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The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas
University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative
The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregion Atlas
Dr. Tamara Laninga
Andrew Ackerman Joshua Arnold Jessica Evans Kay Kidder Laura Laumatia Jon Meier Hanna Persson
Acknowledgments: Special thanks to The Coeur d‘Alene Tribe, Horizons staff, and community members of the bioregion
University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative
Throughout the data collection process. students learned a great deal about the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community bioregion. A key component of the Bioregional Planning program is partnering students and faculty with Idaho communities through ―Learning and Practice Collaboratives (LPCs)‖ to create healthy and attractive places to live through sustainable land use and transportation planning.. education. while providing communities with a team of people to address community planning issues. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic. infrastructure. economic. which gives them a comprehensive picture of the communities and region where they will be working.Preface The Coeur d‘Alene Community Bioregional Atlas was prepared by University of Idaho graduate students in the Bioregional Planning and Community Design program. community life. culture. This information will be applicable to the LPC planning projects students will be working on with community members during the remainder of their time in the planning program. housing. 1 Brunckhorst D. students develop a bioregional atlas. historical. and incorporates political. and meeting with key community leaders. Plummer Creek. Benewah Creek and the southern portion of the Lake Coeur d‘Alene. A bioregional planning perspective examines regions from a geographic boundary.J. students are introduced to the LPC community they will be working with during their time in the program. and cultural knowledge to arrive at solutions that respond more effectively to the limits and potentials of a region. visiting the region. The atlas contains a wide range of information for the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community bioregion including: biophysical elements. 2000. The LPCs give students hands-on planning experience. In addition to exploring the history of the community. the legal and political context. history. rather than from political jurisdictions. It is our hope that the community will find this atlas a useful resource providing access to a wealth of information about the region in one place. economics. Hangman Creek. . and transportation. The Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas is the first atlas produced by students in the Bioregional Planning program. health and medical. such as a watershed.1 For this atlas. the bioregion was defined by a number of small watersheds within the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation including: Lake Creek. During the first semester in the program. Bioregional planning: resource management beyond the new millennium. demographics.
..……………....Table of Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………………..43 Section 8: Demographics……………………………..……………………….33 Section 6: Housing…………………………….…….………………….17 Section 3: Culture……………………………...7 Section 1: Biophysical………………….….69 Section 12: Transportation……………………………..……….73 ..47 Section 9: Education………………………….………………………..61 Section 11: Infrastructure…………………………………………….27 Section 5: Legal and Political………...………………….…….23 Section 4: Community Life………………………………………....53 Section 10: Economics…………………………….…………..……………………….11 Section 2: History…………………..39 Section 7: Health and Medical………………………….………………….…..…….………..…………………………………..
and other human settlements are inextricably and profoundly embedded in an ever-present and ever-changing environmental and ecological context. the concept of region is being reintroduced into discussions of growth and quality of life. By taking a holistic look at the region. It is our goal to provide an ever-expanding atlas of regional information that can be used to support dialogue and generate new ideas for resolution of regional issues.2 It is our hope that this atlas will shed new light on the bioregional concept for the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community. Source: www. An Awareness of a Changing Region All across the country. is the first step supporting that dialogue. This atlas.” 1 --Beatley and Manning. historical and environmental information on the region. in many respects.‖ and how a particular economic landscape translates to the human-built forms across the physical landscape. and transform resources from one form to another. and cultural landscape limits. cities. economic.friendsofcdatrails. University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 7 . cultural. cultural. 1997 Introduction Figure 1: Along the Trail of the Coeur d’Alenes Introduction and Purpose An atlas can contain information about a place‘s natural environment. Bioregions. it is hoped that this approach may be useful in framing important issues and preparing for planning efforts within a regional context in both the short term (5. and transportation systems. modify and influence the natural environment. The bioregion is first identified through primary watersheds. which do not usually follow political boundaries. are defined by a combination of natural features such as geology and topography. it has been utilized as framework to plan in this country for over 100 years. topography. 100 years and beyond). This is in large part due to the dynamic interactions that develop and grow or dissipate among groups of people and their environment.org/CdA_Trail/ The next stage is to incorporate the social. political. the changing economic ―landscape. The paradigm of sustainable places holds that we must increasingly understand regions and cities as organic entities—entities that require environmental goods and inputs that interact with one another. which provide a physical definition of the region (see Figure 2).The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas “Regions. the regions that we are talking about now are significantly different than those discussed in the past. Region is not a new concept. and information about natural processes such as its climate and hydrology. including its geology. or information about the human environment such as demographics. However. A bioregional atlas includes all these factors. 10 years) and long term (50. vegetation wildlife. and those that we define today are likely to be very different 100 years from now.
Introduction The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Figure 2: Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregion Source: Coeur d’Alene Tribe. Integrated Resource Management Plan-FPEIS 2007 8 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .
―those who were found here.2 The traditional teachings of the Schitsu‘umsh remain with us today in the Twenty First Century.‖ For thousands of years or ―since time immemorial‖ the landscape of the Coeur d‘Alene region was created and transformed by the Creator and the First Peoples for the Human Peoples we know as the Coeur d‘Alene or Schitsu‘umsh.‖ all of whom share in a common kinship to occupy and care for the land. A homeland inhabited by a ―multitude of peoples. The magnitude and depth of the Coeur d‘Alene indigenous knowledge of the region positions them to be a key partner in the stewardship of the land. water and culture.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Landscapes of the Schitsu’umsh Introduction The Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community Bioregion is intimately linked with the Schitsu‘umsh. The Schitsu‘umsh carry a powerful voice and strength for the protection and preservation of their aboriginal homeland.3 Figure 3: Aboriginal Territory of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe Source: Integrated Resource Management Plan-FPEIS 2007 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 9 .
McGinnis. Seattle: University of Washington Press.: Island Press. Frey. 1997).C. 171-193. Rodney. Klyza C.Introduction The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas 1 2 Timothy Beatley and Kristy Manning. New York: Routledge. Ed. D. Landscape Traveled by Coyote and Crane: The World of the Schitsu‘umsh. In Bioregionalism. The Ecology of Place (Wahington. Bioregional Possibilities in Vermont. M.V. 3 McGrory. 2001. 1999. 10 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .
streams. rivers. It is recognized that there is likely important information lacking here that would be valuable in painting a better picture of the living landscape—however this is a starting point on which to build. and groundwater. Surface water bodies are important for both recreational and spiritual purposes as well. People rely upon a consistent and quality water resource for a variety of purposes including drinking water and crop cultivation. We have attempted to highlight some of the more salient features. both within the bioregion as it is being defined. and within the larger landscape across which many ecological systems function. In this section: Water Surface water Land Topography Geology Soils Local Climate Vegetation and Wildlife Grasslands Woodlands University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 11 . A resource like water is also critical to all the other living organisms inhabiting the landscape. It is also recognized that the USDA Forest Service lands to the east of the region play a significant role in the conditions of the natural features of the region as well as how people relate to these landscapes. in the form of lakes. water.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Biophysical Biophysical Section 1 By Andrew Ackerman and Joshua Arnold Biophysical components of the region are those which form the foundation for all systems of life. For example. is a central feature of the regional landscape.
succession. hydrologic function. and human aesthetic values. usually low to mid-elevation. disturbance (fire. productivity. resulting in growing conditions that are more similar within than between each setting.edu/default. lower subalpine forest to the cool or cold dry sites between forest and alpine tundra. and includes stream bottoms and adjacent benches and toe slopes. wildlife habitat and dispersal. spread and size. three broad biophysical settings are used to describe the historic and current conditions in the region: Landscape Pattern To understand how ecosystems function. it is important to understand how much variety exists in vegetative structures as well as understand the patterns of how vegetation structures are arranged across the landscape. soils. insects. plant habitat and dispersal.2 Warm/Dry – this setting includes the warmest and driest grass/agricultural lands and forests that support a mix of prairie and forest vegetation. Subalpine – this setting includes the moist.1: Landscape of the Schitsu’umsh Data source: http://inside. The cool to cold dry sites occur at higher elevations and typically have a short growing season.1 The existing and historic natural conditions and vegetation response to disturbance vary by ecological or biophysical settings throughout the region.Biophysical The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas end of this setting is common on northwest to eastfacing slopes. and fire regimes). landform and topography. Landscape pattern affects numerous ecological process. including: watershed functioning. with favorable soil moisture and temperature regimes that favor abundant plant growth. climate. The moist 12 Figure 1. air quality. pathogens) risk. Each setting also includes moisture and temperature gradients.g. ecosystem response to disturbance. and natural processes (e. Initially. nutrient and biomass cycling. Each biophysical setting has characteristic natural communities.htm University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .uidaho. usually at low elevations or mid-elevations on southerly aspects. This setting is the most productive. riparian and poorly drained subalpine sites. Warm/Moist – this setting includes moist forest or valley drainage sites.
Round and Chatcolet Lakes formed a chain of separate water bodies along the river as it flowed west. 5) Level and nearly level. Wetlands and Creeks Hangman. well-drained and moderately well-drained soils on loess-covered hills.1 and 1. Wetlands are interspersed throughout the region from upland forest wetlands to a variety of marshlands and potholes. Benewah. The St. Within the aboriginal territory there are a variety of lesser lakes. moderately well-drained soils on lake terraces.500 acres are cropland. ranging in elevation from of 2. The St.200 to 2. well-drained soils on basalt terraces and escarpments. Soils in the region are predominantly loess deposits. Joe River then flows northwest from the city of . These categories are identified as: Source: Spokane County Conservation District 1) Undulating to steep.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Biophysical Water Surface Water Lakes and Rivers The dominant water body in the region is Lake Coeur d‘Alene.000 to 5. Land Topography and Soils The land surface in the portion of the region consisting of the reservation has modest relief. Benewah. Because of the terrain. very poorly drained to somewhat poorly drained soils on flood plains and low stream terraces. and several creeks and mountains characterize the northern one-fourth of the reservation. much of which is covered with various types of evergreen timber. streams and wetlands (see Figure 1. Maries and is joined by the St. each soil type falls into one of five categories. A large portion of the reservation consists of rolling hills. which lies in Benewah County. Plummer. much of which is owned by members of the Tribe and leased out for farming. About 24. Maries River flowing northwest from Shoshone County.3 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 13 The southern halves of Lake Coeur d‘Alene and Black Lake. which lies in Kootenai County.2: Hangman Creek Watershed St. Prior to construction of the Post Falls Dam. Abundant water resources also characterize the remainder of the reservation. which is the central feature of the aboriginal Schitsu‘umsh‘s territory and the bioregion as defined by this Atlas. well-drained soils on mountains. Joe River flows from Shoshone County west to St. rivers.2) Figure 1. 4) Undulating to hilly.600 feet above sea level. 2) Steep and very steep. The western and northern portion of the region is much more irregular with a few mountain peaks rising to a height of 4. Maries and feeds into Lake Coeur d‘Alene. Rose. 3) Sloping to very steep.500 feet. Rock and Lake Creek all flow through the region and help to define the local watershed.
water tends to stay on or near the surface on some of the more impervious soils. mostly in the summer. the main impact to new and existing development is one of drainage. and the average annual precipitation is about 25 to 50 inches. 000 feet. Average snowfall is 59. In summer. and the average daily maximum temperature is 82.200 feet. are soils in the third category. During winter months.500 to 4. but the number of such days varies greatly from year to year.Biophysical The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas range from 2. Only about 1 percent of the soils on the Reservation fall into the fourth category. but some are found in the eastern forested area. the ground is covered with snow much of the time.. These soils are mainly in the western part of the reservation.300 to 2. These soils formed in loess and volcanic ash that overlies basaltic lava flows.3 Vegetation and Wildlife Forest and Grassland There are four categories of habitat on the reservation – open land. causes a deep snowpack. and the average annual precipitation is about 10 to 35 inches. or woodland.300 to 6. Approximately 30 percent of the region‘s soils are found in the first category. Elevations 14 Local Climate On the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation. They are shallow and moderately deep. The average precipitation is 25 to 30 inches and the average annual temperatures are about 38 to 42 degrees. Of the total annual precipitation. precipitation in summer falls as showers with an occasional thunderstorm. Most of the acreage is used for cultivated crops. wetland and rangeland – each with distinct kinds of vegetation. woodland. Chinook winds are warm and dry and often melt and evaporate the snow. This allows the base to drain and reduces the potential for foundation deterioration due to freezing. Winters are cold in the mountains where precipitation. In wet weather periods. particularly in agricultural areas. On average. which increases the growing season for most crops.3 Although soil conditions vary throughout the region. Elevations range from about 2. and the average daily minimum temperature is 24. which occurs throughout the year. pasture. Thunderstorms occur on about 16 days each year. In valleys. usually falls in April through September. These soils are found in small areas on lake terraces throughout the region and are formed in a volcanic ash mantle over glaciolacustrine sediment. University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . summers are warm or hot in most valleys but cooler in the mountains. and most of the acreage is forested. 10 inches. the average temperature is 65 degrees.7.800 feet. Average annual precipitation is about 22-30 inches with annual temperatures averaging 40-48 degrees. but in lesser abundance. Design and construction requires that the foundation be above the surrounding grade. Elevations range from about 2.1 degrees.5 inches. Soils in the second category are abundant and found throughout the reservation and the region. They formed in loess mixed with volcanic ash and are very deep. The soils are very deep and most of the acreage is used for urban developments. the average temperature is 31. which tend to be the flatter low lands.2 degrees F. The greatest snow depth at any one time during the period of record was 35 inches. They are shallow to deep and most of the acreage is forested. Also found throughout the region. 28 days have at least 1 inch of snow on the ground. In winter. These soils formed in a loess mantle that contains volcanic ash over material derived from meta-sedimentary or granitic bedrock or shale. or 33 percent.
mourning dove. spruce. and wild herbaceous plants.1 Figure 1. cottontail rabbit. Shrubs in the area include baldhip rose. and geranium. pasture. wildrice. bromegrass. 2. quail. elk sedge. oats and barley.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The open land consists of cropland. meadows and areas that are overgrown with grasses. squirrels. clover and alfalfa. skunk and woodchuck.1. and mountain blueberry. and wild Source: Idaho Department of Fish and Game University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 15 . Wildlife attracted to rangeland includes mule deer. raccoon. muskrat. deer. or a mixture of both. The kinds of wildlife attracted to these areas include Hungarian partridge. coyote. meadowlark. legumes. Some of the wildlife attracted to these areas includes ducks. 2. pheasant. Many of the coniferous plants are pine. meadowlark. lovegrass. mink and beaver. woodcock. sedges and reeds.1. shore birds. Wildlife attracted to these areas includes ruffed grouse. These areas produce grain and seed crops. elk and bear. Most of the plants comprising the wetland habitat include smartweed. wild millet. Examples of wild herbaceous plants that are native or naturally established grasses and forbs include blue wild rye. pine reedgrass. and vines. bluebunch wheatgrass. rushes. and associated grasses. geese. thrush. cedar and juniper. saltgrass. grasses and legumes. hawkweed. fir. Examples of cultivated crops include corn. shrubs. Sandberg peavine. field sparrow. snowberry. 3 Biophysical herbaceous plants. cordgrass. herbs. bobcat. Grasses include fescue. wheat. and chukar. woodpeckers. gray fox. 3 The rangeland habitat consists of areas of wild herbaceous plants and shrubs.3: Chukar Woodlands The woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or conifers.
Integrated Resource Management Plan.Biophysical The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas 1 2 Kootenai Idaho Panhandle National Forest Coeur d‘Alene Tribe. Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (CEDS). 2004. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. 3 Coeur d‘Alene Tribe. 16 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . 2007.
People arrived from all parts of the nation looking to create a better life for themselves. The Coeur d‘Alene Indian Reservation was created through a series of executive orders between 1873 and 1889. The first Euro-American contact with the Tribe occurred in the 1700s. The Allotment Act of 1909 brought homesteaders to the region. but also to many new diseases. The earliest residents of this area of Northern Idaho are the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas History Section 2 By Hanna Persson History The history of the communities and people found on the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation is rich and filled with many important events that have each marked the beginning of a new way of life in the region. and several communities emerged on the reservation. The non-native influence in the region grew successively. or Schitsu‘umsh. In this section: Aboriginal Lands of the Schitsu‘umsh Euro-American Contact Creation of the Coeur d‘Alene Indian Reservation 20th Century Events Plummer and Worley DeSmet and Tensed University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 17 . which introduced the Coeur d‘Alene people to the horse.
000+ 1850 Missions War CdA Tribe pop 500 Intro to Horse. 5. Wheat Fee sale Citizenship IRA School Dawes ICA 1900 Tribal Government 1950 Indian Self Det.1: Timeline of the Schitsu’umsh 18 1800 Lewis and Clark Father DeSmet Fur Trade ( Alchohol Intro) 1760 C’dA Tirbe Pop. Act Right to hunt/fish lands 2000 (1862) Mining The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas (1878) (1887) (1889) (1906) (1924) (1934) (1947) (1975) (1989) .History Figure 2. Bison Hunts Begin Small Pox Epidemic University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative (1806) (1809) Bison Hunts End (1775) (1842) (1858) (1860) Mullan Rd.
‖ Although he did not encounter the ―black robes‖ during his lifetime the vision was later manifested in the arrival of Jesuit priests to the region. took over the role of chief by right of lineage and ruled until 1844.jpg Meriwether Lewis and William Clark came across the Schitsu‘umsh in May 1806 and reported seeing around 120 lodges along what is today Lake Coeur d‘Alene. rivers.6 A few years later fur trade had begun and it is believed that the ―Coeur d‘Alene‖ got their name from some Frenchspeaking Iroquois fur trappers living among the Flathead. At this point in time plains-style tipis began to replace the use of the traditional tulemat lodges.5 Figure 2.‖1 As noted in an account of Joseph Seltice. The landscape followed the natural boundaries of the lakes.‖ The Coeur d‘Alene gained access to new material goods through the fur trade. The name Schitsu‘umsh means simply. The trappers considered the Schitsu‘umsh to be shrewd traders and gave them the name ―Coeur d‘Alene‖ which means ―heart of an awl.visitidaho. from 1660 to 1760. and mountains in all cardinal directions. Chief Circling Raven was head chief of the Coeur d‘Alenes for one hundred years. including parts of eastern Washington and western Montana. This geographic area has been the home of the Schitsu‘umsh (Coeur d‘ Alene tribe) ―since time immemorial. allowing them to travel quicker and across greater distances than previously possible. Twisted Earth. the Coeur d‘Alene were affected by a series of smallpox epidemics. The Coeur d‘Alene people were now able to travel to hunt bison in Western Montana. providing a new food source for the tribe.org/assets/photos/detail/CataldoMission2. These boundaries were fluid rather than strict barriers.‖ or ―pointed hearts.‖4 Beginning in the mid-1770s. In 1760 Circling Raven‘s son. University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 19 . The Tribe was so severely impacted by this disease that by 1854 the Tribe‘s population had been reduced from 5.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas History Aboriginal Lands of the Schitsu’umsh The aboriginal lands of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe stretched across much of today‘s panhandle region of Idaho.‖ the heart of which is Lake Coeur d‘Alene.2: Cataldo Mission Euro-American Contact The first Euro-American influence on the Tribe came through the introduction of the horse. but exposure to diseases and alcohol brought further problems for the Tribe. In 1844. Circling Raven received a vision of the coming of the ―black robes. during which time he experienced the arrival of the ―black robes.3 Source: http://www.2 The horse had a substantial impact on the lives of the Coeur d‘Alene. ―the ones that were found here. which became fully integrated into the lives of the Coeur d‘Alene by the 1760s. and were recognized by both the Coeur d‘Alene and neighboring tribes. Chief Vincent.000 to approximately 500.
roads between the two towns consisted of rudimentary trails that were best traveled on horseback. Idaho farmers and businessmen worked to ensure that the new state of Idaho gained control of the natural resources within state boundaries. which significantly reduced the size of individual land parcels owned by Coeur d‘Alene tribal members. but suffered setbacks after World War I when much of the local timber had been logged off and many businesses left town. During the first years. located six miles north of Plummer. Policy changes involved with the Dawes Act allowed for negotiation with the Coeur d‘Alene tribe to gain control over mineral and timberlands. The Dawes Act of 1887. As a result. when Andrew Seltice took over as chief until his death in 1902. by right of lineage. The final agreement of 1889 reduced the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation boundary to its current size. was once again elected by the tribe and ruled until 1932. is named after the former Coeur d‘Alene Reservation superintendent. there were only four Coeur d‘Alene families who were able to continue farming on their allotments. coupled with Idaho‘s movement toward statehood during the same period. from 1902 to 1907. Peter Moctelme. Benewah County was established in 1915 and Plummer campaigned to become the county seat. 1887. but was not granted this role. Town lots were sold on July 18. Plummer. Charles O. The order of 1873 created the original reservation boundary. after one of the surveyors. A one mile square town site was laid out by government officials and named. The next chief. The ―unused‖ reservation 20 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . which drew several businesses to locate in town at the junction of Highways 5 and 95.10 The Allotment Act brought a new group of people to the region as homesteaders began to purchase land on the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation.12 Early settlement in Worley developed simultaneously with that in Plummer.11 The town of Worley. By 1921. 20th Century Events The Allotment Act was implemented on the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation in 1909. but development of infrastructure progressed quickly. was elected through the first tribal election and ruled until 1865. when this role was given to Joseph Seltice. 1910. resulted in the cession of additional lands by the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe. operating several sawmills.9 Peter Wildshoe acted as chief of the Coeur d‘Alenes.History The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas lands were opened up for purchase by non-tribal parties. Worley. The towns that quickly emerged as a result of this influx of people were largely based on an economy associated with natural resource extraction and agriculture. Plummer was initially a very prosperous town. and 1889. it became practically impossible for the tribe to continue the agricultural practices they had been conducting successfully for an extended period of time.8 Plummer and Worley The history of the town of Plummer began in 1909 when land on the Coeur d‘Alene reservation was opened up for purchase by non-natives. Just two years later the town had reached a population of 800. North-south Highway 95 was built through the town in 1932.7 Creation of the Coeur d’Alene Indian Reservation The Coeur d‘Alene Reservation was established through a series of Executive Orders in 1873.
He first established a mission near the location of what is now the city of St. After being flooded several times. authorized the establishment of the first Catholic mission.‖16 Figure 2. A community was built up around the mission at DeSmet. Joe River. Joe River was moved to Cataldo.lib. Maries.washington. DeSmet. but due to a misprint by the postal service the name became ―Tensed.14 The town of Tensed was originally built as a subcommunity of DeSmet but eventually grew large enough to establish its own post office.edu/aipnw/frey. on the St. Idaho 1909 Source: http://content. The community reapplied by reversing the name to spell ―Temsed‖.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas History DeSmet and Tensed In 1842 Catholic missionary. In 1876 the mission was moved again to present day DeSmet. after whom the community is named. the mission at St.13 Father de Smet was born in Belgium and arrived in Idaho in 1842. but this name was denied by the postal service because the post office at the DeSmet mission already had this name. although the mission itself is no longer standing.html University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 21 . Father Pierre Sean de Smet.15 At first the town tried to use the same name as their neighbor.3: DeSmet.
Connolly. 1962. http://content. Rodney. Moon handbooks: Idaho. Emeryville: Avalon Travel Publishing. http://content. 1996. 15 Ibid 16 Derig. 1990.lib. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Missoula: Mountain Press Publishing Company. University of Washington Libraries: American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Collection. 1805-1902. Rodney. Kowrach and Thomas E. 12 Root. 9 Frey. University of Washington Libraries: American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Collection.History The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas 1 Frey. Edited by Edward J. *Images on title page: Frey. Boulder: University Press of Colorado. Fourth Edition. Don. Edited by Edward J. 2 Frey. University of Washington Libraries: American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Collection. Kowrach and Thomas E. 8 Woodworth-Ney.html (accessed September 9.washington.washington. 2007).umsh (Coeur d‘Alene Indians). Coeur d‘Alene (Schitsu‘umsh). 22 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .html (accessed September 9. 14 Root. Saga of the Coeur d‘Alene Indians. University of Washington Libraries: American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Collection.edu/aipnw/frey. Moon handbooks: Idaho. Plummer: Plummer High School. Roadside history of Idaho.html (accessed September 9. 11 Wetter. 2007). 5 Frey. 1990. Chief Joseph.html (accessed September 9.lib. Connolly.washington. Laura. 2007). Connolly. http://content.lib. Tales of Early Plummer. Saga of the Coeur d‘Alene Indians.edu/aipnw/frey. Fourth Edition. Fairfield: Ye Galleon Press. 2004. Coeur d‘Alene (Schitsu‘umsh). Chief Joseph. 2001.washington. Chief Joseph. Coeur d‘Alene (Schitsu‘umsh). 13 Derig. Missoula: Mountain Press Publishing Company. Rodney.lib. 2007). Betty. Landscape Traveled by Coyote and Crane: The World of the Schitsu. 1996. Rodney. Rodney. Betty. 1990. Kowrach and Thomas E. http://content.edu/aipnw/frey. Roadside history of Idaho.edu/aipnw/frey. Saga of the Coeur d‘Alene Indians. Karl. Fairfield: Ye Galleon Press. Emeryville: Avalon Travel Publishing. Fairfield: Ye Galleon Press. Don. 6 Ibid 7 Seltice. 2001. 3 Ibid 4 Seltice. 10 Seltice. Edited by Edward J. Mapping Identity: The Creation of the Coeur d‘Alene Indian Reservation. 2001. Coeur d‘Alene (Schitsu‘umsh).
soul and spirit of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe and its‘ members as they preserve and protect the sustainability of a culture and landscape passed on to them. The teachings are evident today as the Schitsu‘umsh culture remains to be a vibrant echo penetrating the heart. The Schitsu‘umsh landscape was created thousands of years ago or ―since time immemorial‖ before the arrival of humans. In this section: Beliefs and Values Rituals and Ceremonies Language Leadership and Gender Roles University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 23 . rivers and lakes within and exterior to the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation boundary we know today.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Culture Section 3 By Kay Kidder Culture The culture of the Schitsu‘umsh is directly tied to living in a landscape of mountains.1 The Schitsu‘umsh creation story is a legacy of traditional teachings left by the First Peoples and the Creator for the Human Peoples.
2 Figure 3. While the gifts are to be shared freely with those in need. gathering or the harvest of roots and berries. Source: University of Washington Libraries. the rite of passage7 to phases of life (i. If kinship defines the structural relationship of the Peoples. the dynamic that helps bind them as members of the Schitsu‘umsh family is an ethic of sharing. marriage.Culture The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Figure 3. It is the First Peoples who created and transformed the landscape occupied today by the Coeur d‘Alene people. the Creator and the First Peoples known as the animals and birds were the first inhabitants. going to or returning from war9). Prior to humans. Digital Collection Beliefs and Values The Schitsu‘umsh belief system and values is based on the oral tradition of the teachings of a time before Human Peoples. Five fundamental teachings guide the actions and behaviors of the people and Tribe. puberty.1: Woman by teepee The landscape is inhabited by a multitude of ―Peoples‖ all of whom share in a common kinship.2: Fishing in the Native area The landscape is spiritually created and endowed. They are: The Schitsu‘umsh rituals and belief systems are interrelated with the landscape and directly associated with the traditional teachings. and the ethic of sharing.e. The practice of rituals is associated with the hunting of game or fish. naming. To sustain and enhance the welfare of the Schitsu‘umsh family. the gifts are also to be respected and not abused. Digital Collection 24 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .8 first kill. Rituals Source: University of Washington Libraries. The original teachings of the First Peoples facilitate the belief and value systems of the Schitsu‘umsh today.
Examples include: deer hide for the drum.3: Example of language Schitsu’umsh: Aa! Qhest. including the Spokane to the West. relationship or purpose of an element within the landscape or of the traditional teachings. Source: The Lewis and Clark Rediscovery Project Prayer Oral Traditions Songs Drum Dances Regalia Fast Family and Kinship The rituals have a relationship with the landscape.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Rituals are practiced throughout the life of a Schitsu‘umsh individual. The language is descriptive based on appearance. who were interrelated sharing a landscape in common. and song for the water potato. bird feathers for regalia. storytelling of teachings. feel. and the frequency is self-determined by the individual or the family for the maintenance of traditional customs and ways of Schitsu‘umsh life. Lewis-Clark Discovery Project. dancing to connect with the spirit world.10 Figure 3. Rituals include but not limited to: Culture the Kalispel to the North. The Coeur d‘Alene Tribe administers a language program as a preservation tool of a language to be remembered by contemporary Schitsu‘umsh society based on the teachings of forefathers.12 Leadership and Gender Roles Schitsu‘umsh leadership positions were held by chiefs of bands and families. The Coeur d‘Alene maintains a website of the language. and the Flathead to the East. The Salish language consists of dialects understood between and within Schitsu‘umsh families and bands in the Coeur d‘Alene region and neighboring Salish speaking peoples occupying aboriginal land areas adjacent to the Schitsi‘umsh. Joe River Families—6 Villages15 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 25 .11 A digital collection of the language origin to the landscape utilizing members of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe can be found with the University of Idaho. The Schitsu‘umsh is of the Salish language family. Coeur d‘Alene Lake Band—16 Villages of families13 The Coeur d‘Alene River Families—11 Villages14 St. s’laqht English Translation: Hello! Welcome My Friend. The Schitsu‘umsh Tribe was generally comprised of three bands and families: Language The aboriginal languages of the Interior Pacific Northwest Indians are categorized as Saphaptain or Salish. the Pend Oreille to the Northeast.
uidaho.Culture The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas to be a chief although respected for their wisdom and ―chief like‖ qualities. Rodney. Leaders had a primary responsibility and role to maintain the welfare of all members of the bands and villages.com/default.shtml 12 Lifelong Learning On-line. Lewis & Clark Rediscovery Project http://l3.17 Women were not allowed Source: University of Washington Libraries. Norman:University of Oklahoma Press 9 Ibid 10 Ibid 11 The Official Site of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe. A Necessary Balance: Gender and Power among Indians of the Columbia Plateau. Ibid. Lillian A. 1996.cdatribe. Lillian A. Landscape Traveled by Coyote and Crane: The World of the Schitsu‘umsh (Coeur d‘Alene Indians). The leadership style and designation of position types are described as: Egalitarian Typically achieved. there were highly respected women whose opinions were valued. A Song to The Creator.asp 13 Frey. Rodney. Rodney. Digital Collection 26 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 7 Ibid 8 Ackerman. 1996.4: Coeur d’Alene Reservation Schitsu‘umsh leadership prior to the introduction of a formal governance structure in the mid Twentieth Century was flexible and non-rigid. Norman:University of Oklahoma Press. Today both genders play significant roles in Schitsu‘umsh society and culture. not ascribed or inherited Band elected its own (male) chief and subchiefs In respect to the leadership role of women. Landscape Traveled by Coyote and Crane: The World of the Schitsu-umsh (Coeur d‘Alene Indians).edu/default2. Image on title page: Source: University of Washington Libraries. 2 Fry. Digital Collection 1 Frey. http://www. Figure 3. 14 Ibid 16 Ibid 16 Ibid 17 Ackerman. 2001.
In this section: Social Activities Gathering Places/Anchors Areas of Pride Improvement opportunities Community Networks University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 27 . There are many social activities and celebrations that are held within the bioregion each year. and also looks at areas of pride. improvement opportunities have been identified in which the community wishes to improve. the communities also face challenges in certain areas. However.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Community Section 4 By Hanna Persson Community Life This section addresses the various aspects of community life in the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community bioregion. It identifies the places where the community comes together. Therefore.
and official Tribal holiday.uidaho.1: Water Potatoes Social Activities There are many annual events and other social activities that take place in and around the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation communities. hosted by the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe. Roots are traditionally gathered to last families through the winter. and ―permission‖ to dig for the roots. is held each year in the third week of October. Participants are also encouraged to give from their gathered water potatoes to elders and those in need.2 Figure 4.edu/~rfrey/wp06. These are opportunities for community members celebrate long-standing traditions in the region and be reminded of the history and culture of the place they call home.htm Annual Julyamsh Powwow The Julyamsh. Annual Water Potato Day This important event.2: Julyamsh Powwow Source: http://www. and dancers. Students from local schools typically participate in this event which is led by Tribal elders. Some of the major annual events are mentioned here.1 The water potato is a round root with a brown skin.Community The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Figure 4. Source: http://www. is the largest outdoor powwow in the Northwest.jpg 28 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . as well as the special community activities that have taken place in the past year (2007). The day is often started by praying for good fortune.visitidaho. The tradition began as a cross-cultural celebration between Native Americans and fur trappers in the Nineteenth Century. The name Julyamsh is a combination of the English word for the seventh month and the Coeur d‘Alene word for gathering. A celebration and feast typically follow. and one of the many ―gifts‖ of the landscape. The powwow is an opportunity for the Coeur d‘Alene people to come together as a community and to demonstrate their traditions and culture. Adults and children gather to dig for water potato in the mud along the shorelines of the various water bodies in the bioregion. This is a traditional food of the Coeur d‘Alene people.org/assets/photos/hires/PowWow2. horsemen.3 This annual event is always held the fourth week of July and features hundreds of drummers. averaging in size between one and three inches.webpages. as well as more than 200 booths selling traditional goods.
7 Other Annual Events Coeur d‘Alene Tribal School: Antelope Run (May) Fun Run/Walk (August) Annual Tribal Pride Day (August) National American Indian Day (4th Friday in September) Westside Rendezvous This was a ―community days‖ event held with the goal of involving and uniting all residents of the Coeur d‘Alene reservation communities. The Feast of Assumption is a celebration of the passage of the Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven. and friends are also welcome to attend this event) and ―Muffins for Moms‖ (and all other women in the children‘s lives). Source: University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 29 . cousins.3: Plummer City Park Annual Feast of Assumption This traditional Catholic celebration is held yearly on August 15th at the Sacred Heart Mission in Cataldo. an interdenominational community service. These activities include: ―French Toast with Fathers‖ (Uncles.5 Annual Halloween Parade at the Wellness Center Worley Fire Association Annual Easter Egg Hunt Annual Tribal Clean-Up Day (April) Annual Elder Dinner (September) Annual Tribal Employee Christmas Party Annual Christmas Crusade: The Coeur d‘Alene tribal police give bicycles and safety equipment to kids in need. grandfathers. 2007) Figure 4. According to Roman Catholic doctrine. brothers.‖ family street dance. and a community potluck. Dinner and entertainment is provided for veterans and their families. picnic.6 Lake Celebration at Camp Larson (June 15. the Mother of Jesus.4 Community she was transported into Heaven with her body and soul united. cultural activities and demonstrations (native/frontier village). A stickgame tournament has also become a tradition during the Veteran‘s Dinner weekend. ―kiddie parade. Activities included a ―kiddie carnival. 2007) Annual Veterans Dinner This event is held each year to honor local veterans.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Family Involvement Activities The Early Childhood Learning Center (ECLC) in Plummer often hosts activities that encourage family involvement. youth basketball tournament. upon the death of the Virgin Mary. seniors‘ breakfast. 2007) Warrior‘s Society Welcome Home Veterans Dinner (May 19. parade and car show.‖ fishing derby. First Annual ‗Pedalin‘ for Public Health Bike Ride‘ on the Trail of the Coeur d‘Alenes (August 25.
the residents of Coeur d‘Alene. These opportunities include: the life skills of elders. the natural environment. Other Gathering Places Tribal Veterans Center (Worley) 30 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . the Center received the Honoring Nations award from The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development. part of a community development project. but have now been designated for the use of all. The award included $50. Worley) Community Center (Plummer) Community Hall (Worley) Community Technology Center (Plummer) Benewah Medical Center and Tribal Wellness Center (Plummer) Rose Creek Longhouse The Rose Creek Longhouse. City Link transportation. and visitors. BMC/WC is being recognized for quality comprehensive programs that serve both the Native and non-Native community. as well as people who are willing to get involved.‖22 Assets to Enhance The Horizons Coeur d‘Alene Reservation community study circles. This award is given to outstanding community health programs that are making positive contributions toward community health. meaning ―The Gathering Place.24 It also serves as a model for successful medical centers nationwide. located in Worley. as well as providing a holistic client centered health care approach. and people working to diversify the economy. The beach has been given the name Yap-Keehn-Um by the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe. the Portland Area Indian Health Services for Excellence in Immunization Practice (2003) and the Idaho ―Big Shot Award‖ for achieving a 95% childhood immunization rate (2003). Areas of Pride Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d’Alene Tribal Wellness Center (BMC/WC) The BMC/WC has earned several awards including. at a site near the center of the Tribe‘s aboriginal lands.Community The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Gathering Places/Anchors DeSmet Community Building The Coeur d‘Alene tribal school has been using this building for their after school program. is a gathering place for community meetings and events.21 Youth Center (In the Tribal Veteran‘s Center.23 The BMC/WC also received the Johnson & Johnson Community Health Care Program Leadership ―Crystal Award‖ in 2007.000 toward supporting programs for cardiovascular disease and depression. held in early 2007 identified opportunities that exist in the community. In 2000. The beach is located on the shores of Lake Coeur d‘Alene and stretches nearly a mile down the Spokane River. Church services and funerals are also commonly held here. this building is currently closed for repairs. The beach lands have belonged to the college for the past thirty-five years. the Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Wellness Center. including the tribal members. local artists and storytellers. Yap-Keehn-Um Beach In July 2007 a rededication and commemoration ceremony was held at a beach on the campus of North Idaho College. This was also the location of a traditional Coeur d‘Alene winter encampment. However.
Plummer. identifying major challenges facing the community. Worley. The lack of connection between the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation communities (Worley. and DeSmet) was also identified as a major community issue.ag. Tensed.25 Community Networks Horizons: Community Leadership to Reduce Poverty/University of Idaho Extension The Horizons program is a community leadership program that is working in cooperation with University of Idaho Extension to reduce poverty in various Idaho communities.edu/horizons University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 31 . Horizons Study Circle discussions identified the following community challenges: isolation and lack of neighborliness. lack of investment in the future of the community. breakdown of nuclear families. Some of the key concerns identified during the Horizons Visioning Rally include: lack of support for education. The Idaho Horizons Program website can be accessed at http://extension.ag.uidaho. and lack of community pride. as well as developing a positive vision for the future. Community coaches have been trained in each Horizons community to lead the process in that location. One of those Horizons communities is the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation community. individual willingness to accept responsibility and respond to signs of problems. The communities are in the process of determining the most important goals for change in their communities and have created a future vision for the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation. The population of Horizons communities range from 226 to 4900 residents. Figure 4. Tensed. and lack of future for the children in the community.uidaho. These were a series of community discussion events aimed at understanding local issues of poverty. and non-inclusive environment. and creating a greater sense of community.edu/horizons/. Certain issues identified are related to poverty in the community such as divisions within the community and difficult relationships between groups.3: Horizons Program Phases Source: http://extension. Two other major issues that were brought up include.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Community Improvement Opportunities This information is based on community discussions that took place during the Horizons Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community Study Circles (January-April 2007) as well as the Horizons Visioning Rally (September 2007). lack of relationships between people. with poverty rates ranging from 11% to 26%. youth issues and difficulties related to the tribal and local governments ability to work together. The program focuses on building strong community leadership and involving all members of the community in the process. lack of motivation. consisting of the towns of Plummer. and DeSmet.
6 DeGraffenreid. 14 Calendar of Events.ksg. 9 Calendar of Events. Kennedy School of Government: Harvard University.asp?ID=81617&mail=yes (accessed November 15. The foundation bases its work on four poverty reduction outcomes: increased asset identification and development.com/latestnews.asp 25 Coeur d‘Alene Reservation. http://www. 18 Panhandle Public Health Foundation. Northwest Area Foundation The Horizons program is funded through the Northwest Area Foundation (NWAF) which has established a blog website for each Horizons community as a way to provide the communities with information about upcoming events and other happenings in the community.net/pphf_sponsor-letter-2.edu/horizons 32 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . Hundreds attend Coeur d‘Alene Tribe‘s annual Feast of Assumption at Cataldo.org/Pages/Page%206. The Coeur d‘Alene Reservation community‘s blog can be accessed at http://coeurdalene. Landscape Traveled by Coyote and Crane. Julyamsh Powwow a Celebration of Tradition. Jennifer L. 2007.nwaf. increased community capacity to reduce poverty. 23 The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development. Horizons Visioning Rally Outcomes. 2007.indiancountry. Latest News. http://www. 2007). Indian Country Today. Idaho Horizons Community Profile. Coeur d‘Alene Historic Beach Rededicated.ag. 19 Calendar of Events.htm 24 Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Wellness Center.pdf (accessed November 15. Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Police Department donates time and money to help area families.communityblogs. 2007.uidaho. http://www. Ibid 3 Madkour.us. 22 McNeel. Jennifer L. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires. Bob. 2007). Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires. 2004. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Spokesman Review. 2007). Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires. http://www. Activities Held to encourage family involvement at ECLC. 7 Gentry. January-November 2007. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires. The Northwest Area Foundation is available at http://www. 5 Community Announcements. 10 Ibid 11 Ibid 12 Ibid 13 Bell. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires.html (accessed November 15. Honoring Nations: 2000 Honoree. 15 Ibid 16 Ibid 17 DeGraffenreid. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires. http://www. Benewah County Profile *Image on title page: Horizons Program. Jack. 2001. Rasha. Emily. 8 Coeur d‘Alene Tribal School Official Website. Lorraina.spokesmanreview. December 2007. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires. and increased community use of inclusive decision making. Many Cultures. One Day.harvard.org. Rodney. expanded economic opportunities. September 13. Antelope Run. October 2007. January-November 2007. April 2007.Community The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas NWAF is committed to projects that are based on community-based poverty reduction.pphf. 2007. 4 Education News. 1 2 Frey. http://bmcwc. Coeur d‘Alene Tribe honors Veterans with annual dinner and stickgame. 2007. Headwaters Economics. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires. Coeur d‘Alene Reservation. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires.com/ (accessed November 30. Worley Fire Holds Annual Egg Hunt. 2005. John F. August 2007. August 2007. Pedalin‘ for Public Health.tribalschool. 20 Ibid.edu/hpaied/hn/hn_2000_well. January-November 2007. 21 Sobotta. November 2007. DeSmet FACE Building Closed. 2007). Community Announcements. http://extension.com/Idaho/story. June 2007.
The Tribe is federally recognized. Due to the complexities of Federal Indian policy. However. Tensed. There are four communities on the western side of the Reservation: Worley.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Political Section 5 By Laura Loumatia Legal & Political The Coeur d‘Alene Reservation lies within the Panhandle of Northern Idaho. nor are they required to pay property taxes on land in trust status. which is in Kootenai County. due to their special status as members of a federally recognized tribe. they are not required to pay state taxes on income earned on the Reservation. and Plummer. in Kootenai and Benewah Counties. governance on the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation is shared by the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe with the local governmental entities. They do have full voting rights as citizens of the United States In this section: City County Tribal Land Ownership and Jurisdictional Issues University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 33 . and DeSmet. which are in Benewah County. and communications with federal agencies is on a nation-to-nation basis. Coeur d‘Alene Tribal members who live on the Reservation are both members of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe and citizens of Idaho and the counties in which they reside.
Mayor Rich Wienclaw Rob Wienclaw Karen Babbitt City of Tensed: Population 126 Faith Harvey. 501 Government Way Coeur d'Alene. Each city is governed by an elected city council and mayor. The word "Kootenai" is derived from the Kutenai word meaning "water people. City of Plummer: Population 990 Tim Clark. Mayor Betty Bennett Debbie Hodgson Rodney Kuntz Marjorie Payne1 County Seat: Coeur d'Alene Land Area: 1. Mayor Jannette Taylor Terry Allen Tim Stockdale Rich Rios Source: McCroskey Regional Historical and Geneological Society City of Worley: County Kootenai County Established December 22. although there is an active informal neighborhood improvement group that advocates for issues to Tribal departments.310 square miles County Clerk: PO Box 9000. and Tensed were platted during the allotment of the Reservation. a trading post below Lake Pend Oreille. Idaho Plummer. ID 83816-9000 Phone: (208) 7694441 Fax: (208) 667-8534 County Commissioners: Rich Piazza (elected 2006) Todd Tondee (elected 2006) Rick Currie (elected DeSmetis a small unincorporated town of approximately 130 residents 34 2004) University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .Political City The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas that is governed by the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Council. Rathdrum replaced Seneaquoteen as county seat in 1881 and Coeur d'Alene replaced Rathdrum in 1908. as the county seat. Figure 5. Worley. 1864 by the Second Territorial Legislature with Seneaquoteen. and were incorporated under the State of Idaho in the year 1910. There is no other formal form of community governance." Population: 223 Charlene Waddell. Named for the Kutenai Indians who inhabited the area when the white man arrived.1: Tensed.
4: Coeur d’Alene Tribal Council. Settlement by Euro-Americans took place primarily after the discovery of gold in the area in 1880. 1915 by an act of the state legislature. The chairperson is the only full-time paid position.3: Benewah County Source: www.edu/digitalatlas/counties/benewah/benewah. County Clerk: County Courthouse St Maries. ID 83861-1886 Phone: (208) 245-3212 Fax: (208) 2453046 Source: Coeur d’Alene Tribe County Commissioners: Jack Buell (re-elected 2006) Bud University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 35 . It was originally part of Kootenai County. The county was named after Chief Benewah.kootenaicounty.htm Benewah County Benewah was formally organized on January 23. and members are elected on a staggered schedule for a three-year term.2 Tribal The Coeur d‘Alene Tribe is governed by a 7-member council. Figure 5. The chairperson. vice-chairperson. and secretary/treasurer are selected by the elected council each year following general elections.isu. 2007 County Seat: St. elected by the general membership.gov Source: http://imnh.2: Kootenai County Political McCall (re-elected 2006) Terry Doupe (elected 2004) Figure 5.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Figure 5. Maries Land Area: 787 square miles. Elections take place in May of each year. and increased with the opening of the Coeur d‘Alene Indian Reservation to white settlement in 1909.
tribes are legally limited in their ability to enforce civil and criminal laws. Chairman (elected 2006) Ernie Stensgar.6 shows examples of this checkerboarding. 1975 .com/topic/coeur-d-alene-tribe-1 The Allotment Act was ended in 1934 with the Indian Reorganization Act.000 acres of the 345. In all.Political The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Reservations. with the final 1894 cession of the town of Harrison resulted in the external boundaries that exist today. Indian Land Tenure. Further.4 2007 Tribal Council: Chief Allan. less than 25% of land on the Reservation is in trust status. was allotted under the terms of the Dawes Act of 1887. The resulting patterns of land ownership have created a ―checkerboarded‖ reservation. which was intended to change the land ownership on Indian Figure 4 Source: http://www. This conversion from trust to fee was sped up by the 1909 Burke Amendment. The mix of land in trust and fee creates overlaps in Tribal and local governance. also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act. but today. where land status directly affects the ability of the tribal and local governments to affect their jurisdictional power. ViceChairman (elected 2005) Norma Jean ―Jeannie‖ Louie. In 1906. After a 25-year period. as well as their 36 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative Source: Imre Sutton. Land was initially given in ―trust‖ status. like many in the Northwest. meaning that the Federal government held title on the land in trust for the allotment owners. Secretary/Treasurer (elected 2006) Leta Campbell (elected 2005) Valerie Fasthorse (elected 2006) Figure 5. The conversion of land status resulted in the loss of over 60% of the lands on the Reservation from tribal ownership over the next 20 years. only 104. The Coeur d‘Alene Reservation was created by a series of Executive Orders. Figure 5.000 acre reservation were allotted to 638 members. often due to seizure for back taxes that were now being assessed. the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation. the land title was to be converted to fee simple status after the tribal member proved his or her ―competency‖ to hold title.answers.5: The Coeur d’Alene Tribal Flag Charlotte Nilson (elected 2007) Dave Matheson (elected 2007)3 Land Ownership and Jurisdictional Issues Governance on the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation is sometimes confounded by the complexity of jurisdictional issues related to land tenure.
http://www.6: Example of checkerboard land ownership Political More information on the legal issues concerning reservation land status can be found at the Indian Land Tenure Foundation‘s website.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas ability to generate revenue because of the unique legal status of trust lands.indianlandtenure. Indian Land Tenure. Figure 5. Source: Sutton.org. Imre. 1975 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 37 .
cdatribe-nsn. City Clerk.gov 4 Cotroneo. A time of disintegration: The Coeur d'Alene and the Dawes Act.id. Retrieved May. Dozier. 2006. City of Plummer Idaho.html 3 Coeur d‘Alene Tribe.us/aboutidaho/county/benewah. Retrieved May.gov. 1974. 2008 from: http://www. 38 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . Benewah County. “The Western Historical Quarterly 5(4) 405-419. Donna Spier. R. & J. 2008 from: http://www.Political The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas 1 2 Personal Conversation.state. 2006.
In this section: Housing Properties and Affordability Housing Stock Tribal Housing University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 39 . and Tensed. This data is also compared to data on housing conditions found in Benewah County as a whole. The town of DeSmet is not included due to lack of available data. Worley. High housing costs in the region have created a deficit in the availability of quality affordable housing. and Tensed are addressed. Tribal member housing on the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation is the responsibility of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Housing Authority which is working to improve access to quality affordable housing to Tribal members. Information is also provided on the current housing stock in Plummer. as well as the state of Idaho. The detached single family home is the dominant housing type in all of the locations compared.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Housing Section 6 By Hanna Persson Housing This section addresses housing conditions and affordability in the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community Bioregion. Worley. Differences in housing conditions in the three towns of Plummer.
Housing The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Reservation.8 36. Plummer. Quality affordable housing is a challenge faced in this bioregion.000 380 Coeur d'Alene Reservation 2.S.95 380 67.5 14.000 425 Tensed 2. and an affordable lifestyle. The Coeur d‘Alene Table 6. This is also defined as the threshold of affordability.1 20. Coeur d'Alene Reservation Idaho Works. Census Idaho Horizons Community Profile.8 Tensed 42. accessible to all.5 39. as well as the general conditions of the neighborhood.238 78. and Idaho.1 17. Poor housing conditions can also influence a family‘s physical health and overall wellbeing.300 515 Sources: 2000 U.1 compares housing units in Plummer.6 20.5 21. Housing Properties and Affordability An important aspect of creating sustainable communities is to make affordable housing.2 10. Benewah County. However. and medical care. Worley.6 Plummer 30. most of which are owner-occupied.824 72. clothing.69 527. This definition usually excludes people with high income.9 22.62 2118 77. The majority of housing found in the bioregion are single-family homes. and Tensed. Table 6.17 65 63.4 106.3 32.5 15. Home-owners in all three towns.52 4.3 0 89. Tensed.5 89.7 Worley 33. Idaho Community Profiles. (Benewah County.75 95 60.200 292 Benewah County 2. Tensed 40 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .7 11.3 x x Idaho 2.0 Idaho 35. Worley.6 70. When families spend more than thirty percent (30%) of their household income on housing costs they are considered to be experiencing housing stress and may have difficulty affording necessities such as food. as well as in Benewah County and the state of Idaho spend less money on housing costs than renters.4 27.0 Coeur d'Alene Reservation 22. when housing costs exceed thirty percent (30%) of income it is no longer considered affordable.2 Table 6.1: Comparison of Housing Units Housing Average household size Total housing units Owner-occupied (percent) Renter-occupied (percent) Vacant (percent) Households spending more than 30% of their income on housing costs (percent) Renter-occupied Owner-occupied Median house value (dollars) Median monthly rent (dollars) Plummer 2.5 26 75. where significant poverty rates often stand in the way of acquiring a suitable home. Median house values are significantly lower in the bioregion than compared to the state average.6 11.5 Benewah County 23 19.1 shows indicators of potential housing stress among approximately thirty percent (30%) of residents who are renting their home in Plummer.3 15. due to lower household incomes many residents are experiencing housing stress.700 379 Worley 2.
Median Rooms Source: 2000 US Census Table 6. etc.2 (Plummer).1. attached 2 units 3 or 4 units 5 to 9 units 10 to 19 units 20 or more units Mobile home Boat. Tables 6.3: Tensed Housing Stock Percent 100 64 2. etc.1 0 x Tensed Total Housing Units Housing Types 1-unit. The highest total number of housing units are in Plummer.5 0 2. van.4 (Worley). van.2 Plummer Housing Stock Plummer Total Housing Units Housing Types 1-unit. making up 3040% of total housing units in each location. attached 2 units 3 or 4 units 5 to 9 units 10 to 19 units 20 or more units Mobile home Boat. 6.8 6 x University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 41 .9 0 0 0 41. detached home.6 0 29.6 0.3 0 0 11. which were built before 1939.4 Number 67 27 0 0 8 0 0 0 28 4 5. RV. RV.1: Housing Units over Time Number of Units Plummer Number of Units Worley Number of Units Tensed 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1999 to 1995 to 1990 to 1980 to March 2000 1998 1994 1989 1970 to 1960 to 1940 to 1939 or 1979 1969 1959 earlier Source: 2000 US Census Table 6. detached 1-unit. and 6. For each of the three towns the most common year of construction for housing structures lies between 1970 and 1989. The second most common housing type is the mobile home.1 Percent 100 40. Graph 6.1 1. detached 1-unit.3 (Tensed).The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Housing Housing Stock Information on housing stock by location within the bioregion is shown in Graph 6. ranging between 40-64% of total housing units. The predominant housing type in all three locations is the 1-unit. Worley also has a large portion of homes (20%). However. Median Rooms Source: 2000 US Census Number 381 244 8 6 2 0 10 0 111 0 5.
2007). According to HUD Secretary Alphonso Jackson.S. http://www.S. RV.html?_lang=en 42 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . The mission of the HUD is to provide affordable housing opportunities to low-income Americans. a portion of the funds will be used to expand housing and credit education for tribal members. Department of Housing and Urban Development. U. Coeur d'Alene Reservation Idaho Works. U.2 Table 6. Idaho Community Profiles.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 39. The block grant program replaced several separate assistance programs. Department of Housing and Urban Development.5 Percent 100 60. detached 1-unit. affordable housing to tribal members.cfm (accessed November 30. http://factfinder. In addition.hud.S. as well as some state recognized tribes. Median Rooms Source: 2000 US Census Number 124 75 0 0 0 0 0 0 49 0 4.gov/home/saff/main.Housing The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Tribal Housing Authority used these funds for maintenance and operation of the current housing stock. 064.gov/offices/cpd/affordablehousing/ (accessed November 30. attached 2 units 3 or 4 units 5 to 9 units 10 to 19 units 20 or more units Mobile home Boar. 2007.5 0 x Tribal Housing Tribal housing is overseen by the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Housing Authority (CDTHA). as well as supporting the homeless.hud. Those eligible for this grant are federally recognized Native American tribes or their tribally designated housing entities. 2007. Idaho Horizons Community Profile. fair housing laws and promotes economic and community development.2 1 Homes & Communities.2 Theses funds are a part of the HUD Indian Housing Block Grant Program. American Factfinder.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) awarded the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Housing Authority $1.S. increase homeownership particularly among minorities. the U. the funding is intended to help tribal communities provide safe. established in 1996. News Release: HUD Awards the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Housing Authority over $1 Million to Improve Housing Conditions for Native Americans. Plummer. In 2006. Census Bureau. 130 in grants to improve housing conditions on the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation. Through the establishment of NAHASDA the system of Native American housing assistance from HUD was reorganized. http://www. etc. 2000. Affordable Housing. van. as well as housing rehabilitation and construction of new housing.4: Worley Housing Stock Worley Total Housing Units Housing Types 1-unit.census. (Benewah County. elderly people with disabilities. HUD also enforces U.gov/local/id/news/pr2006-03-28a. 2007). and is under the Native American Housing Assistance and Self Determination Act (NAHASDA) of the same year. 2 Homes & Communities. and those living with AIDS. decent. Tensed) U.
Other medical and wellness programs available in the community include the Family Healing Center and Food Distribution Center. The Center is also nationally recognized for providing quality comprehensive programs that serve both the Native and non-Native community.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Health Section 7 By Hanna Persson Health & Medical This section reviews current regional medical facilities and health care programs available to community members residing within the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community Bioregion. These include the Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Wellness Center (BMC/WC) which has received numerous awards for the quality of medical services provided. In this section: Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Wellness Center Family Healing Center Food Distribution Program University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 43 .
nursing.4 The BMC/WC also received the Johnson & Johnson Community Health Care Program Leadership ―Crystal Award‖ in 2007. pharmacy.Health The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas d‘Alene Tribal Wellness Center was formed. the Portland Area Indian Health Services for Excellence in Immunization Practice (2003) and the Idaho ―Big Shot Award‖ for achieving a ninety-five percent childhood immunization rate (2003). In 2000.000 square foot project was built entirely through various funds and BMC equity. This award is given to outstanding community health programs that are making positive contributions toward community health.3 The BMC/WC has earned several awards including. The award included $50. the Tribe began looking for ways to improve the services provided by the small Indian Health Service (IHS) clinic located in a semi-condemned building at Tribal Headquarters. opened in 1998. The BMC quickly outgrew their space and in 1994 the 6. The Wellness Center. physical therapy. which is a service that approximately one-third of non-Native clients in Benewah County qualify for. holistic healing.5 Services provided by the Center include: medical.‖ which provides additional cost reimbursement for the Center. and wellness promotion to all members of the community.2 The Benewah Medical Center was created in 1990 through cooperation between the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe and the City of Plummer. particularly in the winter months.000 square feet.500 users and includes an Olympic size swimming pool.750 square foot building was expanded to 17. Both the Tribal and non-Tribal community in this region had poor access to affordable health care. 43. Contract health is a payer of medical expenses for Native American patients as a last resort when patients need to be referred to an outside medical provider. complements the medical services provided by Benewah Medical Center through a whole-life approach to health and a focus on preventative care. Tribal members were often turned over to collection agencies due to non-payment of medical bills by the IHS. the Center received the Honoring Nations award from The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development. The Wellness Center now serves 2. counseling. contract health. radiology. and lab services. comprehensive and integrated health and wellness services in the region. providing difficult access.000 toward supporting programs for cardiovascular disease and depression. This $5 million. BMC/WC is being recognized for quality comprehensive programs that serve both the Native and non-Native community. The BMC also offers self-reliance services that include food stamps and various assistance Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d’Alene Tribal Wellness Center The mission of the Benewah Medical and Coeur d'Alene Tribal Wellness Center (BMC/WC) is to provide primary care. The vision of the BMC/WC is to be recognized as the center of excellence providing quality. Affordable health care on a sliding fee basis was not provided by health care centers in any of the region‘s four surrounding counties. Together they were able to obtain funding from state and federal governments and gain federal classification as a ―Medically Underserved Population Area. as well as providing a holistic client centered health care approach. This spurred the creation of a new health care system and the Benewah Medical Center and Coeur 44 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . dental. In 1987. preventive care. Other health care services were located at a driving distance of 45 minutes to two hours.1 The Center was created as a response to the need to improve health care services for the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation communities. This allows the BMC to bill non-Native clients on a sliding fee scale.
and aquatic programs. The Wellness Center also offers several classes and programs including yoga. The Coeur d‘Alene Tribe provides a twenty-five percent match of federal funds. conditioning. and to protect the health and wellbeing of the community by raising nutrition levels among low-income households living on or near the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation. fresh fruits. DUI Evaluations Home/jail visits Talking circles Screening and assessment evaluations Individual. The program is hoping to develop into a complete food bank program that is replenished through donations and produce provided by a community garden. adult sports. Blind. In all. dance classes. personal training. fitness assessments.11 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 45 .10 Emergency food assistance is also provided on a limited basis via referrals from the Tribal Social Services Department. This is a federally funded program that provides commodity foods and nutrition education. The center serves members of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe and individuals living on the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation who are members of other tribes. frozen meats. and Disabled (AABD) program.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas programs. and flour products.6 Health Services provided by the Family Health Center include: Information/Referral. The center provides assistance to individuals suffering from drug and alcohol problems as well as support for their families. Idaho Child Care Program (ICCP) provides child care assistance to families based on their income. 246 households are certified in the program and receive monthly supplies of canned goods. The Temporary Assistance to Families in Idaho (TAFI) program offers assistance to obtain employment and achieve selfreliance. Cash assistance is also provided to those in need through the Aid to Aged. group. and family counseling Alcohol/drug information Crisis intervention/outreach Inpatient evaluation/referral Referral to sweat lodges Intensive outpatient program9 Family Healing Center The Family Healing Center is a holistic outpatient program that is part of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe‘s social services program.8 Food Distribution Program The food distribution program is an alternative to the food stamp program that aims to promote general welfare.
http://www. http://www.bmcwc. 2007. 9 Ibid 10 The Official Website of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe.com/fhc. 2007.asp (accessed November 30.asp (accessed November 30. The Past.bmcwc. 2007. 6 Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Wellness Center. 3 The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development.asp (accessed November 30.cdatribe. Latest News. 2007). Nursing. http://www.bmcwc. http://www. Kennedy School of Government: Harvard University. 7 Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Wellness Center. 2007). 2007). http://www. 2007. http://www. 2007).com/ (accessed November 30. http://www.shtml (accessed September 15. 2007). 2004.ksg.bmcwc.bmcwc.com/nursing. 2007. John F. http://www.harvard. Official Website.asp (accessed November 30.com/food.com/wellness.htm (accessed September 17. Family Healing Center. 4 Ibid 5 Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Wellness Center.shtml (accessed September 15.Health The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas 1 Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Wellness Center. 2 Benewah Medical Center and Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Wellness Center.com/latestnews. 11 Ibid 46 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . Food Distribution. 2007. 2007. 8 The Official Website of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe. Wellness Center. 2007). 2007). 2007).com/thepast.edu/hpaied/hn/hn_2000_well. Honoring Nations: 2000 Honoree.cdatribe.
The age distribution of these communities is similar to that of the State of Idaho. follow by American Indian. the communities of Plummer. due to a lack of available data on this location. The Coeur d‘Alene Reservation bioregion communities. Although there are some population differences between each town. as a whole. The racial distribution is predominantly white. A discussion of the demographic trends of the community of DeSmet has been omitted here.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Demographics Section 8 By Hanna Persson Demographics The number and distribution of people living within the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community bioregion are discussed in this section. Worley. Specifically. and Tensed are compared to demographic information for Benewah County and the state of Idaho as a whole. the communities show an overall increase in population over the past 40 years. show a slightly higher percentage of male population than female. In this section: Population Changes Gender Distributions Age Distributions Racial Distributions University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 47 .
5 Coeur d'Alene Reservation x x x 1. A period of increased population growth in the bioregion began in the early Twentieth Century as new groups moved to the area.Demographics The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas extents. Coeur d'Alene Reservation Idaho Works.171 8.127 1. the communities of the Coeur d‘Alene reservation have all grown in population to various Table 8.993 x x 15.1 The county population growth over this period has been slower than overall population growth in the state of Idaho but approximately equal to the overall population trends of the United States. Census Idaho Horizons Communtiy Profile.006.452 x x x 20 Idaho x 944.5 Tensed 151 113 90 126 x 121 x 40 Benewah County x 8. the greatest population increase between 1990 and 2000 occurred in Tensed. Tensed) 48 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .292 7.1 Worley x x 182 223 x x x 22. beginning in the mid 1770‘s.758 people between 1970 and 2004.873 281.465 28. the Native American population in the region has been reduced from approximately 5. this constitutes a 44% population increase at a rate of 1. This is the same level of population as the town had two years after its establishment in 1910. In 1990. During the course of almost a century.398.734 1. As shown in Table 8.937 9.2 Sources: 2000 U.293.000 people to only 500. which has more than doubled its population since 1970. Plummer.1% per year.1. (Benewah County.1: Population Growth Since 1970 Total population 1970 1980 1990 2000 2002 2004 2006 Percent positive change .906 x x 299. the population of Plummer was approximately 800 people.19902000 Plummer 443 634 804 990 x 962 x 23. The population of Benewah County grew by 2.446.953 x x 1.5 United States x x 248. Idaho Community Profiles.709.2 Population Change The human population of the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation bioregion has fluctuated over time in accordance with changing economic and social conditions. this town has the smallest population of the communities in the bioregion and has shown fluctuations in population over the past 40 years. Over the past three decades. This was due to a series of smallpox epidemics that ravaged the area. The greatest overall increase in population has been in the town of Plummer. resulting in an overall decrease in population between 1970 and 2004.485 13. However.421.S.
In order to attract the young population back to the area. the quiet. rural setting and attractive scenery. However. The chart shows an age distribution that is comparable to the overall distributions for the state of Idaho. there is an overall higher percentage of males than females in the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation population as well as the population of Benewah County. is attracting an increasing number of retirees to the area. Graph 8. University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 49 . Coeur d'Alene Reservation Age Distributions As can be seen in Graph 8. According to the Headwaters Economics Socioeconomic Profile for Benewah County.1 shows the differences in gender distributions between the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation communities. However.2. The chart shows that the towns of Plummer and Worley have a slightly higher percentage of females than males. sufficient local employment opportunities are needed. as well as the state-of-the-art Benewah Medical Center located in Plummer. This unevenness in gender distribution can be attributed to the relatively small population sizes seen on the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation and in Benewah County. Census Idaho Horizons Communtiy Profile.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Demographics Gender Distributions Graph 8.S. and the state of Idaho. and the reservation communities as a whole. compared to the overall distribution for the state of Idaho. The majority of the population consists of working age adults between 18 and 65. the age distribution of the individual communities. compared to the state of Idaho as a whole. the median age in the county has shown an overall increase since 1990. is relatively young.1: Gender Distributions by Location 53 52 51 50 % 49 48 47 46 45 Plummer Worley Tensed Benewah County Location Coeur d'Alene Reservation Idaho Female Male Sources: 2000 U.3 The region also looses a portion of young people who move away for education or employment. Benewah County.
1 0. Graph 8. the percentage of American Indian population in the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation communities is close to thirty percent higher than the percentage distribution for Benewah County (see Chart 8.7 2.1 0.5). followed by American Indian.3: Race Distribution of the Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Coeur d'Alene Reservation 39.8 White alone Asian/Pacific Islander (0.S. Coeur d'Alene Reservation 50 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . Census Idaho Horizons Community Profile.4).7%) American Indian/Alaska native Two or more races Sources: 2000 U.3 shows that the racial distribution of the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation is predominantly white.2: Age Distributions by Location 90 80 70 60 % 50 40 30 20 10 0 Plummer Worley Tensed Benewah County Coeur d'Alene Reservation Idaho under 18 Over 18 65 and over Location Sources: 2000 U. As seen in the graph.1%) Black alone (0.7 56. Coeur d'Alene Reservation Racial Distributions Graph 8. Rural areas typically have fewer people belonging to underrepresented ethnic groups since there are less community support networks available for these groups than in a larger city. This is a highly rural region which may account for the low variety of other ethnic groups represented in the area.6 0.6%) Other (0.Demographics The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Graph 8.S. All other races represent only a small portion of the population. Census Idaho Horizons Community Profile. and close to forty percent higher than the overall percentage for the state of Idaho (see Chart 8.
0 White alone Asian/Pacific Islander Black alone (0.4%) Other American Indian/Alaska native Two or more races Sources: 2000 U.3 1.1%) Other (0.0 1.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Demographics Graph 8.S. Census Idaho Horizons Community Profile.S.8 White alone Asian/Pacific Islander (0.5: Race Distribution of the State of Idaho Idaho 0.3 88.2 2.0 4.1 8.3%) American Indian/Alaska native Two or more races Sources: 2000 U.7 0.9 0.4: Race Distribution of Benewah County Benewah County 0. Census Idaho Horizons Community Profile. Coeur d'Alene Reservation Graph 8.4 1. Coeur d'Alene Reservation University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 51 .3%) Black alone (0.4 91.
Plummer. Tensed).census. Economic Profile System (EPS). 2000. http://www.gov/home/saff/main. U. Idaho Community Profiles.org. (Benewah County.html?_lang=en 52 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . Idaho Works.Demographics The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas 1 Headwaters Economics.headwaterseconomics. Idaho. Census Bureau. Coeur d‘Alene Reservation. 2007.S. 2 Ibid 3 Ibid Idaho Horizons Community Profile. http://factfinder. A Socioeconomic Profile: Benewah County. American Factfinder.
located in DeSmet.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Education Section 9 By Hanna Persson Education The Coeur d‘Alene Reservation communities face many challenges with public education. Several youth. comparing this to data to the State of Idaho. as well as provide safe. but are making continual efforts toward providing quality education and positive educational programs for the region‘s youth. This section discusses issues regarding school enrollment and educational attainment in each community.programs are available for various age groups within these communities. and high schools are found within the Plummer-Worley School District. The programs have been created as an effort to improve academic achievement. This section also looks at available institutions of higher education in the region. middle.and after school. The Coeur d‘Alene Tribal School. positive places for local young people. includes grades K-8. In this section: School Enrollment Education and Youth No Child Left Behind Act Washington State University Collaboration Youth Programs 21st Century Community Learning Centers Middle/High School Programs Native Voices Young Playwrights Other Programs Regional Institutions of Higher Education University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 53 . Public elementary.
and culture. and Tensed at each educational level. the Plummer/Worley School District had no tribally affiliated teachers.3 N/A 288 16 20 151 58 43 100 5. and science by 2014. Academic studies have shown that Native American children do best in academic programs that are based on their traditions. The Coeur d‘Alene Tribal School is located in DeSmet and includes grades K-8. which includes three schools.6 6. The communities are also served by an Early Childhood Learning Center which is located in Plummer. Also. Elementary school children attend Lakeside Elementary School located in Worley. Some believe that the schools which do not meet these goals may deter qualified teachers.1 14.3 Tensed Number Percent 12 0 0 11 1 N/A 100 0 0 91. schools still did not meet state standards in 2006.1: School Enrollment for Coeur d’Alene Reservation Communities Plummer Number Percent School Enrollment (Population over 3 years of age) Nursery School/preschool Kindergarten Elementary school (grades 1-8) High School (grades 9-12) College or graduate school Source: 2000 U.9 52. Worley.9 54 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .7 8. In 2006.1 show levels of educational attainment by location in the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation bioregion communities.S Census Worley Number Percent 49 2 0 25 14 8 100 4. and requires schools to make ―adequate yearly progress.1 shows school enrollment numbers for the towns of Plummer. the state of Idaho does not require diversity training for teachers.‖ Schools must meet annual benchmarks in every demographic and those that do not are subject to sanctions. This requires all children to be proficient in English. the number of individuals with a bachelor‘s degree is lower than the state average.4 20. However. like all others in the nation. must to meet the requirements of the NCLB Act. the resources to make this happen are limited. language. Table 9. Although the NCLB Act allows for this.6 16. Lakeside Middle School and Lakeside High School are located in Plummer.1 The Plummer/Worley School District has a large proportion of Native American students.2 and Table 9. math. Table 9. through higher test scores and increased graduation rates. although two claimed Native ancestry.1 0 51 28.Education The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas of Idaho. The data shows that the total number of high school graduates in the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation communities is comparable to the total for the state Education and Youth No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) The Plummer/Worley School District. Table 9. Although there are claims of recent improvement in the Plummer/Worley School District. Children are transported by bus between the two towns to the appropriate school. School Enrollment Students in Plummer and Worley are served by the joined PlummerWorley School District.
18 Figure 9. and the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas At this point.jpg Youth Programs 21st Century Community Learning Centers The Success Center at Lakeside Elementary School in Worley is an after school program geared toward children of working parents.5 The programs involved in the collaboration have been developed based on the educational priorities established by the Tribe and include the following projects in all: curriculum planning and development. One third also claimed that Native Americans had a stereotypical Source: http://www. The program runs Monday through Thursday.6 Students participating in the program have significantly improved their test scores. teachers as mentors training.4 In an effort to improve the public school experience for Native students on the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation. Those opposed feel that the education of Native students is the responsibility of local school districts such as that of Plummer/Worley. high school dropout rates. Nearly half of participants said they either left school or were forced out.org/img/eclc. travel distance for some students from home to school makes participation in the program difficult as this may result in up to a 12-hour school day. However. University of Idaho Extension. The program receives funding through the 21st Century Community Learning Center grant.cdatribe. cybertutoring.1: Early Childhood Learning Center Washington State University Collaboration Native Americans made up 64 percent of students in Plummer and Worley in 2006. The partnership with WSU also involves and after school tutoring program that is held at the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe‘s technology center in Plummer. leadership development camp. Local teachers and administrators face the challenge of determining how to provide equal educational opportunities for all students. Proponents believe that such funding could help to improve issues regarding curriculum. The College conducted a needs assessment. funding for an American Indian education coordinator at the state level has been declined by Idaho lawmakers. and a scholarship program. developmental assets assessment. which was published in February 2006 and included interviews with adult members of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe concerning recollections of their school experiences. and thirtyeight percent had experienced stigmatization of Native students by teachers. the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe created a five-year initiative with the College of Education at Washington State University (WSU). The program has been operating since 2003 and provides a safe place after school for 50 children. 2:45pm to5:00pm and provides students with tutoring and homework assistance. This is a collaboration between the Plummer/Worley School District. Education presentation in the curriculum. and complexities relating to the No Child Left Behind Act among Native American students.7 The 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) aims to provide students with opportunities for academic University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 55 . 4-H.
Education The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas have also reported reduced vandalism and juvenile crime since a 21st CCLC program was started in the community. math. This is the only U.tribalschool. recreational activities. The peak hours for juvenile crime and experimenting with drugs and alcohol often tend to be between the hours of 3pm and 6pm. as this is a time that many young people with working parents are unsupervised. but the focus was narrowed by the No Child Left Behind Act to an after school program catering to students attending high-poverty. fifty-nine percent of students who regularly attended a 21st CCLC program in 2004-2005 attained federal proficiency levels or better in reading and language arts and fiftyfour percent of those who regularly attended attained federal proficiency levels or better in math. and the CHOICES program which teaches students about how the choices they make at this stage in their lives will impact their future career opportunities. Funds are provided to each state according to its share of Title I funding for low-income students. provides various enrichment activities.S. federal funding source dedicated exclusively to after school programs.2: Coeur d’Alene Tribal School Source: http://www.8 The program helps students meet state and local standards in core academic subjects. In cooperation with the 21st CCLC at the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal school is the ‗Homework Club‘.S. and offers literacy and other educational services to the families of children participating in the program. The 21st CCLC projects may include counseling programs. for children in Kindergarten through eighth grade. which also offers students assistance with homework assignments.org University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . Many communities throughout the U. as well as to outlying areas and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. After school programs can provide a safe place for many children during this time.10 The Coeur d‘Alene Tribal School also hosts an after school program funded through the 21st Century Community Learning Center grant. Department of Education and Learning Point (2006). lowperforming schools. and homework help. 56 Middle School/High School Programs Lakeside Middle School offers 8th grade students a career directed program that provides guidance toward identifying career interests and creating a four year plan in preparation for entering high school.9 According to the U. The program was originally designed as a community learning center model where all members of the community benefited from after school access to school resources. Other resources available to help students with academic and career decisions are the Lakeside High School Counseling Center.11 enrichment through activities that complement the students‘ regular academic program. writing. drug and violence prevention programs. extended library service hours. The 21st CCLC at the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal School involves elements such as reading. and entrepreneurial education programs. This program runs Monday through Thursday afternoons.12 Figure 9. along with cultural activities such as learning songs in the Coeur d‘Alene language and community service opportunities.S. research.
7 24 26. including Education University of Idaho.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Native Voices Young Playwrights In 2005.7 Tensed Number 98 11 10 37 24 2 12 2 Percent 100 11. Census Number 150 19 36 40 33 5 13 4 Worley Percent 100 12.4 33. no degree Associate degree Bachelor's degree Graduate or professional degree Source: 2000 U.6 11. no diploma High school graduate (includes equivalency) Some college. This is a theater education project where students are paired with professional mentors for an intensive playwriting or theater workshop that leads up to public readings of the plays on stage. after school tutoring.8 24. and the Museum of Arts and Culture. Coeur d‘Alene Tribal School Students wrote ten 10-minute plays and gave six different performances at various locations.1 2.7 22 3.14 Other Programs Other youth programs include the DeSmet and Worley youth centers.3 16.S.4 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 57 .9 25. The Young Playwrights Project was a unique opportunity and offered a sense of pride for students as this is a small. North Idaho College.2 10. rural school that does not have a strong capacity to offer arts programs to its students. and the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Youth Council. sports programs.2: Educational Attainment of Coeur d’Alene Reservation Communities Plummer Number Percent Educational Attainment (Population over 25 years of age) Less than 9th grade 9th to 12th grade.2 2 531 28 87 180 136 60 27 13 100 5.3 5.5 2 12.15 Table 9.2 37. Coeur d‘Alene Reservation. The Warriors Fighting for a Better Tomorrow Program is a resource available to athletic students who need help with meeting the academic requirements set by their coaches.3 8. the Autry National Center brought the Native Voices Young Playwrights Project to the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal School.7 2.
University of Idaho (Moscow).16 Figure 9. and a place that will provide support to Native American students. Gonzaga University (Spokane. WA).Education The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Graph 9.S. Spokane Tribal College (Spokane. a place where students can share knowledge and cultural experiences. the construction of a traditional longhouse is planned for the North Idaho College campus. Plummer. Tensed Regional Institutions of Higher Education Regional institutions of higher education include North Idaho College (Coeur d‘Alene). North Idaho College is located at the site of a historical encampment of the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe. Coeur d'Alene Reservation Idaho Works. Eastern Washington University (Cheney.3: Plummer-Worley School District logo University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . The longhouse will be open to all students and is 58 intended to serve as a community center. The project is a part of the ‗Nine Point Agreement. WA). WA). With this in mind. Idaho Community Profiles. (Benewah County. Census Idaho Horizons Communtiy Profile.‘ which has been created through a relationship between North Idaho College and the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe.1: Educational Attainment by Location High school graduates With a Bachelor's degree 90 80 70 60 Percent 50 40 30 20 10 0 Plummer Worley Tensed Benewah County Coeur d'Alene Reservation Idaho Location Sources: 2000 U. WA). and Washington State University (Pullman.
This was the first step in the development of a tribal cultural history tour on campus. Historically. Interpretive signs will be installed in each section of the garden that teach about the life of the Tribe in each season through stories provided by tribal elders.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Another element of the Nine Point Agreement was a rose garden on the North Idaho College Campus dedicated to the Coeur d‘Alene Tribe in July 2007. and according to tribal elder.17 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 59 . when they saw the roses and other flowers bloom it gave them a lift after the long winter. this was a tribal wintering area. Each year. The roses signaled that Education it was time to leave the winter camp and move to areas for digging camas or other roots. Felix Aripa. Yellow roses represent spring in the east and the south represents summer with red roses. West represents fall with lavender roses. the color closest to the traditional fall color of blue. The north section has all white roses and represents winter. The garden is laid out to represent the four cardinal directions. a couple of classrooms or buildings on the campus are also being given names in the Coeur d‘Alene language.
2007. Indian Country Today. 60 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . 11 Lowley. 2007). Lynn. http://education. Lynn. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires.indiancountry. 2008. Schools/programs offer students help. 9 Academic Improvement and Teacher Quality Programs. 2007. 21st Century Community Learning Centers. Schools/programs offer students help. 10 Afterschool Alliance. U. 2006. Estar. 2 Ibid 3 Ibid 4 Ibid 5 Ibid 6 Lowley. http://www. 2007) 18 Washington State University.com/ (accessed November 30. 8 Afterschool Alliance. 16 Gentry.afterschoolalliance.ed.org/21stcclc. 7 Holmes. October 2007. Lorraina. 2007). Department of Education.org/21stcclc. Cd‘A Tribe Begins Partnership with Extraordinary Young People. 2007). 2007). Jack. http://www. 17 McNeel.php (accessed November 30. http://www. 2007). October 2007.html (accessed November 29. October 2007. Jennifer L.afterschoolalliance.com/ (accessed November 30.edu/cdaproject/ (accessed January 27.org/nv_events. August 2007. 14 Autry National Center. 2007). 2007. Coeur d‘Alene Historic Beach Rededicated. 12 Ibid 13 DeGraffenreid.S. 21st Century Community Learning Centers Providing Afterschool Supports to Communities Nationwide. 2006. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires.autrynationalcenter.cfm (accessed November 29. 2007. Indian Country Today. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires. College of Education. http://www/indiancountry. NIC progresses on 9-point agreement.gov/programs/21stcclc/index. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires. Coeur d‘Alene Struggle with Public Education. Lynn. October 2007. http://www.cfm (accessed November 29. 21st Century Community Learning Centers Providing Afterschool Supports to Communities Nationwide. http://www/indiancountry. Indian Country Today. http://www. Coeur d‘Alene Partnership Program. 2008).wsu.com/ (accessed November 30. Schools/programs offer students help. Estar.Education The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas 1 Holmes. 15 Lowley. Native Voices at the Autry Productions/Events. Coeur d‘Alene Struggle with Public Education. 2007. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Council Fires.
Idaho Small Business Development Center Panhandle Area Council Idaho Business Incentives University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 61 .The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Economics Section 10 By Joshua Arnold and Jessica Evans Economics The Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community bioregion is supported by several industries and economic opportunities. Unemployment and below-poverty level incomes remain a pressing issue in the bioregion. In this section: Industry and Business Industry Business Tourism Income and Employment Unemployment Median Household Income Poverty Real Estate Economic Development Jobs Plus Inc. The real estate in the area continues to fluctuate with the market and as tourism increases in the Coeur d‘Alene area. while Kootenai County boasts an increasing tourism sector and the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Casino. which are summarized in this section. There are several organizations to assist in the economic development of communities in the region and several business incentives provided by the state. The forest products and timber industries are the most prevalent in Benewah County. particularly in Benewah County.
accommodation and food services Other services (except public administration) Public administration Source: US Census Bureau Number 344 188 530 87 424 181 26 149 119 Percent 9. Table 10.3 In Kootenai County.5 12.3 4. the USDA Forest Service manages and harvests timber from approximately 30. and waste management services Educational. This has opened the door for significant employment in retail and other tourist services.6 14.2 0.981 5.6 14. entertainment.8 2. health and social services Arts.0 6.0 1.260 4.1 Based on satellite imagery. and an estimated 360.2 8. the largest industry is forest products.7 4. a natural resource-based economy has given way to the tourism industry.2: Number of Employees by Industry in Benewah County.2 5.271 6. Table 10. However. fishing and hunting.com/ 724 243 209 248 20.2 1.4 Source: http://pictopia.4 15. and rental and leasing Professional.3 2.907 2.1 62 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .2 1. insurance.2 10.0 11. which has had a significant impact on the county. and utilities Information Finance.2 Table 10.0 7.581 5. seventy-six percent of Benewah County is forested. administrative.1 illustrates other industry and employment in Kootenai County.333 7. real estate. forestry.2 13.246 963 2. Currently.000 acres could potentially be commercial timberlands. scientific.547 1. The majority of employment in the county is tied to this industry in some fashion. management.407 51. Industry Natural Resources Construction Manufacturing Wholesale Trade Retail Trade Transportation & Utilities Financial Activities Professional & Business Services Educational & Health Services Leisure & Hospitality Miscellaneous Services Federal Government State Government Local Government Total Source: Coeur d’Alene Chamber of Commerce Industry and Business Industry In Benewah County. Industry Agriculture. the timber industry has been rapidly declining in recent decades. and mining Construction Manufacturing Wholesale trade Retail trade Transportation and warehousing.787 Percent 1.000 acres located inside Benewah County.9 5. which has become increasingly important since the 1950‘s.195 628 843 7.5 10.2 shows the number of jobs in various industries in Benewah County.1: Logging in Idaho Jobs 624 5.9 5.9 7. recreation.Economics The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas e Table 10.1 Figure 10.3 3.1: Number of Employees by Industry in Kootenai County.
3 Table 10.1% 0.300 930 850 720 750 690 630 550 500 450 420 380 370 360 300 260 260 Economics Employees/Type Tourism & Publishing Hospital Public Schools Call Centers Community College State Government Amusement County Government Public Schools Federal Government Public Schools Telephone & Call Centers Retail Store Furniture Manufacturer Theme Park City Government Catalog Company Control Panel & Keyboard Hunting Knives MFG Banking & Call Center Source: Coeur d’Alene Chamber of Commerce Tourism Figure 10. newspaper.650 1. In Kootenai County.3: Kootenai County Major Employers Company Hagadone Corporation Kootenai Medical Center Cd'A School District Center Partners North Idaho College State of Idaho Cd'A Tribal Casino KC Government Post Falls School District US Government Lakeland School District Verizon Wal-Mart Flexcel Silverwood City of Coeur d'Alene Coldwater Creek Advanced Input Systems Buck Knives US Bank Jobs 2000 1. The largest employer in the county.2% 9.7% State of Idaho Sales$343. the lodging sales tax in Kootenai County made up approximately 13% of the state total. and has been increasing faster than the state as a whole.765.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Business Business in Kootenai County centers around tourism.319 Tax $311.com/northamerica/us/idaho/ Source: Coeur d’Alene Chamber of Commerce University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 63 . Other major employers to note are Kootenai Medical Center. agricultural. In 2006 alone. mining.731. the increase is above the state average (see Table 10.4: Idaho Lodging Sales Tax 2006 2005 2004 2003 Kootenai County Sales$43.946 $305.201 Tax $40. has a diverse set of companies consisting primarily of publishing. Table 10. Hagadone Corporation.3 summarizes the largest employers in Kootenai County. education.3 In Benewah County.484.destination360. tribal.1 Table 10.2: Coeur d’Alene Hotels Tourism in the State of Idaho has increased greatly since the turn of the century.400 1.0% 8. governmental.274.196 $36. employment is mainly in the timber.4% Source: http://www. medical.499 $39.469. Center Partners.488 % Change 10. Education and other government employment is also prevalent.4). retail and service sectors.006 $282. as shown by the increase in lodging sales tax for the state.706.4% 9.2% 2. and hospitality businesses.068 % Change 7.4% 6. and the Coeur d‘Alene Tribal Casino.342.595.
Tensed had the lowest unemployment percentage as of 2000.0% 7.1). Maries Tekoa Tensed Worley Source: Unites States Census Bureau Median Household Income Communities throughout the bioregion have variable incomes. St. where unemployment in 2000 was over fifty percent.6% Plummer St.0% 10. In comparison with the state as a whole (see Graph 10. the community of Plummer had the highest (see Graph 10.000 $15.0% 40.7% 7. The unemployment rate is higher in Benewah County than in Kootenai.2).000 $10.4 Graph 10.Economics The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Income and Employment Unemployment Unemployment in the bioregion continues to be a pressing issue.5% $0 Plummer St. Tensed.0% 12.000 $20.0% 8.0% 2.2: Community Percent Unemployed.0% 1.000 $25.1: Unemployment. Benewah County‘s median household income was much lower and Kootenai was a bit higher.000 $30.0% 20.438 $32.0% 0. the median household income for Kootenai County was significantly higher than that of Benewah County.0% 50.0% 3. Comparing the communities that make up the bioregion (Plummer. This could be due to the high level of tourism in the Coeur d‘Alene area. As shown in Graph 10.8% Graph 10.833 $27. and Worley).000 $35. Of the two counties in the bioregion.4).0% 8.500 5. Maries had the highest.4 Graph 10. Source: United States Census Bureau 64 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .0% 4.4 where the Coeur d‘Alene area provides more opportunity (Graph 10.000 $18.000 $5.3: Community Median Household Incomes. Tekoa. Maries Tekoa Tensed Worley Source: United States Census Bureau Benewah Co.0% 6. and with the exception of Tekoa.750 $28.0% 9.0% 5. while St. 2000 $40.3% 7.0% 0. This is especially an urgent situation in the community of Tekoa.0% 30. 2004 10. the community of Tensed had the lowest median household income in the year 2000.054 $30. Maries.0% 50.0% 5. Kootenai Co.3. 2000 60.
The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas
Figure 10.3: Dryland Agriculture
Graph 10.4: County Median Household Income, 2000
$44,000 $42,000 $40,000 $38,000 $36,000 $34,000 $32,000 $30,000 Benewah Co. Kootenai Co. Idaho State
Source: United States Census Bureau
Graph 10.5: Community Income Below Poverty Level, 1999
20.0% 15.0% 12.8%
Poverty continues to be an important matter in any community, and the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation bioregion is no exception. In 1999, twenty-two percent of residents in Plummer had an income below the poverty level (see Graph 10.5). The communities of Worley and St. Maries had lower percentages. All were above the state average.5 Consistent with median household income, Benewah County has a higher percentage of residents with an income below the poverty level than does Kootenai County.4
10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Plummer
Source: United States Census Bureau
Graph 10.6: Community Income Below Poverty Level, 1999
14.0% 12.0% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% Benewah Co. Kootenai Co. Idaho State
Source: United States Census Bureau
12.7% 11.5% 9.7%
University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative
Economics Real Estate
The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas
Table 10.6: Total Valuation of New Construction
Kootenai County Commercial Kootenai County Residential City of Cd'A Commercial City of Cd'A Residential
Source: Coeur d’Alene Chamber of Commerce
Although tourism is increasing in Kootenai County, real estate is fluctuating with the market. From 2005 to 2006 the median sales price on a single-family home rose nearly thirty percent. This is still lower, however, than the capitol of Idaho, Boise, which rose seventy-six percent in the same time period (see Table 10.5).3 The total valuation of new construction fell in Kootenai County, but increased in the City of Coeur d‘Alene (see Table 10.6). The number of building permits issued in the City of Coeur d‘Alene dropped drastically in the same period, showing that the construction occurring between 2005-2006 was much lower but high-priced (see Table 10.7).3 This could be a reflection of the growing tourism in the city. The desirability for second homes and seasonal residences is likely to be keeping the prices high.
Table 10.5: Median Sales Price, SingleFamily Home
(3rd Quarter) Coeur d'Alene, ID Boise, ID Ketchum, ID Los Angeles, CA Seattle, WA Spokane, WA Sun Valley, ID 2006 $232,339 $284,900 $1,295,041 $515,000 $429,950 $169,000 $2,231,875
2006 $5,327,969 $106,365,000 $34,673,374 $127,829,104
2005 $7,318,378 $109,265,753 $30,009,649 $92,847,107
Table 10.7: Building Permits Issued
Most current totals available Kootenai County Commercial & Residential City of Cd'A Commercial & Residential
Source: Coeur d’Alene Chamber of Commerce
2006 1,700 347
2005 1,881 791
Economic development is critical to the vitality of communities, and it is important that residents be aware of the options and opportunities for development. There are several groups and organizations in the region to assist in economic development. Three of these are summarized here: Jobs Plus, Inc., Idaho Small Business Development Center, and Panhandle Area Council, Inc. Organizations like these aid communities in economic development as well as train them to continue development in the future. The state of Idaho, through the Dept. of Commerce, also provides a variety of incentives and aid to communities and businesses.
Figure 10.4: New Development
2005 $179,600 $161,800 $1,199,000 $474,800 $310,300 $158,600 $2,000,000
Source: Coeur d’Alene Chamber of Commerce
University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative
The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas
Jobs Plus, Inc.
Jobs Plus, Inc. provides economic development services to Kootenai County and the Coeur d‘Alene area (including Rathdrum, Hayden Lake, Hayden, and Post Falls). The corporation provides support and information to business owners who desire to relocate to the area. The services are cost-free and confidential. The main areas of aid are in evaluating sites, comparing costs, locating support vendors, facilitating permitting, and overall making informed decisions about relocating or expanding to Idaho.6
Panhandle Area Council, Inc.
The Panhandle Area Council, Inc, (PAC) serves the five most northern counties of Idaho, including those in the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community bioregion. PAC specializes in assisting in stabilization and diversification of an area‘s economy. Members are elected officials and business leaders from the cities, counties, and tribes in the service areas. Services provided by PAC include low interest loans, government procurement assistance, grant writing and administration, business incubator for start-up and expanding small businesses, free business counseling, job training assistance, economic development planning, and off-campus small business training for North Idaho College. PAC also provides the following funding programs: SBA 504 Program, SBA Micro-Loan Program, Industrial Revenue Bonds, Revolving Loan Program, SBA 7(a) Loan Guarantee Program, FMHA Business and Industrial Loans, and Infrastructure Financing.8
Figure 10.5: Small Businesses
Idaho Small Business Development Center
The Idaho Small Business Development Center (ISBDC) offers assistance in extension services such as consultation, skill training, and information research to existing small business owners in Idaho. The organization focuses primarily on business plans, cash flow projections, organizational development, marketing/advertising plans, loan assistance information, purchase or sale of business, cost analysis, market research, and new venture analysis.7
Idaho Business Incentives
The Idaho Department of Commerce offers businesses a variety of business incentives, tax credits, tax exemptions, workforce programs, and grants. The purpose is to encourage economic health throughout the state. These programs are listed below.9 Business incentives:
The Idaho Corporate Advantage The Idaho Business Advantage
University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative
2007. 2007.org/ (accessed December 3.html (accessed November 5.htm (accessed December 3. Benewah County.pacni. 7 Idaho Small Business Development Center. Benewah County Comprehensive Plan.com and Advameg Inc http://www. 3 Coeur d‘Alene Area Chamber of Commerce. http://quickfacts. State of Idaho. 2007).org/ (accessed December 3. 2007). http://www. 6 Jobs Plus. 5 City-data.000 in GEM Implementation Grants Tax Increment Financing Up to $10 Million in Industrial Revenue Bonding Economic Development Administration Grants Idaho Prime Loan Program 1000 New Jobs Income Tax Credit $500 New Jobs Income Tax Credit 5% Research and Development Income Tax Credit Workforce Programs: 3% Broadband Telecom Tax Credit Up to $2000 New Employee Training Reimbursement Customized Recruiting Services Customized Workforce Training Workforce Training Network Idaho Business Network Export Assistance TechHelp Small Business Development Center TechConnect Net Operating Loss Deductions Tax Exemptions: Business Inventory Goods In-Transit Property Tax Exemptions Sales and Use Tax Exemptions Tax Cap on Property Values Exceeding $800 Million 1 2 Benewah County Planning and Zoning Commission.com/county/Benewah_County-ID. 2007). City-Data.html (accessed November 5. 2007) 8 Panhandle Area Council. 2007.000 in Rural Development Grants Up to $50. http://www.idahosbdc.gov/qfd/states/16000.Economics Tax credits: The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Grants: 3% Investment Tax Credit Up to $500. State of Idaho.000 in Community Block Grants Up to $500.com/ (accessed December 3. Kootenai County Comprehensive Plan.com. Kootenai County.citydata. 68 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . 2003. 2007. State and County QuickFacts. 2007). 2007). http://jobsplusonline. http://www.org/pacover. 1995. 2003-2007.cdachamber. 4 Unites States Census Bureau. 2007. Inc.census. Idaho.
and by the logging industry. the major north-south corridor in Idaho that connects the panhandle to the rest of the state. The Coeur D‘Alene Tribe operates a gaming facility in Kootenai County. cemeteries. and community halls.S.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Infrastructure Section 11 By Jessica Evans and Jon Meier Infrastructure This section provides and overview of the infrastructure elements in the Coeur d‘Alene Reservation Community bioregion. libraries. and restaurant. water systems. county shops. There are several public and quasi-public services that extend to the area. street maintenance. as well as a gas station. Highway 95. wastewater systems. motel. cable TV. entertainment hall. The landscape is dissected by U. Waterways are used for transportation. telephone service. conference center. In this section: Transportation Street Maintenance Other Transportation Utilities Communications Energy Water/Wastewater Solid Waste Management/Recycling University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 69 . recreational activities. The corridor also houses railroads that distribute farmed goods grown throughout the state. convenience store. and solid waste disposal. Utilities provided to Benewah County and Kootenai County include electrical power. including a county park.
viewimages. Two private providers bring Cable TV service to the area: one for the Plummer area and in the St. Maries. and St. one natural gas provider. Clearwater Power. Cable lines generally follow telephone poles or are placed underground. and one petroleum pipeline located in the county. the State Parks System maintains the roads in Hayburn State Park and other state areas that are in the county. Maries (290 miles.1 The communities that have wastewater facilities are Emida. and Worley. 22 are paved). and four highway districts. Maries area.1 Interstate 90 runs east-west through Kootenai County. Maries River Railroad and Union Pacific Rail Road.Infrastructure The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Kootenai Counties and are discussed in the transportation section of this document.com Utilities Communications The telephone provider throughout the region is Verizon. DeSmet.1 In Kootenai County. Also in the county are 24 miles of road that are maintained by the Coeur d‘Alene Indian Tribe and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.3 Other transportation infrastructure includes a network of bike baths. All other roads are county roads and are maintained by four highway districts: Up River (200 miles). shipped via waterways. there are two major electricity providers. 3. St.3 Other transportation Freight in the region is trucked. Santa. In Kootenai County. and Plummer Gateway Highway District (98.1 Burlington Northern also has a railroad route through the bioregion. Tensed. or sent by rail serviced by the St. Emida.1 Energy Four major service providers extend electrical power to residents in Benewah County: Avista Utilities. and a municipally-owned provider in the City of Plummer and surrounding Lovell Valley. Kootenai Electric. Several institutions maintain the roads in the county. Waterways and public transit are also used in Benewah and 70 Water/Wastewater The communities in Benewah County that have community water systems are Fernwood. most travel occurs on roadways.3 Figure 11. Of the public land. two major natural gas pipelines. 5. Transportation Street Maintenance In Benewah County. and 95 are state highways maintained by the Idaho Department of Transportation. 28 are paved). The rest of the county uses private wells or springs. University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .1: Billboard Along Highway 95 Source: http://www. 60. Tensed. Highways 6. East Side. Tensed Highway District (138 miles). The federal government maintains 127 miles of road on USDA Forest Service land. Post Falls. Plummer. Lakes. with above-ground lines or buried lines in some instances. five jurisdictions oversee the road networks: Idaho Transportation Department.
html Solid Waste Management/Recycling In Benewah County.3 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 71 . This included 232. lagoons. and disposing of rural solid waste are done by Kootenai County Solid Waste Department. then shipped to Missoula. mechanical treatment plants. solid waste is taken to a county-owned transfer station.3 State agencies are responsible for sewage disposal system regulation in Kootenai County. sludge sites. 177. Collecting. transferring.1 The State of Idaho‘s Division of Environmental Quality regulates Kootenai County water utilities. Fernwood and Santa have a joint wastewater facility.9 million gallons of sewage and septic by-products were produced per day in 1995.000 gallons collected in septic systems. Montana. and St. and individual subsurface sewage disposal systems. and 3 million gallons treated in individual sewage disposal systems. There are also recycling programs available.newsdata.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Plummer.2: Avista Utilities Research Infrastructure Source: http://www. there were 232 drinking water systems in Kootenai County.com/enernet/conweb/conweb100. including incorporated areas. 5. industrial systems. Approximately 8.1 Idaho State‘s Division of Environmental Quality and Panhandle Health District regulate and monitor Kootenai County‘s disposal and treatment of solid waste.000 gallons treated in lagoons. These are mostly community septic systems.5 million gallons treated by mechanical treatment plants.3 Figure 11. In 1992. for disposal. Maries.
2007). Benewah County Comprehensive Plan.citydata. City-Data. City-data.com and Advameg Inc http://www. 72 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . Idaho.html (accessed November 5.com/county/Benewah_County-ID.Infrastructure The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas 1 2 Benewah County Planning and Zoning Commission. Kootenai County Comprehensive Plan. 3 Kootenai County. State of Idaho. 2003. 1995.com. Benewah County. State of Idaho. 2003-2007.
It takes anywhere from thirty minutes to an hour to reach a major city (Spokane/Coeur d‘ Alene) from most parts of the region. however there is a free bus service. Citylink.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Transportation Section 12 By Jon Meier Transportation Transportation networks are important to a region‘s economic vitality and sustainability. However. a major reconstruction project just north of the region is near completion and includes changing most of Highway 95 (the major north-south route) to four lanes. connecting the region to Coeur d‘ Alene that operates seven days a week. Land use patterns and development can define the efficiency of the transportation system in a region. In this section: Major Highways Traffic and Commuting Public Transportation Trail of the Coeur d‘Alenes Economic benefits Cultural benefits University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 73 . The transportation network in this region mainly consists of two lane highways connecting major towns and a broad network of gravel roads connecting homes in outlying areas. This will make it easier for residents to get to Spokane and Coeur d‘ Alene and easier for people to visit the region. There is also an extensive network of old railroad lines throughout the region. Personnel automobile is the primary mode people use to navigate the area. Some of these have been turned into developed multiuse trails and others are in future plans to become trails. economy and environment. Effective land use and transportation planning can have enormous benefits to a region‘s quality of life.
Idaho State Route 60 turns into Washington State Route 274 and connects the town of Tekoa to the area.wsdot.gov/mapsdata/geodatacatalog/ http://inside. Tekoa. Rockford. 95. connecting Rockford to Worley and Plummer.Transportation The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Figure 12. Washington State Route 27 connects Tekoa and Rockford.5 74 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .1: Major Highways in the Region Data sources: http://www. and Worley is about 72 miles long and could be promoted as a scenic driving or biking loop. From the southern boundary of Benewah County to the city of Coeur d‘ Alene is approximately 60 miles. a distance of approximately 19 miles.wa.S.uidaho. Idaho State Route 5 connects Plummer with St.edu/ Major Highways The major North-South Highway is U. Maries. The loop that the highways form between the towns of Plummer. Washington State Route 278 connects to Idaho State Route 58. a distance of approximately 21 miles.
Currently Highway 95 runs straight through Tensed.com/) and Winthrop.2 most residents of Plummer travel less than 35 minutes to work with a few residents traveling up to 90 minutes.mrsmcgowan. WA (www. As can be seen in Graph 12. Twenty four hour traffic counts on Highway 95 have steadily been growing for the past sixteen years.4 Figure 12. This may be due to the rural nature of the region.com/) have also taken advantage of the highway running through their downtown to attract tourists.2: Moscow.2 is from the town of Moscow. Idaho Figure 12. this number may have come down.com/town/vietmeier.7 Graph 12. It makes it more challenging to walk or bike around town and also adds noise and a busy feel. this high single occupant car use will add stress to the system and the environment.1: Mode of Transportation to work in Plummer Source: http://www. At the same time it is a good way to bring economic interest into town. and the addition bike of lanes and sidewalks would make it easier for residents and visitors to walk around town. Most people in the region have relatively short commute times to work. As the region grows. The majority of residents in Plummer drive alone to work (see Graph 12. Now that Citylink is operating a bus in the region. ID (www.com/city/Plummer-Idaho.sisterschamber. It is unclear if the highway improvements will make travel times lower or just Source: http://www.com/. Plummer and Worley with limited or no sidewalks available. More information for other towns can be found at: www. Having a major highway come through town can be both a negative and a positive.city-data.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Transportation Traffic and Commuting The region is experiencing population growth which will lead to increased traffic on area roads. There are many examples of towns in the West taking advantage of a highway running through their community. putting extra stress on the transportation system.html Both Sandpoint. Being a rural region we can expect these types of averages. The town has used its position on the highway as a positive and is a successful tourist destination.1). The enforcement of a slow speed through town. Idaho through which Highway 95 passes.htm University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 75 .sandpoint.winthropwashington.
3 since the inception of the service in November 2005. with nearly 19. bike paths. The bus service has existing grant and matching funds to guarantee service through 2008. It provides a way for residents to access larger communities and brings people into the area. Having a free public service such as this is a valuable asset to the community. A service like this shows that the community is trying to consider ways to reduce its impact on the environment. The mission is to meet the transportation needs of workers. such as sidewalks. industry. thereby keeping times about the same.3: Travel Time to Work C ityL ink R iders hip Data 20000 18000 Num ber of R iders 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 2005 2006 2007 Source: http://surl. elderly and the general public in the Kootenai County and Benewah County area with its 23 stops.000 people utilizing the service in 2007. Citylink represents the first time in the United States that a tribal government and a local government have collaborated to create free public transportation.com/city/PlummerIdaho.2: Travel Time to Work Public Transportation Idaho Citylink is a cooperative effort between the Coeur d‘ Alene Tribe and Kootenai County. Graph 12. recreation. Another way the region is making an effort to bring people into the area and encourage alternative modes of transportation while reducing environmental impacts is with the development of the Trail of the Coeur d‘ Alene‘s. educational facilities and health care facilities for area residents. ridership has increased over time. overpasses and crosswalks could make it easier for people to walk around town and possibly to work. This multiuse path is discussed further in the next section.Transportation The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas add more cars to the roads. students. Citylink connects businesses.se/gdry Source: CityLink representative 76 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative . Source: http://www.6 As shown in Graph 12.8 Figure 12.html Infrastructure improvements to the transportation system. Walking or riding a bike gives people a greater opportunity to enjoy their community by increasing interaction with other people and the natural environment.city-data.3: Example of overpass Graph 12.
000 people used the trail last year. making it a wonderful opportunity for a family or a group of riders. Having a major recreational attraction such as the trail starting in the town in Plummer is a great opportunity to bring visitors into the area.4: Trail of the CdA’s Use Trail of the Coeur d' Alene's Use 96 Visitors (hundreds of thousands) Cultural Benefits Increased visitation to the area could also be a benefit to the area. over the Chatcolet Bridge.4. through Heyburn State Park. They start in Plummer and ride to a specific take out area then get shuttled back to Plummer. According to the Idaho State Parks. Figure 12. historic information signs. however it is safe to assume many people came from outside the region to use the trail.The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas Transportation Trail of the Coeur d’Alenes The trail of the Coeur d‘ Alene‘s biking/walking path follows the Union Pacific Railroad right-of-way from the town of Plummer more than 72 miles to the town of Mullan near the Montana border. The trail is promoted on www.4: Trailhead in Plummer Source: Jon Meier Economic Benefits Tourist who come to bike could potentially also visit the town of Plummer and shop.visitidaho. An opportunity also exists to offer users of the trail a shuttle service.org as well as many city websites and on the Friends of the Coeur d‘ Alene‘s (a local nonprofit group) website. get bike supplies or stay overnight.1 The trail has numerous rest rooms. see Table 12.) 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 2005 2006 Year 2007 Source: Idaho State Parks Department University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative 77 . The trail has a gentle grade averaging 2-3% and is paved the entire length. It could also serve as a catalyst to attract people to the area for events such as Water Potato Day or other community activities and celebrations. Graph 12. and access location where people can get on and off the trail. (See the Community Life section for a detailed list of local events. The trail has also hosted organized recreational events such as fun runs and bike rides. The path takes you from the Palouse prairie. For example signage along the trail would raise awareness of the historical land uses and previous residents. 93. and into the forest of northern Idaho.2 They mentioned that it is difficult to know how many were local versus out of area users. The trail presents both economic and cultural opportunities for the region to capitalize on increased visitation. along the shore of Lake Coeur d'Alene.
2007). http://www. 2007) 7 City Data. 78 University of Idaho Sustainable Communities Initiative .city-data. http://maps.google.idahocitylink. e-mail message to author.com/city/Plummer-Idaho. 4 Sisters Area Chamber of Commerce. 2007).com/ (accessed November 20. www. http://www.com/city/Plummer-Idaho. 2007.Transportation The Coeur d’Alene Reservation Community Bioregional Atlas 1 2 Marsh. 2007) 6 CityLink. 2007) 8 Timothy Beatley and Kristy Manning. D.C. The Ecology of Place (Wahington. 171-193. Gary.sisterschamber.org/ (accessed November 10.: Island Press. Friends of the Coeur d'Alene Trails. 2007) 5 Google Maps. 2007. Plummer Idaho. 2007. http://www. Plummer Idaho. 3 Unknown.html (accessed October 16. State Park Trial Manager.html (accessed November 15. October 25. 2007. 2007. http://friendsofcdatrails.com/ (accessed November 18.city-data. 2007.com/ (accessed November 18. 2007. 1997).
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