Rhetorical Modes (Modes of Discourse

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Rhetorical modes (also called modes of discourse) refer to the variety, conventions and purposes of the major kinds of writing.

Rhetorical Modes

Purpose

Audience The audience depends on the purpose of the essay. Audiences can include children, adults, the lay man, ect. The audience is one who will create a mental picture of what is being described or written about.

Content When you are describing something should appeal to all the five senses of the reader (smell, touch, taste, sight and hearing). Sensuous or Sensory details. You don’t just want to give them a visual image; you also want to describe sounds, smells, sensations and tastes. This way the reader will be able to build up a much fuller picture of what is going on. Descriptive writing relies on your ability to show and not tell. This means that you don’t tell people what happened you describe to the reader what happened. For example: Instead of writing “the man was drunk” you could say, “he steadied himself against

Style Artistic Type: all the affective factors should be associated with the senses and should be exploited. Also, there should be explicit use of adjectives that appeals to the senses and descriptive sequences.

Voice Different voice types can be used but these voice types are displayed using descriptive language. E.g. include happy, sad, mysterious ect. Whatever voice used it must appeal to the readers senses i.e. (sight, touch, smell, hearing and taste)

Organization Spatial: meaning that details are presented as they are (or were) located in space--such as, from left to right or from top to bottom. Described and moving to the next part and the next part and so on. For instance, a paper describing a car might start with the front end, then move to the engine and hood, the dash, and the front and back seat areas, then finish with the trunk and rear bumper. Depending on the topic description of a place, building, person, etc. arrange the details of your

The purpose Description of description is to re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that which is being described. “Painting a Picture” with words. It also enables the reader to share the writer's sensory experience of the subject.

the toilet door as he belched the nauseating aroma of whiskey into the surrounding air”. When describing the scene here, there is no need to actually say that he was drunk; the reader can figure that out for themselves. Use only fitting words that can sum up the idea the writer is trying to portray. Use only words that are easy to understand, clear and straight to the point Uses examples to show what the writer means. Uses words and examples that readers will understand.

essay by describing the item from top to bottom, left to right, inside out, outside in, most prominent part to least, or whatever spatial way seems to work for your topic and audience.

Narrative

The purpose of this type of writing is to recount a personal or fictional experience or to tell a story based on a real or imagined event.

The audience depends on the purpose of the essay. Audiences can include children, adults, the lay man, ect.

Includes specific details to make the incident come alive for your reader.

It also focuses on re-creating an incident that happened to you The audience over a short is one who period of time will recreate (usually an an incident emotional or experience experience). for themselves It conveys a based on particular mood what he/ she (feeling) - do you reads. want to surprise your readers, make them laugh, have them share in your sorrow or fear?

Artistic type: all the affective factors should be associated with the senses and should be exploited. Also, there should be explicit use of adjectives that appeals to the senses and descriptive sequences. Also the use of action or dynamic verbs.

Different voice types can be used but these voice types are displayed using descriptive language. The voice used here should convey a particular mood or feeling or making an incident come alive.

Temporal sequence: meaning that its events are sequential. Some types of essays usually narratives, more or less lay out the organization for you by being organized most logically in a chronological or time sequence. A personal narrative, an account of an event, and an explanation of a process are examples of types of papers that usually would work best by being organized chronologicall y from the first event, moment, or step to last event, moment, or step.

There should also be story conventions: a Generally written plot, including in the first person, setting and that is, using "I." characters; a However, third climax; and person ("he," an ending. "she," or "it") can also be used. Narratives rely on concrete, sensory details to convey their point. These details should create a unified, forceful effect, a dominant impression. Narratives, as stories, should include these story conventions: a plot, including

Expository

The purpose of this type of writing is to inform, clarify, explain, define or instruct by giving information, explaining why or how, clarifying a process, or defining a concept.

setting and characters; a climax; and an ending. The audience A clear, central depends on presentation of the purpose ideas, examples of the essay. or definitions that Audiences enhance the focus can include developed children, through a adults, the carefully crafted lay man, ect. reader's understanding. The audience These facts, is one who examples and will read the definitions are information objective and not provided so dependent on that a level of emotion, although understandin the writing may g can be be lively, achieved. engaging and reflective of the writer's underlying commitment to the topic.

Technical\ scientific: appeal is made to intellect (reason). It incorporates the following functions: Analysis, clarification, definition, illustration, cause and effect, comparison and contrast, analogy

The writing is engaging and reflective of the writers underlying commitment to the topic.

No one single method of organizing expositions, but a variety of methods, primarily based on logic Analysis, clarification, definition, illustration, cause and effect, comparison and contrast, analogy are used. The method chosen illustrates the organization of the piece as each method has its own unique characteristics .

Argument

The purpose of an argumentative essay (also called persuas ive writing) is to prove the validity of an idea or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convinces the reader.

The audience depends on the purpose of the essay. Audiences can include children, adults, the lay man, ect. The audience is one who will take an action or change his\her perceptions or opinion based on what he/she has read.

Scientific : which includes evidence, facts personal experience, refutation of counterargument and Expert opinions It also answers the question Why is this so?

Technical\ scientific (logical arguments): for the presentation of evidence arguments use evidence, facts, personal experience, expert opinions and personal experience for its development whilst the rebuttal or refuting side uses persuasion in the form of repetition, emotional appeal and rhetorical questions.

The voice of an argument has a strong and definite position on an issue from the beginning of the piece till the end.

Arguments are organized by formal elements. These formal elements include: 2 claims, the first of which is the conclusion and the other claim(s) is supporting evidence to support or justify the conclusion.

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