. Nhng thng tin m nh sn xut nm bt c th trung gian li cha chc nm bt c v ngc li, nhng vn m trung gian c bit quan tm th nh sn xut li khng hiu c mt cch su sc. Hai bn kp thi iu ha, thng nht mc tiu kinh doanh: Hai bn sn xut v tiu th cn c vo tnh hnh th trng v cng vch ra k hoch v mc tiu kinh doanh, nh vy c th gip cho k hoch sn xut sn phm ca nh sn xut v k hoch tiu th ca trung gian trng hp vi nhau. Khi c s thay i trn th trng hai bn cng tho lun tin hnh iu chnh k hoch. Khi mu thun tr nn nghim trng, th cc thnh vin ca knh phn phi c th s dng cc bin php ngoi giao, trung gian ha gii hay trng ti ha gii gii quyt mu thun. Cui cng ton b k hoch phn phi hot ng tt, cn chuyn mn ha vai tr ca tng thnh vin v cc xung t phi c gii quyt mt cch hiu qu. S hp tc, chuyn mn ha vai tr v gii quyt xung t trong knh phn phi ch thc hin c nu doanh nghip c mt cch lnh o vng mnh. Knh phn phi s hot ng tt hn nu c mt b my iu hnh c quyn lc phn chia lc lng hp l trong knh, c quyn phn cng nhim v v gii quyt mu thun.(18) 4.3. H thng trung gian phn phi. a. Khi nim trung gian. tin hnh phn phi n tay ngi tiu dng, cng ty c th tin hnh phn phi trc tip qua cc cch thc nh: s dng lc lng bn hng ca cng ty, bn hng qua in thoi, bn hng qua cc cu hng ca cng tynhng nhn chung a s cc cng ty phi tin hnh phn phi qua cc trung gian. Cc trung gian l mt thc th kinh doanh c lp, tr gip nh sn xut trong vic thc hin cc chc nng m phn v s hu.(19) b. Li ch ca cc trung gian.

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Ti sao nh sn xut li y thc cng vic bn hng cho cc trung gian? y thc c ngha l t b t nhiu s kim sot vic bn sn phm cho khch hng v bn nh th no. Th nhng nh sn xut li t b cng vic bn hng trc tip cho khch hng v h nhn thy c mt s thun li m cc trung gian mang li nh: - Nhiu nh sn xut khng kh nng ti chnh thc hin vic tip th trc tip.
(13 18)

Nguyn l tip th: Philip Kotler.

-Vic tip th trc tip c th i hi nhiu nh sn xut tr thnh trung gian bn cc sn phm b sung ca cc nh sn xut khc tit kim chi ph nh phn phi i tr. - Nhng nh sn xut c kh nng thnh lp mng li phn phi ring thng cng c th thu li nhun nhiu hn bng cch tng u t vo cc doanh nghiph chnh ca h. Cc nghin cu ch ra rng nu mt cng ty thu c 20% li nhun nh sn xut th h ch thu c 10% li nhun nh bn l, v vy cc cng ty ny s khng mun lm vic bn l. - Cc trung gian c s dng ch yu l v h c hiu nng rt cao trong vic a sn phm n khp ni trn th trng v gip th trng trng im dng tm mua. Gii trung gian qua nhng tip xc, kinh nghim, s chuyn mn ha v quy m hot ng, em li cho nh cc nh sn xut nhiu iu li hn so vi vic nh sn xut t phn phi.(20) c. Cc loi trung gian phn phi. - Ngi bn s: L ngi trung gian gia ngi sn xut v ngi bn l, chc nng ch yu l giao hng, phn chia l d tr v vn chuyn hng ha theo yu cu ca mng li bn l, h thng mua vi s lng ln, nhiu loi sn phm nn phi c sc mnh v mt ti chnh. - Ngi bn l: L trung gian gia ngi bn s v ngi tiu dng. Chc nng ch yu l iu phi v ng b hng ha theo yu cu ca ngi tiu dng. H thng mua tng t, khi lng nh, a dng mt hng kp thi bn cho ngi tiu dng. - i l: L nhng ngi c y thc nghim v tiu th hng ha, h c th hot ng theo danh ngha ca mnh hay danh ngha ca ngi y thc. Cc

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trung gian i l gip nh sn xut m rng kh nng chi phi th trng, thc y tiu th hng ha. - Ngi mi gii: L trung gian t chc kt ni gia ngi mua v ngi sn xut, tm th trng tiu th hng ha, h tr thng lng mua bn. H khng s hu hng ha, khng chu trch nhim v ti chnh v c th hng li t hai pha.(21)
(19 -21)

(Qun tr Marketing: L Th Gii (ch bin)-Nguyn Xun Ln)

5. Cc bin s nh hng n cu trc knh phn phi 5.1. Bin s th trng C 4 yu t c bn nh hng n cu trc knh phn phi l: a. a l th trng. a l th trng th hin v tr ca th trng v khong cch t ni sn xut n th trng. a l th trng l c s pht trin mt cu trc knh bao ph hon ton th trng v cung cp dng chy sn phm hiu qu cho cc th trng : Khong cch gia nh sn xut v th trng cng ln th cng c kh nng s dng cc trung gian v s c chi ph thp hn phn phi trc tip.(22) b. Quy m th trng S lng khch hng ca th trng xc nh quy m ca th trng. Nu s lng khng cng ln th quy m th trng cng ln, cho nn vic s dng trung gian li cn thit. Ngc li, nu th trng c s lng khch hng nh nhng quy m ca mi khch ln, cng ty nn bn hng trc tip trnh s dng trung gian. Thc o quy m th trng c s dng l s lng ngi tiu dng hay cng ty tim nng cc th trng hng tiu dng v hng cng nghip.(23) c. Mt th trng. Mt th trng c xc nh bi s lng cc n v mua (ngi tiu dng hay khch hng cng nghip) trn mt n v din tch. Nhn chung, mt th trng cng phn tn th phn phi cng kh khn. Th trng cng phn tn th cng cn s dng cc trung gian, ngc li th trng cng tp trung cng nn trnh s dng cc trung gian. (24) d. Hnh vi th trng: hnh vi mua th hin 4 loi sau: - Ngi tiu dng mua nh th no?

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- Mua khi no? - Mua u? - Ai mua? Mi hnh vi mua ca khch hng c th c nhng nh hng khch nhau n cu trc knh. 5.2. Bin s sn phm Cc bin s sn phm l mt nhn t khc nh gi cu trc knh c th thay th. Cc bin s quan trng l:

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GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

a. Th tch v trng lng. Cc sn phm nng v cng knh c chi ph vn chuyn ln nn cu trc knh cho cc sn phm ny cng ngn cng tt. Cc nh sn xut c gng ti thiu ha chi ph ny bng cch vn chuyn chng ti mt vi a im c th. Tuy nhin tr trng hp khch hng mua vi khi lng nh v cung cp nhanh c th cn phi s dng n cc trung gian.(25) b. Tnh d b h hng. Cc sn phm ti sng v cc sn phm d b li thi gi l sn phm d b h hng. V phng din thit k knh trong trng hp ny cn nhanh chng chuyn sn phm t nh sn xut n ngi tiu dng cui cng. Khi nghi sn xut v ngi tiu dng gn, cu trc knh thng l ngn. Khi khong cch xa hn c th s dng mt vi trung gian.(26) c. Gi tr n v sn phm. Gi tr n v sn phm cng thp th cc knh cng nn di hn, bi v gi tr sn phm cng thp ta ch dnh phn nh cho chi ph cung cp. Cn cc sn phm tiu chun ha th chiu di knh cng tng, cc sn phm ch to, dng c th ch cn mt knh trung gian. Ngc lai cc sn phm chuyn mn ha cao nh cc hng ha ph thng v nguyn vt liu cn nhiu trung gian.(27) d. Tnh mi l. Nhiu sn phm mi c th trng tiu dng v th trng cng nghip do yu cu xc tin mnh m giai on gii thiu sn phm. Trong giai on gii thiu sn phm, knh ngn hn c xem l li th t oc s chp nhn sn phm.(28) 5.3. Bin s cng ty Cc nhn t quan trng ca cng ty nh hng n cu trc knh bao gm: Quy m cng ty Quy m cng ty s quyt nh cu trc knh, s quyt nh n kh nng cng ty tm oc cc thnh vin knh thch hp. Cc cng ty ln c kh nng linh hot cao hn trong vic chn cu trc knh so vi cc cng ty nh. Kh nng ti chnh. Nhn chung kh nng ti chnh ca cng ty cng ln th cng t ph thuc vo trung gian. Ngun lc cng ty s quyt nh n c th thc hin chc nng phn phi no v nhng cho cc thnh vin khc nhng chc nng no. a sn SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 17

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

phm n ngi tiu dng cui cng, cng ty thng cn lc lng bn hng ca chnh n v cc dch v h tr hoc ca hng bn l. Kinh nghim qun l. Khi mt cng ty thiu cc k nng qun l cn thit thc hin cng vic phn phi, h phi da vo cc trung gian bn ngoi thc hin chc nng ny. Cc mc tiu v chin lc Mc tiu v chin lc chung, chin loc marketing ca cng ty c th hn ch cc trung gian. V nu cc chin lc khc nhau th kiu knh s dng cng khc nhau v n ph thuc s thay i ca th trng.(29) 5.4 Bin s trung gian. Kh nng sn sng: trong mt s trng hp, kh nng ca cc trung gian tng ng nh hng n cu trc knh. Tnh sn sng l yu t quyt nh hiu qu phn phi. Chi ph: chi ph s dng cc trung gian l mt cn c la chn cc trung gian. Ngoi ra cn cc bin s khc nh hng n h thng phn phi ca mt cng ty nh bin s mi trng, bin s hnh vi.(30) 6. Qun tr knh phn phi. 6.1. Khi nim. Qun tr knh c hiu l ton b cc cng vic qun l iu hnh hot ng ca h thng knh nhm m bo s hp tc gia cc thnh vin knh c la chn qua thc hin cc mc tiu phn phi ca doanh nghip.(31) 6.2. Tuyn chn thnh vin ca knh. La chn cc thnh vin knh c s nh hng quan trng n s tn ti v hiu qu hot ng ca knh. Thnh cng trn th trng i hi cc thnh vin knh phi c sc mnh nhng ngi c th phn phi c hiu qu. Mi cng ty u c mi kh nng khc nhau trong vic thu ht cc trung gian c cht lng trong knh d nh, nhng d dng hay kh khn trong tuyn m trung gian, cc cng ty cng phi t nht xc nh cc trung gian tt c nng lc , nhng im mnh, im yu ca mi trung gian. Qu trnh tuyn chn thnh vin knh bao gm 3 bc c bn sau : Tm kim cc thnh vin knh c kh nng
(22 30)

Qun tr h thng phn phi sn phm- Trng nh Chin.

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Dng cc tiu chun tuyn chn nh gi kh nng ph hp vi cc thnh vin knh


m bo cc thnh vin knh trong tng lai ny nh cc thnh

vin knh thng thng (32) Bi ton tuyn chn knh. Gi s khu vc la chn l khu vc Nng, trong khu vc Nng ta c 5 trung gian c nguyn vng lm i l cho cng ty nhng cng ty ch cn c 2 trung gian lm i l cho mnh. V vy qu trnh tuyn chn knh tun theo cc bc sau: Bc 1: Lit k trung gian Bc 2: Xc nh tiu chun la chn. Bc 3: Xc nh tm quan trng ca tng tiu chun hay cho trng s . Bc 4: nh gi nng lc ca tng trung gian. Bc 5: Tnh im quy i hay l tng im ca tng trung gian. Ly trung gian no c im cao nht ri t t ly xung. 6.3. Cc chnh sch khuyn khch trung gian. Cc trung gian phn phi cn phi oc khch l thng xuyn h thc hin tt cng vic c giao. Cc iu khon m h chp nhn khi tham gia vo knh phn phi cng to ra mt s ng vin nht nh, nhng cn b sung thm vic hun luyn, gim st v khuyn khch. Nh sn xut phi lun ngh rng mnh khng ch bn hng qua trung gian, m cn bn hng cho cc trung gian na. Vic kch thch cc thnh vin ca knh phn phi lm vic tht tt phi bt u t vic hiu nhu cu v c mun ca nhng ngi trung gian:Ngi trung gian thng hnh ng nh mt ngi mua hng thay cho khch hng ca mnh ri sau mi bn hng thay cho ngi cung ng ca mnh, do h quan tm n vic bn nhng sn phm m khch hng mng mun. Ngi trung gian gn tt c cc mt hng ca mnh thnh mt loi sn phm c th bn km vi nhau nh mt b trn gi cho tng khch hng, ch khng phi ring tng mt hng. Ngi trung gian s khng gi chp s liu nu khng c khuyn khch, m nhng thng tin ny rt cn thit ngi sn xut pht trin sn phm, nh gia , ci tin bao b hay xy dng chng trnh c ng.

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GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Trn thc t, nhng ngi sn xut khng x l cc quan h vi trung gian ging nh nhau. Thng c ba kiu quan h i vi trung gian da trn c s hp tc, cng tc v lp k hoch phn phi. Phn ln cc nh sn xut u quan nim rng quan h vi cc trung gian thc cht l tm kim s hp tc. H c th p dng chnh sch c c rt v cy gy. H s s dng nhng ng lc thc y tch cc nh mc li cao, nhng tho thun c bit, tin thng, bt gia v hp tc qung co, trng by hng v t chc thi bn hng. i lc h li p dng nhng kiu trng pht nh e do gim mc li nhun, giao hng chm hoc chm dt quan h. Hn ch ca chnh sch ny l ngi sn xut khng nghin cu y nhng vn , yu cu, im mnh, im yu ca ngi trung gian. C gng to dng quan h cng tc lu di vi cc nh phn phi. Ngi sn xut xy dng mt nim rt r rng v nhng g h mong mun cc nh phn phi v mt bao qut th trng, m bo mc d tr, trin khai marketing, cng tc k ton, t vn v dch v k thut v thng tin th trng. Lp k hoch phn phi l mt cch tin b nht vi cc trung gian. l vic xy dng mt h thng marketing dc, c k hoch c qun tr theo ng chc nng v kt hp c nhng nhu cu ca ngi sn xut ln ngi phn phi. l mt t hp cc chnh sch ton din trong vic khch trng mt sn phm khng qua knh.(33) 6.4. nh gi cc thnh vin ca knh. Ngi sn xut nh k nh gi cc hot ng ca nhng ngi trung gian theo nhng tiu chun nh mc doanh s t c, mc d tr bnh qun, thi gian giao hng cho khch hng, x l hng h hng hoc mt mt, mc hp tc trong cc chng trnh qung co v hun luyn ca doanh nghip v nhng dch v ca ngi trung gian dnh cho khch hng. a. nh gi kinh t. Gi mua ca i l y l mt vn ht sc r rng, thc cht n lin quan n mc nhng li ch ca nh sn xut cho nh trung gian, mt mc gi cao tt nhin s c li cho nh sn xut v ngc li.
(31-33)

Nguyn l tip th: Philip Kotler.

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GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

S lng sn phm tiu th ca i l trung gian

So vi gi mua th s lng mua t nhiu cn c nh hng ln i vi nh sn xut, bi v s lng tiu th cng ln th chi ph c nh c chia u cho mi sn phm cng nh v vy c th gim gi thnh sn phm, cho d gi mua hi thp nhng t l li nhun ca nh sn xut cng khng b gim i. Khi tng c s lng sn phm tiu th th tng thu nhp ca nh sn xut cng tng ln vi mc ln. Tnh n nh trong kh nng tiu th sn phm y l mt vn quan trng khi nh sn xut tin hnh nh gi v nh trung gian. Nu nh trung gian c th khin cho sn phm ca nh sn xut c s lng tiu th n nh th mt mt s m bo c thu nhp lu di ca nh sn xut; mt khc s c li cho vic tng cng tnh k hoch trong sn xut, c th gim lng hng tn v h thp gi thnh.(34) b.nh gi v kh nng ph thuc c trng ca sn phm m i l trung gian tiu th. Trong trng hp bnh thng, cc nh trung gian khng ch kinh doanh tiu th mt chng loi sn phm no hoc sn phm ca mt nh my no . V vy nh sn xut phi nghin cu xem cc sn phm m nh trung gian kinh doanh tiu th c nhng c trng chung no, sn phm ca bn thn doanh nghip mnh nu tuu th cng nhng sn phm khc th c li hay khng c li. Li ch ca trung gian c quan h nh th no i vi cng ty. Nu xt t pha nh trung gian th mt sn phm ca mt nh sn xut th khng phi l ton b li ch ca nh trung gian ny. V vy, s c mt s i l trung gian khng tch cc trong vic kinh doanh tiu th sn phm no . Trong trng hp ny, nu nh sn xut hp tc vi h tt nhin s ri vo tnh th b ng. Thi ca trung gian i vi cng ty Thi ca trung gian i vi nh sn xut ngoi vic xut pht t nguyn nhn kinh t cn xut pht t vic chu nh hng ca mt s nhn t khc. Nh sn xut nu la chn mt s nh kinh doanh tiu th c quan h tng i tt tin hnh hp tc. Nh vy, khi xut hin mt s kh khn no trong qua trnh tiu th sn phm, hai bn c th thng cm v ng h nhau, gip cho nh sn xut bnh tnh la chon ra nhng bin php cn thit vt qua c hon cnh kh khn.(35) SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 21

CHUYN TT NGHIP c. nh gi v tnh thch nghi.

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Phng hng phc v ca nh trung gian.

Bao gm i tng tiu th trc mt v phng hng pht trin trong tng lai c phi l b mt th trng m nh sn xut vn mong mun khai thc hay khng. Nhu cu ca i tng tiu th ca nh trung gian c ph hp vi tnh nng sn phm ca nh sn xut hay khng. Nu sn phm ca nh sn xut l sn phm cp cao m phng hng phc v ca nh trung gian li l ra sc tha nm nhu cu mang tnh i chng th tt nhin s khng c li cho vic tiu th sn phm cp cao ca nh sn xut. Sch lc sn phm ca nh trung gian Ch yu l ch cc loi sn phm m nh trung gian kinh doanh tiu th c tnh cnh tranh hay c tnh kt hp. Trong trng hp bnh thng, nh sn xut thng mun giao sn phm ca mnh cho nh trung gian c sn phm tiu th mang tinh kt hp. Uy tn thng mi ca nh trung gian L ch thi i phc v ca nh trung gian i vi khch hng c li n thng tt p trong long khch hng hay khng v bao gm c mc ni ting ca i l trong x hi. Thc lc tiu th ca nh trung gian L ch nhng nng c lc lin quan n sn phm tiu th m nh trung gian c c. Trong , trc tin phi k n nng lc phc v nh: kh nng t vn k tht, bo dng, vn chuyn cho khch hng, cung ng linh ph kinTh hai l phi nh gi c nng lc vn chuyn v lu tr hng ha, phng tin vn chuyn vi hiu xut cao v kho bi c c s h tng tt l iu kin vt cht m bo cho vic tiu th sn phm. Cui cng, phi nh gi c nng lc ti chnh ca nh trung gian, y l nhn t quan trng hn hai nhn t trn, ch yu l ch vic nh trung gian c bao nhiu vn xoay vng, c th thanh ton theo ng thi hn hay khng, nu nh trung gian c kh nng thanh ton trc s cng c li cho nh sn xut. Trnh qun l ca nh trung gian L ch trnh ca lnh o v kh nng nghip v ca nhn vin, trnh t chc k hoch, kh nng khai thc th trng v y mnh tiu th sn phm

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GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

C c mt v tr a l thun li hay khng chnh l iu quan trng nh trung gian thc hin hot ng kinh doanh ca bn thn. Mt nh trung gian c v tr a l nm trong on ng tng i sm ut v c lu lng khch hng ln s c c nh hng kh cao trong x hi, ng thi c tc dng rt ln trong vic thc y tiu th sn phm. Vic doanh nghip c th xem xt k lng nhng iu kin trn c c la chon c li tt nhin l mt vic ht sc quan trng. Nhng ngc li, cc trung gian cng c s la chn vi nh sn xut , ch c nhng doanh nghip sn xut ra c nhng sn phm uy tn v c kh nng qun l tiu thu xut sc mi c th c cc i l trung gian la chn. Nu bn than doanh nghip khng c nhng iu kin u vit ny th ch c th vo th b ng trong qua trnh quan h vi i l trung gian.(36). III. Cc chnh sch h tr i vi knh phn phi. 1. Chnh sch sn phm Chnh sch sn phm c tc ng lin quan mt thit vi chnh sch phn phi. Chnh sch sn phm gi v tr trung tm v l nn tng, xng sng ca tt c mi doanh nghip. Bi v n l c s doanh nghip nh hng u t, sn xut v tiu th sn phm trong tng thi k nht nh. Mt khc, ch c th da trn nn tng ca chnh sch sn phm mi c th trin khai ng hng v kt hp hiu qu cc chnh sch nh: Chnh sch gi c, chnh sch phn phi, chnh sch c ng, khuych trng Chnh sch sn phm bao gm: Hin i ha nhng loi sn phm, hon thin v nng cao c tnh s dng sn phm, chnh sch sn phm mito iu kin cho vic y mnh hot ng phn phi v tiu th ca doanh nghip.(37) 2. Chnh sch gi c. Gi c nh hng to ln n khi lng sn phm tiu th, nh hng n doanh s c bn v li nhun ca doanh nghip. L c s gip doanh nghip la chn mt hng v chnh sch thm nhp th trng, l tiu chun quan trng gip khch hng nh gi v la chon sn phm.(38) 3. Chnh sch c ng v khuych trng. Trong qua trnh sn xut kinh doanh, cc doanh nghip mun sn phm ca mnh c tiu th nhanh th cn phi c cc hot ng: khuyn mi, qung co, xc tin ban hngN gi mt vai tr quan trng trong vic kch thch cc khch SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 23

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GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

hng mua sn phm. Nu sn phmca doanh nghip c cht lng cao, nhng khng c chnh sch c ng khuych trng th hng ha khng th bn chy c v n khng truyn thng n khch hng v khng m rng c th trng.(39) 4. S ng h v h tr i vi trung gian. Tuy gia nh sn xut v nh trung gian lun tn ti mu thun nhng xt v c bn vn tn ti mc tiu kinh doanh thng nht, tn ti li ch kinh t c lin quan. Cng vic ca i l trung gian cng c trin khai mt cch thn li th nh sn xut c tiu th sn phm ca mnh nhiu hn. V vy, cn ng h v h tr i l trung gian trin khai hot ng thc y tiu th sn phm, cung cp nhng dh v cn thit cho i l trung gian l trch nhim ca nh sn xut. Bin php chnh ng h v h tr trung gian bao gm:
Cung cp nhng sn phm ng vi yu cu tiu th.

y l bin php c bn nh sn xut cung cp cho nh trung gian nhng iu kin thun li. K t khi nh sn xut sp i vo sn xut phi nghin cu ngay n yu cu ca nh trung gian, thng tin m nh trung gian cung cp phi l c s nh sn xut t chc sn xut. Khi nhu cu ca th trng c s thay i, nh trung gian phi a ra mt s nhu cu mi i vi mt s sn phm, nh sn xut phi c gng t chc sn xut theo iu kin m nh trung gian a ra.
Kp thi cung cp nhng t liu thng tin.

Nh sn xut phi kp thi thng bo cho nh trung gian nhng t liu thng tin thu thp c, kt qu d on v th trng cng nh s iu chnh v thay i trong sn xut, ng thi phi cung cp kp thi nhng ni dng m nh trung gian cn c nh mc lc sn phm, bng hng dn s dng sn phm, t liu k thut v sn phm v mt s s liu thng k lin quan khc
Tng cng hot ng truyn thng qung co.

Nh sn xut thc hin nhiu hot ng qung co chnh nh l s chia s nhiu hn vi nh trung gian v chi ph qung co tiu th, l mt s ng h ln i vi nh trung gian.
Tham gia vo hot ng y mnh tiu th ca ngi trung gian.

V nh sn xut hiu r hn so vi trung gian v tnh nng, c trng v phng php s dng sn phm nn vic h tham gia vo hot ng y mnh tiu th ca i l trung gian s c th gip cho hot ng y mnh tiu th c tin

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

hnh mt cch thun li. V d, h tr trong vic trng by hng ha, gip hng dn khch hng ti ni tiu th, o to nhn vin bn hng, cung cp dch v k thut u l nhng cng vic ng h mnh m i vi i l trung gian trong hot ng thc y tiu th.
Gip vn.

Khi vng quay ng vn ca nh trung gian gp phi kh khn, nh sn xut c th s dng phng php giao hng trc, thanh ton sau. Ko di thi gian thanh ton mt cch thch ng cng l mt s ng h v tin vn. Lm tt iu ny l mt vic v cng quan trng i vi s n inh ca quan h kinh doanh tiu th.(40)
(34-40)

T sch nh qun l- T chc v qun l- Tip th v bn hng.

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

PHN 2: TNH HNH HOT NG KINH DOANH V THC TRNG HOT NG PHN PHI CA CNG TY C PHN NHA NNG I. Tng quan v cng ty 1. Qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin 1.1. Lch s hnh thnh Cng ty Nha Nng trc y l c s t nhn v c thnh lp sau gn mt nm Nng gii phng (ngy 22/01/1976). Lc mi thnh lp c tn l X Nghip Nha Nng, c s ban u t ti 280 Hng Vng vi din tch mt bng cn hn ch, cha y 500 m2. y l c s ban u ch da vo kinh doanh bun bn ph liu, ph phm v sn xut nha bng k thut th s. Mt hng cn ngho nn, s lng nhn vin ban u ch c 14 ngi, ch yu l n, hot ng kinh doanh ch yu da vo vn vay. n nm 1978,do nhng i hi v cng tc sn xut v tnh cht a dng sn phm ngy cng cao, mt khc li c s quan tm ca y ban nhn dn tnh Qung Nam Nng v cc c quan ch qun, tnh Qung Nam Nng k quyt nh chuyn quyn qun l x nghip nha v S Cng Nghip Nng. n 20/11/1991 theo quyt nh s 338/HBT ca Hi ng B Trng v quyt nh s 3299/QUP ngy 27/11/1992 ca y ban nhn dn tnh Qung Nam Nng th x nghip c i tn thnh nh my nha Nng. Nm 1983 nh my c chuyn cho UBND thnh ph Nng trc tip qun l theo ngnh. Nm 1989 nh my thc hin i mi quy ch qun l, thc hin u t thit b mi. Nh my ch ng c vn hot ng bng cch vay vn ca chnh ph, vay nc ngoi, chi tr kiu hi cho ngi c nhn thn nc ngoi gi tin v qua cng ty Vinafax. Ngy 16/12/1992 cng ty c cp giy php xut nhp khu. Ngy 29/11/1993 theo quyt nh s 1844/QUB ca UBND tnh QNN, nh my tr thnh doanh nghip nh nc v i tn thnh cng ty Nha Nng vi tn giao dich l Danang Plastic company. Sn phm ch yu l bao b sn xut t nha PE v PP, ti shopping xut khu, bao xi mng, ng nc.

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GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Ngy 04/08/2000 theo quyt nh s 90/2000/QTT ca Th Tng Chnh Ph, cng ty nha c c phn ha ly tn l Cng Ty C Phn Nha Nng. Sau cc cp lnh o ca cng ty quyt nh gi h s xin nim yt c phn ln y ban Chng Khon Nh Nc chnh thc giao dich ti trung tm chng khon TP H Ch Minh. 1.2. Qu trnh pht trin Qua 33 nm hot ng v khng ngng pht trin, cng ty khc phc c nhiu kh khn, tng bc i ln, m rng sn xut p ng nhu cu th trng. Sn phm ca cng ty dn cnh tranh v thay th hng ngoi nhp, tin n xut khu ra th trng nc ngoi. T x nghip nh ban u ch c 14 cng nhn, hin nay cng ty c gn 300 cn b cng nhn vin v 80% my mc thit b nhp t nc ngoi. Cng ty dt c nhiu thnh tch qua 33 nm hot ng: - Nm 1992 c hi ng nh nc tng Hun Chng Lao ng Hng I. - Nm 1994 sn phm ca cng ty c tng thng danh hiu vng ca cng ty qun l cht lng ton cu Global Managemnet. - Hin nay cng ty ang m rng lin doanh vi nc ngoi sn xut bao b cc loi, c bit l tu xp cao cp, m rng y chuyn sn xut ng nc, u t y chuyn sn xut bao xi mng. n nay dy chuyn bao xi mng vo hot ng c mt thi gian v p ng c nhu cu xy dng ngy cng tng. Nhn xt: Cng ty Nha tri qua 33 nm hot ng kinh doanh, t mt n v nh nay tr thnh mt cng ty nha ln nht Min Trung. y l kt qu ca s c gng ca cn b cng nhn vin ton cng ty v s gip ca chnh quyn a phng. Tuy sn phm ca cng ty vn cha c tiu th rng ri H Ni v TP H Ch Minh nhng p ng mt s lng ln nhu cu tiu th ca c Min Trung v Ty Nguyn. Vi b dy kinh nghim, vi mt i ng cng nhn vin lnh ngh v my mc hin i trong tng lai cng ty c phn nha Nng s pht trin hn na, v sn phm s c xut khu sang nhiu nc trn th gii. 2. Chc nng, nhim v v quyn hn ca cng ty. 2.1. Chc nng.

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Sn xut v xut nhp khu cc loi sn phm v nguyn liu nha. Cung cp ng nc, bao b cho cc ngnh lin quan. Cung cp sn phm nha gia dng cho a phng. Nhim v

2.2.

Cng ty c nhim v kinh doanh ng ngnh ngh ng k, chu trch nhim trc php lut v sn phm ca cng ty. Phn b v s dng hiu qu ngun vn v thc hin ngha v i vi nh nc. Thc hin phn phi lao ng, chm lo i sng vt cht cho cn b cng nhn vin, bi dng nng cao trnh nghip v nhm gip h thc hin tt nhim v c giao.

Tr c tc hng nm cho c ng theo s li nhun cng ty d phn b, cung cp tnh hnh ti chnh cho cc c ng. 2.3. Quyn hn

c quyn giao dch v k hp ng kinh t mua bn, hp tc u t, sn xut v kinh doanh, to ra sn phm mi c kh nng cnh tranh cao, nghin cu tin b khoa hc k tht v qa trnh sn xut kinh doanh vi cc t chc khoa hc trong v ngoi nc. c quyn vay vn ti ngn hng, c qun huy ng cc ngun vn khc ca t chc, c nhn trong v ngoi nc pht trin kinh doanh theo php lut hin hnh. c quyn tham gia hi ch, qung co, trin lm hng ha. c quyn iu ng nhn s trong phm vi ca cng ty.

3. Ngnh ngh kinh doanh. Sn xut kinh doanh v xut nhp khu cc loi sn phm v nguyn liu nha. Cng ty l mt n v sn xut kinh doanh theo nguyn tc hoch ton c lp, cng ty c s dng con du ring theo mu quy nh ca nh nc tin giao dch. 4. C cu b my qun l. Trong nn kinh t th trng vic thit lp b my qun l cht ch, gn nh v khoa hc l iu kin cn thit pht huy quyn dn ch ca cc thnh vin trong cng ty. Do c im l mt doanh nghip va sn xut va kinh doanh nn

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

b my qun l ca cng ty phi m bo tnh cht ch trong quan l, tnh chuyn mn ha trong sn xut v tnh dn ch trong iu hnh. B my qun l ca cng ty nha c t chc theo m hnh trc tuyn chc nng Quan h trc truyn: + Gim c cng ty l ngi lnh o cao nht, c nhng quyn hn cn thit iu hnh cng ty, gii quyt cc vn nay sinh trong qua trnh hot ng ca cng ty. + Ph gim c cng ty v cc trng phng chc nng l nhng ngi thc thi mnh lnh ca gim c v c vai tr tham ma cho gim c trong lnh vc chuyn mn, nghip v va mnh v thc thi kim tra, kim sot kt qu ca vic thc hin cc k hoch. + Ph gim c k thut kim trng phng k thut trc tip ch o hot ng ca phng k thut v cc t chc sn xut. Phng k thut v cc phn xng c nhim v thi hnh mnh lnh ca ph gim c k thut. Quan h chc nng: L quan h gia cc phng chc nng vi cc b phn trc truyn. Cc phng chc nng c s y quyn ca gim c ch o cc hot ng nghip v ca mnh, khng c quyn a ra cc quyt nh v ch o cc n v tuyn khc. Quan h trc tuyn Quan h chc nng

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GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

I HI NG C NG Ban kim sot HI NG QUN TR

BAN IU HNH

Phng TC-HC

Phng K Thut

Phng K Hoch Vt T

Phng Ti Chnh K Ton

T Mng Mng

T Dt Bao

T May Bao

T Bao B

R sp PVC v ng Nc

T Can Phao

T Tm Trn

T C in

B Phn KCS

II. Tnh hnh s dng cc ngun lc ca cng ty v kt qu hot ng kinh doanh 1. Mi trng kinh doanh 1.1. Th trng mc tiu Hin nay cng ty m rng mng li tiu th sn phm vi cc i l bn hng trn khp c nc. Trong phn ln cc i l tp trung th trng Min Trung ni sn phm ca cng ty chim th phn cao i vi hu ht cc mt hng (vi t l l 67,46%), Min Bc chim 27,76%, Min Nam chim 4,78%. Phng kinh doanh c trch nhim chuyn nghin cu th trng, xy dng chin lc tiu th v pht trin sn phm trn ton th trng. Chnh v vy m sn phm ca SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 30

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

cng ty chim lnh th trng Min Trung - Ty Nguyn v tng bc xm nhp vo cc mng th trng kh khn hn nh H Ni v TP H Ch Minh. Cng ty duy tr c mt s lng khch hng ln v n nh nh: Cng ty xi mng Chifon Hi Phng, Cng ty cp nc Nng, chng trnh nc sch nng thn UNICEF Ngoi ra, sn phm ca cng ty cn c xut khu sang mt s nc Chu u v Chu . 1.2. Khch hng mc tiu Cng ty l doanh nghip va sn xut, va kinh doanh thng mi: co mua bn ni a ln xut nhp khu, sn phm a dng, k c t liu sn xut ln hng tiu dng nn i tng khch hng cng rt a dng. Trong phm vi tiu th sn phm sn xut, cng ty c cc nhm khch hng ch yu sau: - Khch hng l ngi tiu dng cui cng: H l nhng c nhn v gia nh mua hng ha tiu dng cho chnh h. Sn phm thng l dp, ng, ng nha PVC c nh, bao b, manh dt, thauCc khch hng ny ch yu mua ti hai ca hng trcc thuc cng ty. Cc khch hng ny thng rt t do cng ty cha c nhiu im bn v cha c nhng bin php kch thch c hiu qu. - Khch hng l doanh nghip sn xut: Bao gm cc ngnh nh xi mng, phn bn, thc n gia sc, gia cm, ht nha, ng, go, xy dng, cp thot nc, bia, nc khoangCc i tng ny chim trn 80% tng thu nhp. n nay, cng ty to dng uc uy tn v quan h tt vi nhiu khch hng ln nh Xi Mng Chinfon, Xi Mng Nghi Sn, Cp Thot nc Nng v cc tnh Min Trung Ty Nguyn...Tuy nhin, mc cnh tranh ginh khch hng gia cc doanh nghip cng ngnh ang din ra gay gt. - Khch hng l ngi bn li: i tng ny bao gm cc doanh nghip kinh doanh ng nc, bao b, giy dp v hng nha gia dng. Cng ty ang c quan h mua bn vi nhiu ngi bn li ti th trng Nng. H l nhng ngi bn bun bn l, thun li phn phi sn phm ca cng ty n khch hng khc, ngi tiu dng a phng v cc tnh ln cn. Tim nng ca khch hng ny l rt ln nhng cng ty cha khai thc c nhiu v vy cng ty cn ch trng vo nhm khch hng ny nhiu hn na. - Khch hng cng quyn v cc t chc phi li nhun: Cc c quan nh nc t khi mua hng trc tip ca cng ty. Thuc nhm ny c Unicef H Ni thng mua ng nha HDPE, PVC cung cp cho cc d n thuc chng trnh

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

nc sch nng thn. Quan h ca cng ty vi t chc ny c t lu v n nay vn rt tt p. - Khch hng quc t: T nm 1993, cng ty xut khu cc sn phm sang cc nc nh Nga, Php, BNhng nm gn y, hot ng xut khu gim st, do kh nng cnh tranh ca cng ty cn thp. Tuy nhin hin nay cng ty c quan h vi mt s nh nhp khu Chu . 1.3. i th cnh tranh. Cc i th ch yu ca cng ty hin nay bao gm: cng ty nha Bnh Minh, cng ty nha Tn Tin, cng ty nha Tin Phong, cng ty nha Bch ng vi cht lng sn phm, quy m th trng v my mc thit b c sc cnh tranh i vi cng ty nha Nng. 1.4. Cc nh cung ng nguyn vt liu. Trong cc yu t u vo ca cng ty, nguyn vt liu l yu t quan trng v chim t trng ln nht trong tng chi ph sn xut chim khong 73%. l cc loi nha PVC, PP, PE, giy kraft, cht gio DOP, dung mi, mc in, ch may Do ngnh cng nhip ha du v ha nha ca Vit Nam cha pht trin nn ngun cung cp nguyn vt liu ch yu ca cng ty l cc cng ty thng mi nc ngoi, quc tch Korea, Taiwan, Thailand. Singapore, Japan, AustraliaVi 33 nm hot ng trong ngnh nha, cng ty c c mi quan h tt vi cc nh cung cp nc ngoi, nh vic mua nguyn vt liu v nhp khu phc v sn xut kh thn li. Ngoi ngun nhp khu, cng ty cng ty cng c quan h vi cc nh cung cp trong nc nh: Elf Atonchem, TPC Vina, Ha cht Ph M, Thun Li, Bnh Minh, c Thun, mua bt PVC v mt s nguyn vt liu ph. Cc doanh nhip ny hu ht tp trung TP.HCM v cc tnh ln cn. Kh khn ln nht trong vic cung ng nguyn vt liu ca cng ty l gi c thng xuyn bin ng tng do nh hng ca th trng th gii. Ngoi ra vn vn ti cng km thun li so vi cc doanh nghip khc pha Nam, cc ph cao v thi gian vn chuyn di ngy hn. Vic thanh ton tng i thun li nh s h tr ca cc ngn hng v cc nh cung cp c th cp tn dng thng mi cho cng ty khi giao dich mua hng.

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2. Tnh hnh nhn s Trong nhng nm gn y tnh hnh s dng nhn s ca cng ty c phn nha Nng kh n nh, khng sy ra tnh tng tng gim mnh, iu ny chng t cng ty lun gia c mc sn xut vi quy m v tc tng i n nh, cng nhn ca cng ty c cng vic n nh, c tr lng y v c hng nhng chnh sch u i ca cng ty. Bng 1: C cu lao ng ca cng ty qua cc nm Nm 2006 2006 S.lng TT % 2007 2008

Ch tiu S.lng TT % S.lng TT % 196 87% 200 88% 212 88% 1. Lao ng trc tip 35 32 40 2. Lao ng thi v 13% 28 12% 28 12% 3.Lao ng gin tip 30 261 260 280 Tng cng Trnh i hc 23 23 23 a. i hc 2 2 2 b.Trung cp 5 3 3 c. S cp ( S liu do phng hnh chnh cung cp) Nhn xt: C cu lao dng ca cng ty tp trung ch yu l lao ng trc tip chim gn 90% s lao ng ca cng ty. Cng ty ch yu sn xut cc mt hng cn nhiu lao ng trc tip v vy lao ng gin tip ch chim khong 10% s lao ng ca cng ty. Trnh i hc ch c 23 ngi ch yu gi cc chc v quan trng. Trnh trung cp ch c 2 ngi gi chc v tr l cho cc nh lnh o. u nm 2009 tng s lao ng ca cng ty vo khong 300 ngi, trong co 10 k s v 13 c nhn kinh t t y chung ta c th rt ra c kt lun l kh nng v ngun lc lao ng trnh cao ca cng ty cha nhiu v cha mnh v vy cng ty phi ch trng chiu m thm nhiu nhn ti c th cnh tranh vi nhng i th ln mnh khc.

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GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Bng 2: Cht lng lao ng ca cng ty T sn xut SL cng nhn 1 2 5 12 2 4 3 12 0 8 3 10 2 9 1 7 Bc th 3 15 5 17 8 5 4 10 4 14 3 10 9 7 10 4 5 12 4 10 5 9 4 5 6 10 4 7 4 4 3 3 Bc th bnh qun Y/ cu bc th

T bao dt 68 3.68 4 T ct may 18 3.16 3 T can phao 59 3.56 3.5 T ng nc 35 3.66 4 T mng mng 38 3.55 3.5 T dp ng 32 3.44 3.5 T KCS 30 3.47 3.5 Tng cng 280 (S liu do phng T Chc Hnh Chnh Cung Cp) Nhn xt: Nhn chung tay ngh ca cng nhn trc tip tng i cao phn nh trnh tay ngh ca cng nhn vng vng do phn ln cng nhn trong cng ty d lm vic lu nm nn h m ung c mi cng vic c giao, trnh tay ngh c m bo cho yu cu cng vic. 3. Tnh hnh c s h tng 3.1. Tnh hnh mt bng nh xng.
V tr mt bng cc phn xng ca cng ty Nha Nng nm v tr rt

thun li gn trc giao thng chnh Bc Nam.


Cch bin Nng 12 km. Cch sn bay quc t 3 km. Cch ga Nng 3 km v tr ny rt thun tin cho cng ty trong vic vn

chuyn hng ha bng cc phng tin thy, b, hng khng.


Tng din tch mt bng hin nay ca cng ty l 17400 m2.

Bng 3: Din tch mt bng nh xng Din tch s dng S lng SVTH:Trn Minh Tun n v T l(%) Trang 34

CHUYN TT NGHIP Din tch nh lm kho Kho hng Xng sn xut Ni sn xut Cng trnh ph Sn bi li i Din tch khc Tng 1400 1000 3800 250 50 10660 240

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 8 5.7 21.8 1.4 0.28 61.2 1.62

17400 100 (S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) Nhn xt: Thc t y l din tch mt bng s dng khi sn lng 200 tn/nm, nhng hin nay sn lng tng gp 20 ln. Quy m sn xut tng ng k do v tr mt bng c s dng cn thiu, nhiu b phn c s dng tr nn qua ti, sn phm sn xut xong phi ni t trng. Do vy cng ty cn phi m rng thm mt bng nhm gii quyt vn kho bi. 3.2. Tnh hnh my mc thit b a s my mc thit b ca cng ty l nhp t nc ngoi chim khong 80%. Nhng nc cung cp thit b cho cng ty l c, Php, i Loan, Nhtthng qua cc t chc kim nghim v nh gi cht lng quc t. Do vy cng ty d dng tm c ngi cung ng trn th trng quc t. ng thi cc nc ny cng p dng nhiu phng php cnh tranh vi nhau nh tr chm, nng cao cc k nng cho my, cung ng ph tngy l iu kin thun li cho cng ty trng cng tc nng cao i mi dy chuyn cng ngh. Tuy nhin, my mc ca cng ty c s dng t lu nn ch sn xut c cc sn phm c bn cha sn xut c cc sn phm cp cao. V vy cng ty cn phi u t thay i thit b trong thi gian ti to li th cnh tranh trong tng lai.

Bng 4: c im my mc thit b SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 35

CHUYN TT NGHIP SL

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Cng sut Cng xut Nc sn Nm s Tn thit b thit k thc t xut dng My thi mng mng 5 80kg/h 60kg/h i Loan 1991 My thi PP 1 25kg/h 25kg/h i Loan 1990 My in 6 mu 1 6000kg/h 5000kg/h i Loan 1990 My ng ng 1 4000kg/h 3000kg/h c 1994 My cn trng 1 1500kg/h 1150kg/h i Loan 1994 My thi ng nc nh 2 66kg/h 50kg/h i Loan 1992 My thi ng nc ln 1 300kg/h 250kg/h c 1995 My ct dn 6 50kg/h 40kg/h i Loan 1992 My ko ch 2 120kg/h 100kg/h Vit Nam 1992 My dt trn 19 15kg/h 10kg/h Vit Nam 1992 My p phun 650 1 550kg/h 400kg/h Hn Quc 1993 My p 2 mu 1 66kg/h 50kg/h i Loan 1992 My trn nha 3 660kg/h 500kg/h i Loan 1993 My thi HDPE 6 50kg/h 40kg/h i Loan 1993 My thi can 1 20kg/h 20kg/h Vit Nam 1997 (S liu do phng k thut cung cp) Tng gi tr my mc thit b ca cng ty cn li n u nm 2009 l 5.472 tiu ng, tng ng vi 20,5% tng nguyn gi. c im chung ca thit b l hu ht c ch to t nc ngoi, thuc loi bn t ng trnh cng ngh trung bnh v c u t t nm 1996-1999 cht lng cn kh tt nhng so vi cc doanh nghip TP H Ch Minh th cn lc hu v km hn nhiu. Do vy cng ty cn phi u t, hin i hoa h thng sn xut c th p ng nhu cu th trng mt cch tt nht. 3.3. Tnh hnh sn xut cc sn phm ch yu Nhn chung tnh hnh tiu th cc sn phm ch yu ca cng ty l khng n nh. Cc sn phm ch lc ca cng ty l ng nc PVC, HDPE l lun tng v tng kh mnh. Ngoi ra cc sn phm khc ca cng ty l lc tng, lc gim nhng bin giao ng khng cao. iu ny chng t nhu cu trong tng thi k l khng n nh v vy cng ty phi c nhng chnh sch hn ch s bin ng nay, sn xut c th i vo n nh hn. Bng 5: Sn lng tiu th cc sn phm ch yu (VT:Kg)
h

Sn phm Bao B Manh bao dt SVTH:Trn Minh Tun

Nm 2006 87.478 184.560,68

Nm 2007 354.306 492.137,36

Nm 2008 10.420 35.657,90 Trang 36

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Mng mng PE 3.134,00 300 Ti HDPE 34.433,40 140.110,70 14.272,5 ng nc PVC 128.878,91 514.861,09 158.250,79 ng nc HDPE 134.953,71 730.557,24 157.211,48 Dp, ng 11.168,47 41.205,49 10.602,66 (S liu do phng ti chnh k ton cung cp) 4. Kt qu hot ng kinh doanh Bng 6: Bng kt qu hot ng kinh doanh. (VT: ng) Ch tiu 1.DT thun 2. GVHB 3. LN Gp 4. DT t H TC 5. Chi ph TC 6. CP bn hng 7. CP QLDN 8. LN thun t H KD 9. TN khc 10. CP khc 11. LN khc 12. Tng LN trc thu 13. Thu TNDN 14. LN sau thu Nm 2006 S tin 57.895.012.669 50.568.480.115 7.326.532.554 26.804.997 602.751.611 1.979.477.821 1.738.646.492 3.032.461.627 4.809.524 0 4.809.524 3.037.271.151 303.481. 117 2.733.790.034 Nm 2007 Nm 2008 S tin S tin 63.680.824.234 71.152.187.597 54.805.562.664 60.671.309.757 8.875.261.570 10.480.877.840 95.639.277 286.942.826 949.590.319 1.250.824.975 2.516.635.786 3.181.731.938 2.107.156.655 2.437.738.517 3.397.518.087 3.897.525.236 9.761.905 0 9.761.905 3.407.279.992 340.482.537 3,066.797.455 0 0 0 3.897.525.236 389.752.52 4 3.507.772.712

(S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) Nhn xt: Nhn chung doanh thu ca cng ty tng qua cc nm v gi vn hng bn li c su hng gim t. Nhng trongnhng nm gn ay cng ty ch trng u t vo vic phn phi hng ha nn li nhun sau thu ca cng ty c tng nhng tng khng cao. iu ny cho thy cng ty nhn thy c tm quan trng ca vic phn phi v ang ly phn phi lm nn tng cho s pht trin lu di cho cng ty. Bng 7: Bng cn i k ton (VT:ng) SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 37

CHUYN TT NGHIP
Ch tiu A. Ti sn I.Ti sn ngn hn 1. Tin 2. Khon phi thu 3.Hng tn kho 4. TS NH khc II. Ti sn di hn 1. KPT di han 2. TSC 3. BS u t 4. KPTTC di han 5. TS di hn khc Tng ti sn B. Ngun vn I.N phi tr 1. N NH 2. N DH II. Vn ch s hu 1.Vn ch s hu 2.Ngun kinh ph, qu khc Tng ngun vn Nm 2006 S tin 26.221712.000 2.651.976.000 10054.062.000 13.327109.000 188.564.000 9.553.168.000 9.523.168.000 30.000.000

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long


Nm 2007 S tin 31.638.325.668 2.869.312.223 8.702.127.246 19.907.524.812 159.361.387 8.078.960.909 8.048.960.909 30.000.000 Nm 2008 S tin 29.172.578.614 3.348.994.245 7.428,243,739 18,358.806.336 36.534.294 7.965.105.464 7.935. 105.464 30.000.000

35.774.881.000 15.041.353 12.182.813.000 2.858.539.000 20.733.528.000 20.741.590.000 (8.061.000) 38.774.881.000

39.717.286.577 18.015.463.408 16.234.480.019 1.780.983.389 21.701.823.169 21.674.597.455 27.225.714 39.717.286.577

37.137.684.078 4.412.505.597 4.209.978.015 202.527.582 32.725.178.481 32.710.572.712 14.605.769 37.137.684.078

5.1.

(S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) Nhn xt: Nhn vo bng cn i k ton ta thy rng ti sn nhn hn nm 2007 ca cng ty tng so vi nm 2006 v nm 2008 gim so vi nm 2007, s tng gim ny l do s tng gim ca hng tn kho. Khon phi thu ca cng gim gin qua cc nm chng t chnh sch thu hi n ca cng ty c thc hin tt hn qua cc nm.. Cc khon n ca cng ty gim mnh nm 2008 so vi cc nm trc chng t cng ty t ch c ngun vn ca mnh khng cn i vay nh trc kia na, y l mt du hiu tt chng t cng ty ngy cng lm n pht t. 5. Phn tch cc thng s v ch s ti chnh. Phn tch cc thng s ti chnh. Bng 8: Mt s thng s ti chnh ca cng ty nha Nng trong 3 nm t 2006 - 2008 Ch s
Nm 2006 Nm 2007 Nm 2008

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Trang 38

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Kh nng thanh ton Kh nng thanh ton hin thi 2,15 1,94 6,93 Kh nng thanh ton nhanh 1,04 0,72 2,56 Vng quay khon phi thu 5,76 7,3 9,58 K thu tin bnh qun (ngy) 63,37 50 38,1 Chu k chuyn ha tn kho 96 130 110 Vng quay tn kho 3,8 2,8 3,3 Thng s n T l n trn vn ch 0,73 0,83 0,14 T l n trn tng ti sn 0,42 0,46 0,12 Thng s n di hn trn vn di hn 0,67 0,77 0,14 S ln m bo li vay 5,03 3,58 3,19 Kh nng sinh li Li nhun gp bin 1,3% 1.4% 1.5% Li nhun rng bin 4,5% 4,8% 4,9% Li nhun trn tng ti sn (ROA) 7% 7,7% 9,4% Li nhun trn vn ch (ROE) 3,9% 14,1% 10,7% Vng quay ti sn 1,49 1,6 1,92 Kh nng thanh ton: Kh nng thanh ton ca cng ty trong nm 2008 tng mnh so vi cc nm trc iu ny chng t cng ty c th cng ty c th p ng nhanh cc khon n ngn hn. iu ny chng tcng ty c mt tnh hnh ti chnh rt kh quan v cng ty ang hot ng rt tt. Thng s n: T l n trn vn ch nm 2007 c xu hng tng so vi nm 2006 (nm 2006 l 0,73 v nm 2007 l 0,83) nhng n nm 2008 li gim mnh ch cn li l 0,14. Tng t nh vy l t l n trn tng ti sn v thng s n n di hn trn vn di hn. S ln m bo li vay ca cng ty qua cc nm u c xu hng dm dn nm 2006 l 5,03 nm 2007 l 3,58 nm 2008 l 3,19. Qua cc phn tch trn ta thy rng tri qua thi gian tnh hnh ti chnh ca cng ty ngy cng i vo n nh, cng ty ngy cng t ch c ngun vn ca mnh khng cn b ph thuc qu nhiu vo vn vay. Kh nng sinh li: Li nhun gp bin, li nhun rng bin, li nhun trn tng ti sn (ROA), li nhun trn vn ch (ROE), vng quay ti sn ca cng ty lin tc tng trong ba nm 2006, 2007, 2008 iu ny cho bit cng ty ang hot ng rt tt trong vng ba nm qua. 5.2. Phn tch cc ch s ti chnh. Bng 9: Phn tch khi v ch s ca bng cn i k ton ca cng ty nha Nng SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 39

CHUYN TT NGHIP Ch tiu A.TI SN


I.Ti sn ngn hn 1. Tin 2. Khon phi thu 3.Hng tn kho 4. TS NH khc II. Ti sn di hn 1. KPT di han 2. TSC 3. BS u t 4. KPTTC di han 5. TS di hn khc Tng ti sn B. NGUN VN I.N phi tr 1. N NH 2. N DH II. Vn ch s hu 1.Vn ch s hu 2.Ngun kinh ph, qu khc Tng ngun vn 73,3% 7,41% 28,10% 37,25% 0,52% 26,7% 79.66 % 7.22% 21.91 % 50.12 % 0.41% 20.34 % 19.97 % 0.37% 100% 45.36 % 40.88 % 4.48% 54.64 % 54.57 % 0.07%

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long Phn tch ch s 2006 2007 2008 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
120,7% 108,2% 86,6% 143,8% 84,5% 84,6% 111,3% 126,%3 73,9% 137,8% 19,4% 83,4%

Phn tch khi 2006 2007 2008


78.55% 9.02% 20% 49.43% 0.1% 21.45%

26,38%

21.37%

84,5%

83,3%

0,32%

0.08%

1% 111% 119,8% 133,3% 62,3% 104,7% 104,52% 337,7% 102,4%

1%
103,8% 29,3% 34,6% 7,1% 157,8% 157,7% 181,2% 95,8%

100%
42,04% 35,05% 7,99% 57,96% 57,98% (0,02)%

100%
11.88% 11.33% 0.55% 88.12% 88.08% 0.04%

100%

100%

100%

Bng 10: Phn tch khi v ch s bo co kt qu hot ng kinh doang ca cng ty nha Nng. Ch tiu
DT thun v BH v CCDV GVHB LN Gp v BH v CCDV

Phn tch khi


2006 100% 87,3% 12,7% 2007 100% 86% 14% 2008 100% 85,3% 14,7%

Phn tch ch s
2006 100% 100% 100% 2007
110% 108,4% 121,1%

2008
122,9% 120% 143%

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Trang 40

CHUYN TT NGHIP
DT t H TC Chi ph TC CP bn hng CP qun l doanh nghip LN thun t H KD TN khc CP khc LN khc Tng LN trc thu Thu TNDN LN sau thu Nhn xt: 0,05% 1,04% 3,41% 3% 5,24% 0,83% 0,15% 1,49% 3,95% 3,3% 5,34% 0,02% 0% 0,02% 5,35% 0,53% 4,81%

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long


0,4% 1,76% 4,47% 3,43% 5,6% 0% 0% 0% 5,6% 0,56% 4,93% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
356,84% 157,5% 127,1% 121,2% 112,1% 203,3% 1070,5% 207,5% 160,7% 140,2% 128,58%

0%
0,83% 5,25% 0,53% 4,72%

100%
203% 112,2% 112,2% 112,2%

100% 100% 100%


128,3% 128,4% 128,3%

Nhn vo bng phn tch khi v ch s ca bng cn i k ton ca cng ty nha Nng ta thy rng ti sn nhn hn nm 2007 ca cng ty tng so vi nm 2006 v nm 2008 gim so vi nm 2007, s tng gim ny l do s tng gim ca hng tn kho, nm 2006 l 37,25% nm 2007 50,12% nm 2008 l 49,43%. Khon phi thu ca cng gim gin qua cc nm chng t chnh sch thu hi n ca cng ty c thc hin tt hn qua cc nm (nm 2006 l 28,1%,nm 2007 l 21,91%, nm 2008 l 20%). Ti sn ngn hn ca cng ty nm 2008 gim so vi nm 2007 (nm 2007l 79,66% nm 2008 l 78,55%). Cc khon n ca cng ty gim mnh nm 2008 so vi cc nm trc chng t cng ty t ch c ngun vn ca mnh khng cn i vay nh trc kia na, y l mt du hiu tt chng t cng ty ngy cng lm n pht t. Da vo bng phn tch khi v ch s bo co kt qu hot ng kinh doang ca cng ty nha Nng ta thy rng doanh thu ca cng ty tng qua cc nm v gi vn hng bn li c su hng gim t 87,3% nm 2006 , nm 2007 l 86%, nm 2008 l 85,3%. Nhng trong nhng nm gn y cng ty ch trng u t vo vic phn phi hng ha nn li nhun sau thu ca cng ty c tng nhng tng khng cao nm 2006 l 4,72% nm 2007 l 4,81% nm 2008 l 4,93%. iu ny cho thy cng ty nhn thy c tm quan trng ca vic phn phi v ang ly phn phi lm nn tng cho s pht trin lu di cho cng ty. III. Cc chnh sch Marketing ca cng ty c phn nha Nng. 1. Chnh sch c ng Mt sn phm c cht lng cao nhng nu khng qung b cho mi ngi bit n sn phm th cha chc sn phm thnh cng. Hot ng c ng truyn thng c nh hng rt ln to ra s nhn bit sn phm t pha cng SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 41

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

chng. tng cng s nhn bit ca cng chng v sn phmr mang thng hiu Danaplast, cng ty c phn nha Nng tin hnh cc hot ng c ng cho cc sn phm mang thng hiu Danaplast cc hnh thc sau: - Qung co: Cng ty tin hnh qung co sn phm ca mnh trn cc phng tin thng tin i chng, nh trn cc bo trung ng v a phng, qung co trn song pht thanh. Do ngun ngn sch dnh cho qung co qua hp nn cng ty ch tin hnh qung co trn cc phng tin thng tin i chng theo tng t, qung co vo cc dp l hi. Hnh thc qung co ny em li s tp trung vo khch hng mc tiu ca cng ty hn, khng gy long theo i tng. Cng ty cn tham gia vo cc hi ch trin lm trong v ngoi nc, y l nhng c hi qung b cho thng hiu ca cng ty va l ni th hin trnh cng ngh sn xut ca cng ty, a thng hiu ca cng ty n cc th trng khc nhau. Quan h cng chng: Bn cnh cc hot ng qung b cho thng hiu ca cng ty trn cc phng tin thng tin th quan h cng chng l mt trong nhng hot ng m cng ty rt quan tm. Cng ty lun c gng to mt hnh nh p trong tm tr cng chng, mt cng ty lun quan tm n cc hot ng ca cng ng a phng, tham gia nhit tnh vo cc hot ng vn ha, t thin, th thao ca a phng. 2. Chnh sch sn phm. Cht lng: Hin nay dang mc sn phm ca cng ty l kh di nhng hiu qu kinh doanh li khng u nhau, ch mt s t sn phm chim t trng doanh thu v li nhun cao. Cng ty cha tp trung n lc marketing thch ng cho cc sn phm ch lc. Mt khc sn phm ch lc ca cng ty nh ng nha, bao b cha c cc c im ni tri cnh tranh vi cc i th. Uy tn ca cng ty v cht lng sn phm ch yu l nh s dng nguyn liu tt. Cc kha cnh nh: chnh xc, sc so, ng u, a dng... cha ni bt v thua km hn nhiu so vi i th. Mu m sn phm nht l cc mt hng nh dp nha, gia dng cn n gin v khng thu ht c ngi tiu dng. Nhn hiu sn phm: nhn hiu ca cng ty r rng , p, d thy, ni ln li ch cht lng ca sn phm nhng cha d nh. Mt s sn phm nh gh nha v tr gn nhn di mt gh l khng hp l, sn phm dp ng hin nay khng c nhn hiu. i vi cc sn phm l bao b, cng ty cng khng ch n nhn

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Trang 42

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

hiu v vic gn nhn kh khn. Qua ta thy rng cng ty cha thc s quan tm n nhn hiu ca cc sn phm, iu ny s hn ch s nhn bit ca khch hng v thng hiu Danaplast. Bao b sn phm: T trc n nay cng ty cha ch n bao b ca sn phm, phn ln hng ha giao cho khch hng u khng c bao b. y l im trng m cc doanh nghip cng ngnh cha ch v vy cn phi quan tm hn. Cc dch v km theo sn phm: cng ty vic tr li thc mc ca khch hng ch c 2-3 ngi phng kinh doanh cha trch nhim, nhng nhn vin ny khng c trnh chuyn mn cao v cng vic ny, hnn na h thc hin cng lc nhiu cng vic nn vic t vn cha c hiu qu. Mt khc do cng ty cha c mt b phn m nhn vic truyn thng c ng, phn tch s bin ng nhu cu cng vi s lng nhn vin th trng cn hn ch nh hng rt ln n vic tip cn, nhn bit chnh xc nhu cu ca khch hng. Qu trnh nhn bit s thay i thng tin thi trng thiu chnh xc, d liu thu thp ch yu l d liu th cp. 3. Chnh sch gi. i vi vic xcy dng nguyn tc lp gi, vic ng gi bn cc loi sn phm do phng kinh doanh quyt nh, tuy nhin nhng quyt nh ny u c tp hp kin t nhng phng ban v nhng b phn c lin quan. Cng ty v ang nh gia theo cch: i vi gi nin yt v gi bn l th nh gi ch yu da vo chi ph v kinh nghim. Khi quyt nh gi thanh ton theo hp ng th c cn c yu t ngi mua v cnh tranh. Nguyn tc lp gi: Kt hp cch tnh gi (ch ph c nh+t l li nhun hp l) vi gia th trng nhm to ra mt mc ph hp ci th trng ng thi cn i vi chi ph b ra ca doanh nghip. i vi vic xy dng iu kin thanh ton v giao nhn ca cng ty: cng ty c th thanh ton vi cc i tc bng tin mt, ngoi t, chuyn khon hay trao i hng ha. i vi vic xy dng chit khu: cng ty tin hnh chit khu cho cc trung gian phn phi theo phng php chit khu chc nng, mi cp trung gian s c hng mt mc chit khu hp l tu thuc vo cp bc ca trung gian i vi cng ty. Mt khc h thng chit khu ny cj p dng i vi SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 43

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

tt c cc trung gianphn phi ca cng ty, ngoi ra cng ty c th p dng phng php chit khu theo s lng khuyn khch khch hng tiu th vi s lng ln. i vi vic xy dng ch kim sot gi: do tim lc ti chnh ca cng ty c hn ch nn ch i kim sot gi ca cng ty ph thuc rt nhiu vo th trng. Cng ty ch c th iu chnh gi theo th trng mc hp l cho php. 4. Chnh sch v phn phi. Cng ty ch yu s dng knh phn phi trc tip (chim 90% trong tng doanh thu). Chnh sch ny c p dng i vi cc sn phm cng knh hoc c thit k cho nhng khch hng ring bit, sn xut theo n t hng nh ng nc c ln, bao xi mng, bao b ng phn bn... Cn cc sn phm nha dn dng th c phn phi qua trung gian. Ti Nng cng ty ch c hai ca hng bn s kim bn l trc thc cng ty. Hai cue hng ny va bn hang i chng va chu trch nhim phn phi hng ha cho cc ca hng, ngi mua bn li quy m nh thnh ph v cc huyn th thuc cc tnh khu vc Min Trung Ty Nguyn. Nhng vi mong mun ua thng hiu ca mnh ln v tr hng u th vi hai ca hng l qua t. Nu vic cng c v hon thin knh trc tip m bo cho cng ty pht trin mt cch n nh th vic m rng knh gin tip l yu t quyt nh s pht trin lu di. Cng ty s dng ba loi trung gian chnh l i l, nhbn bun v mi gii. H c th l nh bn bun thng mi, nh thu xy dng, nh t vn, k s thit k, hoc nhng ngi c thng tin quan h vi ngi mua cui cng. Do chnh sch phn phi ca cng ty thin v knh trc tip nn hiu qu phn phi qua trung gian cha cao. III. Thc trng hot ng phn phi ca cng ty c phn nha Nng 1. Cu trc knh hin ti ca cng ty Hin ti cng ty c hai i l v mt trung tm phn phi hng ha cho ngi tiu dung cui cng. Trng cc i l thng phn phi cho cc khch hng t chc ca cng ty v trung tm thng phn phi cho ngi tiu dng. 1.1. Cu trc knh phn phi cho khch hng t chc Khch hng t chc ca cng ty - Pha Bc: Sn phm tiu th ch yu l bao dt PP, ng nha PVC. Khch hng ch yu l nh my phn m H Bc, phn ln Ninh Bnh

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Trang 44

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

- Min trung v Ty Nguyn: L cng ty lng thc vt t nng nghip Min Trung tiu th bao dt PP, cng ty cp thot nc Nng, Qung Ngi, Quy Nhn, Kon tumtiu th ng nha PVC - Pha Nam: Khch hng l cc cng ty xut khu go Cn Th v ng bng sng Cu Long, cng ty ng Bin Ha, cng ty cp thot nc ch yu tiu th cc sn phm l bao dt PP v ng nc PVC c im ca khch hng t chc l mua vi s lng ln, la chn k, yu cu cht lng cao. Khch hng c nhu cu mua vi s lng ln th c th k hp ng t hng. V thun tin th khch hng t chc c th mua ti cc i l ca cng ty. Doanh thu ca khch hng t chc chim n 90% n 92% doanh thu tiu th ca cng ty. Bng 11: Bng doanh thu ca khch hng t chc. (VT: ng) Nm 2006 Nm 2007 Nm 2008 Doanh thu 52.102.811.390 57.312.741.810 64.036.968.830 Chi ph 50.136.966.248 55.046.988.778 61.293.406.187 Li nhun 1.965.845.142 2.265.753.032 2.743.562.643 (S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) Da vo bng s liu trn ta thy rng doanh thu ca cng ty t khch hng t chc l tng i tng, nhng ta cng nhn thy chi ph ca vic tiu th hng ha cho khch hng t chc cng tng ng k, iu ny chng t cng ty ngy cng ch trng vo loi khch hng ny v y l nhng khch hng ch cht ca cng ty. V y l khch hng ch yu nn cng ty t chc cc loi knh phn phi sau: Cu trc knh cho khch hng t chc. Cng ty c phn Nha Nng i l Bn bun i l Bn bun VT:(ng) Khch hng t chc

1.2. Cu trc knh cho ngi tiu dng Bng 12: Doanh thu cho ngi tiu dng.

SVTH:Trn Minh Tun

Trang 45

CHUYN TT NGHIP Ch tiu Doanh thu Chi ph Li nhun

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Nm 2006 Nm 2007 Nm 2008 5.792.201.270 6.368.082.420 7.115.218.760 5.024.256.378 5.567.037.997 6.351.008.691 767.944.892 801.044.423 764.210.069 (S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) Tnh hnh doanh th ca khch hng tiu dng cng tng dn qua cc nm, ng thi chi ph cng tng theo lm cho li nhun ca cng ty tng khng ng k. Nguyn nhn ch yu l vic phn phi sn phm n tay ngi tiu dng khng c thc hin mt cch hiu qu nht v vy trong qua trnh a hng ha n tay ngi tiu dng cng ty lm tng chi ph v lm cho li nhun gim xung. Th trng ch yu ca cng ty phc v cho nhm khch hng ny l cc tnh thnh ph Min Trung: Nng, Hu, Qung Nam, Qung Ngi...v cc tnh Ty Nguyn. Do iu kin v th trng a l nn c th chia lm hai th trng: - Th trng thnh ph Nng - Th trng Min Trung v Ty Nguyn Cu trc knh cho th trng Min Trung v Ty Nguyn . Cng tyc phn Nha Nng Bn bun Ngi tiu dng

Bn bun

Bn l

Ti th trng Min Trung v Ty Nguyn cng ty khng m cc i l phc v khch hng y m s dng cc trung gian l cc nh bn bun v bn l a sn phm n tay ngi tiu dng. Cng ty cn h tr vn chuyn khi nh bun mua hng trc tip ti n v. Cu trc knh cho th trng Nng

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Trang 46

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

i l

Cng ty c phn nha Nng

Bn bun i l Bn bun Bn bun i l Bn bun Bn l Bn l

Khch hng tiu dng

2.

Dng dch chuyn trong knh phn phi Nhng dng dich chuyn trong h thng knh phn phi ca cng ty cung cp s kt ni v rng buc gia cc thnh vin trong knh v cc t chc khc vi nhau trong phn phi hng ha v dch v. 2.1 Dng sn phm S dng sn phm.
Ngi tiu dng

Cng ty

Vn ti

Bn s

Bn l

Sn phm c vn chuyn bi cc cng ty vn ti (nu s lng sn phm ln) hoc c xe ca cng ty vn chuyn n cc i l, bn bun, bn l. y cc sn phm li c tip tc vn chuyn bng cc phng tin vn ti ca trung gian ti v bn cho ngi tiu dng.

a. Knh phn phi trc tip * T chc knh


Cng ty Khch hng

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Trang 47

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Cng ty t chc bn hng trc tip cho ngi s dng khng qua trung gian no. Bao gm hai hnh thc bn hng trc tip: Bn hng qua kho vi khi lng ln cho khch hng t chc. Bn l qua h thng ca hng ca cng ty. Bng 13: C cu bn hng trn knh trc tip Hnh thc bn Bn TT qua kho Bn l Tng lng bn Nm 2006 Sn lng 262.586,15 35.807,2 298.393,35 % 88% 12% Nm 2007 Sn lng 778.498,663 86.499,851 % 90% 10% Nm 2008 Sn lng %

153.232,32 92% 13.324,55 8% 100 %

100% 864.998,514 100% 166.556,87

(S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) Bn hng qua kho: Cng ty xut hng bn ngay ti kho ca cng ty, cng ty ch yu bn cho khch hng t chc v ch yu cho khch hng ti th trng .Nng. u im ca bn hng trc tip qua kho: - Doanh s v li nhun cao. - Bn vi khi lng ln nn tit kim c chi ph nhn vin phc v bn hng. - Tit kim chi ph: Chi ph u t ca hng, chi ph bn hng, chi ph trung gian. Nhc im: - Mt s khch hng c tnh mua chu chim dng vn, cng n ko di. - Ch thch hp vi khch hng Nng - Nhiu khch hng cng tp trung ly hng cng mt lc dn n ko di thi gian ch i l iu khch hng khng mun. Bn l ti ca hng: Cng ty giao hng cho cc ca hng vi ha n khng thu, ca hng t chc bn l theo gi quy nh ca cng ty. Khch mua ti ca hng l cc h tiu dng, hay cc khch hng mua nh l. u im: - Linh ng v hiu qu v vn linh ng v li nhun cao.

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

- S dng lc lng bn hng c chuyn mn v trch nhim ca cng ty nn gy c lng tin v tnh cm i vi khch hng. - D kim sot s lng v cht lng hnh bn ra, bo m uy tn i vi khch hng. - Cng ty c th s dng nhn vin bn hng thc hin nhiu nhim v khc nhau nh: Gii quyt phn nn ca khch hng, thu thp thng tin v hnh vi mua hng, tp hp thng tin v i tht ci tin hot ng phn phi ca cng ty ngy cng tt hn p ng c nhu cu ngy cng cao ca khch hng. Nhc im: - Chi ph u t ban u ln. - Chi ph hot ng ln, b gii hn v a l. Bng 14: Khi lng sn phm dch chuyn trn knh trc tip. (VT:Kg) Sn phm Bao b Manh bao dt Mng mng PE Ti HDPE ng nc PVC ng HDPE Dp, ng b. Knh y * T chc knh:
Cng ty

Nm 2006 Nm 2007 Nm 2008 Sn lng Sn lng Sn lng 33.241,64 134.636,28 3.959,6 70.133,058 187.012,197 13.550 1.190,92 114 90.518,24 53.242,066 5.423,55 48.973,986 195.647,214 59.740,36 51.282,41 277.611,751 59.740,36 4.244,019 15.658,086 4.029

Bn bun

Bn l

Khch hng

u im: - Linh hot v p ng tt cho tt c khch hng cc vng a l khc nhau, mt khch hng ln. - Tit kim chi ph u t, chi ph phn phi. - Gim bt gnh nng v ti chnh v an ton v vn. Nhc im - Kh qun l, kim sot. - Gy mu thun trong knh. - Kh thc hin cc chnh sch m cng ty mong mun.

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

- Sn phm phi chuyn qua nhiu giai on trung gian nn hao ht ln, gim st v cht lng, kh kim sot cht lng Bng 15: Khi lng sn phm dch chuyn trn knh y . (VT: Kg) Nm 2006 Nm 2007 Nm 2008 Sn lng Sn lng Sn lng Bao b 39.365,10 159.437,7 4.689 Manh bao dt 83.052,306 221.461,812 16.046,06 Mng mng PE 1.410,3 135 Ti HDPE 15.495,03 63.049,82 6.422,62 ng nc PVC 57.995,51 231.687,49 71.212,86 ng HDPE 60.729,17 328.750,76 71.212,86 Dp, ng 5.025,81 18.542,47 4.771,2 ( S liu do phng king doanh cung cp) c. Knh c bit (knh i l) * T chc knh: Sn phm
Cng ty i l Khch hng

Cng ty s dng i l lm trung gian phn phi sn phm, y l mng li phn phi rt quan trng. Hng ha tiu th trong knh ch yu l ng c, bao b v manh bao dt. u im: - Tn dng c cc mi quan h v kinh nghim ca i l. - M rng th trng, tng kh nng tiu th hng ha. - Nm trong tm kim sot m cng ty c th kim sot c. Nhc im: - Sn lng tiu thu qua i l cn thp, mng li i l ca cng ty cn mng c bit l nhng vng nng thn v vng xa. - a s i l c c s kinh doanh nh, s hiu bit v sn phm v kh nng pht trin khch hng cn hn ch. - Cc i l cn bn hng cho cc i th cnh tranh trc tip ca cng ty. Bng 16: Khi lng sn phm dch chuyn trn knh i l. (VT: Kg) Sn phm Bao b Manh bao dt Mng mng PE SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Nm 2006 Sn lng 14.871,26 31.375,308 Nm 2007 Sn lng 60.232,02 83.663,351 532,78 Nm 2008 Sn lng 1.77,14 6.061,84 51 Trang 50

CHUYN TT NGHIP Ti HDPE ng nc PVC ng HDPE Dp, ng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long 2.426,33 26.902,63 26.902,63 1.802,45

5.853,678 23.818,819 21.909,415 87.526,385 22.942,13 124.194,73 1.898,64 7.004,93 ( S liu do phng king doanh cung cp) 2.2. Dng thng lng * S dng thng lng.

Cng ty

Bn s

Bn l

Ngi tiu dng

Khi ngi bn s, ngi tiu dng, t chc mun mua trc tip sn phm ca cng ty th c th thng lng trc tip vi cc nhn vin ca phng kinh doanh bng cch: - t hng theo yu cu, s lng ln, trong c nm th s thng lng trc tip thng qua cc hp ng. - Gi in n cng ty yu cu cung cp bng gi v cc loi sn phm m khch hng cn, cng ty c th gi trc tip hoc fax bn bo gi, cc iu kin v vn chuyn, chit khu, thanh ton. .. li cho khch hng, nu ng th tr li li cho cng ty v tin hnh hp ng. - n trc tip ti phng kinh doanh xem xt v thng lng v cc iu khon mua bn. 2.3. Dng s hu Dng dch chuyn quyn s hu c din ra ng thi vi dng dch chuyn vt cht i vi cng ty, nu sn phm dch chuyn bng phng tin vn ti ca cng ty, do cng ty m nhn th quyn s hu ca cng ty s chm dt ti kho ca khch hng sau khi hng c giao nhn ti kho ca cng ty. Nu khch hng s dng phng tin vn ti ca chnh mnh th quyn s hu ca cng ty s chm dt sau khi giao hng cho khch hng ti kho ca cng ty. Cn i vi khch hng trung gian trong knh th quyn s hu ca h s chm dt sau khi hng ha c giao nhn. 2.4. Dng c ng SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 51

CHUYN TT NGHIP * S dng c ng.

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Cng ty

CT-QC

Bn s

Bn l

Ngi TD

Do c im ring ca sn phm v khch hng nn cng ty p dng c hai chin lc y v ko cng vi nhau: - Chin lc y: Cng ty ch yu s dng phng tin truyn thng, bo ch vi cc chng trnh qung co v thng qua cc thnh vin knh thc hin: gim gi, khuyn mi, tng qu. - Chin lc ko: Cng ty c quan h tt p vi cc phng tin thng tin, chnh quyn, dn c nn thng phi hp vi cc bo i thc hin cc dng phng s, a cc thng tin v cng ty cng chng hiu r hn v cng ty. 2.5. Dng thng tin * S dng thng tin.

Cng ty

Vn ti

Bn s

Bn l

Ngi TD

Tt c thng tin v mua bn, s lng, cht lng hng ha, thi gian giao nhn din ra u n v l thng tin hai chiu. Tt c cc thnh vin u tham gia vo dng chy ny v cc thng tin c trao i thng qua cc phng tin thng l in thoi, fax, internet, trc tip. 3. Mu thun trong knh 3.1. Cc mu thun - Khi cng ty trin khai cc chng trnh gim gi, chit khu, cc chng trnh c ng nh khuyn mi hng hath c mt s trung gian khng c gng hp tc vi cng ty nh l khng gim gi, khng pht qu khuyn mi, khng tng qu cho khch hng, h lm ng vi khch hng. - T ng tng gia trong nhng lc ht hng, st hng v t ng gim gi li ko khch hng v pha mnh trong qua trnh cnh tranh.

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

- Cc trung gian thng trng by hng ha rt t v i hi cng ty phi h tr cc k, gi trng by hng ha nhiu hn na, trong khi li trng by cc sn phm khc hoc sn phm ca i th cnh tranh, cn cc sn phm ca cng ty li b che khut khng c trng by ni bt v khng d cho khch hng quan st. 3.2. Gii quyt cc mu thun trong knh Cng ty hin nay ch c hai cn b th trng, ngoi vic m rng v pht trin th trng h cn c th trc tip giao dich vi cc trung gian qua cc n hng c th c thit lp. Hn th na, h tip xc trc tip ngoi th trng, tip xc trc tip vi trung gian nn c th d dng nm bt c cc thng tin mi, nhng vn mu thun mi ny sinh, thng lng v gii quyt ngay nu n thuc phm vi trch nhim ca h. Cc mu thun vng mc ln khng th gii quyt c th h s tham mu cho lnh o (trc tip l phng kinh doanh) a ra ng hng gii quyt mt cch tho ng trong thi gian sm nht, khng cho trnh trng mu thun bt ng trong h thng knh tip tc tn ti v pht trin, cc trung gian c th n trc tip cng ty khiu ni, gii quyt cc kh khn ca mnh. 4. Cc chnh sch khuyn khch cc thnh vin trong knh Do nhng iu kin hon cnh mi trng v th trng lun lun bin ng hoc do cc yu t lin quan n khch hng nn cng ty thng c nhng chnh sch khuyn khch cc thnh vin trong knh phn phi nhm kch thch h lm vic tt hn trong vic tiu thu sn phm v t hiu qu tt hn cho cng ty.

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

4.1. Chnh sch hoa hng. Cc i l ca cng ty bn sn phm theo ng gi nim yt cho bn ca cng ty, cc i l ny hng phn trm hoa hnglu tin trn doanh s bn c. Cng ty xy dngk mt bng tnh hoa hng cho cc i l nh sau: Doanh thu (thng) % hoa hng - Di 30 triu 4% - 30 n 45 triu 5% - 45 n di 60 triu 6% - Trn 60 triu 6,5% (S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) i l c trch chit khu hoa hng c th nh sau: - ng nc PVC chit khu 15% theo bng gi mi ban hnh. - ng nc HDPE chit khu 4% theo bng gi mi ban hnh. - Cc sn phm khch ti theo tha thun ca cng ty vi cc i l. i vi cc i l c doanh thu cao trn 60 triu v cc i l c doanh thu tng mnh qua tng thi k th cng ty s c nhng chnh sch khen thng thch hp. Bng 17: So snh chnh sch khen thng Doanh s/thng - Trn 60 triu - 200 -500 triu - 500 tr- 1 t - Ln hn 1 t So snh Chnh sch ca 1%/doanh s t c cng ty khng r 1,5%/doanh s t c rng, chi tit. 2%/doanh s t c khng c tnh kch thch. Ngoi ra hng thng i th cn tng qu cho i l na t doanh s cao nht. (S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) 4.2. Chnh sch chit khu Cng ty thng dng chnh sch ny i vi khch hng cng nh cc thnh vin trong knh phn phi nhm khuyn khch h mua hng v thanh ton tin sm hn so vi thi hn th s c hng chit khu tu theo mi quan h gia khch hng vi cng ty nhng thng l 2% trn tng gi tr thanh ton. Cng ty c thng i th

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Bng 18: So snh chnh sch chit khu, hoa hng ca cng ty vi cng ty Nha Bnh Minh Tiu ch - Chit khu/ gim gi - Chit khu/ Doanh s + Di 30 triu + 30 n 45 triu + Di 50 tiu + 45 n 60 tiu + Trn 60 triu + 50 n 80 triu + 80 n 100 triu + Trn 100 triu C.ty nh Nng 2% 3% 4% 5% 5% 5,5% 8% 10% 13% C.ty nha Bnh Minh 5% So snh -Thp hn i th - Thp hn i th nhng cng ty c chnh sch nhiu mc hn. V vy s linh hot hn v d kch thch cc thnh vin c gng mua hng ng mc hng chit khu.

(S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) Nhn xt: -Nhn chung chnh sch chit khu ca cng ty l thp hn so vi i th cnh tranh m trc tip nht l cng ty nha Bnh Minh. Chnh sch chit khu ca cng ty d mc no cng u c t l thp hn cac th, y l mt im yu ng ngi v cc trung gian v ngi mua d l i tng no cng quan tm n cc khon chit khu v n nh hng n doanh thu ca h. -Nhn vo bng trn ta thy, chnh sch chit khu ca cng ty khng c hp l v n cn lng lo hn nhiu so vi i th cnh tranh v vy kh nng mt khch hng ca cng ty l rt cao. 4.3. H tr cc thnh vin i vi cc i l, khch hng t chc v cc nh bun cng ty c chnh sch h tr vn chuyn sn phm cho h thng qua vic trc tip ch hng n kho ca khch hng. Cc i l nh bn bun cn c h tr v bng hiu, cc k hng cho ln u tin k kt hp ng i l vi cng ty, h tr v ti chnh cng n.

Bng 19: So snh chnh sch h tr cc ca hng, i l ca cng ty vi cng ty nha Bnh Minh SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 55

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Chnh sch Cng ty i th -Thanh ton - Ch p dng cho thanh - Cng ty cho php i l s dng ti bng chuyn ton s d n cho cng ty khon ca mnh khch hng tr tin khon bng chuyn khon v chu chi ph vn chuyn tin cho i l nu ha n t mc 40 triu ng tr ln. - Chnh sch - S d n c thanh - c n gi u mt chuiyn hng nu cng n ton thnh 2 t vo c ti sn th chp v c doanh s mua ngy 15 v 30 ca thng. hng ca cng ty thng xuyn t t 200 Cui nm phi thanh ton triu tr ln. dt im tin hng, c n gi u vo ngy 1/1 ca nm k - H tr vn - Vn chuyn hng ha c cng ty vn chuyn hng ha n chuyn theo tho thun ca cng ca hng ca i l: ty v i l. - Tr gi hng phi t 40 triu tr ln. Cc - Nu cng ty vn i l cng tnh c th kt hp li vi chuyn th chi ph s nhau chung mt chuyn. Nu t vn c tnh vo tin hng. chuyn th s c cng ty thanh ton li Ngc li i l c th theo gi vn chuyn ca cng ty. vn chuyn bng phng - Tr gi chuyn hng phi l 20 triu tr tin ca mnh. ln i vi i l TP HCM. Nu t ng vnc huyn s c cng ty thanh ton bng 0.5% tr gi chuyn hng. Ch p dng i vi nhng i l c doanh s ti thiu 50 triu ng/thng.

(S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) Nhn xt: - Chnh sch thanh ton bng tin mt ca cng ty khng to c s thun tin cho cc i l v kch thch cc i l t doanh s cao nh i th cnh tranh. Chnh sch cng n ca cng ty thong hn v iu kin n gi u, nhng cha tht s kch thch cho cc i l mua hng vi doanh s cao. Chnh sch h tr ca cng ty l cn chung chung, khng r rng v khng c tnh kch thch tiu th vi doanh s cao cho cc i l. 5. Cc tiu chun la chn v nh gi i l SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 56

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Mi php nhn v c nhn u c lm i l cho cng ty CP nha Nng nu p ng c cc iu kin sau y: 1/ C giy php ng k kinh doanh. 2/ C mt bng v tr thun li cho vic tiu th sn phm ca cng ty CP nha Nng, trong trng hp thay i a im kinh doanh phi thng bo vi cng ty trc mt thng. 3/ C n xin lm i l v chnh thc k hp ng lm i l tiu th sn phm ca cng ty. 4/ Doanh s bn ca i l bn sn phm ca cng ty phi ti thiu t c: - ng nc cc loi: 20.000.000/ thng - Tm nha la phng: 40.000.000/ thng Mc d tiu chun l nh vy nhng vic p dng ng nh tiu chun l mt vn rt kh khn. Trng nhiu trng hp cng ty phi ch ngj li ko cc i l v mnh h bn sn phm cho cng ty. IV. NH GI HOT NG PHN PHI CA CNG TY 1. Thn li Cc trung gian c quan h lu di vi cng ty. Cc trung gian vn chuyn lu di vi cng ty c s u i v gia cc Cng ty c mt i ng bn hng lm vic lu nm i vi cng ty C s thun li v v tr 2. Kh khn - H thng knh phn phi cn cha hp l, cha i su khai thc th trng a phng, cha to c c hi m rng th trng trong tng lai. -La chn trung gian tiu th hng ha cn cha thc s c quan tm u t thch ng. - Cc chnh sch khuyn khch, hoa hng chit khu v h tr cho trung gian cn yu, cha to c li th cnh tranh vi cc i th trn th trng. - nh gi, kim tra trung gian ch da vo hp ng i l cn cha thc ph hp v c hiu qu. PHN 3: MT S BIN PHP Y MNH HOT NG PHN PHI CA CNG TY C PHN NHA NNG. I.Mc tiu ca ti.

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Sau khi nghin cu v xem xt tnh hnh hot ng v sn xut ca cng ty ni chung v tnh hnh, thc trng hot ng phn phi ca cng ty nha Nng ni ring. Em nhn thy rng cn phi nng cao hot ng phn phi ca cng ty, vi nhng mc tiu c th nh sau: - Xy dng h thng knh phn phi ph hp vi tng th trng v mang tnh cnh tranh cao. -T chc v qun l c hiu qu cc dng dch chuyntrong knh phn phi ca cng ty, nhm em li mt s hp l v mt kh nng cnh tranh cao cng nh kh nng m rng th trng cho cng ty. Gim cc chi ph v nng cao kh nng tiu th cc sn phm. - Gii quyt v iu ha cc mu thun pht sinh trong h thng knh phn phi, gn li ch ca cc trung gian v li ch cng ty vi nhau mt cch cht ch nhm to ng lc cho cc trung gian pht huy cc u th ca mnh, tng kh nng tiu th hng ha v m rng th trng cho cng ty. - Ci thin cc chnh sch chit khu, hoa hng, khen thng v cc chnh sch h tr trung gian mt cch tt nht v mang tnh cnh tranh cao c th kch thch, khuyn khch cc i l, trung gian tch cc tiu th sn phm v m rng th trng. - Xy dng cc tiu chun la chn v nh gi i l mt cch nghim ngt v hp l nhm lm cho h thng knh c vng mnh v hot ng c hiu qu. II. Cc tin cho vic xut cc php hon thin knh phn phi. 1. c im ca th trng ngnh nha. 1.1. Khi qut tnh hnh. Ngnh nha nc ta thc cht l mt ngnh kinh t k thut v gia cng cht do, hin cha c kh nng sn xut ra nguyn liu nha, gn nh ton b nguyn vt liu sn xut ra cc sn phm nha phi nhp t nc ngoi. Ngnh nha c u im l ngnh cng ngh hin i, tc vng quay nhanh, s dng hot ng k thut l chnh, sn phm a dng, phc v nhiu i tng, lnh vc cng nghip, cng nh trong tiu dng hng ngy ca x hi. Theo thng k ca UNDP th 70% nhu cu vt cht cho i sng ca con ngi c lm bng nha, t ch s cht do trn u ngi c tho mn l 30kg/ u ngi m Vit Nam hin nay ch t oc 10kg/ u ngi . T kt lun trn ta thy rng

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

nhu cu ca ngi dn nc ta v nha l cn rt nhiu v vy chng ta phi c cc chnh sch kch thch nhu cu ca ngi dn pht trin hn na. 1.2. Tc tng tng. Ngnh nha Vit Nam vn gi tc tng tng t 20% - 25%/nm. Tng sn lng t trn 2.210.000 ngn tn, trong TP H Ch Minh v cc tnh ln cn chim 80% tng sn lng c nc. Song p ng tc tng tng 25% t nay n nm 2015, ngnh nha phi ng u vi nhiu th thch bi cc sn phm nha gia dng gn t n mc bo ha, nhu cu th trng ngy cng kht khe hn, s cnh tranh ngy cng khc lit hn, sn phm ngoi nhp ng trn vo mt cch mnh m. 1.3. C cu sn phm. tip tc pht trin ngnh nha v ang ci tin v mt cht lng, nh hng u t vo cc ngnh sn xut cho cc sn phm cng nghip, cho bao b, cho vt liu xy dng, sn xut nguyn liu nha, bn thnh phm nha, khun mu, ch to thit b cho ngnh nha. Phi tng t trng sn phm cht lng cao thay th cho cc sn phm xut khu, nhm p ng vai tr cho ngnh cng nghip v tinh phc v c lc cho cc ngnh cng nghip khc t n ti s thay i c cu ca ngnh. D kin t l c cu sn phm ca ngnh ti nm 2015 l: - Cc sn phm bao b: 30%. - Sn phm cho vt liu xy dng: 20%. - Sn phm gia dng: 20%. - Sn phm cho cng nghip: 15%. - Cc sn phm khc: 15% Nng cao cht lng sn phm p ng nhu cu tiu dng ngy cng cao trong ngc, ng thi gia tng s lng v m rng chng loi sn phm c kh nng xut khu tng ngun thu ngoi t ti u t. Mc tiu n nm 2015 kim ngch xut khu ca cc sn phm nha t t 15% -20%. 1.4. Mi trng cnh tranh Trong thc t v Vit Nam l thnh vin ca ASEAN, AFTA v WTO nn s c nhiu i th cnh tranh nc ngoi. cng c v duy tr v th ngnh nha phi tip tc nng cao cng ngh v cht lng sn phm, hai yu t quyt nh n s sng cn ca ngnh nha.

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Cc doanh nghip nha Vit Nam thng phi i mt vi s cnh tranh khng lnh mnh bng vic bn gia thp cho nhng sn phm nha km cht lng, khng ng tiu chun. Hin nay cc c quan chc nng ang xy dng mt h thng tiu chun cho cc sn phm nha, h thng ny c xem l gii php qun l cht lng cc sn phm nha ti Vit Nam. 2. Tin xy dng cc gi php. 2.1. Phng hng ca cng ty. Chin lc kinh doanh xc nh phng hng hot ng ca cng ty trong mt thi gain di, giai on t nm 2005 n nm 2015 nh sau: - M rng kinh doanh ra th trng Min Bc v Min Nam nng cao kh nng chim lnh th trng. bin cnh tip tc trin khai pht huy u th th trng Min Trung v Ty Nguyn. - u t trc tip cho qua trnh sn xut cc sn phm c kh nng sinh li cao nh mt hng ng nha, bao b - u t a dng ha sn phm. - t tc tng tng hng nm tng i n nh. 2.2. Chin lc kinh doanh ca cng ty. t c mc tiu pht trin hot ng sn xut kinh doanh, tng uy tn v chim c th phn cao trong lnh vc sn xut cc sn phm nha, cng ty duy tr v tp trung vo mt s chin lc kinh doanh chnh nh sau: - Pht trin v duy tr h thng khch hng sn c ca cng ty mt cch n nh v lu di nh cc cng ty cp nc ti cc tnh min Trung v Ty Nguyn, cc khch hng tiu th bao b ln, cc nh my xi mng nh Hi Vn, Nghi Sn, Kim nh, Chinfon Hi Phng... - y mnh vic kinh doanh nguyn liu ht nha gip cho cng ty mt mt n nh gi nguyn liu u vo v ng thi to ra li nhun t hot ng ny thng qua vic hnh thnh vn phng i din ti TP H Ch Minh. -Tm kim v u t pht trin cc sn phm cng knh (c li th cnh tranh v mt a l) phc v cho ngnh thy sn ni ring v ngnh nha cng nghip ni chung ti khu vc min Trung v Ty Nguyn. -a dng ho khun mu thng qua hnh thc u t hoc thu mua nhm a dng ha sn phm nha gia dng cung cp cho th trng. SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 60

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

- Tng cng qun l ti chnh bng phng php qun l ti u nhm iu chnh kp thi cho cc nhu cu ti chnh gip cng ty gi uy tn vi khch hng v cc t chc ti chnh. 2.3. Mc tiu ca cng ty Tng sn lng sn xutt ln 25% n 30% so vi so vi nm hin ti, y mnh tiu th cc sn phm mi, tng doanh s bn ln 1,5 n2 ln. Nng cao cht lng sn phm, h gi thnh, p ng nhu cu ca khch hng ngy cng cao,.o to c i ng cng nhn vin lnh ngh, thch ng vi tin b khoa hc k thut, bi dng v nng cao nghip v m bo trnh pht trin chung ca x hi. u t nng cao c s vt cht k thut, ng dng cng ngh mi vo qua trnh sn xut sn phm. Ci thin nng cao mc sng cho cc thnh vin ca cng ty. 2.4. Mc tiu chin lc marketing ca cng ty thc hin mc tiu phng hng chung ca cng ty, cng ty a ra cc mc tiu chin lc marketing nh sau: - T nay n nm 2015, cng ty phi m rng th trng ra cc tnh ln cn v mt s tnh khc Min Trung. - Chim lnh li nhng phn on th trng mt. - t ch s tng tng thi phn trn th trng min Trung - Ty Nguyn t 15% n 20%. - Thc hin a dng ha c v mu m ln cht lng sn phm phc v nhu cu ngy mt tng v bin ng ca thi trng mc tiu (MT-TN). Gi vng v th cnh tranh dn u v nhng sn phm ch lc, tip tc khng nh v th i vi nhng sn phm khc. Trn c s phn u tng tng th phn trn th trng c nc. Pht huy ti a li th cnh tranh v v tr a l so vi cc i th, khc phc dn khuyt im gi thnh cao so vi cc i th i i vi nng cao cht lng cng nh mu m sn phm.

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2.5. Phn tch cc bin s nh hng n knh phn phi a. Bin s th trng Do hot ng ca cng ty tri di trn a bn t Thang Ha, Ngh An cho n Ph Yn v cc tnh Ty Nguyn nn th trng ca cng ty c chia ra cc khu vc c th sau: - Khu vc I: L khu vc Bc Trung B bao gm cc tnh thnh ph: Thanh Ha, Ngh An, H Tnh, Qung Bnh, Qung Tr, Tha Thin Hu. - Khu vc II: L khu vc Duyn Hi Nam Trung B bao gm cc tnh thnh ph: Qung Nam, Qung Ngi, Bnh nh, Ph Yn. - Khu vc III: L khu vc cc tnh Ty Nguyn bao gm: KomTum, Gia Lai, akLak, Lm ng. - Khu vc IV: L Nng Xt v quym th trng. Bng :Quy m th Trng Nm 2005 Nm 2006 Nm 2007 Nng H G 156.333 158.889 166.023 Nam Min Trung H G 1.138.826 1.149.750 1.183.212 Bc Min Trung H G 2.104.541 2.122.583 2.168.753 Ty Nguyn H G 770.309 787.272 831.000 Tng s H G 4.170.009 4.218.494 4.348.985 (S liu thng k NXB thng k) Tim nng th trng cn rt ln, trng khu vc Min Trung cn cha khai thc ht. Bc MT v Nam MT cng ty ch mi tiu th hng ha vi th phn v doanh s cn rt khim tn 14% v 16% tng doanh thu ca cng ty. Trong Bc MT cng ty ch yu tiu th cc sn phm ch yu nh: bao b, ng HDPE cn Nam MT cng ty ch yu tiu thu cc sn phm ng nha PVC. c bit khu vc Ty Nguyn l th trng trng im ca cng ty vi mc th phn v doanh. s chim 60% doanh thu ca cng ty y l mt th trng ln ,mc d ch vi bn tnh. Mt hng tiu th ch yu l ng nc HDPE. Ti Nng v khu vc ny nm gn nh my ca cng ty v cng vi s pht trin ca thnh ph nn thi trng ny cng chim mt t l kh ln trong doanh thu ca cng ty (10%). Th trng

Bng: Doanh thu cc thi trng

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CHUYN TT NGHIP Th trng Nng Nam Min Trung Bc Min Trung Ty Nguyn

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Nm 2008 % doanh thu 7.115.218.760 10% 11.384.350.010 16% 9.961.306.263 14% 42.691.312.550 60% (S liu do phng kinh doanh cung cp) Vi quy m thi trng nh vy cng ty cn phi cng c v pht trin mng li phn phi hn na ti th trng Ty Nguyn v th trng Nng v y l hai th trng mang li nhiu li nhun cho cng ty v cng c rt nhiu i th cnh tranh, mc cnh tranh rt gay gt. Cn hai th trng cn li ca cng ty cn pht trin mng li phn phi vi cc ca hng v cc i l chim lnh hai th trng nay trc khi cc i th cnh tranh nhy vo. Mt th trng Bng: Mt th trng VT(H gia nh/Km2) Nng Nam MT Bc MT Ty Nguyn Din tch 1.256.24Km2 33.067.22Km2 51.500.69Km2 545.474.50Km2 Nm 2006 126 35 41 14 Nm 2007 128 35 42 15 Nm 2008 132 36 42 15

Ta thy mt khch hng tiu dng ca doanh nghip th trng Nng l rt cao so vi cc thi trng cn li. Do th trng Nng thch hp vi knh phn phi ngn v s lng im bn nhiu, hay ni cch khch l s lng i l v ca hng tiu th nhiu. khu vc Bc MT v khu vc Nam MT mt khch hng tiu dng tha hn, tr mt s trung tm kinh t v th x ca cc tnh. Cho nm c th s dng knh phn phi trc tip khu vc th x v cc trung tm. Cn a bn cc vng xa hn cn phi s dng knh di hn vi s lng trung gian nhiu c th vn n nhng h tiu dng cui cng va m bo chi ph phn phi cho cng ty. Cn th trng Ty Nguyn v mt th trng rt thp, dn c tp trung tha tht v xa thnh ph, a hnh i ni, o, dc cao. V vy cn phi xy dng h thng knh di p ng nhu cu v gim chi ph vn chuyn. b. c im ca ngi tiu dng SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 63

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Trong th trng mi khch hng c nhng c im khc nhau. V vy h s c nhng mong mun v hnh vi mua hng khc nhau, h c nhng nh hng khc nhau n cu trc knh phn phi v cch thc hot ng ca knh. - Khch hng tiu dng nh l: L nhng h gia nh c nhu cu v cc loi sn phm nha ca cng ty, h mua hng vi s lng nh phc v cho nhng hot ng mang tnh nh l trong gia nh. Nhm khch hng ny rt ng ch yu mua cc sn phm nh: Cc loi ng nc, bao b, dp, ng. Nhm khch hng ny phn b khp ni, tp trung ng nht thnh ph, th x, th trn. Mc d s lng mua mi ln ca h t nhng nhu cu ca h li thng xuyn v n nh. Tin trnh mua ca h rt n gin, c xc nh v thc hin rt nhanh, li thanh ton ngay nn mang li li nhun ng k cho cng ty, h ch yu mua qua cc trung gian ca cng ty. H quan tm nhiu n gi, kch c v c quan tm n nhn hiu ca sn phm, tnh sn c ca sn phm, c bit l s thun tin ca a im mua h thun tin v khu vn chuyn .Do vy phng thc phn phi p ng tt nht nhu cu ca nhm khch hng ny l cc ca hng, i l ca cng ty. V vy cng ty cn cng c, pht trin mng li phn phi p ng cao nht nhu cu ca h duy tr v pht trin s lng khch hng ny. - Khch hng t chc: L cc cng ty, doanh nghip mua sn phm nha ca cng ty phc v cho sn xut, phc v cho cng trnh, d n ca h, h i hi nhiu v s ph hp ca sn phm vi cc thng s k thut ca my mc thit b, trnh cng ngh v cc tnh nng ca cc cng trnh, d n h quan tm. Mt hng tiu th bao gm: Bao b, ng nc, dp ng y l nhng ngi mua chuyn nghip rt hiu bit v sn phm, tin trnh mua ca h rt phc tp v kh thn trng, trong qua trnh mua h thng thng lng vi cng ty v gi c v chit khu. Nhu cu mua ca h thng xuyn bin ng, sc mua ph thuc vo tc pht trin ca sn xut v tc pht tin ca th trng. H thng mua vi s lng ln, kp thi k c khi nhu cu tng mnh. y l nhm khch hng rt quan trng cho cng ty. Quan h ca h l quan h bn hng cng tc t lu, cng t cn duy tr v pht trin hn na s lng khch hng thuc nhm ny. Mong mun ca khch hng t chc l tit kim chi ph u t u vo thu c li nhun cao nht, v vy h quan tm nhiu n gi c, s

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u i v chit khu, cng n v cc dch v i km. Do phng thc phn phi ph hp nht l bn hng trc tip cho h. - Khch hng bn li: l cc trung gain phn phi, l nhng ngi mua i bn li nhm mc tiu li nhun. im mnh ca trung gian l c quan h lu di, uy tn vi khch hng, gia c khch hng mua n nh, cng tc vi cng ty trong mt thi gian di v h l nhng ngi gn v tip xc trc tip vi cc i tng l khch hng nh l. im yu ca h l: + S lng i l cn t, ch yu l cc i l t nhn nh. + Quy m ca cc trung gian v mt hng, kho bi, sn lng tiu th ni chung u nh. + H khng nhng bn hng cho cng ty m cn bn hng cho cc i th cnh tranh. V vy s trung thnh nhiu khi b gim st. +Quyt nh mua hng ca h thng d dt phng ri ro, khi lng mua khng n nh, d b thay i theo tc ng ca th trng. Cc trung gian u rt quan tm n gi c, chnh sch chit khu, hoa hng, tn dng, khuyn mi, ch thng pht ca cng ty. Do cng ty cn nm vng yu cu ca tng i tng, c chnh sch kch thch linh hot tng cng hn na sc mnh ca h thng trung gian, ng thi to ra s gn b hn na sc mnh ca h thng trung gian vi cng ty. c. c im sn phm Sn phm nha c lm t cc hp cht do, c chit xut t cc loi m ca cy cao su thin nhin v cc hp cht do do con ngi to ra. c im ca n l khng bay hi, co gin theo nhit ca mi trng, nh nhng cng knh gy kh khn trong vn chuyn, chim nhiu din tch khi vn chuyn v lu kho. Khng i hi nhng iu kin kht khe trong bo qun, vn chuyn. Nhng khi vn chuyn cc sn phm nh i hi phi c cc phng tin nh xe ti vi nhiu kch thc ph hp. Do mun kinh doanh ngnh nha phi c kin thc chuyn mn nht nh, phi hiu bit v sn phm. V vy cc trung gian khi tham gia vo ngnh nha phi c chn lc da trn tim lc ti chnh, din tch mt bng kinh doanh l nhng yu t cn thit nht.

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Do yu cu v s ph hp v s u t thch ng vo phng tin vn chuyn, nn khi a sn phm vo th trng cn hn ch n mc thp nht chi ph vn chuyn cho cng ty v ngi tiu dng. V vy cn xy dng mt mng li trung gian tiu th rng ri, p ng c nhng vng xa xi. d. c im v cnh tranh Vit Nam c nhiu doanh nghip hot ng trong ngnh nha, phn ln l cc doanh nghip va v nh, c khong 85% - 90% doanh nghip ngoi quc doanh v chim n 80% sn lng trong ngnh. Bng: Phn b cc doanh nghip nha Vit Nam. Vng S lng doanh ngip T l Bc 122 13,5% Trung 750 83% Nam 33 3,5% Tng cng. 905 100% (Ngun: Bo co cht do ngnh nha) Nhn vo bng phn b ta thy khu vc Min Trung c t doing nghip, ch c 33 so vi 905 doanh nghip trn ton quc. Cc khu vc khc khng nhng mnh hn v s lng m cn mnh hn c v mc ln mnh ca cc cng ty, h mnh dn u t pht trin ngnh nha cng nghip sc cnh tranh vi cc doanh nghip nc ngoi. V vy vic m rng thi trng vo Min Bc v Min Nam l cha sc, do cng ty phi cng c s vng mnh ca mnh ti th trng Min Trung v dn dn tin ra hai u t nc. Trong th trng Min Trung cc cng ty phi cnh tranh vi nhau rt khc lit. Cc i th c ti chnh mnh v h thng phn phi kh rng, l nhng cng ty ra i t rt sm c kinh nghim trong ngnh, c mt danh sch cc ca hng lu i v trunh thnh.

II. Hon thin cu trc knh 1. Xy dng s knh s knh v cc phng n lau chn knh. 1.1. S knh. S knh phn phi chung ca cng ty.

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Nh bn l Cng ty i l Tng i l i l Tng i l Nh bn l i l Khch hng

Do mi khu vc th trng c nhiu c im khc nhau nh: v tr a l, mt dn c, tc pht trin, nhu cu v sn phm, c im khch hng, c im sn phm, t tng thng kinh tcho nn vic p dng chung knh phn phi cho cc vng khc nhau l khng hp l. Bi vy tu tng vng m s dng cu trc knh sao cho hp l nht. 1.2. Xy dng cc phng n la chn knh Knh khng cp: Cng ty Khch hng

Hu ht hot ng bn hng ca cng ty u thng qua knh phn phi trc tip chim gn 90% doanh thu, ch ch khong 10% l gin tip thng qua cc trung gian ca cng ty. Ti th trng Nng cng ty nn s dng knh phn phi ny v y l th trng c rt nhiu t chc v khong cch chuyn gn. Cc th trng khc cng cn c knh phn phi ny. Knh khng cp ch p dng i vi nhng khch hng mua vi s lng ln v tha thun chi ph vnc chuyn mt cch thch ng, v vi nhu cu ln th cc i l khng th cung cp c.

Knh m cp:

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Khch hng Khch hng Khch hng Khch hng Ti th trng Nng cng ty khng cn thng qua tng i l phn phi hng, vic ny cng ty c th phn phi trc tip ti ni sn xut. Nhng cng ty cn c cc i l v c bit l cc nh bn l phc v cho cc h gia nh. Ti th trng Bc Min Trung: Cng ty cn t mt tng i l Hu phc v cho cc tnh cn li. Mt khc v khch hng khu vc ny a s l cc t chc nhng vic khai thc m rng khch hng cn cha c ch trng. khai thc khch hng l cc h gia nh vi mt phn b kh ng, cng ty cn phi m cc i l Hu, Qung Bnh, Qung Tr, cn ti Ngh An v Thanh Ha v tim lc cng ty cn cha mnh m rng thm v hai tnh ny i th cnh tranh l cc cng ty Min Bc xm nhp vo nn rt kh cho cng ty.V vy cng ty khng m i l hai tnh ny m ch phc v cho cc t chc c nhu cu bng bn hng trc tip hoc thng qua tng i l Hu. Ti th trng Nam Min Trung: Cng ty cn m mt tng i l vi quy m ln Bnh nh, phc v cho cc khch hng l cc t chc Ph Yn v phc v cho c cc khch hng Ty Nguyn khi h c nhu cu. Mc khc cng cn m cc i l Qung Nam, Qung Ngi phc v cho cc h gia nh, cn cc t chc c th mua trc tip ti cng ty Nng hoc ti tng i l Quy Nhn. Ti th trng Ty Nguyn: Hin ti cng ty ang c cc ca hng phn phi sn phm ca cng ty n vi cc khch hng. Vi cc ca hng ny cng ty c th p ng tt nht mi nhu cu Ty Nguyn. Cng ty khng nn m cc i l ti th trng ny v y mt n c l thp.
Knh hai cp:

Khch hng

Cng ty

i l

Nh bn l

Khch hng

V cc th trng ca cng ty c mt cc h gia nh rt cao v cc h thng i l ca cng ty cng cha nhiu (ch c 9 i l) nhiu khu vc cng ty khng SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 68

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c trung gian bn hng, khch hng l cc h gia nh nng thn cha khai thc ht. V vy cc th trng cng ty nn thit k knh cp hai, y l mt yu cu rt cp thit. 2. La chn knh cho ngi tiu dng T nhng phn tch trn, ta c th a ra h thng knh phn phi cho tng th trng nh sau: Khu vc Bc Trung B.

Cng ty

Tng i l

Khch hng

Tng i l

i l

Th trng Bc Trung B ch s dng ba knh phn phi l knh khng cp, knh mt cp, knh hai cp: - Knh trc tip: cng ty bn trc tip ti kho ca cng ty hoc ti kho ca khch hng nu tha thun c cc ph vn chuyn. - Knh mt cp: s dng tng i l cung cp cho cc t chc c nhu cu ln, cc sn phm ch yu l bao b v ng nha HDPE. - Knh hai cp: s dng mng li i l bn cho cc h gia nh ti cc tnh, tng kh nng bao ph thi trng ti cc khu vc xa trung tm. Tng i l lm nhim v h tr cc cc i l trong vic cung cp v tiu th hng ha. Khu vc Nam Min Trung.

Cng ty

Tng i l

Khch hng

Tng i l

Khch hng

Th trng Nam Trung B cng ty nn s dng ba knh phn phi: - Knh trc tip: phc v cho cc t chc ln, sn phm tiu th ch yu l ng nha v bao b cc loi.

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- Knh cp mt: s dng tng i l va phc v cho khch hng trong khu vc v va phc v cho nhu cu Ty Nguyn. - Knh cp hai: s dng mng li i l bn cho cc h gia nh trong khu vc tng kh nng bao ph thi trng ti cc khu vc xa trung tm. Tng i l lm nhim v h tr cc cc i l trong vic cung cp v tiu th hng ha. Khu vc Ty Nguyn.

Cng ty

Tng i l

Khch hng

Ti thi trng Ty Nguyn cng ty nn s sng hai loi knh sau: - Knh trc tip: Bn hng trc tip cho khch hng nu h c nhu cu v lin lc, thng lng vi cng ty v gi c, s lng, quy cch, loi sn phm cht lung, chit khu ngoi ra cn phi thng lng v chi ph v chuyn. Khch hang ny thng tp trung ti cc thnh ph ca cc tnh Gia Lai, Kom Tum, akLak. - Knh cp mt: S dng tng i l phc v cho cc khch hng l cc ca hng, cc doanh nghip t nhn, cc cng ty TNHH kinh doanh cc sn phm nha, cc h gia nh. Mt hng ch yu l ng nc HDPE. Th trng Nng.

Cng ty

i l

Khch hng

i l

Bn l

Ti thi trng Nng cng ty nn s dng ba knh phn phi: - Knh trc tip: Ti th trng Nng c rt nhiu cc t chc mua hng ca cng ty. V vy knh trc tip l rt quan trng ti th trng ny v n chim doanh s kh cao. Cng ty bn hng trc tip qua kho ca cng ty v qua cc ca hng bn v gii thiu sn phm ca cng ty. - Knh cp mt v cp hai ca cng ty l nhm ti cc khch hng l cc h gia nh, cc sn phm ch yu trng knh ny l ng nc HDPE, ng nc PVC, SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 70

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dp, ng. Trong h thng cc ca hng l nhm hng ti cc qun huyn xa cng ty, cc h gia nh xa thnh ph. Nhn xt: Vi h thng phn phi nh trn th ta thy knh phn phi trc tip l khng th thiu trong cu trc knh ca cng ty v doanh thu ca cng ty ch yu l t khch hng t chc. III. Hon thin cng tc qun tr knh 1. Tuyn chn knh trung gian. Quy trnh la chn knh.
Mc tiu ca cng ty c im ca h thng phn phi

Danh sch c chn

Xy dng tiu chun

Danh sch b loi

nh gi thnh vin

So vi ch tiu

Vi mc tiu l cng c th trng Nng v m rng th trng sang cc vng khc, gia tng th phn, gim chi ph t li nhun cao nht nh mc tiu ra. Mt khc c im h thng phn phi ca cng ty l: phn phi ph hp vi tng th trng gim chi ph vn chuyn, chim lnh nhng v tr thun li a sn phm n tay ngi tiu dng thun li nht, phn phi rng ri a sn phm n nhng th trng xa hn. V vy, la chn c nhng trung gian ph hp vi cng ty, cng cng ty xy dng mt h thng tiu th c hiu qu mang tnh cnh tranh, cc tiu chun sau y l cn thit la chn trung gian. Cc tiu chun la chn. - V tr: V tr m trung gian kinh doanh l iu kin rt quan trng v n quyt nh trung gian no ang kinh doanhti mt th trng c mt khch hng nh th no, s thun tin cho vic vn chuyn ca cng ty v khch hng nh th

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no. y l iu kin m c th em li cho cng ty cng nh trung gian mt doanh s tiu thnhiu qu. L mt v tt l v tr c trc giao thng thun li, c dn c ng c, l ni khch hng d nhn thy cc sn phm ca cng ty khi cc v tr xa v tr ca cng ty v l v tr m bo cho nhng nhu cu ca n c trong khu vc m trung gian ang kinh doanh. - Mt hng kinh doanh: Tiu chun ny cho ta bit mc ph hp trong cng vic m trung gian ang kinh doanh v hot ng kinh doanh ca cng ty, cng nh mc quan trng ca nhng mt hng m trung gian m nhn phn phi cho cng ty trong cch thc trng by hng ha v gii thiu sn phm ca trung gian nh th no. Tiu chun ny c gi l tt khi cc mt hng m trung gian ang kinh doanh l nhng mt hng h tr cho sn phm ca cng ty, v c xem l khng tt khi hng ha m trung gian ang kinh doanh l nhng mt hng thay th sn phm ca cng ty hoc l nhng sn phm cng loi m nhng sn phm ny l ca nhng i th cnh tranh, mc d hin nay c rt nhiu i l ca cng ty ang cng lc sn phm cho cc i th cnh tranh. - Uy tn: Uy tn ca trung gian bao gm kh nng thanh ton ng thi hn, giao nhn hng ha nhanh chng v ng a im, thi gian cng nh uy tn ca trung gian i vi khch hng trong vic tiu th sn phm y l nhng tiu chun gip cho cng ty nh gi c kh nng tiu th hng ha v kh nng hp tc vi cng ty, cng nh vic hon thnh cc cam kt. Tiu chun ny c nh gi l tt khi khch hng c s tin tng v trung gian v l khch hng thng xuyn ca trung gian, cng nh vic hp tc vi cng ty trong vic thanh ton, giao nhn hng ha ng nh tha thun. - Nng lc ti chnh: Tiu chun ny cho php cng ty nh gi c kh nng mua hng ca trung gian, kh nng thanh ton, cng nh kh nng m rng th trng cho cng ty, quy m kinh doanh ca trung gian. y l tiu chun kh quan trng. Tiu chun ny c xem l mnh khi quy m, s vn kinh doanh ca trung gian l ln. - Trnh qun l: Tiu chun ny cho php cng ty nh gi c kh nng kinh doanh, kh nng tiu th sn phm ca cng ty, kh nng thng tin n cho

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

khch hng, t vn cho khch hng, kh nng trng by hng ha, cung cp sn phm nhanh chng v thun li cho ngi tiu dng. Bao gm nng lc v trnh kinh doanh ca trung gian, kinh nghim kinh doanh trng ngnh, kh nng s l nhng tnh hung trong kinh doanh Tiu chun ny c xem l tt khi trung gian c lc lng qun l v nhn vin c trnh cao v kinh nghim lu nm trong ngnh. Quy c im cho cc tiu chun nh gi. V tr: tt: Trung bnh: Km: Mt hng kinh doanh: - H tr: - Khng h tr: - Thay th: Nng lc t chnh: - Thanh ton trc k hn: Cao: - Thanh ton ng hn: Trung bnh: - Thanh ton mun: Thp: Nng lc ti chnh: - Doang s >500 triu: Rt tt: - Doang s t 100- 500 triu:Tt: - Doanh s 40-100 triu: Trung bnh: - Doanh s <40 triu: Km: Trnh qun l: Tt: Kh tt: Trung bnh: Km: Tng ng 4 im. Tng ng 3 im Tng ng 2 im. Tng ng 1 im. Tng ng 4 im. Tng ng 3 im Tng ng 2 im. Tng ng 1 im Tng ng 3 im Tng ng 2 im. Tng ng 1 im. Tt: Trung bnh: Km: Tng ng 3 im. Tng ng 2 im. Tng ng 1 im. Tt: Tng ng 4 im. Kh Tng ng 3 im. Tng ng 2 im. Tng ng 1 im.

nh gi i l:

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CHUYN TT NGHIP Ch tiu nh gi H s quan trng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

i l ng i l ng i l ng Cty TM& nc Thu nc Mai nc Ngc DV Tn Nguyt Thun Thanh Hng im im im im im im im im nh quy nh quy nh quy nh quy gi i gi i gi i gi i 1.V tr 3 3 9 3 9 2 6 4 13 2. MHKD 1.5 3 4.5 3 4.5 3 4.5 3 4.5 3. Uy tn 2 2 4 3 6 1 2 3 6 4 NLTC 2.5 2 5 2 5 2 5 3 7.5 5 TQL 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 Tng 10 25.5 27.5 20.5 34 Xp loi 3 2 4 1 Nhn chung tt c cc i l u c la chn, nhng vi mc tiu ca cng ty t ti th trng Nng cn bao nhiu cng ty, t ta sec chn v tr cao nht xung v tr thp hn. 2. Xch nh cc iu khon rng buc i vi cc thnh vin knh Mun knh phn phi vn hnh tri chy, hn ch nhng xung t c th xy ra. Cng ty cn xy dng nhng iu khon quy nh r rng v qun li v trch nhim ca cc thnh vin trong knh. i vi cng ty: - Cng ty c trch nhim cung ng y , kp thi s lng sn phm theo hp ng vi cc i l, trung gian. - Hng dn k thut bo qun, vn chuyn, nghip v bn hng cho cc i l bn l. - Cng ty c quyn kim tra cc i l bn l v trung gian v phm cht, phng tin o m, gi bn, cch thc trng by hng ha - Cng ty c quyn n phng chm dt hp ng nu cc thnh vin vi phm mt trong nhng iu khon cam kt. i vi cc i l bn l: - Cam kt tiu th hng ha ca cng ty theo ng hp ng. - Phi tun th cc quy nh ca cng ty v gi bn, bn hng ng s lng, chng loi, cht lng phc v

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GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

- i l c nhim v kim tra cht lng, s lng hng ha trc khi nhn, nu khng t s lng cht lng theo ng quy cch theo quy nh c th t chi nhn hng. - Thanh ton tin hng v n gi u ng thi hn. - i l phi trng by hng ha, gi , gi k hng sao cho sn phm nm v tr thun li nht cho khch hng nhn thy v d dng xc nh chng loi, kch c sn phm, cung nh vic xem xt hng ha trc khi mua. - Phi tun th cc quy nh k trong hp ng i l. - Phi np cc bo co doanh thu hng thng v cho cng ty. i vi cc trung gian. - Thc hin chc nng kinh doanh, khng li dng nhn hiu ca cng ty nhn hng ca i th cnh tranh, lm gim uy tn v sn lng bn ca cng ty. - Thc hin ng nhng quy nh v gi, chit khu v thanh ton. i vi h thng ca hng. - Cc ca hng c nhim v t chc hot ng phn phi sn phm n ngi tiu dng, bo m duy tr khch hng c v tm kim khch hng mi. - Bn hng theo mc gi quy nh v ngun hng nhn t cng ty, ngt thi nhn chit khu. - Ca hng c trch nhim bo co nh k tnh hnh tiu th hng ha, tnh hnh cng n cng ty c bin php x l v h tr khi cn thit. - Ca hng chu trch nhim v s lng cht lng hng bn ra theo ng quy nh ca cng ty v ch hng cc chnh sch thng, u i ca cng ty nu gia tng sn lng bn. - Ca hng c trch nhim cung cp cc thng tin phnb hi ca khch hng v h tr cng ty trong vic qung co, c ng bn hng. 3. Tng cng cc bin php kch thch s nng ng ca cc thnh vin. Vi mc tiu l m rng thi trng, gia tng thi phn gi vng th trng hin c bng vic gia tng s lng i l, ca hng vn ti cc vng nng thn xa xi. Mc khch chin lc knh phn phi ca cng ty l chin lc y l ch yu. V vy hot ng phn phi ca cng ty ph thuc nhiu vo kh nng tiu th ca trung gian v cng ty mun thc hin c cc mc tiu ca mnh th phi c nhng chnh sch thc y mi quan h vi trung gian, thc y kh nng tiu th ca h. SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 75

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Vn quan tm hng u ca cc thnh vin khi tham gia kinh doanh l mc li nhun t c t vic bn sn phm, cho nn cc bin php kch thch phi tp trung vo yu t ny. Mun vy cng ty phi to iu kin cho h bn c nhiu hng v cng vic kinh doanh din ra thun li. Cng ty cn phi tng cng hn na cc chnh sch h tr nhm ginh u th so vi cc i th cnh tranh thu ht cc thnh vin v cc i th ang tm cch li ko h. Nhng chnh sch hon thin bao gm: 3.1. Chnh sch h tr vn v phng tin bn hng. T nhng phn tch v so snh chnh sch h tr vn v phng tin bn hng ca cng ty so vi i th cnh tranh phn II, cng ty nn a ra cc chnh sch h tr sau: V chnh sch tn dng: - Chnh sch chuyn khon: Cng ty nn cho php cc trung gian, i l dng ti khon ca cng ty khch hng thoan ton tin hng bng chuyn khon v chu chi ph vn chuyn tin cho i l nu ha n t mc doanh s 35 triu tr ln. Ngoi ra nu doanh s trn ha n chuyn khon t t 80 triu tr ln cng ty s thng cho i l v cng thm 0,5% mc chit khu nu i l c doanh s mua hng t 30 triu tr ln. - Chnh sch cng n: Tip tc p dng chnh sch cng n ca cng ty, ngoi ra nu trung gian no c doanh s mua hng thng xuyn t 150 triu tr ln th c n gi u mt chuyn hng. - H tr vn chuyn: Cc trung gian s c cng ty vnh chuyn hng ha n ca hng ca i l trong cc trng hp sau: + Tr gi chuyn hng phi t 35 triu tr ln. Cc i l c th kt hp vi nhau chung mt chuyn. Nu t vn chuyn s c cng ty thanh ton li theo gi vn chuyn ca cng ty. + Tr gi chuyn hng phi t 15 triu tr ln i vi i l Nng. Nu t vn chuyn s c cng ty thanh ton bng 0,5% tr gia chuyn hng. Ch p dng i vi nhng i l c doanh s ti thiu 45 triu ng/thng. - H tr phng tin bn hng:

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

+ i vi tng i l: Cn c vo quy m bn hng v nhim v ca tng i l, cng ty u t xy dng kho bi c sc cha ph hp, h tr mt phn chi ph vn chuyn. Ngoi ra cn h tr gi , k trng by hng ha. + i vi i l: Cng ty h tr cho cc i l bng hiu kinh doanh, k, gi hng. 3.2. Hon thin chnh sch chit khu v hoa hng. T nhng phn tch v so snh chnh sch chit khu v hoa hng ca cng ty nh nu phn II, th cng ty nn a ra cc chnh sch chit khu v hoa hng sau c th cnh tranh c vi cc i th: - Chit khu trn gi bn: cnh tranh oc vi cc i th cng ty khng th nh mc chit khu qu nh so vi cc i th, v nh vy mc d cng ty c th gim chi ph nhng cng ty s mt nhiu khch hng hin ti v tim nng. Trong khi mc d i th chit khu cao s mt nhiu chi ph nhng do bn c nhiu hng vi khi lng ln nn doanh thu em li vn b p c chi ph chit khu, ngoi ra cn thu ht c nhiu khch hng hn v s chim lnh c th trng. V vy chnh sch chit khu /gi bn phi l 5%. - Chit khu trn doanh s: Da vo bng so snh chnh sch chit khu v hoa hng nu phn II, to c sc cnh tranh cho cng ty th bng chit khu trn doanh s ca cng ty s nh sau: Tiu ch - Chit khu/gi bn - Chit khu/doanh s: + Di 45 triu. + 45 n 60 triu. + 60 n 80 triu. + 80 n 100 triu. + Trn 100 triu.
3.3.

Mc chit khu 5% 5% 7% 9% 11% 13%

Hon thin chnh sch khen thng v ng vin. Theo bng so snh chnh sch khen thng phn II ta thy rng chnh sch khen ttng ca cng ty hon ton khng c tnh hp dn v kch thch cc thnh vin trong vic xc tin tiu th c thng v mc thng ca cng ty khng r rng. V vy tng kh nng tiu th ca cc trung gian cng ty cn a ra bng chnh sch khen thng nh sau: SVTH:Trn Minh Tun Trang 77

CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

Doanh smua/thng Mc thng - T 60 triu n 150 triu. - 0,5%/doanh s vt - 150 truu n 300 triu. - 1%/doanh s vt - 300 triu n 500 triu. - 1,5%/doanh s vt - 500 triu n 1 t - 2%/doanh s vt - Trn 1 t. - 2,5%/doanh s vt Ngoi ra hng thng cng ty cn tng qu lu nim cho i l no t doanh s cao nht. Ngoi chnh sch khen thng nh trn, kch thch s c gng v trung thnh ca cc trung gian cng ty cn a thm cc hnh thc sau. - Ghi nhn s c gng: Hng nm sau khi tng kt hot ng tiu th, cng ty c th gi th cm n, qu hoc t chc cc cuc hp mt biu dng i vi nhng trung gian c sn lng bn vt tri so vi nm trc. - Thng cho s hp tc lu di: C 5 nm mt ln cng ty s c phn thng cho nhng trung gian c nhng n lc hp tc vi cng ty trong sut thi gian . 4. Gii quyt cc xung t. - Xy dng t tng ch o ng n: Cng ty cn nhn thc c s hp tc lu di v cng c li cho cc trung gian, phi quan tm ti li ch ca trung gian v thng cm cho nhnh kh khn ca h. c bit khi c tnh hnh tiu th tt th phi bo m cho trung gian nhng quyn li nht nh, nh vy khi cng ty gp kh khn mi c c s ng h ca h. Gii php c bn l sn xut c nhng sn phm ng yu cu tiu th. - Cn c ra mt b phn nhm thu thp thng tin, tm ra nhng nguyn nhn chnh no gy ra mu thun xung t trong h thng. B phn ny cn c nhim v cung cp thng tin cho tt c cc thnh vin trong knh, thng tin chy xut trong qua trnh hot ng, n c th gip cho trung gian nm bt kp thi cc thay i cng nh cc ch th t trn xung, gip h cc trch nhim v nht quan hn trong nhn thc cng nh hiu qu trong hot ng. Cch lm ny s gii qut c nhng xung t mi pht sinh v nhanh chng ngn nga cc mu thun c th xy ra. - Ta cng c th t chc ha gii, thng lng nu mu thun khng ng k nh gi bn, khu vc th trng. Ta s a ra quy nh v gi, quy nh v khu vc cho cc i l, ty tng mu thun m cn c nhng cch gii quyt tha ng.

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

- Cn mt cch gii quyt na l nu xung t qua nghim trng th gii quyt bng trng ti, y l mt t chc th ba h c nhim v l gi cc b mt v gii quyt mt cch nhanh chng nhng mu thun vi chi ph thp. Hin nay cc cng ty thng s dng phng php trnh ti gii quyt cc xung t trong knh, y l mt bin php rt thin li v hiu qu nht. 5. Kim tra nh gi cc thnh vin trong knh. - Phng php kim tra nh k (mi qu mt ln vo cui qu) gip cng ty c th tm ra c cc im yu, nhng ci cha tt ca trung gian ngay mi k kim tra. t cng ty c nhng gii php khc phc ngn chn nhng vn khng tt c th sy ra. - Kim tra da vo hp ng, kim tra doanh s bn ra, trnh trnh trng cc trung gian bo co khng ng s tht. - Kim tra thoanh ton tn dng, cng tc bo qun, cng tc trng by v gii thiu hng ha. - Kim tra mc hp tc ca h vi cng ty trong vic qung co, khuyn mi nhm thu ht khch hng. Trn c s kim tra cc thnh vin, ta s dng phng php nh gia theo t trng nh gi cc thnh vin, vi cc tiu chun sau: Doanh s bn. Thi hn thanh ton. Mc hp tc. Qun l tn kho. Ta cho h s quan trng nh gi trung gian no hot ng tt ging nh phn la chn trung gian m t c hnh thc thng pht hp l.

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

KT LUN
Hot ng phn phi c th em li hiu qu cho cng ty trong vic tiu th hng ha v chim lnh th trng v vy cn phi c mt s hp l v linh hot trong mi trng thay i v cnh tranh gay gt trong ngnh. Vi c im v sn phm, ngi tiu dng, doanh nghip, i th cnh tranh, th trng cng vi nhng kh khn ca n l qung ng vn chuyn xa tn nhiu chi ph, hnh vi ngi tiu dng a dng, th trng thay i nhanh chng v mc i u vi nhiu i th cnh tranh. ti a ra nhng cch thc v nhng gii php cho nhnh vn kh khn ny nhm gii quyt cc kh khn, gip cho cng ty c nhng u th nht nh so vi i th cnh tranh, tiu th mnh hng ha trn th trng v chim th phn theo mc tiu. Trong tng lai cng ty cn phi xy dng mt h thng mi thch ng vi mi trng cnh tranh v cng m rng th trng sang hai u tu ca t quc l H Ni v TP H Ch Minh, h thng ny phi m bo cung cp c cho cc th trng ny v sc cnh tranh vi cc i th. ti c hon thnh, em xin chn thnh cm n s hng dn tn tnh ca thy hng dn v cc thy c trong khoa qun tr cng vi s gip ca cc anh ch trong cng ty c phn nhah Nng. SVTH: Trn Minh Tun Lp: 31k02.2

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CHUYN TT NGHIP

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Vn Long

MC LC
2.2. Chin lc kinh doanh ca cng ty.....................................................................60

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