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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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LI M U
Hin nay hu ht cc nhn vin vn phng u phi s dng cc ng dng Cng ngh thng tin vo trong cng vic ca mnh. Mt b phn mm c bit quan trng i vi cc nhn vin Vn phng Vit Nam hin nay l Microsoft Office. Vi nhiu tnh nng ni tri p ng c hu ht cc hot ng vn phng: son tho, bng tnh, d liu, mail, trnh din, ch bn Cc sinh vin cc h trung cp, cao ng, i hc trong hc phn tin hc i cng phn ng dng u c gii thiu b phn mm ny. Tuy nhin, do thi lng hu ht cc chng trnh u gii hn nn cc k nng c bn u ch c gii thiu qua nn khi lm vic thc t hu ht u vng mc hoc khng ng dng c. Trc vn Trung tm Thc hnh - Hc vin Ngn hng vi nhiu nm kinh nghim trong o to tin hc vn phng tin hnh bin son chng trnh ng dng Excel trong k ton, ti chnh, ngn hng nhm phc v hot ng o to thc hnh tin hc ng dng ti Hc vin Ngn hng v cc i tng c nhu cu. Ni dung kha hc ny hng cho ngi hc ng dng Excel trong cc nghip v ca mnh. Hi vng qua kha hc ny s gip ch nng cao cc k nng ng dng Exel trong hc tp, nghin cu v cng vic ca cc bn. Li ng: Ti liu ny l do Trung tm thc hnh - Hc vin Ngn hng bin son, mi sao chp, s dng ti liu ny u phi c s chp nhn ca Trung tm thc hnh - Hc vin Ngn hng H ni, ngy 22 thng 11 nm 2009

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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MC LC
LI M U ................................................................................................. 1 PHN 1: TNG QUAN V EXCEL............................................................. 3
1. MT S CHC NNG NNG CAO........................................................................3 1.1. To v s dng cc tp mu (Template) ..............................................................3 1.2. Cc chc nng kim sot v bo mt ...................................................................7 2. MT S HM THNG DNG TRONG EXCEL .................................................11 2.1. Cc hm logic......................................................................................................11 2.2. Cc hm x l vn bn v chui ........................................................................11 2.3. Cc hm ngy thng v thi gian.......................................................................13 2.4. Cc hm thng k v xc sut ............................................................................16 2.5. Cc hm ton hc v lng gic.........................................................................21 2.6. Hm tham chiu v tm kim .............................................................................24 2.7. Hm d liu.........................................................................................................26 2.8. Hm ti chnh......................................................................................................27 2.9. Hm thng tin .....................................................................................................31 2.10. Cc hm k thut..............................................................................................31 2.11. Cc li thng dng trong Excel ........................................................................33

PHN 2: NG DNG TRONG K TON .................................................34 PHN 3: NG DNG TRONG TI CHNH NGN HNG.............................34

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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PHN 1: TNG QUAN V EXCEL


1. MT S CHC NNG NNG CAO
1.1. nh dng d liu a. nh dng li cc thng s th hin s trong excel bng chng trnh control panel. Khi ng Windows: - Chn menu start/setting/Control Panel (Hoc chn Start/Run, g tn file thi hnh Control.exe vo, chn OK). - nh dng cho tin t vi quy c s dng: Trong Control Panel chn Regional and language options, chn customize, chn Currency, nh dng cc thng s nh sau: + Negative number format: - (du - biu din du m) + Currency Symbol: ng + Decimal Symbol: , (du phn cch thp phn l du ,). + Digit grouping symbol: . (du phn cch hng nghn l du .) + Number of digits in group: 3 (s lng phn cch nhm hng nghn l 3 s). - nh dng s (Number) vi quy c s dng: Trong Control Panel chn Regional and language options, chn customize, chn number, nh dng cc thng s nh sau: + Negative number format: - (du - biu din du m) + Decimal Symbol: , (du phn cch thp phn l du ,). + Digit grouping symbol: . (du phn cch hng nghn l du .) + No. of digits after group: 2 (s ch thp phn l 2 ch s) + Number of digits in group: 3 (s lng phn cch nhm hng nghn l 3 s). + List Separator: , (du phn cch trong cng thc ton hc) b. nh dng d liu trong Excel nh dng (Format Cells): Excel cung cp nhiu kh nng trong vic thay i dng thc ca mt . V d: i vi 1 con s c th c biu din bng nhiu dng: n c th l s, l ngy, gi, biu din phn trm, tin t vi k hiu $, ...

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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F nh dng mt hoc nhiu , u tin ta chn chng, sau dng menu [Format]Cells hoc nhn phm phi v chn Format Cells

Trong hp thoi c cha nhiu mc phc v cho vic nh dng. Chng bao gm: - Mc [Number] dng nh dng s, gm: Number nh dng cc con s, Currency dng tin t; Date, Time dng ngy gi; Percentage dng phn trm; Fraction dng phn s; Text dng vn bn... F Custom l dng c bit, n cho php ngi s dng t iu chnh vic nh dng. Mt s m nh dng hay dng l: * M nh dng s: (v d s cn nh dng: 3149.457) M 0 0.00 #,##0 0.00% Kt qu 3149 3149.46 3,149 ngha Lm trn n hng n v (khng c s l) Ly 2 ch s l C k t phn cch nhm 3 s v lm trn 314945.70% Theo dng % c hai s l Thm chui vo kt qu (trong cp ) 0.00 3149.46

* M nh dng ngy (v d: ngy 15 thng 7 nm 1999)

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton M dd/mm/yy mm/dd/yy Kt qu 15/07/99 07/15/99 ngha

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ngy/thng/nm, mi v tr c 2 s thng/ngy/nm, mi v tr c 2 s tn thng c 3 k t vit tt

mm/dd/yyyy 07/15/1999 nm c 4 ch s dd-mmm-yy 15-Jul-99 - Mc [Alignment] dng chnh sp d liu theo 2 hng: ngang (Horizontal), ng (Vertical); v iu khin vic cho php vn bn xung dng (Wrap text) hay tri lp sang cc bn cnh. Ngoi ra cn cho php quay vn bn theo cc gc quay khc nhau. - Mc [Font] dng nh dng v font ch. - Mc [Border] dng cho vic thit lp ng vin ca cc vi rt nhiu la chn:

nh dng c iu kin Ngoi nhng nh dng thng thng, Excel cn cung cp mt kh nng nh dng nng cao. ty theo nhng iu kin xc nh m hnh thc cc s c bin i ph hp. Menu s dng l:

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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- V d: nh dng cc trong ct TTHU vi iu kin gi tr ln hn 100000 th khung vin bng nt t v ch trng, nn en:

+ T hp thoi nh dng c iu kin, ta chn kiu iu kin l: Cell Value Is, trong hp php ton, ta chn so snh ln hn: greater than, trong hp gi tr ta nhp s 100000. Chn nt lnh thc hin nh dng, nhn OK ta c:

Lnh ny cho php kt hp ng thi 3 iu kin (chn nt kin) Ngoi kiu xt iu kin theo gi tr kin theo cng thc 1.2. To v s dng cc tp mu (Template)

thm iu

, cn c kiu cao cp hn: xt iu

Trong cng vic hng ngy, nhiu khi ngi dung c nhu cu s dng mt dng file Excel theo mu sn no c nh dng v cch trnh by d liu bit trc, v d nh cc ho n gi khch hng, cc bo co ti chnhNu mi ln ngi dung to mt bng tnh mi,h li phi lm li mi thao tc nh dng v trnh by d liu th s mt rt nhiu thi gian v cha chc nh dng ging

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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nh nh dng m h mong mun hoc nh dng ca file lm ln trc. Chnh v vy tit kim thi gian v cng sc cho ngi s dng, Microsoft cung cp cho ngi dung mt cng c gi l tp mu. Trong Excel tp mu l mt file c phn m rng l .xlt. y l mt file cha cc thng tin v nh dng, cch trnh by, b tr d liu trong mt mt bng tnh theo mt khun dng m ngi dng mong mun. Cc thng tin trn thng bao gm kiu ch, c ch, cc header, footer, cc cng thc v cc tham s nh dng khc. Cc bc to mt tp mu: - To mt file Excel mi. Thc hin cc thao tc nh dng v trnh by d liu m ta mong mun tp mu s lu gi. - Sau khi thc hin xong ton b cc thao tc nh dng, ghi li tp mu ny bng cch chn Menu File > Save As - Trong hp thoi Save As t tn cho tp mu vo File Name. Trong Save As Type chn kiu Template S dng tp mu: New. Khi Excel s Workbook nh sau: n tp mu lu. Khi ng Excel. T menu File chn m mt ca s c tn l New Chn On My Computer sau chn

1.3. Cc chc nng kim sot v bo mt 1.3.1. Kim sot d liu nhp thit lp quy tc cho cc d liu nhp vo mt trong bng tnh cn click chn sau chn menu Data > Validation. Ca s Validation hin ra cho php ngi dung a vo cc quy tc kim sot d liu nhp vo

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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Trong tab Settings, hp chn th xung Allow cho php ta thit lp loi quy tc nhp d liu. C cc quy tc sau: - Any Value: Cho php nhp gi tr bt k. y l gi tr mc nh ca . - Whole Number v Decimal: Ch cho php nhp cc gi tr s. Khi la chn ny, Excel hin thm cc rng buc cho cc gi tr s nh sau: Between (nm trong khong max v min), not between (khng nm trong khong), equal to (bng), not equal to (khc), greater than (ln hn), less than (nh hn) - List: D liu nhp phi nm trong mt danh sch cc d liu cho trc no . Khi la chn ny, Excel hin thm vn bn cho php ngi dng a vo danh sch d liu - Date: D liu nhp phi l kiu ngy. Khi la chn kiu date Excel hin thm cc rng buc tng t kiu d liu s. - Time: D liu nhp phi l kiu thi gian. Khi la chn kiu date Excel hin thm cc rng buc tng t kiu d liu s. - Text length: Kim tra di ca xu k t nhp. Khi la chn kiu date Excel hin thm cc rng buc tng t kiu d liu s. - Custom: Do ngi dng nh ngha. C th nh ngha rng buc bng mt cng thc no Tab Input Message cho php nhp tiu v ni dung thng bo khi ngi dng a con tr n . Tab Error Alert cho php hin thng bo li khi ngi dng nhp sai d liu. 1.3.2. Bo mt d liu trong Excel Chc nng bo mt trong Excel cho php bo vh cc d liu trong bng tnh, chng cc truy nhp tri php, ng thi cho php ngi dng truy nhp d liu theo cc mc bo mt khc nhau.

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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Ngoi ra cc chc nng bo mt a dng ca Excel cn cho php bo v cc phn khc nhau ca bng tnh vi cc mc khc nhau. V d cc vng d liu quan trng c th c bo v, trong khi cc vng khc khng cn bo v. Cc lu v bo mt d liu trong Excel: - Bo v cc d liu cng thc v cc d liu quan trng, khng c thay i - Bo v hoc n i cc d liu nhy cm trong bng tnh - Thm vo cc ch thch cho cc d liu tng hp Cc mc bo mt trong Excel - Bo v bng mt khu - Bo v bng tnh - Bo v cc Sheet - Bo v d liu hoc th a. Bo v bng mt khu: Mt khu c bng tnh v mt khu sa bng tnh Cc bc thc hin t mt khu cho file Excel: - Chn menu File > Save As. Ca s Save As hin ra cho php ghi li vi 1 tn

khc - Trn ca s ny click vo biu tng Tools gc trn bn phi. Trong menu th xung, chn General Options. Ca s thit lp mt khu hin ra.

- Nhp mt khu c bng tnh v mt khu sa bng tnh. Click OK s thit lp c cc mt khu. b. Bo v bng tnh

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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Chc nng bo v bng tnh cho php thit lp cc bo v v cu trc (Structure) v kch thc ca s (Window). Bo v v cu trc s ngn cm vic thay i cu trc bng tnh nh thm, sa, xa cc sheet. Bo v ca s s ngn cm vic thay i kch thc, phng to, thu nh ca s Excel. thit lp chc nng ny chn menu Tool > Protection > Protect Work book > Ca s bo v bng tnh s hin ra

Chn bo v theo cu trc, ca s sau nhp mt khu. Excel s yu cu nhp li mt khu. g b chc nng bo v bng tnh, chn Tool > Protection > Unprotect Workbook. Excel s yu cu cung cp mt khaa thit lp trc . Nu mt khu c cung cp l ng Excel s g b chc nng ny. d. Bo v cc sheet Chc nng bo v sheet cho php thit lp cc bo v cho tng sheet trong bng tnh cng vi cc ni dung ca tt c cc trong sheet ny. thit lp chc nng ny chn menu Tool > Protection > Protect Sheet. Ca s bo v Sheet hin ra.

- Nhp mt khu v la chn danh sch bo v > OK d. Bo v cc d liu

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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Chc nng bo v d liu cho pho kha cc d liu hoc n i khng cho hin th trn bng tnh. thc hin chc nng ny, click chut phi vo d liu tng ng chn Format cellsch tab Protection

e. n 1 hng, 1 ct, 1 sheet trong bng tnh - La chn hng, ct, sheet cn n ti chn Format > Row (Column, Sheet) ri chn Hide. hin ra chn Unhide t menu tng ng.

2. MT S HM THNG DNG TRONG EXCEL


2.1. Cc hm logic
AND (logical1, logical2, ...) : Tr v TRUE nu tt c cc i s l TRUE, tr v FALSE nu mt hay nhiu i s l FALSE IF (logical_test, value_if_true, value_if_false) : Dng kim tra iu kin theo gi tr v cng thc IFERROR (value, value_if_error) : Nu li xy ra th... lm g -NOT (logical) : o ngc gi tr ca cc i s OR (logical1, logical2, ...) : Tr v TRUE nu mt hay nhiu i s l TRUE, tr v FALSE nu tt c cc i s l FALSE FALSE() v TRUE(): C th nhp trc tip FALSE hoc TRUE vo trong cng thc, Excel s hiu l mt biu thc c gi tr FALSE hoc TRUE m khng cn dng n c php ca hai hm ny

2.2. Cc hm x l vn bn v chui
ASC (text) : Chuyn i cc k t double-byte sang cc k t single-byte. BAHTTEXT (number) : Dch s ra ch (ting Thi-lan), ri thm hu t "Bath" pha sau.

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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CHAR (number) : Chuyn i mt m s trong b m ANSI (c min gi tr t 1 - 255) sang k t tng ng. CLEAN (text) : Loi b tt c nhng k t khng in ra c trong chui CODE (text) : Tr v m s ca k t u tin chui text CONCATENATE (text1, text2, ...) : Ni nhiu chui thnh mt chui DOLLAR (number, decimals) : Chuyn i mt s thnh dng tin t (dollar M), c km theo du phn cch hng ngn, v c th lm trn theo mun. EXACT (text1, text2) : So snh hai chui. Nu ging nhau th tr v TRUE, nu khc nhau th tr v FALSE. C phn bit ch hoa v ch thng. FIND (find_text, within_text, start_num) : Tm v tr bt u ca mt chui con (find_text) trong mt chui (within_text), tnh theo k t u tin FIXED (number, decimals, no_commas) : Chuyn i mt s thnh dng vn bn (text), c hoc khng km theo du phn cch hng ngn, v c th lm trn theo mun LEFT (text, num_chars) : Tr v mt hay nhiu k t u tin bn tri ca mt chui, theo s lng c ch nh LEN (text) : m s k t trong mt chui LOWER (text) : i tt c cc k t trong mt chui vn bn thnh ch thng MID (text, start_num, num_chars) : Tr v mt hoc nhiu k t lin tip bn trong mt chui, bt u ti mt v tr cho trc PROPER (text) : i k t u tin trong chui thnh ch in hoa, v i cc k t cn li thnh ch in thng REPLACE (old_text, start_num, num_chars, new_text) : Thay th mt phn ca chui bng mt chui khc, vi s lng cc k t c ch nh REPT (text, times) : Lp li mt chui vi s ln c cho trc RIGHT (text, num_chars) : Tr v mt hay nhiu k t tnh t bn phi ca mt chui, theo s lng c ch nh SEARCH (find_text, within_text, start_num) : Tm v tr bt u ca mt chui con (find_text) trong mt chui (within_text), tnh theo k t u tin SUBSTITUTE (text, old_text, new_text, instance_num) : Thay th chui ny bng mt chui khc

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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T (value) : Tr v mt chui nu tr tham chiu l chui, ngc li, s tr v chui rng TEXT (value, format_text) : Chuyn i mt s thnh dng vn bn (text) theo nh dng c ch nh TRIM (text) : Xa tt c nhng khong trng v ch trong chui vn bn, ch cha li nhng khong trng no dng lm du cch gia hai ch UPPER (text) : i tt c cc k t trong chui thnh ch in hoa VALUE (text) : Chuyn mt chui thnh mt s

2.3. Cc hm ngy thng v thi gian


DATE (year. month, day) : Tr v cc s th hin mt ngy c th no . Nu nh dng ca l General trc khi hm c nhp vo, kt qu s c th hin dng ngy thng nm. DateDif (firstdate,enddate,option): Hm DATEDIF tr v mt gi tr, l s ngy, s thng hay s nm gia hai khong thi gian theo ty chn. DATEVALUE (date_text) : Tr v s tun t ca ngy c th hin bi date_text (chuyn i mt chui vn bn c dng ngy thng nm thnh mt gi tr ngy thng nm c th tnh ton c). DAY (serial_number) : Tr v phn ngy ca mt gi tr ngy thng, c i din bi s tun t. Kt qu tr v l mt s nguyn t 1 n 31. DAYS360 (start_date, end_date, method) : Tr v s ngy gia hai ngy da trn c s mt nm c 360 ngy (12 thng, mi thng c 30 ngy) dng cho cc tnh ton ti chnh. EDATE (start_date, months) : Tr v s tun t th hin mt ngy no tnh t mc thi gian cho trc v cch mc thi gian ny mt s thng c ch nh. EOMONTH (start_date, months) : Tr v s tun t th hin ngy cui cng ca mt thng no tnh t mc thi gian cho trc v cch mc thi gian ny mt s thng c ch nh. HOUR (serial_number) : Tr v phn gi ca mt gi tr thi gian. Kt qu tr v l mt s nguyn t 0 n 23. MINUTE (serial_number) : Tr v phn pht ca mt gi tr thi gian. Kt qu tr v l mt s nguyn t 0 n 59.

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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MONTH (serial_number) : Tr v phn thng ca mt gi tr ngy thng, c i din bi s tun t. Kt qu tr v l mt s nguyn t 1 n 12. NETWORKDAYS (start_date, end_date, holidays) : Tr v tt c s ngy lm vic trong mt khong thi gian gia start_date v end_date, khng k cc ngy cui tun v cc ngy ngh (holidays). NOW () : Tr v s tun t th hin ngy gi hin ti. Nu nh dng ca l General trc khi hm c nhp vo, kt qu s c th hin dng ngy thng nm v gi pht giy. SECOND (serial_number) : Tr v phn giy ca mt gi tr thi gian. Kt qu tr v l mt s nguyn t 0 n 59. TIME (hour, minute, second) : Tr v phn thp phn ca mt gi tr thi gian (t 0 n nh hn 1). Nu nh dng ca l General trc khi hm c nhp vo, kt qu s c th hin dng gi pht giy. TIMEVALUE (time_text) : Tr v phn thp phn ca mt gi tr thi gian (t 0 n nh hn 1) th hin bi time_text (chuyn i mt chui vn bn c dng thi gian thnh mt gi tr thi gian c th tnh ton c). TODAY () : Tr v s tun t th hin ngy thng hin ti. Nu nh dng ca l General trc khi hm c nhp vo, kt qu s c th hin dng ngy thng nm. WEEKDAY (serial_number, return_type) : Tr v th trong tun tng ng vi ngy c cung cp. Kt qu tr v l mt s nguyn t 1 n 7. WEEKNUM (serial_number, return_type) : Tr v mt s cho bit tun th my trong nm. WORKDAY (start_day, days, holidays) : Tr v mt s tun t th hin s ngy lm vic, c th l trc hay sau ngy bt u lm vic v tr i nhng ngy cui tun v ngy ngh (nu c) trong khong thi gian . YEAR (serial_number) : Tr v phn nm ca mt gi tr ngy thng, c i din bi s tun t. Kt qu tr v l mt s nguyn t 1900 n 9999. YEARFRAC (start_date, end_date, basis) : Tr v t l ca mt khong thi gian trong mt nm.

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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Nu mt s Hm trong list danh sch nu trn khng c trong hp danh mc cc hm excel (Insert function) th ta vo Tools\add-ins.. chn vo mc Analysis Toolpak. Ok tin hnh ci t. * Tm hiu cch thc tnh ton Ngy Gi trong Excel

Thi im 24h Ngy 31/12/1989 c Excel chn lm mc thi gian tnh ton Tt c cc gi tr v Ngy Gi u c Excel chuyn i thnh mt gi tr s

cc gi tr v Ngy Gi.

thng nht tnh ton, v s ny chnh l s Ngy cch mc thi gian (31/12/1989) qui c vi mt s Ngy nht nh. V d: 01/01/1900 10:30 AM c qui i thnh 1.4375 ngy 18/04/2008 10:30 AM c qui i thnh 39,556.4375 ngy + Nu nh d liu nhp vo c dng Ngy thng th excel s chuyn gi tr ny thnh s ch Ngy. V d: 30/04/2008 c qui i thnh 39,568 Ngy + Nu d liu nhp vo c dng Gi, Pht, Giy th excel s chuyn i cc gi tr ny ra s ngy tng ng. Cch qui i nh sau : Gi = (1/24) Ngy, Pht = 1/24*60=(1/1,440) Ngy , Giy = (1/86,400) Ngy. Ly gi tr qui i ca Gi, cng vi Pht cng vi Giy cho ra gi tr Ngy tng ng. V d: 10:30:30 PM c qui i thnh 0.937847222 Ngy Mt vi iu cn bit khi nhp gi tr v Ngy thng: + Gi tr Nm trong biu thc Ngy thng c gi tr trong khong t 1900 n 9999. + Nu nh khi nhp gi tr Ngy thng, s ch Nm ch c vit vi 2 con s th nhng s no c gi tr 0 v <30 th excel s chuyn i thnh Nm vi gi tr bng gi tr ny cng vi 2000, gi tr no =30 th cng vi 1900. V d: 01/01/29 s chuyn thnh 01/01/2029 V d: 01/01/30 s chuyn thnh 01/01/1930 + D liu Ngy thng khi nhp vo nu khng hp l th s uc5 chuyn thnh dng text : V d: 01/13/2008, 01/01/10000..

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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+ Trong mt vi trng hp, nu d liu Ngy thng nhp vo thng qua mt hm chuyn i th excel s t ng chuyn i cc gi tr khng ng thnh cc gi tr khc tng ng. V d: =DATE(2008,2,31) s c chuyn i thnh =DATE(2008,3,1)=01/03/2008. + Ty theo cch nh dng m Ngy thng nhp vo s c cc dng biu th khc nhau, nhng gi tr vn khng thay i. V d:

18/04/2008 c chuyn i nh dng thnh Friday 18/04/2008 vi nh dng 18/04/2008 c chuyn i nh dng thnh 39556 vi nh dng kiu General 18/04/2008 c chuyn i nh dng thnh Fri 18-Apr-2008 vi nh dng

kiu dddd dd/mm/yyyy


kiu ddd dd-mmm-yyyy

2.4. Cc hm thng k v xc sut


a. Cc hm thng k AVEDEV (number1, number2, ...) : Tnh trung bnh lch tuyt i cc im d liu theo trung bnh ca chng. Thng dng lm thc o v s bin i ca tp s liu AVERAGE (number1, number2, ...) : Tnh trung bnh cng AVERAGEA (number1, number2, ...) : Tnh trung bnh cng ca cc gi tr, bao gm c nhng gi tr logic AVERAGEIF (range, criteria1) : Tnh trung bnh cng ca cc gi tr trong mt mng theo mt iu kin AVERAGEIFS (range, criteria1, criteria2, ...) : Tnh trung bnh cng ca cc gi tr trong mt mng theo nhiu iu kin COUNT (value1, value2, ...) : m s trong danh sch COUNTA (value1, value2, ...) : m s c cha gi tr (khng rng) trong danh sch COUNTBLANK (range) : m cc rng trong mt vng COUNTIF (range, criteria) : m s tha mt iu kin cho trc bn trong mt dy

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COUNTIFS (range1, criteria1, range2, criteria2, ) : m s tha nhiu iu kin cho trc DEVSQ (number1, number2, ...) : Tnh bnh phng lch cc im d liu t trung bnh mu ca chng, ri cng cc bnh phng li. FREQUENCY (data_array, bins_array) : Tnh xem c bao nhiu gi tr thng xuyn xut hin bn trong mt dy gi tr, ri tr v mt mng ng cc s. Lun s dng hm ny dng cng thc mng GEOMEAN (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v trung bnh nhn ca mt dy cc s dng. Thng dng tnh mc tng trng trung bnh, trong li kp c cc li bin i c cho trc HARMEAN (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v trung bnh iu ha (nghch o ca trung bnh cng) ca cc s KURT (number1, number2, ...) : Tnh nhn ca tp s liu, biu th mc nhn hay mc phng tng i ca mt phn b so vi phn b chun LARGE (array, k) : Tr v gi tr ln nht th k trong mt tp s liu MAX (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v gi tr ln nht ca mt tp gi tr MAXA (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v gi tr ln nht ca mt tp gi tr, bao gm c cc gi tr logic v text MEDIAN (number1, number2, ...) : Tnh trung bnh v ca cc s. MIN (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v gi tr nh nht ca mt tp gi tr MINA (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v gi tr nh nht ca mt tp gi tr, bao gm c cc gi tr logic v text MODE (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v gi tr xut hin nhiu nht trong mt mng gi tr PERCENTILE (array, k) : Tm phn v th k ca cc gi tr trong mt mng d liu PERCENTRANK (array, x, significance) : Tr v th hng (v tr tng i) ca mt tr trong mt mng d liu, l s phn trm ca mng d liu PERMUT (number, number_chosen) : Tr v hon v ca cc i tng. QUARTILE (array, quart) : Tnh im t phn v ca tp d liu. Thng c dng trong kho st d liu chia cc tp hp thnh nhiu nhm

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RANK (number, ref, order) : Tnh th hng ca mt s trong danh sch cc s SKEW (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v lch ca phn phi, m t khng i xng ca phn phi quanh tr trung bnh ca n SMALL (array, k) : Tr v gi tr nh nht th k trong mt tp s STDEV (number1, number2, ...) : c lng lch chun trn c s mu STDEVA (value1, value2, ...) : c lng lch chun trn c s mu, bao gm c nhng gi tr logic STDEVP (number1, number2, ...) : Tnh lch chun theo ton th tp hp STDEVPA (value1, value2, ...) : Tnh lch chun theo ton th tp hp, k c ch v cc gi tr logic VAR (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v phng sai da trn mu VARA (value1, value2, ) : Tr v phng sai da trn mu, bao gm c cc tr logic v text VARP (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v phng sai da trn ton th tp hp VARPA (value1, value2, ) : Tr v phng sai da trn ton th tp hp, bao gm c cc tr logic v text. TRIMMEAN (array, percent) : Tnh trung bnh phn trong ca mt tp d liu, bng cch loi t l phn trm ca cc im d liu u v cui tp d liu. b. Cc hm xc sut BETADIST (x, alpha, beta, A, B) : Tr v gi tr ca hm tnh mt phn phi xc sut tch ly beta. BETAINV (probability, alpha, beta, A, B) : Tr v nghch o ca hm tnh mt phn phi xc sut tch ly beta. BINOMDIST (number_s, trials, probability_s, cumulative) : Tr v xc sut ca nhng ln th thnh cng ca phn phi nh phn. CHIDIST (x, degrees_freedom) : Tr v xc xut mt pha ca phn phi chisquared. CHIINV (probability, degrees_freedom) : Tr v nghch o ca xc xut mt pha ca phn phi chi-squared.

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CHITEST (actual_range, expected_range) : Tr v gi tr ca xc xut t phn phi chi-squared v s bc t do tng ng. CONFIDENCE (alpha, standard_dev, size) : Tnh khong tin cy cho mt k vng l thuyt CRITBINOM (trials, probability_s, alpha) : Tr v gi tr nh nht sao cho phn phi nh thc tch ly ln hn hay bng gi tr tiu chun. Thng dng bo m cc ng dng t cht lng EXPONDIST (x, lambda, cumulative) : Tnh phn phi m. Thng dng m phng thi gian gia cc bin c FDIST (x, degrees_freedom1, degrees_freedom2) : Tnh phn phi xc sut F. Thng dng tm xem hai tp s liu c nhiu mc khc nhau hay khng FINV (probability, degrees_freedom1, degrees_freedom2) : Tnh nghch o ca phn phi xc sut F. Thng dng so snh bin thin trong hai tp s liu FTEST (array1, array2) : Tr v kt qu ca mt php th F. Thng dng xc nh xem hai mu c cc phng sai khc nhau hay khng FISHER (x) : Tr v php bin i Fisher ti x. Thng dng kim tra gi thuyt da trn h s tng quan FISHERINV (y) : Tnh nghch o php bin i Fisher. Thng dng phn tch mi tng quan gia cc mng s liu GAMMADIST (x, alpha, beta, cumulative) : Tr v phn phi tch ly gamma. C th dng nghin cu c phn b lch GAMMAINV (probability, alpha, beta) : Tr v nghch o ca phn phi tch ly gamma. GAMMLN (x) : Tnh logarit t nhin ca hm gamma HYPGEOMDIST (number1, number2, ...) : Tr v phn phi siu bi (xc sut ca mt s ln thnh cng no ) LOGINV (probability, mean, standard_dev) : Tnh nghch o ca hm phn phi tch ly lognormal ca x (LOGNORMDIST)

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LOGNORMDIST (x, mean, standard_dev) : Tr v phn phi tch ly lognormal ca x, trong logarit t nhin ca x thng c phn phi vi cc tham s mean v standard_dev. NEGBINOMDIST (number_f, number_s, probability_s) : Tr v phn phi nh thc m (tr v xc sut m s c number_f ln tht bi trc khi c number_s ln thnh cng, khi xc sut khng i ca mt ln thnh cng l probability_s) NORMDIST (x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative) : Tr v phn phi chun (normal distribution). Thng c s dng trong vic thng k, gm c vic kim tra gi thuyt NORMINV (probability, mean, standard_dev) : Tnh nghch o phn phi tch ly chun NORMSDIST (z) : Tr v hm phn phi tch ly chun tc (standard normal cumulative distribution function), l phn phi c tr trung bnh cng l zero (0) v lch chun l 1 NORMSINV (probability) : Tnh nghch o ca hm phn phi tch ly chun tc POISSON (x, mean, cumulative) : Tr v phn phi poisson. Thng dng c tnh s lng bin c s xy ra trong mt khong thi gian nht nh PROB (x_range, prob_range, lower_limit, upper_limit) : Tnh xc sut ca cc tr trong dy nm gia hai gii hn STANDARDIZE (x, mean, standard_dev) : Tr v tr chun ha t phn phi biu th bi mean v standard_dev TDIST (x, degrees_freedom, tails) : Tr v xc sut ca phn phi Student (phn phi t), trong x l gi tr tnh t t v c dng tnh xc sut. TINV (probability, degrees_freedom) : Tr v gi tr t ca phn phi Student. TTEST (array1, array2, tails, type) : Tnh xc xut kt hp vi php th Student. WEIBULL (x, alpha, beta, cumulative) : Tr v phn phi Weibull. Thng s dng trong phn tch tin cy, nh tnh tui th trung bnh ca mt thit b. ZTEST (array, x, sigma) : Tr v xc sut mt pha ca php th z. c. Cc hm tng quan v hi quy tuyn tnh

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CORREL (array1, array2) : Tnh h s tng quan gia hai mng xc nh mi quan h ca hai c tnh COVAR (array1, array2) : Tnh tch s cc lch ca mi cp im d liu, ri tnh trung bnh cc tch s FORECAST (x, known_y's, known_x's) : Tnh ton hay d on mt gi tr tng lai bng cch s dng cc gi tr hin c, bng phng php hi quy tuyn tnh GROWTH (known_y's, known_x's, new_x's, const) : Tnh ton s tng trng d kin theo hm m, bng cch s dng cc d kin hin c. INTERCEPT (known_y's, known_x's) : Tm im giao nhau ca mt ng thng vi trc y bng cch s dng cc tr x v y cho trc LINEST (known_y's, known_x's, const, stats) : Tnh thng k cho mt ng bng cch dng phng php bnh phng ti thiu (least squares) tnh ng thng thch hp nht vi d liu, ri tr v mng m t ng thng . Lun dng hm ny dng cng thc mng LOGEST (known_y's, known_x's, const, stats) : Dng trong phn tch hi quy. Hm s tnh ng cong hm m ph hp vi d liu c cung cp, ri tr v mng gi tr m t ng cong . Lun dng hm ny dng cng thc mng PEARSON (array1, array2) : Tnh h s tng quan momen tch pearson (r), mt ch mc khng th nguyn, trong khong t -1 n 1, phn nh s m rng quan h tuyn tnh gia hai tp s liu RSQ (known_y's, known_x's) : Tnh bnh phng h s tng quan momen tch Pearson (r), thng qua cc im d liu trong known_y's v known_x's SLOPE (known_y's, known_x's) : Tnh h s gc ca ng hi quy tuyn tnh thng qua cc im d liu STEYX (known_y's, known_x's) : Tr v sai s chun ca tr d on y i vi mi tr x trong hi quy.

2.5. Cc hm ton hc v lng gic


a. Hm ton hc ABS (number): Tnh tr tuyt i ca mt s (gi tr tuyt i ca mt s l s lun lun dng).

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CEILING (number, significance) : Lm trn ln mt s (cch xa khi s 0) n bi s gn nht ca significance. COMBIN (number, number_chosen) : Tr v s t hp c chn t mt s cc phn t. Thng dng xc nh tng s nhm c c t mt s cc phn t. EVEN (number) : Lm trn mt s n s nguyn chn gn nht EXP (number) : Tnh ly tha c s e ca mt s FACT (number) : Tnh giai tha ca mt s FACTDOUBLE (number) : Tnh giai tha cp hai ca mt s FLOOR (number, significance) : Lm trn xung mt s n bi s gn nht GCD (number1, number2, ...) : Tm c s chung ln nht ca cc s INT (number) : Lm trn mt s xung s nguyn gn nht LCM (number1, number2, ...) : Tm bi s chung nh nht ca cc s LN (number) : Tnh logarit t nhin ca mt s LOG (number) : Tnh logarit ca mt s LOG10 (number) : Tnh logarit c s 10 ca mt s MDETERM (array) : Tnh nh thc ca mt ma trn MINVERSE (array) : Tm ma trn nghch o ca mt ma trn MMULT (array1, array2) : Tnh tch hai ma trn MOD (number, divisor) : Ly phn d ca mt php chia. MROUND (number, multiple) : Lm trn mt s n bi s ca mt s khc MULTINOMIAL (number1, number2, ...) : Tnh t l gia giai tha tng v tch giai tha cc s ODD (number): Lm trn mt s n s nguyn l gn nht PI () : Tr v gi tr con s Pi POWER (number, power) : Tnh ly tha ca mt s PRODUCT(number1, number2, ...) : Tnh tch cc s QUOTIENT (numberator, denominator) : Ly phn nguyn ca mt php chia RAND () : Tr v mt s ngu nhin gia 0 v 1 RANDBETWEEN (bottom, top) : Tr v mt s ngu nhin gia mt khong ty chn

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ROMAN (number, form) : Chuyn mt s (-rp) v dng s La-m theo nh dng ty chn ROUND (number, num_digits) : Lm trn mt s theo s ch nh ROUNDDOWN (number, num_digits) : Lm trn xung mt s theo s ch nh ROUNDUP (number, num_digits) : Lm trn ln mt s theo s ch nh SERIESSUM (x, n, m, coefficients) : Tnh tng ly tha ca mt chui s SIGN (number) : Tr v du (i s) ca mt s SQRT (number) : Tnh cn bc hai ca mt s SQRTPI (number) : Tnh cn bc hai ca mt s c nhn vi Pi SUBTOTAL (function_num, ref1, ref2, ...) : Tnh ton cho mt nhm con trong mt danh sch ty theo php tnh c ch nh SUM (number1, number2, ...) : Tnh tng cc s SUMIF (range, criteria, sum_range) : Tnh tng cc tha mt iu kin ch nh SUMIFS (sum_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, criteria_range2, criteria2, ) : Tnh tng cc tha nhiu iu kin ch nh SUMPRODUCT (array1, array2, ...) : Tnh tng cc tch ca cc phn t trong cc mng d liu SUMSQ (number1, number2, ...) : Tnh tng bnh phng ca cc s SUMX2MY2 (array_x, array_y) : Tnh tng ca hiu bnh phng ca cc phn t trong hai mng gi tr SUMX2PY2 (array_x, array_y) : Tnh tng ca tng bnh phng ca cc phn t trong hai mng gi tr SUMXMY2 (array_x, array_y) : Tnh tng ca bnh phng ca hiu cc phn t trong hai mng gi tr TRUNC (number, num_digits) : Ly phn nguyn ca mt s (m khng lm trn) b. Cc hm lng gic ACOS (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian nm trong khong t 0 n Pi, l arccosine, hay nghch o cosine ca mt s nm trong khong t -1 n 1

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ACOSH (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian, l nghch o cosine-hyperbol ca mt s ln hn hoc bng 1 ASIN (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian nm trong on t -Pi/2 n Pi/2, l arcsine, hay nghch o sine ca mt s nm trong khong t -1 n 1 ASINH (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian, l nghch o sine-hyperbol ca mt s ATAN (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian nm trong khong t -Pi/2 n Pi/2, l arctang, hay nghch o tang ca mt s ATAN2 (x_num, y_num) : Tr v mt gi tr radian nm trong khong (nhng khng bao gm) t -Pi n Pi, l arctang, hay nghch o tang ca mt im c ta x v y ATANH (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian, l nghch o tang-hyperbol ca mt s nm trong khong t -1 n 1 COS (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian, l cosine ca mt s COSH (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian, l cosine-hyperbol ca mt s DEGREES (angle) : Chuyn i s o ca mt gc t radian sang RADIANS (angle) : Chuyn i s o ca mt gc t sang radian SIN (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian l sine ca mt s SINH (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian, l sine-hyperbol ca mt s TAN (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian, l tang ca mt s TANH (number) : Tr v mt gi tr radian, l tang-hyperbol ca mt s

2.6. Hm tham chiu v tm kim


ADDRESS (row_num, column_num, abs_num, a1, sheet_text): To a ch dng text, theo ch s dng v ch s ct c cung cp AREAS (reference): Tr v s vng tham chiu trong mt tham chiu. Mi vng tham chiu c th l mt ri rc hoc l mt dy lin tc trong bng tnh CHOOSE (num, value1, value2, ...): Chn mt gi tr trong mt danh sch COLUMN (reference): Tr v s th t ct ca u tin gc trn bn tri ca vng tham chiu COLUMNS (reference): Tr v s ct ca vng tham chiu

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GETPIVOTDATA (data_field, pivot_table, field1, item1, field2, item2,...): Tr v d liu c lu gi trong bo co PivotTable. C th dng GETPIVOTDATA ly d liu tng kt t mt bo co PivotTable, vi iu kin l phi thy c d liu tng kt t trong bo co . HLOOKUP (lookup_value, table_array, row_index_num, range_lookup): D tm mt ct cha gi tr cn tm hng u tin (trn cng) ca mt bng d liu, nu tm thy, s tm tip trong ct ny, v s ly gi tr hng ch nh trc HYPERLINK (link_location, friendly_name): Dng to mt kt ni, mt siu lin kt INDEX (reference, row_num, column_num, area_num): Tm mt gi tr trong mt bng (hoc mt mng) nu bit v tr ca n trong bng (hoc mng) ny, da vo s th t hng v s th t ct INDIRECT (ref_text, a1): Tr v mt tham chiu t chui k t. Tham chiu c tr v ngay tc thi hin th ni dung ca chng - Cng c th dng hm INDIRECT khi mun thay i tham chiu ti mt bn trong mt cng thc m khng cn thay i cng thc LOOKUP (lookup_value, lookup_vector, result_vector): Dng VECT - Tm kim trn mt dng hoc mt ct, nu tm thy s tr v gi tr ca cng v tr trn dng (hoc ct) c ch nh LOOKUP (lookup_value, array): Dng MNG - Tm kim trn dng (hoc ct) u tin ca mt mng gi tr, nu tm thy s tr v gi tr ca cng v tr trn dng (hoc ct) cui cng trong mng MATCH (lookup_value, lookup_array, match_type): Tr v v tr ca mt gi tr trong mt dy gi tr OFFSET (reference, rows, cols, height, width): Tr v tham chiu n mt vng no , bt u t mt , hoc mt dy , vi mt khong cch c ch nh ROW (reference): Tr v s th t dng ca u tin gc trn bn tri ca vng tham chiu ROWS (reference): Tr v s dng ca vng tham chiu

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TRANSPOSE (array): Chuyn mt vng d liu ngang thng dc v ngc li (lun c nhp dng cng thc mng) VLOOKUP (lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, range_lookup): D tm mt hng (row) cha gi tr cn tm ct u tin (bn tri) ca mt bng d liu, nu tm thy, s tm tip trong hng ny, v s ly gi tr ct ch nh trc.

2.7. Hm d liu
DAVERAGE (database, field, criteria) : Tnh trung bnh cc gi tr trong mt ct ca danh sch hay cc tr ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh. DCOUNT (database, field, criteria) : m cc cha s liu trong mt ct ca danh sch hay cc tr ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh. DCOUNTA (database, field, criteria) : m cc "khng rng" trong mt ct ca danh sch hay cc tr ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh. DGET (database, field, criteria) : Trch mt gi tr t mt ct ca mt danh sch hay c s d liu, khp vi iu kin c ch nh. DMAX (database, field, criteria) : Tr v tr ln nht trong mt ct ca mt danh sch hay ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh. DMIN (database, field, criteria) : Tr v tr nh nht trong mt ct ca mt danh sch hay ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh. DRODUCT (database, field, criteria) : Nhn cc gi tr trong mt ct ca mt danh sch hay ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh. DSTDEV (database, field, criteria) : c lng lch chun ca mt tp hp theo mu, bng cch s dng cc s liu trong mt ct ca mt danh sch hay ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh. DSTDEVP (database, field, criteria) : Tnh lch chun ca mt tp hp theo ton th cc tp hp, bng cch s dng cc s liu trong mt ct ca mt danh sch hay ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh. DSUM (database, field, criteria) : Cng cc s trong mt ct ca mt danh sch hay ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh.

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DVAR (database, field, criteria) : c lng s bin thin ca mt tp hp da trn mt mu, bng cch s dng cc s liu trong mt ct ca mt danh sch hay ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh. DVARP (database, field, criteria) : Tnh ton s bin thin ca mt tp hp da trn ton th tp hp, bng cch s dng cc s liu trong mt ct ca mt danh sch hay ca mt c s d liu, theo mt iu kin c ch nh. GETPIVOTDATA (data_field, pivot_table, field1, item1, field2, item2,...) : Tr v d liu c lu gi trong bo co PivotTable. C th dng GETPIVOTDATA ly d liu tng kt t mt bo co PivotTable, vi iu kin l phi thy c d liu tng kt t trong bo co .

2.8. Hm ti chnh
ACCRINT (issue, first_interest, settlement, rate, par, frequency, basis, calc_method) : Tnh li tch ly cho mt chng khon tr li theo nh k ACCRINTM (issue, settlement, rate, par, basis) : Tnh li tch ly i vi chng khon tr li theo k hn AMORDEGRC (cost, date_purchased, first_period, salvage, period, rate, basis) : Tnh khu hao trong mi ti kha k ton ty theo thi hn s dng ca ti sn (s dng trong cc h thng k ton theo kiu Php) AMORLINC (cost, date_purchased, first_period, salvage, period, rate, basis) : Tnh khu hao trong mi ti kha k ton (s dng trong cc h thng k ton theo kiu Php) COUPDAYBS (settlement, maturity, frequency, basis) : Tnh s ngy k t u k li ti ngy kt ton COUPDAYS (settlement, maturity, frequency, basis) : Tnh s ngy trong k li bao gm c ngy kt ton COUPDAYSCN (settlement, maturity, frequency, basis) : Tnh s ngy t ngy kt ton ti ngy tnh li k tip COUPNCD (settlement, maturity, frequency, basis) : Tr v mt con s th hin ngy tnh li k tip k t sau ngy kt ton COUPNUM (settlement, maturity, frequency, basis) : Tnh s ln li sut phi tr trong khong t ngy kt ton n ngy o hn

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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COUPPCD (settlement, maturity, frequency, basis) : Tr v mt con s th hin ngy thanh ton li ln trc, trc ngy kt ton CUMIPMT (rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type) : Tnh li tc tch ly phi tr i vi khon vay trong khong thi gian gia start_period v end_period CUMPRINC (rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type) : Tr v tin vn tch ly phi tr i vi khon vay trong khong thi gian gia start_period v end_period DB (cost, salvage, life, period, month) : Tnh khu hao cho mt ti sn s dng phng php s d gim dn theo mt mc c nh (fixed-declining balance method) trong mt khong thi gian xc nh. DDB (cost, salvage, life, period, factor) : Tnh khu hao cho mt ti sn s dng phng php s d gim dn kp (double-declining balance method), hay gim dn theo mt t l no , trong mt khong thi gian xc nh. DISC (settlement, maturity, pr, redemption, basis) : Tnh t l chit khu ca mt chng khon DOLLARDE (fractional_dollar, fraction) : Chuyn i gi dollar dng phn s sang gi dollar dng thp phn DOLLARFR (decimal_dollar, fraction) : Chuyn i gi dollar dng thp phn s sang gi dollar dng phn s DURATION (settlement, maturity, coupon, yld, frequency, basis) : Tnh thi hn hiu lc Macauley da trn ng mnh gi $100 (thi hn hiu lc l trung bnh trng gi tr hin ti ca dng lun chuyn tin mt v c dng lm thc o v s phn hi lm thay i li nhun ca gi tr tri phiu) EFFECT (nominal_rate, npery) : Tnh li sut thc t hng nm, bit trc li sut danh ngha hng nm v tng s k thanh ton li kp mi nm FV (rate, nper, pmt, pv, type) : Tnh gi tr k hn ca s u t da trn vic chi tr c nh theo k v li sut c nh FVSCHEDULE (principal, schedule) : Tnh gi tr k hn ca mt vn ban u sau khi p dng mt chui cc li sut kp (tnh gi tr k hn cho mt u t c li sut thay i)

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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INTRATE (settlement, maturity, investment, redemption, basis) : Tnh li sut cho mt chng khon u t ton b IPMT (rate, per, nper, pv, fv, type) : Tr v khon thanh ton li cho mt u t da trn vic chi tr c nh theo k v da trn li sut khng i IRR (values, guess) : Tnh li sut ni hm cho mt chui cc lu ng tin mt c th hin bi cc tr s ISPMT (rate, per, nper, pv) : Tnh s tin li tr ti mt k no i vi mt khon vay c li sut khng i, sau khi tr s tin gc phi tr cho k . MDURATION (settlement, maturity, coupon, yld, frequency, basis) : Tnh thi hn Macauley sa i cho chng khon da trn ng mnh gi $100 MIRR (values, finance_rate, reinvest_rate) : Tnh t sut doanh li ni ti trong mt chui lun chuyn tin mt theo chu k NOMINAL (effect_rate, npery) : Tnh li sut danh ngha hng nm, bit trc li sut thc t v cc k tnh li kp mi nm NPER (rate, pmt, pv, fv, type) : Tnh s k hn tr khon vay trong u t da trn tng chu k, s tin tr v t sut li tc c nh NPV (rate, value1, value2, ...) : Tnh hin gi rng ca mt khon u t bng cch s dng t l chiu khu vi cc chi khon tr k hn (tr m) v thu nhp (tr dng) ODDFPRICE (settlement, maturity, issue, first_coupon, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, basis) : Tnh gi tr trn mi ng mnh gi $100 ca chng khon c k u tin l (ngn hn hay di hn) ODDFYIELD (settlement, maturity, issue, first_coupon, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, basis) : Tr v li nhun ca mt chng khon c k tnh li u tin l l (ngn hn hay di hn) ODDLPRICE (settlement, maturity, last_interest, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, basis) : Tnh gi tr trn mi ng mnh gi $100 ca chng khon c k tnh li phiu cui cng l l (ngn hn hay di hn) ODDLYIELD (settlement, maturity, last_interest, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, basis) : Tnh li nhun ca chng khon c k cui cng l l (ngn hn hay di hn)

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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PMT (rate, nper, pv, fv, type) : Tnh tin phi tr i vi khon vay c li sut khng i v chi tr u n PPMT (rate, per, nper, pv, fv, type) : Tnh khon vn thanh ton trong mt k hn cho i vi mt khon u t, trong vic chi tr c thc hin u n theo nh k vi mt li sut khng i PRICE (settlement, maturity, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, basis) : Tnh gi tr chng khon trn ng mnh gi $100, thanh ton li tc theo chu k PRICEDISC (settlement, maturity, discount, redemption, basis) : Tnh gi tr trn ng mnh gi $100 ca mt chng khon chit khu PRICEMAT (settlement, maturity, issue, rate, yld, basis) : Tnh gi tr trn ng mnh gi $100 ca mt chng khon phi thanh ton li vo ngy o PV (rate, nper, pmt, fv, type) : Tnh gi tr hin ti ca mt khon u t RATE (nper, pmt, pv, fv, type, guess) : Tnh li sut mi k trong mt nin kim REVEICED (settlement, maturity, investment, discount, basis) : Tnh s tin nhn c vo k hn thanh ton cho mt chng khon u t ton b SLN (cost, salvage, life) : Tnh chi ph khu hao (theo phng php ng thng) ca mt ti sn trong mt k SYD (cost, salvage, life, per) : Tnh khu hao theo gi tr cn li ca ti sn trong nh k xc nh TBILLEQ (settlement, maturity, discount) : Tnh li nhun tng ng vi tri phiu cho tri phiu kho bc TBILLPRICE (settlement, maturity, discount) : Tnh gi tr ng mnh gi $100 cho tri phiu kho bc TBILLYIELD (settlement, maturity, pr) : Tnh li nhun cho tri phiu kho bc VDB (cost, salvage, life, start_period, end_period, factor, no_switch) : Tnh khu hao ti sn s dng trong nhiu k XIRR (values, dates, guess) : Tnh li sut ni hm cho mt lot lu ng tin mt khng nh k XNPV (rate, values, dates) : Tnh t gi rng cho mt dy lu ng tin mt khng nh k

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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YIELD (settlement, maturity, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, basis) : Tnh li nhun i vi chng khon tr li theo nh k YIELDDISC (settlement, maturity, pr, redemption, basis) : Tnh li nhun hng nm cho chng khon chit khu YIELDMAT (settlement, maturity, issue, rate, pr, basis) : Tnh li nhun hng nm ca chng khon tr li vo ngy o hn

2.9. Hm thng tin


CELL(info_type, reference): Dng tra cu thng tin ca mt (cell) ERROR.TYPE(error_val): Tr v s tng ng vi mt li trong Excel hoc tr v li #NA! nu khng c li INFO(type_text): Dng tra cu thng tin ca mi trng Excel hin hnh ISBLANK(value): S tr v gi tr TRUE nu gi tr ca value l Blank (rng) ISERR(value): Kim tra gi tr value c li hay khng (ngoi tr li #NA!) v tr v TRUE nu c li ISERROR(value): Kim tra gi tr value c li hay khng (tt c li) v tr v TRUE nu c li ISEVEN(number): Kim tra number c phi l mt s chn hay khng ISLOGICAL(value): Kim tra value c phi l mt gi tr logic hay khng ISNA(value): Kim tra value c li #NA! hay khng ISNONTEXT(value): Kim tra value c phi l mt gi tr khc kiu TEXT hay khng ISNUMBER(value): Kim tra value c phi l mt gi tr kiu s hay khng ISODD(number): Kim tra number c phi l s l hay khng ISREF(value): Kim tra value c phi l mt tham chiu (a ch hoc vng) hay khng ISTEXT(value): Kim tra value c phi l mt gi tr kiu TEXT hay khng N(value): Chuyn i value thnh mt con s NA(): To li #NA! phng nhng vn khng th lng trc khi to hm TYPE(value): Tra cu kiu nh dnh ca value

2.10. Cc hm k thut
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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton BESSELI (x, n) : Tr v hm Bessel bin i In(x) BESSELJ (x, n) : Tr v hm Bessel Jn(x) BESSELK (x, n) : Tr v hm Bessel bin i Kn(x)

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BESSELY (x, n) : Tr v hm Bessel Yn(x), cn gi l hm Weber hay Neumann BIN2DEC (number) : i s nh phn ra s thp phn BIN2HEX (number, places) : i s nh phn ra s thp lc phn BIN2OCT (number, places) : i s nh phn ra s bt phn OCT2BIN(number [, places]): i s bt phn sang s nh phn. COMPLEX (real_num, i_num, suffix) : i s thc v s o thnh s phc CONVERT (number, form_unit, to_unit) : i mt s t h o lng ny sang h o lng khc DEC2BIN (number, places) : i s thp phn ra s nh phn DEC2HEX (number, places) : i s thp phn ra s thp lc phn DEC2OCT (number, places) : i s thp phn ra s bt phn DELTA (number1, number2) : Kim tra xem hai gi tr c bng nhau hay khng ERF (lower_limit, upper_limit) : Tr v hm Error (tnh tch phn gia cn di v cn trn) ERFC (x) : Tr v hm b Error (tnh tch phn gia x v v cc) GESTEP (number, step) : Kim tra xem mt s c ln hn mt gi tr gii hn no hay khng HEX2BIN (number, places) : i s thp lc phn ra s nh phn HEX2DEC (number) : i s thp lc phn ra s thp phn HEX2OCT (number, places) : i s thp lc phn ra s bt phn IMABS (inumber) : Tr v tr tuyt i ca mt s phc IMAGINARY (inumber) : Tr v h s o ca mt s phc IMARGUMENT (inumber) : Tr v i s (theta), l mt gc tnh theo radian IMCONJUGATE (inumber) : Tr v s phc lin hp ca mt s phc IMCOS (inumber) : Tr v cosine ca mt s phc

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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IMDIV (inumber1, inumber2) : Tnh thng s (kt qu ca php chia) ca hai s phc IMEXP (inumber) : Tr v s m ca mt s phc IMLN (inumber) : Tr v logarite t nhin ca mt s phc IMLOG10 (inumber) : Tr v logarite thp phn ca mt s phc IMLOG2 (inumber) : Tr v logarite c s 2 ca mt s phc IMPOWER (inumber, number) : Tnh ly tha ca mt s phc IMPRODUCT (inumber1, inumber2,...) : Tnh tch s ca 2 n 255 s phc vi nhau IMREAL (inumber) : Tr v h s thc ca mt s phc IMSIN (inumber) : Tr v sine ca mt s phc IMSQRT (inumber) : Tr v cn bc 2 ca mt s phc IMSUB (inumber1, inumber2) : Tnh hiu s ca hai s phc IMSUM (inumber1, inumber2,...) : Tnh tng ca 2 n 255 s phc OCT2BIN (number, places) : i s bt phn ra s nh phn OCT2DEC (number) : i s bt phn ra s thp phn OCT2HEX (number, places) : i s bt phn ra s thp lc phn

2.11. Cc li thng dng trong Excel


Li #DIV/0! #NAME? #N/A #NULL! #NUM! #REF! Gii thch Trong cng thc c cha php chia cho 0 (zero) hoc chia rng Do dnh sai tn hm hay tham chiu hoc nh thiu du nhy Cng thc tham chiu n m c dng hm NA jim tra s tn ti ca d liu hoc hm khng c kt qu Hm s dng d liu giao nhau ca 2 vng m 2 vng ny khng c phn chung nn phn giao rng Vn i vi gi tr, v d nh dng nhm s m trong khi ng phi l s dng Tham chiu b li, thng l do tham chiu trong hm b xa #VALUE! Cng thc tnh ton c cha kiu d liu khng ng.

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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PHN 2: NG DNG TRONG TI CHNH NGN HNG


1. Sp xp d liu Chng ta thng nhp liu vo cui danh sch, do vy d liu thng khng theo mt trnh t no. Chng ta cn sp xp li d liu nhm thun li trong vic qun l d liu. Excel h tr sp xp d liu theo th t tng dn (A > Z) hoc theo th t gim dn (Z > A) theo mt hoc nhiu trng cn sp xp

Cc bc sp xp B1. t hin hnh vo ni no trong danh sch v chn thc n Data > Sort B2. Chn Tn nc ti Sort by v chn Ascending sp xp tng dn. B3. Chn Tn ch tiu ti Then by v chn Ascending sp xp tng dn. B4. Chn Header row do danh sch c dng tiu . B5. Nhp nt OK sp xp. Trong trng hp sp xp theo dng: B1. t hin hnh vo ni no trong danh sch v chn thc n Data > Sort B2. Nhp nt Option v chn Sort left to right t hp hi thoi mi xut hin. Nhp nt OK tr v hp thoi Sort. B3. Chn Row 3 ti Sort by v chn Descending sp xp gim dn. B4. Nhp nt OK hon tt vic sp xp. 2. Lc d liu 2.1. Lc t ng Auto Filter B1. t hin hnh vo ni no trong danh sch v chn Data > Filter > AutoFilter t thc n

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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B2. Ti ct tn nc, chn Vietnam t mi tn hng xung ti . Danh sch lc ny s ch hin th cc thng tin v nc Vit Nam. B3. hin th li tt c d liu th chn Data > Filter > Show All hoc chn (All) t . B4. Thot khi chc nng AutoFilter vo chn Data > Filter > AutoFilter t thc n. Cc la chn ca AutoFilter - (All): Hin th tt c bn ghi (dng) ca danh sch - (Top 10): p dng cho cc trng khc kiu Text. Hin th cc bn ghi cn trn hay cn di theo la chn di hai hnh thc bn ghi hay phn trm. V d: hin th 10 dng c gi tr ln nht trong danh sch hoc hin th 10% s dng c gi tr ln nht. - (Custom): p dng trong trng hp cn hai iu kin trong mt ct hoc dng cc php ton so snh. - (Blanks): Hin th cc dng m ti ct ra iu kin lc l rng - (NotBlanks): Hin th cc dng m ti ct ra iu kin lc khc rng 2.2. Lc d liu nng cao Advance Filter Advanced Filter l chc nng mnh m v linh hot trong vic lc d liu t danh sch trong bng tnh. Advanced Filter gip to cc iu kin lc phc tp v xut kt qu lc n mt ni ch nh trong bng tnh. s dng Advanced Filter trc tin ta phi to vng iu kin ti mt vng trng no trong bng tnh. Ta sao chp dng tiu ca danh sch v dn vo ni lm vng iu kin, sau t cc iu kin bn di cc tiu ny Cc bc thc hin: B1. Chn danh sch xung di vi dng, sau sao chp dng tiu ca danh sch ln trn v t cc iu kin nh hnh 2.21. B2. t hin hnh vo ni no trong danh sch v chn Data > Filter > Advanced Filter t thc n. B3. Khai bo danh sch, vng iu kin v cc ty chn nh hnh di

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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B4. Nhp OK hin th kt qu lc. Cc ton t so snh v k t thay th khi thit lp vng iu kin:

3. Tng hp d liu vi PivotTable Cng c PivotTable rt tin li trong vic tng hp, tm tt v phn tch d liu t cc danh sch Cc bc to PivotTable B1. Chn t thc n Data > PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard m trnh hng dn tng bc to bng tng hp. B2. Chn ngun d liu: c 4 loi

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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Microsoft Excel list or database: Ngun d liu l mt danh sch trong Excel External data source: Ngun d liu bn ngoi Excel, thng thng l cc c s d liu cha trong ODBC ca my cc b. Multiple consolidation ranges: Ngun d liu l nhiu danh sch ti mt hoc nhiu worksheet trong Excel. Chn ngun d liu t mt PivotTable hay mt PivotChart khc B3. Trong bi ny minh ha chn ngun d liu l Microsoft Excel list or database. Nhp nt Next B4. Chn vng a ch cha danh sch cn tng hp v nhp nt Next

B5. Chn ni cha PivotTable l New worksheet (to worksheet mi cha kt qu), sau nhp nt Finish.

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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B6. Ko th cc trng t danh sch PivotTable Field List vo v tr ph hp - Ko th Thng vo vng Row Fields - Ko th United States, Canada, Australia, Japan v New Zealand vo vng Data Items.

B7. Nhm Month thnh cc qu v nm: chn Month (A3), vo thc n Data > Group and Outline > Group Chn c ba loi l Months, Quarters v Years. Nhp OK chp nhn

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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B8. Chn nh dng cho PivotTable: chn PivotTable v chn Format AutoFormat t thanh thc n. Chn kiu Reprot 4 v nhp nt OK. (Gi nh dng t thanh cng c PivotTable: View > Toolbars > PivotTable > Format Report)

Tng t i vi PivotChart 4. S dng Subtotals - Dng tng hp d liu - Cc bc thc hin:

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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B1. Sp xp danh sch trc khi dng Subtotals. Sp xp ct Ngi mua B2. Chn danh sch, sau chn Data > SubTotals

B3. Chn Ngi mua ti At each change in, chn Sum ti Use function v chn Thnh tin ti Add subtotal to (xem hnh 3.18). B4. Nhp nt OK chp nhn.

b Subtotals: Data > Subtotals > Remove All > OK 5. Cng c Goal Seek - Cng c Goal Seek cho php tm d liu u vo ng n ra c kt qu u ra nh mong i. Nh chng ta bit, qu trnh x l 1 bi ton thng thng l: d liu u vo (input) x l kt qu u ra (output). a s cc trng hp chng ta bit d liu u vo, bit qu trnh x l (thut ton), qua tnh c kt qu u ra. Tuy nhin, trong nhiu trng hp, ta bit qu trnh x l, mong mun 1 kt qu u ra no v

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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ta mun bit u vo l bao nhiu. Trong trng hp ny Goal Seek s gip ta thc hin iu . Cng c Goal Seek c th hiu theo cch y l kt qu u ra ti mong mun, hy thay i d liu u vo t c kt qu u ra ny. lm c iu ny Excel s tnh ton gi tr u vo bng cch th cho n khi tm c gi tr mong mun.

Goal Seek l cng c d s dng, tuy nhin khng c linh hot v khng gii quyt c cc trng hp phc tp. V d: Dng Goal Seek gii bi ton im ha vn, phn tch v lp k hoch Cng ty c phn Tn Pht c cc tnh hnh k hoch kinh doanh nh sau: Bng tng kt ti sn tnh n thng 12/2009
n v tnh: Triu ng

TI SN 1. TSL 2. TSC v T di hn Tng ti sn

NGUN VN 4.084 1. N phi tr 2.003 2. Vn ch s hu 6.087 Tng ngun vn


n v tnh: Triu ng

2.784 3.303 6.087

BNG KT QU KINH DOANH NM 2009 CH TIU Doanh thu thun Gi vn hng bn Li gp Chi ph QLDN Li tc t HKD Li tc t hot ng ti chnh Tng li tc trc thu K hoch khai thc kinh doanh nm 2009 Hot ng kinh doanh thu mua go ch bin v xut khu nm 2010: - Gi mua 1 tn la giao ti kho cng ty d kin: - Chi ph xay xt 1 tn la: - Khi lng thu mua kinh doanh la d kin: 2.100.000 VN 145.000 VN 14.500 tn NM 2009 27.589 24.763 2.826 2.034 792 18 810

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton


- T l hao ht khi xay la thnh go: - Gi bn 1 tn go ti kho cng ty: Khi lng thu mua cng l khi lng d kin bn c. Dng bng tnh Excel thc hin cc yu cu sau:

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15% 215 USD

1.Tnh t sut li nhun trn vn t c ca nm 2009 c bit t sut thu li tc l 25% 2. Tnh t sut li nhun trn vn t c nm 2010 ca hot ng kinh doanh go, bit vn t c nm 2010 bng vi 2009, chi ph qun l nm 2010 tng 10% so vi nm 2009, thu doanh thu sut khu l 5%. p dng t gi trao i 1USD=15.000 VN - Vi gi bn bao nhiu th cng ty s ha vn - Vi gi bao nhiu th t sut nm 2010 bng t sut nm 2009 - Trong trng hp cc thng s khc khng i nh k hoch c tnh, nu cng ty mun tng t sut li nhun nm 2010 cao hn 20% so vi nm 2009 th cng ty cn mua v bn bao nhiu tn go?

6. Cng c Data Table Data tables l chc nng ca Excel cho php tnh ton v so snh cc kt qu u ra ca cc gi tr u vo khc nhau ca cng thc. Thng thng khi s dng mt cng thc, ta c sn gi tr u vo v vic p dng cng thc cho kt qu u ra. Tuy nhin trong nhiu trng hp chng ta mun bit vi cc u vo khc nhau th u ra s thay i nh th no. d dng cho ngi dung c th so snh cc kt qu u ra tng ng vi cc kt qu u vo khc nhau, chc nng data tables cho php tnh ton v hin th di dng d nhn hn. S kt hp ca cc gi tr u vo v cc kt qu u ra tng ng ca mt cng thc c th hin trong mt bng ngi dung c th d dng so snh s sai khc. Ty vo nhu cu phn tch ca ngi dung m c th la chn cc bng d liu c 1 hoc hai tham s tnh ton v so snh. 6.1. Phn tch nhy 1 chiu V d ta c d n A c cc s liu c tnh ton th hin theo bng sau:

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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Ti y xt s thay i ca mt yu t Gi n v u vo tc ng n kt qu NPV. Gi n v dao ng t $48 n $53 v mi ln dao ng 1 n v. Cc bc tin hnh nh sau: B1. To vng cha cc gi tr c th c ca Gi n v ti cc D34:I34, ln lt nhp cc con s t 48 n 53. B2. Ti C35 tham chiu n a ch cn phn tch > NPV: C26 B3. t thm cc nhn cho yu t u vo v nhn cho gi tr cn phn tch gip bi ton c r rng hn. B4. nh du chn c vng C34:I35 B5. Chn thc n Data > Table B6. Khai bo ti Row input cell a ch ca cha Gi n v > C4 (nhp vo Row input cell do cc gi tr ca yu t u vo Gi n v c b tr theo dng).

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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B7. Nhp nt OK.

6.1. Phn tch nhy 2 chiu Ti y xt s thay i ca hai yu t Gi n v, Chi ph n v u vo tc ng n kt qu NPV. Gi n v dao ng t $48 n $53 v mi ln dao ng 1 n v. Chi ph n v dao ng t $45 n $55 v mi ln dao ng 1 n v. Cc bc thc hin B1. To vng cha cc gi tr c th c ca Gi n v ti cc D43:I43, ln lt nhp cc con s t 48 n 53. B2. To vng cha cc gi tr c th c ca Chi ph n v ti cc C44:C54, ln lt nhp cc con s t 45 n 55. B3. Ti C43 tham chiu n a ch cn phn tch NPV: C26 B4. t thm cc nhn cho cc yu t u vo v nhn cho gi tr cn phn tch gip bi ton c r rng hn. B5. nh du chn c vng C43:I54 B6. Chn thc n Data > Table B7. Khai bo ti Row input cell a ch ca cha Gi n v > C4 (nhp vo Row input cell do cc gi tr ca yu t u vo Gi n v c b tr theo dng). Khai bo ti Column input cell a ch ca cha Chi ph n v > C3 (nhp vo Column input cell do cc gi tr ca yu t u vo chi ph n v c b tr theo ct)

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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B8. Nhp nt OK.

Qua phn tch nhy, ta thy rng bin dng ca NPV l c bin i theo Gi n v v Chi ph n v. 7. Qun l tnh hung (Scenarios Managements) Trong qu trnh phn tch d liu trong Excel, ngi dung thng c nhiu s la chn cho 1 b d liu v mun xem cc b d liu khc nhau th bng tnh ca h s cho kt qu ra sao. Chc nng qun l tnh hung cho php ngi dung thay i cc gi tr cc d liu v xem kt qu ca s thay i, ng thi cng cho php ngi dung lu cc kt qu c th xem li sau ny. Chc nng ny rt hu ch trong trng hp mun d on kt qu ca m hnh d liu. Phn tch tnh hung: Cng l dng phn tch what-if, phn tch tnh hung tha nhn rng cc bin nht nh c quan h tng h vi nhau. Do vy, mt s t bin s c th thay i theo mt kiu nht nh ti cng mt thi im. Tp hp cc hon cnh c kh nng kt hp li to ra cc trng hp hay cc tnh hung khc nhau l: A. Trng hp xu nht / Trng hp bi quan B. Trng hp k vng/ Trng hp c tnh tt nht

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton C. Trng hp tt nht/ Trng hp lc quan

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Ghi ch: Phn tch tnh hung khng tnh ti xc sut ca cc trng hp xy ra Gii thch l d dng khi cc kt qu vng chc : A. Chp thun d n nu NPV > 0 ngay c trong trng hp xu nht B. Bc b d n nu NPV < 0 ngay c trong trng hp tt nht C. Nu NPV i lc dng, i lc m, th cc kt qu l khng dt khot. Khng may, y s l trng hp hay gp nht. Phn tch tnh hung Cc kt qu kho st v tnh hnh chi ph nguyn vt liu v gi sn phm ca d n trn nh sau:

Chng ta s ln lt to cc Tnh hung theo cc bc sau: B1. Lp bi ton trn bng tnh nh phn 6. B2. Chn thc n Tools > Scenarios

B3. Nhp nt Add

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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- t tn cho Tnh hung l Tt nht ti khung Scenario name - Ti khung Changing cells chn a ch hai cha Chi ph n v v Gi n v l C3:C4. B4. Nhp nt OK - Ti C3 (Chi ph n v) nhp vo gi tr 45. - Ti C4 (Gi n v) nhp vo gi tr 53. B5. Nhp nt Add thm Tnh hung khc, (nhp nt OK tr v bng qun l cc tnh hung). Trong bi ny hy nhp nt Add them cc tnh hung Trung bnh v Xu nht B6. xem kt qu ca tnh hung no th chn tn tnh hung trong danh sch v nhp nt Show. Tng t cho vic to thm, hiu chnh v xa tnh hung th nhp tng ng cc nt Add, Edit v Delete. B7. To bo co tng hp v cc tnh hung > nhp nt Summary - Nhp a ch kt qu (NPV ca d n) C26 ti khung Result cells - Chn kiu bo co l Scenario summary hoc Scenario PivotTable Report. B8. Nhp nt OK sau khi khai bo cc thng s

8. Cng c Solver Solver l mt cng c phn tch nng cao a nng rt mnh ca Excel. N c kh nng x l cc bi ton c nhiu tham s v c th cho mt tnh ton ti u. C th hnh dung tnh nng Solver qua bi ton sau: Gi s khch hng A c mt khon tin N cn mua n loi hng ha (t nht x sn phm 1, y sn phm 2). Hy tm gii php ti u mua c s lng nhiu nht cc sn phm tha mn

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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cc iu kin rang buc vi s tin ban u. Solver trong Excel d dng gii nhanh chng bi ton . Mt s khi nim trong Solver: - Tarrget Cell: Thit lp gi tr mc ti a hay ti thiu ( Thng l gi tr ti a bi ton m ngi dng phn tch tm ra gii php. - Adjustable Cell: Cc m Solver s thay i gi tr tm ra li gii ti u. - Contraints: Cha cc rng buc m Excel phi tham chiu ti. V d: Tm X1 v X2 sau cho hm li nhun F = 350X1 + 300X2 t gi tr cc i vi cc rng buc sau y: X1 + X2 9X1 + 6X2 12X1 + 16X2 X1 X2 200 1566 2880 0 0 (R1) (R2) (R3) (R4) (R5)

B1. T chc d liu trn bng tnh - Bin quyt nh: l s lng sn phm mi loi cn sn xut nhp ti cc B3 v C3. Cho cc gi tr khi ng l 0. - Hm mc tiu: l hm li nhun c tnh cn c trn cc gi tr khi ng ca X1, X2 v li nhun n v. Cng thc ti D4 - Cc rng buc: nhp cc h s ca cc quan h rng buc ti cc B7:C9. Tnh lng ti nguyn s dng ti cc D7, D8 v D9 theo cng thc. Nhp cc gi tr v phi cc cc quan h rng buc ti cc E7, E8 v E9.

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton

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B2. Chn D4 v chn Tools > Solver, sau khai bo cc thng s cho Solver - a ch hm mc tiu D4 c a vo Set Target Cell - Chn Max ti Equal To cho Solver tm li gii cc i cho hm mc tiu, ngha l ti a ha li nhun.

B3. Nhp B3:C3 ti By Changing Cells: l vng a ch cc bin quyt nh (tng trng lng sn phm X1 v X2 cn phi sn xut).

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton


B4. Thm cc rng buc vo Subject to the Constraints

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- Nhp nt Add, chn vng a ch D7:D9 ti Cell Reference, chn du <= v chn E7:E9 ti Constraint. (Cc rng buc R1, R2, R3 u l bt phng trnh dng <= nn ta chn c vng a ch).

Nhp nt Add v khai bo tip cc rng buc v cn di cho X1 v X2 nh hnh 6.5. Nhp OK sau khi hon tt.

Nhp OK sau khi hon tt. .. hiu chnh rng buc ta chn rng buc v nhp nt Change .. xa rng buc, ta chn rng buc t danh sch Subject to the Contraints v nhp nt Delete.

B5. Nhp nt Solve chy Solver, sau hp thoi kt qu xut hin

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Excel ng dng trong Ti chnh, ngn hng, k ton B6. Nhp chn Keep Solver Solution v chn OK.

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