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CNG HIN CA NHNG NGI NHT VIT NAM MI

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CNG HIN CA NHNG NGI NHT VIT NAM MI
VI CUC KHNG CHIN CHNG PHP
CA NHN DN VIT NAM (1945 - 1954)
PGS.TS Hong Hng


Trong thi gian din ra cuc khng chin chng Php ca nhn dn Vit Nam,
c mt s binh s v thng dn nc ngoi do nhiu l do khc nhau cn li Vit
Nam v tham gia cng nhn dn Vit Nam chng Php. H tr thnh nhng
ngi Vit Nam mi nh cch gi ca nhng ngi cch mng Vit Nam.
Khi Nht Bn tuyn b u hng khng iu kin cc nc ng minh, ton
b binh s Nht ng Dng lc khong 9 vn ngi. Theo tho thun ca
cc nc ng minh, binh s Nht c tp trung mt s a im di s
qun thc ca qun i Trung Hoa dn quc (pha bc v tuyn 16) hoc ca
qun Anh (pha nam v tuyn 16), ri sau thng 4 1946 ri Vit Nam v nc
t cng Hi Phng v Vng Tu. Trong khong thi gian ny, do s li lng trong
qun l ca qun Tng v qun Anh, mt s binh s Nht Bn o ng. Theo
C.E. Goscha, mt nh nghin cu lch s ngi M, s binh s Nht Bn o ng
pha bc v tuyn 16 khong 2.000 ngi, cn pha nam v tuyn 16 khong 600
ngi. Nhng con s ny lun lun bin ng v sau nhiu qun nhn Nht t
nguyn hoc b bt tr li n v.
V sao h o ng v khng mun tr v Nht Bn? Cc nh nghin cu
c nhiu cch l gii khc nhau, nhng tu chung thng quy vo cc l do: 1) Bi
quan v tng lai ca nc Nht di s chim ng ca qun M; 2) Lo s b
ngc i vi thn phn l t binh hoc b xt x vi t cch l ti phm chin
tranh; 3) Quyt tm chin u cng vi ch ca mt ngi lnh v s mng lch
s i ng hoc l c mt mi quan h tnh cm no Vit Nam.

Trng i hc Khoa hc X hi v Nhn vn, i hc Quc gia H Ni.



KY YLU HI 1H/ UC 1L \IL1 '/M HC L/' 1HL B/
TIEU BAN LCH S VIET NAM HIEN AI


Hong Hng
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Khng phi tt c cc binh s Nht Bn o ng u tham gia Vit Minh v
cng khng phi h sn sng tham gia Vit Minh ngay sau khi o ng. Hnh
ng o ng ca h khng theo mt ch trng no v cng khng nm trong
mt t chc no.
Oka Kazuaki (cu Hi trng Hi Hu ngh Nht Vit) cho rng c khong 800
ngi Nht li Vit Nam trong c 186 ngi tng tham gia Vit Minh.
C. E. Goscha c tnh c ti a l 200 ngi t nm 1945 n nm 1950 theo
Vit Minh. Ikawa Kazuhisa, tc gi Bn bo co iu tra nghin cu v du
tch ca nhng ngi Nht tham gia khng chin chng Php Vit Nam da
vo ti liu Bn danh sch nhng ngi cha v nc t ng Dng thuc
Php ca B Lao ng v Y t Nht Bn ban hnh thng 7 1955 on nh s
qun nhn Nht Bn o ng v cn li Vit Nam tnh n cui nm 1946 l 800
ngi, trong s ngi tham gia Vit Minh khong 600 ngi v c tnh
khong mt na trong s ng xung trn mnh t Vit Nam.
Theo ngun ti liu ti Trung tm Lu tr Quc gia III, s ngi Nht hi
hng t min Bc Vit Nam din ra qua 3 t (t 1954 n 1960) vi tng
cng l 105 ngi. min Nam, t sau nm 1954, Nht kiu hi hng ri rc
nhng nhiu nht l nm 1978. Nh nghin cu Ikawa Kazuhisa tin hnh iu
tra ti Nht Bn v c danh sch 128 Nht kiu (trong 102 ngi hi hng t
min Bc Vit Nam, 26 ngi hi hng t min Nam Vit Nam).
Da vo ngun ti liu lu tr ca Cc Lu tr Nh nc, Cc Lu tr Vn
phng Trung ng ng, Cc Lu tr B Quc phng, mt s ti liu lu tr ti
Hi Hu ngh Vit Nht, cc hi k ca mt s s quan qun i v ti liu iu
tra du tch nhng ngi Nht Bn hi hng t Vit Nam ca Ikawa Kazuhisa,
chng ti tp hp c mt danh sch gm 160 ngi Nht Bn tham gia
chng Php cng nhn dn Vit Nam
1
. Nhng ngi Nht Bn ny c nhng
ng gp nht nh i vi s nghip gii phng dn tc Vit Nam.
Hot ng ni bt nht ca nhng ngi Nht Vit Nam mi l lnh vc
hun luyn qun s. iu ny xut pht t nhu cu trc tip ca cuc khng chin
chng thc dn Php. Ngy 23 9 1945, thc dn Php n sng nh chim Si
Gn. Cuc khng chin chng thc dn Php ca qun dn Nam B bt u.
Nhim v cp bch ca ng v Chnh ph Vit Nam Dn ch Cng ho lc l
phi tng cng lc lng v trang c v s lng v cht lng. Cc chin s V
quc on cn phi c kin thc v k thut v chin thut, cn b ch huy cn
phi c trnh nht nh v chnh tr v qun s. Nhng ngi Nht Vit Nam
mi c ch huy nhiu n v qun i trng dng lm nhim v hun
luyn qun s.
CNG HIN CA NHNG NGI NHT VIT NAM MI

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Nhng c quan v n v sau y c nhng ngi Nht Vit Nam mi
n ging dy hoc hun luyn k thut, chin thut qun s:
Cc Qun hun, B Tng Tham mu.
Trng Qun chnh Qung Ngi.
Trng Qun chnh Bc Sn.
Trng Qun chnh Cao Min.
Trng Lc qun Trn Quc Tun.
B T lnh Lin khu I.
B Ch huy Chin khu V.
B Ch huy mt trn Nha Trang Khnh Ho.
Trung on Trn Cao Vn.
Trung on 95 Nguyn Thin Thut.
Tnh i Qung Ngi.
Tnh i Ninh Thun.
Tnh i Bnh Thun.
Tnh i H Tnh.
Tnh i H Giang.
Tnh i Ph Th.
Tnh i Bc Giang.
Tnh i Bc Ninh.
...
Tiu biu nht l Trng Lc qun Trung hc Qung Ngi khai ging ngy
01 6 1946 (Tng Nguyn Sn lm Hiu trng) c i ng gio vin qun s
ton ngi Nht. 4 gio vin chnh ca 4 i i l: Tanimoto ng Hng,
Nakahara Mitsunobu Minh Ngc, Ikari Kazumasa Phan Lai, Kamo Tokuji
Phan Hu; 4 gio vin tr ging l: Aoyama Hiroshi, Onishi Suegami, Namada
Suegami, Minegishi Sadai. Ban Hun luyn c 2 ngi Nht l: Ishu Taku
Nguyn Vn Thng, Sato Minh Tm. B phn qun y c bc s Kisei Fujio L
Trung. Bi ging ca gio vin Nht Bn c bin son theo cun B binh thao
in ca qun i Nht. Cc gio vin Nht Bn lun th hin s nhit tnh,
gng mu, cng chu ng mi gian kh thiu thn nh cc hc vin. Trn 400
cn b ch huy s cp c o to trong mt kho hc ca Trng Lc qun
Trung hc Qung Ngi c phn ng gp khng nh ca nhng ngi Nht Vit
Nam mi.
Hong Hng
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Vic s dng cc binh s Nht Bn lm nhim v ging dy, hun luyn
qun s cho cn b v chin s Qun i nhn dn Vit Nam trong thi gian u
ca cuc khng chin chng Php t r l mt ch trng ng v hiu qu.
Nhng ngi Nht Vit Nam mi trong lnh vc ny cng pht huy cao
kh nng ca mnh. C th nh gi y l cng hin ln nht ca nhng ngi
Nht tham gia chng Php cng nhn dn Vit Nam.
Nhiu ngi Nht Vit Nam mi trc tip tham gia chin u. L nhng
binh s c o to bi bn nn trong cc n v chin u, h thng pht
huy c kh nng v k thut, chin thut gp phn tch cc cho thng li ca
nhiu trn nh. Chng ti thng k c 41 ngi Nht tham d nhng chin
dch ln hoc chin u cc mt trn a phng: Chin dch Vit Bc, Chin
dch Bin gii, Chin dch ng s 14; cc mt trn: Pleiku, Bun Ma Thut,
Campuchia, Lo, C Mau, Bin Ho, Bnh Thun, Nng, Qung Ngi, Hu, H
Tnh, Thanh Ho, Thi Nguyn, Vnh Phc, Bc Giang...
Mt s ngi Nht Vit Nam mi th hin c l nhng chin binh qu
cm, c cc chin s Vit Nam cng n v cm phc. C ngi hy sinh (Ikawa
L Ch Ng), nhiu ngi b thng (Yutumn Suchio Nguyn c Hng,
Nakano Isao Nguyn Vn Li, Mavaki Yoshira H Tm, Nobumino Taoto
Nguyn Vn Hin, Iwai Koshio Nguyn Vn Su, Nakamura Ichitaro Trn
Ho, Yamazaki Zensaku Trn H, Nobuyoshi Tachibana Trn c Trung,
Katsuo Uykawa Ng T Cn, Takeshi Amakawwa L Tng...).
Do nhng thnh tch trong chin u v phc v chin u, nhng ngi
Nht Vit Nam mi nhn c trn 30 hun huy chng cc loi ca Chnh
ph v Qun i nhn dn Vit Nam. Sau y l nhng c nhn tiu biu:
1. Iwai Koshio Nguyn Vn Su:
Hun chng Chin cng hng Nht.
Hun chng Chin thng hng Nht,
2. Ikari Kazumasa Phan Lai:
Hun chng Chin cng hng Ba.
Hun chng Chin thng hng Nht.
3. Nakahara Mitsuboni Nguyn Minh Ngc:
Hun chng Chin cng hng Ba.
Hun chng Chin thng hng Nht.
4. Yoshida Tamio Phan Tin B:
Hun chng Chin thng hng Ba.
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Hun chng Chin s hng Ba.
Hun chng Lao ng hng Ba.
K nim chng Khng chin.
5. Tsuchiyo Tuchitani Isamu Nguyn Vn ng:
Hun chng Chin thng hng Ba.
Hun chng Lao ng hng Nh.
K nim chng Khng chin.
6. Yutumi Suchio Nguyn c Hng:
Hun chng Khng chin hng Nh.
Hun chng Chin thng hng Hai.
K nim chng Khng chin.
7. Takeda Yoshiro Nguyn Vn Phc:
Hun chng Chin thng hng Ba.
Hun chng Chin s hng Ba.
K nim chng Khng chin.
8. Nakano Isao Nguyn Vn Li:
Huy chng Chin thng hng Nht.
K nim chng Khng chin.
9. Mavaki Yoshira H Tm:
Huy chng Chin thng hng Nht.
10. Yoshi Omori Nguyn Ngh:
Hun chng Chin s hng Nh.
K nim chng Khng chin.
11. Nobuyoshi Tachibana Trn c Trung:
Huy chng Khng chin hng Nht.
Huy chng Khng chin hng Ba.
12. Yazawa Tsuruji L Vn Thanh:
Hun chng Chin s hng Ba.
Hong Hng
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13. Masato Nakagawa Nguyn Vn Cn:
Huy chng Khng chin hng Ba.
Hun chng Chin thng hng Ba.
K nim chng Khng chin.
14. Shimoda Shichiro Nguyn Vn Tn:
Hun chng Khng chin hng Ba.
Hun chng Chin thng hng Ba.
K nim chng Khng chin.
15. Katsutaro Yoshida Nguyn Quyt Thng:
Huy chng Khng chin hng Hai.
Huy chng Chin s hng Hai.
16. Takeshi Amakawa L Tng:
Huy chng Khng chin hng Nht.
Huy chng Khng chin hng Ba.
Hun chng Chin s hng Ba.
17. Hayaka Seuchiro Tng Vn Hun:
K nim chng Khng chin.
18. Siro Shiina Nguyn Nht Linh:
C 7 giy chng nhn huy, huy chng cc loi.
19. Ota Takuchi Mnh Chung:
Huy chng Chin s hng Nh.
Huy chng Chin s hng Ba.
20. Kenji Mizue Nguyn Tr:
Huy chng Khng chin hng Hai.
Huy chng Chin s hng Hai.
...
C 4 ngi Nht c kt np vo ng Lao ng Vit Nam:
1. Iwai Koshiro Nguyn Vn Su: kt np nm 1952.
2. Yutumi Suchio Nguyn c Hng: kt np nm 1949.
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3. Tsuchiyo Tuchitami Nguyn Vn ng: kt np nm 1949.
4. Yoshida Tamio Phan Tin B: kt np nm 1950.
S c mt ca nhng ngi Nht, nhng ng gp cng sc v xng mu
ca h cho cuc khng chin chng Php ca nhn dn Vit Nam l mt s tht
lch s, nhng s tht lch s ny cn cha c khi phc y . Nhng thng
tin lch s trn y cn rt s si so vi thc t. Cng vic nghin cu chc chn
cn phi tip tc nhm gp phn nhn thc y hn v lch s ca cuc khng
chin chng Php (1945 1954) ca dn tc Vit Nam, v chnh sch i on kt
ca ng Cng sn Vit Nam v v mt du n lch s trong quan h Vit Nht.


CH THCH

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Trong s ny, c nhng ngi ch bit tn Nht m khng bit tn Vit hoc ngc li, v
th c th xy ra s trng lp mt s trng hp.