30.10.

2012

 

IN RE: VATICAN FINANCIAL AUTHORITY

2117-2012-LP S2012-164114

European Ombudsman
Directorate A Registry

Jonathan LEVY chambers@brimstoneandcompany.com   

Strasbourg, 30/10/2012  Acknowledgement of receipt  Dear Sir/Dear Madam,  I am writing to let you know that your complaint dated 22/10/2012  reached the Office of the European Ombudsman on 23/10/2012 and was  assigned registration number 2117/2012/LP. It will be dealt with by  Mr  Lambros Papadias (tel: +33 (0)3.88.16.49.15).  Enclosed, please find an information note concerning the treatment of  your complaint and the rules governing the protection of personal data which  the Ombudsman applies when dealing with complaints.  Your complaint will first be examined to determine if it falls within the  Institutionʹs mandate. If it does not, I shall inform you accordingly. If it does,  the Ombudsman will write to you.  I would also like to draw your attention to the fact that complaints  submitted to the Ombudsman do not affect time limits for appeals in any  administrative or judicial proceedings (Article 2(6) of the Statute of the  European Ombudsman).  Yours sincerely, 

Peter Bonnor  Head of the Registry 

 
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Information note
Once your complaint has been registered, the Ombudsmanʹs services will  examine if it is within the Institutionʹs mandate. If it is, the Ombudsman will  decide if it meets the admissibility criteria set out in the Treaty on the  Functioning of the European Union and the Statute of the European  Ombudsman. He will then decide whether there are sufficient grounds to  justify opening an inquiry into your complaint. Under normal circumstances,  you will be informed of the findings oncerning these matters within one month.  When the Ombudsman decides to open an inquiry, he sends the complaint to  the EU institution, body, office or agency in question and asks for its opinion. If  the Ombudsman decides that there are insufficient grounds to open an inquiry  into a complaint, he may also send his decision to the institution concerned,  with the complainantʹs name and contact details removed. He will not do this,  however, if, within two weeks of receiving this acknowledgement of receipt, the  complainant expressly objects to such a course of action.   Complaints to the Ombudsman (and any annexed documents) are normally  dealt with publicly. This means that any member of the public may have access  to the complaint and its annexes. If the Ombudsman opens an inquiry, the  opinion of the institution concerned by the complaint, any observations on the  opinion made by the complainant, as well as all other documents in the  complaint file are, in principle, public documents, to which any member of the  public may have access upon request.   However, a complainant has the right to request that his or her complaint be  dealt with confidentially. Such a request can be made or withdrawn at any time.  If confidentiality is requested, there is no public access to the complaint or to  any other documents in the complaint file. However, even a confidential  complaint is sent to the institution concerned if the Ombudsman opens an  inquiry.   The European Ombudsman aims to be transparent and proactive in  disseminating information about his work. Therefore, when he decides to open  an inquiry into a complaint, whether confidential or not, he will publish, on a  specific page of his website, a short description of the subject matter and the  allegations and claims taken up for inquiry. This will be done without  disclosing the identity of the complainant. The Ombudsmanʹs decisions,  whether dealt with publicly or confidentially, will also be published on his  website and may be referred to in his Annual Report in an anonymised form.  A complaint to the Ombudsman may contain personal data relating to the  complainant or to a third party. The processing of personal data by the  Ombudsman is governed by Regulation (EC) No 45/20011. Unless the  complainant requests confidentiality, he or she is understood to consent, for the  purposes of Article 5(d) of Regulation (EC) No 45/2001, to the Ombudsmanʹs  dealing publicly with any personal data which the complaint may contain.           
1 Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2000 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Community institutions and bodies and on the free movement of such data, OJ 2001 L 8, p.1.

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July l, 2010 Cenhal Bank European The GovemingCouncil 29 Kaisershasse am 6031 Frankturt Main I Germany Re: VaticanMoney Launderingof Nazi Gold & Camp Victim Gold to Mint Vaticrn Euros Useof Con€entration Trichet: DearPresident CenhalBank by HolocdustSurvivo$ to This is a communication the European by represented this firm. The HolocaustSurvivorsrequestan investigationofthe World War of well foundedallegations moneylaunderingand retentionof Second camploot by the VaticanBank, a selfdesffibed organofthe The eraconcentration Survivors the Additionally, Holocaust in Holy Seelocated Th€VaticanCity State. of gold in the possession requestan accountingofconc€ntrationcampandvictim the VaticanBank and/orpresentin the Vatican City Stateor controlledby the Holy Seethat may havebeenusedto mint VaticanEuro coinsor to provide financingfor their minting. The ECB hasjurisdiction ov€r this matterpursuantto Article 8 of TheMonetary the between Ewopean {Jnionand The VaticanCity Stateand more Agreement at Art. 8(l)(b). The EU-VaticanMonetaryAgr€ementAnnex firther splcifically Parliamentandof Directive 2005/60/ECofthe European incorporatisby reference ofthe useofthe financial 2005on theprevention the Councilof26 October systemfor the purposeofmoney launderingand terrorist financing' OJ L 309' ofthe Erropean by p.l5 36, andamended Directive2008/20lEC 25.11.2005, Parliament ofthe Cormcil of l1 March 2008 on the prwention ofthe useof and the firancial systemfor the purposeofmoney launderingandterrorist fnancing, the asregards implementingpowersconferredon the Commission' OJ L 76' lg3r0l8, p. 4@7. Therefore,we believethat theseallegationsfall underthe by designated the ECB. auspices ofthe ECB or an EU organization including Mileva Reljanovic' HolocaustSurvivorsandorganizations We represent HolocaustSurvivors and a citizen of Sweden, 25 otherindividualsrepresenting
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Council of from th€ United States.Serbia and ukraine andThe Independent Institute,The Republicof SerbianKrajina Research SerbianRoma,The JasenoYac who were all plaintiffs in the lawsuit in Exile, and threeother organizations Alperin v. VaticanBank. by Angelo Caloi4 was contacted In 1999,the VaticanBank's then president, StateDepartment HolocaustSurvivorsconcemingthe 1998United States About the Fate ofthe 'yartime Reportentitled (lS. Concerns EizenstaVslany pointing to Vatican therewas evidence Treasurywhich concluded ustqshtz camploot. The VaticanBank however involvementin launderingconcenhation District did not answerHolocaustsurvivorsand litigation in the United States Court for the Northem District of Califomia ensued' The VaticanBank was eventuallyfound by the court to be an organofThe Holy Seeand therefore therewas no eiidence that the because immuneftom lawsuit in the United States gold conholled by the VaticanBank was still in the United States'This Ustasha finding was upheldby the Ninth Circuit Court ofAppeals in SanFranciscoand final in March2010. became for ofmoney launderingor accounted The VaticanBank neverdeniedthe charges of campgold it was accused receiving' Plaintiffs produced the conc€ntration andthe transcriptofthe four day depositionof volumesofdeclassiheddocuments former US Army CounterIntelligenceSpecialAgent, William Gowen,who other evidence' araong Treasuryin Romeh 1946-1947 the investigated Ustasha N4r.Gowen,who residesin New York City, testifiedunderoaththat a l0 truck campgold was receivedat the convoyofvaluables including concentration to VaticanBank in 1946.The value ofthis loot was estimated be worth $50 who alsoreported million by US TreasuryAgent EmersonBigelow aboutth€ incident' to contemporaneously his superiorsin Washington aboutthe following: HolocaustSuwivors are concerned l. Gold VaticanEuro coinsmay containdentalandvictim gold from campvictims in former Yugoslavia. concentration ofsame may havebeen Treasuryor the proceeds 2. Valuablesfrom the Ustasha at usedby the Vatican City Statethough accounts the VaticanBank to pay for coins. minting of VaticanEwo denominated
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in 3. The VaticanBank hasrefusedto cooperate any investigationoflaundering ofmoney Treasury,refusedto entera denialto the allegations the Ustasha launderingand choseinsteadto invoke sovereignimmunity in the United States Courts. frnancialinstitutions The Vatican City Stateand the stateownedor operated the between EuroPean thereinby enteringinto t!rc TheMonetaryAgreement underECB Union aid The l/;tican city Statehavespecificallyplacedthemselves for jurisdiction and havewaivedtheir sovereignimmunity in exchang€ the right to coin Euro cunency. an HolocaustSurvivorsrequestthe ECB designate investigatorycommitteeor agencyto which HolocaustSurvivorsmay submitthefuevidenceand that the in VaticanBank and VaticanCity Statebe requiredto cooperate the investigation'

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Dr. Jonathan Levy Brimstone Co & Attomeys Solicitors & 1629K Street NW Suite300 Washington 20006 DC USA

23 SEPTEMBER20IO

Dear Levy, Dr. ofreplyto your been informed my letter that dated August 30 2010, heve I Uponreceipt ofyour letter apologise for mistake d€eply l original letter dated July2010 never dueto anadministrative I was sent reply. theinconvenience andattach original caused my

Yours sincerely,

de AntonioSdinz Vicuf,a Director Ceneral LegalServices

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Levy Dr. Jonathan & Brimstone Co Atlorneys Solicitors & 300 K NW 1629 Street Suite DC Washinglon 20006 USA

DearDr. Levy, notethat CentralBank' Please to Thankyou for your leter datedI J(ty 2010addressed the EuropeaD ol' (EU)andtheVatican CityState I7 DeceDber Union the Agreement betweeD European rheMonetary 219(l)of to into was (the"EU-Vatican Agreement") entered by theEU pursuant Article Monelary 2009 acting the (TFEU) Under provision EU Courcil' this of Union theTreaty theFurctioning European on central Bank the and cornmission. afterconsulting European liom o,r a recontntendrltioD the European with agreements third of and (ECB).deoides arrangelnents the negotiation co|lclusion monetary for the to the Agrecmelt, position betakenby the EU regarding Monetary ofthe EU-Vatican Stales. thecase In 2009' of was of the reDegotiatiorr this AgreemeDt set oul in an EU CouncilDecision 26 November to with thatthe negotiations the vaticancity statewererequired be clarifies Article 3 of this Decision EU, on CommissioD behalfofthe thattheECBwas Republic theEuropean and conducted theltalian by was but with required be fully associated the negotiations, thatthe ECB'sagreement req iredonly on lo Mr' with ConsisteDt thismandate, Joaquin ofcompetence lallingwithinthe ECB'sfields those issues Affairs, and for responsible Economic Monetary commission ofthe European l.or.rner Member Alrnunia. also for MonetaryAgreement the EU. The Eu-VaticanMonetaryAgreement the sigDed EU-Valican and Commissior by the ltalianRepublic' by that specifies the EU is represented the European while the ECB Agreement' Monetary under Eu-Vatican the the Regarding ECB's fieldsof competence within the EU, the ECB'S the issueof euro banknotes to has an exclusivecompetence aulhorise TFEU n is with in competences the areaoieuro coirlsis morerestrictedln accordance Article 128(2) Council by to eurocoins,subject theapproval the ECB'sCoverning whichissue the EU MemberSfates, and Commission' from the European on It ofthe volumeofthe issuance. is the EU Council, a proposal

againonlyalierconsultingtheECB'whichadoptsmeasurestoharmonisethedenominationsand to to for of lechnicalspecificatioDs all coins intended circulation the exlent necessary permit their matters to ofthe EcB with respect cornage within the EU. This narrowcompetence smooth circulation Article6 of Agreement, Monetary ofthe Eu_Vatican in underEU law is directlyreflected the provisions
councilDccisionof26Nov€mbel2009onthepositiontobelakenb}lheEuropeanCommunityrcgardjng$e Union.L 321,

to by which requires that the volumeof euro coins issued the VaticanCity Statewill be added the by ofthe totalvolumeofthe issue ofthe ECB approval by volumeofcoins issued Italy for the purposes with thatMemberState accordance Article l2E(2)TFEU. in Under Monetary Agreement in You alsomakereference your lefterto Article 8(l) of the Eu_Vatican throughdirect measures, to this provisionthe VaticanCity Stateundertakes adopt all appropriate the with a view to implementing EU legalactsand rules equivalent actions, transpositions possibly or of and in listedin the Annexto theAgreement, thefield of: (a) eurobanknotes coins;and(b) prevention meansof payment, prevention fraud and counterfeiting cashand non-cash of of moneylaundering, Article 8(3) furtherclarifiesthat the Annex reporting requirements medals and tokensand statistical role in this particularrespect Th€ Comrnission's annuallyby the Commission. will be amended general role the legislative under EU Treaties the complements Commission's we that you referthis matterto the cabinet of the Memberof the Againstthis background, suggest Affairsfor furtherconsideration for and responsible Economic Monetary Commission

Yours sincerely,

de AntonioSeinz Vicufia Director Ceneral LegalServic€s

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20, October 2010 Olli Commissioner Rehn Commission European DirectorateGeneralfor EconomicandFinancialAffairs B-1049Brussels Belgium Fax:(+32)2 29 80998 Via Fax andMail MonetaryAgreement In re: HolocaustVictim Gold andthe EuAy'atican Rehn: DearCommissioner Dr. We represent Milan Batesof the United Kingdom who is legal successor Batesand we also in interestto SerbianHolocaustsurvivor Nadezda Swedishcitizen and Holocaustsurvivor,Mileva Reljanovicbom in represent representing severalSerbianorganizations 1930.We further represent wilh an interestin this issue:The Republik SrpskaKrajina in members Council of SerbianRoma,and The Jasenovac Exile, the Independent Holocaustsurvivorsand Memorial Center.OutsideEurope,we represent and Serbia. their heirs in the United States We arewriting to you at the directionof Mr. Antonio S6inzde Vicuia' the Cental Bank in regards Director Generaloflegal Servicesfor the European to our initial requestofJuly 1, 2010 for an inquiry into Euro coinagepolicies and see by the VaticanCity State.Please atlachedcorrespondence resulting Central legal opinion by Mr. S6inzde Vicufia on behalfofthe European and by Bank hereinincorporated reference attachment. This requestincludesthe Vatican's completefailure to accountfor as in Holocaustrelatedassets it possession being inimical with the curent

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EU VaticanMonetaryAgreementof 2010 (20l0lc 28105).We specifically invoke Article 8 ofthe Agreementwhich states: Article 8 to I. The VaticanCity Stateshall undertake adopt all appropriatemeasures, or throughdirect transpositions possibly equivalentactiorts,with a view to the implementing EIJ legal ac* and rules listed in theAnnexto this in Agreement, thefield of: (a) euro banknotes coins, and preventionoffraud and counterfeiting ft) preventionofmoney laundering, meansofpayment,medalsand tokensand statistical ofcash and non-cash nt r epor ting / equireme s. issue This requestfor an investigationand inquiry dealswith the unresolved of the "UstashaTreasury"and the missinggold andothervaluablesfrom by former Yugoslaviafirst documented the 1998United StatesState About theFate ofthe Reportentitled Concerns Department Eizenstat/Slany that Treasurywhich concluded therewasevidence WartimetJstasha campgold and concentmtion pointing to Vaticaninvolvementin larmdering loot after the Second World War. This gold bullion, silver, and othervaluablesarevictim property looted from for Roma,and Jewswhich hasneverbeenaccor'rnted by the Vatican Serbs, including our own lawsuit in the United States demands despitenumerous againstthe VaticanBank (Institute for Religious Works).Dr. Bates,Ms. Relijanovic andthe othervictims sufferedlossesof family propertyto the andjewelry \thich was lootedby including gold, silver, banknotes Ustasha at and the Ustasha eventuallydeposited the Vatican in 1946andhasbeen for unaccounted since. For examole:

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Bateswas bom in Bihac, Bosnia,Kingdom ofYugoslavia in 1923. Nadezda in Plaintiffs father,JankoBates,was a wealthy Serbbusinessman Bihac and namedKafanaBeograd- The Batesfamily owned ownedan establishment a otherpropertiestbroughout the region andhad accumulated numerous jewelry greatdeal of wealthincluding an opulentlyfirmishedhomeand and of including one dozenhandmadebracelets 18 caratgold with sapphires madein the samefashionwith dark sapphires, and diamonds threenecklaces of twenty rings madeof l8 caratgold, hundreds gold ducats,and manyitems a ofcashanda largestockof oflesservalue. Theyalsopossessedquantity food and drink usedin their trade. On Jme 23, 1941agentsofthe Ustasha the Regimeenteredinto Bihac andarrested SerbandJewishinhabitants' pillaging andplunderingof the Bates Plaintiffwitnessedthe well organized by family propertyandJewishpropertiesin the neighborhood the Ustasha the Regime'sagents. Teamsof specialsoldierswith trucks conducted soldiersherdedthe looting operationin a thoroughmanner. The Ustasha SerbsandJewsinto the changingroomsat tle Bihac sportsgrounds,where valuables' Plaintiff relievedofany concealed they werethoroughlysearched whereher father to andher family wastransported Kmjeusaby the Ustasha armedforcesunderthe commandof andbrotherweremurderedby Ustasha of the Ustasha Govemor Bihac,LjubomirKvatemik'.. Dr. Milan Batesis a residentof the United Kingdom and is legal heir to an theseclaimson behalfofthe Batesfamily and demands accountingof to Treasuryestimated worth 40 ouncesand their shareofgold in the Ustasha of$100,000. the familyjewelryworth in excess Mileva Reljanovic(Vujcic) wasbom in 1930in Vojskova,Bosni4 Kingdom ofYugoslavia andcrmently residesin Sweden.In 1942the Ustasha Regime'sagentsforcibly removedall Serbsfrom Vojskova in orderto ownedby plaintiffs "colonize" the region. The village storeand its contents ofthe town terrorizedby family was seizedandthe Serbresidents armedforceswho killed andrapedindiscriminately rampagingUstasha to were converted cashby the arnongthe Serbs. The storeandits contents addedto the Regime'sMinistry ofColonization andthe proceeds Ustasha Ustasha Treasury. Plaintiff andher family membenwere sent1oJasenovac
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campwhereher fatherand someofher siblingsdied. Upon concentration the Regimeagentsconfiscated jewelry the the enteringJasenovac, Ustasha . on family had concealed their persons. . This gold andothervaluablesarein Vaticancustodyandwere lootedby the Stateof Croatiabetween194l-1945aspart ofthe Ustasha Independent Jews,and Romain which an estimated genoiidal campaignagainstSerbs, at The were so 500,000 calledundesirables liquidated' goldwasdeposited by authored documents the Vatican in 1946accordingto contemporaneous US by and Allied investigators buttressed the swom testimonyof former SpecialAgent William Gowenwho while stationedin Romeinvestigated involved in the transferof lot to the Vatican in and interviewedthe Ustasha 1946and1947. longlawsuitin the United ofa the This victim gold hasbeen subject decade States1999to 2010 againstthe VaticanBank (Institute for ReligiousWorks) Order. The lawsuit however andwhich is still pendingasto The Franciscan to without prejudicein regards the VaticanBanlq it was wasdismissed not dismissed on the merits,but on groundsof lack of subjectmatter jurisdiction dueto Vaticansovereign oryan immunity from legal processin and Thatjudgmentwas appealed is now final by order of ihe United States. Ninth Circuit Court ofAppeals asof March 2010. the United States the In sum,we arerequesting Commissionopenan inquiry into allegations by ofmoney launderingofHolocaust victirn assets financial organs ofthe VaticanCity Stateandalsodeal with or which areagencies associated with the questionwhetherHolocaustvictim gold andpropertyhasbeenused by the VaticanCity Statein the minting ofor generalbackingofthe Vatican Eurosandthe ordinary City Stategold, otherpreciousmetal commernorative Euro coinageregime. The allegationis well founded,basedon fact, and quite serioussincethe Commissionsurelycannottoleratethe Euro issuing wit} Vatican campgold or beingassociated antitieslaunderingconcentration by requests Holocaustvictims to financial institutionsthat refusereasonable

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accountfor their proPerty. We standreadyto submitelectronicallya largevolume of information to including testimonyanddocumentation supporttheseallegationsandto entirely. We also notethat the VaticanBank (Institutefor cooperate ReligiousWorks) is currentlyunderinvestigationand subjectto a freezing order by Italian authoritiesfor moneylaunderingactivity lending credulity that Vatican City Statefinancial practicesdo not meet to our allegations their obligationto the EU underapplicabletreatiesnor comply with a FATF anti moneylaunderingstandards. Despitebeingprovidedampleopportunityand forum, the Vatican has refusedto answerthis allegationby Holocaustvictims by citing repeatedly tlrough sovereignimmunity from inquiry instead.However,we assert the VaticanMonetaryAgreementwith the EU, the time has finally anived matterofHolocaust assetlaunderingby for closurein this long unresolved Commissionand European ofthe European the Vaticanunderthe auspices Bark. Central Sincerely,

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Le\T iJonathan et Solicitorfor Dr. Milan Bates al.

for Mr. Antonio S6inzde Vicuff4 the Dircctor Generalof Legal Services the Eurooean CentralBank

ATTORNEYS, SOIJCITORS, BARRISTERS AND ADVOCATES' WASHINGTON, DC

PFIMARY LICENSE

Ref. Ares(2010)792544 - 09/11/2010

EUROPEAN COMMISSION
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DIRECTORATE GENER AL ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL AFFAIRS Financial stability and monetary affairs Financial institutions and financial stability Head of Unit

Brussels,
ECFIN/E3/BA (2010)

Subject:

Holocaust Victim Gold and the EU/Vatican Monetary Agreement

Dear Mr. Levy,

Following your letter of October 20, 2010 and your request for the Commission to open an inquiry against the Vatican City State concerning the money laundering of Holocaust victim assets and the possible use of their gold in the minting of euro coins, the Commission examined carefully your claim. The Monetary Agreement between the European Union (EU) and the Vatican City State, as you rightly have noticed in your letter, obliges the Vatican City State to implement a set of EU legislation on prevention of money laundering by the end of 2010. The Vatican authorities are currently in the process of transposing this relevant legislation into its legal order, and I can assure you that the Commission in its capacity carefully monitors this process. According to the draft law received from the Vatican authorities, we can inform you that in line with the EU laws requirements this draft foresees an establishment of a special authority, operational as of January 1, 2011 for implementing the anti-money laundering measures, and with the right to convey appropriate controls of the relevant institutions of both in the Vatican and the Holy See. This authority will cooperate with the EU and with the relevant international bodies active in the fight against money laundering. As regards, your points on the coin issuance - the Commission Services contacted the Vatican authorities which ensured us that:

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(i) The silver euro collector coins are minted by an external contractor - the Insitututio Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato of the Italian Republic, and the latter purchases itself the silver needed for minting of sliver collector coins, (ii) The gold collector coins are also minted by the Insitututio Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato of the Italian Republic. The raw material needed for minting it is purchased each time by the Vatican City State from specialised Swiss whole-selling institutions...

Yours sincerely,

\

Beni amin Angel

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17, November 2010 Euronean Commission Direitorate Generalfor Economicand FinancialAffairs Angel Mr. Benjamin Brussels B-1049 Belgium Agreement Monetary Victim Gold andthe EU/Vatican Holocaust DearMr. Angel: regardingHolocaust to I am writing in response your recentcommunication Victim Gol-dandthe EU/VaticanMonetaryAgreement' Thank you for the to ofvatican Eurosis claimed that clarification the gold andsilvercontent Nazi victim gold. be fteeof tainted of victim gold andmoneylaundering As to the largermatterofHolocaust ofthe EU clarification we institutions, seek same Vaticanfinancial by in Vatican Authority to be established 201I to combatactivemoney laundering. and retention, failureto aboutValicar laundering, l. Will our complaint be for account World War II eravictim assets addressed? 2. What is the compositionof this Authority? of to 3. Will the Authority'srulingsbe considered bewithin the fiamework EU generallaw andthus subjectto judicial review. in and Thank you againfor your consideration responsiveness this important matter.

UCENSE ATTORNEYS, SOLICTIORS, BARRigTERg AND ADI.OCATES' PRIMARY DC WasHlNGToN,

BRIMSTONE & CO.
ATTORNEYS & SOLICITORS
I629 K STREETNW SUITE 3OO WA3HINGTON DC 20006 USA T ELrl F Ax 1.202.3 | &24Oe INFO@BRIMSTONEANDCOMPANY.COM
WIV\lt|. BRIMSTONEANDCOMPANY.COM

Sincere Levy, PhD Dr. Jonathan

et for Solicitor Dr. MilanBates al.
Mr. Antonio S6inzde Vicufia, the Director GeneralofLegal Servicesfor the Euopean central Bank

aTToRNEYs, SoLIclToRs, BAFRIsTERS AND ADvocATEa' waaHlNGToN' Dc

PRIMARY ucENgE

BRIMSTONE& CO. JONATHAN LEVY
ATTORNEY & SOLICITOR

| 629 K STREEY N\lv SUrrE 3('0 WASHINGTONDC 2()006 USA T ELIF ax | -202-9 | a-24oe

htly 2,2011 Autorita di InformazioneFinanziaria(AIF) Cardinal Attilio Nicora,President PalazzoSanCarlo Rome VATICAN CITY Victim Gold andthe EU/VaticanMonetaryAgreement Ustasha Your Eminence: aboutthis matterin detail with the We havepreviouslycorresponded CentralBank. We werethenreferred European CommissionandEuropean AIF by the European CommissionDirectorateGeneralfor to the nascent 5, Affair on January 2011.We havewaitedseveral Economic Financial and monthsfor the AIF to becomefully active andstaffedunderits enabling at statutes beforecontactingyou abouta matterinvolving certainaccounts the IOR (Istituto per le Operedi Religione)tlrat havebeenusedto launder frorn former Yugoslavi4 the so andretain World War II eravictim assets Treasury.Our clients includeHolocaustsurvivorsworldwide calledUstasha Vestigesofthe assets, in andorganizations Serbiaandthe United States. propertyor profits therefrom are still including moveableandimmoveable at on deposit theIOR. issue This requestfor an investigationand inquiry dealswith the unresolved ofthb "UstashaTreasury"andthe missing gold and othervaluablesfrom by former Yugoslaviafirst documented the 1998United StatesState About the Fateofthe Deparbnent Eizenstat/Slany Reportentitled Concerns tbat therewas evidence Treasurywhich concluded WartimeUstasha campgold and pointing to Vaticaninvolvementin launderingconcentration loot after the Second World War.

This gold bullion, silver, and othervaluablesarevictim propertylootedfrom regimewhich CroatianUstasha Roma,andJewsby the unrecognized Serbs, demands for hasneverbeenaccounted by the Vaticandespitenumerous tle including our own lawsuit in the United Statesagainst VaticanBank sufferedlossesof (Institutefor ReligiousWorks). The victims we represent andjewelry family propertyto the Usasha including gold, silver, banknotes at and which was lootedby the Ustasha eventuallydeposited the Holy See's for and VaticanBank in 1944-1946 havebeenunaccounted since. For example: Nadezda Bateswas bom in Bihac, Bosnia,Kingdom of Yugoslaviain 1923 in Plaintiffs father,JankoBat€s,was a wealthy Serbbusinessman Bihac and namedKafanaBeograd. The Batesfarnily omed ownedan establishment a numerous otherpropertiesthroughout the region andhad accumulated jewelry greatdealof wealth including an opulently funished homeand and of including onedozenhandmadebracelets 18 caratgold with sapphires madein the samefashionwith dark sapphires, diamonds threenecklaces and twenty rings madeof l8 caratgold, hmdredsof gold ducats,andmanyitems a oflesser value. They alsopossessed quantityofcash and a large stock of food and drink usedin their trade. On June23, 1941agentsofthe Ustasha the Regimeenteredinto Bihac andarrested SerbandJewishinhabitants. the Plaintiff witnessed well organizedpillaging andplunderingof the Bates by family propertyandJewishpropertiesin the neighborhood the Ustasha the Regime'sagents.Teamsof specialsoldierswith trucks conducted soldiersherdedthe looting operationin a thoroughmanner. The Ustasha SerbsandJewsinto the changingroomsat the Bihac sportsgrounds,where valuables.Plaintiff relievedofany concealed they werethoroughlysearched whereher father to andher family was transported Kmjeusaby the Ustasha armedforcesunderthe commandof by andbrotherwere murdered Ustasha Governorof Bihac, Ljubomir Kvatemik. the Ustasha Dr. Milan Batesis a r€sidentof the United Kingdom and is legal an repr6sentative theseclaimson behalf of the Batesfamily and demands to to Treasuryestimated worth of accounting oftheir share gold in the Ustasha of$100,000. 40 ounces tle familyjewelry worthin excess and Mileva Reljanovic(Vujcic) was born in 1930in Vojskova,Bosnia,Kingdom of Yugoslaviaand currentlyresidesin Sweden.In 1942the Ustasha forcibty removedall Serbsftom Vojskovain orderto Regime'sagents

"colonize" the region. The village storeand its contentsowtredby plaintifFs of family was seizedandthe Serbresidents the town terrorizedby armedforceswho killed andrapedindiscriminately rampagingUstasha to amongthe Serbs. The storeand its contentswere converted cashby the addedto the Regime'sMinistry ofColonization andthe proceeds Ustasha were sentto Jasenovac Ustasha Treasury. Plaintiff and her family members concentration campwhereher fatherand someofher siblings died. Upon the confiscated jewelry the Regimeagents enteringJasenovac, Ustasha the Ms. Reljanovic,a Swedishcitizen family hadconcealed their persons. on alsorequests an accountrng. Cormcil of SerbianRoma,Republik The organizations, Independent the Memorial CenterandJasenovac SrpskaKrajina in Exile, The Jasenovac on Institutealsorequestan accounting behalfoftheir members Research someof who were victims or legal heirs of victims of the Ustasha. This gold andother raluablesarein VaticanBank custodyand werelooted 1941-1945 partofthe as between State Croatia of by the Independent genocidalcampaignagainstSerbs,Jews,andRomain which an Ustasha mainly Serbsand Rom4 were 500,000so calledundesirables, estimated at was liquidated.The gold and lootedassets deposited tle VaticanBank in by authored Allied documents 1946accordingto contemporaneous by investigators buttressed the sworntestimonyof former US Special and and Agent William Gowenwho while stationedin Romeinvestigated of involved in the tr-ansfer lot to the Vaticanin 1946 interviewedthe Ustasha . and1947 I mustalso addthe lossesof our Romaclients areextremelywell Council of Serbian documented throughthe efforts ofthe Independent wereoften in gold and silver coin andwere confiscated Roma.Romaassets part ofthe Ustasha Treasury. and by the Ustasha became This victim gold hasbeenthe subjectofa decadelong lawsuit in the United States1999to 2010 againstthe VaticanBank (Institute for ReligiousWorks) Order.' The lawsuit however andwhich is still pendingasto The Franciscan without prejudicein regardsto the IOR andOFM, it was was dismissed
I Alperin v. Vaticln BqnLand OFM, United States District Court for the NorthemDistrict District Judge, of Califomia. D.C. No. CV-99-0494I-MMC. Maxine M. Chesney, Presidine.

not dismissed on the merits,but on groundsof lack of subjectmatter jurisdiction dueto Vaticansovereignorganimmunity from legal process in the United States. Thatjudgrnentwas appealed is now final by order of and Ninth Circuit Court of Appealsas of March 2011. We are the United States now free to bring this matterdirectly to the Vaticanashasbeensuggested repeatedly the pastby the IOR's attomey,Mr. Lena.We havenot doneso in previouslybecause AII was not yet in existence no appropriate the and authorityexistedover the IOR or its accountholders.As the appealis now terminated, bring this mafterto you in a timely fashion. we openan inquiry andaccounting In surn,we arerequesting Comrnission the into thesewell foundedallegationsofrnoney launderingandretentionof Holocaustvictim assets financial organsassociated with or which are by agencies ofthe VaticanCity State. We standreadyto submitelectronicallyor by post a largevolume of informationincluding testimonyand documentation supportthese to of allegationsandto cooperate entirely. The legal representatives the OFM from theUS andIOR arealsoin possession ofvolumesoflegal docurnents which havenot beenreleased. Courtsandtheir own internalinvestigations Despitebeingprovidedampleopportunityandforum, the OFM and IOR has repeatedly refusedto answerthis allegationby Holocaustvictims by citing However,we sovereign jurisdictional immunity from inquiry instead. and with the EU, the time has assert throughthe VaticanMonetaryAgreernent matterofHolocaust asset finally anived for closurein this long unresolved Commission launderingby the Vaticanunderthe auspices ofthe European andEuropean CenhalBank. that IOR accounts and/ortheir successor accounts areor were associated with thesenamesareidentified asbeing undersuspicionofretaining Holocaust assets: Ante Bonifacic Orderof FriarsMinor CroatianAlmanac Newspaper CroatianCatholicMessenger Croatian Custody ofthe Holy FamilyofChicago CroatianHistorical Society CroatianLiberationMovement

Croatian Publishing House Croatia (of Danica Newspaper Chicago) Draganovic Fr. Krunoslav Fr. DominikMandic,OFM Franciscan Printery(of Chicago) Srecko Psenicnik of TheCroatian Confraternity SanGirolamo Diocese Zageb of TheRoman Catholic we and in Thankyoufor yourcooperation this endeavor with all duerespect with request members that ofthe FIA whoareassociated IOR or OFM ofa recuse themselves this matterowingto theappearance conflictof from giventheprohacted this litigationthatpreceded request. interest or by Finally,we will request acknowledgement fax +l -202-318-2406 an jonlevy@hargray.com yourreoeipt ofthis letter. regarding email: Sincerely,

r. Jonathan Lely, AttomeyandSolicitor

BRIMSTONE&

CO.

LEYY JONATHAN ATTORNEY & SOLICITOR ' 629 K STREET N\/v SUITE 3OO WASHINGToN DC 20006 USA T EL/ F ax 1 -2O2-3 | A-24Od

24, September 2011 Autoritd di InformazioneFinanziaria(AIF) Attilio Nicora,President Cardinal Palazzo Carlo San Rome VATICAN CITY Victim Gold andthe EU,^/aticanMonetaryAgreement Ustasha Yow Eminence: I genocide formerYugoslavia, in ofthe Ustasha As attomeyfor survivors this We beliefthatjusticewill be done. began effort for haveanunshakeable Treasuryin 1999from the VaticanBank and an accountingofthe Ustasha the Franciscan Order.Thereforeit waswith somehope,we greeted formationofthe Autoritd di InformazioneFinanziaria(AIF) andour referral DirectorateGeneralfor Economicand to it by the European Commission, FinancialAffairs, FinancialInstitutionsUnit. Again we waitedpatientlyuntil July 2, 201I for the Autorita di InformazioneFinanziariato becomefully staffedand functional' We See tendered communication. Attachmentand Certificateof mailing. On our to September 2011 we attempted fax your ofiice a reminderbut we have 2, no received response, Treasuryis not a solely historical claim; we are The matterof the Ustasha ofthese ftmdsstill exist at convincedthat evidenceor evenremnants For institutionsunderthe AIF's supervision. example,in the pastfew years, involving looted diamondsformerly in the custodyof significantaccusations the the DioceseofZagreb haveappeared, so called"Zagoracaffair."

We are awarethat sinceJuly the AIF andVaticanBank (IOR) may have sinceour severed their overlappingstaffing. This was oneof our requests dealsin part with the IOR. Howeverwe do not understand communication no why we havereceived response. are Our witnesses in their 80's and 90's. We haverecentlylocateda direct Treasuryby individuals witnessto moneylaunderingofthe Ustasha World War Italy. He is in affiliated with the IOR and OFM in post Second in his 90's andresides Canada. I am surethe lack ofresponseby the AIF is an oversight.However if we we anlthingwithin 30 daysofreceiptofthis communication, havenot heard and will not standidly by while out witnesses survivorspasson. or by Finally, we still requestan acknowledgement fax +1 -202-318-2406 regardingyour receiptof this letter. email: jonlevy@hargray.com

Levy, PhD . Jonathan AttomeyandSolicitor

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28, November 201I ' European Commission DirectorateGeneralfor Economicand FinancialAffairs Affairs Financial Stability& Monetary Institutions Financial & Stabiliw Financial Headof Unit Angel Mr. Benjamin Brussels B-1049 Belgium F ax:ft32) 2 29 80998 Via Fax,EmailandMail (AIF) & Eu/Vaticar Autoriti di Informaz Finanziaria ione In re: (Vatican) 5, LetterofJanuary 2011 Commission MonnetaryAgreement European and (ref.no 93l9) DearMr. Algel: and of with theEU Commission 5, On January 201I followinga series letters of the Euopean CentralBank, you refened our allegations post World War from former Yugoslaviaby cunent and Two eramoneylaunderingof assets pastaccountholdersat the Istituto per le Operedi Religione(IOR) to the AutoritA di InformazioneFinanziaria(AIF) which wasjust formed at the beginning of201l dated or The AIF hasrefusedto acknowledge respondto our correspondence to 24, I]uly2,2011andSeptember 2011. We alsoattempted fax the AIF on and with Vaticanagencies 2, on September 2011.Based my prior dealings by nonfeasance the AIF organs, canonly concludethis is yet againdeliberate I to avoid takingjurisdiction. I note someAIF officers are forner or culrent for officials ofthe IOR. This behavioris completelyinappropriate aa agency and anti moneylaunderingand whosepurportsto carry out harmonization fiscalpolicies' ofEU, COEandEurozone anti tenorismprovisions

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consistent theIOR's 10year with is Thebehavior ofthe AIF however 10004 legal battle in the United Statesfederalcourtsin the case Alperin v. Vatican District Court for the Northem District of Bank and OFM,lJnited States District MaxineM. Chesney, D.C.No. CV-99-04941-MMC. Califomia. in or no Judge,Presiding. The IOR spared expense legal argument ultimately jurisdiction over it andits preventinga federalcourt from exercising that the IOR confederate, Franciscaa the Order.This bolstersthe argument underanti moneylaunderingregimes. andAIF shouldbe held accountable The Vatican stateby engagingin intemationalbarking throughthe IOR, purportingto carry out EU anti moneylaunderingand anti terrorism mustby directivest}rough the AIF andas a memberofthe Eurozone, follow the applicablelaws andmay not hold itself abovethe law. necessity to As you may know fiom our previouscorrespondence the EU Commission, individualsof Serb,Jewish,and Roma over a thousand our firm represents We in descent worldwidewith the majorityresident Serbia. represent Union including Swedenandthe United individualsresidentin the European severalorganizationincluding the Jasenovac Kingdom. We also represent Council of SerbianRoma,andthe Republik Memorial Society,Independent non and Serbia theAmerican profit ofSrpskaKrajinain Exileall ofBelgrade, Institute.Our clientsarewell into their Research corporation,Jasenovac second decade legal struggleandmany of the original victims have of on unfortunatelypassed without closure. has that Commission indicatedthat within the We appreciate the European frameworkof EU law it doeshaveauthorityto initiate legal or other actions againstthe Vatican. to requestthe EuropeanCommission Thereforewe unequivocally ofthe AIF in general the investigate allegedinstitutionalshortcomings for hold the AIF accountable its willful failure to and if necessary address our legitimatemoneylaunderingallegations that even exhibitswe haveidentified severalIOR accounts In the attached treasury.The or now may still hold remnants profits derivedfrom the Ustasha Order,have IOR and at leastoneofthe accountholders,the Franciscan Any further The categoricallyrefusedto cooperate. AIF refusesto respond. attempts us to bring this matterbeforeAIF appearto be futile absenta by cogentexplanationfrom AIF abouttheir handlingof our correspondence.

the Therefore, behalfofour clientswe allege following: on as it ofthe AIF prevent from functioning an l. The structure personnel and authority; independent the correspondence Vaticandeems doesnot answer 2. TheAIF asa practice objectionable; of matteris an indication in 3. TheAIF's nonfeasance our oarticular institutional failure to comply with applicableEU Directives. actionincluding take Commission appropriate We askthattheEuropean this usingits goodofficesto resolve matter. It is our positionthat financial institutionsmustbehavein an ethicaland legal answers solelyto its God the manner.While we do not dispute Vaticanstate the of in matters offaith, in matters finance lawsof Man apply. lly Respectfu submitted,

Attomey and Solicitor this PSPlease notewe arealsocopying to Moneyvalat theCouncilofEurope is which we understand currently evaluatingthe fitnessofthe AIF. Copyto: Direitorate GeneralofHuman Rights andLegal Affairs Directorateof Monitoring Councilof Europe CEDEX,FRANCE 67075Sfasbourg email dghl.monelval@coe.int :

BRIMSTON E& CO. JONATHAN LE\'Y
ATTORNEY & SOLICIfOFI ' 629 K STREET Nl/v SUITE 3OO WASHTNGTON DC 2C)006 USA 1 -202-3 | a'24O4 TEL/F^x

2,2011 Jtrly (AIF) Finanziaria Autoritddi Informazione Attilio Nicora,President Cardinal San Palazzo Carlo Rome VATICAN CITY Agreement Monetary Victim Goldandthe EU/Vatican Ustasha YourEminence: aboutthis matterin detailwith dle conesponded We havepreviously CenhalBank- We werethenreferred and ELrropean Commission European for General Directorate Commission AtF to thi nascent by the European 5, Affair on January 20| | We havewaitedseveral Econornic Financial and underits enabling fully activeandstaffed for rnonths theAIF to becorne at you beforecontacting abouta matterinvolvitrgcefiainaccounts statutes that di the IOR (lstitutoperle Opere Religione) havebeenrsedto launder the fiom formerYugoslavia, so andretainWorld War II eravictim assets worldwide survivors Treasury. clientsincludeHolocaust Our calledUstasha ofthe assets, Vestiges in and andorganizations Serbia theUnitedStates. property profitstherefiom arestill or moveable immoveable and including at ondeposit lhe IOR. issue with the unresolved and for This request an investigation inquirydeals iiom Treasury" themissinggoldandothervaluables and ofthe "iJstasha State by first formerYugoslavia documented the 1998UnitedStates Aboutthe Fateofthe entitledConcerns Report Eizenstat/Slany Departmeni that whichconcluded therewasevidence Treasury Wirtime Ustasha campgoldand concentration in pointingto Vatican involvement laundering World War. loot afterthe Second

lootedfrom are This goldbullion,silver,andothervaluables victim property regime which Ustasha Croatian and Roma, Jewsby the unrecognized Serbs, demands for hasneverbeenaccounted by the Vaticandespitenumerous Bank the against Vatican including own lawsuitin the UnitedStates our of losses suffered (hrstitute Religious Works).Thevictimswe represent for and includinggold,silver,banknotes jewelry to family property the Ustasha at deposited theHoly See's and whichwaslootedby theUstasha eventually for and Bankin 1944-1946 havebeenunaccounted since Vatican Forexample: KingdomofYugoslaviain 1923. wasbom in Bihac,Bosnia, Nadezda Bates in wasa wealthySerbbusinessman Bihacand JankoBates, Plaintiffs father, family owned Beograd TheBates named Kafana ownedanestablishment a out through theregionandhadaccumulated otherproperties numerous homeandjewelry furnished an greatdealof wealthincluding opulently and of one rncluding dozenhandmadebracelets l8 caralgoldwith sapphires with darksapphires, fashion madein the sarne diamonds threenecklaces and and of of twentyringsrnade l8 caratgold,hundreds golddrtcats' manyitems ofcashanda largestockof a oflesservalue. Theyalsopossessedquantity ofthe Ustasha foodanddrink usedin theirtrade. On June23, l94l agents inhabitants the into Regime entered Bihacandarrested SerbandJewish of pillagingandplundering theBates the Plaintiffwitnessed well organized by properties the neighborhood theUstasha in and farnilyproperty Jewish the with tnrcksconducted ofspecialsoldiers agents.Teams Regime's the herded soldiers manner.The Ustasha in lootingoperation a thorough grounds, where roomsat the Bihacsports and Serbs Jewsinto thechanging Plaintiff valuables. of relieved anyconcealed searched theywerethoroughly wlrereherfather to andherfamily wasfansported l(mjeusaby the Ustasha of the armedforcesunder command by weremurdered Ustasha andbrother of Govemor Bihac,LjubomirKvatemik. the Ustasha is ofthe UnitedKingdomandis legal Dr. Milan Bates a resident an family anddemands to claimson belralfoftheBates representative these to Treasuryestimated wortlr oftheir shareof gold in the Ustasha accounting of$100,000 and 40 ounces thefamilyjewelry worthin excess Bosni4 Kingdom (Vujcic)wasbornin 1930in Vojskova, MilevaReljanovic the in resides Sweden.In 1942 Ustasha and ofYugoslavia currently forcibly removedall Serbsfrom Vojskovain order to Regime'sagents

ownedby plaintifPs "colonize"theregion. Thevillagestoreandits contents by of and family wasseized the Serbresidents thetown terrorized who killed andrapedindiscriminately forces Ustasha armed rampaging to rtere converted cashby the the among Serbs.Thestoreandits contents to added the and Regime's MinistryofColonization theproceeds Ustasha weresentto Jasenovac Treasury.Plaintiffandherfamily members Ustasha campwhereherfatherandsomeofher siblingsdied. Upon concentration the agents confiscated jewelry the Regime Jasenovac, Ustasha the entering citizen a Ms. on farnilyhadconcealed theirpersons. Reljanovic, Swedish s alsorequest an accountlng. Republik ofSerbianRoma, Corrncil the Tlreorganizations, Independent and MemorialCenter Jasenovac Srpska Krajinain Exile,TheJasenovac on Institute alsoreq[estan accounting behalfoftlreirmembers Research ofvictimsofthe Ustasha. or sorne ofwho werevictims legalheirs and are This gold andothervaluables in VaticanBankcustody werelooted as l94l between -1945 partofthe State by theIndependent ofCroatia in Jews, Rorna whichan and Serbs, genocidal against campaign Ustasha were and mainlySerbs Roma, so 500,000 calledundesirables, estimated 'fhe at was liquidated. goldandlootedassets deposited the VaticanBankin by authored Allied documents to 1946according contemporaneous of by investigators butlressed thesworntestimony formerUS Special and and in AgentWilliam Gowenwho while slationed Romeinvestigated of involvedin thehansfer lot to the Vaticanin 1946 inierviewed Ustasha the '1947 . and well ofour Romaclientsareextremely I mustalsoaddthe losses Councilof Serbian the tlrrough effortsofthe Independent documented wereoftenin goldandsilvercoin andwereconfiscated Romaassets Roma. Treasury. part and by the Ustasha became ofthe Ustasha long lawsuitin the United ofa This victim goldhasbeenthesubject decade Works) for the 1999 2010against VaticanBank(hrstitute Religious io States Order.' Thelawsuithowever as andwhichis still pending to TheFranciscan to in withoutprejudice regards the IOR andOFM, it was wasdismissed
' Alperint. Valican DistrictCourtfor theNorthemDistrict Rankatd Ot&4,UnitedStates DistrictJudge, MaxineM Chesney, oftalifornia. D.C. No. Cv-99-04941-MMC. Presidine.

matter oflack of subject not dismissed on themerits,but on grounds jurisdictiondueto Vatican In organimmunityfiom legalprocess sovereign and Thatjudgment wasappealed is now final by orderof the UnitedStates. as Ninth CircuitCourtof Appeals of March201I. We are tlreUnitedStates as now fiee to bringthis matterdirectlyto the Vatican hasb€ensuggested Mr. in repeatedly thepastby the IOR's attorney, Lena.We havenot doneso and previously the because AIF wasnotyet in existence no appropriate is holders. dreappeal now As existed overthe IOR or its account authority we terminated, bringthis matterto you in a timelyfashion. openan inquiryandaccounting In sum,we arerequesting Commission the of and of into these well founded allegations moneylaundering retention with associated or whichare organs Holocaust victim assets financial by City Stat€. agencies ofthe Vatican or readyto submitelectronically by posta largevolumeof We stand these to infonnation including testimony documentation sttpport and ofthe OFM The legalrepresentatives entirely. and allegations to cooperate fiom the tJS of of andIOR arealsoin possession volumes legaldocuments released whichhavenot been Courts tlreirown intemalinvestigations and and arnple opportunity forum,theOFM andIOR has Despite beingprovided victimsby citing by refused answer allegation Holocaust to this repeatedly However, we immunityftom inquiryinstead. and sovereign jurisdictional with the EU, thetime has Agrsement the assert through VaticanMonetary asset matter Holocaust of in finally arrivedfbr closure this long unresolved Commtsston ofthe European laundering the Valicanundertheauspices by CentralBank. andEuropean that accounts areor wereassociated and/ortheirsuccessor IOR accounts ofretaining names identified beingundersuspicion are as with these Holocaust assets: Ante Bonifacic Orderof FriarsMinor Almanac Croatian Newspaper Croatian CatholicMessenger ofthe Holy FamilyofChicago Croatian Custody Historical Society Croatian Liberation Movement Croatian

House Publishing Croatia Croatian (of Danica Newspaper Chicago) Draganovic Fr. Krunoslav Fr. DominikMandic,OFM Printery(of Chicago) Franciscan Psenicnik Srecko of TheCroatian Conffaternity SanGirolamo of TlreRoman CatholicDiocese Zagreb we and in Thankyou for your cooperation this endeavor with all duerespect with that ofthe FIA who areassociated IOR or OFM request members ofa llom recuse themselves tlrismatterowingto theappearance conflictof this giventhe protracted litigationthatpreceded request. interest or by an Finalfy,we wiff request acknowledgement fax +l-202'318-2406 your receipt ofthis letter. regarding email:jonlevy@hargray.com

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BRIMETONE& CO. JONATHAN LEVY
ATAORNEY & SOLICITOR I629 K STREET N\/v SUITE 3OO WA5HINGTON DC 20006 USA | A'2406 | -202'3 TEL/F^X

24, September 201I (AlF) Finanziaria Autoritddi lnformzzione Attilio Nicora,President Cardinal San Palazzo Carlo Rome VATICAN CITY Agreement Monetary Victim Gold andtheEU/Vatican Ustasha YourEminence: I in genocide formerYugoslavia' ofthe Ustasha As attomeyfor survivors this will bedone'We began effort for beliefthatj ustice havean unshakeable in Treasury 1999from theVaticanBankand ofthe Ustasha an accounting the we it Oider.Therefore waswith somehope, greeted Franciscan (AIF) andour refenal Finanziaria ofthe Autoriti di Informazione formation and for General Economic Directorate Commission, to it by the European Unit. Institutions Affairs,Financial Financial di. patiently untilJuly2,20ll for theAutorile .-. Againwe waited We and fully staffed functional' to Finanziaria become Iriformazione of and See our tendered communication. Attachment Certificate mailing'On but to 2, September 201I we attempted ffi your office a reminder we have no received response. claim;we are is Treasury not a solelyhistorical Thematterofthe Ustasha ofthesefundsstill existat or that convinced evidence evenremnants in For undertheAIF's supervision. example, thepastfew years' institutions of formerlyin thecustody involvinglooteddiamonds accusations significant affair'" the ofZagrebhaveappeared, so called"Zagorac thi Diocese

tlat since July the AIF andVaticanBank(IOR) may have We areaware sinceour their overlappingstaffing' This wasone of our requests severed dealsin part with the IOR. Howeverwe do not understand communication no why we havereceived resPonse. a located direct are Our witnesses in their 80's and90's.We haverecently by Treasury individuals ofthe Ustasha witness moneylaundering to WorldWar Italy.He is in affiliatedwith the IOR andOFM in postSecond in his 90's andresides Canada. if However we by I am surethe lackofresponse the AIF is an oversight. we within 30 daysofreceiptofthis communication, anything havenot heard pass on. and will not standidly by while out witnesses survivors or by an Finally,we still request acknowledgement fax +l -202-318-2406 your receipt oftbis letter' regarding email:jonlevy@hargray.com
Sincerely,

. JonathanLevy,PhD

Solicitor

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EUROPEAN COMMISSION
DIREC'TORATE GENERAL ECONOMIC FIMNCIAL AND AFFAIRS Finandal stablllty monetary End aflai|s FhanclalInstltutlom.nd flnanclal 3tlblllty

DG ECFIN

09 11rntn

**,1gQ5L1q

Brussels, (2010) ECFIN/E3IBA

VictimGoldandth€Eu/VaticarMotrotrry Agreement SgUijg!: Holocaust

Dear Levy, Mr.

Followingyour letterof October 2010 andyour request the Commission openan inquiry 20, for to against VaticanCity Stateconceming moneylaundering Holocaust the the of victim assets the and possible oftheir goldin themintingofeuro coins, Commission use yourclaim. the examined carefully The MonetaryAgrcementbetween European the Union (EU) andthe VaticanCity State,asyou rightly havenoticedin your letter,obligesthe VaticanCity Stateto implement set of EU legislation a on prevention money laundering the end of 2010.The Vaticanauthorities curently in the of by are process tansposingthis relevantlegislation of into its legal order,and I can assue you that the Commission its capacity in carefully monitors plocess. this According to the draft law receivedftom the Vatican autho ties, we can inform you that in line with the EU laws requirem€nts draft foresees establishment a specialautholity, operationalas of this an of January 2011 for implementing anti-money 1, the launderi[g measues, with the right to convey and approp atecontrols ofthe relevant institutions Thisauthority ofboth in theVatican theHoly See. and will cooperate with the EU andwith the relevantintemationalbodiesactivein the fight againstmoney laundering. your points on the coin issuance the Cornmission As regards, Services contacted Vatican the authorities whichensured that: us

BRIMSTONE CO. & Aftorneys SOLICITORS & 1629K Street NW Suite300 Washington 20006USA DC T EL/FAX 1-202-318-2406
Commission eurcpesnn€, B-1049 BluxellesEuropese (32-2) / Commissie, B-1049 BrussetTet6phon6i Betgium. ?9911 11. Ofiice: BU-10/034Terephone: direcl (322) 29697 E5. line

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Yourssincerely,

"".f;**ro

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DG Fl'".'' EUROPEAN COMMISSION
DIRECTORATE GENEFiAI ECONOMIC FINANCIAL AND AFFAIRS Financial liryandmonetgryalhils stab Flnanclal lmrltutlon3end flnanclal siablllty

5 01 rutl ares 53 13

Brussels,
(2010) ECFIN/E3IEK/LB

Monetary Agreement Subiect: Youi letterofNovember17,2010,regarding Eu/Vatican the

DearMr. Levy, I thank you for your letter, where you ask for clarifications about the special authority which the measures the 'Auto td die Vatican is settingup in order to implementanti-money laundering Directive Informazione finanziaria'(AIF). It shouldbe noted that the Vatican law hansposing ofmoney laundering 2005/60/EC theprevention the useofthe financial system the purpose for on of and teno st financingis still at a &aft stage.Accordingto informationfiom the Vatican,it is expected enterinto forceasofJanuary1,2011. to questions. Please belowmy answers your specific find to 2005on 1) The Directive2005/60lEC the EuopeanParliament of the Councilof 26 October and of and the prevention the useof the financialsystem the purpose moneylaundering terorist for of of and of financingaimsto preventthe useof the financialsystem the purpose moDeylaundering for tenorist financing. This Directive requiresMember Statesto prohibit money launderingand tenorist financing ald to set up a preventivesystemobliging the financial sector and a wide range of other pgrsons entities undenake theircustomers, these inciude inler alia identiiyihg and to certain measures: to keeping appropriaterecords,establishingintemal procedures train staff and guard againstmoney laundering and reportingsuspicion money laundering of and teno st financingto the competent and EU is nationalauthorities. an EU Directive,Directive2005/60/EC not directly applicable As (Article 288 of the MemberStates haveto tansposeits requirements their nationallegislation into Treaty on the Functionilg of the EuropeanUnion), which all EU Member Stateshave done. As I mentionedin my reply to your previous letter, the Monetary Agreementbetweenthe EU and the Vatican City Stateobligesthe latter to implementthe Directive in its legal order. the financingof tenorism However,the entities subjectto anti-money laundering combating obligations limited to natual and legal persons; are thus, statesas such are not coveredby the BRIMSTONE CO, & Attomeys SOLICITORS & 1629 Street Suite K Nw 300 Washington 20006 DC USA TEUFAX 1-202-3t8-2406
(32-2) 11 ll. Commission eurcpeenn€, B-1049 BruxeliesEurcpese / Commissie, B-1049 Brussel, Beisium. Telephon€: 299 OfficeBUI 0/034. Telelhoner direct (32-21296 E5 line 97

Directive. Moreover, directive the 2005/60,8C does coverthe compensation not ofpe$ons who have been the victims of money laundering offences or predicate offence to money larmdering. It is furthermoreto be noted, that the Directive providesfor minimum harmonisationwhich meansthat MemberStatesmay adoptor retainin force stricterprovisionsin this fi€ld than thoselaid down in the Directive in older to preventmoneylaunderingandtenorist financing. The role ofthe European Commission this context asfollowsrif a MemberState in is failsto passthe requirednationallegislation, if the nationallegislation or does not adequately comply with the requirements ofthe Directive, the European Comrnission may initiate legal actionagainstthe Member State.However,underthe Treatyon Euopean Union and the Treaty on the Functioning the of powers interyene padicularcases EuopeanUnion,the European Commission no general has to in as provided in you shouldseekredress described your letter.With regard the explanations to above, at national leveltl|IouehthecomDetent autho ties. 2) Accordingto the draft Vaticanlaw tansposingthe Directive,The 'Autoritd die lnformazione (AIF) will be composed a chief executive finanziaria' of oflicer and his/herstaff will be appointed persons ftom among ofadequate proven and competence professionalism. and 3) The Authority's rulingsarewithin the fiamework ofEU law but theyareonly indirectlysubject to judicial review.lt means that if the VaticanCity Statefails to properlytanspose Directiveof it the complywith the requirements the Directive, European of the Commissiolmay doesnot adequately initiatelegalactionagainst Vatican the City State. However, mentioned as underthe replyto question 1) above,the European Commission no generalpowersto intervene particularcasesas has in described yourletter. in

Yourssincerely,

Benjamin Angel

*** ***

EUROPEAN COMMISSION
OIRECTORATE GENERAL ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL AFFAIRS Financial stability and monetary affairs

DG ECFIN

Financial institutions and financial stabiliW Head of Unit

0B 12
Brussels,
ECFrN/E3IRV (2011)

2011

art 451\534

Subject:

Your letter of Novernber 28, 201l, regarding the EU/Vatican Monetary Agreernent and
the role of the

Autoriti di Informazione Finanziaria (AIF)

Dear Mr.

Lely,

Thank you the above letter, by which you request the European Commission to investigate alleged shortcomings of the AIF. In addition to what we stated on December 09, 2010 and January 5, 201 1 in response to your previous letters, I am pleased to answer to your request as follows:

Article 8 (l) (b) of the 2010 Monetary Agreement, the Vatican City State shall undertake to adopt all appropriate measures with a view to implementing the EU legal acts and listed in the Annex in the field of, amongst others, prevention of money laundering.
Pursurmt to

As detailed in our previous response, Directive 2O05l60lEC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2005 on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing aims to prevent the use of the financial systern for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing. Directive 2005/60lEC is part of the Amex to the Agreanent. While implanenting the provisions of this Directive, the Vatican City State has set up the Financial Intelligence Unit (Autoritd di lnformazione Finanziaria (AIF)). Pursuant to Article 20 of Directive 2005/60/EC, applicable to the Vatican City State by means of the Monetary Agreonort, the AIF shall be responsible for receiving and to the extent permitted, requesting, analysing and disseminating to the competent authorities, disclosures of information which concern potential money laundering. The cooperation duties of Financial lntelligence Units are laid down in detail in Council Decision 200O/642|JHA conceming arangements for cooperation between financial intelligence units of the Mernber States in respect of exchanging information. This Council Decision will be added to the

BRIMSTONE & CO. Attomeys & SOLICITORS 1629 K Street NW Suite 300 Washinglon DC 20006 USA TEL//FAX 1 -202 -318 -2406
Commission europeenne, B-1049 Bruxelles / Europese Commissie, B-1049 Brussel - Belgium. Telephone: (32-2) 299 11 11. Offrce: BU-1 0/034. Telephone: direcl line (32-2) 296 97 85.

Annex of the Monetary Agreement and apply to the AIF. Should the Vatican City State fail to comply with the AIF's duties under the Directive or Decision, the European Union may bring the matter before the Court of Justice in line with Article 10 (2) of the Monetary Agreement.

With regard to the alleged shortcoming of the AIF (AIF not independent, AIF staff officials from the Istituto per le Opere di Religione, AIF not replying to your conespondence) and the AIF's cooperation and investigation duties under the Directives, the following has to be understood:

The AIF is in charge of receiving information from the institutions and percons covered by the Directive and analysing and disserninating to the competent authorities (Articles 2l and 22 of Directive 2005160/EC). Moreover, the AIF will be obliged to cooperate with other Financia.l lntelligence Units from EU Member States as per Council Decision 2000/642|JHA.

The institutions and persons obliged provide information to tlle AIF are defined in Article 2 of Directive 2005/60/EC and are those who me involved in larger cash management and payment transactions: credit institutions, financial institutions, auditors, trust and company service providers, real estate agents and others. The AIF is obliged to receive and analyse information received from this group of interlocutors.

of individuals other than those defined in the Directive are not obliged to provide information to firancial intelligence units, nor have the latter an obligation to treat requests from these persons or groups. Under normal circumstances, an individual who is victim ofor aware of potential money laundering would or could inform police or other law enforcement bodies, it being understood that police and the law enforcement bodies would then have to report to their Financial lntelligence Units.
Persons or groups

Given that your clients are neither belonging to the groups defined in Directive 2005156/EC nor are, for obvious reasons, staffof Financial Intelligence Units from other EU Member States, the AIF is not obliged under the Monetary Agreement to provide you with infonnation or respond to your requests.

The obligations of the Vatican City State towards the European Union to combat money laundering obligations as laid in the above Directive and Decision are solely govemed by the Monetary Agreement. One may regret that the AIF has not responded to your correspondence, but the European Commission is neither in a position nor entitled to question and judge the administrative procedures and communication policy of the Vatican City State on matters that are not covered by the Monetary Aseement.

Yours sincerely,

Benjamin Angel

BnrnastoNE& Co. JoN.aTxIN LEVY I629 K STREET NW SUITE 3OO WASHINGToN DC 20006 USA
TELIFAX + r -2o2-S | 8-24OG cHAM B E Rs@en r u sroN EAN DcoM p/\Ny.coM

February 10,2012
European Commission Directorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs Financial Stability & Monetary Affairs Financial Institutions & Financial Stability Head of Unit - Mr. Benjamin Angel B-1049 Brussels, Belgium

Fax: (+J/) 2 29 809 98

Via Fax, Email and Mail
In re: (Vatican) Autoritd di Informazione Finanziaria (AIF) & EU/Vatican Monetary Agreement and European Commission Letters of January 5, 2011(no. 9319), December 8, 2011 (no. 1324531) referencing Directive
2005160/EC

Dear Mr. Angel:

This is a notice under Article 265 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to the Commission to take the requested action.

It is requested that the European Commission take appropriate action to enforce applicable provisions Directive 2005/601 EC (hereafter "the Directive") against the Vatican Autorita di Informazione Finanziaria (hereafter "VAIF") and Vatican City State, subject to EU jurisdiction
pursuant to the EU/Vatican Monetary Agreement, for the reasons stated below and incorporated by reference in our previous correspondence with the Commission. If action is not taken in 60 duyr, a complaint will be filed with the European General Court seeking relief under Articles265 and266 of the Treaty on the Functioning ofthe European Union. On January 5,2011 following a series of letters with the EU Commission and the European Central Bank, the Commission referred our allegations of post

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World War Two era money laundering of assets from former Yugoslavia by current and past account holders at le Opere di Religione (hereafter IOR) to the newly established Istituto per to the Vatican Autoritd di Informazione Finanziaria (VAIF).
The VAIF has refused to acknowledge or respond to our correspondence dated July 2,2011 and September 24,20L1. We also attempted to fax the AIF on September 2,20IL Given the passage of time, a response is not likely to be forthcoming from the VAIF. We then complained to the Commission which however refused to take action for the reasons cited in its December 8,2011 letter and discussed infra.

After careful consideration and research, we respectfully disagree with the Commission's interpretation that the VAIF may willfully ignore our complaints of money laundering at the IOR and still remain within compliance ofthe Directive. The Commission's analysis of December 8 is in error with both the letter and spirit of the Directive.
The Commission enoneously claims that the VAIF may ignore reports of money laundering because the reporting party, attorney-solicitor Dr. Jonathan Levy and his law firm Brimstone & Co., does not fall under the ambit of the Directive, Article 2(1) and therefore is not among the list of interlocutors the VAIF is required to respond to. The Commission is in error; the complaint was made to the VAIF by a licensed, professional attorney about specific large financial fansactions of looted properly falling under the ambit of the Directive and VAIF's own governing documents which vest it with oversight responsibilities for the IOR.

Directive Article 2(1X3Xb) specifies that independent legal professionals in the exercise of their activities that are acting on behalf of and fortheir client in any financial transaction are obliged to report money laundering to the member state FIU which is the VAIF for transactions within or involving entities of the Vatican City State.
The interpretation of this section of the Directive has been construed broadly rather than narowly. See Also Nobel Chemicals Ltd v European Commission (C-550/07 P [2010], 5 C.M.L.R. 19. An attorney representing

claimants to disputed property who has been engaged in litigation with the IOR and one of its depositors since 1999 is not a casual observer but is a licensed legal professional acting in his professional capacity. Further he has come into possession of substantial documentation supporting the allegation of ongoing money laundering of Holocaust derived assets or profits at the IOR.
The Directive does not define the term "financial transaction" but a constructive or resulting trust of the type implied in law has been created between the IOR and Holocaust victims until such time the IOR accounts for their funds.

Further, it is disingenuous to refer Holocaust survivors to Vatican police authorities or the Vatican FIU. The VAIF functions as both the treasury police and FIU for the Vatican City State. The VAIF is the only competent authority given the population of the Vatican City State amounts to only 800 residents. Ongoing money laundering has been considered before in the case of the Swiss National Bank. The SNB's deliberate retention of looted assets was correctly described as money laundering. The SNB investigation by the Volcker and Bergier commissions led to the eventual settlement of the issue. The IOR matter is no less serious, it is disappointing that the Commission feels it must lend its political and moral support to the IOR and VAIF by declining its duty to enforce the Directive as it has many times before with other EU members such as France, Poland, and Spain.

While we appreciate the Commission's position of seeming rectitude, the Commission must rcaliz-e that it is aiding and abetting the VAIF and IOR in their ongoing refusal to account for Holocaust derived assets. If the Commission doubts the veracity of our claims, we again invite the Commission to consult the 1998 US State Department Report on The Fate of the Ustasha Treasury available ott www.state.gov/wwilregions/eur/rpt-9806_ng_links.html.
The Vatican City State has failed to fulfill its treaty obligation and appropriate action against it should be taken beginning with a request that the VAIF respond to the report made to it by Holocaust survivors.

Sincerely,

Dr. Jonathan Levy Attorney and Solicitor for Holocaust Survivors and Organizations: Dr. Milan Bates, William Dorich, Vojislav Poduda , Jasenovac Memorial Center, Independent Council of Serbian Rom4 Republik Srpska Krajina in Exile et al.
Copies to:

Director General for Legal Services European Central Bank
Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs Directorate of Monitoring Council of Europe

*** * * * t*t *

EUROPEAN COMMISSION
OIRECTORATE GENERAL ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL AFFAIRS Financial stability and monetary affairs

DG rt)P'tru

Financial institutions and ffnancial $ability Head of Unit

08
ECFrN/E3/RV (201r)

i2

2011

Brussels, arc 4 ,J\

5 31

Subject:

Your letter of November 28,201l, regarding the EU/Vatican Monetary Agreement and
the role of the Autoritir

di Informazione Finanziaria (AIF)

Dear Mr. Lcrry,

Thank you the above letter, by which you request the European Commission to investigate alleged shortcomings of the AIF. In addition to what we stated on December 09, 2010 and January 5, 201I in response to your previous letters, I am pleased to answer to your request as follows:

Pursuant to Article 8 (1) (b) of the 2010 Monetary Agreement, the Vatican City State shall undertake to adopt all appropriate measures with a view to implanenting the EU legal acts and listed in the Anncx in the freld of, amongst others, prevention of money laundering.

As dctailed in our prcvious response, Directive 2005/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2005 on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing aims to prevant the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing. Directive 2005/60iEC is part of the Annex to the Agreement. While implernenting the provisions of this Directive, the Vatican City State has set up the Financial Intelligence Unit (Autoriti di Informazione Finanziaria (AIF)). Pursuant to Article 20 of Directive 20O5l60lEC, applicable to the Vatican City State by means of the Monetary Agreement, the AIF shall be responsible for receiving and to the extent permitted, requesting, analysing and disseminating to the competent authorities, disclosures of information which concern potential money laundering. The cooperation duties of Financial Intelligence Units are laid down in detail in Council Decision 2000r'642lJHA concerning iurangements for cooperation between financial intelligence units of the Member States in respect of exchanging information. This Council Decision will be added to the

BRIMSTONE & CO. & SOLICITORS 1629 K Street NW Suite 300 Washington DC 20006 USA 'rEL/FAX | -202-3 | 8-?406
Attorneys
Commission europdenne, B-1049 Bruxelles / Europese Commissie, B-1049 Brussel - Belgium. Telephone: (32-2)ZW 11 '11. Office: BU-1 0/034. Telephone: direct line (32-2) 296 97 85.

Annex of the Monetary Agreement and apply to the AIF. Should the Vatican City State fail to comply with the AIF's duties under the Directive or Decision, the European Union may bring the matter before the Court of Justice in line with Article l0 (2) of the Monetary Agreonent.

With regard to the alleged shortcoming of the AIF (AIF not independent, AIF staff officials from the Istituto per le Opere di Religione, AIF not replying to your correspondence) and the AIF's cooperation and investigation duties under the Directives, the following has to be understood:

The AIF is in charge of receiving information from the institutions and penions covered by the Directive and analysing and disseminating to the competent authorities (Articles 2l and 22 of Directive 2005/60lEC). Moreover, the AIF will be obliged to cooperate with other Financial lntelligence Units from EU Member States as per Council Decision 2000/&2/JHA.

The instirutions and persons obliged provide information to the AIF are defined in Article 2 of Directive 2005160/EC and are those who are involved in larger cash management and payment transactions: credit institutions, financial institutions, auditors, trust and company service providers, real estate agents and others. The AIF is obliged to receive and analyse information received from this group of interlocutors.

are not obliged to provide information to financial intelligence units, nor have the latter an obligation to treat requests from these persons or groups. Under normal circumstances, an individual who is victim of or aware of potential

Persons or groups

of individuals other than those defined in the Directive

money laundering would or could inform police or other law enforcement bodies, it being understood that police and the law enforcement bodies would then have to report to their Financial Intelligence Units.

Given that your clients are neither belonging to the groups defined in Directive 2005/56lEC nor are, for obvious reasons, staffof Financial Intelligence Units from other EU Mernber States, the AIF is not obliged under the Monetary Agreement to provide you with information or respond to your requests.

The obligations of the Vatican City State towards the European Union to combat money laundering obligations as laid in the above Directive and Decision are solely governed by the Monetary Agreement. One may regret that the AIF has not responded to your correspondence, but the European Commission is neither in a position nor cntitled to question and judge the administrative procedures and communication policy of the Vatican City State on matters that are not covered by the Monetary Agrcement.

Yours sincerely.

A

1t

I
I
I

Benjamin Angel

{

Ref. Ares(2012)295879 - 13/03/2012

EUROPEAN COMMISSION
DIRECTORATE GENERAL ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL AFFAIRS Finandal stability and monetary affairs Financial institutions stability mechanisms Head of Unit

Brussels,
ECFIN/E3/RV (2012)

Subject:

Your letter of 10 February 2012 regarding the EU/Vatican Monetary Agreeement and Directive 2005/60/EC to be applied by the Vatican Autorità di Informazione Finanziaria

Dear Mr. Levy, Thank you very much for your letter of 10 February 2012, by which you refer to previous correspondence with regard to the above issue and ask the European Commission to take appropriate action. The concerns raised and repeated in your letters were largely addressed in our previous correspondence to which I would like to refer. As to your request that the European Commission take action against the Vatican Autorità di Informazione Finanziaria (hereafter AIF) with regard to Directive 2005/60/EC and potential money laundering by the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (hereafter lOR), the following has to be understood: The European Union has signed a monetary agreement with the Vatican City State, which set up the AIF in 2011. By means of the Monetary Agreement, the provisions of Directive 2005/60/EC apply to the AIF within the jurisdiction of the Vatican City State. The IOR, however, does not fall within the jurisdiction of the Vatican City State but belongs to the Holy See, which is a different entity under international public law. It must be understood that the Holy See and the European Union have not signed whatsoever agreement on the application of Directive 2005/60/EC or any other legal instrument to combat money laundering. Therefore, the European Union has no means to apply or enforce any rules on combat of money laundering (including Directive 2005/60/EC) to the Holy See and natural persons or corporate entities falling within its jurisdiction. Against this background, the European Commission cannot take any action to apply or enforce any provisions of Directive 2005/60/EC against the AIF with regard to the IOR. Yours sincerely.

Benjamin Angel

BRIMSTONE & CO. Attorneys & SOLICITORS 1629 K Street NW Suite 300 Washington DC 20006 USA TEL/FAX 1-202-318-2406
Commission européenne, B-1049 Bruxelles / Europese Commissie, B-1049 Brussel - Belgium. Telephone: (32-2) 299 11 11. Office: BU-1 0/034. Telephone: direct line (32-2) 296 97 85.

BRIMSTONE& GO. JONATHAN LEVY K STREET NW SUITE 3OO 1€.29
cHAM
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MaY 28, 2012 European Commission Directorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs Financial Stability & Monetary Affairs Financial Institutions & Financial Stability Head of Unit - Mr. Benjamin Angel B-1 049 Brussels, Belgium

Fax: (+32)229 809 98

Via Fax, Email and Mail

n];nra191 Inre: (Vatican) AutoriL'i di lnformazioneFinanziaria (AIF) a 13,2012
of March Monetary Agreement and European commission Letter
Dear Mr. Angel:

we have thoroughly researched your letter of March 13,2012 of this it contains an impoitant factual erTor upon wh.ich the resolution per le Opere of the Istituto matter hinges - the juridic status and citizenship have foregone filing a di Retigione alsotiown as the IOR. Therefore we

and believe

Co*piu-, for failure to Act with
In your March
13

the EU Court in favor of requesting that

yoor.roosideryourfrndinginlightoftheevidenceherein'
that the IoR is outside ,2012 letter (attached) you explain because it belongs to th9 tt9!y f ee the jurisdiction of Dire"tit e XiOStOOIEb significant because the EU has and not the Vatican City Sttt . This being no agreement with the HolY See'

City State' The The IOR is under the jurisdiction of the Vatican juridical person of the Vatican City State. To prove ttris point, I am Grande Stevens' the Italian attaching sworn affidavits by Awocato Franzo and Professor Caridi whose afforney for the IOR and ttre Vatican City State its attorney opi"io" on this maffer was cornmissioned by the IOR through IoR is directly Mr. Lena. Both caridi and Stevens have testified the connected to the Vatican City State'

Whileweappreciatethelogicofthisargumen!flgtuallyitisincorrect. is a IOR

The Declaration of Franzo Grande Stevens
on the IOR as The declaration of Stevens is both authoritative and binding and the Vatican Stevens is or was the attorney for the State of Vatican City Bank (IoR). The most salient paragraphs of this declaration state:

1. Stevens has been the attorney for both the IOR and Vatican City State'
10. The IoR is created under the laws of the Vatican city State
Vatican Clty 11. The IOR carries out a mission and goals on behalf of the
State.

Temporal 14. The President of the IoR reports to the Pope's Highest Authority in the Vatican City State'

15. The IoR operates in the territory of the vatican city state'

lT.TheloRfundstheVaticanCityState'sgovernment.
the Holy See' While the IOR does perfonn some financial services for to the Holy See but instead Stevens does not indicate that the lORbelongs

thatitiscloselyconnectedtotheVaticanCityState.

TheDeclaretionofProfessorSettimoCaridi
by the IOR's The declaration of Professor Caridi was commissioned legal opinion on American attorney, Mr. Jeffrey Lena" to provide expert are as follows: the juridic status oitrr. IoR. The key paragraphs
See and vatican city 31. The IoR is apparently a dual entity of the Holy by thc authority of State: "The IORil a pubiic juridic person constituted the law of the Holy See the sovereigr in conformitawith the canon law, and the law of the State of Vatican City'"

37. As a dual entity, the IoR

serves both the Holy see and Vatican from entities or State : "The tnstituie can accept deposits of assets individuals of the Holy See orof the state of vatican city."

city

City State' 38. The IOR is a fiduciary of both the Holy See and Vatican

40. The IOR is located in Vatican City'

57. The IOR is an autonomous juridic person.
CONCLUSION
The testimony of Stevens under penalty of perjury must be considered as binding on the IOR as Stevens made this affidavit in his official capacity for fifteen auornJy for the IOR and Vatican City State. A position he held years prior to the affidavit berng executed'

but should be The Carridi testimony is expert opinion not sworn testimony prededence in considered persuasivl with the Steven's testimony taking the event of a disPuteTherefore we request the following: the IOR 1. The EU Commission amends its frnding of March 13,2012 that the dual "belongs to the Holy See" and find instead that the IOR is tmder jurisdiction of the Vatican City State'

2.

insure the TheEU Commission make available its good ofiices to complaint we vatican AIF responds to a more detailed money laundering will be filing. Sincerely,

Dr. Jonathan LevY Organizations: Attorney and Solicitor for Holocaust Survivors and Memorial Dr. Milan Bates, william Dorich, Vojislav Poduda, Jasenovac Republik Srpska Krajina in Center, Independent Council of Serbian Rom4 Exile et al.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION
DIRECTORATE GENERAL ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL AFFAIRS Financial stability and monetary affairs Financial institutions stability mechanisms Head of Unit

DG ECFIN
Brussels,
ECFIN/E3/RV (2012)

3 03 2012 ares

1

Subject:

Your letter of 10 February 2012 regarding the EU/Vatican Monetary Agreeement and Directive 2005/60/EC to be applied by the Vatican Autorita di Informazione Finanziaria

Dear Mr. Levy, Thank you very much for your letter of 10 February 2012, by which you refer to previous correspondence with regard to the above issue and ask the European Commission to take appropriate action. The concerns raised and repeated in your letters were largely addressed in our previous correspondence to which I would like to refer. As to your request that the European Commission take action against the Vatican Autorita di Informazione Finanziaria (hereafter AIF) with regard to Directive 2005/60/EC and potential money laundering by the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (hereafter IOR), the following has to be understood: The European Union has signed a monetary agreement with the Vatican City State, which set up the AIF in 2011. By means of the Monetary Agreement, the provisions of Directive 2005/60/EC apply to the AIF within the jurisdiction of the Vatican City State. The 10R, however, does not fall within the jurisdiction of the Vatican City State but belongs to the Holy See, which is a different entity under international public law. It must be understood that the Holy See and the European Union have not signed whatsoever agreement on the application of Directive 2005/60/EC or any other legal instrument to combat money laundering. Therefore, the European Union has no means to apply or enforce any rules on combat of money laundering (including Directive 2005/60/EC) to the Holy See and natural persons or corporate entities falling within its jurisdiction. Against this background, the European Commission cannot take any action to apply or enforce any provisions of Directive 2005/60/EC against the AIF with regard to the 10R. Yours sincerely,

Benjamin Angel

BRIMSTONE & CO. Attorneys & SOLICITORS 1629 K Street NW Suite 300 Washington DC 20006 USA TEL/FAX 1-202-318-2406
Commission europeenne, B-1049 Bruxelles / Europese Commissie, B-1049 Brussel - Belgium. Telephone: (32-2) 299 11 11. Office: BU-1 0/034. Telephone: direct line (32-2) 296 97 85.

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WORKS FOR RELIGIOUS Atlomeyfor INST1TUTE

UNITED STATESDISTRICTCOURT OF DISTRICT CAI-IFORNIA NORTHERN
CaseNo. C 99-4941MMC DECTARATION OF AWOCATO

EMIL ALPEzuN'CtAI, Plaintiffs' vs. OF VATICAN BANK (INSTITUTE wOI{KS)' et al' RELICIOUS
Defcnd!nts,

Hii${'$3"?'#liS COMPI,AINT

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herebydeclareas follows: l, Ar r'.Fralzo GrandeStevens' Supreme the bar ofTulin' ltaly as well as et the ltalian to I. I am a.nAttorney lic-4nced practioeat ofthc ltallan ofthe National ForensicBosrd (i e Chairman court in Rome. I havebeenihe President 8nd for the Stateofvatican City (the Holy See)' For arcund fiffeenyea$, I have beenthe attomey Bar), is via Carmine2' Tudn' ltaly' My Romc officc addrets is: rhe lOR, My presentwotk address viadel Ca$iodoro 15, Rome' ItaIY' and bcliof' the facts contaitcd in this 2. Exccpt as to those mattsrs $atcd on irformatiod to jfcalled as a witnessI could testify competently are basedon my personalknowledge'ard decla.ratio! said facts,

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of ofthe IOR' theCovernmenl and 3. I am ditectlyfamiliarwith thetegalstruclure thepracticcs ofstate' thestateofvatican City andthc Secretary Plaintifls'Third AfiendedComplaint'I lOR's Motionto Dismiss 4. ln suppoltofDefcndant offer rhefollowing: siructurcis the 5. The institutional structureof thc IOR is asfollows: al the headofthe of is This Commisrion composed five Cardinal Commission"' Cardinalaia,or "Cardinals' Conmissione by ofthe IOR is headed Sodaro Commission Pontili ThcCardinal's by \.vho appoillted the Sovereign are City State-The Conunission of of the Angelo,who is presently Secretaiy State tle Vatican Cardinal of is of Commissioo to reviewoompliance theIOR at meets lessttwiceperyea!. Thepnmarypulpose that ofthe IOR to cnsure its asscts on nortns'anoto check thepatrimony with its intemalstatutory of members theOversiSht and alsoapPoints removes level.Thiscommission at .€main a saiisfactory below)' fi[tction is discussed council (whose the betwcen an is Commission to Prcvide ilstitutionatlink Theprimaryroleof thcCardinals' 6 overtheIOR' pulposes oversiSht and City State theIOR for goven[ngot ofthc Vaticaq govcrnment to Thisroughlycoresponds anopetatlve ot 7. Below this levelis theDirezione' Ditcctorate ofthis of administration thcIOR' Thc mcmbels on carries thecveryday "Boardof Directors"which Cornnission This ofthe Cardinsls' Council$bject to approvBl by boad areapPointed th' Oversight ofthe IOR' activities fic! is boaJd r€sponsible theoperational dndtheBoard the thc bctween Cadinals'Cotnmission' Prlate' relationship E. This institutional ofth€ structure Marchl' 1990itheorganizationat daled Pontifls'Chirograph is setfonh in fte Sovcreign to March I' lgg0 According thc dsted or givenfurtherdetailin thc Sl4'r'rto' "by'laws" IOR is whichcaIIbe sucdin its ownname Law JuridicPeNon' the ad theby'laws, IOR is a Canon Chirographs b€tween or mission rclationship Nothingin thefu[darnental its own lcgalr€Presentativ€ andwhichhas the between old andthenew changed was City StaieCiovcrttnent substanidlly IOR atd the Vatican tbe
legal structuje of the IOR' 0!e Sant' healt of VaticanCity, in a tower near 9. The IOR is locstedin the vcry Arr'la Gate' lls
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predecessor institutionswere locatedin the sane placeaDdthe IOR has neverhad any branchoffice outsideofthe Vatican City. This centraland exclusivephysicallocation reflectsthe fact, described below, that the IOR performscentralfirancial functionsfor the Vatican City StateGovemmenr. 10. The IOR is not a citizcn of$e United Statessnd is not createduoder the Iaws ofaoy fiird cou ry (i.e. it is created under the Laws ofthe Vatican State). I l, Thc IOR peform an essential function in the economicgovedfiient ofthe Stateof Vatican City. Ajnong the other bodies that perform such firnctions gre the Plefectue for Economic Affairs and the Administration ofthe Patlimonyofthe Holy See. The IOR carriesout the mission and policy go8lsof

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of City. theState Vatican activityoflhe State vaticanCity is position of ofthe IOR in thefinancial 12. The centra.l confinocd by thc Corstitulio ApostoltcdPastorror!.t that hasprovidedfor a Committeeofcardiaals powerto suPervise effectiveness thc ofthe IOR'Sactivily. (hcaded Cardinal that Sodano) hasultimate by assets econornic institutc. for msnaging ' whichrefe6 to th€"special Anicle 24 of &at documenl, to to colltmittcd it. , ," refers thc IOR. Professor Counsel' of ofthe Presideot th€OversiSht matters cometo thedttention 13. vy'hen which involve Lelio scaletti, commendatorE ofth€ DiEctor Geneml caloia,or to thesftention Angeto to refened theyalecommonly about loR's activities, the decision or anysortoipolicy decision, strategic the In who decidcs how to procced' suchcases, IOR follo{'s, and ofState, ofthe Secretary theattention c.nsidcrsin thebestinte!€sls that ofthe loR to follow,anyadvice the secretary it hasbeenthecustom

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ofthe IoR in uponmy cxperienoe workingwith bothrcpresentatives z0 ofthe vaticanStat€.This i9based of andwilh the Secr€tarY Stote. by ofthe IOR aremanaged the IoR i$elf opelstions 14. I canalsoaddthat,whiie theday-m-day to and ofthe IOR is attuned responsive the and the for (asit is natural ajuridicalperson) custom practice Pontiffs temporal ofti€ SoveEign dclegate \ahois thehighest of policyvisionofthe Searetary State, and DirectorCcneml it authority over Vatican City State For this reason, is the practiceof the President asthe of in ofthe IoR to reportto CardinalSodano his caPacity Secletaryof Stateand aschainnan

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that snd commission, to fumishhim with anyinfomationandrecords he.equires'ln this cardinal's in importance theIOR, cant'estb€ ofPanicular function, all maltels fo! of the sense, Secreta.ry State's conlrolovcr the ofstatc hasconsidelable the role. defined ar|activesupervisory Hence, Secretary as of that (including and budget opetations) heconsiders oflOR activities and programrlliDg execution interest. State a'td to the 15.The IOR oflersandp€rforms followingservices thevaticar!State its temporal the ttetween vtrious Valican State housefor payments Pontiff. It actsasa clea.ring head,the SovereiSn a'1d the Paymcnt workswithin theStaleIt opemtcs electronic a lt agencics. finances vaiefy of reliSious at territory'Thisseniceis provided lessth8ncost'and Vatic€$ State throughout ATM networkin place the as for the a5a serviceto the Vatican State.It manages pe$ion system its own employces well asall ofth€ VaticsnCiry the ofthc VaiicanState.lD this way,theIOR supports operations o6er employ€es in State its own lenitory' and for System IOR cmPloyees othet goveming Pcnsion the 16. The structucandregulations js employees virtuallyidcntical, valicanSta1e lo ofState'srequest' at ofPiouspurposes, the Secretary with th€IOR'Smission 17. In keeping of to available theStat€ Pontiff, theIOR makes ofthe Sovcrcign dclcgat€ as his capacity tcmporal the flmds to puBuc its piousPurposes ln this sense IOR is usedto forward vatican City Govenunent relations ofvatican City foreign calryout State City, andto othcrwise of ofthe State Vatican thegoals obj€ctives. for managcmcni for 18. At thc cndofeacbyear,oncethefundsncccssary thcIOR'S moncy goals to are fiurds madeavailable theHoly Seeto csrryout its remaining are piouspurposes setaside, No is funds'no sucbpayment made'howevcr' profil suJlicicnt has when fundr$anagement not produced is keptby the IoR. for assistance the IOR' prgvided {inancial occasions on 19. ltre HotySeebas, p€tst that 'Ihe IOR is a limit€ddcpo$tory institlltionlt is notopento lhepublicin the sense the 20. orders' ofthe Holy See'religious members employe€s' State limi(edto Vatican a.re depositors essentially

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irl at rnoney destined, least part'for worksofpiety' who andpersons deposit aftertenyea$ Tlere is tecotds ofthe IOR to not retain and 21. It is thecustom practice at who workcd theIOR in theyea$ of WorldWsr li' and presently employee, I knowofno person, no liquidated will of 22. The IOR is a creature thosoverei8J'l andcouldbe woundup gndits assets the thst to According theChirogaPh hascreated IoR asa Ca$o[Iaw ofthe sovereign. by direction wouldorly bemadewith to Any changes the by-laws juddicalperson, IOR cannot change bylaws. its tbe Pontiff. ofthe Sovcrcign final appmval to birth to theIOR wasa capilalcontribulion its sntccedent 23. The originof thefrlndthatgave LeoXIU in 1887' by cteatcd Pope ad Causas, the institution, Conn ission Plas piousacts As puposeis to pronrote person whose fundamental Law Juridic 24. IOR is a Canon nor States' or of in or not such,it does manufacturc sellanygoods eitherlhe State Califomia tbeUnited of publioin eithe'theState Califomiao( theUniledStates' to docsit sellaIIysctviccs thc general for agent lcgalnotificatio$in eitherthestateof califomia or the 25, IOR hasno rcgistered UnitedSlates. or ihe United of 26. loR hasno oflicesor ot$erfacilityof 8nykind in eithetthe State Cdlifomig StAtes. ofcaliforrdaor the in or not 27. toR does owa lcasc rcntanyrcalpropcrty citherthc State UnitedStates. of in based eithertheState Califomiaor theUnitedStstcs' 28. IOR hasno cmployeca of in eithertheState any 8nd no 29. IOR conducts advertising docsnot market products Califomisor theUnitedSlates. by telex,or fax number whichit may number' tclePhone 30' IoR hasoo mailingof otheraddrcss' ofcaliforflia or theUnitedStates' in bereached eithcrthc State with ofdirecto$ andcouncil(charged day-to-day offhe board 31. Noneoftbe members or of ofeithertheState Califomia theUnitedStates' of opetations) IOR is a rssident of or operations management anyotherentity the not 32. IOR does diiectot control day'to-dey

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3 | .m dilccrty funili$ r.,irbtlr l.gal lrflsiutr anCtlo pr..riccr ot dr tOR, lh. covalD!|.rt o, ot $! Sir^ra vdicr$ City |nd tha S.(r!tr y of St|t4. 4. 16c'rPpol ofDcf€nd&t IOR'! Molion ro Dilrnis! PlEinnffr, Third /JlEndcd Corplatll, I otfcr rbc folloe/in8:
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ir lo plgvid€ funhor inforo.rion rctlicd rr, rh. cq.rporirio, ot bt lOA.'t Conmirt:on. Cardhalizie, ot'!cr!dln b ' Corrurirsion" rcferledro in roy Dcchr|tto{ ot Av! 0!116Ft4olo Cunda St.vror ln Suppoflot Dcf.nd!,rr IOR'J Morjoo !o DiirDt3rPlrisrdf!' ?bird Compl.irl rnd lh particrdlr ro d.tdl th! dcnpi!rritutioaat linb bcrefccn IOR'3 C!di!dr' A.rnond.d thc CoEsoi.riot gDdrhsSov.ruocar of Ar st.ra of Vadc|! Cry rncnlioncdia lrn|$rgh 6 of Iny Fevio{t drclrrdon. 6. Ofrlr 6v! rrcmbcr, ottb IOR'I cordlndt' Cos|tni$ion, rhc firrl. Atlt.lo C.dl6.l Sodalo, ii laror|! tl|! 3ir hllboir rad.iAgc{dlaCa in $. co.dindt' ColhS€. b ll|G S.crctdrt 6t s(.ic ol tlu Sr{r. V!.ior! Clly,.nd i. | !u.nb.r of C&Cosrlcit ofcrrilirrl| qnd8i3hoF! (Codirlr, di cardinati . Vct.cvi) ot lhc Soctarsyof 3 c'r Offlc., tlt conSrltsliou fo! th. Docttit!' of thc Faltlr !h. Conir.grtion otEilboPr ud iha Confrslotion tor E st!l! Chrrch't Tht rc'9nd, Jobn Jo"Pb Crrihd O'Coaror, wA!,lsrtl hh t!..n! d.!t!, . |nrftb.! ot th. Ccuacil tot $. Studyof Orllrlrt||ond &d Eco{lomFPrlbletlt of tlF Holy s'c' tdr a tncmbr' of Ib! Coi'|rcil o( cddin'ls !d {,rthio tl* s..tEt{ry ofsLr|! t Ofrt..'.Dd 'lro h'ld biSbofficd wilhio tbt Rotlto Ct|!ld"

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Case 3:99-cv-04941-MMC

Document 273

Filed 03/20/2006

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Jeffrey S. Lena SBN 189900 LAW OFFICES OF JEFFREY S. LENA 1152 Keith Avenue Berkeley, California 94708-1607 Telephone: (510) 665-1713 Facsimile: (510) 588-5555 E-mail: jlena@sbcglobal.net (Without waiver of defenses, jurisdictional or otherwise) Attorney for Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR)

6 7 8 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 9 NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA 10 11 EMIL ALPERIN, et al., 12 Plaintiffs, 13 vs. 14 15 16 Defendants. 17 Time: 9:00 a.m. 18 Court: The Honorable Maxine M. Chesney 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 1. I, Professor Settimio Carmignani Caridi, do hereby declare and state as follows: Introduction My name is Settimio Carmignani Caridi. I am a tenured Ricercatore (Researcher) and member Date: July 28, 2006 VATICAN BANK, a/k/a INSTITUTE OF RELIGIOUS WORKS or ISTITUTO PER LE OPERE DI RELIGIONE (IOR), et al., DECLARATION OF PROFESSOR SETTIMIO CARMIGNANI CARIDI IN SUPPORT OF DEFENDANT IOR’S MOTION TO DISMISS FOURTH AMENDED COMPLAINT FOR LACK OF SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION Case No. C 99-04941 MMC (EDL)

of the faculty of law at the Italian University of Rome, Tor Vergata. My business address is Settimio Caridi, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Orazio Raimondo, 18, 00173, Rome, Italy. 2. As set forth below, this declaration is based upon my expert knowledge of civil law legal

systems, Italian law, canon law, ecclesiastical law, the constitutional law of the Holy See and the particular laws of the State of Vatican City.

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Qualifications and Professional Experience I am trained and teach in the disciplines of canon law, ecclesiastical law, Italian law, and the

various laws that make up the legal system governed by the Holy See. I am familiar with all of the international accords between Italy and the Holy See. I am familiar with the international law principles of sovereign immunity and have studied on a sustained basis sovereign immunity cases in both the United States and Italy. I study comparative law and conflict of laws. I am familiar with the differences between the civil law and the common law. I am a licensed lawyer in good standing in Italy. 4. Italian is my native language. As a legal professional and scholar, I work primarily in Latin

and Italian, but I read and follow relevant scholarship written in English, French and Spanish. Academic Degrees In 1979, I graduated with honours from the Law Faculty of the Italian University of Rome,

La Sapienza, where I received a perfect examination score (High Honors) defending my ecclesiastical law thesis titled “Relations between State and Church in Polish Democratic Republic” under the direction of Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, Pietro Gismondi. 6. In 1982, I received my Licentia in Iure Canonico, magna cum laude (Canon Law License)

at Gregorian Pontifical University, where I submitted a canon law thesis related to the development of the moral subject in the decisions of Sacra Congregazione del Concilio. 7. In 1987, I received my doctoral degree in canon and ecclesiastical law, for which I wrote a

dissertation on entities of the Roman Curia and State of Vatican City, “Criteri di distinzione tra organi ed enti della Curia e dello S.C.V.” Academic and Professional Activities From 1980 until 1992, I worked at the Supreme Court of Cassation (Italian court of last resort

for non-constitutional matters) in a research group called the Giurinform Studio, assigned to analyze case law for the Court. I also received funding research in the same period from the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (National Research Council), attached to the Ministry of Education and Italian University Ministry

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under the direction of Professors Gismondi, Ferrari, Mirabelli, Talmanca, Corecco, Mauro, Spinelli, Dalla Torre, and Milano. 9. In 1982, I was awarded a three-year scholarship with stipend by the Catholic University

Centre by the Episcopal Conference of Italian Bishops, after which I received my doctorate from the Ministry of Italian Universities. 10. In 1987, I won a public competition to become Researcher in canon law and ecclesiastical law

at the public University of Rome Tor Vergata, where I continue to teach. 11. For ten years, from November 21, 1991 to November 22, 2001, I served as Clerk on the

Italian Constitutional Court to the Honorable Justice Cesare Mirabelli, performing tasks similar to those performed by clerks to Justices of the United States Supreme Court – research, writing, and preparation of memoranda. After Professor Mirabelli was made Chief Justice, I also coordinated work for the assistant clerks. 12. I am General Secretary of Consociatio Internationalis Studio Iuris Canonici Promovendo,

an international association of more than 500 canon law professors, mainly laymen, where my duties include the responsiblity for the agenda for that organization’s triennial meetings. 13. I am a member of the board of editors for Quaderni di Diritto e Politica Ecclesiastica, a

journal of law and ecclesiastical politics. 14. I teach general law courses, as well as courses at the masters level and specialty courses, in

public administration, communications and legal information systems. 15. I am member of the Ordine degli Avvocati (the Italian public law register of attorneys), and

am admitted to practice before the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation, the Italian Constitutional Court (court with jurisdiction over constitutional questions), the Consiglio di Stato (court of administrative recourse from first instance administrative law decisions), and the Corte dei Conti (court receiving challenges relating to the accuracy of public accounts and expenditure). \\\ \\\

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Subject Matter of this Declaration Based upon my expert knowledge of the legal systems applicable within the Holy See and

upon the territory of the State of Vatican City, defendant Istituto per le Opere di Religione (“IOR”) has asked me to give my expert opinion on, principally, the legal status of the IOR in the year 1999. Materials Reviewed to Make this Declaration I am familiar with all of the leading scholarly publications relating to the Holy See, the

territory of the State of Vatican City, the canon law, Italian ecclesiastical law, and international law. All of the materials I rely upon to make this declaration are publicly available, and are not based upon any special access to documents or relation to any of the juridical subjects described herein. The most important materials I have reviewed are the following: The Fourth Amended Complaint in the case of Alperin v. Vatican Bank. Costituzione Apostolica Pastor Bonus (June 28, 1988) 80 Acta Apostolica Sedis (“AAS”) 841-930 (1988), in Commento alla Pastor Bonus e alle norme Sussidiarie della Curia Romana, P. Pinto ed., Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editria Vaticana (2003) (“Pastor Bonus”). Costituzione Apostolica Regimini Ecclesiae Universae (Aug. 15, 1967) 59 AAS 885-928 (1967). Codice di Diritto Canonico (Jan. 25, 1983), in Commento al Codice di Diritto Canonico, P. Pinto ed., Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editria Vaticana, (2001) (“1983 CODE”). Trattato Laterano (Feb. 11, 1929) 6 AAS 209-271 (1929) (“Lateran Treaty”). Legge Vaticana 26 novembre 2000, Legge fondamentale dello Stato della Citta’ del Vaticano [Law of Nov. 26, 2000, Fundamental Law of the State of Vatican City], in force as of Feb. 22, 2001. Legge Vaticana 7 giugno 1929, n. II, Legge sulle fonti del Diritto. Regolamento Generale della Curia Romana (Secretaria Status, Rescriptum ex Audientia SS.MI quo Ordinatio generalis Romanae Curiae foras datur) (Apr. 30, 1999). La Curia Romana: Lineamenti Storico Giuridici, Niccolo’ Del Re, Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana (4th ed. 1998). Il Diritto Amministrativo della Chiesa, Francesco D’Ostilio, Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana (2d ed. 1996). Diritto dell’Organizzazione Ecclesiastica, Juan Ignacio Arieta, Milano, Giufrè Editore (1997).

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Chirographum quo nova ordinatio datur Organismo Istituto per le Opere di Religione (Mar. 1, 1990). Adnexum Statuto, Istituto per le Opere di Religione (Annex to 1990 Chirograph of Mar. 1, 1990). Costituzioni Generali e Statuti Generali, Ordine Dei Frati Minori (Dec. 8, 2004) (“Cost. Gen.”). Slavorum Gentem: Quibus extinguitur Capitulum Ecclesiae Collegiatae S. Hieronymi Illyricorum et Collegium Hieronymianum in Urbe erigitur (Aug. 1, 1901). Regolamento generale per il Vicariato di Roma (July 1, 2000).

7 Publications 8 18. 9 Holy See, international law, sovereignty, and representational capacity (agency). A partial list of my 10 publications is set forth in Attachment A to this declaration. 11 Introductory Notes 12 19. 13 Note on the Importance of Reference to Latin Texts to Analyze Law 14 20. 15 in Latin. These Latin texts are the authoritative source of law. For this reason, all translations relied upon 16 by a scholar must be compared to the original Latin text to determine the translation’s accuracy. With respect 17 to the documents whose authoritative texts are in Latin, I have made the necessary comparisons before 18 executing this declaration. 19 Legal Status of Expert Opinion 20 21. 21 Holy See and have no association with the IOR. Nor do I have any association with the Order of Friars 22 Minor, or the College of San Girolamo. This declaration is not an official statement of the Holy See or the 23 IOR, or any other entity. In the legal system of the Holy See, official statements of law are reserved to those 24 organs constitutionally empowered to make such statements. 25 Concept of Canon Law 26 22. 27 28
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I publish scholarly articles in peer-reviewed journals on Italian law, canon law, the law of the

The following notations state important premises related to the contents of this declaration.

Latin is the official language of the Holy See, and legal texts of the first order are published

This declaration states my expert legal opinion. I am not an employee (dipendente) of the

Canon law, broadly construed, refers to that body of laws governing the legal relations of real

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and fictitious persons in the canon law legal system, and describes the legal institutes that form that system. The term does not simply refer to the “Code of Canon Law,” which provides the general structure for the legal system within which “particular,” “special” and “constitutional” laws may also be elaborated. See, e.g., 1983 CODE c.5 (Code of Canon Law in force suppresses prior codes, but allows creation of law interstitial to the Code); 1983 CODE c.360 (stating that the Pope conducts affairs through the Roman Curia, which acts in the name of and on behalf of the Pope, according to the norms of canon law and such particular laws as may be enacted; the Roman Curia is composed of the Secretary of State and other Curial entities as determined by statute and special laws); Pastor Bonus, passim (Papal constitution authorizing and describing components of the Roman Curia); 1983 CODE c.455 (Episcopal Conferences elaborate their own norms, subject to their compliance with the canon law); 1983 CODE c.598 (religious institutes establish activities through their own constitutional structures). These laws are interpreted according to the hierarchical status of the law, the principle of subsidiarity, the principles of statutory interpretation used in the legal system, and the canon law’s received tradition. 1983 CODE c.6, § 2 . Authority and Constitutional Expression in the Holy See's Legal System, and on the Territory of the State of Vatican City 23. The Holy See is a sovereign confessional state governed by canon law and constitutional law.

16 Its sovereignty is recognized by other states throughout the world, including the United States. The polticial 17 form of the state is a monarchy. See 1983 CODE c.331-335. 18 24. 19 through a stable, cognizable and predictable legal system whose institutional instrument is the Roman Curia 20 and certain Vatican state institutions. 1983 CODE c.360; Pastor Bonus art. 2, et seq.; see also, Nuova Legge 21 Fondamentale dello Stato della Citta’ del Vaticano (26 Nov. 2000) (in effect Feb. 22, 2001) (stating the law 22 of the State of Vatican City currently in force, but making no change from the previous law relevant to this 23 declaration). The elaboration and exercise of this power adheres to the principle of legality: powers within 24 the Curia are based upon written documents and the division of authority into executive, legislative and 25 judicial functions, each maintaining legally mandated degrees of separation. Judicial officers cannot make 26 law, legislative officers cannot adjudicate cases, and executive officers generally exercise administrative rather 27 28
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than legislative and judicial functions. The right to challenge administrative decisions (“recourses”) and appeal judicial decisions include de novo review of issues of both fact and law. See Pastor Bonus, passim (describing the modern configuration of executive, legislative and judicial institutions within the Curia and the limitations on the competencies and jurisdiction of each); Del Re, Curia Romana 95-108 (describing congregations of the Roman Curia); and D’Ostilio, Diritto Amministrativo, 157-163 (describing curial organizations generally and limitations of competence of administrative agencies of the Roman Curia). Juridic Persons 25. A general analogy between juridic persons in the civil law tradition and corporations in the

common law legal tradition may be useful. A “juridic person” is a “fictitious” rather than a “natural” person and is similar to a “corporation” that is created for some particular purpose, as may be defined in the founding documents and further elaborated in its “by-laws” describing the corporate structure and function. Like the common law corporation, the juridic person is a legal mechanism through which organizations maintain a separate identity, structure, purpose, and legal independence. 26. 27. Juridic persons are also classified as either “public” or “private.” In the canon law, a public juridic person is an entity that comes into existence either ipso iure

or is created by the specific grant of the competent authority. In either case, the entity’s legal purpose must include a mandate to pursue canonically appropriate public good. Public juridic persons are subject to the scrutiny of the creating authority, but act autonomously within the sphere of their competence, as defined by the juridic person’s own statutes and the grant of authority. 1983 CODE c.114, § 1 (providing that juridic persons may be created by a disposition of law, or by specific legal decree, by a competent authority and with a purpose that corresponds with the mission of the competent authority). The Code specifies that a public juridic person maintains a particularly close relationship to the competent authority that created it in order the public juridic person can be supervised to ensure that the public good is pursued. See, e.g., 1983 CODE c.116. 28. The separate status of juridic persons is maintained through the creation of autonomous

governing boards and regulations. This rule is uniform, but applied through different parts of the canon law,

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depending upon the nature of the institution. See, e.g., 1983 CODE c.587 (institutes adopt “fundamental” norms relative to their internal governance and the activities of its members); Regolamento generale per il Vicariato di Roma, July 1, 2000 (setting forth regulations for the vicariate of Rome separate and distinct from those applicable to the Roman Curia); 1983 CODE c.243 (religioius seminaries each adopt their own regulations according to the competent authority); 1983 CODE c.454-455 (episcopal conferences may make law not inconsistent with the Code of Canon Law); 1983 CODE c.573 (bishops are individually responsible for the administration of their own dioceses). 29. The sovereign’s powers are divided into pastoral, spiritual and temporal spheres. Temporal

authority concerns the acquisition, retention, administration, and alienation of temporal goods. These powers are exercised by the various juridic persons within the Church, independently of the competent authority that created them, within the limits set by their founding statutes. Such canon law juridic persons are also typified by separate legal representation, and the power to represent and vindicate the rights of the juridic entity. 30. Juridic persons are first classified into two basic categories: aggregates of persons

(universitates personarum) or of things (universitates rerum). 1983 CODE c.113. The competent authority – here, the sovereign – may create either. Legal Status of the IOR as of the Year 1999 31. The IOR is a public juridic person constituted by the authority of the sovereign in conformity

with the canon law, the law of the Holy See and the law of the the State of Vatican City. The legal status of the IOR is described in both sovereign law and legal commentary. See, e.g., F. Finocchiaro, Diritto ecclesiastico 179 (Bologna 1986) (general overview of ecclesiastical law describing IOR); S. Lariccia, Diritto ecclesiastico 155 (3d ed. Padova 1986) (same); E. Vitali, L’istituto per le opere di religione e il diritto italiano, in GIUR . COMM . 514-28 (1987); F. Margiotta Broglio, Enti centrali della chiesa e istituto per le opere di religione. Considerazioni sull’interpretazione dell’art. 11 del Trattato Lateranense, in RIV . TRIM . DIR . E PROC . CIV . 543-53 (1988); F. Finocchiaro, Enti centrali della chiesa cattolica, in XII ENC . GIUR . TRECCANI 1-6; G. Dalla Torre, Santa Sede e Enti Centrali Della Chiesa, in XIII DIGESTO ITALIANO , Discipline Pubblicistiche 589-598.

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32.

As the governing (“competent”) authority of the Holy See, the Pope authorizes the creation

of new juridic persons on Vatican City State territory. On March 1, 1990, Pope John Paul II issued a chirograph1 (“Chirograph”) and internal governing regulations (“Statuto”) giving the IOR its present form as a public juridic person. See 82 AAS 1619-20 (Chirographum quo nova ordinatio datur Organismo Istituto per le Opere di Religione (Chirograph)), 82 AAS 1621-29 (Adnexum Statuto, Istituto per le Opere di Religione (Statuto)) (1990). 33. As demonstrated by the content of the Chirograph and the Statuto, the IOR was not created

by operation of a general law, and was not part of a general legislative scheme. Rather, it was created by and is subject to a “special law” specifically directed at the IOR’s creation and organization, and commanding the IOR to engage in activity of public benefit to the sovereign. Chirograph, Statuto, passim; Pastor Bonus art. 25, § 2 (describing the IOR as an institute governed by “special law”).2 The sovereign was the original source of funds to establish and finance the operation of the IOR. 34. As a public juridic person with a mission defined by the sovereign, the IOR has the capacity

and obligation to serve the public purposes set forth in its authorizing legal instrument. See, e.g., Statuto art. 5 (providing that the IOR serve sovereign-mandated goals with oversight by a Commission of Cardinals appointed by the sovereign). 35. While juridically separate from the sovereign, the IOR is a creature of the sovereign; it is

neither a citizen of the United States, nor it is created under the laws of any third country. See Italian Supreme Court of Cassation, Section V, 17 July 1987, n.3932 (acknowledging location of IOR on Vatican City State territory; its formation under the laws of the Holy See and the Vatican City State; and its immunity from the jurisdiction of Italian courts).

A chirograph is a traditionally handwritten instrument through which the Pontiff expresses his will. In the Holy See’s legal system, the papal chirograph is law. “[T]he procedure for approval [of a juridic person’s statutes] implies and means a control, on the part of the administrative authority (in a position of preeminence and prevalence), of the activity carried out by another subject (in a position of subordination), for the ends and within the bounds fixed by law.” I Exegetical Commentary on the Code of Canon Law 773 (Marzoa, et al. eds.).
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36.

The purpose of the IOR is to carry on activities that are pias causas, or for pious purposes,

consistent with the sovereign’s public purposes. See, e.g., Statuto, passim (internal governing regulations of the IOR requiring it to act for pias causas, a Holy See public purpose). The IOR cannot change its rules of internal governance without permission of and final approval by the sovereign. Chirograph (creating IOR as a canon law juridic person, limiting its authority to public acts, and requiring that all changes to the governing statute be made by the sovereign, not the entity itself). 37. The IOR’s public purpose is to “provide custody and administration of movables and

immovables transferred or entrusted to the same institute for the purpose of works of religion and charity.” Statuto art. 2, § 1. In conformity with its purpose, “[t]he Institute therefore accepts assets whose destination is at least in part or in the future that of the previous section. The Institute can accept deposits of assets from entities or individuals of the Holy See or of the State of Vatican City.” Id. at § 2. 38. As a public juridic person, the Statuto authorizes the IOR to acts as a fiduciary of the

deposited funds for designated pious purposes, and as an autonomous pious foundation that directly carries out the charitable purposes of the Holy See and the State of Vatican City. 39. Constitutional documents underscore the IOR’s central institutional relationship with the Holy

See, and its public purpose. Pastor Bonus art. 25, § 2, describes the IOR as that “special institute established and located within the Vatican State for managing economic assets committed to it and for administering those that serve to sustain works of religion and charity . . . .” Id. This constitutional status reflects the IOR’s central role within the Holy See’s public law legal structure; indeed, authoritative IOR scholarship describes the IOR as a Holy See “central entity.” See Italian Supreme Court of Cassation, Section V, 17 July 1987, n.3932 (acknowledging that IOR is a “central entity” under the oversight of the Holy See, on Vatican City Territory, and enjoying immunity from the jurisdiction of Italian criminal courts); see also, Statuto art. 3 (noting that the IOR must serve the Universal Church, subject to the oversight of the Holy See). The IOR’s status has been recognized in bilateral treaties as well. See, e.g., L’Accordo Amministrativo per

l'Applicazione della Convenzione di Sicurezza Sociale tra La Santa Sede e La Repubblica Italiana (16 June 2000) (Agreement regarding the administration of social security between the Holy See and the Republic of

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Italy, recognizing the IOR as “one of the entities directly overseen by the Holy See”). Location of the IOR 40. The IOR is located in a government building within the State of Vatican City. Organizational Structure of the IOR 41. The IOR has several administrative levels, each authorized and described by law. In order

from highest governmental oversight to daily operational responsibility, the levels are: (1) Cardinals' Commission; (2) Prelate; (3) Oversight Council; (4) Directorate; and (5) Accounting. 42. Cardinals’ Commission. The Cardinals’ Commission is composed of five Cardinal Members,

each of whom is a government official holding high office within the Roman Curia, and each of whom is appointed by the sovereign. This Commission forms the direct institutional link between the sovereign government and the IOR. The Commission is headed by the Secretary of State of the Holy See, the Pope’s highest delegate for temporal affairs of this nature. 43. The Commission meets, by law, at least twice annually to review the IOR’s compliance with

its internal statutory norms. The Commission also appoints and removes members of the Oversight Council (whose function is discussed below) and appoints and removes the IOR’s President and Vice-President. In addition, the Commission: (a) deliberates as to the distribution of any available funds; (b) proposes to the sovereign changes to the by-laws; (c) deliberates regarding the emoluments due to the Members of the Oversight Council; (d) approves the appointment and the removal of the Director and of the Vice-Director made by the Oversight Council; and (e) deliberates on any issue regarding the Members of the Oversight Council and the Directorate. In maintaining plenary oversight authority over the IOR, the Cardinals’ Commission is legally mandated to pursue governmentally goals, but is not legally mandated to be involved in IOR day-to-day activities or transactions. See Pastor Bonus art. 25, § 2 (describing the duty of the Dicasterial Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organization and Economic Questions of the Holy See to “consider the activities of the [IOR]” in its administration of “economic goods placed in its care.”). Government officials are empowered to request information and records from the IOR. Id. 44. Prelate. Below the Cardinals’ Commission sits the Prelato, or “Prelate.” The Prelate

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oversees the activities of the IOR, acts as Secretary to the Cardinals’ Commission when it is in session, attends the meetings of the Oversight Council, and provides an institutional link between the Cardinals’ Commission and the Oversight Council. 45. Oversight Council. The Oversight Council administers and manages the IOR, and supervises

its financial, economic and operative activities. The Oversight Council is convened by the President at least once every three months, or when requested by two of its Members, and approves the IOR’s operational budget, submitted by the the Directorate, each year. After approval, the Oversight Council transmits the budget to the Commission, with a report on the IOR’s economic-financial situation and on how the activity of the IOR complies with its bylaws. In addition, the Oversight Council: (a) formulates the general policy lines and basic strategy for the activities of the IOR in harmony with its institutional ends; (b) defines the criteria for the elaboration of yearly programs and objectives of the Directorate, and to approve its proposals; (c) reviews the economic-financial activity of the IOR; (d) watches over the realization of programs and the objectives that were set, with respect to investments and other activities; (e) defines the most appropriate financial structure for the IOR and, in general, determines the best means to increase the IOR’s patrimony and assets in the context of adherence to economic-financial rules and in compliance with the purposes of the IOR; (f) proposes to the Commission changes in the by-laws, as long as they are unanimously approved by Council staff; (g) arranges for issuance of the regulations, which are required to provide a detailed description of the powers and competencies of the Council and the Directorate General; (h) confers with the Directorate; and (i) approves the Directorate’s annual report. 46. Directorate. Below the Oversight Council is the Directorate, which consists of a Director

General and the Vice-Director. The members of the Directorate are appointed by the Oversight Council subject to the approval of the Cardinals’ Commission. The Directorate is responsible for the operational activities of the IOR. 47. This relationship between the Cardinals’ Commission, the Prelate, the Oversight Council, and

the Directorate is set forth in the Chirograph and the Statuto articulating the rules of IOR internal governance. According to the Chirograph and the Statuto, the IOR is a public juridic person, which can

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contract and own property in its own name and which has its own legal representative, as specified by statute. 48. Auditors. Auditors operate under the Directorate and are officers of the IOR under the terms

of the Chirograph and Statuto, charged with monitoring the IOR’s activities. Function of the IOR 49. The IOR performs functions which are unique and not performed by other organs or

institutions of the Holy See or the State of Vatican City. Compare, e.g., Pastor Bonus art. 25, § 2 (describing IOR as “special institute for managing economic assets placed in its care with the purpose of supporting works of religion and charity”) with Pastor Bonus arts. 172 -175 (describing the functions of the Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica as an administrator of properties owned by the Holy See to fund the Roman Curia, overseen through a different administration, activities which are distinct from the IOR) and with Pastor Bonus arts.176-179 (describing, inter alia, the Prefettura per gli Affari Economici as supervising and governing the temporal goods of the administrations that are dependent on the Holy See and reviewing reports on the patrimonial and economic status of the Holy See, all activities distinct from the IOR.) 50. The IOR statute authorizes functions on the territory of the Holy See to facilitate the

operation of government. Statuto art. 2. While the day-to-day operations of the IOR are by law managed by the IOR itself, as a public juridic person, the IOR is legally required to follow governmental policy directives articulated through the Cardinals’ Commission. Statuto art. 8. 51. The IOR routes payments between certain Holy See agencies, a public function performed

for these tasks by no other entity on behalf of the Holy See. The IOR also finances Holy See religious works. Pastor Bonus art. 25, § 2. 52. The IOR is legally empowered to operate the Holy See pension (“social security”) system for

its own employees, as well as all the other employees of the Holy See. See, L’Accordo Amministrativo per l'Applicazione della Convenzione di Sicurezza Sociale tra La Santa Sede e La Repubblica Italiana (16 June 2000) (Administrative Accord for the Application of the Convention regarding Social Security between the Holy See and the Republic of Italy, recognizing the IOR as “one of the entities directly overseen by the Holy

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See” and its role in the sovereign’s pension system). 53. The IOR performs a direct and public service function (funzione di servizio) for the Holy See.

The IOR’s founding documents do not authorize the retention of profit by the IOR. 54. By the terms of its founding documents and Pastor Bonus, the IOR carries out its activities

to promote sovereign goals. Pastor Bonus art. 25, § 2 (“economic goods placed in [IOR’s] care with the purpose of supporting works of religion and charity.”); Statuto art. 2 55. The IOR is a limited depository institution. Depositors are essentially limited to Holy See

employees, members of the Holy See, religious orders, and persons who deposit money destined in whole or in part for works of piety. Statuto art. 2 56. As a creature of the sovereign in the canonical system, where legal requirements are met, the

IOR could be wound up, or rededicated to other government purposes by legal act of the sovereign. See, e.g. 1983 CODE c.120, § 1 (stating comptent authority’s power to suppress a public juridic person); and 1983 CODE c.121 (stating competent authority’s power to cause the merger of one juridic person with another). “Ownership” of the IOR 57. Paragraph 31 of Fourth Amended Complaint states that the IOR is “in fact the personal

property of the Pope.” Plaintiffs “contend” that the IOR “is in fact the personal property of the Pope in his position as the ecclesiastical head of the Roman Catholic Church and its Easter Rites along with other non sovereign shareholders.” Fourth Amended Complaint ¶ 31. As a matter of applicable law, this statement is incorrect. Like every separate juridic person in the canon law system, the IOR cannot be the property of another. See, Statuto (IOR has canonical juridical personality). It may be that plaintiffs’ confusion arises from application of certain generalized common law concepts such as “stakeholder,” “shareholder,” “associate” or “partner.” These terms are simply legally inapplicable to this entity. To the extent that plaintiffs are contending that the Pope has a property right in any deposits by either natural or juridic persons in the IOR, the statement is similarly invalid as a matter of applicable law. Autonomous entities within the Church possess the right to acquire and use property. 1983 CODE c.1255 (stating that the all juridic person, whether public or private can acquire, retain, administer, or alienate temporal goods according to legal right).

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While the sovereign, as creator of a juridic person, may suppress it, or change its form, the sovereign – much less the Pope in some “personal” capacity – cannot simply deprive the autonomous juridic person of its canonical rights to the temporal goods it has acquired. 1983 CODE c.1256 ( “The right of ownership over goods under the supreme authority of the Roman Pontiff belongs to that juridic person which has lawfully acquired them.”) As commentaries on the canon law make clear, canon 1256 restated the fundamental canonical principle nemo iure suo sine culpa (No one may be deprived of a right absent fault), and stands for the principle that no person – even the Pope – can lawfully deprive another of temporal goods legitimately acquired. Juridic Status of the Order of Friars Minor 58. The Order of Friars Minor is a religious Order subdivided into separate juridic persons.

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 61. 24 25 26 27 28
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Amongst these juridic persons are the entities which serve particular territories (Provincali) and the General Headquarters (Generale). Each member of the Order is associated with a particular House within a Province (Locale). Each of the above is recognized as separate juridic persons in the canon law. 59. Each of these separate juridic persons may acquire, administer, alienate, and use temporal

goods independently, in accordance with universal law and the proper law of the Order. Cost. Gen. art. 244. 60. The General Chapter is governed by the constitutions and the general statutes, within the

canon law framework. Cost. Gen. art. 188. Officers of the General Chapter cannot contemporaneously serve as officers of a Province. Cost. Gen. art. 179. The Provincial Minister, and other Province Officers, head each juridically separate Province. Cost. Gen. art. 179. The General Chapter, each Province, and each House appoints a legal representative for dealings with civil authorities. Cost. Gen. art. 246. For those with legal seat in Italy, these separate juridic persons are also recognized in Italian

law ipso iure in view of their canonical status, and accordingly appear in public registers of juridic persons. The OFM Headquarters, located in Rome, is not on Vatican City State territory, or on any extraterritorial

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holdings of the Holy See. Trattato Laterano arts. 13-16 and Attachment II. The General Chapter and each Provincial Chapter are juridic persons separate from the Holy See. With respect to the OFM Headquarters (House located in Rome), in Italian law, the separate juridic status during the relevant period is established

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 autonomous from the Holy See, the IOR, and the OFM. The College has not been part of the Roman Curia, 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
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by decree of the Kingdom of Italy, dated June 13, 1935, and registered in the Court of Accounts on August 5, 1935, Register No. 365F n. 23-f. As a Royal Decree, this declaration has the force of positive public law (not merely private declaration by the juridic person itself) and cannot be challenged. See also, Italian

Supreme Court of Cassation, Civil Section, Dec. 6, 2002, n.5458 (in action to hold Province liable for conduct of a House, both of which were recognized as separate juridic persons, Italian Supreme Court of Cassation held no civil responsibility of Province for actions of House.) Juridic Status of the College of San Girolamo 62. The College of San Girolamo merits comment, in light of the legally imprecise manner in

which it is referred to in the Fourth Amended Complaint. The College of San Girolamo is a separate juridical entity, Universitates Personarum, recognized in both canon law and Italian law and is, ipso iure, legally

Pastor Bonus, passim; is not located on the territory of the Vatican City State, or territory having Holy See extraterritorial status under the Lateran Treaty, Trattato Laterano arts. 13-16 and Attachment II; and has been considered a subject of Italy since at least 1924. Accord del 27 gennaio 1924, in 45 Gazzetta Ufficiale 889-903 (22 Feb.1924); art. 1, Law of 20 May 1985, n.222, in 129 Gazzetta Ufficiale (3 June1985); Il Ministro del Interno, Decreto (Nov. 16, 1987). \\\ \\\ \\\

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ATTACHMENT A Encyclopedia Entries Rappresentanza in generale. Diritto canonico, in Enciclopedia del diritto, Milano, Giuffrè, 1987, vol. XXXVIII, pp.485 ss. Sodalizi, in Enciclopedia del diritto, Milano, Giuffrè, 1990, vol. XLII, pp. 1205 ss. Ufficio del lavoro della Sede Apostolica (ULSA), in Enciclopedia giuridica, Roma, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana (Treccani), 1994, pp. 1-8. Collected Works and Professional Organization Publications L'esperienza dei "Gruppi Giurinform" e la collaborazione degli ambienti universitari e professionali alla formazione degli archivi elettronici di giurisprudenza di merito, in 3/ Congresso internazionale sul tema "L'informatica giuridica e le comunità nazionali ed internazionali", Roma, 9-14 maggio 1983, Corte Suprema di Cassazione - Centro elettronico di documentazione, Sess. VI, n. 4, pp. 1-11. Sviluppo, competenze e strutture del Pontificium Consilium pro laicis, in Studi in memoria di Pietro Gismondi, Milano, Giuffrè, 1987, vol. I, pp. 255 ss. Il "documento canonico". Peculiarità, difficoltà ed esperienze nella massimazione di pronunzie giurisprudenziali emesse da tribunali della Chiesa Cattolica, in 4/ Congresso internazionale sul tema "Informatica e regolamentazioni giuridiche", Roma, 16-21 maggio 1988, Corte Suprema di Cassazione - Centro elettronico di documentazione, Sess. II, n. 13 I vecchi "Sodalizi in senso stretto" ed il nuovo CIC, in Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Canon Law, München, 14-19 September 1987, Aymans-Geringer-Schmitz (eds.), St. Ottilien, 1989, pp.621 ss. Libertà di abbigliamento e velo islamico, in AA.VV., Musulmani in Italia: La condizione giuridica delle comunità islamiche a cura di Silvio Ferrari, Il Mulino (Prismi), Bologna, 2000, pp. 223–234 Significato e portata dell’art. 11 del Trattato lateranense, in Radio Vaticana e ordinamento italiano, a cura di Giuseppe Dalla Torre e Cesare Mirabelli, Giappichelli, Torino, 2005, pp. 1-23.

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Contributions to the Annual of the Department of Public Law, University of Rome, II Tor Vergata The reform of the Vatican judiciary system, in University of Rome II. Department of Public Law. Yearbook, Napoli, Editoriale Scientifica, 1988, pp. 217 ss. The relevance of the dialogue between doctrine and jurisprudence in Canon Law, in University of Rome II. Department of Public Law. Yearbook, Napoli, Editoriale Scientifica, 1989, pp. 245 ss. Articles Published in the Journal Il diritto di famiglia e delle persone Primi orientamenti espressi dalla Corti d'appello in tema di esecutorietà di sentenze ecclesiastiche di nullità matrimoniale, 1982, pp. 891 e ss. Ulteriori orientamenti giurisprudenziali in tema di esecutorietà di sentenze matrimoniali canoniche, 1982, pp.1481 e ss. La Corte di Cassazione sull'adozione internazionale, 1982, pp. 1222 ss. La Corte di Cassazione ed il problema del rito da seguirsi nel procedimenti d'esecutorietà di sentenze matrimoniali canoniche, 1983, pp. 521 ss. La Corte di cassazione e l'estensibilità del trattamento economico spettante alle lavoratrici madri adottanti o affidatarie in una fattispecie anteriore alla legge n. 903/1977, 1984, pp. 497 ss. Articles published in the Journal Archivio giuridico Filippo Serafini Sviluppo, competenze e strutture del Pontificium Consilium pro Laicis, 1985, pp. 497 ss. Il nuovo Codice di diritto canonico. Sintesi del V/ Congreso internazionale di diritto canonico (Ottawa 19/26 agosto 1984), 1986, pp.177 ss. Articles published in the journal Il diritto ecclesiastico Il V/ Congresso internazionale di diritto canonico su"Il nuovo Codice di diritto canonico" (Ottawa 19-26 agosto 1984): sintesi dei lavori, 1985, I, pp. 267 ss. Rassegna della giurisprudenza della Suprema Corte di Cassazione del 1983 in materia di assistenza e beneficenza "pubblica" e "privata", 1985, II, pp. 216 ss. Curia romana e Stato della Città del vaticano. Criteri di individuazione dei rispettivi enti,

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1988, I, 139 ss. L'error personae vel qualitatis personae nella giurisprudenza rotale (1983-1990), 1991, II, pp. 105 ss. Articles published in the journal Quaderni di diritto e politica ecclesiastica Giurisdizione italiana ed enti centrali della Chiesa: la Radio Vaticana ed il limite alle emissioni elettromagnetiche, in Quaderni di diritto e politica ecclesiastica, 2002, fasc. 3, pp. 969-993 Thesis Submitted in Jurisprudence Rapporti tra Stato e Chiesa nella Repubblica Popolare Polacca, Università degli studi di Roma [ora Università di Roma "La Sapienza"], a.a. 1978-1979. Thesis Submitted for Doctoral Degrees in Canon and Ecclesiastical Law Criteri di distinzione tra organi ed enti della Curia e dello S.C.V., Roma, aprile 1987 [dep. B.N.I. di Roma e Firenze]

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BRIMSTONE& CO. JONATHAN LEVY 1629 K STREET Nvtf SUITE 3OO
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September 21,2012 European Commission Direitorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs Financial Stability & Monetary Affairs Financial Institutions & Financial Stability Head of Unit - Mr. Benjamin Angel B-1049 Brussels, Belgium

Via Email and Mail
In re: (Vatican) Autorita di Informazione Finanziaria (AIF) & Eu^/atican Monetary Agreement and European Commission - Our Letter of May 28, 2012 Dear Mr. Angel:

We are patiently awaiting the -tf{ay

communication of has been documentary evidenc. tt ut the Isfiruto per le Opery di Religione jurisdiction of Directive misclassifi.b Uy the Commission as outside the the Vatican City 2OO5|60/EC because it belongs to the Holy See and not state' State when in fact it is a juridic entity of the Vatican City
Sincerely,

Commission's response to oru 28,z}lzattached wherein we explain and provide

'///t/trrtttrrrr\r\"' Dr. Jonathan Levy Afforney and Solicitor for Holocaust Survivors and Organizations: Roma, William DorictU Vojislav Poduda, Independent Council of Serbian Republik Srpska Krajina in Exile et al'

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