1.

Some Basic Phrases
Goedemorgen khoo-duh-mawr-ghuh Good Morning Goedenavond khoo-duh-nah-fohnt Good Evening Tot ziens toht zeens Goodbye Dank u wel / Dank je wel dahnk-ew-vehl / dahnk-yuh-vehl Thank you Hartelijk bedankt. hahr-tuh-lik buh-dahnkt Thank you very much. Hoe gaat het met u? hoo khaht ut meht ew How are you? (formal) Ik ben moe ik ben moo I'm tired. Ik heb honger ik heb hohn-khur I'm hungry. Goed / Heel goed khoot / hayl khoot Fine / Very well Hoe heet u? hoo hayt ew What's your name? (formal) Ik ben... ik ben I am... Goedemiddag khoo-duh-mih-dahkh Good Day Goedenacht khoo-duh-nahkht Good Night Alstublieft / Alsjeblieft ahlst-ew-bleeft / ahl-shuh-bleeft Please Graag gedaan khrahkh khuh-dahn You're welcome Ja / Nee yah / nay Yes / No Hoe gaat het met je? hoo khaht ut meht yuh How are you? (informal) Ik ben ziek ik ben zeek I'm sick. Ik heb dorst ik heb dohrst I'm thirsty. Het gaat / Slecht uht khaht / slehkht So so / Bad Hoe heet je? hoo hayt yuh What's your name? (informal) meneer / mevrouw muh-nayr / muh- frow Mister/Misses

Aangenaam kennis te maken. ahn-guh-nahm keh-nis tuh mah-kuh It's nice to meet you. Waar komt u vandaan? Where are you from? (formal) Waar woont u? Where do you live? (formal) Ik kom uit de Verenigde Staten. I am from the United States. Hoe oud bent u? How old are you? (formal) Ik ben ... jaar (oud). I am ____ years old. Spreekt u Nederlands? spraykt ew nay-der-lahnds Do you speak Dutch? (formal) Spreek je Engels? sprayk yuh ehng-uhls Do you speak English? (informal) Waar kom je vandaan? Where are you from? (informal) Waar woon je? Where do you live? (informal) Ik woon in België. I live in Belgium. Hoe oud ben je? How old are you? (informal)

Frans, Italiaans, Spaans, Russisch, Duits, Japans, Chinees French, Italian, Spanish, Russian, German, Japanese, Chinese Ik spreek niet zo goed... ik sprayk neet zoh khood I don't speak ... very well. Ik begrijp het [niet.] ik buh-khraip ut neet I [don't] understand. Sorry saw-ree I'm sorry / Excuse me Tot straks / Tot gauw toht straks / toht khow See you later / See you soon Veel plezier! fayl pleh-zeer Have fun! Ik spreek [geen]... ik sprayk [khayn] I [don't] speak... Ik weet het [niet.] ik vayt ut [neet] I [don't] know. Pardon pahr-dohn Pardon me Hallo / Dag hah-loh / dahk Hi / Bye Veel succes! fayl suk-sehs Good luck!

while pursing lips and pressing tongue against bottom teeth ah as in father. with lips tightly rounded and tongue pressed against bottom teeth The consonants s. b. as in along or sofa. aardig (nice). but very short between the sounds in "light" and "late" combination of aa and ie combination of oe and ie combination of oo and ie somewhat like aw and ow put together as a diphthong combination of ee and oe combination of ie and oe combination of uuand oe ow as in house. guttural sound from back of mouth like v before r. One last vowel sound is found in various Dutch spellings. een (a). 2. (informal) Dat is geweldig! / Dat is vreselijk! dat is khuh-vehl-duhkh / dat is fray-zuh-likh That is great! / That is terrible! Ik hou van jullie. but shorter ih as in bit. but shorter eh as in bet. with lips rounded ir as in dirt. kh denotes a guttural sound. . but sometimes closer to f either rolled or guttural y as in yes sh as in ship ch as in chip ah as in father.Wees voorzichtig! vays fohr-zikh-tikh Be careful! Ik hou van je. d. P. I love you. f. and ng are pronounced the same way in Dutch as in English. Note: In the pronunciations. z. It is pronounced like uh. l. this sound is found in de (the). otherwise like w but with bottom lip against top teeth like v. I love you (all). but with lips rounded oo as in loot.) Sometimes the g is pronounced like zh in words borrowed from French. but shorter aw as in paw. but longer ay as in hail. m. n. h. made at back of mouth s followed by guttural ch sound same as ch. Pronunciation Dutch letters ch sch g w v r j sj tj aa ee ie oo oe eu uu a e i o u ei/ij aai oei ooi ou/au eeuw ieuw uw ui English sound guttural sound. but shorter ur as in hurt. but shorter oh as in boat. but shorter oo as in pool. For example. and k are pronounced without the puff of air (called aspiration. t. and vriendelijk (kind). but shorter ee as in neat.

but not those ending in -ing.3. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i ah bay say day ay eff khay hah ee j k l m n o p q r yay kah ell emm enn oh pay kew air s t u v w x y z ess tay ew fay vay eeks ee-grek zett 4. either common or neuter. be-. and then assign common gender to the rest.and ending with -te are neuter. so it is best to memorize the genders when memorizing vocabulary. However. and all words that end in -um. -aat. Articles and Demonstratives common de de een neuter het Singular "the" Plural "the" Indefinite "a" or "an" common neuter . All diminutives and infinitives used as nouns. Nouns and Gender All nouns have a gender in Dutch. as are most nouns beginning with ge-. It is hard to guess which gender a noun is.) So it may be easier to memorize which nouns are neuter. two-thirds of Dutch words are common gender (because the common gender has combined the former feminine and masculine genders. as well as colors. 5. and ver-. -isme are neuter. -sel. metals. compass directions. All nouns beginning with ge.

zay. she. hij (ie) and het ('t) but these are not written. she. it is hij. Subject Pronouns Subject Pronouns ik jij (je) / u hij zij (ze) het ik yay / ew hay zay ut I you (singular informal / sing. however. Simple Past Tense . het is ik ben yay / ew bent hay. ut is we are you are they are wij zijn zij zijn vay zayn zay zayn jullie zijn yew-lee zayn Present tense of hebben . zij. het heeft hay. There are also unstressed forms of ik ('k). 7. zij.to be (zayn) I am You are He. ut hayft Note: You must use the subject pronouns. I will leave them out of future conjugations. and plural formal) he she it wij (we) jullie vay we yew-lee you (plural informal) zij (ze) zay they Unstressed forms are in the parentheses. To Be and to Have Present tense of zijn . zay.to have (heh-buh) I have You have ik heb jij / u hebt ik heb yay / ew hebt we have wij hebben vay heh-buh yew-lee heh-buh zay heh-buh you have jullie hebben they have zij hebben He.Singular this that Plural these those deze die dit dat deze die 6. it is ik ben jij / u bent hij.

Question Words Who What Why Wie Wat Waarom vee vaht When Wanneer vah-nayr Where Waar How Hoe vahr hoo 10. dikwijls gewoonlijk nu en maar of waar hier daar ook veel een ander reeds misschien 9.zijn was vahs waren vah-ruh was vahs waren vah-ruh was vahs waren vah-ruh had hahd had hahd had hahd hebben hadden hah-duh hadden hah-duh hadden hah-duh 8. Useful Words sometimes always never often usually now and but or very here there also much another already perhaps soms altijd nooit vaak. Numbers 0 1 nul een nuhl ayn .

Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Thursday maandag dinsdag donderdag mahn-dahkh dins-dahkh voons-dahkh dohn-der-dahkh Wednesday woensdag . and the accent mark shows that the third one needs to be pronounced separately. the ë is necessary because there are three of the same vowels in a row. 11.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1.000 twee drie vier vijf zes zeven acht negen tien elf twaalf dertien veertien vijftien zestien zeventien achttien negentien twintig eenentwintig drieentwintig dertig veertig vijftig zestig zeventig tachtig negentig honderd duizend tvay dree feer faif zehs zay-fuh akht nay-khuh teen ehlf tvahlf dayr-teen fayr-teen faif-teen zehs-teen zay-fuh-teen ahkh-teen nay-khuh-teen tvin-tuhkh ayn-ehn-tvin-tukh dree-ehn-tvin-tukh dayr-tukh fayr-tukh faif-tukh zes-tukh zay-fun-tukh takh-tukh nay-guhn-tukh hohn-derd dow-zuhnd tweeëntwintig tvay-ehn-tvin-tukh Note: In the word for twenty-two.

Months of the Year January February March April May June July August October januari februari maart april mei juni juli augustus oktober yah-noo-ah-ree fay-broo-ah-ree mahrt ah-pril mai yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-khus-tus sep-tehm-ber awk-toh-ber noh-fehm-ber day-sehm-ber September september November november December december month year monthly yearly maand jaar maandelijks jaarlijks 13.Friday Saturday Sunday day morning afternoon evening night today tomorrow tonight yesterday last night week weekend daily weekly vrijdag zaterdag zondag dag ochtend middag avond nacht vandaag morgen (de) deze nacht / vannacht gisteren (de) vorige nacht / vannacht week weekend dagelijks wekelijks frai-dahkh zah-ter-dahkh zohn-dahkh dahkh awkh-tehnt mih-dahkh ah-fohnt nahkht fahn-dahkh mawr-khuh khih-stuh-ruh 12. Seasons .

Colors orange pink purple blue yellow red black brown gray white green oranje roze paars blauw geel rood zwart bruin grijs wit groen viht khroon pahrs blow khayl rohd zvahrt brown oh-rahn-yuh 16. Weather . Directions Location Movement North noord South zuid East oost West west noorden zuiden oosten westen 15. Time What time is it? Hoe laat is het? It's 1:00 2:00 3:30 5:45 7:03 at 9:30 noon midnight Het is een uur. Het is half vier. Het is drie minuten over zeven. om half tien middag / twaalf uur 's middags middernacht / twaalf uur 's nachts hoo laht is ut ut is ayn ewr ut is tvay ewr ut is half feer ut is kvahrt for zehs ut is dree ih-new-tuh oh-fer zay-fuh awm half teen tvahlf ewrs mihd-dahkhs tvahlf ewrs nahkhts 17. Het is kwart voor zes.Winter Spring winter lente Summer zomer Autumn herfst 14. Het is twee uur.

opa grootmoeder.How's the weather today? It's cold beautiful hot clear icy warm windy cloudy hazy muggy humid foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing Wat voor weer is het vandaag? Het is koud mooi heet open het vriest/ijzig warm windig bewolkt mistig drukkend/benauwd vochtig mistig het sneeuwt het regent het vriest 18. broer zuster. Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Child Woman. oma kleinzoon kleindochter nicht neef neef nicht oom tante jongen meisje kind vrouw Man. husband man . wife ouders moeder vader zoon dochter broeder. zus grootvader.

boeken book(s) jas . i. The letters f and s occur at the end of words or before consonants. and uu) drop the one vowel when another syllable is added. bad .huizen house(s) Spelling changes: Words with long vowels (aa. 1. while the letters v and z occur in the middle of words before vowels. ee.wegen road(s) 4. -erd. with a few spelling changes boek . and -er (and -aar(d). To Know People and Facts kennen .spelen game(s) glas . The plural vowel is then pronounced as long.bakkers baker(s) Nouns ending in a vowel other than -e add an apostrophe before the s.haren hair(s) huis .to know people ken kent kent ken kent kent kennen ken-nuh kennen ken-nuh kennen ken-nuh weten . Words with the short vowels (a. Some nouns containing a short vowel do not double the following consonant in the plural before -en. Formation of Plural Nouns Most plural nouns are formed by adding either -en or -s. -ier when referring to people) and to most nouns ending in a vowel tafel .to know facts weet vayt weten veh-tuh weet vayt weten veh-tuh weet vayt weten veh-tuh 20. -en. -em. Remember that the definite article is always de before plural nouns.tafels table(s) jongen .glazen glass(es) weg . o and u) double the following consonant to keep the vowels short. -s is added to nouns ending in the unstressed syllables -el.Friend (m) Friend (f) vriend vriendin 19. Irregular forms 3.dagen day(s) spel . A few neuter nouns take the ending -eren (or -deren if the noun ends in -n) . 2.jongens boy(s) tante . oo. -en (the n is not pronounced) is added to most nouns.jassen coat(s) haar . e.baden bath(s) dag .tantes aunt(s) bakker .

Work .liederen song(s) 5. Then je is used as to avoid the redundancy. and all plural nouns. is commonly used in spoken and written Dutch.eieren egg(s) been .leden member(s) koe .beenderen bone(s) lied . Nouns ending in -heid have a plural in -heden.koeien cow(s) 21. To Do and to Make doen .to make maak maken maakt maken maakt maken 26. unless the speaker/writer wants to stress the pronoun. mogelijkheid . In the plural.kind . Some other common irregular plurals are: stad .to do doe doen doet doen doet doen maken .) Je. the unstressed form of jouw.kinderen child(ren) ei .mogelijkheden possibility(ies) 6. and onze is used elsewhere (before singular common nouns. Possessive Adjectives Singular mijn jouw (je) uw zijn haar zijn my your (informal) your (polite) his her its Plural ons / onze jullie (je) uw hun our your (informal) your (formal) their Ons is used before singular neuter nouns.schepen ship(s) lid . 25.steden town(s) schip . jullie is the norm. unless jullie has already been used in the sentence.

bij zonder .actor author baker bookseller butcher clerk dentist doctor engineer hairdresser journalist judge lawyer mail man mechanic musician nurse officer painter photographer singer soldier surgeon teacher tooneelspeler schrijver bakker boekhandelaar slager klerk tandarts dokter ingenieur kapper journalist rechter advocaat postbode mecanicien muzikant verpleegster officier schilder fotograaf zanger soldaat chirurg onderwijzer 27. tegenover onder tot met. in tegenover uit sinds/sedert door aan. aan. door gedurende/tijdens voor van. aan vanwege voor achter tussen bij. over voor binnen ondanks bij naast van op. Prepositions about above/over according to after against along around at because of before behind between by during except for for from over boven/over volgens na tegen langs rond(om) bij. om. met. vandaan in in(to) in front of inside/within in spite of near next to of on(to) opposite out (of) since through to under until with without in. naar(toe). uit.

Verbs followed by Prepositions afhangen van bang zijn voor deelnemen aan denken aan feliciteren met gebrek hebben aan herinneren aan huilen om kijken naar lachen om letten op lijden aan luisteren naar praten/spreken met reageren op rekenen op sterven aan trek/zin hebben in trouwen met twijfelen aan vragen om weten van zeggen tegen zorgen voor depend on be afraid of take part in think of/about congratulate on be short of remind cry at/about look at/watch laugh at pay attention to suffer from listen to talk to react to rely on die of want marry doubt ask for know about say to care for 29.28. Countries and Nationalities Country Nationality .

He is not working next week either. Jan leest niet. Ik wil geen kopje koffie. the word becomes naartoe. . Instead.not either. When no noun or pronoun follows naar. and is generally placed at the end of the clause. 31. ook geen and nog geen are used. Een is usually not preceded by niet or any phrase ending with niet (ook niet . Hij werkt volgende week nog niet. nog niet . Negative Sentences The word niet (not) is used to negate sentences. Geen is translated by not a. They have not found a house yet." Naar is used to show direction towards something. not any or no when followed by a noun in English.not yet). I don't want a cup of coffee. Jan does not read. Zij hebben nog geen huis gevonden. To and From Countries and Cities naar to from uit Note: Uit is also used with languages when meaning "from.Africa America Argentina Asia Austria Belgium Brazil China Denmark England Europe France Germany Great Britain Greece Holland Hungary India Ireland Italy Japan Norway Poland Portugal Russia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United States Afrika Amerika Argentinië Azië Oostenrijk België Brazilie China Denemarken Engeland Europa Frankrijk Duitsland Groot Brittanië Griekenland Holland Hongarije India Ierland Italië Japan Noorwegen Polen Portugal Rusland Spanje Zweden Zwitserland Turkije Verenigde Staten Afrikaan Amerikaan Argentijn Aziaat Oostenrijker Belg Braziliaan Chinees Deen Engelsman/Engelse Europeaan Fransman/Française Duitser Brit Griek Hollander (Nederlander) Hongaar Indiër Ier Italiaan Japanner Noor Pool Portugees Rus Spanjaard Zweed Zwitser Turk Amerikaan 30. geen.

. Modals can be used with other infinitives without the use of prepositions.to want to. whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. and adding these endings: -t -t -en -en -en Note that there is no ending for the first person singular form.to go gah gaan gahn komt kohmt komen koh-muh gaat gaht gaan gahn komt kohmt komen koh-muh gaat gaht gaan gahn 33. Conjugating Regular verbs English has three ways of expressing the present tense. can. The reflexive pronouns always follow the subject and verb. 35. and it is formed by using the verb stem ( the infinitive minus the -en).to be allowed to. To Come and to Go komen . In other words.32. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject. Ik woon hier al vijf jaar. he hurts himself. there are four modals: kunnen . Most verbs are regular in Dutch in the present tense. we hate ourselves.to come kom kohm komen koh-muh ga gaan . Examples in English would be: I wash myself." "since" and "how long?" are rendered by the present tense in Dutch. Hij werkt sinds april met zijn broer. I have lived here for five years. may. kunnen moeten mogen willen ik jij / u hij / zij / het wij jullie zij kan kunt kan kunnen kunnen kunnen moet moet moet moeten moeten moeten mag mag mag mogen mogen mogen wil wilt wil willen willen willen 34. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in Dutch. must. Modal Verbs In Dutch. He has been working with his brother since April. The perfect tense in English of expressions of "for. such as I run. I do run. I am running.to be able to.to have to. and willen . moven . moeten .

Verbs that are always reflexive ask oneself find oneself get angry behave be embarrassed hurry remember recover be ashamed of be mistaken about look forward to oversleep imagine. and never with verbs that are always reflexive. . introduce oneself zich afvragen zich bevinden zich ergeren zich gedragen zich generen zich haasten zich herinneren zich herstellen zich schamen voor zich vergissen in zich verheugen op zich verslapen zich voorstellen Verbs that can be reflexive or used with other direct objects get dressed enjoy oneself move make angry get excited shave (oneself) cut oneself undress (oneself) be amazed defend oneself change clothes excuse oneself/apologize hide (oneself) to be bored feel wash (oneself) aankleden amuseren bewegen ergeren opwinden scheren snijden uitkleden verbazen verdedigen verkleden verontschuldigen verschuilen vervelen voelen wassen Emphatic Forms mezelf onszelf jezelf jezelf zichzelf zichzelf The emphatic forms of the reflexive pronouns can only be used with the verbs that can be relfexive or used with other direct objects.Reflexive Pronouns me je / u zich ons je zich The reflexive pronoun u is often replaced by zich to avoid the double occurence of u.

Words with the short vowels (a. the prefixes go to the end of the clause of sentence. hoop raad haat leef lees was ga hoop raad haat leef lees was ga hoopt raadt haat leeft leest wast gaat wij.ont. hopen raden haten leven lezen wassen gaan 38. When verbs with separable prefixes are conjugated. The letters f and s occur at the end of words or before consonants. ee. you must observe the regular spelling rules in Dutch. etc.inna. etc.overtoe. and uu) drop the one vowel when another syllable is added. while the letters v and z occur in the middle of words before vowels. 40.geher. jullie. 36. Infinitive hopen raden haten leven lezen wassen gaan to hope to guess to hate to live to read to wash to go Stem ik form jij.om.bij. oo.Elkaar is used when there is a reciprocal meaning of "each other" in English. o and u) double the following consonant to keep the vowels short.uit- Onder. depending on which verb they are attached to. over. Words with long vowels (aa. door and om can also be inseparable prefixes.ver. Gaan jullie niet meer uit? Don't you go out anymore? 39. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense . The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables.op- tegen. Inseparable Prefixes be. of which most can stand alone as prepositions. i.erThese prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives. hij.binnen. Irregularities in Regular verbs When you add the present tense endings.door- meek.onder.voor- achter. as compared to the separable prefixes. e. Separable Prefixes aanaf.

Most verbs derived from zijn verbs also take zijn in the perfect tense. but the infinitive contained -v or -z. -t is added to stems ending in t. Past participles are made by adding ge. especially in conversation. with the appropriate spelling changes.to the beginning of the verb stem and -t or -d to the end. and p (note that if the stem ends in -t already. f.This tense is used more often than the simple past. Verb hopen maken blaffen missen dromen bellen loven vrezen to hope to make to bark to miss to dream to ring to praise to be afraid Stem hoop maak blaf mis droom bel loof vrees Past Participle gehoopt gemaakt geblaft gemist gedroomd gebeld geloofd gevreesd 41. ch. (If a stem ends in -f or -s. k. Irregular Past Participles begin understand offer remain break bring think do drink eat go give have help be called hold look come buy Infinitive beginnen begrijpen bieden blijven breken brengen denken doen drinken eten gaan geven hebben helpen heten houden kijken komen kopen Past Participle begonnen begrepen geboden gebleven gebroken gebracht gedacht gedaan gedronken gegeten gegaan gegeven gehad geholpen geheten gehouden gekeken gekomen gekocht . The stems are identical to the first person singular present tense form. Verbs with separable prefixes add the ge after the prefix. while -d is added to all other stems. Regular verbs use a form of hebben or zijn and a past participle. Verb stems are the infinitives minus the -en. s.in this tense. then still add a -d) Verbs with inseparable prefixes do not add ge. you do not double the consonant). except those already ending in -d. Some verbs of motion can take either hebben or zijn depending on whether it is the action that is stressed (hebben) or the destination/direction (zijn. and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked.) Verbs taking zijn are generally intransitive (they do not take direct objects) and denote a change in motion/position or change in state/condition.

Food and Meals breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate ontbijt (n) middagmaal (n). lunch avondeten (n) glas (n) vork lepel mes (n) servet (n) bord (n) bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table brood (n) peper zout (n) ijs azijn olie suiker boter tafel .get can. Zijn Verbs A few common verbs take zijn instead of hebben in the present perfect tense: blijven blijken gaan gebeuren komen to stay to appear/seem to go to happen to come stoppen/ophouden verdwijnen verschijnen worden zijn to stop to disappear to appear to become to be 43. have to may call write sleep speak die forget lose find ask know show want become say see be sing sit look for krijgen kunnen laten lezen liggen lopen moeten mogen roepen schrijven slapen spreken sterven vergeten verliezen vinden vragen weten wijzen willen worden zeggen zien zijn zingen zitten zoeken gekregen gekund gelaten gelezen gelegen gelopen gemoeten gemogen geroepen geschreven geslapen gesproken gestorven vergeten verloren gevonden gevraagd geweten gewezen gewild geworden gezegd gezien geweest gezongen gezeten gezocht 42. be able to let read lie walk must.

tussendoortje kaas 44. peen aardappel kool sausage worst cucumber komkommer Note: (n) denotes neuter nouns. Fruits. Vegetables and Meats fruit vrucht pumpkin pompoen olive radish lettuce tomato onion meat roast veal lamb beef ham pork bacon poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish kalfsvlees (n) lam (n) rundvlees (n) ham varkensvlees (n) rookspek (n) pluimvee (n) eend gans kip kalkoen vis olijf radijs sla tomaat ui vlees (n) pineapple ananas apple apricot banana pear raspberry cherry lime lemon orange peach grapes appel abrikoos banaan peer framboos kers limoen citroen sinaasappel perzik druif strawberry aardbei vegetables groente cauliflower bloemkool bean pea carrot potato cabbage boon erwt wortel. .silverware tea steak cake ice cream coffee pie mustard rice jam soup salad bestek (n) thee biefstuk koek roomijs (n) koffie taart mosterd rijst jam soep salade dish juice water wine beer beverage milk egg honey snack cheese schotel sap water wijn bier (n) drank melk ei (n) honing snack.

) If a verb has a separable prefix. As soon as I'm ready. Ik weet dat jij mij leuk vindt. When the command is general and no one in particular is being addressed. the next clause must begin with a verb. and they do affect word order. When being polite. When a subordinating conjunction introduces a clause. Subordinating Conjunctions if/when as if except that that although to the extent that now whether because after since als alsof behalve dat dat hoewel inzover(re) dat nu(dat) of omdat na(dat) sinds unless while when (in past) until when before just so that as long as without as far as tenzij terwijl toen tot(dat) wanneer voor(dat) zoals zodat zolang zonder dat zover 48. it sent to the end of the clause.46. especially on signs. Please remain seated. he is very rich. but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. I know that you like me. The "let's" form plus a verb is rendered in Dutch by laten we + infinitive. I'll come over. Mijn zoon was ziek. Zodra ik klaar ben. Push / Pull. is hij erg rijk. kom ik even langs. Although he is young. the u form is used (with u following the verb. Kijk! Look! Laat mij het doen! Let me do it! Blijft u zitten. Hoewel hij jong is. No smoking. toen hij klein was. Kijk uit! Look out! Laten we gaan. Commands The stem with the appropriate spelling changes is most commonly used as the command form. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together. the infinitive is used. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb. Niet roken. Trekken / Duwen. Note that zijn has an irregular imperative form: wees (and the polite form: weest u) 47. Holiday Phrases . My son was sick when he was little. Let's go.

of Germanic descent. free and fearless. den Koning van Hispanje heb ik altijd geëerd. Prosper. On You I will build. William of Nassau am I. vrij onverveerd. Prince of Orange am I. in eendracht niet te breken. The National Anthem of Belgium: De Brabançonne By Alexandre Dechet. True to the fatherland I remain until death. Be our goal. my God and Lord. O country. Dat ik doch vroom mag blijven. are my shield. op U zo wil ik bouwen. Een Prinse van Oranje ben ik. in work and battle. Always be yourself and free. voor Vrijheid en voor Recht. de tirannie verdrijven die mij mijn hert doorwondt. your servant at all moments. o God mijn Heer. 1830 O dierbaar België O heilig land der vaad'ren Onze ziel en ons hart zijn u gewijd. Gelukkig kerstfeest (happy). Bloei. Our strength and the blood of our veins we offer. Aldegonde Wilhelmus van Nassouwe ben ik van Duitsen bloed den vaderland getrouwe blijf ik tot in den dood. sacred land of our fathers. uw dienaar t'aller stond. never leave me. a lot of variation is possible. . dat ge onbevreesd moogt spreken: Voor Vorst. verlaat mij nimmermeer.Happy New Year Happy Easter Merry Christmas Happy Birthday Gelukkig nieuwjaar Zalig pasen / Vrolijk Pasen Zalig kerstmis Hartelijk gefeliciteerd (met je verjaardag) Note: Zalig is the word traditionally used by catholics (the pope uses it) when saying something in Dutch at Christmas. Mijn schild ende betrouwen zijt Gij. Aanvaard ons hart en het bloed van onze adren. Our heart and soul are dedicated to you. (x3) O beloved Belgium. So that I may remain pious. Dispelling the tyranny that wounds my heart. on You I rely. Wees ons doel in arbeid en in strijd. o land. Het woord getrouw. of Vrolijk kerstfeest (cheerful). Wees immer u zelf en ongeknecht. To the King of Spain I have always given honour. You. in unbreakable unity. Protestants say Prettige kerstdagen (nice). The National Anthem of the Netherlands: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe By Marnix van St.

for Freedom and for Law.Trust in the word that. (x3) . undaunted. you can speak: For King.

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