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Onboarding: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Onboarding: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
The Knowledge Solution. Stop Searching, Stand Out and Pay Off. The #1 ALL ENCOMPASSING Guide to Onboarding.An Important Message for ANYONE who wants to learn about Onboarding Quickly and Easily...""Here's Your Chance To Skip The Struggle and Master Onboarding, With the Least Amount of Effort, In 2 Days Or Less...""Onboarding, also known as organizational socialization, refers to the mechanism through which new employees acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and behaviors to become effective organizational members and insiders. Tactics used in this process include formal meetings, lectures, videos, printed materials, or computer-based orientations to introduce newcomers to their new jobs and organizations. Research has demonstrated that these socialization techniques lead to positive outcomes for new employees such as higher job satisfaction, better job performance, greater organizational commitment, and reduction in stress and intent to quit. These outcomes are particularly important to an organization looking to retain a competitive advantage in an increasingly mobile and globalized workforce. In the United States, for example, up to 25% of workers are organizational newcomers engaged in an onboarding process.Get the edge, learn EVERYTHING you need to know about Onboarding, and ace any discussion, proposal and implementation with the ultimate book - guaranteed to give you the education that you need, faster than you ever dreamed possible!The information in this book can show you how to be an expert in the field of Onboarding.Are you looking to learn more about Onboarding? You're about to discover the most spectacular gold mine of Onboarding materials ever created, this book is a unique collection to help you become a master of Onboarding.This book is your ultimate resource for Onboarding. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Onboarding right away. A quick look inside: Onboarding, Human resource management, 360-degree feedback, Administrative Services Organization, Agreements on objectives, Applicant tracking system, Michael Armstrong (human resources), Assessment center, At-will employment, Karen Beaman, Bonus payment, Bradford Factor, Broadbanding, Buck Consultants, Building a Better Business, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, Chief human resources officer, Compensation & Benefits, Competence (human resources), Competency architecture, Competency dictionary, Competency-based development, Competency-based job description, Competency-based learning, Competency-based management, Competency-based performance management, Competency-based recruitment, Human resource consulting, Contextual performance, Continuing professional development, Contractor management, Corporate Equality Index, Counterproductive work behavior, Cross-functional teams, Cross-training (business), Delayering, Human resource development, Disciplinary probation, Domestic inquiry, Dr. Marri Channa Reddy Human Resource Development Institute of Andhra Pradesh, Dump job, E-HRM, Educational attainment in the United States, Electronic Human Resources, Employee engagement, Employee exit management, Employee leasing, Employee retention, Employee silence, Employee value proposition, Employeeship, Expense management, Experticity, Flextime, Four-day week, Free and Open Source ATS, Fresh tracks, Functional job analysis, Group behaviour, Health Human Resources, Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument, Horizontalidad...and Much, Much More!This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Onboarding. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Onboarding with the objectivity of experienced professionals - Grab your copy now, while you still can.
The Knowledge Solution. Stop Searching, Stand Out and Pay Off. The #1 ALL ENCOMPASSING Guide to Onboarding.An Important Message for ANYONE who wants to learn about Onboarding Quickly and Easily...""Here's Your Chance To Skip The Struggle and Master Onboarding, With the Least Amount of Effort, In 2 Days Or Less...""Onboarding, also known as organizational socialization, refers to the mechanism through which new employees acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and behaviors to become effective organizational members and insiders. Tactics used in this process include formal meetings, lectures, videos, printed materials, or computer-based orientations to introduce newcomers to their new jobs and organizations. Research has demonstrated that these socialization techniques lead to positive outcomes for new employees such as higher job satisfaction, better job performance, greater organizational commitment, and reduction in stress and intent to quit. These outcomes are particularly important to an organization looking to retain a competitive advantage in an increasingly mobile and globalized workforce. In the United States, for example, up to 25% of workers are organizational newcomers engaged in an onboarding process.Get the edge, learn EVERYTHING you need to know about Onboarding, and ace any discussion, proposal and implementation with the ultimate book - guaranteed to give you the education that you need, faster than you ever dreamed possible!The information in this book can show you how to be an expert in the field of Onboarding.Are you looking to learn more about Onboarding? You're about to discover the most spectacular gold mine of Onboarding materials ever created, this book is a unique collection to help you become a master of Onboarding.This book is your ultimate resource for Onboarding. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Onboarding right away. A quick look inside: Onboarding, Human resource management, 360-degree feedback, Administrative Services Organization, Agreements on objectives, Applicant tracking system, Michael Armstrong (human resources), Assessment center, At-will employment, Karen Beaman, Bonus payment, Bradford Factor, Broadbanding, Buck Consultants, Building a Better Business, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, Chief human resources officer, Compensation & Benefits, Competence (human resources), Competency architecture, Competency dictionary, Competency-based development, Competency-based job description, Competency-based learning, Competency-based management, Competency-based performance management, Competency-based recruitment, Human resource consulting, Contextual performance, Continuing professional development, Contractor management, Corporate Equality Index, Counterproductive work behavior, Cross-functional teams, Cross-training (business), Delayering, Human resource development, Disciplinary probation, Domestic inquiry, Dr. Marri Channa Reddy Human Resource Development Institute of Andhra Pradesh, Dump job, E-HRM, Educational attainment in the United States, Electronic Human Resources, Employee engagement, Employee exit management, Employee leasing, Employee retention, Employee silence, Employee value proposition, Employeeship, Expense management, Experticity, Flextime, Four-day week, Free and Open Source ATS, Fresh tracks, Functional job analysis, Group behaviour, Health Human Resources, Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument, Horizontalidad...and Much, Much More!This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Onboarding. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Onboarding with the objectivity of experienced professionals - Grab your copy now, while you still can.

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Onboarding Human resource management 360-degree feedback Administrative Services Organization Agreements on objectives Applicant tracking system Michael Armstrong (human resources) Assessment center At-will employment Karen Beaman Bonus payment Bradford Factor Broadbanding Buck Consultants Building a Better Business Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Chief human resources officer Compensation & Benefits Competence (human resources) Competency architecture Competency dictionary Competency-based development Competency-based job description Competency-based learning Competency-based management Competency-based performance management Competency-based recruitment Human resource consulting Contextual performance Continuing professional development Contractor management Corporate Equality Index Counterproductive work behavior Cross-functional teams 1 10 15 18 19 23 24 25 26 31 33 33 34 36 38 39 45 48 51 53 56 60 63 63 67 69 72 75 76 80 83 84 86 100

Cross-training (business) Delayering Human resource development Disciplinary probation Domestic inquiry Dr. Marri Channa Reddy Human Resource Development Institute of Andhra Pradesh Dump job E-HRM Educational attainment in the United States Electronic Human Resources Employee engagement Employee exit management Employee leasing Employee retention Employee silence Employee value proposition Employeeship Expense management Experticity Flextime Four-day week Free and Open Source ATS Fresh tracks Functional job analysis Group behaviour Health Human Resources Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument Horizontalidad HR Metric HR.com Human resource management in public administration Human resource management system Human resource policies Human resources Human Resources Management Association of Chicago ICIMS Idea portal IDS HR Studies

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Illness rate Incentive program Individual Development Plan Induction programme Induction training Industrial and organizational psychology Institute of Administrative Management Interactional justice Internal communications Internal labor market International Association for Human Resource Information Management International Public Management Association for Human Resources International Research Association for Talent Development and Excellence ISFnet Job knowledge Job performance Job sharing Know HR Labor and Employment Relations Association Carolyn McKecuen Dee Ann McWilliams Management Development Managerial Assessment of Proficiency MHRM, IIT Kharagpur Mubarak Alhammad Nenko System Nut Island effect OBHR Occupational burnout Occupational Information Network OrangeHRM Organizational diagnostics Organizational ethics Organizational Orientations Parallel running Pay for performance (human resources) Pay in lieu of notice Performance Work Statement

185 186 190 190 192 193 220 225 226 233 234 235 235 237 238 238 242 243 244 249 250 250 255 259 261 262 263 266 266 268 269 272 273 277 280 281 281 282

Performance-linked incentives Person specification Personal development planning Personality-Job Fit Theory PEST analysis Bob Pike (trainer) Plateau Talent Management Suite Potential analysis Principle of no-work-no-pay (dies non) Professional employer organization Professional in Human Resources Progressive Discipline Recognition Professionals International Recruitment Recruitment Process Outsourcing Resource-based view Restructuring Chris Roebuck ROWE Salary SAP Human Resource Management Systems Selection ratio Service record Sham peer review Simultaneous Recruiting of New Graduates Skills management Snakes in Suits: When Psychopaths Go to Work Society for Human Resource Management Strategic human resource planning SWOT analysis T-shaped skills Talascend Talent management Talent management systems Talent platform Stephen Taylor (academic) Technical performance measure The war for talent 282 284 284 285 286 288 289 292 296 299 302 303 304 306 311 313 320 323 325 327 330 331 331 332 335 337 339 340 342 344 348 349 350 353 355 355 356 356 .

The WOW! Awards Times Ascent TPI-theory Training and development Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 Trust fall Turnover (employment) Typical vs. Maximum Performance Upward communication Vendor management system Vendor on premise Voluntary redundancy Clark L. Licenses and Contributors 410 414 Article Licenses License 416 . Wilson Work Activity Management Work–life balance Workforce Investment Board Workforce modeling Workforce sciences Workload Work–life balance (United States) WorldatWork 358 360 361 362 363 367 368 372 376 377 380 380 381 383 384 395 396 398 399 402 408 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources.

feedback. and neuroticism—have been linked to onboarding success. These outcomes are particularly important to an organization looking to retain a competitive advantage in an increasingly mobile and globalized workforce. and relationships with co-workers. a new college graduate starting his or her first job.[8] [9] The Big Five personality traits—openness. or computer-based orientations to introduce newcomers to their new jobs and organizations. up to 25% of workers are organizational newcomers engaged in an onboarding process. for example. and organizational efforts. agreeableness.[11] Employee experience levels also affect the onboarding process such that more experienced members of the workforce tend to adapt to a new organization differently from. as well.[1] Tactics used in this process include formal meetings. 2011).[5] Antecedents of success Onboarding is a multifaceted operation influenced by a number of factors pertaining to both the individual newcomer and the organization. Research has demonstrated that these socialization A model of onboarding (adapted from Bauer & techniques lead to positive outcomes for new employees such as higher Erdogan. for example. acceptance.[1] Empirical evidence also demonstrates that a proactive personality is related to increased levels of job satisfaction and performance.[3] Curiosity also plays a substantial role in the newcomer adaptation process and is defined as the "desire to acquire knowledge" that energizes individual exploration of an organization's culture and norms. the "Big Five". organizational efforts help facilitate the process of acclimating a new worker to an establishment through activities such as orientation or mentoring programs. This type of personality predisposes some workers to engage in behaviors such as information seeking that accelerate the socialization process.[6] New employee characteristics are individual differences across incoming workers. also known as organizational socialization. lectures. job satisfaction. and reduction in stress and intent to quit.Onboarding 1 Onboarding Onboarding. extraversion. "Proactive personality" refers to the tendency to take charge of situations and achieve control over one's environment. Researchers have separated these factors into three broad categories: new employee characteristics. New employee behaviors refer to the specific actions carried out by newcomers as they take an active role in the socialization process. refers to the mechanism through which new employees acquire the necessary knowledge. leading to a smoother onboarding experience.[10] Individuals with a curious disposition tend to frame challenges in a positive light and eagerly seek out information to help them make sense of their new organizational surroundings and responsibilities. new employees who are extraverted or particularly open to experience are more likely to seek out information. printed materials. conscientiousness. ranging from personality traits to previous work experiences. videos. Specifically. thus helping them to adapt more efficiently and become high-functioning organizational members. greater organizational [2] [3] [4] commitment. better job performance. curiosity. They also exhibit higher levels of adjustment and tend to frame events more positively. New employee characteristics Research has shown evidence that employees with certain personality traits and experiences adjust to an organization more quickly. and behaviors to become effective organizational members and insiders. skills. In the United States.[7] These are a proactive personality. This is because seasoned employees can draw from past experiences to help them adjust to their new work settings and therefore may be less affected by specific socialization efforts because they have (a) a better . Finally. and greater experience levels. new employee behaviors.

and finally. employees can effectively reduce uncertainties about their new jobs and organizations and make sense of their new working environments. higher levels of organizational commitment. This can be achieved informally through simply talking to their new peers during a coffee break or through more formal means such as taking part in pre-arranged company events.[17] Feedback seeking is similar to information seeking. Research has shown relationship building to be a key part of the onboarding process. These include referent information. Specifically. new employees learn what kinds of behaviors are expected. relationship building involves an employee's efforts to develop camaraderie with co-workers and even supervisors.[16] Newcomers can also passively seek information via monitoring their surroundings or by simply viewing the company website or handbook. accepted. information about the quality of relationships with current organizational employees (social acceptance).[1] Research has shown that information seeking by incoming employees is associated with social integration. but it is focused on a new employee's particular behaviors rather than on general information about the job or company. expectations. such as building relationships and seeking information and feedback. and policies. learning organizational values and norms. and when they incorporate this feedback and adjust their behavior accordingly.[21] . By actively seeking information. giving them an immediate advantage in adapting to their new jobs. Miller and Jablin (1991) developed a typology of information sought after by new hires. appraisal information.[15] 2 New employee behaviors Certain behaviors enacted by incoming employees.[19] Also called networking.[1] Information seeking occurs when new employees ask questions of their co-workers and superiors in an effort to learn about their new job and the company's norms. procedures. Newcomers can also quicken the speed of their adjustment by demonstrating behaviors that assist them in clarifying expectations. leading to outcomes such as greater job satisfaction and better job performance. or frowned upon within the company or work group.Onboarding understanding of their own needs and requirements at work[12] and (b) are more familiar with what is acceptable in the work context. they begin to blend seamlessly into the organization. and job satisfaction in both individualistic and collectivist cultures.[18] Instances of feedback inquiry vary across cultural contexts such that individuals high in self-assertiveness and cultures low in power distance report more feedback seeking than newcomers in cultures where self-assertiveness is low and power distance is high. and gaining social acceptance. A new employee may ask co-workers or superiors for feedback on how well he or she is performing certain job tasks or whether certain behaviors are appropriate in the social and political context of the organization.[13] [14] Additionally. veteran workers may have used their past experiences to seek out organizations in which they will be a better fit. can help facilitate the onboarding process. understanding what is required to function on the job (role clarity). feedback seeking refers to new employee efforts to gauge how to behave in their new organization.[20] as well as decreased stress. understanding how effectively the newcomer is able to function in relation to job role requirements (self-efficacy). In seeking constructive criticism about their actions. job performance. relational information.

[22] and more generally. Variable socialization processes gives a newcomer no specific timetable. Some organizations favor a more systematic approach to socialization. on the other hand. Schein have identified at least six major tactical dimensions that characterize and represent all of the ways in which organizations may differ in their approaches to socialization. and apprenticeships. Van Maanen and Schein model (1979) John Van Maanen and Edgar H. [22] etc. there is necessarily no specific order in which the steps should be taken. and so forth.Onboarding 3 Organization socialization efforts Organizations also invest a great amount of time and resources into the training and orientation of new company hires. recruitment strategies. while others follow a more "sink or swim" approach in which new employees are challenged to figure out existing norms and company expectations without guidance. any situation in which a newcomer is placed into a work group with no recruit role. and mentorship opportunities. internships. and the entire progression is quite ambiguous. “on-the-job” training. apprenticeship programs with no clearly defined role. Sequential vs. Examples of this process include: Apprenticeship programs. These processes can be witnessed with such socialization programs as police academies.[22] . education in graduate schools. Socialization in the Individual mode allows newcomers to accumulate unique experiences separate from other newcomers. while there are numerous steps or stages leading to specific organizational roles. Random socialization Sequential socialization refers to the degree to which an organization or occupation specifies discrete and identifiable steps for the newcomers to know what phases they need to go through. nor is there any effort made to distinguish the newcomer’s role specifically. Variable socialization This dimension refers to the extent to which the steps have a timetable developed by the organization and communicated to the recruit in order to convey when the socialization process is complete. Organizations differ in the variety of socialization activities they offer in order to integrate productive new workers. formal orientation programs. pledging for fraternities/sororities. In other words. some management trainees can be put on “ fast tracks” where they are required to accept new rotational assignment on an annual basis despite their own preferences. or orientation tactics. This type of socialization is commonly associated upwardly mobile careers within business organizations because of several uncontrolled factors such as the state of the economy or turnover rates which determine whether any given newcomer will be promoted to a higher level or not. Socialization tactics Socialization tactics. Informal socialization Formal socialization refers to those tactics in which newcomers are more or less segregated from others and trained of the job. values. Possible activities include their socialization tactics. Collective versus Individual socialization Collective socialization refers to the process of taking a group of recruits who are facing a given boundary passage and putting them through the same set of experiences together. but a few clues as to when to expect a given boundary passage.[22] Fixed vs. Examples of informal socialization include on-the-job training assignments. specific internships. Random socialization occurs when the sequences of steps leading to the targeted role are unknown. involve little separation between newcomers and the existing employees. Informal socialization processes. Informal tactics provides a non-interventional environment for recruits to learn their new roles via trial and error. Formal vs. and structural policies. Examples of this include: basic training/boot camp for a military organization. For instance. are designed based on an organization's needs. Fixed socialization provides a recruit with the exact knowledge of the time it will take complete a given passage.

Divestiture socialization. videotapes. Investiture socialization processes sanction and document for newcomers the viability and efficacy of the personal characteristics that they bring to the organization.Onboarding Serial vs. Many occupations and organizations require newcomers to sever previous ties. A prime example of serial socialization would be a rookie police officer getting assigned patrol duties with an experienced veteran who has been in law enforcement for a lengthy period of time. refers to when newcomers are not following the guidelines of their predecessors. When organizations use this socialization process it prefers that the recruit remains the exact way that he or she naturally behaves and the organization merely makes use of the skills. and introduces new employees to their work roles and the organizational social environment.[23] Formal orientations Regardless of the socialization tactics utilized. goals. as well as incoming freshmen at universities. and there are no role models to inform new recruits on how to fulfill their duties. and written material. Disjunctive socialization. Formal orientation programs may consist of lectures. and expectations. companies can weed out potential employees who are clearly a misfit to an organization and individuals can identify which employment agencies are the most suitable match for their own personal values. while other organizations may rely on more usual approaches. and power structure. and expectations along the way. tactics influence the socialization process by defining the type of information newcomers receive. Research has shown that 4 . and the ease of obtaining it. Recruiting events allow employees to gather initial information about an organization's expectations and company culture. and receive help from an assigned role model or mentor.[22] Jones's model (1986) Building upon the work of Van Maanen and Schein. Divestiture socialization This tactic refers to the degree to which a socialization process either affirms or disaffirms the identity of the newly entering recruit. values. and forget old habits in order to create a new self-image based upon new assumptions. By providing a realistic job preview of what life inside the organization is like. enter into an orchestrated orientation as a group. who may attend orientation weekends before beginning classes. in contrast. values. Recruitment events Recruitment events play a key role in identifying which prospective employees are a good fit with an organization. Jones (1986) proposed that the previous six dimensions could be reduced to two categories: institutionalized and individualized socialization. is a process that organizations use to reject and remove the certain personal characteristics of a recruit. More recent approaches such as computer-based orientations and Intranets have been used by organizations to standardize training programs across branch locations.[22] Thus. A review of the literature indicates that orientation programs are successful in communicating the company's goals. in which new recruits undergo extensive training and socialization activities through a participative cohort.[22] Investiture vs. These experience members essentially serve as role models for the inexperienced newcomers. other organizations use individualized socialization tactics in which the new employee immediately starts working on his or her new position and figures out company norms. In this orientation system. the source of this information. on the other hand. Companies that use institutionalized socialization tactics implement structured step-by-step programs. history. Disjunctive socialization A serial socialization process refers to experienced members of the organization grooming the newcomers who are about to occupy similar positions within the organization. On the opposite end of the spectrum. Examples of organizations using institutionalized tactics include the military. and attitudes that the recruit is believed to have in their possession. formal orientation programs can facilitate understanding of company culture. individuals must play a more proactive role in seeking out information and initiating work relationships.

responsibilities. organizational commitment. Mentorship Mentorship has demonstrated importance in the socialization of new employees.[24] Organizations can also provide realistic job previews by offering internship opportunities. Literature has also suggested the importance of demographic matching between organizational mentors and protégés. and leaving becomes less likely.[27] Chatman (1991) found that newcomers are more likely to have internalized the key values of their organization's culture if they had spent time with an assigned mentor and attended company social events. supervisors. but it has also been linked to both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. . Results indicate that liking. a personal investment in the organization develops. the feeling of "fitting in" can do a lot for one's perception of the work environment and has been demonstrated to increase commitment to an organization and decrease turnover. and turnover are all correlated with feelings of self-efficacy.[3] Social acceptance Social acceptance gives new employees the support needed to be successful. self-efficacy.Onboarding new employees who receive a great amount of accurate information about the job and the company tend to adjust better.[28] 5 Employee adjustment In order to increase the success of an onboarding program. Not only does role clarity imply greater productivity. social acceptance. Given this information.[3] If an employee feels well-received by his or her peers. it is easy to see why an organization would benefit substantially from increasing role clarity for a new employee. A poor onboarding program. One of the goals of an onboarding process is to aid newcomers in reducing ambiguity and uncertainty so that it is easier for them to get their jobs done correctly and efficiently.[29] Self-efficacy Self-efficacy is the degree to which new employees feel capable of successfully completing their assigned job tasks and fulfilling their responsibilities. for example. On the other hand. and unsurprisingly.[25] Enscher & Murphy (1997) examined the effects of similarity (race and gender) on the amount of contact and quality of mentor relationships. It makes logical sense that employees who feel as though they can get the job done would fare better than those who feel overwhelmed in their new positions. peers. may produce employees who exhibit sub-par productivity because they are unsure of their exact roles and responsibilities. and the organization at large. Mentors can help newcomers better manage their expectations and feel comfortable with their new environment through advice-giving and social support. While role clarity and self-efficacy are important to a newcomer's ability to meet the requirements of a job.[25] [26] Ostroff and Kozlowski (1993) discovered that newcomers with mentors become more knowledgeable about the organization than did newcomers without mentors. researchers have found that job satisfaction. a strong onboarding program would produce employees who are especially productive because they know exactly what is expected of them in their job tasks and their organizational role. satisfaction. and knowledge of organizational culture are particularly good indicators of well-adjusted new employees who have benefitted from an effective onboarding system. and contact were higher in conditions of perceived mentor-protégé similarity. it is important for an organization to monitor how well their new hires are adjusting to their new roles. Role clarity Role clarity describes a new employee's understanding of his or her job responsibilities and organizational role. Researchers have noted that role clarity.

employees have not found them to be helpful. some organizations may have very strict. but they were negatively correlated to role clarity. Knowledge of one's organizational culture is important for the newcomer looking to adapt to a new company. Since. Additionally. attitudinal formations begin from the initial point of contact with an organization. but once the length of the adjustment is determined. and dedicated workforce. Jones (1986) as well as Allen and Meyer (1990) found that socialization tactics were related to commitment. rules of how interactions with superiors should be conducted or whether overtime hours are the norm and an expectation. In some cases though.[23] [33] Because formal socialization tactics insulate the newcomer from their full responsibilities while “learning the ropes”.[35] [36] [37] [38] [39] . have important implications for an employee's work performance and intentions to stay with or quit an organization. they may not necessarily be desirable to all organizations. as well as decreased turnover. organizations have overlooked the influence of business practices in shaping enduring work attitudes and thus have continually underestimated their impact on financial success. roles. productive. norms. whereas individuals who have developed negative attitudes (are [32] [31] highly dissatisfied and unattached to their jobs) are characterized by low performance and high turnover rates.[6] Depending on the culture of the organization. goals. This translates into strong monetary gains for organizations as research has demonstrated that individuals who are highly satisfied with their jobs and who exhibit high organizational commitment are likely to perform better and remain in an organization. socialization researchers have had major concern over the length of time that it takes newcomers to adjust. as it allows for social acceptance and aids in completing work tasks in a way that meets company standards.[34] Orientation sessions are a frequently used socialization tactic. While these sessions have been found to be often formal and ritualistic. Employee engagement attitudes. several studies have found them unpleasant or traumatic. For example. such as satisfaction with one's job and organizational commitment or loyalty. organizations may even desire a certain level of person-organizational misfit in order to achieve outcomes via innovative behaviors. organizations can make appropriate recommendations regarding what matters most in various stages of the adjustment process. there is a potential for role confusion once expected to fully enter the organization. Unengaged employees are very costly to organizations in terms of slowed performance and rehiring expenses. and overall organizational environment. nor has any research provided any evidence for their benefits. Limits and criticisms of onboarding theory Although the outcomes of socialization organization have been positively associated with the process of uncertainty reduction.[31] Employees' job attitudes are particularly important from an organization's perspective because of their link to employee engagement and performance on the job. Overall.[30] Outcomes Historically. knowledge of organizational culture has been linked to increased satisfaction and commitment.Onboarding 6 Knowledge of organizational culture Knowledge of organizational culture refers to how well a new employee understands a company's values. There has been great difficulty determining the role that time plays. it may be more desirable to increase ambiguity despite the potentially negative connection with organizational commitment. practitioners would be wise to take advantage of positive attitudinal development during socialization periods in order to ensure a strong. however. yet unspoken.[6] Further criticisms include the use of special orientation sessions to educate newcomers about the organization and strengthen their organizational commitment.

executive onboarding involves acquiring. Exploit key milestones to drive team performance 8. Embrace and leverage the Fuzzy Front End before day one 4. empirical evidence indicates that formal institutionalized socialization is the most effective onboarding method. because it may be difficult for those individuals to uncover personal. and practices to capitalize on changing circumstances.[46] It is often valuable to have new executives start some onboarding activities in the "Fuzzy Front End" even before their first day.[44] Onboarding may be especially valuable for externally recruited executives transitioning into complex roles. it is also important to note that in-person onboarding techniques are more effective than virtual ones. and knowledge of organizational culture. A study of 20. assimilating and accelerating new executives. that help facilitate the development of role clarity. research has demonstrated that employees learn more about their roles and company culture through face-to-face orientation.[45] Onboarding is also an essential tool for executives promoted into new roles and/or transferred from one business unit to another. and job performance in employees. In terms of structure. Recommendations for practitioners Ultimately. self-efficacy. Position yourself for success 2. Research has consistently shown that doing so produces valuable outcomes such as high job satisfaction (the extent to which one enjoys the nature of his or her work).Onboarding 7 Executive onboarding Executive onboarding is the application of general onboarding principles to helping new executives become productive members of an organization. a period which has been described by various sources as either the first 90 to 100 days or the first full year. or quit within 18 months.[6] [49] Finally. social acceptance. accommodating.[41] [42] [43] Effective onboarding of new executives can be one of the most important contributions any hiring manager. Secure adept people in the right roles and deal with the inevitable resistance 10. organizational commitment (the connection one feels to an organization). and role risks in complicated situations when they don't have formal onboarding assistance. plans.[40] Proponents emphasize the importance of making the most of the "honeymoon" stage of a hire. because executive onboarding done right can improve productivity and executive retention. Practically. Drive action by activating and directing ongoing communication 6. New employees who complete these kinds of programs tend to experience more positive job attitudes and lower levels of turnover in comparison to those who undergo individualized tactics. Evolve people. direct supervisor or human resources professional can make to long-term organizational success. Though it may initially appear to be less expensive for a company to use a standard computer-based orientation program to introduce their new employees to the organization. organizational. such as information seeking.[47] This is one of ten steps executives can follow to accelerate their onboarding. as well as lower turnover rates and decreased intent to quit. Take control of day one: Make a powerful first impression 5. Embed a strong burning imperative 7. practitioners should seek to design an onboarding strategy that takes individual newcomer characteristics into consideration and encourages proactive behaviors.[48] 1. Choose how to engage the context and culture 3. and build shared corporate culture.[50] . Over-invest in early wins to build team confidence 9.000 searches revealed that 40 percent of executives hired at the senior level are pushed out. fail.

Proactivity during organizational entry: The role of desire for control. M. Attitudes and effectiveness: Examining relations at an organizational level. outcomes and methods. early socialization outcomes. J. H. N. [12] Beyer. Academy of Management Journal. 27. D. & Tucker. anticipatory socialization. 53. 92–120. S. Journal of Management. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance.. L. Research in Organizational Behavior. Academy of Management Review. Journal of Applied Psychology. 343–352. J. (2000). E. J.L. F. Proactive socialization and behavioral self-management. [17] Menguc. (1983).. 48. (2000). (1991). (2009). 373–385. T. Kozlowski. 29. (2005). 274–276. Administrative Science Quarterly. and employee retention. A. (2007). and newcomers' adjustments to organizations. C. Journal of Vocational Behavior. & Johnson. 707–721.370–398. [30] Klein..A. T. 92. D. Employee attitudes and job satisfaction. & Kammeyer-Mueller. (1985). W. E. R. 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Perceived overqualification and its outcomes: The moderating role of empowerment. C. 199–214. 68. Organizational socialization: The effective onboarding of new employees. & Jablin. and contracting the organization. H. Personnel Psychology. Building on the past: Enacting established personal identities in a new work setting. DC.. 11.. A. & Hannah. L.. and the moderating effects of role development factors... 459–484. The role of mentoring in the information gathering processes of newcomers during early organizational socialization. Newcomer adjustment during organizational socialization: A meta-analytic review of antecedents. [26] Major. J. & Cross. [2] Ashford. J. D. Zedeck (Ed. J. Previous work experience and organizational socialization: A longitudinal examination. S. In S. J. 418–431. J. & Cummings. MIT Sloan Management Review. [13] Kirschenbaum. (2002). E. 1–22.. M. S. [21] Fisher. C. 81. J. & Boyar. S. Journal of Applied Psychology. Toward a theory of organizational socialization. C. 96–115. R. 88. & Bauer. (2000). N. N. 11. West. W.. E. S. P. & Black. 53. Journal of Applied Psychology. B.. J. (2006). B. J. (1979). L. 170–183. 13. 94. Journal of Management. [24] Klein. 32.. Murphy. 32. (1993). J. [28] Enscher. 803–822. expanding.. M. Journal of Applied Psychology. Feedback as an individual resource: Personal strategies of creating information. 779–794. 77. Journal of Vocational Behavior.. & Gardner. & Wanberg. M. M. (2004). 19. & Preacher. [4] Fisher.J. Applied Psychology: An International Review. A test of a model of new salespeople’s socialization and adjustment in a collectivist culture. [5] Rollag. T.Onboarding 8 References [1] Bauer. Social support and adjustment to work: A longitudinal study. (1991).. A. S. J.. Socialization tactics. S. (1995). & Ravlin. N. W. D. (1985). J. (2004). [6] Bauer. R. D.. E. R. [27] Ostroff. . Vol 3: Maintaining. 1.. and a model of the process.. S. J. 199–214. Academy of Management Journal. E. self-efficacy. The effectiveness of an organizational-level orientation training program in the socialization of new hires. & Judge. 395–407. 839–862. (2005). Curiosity and the pleasures of learning: Wanting and liking new information. V. & Schein. 39–53. Matching people and organizations: Selection and socialization in public accounting firms. A longitudinal investigation of newcomer expectations. 301–323. 16. 46. & Black. Information seeking during organizational entry: Influences. 39–53. [15] Carr.. 85. J. Journal of Management. DeNisi. Personnel Psychology. R. [8] Erdogan. Washington. Pearson. 81. S. (1996). Effects of previous job exposure and subsequent job status on the functioning of a realistic job preview. G. M. & Weaver. Effects of race. 36. Cultural differences in newcomer feedback seeking: A comparison of the United States and Hong Kong.. (1996). 47–66. Human Resource Management. Unwrapping the organizational entry process: Disentangling multiple antecedents and their pathways to adjustment. & Ashforth.. T.. Erdogan. 209–264. D. Chen. A. Journal of Applied Psychology. (1996). Predictors and outcomes of proactivity in the socialization process. C. (1997). S. Y. [10] Litman. [25] Chatman. APA Handbooks in Psychology (pp. Han. [18] Wanberg. 80. J. Journal of Applied Psychology.. (2007). K. 38. (1992). US: American Psychological Association. S. C. A. Journal of Applied Psychology. 42. A.. 43.. [19] Morrison.. (1995). Journal of Vocational Behavior. [29] Adkins.. [3] Kammeyer-Mueller. S. [31] Saari. 262–279. B. perceived similarity. J. 26. A. & Kozlowski.. M.. S.. K. [11] Ashford. Cognition & Emotion.. B. Parise. 557–565. D. R. S. J. The effects of early socialization experiences on content mastery and outcomes: A mediational approach. 853–882. S.).. Truxillo.. 46.

ISBN 0071739378. ISBN 9781422147634. 96–115. 68. Brooke (March 30. [46] Watkins. J. L.M. Your Next Move.. M. Moderating effects of self-efficacy for the relationship between training method and anxiety and stress reductions of newcomers. E. & Fassina. J. N. Fan. [41] Watkins. Forbes. revised edition 2009). Shaking hands with a computer: An examination of two methods of organizational newcomer orientation. • Gruman. John Wiley & Sons. (2007). The availability and helpfulness of socialization practices. [39] Wanous. & Powell.P.C. 33. & Powell. (1991). & Meyer. ISBN 0470407034.. Female and male socialization experiences: an initial investigation. M. Onboarding: How To Get Your New Employees Up To Speed In Half The Time. 857–866. (1993). B. ISBN 0470485817. & Quick. B. Saks. Harvard Business School Publishing. D. H. 81–85. 847–858 [34] Rohlen. 39. George. (1985). July 15. Wiley and Sons. 75. ISBN 1591391105. [37] Posner. Social support and newcomer adjustment in organizations: Attachment theory at work? Journal of Organizational Behavior. 12. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. G. Mary Vonnegut (2009). Jena (February 5. 149–178. Posner. The Economist. Socialization tactics: Longitudinal effects on newcomer adjustment.N. George (2006.. 2007).. In organizational perspectives (pp. J. J. A. Academy of Management Journal. L. (1983).. Christiansen (2010).L. "Rise of a Headhunter". Organizational socialization tactics and newcomer proactive behaviors: An integrative study. 2009). 125–139). Newcomer orientation programs that facilitate organizational entry.N. J. "The New Leaders Playbook". (1990). E. [36] Nelson. & Gogus. Michael (2003). [40] Bradt. M. J. Business Week.. “Spiritual education” in a Japanese bank. 90. & Zweig. Hillsdale. 69. American Anthropologist. J. (2006). & Saks. & Preacher. A.. J. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1018–1026. • Klein. 70. Journal of Vocational Behavior. Financial Times. Journal of Occupational Psychology. A. 2011). Successful Onboarding: Strategies to Unlock Hidden Value Within Your Organization.Onboarding [33] Allen.. K. 639–654. D. (2005).Z. The effects of early socialization experiences on content mastery and outcomes: A mediational approach. [42] "That tricky first 100 days". [45] Bradt. I. [47] McGregor. Socialization tactics and newcomer adjustment: A meta-analytic review and test of a model. George (February 16. Organizational socialization tactics: A longitudinal analysis of links to newcomers' commitment and role orientation. 9 Further reading • Ashforth. 2006. N. C. Journal of Vocational Behavior. A. [44] Masters. "How to Take the Reins At Top Speed". McGraw-Hill. Michael (2009).. Acadmeny of Management Journal. Journal of Organizational Behavior.P.P.. 15. [43] Stein. .. J. Harvard Business School Publishing. [50] Wesson. G. T. M.J.. 413–446. (2006). 543–554.Z. (1973). [35] Louis. K. M. The New Leader's 100-Day Action Plan. (1994). Uggerslev. 36. [38] Saks. Journal of Vocational Behavior. [49] Saks. [48] Bradt. 70. B. 1542–1562. A.. Personnel Psychology.R. (1996). The First 90 Days. 90–104.

as a minimum. secondly. 49).[5] This area of work is sometimes referred to as 'Strategic HRM' or SHRM (. are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. HRM techniques. When HRM is properly employed members of the workforce are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the firm. ensures legislative compliance. For the last 20 years. and administrating their work-life needs. and to provide the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments.[1] While human resource management is sometimes refereed to as a "soft" management skill.. human resource management is based on the assumption that employees are individuals with varying goals and needs.). HRM is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. effective practice within an organization requires a strategic focus to ensure that people resources can facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Human resource management is sometimes referred to as: • • • • • Organizational management Personnel administration Manpower management Human capital management Industrial management[3] [4] Academic theory Research in the area of HRM has much to contribute to the organizational practice of HRM. Effective human resource management also contains an element of risk management for an organization which. HRM is also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within [2] organisations. enhanced quality and efficiency. Its techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can be understood and undertaken by the workforce.[6] . etc.. evident in improved employee commitment. lower levels of absenteeism and turnover. higher levels of skills and therefore higher productivity. HR) is the management of an organization's employees. and provide the necessary resources to promote successfully accomplishment of said goals. filing cabinets. As such.. Human resources should not be categorized with basic business resources (trucks.. While Miller (1987) suggests that HRM relates to: ".. empirical work has paid particular attention to the link between the practice of HRM and organizational performance. 352). providing its members with payroll and benefits. Practicing good human resource management (HRM) enables managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity. Synonyms such as personnel management are often used in a more restricted sense to describe activities that are necessary in the recruiting of a workforce. ensures that the agreement is fulfilled" (p.those decisions and actions which concern the management of employees at all levels in the business and which are related to the implementation of strategies directed towards creating and sustaining competitive advantage" (p. increasing worker comprehension of goals. Torrington and Hall (1987) define personnel management as being: “a series of activities which: first enable working people and their employing organisations to agree about the objectives and nature of their working relationship and.. when properly practiced. Origins Fundamentally.Human resource management 10 Human resource management Human Resource Management (HRM.

there is a huge number of studies which provide evidence of best practices. and the overall strategic direction of the company (Miller. 1996 [9] Best fit. There are a range of theories about the nature of this vertical integration. a set of 'life cycle' models argue that HR policies and practices can be mapped onto the stage of an organization's development or life cycle. economics. a HRM approach seeks to ensure a fit between the management of an organization's employees. The Resource Based View (RBV). The uniqueness of these resources is preferred to homogeneity and HRM has a central role in developing human resources that are valuable. 11 . extensive training. However. rare. However. Fields such as psychology. One widely used scheme to describe the role of HRM. post-structuralism play a major role. defines 4 fields for the HRM [13] function: • • • • • • Strategic business partner Change Agent Employee champion Administration Expert Business Management. the theory of HRM argues that the goal of human resource management is to help an organization to meet strategic goals by attracting. These practices included: providing employment security. usually implemented in coherent bundles. argues that HRM improves performance where there is a close vertical fit between the HRM practices and the company's strategy. industrial relations. or the contingency approach to HRM. Best Fit and the Resource Based View (RBV).[10] Competitive advantage models take Porter's (1985) ideas about strategic choice and map a range of HR practices onto the organization's choice of competitive strategy. sharing information. The basic premise of the academic theory of HRM is that humans are not machines. The key word here perhaps is "fit". therefore we need to have an interdisciplinary examination of people in the workplace. Finally 'configuration models' [11] provide a more sophisticated approach which advocates a close examination of the organisation's strategy in order to determine the appropriate HR policies and practices. The notion of best practice – sometimes called 'high commitment' HRM – proposes that the adoption of certain best practices in HRM will result in better organizational performance.e. difficult to copy or substitute and that are effectively organized.Human resource management Within SHRM three strands of work can be observed[7] : Best practice. this approach assumes that the strategy of the organisation can be identified – many organisations exist in a state of flux and development. Perhaps the most popular work in this area is that of Pfeffer [8] who argued that there were seven best practices for achieving competitive advantage through people and 'building profits by putting people first'. sociology. self-managed teams. developed by Dave Ulrich. Overall. 1989). Many colleges and universities offer bachelor and master degrees in Human Resources Management or in Human Resources and Industrial Relations. and critical theories: postmodernism. This link ensures close coherence between the HR people processes and policies and the external market or business strategy. and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively. industrial engineering.[12] focusses on the internal resources of the organisation and how they contribute to competitive advantage. and therefore it is difficult to draw generalized conclusions about which is the 'best' way (For a comparison of different sets of best practices see Becker and Gerhart. i. argued by some to be at the foundation of modern HRM. selective hiring. Procurement Management. For example. high pay based on company performance and the reduction of status differentials.

concerning the implementation of specific HRM functional areas. an HR plan. As HRM as a field seeks to manage human resources in order to achieve properly organizational goals. An HRM strategy thus is an overall plan. or learning and development policies. reward/recognition policies.[14] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Workforce planning Recruitment (sometimes separated into attraction and selection) Induction. • Close co-operation (at least in theory) between HR and the top/senior management. and may depend on a number of factors. Accordingly.Human resource management 12 Business practice Human resources management involves several processes. or provide a service. via employee feedback. the HRM strategy would seek to facilitate how exactly to manage personnel in order to achieve the 10% figure. Theoretically. would be tailored to achieve the corporate objectives. or learning and development policies. . An organization's HR function may possess recruitment and selection policies. in order to correspond with the overall business strategy. since it is a firm's personnel . namely the size of the firm. however all of these functional areas of HRM need to be aligned and correlated. reward/recognition. As an example. a firm selling cars could have a corporate strategy of increasing car sales by 10% over a five year period. in the development of the corporate strategy. Together they are supposed to achieve the above mentioned goal. but some tasks can also be outsourced or performed by line-managers or other departments. Specific HRM functions. An HRM strategy typically consists of the following factors:• "Best fit" and "best practice" – meaning that there is correlation between the HRM strategy and the overall corporate strategy. an HR plan. etc. Thus. surveys. the organizational culture within the firm or the industry that the firm operates in and also the people in the firm. • Continual monitoring of the strategy. The implementation of an HR strategy is not always required. a senior HR representative should be present when an organization's corporate objectives are devised. Orientation and Onboarding Skills management Training and development Personnel administration Compensation in wage or salary Time management Travel management (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM) Payroll (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM) Employee benefits administration Personnel cost planning Performance appraisal Labor relations HRM strategy An HRM strategy pertains to the means as to how to implement the specific functions of Human Resource Management. This is so. disciplinary procedures. an organization's HRM strategy seeks to accomplish such management by applying a firm's personnel needs with the goals/objectives of the organisation. HR can be seen as one of the critical departments within the functional area of an organization. such as recruitment and selection. When effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the company. or even existing as a going concern. The personnel's proper management is vital in the firm being successful. These processes can be performed in an HR department.

and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. ensuring they are high performers. There is a long-standing argument about where HR-related functions should be organized into large organizations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals. namely the careful correlation of HRM policies/actions to attain the goals laid down in the corporate strategy. organization development. career development. to ensure its own departmental goals are met. Compensation and benefits tasks are handled by compensation analysts.. However. a profession). salary administrators.. Training and development specialism is often conducted by trainers and orientation specialists. dealing with performance issues. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part. Functions The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities. Note that some people distinguish a difference between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development. There are both generalist and specialist HRM jobs. Those people might include HRM in HRD.and Purdue University. large organizations looked to the "Personnel Department. Professional organizations Cornell University's School of Industrial and Labor Relations was the world's first school for college-level study in HRM The main Professional organizations in HRM include the Society for Human Resource Management. "should HR be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?" The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone major changes over the past 20–30 years. University of Minnesota. regarding the management of persons internal to it. 13 Careers and education Further information: Graduate degree programs in human resources management Several universities offer programs of study pertaining to HRM and broader fields. the Australian Human Resources Institute (AHRI).[15] University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign also now has a school dedicated to the study of HRM. e. which all employees have.or full-time help. employee records and personnel policies. The HR functional strategy relates to the policies employed within the HR functional area itself. into two facets – the people strategy and the HR functional strategy. in general. e." mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and . explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations. The people strategy pertains to the point listed in the first paragraph. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Roosevelt University.g. Cornell University created the world's first school for college-level study in HRM (ILR School).g. training. There are careers involved with employment. while several business schools also house a center or department dedicated to such studies. e. recruiting and training the best employees. they should always ensure that employees have—and are aware of—personnel policies which conform to current regulations. Ohio State University. etc. Many years ago. and benefits administrators. the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD.. Michigan State University. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation.g. and key among them is deciding the staffing needs of an organization and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs. EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) specialists or college recruiters.Human resource management An HRM strategy can be divided. including. recruitment and placement and these are usually conducted by interviewers.

com/ 65/ x-/ X-personne. [4] Encyclopædia Britannica (kl ed. Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities (Anniversary ed. OCLC 62282248. H. J. ISBN 0-87584-719-6. (2007) "What is strategic HRM?" in Storey.com/vl=2601464/ cl=84/nw=1/fm=docpdf/rpsv/cw/mcb/00483486/v27n1/s3/p40). • Wilkinson. The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. "Personnel administration is also frequently called personnel management. . T. edu/ about/ ). [14] The Strategic Impact of High Performance Work Systems (http:/ / chrs. FT Prentice Hall [6] Storey.). and Claydon. doi:10. ISBN 1-403-93600-5. edu/ pub_documents/ Huselid_17. .). [3] "Personnel Management" (http:/ / www. "Empowerment: theory and practice" (http://hermia. Methodological Issues and Prospects' Journal of Management Studies. (1985) Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations.: Harvard Business School Press. organizations consider the "HR Department" as playing an important role in staffing.Human resource management paying people. Columbia University Press. (1990) 'The core competences of the organisation' Harvard Business Review [13] Ulrich. The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth ed. 46 (1) [8] Pfeffer. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved 2007-10-17. Boston. (2007) Human Resource Management: A Critical Text. (2009) 'HRM and Performance: Achievement. ISBN 0-7494-4631-5. (2010) Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach. pdf) [15] "About Cornell ILR" (http:/ / www. Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations. [2] Towers. Michael (2006).). . 802–835 [12] Prahalad. A. ilr. bartleby. T. Human Resource Champions. 39(4). and Barocci.emeraldinsight. training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner. London: Kogan Page. Dave (1996). David. B. J. "Human Resource Management essays" (http:/ / www. Karen (2004). (1996) 'The impact of human resource management on organizational performance' Academy of Management Journal 39 (4) 779–801 [10] Kochan. 3001. J. Personnel Review 27 (1): 40–56. B. (1994) Competitive advantage through people. OCLC 34704904. cornell. C. T. Mass. J. html). More recently. [5] Golding. (2010) "Strategic Human Resource Management" in Beardwell. (1996) 'Modes of theorizing in SHRM' Academy of Management Journal. Retrieved 23 August 2009. and Gerhart. and Doty. and Hamel. rutgers. N. J.1108/00483489810368549. • Legge. J. OCLC 56730524. (1988).). html). G. "personnel management – see industrial management". . Harvard Business School Press [9] Becker. towers. employee relations". Thompson [7] Paauwe. industrial relations. Retrieved 2007-10-17. 14 References [1] Armstrong. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th ed. LittleBrown [11] Delery. fr/ essays/ hrm. Retrieved 2007-10-17.

g. There is also controversy regarding whether 360-degree feedback improves employee performance. also known as multi-rater feedback. multi languages. but not so long as to begin to generalize favorably (Eichinger. with a growing menu of useful features (e. Studies have also indicated that self-ratings are generally significantly higher than the ratings of others (Lublin. 1996). 1998). Jako. 1996). multisource feedback. Timmereck." where the employees are most often reviewed only by their managers.. It may be contrasted with "upward feedback. and aggregate reporting) (Bracken. or should be used for appraisal purposes as well (Waldman et al. It also includes a self-assessment and. One of the earliest recorded uses of surveys to gather information about employees occurred in the 1950s at Esso Research and Engineering Company (Bracken. 2002).” followed by “known for three to five years” and the least accurate being “known for more than five years. The first led to despair on the part of practitioners. Nowack. The study shows that subjects in the group “known for one to three years” are the most accurate. or a "traditional performance appraisal. and supervisors. 2001a).360-degree feedback 15 360-degree feedback In human resources or industrial/organizational psychology. & Pollman. followed by “known for less than one year. When this is the case. comparative reporting. Today. 2002). with an individual figuratively in the center of the circle. is feedback that comes from all around an employee. in some cases. or multisource assessment. & Fleenor. 1992). Others claim that this estimate is closer to 90% of all Fortune 500 firms (Edwards & Ewen.” The study concludes that the most accurate ratings come from knowing the person long enough to get past first impressions. Accuracy A study on the patterns of rater accuracy shows that length of time that a rater has known the person being rated has the most significant effect on the accuracy of a 360-degree review. 1997)." where managers are given feedback by their direct reports. companies use some type of multi-source feedback (Bracken. History The German Military first began gathering feedback from multiple sources in order to evaluate performance during World War II (Fleenor & Prince. there is a great deal of controversy as to whether 360-degree feedback should be used exclusively for development purposes. Multi-rater feedback use steadily increased in popularity. 360-degree feedback. peers. and by the 1990s most human resources and organization development professionals understood the concept. studies suggest that over one-third of U. 1994. Dalton. McCauley. Yammarino & Atwater. . such as pay or promotion. the second to a gradual erosion of commitment by recipients. 2004). "360" refers to the 360 degrees in a circle. the idea of 360-degree feedback gained momentum. In recent years. due largely to the use of the Internet in conducting web-based surveys (Atkins & Wood. From there. and it has even been suggested that it may decrease shareholder value (Pfau & Kay. Results are also used by some organizations in making administrative decisions. 1997). Also during this time period. The results from 360-degree feedback are often used by the person receiving the feedback to plan training and development.. others explored the use of multi-rater feedback via the concept of T-groups. Feedback is provided by subordinates. Summers. It has been suggested that multi-rater assessments often generate conflicting opinions. and that there may be no way to determine whose feedback is accurate (Vinson. and is sometimes called a "360-degree review. & Church." However. 1998). 1993. Internet-based services have become the norm. feedback from external sources such as customers and suppliers or other interested stakeholders. the 360 assessment is for evaluation purposes.S. The problem was that collecting and collating the feedback demanded a paper-based effort including either complex manual calculations or lengthy delays.

increases retention. coaching. Additional studies (Maylett. Smither et al. 2001b). 2002) Similarly. positive reactions to feedback. 2009. Some authors maintain that 360 processes are much too complex to make blanket generalizations about their effectiveness (Bracken. (1996) found that performance increased between the 1st and 2nd administrations. while another study concludes that "there is no data showing that [360-degree feedback] actually improves productivity." (Pfau & Kay. Rose. but there is no proof it works. participant training. One 2001 study found that 360-degree feedback was associated with a 10. 'Under what conditions and for whom is multisource feedback likely to be beneficial?' (rather than asking 'Does multisource feedback work?') (p. . (2001b) and Bracken and Timmreck (2001) focus on process features that are likely to also have major effects in creating behavior change and offer best practices in those areas. 2007). integration with HR systems. manager) affects the reliability of the feedback. A study by Reilly et al. 1991. 2009) have demonstrated that the response scale can have a major effect on the results. & McClellan. and some response scales are indeed better than others..360-degree feedback 16 Results Several studies (Hazucha et al. or is superior to forced ranking and standard performance appraisal systems. & Reilly. 60). Other potentially powerful moderators of behavior change include how raters are selected. manager approval. It sounds good. instrument quality (reliability and validity).. goal setting. care should be taken in its implementation (Maylett. In a 5-year Walker and Smither (1999) study. London. rater training and orientation. Multiple pieces of research (Bracken & Paul. and that both 360-degree feedback and traditional performance appraisals should be used in evaluating overall [1] performance. (2005) suggest. Others authors state that the use of multi-rater assessment does not improve company performance. 1999) indicate that the use of 360-degree feedback helps people improve performance. 1993. Caputo & Roch. 1993." Their meta-analysis of 24 longitudinal studies looks at individual and organizational moderators that point to many potential determinants of behavior change. & Summers. Yukl. and accountability (Bracken et al. 2005). Bracken et al. London & Wohlers.6 percent decrease in market value. Timmreck. "We therefore think that it is time for researchers and practitioners to ask. and advised that although multi-rater feedback can be effectively used for appraisal. 2006. and taking action. Goldsmith and Underhill (2001) report the powerful influence of the participant behavior of following up with raters to discuss their results. manager (supervisor) training. decreases grievances. Kaiser & Kaplan. with direct reports being the least reliable and therefore requiring more participation. Seifert. Additional studies show that 360 feedback may be predictive of future performance (Maylett & Riboldi. Greguras and Robie (1998) document how the number of raters used in each rater category (direct report. peer. Some of these factors have been researched and been shown to have significant impact. no improvement in overall ratings was found between the 1st and 2nd year. Walker & Smither. and McDonald (2003) state that there is little evidence that the multi-rater process results in change. Smither. Fleenor. This research suggests that 360-degree feedback and performance appraisals get at different outcomes. 2005) found no correlation between an employee's multi-rater assessment scores and his or her top-down performance appraisal scores (provided by the person's supervisor). English. 2009). and sustained this improvement 2 years later. but higher scores were noted between 2nd and 3rd and 3rd and 4th years. including positive feedback orientation. 2001b.

. 599–612. P.. Compensation and Benefits Review. Are all scales created equal? Paper presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Annual Conference. Tracy (2009). (2003). The effects of scale type and demographics on upward feedback. Los Angeles. The Relationship Of Multi-rater Feedback To Traditional Performance Appraisal. A. (2006). B. & Prince. L. Timmreck. and Church. D.W. • Fleenor. G... San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. A.E. 55(4).W. & Riboldi. 561–569. • Bracken.W. D. & Schneider. (1993). D. LA. September.. and Church. Personnel Psychology. and Timmreck. J. J. 40 (1).. • Bracken.W. Using 360-degree feedback in organizations: An annotated bibliography. May. Summers. C. Does 360-degree feedback negatively affect company performance? Studies show that 360-degree feedback may do more harm than good. September/October 41(5). R. Timmreck. Should 360-degree feedback be used only for developmental purposes? Greensboro.S. Human Resource Management. Rose. R.. D. (1996). • Hazucha. R.W. • Bracken. & McClellan (2009).W. May. 325–351.. R. Ann J. • Kaiser.. V. (1993). & Underhill. New Orleans. • Maylett. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 360-Degree Feedback Revisited: The transition from development to appraisal. NC: Center for Creative Leadership.. C. 48–52. J. P. • Maylett.. Timmereck.B.H. LA.O. & Wood. San Francisco. 49(3). J.A. 23–25.H. C. L.. (1997). Training & Development. & McDonald. What's the problem? HRMagazine. The Handbook of Multisource Feedback. A. D. .W.. C. April. D. (2001) Guidelines for multisource feedback when used for decision making. C. 6. (1998) High tech 360. (2004). • Bracken. (2007). The Handbook of Multisource Feedback. J. • Pfau.Paper presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Annual Conference. Journal of Applied Psychology. & Ewen.. K.. M. A new look at within-source interrater reliability of 360-degree feedback ratings. April.. • Eichinger. 52–59.. 32(2–3). R. 54–60. W. 47. T. D. Personnel Psychology. (2001b). M.J. (2002). August. (2001). (2002). • Greguras..D. D.. • English.W. Jun 2002. NC: Center for Creative Leadership. In Bracken. 360° Feedback: The powerful new model for Employee Assessment & performance improvement.Human Resource Management. J. Perspectives.W. F. The handbook of multisource feedback. & Robie. Dallas. Dalton. Self-versus others' ratings as predictors of assessment center ratings: Validation evidence for 360-degree feedback programs. S.W.. M...W. In Bracken. N. Doctoral Dissertation. A.. (1997). 88(3). D.A. • Seifert. California. Timmreck. Pepperdine University. & Fleenor..E. and Roch. • Edwards. C. (1996). 871–904. • Bracken. Mark R. Using 360° Feedback to Predict Performance. and Paul. CA. Tracy (2005). • Maylett.H. (2009) Rating formats and perceptions of performance appraisal fairness. Jako.. Patterns of Rater Accuracy in 360-degree Feedback. G. Hezlett.A. I.W. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Rating scale label effects on leniency bias in 360-degree feedback.W. A longitudinal study of upward feedback. Paper presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Annual Conference.. Yukl. & Pollman. S. Multisource feeedback for executive development. 27. • Goldsmith. R. M. New York: AMACOM American Management Association. B. 960–968.. R.. C. J. The impact of 360-degree feedback on management skills development. Journal of Applied Psychology. A. TX.360-degree feedback 17 References • Atkins. McCauley. and Kaplan. Smither. & Vasilopoulos. Training + Development. (2001a). Greensboro. Effects of multisource feedback and a feedback facilitator on the influence of behavior of managers toward subordinates. C. Fleenor. 83. 3–20. & Summers. 360 degree feedback from another angle.B. Paper presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Society Annual Conference. New Orleans. • Bracken.W. • Reilly.W.. & Church. & Kay.W. • Caputo. J. Robert. (1998)..

. and corporate benefits. STD. L.W. A five-year study of upward feedback: What managers do with their results matters. not legal or administrative expertise. Tax Filing Services. FSAs & Transit Pre-Tax Plans. L. payroll processing. • Yammarino. 11–12. All W-2 and Workers Compensation policies remain the responsibility of the employer not the administrative firm. Employee Time & Attendance. & Smither. April. and Reilly. • Vinson. (1999). Standard & Custom Reports. (1993). M. • Walker. Does performance improve following multisource feedback? A theoretical model. Self-perception accuracy: Implications for human resource management. Administrative firms performing ASO duties conceptually save business owners time/money through economies of scale.. Personnel Psychology. 18 Administrative Services Organization An Administrative Services Organization (ASO) is an organization that provides outsourced solutions to meet the administrative and HR needs of the client with the client retaining all employment-related risks and liabilities. the employer remains the Employer of Record for tax purposes not a co-employer. Life. J../ H. E. LTD. • Waldman.R. (1998).. Tax and insurance filings are done through the administrative firm. 58.. Wage Garnishment. (ASO Vs.S. Human Resource Management. HRIS.A.A. Most business operations are not prepared for the administrative duties involved with running a business. payroll administration. R. The pros and cons of 360-degree feedback: Making it work.[2] The principal difference between the two types of service is that. Atwater. H. London. Bill Payment/ Premium Reconciliation. but under the client company’s Employer Identification Number. benefits administration. & Atwater. J. A. (1996.. 231–235. The knowledge and capabilities of small. 401(k) Administration.s.to mid-sized business are usually limited to occupational expertise. Personnel Psychology.360-degree feedback • Smither. 393–423.[3] Ultimately. A.W. (2005).R. Expense Reporting. 33–66. April). meta-analysis and review of empirical findings. with this structure. Direct Deposit.W-2 Processing.organizing/ negotiating Health Insurance. E.[6] .Managing COBRA. in an ASO arrangement. One of the most significant advantages of using an ASO is to benefit from cost saving techniques and bargaining abilities that they can provide due to their large number of workforce employees. D. Group Dental. 32(2&3). D. & Unemployment Cost Control. 86–94. Training and Development. New Hire Reporting. J. F. PEO services [5]) Payroll services include. etc Benefits The benefits of an ASO are not easily quantifiable. & Antonioni.[4] Administrative services can include the following. Benefits Administration includes. PayCards.[1] The term ASO was established by the PEO industry in the late 1990s in order to distinguish between selective administrative support and full-scale PEO services. Has 360-degree feedback gone amok? The Academy of Management Executive. 52(2). M. 12(2). Pay As You Go Workers Comp. & Benefits Enrollment Corporate Benefits include.

org/ Employee_Leasing_Content64. that goes back to the teaching of Management by objectives.[2] Management by objectives in this context means the keeping of employees by objectives. Besides trade and industry. in the form of a performance-based. but also in other areas. aspx [6] http:/ / www. To note here is that each target species based on the overriding objective must be to ensure the company acts as a purposeful whole. xcelhr.[3] Legal definition An agreement between employers and employee. which in turn are translating the employee goals into operational goals. variable compensation classified as an ongoing fee. html Agreements on objectives The agreement on objectives is an agreement concerning the goals to be achieved by the employee. the more short-term and specific they are. The objectives of the top level of the hierarchy are the longer-term orientation and aligning goals of a company. xcelhr.[4] Business definition Economically. aspx http:/ / www. org/ hrdisciplines/ Pages/ CMS_011128. shrm. dinsmoresteele. aspx http:/ / www. Inclusion in the compensation system Target agreements are an instrument of modern personnel management. com/ BundledServices/ ServiceGrid. where periodic objectives. which in practice are usually taken in the context of appraisal interviews. org/ Publications/ HRNews/ Pages/ CMS_007455.[5] . up to a certain point in time. com/ what_is_aso.Administrative Services Organization 19 References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. the arrangements are agreed on a target. com/ BundledServices/ ASO. it is also increasingly used in public administration. related to the individual employee. shrm.[1] Origins of the instrument An Agreement on objectives is an instrument of leadership. are agreed with the compensation depending on the degree of goal attainment. It is a motivational technique and standardly used in field service and in project work. to be performed5. htm [5] http:/ / www. The lower the targets are located in the hierarchy. The company's philosophy gives the impetus for the formulation of strategic objectives. employee-leasing. aspx http:/ / www.

however. which is also of enormous importance in the area of staff development. It is a success fee. for employees who do not or are not used primarily in sales.Agreements on objectives 20 Boundaries Targets Target agreements are agreed between two parties. to be brought into line with agreed targets. which is [7] not much influented by the employee. Clearly defined goals have to be formulated and agreed. from whose achievement is only the commission paid.[6] Commission Both. whether the objectives have been met or not. Agreements on objectives can orient themselves to the performance of the individual employee or a group (individual objective) and the success of the company (corporate goals). for example in the form of an annual premium.[8] The goal setting process The goal setting process is usually very complex and vary from company to company in practice . If the employer takes a target. continuing to the performance level of the individual worker and influence through ongoing training. The whole goal setting process requires that the employees understand the objectives and accept them. which is independent of the contribution of the employee's to the company's success.A. The employee is given the opportunity. employees are involved with a certain percentage share of the economic success of the company. Agreements on objectives allow the company to continue flexible working and provide an additional incentive compensation for the extra performance of the employee. no more than six goals are agreed. Often three to five business-related field goals are connected to a personal development goal (soft aim). commission and agreement on objectives contain a variable performance pay. are provided. or in which any case is not primarily a revenue-or profit-related performance. If it is solely on the sales performance of the Company. In general. the individual goals of employees with corporate goals. targets are determined unilaterally by the employer as part of its management rights. quantitative) . Bonus With the agreement of a bonus. thereby increasing efficiency of the company takes place. it is a bonus. it's a question of an agreement on objectives. In contrast. They should be: Specific = Detailed description of the desired state (and easily understandable) Measurable = Specification of criteria by which success can be verified (qualitative. As an individual performance-related compensation from the commission ruled. This can be derived the following key points: Vertex 1 Agreements on objectives are arranged once a year.[9] S. for reasons of clarity and feasibility. Aims of the agreement by objectives system Basically. It is therefore the appraisal of an employee. however. Still occurs at the end of the fiscal year to assess the performance of the employee will be decided by which. however.T. usually taken at the beginning of the business year. goals should continue to be formulated.M.R. which will be paid in addition to a fixed salary. target agreements must set the goals to be reached and influenced by the employee for his assistance. The employer can observe the implementation of continuous feedback in the target agreement process. to earn an additional payment.

The employee evaluation is simplified by the well-defined goals. Also the tuning in daily business processes can be shortened by clear rules and priorities of the latitude of the employees. setting agreements on objectives result in time savings are in the business process. the personnel control is relieved by agreeing on precisely defined targets. Risks posed by the possible development of an enhanced range: Selfishness.[10] 21 Opportunities and risks of agreed targets for the company For the company. as well as the conditions of the work task and thus counteract problems independently and purposefully. set by an actual-theoretical comparison. The goals take place in the area of responsibility of the employee and are not in elementary dependence on external. in which the achievement of goals. often a milestone meeting is held. Agreements on objectives are increasing the employee's identification with the work content and the company. at which a short feedback is given about the current level of achievement. The increased potential for conflict in the evaluation of target achievement. Vertex 4 The final goal statement takes place in the first quarter after the expiration of the agreed target period. Vertex 2 During the second or third quarter. so that individual employees. Vertex 5 For the target assessment. which also leads to improved performance of the employee and thereby increase the efficiency of the company.Agreements on objectives Attractive = Active influenced and accessible. which also helps the employer in the dismissal process to property. An effective tool is the balanced scorecard. The personal interest is often put before the general interest. The termination scale can therefore be exacerbated to the detriment of the employee. Furthermore. The conversations respective agreements on objectives cause an agreement that inform the employee about the reasons and backgrounds. Agreeing on overall and partial objectives avoid duplication and help to coordinate the processes and tasks. Vertex 3 At the end of the agreed period the target outcome conversation occurs. agree to meet targets. various methods may be used. non-configurable criteria Relevant = Realistic in terms of corporate goals Terminated = Specifying the target date of achieving completes the objective conditions. in particular where the goals are unclear and complicated billing comes through the complex design of the target agreement system is reflected in the contra-side for the company. because the average performance is defined or agreed upon with the employee. is found. Furthermore. Important in achieving objectives control is that it is transparent to the employee and is perceived as fair. employees are encouraged to feel more accountable for the results of their activities. . The control times of the executives are shortened. able to assist the group.

Employees must be informed and involved. a.. but also enormous time resources to establish a target agreement system and sustainable... It therefore requires not only a lot of capital. 15. O. As part of goal setting discussions. A. 552 Kießling-Sonntag. Thereby the staff is actively involved with the company's goal setting. 2008. konstruktive Gesprächsführung.-H.: Führen und Entlohnen mit Zielvereinbarungen. Even managers and the council may need to be informed and involved in the process. a. erfolgreiche Zielvereinbarungen.. 57. 30. the employee has the chance of an above-average earning.: Inhaltskontrolle von Zielvereinbarungen in BB 62. S. 93 Annuß. Auflage. Führungsmethoden. S. The employees get a sense of their objectives. 92 Horcher. a. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. B. M.. a. Framework aims have to be defined. Moreover. 66 und Senne.. G. 2008. 2065 Wurm/Wagner/Zartmann: Das Rechtsformularbuch. Führungspersönlichkeit.. 2008. 2007 S. the managers have to be trained in terms of their new responsibilities. Grundlagen erfolgreicher Mitarbeiterführung. 883 [10] Kießling-Sonntag. The assessment criteria for goal achievement is more transparent and personal development goals for the employee are taken seriously within the company. 2008. 3. a. S.. 3.: Arbeitsrechtliche Aspekte von Zielvereinbarungen in der Praxis in NZA o. a. 2006 S. html Hehlbaum.Agreements on objectives 22 Opportunities and risks for employees For the employees agreements on objectives result in a clear orientation on corporate goals and their own work area and a clear orientation what kind of contribution of archievement are expected from the company. Zielvereinbarungsgespräche. 2007. working-in-germany. a. 2008. if he fails to reach the [11] goal. J. which in turn affects the work environment positively. Und Olesch. O. erfolgreiche Zielvereinbarungen. O. 2402 . O. Jg. a comprehensive company-specific approach has to be developed. 1594 Bauer. konstruktive Gesprächsführung. 290 und Senne. 5. [11] Heiden. Modernes Personalwesen. Auflage. O. 2007. Heft 10. und Göpfert. in BB 62. Arbeitsrecht. p. R. 2007. Auflage. Jg. Das Arbveitsverhältnis in der betrieblichen Praxis. 3. employees can express concerns and desires and provide feedback to the supervisor. a. a. a. Jg.. 4. Wegerich. a. 44 Lischka. Zielvereinbarungsgespräche. S.. S. Auflage. S. a.. The feedback from the supervisor informs the employee about his strengths and weaknesses of a reasonable basis. Jg 2007.: Human Resources. G. M. Jg. Furthermore. The introduction and sustained implementation of a target agreement system is connected with high expenses. The introduction of a system like agreements on objectives might only be worthwhile if the expense is offset by the significant increase in performance of employees. S. Arbeitrecht 2008. 31f. S. Also. Strategische Personalentwicklung in der Praxis. a.. com/ objective-agreement-0013. O. S. P. S.. a. O. the scope for creativity and autonomy is extended to the employee. by agreement of partnership. Diller. 2002. H. Auflage. A disadvantage for the employee is the risk of losing the bonus of the agreement by objectives. 113 Laufer. 102ff. C. S. S.: Grenzen der Entgeltvariabilisierung am Beispiel zielvereinbarungsgestützter Vergütung in DB o. Auflage.: Zielvereinbarungen auf den arbeitsrechtlichen Prüfstand.

org/ Computers/ Software/ Human_Resources/ Recruitment_Management/ . Another benefit of an applicant tracking system is analyzing and coordinating recruitment efforts . Applicant Tracking Systems are often referred to as Recruitment Software and this is a term used mainly in the recruitment agency industry (representative bodies include the REC in the UK and the NRF in Ireland). An ATS can be implemented on an Enterprise or small business level. A corporate career site or company specific job board module may be offered. ATS systems have expanded ATS offerings that include off-site encrypted resume and data storage. Data is either collected from internal applications via the ATS front-end. External links • Recruitment Management [1] at the Open Directory Project References [1] http:/ / www. Hotjobs. preventing the data from being held offshore. allow applicants to be sourced from the company's own database of past job applicants. This table lists the available Free and Open Source ATS. which is often legally required by Equal Opportunity Employment Laws. The level of service and cost can vary greatly across providers. ATS systems are very similar to Customer Relationship Management Systems.Applicant tracking system 23 Applicant tracking system An Applicant Tracking System (ATS) is a software application that enables the electronic handling of recruitment needs. Candidates may be identified via preexisting data or through information garnered through other means. ATS are built to better assist management of resumes and applicant information. Career Builder) have partnerships with ATS software providers to provide parsing support and ease of data migration from one system to another. Functionality of an ATS is not limited to data mining and collection. ATS applications in the recruitment industry include the ability automate the Recruitment process via a defined workflow. On the enterprise level it may be offered as a module or functional addition to a Human Resources Suite or Human Resource Information System (HRIS). located on the company website or is extracted from applicants on job boards. but are designed for recruitment tracking purposes. The majority of job and resume boards (Monster. This data is typically stored for search and retrieval processes. Applicant Tracking Systems may also be referred to as a Talent Management Systems (TMS) and/or Talent Platform and are often provided via an application service provider or software as a service (SaaS) model. Nearly all major corporations use some form of Applicant Tracking Systems to handle job applications and to manage resume data.managing the conceptual structure known as Human Capital. depending on the needs of the company. Modern ATS systems. The ATS is expanding into Small and medium enterprises through Open Source or Software as a service offerings (SaaS). A dedicated ATS is not uncommon for recruitment specific needs. The principal function of an ATS is to provide a central location and database for a company's recruitment efforts. In the UK and Ireland. dmoz. As the data held within Recruitment Software is predominantly personal data it is often tightly controlled by Data Protection legislation. allowing companies to provide opportunities to internal candidates prior to external recruitment efforts.

7th edition. Kogan Page.ISBN 978 0 7494 5534 7 • Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice'. ISBN 978 0 7494 5163 9 • Strategic Human Resource Management: A Guide to Action. 2nd edition. then as an learning and development specialist in the aerospace and food industries. 2008. Kogan Page 2009. Kogan Page.4th edition. 2008.sknkip. 2010.11th edition. ISBN 978 0 7494 5989 5 • Armstrong's Handbook of Reward Management Practice'. 2009. This was followed by heading up the consultancy division of Coopers & Lybrand for a further ten years. 4th edition. ISBN 978 0 7494 5242 1 • Armstrong's Handbook of Performance Management'. He has had over 25 years experience in personnel management. ISBN 978 0 7494 5375 6 References • http://www. He is Managing Partner of e-reward. 2010. He has also practised as a management consultant for many years and is a former Chief Examiner for the CIPD. ISBN 978 0 7494 5417 3 • How to be an Even Better Manager'.uk and also practices as an independent consultant. 3rd edition. Bibliography His books include: • Armstrong's Essential Human Resource Management Practice'. including 12 as a personnel director. Kogan Page.php?go=projekty&p=armstrong Michael Armstong's presentation from his lecture in Warsaw School of Economics . and a Companion of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. ISBN 978 0 7494 5392 3 • Armstrong's Handbook of Management and Leadership'. He was Executive Director with HR responsibility in a publishing firm for twelve years (three of which were as General Manager). His career covers hands on experience within the engineering industry specialising in Employee Relations. Kogan Page.Kogan Page. Kogan Page.pl/index.Michael Armstrong (human resources) 24 Michael Armstrong (human resources) Michael Armstrong is an honours graduate in economics from the London School of Economics. 2009.

Handbook of Human Resource Management in Government (http:/ / books. it will decrease the risk in investing in applicants by hiring them based on knowing their performance abilities compared to hiring someone based on a verbal interview. the assessment center.org/default. p. Stephen E. . 618. It employs a variety of techniques and multiple observers in a closed setting to evaluate candidates.asp) . in my eyes. leaderless discussion groups. John Wiley and Sons. Gregory A. google. .” By simulating individuals in real organization activities. (2010). p. The current Wikipedia information about “assessment centers” is missing vital information which will help individuals understand the concept more thoroughly. google. case analyses.assessmentcenters.[2] References [1] George Bohlander. applicants can also get hands on idea of their routine tasks they will be asked to complete on a daily basis. “Management of a Sales Force. role playing. ISBN 0324593317. can be ideal for an employer to get an idea of how the applicants will perform in the conditions they will be expected to perform in. Scott Snell (2009). Cengage Learning. As stated by Rosann L. or individual presentations. As another hiring tool for recruiting employees. An assessment center is becoming widely used and practiced mainly because it does work and saves companies money by getting the hiring right and not investing in individuals who cease to meet company expectations and need to be replaced. [2] Condrey.” some exercises may involve business games. Rich. com/ books?id=J1MgADAhyr8C& lpg=PA204& dq=Assessment center& pg=PA204#v=onepage& q=Assessment center& f=false). Stanton in their work. com/ books?id=L5oNveCwn44C& lpg=PA618& dq=Assessment center& pg=PA618#v=onepage& q=Assessment center& f=false).[1] Based on an analysis of the skills and competencies for the job in question exercises for the candidates are selected in order to reveal information regarding the required qualities and attributes. By adding simulation exercises. Managing Human Resources (http:/ / books. External links • The International Congress on Assessment Center Methods (http://www. Retrieved 17 November 2010.Assessment center 25 Assessment center An assessment center (AC) is a process used in the selection of qualified individuals for a job or role in an organization. This way companies can train only those who have already portrayed their abilities to increase productivity within the company. Spiro. and William J. 204. ISBN 0470484047.

an empirical study in 1992 by the RAND Corporation showed that imposing exceptions to at-will employment resulted in a [7] long-term drop in aggregate employment of two to five percent. the Supreme Court of California endorsed the rule first articulated by the Court of Appeal. Blue Cross & Blue Shield of Michigan. in a 1980 landmark case involving ARCO.[15] In 1987.At-will employment 26 At-will employment At-will employment is a doctrine of American law that defines an employment relationship in which either party can break the relationship with no liability. it also expressly enumerates the legal bases for a wrongful discharge action. has not recognized a union).[8] Origins The at-will rule has its genesis in a rule in Horace Gray Wood’s 1877 treatise on master-servant relations.S. which allowed discharge for no reason. These restrictions (explained below) have been controversial. cases as authority for his rule that when a hiring was indefinite. As a means of downsizing. However." [1] and the employee is equally free to quit.[5] In particular. secure in the knowledge that they can also promptly terminate employees who turn out to be incompetent or lazy. Wood cited four U.[9] In Toussaint v.[11] Thus was born the U. Common law protects an employee from retaliation if the employee disobeys an employer on the grounds that the employer ordered him or her to do something illegal or immoral. at-will employment rule. such as closing an unprofitable factory. strike.S. Several statutory and judge-made exceptions to the doctrine exist. a company may terminate employees en masse. economy. The Montana Act is unique in that. No U. in the majority of cases. there are legal limitations upon the employer's ability to terminate without reason. or no cause at all. the burden of proof was on the servant to prove that an indefinite employment term was for one year. state but Montana has chosen to statutorily modify the employment at-will rule. several common law and statutory exceptions to at-will employment have been created. a discharge is wrongful only if: "it was in retaliation for the employee's refusal to violate public policy or for reporting a violation of public policy. Under this legal doctrine: “ any hiring is presumed to be "at will".e.[13] The resulting actions by employees are now known in California as Tameny actions for wrongful termination in violation of public policy. states. the doctrine is widely credited as one of the major factors behind the strength of the U. although it purports to preserve the at-will concept in employment law.[12] Later. the Court noted that "Wood’s rule was quickly cited as authority for another proposition.[6] The doctrine enables American entrepreneurs to rapidly staff new startups. Regardless. the Montana legislature passed the Wrongful Discharge from Employment Act (WDEA). provided there was no express contract for a definite term governing the employment relationship and that the employer does not belong to a collective bargaining group (i.[14] Since 1959. or otherwise cease work.."[10] Some courts saw the rule as requiring the employee to prove an express contract for a definite term in order to maintain an action based on termination of the employment. that is.[16] Under the WDEA. the employer is free to discharge individuals "for good cause. the burden of proof remains upon the discharged employee.S. the discharge was not for good cause and the employee had completed the employer's probationary . This rule was adopted by all U. ” The doctrine of at-will employment has been criticized as predicated upon flawed assumptions about the inherent distribution of power and information in the employee-employer relationship and for its brutal harshness upon employees[2] [3] . this thesis has been advanced by leading scholars in the field of law and economics such as Professors Richard A. especially if unlawful discrimination is involved regarding the termination of an employee. or bad cause. Epstein[4] and Richard Posner. at-will employment has been credited with making possible the success of Silicon Valley as an entrepreneur-friendly environment. In 1959 the first judicial exception to the at-will rule was created by one of the California Courts of Appeal.S. However.S.

with exception[21] Implied contract exceptions Thirty-seven U. or the employer violated the express provisions of its own written personnel policy. the pink states have the 'exception'. the employer may be found liable for breach of contract."[17] 27 Public policy exceptions Under the public policy exception. which protects the employee. states (red) with an implied-contract exception most often found when an employer's personnel policies or handbooks indicate that an employee will not be fired except for good cause or specify a process for firing. written instrument regarding the employment relationship exists. states (and the District of Columbia) also recognize an implied contract as an exception to at-will employment. U. as well as for instance nursing home abuse refusing to perform an action that would violate public policy.S. Implied employment contracts are U. If the employer fires the employee in violation of an implied employment contract. [18] ).S.[20] The 7 states which do not have the exception are: • • • • • • • • Alabama Georgia Louisiana Maine Nebraska New York Rhode Island Florida .At-will employment period of employment. an employer may not fire an employee if it would violate the state's public policy doctrine or a state or federal statute. states and the District of Columbia recognize public policy as an exception to the at-will rule.[19] forty-three U. even though no express. and the burden of proof is on the fired employee. In this diagram."[19] Proving the terms of an implied contract is often difficult. states (red) with a public policy exception Specific states As of October 2000. This includes retaliating against an employee for performing an action that complies with public policy (such as informing the authorities of an illegal activity. .[19] Under the implied contract exception.S.S. an employer may not fire an employee "when an implied contract is formed between an employer and employee.

In 2006. The New York Court of Appeals. did not modify an employee's at-will employment. the Texas Court of Civil Appeals in Matagorda County Hospital District. to mean either that employer personnel decisions . this exception – at its broadest – reads a covenant of good faith and fair dealing into every employment relationship.S. Those 13 states are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Delaware Florida Georgia Indiana Louisiana Massachusetts Missouri Montana North Carolina Pennsylvania Rhode Island Texas Virginia 28 The implied-contract theory to circumvent at will employment must be treated with caution. thus 13 do not. and an employee's explicit employee handbook disclaimer preserved the at-will employment relationship. nor exceptions for firings that violate public policy.[22] held that a provision in an employee handbook stating that dismissal may be for cause. Respondent. states have recognized a breach of an implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing as an exception to at-will employment. also rejected the implied-contract theory to circumvent employment at will. Rather than narrowly prohibiting terminations based on public policy or an implied contract. Petitioner v Christine Burwell. Respondent. that state’s highest Court. and requiring employee records to specify the reason for termination.At-will employment 37 US states have an implied-contract exception. states (red) with a covenant-of-good-faith-and-fair-dealing exception • Nevada • Utah • Wyoming This exception for a covenant of good faith and fair dealing represents the most significant departure from the traditional employment-at-will doctrine.[19] [24] These 11 states are: • • • • • • • • Alabama Alaska Arizona California Delaware Idaho Massachusetts Montana U. Covenant of good faith and fair dealing exceptions (aka. In Anthony Lobosco. "Implied-in-law" Contracts) Only eleven U. It has been interpreted. Appellant v New York Telephone Company/NYNEX.[23] the court restated the prevailing rule that an employee could not maintain an action for wrongful discharge where state law recognized neither the tort of wrongful discharge. by some courts.S.

religion. The act also protects employees who engage in a "concerted activity".C. The Right to Earn a Living: Economic Freedom and the Law (Washington. [1] Mark A. the employee may have a claim for wrongful termination. [4] Roger Blanpain.[26] In the recent federal case of Ross v. [2] John W. Bureau of Labor Statistics (retrieved on 6 February 2010). J. Working in Silicon Valley: Economic and Legal Analysis of a High-Velocity Labor Market (Armonk. or handicap status. employers are not allowed to retaliate against any protected action." including and especially the dominant American high-velocity work practice of at-will employment. The Global Workplace: International and Comparative Employment Law . • In addition to being fired based on status in a protected class (race. 3 U. 29 Statutory exceptions Although all U. 1995). D. 305-311. "Protected actions" include suing for wrongful termination. [10] Id. national origin. ISBN 1570180075. • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (relating to certain discrimination on the basis of handicap status). Summers. An employer is not permitted to fire an employee who takes family or medical leave for a reason outlined in the Family and Medical Leave Act. • The National Labor Relations Act provides protection to employees who wish to join or form a union and those [25] who engage in union activity.[27] Notes  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "The employment-at-will doctrine: three major exceptions [28]" by Charles J.W. the employee handbook or company policy outlines a procedure that must be followed before an employee is terminated. & Emp. Mary C. Raymond Ross successfully sued his employer for firing him due to his allegations of racial discrimination. pp. William R. xvi and 92-97. Employment At Will in the United States: The Divine Right of Employers. sex. [9] Id.At-will employment are subject to a “just-cause” standard or that terminations made in bad faith or motivated by malice are prohibited. • Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (related to certain discrimination on the basis of handicap status). If the employer fires an employee without following this procedure. • family or medical leave – federal law permits most employees to take a leave of absence for specific family or medical problems. U. Overcoming Law (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. etc. DC: BNA Books. most wrongful termination suits brought under statutory causes of action use the federal anti-discrimination statutes which prohibit firing or refusing to hire an employee because of race. 14–35. Vanguard. • Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (relating to certain discrimination on the basis of age with respect to persons of at least 40 years of age). Hyde's book explores "how high-velocity work practices contribute to economic growth. Cases and Materials on Employment Law (New York: Foundation Press.2d at 886. or even opposing what they believe (whether they can prove it or not) to be wrongful discrimination. Dollarhide (1996). Cato Institute.E. and Voice (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. & Michael J. [6] Alan Hyde. religion. Knapp & Lance Liebman. 1987).Cases and Materials (New York: Cambridge University Press. Muhl. gender. Budd. Zimmer. [7] Timothy Sandefur. Pa.S. Hilary K. . age. • not following own termination procedures – often. [5] Richard Posner. 738. 2003). L. Equity. at 601. Ethan. Andria S. Corbett. [3] Clyde W. Susan Bison-Rapp. • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (relating to discrimination on the basis of race. Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency. [8] Lipsig. 86-88. NY: M. 65 (2000). Lab. states have a number of statutory protections for employees. color. Josephs. Examples of federal statutes include: • Equal Pay Act of 1963 (relating to discrimination on the basis of sex in payment of wages). or national origin).S. 292 N. sex. Other reasons an employer may not use to fire an at-will employee are: • for refusing to commit illegal acts – An employer is not permitted to fire an employee because the employee refuses to commit an act that is illegal. color. Washington. 101-102. 2004). Downsizing: Law and Practice. 2007). Sharpe. testifying as a witness in a wrongful termination case. Rothstein. 2010). 235-236..).

2d 184.102. 597 A. gov/ opub/ mlr/ 2001/ 01/ art1full.W. It is unclear if the Court of Appeals recognized the good-faith covenant but that the plaintiff did not prove a violation of the covenant. gov/ Statutes/ index. Retrieved 04-10-2009. 174 Cal. Retrieved May 24. Westin Engineering. The appellate court held that the exception is "when the sole reason for the discharge is the employee's refusal to violate the law. htm) (1992).2d 25 (1959) [13] Tameny v. [16] Id. 1997).2d at 887. Donald C. html) [22] 49 Tex Sup J 370. [12] Petermann v. bls. 702 A.At-will employment [11] Id. Florida State Statutes 2010 (http:/ / archive. Retrieved 2009-04-18. as expressed in a statute or municipal regulation." 597 A.2d 28. Ann. App. [27] US: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. 1991). .C. 4th 1083 (http:/ / online. Inc. George W. .2d 159. Sentry Insurance. [21] Section 448. 27 Cal. umi. gov/ opub/ mlr/ 2001/ 01/ art1full. In 1997. who alleged that his employer had violated a "covenant of good faith and fair dealing" in conducting sexual harassment investigation against him. htm) (8/9/99) . 2010. com/ PracticeAreas/ Employment-Doctrine.2d 28 (D. Britches of Georgetowne. Managerial Law 1 (43): 92–98. App. htm) (1980). Inc. Retrieved 2006-03-20. § 39-2-904 (2008) [18] "Wrongful Discharge . Retrieved 2007-11-18. 2001.000 for Retaliation" (http:/ / www. 705 A. [26] US: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. "The First Decade of Judicial Interpretation of the Montana Wrongful Discharge from Employment Act (WDEA)". Cochran & Co.C.An Exception to the At-Will Employment Doctrine" (http:/ / www. 57 Mont. com/ pqdweb?index=0& did=278685321& SrchMode=1& sid=1& Fmt=6& VInst=PROD& VType=PQD& RQT=309& VName=PQD& TS=1195361334& clientId=13929). ceb. the District of Columbia Court of Appeals ruled against the plaintiff. . 2006 Tex LEXIS 137 [23] 751 N. bls. gov/ press/ 2-29-08a. this exception was expanded in Carl v. ceb. [19] Muhl. Rev. Local 396. 1 Cal. 3d 167 (http:/ / online.. eeoc. asp). No.. Charles (January 2001).C. 98-1548 (http://ppspublishers. wrongful discharge would also include a violation of public policy if the public policy is "solidly based on a statute or regulation that reflects the particular public policy to be applied. gov/ types/ retaliation. [14] Gantt v. flsenate. html). com/ CalCases/ C3/ 27C3d167.com/articles/atwill_relationships. [25] "Federal and State Statutory Exemptions to At-Will Employment" (http:/ / proquest. The court held that. pdf 30 References • Highstone v.2d 159 (D.at-will relationship must be clear to the employees . html). In Kerrigan v. Int'l Bhd. cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute& URL=0400-0499/ 0448/ Sections/ 0448. Chauffeurs. Code. 344 P. . [20] In Adams v. "The employment-at-will doctrine: three major exceptions" (http:/ / www. [17] Mont. "Retaliation" (http:/ / eeoc. Children's Hospital. [28] http:/ / www.. 32. 1997). [15] Robinson.. 376 (1996). at 603. . App. App. the District of Columbia Court of Appeals carved out a narrow public policy exception to the at-will employment doctrine.2d 624 (D. Monthly Labor Review. 102. or (if appropriate) on a constitutional provision concretely applicable to the defendant's conduct. employee-advocates. L.2d 462 (2001) [24] It is unclear whether courts in the District of Columbia recognize a good-faith covenant exception." 702 A.E.. com/ CalCases/ C4/ 1C4t1083. & Helpers of Am. in addition to the exception articulated in Adams. 163. of Teamsters. pdf) (PDF). 292 N. "Vanguard Group to Pay $500. or whether the court did not recognized the good-faith covenant exception at all. Warehousemen. Atlantic Richfield Co. 375.

D. An IHRIM Press Book. Austin.Karen Beaman 31 Karen Beaman Karen V. 2002. She has also done academic work at Universities of Salzburg in Austria and Tuebingen and Stuttgart in Germany. [11] Articles in Industry Publications: "The New Multi-Dimensional Talent Force: Multi-Local Differences". 2004. ABD (all but dissertation) for the Ph. IHRIM Journal.658) based on the time relational model. An IHRIM Press Book. Act Local: The Collaborative Transnational HRIT Organization. the highest achievement award from the Association for International Human Resource Information Management (IHRIM) [7]." IHRIM. the editor of four books. "The New Multi-Dimensional Talent Force: Multi-Cultural Differences".S. Number 5. June 2008. real-time investment fund accounting system (U. Number 2. Beaman is known in the field as a speaker and writer on global HR issues. Beaman is a professional in the field of human resources information systems (HRIS). Volume XII. An IHRIM Press Book. in Sociolinguistics). Austin. Act Local: Building an Effective Global Organization. 2008. November 2008. Her most notable work concerns the management of human resources. Futura Publishing. Patent 4. Her master thesis was entitled. An IHRIM Press Book.970. [9] Out of Site: An Inside Look at HR Outsourcing." In: 21 Tomorrow's New Formula: Concept-Driven Innovation through Strategic HR. She is Chief Executive Officer of Jeitosa Group International [1].Link Magazine.[12] "The New Multi-Dimensional Talent Force: Multi-Generational Differences". she received the Excellence Achievement Award from the Association for International Human Resource Information Management (IHRIM) in recognition for her founding of the IHRIM Journal[4]. TX: Rector-Duncan and Associates.[6] Beaman has received numerous awards for her work. August 2008. Volume XII. TX: Rector-Duncan and Associates.[13] "Think Global. Number 3. a scholarly publication for thought leaders and senior executives. "Patterns of Variation: The Development of the Concept of Implicational Analysis as a Theory of Language Change" (1979) and her dissertation was entitled "A Sociolinguistic Approach to Dialectal Variation: A Speech Community in Swabia" (1980). Austin. IHRIM Journal. Austin. Additionally. most notably in 2002 she was honored with IHRIM's Summit Award. Volume XII. December 2007/January 2008. IHRIM Journal. TX: Rector-Duncan and Associates. [8] Common Cause: Shared Services for Human Resources. Before Jeitosa she held executive positions in HRIS at Workday [2] and ADP [3]. Beaman is also the co-inventor on a patent in 1985 for an online. [5] . [10] Boundaryless HR: Human Capital Management in the Global Economy. a worldwide business and technology consultancy focusing on global human resources challenges and solutions which Beaman founded. transnationality in organizational design [5] and global mindset in expatriates for more effective business dealings in a cross culture environment. 2006. Beaman was educated at Old Dominion University (BA) and Georgetown University (MA in Sociolinguistics. and the author of over 50 articles and columns. Published works Edited Books: HR Frontiers: Shifting Borders and Changing Boundaries. [14] "Think Global. She is the co-founder and Editor-in-Chief of the IHRIM Journal[4]. TX: Rector-Duncan and Associates. 2008.

The International Journal for the Humanities." In: Heads Count: An Anthology for the Competitive Enterprise. Vol. ihrimpublications. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ Global_Shared_Services. com/ content_attachments/ 13/ 2006VolXNo5_-_Beaman___Guy_-_Malleable_Mindsetts. jeitosa. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ OutsourcingandTransnationals." With John Macy." IHRIM Journal.[19] "Sourcing Strategies for the Transnational Organization. September/October 2005. 2004.[18] “Effecting Change in Business Enterprises: Current Trends in Change Management. December 1999/January 2000. org [8] http:/ / www." With Gregory Guy. [25] 32 References [1] http:/ / www. pdf [15] http:/ / www." IHRIM. Futura Publishing. pdf [13] http:/ / www. ihrim. November/December 2003. Volume VII. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ BeamanGlobalization. 5. Number 3. 5.Karen Beaman “Malleable Mindset and Cultural Contact: A Multi-Factorial Approach to the International Experience. php?cPath=21& products_id=29 [11] http:/ / www. jeitosa. com/ shop/ product_info. September/October 2005.” With Gregory Guy. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ Promise_of_Web_Services. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ Change_Management. Volume. php?cPath=21& products_id=28 [10] http:/ / www. Volume VIII. com [4] http:/ / www. and Mistakes in Overseas Assignments: The Role of Global Mindset in International Work. IHRIM Journal. Vol. jeitosa. I." With Gregory Guy IHRIM Journal. pdf [6] http:/ / www. com/ content_attachments/ 11/ 2008VolXIINo3_Beaman_-_MultiDimensional_Talentforce_-_MultiCultural_Differences. The International Journal for the Humanities. Mystiques. [16] "Shared Services Globalization: The Payoffs and the Tradeoffs. Number 6. com [5] http:/ / www. IHRIM Journal. jeitosa.[24] "On Globalizing HRIS: Moving to the Transnational Solution. Number 2. [21] “Global Orientation and Sociolinguistic Accommodation as Factors in Cultural Assimilation. jeitosa. ihrimpublications. com/ shop/ product_info.” With Gregory Guy IHRIM Journal. ihrimpublications. com [2] http:/ / www. 2003. September/October 2006. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ Beaman2007-DecHRITOrganization. R1371-05-RR. In: Common Cause: Shared Services for Human Resources. IHRIM Journal. [23] "Transnational Development: The Efficiency-Innovation Model. com/ shop/ product_info.[17] “Strategy: Do You Know When You See It?” With Bob Stambaugh. jeitosa. IHRIM Journal. pdf [20] http:/ / www. Number 4. X. 5. jeitosa. Volume VIII. jeitosa. 0-8237-0856-X. php?products_id=31 [12] http:/ / www. [22] "The New Transnational HR Model: Building a Chaordic Organization. jeitosa. ihrimpublications. pdf . com/ content_attachments/ 10/ 2008VolXIINo2_Beaman_-_MultiDimensional_Talentforce_-_MultiGenerational_Differences. pdf [18] http:/ / www. 2003. II.[20] "Myths. pdf [14] http:/ / www. workday [3] http:/ / www. No. Row Henson (editor). IX. ISBN No. jeitosa. jeitosa. php?products_id=39 [9] http:/ / www. adp. Vol.” With Gregory Guy.link Magazine. [6] “Mindset and Identity in the Globalizing Future. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ MythsMysticandMistakesRGM. The Conference Board Research Report. jeitosa.” With Gregory Guy. Volume X. Number. pdf [16] http:/ / www. com/ content_attachments/ 12/ 2005SepOct_-_Beaman___Stambaugh_-_On_Strategy. pdf [7] http:/ / www. Vol. July/August 2004. No. com/ shop/ product_info." With Gregory Guy.[15] "The Promise of Web Services: Why SOA Means Better Service. November/December 2004. IX. pdf [17] http:/ / www. July/August 2006. ihrimpublications. pdf [19] http:/ / www. 2006.

jeitosa. one of one and two of two days (3 x 3 x 5) = 45 points • 3 instances of absence. When they are tied to possibly short lived figures such as an increase in monthly turnover. pdf [25] http:/ / www. It was originally designed for use as part of the overall investigation and management of absenteeism. problematic instances. however. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ BuildingChaordicTransnationalHROrganization. It was developed as a way of highlighting the disproportionate level of disruption on an organisation's performance that can be caused by short-term absence compared to single incidences of prolonged absence. including when a fair share of an employees participation in the success of a company is desired. The inverse of a bonus payment. For example: • 1 instance of absence with a duration of ten days (1 x 1 x 10) = 10 points • 3 instances of absence. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ GlobalizingHRIS. Thus bonus payments can act as incentives for managers attracting their attention and their personal interest towards what is seen as gainful for their companies economic success. that is when base salaries shrink on poor performance. jeitosa. while they are already planning their leave with a golden handshake. PDF [24] http:/ / www. and unplanned absences are more disruptive than longer absences. frequent. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ MindsetIdentity. jeitosa. The Bradford Factor is calculated as follows: where: • B is the Bradford Factor score • S is the total number of spells (instances) of absence of an individual over a set period • D is the total number of days of absence of that individual over the same set period[1] The 'set period' is typically set as a rolling 52 week period. Bradford Factor The Bradford Factor or Bradford Formula is used in human resource management as a means of measuring worker absenteeism. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ GlobalMindsetsLinguisticAccommodation. one of three and one of six days (3 x 3 x 10) = 90 points . or the net number of additional customers acquired. The theory is that short. Setting up good employment contracts may be a means to avoid that at least to some extent. but is astonishingly rare in reality. pdf 33 Bonus payment A bonus payment is usually made to employees in addition to their base salary as part of their wages. or the current value of the stock of a public company. pdf [22] http:/ / www. jeitosa. They are widely used elements of pay for performance and working well in many instances. this is called a malus.Karen Beaman [21] http:/ / www. In contrast. such figures are prone to being adjusted or even manipulated to the benefit of those employees who are responsible for reporting them. unlikely to be successful and could lead to staff disaffection and grievances. While the base salary usually is a fixed amount per month. most notably when bonus payment are high. or cash flow generated from an isolated marketing action. if used as part of a very limited approach to address absence or by setting unrealistically low trigger scores it was considered short-sighted. pdf [23] http:/ / www. one of one. jeitosa. such figures often do not reflect a solid reliable win for a company. and they certainly do not reflect a managers lasting efforts to the companies best. According to the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development the term was first coined due to its supposed connection with research undertaken by the Bradford University School of Management in the 1980s. On the contrary. There are. com/ resources/ karen_beaman/ TransnationalDevelopment. bonus payments more often than not vary depending on known criteria. such as the annual turnover.

Jonathan (2001-05-02). Reasonable adjustments in the case of the Bradford Factor might include recording Disability-Related Absence separately from Sickness Absence. Broadbanding defined Broadbanding is a job grading structure that falls between using spot salaries vs. however. many job grades to determine what to pay particular positions and incumbents within those positions. Reporting and Costing Absence August 2007" (http:/ / www. broadbanding reduces the emphasis on ‘status’ or hierarchy and places more of an emphasis on lateral job movement within the company. stm). uk/ gse/ sickness. 20. or to adequately justify why they cannot be provided. . each of one day (10 x 10 x 10) = 1000 points In May 2001. Reasonable adjustments may also be requested by disabled employees for relief from any negative consequences of application of the Bradford Factor. gov. co. each of two days (5 x 5 x 10) = 250 points • 10 instances of absence. Retrieved 2007-05-07. broadbanding is a more flexible pay system. . pdf). Broadbanding Broadbanding is used by Payroll Departments in Human resource management. such as disciplinary action or reduced salary awards. The DDA allows disabled employees to request 'reasonable adjustments' in situations where they are disadvantaged by generic processes. While broadbanding gives the organization using it some broad job classifications. As certain disabilities may lead to a greater likelihood of short-duration absences or to a higher total of days of absence. In this way. p. cipd. HM Prison Service began using the Bradford Formula to identify staff with high absenteeism due to illness. . bbc. This flexibility. creates a duty on employers to tailor their actions to the individual circumstances of disabled employees. it does not have as many distinct job grades as traditional salary structures do.[1] Thus.[2] The Bradford Formula is used to calculate an "attendance score". failure to provide these reasonable adjustments.Bradford Factor • 5 instances of absence. can lead to internal pay relativity problems as there isn’t as much control over salary progression as there would be within a traditional multi-level grading structure. BBC News. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 1306542. "Ill Wind Blowing for the Sickie" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2007-05-05. Managing Sickness Absence in the Public Sector (http:/ / www. [3] Cabinet Office (2004). hse. 34 Notes and references [1] "Chartered Institute of personnel and Development Measuring. UK government. or individually tailoring targets. In a broadbanding structure an employee can be more easily rewarded for lateral movement or skills development. pdf) Retrieved 19 June 2009 [2] Duffy. uk/ NR/ rdonlyres/ 3A208F80-3484-4CE7-B8DD-907FFE660850/ 0/ Wellbeing_sample_chapter_02. caution is needed in taking action as a consequence of the data generated from the application of the Bradford Factor. may leave the employer open to civil action for breach of the DDA in an Employment Tribunal. whereas in traditional multiple grade salary structures pay progression happens primarily via job promotion.[3] Bradford Factor and Disability Rights Legislation The British Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and 2005 (DDA).

some employees may feel lost. or not know how to build their careers without a vertical corporate ladder to climb. .. About. Retrieved 4 April 2011. have a higher tolerance for ambiguity. in order to help managers to validate their pay decisions for a particular employee to the external market before proceeding to give higher than normal pay increases. Also. Broadbanding.com. Also. the company has the flexibility to reward a star performer. implementing broadbands in some countries may be easier than in others. HR managers. "Broadbanding" (http:/ / humanresources. Tailored communication to each of these groups will go a long way towards ensuring the successful implementation of a broadbanding program. Retrieved 4 April 2011. or work within a business environment that is in flux. Susan M. htm). • Manage a flexible/mobile workforce – for companies that have staffing needs that change frequently or are difficult to predict. In this case. and encourage lateral or cross functional movement would be good candidates for broadbanding. • Take the emphasis off of job evaluation – because the number of levels have been reduced. This is due to the wider than normal band taking away that more gradated top end control on salary levels. One concern noted by companies that have implemented broadbanding is that compensation costs may go up. auxillium. com/ od/ glossaryb/ g/ broadbanding. com/ broadbn2. This can be effectively managed through the use of market data. . and employees. "Broadbanding" (http:/ / www. . about. relies on the buy-in of all key stakeholders including the business managers.[2] Hierarchical and/or risk averse companies with a preference for well defined policies and procedures would be better served by a traditional multi-grade structure. [2] Auxillium West. that is different than the job title used for position grading internally. even when they aren’t getting promoted. shtml). like other grading systems. job evaluation can be streamlined as there aren’t as many distinct grades that need to be considered when slotting a job into the structure. References [1] Heathfield. companies may need to consider letting employees use an external business title based on employee age or years of service. For a suitable organization in the right cultural setting.Broadbanding 35 Selection of broadbanding Broadbanding works better for some organizations than others. broadbanding can do the following: • Reward performance more efficiently – as the pay ranges are wide. In countries where promotions and titles are very important socially. Flat organizations that are flexible. broadbanding offers a program that is easier to maintain than a traditional system with many distinct levels. the company will need to be able to give examples to the employees of how lateral movement can enhance their career opportunities.

History Founded in New York City by George B.buckconsultants. retirement. Sr. reintroduced the Buck Consultants brand. compensation. A Xerox Company Consulting 1916 New York. as an actuarial firm in 1916.700 [2] [3] www. In addition to consulting and shared services. global technology and delivery solutions. health and productivity. learning services. ACS acquired Mellon’s HR business in 2005. A Xerox Company (formerly Affiliated Computer Services. Latin America. Inc.Buck Consultants 36 Buck Consultants Buck Consultants Type Industry Founded Headquarters Key people Products Independent subsidiary of ACS. . The Buck Consultants brand name was scrapped in late 2003 when Mellon unified various business lines under the name Mellon Human Resource & Investor Solutions (HR&IS).. President and Executive Managing Director Buck Global Investment Advisors Communication Compensation Global Technology and Delivery Solutions Health and Productivity Retirement Talent and HR Solutions Employees Website 1. Asia-Pacific. Buck is an independent subsidiary of ACS. Europe. Buck provides its services through integrated practices in communication. the HRS line of business includes benefits administration. NY [1] Mike Roberts.[5] today the firm has more than 80 locations worldwide through a network of offices and affiliates in North America. Buck. and Africa.[4] Buck is a unit within ACS’ Human Resource Services (HRS) line of business.com Buck Consultants is a global employee benefits and human resource consulting firm.. which Xerox acquired in February 2010).[6] Buck remained an independent organization until 1997 when it was acquired by Mellon Financial. and talent and HR solutions. and as one of its first significant business decisions. and human resource outsourcing services (HRO).

white papers from Buck Consultants’ thought leaders [9] FYI Global Newsletter [10] References [1] Buck Leadership Team: Buck Consultants.K. buckconsultants.uk) . xerox. com/ [4] Press Release: Xerox Completes Acquisition of Affiliated Computer Services (http:/ / www. buckconsultants.com Career Information (http:/ / vault. com/ buckconsultants/ spanidNavKnowspan/ Publications/ FYIGlobal174/ tabid/ 333/ Default. aspx [10] http:/ / www. com/ companies/ company_main. aspx) [7] http:/ / www. Web site (http://www.com) • Buck Consultants U. jsp?ed_name=NR_2010Feb8_Xerox_Completes_ACS_Acquisition& app=Newsroom& view=newsrelease& format=article& Xcntry=USA& Xlang=en_US) [5] Buck Consultants . com/ go/ xrx/ template/ inv_rel_newsroom. buckconsultants. jsp?product_id=671& ch_id=252& co_page=1) [3] http:/ / www.co. com/ companies/ company_main. aspx External links • Buck Consultants U. aspx) [2] Buck Consultants . vault. Web site (http://www. com/ buckconsultants/ default. buckconsultants. com/ buckconsultants/ spanidNavAboutspan/ BucksLeadershipTeam/ OurLeadershipTeam/ tabid/ 190/ Default. com/ buckconsultants/ spanidNavKnowspan/ Publications/ GlobalViewregMagazine/ tabid/ 82/ Default. jsp?co_page=2& product_id=671& ch_id=252& v=1& tabnum=2) [6] About Buck History page: Buck Consultants. buckconsultants.com (http:/ / www.Buck Consultants 37 Publications • • • • For Your Information Newsletter [7] Global View Magazine [8] InsightOut .buckconsultants. com/ buckconsultants/ spanidNavAboutspan/ History/ tabid/ 125/ Default.buckconsultants. buckconsultants. com/ buckconsultants/ spanidNavKnowspan/ Publications/ WhitePapersInsightOutreg/ tabid/ 79/ Default. aspx?tabid=83 [8] http:/ / www.com Career Information (http:/ / www.Basic Company Snapshot: Vault.com (http:/ / www.Company Stats: Vault. aspx [9] http:/ / www.S. buckconsultants.

Profile Business Publication date 5 April 2006 Pages ISBN OCLC Number 312 186197-7530 57380569 [1] Building a Better Business is a book on the future of marketing. trust you and want to get there too. family. The thesis of the book is the need to connect with passion to deliver results. is proposed as a fundamental driver of human behaviour: the desire to make a difference.Building a Better Business 38 Building a Better Business Building a Better Business Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Publisher Patrick Dixon UK English business management Profile Books. Dr Patrick Dixon has been ranked as one of the 20 most influential business thinkers alive [2] today (Thinkers 50 2005 ). strategy development and innovation. team building. Building a better world. but more commonly also to friends. Give people a convincing reason and they will lay down their very lives. com . thinkers50. or creating a better future. References [1] http:/ / worldcat. management and motivation written by the futurist Patrick Dixon in 2006. people who won't change and processes without purpose. community and beyond. are convinced that you know the route. org/ oclc/ 57380569 [2] http:/ / www. change management. People will only follow you if they see you are ahead. even if only to one's own life. Life's too short to waste time on projects that can't deliver. marketing. This principle is then applied to leadership. and is author of 11 other books including Futurewise.

Gill Rider.cipd. President www. London. Welfare Workers' Institute (WWI) • 1924 to 1931: Institute of Industrial Welfare Workers (IIWW) • 1931 to 1946: Institute of Labour Management (ILM) • 1946 to 1994: Institute of Personnel Management (IPM) • 1994 to 2000: Institute of Personnel and Development (IPD).co.Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 39 Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development CIPD Type Founded Chartered Institute 2000 Headquarters Wimbledon. Chief Executive. The organisation has over 135. It is located in Wimbledon. Previous names and history • 1913 to 1917: Welfare Workers' Association (WWA) • 1917 to 1924: Central Association of Welfare Workers (CAWW). London. and achieved chartered status in 2000. The institute holds an annual conference for HR practitioners. England Key people Website Jackie Orme.(formerly Institute of Training Officers) • 2000 to present: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) Chartered status was achieved in 2000 and the CIPD came into existence from 1 July of that year [4] . Central Association of Welfare Workers (Industrial).uk [1] The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) is Europe's largest professional institute for people management and development[2] [3] .an amalgamation of the IPM and Institute of Training and Development (ITD) .000 members across 120 countries. England.

Available until 2014 when it will be phased out • Associate (Assoc CIPD) This is a new Associate grade which should not be confused with the previous Associate grade. Most CIPD qualifications lead to a professional grade of membership. The CIPD Professional Development Scheme (PDS) is seen as the leading qualification in the field of Human Resource Management[10] [11] [12] in the UK and is held by many UK and international HR directors[13] [14] . • Graduate:awarded on completion of all fields of the Practitioner-level professional standards. awarded in recognition of contributions to the profession or the Institute. but where no significant HR experience is held. applicants must have at least 10 years relevant experience. Chartered grades of membership • Chartered Member (Chartered MCIPD) Awarded on request to graduate members who have three years' relevant managerial experience.Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 40 CIPD membership • • • • CIPD professional qualifications Experience Assessment Accreditation of Prior Certificated Learning (APCL) Affiliate membership Levels of CIPD membership Non Chartered Grades (until June 2010) • Affiliate: a basic level of membership. part-time and flexible learning courses. • Chartered Fellow (Chartered FCIPD) An upgrade from Chartered MCIPD. A network of education centres offers a range of full-time. • Licentiate: awarded on completion of at least one of the first three fields of the Practitioner-level professional standards. Professional qualifications The CIPD's Professional Standards govern entry to CIPD membership and form the basis of all their qualifications. Or a non-graduate member assessed against the professional standards after five years' relevant experience. • Associate: awarded on completion of a support level certificate or relevant NVQ Level 3 and 4. not assessed against professional standards. not assessed against professional standards. • Graduate: awarded on completion of all fields of the Practitioner-level professional standards. Able to use post nominal letters[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] . . but where no significant HR experience is held. and also on completion of relevant MBAs and NVQs (Level 5). • Chartered Companion (Chartered CCIPD) By invitation only. Non Chartered Grades (after June 2010) • Affiliate: a basic level of membership.

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 41 Certificates • Certificate in Personnel Practice (CPP) Entry/support (Level 3) level qualification leading to Associate membership • Certificate in Recruitment and Selection (CRS) is a level three qualification that's based on the CIPD's support-level Professional Standards. skills and attitudes necessary for a master's level study. It has been developed to help students make the transition from a level three or non-relevant degree programme onto postgraduate programmes. It will enables them to join a CIPD-approved postgraduate level qualification with the right entry level knowledge. each field with the exception of Applied Personnel and Development Standards requires completion of assignments and exams in four fields to be successfully awarded the Diploma in Personnel and Development and the award of Graduate membership. Leadership and Management Field Managing for Results Managing in a Strategic Business Context Managing Information for Competitive Advantage Managing and Leading People People Management and Development Field Generalist and Specialist Human Resources Electives Field People Resourcing Standards Learning and Development Standards Employee Reward Standards Employee Relations Standards Applied Personnel and Development Field . It's a level three qualification that's based on CIPD's support-level Professional Standards. It's a level three qualification that's based on the CIPD's support-level Professional Standards. • Certificate in Coaching and Mentoring (CCM) Introduces students to the skills needed to be an effective coach and mentor. Successful completion of any one field leads to Licentiate membership and award of a Postgraduate Certificate. • Certificate in Training Practice (CTP) is a recognised Level three trainers qualification that also underpins NVQ 4. • Certificate in Employment Relations. Law and Practice (CERLAP) Designed to introduce students to the key elements of employment law and practice. • Certificate in Business Awareness & Advanced Professional Study (CBAAPS) This is a Level 6 qualification. It covers the skills and competencies needed by today’s HR and development professionals. Professional Development Scheme The Professional Development Scheme is a Practitioner level course at a Level 7 or Postgraduate qualification that cover particular fields of study.

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 42 People Resourcing Standards Learning and Development Standards Employee Reward Standards Employee Reward Pensions Performance Management Employee Relations Standards Employee Relations Employment Law Health and Safety People Resourcing Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunities Selection and Assessment Career Management and Development Learning and Development Management Development Managing Organisational Learning and Knowledge Managing the Training and Development Function Designing and Delivering Training A typical Generalist stream offered by education providers would be the following modules People Resourcing. The Learning and Development stream would be any four out of the five L&D elective modules whilst Employee Reward and Employee Relations need the addition of People Resourcing CIPD approved courses Some Universities have had their own postgraduate HR courses approved by the CIPD as fulfilling the requirements of the PDS.PG Diploma/MSc HRM Buckinghamshire New University .MSc International Human Resource Management (CIPD) .Full time MSc HRM or part time PG Diploma/MA HRM University of the West of England . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bournemouth University.PG Diploma Liverpool John Moores University .PG Diploma/MSc HRM University of Sheffield .PG Diploma/MSc HRM Manchester Metropolitan University PG Diploma/MA in HRM University of Westminster .PG Diploma/MA HRM University of Coventry .MSc HRM Manchester University.PG Diploma/MA Personnel & Development University of Northumbria.PG Diploma/MA in HRM University of Salford .PG Diploma/MSc HRM University of Bedfordshire .PG Diploma/MSc HRM University of Wolverhampton .PG Diploma/MA Personnel Management University of Cumbria.MA in HRM Thames Valley University . Learning & Development.PG Diploma MA HRM/MSc HRDOC University of Surrey .PG Diploma/MA Personnel & Development [15] Middlesex University Business School .Diploma in HR Bradford University. Employee Relations and Employee Reward.PG Diploma/MA HRM University of Hertfordshire .MA in HRM Birmingham City University .PG Diploma/MA in HRM Anglia Ruskin University.

events. There are 48 geographical branches in the UK and Ireland. The CIPD uses its research and the professional experience of its members to develop pragmatic. Public policy The CIPD. the relationship between HR and recruitment agencies. an RSS news feed. . cross-boundary working. Digital services The CIPD website provides podcasts. Branches CIPD branches are run by volunteers who work to provide learning and networking opportunities. and membership and upgrading help for their members. employer branding. blogs and a professional discussion forum. Commercial services CIPD Enterprises Limited is the wholly owned subsidiary of the CIPD. in partnership with its members. information and consultation. The CIPD hosted the 2008 WFPMA World HR Congress. The CIPD's current research projects include: coaching[16] . rather than political responses to public policy. notably John Philpott. containing the latest unemployment figures and trends. has a duty to represent the public policy interests of the HR community. the CIPD's chief economist [20] [21] . International Activities The CIPD runs a training programme for international HR practitioners and has links with European and World Federations of HR. improving health through HRM.000 members spread across 7 regional branches. and work-life balance to productivity. Some of the CIPD's policy advisors are well respected and frequently cited in the media[17] [18] [19] . Based in Dublin.Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 43 Research The CIPD’s research covers all aspects of working life. helping people learn. CIPD Ireland has over 6. reward and smart working. information services. Commercial services supplied by CIPD Enterprises include: • CIPD Publishing • CIPD Training • CIPD Events. from recruitment to employment law. The CIPD releases a quarterly Labour Market Outlook survey [22] with KPMG.

09. stm) [20] Telegraph.04. co. personneltoday.04. uk/ ruskin/ en/ home/ prospectus/ pgpt/ cipd. CIPD warns" (http:/ / www.09. uk/ society/ 2001/ jan/ 11/ publicsectorcareers.09.2009 (http:/ / www. aspx?Id=813) [11] Times Online "How do I become a HR Manager?" (http:/ / www. ftadviser.New membership criteria accessed:26. htm) [7] Personnel Today .2009 (http:/ / www. co. ac. trainingjournal. uk/ tol/ classifieds/ jobs/ article457585. com/ FinancialAdviser/ Advisers/ Industry/ TrainingAndCompetence/ Features/ article/ 20090910/ 13754f28-93eb-11de-8ea0-0015171400aa/ Coaching-mentoring-is-key-to-recession-blues--CIPD. timesonline. cfm?pid=14& catalogueContentID=20) [13] "Anglia Ruskin University" (http:/ / www. on behalf of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. htm) [22] HR news. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ business/ 1475995. thetraininggateway. peoplemanagement. London in April[26] .CIPD" Accessed: September 10. cipd.Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 44 Publications and events • Personnel Publications Limited publishes the HR journal People Management [23]. • HR-inform] HR-inform [27] Online information service for HR professionals External links • The CIPD website [1] • People Management [28] References [1] http:/ / www. html) [21] BusinessWeek "More Layoffs Threaten U. Private-sector jobs market stabilises but public-sector employment plummets (http:/ / www. com/ events/ 2009/ 11/ 17/ CIPDExhibition) [26] "Training Journal" accessed 23.10 (http:/ / www.MA in HRM (http:/ / www. (1994-1999) London: Institute of Personnel and Development [and] Annual Report. co.Government strategy recognises the growing importance of human resources in creating an environment for improving patient services" (http:/ / www. mentoring is key to recession blues .Extra effort required if you want full CIPD membership Accessed 26. aspx) [16] FT Adviser "Coaching. jsp) [17] Wales Online "Prepare for swine flu absences of up to 50%. (2000-2004/5) London Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. uk [2] "University of Hertfordshire Business School" (http:/ / www. htm) [25] "The Training Gateway" accessed 23.CIPD membership changes raises concerns Accessed 26. Recovery" Accessed 26. com/ globalbiz/ content/ aug2009/ gb20090810_308627.04. telegraph. html) [14] Guardian "Staff development at heart of NHS reforms . co. com/ cipd/ 2009-conference. • Annual Conference and Exhibition The CIPD now holds its Annual Conference and Exhibition in Manchester [24] [25] during November • HRD Conference and Exhibition This is held at Olympia. html) . uk/ courses/ MA-HRM_details. co.09.5m and remain high for a decade. anglia. ac. bbc. uk/ pm [24] "HRM Guide" accessed 23.10 (http:/ / www. uk/ finance/ yourbusiness/ 2783549/ CIPD-calls-for-tax-relief. nhscareers. uk/ Membership/ transformingmembership/ ) [6] CIPD Transforming Membership . html) [10] "NHS Careers website" accessed 26. walesonline. htm) [23] http:/ / www. employers warned" (http:/ / www.2009 (http:/ / www.09. uk/ finance/ financetopics/ recession/ 6183457/ Unemployment-could-reach-3. personneltoday. businessweek. herts. co.10 (http:/ / www.2009 (http:/ / www. connexions-direct.2009 (http:/ / www. html) [9] Personnel Today . peoplemanagement.04. personneltoday.10 (http:/ / www. com/ jobs4u/ index. hr-topics. co. 5m-and-remain-high-for-a-decade-CIPD-warns. nhs. uk/ Membership/ transformingmembership/ New-membership-criteria/ about-new-Associate. ac. html) [19] "BBC News Spirituality goes to work" (http:/ / news.K. html) [8] Personnel Today . uk/ news/ wales-news/ 2009/ 09/ 05/ prepare-for-swine-flu-absences-of-up-to-50-employers-warned-91466-24611605/ ) [18] Telegraph "CIPD calls for tax relief" (http:/ / www. "Unemployment could reach 3. ece) [12] Connexions website "Human Resources Officer/Manager" accessed 26. uk/ courses/ postgraduate/ human_resource_management/ hum_res_development_ma. aspx) [4] Annual report. uk/ Courses/ Coursesbylevel/ Postgraduate2009/ BusinessLaw/ PersonnelMgtDevPGD. com/ articles/ 2007/ 07/ 03/ 41406/ effort-required-if-you-want-full-cipd-membership.Associate membership will boost HR recognition Accessed: 26.10 (http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2072. uk/ pm/ articles/ 2009/ 08/ private-sector-jobs-market-stabilises-but-public-sector-employment-plummets. telegraph.04. mdx.2009 (http:/ / www. health) [15] Middlesex University Business School . cfm) [3] "University of Cumbria" (http:/ / www. ac. com/ articles/ 2010/ 02/ 26/ 54442/ cipd-membership-level-changes-could-raise-concerns-among-less-experienced-hr-workers. guardian. co.09. cipd. co. cumbria. cipd. [5] CIPD Transforming Membership accessed:26. uk/ details/ Default. co. 2009 (http:/ / www. com/ articles/ 2010/ 02/ 25/ 54420/ cipd-associate-membership-level-will-boost-hr-recognition.

CHROs are especially important now in helping companies navigate the workforce issues associated with expanding into emerging markets. Roles and responsibilities of a typical CHRO can be categorized as follows: (1) workforce strategist. cipd. It also includes employee. The strategic role of the CHRO has also expanded as workforces are increasingly comprised of knowledge workers.Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development [27] http:/ / & #91. uk/ about/ [28] http:/ / www. goals and objectives. the HR Policy Association in the United States. co. assessing. mentoring. functions such as communications. top CHRO concerns over the years fall roughly into three broad categories: talent. executive committee or office of the CEO). management and executive development as well as succession planning. The CHRO is the key resource in working . uk 45 Chief human resources officer A Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO) is a corporate officer who oversees all HR and industrial relations operations for an organization. CHROs may also be involved in board member selection and orientation. Similar job titles include: Chief People Officer. Chief Personnel Officer.g. and succession planning.S. the CHRO reports directly to the Chief Executive Officer and is a member of the most senior-level committees of the company (e. staffing. and that programs are established to develop the internal bench of talent to fill successively broader and more responsible positions.[1] [2] In addition. training. capabilities and company culture. Responsibilities According to an annual survey conducted over the past six years by the largest industry group for Chief Human Resource Officers. hiring. the human resources function will help to ensure there is a pipeline of talent to meet its performance and growth objectives. In a separate survey of over 200 U. and in developing labor policies to suit different regions of the world while preserving a company’s core culture. the human resources function must help ensure the company retains high performing and high potential talent through the proper management of training and development opportunities. capabilities. and (4) compliance and governance regulator. Whereas CHROs once managed labor operations in just one or two countries. public relations and related areas may fall within the scope of the CHRO role. that there is a broad and robust pool of potential external candidates to fill position openings. Cornell Professor Patrick Wright [5] found that nearly all participants cited ‘talent’ as the top priority on their CEO’s agenda for HR. (3) HR service delivery owner. and European CHROs.[3] Evolution of the Profession The role of the Chief Human Resource Officer has evolved rapidly to meet the human capital needs of global companies operating across multiple regulatory and labor environments.http:/ / hr-inform. Additionally. developing talent and building capabilities. executive compensation. [4] Talent Talent management includes building the quality and depth of talent. This requires that turnover is managed effectively. and companies have required better systems to compete for scarce high-skilled workers.[6] Based upon a company’s business strategy. facilities. and culture. motivating and retaining skilled talent across the corporation. together with integrating.. coaching and the allocation of rewards. These changes in the business landscape have required the CHRO to heighten the focus on talent. today many oversee complex networks of employees on more than one continent and implement workforce development strategies on a global scale. co. peoplemanagement. The focus on talent includes recruiting. including a focus on succession and leadership/employee development. (2) organizational and performance conductor. and Senior Vice President of Human Resources. Increasingly.

[12] In terms of HR experience.who can more nimbly lead in complex. global environments • Mobilizing for greater speed and flexibility . companies are relying on external partners. providing clarity as to the expected behavior of all employees and the development of a high performance culture are important aspects of the CHRO role. a survey by Professor Peter Cappelli [13] indicated that the most common area of functional experience for CHROs is talent management. followed by organizational culture. Culture Cultural issues include organizational change.[8] 46 Capabilities Managing corporate capabilities includes dealing with rapid changes in technology. the human resources function is responsible for ensuring that such situations are dealt with fairly. health and safety.[9] The human resources function has a leadership role in helping shape the culture of the company. roughly two-thirds of CHROs indicated they worked outside HR at some time in their career. and the need to manage the increasingly complex external context of government regulations and public policy (impacting union and employee relations. capabilities and growth. Establishing a culture that is supportive of such external [10] partnerships is an area where the HR function plays an important role. agility. There is also significant movement between companies with only 36% of US CHROs gaining their position through internal promotion. employee engagement. joint-ventures. Adapting to new technologies and sources of information and communications are essential to success for all companies. retirement programs. Summarizing the findings of a recent study of HR leaders. diversity and inclusiveness. In a 2011 survey of top HR leaders. and disproportionately invest in high performing. Ensuring that the values of the company are communicated and understood at all levels. ethics and values. globalization. etc. executive compensation.producing significantly greater capability to adjust underlying costs and faster ways to allocate talent • Capitalizing on collective intelligence .).[7] Successful companies are highly selective in hiring.through much more effective collaboration across increasingly global [11] teams. social networking. as well as merged and acquired companies as sources of innovation. Other capabilities include managing the external context. adapting to change and operating effectively in different cultures and business structures are capabilities the HR function must help the company develop. The HR function also helps the organization establish and maintain high levels of employee engagement and commitment. indicated that three key workforce gaps CHROs cite as the biggest opportunities for HR include: • Cultivating creative leaders . and multiculturalism. high potential employees in high impact positions. Path to Becoming A CHRO The CHRO is the top HR position. Increasingly. but few people who attain this role arrive there by working exclusively in the HR function. customer focus. The key capabilities required will vary by company based on business strategy and the competitive global environment. innovation. Current CHROs have had broader functional experience in HR than their predecessors and are less likely to have had experience in labor relations than past CHROs. the next most common experience is compensation and benefits. invest in developing all employees. health care. managing a multi-generational workforce. When an employee’s behavior is inconsistent with the values of the company. source candidates from a broad pool of applicants.[14] . Randy MacDonald.Chief human resources officer with the board on CEO and senior management succession. IBM’s CHRO.

. ilr. Retrieved 3 September 2011. CHRO for General Mills. Talent supplies the edge. cornell. markhuselid. Getting the balance right between ‘stretch’ and ‘in over her head’ isn’t easy. edu/ cahrs/ upload/ 2011-CHRO-Survey-Report. Cornell Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS)."[20] The CHRO helps the company build sustainable competitive advantage through the selection and development of top talent that possess capabilities that help differentiate the company from its competitors. . hrmguide.Chief human resources officer 47 How CHROs Describe Their Job Two recently published books about the CHRO profession. HR Policy Association. com/ general/ chro.. Bill. such as delivering results with a global team – a major challenge identified by Hugh Mitchell. We can’t put it any better than Ron Nersesian. [10] "Functional Responsibilities of the CHRO" (http:/ / www.[18] The perennial top priority for CHROs is talent management. Retrieved 26 August 2009. htm). Retrieved 2010-01-19. The Talent Masters: Why Smart Leaders Put People Before Numbers by Bill Conaty [15] and Ram Charan. pdf). CHRO for American Express. at the end of the day. offer unique insights into the profession from its leading practitioners. you and your team are the experts at talent management and must be able to understand and identify good versus great talent… Identifying critical positions. . argues that "Great CHROs (and great CEOs) understand that talent needs to be developed in thoughtful. cornell. ilr. Crown Publishing Group. edu/ directory/ pmw6/ biography. ". ways. 2008-06-27.’” Other leading CHROs emphasize additional aspects of HR leadership. [4] "Principal Chief Human Resource Officer Concerns" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 3 September 2011. "The 2011 CHRO Challenge" (http:/ / www. Functional. . org/ chro_concerns. .perishable. aspx). edu/ cahrs/ upload/ 2011-CHRO-Survey-Report. Cornell University Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies. The only thing that stays is the [21] institutional learning and the development of the skills and the capabilities that we have in our people. and Personal Talent" (http:/ / www. pdf). Mark. . . Defining the Role of Human Resource Leaders. self-renewing stream of leaders. aspx). "The Strategic Logic of Workforce Management" (http:/ / www. and prioritizing recruiting strategies accordingly was the key to success. The Talent Masters: Why Smart Leaders Put People Before Numbers (http:/ / www. apparel designers. cornell.. Harvard Business Review: 110-117. [9] "Principal Chief Human Resource Officer Concerns 2011" (http:/ / www. edu/ cahrs/ research/ pubs/ SpecialTopics/ upload/ CAHRSExecResearchBrief_CHROSuccess08. the head of Agilent Technologies’ Electronic Measurement Group: ‘Developing people’s talent is the whole of the company at the end of the day. . CHRO for Royal Dutch Shell[22] – and developing and communicating an employee value proposition that will differentiate the company in its efforts to attract and retain the caliber of talent needed to achieve its business objectives. or international operations management. aspx). htm [6] Wright. com/ dp/ 0307460266/ ref=rdr_ext_tmb). hrpolicy. HR Policy Association. as emphasized by Michael Davis. 2006-04-04. Richard Beatty and Brian Becker (December 2005). HR Policy Association. com/ pdfs/ articles/ 2005 Huselid-Beatty-Becker HBR Paper. the great attributes needed to fill them. . ilr. [3] Wright. but it is vital to the success of a world-class talent strategy. pdf). . Retrieved 3 September 2011. Money is just a commodity. Retrieved 3 September 2011. amazon. In The Chief Human Resource Officer. cornell. [7] Conaty.[23] References [1] "The 21st Century Chief Human Resource Officer" (http:/ / www. [8] Hueslid."[19] Kevin Cox. org/ chro_responsibilities. but not incremental. ISBN 978-0-307-46026-4. It is the ability to create a steady. whether I was working with engineers. and Ram Charan (2011). Eva Sage-Gavin. Defining the Role of Human Resource Leaders by Pat Wright. Retrieved 3 September 2011. hrpolicy. CHRO for the Gap emphasizes this point saying. "The 2011 CHRO Challenge: Building Organizational. hrpolicy. org/ chro_concerns. Conaty and Charan emphasize this point in Talent Masters by noting that “Only one competency lasts. [5] http:/ / www. Patrick. [2] "The Chief Human Resources Officer: Key Challenges & Strategies for Success" (http:/ / www. pdf). ilr. [16][17] and The Chief Human Resource Officer. Our products all are time. Deloitte.

PDF). such as paid time-off. medical insurance. amazon. wharton. Variable Pay – monetary (cash) reward paid by an employer to an employee that is contingent on discretion. The most common forms are bonuses and sales incentives. bi-weekly or a monthly rate. Benefits – programs an employer uses to supplement employees’ compensation. upenn. hrpolicy. Individual skills and level of experience of employees leave room for differentiation of income-levels within the job-based pay structure. Patrick (2011). The most common form of guaranteed pay is the basic salary. pp. hrpolicy. com/ Chief-HR-Officer-Defining-Resource/ dp/ 0470905344). [20] Wright. The Chief HR Officer (http:/ / www. pp. [21] Conaty and Charan. aspx). daily. 4. org/ chro_talent-masters. aspx). IBM Corp. org/ chro_talent-masters. company car. Patrick. aspx?articleID={722D6FA1-D21D-43ed-B594-B89EA4692D87}). edu/ people/ faculty. hrpolicy. cfm?id=1307 [14] Cappelli. org/ chro_talent-masters. com/ about-bill-conaty [16] http:/ / en. Yang Yang (April 2010). performance or results achieved. 48 Compensation & Benefits Compensation & Benefits (abbreviated “C&B”) is a sub-discipline of Human-Resources. [18] Wright. The basic element of the guaranteed pay is the base salary. . View From the Top. pp. PricewaterhouseCoopers. pp. org/ chro_blue-book. seniority allowance. p. 93-94. Equity Based Compensation – a plan using the employer’s share as compensation. com/ ie/ pubs/ who_gets_top_job_pwc_us_white_paper_2010. 26. [13] http:/ / mgmt. . dhe. com/ Chief-HR-Officer-Defining-Resource/ dp/ 0470905344). ibm. org/ chro_blog-view-article. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 2. Retrieved 3 September 2011. The Talent Masters (http:/ / www. [12] Wright. The Talent Masters (http:/ / www. such as 13th salary. The Basic Components of Employee Compensation & Benefits Employee compensation and benefits are basically divided into four categories: 1. aspx). [23] Conaty and Charan. pdf). . . Many countries dictate the minimum base salary defining a minimum wage. The most common examples are stock options. focused on employee compensation and benefits policy making. The base salary is typically used by employees for ongoing consumption. . 3. [15] http:/ / www. pwc. The Chief HR Officer: Defining the New Role of Human Resource Leaders (http:/ / www. . . hrpolicy. [22] Conaty and Charan. hrpolicy. 3. weekly. 74. amazon. and more. billconaty. aspx). . 227. hrpolicy. Peter.. Guaranteed Pay Guaranteed pay is a monetary (cash) reward.Chief human resources officer [11] "Working Beyond Borders: Insights from the Global Chief Human Resource Officer Study" (http:/ / public. The Talent Masters (http:/ / www. . . In addition to base salary. paid based on an hourly. It is also known in the UK as “Total Reward” and as “Remuneration” in Australia and New Zealand. org/ chro_talent-masters. "Who Gets the Top Job?: Changes in the Attributes of Human Resource Heads and Implications for the Future" (http:/ / download. . The Chief HR Officer (http:/ / www. there are other pay elements which are paid based solely on employee/employer relations. HR Policy Association. org/ wiki/ Ram_Charan#cite_note-mystery-0| [17] Conaty and Charan. aspx). and more. com/ common/ ssi/ ecm/ en/ gbe03353usen/ GBE03353USEN. 2. The Talent Masters (http:/ / www. pp. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. Guaranteed Pay – monetary (cash) reward paid by an employer to an employee based on employee/employer relations. wikipedia. "The Sorry State of CHRO Succession" (http:/ / www. [19] Wright.

and the relevant industry habits and trends. The classic objectives of equity based compensation plans are retention. and more. inflation. The most important internal influencers are the business objectives. and more. this type of plan is based on an annual period of time requiring a "resetting" each year back to the starting point of 50%. company car. Equity Based Compensation Equity based compensation is an employer compensation plan using the employer’s shares as employee compensation. sick pay. Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP). and more. labor law. and work disability insurance). The most important external influencers are the state of the economy. pension plan. insurances (life insurance. labor unions. Many countries dictate different minimum benefits. unemployment rate. and Stock Appreciation Rights (SAR). A benefit plan is designed to address a specific need and is often provided not in the form of cash. There are different types of variable pay plans. C&B Organizational Place In most companies. The most common form is stock options. An example where this type of compensation plan is prevalent is the real estate industry and real estate agents. the relevant labor market. such as bonus schemes. tax law. like Staffing and Organizational Development (OD). C&B Main Influencers Employee compensation and benefits main influencers can be divided into two: internal (company) and external influencers.Compensation & Benefits 49 Variable Pay Variable pay is a monetary (cash) reward that is contingent on discretion. sales incentives (commission). and HR Shared Services. organizational culture and organizational structure. yet employers use additional vehicles such as Restricted Stock. . HR Centers of Excellence. medical/dental insurance. HR organizations in big companies are typically divided into three: HR Business Partners (HRBPs). such as minimum paid time-off. internal equity (the idea of compensating employees in similar jobs and similar performance in a similar way). compensation & benefits (C&B) is a sub-function of the Human-Resources (HR) function. Benefits There is a wide variety of employee benefits. A common variable pay plan might be the sales person receives 50% of every dollar they bring in up to a level of revenue at which they then bump up to 85% for every dollar they bring in going forward. overtime pay. such as paid time-off. employer’s pension contribution. C&B is an HR center of excellence. performance or results achieved. Typically. Restricted Stock Units (RSU). attraction of new hires and aligning employees’ and shareholders’ interests. Sometimes this type of plan is administered so that the sales person never resets and never falls down to a lower level.

Drive employee performance .the basic idea is to create a bonus plan where the company is paying more bonuses in ‘good times’ and less (or no) bonuses in ‘bad times’. Using the concept of Operant Conditioning. yet bonuses are thought to bring value with employee retention as well.g.the basic idea is that if an employee knows that his/her bonus depend on the occurrence of a specific event (or paid according to performance.retention is not a primary objective of bonus plans. In other words. given that these employees are already paid higher due to the bonus plan. reinforcement or punishment. . By having bonus plan budget adjusted according to financial results.Compensation & Benefits 50 Bonus Plans Bonus plans are Variable Pay plans. a competitor offering a competing job-offer to these top performers is likely to face a higher hurdle. then the employee will do whatever he/she can to secure this event (or improve their performance. the company’s labor cost is automatically reduced when the company isn’t doing so well. Skinner claimed that an organism (animal. b) if the bonus is paid annually. often the reason for leaving (e. while good company performance drives higher bonuses to employees. or if a certain goal is achieved). yet since the late 1940s a growing body of empirical evidence suggested that these if-then rewards do not work in a variety of settings common to the modern workplace. the bonus is creating an incentive to improve business performance (as defined through the bonus plan). 3. Employee retention . c) employees paid more are more satisfied with their job (all other things being equal) thus less inclined to leave their employer. Research even suggested that these type of bonus plans have the potential of damaging employee performance. competing job offer) 'goes away' by the time the bonus is paid. human being) is shaping his/her voluntary behavior based on its extrinsic environmental consequences . dispute with the manager. Adjust labor cost to financial results . or achieve the desired goal). They have three classic objectives: 1. employee is less inclined to leave the company before bonus payout. perhaps the most influential psychologist of the 20th century.e. the bonus plan 'buy' more time for the company to retain the employee. for three reasons: a) a well designed bonus plan is paying more money to better performers. and indeed most bonus plans nowadays are designed according to it. This concept captured the heart of many. The concept saying bonus plans can improve employee performance is based on the work of Frederic Skinner.i. 2.

Lundberg in 1970 titled "Planning the Executive Development Program". Dreyfus and Dreyfus on competency development Dreyfus and Dreyfus[2] introduced nomenclature for the levels of competence in competency development.Competence (human resources) 51 Competence (human resources) Competence (or competency) is the ability of an individual to perform a job properly.D. 5. but people at a more advanced level of competency will systematically break the rules if the situations requires it. and continues to remain one of the most diffuse terms in the management [1] development sector. For instance. Competency has different meanings. Telstra like. The causative reasoning of such a language of levels of competency may be seen in their paper on Calculative Rationality titled. Some scholars see "competence" as a combination of knowledge. competent people may react to a situation following behaviors they have previously found to succeed. Within a specific organization or professional community. In emergencies. The term gained traction when in 1973. 2. A competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured guide enabling the identification. the term "competence" first appeared in an article authored by Craig C. which leads to considerable misunderstanding. Competency is also used as a more general description of the requirements of human beings in organizations and communities. The five levels proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus were: 1. Competency is sometimes thought of as being shown in action in a situation and context that might be different the next time a person has to act. lifelong competency development is linked with personal development as a management concept. and the organizational and occupational literature. evaluation and development of the behaviors in individual employees. or as the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified. As defined. Its use varies widely. To be competent a person would need to be able to interpret the situation in the context and to have a repertoire of possible actions to take and have trained in the possible actions in the repertoire. or earn a promotion. Novice: Rule-based behaviour. 3. skills and behavior used to improve performance. They are usually the same competencies that must be demonstrated in a job interview. knowledge creation. And it requires a special environment. is frequently valued. wrote a seminal paper entitled. David McClelland. professional competency. having the ability to perform a specific role. As competencies apply to careers as well as jobs. where the rules are necessary in order to introduce novices. It has since been popularized by one-time fellow McBer & Company (Currently the "Hay Group") colleague Richard Boyatzis and many others. For all organizations and communities there is a set of primary tasks that competent people have to contribute to all . 4. Regardless of training. NVIRP like. This environment is synonymously described using terms such as learning organization. Ph. "Testing for Competence Rather Than for Intelligence". strongly limited and inflexible Experienced Beginner: Incorporates aspects of the situation Practitioner: Acting consciously from long-term goals and plans Knowledgeable practitioner: Sees the situation as a whole and acts from personal conviction Expert: Has an intuitive understanding of the situation and zooms in on the central aspects The process of competency development is a lifelong series of doing and reflecting. management competency might include systems thinking and emotional intelligence. But today there is another way of looking at it: that there are general areas of occupational competency required to retain a post. if this is relevant. and skills in influence and negotiation. self-organizing and empowerment. "From Socrates to Expert Systems: The Limits and Dangers of Calculative Rationality [3]". Goulburn Murray Water like. competency would grow through experience and the extent of an individual to learn and adapt.

65–90. Learning Competency: The person assessed must be able to create and look for situations that make it possible to experiment with the set of solutions that make it possible to complete the primary tasks and reflect on the experience.. New York: Peter Lang. Work sampling: Methodological advances and new applications. 2010. org/ 10. http:/ / dx. 3. doi. C.e. DC: Storming Media. Hubert L. Meaning Competency: The person assessed must be able to identify with the purpose of the organization or community and act from the preferred future in accordance with the values of the organization or community. 2. doi. Stuart E. M. 20186 [6] Robinson. development. org/ 10. R. edu/ ~hdreyfus/ html/ paper_socrates. It should be noted that different competencies predict outstanding performance in different roles. berkeley. schools. References [1] Collin. Competency in the Learning Society. [5] Robinson. (Eds. the primary tasks could be: • Handling theory • Handling methods • Handling the information of the assignment The four general areas of competency are: 1. Thus. a trait that is a "competency" for one job might not predict outstanding performance in a different role. Personnel Review. M. K. (2010). dtic. traits. J. For a university student.. 52 McClelland and Occupational Competency The Occupational Competency movement was initiated by David McClelland in the 1960s with a view to moving away from traditional attempts to describe competency in terms of knowledge. 1108/ 00483480710716722 . work diaries. A. Washington. relatively enduring characteristics of people) that are found to consistently distinguish outstanding from typical performance in a given job or role. . Sparrow. html [4] Raven. Retrieved June 13. and workplaces. Clegg. & Birdi. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries. A Five-Stage Model of the Mental Activities Involved in Directed Skill Acquisition (http:/ / www. skills and attitudes and to focus instead on the specific self-image. and motive dispositions (i. 1002/ hfm.. A future focus is recommended for strategic reasons[6] . using techniques such as the critical incident technique. A. 36(1).). 42–60. and assessment of high-level competencies in homes.. J.Competence (human resources) the time. and that there is a limited number of competencies that predict outstanding performance in any given job or role. and work sampling[5] . values. as can be seen from Raven and Stephenson. http:/ / dx. mil/ cgi-bin/ GetTRDoc?AD=ADA084551& Location=U2& doc=GetTRDoc. P. pdf). Dreyfus. & Stephenson. [3] http:/ / socrates. (2007). Nevertheless. Forecasting future competency requirements: A three-phase methodology.. (February 1980). 4. 20(1). Competency identification Competencies are identified through job analysis or task analysis. Change Competency: The person assessed must be able to act in new ways when it will promote the purpose of the organization or community and make the preferred future come to life. 1989 [2] Dreyfus. Relation Competency: The ability to create and nurture connections to the stakeholders of the primary tasks must be shown.[4] there have been important developments in research relating to the nature. (2001). for example.

(2000). Hesketh. Competency Assessment Methods: History and State of the Art Competency architecture The start point for any application of competency based management is a competency model / profile that is valid and constructed in a way that it can be easily used to support all intended HR goals (e. M. selection. behavioral competencies and technical / professional competencies). L.. All competency profiles must be easy to use by all stakeholders. Spencer.g. Competency layers The model builds from the vision. etc.g. J.g.e. Competency architecture defined A competency architecture describes the common rules for defining competencies within the organization. A. Pearlman. Ash.. This or similar models in combination with a well-researched and constructed Competency Dictionary have been used successfully by many organizations as the basic framework for developing competency profiles. D..g. Human Resources Planning). McClelland. Establishing a clear competency structure is one of the first and fundamental steps in profile development. • Spencer Jr.. Learning and Development. K..g. Teamwork). to ensure that organization can achieve its vision and support its values. etc. learning. S. Each organization needs to identify the architecture that best meets its needs. 2. unique competencies. content for the profile (e. The competency profiles must include the competencies that employees must have. Recruitment/Selection. It includes the guiding principles that describe how the profiles will be designed for the entire organization . Kehoe. both now and in the future. I.). (1994).The Core competencies includes very general/generic competencies that all employees must possess to enable the organization to achieve its mandate and vision (e. The competency profiles must support all of their intended applications ( e.Competence (human resources) 53 Further reading • Shippmann. M.. recruitment. J. J.. Career Development and Succession Management. the format for displaying the competency profile. values and strategic business priorities of the organization and includes the following competency layers: Core Competencies .. S.. M. The practice of competency modeling.. Performance Management. and 3. Carr. D. B.. and Sanchez.) There are three basic criteria that competency structures in most organizations must meet: 1.. Eyde. 53. R. These competencies describe in behavioral terms the key values of the organization and represent those competencies that are core to the organization’s principal mandate . C. Multisource Feedback. Personnel Psychology. core vs. The following figure graphically depicts a model that is typically used as the basis for the development of competency profiles and implementation of competency-based management. 703-740. L. Competency architecture Several competency architectures are possible.. Battista... L.

com/ .g. Accounting for jobs involving financial administration) Technical / Professional Competencies . These competencies could be generic to a Job Family as a whole. kenexa. as well as Job Specific competencies that apply to certain job families more than others (e.Apply to some or all jobs / roles in group Vendors Vendors of Competency-based Management Systems include: • Human Resource Systems Group [1] • Cornerstone on Demand [2] • Kenexa [3] References [1] http:/ / www. Project Management). including five (5) core competencies. and include the specific skills and knowledge (know-how) to perform effectively (e.. As a rule of thumb. hrsg. Core Competencies . Leadership Competencies . or be specific to roles. ability to use particular software.g. Leadership is required in teams.These are the key competencies for roles in an organization that involve managing. Some organizations view "leadership" to be a part of every job of the organization in that employees are expected to contribute and offer new or better ways of working regardless of their level or role in the organization. best practice organizations establish a limit on the total number of competencies included in any one profile in the range of 12 to 15. supervising or influencing the work of others in some way. knowledge in particular professional areas such as finance.Competency architecture Job Family Competencies . organizations typically define a limit on the number of key / important competencies that are included in the profile for any job / role within the organization.g. levels or jobs within the family. biochemistry. cornerstoneondemand. executive and board levels. com/ [3] http:/ / www. These tend to be related more to knowledge or skill required for certain types of jobs (e.Job Family competencies are those competencies that are common to a group of jobs.5 competencies that apply to all employees Job Family Competencies .).g. They often include General Job competencies that tend to be required in a number of Job Families (e. project management.. Partnering). etc.Common to whole family Technical / Professional (work specific) Competencies . Consistent with the requirement for ease of use.The technical/professional competencies tend to be specific to roles or jobs within the Job Family. as well as at the managerial.. ca/ competency-based-management/ [2] http:/ / www. 54 Example guideline A typical set of rules for one organization’s competency profile development is: • • • • Up to 12 competencies per profile.

(1999). M.. The Journal of Management Development. Personnel Psychology. A competency-based model for developing human resource professionals. & Spencer. The Competency Toolkit (Volumes 1 & 2). Wiley Articles Bartram. (2005) The HR Value Proposition. Competency-Based Recruitment and Selection. L M. V. Ash. 51-64 Homer. 33/2. & Rothwell. (2002). Human Resource Management.. T. Psychological Bulletin. E. D. 19. (2001) “The economic value of emotional intelligence competencies and EIC-based HR programs”. 20. Designing a competency-based human resources organization. eds. Pearlman. 19-34 McEvoy . Competency and the Learning Organization.E. Skills and competency management. M. Introduction. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. F.. Competency Model Statistical Validation and Business Case Development. (2000). W. (2005) The Great Eight competencies: A criterion-centric approach to validation.hrcompass. 53. B. &. Hanks.L... (2009). I. Personnel Psychology. Eyde. The practice of competency modeling.. Dainty. (2007). D. D. (2004). CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley Spencer. Pfeiffer Shandler.. (1993). 262-274 Shippmann. Measure.& Ruse. Kehoe.. J. in The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for. H. HR Technologies White Paper http://www. S. HRD Press Lucia.. L. 29. The Art and Science of Competency Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations. (2000).. & Mentzas. F. D. & Campbell. Crisp Learning.Competency architecture 55 Books Dubois. B.. J. 201-230 Cheng. S. D. Competency-Based Human Resource Management. Darr.. L. (1998). 383. L. (2004). H. 184-200 Sanchez. Information Management &Computer Security. 60. and D. Journal of Managerial Psychology.402 Rausch. 14. J. M. 306-318 Kochanski. C. Competency-based management: A review of systems and approaches. & Blahna.. (2005). A. in Cherniss. L. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Wood. (2006). 59-62 Horton. Spencer. Journal of Management Education. I. E. 53–63 Schmidt. & Sanchez. J. (2000). S. &.. & Rothwell. and Brockbank. K. T. Groups and Organizations. Davies-Black Publishing Dubois.. (1998)... Journal of Applied Psychology. Battista. J. D. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practice and theoretical implications of research findings. San Francisco. Wrnick. R. Defining and assessing competencies for competency-based. (2001). M. I. G. S. D. 703-740. C. J. Wiley Ulrich.. Industrial and Commercial training. 13. & Payne. M. 380-396 Draganidis. W. Hesketh. T.com/validation. Sherman. (2000).. J.. Levine. Goleman. Hayton.... 1185–1203 Catano. 124. L. (1996). Carr.. R. outcome-focused management development. & Hunter. R. & Lepsinger. R. and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals. Toward a multidimensional competency-based managerial performance framework: A hybrid approach. Performance appraisal of behaviour-based competencies: A reliable and valid procedure. I. A. 35. & Washbush. J. (2005). W. 21. 90. Mumford. Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance.the competency-based movement: Its origins and impact on the public sector. A.. G. What is (or should be) the difference between competency modeling and traditional job analysis? Human Resource Management Review.html ... Spencer. M. J.

The behavioral indicators at each proficiency level are illustrative of the proficiency level as opposed to representing a definitive list of all possible behaviors at each level.. HRSG's Comprehensive Competency Dictionary is divided into two sets of competencies: 1. Each competency has a general definition. The competencies in the dictionary are required by a broad range of employees functioning within a wide variety of private and public sector organizations. which provides the user with a general understanding of the type of behavior addressed by a particular competency. Job Specific Competencies – these are required for success in particular functions or jobs. financial administration skills). Each competency includes up to five proficiency levels and each level has an associated brief statement describing how that particular level is distinct from the other levels within that competency. but also the proficiency levels needed using a common incremental scale for defining the competencies. The demonstration of these competencies by employees and managers is related to increased performance at the individual. team. Teamwork. having competency proficiency scales supports career development. and 2. Communication). Adaptability. review of best practices as well as ongoing refinement based on field research with various client groups.g..g. Finally. and organizational levels. General Job Competencies – common across many jobs and demonstrate the key behaviors required for success regardless of position.Competency dictionary 56 Competency dictionary Competency dictionaries include all or most of the general competencies needed to cover all job families as well as competencies that are core or common to all jobs within the organization (e. Thus. For example. They may also include competencies that are more closely related to the knowledge and skills needed for specific jobs or functions (e. The proficiency scales serve two purposes: 1. however. These scales reflect the breadth of proficiency typically required by the organization within a competency area. IT skills. . communication skills may be a requirement for most entry-level jobs as well as at the Executive levels. roles and levels. the defined levels of proficiency for each competency are incremental and additive so that employees demonstrating proficiency at a particular level can be assumed to perform effectively at all competency levels below (see example on previous page). not only in terms of the competencies required. They allow for comparisons to occur across jobs. succession management and human resource planning activities within the organization. the depth and breadth of communication proficiency needed at these two levels may be quite different. 2. They facilitate planning and development for improvement within current roles or jobs. Proficiency Levels Organizations typically include incremental competency proficiency scales as part of the overall competency structure. Comprehensive competency dictionary A typical comprehensive competency dictionary should include a broad range of competencies developed through extensive literature search.

proficiency at one level assumes proficiency at all levels below that level on the scale. on the other hand. .Competency dictionary 57 General Work competencies are most often expressed as incremental competency proficiency scales – in other words. These are often driven by the use to be made of the competency profiles. It is important to define what standard (or standards) of performance will be modeled in the competency profiles as a component of the Competency Architecture. may be expressed as common group requirements and. • Stretch / Mastery – is typically displayed by employees who have mastered their job / role. where required. differences in proficiency requirements (by level of responsibility in a specified field of work) may be noted. These employees are often sought out by other employees and managers / supervisors to provide advice / assistance. This is often used when the new entrant must learn or be trained to be able to perform to the standards required within the role / job. An example of how these standards for employee performance relate to competency proficiency is shown below. Target proficiency levels Organizations typically define in their competency profiles the levels of performance (proficiency) to be attained for each competency. • Fully Effective – is level required of employees who are performing at the standard expected for their role / job. Work Specific competencies. For example: • Entry – is the standard expected of employees on entry into a role.

& Lepsinger. Competency and the Learning Organization. The Competency Toolkit (Volumes 1 & 2). this option is very costly and time-consuming. in Cherniss. Crisp Learning. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=144& Itemid=177 Books Dubois. & Rothwell. nor reflect them in a language that is suitable for the organization. com/ performancemanagement. (2001) “The economic value of emotional intelligence competencies and EIC-based HR programs”. ihrdc.. or purchase one that has been developed by experts in competency profiling and competency-based management. modifying the language slightly to reflect the organization’s style of communicating. Spencer. in/ index. D. ca/ competency-dictionary/ [2] http:/ / www. including additional behavioural indicators to reflect performance expectations of the organization). The advantage of developing your own competency dictionary is that it will reflect the breadth of competencies that are required for success in the organization expressed in a way that reflects the values. Davies-Black Publishing Dubois. San Francisco. php [4] http:/ / zeusconsulting. Competency-Based Human Resource Management. Groups and Organizations. hrsg. A. com/ PetroleumTrainingServices/ CompetencyAssurance/ [3] http:/ / www. The disadvantage is that the Dictionary may not reflect the full range of competencies needed. The Art and Science of Competency Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations. R. and D.. adding competencies. & Rothwell. This provides a more expedient and cost-effective solution. (1999). C. Measure. tandehill. Goleman. Purchasing a Competency Dictionary Purchasing a Competency Dictionary from a reputable company has the advantage providing the organization with a well-developed and researched Dictionary that can be used in a timely manner to support profile development and implementation. W. in The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for.Competency dictionary 58 Dictionary options Building your Own versus Purchasing a Dictionary Organizations may chose to create their own competency dictionaries. D. HRD Press Lucia. (2000). and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals. On the other hand. eds. L M. (2000). and most do not have the internal expertise to embark on such a venture. Hybrid Option Organizations often achieve a compromise by customizing a purchased Competency Dictionary (e. vision and way of communicating within the organization. (2004). and results in a Competency Dictionary that is targeted to the organization’s specific needs.. D. Pfeiffer Shandler.g. Vendors Vendors of Competency-Based Performance Management Programs include: • • • • Human Resource Systems Group [1] IHRDC [2] Tandehill Human Capital [3] [4] References [1] http:/ / www. CA: .. W.

Carr. Competency Model Statistical Validation and Business Case Development. 20. T. J. D. L. Hanks.L. C. H. Pearlman. 306-318 Kochanski. 35. 19.Competency dictionary Jossey-Bass/Wiley Spencer. K. 60. Darr. 29. Defining and assessing competencies for competency-based. Sherman... (2000). (2004). & Blahna. Wiley Ulrich. J. I. S. A competency-based model for developing human resource professionals. T. 51-64 Homer. Wrnick. B. R. (1998). I.the competency-based movement: Its origins and impact on the public sector. 53. Personnel Psychology. S. 21.. Hayton. L. The Journal of Management Development. Levine. HR Technologies White Paper http://www. J. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Wood. S. J. 1185–1203 Catano. Competency-based management: A review of systems and approaches. & Hunter.. (2009). Journal of Managerial Psychology... G. J. B. Hesketh.html .. E. (2000). Ash. Information Management &Computer Security. 201-230 Cheng. M.. L. R. Dainty.hrcompass. F. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. (1998). Kehoe. V. 53–63 Schmidt. Battista. M. Mumford. Competency-Based Recruitment and Selection. M.. D. (2005) The Great Eight competencies: A criterion-centric approach to validation. I. &. L. A. E. outcome-focused management development.402 Rausch. & Mentzas. Journal of Applied Psychology. A... 13. (2001)... I. (2002).. Toward a multidimensional competency-based managerial performance framework: A hybrid approach. J. J.. 703-740. (2005). M.. 33/2. The practice of competency modeling. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practice and theoretical implications of research findings. Eyde. Journal of Management Education. What is (or should be) the difference between competency modeling and traditional job analysis? Human Resource Management Review. J.. 124. 19-34 McEvoy . Designing a competency-based human resources organization. Industrial and Commercial training. 184-200 Sanchez.& Ruse. 59-62 Horton. J. 380-396 Draganidis.com/validation. L. (1996). Wiley 59 Articles Bartram. &. & Washbush. 90.E. & Campbell. Performance appraisal of behaviour-based competencies: A reliable and valid procedure. D.. & Payne. Skills and competency management. M. F. Personnel Psychology.. & Sanchez. Spencer. (2007). (2005) The HR Value Proposition. D. (2005)... (1993). G. Human Resource Management. S.. 262-274 Shippmann. 14. M. W. R. Psychological Bulletin. & Spencer.. (2006). and Brockbank. H. Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance.. Introduction. T. 383.

• Defining Career Streams and Roles .g. The lists are used to appoint candidates as positions become available. Organizations provide the frameworks. Best Practices Career Development and Succession Management Defined Career Development traditionally has been driven primarily by employees. typical roles and career streams within the group to be profiled are defined.Competency dictionaries and competency architectures are established that allow employees and managers to compare and contrast competency requirements across roles and levels within or across job groups. tools and processes.Beyond this. Organizations are instituting development programs that allow employees to progress through a phased program of development aimed at increasing employee competencies and preparing them to take on increased responsibility. supervisory assessments of potential.. and organizations world-wide are realizing the importance of putting in place programs and initiatives to attract well-qualified workers and retain them once have been hired. and / or appointment to targeted roles or levels. Key roles are identified .Competency-based development 60 Competency-based development The populations of most western countries are aging. . These trends underscore the importance of career development and succession management initiatives aimed at preparing employees for increasing responsibilities within their organizations. “gradation” defined through some form of assessment or certification. Basic Competency Architecture Requirements Establishing effective career development and succession management programs starts at the planning stage by: • Defining the Competency Architecture . and. assessments at key stages. while most developing countries are experiencing accelerated demand for qualified workers who can meet the needs of their fast-growing economies. Succession Management. etc. More recently. but the responsibility rests with employees to take advantage of these to advance in their careers. the lines between the traditional concepts of Career Development and Succession Planning have blurred. It also allows the organization to develop career development and succession management programs. Many organizations are experiencing difficultly keeping their organizations fully staffed with qualified resources. These programs typically include: formalized in-class training. Potential to perform can be identified in a number of ways: past performance in career track positions. standardized assessment programs (e. on the other hand. tools and processes that support progression. This allows both managers and employees to see how progression typically occurs. however. and ranked lists of suitable candidates are prepared based on their existing competencies and / or potential to perform in the targeted roles or levels. planned work assignments. has traditionally been management driven. assessment centres).

and enables some or all parts of the Career Development and Succession Management process. etc. learning resource catalogues organized by competency (see Learning and Development section). orientation programs.. • For each group to be profiled. Stage 1 • Establish a Competency Architecture and Competency Dictionary that will support Career Development and Succession Management. a form or process (e. passport) that accredits or documents employee progress.. for example: • • • • • employee / multi-source competency assessment..). Implementation Stages The following implementation stages are suggested for mid to large organizations implementing competencies in support of Career Development and Succession Management. guidebooks. intranet. supervisory (or other) assessment of performance in roles or work assignments (see Performance Management section). formal in-class training. . final assessment to validate that the employee has acquired the necessary competencies to be considered for targeted roles / positions. work assignments or action learning exercises aimed at developing skill (see Learning and Development section). catalogued learning resources.Competency-based development 61 Competency-based Tools and Processes Career Development and Succession Management typically include a selection of competency-based elements that address the requirements of the job group: • • • • • • • • • • • career stream information provided in a number of formats (e.g. job / role matching that compares employee competencies against targeted role / job requirements. define the typical roles and career streams for the job group. • Determine philosophy and policy with respect to how competencies will support Career Development and Succession Management and a high-level plan for implementation. on-line registration for courses / programs. lists of employees ready for targeted positions / role) and broader HR Planning. self-assessment or multi-source assessment to evaluate progress in development (see Learning and Development and Performance Management sections). Best practice organizations also have a talent management HR system that stores and reports information on employee competencies. training for both managers and employees on how the program works and how to gain the maximum benefit.g. e-learning elements. various reporting capabilities that support both Succession Management (e.g. employee guides to support self-directed development or participation in a planned program.

(1993).. Competency-Based Recruitment and Selection. Measure. and Brockbank. (2000). (2000).Competency-based development 62 Stage 2 • Build and incorporate competency-based elements that will support Career Development and Succession Management (e. Vendors Vendors of Competency-based Management Systems include: • Human Resource Systems Group • Cornerstone on Demand [2] • Kenexa [3] [1] Further reading Books Dubois. HRD Press Lucia. Competency and the Learning Organization. Spencer. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Wood. in Cherniss. Pfeiffer Shandler. and D. on-line information on Career Development for job groups. W. R. W. San Francisco. W. in The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for. Wiley Fletcher S (1997) Competence and Organisational Change. hrsg. Davies-Black Publishing Dubois. & Rothwell. • Develop and implement Career Development / Succession Management programs for high need job groups. Kogan Page References [1] http:/ / www.. Goleman.. L. A. S. Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance. & Rothwell.. D. D. and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals.. & Spencer. & Payne. T. C. R. The Competency Toolkit (Volumes 1 & 2). D.g. (2005) The HR Value Proposition.). (2004). multi-source assessment. self-assessment. Crisp Learning. The Art and Science of Competency Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations. ca/ career-planning/ .. • Determine the human resources information management infrastructure required to support effective and efficient Career Development. (1999). (1998). & Lepsinger. (2001) “The economic value of emotional intelligence competencies and EIC-based HR programs”. D. CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley Spencer. etc. L M. Succession Management and HR Planning. Wiley Ulrich. Competency-Based Human Resource Management. Groups and Organizations. eds. Evaluate and implement on-line systems and tools consistent with requirements.

five-point scales from Never to Always) for assessing each indicator. highlighting both employee strengths as well as competencies requiring improvement. skills and abilities that are necessary for successful performance in a job. Employees can assess their competencies against those required for their own job. the behavioural indicators for the competencies and proficiency levels needed within the target role / job are used as the standard for assessing the performance of the employee using a common rating scale (e. competency-based job descriptions list job title. and flexibility. and then take steps to acquire or improve any necessary competencies. and can . job description. Like well-written typical job descriptions. both at the individual and organizational level Some of the common benchmark competency-based practices in learning and development are: • Assessments against Competencies – Once the competencies have been defined for particular job / roles. areas or the whole organization. key responsibilities. This information can then be used to support the development of an individual learning plan (see below).. Competencies support learning by: • Focusing learning on the critical competencies needed for success in the job and organization • Providing standards for measuring employee performance and capabilities • Providing the framework for identifying learning options/curriculum/programs to meet employee and organizational needs • Supporting effective forecasting of organizational. This assessment can occur in the following ways: Self-Assessment – Typically. as well as project-related learning requirements • Providing standards for determining how well learning has occurred. multicultural sensitivity. and performance evaluation Competency-based learning Once organizations have used a Competency dictionary to define the competency requirements for groups. The process includes at a minimum the employee and their supervisor. it becomes possible to develop learning strategies targeted to close major gaps in organizational competencies and to focus learning plans on the business goals and strategic direction for the organization. role comprehension. initiative. interpersonal communication. Multi-source / 360 – Multi-source or 360 feedback is similar to the self-assessment process except there is more than one evaluator. teamwork. The results are compiled and a report is provided that includes the results for all competencies.Competency-based job description 63 Competency-based job description Competency-based job descriptions are one way to define participant roles while still allowing for evolution. A few examples of behavioral competencies are leadership. it becomes possible for employees and others to assess the employee’s competencies against those required for current or future roles within the organization. What competency-based job descriptions add is a focus on less tangible behavioral competencies. These qualities are numerous and elaborate systems developed by human resource consulting firms are available for assistance in developing competency-based job descriptions and related evaluative methods. knowledge. Enunciating behavioral competencies facilitates personnel selection. Linked to each competency are indicators of how effectively employees meet each requirement. or for another job in which they are interested. Best Practices Competency profiles assist in effective learning and development by identifying the behaviours.g. and requisite and preferred education and experience.

This approach also demonstrates to employees that the organization is committed to their development and advancement within the organization. formal assessment to evaluate progress in development as well as to accredit or certify that the employee has gained required competencies and knowledge. tools to support this process include a set of instructions or guide for completing a learning plan as well as a standard learning plan form. This approach is particularly powerful because assessments based on the competencies provide the organization with an indication of the extent to which employee workplace behaviour has improved. and. multi-source assessment – see above) can be conducted to evaluate the extent of development at both the individual and aggregate level (i.). instead of sending several employees on “one off” courses or conferences. supervisor and / or others (e. In addition. • Aggregate Reports on Organizational Gaps in Competencies – Individual gaps in competency requirements can be consolidated into group reports. the organization can determine whether the learning investments are paying off and.. planned work assignments aimed at developing certain skills and competencies. books and written reference material. progress in development at any point. team members. • Individual Learning Plans – Once employee strengths and areas for development have been defined. learning advisor. videos / DVDs. At a minimum. These programs are staged development initiatives that include: formal in-class learning events... track record / portfolio reviews. As well. as appropriate. etc. as well as level of success at the end of the program.g. etc.g. formalized assessment is often included as a component of employee development programs for the purpose of assessing the employee’s base skills / competencies going into the program. allowing the organization to quickly assemble a program of learning that will be specifically tailored to address organizational gaps (see above). curriculum can be developed in a modularized fashion by competency. it becomes possible to develop individual learning plans targeted to particular learning needs. In some cases. many organizations establish comprehensive competency-based employee development programs in high need areas. 64 . courses / workshops / conferences. such as: competency-based behavioural interviews.. reporting employees. Once again.g. Finally. etc. This information is often delivered via internet or intranet with links to other sites for additional information or course registration. the employee is promoted to a higher level once certain performance standards have been met. including those typically used in a selection process (see Recruitment & Selection section). all employees who have completed the program). • Program Design / Development – Having defined the competencies and behaviours required for success in a particular role it becomes possible to target the design of curriculum and development programs to address these requirements. a report is prepared on the feedback reults to allow the employee. role-plays and simulations. Organizations are increasingly moving to this model of employee development to address current or looming shortages of staff and to ensure that there is a continuing supply of qualified staff to meet future organizational needs. in-baskets.g. • Learning Resources Catalogued by Competency – Organizations often support employee learning by providing a catalogue of learning options organized by competencies.Competency-based learning include others with whom the employee interacts within the workplace (e.. For example.) to target learning and development efforts to the particular employee’s needs. peers. offer such a program in-house for less money).e.and post-learning event assessments (e. • Learning Evaluation / Validation – Competencies that have been identified for roles within the organization can serve as the standards or criteria for determining the level of success of learning interventions. etc. pre. and decisions can be made on the best strategies for closing the organizational gaps in the most fiscally prudent and cost-effective manner (e. self-study components. e-learning. coach / mentor. such as: on-the-job assignments / activities. Based on this. often incorporating a variety of learning options. Assessment through other Methods – Competency assessments can be accomplished through a wide variety of other methods. what changes need to be made to address performance gaps. clients both within and outside the organization.

D. References Books Dubois. Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance. (2001) “The economic value of emotional intelligence competencies and EIC-based HR programs”. associated instructions / tools) and / or acquire tools to support individual Learning Planning (e. • Review current processes for conducting evaluations of learning programs within the organization and integrate competencies.. (1999)... • Design Individual Learning tools and processes (Learning Plan Form. eds. as well as.. CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley Spencer. San Francisco. Spencer.g. Davies-Black Publishing Dubois. R. (2005) The HR Value Proposition. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Wood. & Payne. acquire and implement web-based software to support employee).. post the catalogue on an intranet site. (2004). Goleman. & Rothwell. in Cherniss. Crisp Learning. & Spencer. in The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for. The Art and Science of Competency Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations. D. & Lepsinger. • Develop or acquire self-assessment and multi-source surveys and reporting processes as competency profiles become available for job groups (e. Competency-Based Human Resource Management. L M. Pfeiffer Shandler. Competency-Based Recruitment and Selection. A. L. • Develop and introduce training / communications related to competencies and their use in the learning and development process in the organization. HRD Press Lucia.. and introduce supervisor and multi-source assessments as employees become familiar and comfortable with the competencies and the assessment process. Advertise and make the catalogue widely available to employees and managers (e. as required. Competency and the Learning Organization. W. Wiley Ulrich. and D.. The Competency Toolkit (Volumes 1 & 2). S. & Rothwell. i-SkillSuite Assessment and Learning Plan modules). D. Post self-assessment tools on the organization’s intranet website. Measure. Stage 1 • Determine policy for integrating competencies in Learning and Development. (1998). (2000). • Assess how curriculum / learning program design and development could be improved with the introduction of competency-based management. and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals. and Brockbank.g. (1993). • Build or acquire a catalogue of learning resources organized by competencies in the Dictionary and classify organization specific programs and tools in the catalogue. T.Competency-based learning 65 Implementation Stages The following implementation stages are suggested for mid to large organizations implementing competencies in Learning and Development on a corporate-wide basis. Wiley . Groups and Organizations. W. (2000). D. to determine: the extent to which workplace behaviour and outcomes have changed in the desired direction. R.g. W. Implement changes. the return on investment for the learning / training provided. as required. C.. Stage 2 • Conduct a needs assessment / analysis and design / develop tools and reporting processes to support aggregate analysis and reporting of organizational strengths and gaps in competencies. i-SkillSuite Assessment and Learning Plan modules).

I. G.. G..the competency-based movement: Its origins and impact on the public sector.. 21.. 13. Wrnick. I. Hanks. S. D. H. J. B. T. Dainty. D.L.. Darr.E. 14. Journal of Applied Psychology.. 20.402 Rausch. C.Competency-based learning 66 Articles Bartram. Personnel Psychology. (2005). J. J. Mumford. &.. B. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practice and theoretical implications of research findings. I. Toward a multidimensional competency-based managerial performance framework: A hybrid approach. Hayton. L. L. (2005). The practice of competency modeling. 383. 51-64 Homer. (2000). M. 19. &. 53–63 Schmidt..& Ruse. (2001). 29... Hesketh. J. J. Journal of Management Education. (2002). & Campbell. M. & Washbush. Personnel Psychology. Levine. Ash. (1998). Skills and competency management. Spencer. (2004). 35. 1185–1203 Catano. D. Industrial and Commercial training. Journal of Managerial Psychology. outcome-focused management development. 380-396 Draganidis. R. L. (2007). K. M. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. & Mentzas.com/validation. 33/2.... Kehoe. F. Information Management &Computer Security. 262-274 Shippmann. 184-200 Sanchez. M. Designing a competency-based human resources organization. Sherman. Defining and assessing competencies for competency-based.html . (2009). 306-318 Kochanski. 53. & Hunter. A.. What is (or should be) the difference between competency modeling and traditional job analysis? Human Resource Management Review. A competency-based model for developing human resource professionals. L. (2000). I. A. V.. HR Technologies White Paper http://www.. J. M. J. 59-62 Horton. Battista. S. E. Introduction. Competency-based management: A review of systems and approaches. & Sanchez.. 124. H. E. 60. M.. (2006). (1996). & Blahna. Psychological Bulletin. F. Eyde. 90. Pearlman. T. R.hrcompass. J.. 201-230 Cheng. The Journal of Management Development. Human Resource Management. (2005) The Great Eight competencies: A criterion-centric approach to validation. 703-740. 19-34 McEvoy ... Competency Model Statistical Validation and Business Case Development.. Carr. Performance appraisal of behaviour-based competencies: A reliable and valid procedure. J. S.

knowledge. • • • • • • Strategic human resource planning Competency architecture Competency dictionary Competency-based recruitment Competency-based learning Competency-based performance management • Competency-based career development The role of CBM is to shape and guide employee behaviour from "hire to retire". manage and retain the precious talent needed to achieve their business goals. This allows organizations to improve productivity in most areas of human capital management human resources. CBM is typically referred to as "strategic" in that it attempts to link organizational planning to job execution. performance management. recruitment/selection. career development. developed and implemented to close the gaps. Organizations are looking for new ways to acquire. plans and programs to address gaps (e. Properly designed. CBM helps Talent acquisition. learning. literature or formal courses) to help improve employee effectiveness. career development and succession planning. human resource planning)..) are then designed. succession management.e. skills.Competency-based management 67 Competency-based management Competency-based human resources planning should serve as a link between human resources management and the overall strategic plan of an organization. Competency-based Management (CBM) standardizes and integrates all HR activities based on competencies that support organizational goals. motivations or traits defined in terms of the behaviours needed for successful job performance. CBM also facilitates gap discovery and suggests learning methods (on the job. what is new is their increased application across varied human resource functions (i. learning and development. mission and business goals of the organization. Performance Management and Learning Management Systems to be more effective by assessing employes skills and competencies.g. competencies translate the strategic vision and goals for the organization into behaviours or actions employees must display for the organization to be successful. Competency-based management supports the integration of human resources planning with business planning by allowing organizations to assess the current human resource capacity based on their competencies against the capacity needed to achieve the vision. Targeted human resource strategies.. etc. hiring / staffing. Competencies are defined as observable abilities. Connecting CBM to Organizational Execution CBM solutions typically provide input into and drive all aspects of employee career development. . Purpose While competencies are not new to most organizations.

Journal of Applied Psychology.. The outputs of CBM systems are parameters input into production talent management systems. Laurano.Competency-based management 68 Competitive market The so-called war for talent has driven a marked increase of attention and investment in the talent management space as new vendors continue to enter to support an ever-growing demand for strategic human resources applications.. & Blahna. Competency-based management systems define the job to be down and the consequent required skills to perform said job. W. M.E. Groups and Organizations. & Mentzas. and D. Competency-Based Human Resource Management.the competency-based movement: Its origins and impact on the public sector.. T. Talent Management Systems 2010 [3]. 90. Vendors Vendors of Competency-based Management Systems include: • • • • • Sentrico [1] Human Resource Systems Group [2] Cornerstone on Demand [2] Kenexa [3] IHRDC [2] References • Levensaler. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. (2004). F. San Francisco. & Hunter. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Articles Bartram... Wrnick. 184-200 Schmidt. F.. Industrial and Commercial training. S. J. Bersin & Associates Books Dubois. in The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for. 21. 29. CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley Ulrich. Mumford. D. in Cherniss. 262-274 . & Washbush. J. Information Management &Computer Security. Measure.. affording small and medium business (SMB) new less-costly options. H. D. 1185–1203 Draganidis.. (2005). outcome-focused management development. Hanks. and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals. 51-64 Homer. 306-318 McEvoy . (2006). (2002). Madeline (2009). & Rothwell. Many of these competitors have entered via the software as a service (SaaS) delivery model.. (2001) “The economic value of emotional intelligence competencies and EIC-based HR programs”. E. A. Competency-based management: A review of systems and approaches. A competency-based model for developing human resource professionals. (1998).402 Rausch. (2005) The Great Eight competencies: A criterion-centric approach to validation. Skills and competency management. J. Journal of Management Education. B. The Journal of Management Development.L. 59-62 Horton. Leighanne. D. (2000). (2005) The HR Value Proposition. 14. (2001). Hayton. and Brockbank. L M. S. 383. Defining and assessing competencies for competency-based. M. W. Goleman. Sherman. Psychological Bulletin. 33/2. G. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practice and theoretical implications of research findings. G. 13. Introduction. Davies-Black Publishing Spencer.. eds. C. 124.

is a method that is often used in performance management to assess and provide employees with feedback on “how” they performed their work (i. the competencies included in the employee’s performance plan may or may not completely coincide with the standard competency profile for the employee’s role / job. behaviours (competencies) as well as process improvement. Such programs normally include a set of goals or objectives the employee must accomplish within the review period as well as the standards or criteria for determining whether the defined goals have been accomplished. Using this approach. the manager and employee identify the key competencies required to achieve each performance goal / objective (typically 1 to 3 competencies per goal / objective). sentricocompetencymanagement. Assessing competencies as a part of performance management is an important means of assisting employees in understanding performance expectations and enhancing competencies. The performance goals / . • By integrating the competencies for the employee’s job into the PM process In this case. • Training for managers on how to provide performance evaluations that are valid. performance goals). The disadvantage is that not all competencies within the competency profile for the employee’s role / job will necessarily be assessed within the cycle. while not an HR application per se. At the end of the performance cycle. bersin. using competencies for providing feedback. the employee’s performance is evaluated in relation to the performance goals / objectives as well as the key competencies associated with each goal. aspx?Docid=103311599 Competency-based performance management Performance management is about achieving results in a manner that is consistent with organizational expectations. their demonstration of the competencies). com/ [2] http:/ / www.e. fair and unbiased. Best Practices Performance Management Performance management programs are set up to provide feedback to employees on how effectively they are performing in their jobs. Focusing on results. including providing feedback to employees who experience challenges in performing to the standards required in their jobs / roles. hrsg.e. the performance plan includes the performance goals / objectives for the review period as well as the complete set of competencies from the competency profile for the employee’s role / job. Regular reviews and updating of performance plans to address changing demands. Training for both managers and employees on how to effectively give and receive feedback.Competency-based management 69 References [1] http:/ / www. The advantage of using this method is that the competencies being assessed are entirely consistent with the employee’s performance goals for the performance review cycle. ca/ i-skillsuite/ [3] http:/ / www. com/ Lib/ Rs/ Details.. but also “how” the work was performed. Integrating competencies within the performance management process supports the provision of feedback to employees not only on “what” they have accomplished (i. Integrating Competencies in the Performance Management Process Competencies can be integrated into the regular Performance Management (PM) process in one of two ways: • By defining the competencies needed to perform each Performance Goal / Objective In this case. Multi-source feedback.. Effective performance management include the following features: • • • • Linking individual goals to the corporate and work unit business plans and goals.

and the competencies measure “how” the employee conducted him/herself to accomplish their work. They can also feed into broader assessment programs (e.g. clients both within and outside the organization. The Society for Industrial / Organizational Psychology has published guidelines for the effective development and implementation of Multi-source Feedback. reporting employees. feedback. development programs) to support employee career development and / or succession management within the organization.g. 70 Multi-source / 360 Degree / Upward Feedback In Multi-source. their supervisor.. will not be assessed..). but not included in the competency profile. individual ratings from others (except for the employee’s supervisor) are combined in such a way (e. The results of the process are normally used to develop learning and action plans for improvement (see section on Learning and Development). The advantage of this method is that all competencies defined in the competency profile for the employee’s role / job are evaluated. In Upward Feedback. The report is set up to show similarities and differences in ratings across the different stakeholder groups. The results are compiled and a report is provided to the employee. all employees reporting directly and / or indirectly to the supervisor provide feedback on the supervisor’s performance. The report includes the results for all competencies. key competencies for the effective performance during the review cycle. feedback provided on the employee’s competencies typically feeds into the development of a learning or action plan to address gaps in performance and development within or beyond the employee’s current role / job. Upward and Multi-source / 360 Degree Feedback programs must be managed well in order to protect those providing. In almost all cases. In both cases. the behavioural indicators for the competencies needed within the target role / job are used as the standard for assessing the performance of the employee. etc. In Multi-source / 360 feedback. highlighting both the competencies that are strong as well as those rated lowest by the different stakeholder groups.g. Implementation Stages The following implementation stages are suggested for mid to large organizations implementing competencies within Performance Management on a corporate-wide basis Stage 1 • • • • • Determine policy for integrating competencies within the Performance Management process Design a Performance Management process consistent with the policy (as required) Design communications and training program to support implementation Pilot the process Revise and finalize ready for full implementation . including the employee. as well as others with whom the employee interacts (e.Competency-based performance management objectives address “what” must be accomplished during the review period. peers.. as well as those receiving. 360 Degree and Upward feedback. different stakeholder groups provide ratings. The disadvantage is that due the specific nature of the performance goals / objectives. averaged ratings) as to protect the anonymity of the individuals providing the feedback. management assessment centres. team members.

380-396 Draganidis. T. Competency-Based Human Resource Management. I. S. J. Skills and competency management. Performance appraisal of behaviour-based competencies: A reliable and valid procedure. D. D. R.. M.& Ruse.. & Rothwell. HRD Press Lucia. first year) and make revisions. (1998). Boston: Harvard Business School Press Wood. Pfeiffer Shandler. 90. Darr. Toward a multidimensional competency-based managerial performance framework: A hybrid approach. Dainty. Introduction. San Francisco. Groups and Organizations. I. 60. Crisp Learning. 20. &. R. Wiley Ulrich. L.. S. C. W. 35. & Mentzas.. (1996). (2005) The HR Value Proposition. and Brockbank. Vendors Vendors of Competency-based Management Systems include: • • • • Sentrico Human Resource Systems Group [1] Cornerstone on Demand [2] Kenexa [3] [1] References Books Dubois. (2004). and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals. & Campbell. D. 201-230 Cheng. 19-34 . (2001). Spencer. Competency-Based Recruitment and Selection. (2000). M. CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley Spencer. A. Davies-Black Publishing Dubois. Measure. H.g. The Art and Science of Competency Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations.Competency-based performance management 71 Stage 2 • Communicate and implement the Performance Management process • Review and evaluate the process during the first cycle of implementation (e. as required. (2007). J. C. & Rothwell. W. Competency-based management: A review of systems and approaches. and D. F.. & Lepsinger. (2005). M. in Cherniss. & Payne. & Spencer. 1185–1203 Catano. D. Information Management &Computer Security. Designing a competency-based human resources organization... Competency and the Learning Organization. R. (2000). T. W. D. 306-318 Kochanski. (2000). 13. (2001) “The economic value of emotional intelligence competencies and EIC-based HR programs”. Industrial and Commercial training. (2006)... The Competency Toolkit (Volumes 1 & 2). (1999). Journal of Managerial Psychology. (2005) The Great Eight competencies: A criterion-centric approach to validation.the competency-based movement: Its origins and impact on the public sector. 59-62 Horton. (1993).. V. Personnel Psychology. eds. 33/2. G. L M. Human Resource Management.. 51-64 Homer. Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance. 14. Wiley Articles Bartram. D. Goleman. Journal of Applied Psychology. in The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for. The International Journal of Public Sector Management.

Journal of Management Education. HR Technologies White Paper http://www. etc. As the competency profiles are completed. 184-200 Sanchez..g. • Contributing to the design of a well-articulated. J. Battista. ... The practice of competency modeling. H.e.. Ash. in-basket assessments. I. L.. hrsg. Best Practices Having established the competency profiles for groups and roles. J. work simulations.. validated.. L.. . & Washbush. M. Carr. 383.. J. J. G. • Improving the transparency of the selection process by clearly communicating the behaviours employees must display for success in the role / job.. question banks for interviews and reference-checking organized by competency. template interview and reference checking guides for roles / jobs within the organization. I. Spencer.. organizations can use the competencies as the standards for assessing candidates throughout the screening and selection process as well as advertising and communicating the organization’s requirements to potential applicants. sample notices are developed for the varied types of jobs/ roles. Hanks. 21. correlating the results of the selection process with competency-based on-the-job performance.html 72 References [1] http:/ / www. Hesketh. J. E. clear and transparent criteria on which to give candidates feedback on their performance in the selection process (e. & Hunter. (2000). L. Eyde. ca/ performance-planning/ Competency-based recruitment The introduction of Competency-based management (CBM) provides organizations with a unique opportunity to create and shape a recruitment and selection system based competencies that job experts within the organization have identified as being critical for success in the targeted job or role.. S.g. R. input for future learning and development. (2002). Mumford.. A..Competency-based performance management McEvoy . L. S. & Blahna.. (2004). D. 124. F.L. B. efficient and effective recruitment and selection processes. M. B.hrcompass. (2005). J... Competencies support recruitment and selection by: • Providing bona fide.402 Rausch. (1998). Psychological Bulletin. 703-740. A. Defining and assessing competencies for competency-based.E. outcome-focused management development. Kehoe.com/validation. & Sanchez. 19. &. Levine. targeted role plays.. 29. Personnel Psychology. Some of the common benchmark competency-based practices in Recruitment and Selection include: • Notices of job requirements .A template is developed to define how competencies will be reflected in . Pearlman.notices regarding the requirements of jobs to be filled. 262-274 Shippmann. fair and unbiased standards against which to assess applicant competencies to perform in the targeted role / job. Wrnick. • Creating efficiencies by providing re-usable selection tools and processes (e. Competency Model Statistical Validation and Business Case Development. T.) • Providing standards for evaluating the success of the selection process . M. Hayton.. What is (or should be) the difference between competency modeling and traditional job analysis? Human Resource Management Review. J. E.) • Providing explicit. The Journal of Management Development. 53–63 Schmidt.g. etc. K. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practice and theoretical implications of research findings. A competency-based model for developing human resource professionals. Sherman.. (2009). 53.

develop and implement recruitment. both managers and HR professionals must be able to establish selection processes that are both efficient and effective (i. 73 Implementation Stages As competency profiles are developed for varied job groups.Competency-based recruitment • Interview and Reference Checking Guides . valid and unbiased). Stage 2: • As the competency profiles are completed for the job groups. it is important that it be defensible (i..A variety of other competency-based assessment methodologies can be incorporated into the selection process. fair. Typically.g. and selection processes consistent with policy and tools / templates defined in Stage 1. templates.e. Results can be used as part of the staffing process and / or for other purposes (e. role plays or simulations of workplace situations that the employee will encounter.. the candidate / employee also provides references who can attest to the validity of the examples provided. Once completed.Managers must have the knowledge and skills to be able to apply the various competency-based assessment methodologies noted above to arrive at valid selection decisions. fair.Template interview and reference checking guides are developed for roles/career streams and levels within Occupational Groups including instructions and rating guides. .Track record / portfolio reviews allow employees / applicants to document their past experiences and accomplishments that relate to the competency requirements for positions within the organization.g. • Plan for and train managers and HR personnel on appropriate competency-based interviewing approaches (e. • Competency-based Track Record / Portfolio Reviews . HR Planning). etc.. the following implementation stages are suggested for their use in recruitment and selection on a corporate-wide basis.Template interview and reference checking guides are developed for varied types of jobs/ roles. • Plan for.e. Customize or build an interview / reference checking question bank organized by competencies included in the competency profiles. multi-source input (as appropriate). procedures.. as competency profiles become available for the different job groups.. • Template Interview and Reference Checking Guides . reliable. These are made available to hiring managers and HR Advisors.. This training should be just-in-time – i. Review and evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of these processes and adjust policies. These are made available to hiring managers and HR Advisors. etc.e. Likewise. All of this requires targeted training / orientation programs to ensure that all stakeholders have the necessary skills. including instructions and rating guides. • Other Competency-based Assessment Methodologies . design and implement an orientation / training program for employees on how to participate in a competency-based recruitment and selection as new processes are being implemented). competency gap analysis for Learning and Development. situational interviewing). as required.g.. employees must be able to participate effectively to provide an accurate picture of the competencies they possess. track-record reviews) that can be used across a number of occupational groups. Finally. Succession Management. • Training on Competency-based Selection . including In-basket assessments. Stage 1: • • • • Define the policies and decision-rules for using competencies in the recruitment and selection processes Identify considerations / guidelines for including information on competencies in notices of job requirements Develop sample notices of job requirements as the competency profiles become available for use. reliable. • Customize or build other competency-based tools or processes (e. valid and unbiased). behavonral interviewing. When designing and implementing any methodology. trained evaluators score the extent to which the required competencies are demonstrated in the written examples using standardized scoring criteria.

Competency-based recruitment • Collect data on the effectiveness of the new recruitment and selection process (e. Crisp Learning.. D. & Blahna. 60.. 184-200 . M.. A. D. 20.. Human Resource Management. S. Measure. 35. Groups and Organizations. Hayton. (2000). HRD Press Lucia. T.the competency-based movement: Its origins and impact on the public sector. Wiley Ulrich. 29. The Art and Science of Competency Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations. correlate results of selection process with on-job or training performance results) and make adjustments to the process. 74 Vendors Vendors of Competency-based Management Systems include: • Human Resource Systems Group • Cornerstone on Demand [2] • Kenexa [3] [1] References Books Dubois. D. (2001) “The economic value of emotional intelligence competencies and EIC-based HR programs”. D.. (2006). Goleman. 13. CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley Spencer. & Spencer. E. Performance appraisal of behaviour-based competencies: A reliable and valid procedure. Designing a competency-based human resources organization. M. in Cherniss. Personnel Psychology. H. Introduction. 201-230 Cheng.. M. (2000). 33/2. Wrnick. Journal of Applied Psychology. I. (2004). & Payne. Journal of Managerial Psychology. (2002). Competency-Based Recruitment and Selection. 380-396 Draganidis.g.. & Mentzas.& Ruse.. B.... & Lepsinger. Pfeiffer Shandler. D. G. Industrial and Commercial training. J. The Competency Toolkit (Volumes 1 & 2).. (2005). & Washbush. 51-64 Homer. C. 21. M. A competency-based model for developing human resource professionals. 14. 306-318 Kochanski. 19-34 McEvoy . H. T. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. R. J. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Wood. Competency-based management: A review of systems and approaches.. J. & Rothwell.. 1185–1203 Catano. Spencer. eds. & Campbell. (2007). & Rothwell. Journal of Management Education.. V. W. Information Management &Computer Security. Davies-Black Publishing Dubois. in The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for. S. T... (2001). A. outcome-focused management development. 90. (2005) The Great Eight competencies: A criterion-centric approach to validation. L.. (1993). S. J. R. 59-62 Horton. Hanks. and Brockbank. The Journal of Management Development. (2000). as required.402 Rausch. and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals. F. 383. and D. Dainty. Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance. W. G. (1996). Sherman. (2005) The HR Value Proposition. Mumford. Skills and competency management. C. W. Competency and the Learning Organization. D. &. Wiley Articles Bartram. Darr. Defining and assessing competencies for competency-based. (1998). San Francisco. (1999). L M. R. Competency-Based Human Resource Management. I. (2005). Toward a multidimensional competency-based managerial performance framework: A hybrid approach.

4 billion). employee rewards and incentive programs. 53–63 Schmidt. job-type. Aon ($1. J. general management.3 billion).. M. hrsg. Battista. I. and talent acquisition and management • Health & Benefits. investments consulting. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practice and theoretical implications of research findings. What is (or should be) the difference between competency modeling and traditional job analysis? Human Resource Management Review. as clients' needs have become more complex and specialized. examining fit across culture. A 2007 Workforce Management study identifies the top five revenue producing HR consultancies as Mercer ($2.e. E.[3] Other major players include Towers Watson. R. A. J.. the following are core fields around which most HR consultancies are based: • Human Capital.L.8 billion). Companies in the field HR consultancies vary in their ranges of services and sizes. satisfaction.e.. Psychological Bulletin. Competency Model Statistical Validation and Business Case Development. The HR consulting industry also employs more actuaries than any other in order to assist in their services. including remuneration (also called total rewards).com/validation.Competency-based recruitment Sanchez. While the multi-faceted nature of business sometimes causes overlap in consulting industries (i. D. and other employee behaviors • Retirement • Outsourcing Services may also include legal counseling.. L. J.[4] .6 billion). Hesketh. i. J. (2004).. M. and Buck Consultants.hrcompass.html 75 References [1] http:/ / www.. with many consultants and academicians breaking off to form their own practices. 53. ca/ candidate-selection/ Human resource consulting Human resource consulting is an $18. Deloitte ($1. Pearlman. I. (1998). The practice of competency modeling. L. engagement. including surveying employee attitudes. Kehoe. orchestrating optimal employee health plans with the carriers themselves • Mergers & Acquisitions. Carr. 124. & Hunter. and PricewaterhouseCoopers ($1.[1] Ma Foi Randstad (part of the Dutch Randstad Holding). &... Ernst & Young ($1. J. Eyde..4 billion). B. L. • Communication. widening the gap between HR needs and work force [2] capabilities. S. transaction costs. (2009). Levine. and thus accentuating the ability of HR management consulting firms to fill this gap.. K.. & Sanchez.E. Ash. Hay Group. 262-274 Shippmann. Hewitt Associates.1 billion). etc. with regards to human resources. global initiatives. 19. F. Spencer. and the implementation of HR technologies to facilitate human capital management. (2000). Personnel Psychology. HR Technologies White Paper http://www.4 billion industry [1] that has emerged from management consulting. Watson Wyatt ($1. L. and information technology).. 703-740.

wsj.[1] The counterpart to contextual performance is task performance. Retrieved January 13. com/ article/ BT-CO-20100104-707672.Human resource consulting 76 Qualifications and certifications Many human resource consultants have specialized qualifications or certifications. FFA • Educational: MS in Management/HR/Industrial Organizational psychology. GPHR).[3] Contextual performance is more likely to be voluntary in nature. pdf [2] HR consulting growth seen. workforce. such as: • Accountancy: ACCA. html). DBA. research indicates that managers include these behaviors when . and various other discretionary behaviors. see http:/ / search. Vol. ebscohost. Task performance is defined as the work activities that contribute to an organization’s technical core. SPHR. Job performance is no longer considered to consist strictly of performance on a task. Cowan. While the construct of contextual performance is very similar to organizational citizenship behavior (OCBs) and prosocial behavior. innovative behavior are increasingly important for organizations' competitive advantage. pl?pageId=1162 Contextual performance In recent years. With the rise of the knowledge economy. "Towers Watson Executives See Growth Ahead For Merged Firms" (http:/ / online. • Compensation: CCP (Certified Compensation Professional) • Human resources: Various certifications SHRM (US) CHRP (Canada) (e.[1] Examples of contextual performance include volunteering for additional work. com/ cgi-bin/ page. various Industrial/Organizational psychologists contend that contextual performance is in fact a construct in its own right. these activities are posited to enhance the psychological climate in which the technical core is nested.g. which is defined as activities that contribute to the social and psychological core of the organization. 13 Issue 5. J.2 billion. Employees who exhibit voluntary effort and spontaneous. By strengthening the viability of social networks. CPA. in Management. Despite the fact that contextual performance is more discretionary in nature. with an increasingly competitive job market. whereas task performance is more likely to be prescribed by the formal job role. MAAA. Contextual performance. Overview This construct was first identified in the industrial and organizational psychology research world by Borman & Motowidlo. Rather. Lynn (January 4. MBA. . com/ tools/ hot_list/ 070312_HotList. ASA. 2010). MCIPD References [1] http:/ / www. aspx?direct=true& db=buh& AN=1742458& site=ehost-live [3] Note: As of January 2010. contextual performance has emerged as an important aspect of overall job performance.[2] Since that time. actual organizations have begun utilizing this concept by both rewarding it and incorporating it into performance appraisals. Because of increased research efforts being focused on contextual performance.D. 1/4p. Ph. Employee Benefit News. with estimated revenue of $3. employees are expected to go above and beyond the requirements listed in their job descriptions. The Wall Street Journal. CBP. FSA. CCA • Actuarial: EA. CA. com/ login. p7. [4] http:/ / www. contextual performance has become an increasingly important research topic. the expectations for employees have expanded. assisting and cooperating with coworkers. 2010. following organizational rules and procedures even when personally inconvenient. Watson Wyatt and Towers Perrin merged to form Towers Watson. is beginning to be viewed as equally important to task performance. PHR. FIA. businessinsurance. • Finance: CFA • General consulting: CMC • Health and benefits: CEBS. 04/15/99.D.

and cooperativeness and contextual performance is significantly larger than their relationship with task performance. and agreeableness predict contextual performance. Openness to experience and extraversion. or knowledge of how to do a task.[5] 77 Taxonomy of Contextual Performance Research has yielded several taxonomies of contextual performance and organizational citizenship behavior.[7] Otherwise. was found to have a weak correlation at most. employers need to identify what traits of prospective employees predict contextual performance. Intelligence has been found to be a significant predictor of task performance. there is limited support for the relationship between intelligence and contextual performance.[6] . these two types of performance have moderately high correlations. A few sample items that capture the construct of contextual performance are: • <The employee> voluntarily does more than the job requires to help others or contribute to organizational effectiveness • <The employee> tackles a difficult work assignment enthusiastically • <The employee> volunteers for additional duty[6] Dispositional Predictors of Contextual Performance In order to select employees who will engage in contextual performance. which in turn predicts contextual performance. the personality traits of conscientiousness. It was found that the relationship between dependability. These findings suggest that the two constructs are distinct yet related. Items are generally measured by supervisors on a Likert Scale. which is important because this overlap may be influenced during performance evaluations. The following is Borman & Motowildo’s taxonomy:[1] • • • • • • • Persisting with enthusiasm and extra effort as necessary to complete own task activities successfully Volunteering to carry out task activities that are not formally part of own job Helping and cooperating with others Following organizational rules and procedures Endorsing.[9] As contextual performance is sometimes directed at other employees. or general mental ability.[10] Other personality traits. Researchers believe that there are different traits and abilities that predict task and contextual performance. and defending organizational objectives Interpersonal facilitation Job dedication In order to garner information regarding an employee’s contextual performance. Intelligence.Contextual performance conducting performance evaluations. from one to five. This highlights the fact that these behaviors are becoming more and more a requirement on the job. extraversion. Because of this. researchers generally adapt items from the previous taxonomy. work orientation. it is important to note that in a team setting.[4] While conceptually different. supporting. was also found to predict procedural knowledge.[8] Research findings show that the personality trait of conscientiousness does indeed have a weak to moderate positive relationship with contextual performance. research has also explored non-cognitive predictors of performance such as personality. Borman & Motowildo describe contextual performance as encompassing both OCB’s and prosocial work behaviors. have also been researched. however. indicating that they share some of the same properties or those employees who are good task performers also are good contextual performers. besides the Big Five.

Procedural justice describes the fairness used in the allocation process and was found to be positively related to two facets of contextual performance.[9] These antecedents are important because they are potentially under the control of organizations. Therefore when conducting performance appraisals. organizations need to recognize that both individual differences and situational constraints influence contextual performance. While also touted as a predictor of contextual performance. but contextual performance as well.[15] Research generally supports that contextual performance does indeed relate to overall organization performance as measured by quality.Contextual performance 78 Situational and Job-Related Predictors of Contextual Performance Along with personality and dispositional traits. organizations may want to explicate that they take into account facets of both contextual and task performance. this includes selection. organizations may be able to increase the amount of contextual performance done by employees. Specifically. summary findings imply that when individuals are satisfied with their job and that their supervisor or leader provides support to them. and since evidence indicates that supervisor ratings include contextual performance. interpersonal facilitation and job dedication. quantity.[12] As evidenced by the finding that the interaction of politics at the workplace and agreeableness predicted interpersonal facilitation.[4] Another theoretical implication is the overlapping nature of contextual performance with both OCB and prosocial behavior.[17] Practical Implications If contextual performance is a fundamental part of the employee performance criteria. this conceptualization may not be accurate. financial measures. By improving upon certain job-related characteristics.[19] Selection procedures should take into account the predictors of both task and contextual performance. then contextual performance should be considered in all aspects of the employment process. Lastly. and may thus be deficient because they lack the contextual performance construct. Some researchers argue that OCB clearly overlaps with contextual performance and should be redefined as the same construct.[18] Future theoretical and empirical work should address these discrepancies and adjust the way it is conceptualized and operationalized as such. A significant portion of supervisor ratings can be accounted for by not just task performance. the job-related characteristics and attitudes of organizational justice.[13] Outcomes of Contextual Performance Contextual performance has been found to be related to overall employee job performance.[14] Employees displaying more contextual performance behaviors were less likely to turnover than those engaging in less contextual performance behaviors. a holistic conceptualization of performance should include both task and contextual performance. Contextual performance is considered to be extra-role behaviors that are not necessarily expected or rewarded by the organization. The facet of interpersonal facilitation significantly predicts organizational commitment. However. Indeed. and if they feel that their supervisor or leader provides support. if they are satisfied with their job.[4] Other organizational outcomes such as turnover (employment) have been found to be related to contextual performance. and rewards. rewards and incentives should be set up to address employees . if an individual perceives that he/she is being treated fairly.[11] Although the correlations are weak-to-moderate. and customer service measures. There is also a conceptual distinction between in-role and extra-role behaviors. job satisfaction. organizational commitment has been found to be an outcome of contextual performance.[17] Performance is multi-dimensional. and leader supportiveness are all antecedents of contextual performance. their contextual performance is expected to increase. research shows that contextual performance is a significant predictor of turnover over and above task performance.[16] Theoretical Implications Many conceptualizations of employee performance focus only on task performance. their contextual performance is expected to increase. performance appraisal.

M. (1994). and teamwork knowledge. G. 10(1). [16] Dalal. & Van Scotter. R. The relative importance of task and contextual performance dimensions to supervisor judgments of overall performance. S. [5] Dalal. S. [2] Motowildo.. CA: Sage. S. Human Resource Management Review. M. & Schmit. J.. (1997). [15] Ibid. pp. Donovan. (1997). CA: Sage [6] Motowidlo. R.103-106). In S.103-106). (2007). pp. 475-480. W. J. (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time. M.103-106). Journal of Applied Psychology. Personnel Psychology. Contextual performance / prosocial behavior / organizational citizenship behavior. & Budhwar. [4] Johnson. 10(2). G. job satisfaction. 475-480. [8] Motowildo. J. (1994). (2008). In S. Rogelberg (Ed. Kacmar. Rogelberg (Ed. Thousand Oaks. Interactive effects of personality and organizational politics on contextual performance. (2007)... G. G. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 23. 79(4). [10] Morgeson. F. (2004). D. S. Carlson. (2007). (2000). 86(5). Human Performance. (2001). D.) Encyclopedia of industrial/organizational psychology (Vol.. 21. Evidence that task performance should be distinguished from contextual performance. CA: Sage [13] Witt. 227-253. . [14] Van Scotter. Thousand Oaks. In S. [9] Dalal.. Chen. Thousand Oaks. Test of Motowildo et al... Z. S. (2007). Task performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research. [19] Ibid. 85-97..) Encyclopedia of industrial/organizational psychology (Vol. & Van Scotter. 1. Drasgow.. [3] Ibid. [7] Bergman. H.Contextual performance who perform helping behaviors that contribute to the overall goals of an organization as well as behaviors that contribute strictly to individuals’ projects. R. 1. K. In S. [11] Aryee. [17] Werner. 94. 10(2). 79-95. A. M. 71-83. Journal of Applied Psychology. CA: Sage.)Encyclopedia of industrial/organizational psychology (Vol. A Theory of Individual Differences in Task and Contextual Performance. personality characteristics.. S. Thousand Oaks. Contextual performance / prosocial behavior / organizational citizenship behavior. J. S. 79 Related Areas Organizational Citizenship Behavior Sources [1] Borman. & Motowildo. pp. Overton.. Contextual performance / prosocial behavior / organizational citizenship behavior. 3-24. 10(2). Evidence that task performance should be distinguished from contextual performance. Selecting individuals in team settings: The importance of social skills. Human Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology. R.)Encyclopedia of industrial/organizational psychology (Vol. 10(1). 1. Human Resource Management Review. Reider. S. J. Exchange fairness and employee performance: An examination of the relationship between organizational politics and procedural justice. 1. and affective commitment. M. S.. 1-14.. S. P. Borman. (2000). & Zivnuska. Rogelberg (Ed. 58(3). 984-996.. [12] Dalal. (2002). Human Performance. Contextual performance / prosocial behavior / organizational citizenship behavior. Implications of OCB and contextual performance for human resource management. P. & Henning. [18] Organ. W. pp. L. (2005). 79(4). & Campion. 99-109.’s (1997) theory of individual differences in task and contextual performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Rogelberg (Ed. Human Performance. Relationships of task performance and contextual performance with turnover. 583-612. R.103-106). J. 911-926. F.

the organization composed of the Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons or Medical Boards of all the provinces and territories). . legal executives. the revalidation process came into effect January 1. develop or increase knowledge. In an article by Mac Van der Merwe and Alta van der Merwe (2008) the authors focus on the personal and situational tensions impacting on the use of a mathematics-friendly interactive online discussion forum environment as a reflective tool for the CPD of advantaged and disadvantaged mathematics teachers in South Africa. relevant. and • Practice Management & Business Skills. are required to complete a minimum of 16 hours of CPD (= 16 CPD points) per year[2] . • Practical Legal Ethics. legal practitioners.Continuing professional development 80 Continuing professional development Continuing professional development (CPD) or Continuing professional education (CPE) is the means by which people maintain their knowledge and skills related to their professional lives. has stated that all licensed physicians in Canada must participate in a recognized revalidation process in which they demonstrate their commitment to continued competent performance in a framework that is fair. Within each year. and formative. transferable. and consists of mandatory compliance with continuing professional development (CPD) requirements of either the RCPSC or the CFPC. or who work 32 hours or more per week. CPD research There is much research on the use of CPD in different domains. courses. solicitors. In Queensland. CPD includes 'formal' activities. In Scotland.[1] CPD for medical professionals Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is defined as the education of physicians following completion of formal training. The Federation of Medical Regulatory Authorities of Canada (FMRAC. In England and Wales. technical skills or professional performance standards all with the goal that physicians can provide better health care. inclusive. as well as self-directed activities such as preceptorship and directed reading. In BC. Australia. Many of the major legal publishers run seminars for the profession.g. problem-solving. A variety of providers ensures practitioners have adequate choice of content and style of delivery. all solicitors and legal executives who are in legal practice or employment. all solicitors who are in full time employment and wish to retain their Practising Certificate are required to undertake a minimum of 20 hours of CPD per year[3] . conferences and workshops. each legal practitioner is required to undertake 10 hours of CPD each year to acquire 10 CPD points. barristers) are encouraged or required to complete a certain number of hours of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) or Continuing Legal Education (CLE). e. CPD consists of any educational activity which helps to maintain. 2010. CPD for lawyers In many countries lawyers (attorneys. the practitioner must include 1 point for each of three core areas: • Professional Skills.

because its goal is to improve personal performance and enhance career progression. and • concerned with development. Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT) in the United Kingdom defines Continuing Professional Development (CPD) as: The systematic maintenance and improvement of knowledge. In addition. American Academy of Financial Management The American Academy of Financial Management The American Academy of Financial Management [5] requirements for continuing uses CPD and continuing education as part of its ongoing requirements for members. skills and personal qualities necessary for the appropriate execution of professional and technical duties. Members must complete 15 hours of recognized professional each year to retain their qualification. The activities that they undertake may not always generate the results that were intended. which arguably is much wider than just formal training courses. • Personal & Professional Development Development of your PPDP is based upon the individuals SWOT Analysis. It is about maintaining and improving standards of competence and professionalism. Its purpose is to assist them to formulate a set of development activities covering a period of twelve months. It is (as follows): • continuing.[4] The Association of Personal Assistants APA (The Association of Personal Assistants) defines CPD as 'any process or activity that provides added value to the capability of the individual through an increase in professional knowledge. • Implementation Implementing of the individuals plan does not imply that they cannot or should not change it once implementation is underway. regardless of age or seniority. often termed ‘competence’. The onus is on the learner to take responsibility for developing and directing their own career.[7] IAM The Institute of Administrative Management (IAM) requires candidates to complete the following:[8] • Self-SWOT Analysis (see SWOT analysis) This is intended to help the individual carry out some initial thinking about your strengths and weaknesses. because learning never ceases.[6] The AAFM Board regulates certifications worldwide such as CWM Chartered Wealth Manager Certification. • Learning Diary It is vital that the individual records their efforts and assess the benefits of their planned activities. because it is focused on professional competence in a professional role. Situations and circumstances can and do change. • professional.Continuing professional development 81 Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (UK) approached the definition of CPD by ways of explaining each word in turn. Long-term career plans should cover development activities for the next twelve months in the light of their intentions over the next three years. skills and competence throughout a professional's working life. Time spent reflecting on how they have tackled each activity and in assessing the outcomes will enable the individual to adjust their PPDP for the following . you will need to think about possible directions for your career development and to highlight potential threats.

lawscot. by recording their activities they will be building a complete record of their professional/personal development that can form the basis for long-term career progression.[10] References [1] Van der Merwe. cpd-courses. org/ law-cpd/ [3] http:/ / www. Van der Merwe. uk/ pages/ cpdwhat) [5] AAFM Board of Standards (http:/ / www. us) [6] AAFM CE/CPE (http:/ / www. The process is repeated for the second and subsequent years by reviewing and updating your SWOT Analysis and then drawing up a new PPDP. uk/ Members_Information/ CPDandPCrenewal/ continue_prof_dev. (http:/ / www. M.professionals should always be looking for ways to improve performance be the responsibility of the individual learner to own and manage be driven by the learning needs and development of the individual be evaluative rather than descriptive of what has taken place be an essential component of professional and personal life. the development of personal qualities. html) [7] AAFM CE/CPE (http:/ / www. sabinet. South African Computer Journal (42). org. org. It contains both the acquisition of new skills. M. feani. never an optional extra FEANI . to broaden competence. za/ abstracts/ comp/ comp_v42_a10. financialanalyst. co. html) [8] Institute of Administrative Management website (accessed 16 March 2007) (http:/ / www. Alta. Moreover. org/ chartered_wealth_manager.[9] CPD should: • • • • • be continuous .Continuing professional development year. experience and skills. A.European Federation of National Engineering Associations FEANI defines CPD as the acquisition of knowledge. Online Continuing Professional Development: tensions impacting on the reflective use of a mathematics-friendly forum environment . • Annual Review/Summary At the end of the twelve month period. (2008). aspx [4] CILT(UK) (http:/ / www. as well as. Human Resource Management at Work (People Management & Development) 3rd Edition 2006 London CIPD ISBN 1-84398-062-2 [10] http:/ / www. org/ ce. and the enhancement of existing skills to keep abreast of evolving knowledge. and Wilkinson. aafm. financialanalyst. html) [2] http:/ / www. instam. ciltuk. having reviewed the individuals activities they are required to complete the Summary Sheet. 82 CIPD According to the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD). org/ ?p=cpd) [9] Marchington. org . Registration for CPD shows the individuals own commitment to learning and allows them to consider best practice within the workplace.

The solution provides real-time access to the visibility/performance of the contractor workforce within the refinery. ogp. For example. training programs and specific documents that pertain to the contractor and the owner client.Contractor management 83 Contractor management Contractor Management is the managing of outsourced work performed for an individual company. Systems have evolved to meet the needs of companies who outsource significant amounts of labor.ogp.pdf [1] (http:/ / www. there are many tools in the markeplace which may provide more visibility into the contractor's level of performance. There are a number of criteria on which a contractor’s safety can be evaluated. For a company that outsources work to contractors its very important to have a system in place to manage those contractors' health and safety information. [2] References http://www. such as historical and future trend information. plantservices. and consistency. html . Requirements and regulations from OSHA and other governing bodies are constantly changing. com/ articles/ 2010/ 05RoadToReliability. companies struggle to standardize their contractor management processes. pdf) [2] Road to Reliability.[1] With the continuing outsourcing of production. Companies need to have full visibility into the quality of work their hired contractors have performed in the past and are performing now. and this often proves difficult. uk/ pubs/ 439.org. Keeping work in-house gives an Owner Client complete control over the production or services provided including quality. Mitigating Risk Through Better Decision Making There are two major considerations when managing contractors. the Owner Client cannot have complete assurance that their requirements are being met. First is deciding on the criteria for evaluation and second is developing an effective management process to evaluate these criteria.uk/pubs/439. durability. Risk & Control Risk increases with the loss of control from outsourcing work. http:/ / www. While contracts and agreements can be set in place to control the end product. many large refineries have integrated their gate access control system to a contractor management software solution. org. Outsourcing the work reduces the amount of control held over these aspects. insurance information. However.

[11] Larger corporations are much more likely to change LGBT-related policies as a result of the index than small or medium companies are. From 2004 to 2005.[4] Parity in domestic partner benefits required by certain laws like the Family and Medical Leave Act. Its primary source of data are surveys[1] but researchers cross-check business policy and their implications for LGBT workers and public records independently.[6] In its first year. This has led to a competitive atmosphere among businesses to stay current in the latest LGBT-related inclusive policies. and rates them on a scale of 0 to 100 based on flexible criteria grounded in the "10 principles" of the Equality Project. Criteria The Corporate Equality Index chooses companies to rank. lesbian. the Corporate Equality Index awarded its 100 percent rating to 13 businesses.[4] Transgender-inclusive health insurance benefits. due to bad press. 92 percent of the corporations listed included transgender discrimination protection where they previously had not. Beginning in 2006.[3] These include • • • • • • A written policy of nondiscrimination based on sexual orientation. In the 2011 index.[5] When the HRC modified it.[7] Each year.[12] .[8] The criteria for the index has changed since its first publication. the 2012 index will include more updated criteria regarding benefits of partnerships and transgender inclusivity. consequently.[7] Effects on Corporate America There are competing opinions about the effect that a company's rating has on its business. so smaller businesses are subject to little public backlash due to the efforts of the Human Rights Campaign and the index. gender identity. Inclusion of sexual orientation. Some say that having a high rating will have a positive impact. and in many cases accomplishes this goal. It was originally modeled after the Gay and Lesbian Values Index.[2] The index has been published annually since 2002. bisexual and transgender employees. and gender expression in its diversity and sensitivity training. consumers and investors.[10] Additionally. A study in Colorado showed that having a good rating in the CEI does not harm a company's stocks. 337 companies received the 100 percent rating.[4] Rejection of any activities that would undermine the goal of equal rights for LGBT people.Corporate Equality Index 84 Corporate Equality Index The Corporate Equality Index is a report published by the Human Rights Campaign Foundation as a tool to rate American businesses on their treatment of gay. as opposed to Grant's 10-point one. it became a 100-point system. the Corporate Equality Index has been published by the Human Rights Campaign. a rating system that was designed by journalist Grant Lukenbill. transgender rights issues became more imperative to the index than they had previously been.[4] Appropriate and respectful advertising to the LGBT community. gender identity and gender expression. while others say that it will cause a company to lose popularity among conservative customers.[4] [4] History Since 2002. there has been an increase in the number of businesses that achieve this rating. [9] The index also encourages companies to change their policies regarding LGBT employees. many companies are pressured to change policies that have earned them a poor score on the index. The Human Rights Campaign focuses on larger companies in the CEI.

In 2007.hrc. Retrieved 2008-11-26.pdf) FAQ: What Happened to the 2007 Report? (http://www. p. p. hrc.org/issues/7582.org/documents/HRCCorporateEqualityIndex2006. com/ doi/ 10.org/issues/workplace/cei. 1002/ ace.org/documents/HRC-CEI-2011-Final. php?ch=news& sc=& sc2=news& sc3=& id=83813). 2008-11-24.hrc. html).hrc. htm [8] http:/ / www.pdf) 2010 Corporate Equality Index (http://www. simply by texting the company's name to the index's short code.org/documents/HRC_Corporate_Equality_Index_2010.pdf) 2003 Corporate Equality Index (http://www. google.org/documents/2004CEIReport. 238/ pdf [11] http:/ / books.pdf) 2009 Corporate Equality Index (http://www.hrc. google.org/documents/cei2003. Retrieved 2008-11-23.Corporate Equality Index 85 Consumerism Since its beginning in 2002.htm) 2008 Corporate Equality Index (http://www.pdf) 2005 Corporate Equality Index (http://www. sagepub. washingtonpost. com/ books?id=pO_9ASZo6I4C& pg=PA142& dq=%22corporate+ equality+ index%22& hl=en& ei=3oJmTbDkEMH-8AbThY3LCw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=%22corporate%20equality%20index%22& f=false [12] http:/ / siop.[13] References [1] "HRC "Buying for Equality" Consumer Guide Released" (http:/ / www. html) [4] "The Corporate Equality Index" (http:/ / www. org/ principles/ en. google. com/ books?id=Y1C2phSbN9kC& pg=PA147& dq=%22corporate+ equality+ index%22& hl=en& ei=nIhmTfGXBcqr8Aa-kPXOCw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=7& ved=0CEgQ6AEwBg#v=onepage& q=%22corporate%20equality%20index%22& f=false External links • Human Rights Campaign official website (http://www.10 [3] Corporate Equality Index 2009.pdf) 2006 Corporate Equality Index (http://www.org/documents/cei2002. google. org/ issues/ 4783. hrc.hrc.pdf) 2004 Corporate Equality Index (http://www. wiley. allowing anyone to see a company's rating before choosing whether to do business with it.pdf) . com/ content/ 33/ 5/ 602.hrc.org/documents/HRC_Corporate_Equality_Index_2008. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 09/ 23/ AR2006092300041. com/ books?id=pO_9ASZo6I4C& pg=PA142& dq=%22corporate+ equality+ index%22& hl=en& ei=3oJmTbDkEMH-8AbThY3LCw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=%22corporate%20equality%20index%22& f=false [6] http:/ / books. .8. 2006-10-24. . pdf [13] http:/ / books.hrc.hrc. The Washington Post.hrc.pdf) 2011 Corporate Equality Index (http://www.org/documents/corporateequalityindex2005. org/ tip/ Jan08/ PDFs/ 453_009to015. com/ index. com/ books?id=x2QEAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA30& lpg=PA30& dq=%22the+ gay+ and+ lesbian+ values+ index%22& source=bl& ots=jD9j3j3JwC& sig=fgcLfywftv9zY5kpwV5GEjHorZU& hl=en& ei=5YNmTdHYAYKr8AafhsnWCw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& sqi=2& ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=%22the%20gay%20and%20lesbian%20values%20index%22& f=false [7] http:/ / www. abstract [10] http:/ / onlinelibrary.htm) Download PDF versions of the report: • • • • • • • • • • 2002 Corporate Equality Index (http://www. principles (http:/ / equalityproject.hrc.org/) • Corporate Equality Index Overview (http://www. org/ documents/ HRC-CEI-2011-Final. the Human Rights Campaign introduced a mobile guide for consumers.org/documents/HRC_Corporate_Equality_Index_2009.hrc. pdf [9] http:/ / gom. the Corporate Equality Index has had a financial effect on the businesses included in its ratings system. EDGE Boston. edgeboston. [2] Corporate Equality Index 2009. [5] http:/ / books.hrc. receiving an immediate response.

[1] These behaviors can be intentional or unintentional and result from a wide range of underlying causes and motivations. and sexual harassment. job turnover. aggression with a deliberate goal in mind) may have different antecedents than those CWBs caused by trait anger. Absence and lateness has attracted research as they disrupt organizational production. . Less common but potentially more detrimental forms of counterproductive behavior have also been investigated including violence. Similarly. Absences fit into two types of categories. or blaming others.[6] While a two-dimensional model of CWBs has gained considerable acceptance. and. and (11) inappropriate physical action.[9] For example. It is weakly linked to affective predictors such as job satisfaction and commitment. (2) property deviance. (4) personal aggression. (6) poor attendance.[12] Withdrawal may also be part of a progressive model and relate to job dissatisfaction.[3] Another typology proposed the following five factors: (1) abuse against others. Counterproductive work behavior is a topic of research in industrial and organizational psychology. a hostile v. Excused absences are those due to personal or family illness.[13] Absence is not showing up for work. (3) misuse of information. (3) sabotage.[11] Withdrawal behavior may be explained as employee retaliation against inequity in the work setting. (5) unsafe behavior. research has pointed to simpler dimensional views of CWBs.e. It has been proposed that a person-by-environment interaction can be utilized to explain a variety of counterproductive behaviors. involving behaviors like leaving early. pain and remove themselves from their jobs.[4] One of the larger typologies included a total of eleven categories of CWBs: (1) theft of property. Future research will need to determine whether these suggestions have merit. (10) inappropriate verbal action. instrumental aggression (i.Counterproductive work behavior 86 Counterproductive work behavior Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is employee behavior that goes against the goals of an organization. (4) misuse of time and resources.. Withdrawal Employee withdrawal consists of behaviors such as absence. and organizational commitment. substance use. (3) political deviance.[5] Over time. (9) drug use. or taking long breaks. involving showing favoritism. illegal dimension. Unsatisfied employees withdraw in order to avoid work tasks.[8] It is suggested that exploration of these new dimensions will shed new light on CWBs. including a legal v. job involvement. CWBs that violate criminal law may have different antecedents than milder forms of CWBs. involving sabotage of equipment. and ultimately job turnover. (4) theft. and a task-related v. unexcused absences include an employee who does not come to work in order to do another preferred activity or neglects to call in to a supervisor. and taking kickbacks.[10] and accidents.[2] For instance. verbal abuse. involving harassment. an employee who steals from the company may do so because of lax supervision (environment) and underlying psychopathology (person) that work in concert to result in the counterproductive behavior. (2) destruction of property. Dimensional Models of Counterproductive Work Behaviors The variety of acts that are considered CWBs has led to attempts by researchers to create a coherent typology of CWBs. instrumental aggression dimension. One four-class typology of CWBs divided the CWBs into the following categories: (1) production deviance.[7] additional dimensions have been proposed for research purposes. Forms of counterproductive work behavior The forms of counterproductive work behavior with the most empirical examination are ineffective job performance. theft. and endangerment. absenteeism. and (5) withdrawal. gossiping. (7) poor quality of work. intentionally working slow. deliveries and services. (8) alcohol use. lateness. theft of property. (2) production deviance. a non-task-related dimension. Absenteeism is typically measured by time lost measures and frequency measures.

[23] of US workers use the internet for personal tasks at work. The internet is responsible for a 30-40% decrease in employee productivity [24] and was estimated to have cost US business $5. It has been found that lower performance. individuals often reduce their efforts and work outputs.”[27] The effects of incivility include increased competitiveness. trait anger and interpersonal conflict have been found to be significant predictors of interpersonal aggression. and organizational constraints have been found to be predictors of organizational aggression. Other factors significantly linked to aggression are sex and trait anger.[21] Task interdependence has also been found to be positively related to social loafing.[31] . Research has found that women are more likely to be absent than men. or dysfunctional when the high turnover rates increase the costs associated with recruitment and training of new employees.[30] Affective Events Theory suggests that individuals who experience more incidents of incivility may be more sensitive to these behaviors and therefore more likely to report them. lower organizational commitment. Other variables related to turnover are conditions in the external job market and the availability of other job opportunities. lack of reward contingencies for performance. Turnover can be optimal as when a poorly performing employee decides to leave an organization.related tasks performed by the employee. Avoidable turnover is when the organization could have prevented it and unavoidable turnover is when the employee’s decision to leave could not be prevented. and length of employee tenure. demographic characteristics. social loafing tends to increase with the size of the group. Social loafing may occur when individuals are working in groups. role ambiguity. whether interpersonal or organizational. and higher turnover rates.[17] Research on employee job turnover has attempted to understand the causes of individual decisions to leave an organization. increases in sadistic behavior. and that the absence-control policies and culture of an organization will predict absenteeism. there is a line of research that separates workplace aggression according to its targets. Absences due to stress and illness are related to internal and external features of the job. Social loafing is maximized when group performance standards are unclear and other group members are not expected to contribute their full efforts.. organizational absence culture. and inattentiveness. Absence due to non-work obligations is related to external features of a job with respect to dissatisfaction with role conflict.[26] In this model of workplace aggression. When working in groups. Cyber loafing is a new phenomenon and form of CWB emerging in the last decade. Lateness is described as arriving at work late or leaving early. in violation of workplace norms for respect.[20] Further. and feelings of tension. fatigue and gender. Lateness costs US business more that $3 billion dollars annually. committed in organizational settings are considered as workplace violence. and organization absence policies.[14] Tardy and late employees responsible for critical tasks can negatively affect organizational production.Counterproductive work behavior Absence can be linked to job dissatisfaction.[29] Two factors that seem to be associated with becoming a victim of incivility are low levels of Agreeableness and high levels of Neuroticism. While most researchers examine workplace aggression as deviance with a single dimension.[28] A study of cyber incivility showed that higher levels of incivility are associated with lower job satisfaction. Major determinants of employee absence are employee affect.[15] Other workers may experience psychological effects of the tardy employee including morale and motivational problems as they attempt to “pick up the slack.[18] [19] Individual outputs can be reduced by as much as 20% in group tasks.. and better external job opportunities are the main causes. with men and individuals with higher levels of trait anger showing more aggressive behaviors.[25] 87 Anti-Social Behavior Physical acts of aggression by members of an organization. or if good employees decide leave consistently. . "Workplace incivility involves acting with disregard for others in the workplace.3 billion in 1999.” [16] Other employees may begin to imitate the example set by the behavior of tardy employees. while interpersonal conflict. Problems associated with lateness include compromised organizational efficiency. Cyber loafing can be defined as [22] Surveys have shown that 64% surfing the web in any form of non-job. situational constraints.

and inadequate socialization/training that evaluate the social environment and structured training employees receive. . tardiness. and safety and can lead to other injuries outside of work and health problems.” [44] Research has shown that often acts of sabotage or acts of retaliation are motivated by perceptions of organizational injustice [45] and performed with the intention of causing harm to the target. or the spreading of rumors. The causes of ineffective job performance have been evaluated from different theoretical approaches including: attribution theory that links performance to employee characteristics.[40] This may include large embezzlements or the pilfering of pencils and paperclips. Employers need to be careful to avoid fundamental attribution error whereby performance is linked to characteristics of the employee rather than the environment.[34] The costs of bullying include losses in productivity. a call center manager monitoring an employee’s telephone interactions with customers). 1980) 88 Other Forms Employee theft is defined as employees taking things not belonging to them from an organization.g.[33] The terms 'bullying' and 'mobbing' are sometimes used interchangeably.[35] Reported incidence of bullying is ambiguous with rates being reported from under 3% to over 37% depending on the method used to gather incidence statistics. social exclusion. the destruction of relationships. sick days..[38] It is proposed that the human resources function can provide guidance in the mitigation of bullying behavior by taking an active role in identifying and stopping the behaviors.[36] The strongest factor predicting bullying behavior seems to be exposure to incidents of bullying. being male also seems to increase the likelihood that one will engage in bullying behavior. requests for sexual favors.[42] Many organizations use integrity tests during the initial screening process for new employees in an effort to eliminate those considered most likely to commit theft. and electronic performance monitoring (e. and other verbal or physical contact when (a) submission to the conduct by the employee is either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual’s employment.” (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. sales commission). with average losses of $1. production data (e.[32] It may include verbal abuse.[37] This suggests that bullying is a cascading problem that needs to be curtailed in its earliest stages. (b) submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as a basis for employment decisions affecting the individual and/or 9c) such conduct [that] has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with work performance. higher turnover rates.g. but 'bullying' is more often used to refer to lower levels of antisocial behavior that do not include workgroup participation..[39] Sexual harassment is defined as “unwelcome sexual advances. ineffective job performance is often difficult to detect. prevent.[46] Within organizations. This is because most performance measurement systems only assess the impact of various employee behaviors rather than the behaviors themselves.. an annual or semi-annual performance appraisal performed by an employee’s immediate supervisor). damaging property..7 million. diagnose the cause of.Counterproductive work behavior Bullying consists of progressive and systematic negative antisocial behavior and psychological mistreatment of one employee against another.g. Employee sabotage are behaviors that can “damage or disrupt the organization’s production. items such as absences. subjective evaluations (e. At least one study suggests that 45% of companies experience financial fraud. but the losses in the aggregate are substantial. performance. Substance abuse is a problem that can have an effect on work attendance. In addition to exposure to incidents of bullying. Performance data is the most common method of evaluating ineffective job performance and often includes personnel data (e. or resolve.[43] Causes of employee theft include characteristics of the individual and environmental conditions such as frustrating and unfair working conditions. hostile or offensive working environment. gossiping.[41] Factors such as Conscientiousness have been shown to be negatively related to theft behaviors.g. and legal fees when the victims of bullying sue the organization. or creating an intimidating. or the harming of employees or customers. higher absenteeism. disciplinary actions and safety violations). Employee theft is estimated to account for billions of dollars of loss globally each year. selection errors that evaluate mistakes of hiring the wrong employees.

Counterproductive work behavior


Notable Behavior Exclusions
CWBs are “active and volitional acts engaged in by individuals, as opposed to accidental or unintentional actions.” [47] CWBs, therefore do not include acts that lack volition, such as the inability to successfully complete a task. Nor do CWBs include involvement in an accident, although purposeful avoidance of the safety rules that may have led to the accident would represent a CWB. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2002) estimates the cost of accidents to organizations to be $145 million annually. Most research on this topic has attempted to evaluate characteristics of the workplace environment that lead to accidents and determination of ways to avoid accidents. There has also been some research on the characteristics of accident-prone employees that has found they are typically younger, more distractible, and less socially adjusted than other employees. Recent research has shown that an organization's safety climate has been associated with lower accident involvement, compliance with safety procedures, and increased proactive safety behaviors. Another set of behaviors that do not fit easily into the accepted definition of CWBs, are those described as unethical pro-organizational behaviors (UPBs). UPBs represent illegitimate means intended to further the legitimate [48] UPBs are not necessarily intended to harm the organization, although the UPBs may interests of an organization. result in adverse consequences to the organization, such as a loss of trust and goodwill, or in criminal charges against the organization.[49] In law enforcement, UPBs are exhibited in a form of misconduct called Noble Cause Corruption.[50] Noble Cause Corruption occurs when a police officer violates the law or ethical rules in order to reduce crime or the fear of crime. An example of Noble Cause Corruption is testilying,[51] in which a police officer commits perjury to obtain the conviction of a supposed criminal. UPBs have not received the same attention from researchers that CWBs have received.[52]

Relationship between OCB and CWB
See (Organizational citizenship behavior. (2011, March 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 03:59, March 27, 2011, from http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Organizational_citizenship_behavior& oldid=420120011 )

Current Research Topics and Trends
By definition, counterproductive work behaviors are voluntary acts that are detrimental to an organization.[53] They have important implications for the well-being of an organization.[54] Theft alone is estimated to cause worldwide losses in the billions of dollars each year.[55] These estimated losses do not include losses from other sources, nor do they consider the fact that many losses attributable to CWBs go undetected.[56] The consequences of CWBs and their persistence in the workplace[57] have led to increased attention being given to the study of such behaviors.[58] Current trends in industrial organizational psychology suggest a continuing increase in the study of CWBs.[59] Research into CWBs appears to fall into three broad categories: (1) classification of CWBs;[60] (2) predicting counterproductive behaviors;[61] and (3) furthering the theoretical framework of CWBs.[62] A review of peer reviewed journals following this article shows the broad interest in CWBs. A brief list of noted journals includes The International Journal of Selection and Assessment, The Journal of Applied Psychology, Computers in Human Behavior, Personality and Individual Differences, Occupational Health Psychology, Human Resource Management Review, Military Justice, Criminal Justice Ethics, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, and International Journal of Nursing Studies. The variety of journals reporting in the area of CWBs reflects the breadth of the topic and the global interest in studying these behaviors. Researchers use many sources in attempting to measure CWBs. These include potentially subjective measures such as self-reports, peer reports, and supervisor reports.[63] More objective methods for assessing CWBs include

disciplinary records, absentee records, and job performance statistics.[64] Each of these methods present potential

Counterproductive work behavior problems in the measurement of CWBs. For example, self-reports always have the potential for bias with individuals trying to cast themselves in a good light.[65] Self-reports may also cause problems for researchers when they measure what an incumbent 'can-do' and what an incumbent 'will-do.'[66] Peer and supervisor reports can suffer from personal bias, but they also suffer from lack of knowledge of the private behaviors of the job incumbent whose behavior is being studied.[67] Archival records suffer from lack of information about the private behaviors of incumbents, providing instead information about instances where incumbents are caught engaging in CWBs. Some researchers have proposed a differential detection hypothesis which predicts that there will be discrepancies between reports of detected CWBs and other reports of CWBs.[68] The lack of accurate measures for CWBs jeopardizes the ability of researchers to find the relationships between CWB and other factors they are evaluating.[69] The primary criticism of research in CWBs has been that too much of the research relies on a single-source method of measurement relying primarily on self-reports of counterproductive work behavior.[70] Several studies have therefore attempted to compare self-reports with other forms of evidence about CWBs. These studies seek to determine whether different forms of evidence converge, or effectively measure the same behaviors.[71] Convergence has been established between self-reports and peer and supervisor reports for interpersonal CWBs but not organizational CWBs.[72] This finding is significant because it promotes the ability of researchers to use multiple sources of evidence in evaluating CWBs.[73]


Correlates, predictors, interactions, moderators and mediators
Organizational justice or fairness perceptions have been shown to influence the display of counterproductive work behaviors. Distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice have all been shown to include both counterproductive work behaviors aimed at individuals, such as political deviance and personal aggression; and counterproductive work behaviors aimed at the organization, such as production slowdown and property deviance.[74] Overall perceptions of unfairness may particularly elicit interpersonal counterproductive work behaviors such as political deviance and personal aggressions. Interpersonal justice and informational justice may also predict counterproductive work behaviors aimed at the supervisor, such as neglecting to follow supervisory instructions, acting rudely toward one’s supervisor, spreading unconfirmed rumors about a supervisor, intentionally doing something to get one’s supervisor in trouble, and encouraging coworkers to get back at one’s supervisor.[75] Personality is a predictor of an employee’s proclivity toward counterproductive work behaviors. With regard to the Big Five, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience all predict counterproductive behaviors. When an employee is low in conscientiousness, counterproductive work behaviors related to the organization are more likely to occur.[76] [77] Employees who are low in agreeableness will exhibit counterproductive work behaviors related to interpersonal deviant behaviors.[78] [79] Furthermore, in terms of greater specificity, for employees low in conscientiousness, sabotage and withdrawal are more likely to occur. For employees low in extraversion, theft is likely to occur. Finally, for employees high in openness to experience, production deviance is likely to occur.[80] Affect, one’s feeling or emotion, also predicts the likelihood of counterproductive work behaviors occurring. Employees with high negative affectivity typically display more counterproductive work behaviors than those with positive affectivity.[81] Finally, employees with narcissistic personalities tend to exhibit more counterproductive work behaviors as well.[82] Interpersonal conflict in the workplace can also lead to counterproductive work behaviors.[83] Interpersonal conflict with the supervisor can lead to counterproductive work behaviors such as defiance, undermining, and colluding with coworkers to engage in deviant behavior.[84] Interpersonal conflict with peers can lead to counterproductive work behaviors such as harassment, bullying, and physical altercations.[85] [86]

Counterproductive work behavior Research into the relationship between cognitive ability and CWBs is contradictory. When CWBs are operationalized as disciplinary records of detected CWBs, a strong negative relationship between cognitive ability has been found.[87] This relationship did not hold, however, when cognitive ability was operationalized as educational attainment.[88] A longitudinal study of adolescents through young adulthood found that, among those individuals who exhibited conduct disorders as youths, high levels of cognitive ability were associated with higher levels of CWBs, a positive relationship.[89] Other research has found that General Mental Ability is largely unrelated to self-reports of CWBs including theft (although a weak link to incidents of lateness was detected).[90] In the same study, grade point average showed a stronger relationship to CWBs.[91] Contradictions in the findings may be explained in the differential effects between measures of cognitive ability and self-reported versus detected incidents of CWBs. Self-control has been evaluated as a significant explanation of CWBs. Like, conscientiousness, self-control, or internal control, is seen as a stable individual difference that tends to inhibit deviant behaviors.[92] The identification of self-control as a factor in deviant behaviors flows from work in criminology, where self-control is seen as the strength of one's ability to avoid short-term gain for long-term costs.[93] Using multiple regression analysis, one study compared the effects of 25 characteristics (including self-control, justicial factors, equity factors, positive affect, levels of autonomy, and a variety of other individual characteristics) on CWBs. The study showed that self-control was the best predictor of CWBs and that most of the other factors had negligible predictive value.[94] Cognitive ability and age were among the remaining factors that showed some effect. These additional findings are consistent with research that tends to show older employees exercise a greater level of self-control.[95] Age appears to be an important factor in predicting CWBs. While age does not appear to be strongly related to core task performance, creativity, or performance in training, it does appear to be positively related to organizational citizenship behaviors and negatively related to CWBs.[96] Older employees seem to exhibit less aggression, tardiness, substance abuse, and voluntary absenteeism (although sickness related absenteeism is somewhat higher than younger employees). Some researchers argue that the lower rate of CWBs may be due to better self-regulation and self-control. One line of research in CWBs looks not at the instigators of CWBs, but the victims' provocative target behavior, or the behaviors of the victims of CWBs, which are seen as potential mediating factors in the frequency and intensity of CWBs originated against them.[97] This line of research suggests that low levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, and high levels of Neuroticism, in the victims of CWBs may lead to more incidents of CWBs, like incivility. Affective Events Theory has been used to explain that some individuals report being the victim of incivility more often because they are more sensitive to it than other workers. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to identify and manage emotional information in oneself and others and focus energy on required behaviors.[98] The factors making up EI include: (1) appraisal and expression of emotion in self; (2) appraisal and recognition of emotions in others; (3) regulation of emotions; and, (4) use of emotions.[99] To the extent that EI includes the ability to manage emotions, it can be expected that it will have an influence on CWBs similar to that found for self-control. Research in this area is limited, however, one study looking for the moderating effects of EI on the relationships between distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice failed to find a significant moderating effect in any of these relationships.[100]


Peer Reporting
Normative behavior within organizations tends to discourage workers from reporting the observed CWBs of their peers, although this tendency can be reduced when a group is punished for the CWBs of individual members.[101] There are three factors that seem to be most influential on peer reporting of CWBs: the emotional closeness between the person exhibiting the CWBs and the person observing the CWBs; the severity of the misconduct observed, and the presence of witness.[102] Peers are more likely to report the CWBs of colleagues when the conduct is severe, or when there are other witnesses present, and less likely to report CWBs when they are

Counterproductive work behavior emotionally close to the person committing the CWBs. A key problem in the use of peer reports of CWBs instead of self-reports of CWBs is that peer reports only capture observed behaviors and are not able to identify CWBs committed secretly.[103]


Strategies for Managing Counterproductive Work Behaviors
A substantial body of research has demonstrated that stable characteristics of individuals are associated with the likelihood of CWBs. Some examples of stable characteristics that have been demonstrated to have relationships with CWBs include Conscientiousness and Agreeability,[104] motivation avoidance,[105] cognitive ability,[106] and self-control.[107] To the extent that these stable conditions predict CWBs, reduction of CWBs in an organization can begin at the recruitment and selection phase of new employees.
[108] as is cognitive ability Integrity screening is one common form of screening used by organizations [109] screening. Personality testing is also common in screening out individuals who may have a higher incidence of CWBs.[110] Work samples have been found to be a more effective screening tool than integrity testing alone, but integrity testing and cognitive testing together are even better screening tools.[111] While the use of screening instruments may be an imperfect decision-making tool, the question often facing the recruitment officer is not whether the instrument is perfect, but whether, relative to other available screening tools, the screening tool is functional.[112]

However, organizations must do more than screen employees in order to successfully manage CWBs. Substantial research has demonstrated that CWBs arise out of situational factors that occur in the day-to-day operations of an organization, including organizational constraints,[113] lack of rewards,[114] illegitimate tasks,[115] interpersonal conflicts,[116] and lack of organizational justice.[117] Research has shown that individuals who are treated unfairly are more likely to engage in CWBs.[118] One major step that organizations can take to reduce the impetus for CWBs is therefore to enhance organizational justice.[119] Maintaining communications and feedback, allowing participation of employees, and supervisory training are other suggestions for mitigating CWBs.[120] Organizations must also pay close attention to employees for signs and sources of interpersonal conflicts so that they can be identified and tended to as necessary.[121] Combating CWBs comes with some costs, including the costs of selection, monitoring, and implementing preventive measures to reduce triggers for CWBs. Before undertaking costly measures to reduce CWBs, it may be worthwhile for an organization to identify the costs of CWBs.[122] If the cost-benefit analysis does not show a savings, then the organization must decide whether the battle against CWBs is worth fighting. As part of this consideration, the organization should be aware that at least one set of researchers suggest that some CWBs can serve to relieve tension in certain circumstances.[123]

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59(1).2010. . C. Liesl K.1468-2389. (2007). doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.x [114] Spector. E.. (2010). Kimberly E. 1272-1288. M.1111/j. Gursakal.00461. (2010).00490. M.00416.2009. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 45(1). Spector PE Counterproductive work behavior: investigations of actors and targets (2005) Hunter EM Confessions of a disgruntled waiter: counterproductive work behavior in the service industry (2006) Tucker JS The multilevel effects of occupational stress on counterproductive work behavior: a longitudinal study in a military context (2005) • Vincent RC Workplace integrity: an examination of the relationship among personality. Counterproductive work behavior among white-collar employees: A study from Turkey. K. 18(1). 233-239. & Tziner. "The Relative Importance of Correlates of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior Using Multiple Sources of Data". & Fox.. & Spector. and task performance: Investigating the moderating role of ability-based emotional intelligence. & Bruursema.. K. Tschan.483852 [120] Fodchuck. 94(1). A. (January 2008). Personality and Individual Differences 49: 537–41. & Smithikrai. doi:10. Work environments that negate counterproductive behaviors and foster organizational citizenship: Research-based recommendations for managers. • Bayram. International Journal of Selection and Assessment 17: 180–8. D. N. 70-96.03. N. P. & Bilgel. L. (2010).2010. "Counterproductive Work Behavior Among White-Collar Employees: A study from Turkey". (2006).1. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. • Bowling. 180-188. Becker.1037/a0018349 97 Further reading Books • • • • • Durando MW It's good to be bad: potential benefits of counterproductive work behavior (2007) Enns JR The roles of realistic conflict and relative deprivation (2006) Fox S. PMID 20063961. 17(2). When destructive deviance in the workplace becomes a liability: A decisional behavioral model. A. & Jacobshagen. M. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Penney. V.. Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology.. 59(1). Illegitimate tasks and counterproductive work behavior. 75-86. L. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 27-46. K. doi:10.1007/s11135-009-9277-0 [123] Krischer.paid. S. Counterproductive behavior at work: An investigation into reduction strategies. 41-60. F. 180-188. N. The effect of organizational justice on contextual performance. N.. academic integrity and counterproductive work behavior (2007) Academic papers • O'Brien.. doi:10. (2009). E. Meier. Spector.1080/08959280701522189. & Greenidge.1111/j. Applied Psychology: An International Review.. The popularity contest at work: Who wins. A.x [119] Chang. (2010). Tammy D. Nuran. 14(1). "Employee personality as a moderator of the relationships between work stressors and counterproductive work behavior". Gursakal.. Eschleman.2010.1111/j. M.00414. • Bolton.1468-2389. . Bruk-Lee. (2010). Allen. N. doi:10. The Psychologist Manager Journal.. doi:10. 21(8). Human Performance 21 (1): 62–88. (2007).. S. Lamarcus R.. E. doi:10. Gursakal.00461. Barber. & Judge.Counterproductive work behavior [113] Bayram. Can counterproductive work behaviors be productive? CWB as emotion-focused coping.1111/0 468-2389.x [115] Semmer. [121] Scott. The social stressors-counterproductive work behavior link: Are conflicts with supervisors and coworkers the same? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology . K.and peer-reports of counterproductive work behavior.2009. KJ (2010).. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. International Journal of Stress Management.11. "Big Five trait predictors of differential counterproductive work behavior dimensions". & Hunter.. S. 17(2).x [117] Fox. doi:10.x [116] Bayram. (2010). Bilgel. Nazan (2009). why. 11(2).x. Goh.. doi:10. M. B.1037/a0017326.1111/j. Necmi. (2009).1037/1076-8998. counterproductive work behaviors. Counterproductive work behavior and organisational citizenship behavior: Are they opposite forms of active behavior? Applied Psychology: An International Review.00461.14. 10(1).145 [122] Levy.. doi:10. N. Does your coworker know what you're doing? Convergence of self. P. Journal of occupational health psychology 15 (1): 91–103.1464-0597. 15(2). Larissa K.1037/1072-5245. Counterproductive work behavior among white-collar employees: A study from Turkey. doi:10.1037/a0012951. (2011). and what do they receive? Journal of Applied Psychology. moral reasoning. N. NA. 154-166...1080/09585192..2. 21-39.047.1468-2389.. T. doi:10. D.2009. P. Facchin. L. 145-156. doi:10.2009.2009. 20-33. T. & Bilgel. N. A.1016/j. doi:10.41 [118] Devonish. E. (2009).. doi:10.

doi:10. Kari (2007). "Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behavior & Counterproductive Work Behavior in the Geographical Context of Pakistan" (http://www.. "The role of power in sexual harassment as a counterproductive behavior in organizations".and peer-reports of counterproductive work behavior". Jian-Wei. University of South Florida.1111/j. Goh.2010. Umair (January 2009). • Fox. Yu-Xin (2009).14.2007.com/32/60/3260044. Paula M. Advances in Psychological Science 17 (5): 1059–66.wayne.010. Angeline (2007). RS (2005). "Parsing the Definition and Typology of Enterprise Counterproductive Work Behavior" (http://journal. PMID 16316277.net/1765/19631) (Doctoral Thesis). MC (2009).handle. "Overlooked issues in the conceptualization and measurement of counterproductive work behavior". National Changhua University of Education. An attributional analysis of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to occupational stress (http://gradworks. Nathan.1559-1816. The Journal of applied psychology 90 (6): 1241–55.1080/08959285. • Popovich.00224. Moss. • De Jonge. Internation Journal of Business and Management 4 (1): 85–92.1241.psych.com/32/60/3260059. (2010). (March 2003). Terry (2010).Counterproductive work behavior • Bowling.asp?bsid=13023). Kari (October 2007).1111/1468-2389. ISSN 1671-3710. Suzy. (2007). • Clark.. Journal of Vocational Behavior 59: 291–309. Why Do Employees Behave Badly? An Examination Of The Effects Of Mood. Michael A. doi:10. Sackett. The relations between perceived loafing. • ullah Bukhari.12. doi:10.2009. "Investigating the Dimensionality of Counterproductive Work Behavior". Gary.00270. Ali. International journal of nursing studies 46 (5): 699–707. Simon A. Shane.2009. Spector.03. How individual values and trait boredom interface with job characteristics and job boredom in their effects on counterproductive work behavior (http://gradworks. Peeters. "Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) in Response to Job Stressors and Organizational Justice: Some Mediator and Moderator Tests for Autonomy and Emotions". • Cem-Ersoy. PMID 19185863. • Bruursema.umi.hrmr. • Fox.org/ journal/index. "A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior".ijnurstu. International Journal of Selection and Assessment 11: 30–42.1016/j.1006/jvbe. "The Impact of Personality and Team Context on the Relationship Between Workplace Injustice and Counterproductive Work Behavior". doi:10. Paul E. doi:10. Human Performance 23: 305–22. "Does your coworker know what you're doing? Convergence of self. • Flaherty.ac.php/ijbm/article/viewFile/570/548). Personality. 98 .1803. Angeline. Zirgham. Tsang-Kai. doi:10. Burns. Human Resource Management Review 20: 45–53.hrmr. University of South Florida. Melissa L. Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Cross-cultural comparisons between Turkey and the Netherlands (http://hdl. J.ccsenet.2001.1037/1072-5245. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 37: 2549–75. Bruursema. Beehr. • Bowling. Melissa L.edu/oa_dissertations/ 40) (Doctoral Dissertation).x. revenge motive and counterproductive work behavior (http://academic-papers. Paul R.41. • Zhang. Warren. Human Resource Management Review 20: 54–61. Liu. And Job Demands On Counterproductive Work Behavior (http://digitalcommons.. html) (Doctoral Thesis).05. • Goh.. S (2001). International Journal of Stress Management 14: 41–60.1016/j. ISBN 978-905335-290-8.6. Nathan A. doi:10.1016/j.doc) (Graduate Thesis).2008. (2010).org/ocs2/session/Papers/A2/196. "Productive and Counterproductive Attendance Behavior: an Examination of Early and Late Arrival to and Departure from Work". • Gruys. doi: Malissa (2010). doi:10. • Hung. N (2010).501048.cn/jinzhan/qikan/epaper/zhaiyao.003. • Dalal. Gruys.umi. "Convergence of self-reports and coworker reports of counterproductive work behavior: a cross-sectional multi-source survey among health care workers".html) (Doctoral Thesis).

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and operations. control. • Tucker JS The multilevel effects of occupational stress on counterproductive work behavior: A longitudinal study in a military context – Portland State University 2005 (http://gradworks. Suzy (2010). • Spector.2009. Cross functional in project development is a turf war sponsored by management. engineering. Adler. PMID 19586221. doi:10. Journal of occupational health psychology 14 (3): 257–71.. Paul E. RR. human resources.1464-0597.usf. for example – who are all focused on a specific objective and are responsible to work as a team to improve coordination and innovation across divisions and resolve mutual problems.umi. "An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior". Human Resource Management Review 12: 269–92. Mohr.com/32/18/3218155. Sinclair. "Stress and counterproductive work behavior: multiple relationships between demands.cas. P (2002). JS.1111/j. Thomas. AB (2009).1016/S1053-4822(02)00049-9. JL.Counterproductive work behavior • Spector. In some cases. marketing. consultants are brought in to direct the battles. CD. • Tucker. html) Cross-functional teams A cross-functional team is a group of employees from various functional areas of the organization – research.1037/a0014951. doi:10. . Salvi.edu/~pspector/scales/cwbcpage. Applied Psychology 59: 21–39.html) 100 External links • Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist (CWB-C) (http://shell. doi:10. "Counterproductive Work Behavior and Organisational Citizenship Behavior: Are They Opposite Forms of Active Behavior?".x. finance. AD.00414. and soldier indiscipline over time". Fox.

cfm . Advantages • Helps patrons/customers/clients in the long run.com by John Richardson References [1] http:/ / www. • Routine scheduling is enhanced with the ability to move staff about the "Operation". etc. Increased standardization of jobs.Cross-training (business) 101 Cross-training (business) Cross-training in business operations involves training employees to engage in quality control measures. • Can increase the "employability" of staff who have the opportunity to train in areas they were not originally hired for. increased flexibility and ability to cope with unexpected absences. • Raises an awareness of what other departments do. outdated techniques and bureaucratic drift are challenged. • Better coverage. emergencies. • Requires staff to re-evaluate the reasons and methods for accomplishing their work. as employees are empowered to answer questions about the entire organization. Employees are trained in tangent job functions to increase oversight in ways that are impossible through management interactions with workers alone. com/ public/ 385. Appreciated "intellectual capital" Improved individual efficiency. Heightened Morale External links • Cross Training [1] article at restaurantowner. inefficient methods. illness. Other advantages include • • • • • Increased flexibility and versatility. restaurantowner. if not eliminated.

uk/ scholar?hl=en& lr=& q=intitle%3AThe+ Dynamics+ of+ Delayering%3A+ Changing+ Management+ Structures+ in+ Three+ Countries& as_publication=Journal+ of+ Management+ Studies& as_ylo=2003& as_yhi=2003& btnG=Search [3] http:/ / www. google. co. and 2) Organization Development (OD). blackwell-synergy. Also. theglobeandmail. The Globe and Mail. Groups within organizations use HRD to initiate and manage change. Richard Dunford (2003). "The benefits of 'delayering'" [3]. References • Craig R. organization. HRD does not occur without the organization. Human Resource Development is the integrated use of training. Process. HRD develops the key competencies that enable individuals in organizations to perform current and future jobs through planned learning activities.[7] TD alone can leave an organization unable to tap into the increase in human. HRD is not only a field of study but also a profession. “The capacities of individuals depended on their access to education”.00339. com/ servlet/ story/ RTGAM.net/. HRD ensures a match between individual and organizational needs. 00339?journalCode=joms [2] http:/ / scholar.[2] The same statement applies to organizations themselves. . that is. Journal of Management Studies 40 (2): 225–256.1111/1467-6486.[6] HRD practicioners and academia focus on HRD as a process. 20060628. under-realized workforce. doi:10. Practice and Relation to Other Fields Notably. the development of human expertise for the purpose of improving performance. Swanson.[3] Resources An excellent resource for understanding the foundations of HRD can be found in "Brief Foundations of Human Resource Development"[4] by Richard A. References [1] http:/ / www. empowering the organization to take advantage of its human resource capital. and career development efforts to improve individual. HRD as a process occurs within organizations and encapsulates: 1) Training and Development (TD). A detailed PowerPoint and HTML overview of Foundations of Human Resource Development.[5] a textbook used in graduate courses.[1] Adam Smith states. but it requires a much broader field to cover both areas. Retha Wiesner. wxcabriefs28-2/ BNStory/ Grow/ home/ Human resource development Human Resources Development (HRD) as a theory is a framework for the expansion of human capital within an organization through the development of both the organization and the individual to achieve performance improvement. 1111/ 1467-6486. • Wallace Immen (2006-06-28). HRD practicitioners find the interstices of win/win solutions that develop the employee and the organization in a mutually beneficial manner. so the practice of HRD within an organization is inhibited or promoted upon the platform of the organization's mission. that is. com/ doi/ abs/ 10. OD alone can result in an oppressed.Delayering 102 Delayering Delayering is a term in management and corporate restructuring that refers to a planned reduction in the number of layers of a management hierarchy. group and organizational effectiveness. Littler. knowledge or talent capital. may be found at http://textbookresources. "The Dynamics of Delayering: Changing Management Structures in Three Countries" [1] ( – Scholar search [2]).

not the end goal itself. training needs analyst.”[15] Over a decade ago (as of 2011).”[13] Human Resources Development is the framework that focuses on the organizations competencies at the first stage. and health and safety training. “with a specific learning objective”. “organized learning over a given period of time.[8] 103 Discussion Human Resources Development is not a defined object. to satisfy the organizations long-term needs and the individuals’ career goals and employee value to their present and future employers. A successful Human Resources Development program will prepare the individual to undertake a higher level of work. potentially satisfying the organization’s goals. sales and marketing training. maintains and enhances skills to perform the job. areas of expertise and practice that fall within this definition of HRD are recognized as performance improvement. “Training provides. Human Resources Development from a business perspective is not entirely focused on the individual’s growth and development. but a series of organized processes. “attaining or upgrading the skills and attitudes of employees at all levels in order to maximize the effectiveness of the enterprise”. not solely for individual improvement. and other field include: HRD manager. many universities offered Human Resource Development degrees (both graduate and undergraduate). Having become available only in 1980.[9] Specific interventions. to provide the possibility of performance change. and individual career development advisor. Other typical HRD practices include: Executive and supervisory/management development.[10] Human Resources Development as a structure allows for individual development. one of the more well-known universities offering degrees in Human Resource Development is the University of Minnesota. professional skills training. The Human Resources Development framework views employees as an asset to the enterprise whose value will be enhanced by development: “Its primary focus is on growth and employee development[…] it emphasizes developing individual potential and skills” [11] An apprentice will step through the development process to become a tradesman in their field as will a white-collar trainee to become a professional in their field. Human Resources Development can be defined simply as developing the most important section of any business its human resource by. blended learning designer. non-profit. Training will allow the individual to complete a task within their field today Gutteridge and Hutcheson maintain that. technical/job training. HRD positions in businesses.[17] As a Program of Study in Formal Education Academic programs in Human Resource Development (HRD) are available at both the undergraduate and graduate level. organizational learning. chief learning officer. health care.[14] The people within an organization are its human resource. The development of the individual will benefit both the individual and the organization. management development specialist.”[12] Education and training will develop the individual to become a tradesman or a professional in the future. vice president of organizational effectiveness.[19] . and then developing the employee. Individual education and development is a tool and a means to an end.Human resource development vision and values. career management and leadership development. training manager or director. through education. a discussion in Human Resource Development International's[16] "HRDI special issue: defining HRD" in 2001 made it plain that HRD has existed as a field of study. training. “Development occurs to enhance the organization's value. customer service training. new employee orientation.[18] By 2011.

Search/ References • Elwood F. edu/ hrd/ [9] Nadler 1984 [10] Swanson 2010. p. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education. Not for Profit Private. [22] http:/ / www. edu/ olpd/ grad-programs/ HRD/ med-ps.ShowBasic/ Itemid. umn.Human resource development 104 University Institution Type Degree Online Regional accreditation University of Arkansas at Fayetteville Xavier University Public. edu/ hrd/ [4] Swanson 2008 [5] Swanson 2011 [6] Swanson 2011 [7] Swanson 2010 [8] http:/ / www. edu/ olpd/ undergrad-programs/ HRD/ default.184/ instid. xavier.com_directory/ Action. Holton and Trott 1996 [16] HRDI [17] Woodal 2001 [18] University of Minnesota HRD Program [19] http:/ / www. James W. Not for Profit Bachelor of Science in Education.edu/hrd • University of Arkansas at Fayetteville.au/artspapers/26 • Kelly D. http://www. edu/ hrd [21] http:/ / www.university%20of%20minnesota/ lang. Richard A. Other Constituencies..en/ . Not for Profit Public.uark.en/ [24] http:/ / www.com_directory/ Itemid. "A Brief on the Foundations of Human Resource Development" . (2001).uow. cehd. 9 [11] Elwood. HLC North Central Association of Colleges and [26] Schools. universities. html [20] http:/ / www. The Handbook of Human Resources Development. John Wiley and Sons.edu. cehd. (2008).1612/ lang. uark. and the Contested Definitions of Human Resource Development.184/ instid. org/ component/ option. ncahlc. (2006).edu • Swanson. xavier. 2. p7 • Kelly D.ShowBasic/ Itemid. ncahlc. Elwood F. New York. org/ component/ option. au/artspapers/114. "Foundations of Human Resource Development" • Swanson. umn. Trott.184/ form_submitted. "Trends Toward a Closer Integration of Vocational Education and Human Resources Development". HLC North Central Association of Colleges and [23] Schools. 12.uow.TRUE/ institution. http://ro. http://www.edu. No. Dual Perceptions of HRD: Issues for Policy: SME’s.com_directory/ Action. [20] HRD Major Graduate (Masters level) Yes [20] Yes [22] No North Central Association of Colleges and [21] Schools. html [26] http:/ / www. edu/ hrd/ [23] http:/ / www. com/ edu/ Bachelor_degrees_in_Human_Resources_Development_page2. (1984). Holton III (2011).1030/ lang. Jr.MN/ submit. (1996). org/ component/ option. Vol./ state. • Xavier University HRD Program.xavier. html [25] http:/ / www. xavier. ncahlc.en/ showquery. Human Resource Development: For Enterprise and Human Development. Holton II. Richard A. • Nadler L Ed. HLC University of Minnesota Bachelor [24] Master [25] Notes [1] Kelly 2001 [2] Kelly 2001 [3] http:/ / www. http://ro. Holton and Trott 1996 [12] Nadler 1984 [13] Nadler 1984 [14] Kelly 2001 [15] Elwood.

[2] Arthur R.). pp. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. ISBN 9781592571451. Alpha Books. • HRDI. ISBN 9780814473306. 4(3). HRDI special issue: defining HRD. such as suspension. It is a common replacement.leg. pp. Washington State Legislature.co. pp. Complete Idiot's Guides (3rd ed.com/2010/06/ disciplinary-probation. — analysis of some New York State case law regarding disciplinary probation • Yosie Saint-Cyr (April 2005). Human Resource Development International. and expulsion.net. Pell (2003). Handbook of data and definitions in higher education. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.[3] Disciplinary probation is a status midway between those latter and being a student in good standing. and subject to special rules and regulations. Washington Administrative Code. "Disciplinary Probation" (http://hrmguide.[2] For employees. Student personnel series. disciplinary probation means that the student is on formal notice. 90. Discipline without punishment (2nd ed. Daily Journal of Commerce (Portland. it can result from both poor performance at work or from misconduct. "WAC 478-120-040: Disciplinary sanctions" (http:// apps. F. [3] Thomas Allan Brady and L. "Commentary: Probation can be a dicey proposition".wa. Grote (2006). HRM Guide. American Personnel and Guidance Association. [5] Richard C.[1] [3] The violation of these rules may lead to more severe forms of discipline. — an example of university regulations governing disciplinary probation • Harvey Randall (2010-06-21). A usual period for such probation is 90 days. 287. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Managing People. J. 350. Further reading • board of regents of the University of Washington (1972). http://www. New York Public Personnel Law.blogspot. 5–8.html • Woodall.html).uk/journals/routledge/13678868.aspx?cite=478-120-040).universities. — Barran's advice to employers for the terms to set for disciplinary probation .[2] For students. (2001).htm). ISBN 9780875893242. 1.com/edu/ Bachelor_degrees_in_Human_Resources_Development_page2. Student discipline in higher education. pp. International encyclopedia of higher education.Human resource development • University of Minnesota HRD Program.[5] References [1] Asa Smallidge Knowles (1977).gov/wac/default. it results from misconduct alone. — discplinary probation in Canadian employment law • Paula A Barran (2008-02-29).tandf. in non-unionized workplaces. "Disciplinary probation" (http://publicpersonnellaw. Public Employment Law Press. for the progressive disciplinary step of suspension without pay. Snoxell (1965).). [4] AACRAO Committee on Data and Definitions in Higher Education (1962). 6. First Reference. dismissal. Jossey-Bass. disciplinary probation is one common step in a scheme of progressive discipline.[4] For employees./canada/law/federal/ disciplinary-probation. OR). http://www.html 105 Disciplinary probation Disciplinary probation is a disciplinary status that can apply to students at a higher educational institution[1] or to employees in the workplace. American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers. ISSN 1937-4895. "Putting Employees On Probation". "disciplinary probation". poor academic performance instead resulting in scholastic probation.[1] For a student.

. especially without significantly concealing it.Domestic inquiry 106 Domestic inquiry A domestic inquiry in the context of human resource management. panic. after its removal from the place of death with specific intent: to obscure someone's association with the death. Marri Channa Reddy Human Resource Development Institute of Andhra Pradesh is a government owned organization located in Hyderabad. a dump job is an act of avoiding unwanted responsibility. Police usage In police work (and presumably serving as the source of its wider use) a "dump job" is the abandonment of a dead human body. They also suggest to investigators theories that involve the death having occurred in the context of otherwise illegal or scandalous circumstances. Marri Channa Reddy Human Resource Development Institute of Andhra Pradesh Dr. or their involvement in circumstances surrounding it. History The institute started as Institute of Administration in 1976. India.gov. Dr. means a search for truth or otherwise of facts/circumstances/charges alleged by the employer against its employee. whether it is their responsibility for it. the term is especially applied when the failure to act is accompanied by specific steps that increase the likelihood of the task's allocation elsewhere.in/) Dump job In American police slang (and influenced by it). References External links • Official site (http://www.hrdiap. or some combination of these possibilities. Such cases often entail extra forensics difficulties. that is to be obscured. It is an inquiry held by the management against its own employee against whom certain acts of misconducts are alleged. and/or awareness of either whoever left the body or whoever they seek to protect that the death is criminal. referring to a person's or group's declining to take on a task. despite their awareness of it raising the possibility of their being a straightforward candidate for it. Wider usage The term may also be applied (to some degree as a metaphor based on the police term) in any collaborative work situation.

allowing HR staff to focus less on the operational and more on the strategic elements of HR. J. (2004).. A 2007 CIPD survey states that "The initial research indicates that much-commented-on development such as shared services. 8 (3). A Barometer of HR Trends and Prospects. Transformational E-HRM is concerned with strategic HR activities such as knowledge management.. (1998).[4] Types There are three types of E-HRM. D. P. References [1] Strohmeier." Human Resource Management Review 17(1): 19-37. Utrecht: Lemma Publishers. and allow HR to become a strategic partner in achieving organizational goals. London: CIPD . outsourcing and e-HR have had relatively little impact on costs or staff numbers". H."[3] E-HRM is in essence the devolution of HR functions to management and employees.which is defined by Lepak and Snell as ". 215−234. [3] Lepak. S. They access these functions typically via intranet or other web-technology channels. performance management and so forth. improve efficiency and cost effectiveness within the HR department. and deploy intellectual capital. but they have yet to be manifested to a significant degree. (2007). C. Human Resource Management Review. Relational E-HRM is concerned with supporting business processes by means of training. [4] CIPD (2007).[1] E-HRM is not the same as HRIS (Human resource information system) which refers to ICT systems used within HR departments. & Snell. M. [2] Ruël. & Looise. These are described respectively as Operational. J. "Research in e-HRM: Review and implications. It is anticipated that. T..[2] Nor is it the same as V-HRM or Virtual HRM .. recruitment. Goals E-HRM is seen as offering the potential to improve services to HR department clients (both employees and management). The empowerment of managers and employees to perform certain chosen HR functions relieves the HR department of these tasks.payroll and employee personal data for example. S. and allowing organisations to lower HR department staffing levels as the administrative burden is lightened. as E-HRM develops and becomes more entrenched in business culture.a network-based structure built on partnerships and typically mediated by information technologies to help the organization acquire..E-HRM 107 E-HRM E-HRM is the (planning. E-HRM: Innovation or irritation. A. Relational and Transformational. strategic re-orientation.[2] An organisation may choose to pursue E-HRM policies from any number of these tiers to achieve their HR goals. Virtual HR: Strategic human resource management in the 21st century. Bondarouk. develop. Operational E-HRM is concerned with administrative functions . implementation and) application of information technology for both networking and supporting at least two individual or collective actors in their shared performing of HR activities. these changes will become more apparent.

As with income. age. while the population as a whole is proceeding further in formal educational programs. income and educational attainment remain highly correlated. For young adults aged between 25 and 29. The greatest increases in educational attainment were documented in the 1950s. had finished high school and nearly a quarter.68% 55.2%.[1] Overall the households and demographics featuring the highest educational attainment in the United States are also among those with the highest household income and wealth. 60s and 70s. As a whole. while the growth in both categories has slowed down over the past two decades. The percentage of both college and high school graduates continued to increase since 2000. 22%.[1] [1] This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. had earned a Bachelor's degree. the percentage of high school graduates was roughly 50% in 1950 versus 90% today. The vast majority of the population. In the 1950s and much of the 1960s high school graduates constituted about 50% of those considered adults (25 and above). the population of the United States is spending more years in formal educational programs.[1] .60% 38.62% 2. Post-secondary education is valued very highly by American society and is one of the main determinants of class and status. levels differ by race. Thus. Age 25 and Over (2009)[2] Education High school graduate Some college Associate's and/or Bachelor's degree Master's degree Doctorate or professional degree Percentage 86.S. population is similar to that of many other industrialized countries with the vast majority of the population having completed secondary education and a rising number of college graduates that outnumber high school dropouts. the proportion of the population having finished high school and the percentage of those having earned Bachelor's degrees remained at an all-time high. 85.94% In 2005. Since 1983 the percentage of people graduating from high school has increased from 85% to 88%. household configuration and geography.54% 7. General attainment of degrees/diplomas Educational attainment in the United States.Educational attainment in the United States 108 Educational attainment in the United States The educational attainment of the U.

1%) of whom had a Bachelor's degree or higher and foreign-born Hispanics.0% of African Americans. Foreign-born Hispanics. The low educational attainment of foreign-born Hispanics. In 2006.8% of whom had a four-year college degree. Overall nearly half (49. The gap was the largest between foreign-born Asian Americans. women earned 62% of Associate's degrees. in regard to those [1] who have earned a Bachelor's degree or higher. over half (50. but paradoxically. and 48. 17. 80.. 58% of Bachelor's degrees. Foreign-born Asian. followed by whites who had a higher percentage of high school graduates but a lower percentage of college graduates. who compose more than 50 percent of the Hispanic population.[5] Race While the educational attainment of all races increased during the 1990s.9% of Doctorates. 9.[4] In 2016/2017. At the bachelor’s level. “ "The percentage of the foreign born with a high school diploma (67 percent) was dramatically lower than that of the native population (88 percent). 59. 2003 ” .[1] The difference among races and cultures. the percentage with a bachelor’s degree was the same (27 percent). with the gap between African Americans and non-Hispanic whites decreasing. The same differences decrease significantly at the high school level with 89. Hispanics and Latinos also trailed far behind in terms of graduating from high school. and African Americans had a higher educational attainment in terms of having earned a four-year college degree than their native-born counterparts. Persons identifying as Hispanic or Latino. The opposite is true on the high school level and among Hispanics.3% of males and 8.. statistically. without regard to race.2% of Associate's degrees.[3] In 2005/2006. women have surpassed men in terms of completing secondary and post-secondary education with the gender gap almost completely reversed. 10.Educational attainment in the United States 109 Gender Overall. and just over a tenth (11. women are projected to earn 64.4% of non-Hispanic whites. in contrast. foreign born Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites fared better than their native counterparts.3% of non-Hispanic Blacks. had the lowest educational attainment. This large inequality might partially be explained thorough the influx of uneducated foreign-born Hispanic Americans who had not been offered the chance to complete secondary education in their home country and who had not completed secondary education in the United States.5% of Doctorates.. contributes to the low attainment levels of the entire Hispanic population. 60. and only 57% of Hispanics or Latinos having graduated from high school. Asian Americans had the highest educational attainment of any race.4%) of Hispanics or Latinos had a four-year college degree. 62." — US Census Bureau. 87. it was the only major group for which high school graduates constituted less than 80% of the population. had a smaller proportion with a bachelor’s degree than the native population.6% of Asian Americans. severe differences between the races remain..3% of females dropped out of high school. European.0% of Master's degrees.9% of Master's degrees. where the dramatically lower educational attainment of the foreign-born population decreased the educational attainment of the general Hispanophone populace.8%) of Asian Americans. especially among those with a Bachelor's degree or higher. both native and foreign born.[1] A trend becomes visible when comparing the foreign-born to the native-born populace of some races. nearly a third (30%) of non-Hispanic Whites. and 55.9% of Bachelor's degrees.

those who had some college education or an Associates degree and those who had a Bachelor's degree.9%) more. It was thirty percentage points among Hispanics or Latinos. roughly $21. the same as for African Americans.2%) more.761 for a male with an advanced degree.459 for a male high-school dropout to $90. The least significant difference was between those who had graduated from high school and those who had either some college or an Associates degree. Among whites the difference was three percentage points.8%. the income gap between races and genders remained at each educational level.000 (64. The second most dramatic difference in average income was between those with a Bachelor's degree with $51. Although the incomes of both men and women are associated with higher educational attainment (higher incomes for higher educational attainment).194.046 for both sexes the latter averaged $51. Among Asian Americans the difference was five percentage points. Overall 87. versus 67. The most significant average income difference was between Income by education and gender. While the former averaged $31. In the general population the proportion of persons with a Bachelor's degree or higher was the same among the foreign-born and native-born population (27.5% of the native born population had graduated from high school.2%).2%. As stated above fewer foreign born Americans completed high school than native born Americans.000 (42. The difference between those with a high . In 2003 average incomes ranged from $13. Here the difference was a mere $3. over $20.766 or 13.940 and those with an advanced degree who made $72.824.[1] 110 Income Educational attainment is strongly related to income in the United States.Educational attainment in the United States Only among Hispanics and Latinos was the proportion of college graduates larger among the native born population.

Overall.835 $45. the median household income was $46. The overall income increased over the course of This graph shows the median household income in 2003 dollars according to educational the 1990s. some-college.Educational attainment in the United States school diploma ($30. $33.309 $35.970 $68.016 $18.854 $51. . The following table shows the median household income according to the educational attainment of the householder.003 SOURCE: US Census Bureau.007 $24.787 $22. the median household income decreased for households and individuals at the high school drop-outs and graduate.296 age 25+ Median household income $45.873 in 2003 dollars. Overall the median household and personal income decreased for those with more than a 9th grade education but less than a four-year college degree since 1991.698 $88.830 $10.853 High High Some Associates Bachelor's Bachelor's Master's Professional Doctorate degree degree degree or more degree degree degree school school college drop-out graduate 111 individual age income 25+ Female. this increase did not take place on all levels of educational attainment.517 $15.461 $18. and an Associates degree level. however. while the median household income in 2003 was $45.016.308 annually. In 1991 the median household income in the US was $40.530 $73.679 $9. Income did. reaching its high in 1999.000 $96.125 $41.808 $31.763 $35.916 $55. 2003[6] [7] The change in median personal and household income since 1991 also varied greatly with educational attainment. races and levels of educational attainment was $36. [6] attainment.718 $36.073 $39.7% higher than today. 2.000) and those who did not complete high school ($18. but has been decreasing ever since.454 or 45%.536 $53.728 $73. $19. increase for those with a Bachelor's degree or more. While this trend held true for all levels of educational attainment the extent of chorinical fluctuations in income were greatly influenced by educational attainment.015 $50. While both the overall median personal and household income increased since 1991. In 1999.[1] Criteria Overall Less than 9th grade Median Male.446 $78.786 $15.334 $48.962 $21.826) was $8. the income in the United States for all sexes. The highest and lowest points of [6] [7] the median household income are presented in bold face. In other words.541 $100.990 $28. however.236. All data is in 2003 dollars and only applies to householders whose householder is aged twenty-five or older.751 $61.

830 $18.296 $52.979 $37.850 $82.584 $72. Asians were second highest on the college graduate level and had the highest overall income among the general population.607 $39.648 $46.162 $22.236 $45.468 $36.094 $102.679 and $59.944 annually.383 $103.588 $54.414 $17.302 $105.977 $24.282 $47.899 $99.718 $23.376 $72.235 $43.993 $78.918 $100. .620 Some college Associates degree Bachelor's degree Bachelor's degree or more Master's degree Professional degree Doctorate degree 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 $40.865 $77.487 Average $43.537 $50.605 $53.122.409 $110. last on the non-high school.183 $46.357 $67. Racial income difference were also significant at every level of educational attainment with the largest racial inequality being between European and African Americans who did not complete high school and those with advanced college degrees.949.116 $73. All races except Whites ranked last on at least one level with African Americans ranking Income by education and race.845 $70.Educational attainment in the United States 112 Year Overall Median Less than 9th grade High school drop-out $23. 2003[6] Among the races.322 $37.000 $104.900 $98.699 $107.013 High school graduate $37. The largest racial inequity was between European Americans with a Bachelor's degree who made $53.263 or [1] 29.734 $51.376 SOURCE: US Census Bureau.933 $22.150 $64.541 $78.958 $75.097 $81.614 $93.016 $17.368 $92.645 $77.787 $18.450 $18. the proportion of those having college degrees is greater among Asian Americans than among non-Hispanic whites. Asian Americans had the second highest with $72. Hispanics and African Americans had the lowest annual incomes among those with advanced degrees averaging $67.997 $68.008 $18.537 $63.446 $72.934 $64.9% less with an average annual income of $40. They also had the lowest average annual income for those with some college education or an Associates degree.520 $35.289 $44.324 $42.712 $95.796 $68.667 $109.925 $69. Overall European Americans with an advanced degree had the highest average annual income with $74. However.726 $48.166 $45.031 $17.830 $94.349 $69.835 $37.442 $96.688 $23.970 $46.338 $76. educational attainment retains its dramatic effect on average income which varies significantly at each educational level. European Americans (White Americans) had the highest average income at every level of educational attainment.487 $70.109 $51.523 $21.622 $44.852.300 $45.669 $75. and the overall highest average income is found among Asians. high school and advanced degree level.185 than Hispanics who made $12.854 $51.485 $45.609 $38.873 $40.153 $49.762 $19.728 $66.217 $96.096 $22.

that consisting of professionals and relating occupations was also the The educational attainment of employed largest field. While the largest occupational field.4% having a Bachelor's degree or higher. 90. Management and financial related occupations. The western United States had the highest percentage of those with some college or an Associates degree and ranked second for college The percent of the labor force in the Professional/Managerial and relating occupations.89% were employed in the other white and blue collar fields were those with a Bachelor's degree or higher constituted less than [1] a third of the work force. and less than 80% had graduated from high school. 79.1% of the population graduated from high school. The professional/managerial fields were the only two occupational fields where college graduates with a Bachelor's degree or higher represented the majority. fields featured a labor force where less than a tenth of the population had a Bachelor's degree or higher. construction. were employed in the professional and managerial fields while 61. 68. Overall 38. [1] white collar occupations and blue collar occupations. which had the smallest population of any region with thirty-six million residents. Overall the least educated occupational field was agriculture.02% occupational field. Business and managerial occupations were second with 97. These. The highest occupational attainment was among those in the Professional and related fields followed by those Business. Geography Educational attainment among the population aged 25 and above varied rather slightly with geography region. often described as blue collar.2% had some college education or an Associates degree and over two thirds. manufacturing. The population of the Northeastern United States. Here only 55. the fields relating to agriculture. the fields with lower educational attainment combined were civilians age 25 to 64 according to [1] larger than the professional and managerial fields combined. Among professional occupations. . had the highest percentage of high-school and college graduates.8%) had some college education or an Associates degree and only 6.Educational attainment in the United States 113 Occupation The educational attainment varied significantly among the different types of occupations. less than half had some college or an Associates. roughly one fifth (20.8% having graduated from high school. and transportation did not.2% had a Bachelor's degree or higher.4% had graduated from high school. ranking dead last on all educational levels. 53. 99.8% had a Bachelor's degree or higher.5% having some college or an associates degree and just over half. While nearly all employment fields feature a population where over 80% had graduated from high school with over a third having some college education or an Associates degree.

Educational attainment in the United States graduates. $500.[1] 114 Social class and education Educational attainment is one of the primary indicators of social class in the United States.[8] Academic Class Models Dennis Gilbert. Not only is a high educational attainment a status symbol by itself but it is also very closely related to the other two main indicators of social class: occupation and income. 2005 Class Capitalist class (1%) Typical characteristics Top-level executives. high-rung politicians. Ivy League education common. 2002 William Thompson & Joseph Hickey.[9] [10] educational attainment emerges as one of the top measurements of social class.9%) Typical characteristics Multi-millionaires whose incomes commonly exceed $350.[8] While the American social class system is vaguely defined concept with many contradicting theories.[8] [10] Overall. Overall it is fair to assume that the Northeast followed by the Western states were the most educated regions in the US on the college level. while those in the professional middle class are largely immune to economic fluctuations and can enjoy upper-middle range incomes even in the face of recessions. Ivy league education common. The South which had by far the largest population with roughly sixty-six million people had the lowest educational attainment at every level. Recent research has shown that not only is the statistical middle of society (those with income roughly 80% to 120% of the national median or members of the [11] but there also seems to a mid-quintile) no longer able to afford the lifestyle indicative of the middle class. heirs. A graduate degree and the roughly seven to eight years of post-secondary education serve as the main requirement for entering "The professions" and becoming part of the professional middle class. Class The super-rich (0. income of . As stated above education is the main requirement of becoming a member of the professional middle class and thus is also key to economic security as well as a comfortable lifestyle. Ivy League education common. and the professional middle class. 2004 class (1%) celebrities. Class Upper Typical characteristics Top-level executives. widening income gap in between those who may be described as being middle class. Leonard Beeghley.000+ common.[8] Education is a major key in becoming a more privileged member of the American middle class. with the Midwest leading on the High-school level and the South falling behind on all levels.[8] The only exception are entrepreneurs who can rank anywhere in the class system but are usually not referred to as professional middle class unless they are of the professions.000. In the United States it also important to differentiate between the statistical middle class. heirs. Those in the statistical middle may have to fear lay-offs and cost-cutting downsizing as well as out-sourcing. educational attainment is the main entrance barrier into more privileged parts of the middle class as it is not only of high value but is also the requirement for becoming a professional and earning the corresponding income. often defined as consisting of those who are neither rich nor poor. The proportion of high school graduates was the largest in the Midwest while the proportion of those with some college or an Associates degree was the second and that of those with a Bachelor's degree or higher was the third largest of any region. includes celebrities and powerful executives/politicians.

Most have some college education and are white-collar. largely in the form of home equity. Allyn & Bacon. Working class (32%) Clerical. NY. according to Bourdieu. low-rung clerical and some blue-collar workers. on the other hand. a man majority?. professionals and middle management with large work autonomy. B.000. J. Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees) professionals & managers with household incomes varying from the high 5-figure range to commonly above $100. a man making $40.000 may be typical. In 1977. upper classes are able and prepared to reach higher levels of educational attainment. Those with limited or no participation in the labor force. The Rich (5%) Households with net worth of $1 million or more. Some high school education. Some high school education.000 to $30. common household incomes range from $16. Working poor (13%) Service. but is commonly just adequate. Generally have college degrees. Educational attainment in social theory Bourdieu and cultural capital Many scholars have studied educational attainment in the US as a form of social reproduction and stratification. W. By rewarding the desired cultural capital with high academic achievement. [12] When elite class members enter the workforce.000. Middle College-educated workers with Lower Semi-professionals and craftsmen middle class with a roughly average standard (30%) of living. Lower middle class (32%) class considerably higher-than-average (plurality/ incomes and compensation. Students who possess the valued cultural capital.000 and a woman making $26. household incomes commonly range from $35. (1989). L.000 may be typical. CA: Wadsworth. Pierre Bourdieu presented the idea that education leads to social reproduction and a stratified society by honoring the cultural capital of elite classes. MA: Pearson. High economic insecurity and risk of poverty. Beeghley. 40% 45%) Blue-collar workers and those whose jobs are highly routinized with low economic security. Some high school education. while those who did not achieve the same level of academic success fall into subordinate occupations and status levels. (2004).000 may be typical. The poor (ca. Society in Focus. Boston. a household income of $18. The Structure of Social Stratification in the United States. most commonly salaried. Allyn & Bacon.Educational attainment in the United States Upper middle class (15%) [1] 115 Upper middle class (15%) [1] Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees). they are channeled are rewarded with high academic achievement. Standard of living varies depending on number of income earners. into high paying jobs and powerful positions within society. Underclass (12%) Lower class (ca. Belmont. High school education. . are not rewarded for their cultural capital in schools. some college education. making $57. Working class (30%) Clerical and most blue-collar workers whose work is highly routinized. 12%) Those living below the poverty line with limited to no participation in the labor force. Members of the working class. 14% 20%) Those who occupy poorly-paid positions or rely on government transfers. Boston.000 and a woman ca.000 to $75. Reliant on government transfers. & Hickey. NY: Harper-Colins. Some high school education.and blue-collar workers with often low job security. pink. Semi-professionals and craftsman with some work autonomy. 1  The upper middle class may also be referred to as "Professional class" Ehrenreich. 46%) making $40. (2005). Working class (ca. References: Gilbert. Typically. MA: Pearson. High school education. D.000. The Inner Life of the Middle Class. and are instead socialized for working class jobs. Thompson. (2002) The American Class Structure: In An Age of Growing Inequality. High school education.

Retrieved 2006-07-31. 1869-70 through 2016-17 (http:/ / nces. (1977) Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction. lower and working class students develop a sense of “distance. "Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009" (http:/ / www. pbs. html) on 2006-09-03. Laureau further explains that schools firmly encourage and expect parents to use concerted cultivation as a child-rearing strategy. ISBN 0-06-0973331. gov/ programs/ digest/ d07/ tables/ dt07_258. 30/ 19-bankruptcy. R. schools of medicine. According to Lareau.) Power and Ideology in Education. and elite institutions have remained closed to members of lower classes. distrust. Census Bureau. As a result. These differences in child rearing practices lead to children of lower and working class families to lack the necessary life skills that the children of the middle class possess. [12] Bourdieu. ed. archive. 1960 through 2006 (http:/ / nces. Oxford University Press. harvard. it is assumed that all people with doctorates also have undergraduate and high school degrees. Age 25 is used rather than age 18 because there are few people aged 18 or over with advanced degrees. gov/ hhes/ income/ histinc/ p16. gov/ programs/ digest/ d07/ tables/ dt07_178. where they are trained to hold positions of power. ISBN 0-671-79225-3. An Historical Sociology of Education and Stratification. html). NY: Touchstone. law. It is not assumed. Barbara (1989). (1979). New York. students. & Halsey. gov/ hhes/ income/ histinc/ h13. html). New York. CA: University of California Press. while children of middle class families gain a sense of entitlement. Unequal Childhoods. gov/ programs/ digest/ d07/ tables/ dt07_105. Collins and credentialism Randall Collins contributed the idea of credentialism to the study of class-based differences in educational attainment. 1979. [10] Fussel. Race. NY: Harper Collins. . The Inner Life of the Middle Class. e. [13] Lareau. news. and Family Life.S.[14] By teaching middle-class culture through the public education system. NY: Academic Press. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 487-511. asp) [5] Degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions. Fear of Falling. census. [9] "Middle class according to The Drum Major Institute for public policy" (http:/ / www. html). census. Retrieved 2006-09-24. ed.[13] The child-rearing practices of lower and working class families thus do not comply with the standards of educational institutions. Berkeley. (eds. Retrieved 2006-09-24. html) on 2006-09-07. however. A. A Guide through the American status system. degrees. census. . further isolating them from educational opportunities. pdf). census. while others acquire the credentials to compete in a subordinate job market and economy. [2] Note that these add up to more than 100% because they are cumulative. Lareau’s idea of concerted cultivation refers to an active involvement of parents in a child’s learning and development experiences by creating and controlling organized activities for their children. html).Educational attainment in the United States 116 Lareau and concerted cultivation Annette Lareau also addresses the factors that lead to social stratification in educational attainment. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [11] "Middle income can't buy Middle class lifestyle" (http:/ / www. pp. asp) [6] "Educational attainment and median household income" (http:/ / web. Retrieved 2006-07-25. (2003). New York. and are thus counted twice in the "lower" categories. edu/ gazette/ 2003/ 10. and finances in degree-granting institutions: Selected years. archive. References [1] "US Census Bureau report on educational attainment in the United States.. Collins maintains that public schools are socializing institutions that teach and reward middle class values of competition and achievement. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20060903121944/ http:/ / www.g. org/ now/ politics/ middleclassoverview. J. asp) [4] Historical summary of faculty. [14] Collins. Class. census. while lower and working class parents do not. A. Retrieved 13 January 2011. . Paul (1983). US Census Bureau" (http:/ / web. gov/ hhes/ income/ histinc/ p16. gov/ hhes/ income/ histinc/ h13. org/ web/ 20060907174557/ http:/ / www. by level of degree and sex of student: Selected years. html). middle class parents engage in concerted cultivation to teach their children. In: Karabel. The Credential Society. ed. . gov/ hhes/ socdemo/ education/ data/ cps/ 2009/ tables. 22 September 2010. 2003" (http:/ / www. by sex and race/ethnicity: Selected years. gov/ prod/ 2004pubs/ p20-550. [7] "Personal income and educational attainment. 1869-70 through 2005-06 (http:/ / nces. Anglo-Protestant elites are selectively separated from other students and placed into prestigious schools and colleges. . P. New York. [8] Ehrenreich. the elite class ensures a monopoly over positions of power. Class. H. In this way. U. [3] Percentage of high school dropouts among persons 16 through 24 years old (status dropout rate). census. . that all doctorates or professional degrees have Master's degrees. . and constraint” in educational institutions.

HRIS refers to enterprise resource planning software that streamlines human resource functions such as payroll.pdf). . In contrast. E-HRM is a system that allows management and employees access to human resource related information and services through an organization's intranet or web portal. it is the responsibility of HR to define how employees interact with the data. E-HR is different from E-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) and HRIS (Human Resource Information System) which are uses of technology. Census Bureau • The Big Payoff: Educational Attainment and Synthetic Estimates of Work-Life Earnings (http://www. Excessive data volumes is especially troublesome during litigation that requires electronic discovery. and sustainability within an organization. most notably human resources and information technology. More specifically. Census Bureau Electronic Human Resources Electronic human resources (E-HR) is a function of HR that is concerned with the use. security.Educational attainment in the United States 117 External links • Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003 (http://www. Some examples that illustrate human resources use of technology include HRIS and E-HRM. E-HR diagram showing some of the different aspects that affect E-HR Use Use refers to the implementation and interaction with technology in the workforce. and regulation of electronic information and processes within an organization. Management The Management aspect of E-HR involves drafting policies and controlling both the traffic and collection of electronic information.S.pdf). E-HR is a function of human resources that requires cross-functional knowledge and collaboration between multiple departments. and 40% of executives say that data volumes are becoming unmanageable. management. E-HR focuses on using technology to increase productivity. As new technology comes out that is more portable and capable of creating and storing more information. U.census.census. Use also includes other technological advances applied to human resource needs such as telepresence and RFID systems. According to a Deloitte study in August 2008. Unmanageable data makes locating relevant data more challenging which can manifest into significant losses through wasted storage space and reductions in productivity.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-550.S. 90% of employer data is electronically stored information (ESI). U. gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-210.

edu/e-hr/) • Payroll Software (http://www.. XYC Corporation (http:/ / www. so long as the employer had a "work-related purpose" for inspecting an employee's desk or reading messages sent by the employee on an agency paging system. preventing data theft is a primary concern of E-HR specialists. a significant source of data theft is employees and former employees because they have access to intellectual property stored on company networks. Regulation is a vital component of E-HR because data is considered a form of collateral.[2] The ruling came was based on a situation where police officers who sued after a wireless provider gave their department transcripts of an officer's text messages. because it is considered reasonable search. As case law is established through hearings the role of human resources with respect to technology will continue to grow to reduce liabilities from future litigation. The Court stated: “We agree with plaintiff that defendant [the employer] had a duty to report Employee’s activities to the proper authorities and to take effective internal action to stop those activities. Supreme Court rules in favor of California police chief who read employee's texts (http:/ / articles. References [1] New Jersey Appellate Court. Therefore.” The Court then sent the case back to the lower court for a trial on whether the employer’s action was the cause of the claimed injuries. Today. The mother claimed that the employer knew or should have known that the employee was using company computer systems to view. data theft is known one of the fastest growing white collar crimes globally. David G. it becomes a business necessity and fiduciary duty to protect the assets of a company from theft or exploitation. internetlibrary.S. download and participate in child pornography. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the California police chief which addressed whether the 4th Amendment's ban on "unreasonable searches" puts any limits on searches by public employers. As a result. com/ 2010/ jun/ 18/ nation/ la-na-court-worker-texting-20100618) External links • Grand Valley State University: E-HR (http://www. Below are two cases related to E-HR: [1] A case from New Jersey demonstrates the need for employers to monitor and discipline employees for misuse of technology. pdf) [2] Savage. The court said the limits were minimal. LA Times. Related Case Law There are numerous legal cases that have increased the need for E-HR over the last decade. com/ pdf/ Jane-Doe-XYC-Corporation-NJ-AD. effective records management policies must be created to facilitate lean data storage which involves maintaining pertinent information while removing data as it becomes irrelevant. This requires employers to monitor employees and establish security measures to prevent employee data theft and misuse of technology. similar to other capital assets. In the case an accounting employee posted nude photographs of his step daughter on the internet from the employer's computer. The case is on appeal to the U.gvsu.paylitehr. To accomplish this. 118 Regulation E-HR also involves the regulation of electronic data and processes. whether by termination or some less drastic remedy.com/) .Electronic Human Resources E-HR policies strive to control and organize data within an organization.. Unfortunately. latimes. Supreme Court. Jane Doe v.

Thus the birth of the term "employee engagement" which is an individual emotional phenomenon whereas morale is a group emotional phenomenon of similar characteristics. Employee engagement is derived from studies of morale or a group's willingness to accomplish organizational objectives which began in the 1920s. In the postwar mass production society that required unity of effort in execution.g. and for the success of the organization as a whole. team performance.. Harter and Schmidt's (2003) most recent meta-analysis can be useful for understanding the impact of engagement. both emotional and intellectual.Scarlett Surveys 2001). Schmidt et al. Linkage research (e. In other words. An "engaged employee" is one who is fully involved in. 1969). Treacy) received significant attention in the business community because of correlations between employee engagement and desirable business outcomes such as retention of talent. commitment to. and enthusiastic about their work. Employee engagement was described in the academic literature by Schmidt et al. (1993). 2007). business unit productivity.[1] Engaged employees feel a strong emotional bond to the organisation that employs them(Robinson).g. quality and militancy. Directions of causality were discussed by Schneider and colleagues in 2003. and satisfaction with work." This integrates the classic constructs of job satisfaction (Smith et al. The value of morale to organizations was matured by US Army researchers during WWII to predict unity of effort and attitudinal battle-readiness before combat. Morris et al. With the advent of the knowledge worker and emphasis on individual talent management (stars). and vision of the organisation.g. mission. 1998 using data from Sears). individual performance. employee engagement is the raw material of morale composed of 15 intrensic and extrensic attitudinal drivers. also called worker engagement. Rucci at al.. positive employee engagement can be causally related or correlated to specific positive business outcomes by workgroup and job type. motivation and organisational culture.. McKay. 1991). When reliably measured. and thus will act in a way that furthers their organization's interests. Some of this work has been published in a diversity context (e.'s influential definition of engagement was "an employee's involvement with. colleagues and organization which profoundly influences their willingness to learn and perform at work". A modernised version of job satisfaction.g. According to Scarlett Surveys. "Employee Engagement is a measurable degree of an employee's positive or negative emotional attachment to their job. fellow associates and the job.. a term was needed to describe an individual's emotional attachment to the organization. (group) morale scores were used as predictors of speed. Engagement can be seen as a heightened level of ownership where each employee wants to do whatever they can for the benefit of their internal and external customers. Research Studies Engaged employees care about the future of the company and are willing to invest discretionary effort. Avery. and organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen. is a business management concept. Origins Employee Engagement is the extent to which employee commitment. . Thus engagement is distinctively different from employee satisfaction.which results in higher retention levels and productivity levels and lower absenteeism. exists relative to accomplishing the work.Employee engagement 119 Employee engagement Employee engagement. customer service. Scarlett Surveys refers to these statistical relationships as engageonomics. and even enterprise-level financial performance (e..(e.

and rewards for high performance. In both studies. People that are actively engaged help move the organization forward. through strengthening employee engagement. Employees with the highest level of commitment perform 20% better and are 87% less likely to leave the organization.. In addition. more customer-focused. pay/reward). safer. personal growth.828 employees in 92 organizations). In addition. compared with just 19% of the disengaged. it was found that engaged employees were five times less likely than non-engaged employees to have a safety incident and seven times less likely to have a lost-time safety incident. and less likely to leave their employer. working to a common purpose. and firm financial performance.[4] Watson Wyatt found that high-commitment organizations (one with loyal and dedicated employees) out-performed those with low commitment by 47% in the 2000 study and by 200% in the 2002 study. In fact.721.[6] Involvement Eileen Appelbaum and her colleagues (2000) studied 15 steel mills. sufficient knowledge and information to do the job effectively. which indicates that engagement is linked to organizational performance. This translates into millions of dollars for companies if they can improve their scores.104. and incentive pay systems.[9] . Their purpose was to compare traditional production systems with flexible high-performance production systems involving teams.[4] This is associated with people demonstrating a willingness to recommend the organization to others and commit time and effort to help the organization succeed. training. Both studies included large samples of employees (3. compared with an average of $392 for a non-engaged employee. organizational commitment and intrinsic enjoyment of the work. It is often linked to the notion of employee voice and empowerment. more profitable.[8] For example. In 2005. the company saved $1. Life insurance industry Two studies of employees in the life insurance industry examined the impact of employee perceptions that they had the power to make decisions. and 10 electronic instrument and imaging equipment producers.Employee engagement 120 Emotional attachment Only 31% of employees are actively engaged in their jobs. the plants utilizing high-involvement practices showed superior performance. the average cost of a safety incident for an engaged employee was $63.570 employees in 49 organizations and 4. savings were found in sales performance teams through engagement.823. including trust. workers in the high-involvement plants showed more positive attitudes.[2] These employees work with passion and feel a profound connection to their company. 17 apparel manufacturers.3 (Lockwood). Studies have statistically demonstrated that engaged employees are more productive.[3] 72% of highly engaged employees believe they can positively affect customer service.[7] Commitment It has been routinely found that employee engagement scores account for as much as half of the variance in customer satisfaction scores. 88% of highly engaged employees believe they can positively impact quality of their organization's products.versus high-engagement teams totaling $2.g.g. Consequently. being part of a larger process) rather than simply focusing on extrinsic factors (e. high-involvement management practices were positively associated with employee morale. with a difference in performance-related costs of low. low-engagement teams were seen falling behind engaged teams. employee retention. for example.760 in safety costs in 2002. 68% of highly engaged employees believe they can positively impact costs in their job or unit.[4] The concept has gained popularity as various studies have demonstrated links with productivity. compared with only 38% of the disengaged. at the beverage company of MolsonCoors.[5] It suggests that people are motivated by intrinsic factors (e. versus 27% of the disengaged. In all three industries.[1] Engaged employees feel a strong emotional bond to the organization that employs them.

the application of psychological theories.[14] There is also overlap between this concept and those relating to well-being at work and the psychological contract. About ⅔ of the business units scoring above the median on employee engagement also scored above the median on performance. that engaged employees have been statistically linked with innovation events and better problem solving.[13] The study done by the Gallup Management Journal has shown that only 29% of employees are actively engaged in their jobs.[4] Access to a reliable model enables organizations to conduct validation studies to establish the relationship of employee engagement to productivity/performance and other measures linked to effectiveness.S. 54% of employees are not engaged meaning that they go through each workday putting time but no passion into their work.2% while low-engagement companies declined 32. As employee productivity is clearly connected with employee engagement. then. Engaged employees also outperformed the not engaged and actively disengaged employees in other divisions.[4] Research by Gallup Consulting has shown a strong correlation between the degree of well-being of an individual and the extent to which they are engaged as am employee . Those "engaged" employees work with passion and feel a strong connection to their company.Employee engagement 121 Productivity In a study of professional service firms.[12] It is an important principle of industrial and organizational psychology (i. High-engagement companies improved 19.[4] Moreover. Only about ⅓ of companies below the median on employee engagement scored above the median on performance. compared with only 31 percent of the disengaged.e. To understand how high levels of employee engagement affect organizational performance/productivity it is important to have an a priori model that demonstrates how the scales interact. and come to work energized and focused. Furthermore.high well-being yields high engagement. A well and engaged employee is efficient and effective and a valuable asset in the workplace.[12] 84% of highly engaged employees believe they can positively impact the quality of their organization's products. specialty mortgage banking company. the Hay Group found that offices with engaged employees were up to 43% more productive. lowering the cost of lost productivity to their organization. "outcomes" range from strong commitment to the isolation of oneself from the organization. and intervention strategies involving workplace issues) that validation studies should be anchored in reliable scales (i. found that account executives in the wholesale division who were actively disengaged produced 28% less revenue than their colleagues who were engaged. organized and related groups of items) and not simply focus on individual elements in isolation. a U. For example.[1] It comes as no surprise.[13] . research methods.[11] Generating engagement Recent research has focused on developing a better understanding of how variables such as quality of work relationships and values of the organization interact and their link to important work outcomes.7% in operating income during the study period. A well and engaged employee is likely to have less sick days. New Century Financial Corporation.e. those not engaged generated 23% less revenue than their engaged counterparts.[1] From the perspective of the employee.[10] The most striking finding is the almost 52% gaps in operating incomes between companies with highly engaged employees and companies whose employees have low-engagement scores. creating an environment that encourages employee engagement is considered to be essential in the effective management of human capital.

superiors. this does not assist in identifying areas for improvement within organisations. and the employee may then become focused on surviving more than thinking about how he can help the organization succeed. Inspirational leadership is the ultimate perk. know what is going on. relationships with managers and peers. employee annexation can be very destructive when the head office attributes the annex's low engagement to its poor performance… when its poor performance is really due to its poor communications.. an organisation can effectively manage engagement levels of its employees. that are thought to increase overall engagement."[5] * Career advancement/improvement opportunities .". communicating the scheme effectively and frequently. * Reward to engage .'"[10] * Quality of working relationships with peers.which convey a clear description of "what's going on". "An incentive to reward good work is a tried and test way of boosting staff morale and enhancing engagement.According to a 2006 study by Gerard Seijts and Dan Crim. known as drivers. [15] . In its absence. have lots of winners and reward all achievers."[10] * Effective Internal Employee Communications .. [it] is unlikely to engage employees."Plant supervisors and managers indicated that many plant improvements were being made outside the suggestion system."If expectations are not clear and basic materials and equipment not provided. In the worst case."[14] * Regular feedback and dialogue with superiors . and are heavily engaged) but its annexes (who are furthest away from the action and know little about what is happening) are dis-engaged. There are a range of factors. then no amount of perks will persuade the employees to perform at top levels. and subordinates . career development opportunities and knowledge of the organisation's goals and vision are some of the factors that facilitate employee engagement."[5] "'What I really wanted to hear was 'Thanks. You did a good job.' But all my boss did was hand me a check.where the head office in one country is buoyant (since they are closest to the action." There are a range of tactics you can employ to ensure your incentive scheme hits the mark with your workforce such as: Setting realistic targets. Employee engagement is a direct reflection of how employees feel about their relationship with the boss. where employees initiated changes in order to reap the bonuses generated by the subsequent cost savings.Look at employee benefits and acknowledge the role of incentives.Employee engagement 122 Drivers of Engagement While it is possible to measure engagement itself through employee surveys. but many organizations are remarkably bad at giving it. rewards and recognition. The effect of poor internal communications is seen as its most destructive in global organisations which suffer from employee annexation ."[13] * Perceptions of the ethos and values of the organization ."Feedback is the key to giving employees a sense of where they’re going. performance clarity and feedback.." * Employee clarity of job expectations . Drivers such as communication.if employees' relationship with their managers is fractured. Some points from the research are presented below: * Employee perceptions of job importance . negative emotions such as boredom or resentment may result."'Inspiration and values' is the most important of the six drivers in our Engaged Performance model. ". organisational culture. encouraging sustained effort. selecting the right rewards for your incentive programme.. present awards publicly and evaluate the incentive scheme regularly. By managing the drivers. "'If you accept that employees want to be involved in what they are doing then this trend is clear (from small businesses to large global organisations).an employees attitude toward the job['s importance] and the company had the greatest impact on loyalty and customer [13] service then all other employee factors combined.

McIntyre Library. com/ eee__report. (2004). Is it right to compare a Bentley employee to one from Vauxhall (GM) because they are in the same automotive sector? The alternative argument is that both organisations would likely draw from similar worker pools and would as such wish to better understand expectations of workers in that industry and how they compare to competing employers. archive. pdf). In Brief (129). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / psych. Frank L. Watson Wyatt Worldwide.00143. Retrieved 2006-11-06. asp?id=W-557& page=6).. Ken Scarlett. (March 2006). pdf). Retrieved 2006-11-09. Retrieved on 2008-07-16. php). • A focus on data gathering rather than taking action may also damage engagement efforts. Retrieved 2006-11-07.2004. . Retrieved 2006-11-14. towersperrin. [8] Lockwood. Journal of Industrial Relations 46. American Psychologist Association 55: 68–78. Eau Claire. [13] Ryan. Keyes (2003). SearchSpot. and Corey L. Social Development. 2002. ca/ pdf/ knowledge_engaged_performance_working_paper. 2007 <http://proquest. edu/ SDT/ documents/ 2000_RyanDeci_SDT. com/ employee_engagement. org/ web/ 20061123123100/ http:/ / haygroup. blessingwhite. . com/ EmployeeCommitment. Adrien. pdf [4] Konrad. [7] Wilkinson. James K. "Engaging Employees through High-Involvement Work Practices" (http:/ / web. "Leveraging Employee Engagement for Competitive Advantage: HR's Strategic Role. <reference ScarlettSurveys> References in Popular Culture • Dilbert comic strip [16] • OneFTE comic strip [17] References [1] Seijts. com/ tp/ getwebcachedoc?webc=HRS/ USA/ 2008/ 200802/ GWS_handout_web. haygroup. com/ research/ resrender. . .Employee engagement 123 Potential red flags • Inappropriate use of Benchmark Data . 2002. Gerard H. [3] http:/ / www.x. Ivey Business Journal.com/pqdweb?did=1231781861&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD& VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&> [9] "Employee Commitment" (http:/ / www. Schmidt.[2] • According to the Conference Board and other recent studies.3 (3): 298–322. uk/ news/ 129theme. (March 2006). [11] What Is Engagement? (http:/ / www.umi. This seems to have rubbed off onto internal sponsors who demand very specific benchmarks." (http:/ / www. pdf). rochester. employment-studies. ABI/INFORM Global (PQ). psych. and Dan Crim (2006). ebscohost. M. com/ ehost/ pdf?vid=54& hid=120& sid=5d29fefe-0913-49de-82b6-9b95ee1a4f09@sessionmgr105). . and Well-Being" (http:/ / web. Dilys and Sue Hayday (2003). htm). "Employee Engagement" (http:/ / www. 22 Apr. "Well-Being in the Workplace and its Relationships to Business Outcomes" (http:/ / media. . com/ ehost/ pdf?vid=18& hid=109& sid=21a25099-6e82-4e66-849c-92a8d3ee0c6e@sessionmgr102). "Changing patterns of employee voice". Employee Engagement Report 2011 (http:/ / www. edu/ SDT/ documents/ 2000_RyanDeci_SDT. Retrieved 2006-11-09.1111/j. [2] BlessingWhite (December 2010). Virginia A. asp). Measuring and managing the wrong or incomplete set of engagement drivers is partly if not mostly to blame. "What Distinguishes the Best from the Rest". Richard M.. Retrieved 2006-11-08. pdf) on 2006-11-23." HRMagazine Mar. . . gallup. Alison M. 2007: 1-11. Deci (January 2000). "The Ten C's of Employee Engagement" (http:/ / web.0022-1856.. [14] Hulme. . Retrieved 2010-12-12. . com/ DOCUMENTS/ whitePaper--Well-BeingInTheWorkplace. doi:10. Retrieved 2007-02-03. [5] "Engage Employees and Boost Performance" (http:/ / web. Nancy R. ebscohost. watsonwyatt. Organizations that survey their workforce without acting on the feedback appear to negatively impact engagement scores. (2008). [12] Harter. Flourishing: the Positive Person and the Good Life: 205–244. 2005. and Edward L. scarlettsurveys. Retrieved 2006-11-06.. [10] "Employee Commitment Remains Unchanged. Ivey Business Journal. Whilst some research analysts claim that the standard comparisons by industry sector are flawed others disagree. China Business Review. co. archive. Hay Group. rochester. Rigorous engagement measurement encompasses 15 attitudinal drivers formed by employee experiences. et al. employee engagement has deteriorated significantly in the US and the UK over the last five years.some of the more well established Employee Engagement survey companies will state that the most important part of post survey follow up is related to comparison of internal survey data to numerous external benchmarks. auxiliumtraining. "Self-Determination Theory and Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation. cfm). pdf) on 2006-12-12. [6] Robinson. org/ web/ 20061212093251/ http:/ / www. Susan de la Vergne. ca/ pdf/ knowledge_engaged_performance_working_paper.

The Academy of Management Journal. 268-279 • Macey.co. Frank L. • Smith. http://www. Keith (2008) Engagement Is Not Enough: You Need Passionate Employees to Achieve Your Dream. The employee-customer profit chain. 1990). Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work. Vol 87(2). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement: A strategy for the study of attitudes. uk/ website/ employee-engagement-whitepaper. htm). 4 (Dec.uk/subjects/empreltns/general/empengmt. • CIPD Staff (2008). Schmidt. "Employee Engagement" (http://www. CIPD. Kim (1998). • McKay. • Wilkinson. com/ fast/ 2009-11-25/ [17] http:/ / onefte. S. Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction. Personnel Review 27. "The Drivers of Employee Engagement" (http://www. cfm?subID=123)" Pages 108-122 as featured in "The New HR Analytics" by Dr.1108/00483489810368549.com/surveys. Industrial Organizational Psychology. Jac Fitz-enz. com/ 2010/ 03/ 02/ the-secret-to-engaging-staff/ 124 • Robinson. Michael (2006). & Morris (2008). William A. 61-89. Personnel Psychology. Vol. benefits and employee engagement in today's organisations (http:/ / engagement. employment-studies. doi:10. Kendall. 1. pp.uk/summary/summary. The meaning of employee engagement. Retrieved 2008-10-01. html) [16] http:/ / dilbert. 90 Steps to Employee Engagement & Staff Motivation.. & Hulin (1969). Capital Incentives (part of Accor Services).php?id=408). Journal of Applied Psychology.cipd.com . Hayes. employee engagement. Double Digit Growth. Finlay (2011). (1990). and S. • Meyer & Allen (1991). pp. Human Resource Management Review. Hayday (2004). "Empowerment: Theory and Practice". No. Ken (2010) " Quality Employee Engagement Measurement (http://www.scarlettsurveys. Hanges. Institute for Employment Studies.1: 40–56. James K. 692–724. Adrien (1998)..org/stable/ 256287 • Harter. Further reading • Ayers. Apr 2002. Reward to Engage > rewards. Avery. • Kahn.90stepengagement. Which comes first: employee attitudes or organizational financial and market performance? Journal of Applied Psychology • Treacy.. A three component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Quinn. (2002).Employee engagement [15] Derrick Hardman. Mean racial and ethnic differences in sales performance: The moderating role of diversity climate. Harvard Business Review. D. 61. 33. & Smith (2003).jstor. • Morrell. Schneider (2008). and business outcomes: A meta-analysis.. accorservices. Perryman. • Rucci.co. co. 83–97. Retrieved 2006-11-07. • Scarlett. 200 pages. • Schneider. 349-374. Theodore L. Http://www.

com. offers them at a lower cost. Employee leasing According to the Division of Unemployment Assistance (DUA)." <Definition of a Leased Employee. about." Source: [Mintz. References: [Peocompare. "." and "Leased employees perform their jobs at a particular company for an open-ended period of time and do not move around to difference work assignments. B (2007) How to Improve Exit Interview Participation Rates (http:/ / humanresources. www. FICA. as they take under control many costs of the small business (medical. An other definition found at eHow. the employee leasing company takes on a large amount of small businesses and consolidates them to offer a lower medical cost than the employer currently has. improving workplace safety). by Chris Blank> A third category is the "rent-an-employer"-form where an individual with a clinet finds an employer to act as middle man. monthly fee. that the term "employee leasing company" does not include private employment agencies that provide workers to employers on a temporary basis or entities such as driver-leasing companies which lease employees to an employing unit to perform a specific service. The company as a legal entity has a responsibility to the employee which may extend beyond the period of employment and this is the primary focus of the exit procedure.temporary employees are by definition only assigned to a specific firm for a specific period of time.com [1]] The DUA defines "Client Company" as: "an individual. corporation or other business entity that agrees to lease or is leasing its employees through an employee leasing company on a long term basis. By using an "umbrella" method.Employee exit management 125 Employee exit management Employee exit management is the process used within many businesses to terminate employees in a professional manner. provided.about." Source: [Mintz. It applies to employees who have resigned and those that have been terminated by the company. Employee leasing companies also help with understanding government rules and regulations and maintaining and reducing risk (reducing claims.com [1]] The difference between a staffing firm (finds customers and supplies them with staff) and a PEO (professional employer organization) or an employee leasing company is that (outsources the HR-department for that customer sometimes including the staff). employment taxes) and when working correctly. Essentially employee leasing combines all your employment fees (FUTA. com/ od/ employeesurveys/ a/ exitinterview_2. This is called [2] Umbrella_company in the United Kingdom and [Self-Employment ] in Sweden.com.. When an employee is terminated there are a number of considerations that an organization needs to make in order to cleanly end the relationship between the company and the employee. partnership. As you can see the services provided by an employee leasing company is a recurring theme.com [3]] . The employee leasing company offers a plan to reduce HR/employee related costs to a lower rate than the employer currently has them. "Employee Leasing Company" is defined as: "an employing unit that contract with a client company to supply workers to perform services for the client company. etc.. htm). association.) into a single. providing an employment and salary to the person and an invoice to the client.[1] References [1] Carvin.

Employee leasing [Mintz.com [1]] [Rent an Employer Portal [4]]


[1] http:/ / www. mintz. com/ newsletter/ 2007/ EBEC_1003_Adv_RegELCs/ index. htm [2] http:/ / sv. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Egenanst%C3%A4llning [3] http:/ / www. peocompare. com/ employee-leasing-company-helps-5-things/ [4] http:/ / www. rentanemployer. com

Employee retention
Employee retention refers to the ability of an organization to retain its employees. Employee retention can be represented by a simple statistic (for example, a retention rate of 80% usually indicates that an organisation kept 80% of its employees in a given period). However, many consider employee retention as relating to the efforts by which employers attempt to retain employees in their workforce. In this sense, retention becomes the strategies rather than the outcome. In a Business setting, the goal of employers is usually to decrease employee turnover, thereby decreasing training costs, recruitment costs and loss of talent and organisational knowledge. By implementing lessons learned from key organizational behavior concepts employers can improve retention rates and decrease the associated costs of high turnover. However, this isn't always the case. Employers can seek "positive turnover" whereby they aim to maintain only those employees who they consider to be high performers.

Retention Strategies
In order to retain employees and reduce turnover managers must meet the goals of employees without losing sight of the organization's goals, thereby creating a "win-win" situation. Valance and expectancy theories provided some of the earlier guidance for retaining employees. Valence is the degree to which the rewards offered by an organization align with the needs employees seek to fulfill. High valence indicates that the needs of employees are aligned well with the rewards system an organization offers. Conversely, low valence is a poor alignment of needs with rewards and can lead to low job satisfaction and thereby increase turnover and decrease retention. Expectancy theory details has several factors that can lead to high job satisfaction and high retention rates for organizations. Increasing expectancy in an organization can be done by training employees and thereby making them more confident in their abilities. Increasing instrumentality within an organization will be part of implementing an effective rewards system for attainment of specific goals and accomplishments.[1] However, while these theories may be valid they provide little practical assistant for business managers or human resource practitioners. More modern studies relating to employee engagement demonstrate that by developing a range of strategies that address various drivers of engagement, many positive outcomes can be achieved. These outcomes include higher profitability, improved customer satisfaction, lower absenteeism and lower accident rates as well as higher employee retention.

Employee retention


Retention and Motivation Theory
Retention has a direct and causal relationship with employee needs and motivation. Applying a motivation theory model, such as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, is an effective way of identifying effective retention protocol.[2] Each of the five tiers of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs relates to optimal retention strategy. Since Maslow’s introduction of his motivation model, organizations have been employing strategies attempting to stimulate each of the five humanitarian needs described above to optimize retention rates. When applied to the organizational model, meeting the self-actualization and esteem needs of an employee tend to correlate to better retention. Physiological, safety, and social needs are important as well, however, and must be addressed to better the work environment. While implementing a retention strategy is ideal, successful satisfying all five needs of employees is not only difficult, but also expensive. That being said, managers who attempt to maximize employee need coverage tend to be more concerned with employee satisfaction.[3]

Herzberg's Theory
An alternative motivation theory to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is the Motivator-Hygiene (Herzberg’s) theory. The theories have overlap, but the fundamental nature of each model differs. While Maslow’s Hierarchy implies the addition or removal of the same need stimuli will enhance or detract from the employee’s satisfaction, Herzberg’s findings indicate that factors garnering job satisfaction are separate from factors leading to poor job satisfaction and employee turnover. Herzberg’s system of needs is segmented into motivators and hygiene factors. Like Maslow’s Hierarchy, motivators are often unexpected bonuses that foster the desire to excel. Hygiene factors include expected conditions that if missing will create dissatisfaction. Examples of hygiene factors include bathrooms, lighting, and the appropriate tools for a given job. Employers must utilize positive reinforcement methods while maintaining [4] expected hygiene factors to maximize employee satisfaction and minimize retention.

Equity Theory
Equity Theory realizes the humanitarian concern with fairness and equality. While one party may be given motivational rewards and opportunities, the individual will assess the work-reward ratio based on similar, external positions. If the individual feels the rewards and motivators do not meet the standard, the employee will either lose motivation, request more compensation, or leave their current position in search of more favorable benefits. Because of this, firms must not only recognize internal obligations, but also attempt to equalize or outperform competition in meeting employee needs.[5]

[1] Vroom, V.H. & Yago. A.G. (1978). On the validity of the Vroom-Yetton model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 151-162 [2] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs [3] Spector, Paul E. "Measurement of Human Service Staff Satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey." American Journal of Community Psychology 13.6 (1985): 693-713. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. [4] Breaugh, James A., and Mary Starke. "Research on Employee Recruitment: So Many Studies, So Many Remaining Questions." Journal of Management (2000): 305-434. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. [5] Spector, Paul E. "Measurement of Human Service Staff Satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey." American Journal of Community Psychology 13.6 (1985): 693-713. Web. 12 Mar. 2011.

Employee retention


External links
• About.com Human Resources Retention tips (http://humanresources.about.com/od/retention/ Retention_of_Employees_Tips_and_Tools_for_Employee_Retention.htm)

Employee silence
Employee silence refers to situations where employees withhold information that might be useful to the organization to which they are a part of whether intentionally or unintentionally. This can happen if employees do not speak up to a supervisor or manager.[1] Within organizations people often have to make decisions about whether to speak up or remain silent whether to share or withhold their ideas, opinions, and concerns … [The problem is that] in many cases, they choose the safe response of silence, withholding input that could be valuable to others or thoughts that they wish they could express.[2] — Frances J. Milliken and Elizabeth Wolfe Morrison, Shades of Silence: Emerging Themes and Future Directions for Research on Silence in Organizations This means the situation is not going to change for the better anytime soon. Employee silence does not only occur between management and employees, it also occurs during conflict among employees, and as a result of organizational decisions. This silence keeps managers from receiving information that may help to improve the [1] organization.

Employee silence can occur in any organization. Specifically though, employee silence occurs in most organizations where communication is suffering. Employee silence causes the most damage when the employees and supervisors do not meet on a regular basis. In a virtual workplace this is more than true. In a virtual workplace the only in-person communication is in small discussion groups. This kind of organization is very susceptible to employee silence because there is almost no person to person communication, and it is very easy to ignore or misinterpret things like email. Employee silence is a problem for more than just virtual organizations. Within the past few years employee silence has been happening more often in non-virtual organizations (Fineman and Panteli 347-348).[3] Organizations where considerable risk is involved such as airports and “hospitals; should be especially mindful of” employee silence. This is because mistakes caused by employee silence in these organizations can lead to the loss of life or serious damage costs to the organization.[1]

There are many different reasons for the start of employee silence in an organization. According to the Handbook of Organizational Justice, "a culture of injustice in organizations, be it distributive, procedural, or interactional (what we would call interpersonal), can lead to employee silence." (Colquitt and Greenberg 311)[4] In other words, "if the organizational norm is an unjust environment such as one that is characterized by intense supervisory control, suppression of conflict, ambiguous reporting structures, and poorly conducted performance reviews, employees will choose not to exercise voice and will therefore not receive the benefits available to those that do express opinions and ideas." (Colquitt and Greenberg 311)[4] One obvious cause of employee silence is constant negative feedback from supervisors. When an employee gives a supervisor a suggestion and is shot down, employee silence is developed in an organization. Over time employees start to feel that every time they make a suggestion it will not be taken into consideration or will be rejected. A result of this is called a dissenting voice, which contributes to employee silence. The dissenting voice is the voice of the supervisor shooting someone down (Robson and Tourish

Employee silence 712).[5] Supervisors, leaders, and managers alike can avoid the occurrence of a dissenting voice among employees by monitoring their management style. Cooperative styles such as "integrating, obliging, and compromising" are more effective than "avoiding and dominating" styles, which could cause silence among employees (Colquitt and Greenberg 312).[4] Another reason employee silence occurs is because people fear that if they speak up they may lose their jobs (Pentilla 1).[6] In some cases subordinates don’t want to appear as though they are going against their supervisors, as they may view the employees input as criticism of their practices, and be fired.[1] This is especially true of organizations which have just experienced high level layoffs where a number of employees have been downsized. In these cases, employees fear that their jobs could be taken away and are even less likely to voice their opinions than they did in the first place.[7] Another cause of employee silence is when supervisors and employees fail to address the actual problems that exist within organizations. Avoiding these problems or looking for "quick fixes" only makes things worse and causes employees to feel that there is no hope for resolution. If employees lose hope that the real problems will actually be addressed and resolved, it can lead to a host of problems for the organization and for the employee, one of which is continued employee silence (Bouradas and Vakola 442).[8] Employees then start to feel it is better to remain silent about issues because nothing will change anyway. If companies want to be successful they need to confront the actual problem and fix it, Both the employee and the supervisor need to deal with the situation because employee silence usually stems from the higher management down to lower level employees which is the cause of the indifferent employee. (Joinson 77-78).[9]


Organizational effects
Employee silence is extremely detrimental to organizations often causing an “escalating level of dissatisfaction” among employees, “which manifests itself in absenteeism and turnover and perhaps other undesired behaviors” (Colquitt and Greenberg 311-312).[4] Communication is the key to an organization’s success. If employee silence does occur, communication suffers, and as a result harms the overall functioning of the organization. In an article entitled “Get Talking” author Chris Penttila says, “employee silence is killing innovation and perpetuating poorly planned projects that lead to defective products, low moral and a damaged bottom line” (1).[6] This indicates how much an organization can suffer just because of a lack of proper communication. In an article titled “Re-Creating the Indifferent Employee” Carla Joinson talks about negative effects of employee silence such as monetary losses to the organization. Over time silence within organizations causes some employees to be extremely indifferent. Indifferent [9] employees are those who are “indifferent to their jobs, employers and quality of work” (Joinson 76). Indifferent employees cause the organization to lose money and function poorly. Unfortunately when major monetary losses are detected in organizations, managers tend to react by trying to recover the loss, overlooking the fact employees have become indifferent as a result of unaddressed employee silence. More often than not employees who are not doing their share of the work are also not speaking up with the problems they see, leading to a perpetual cycle of employee silence (Joinson 1048).[9]

Effects on employees
Employee silence also has many effects on the employees themselves. Indifferent employees, often products of ignored employee silence, tend to feel like cogs at machinery factories, developing the attitude “to get along, go along” (Joinson 1048).[9] As a result of this attitude employees sometimes develop depression and other health problems. Sometimes these employees use pills and alcohol as a “cure” for the problems they are experiencing at work, which actually make their problems worse. In the book Moose on the Table by Jim Clemmer, Pete who is the main character of the book develops these types of health problems.[10] Another example of such effects on employees is articulated by researcher Subrahmaniam Tangirala who says that “employee silence affects the personal well being of employees, increases stress,” and causes them to “feel guilty, where they often experience psychological problems, and have trouble seeing the possibility of change.”[1] Most people assume that employee

[12] . next managers and employees must work together to identify what issues aren't being talked about.[11] As such.”[1] It is when employees perceive that they are being “unfairly treated” that they begin to withhold important information from the organization. He formulates the metaphor using a character named Pete.Employee silence silence only hurts the organization. The book portrays what can happen to employees and organizations when this problem is left alone.”[1] Based on such criteria. but realistically it hurts both the organization and the employees. who must make decisions that will affect their subordinates.[1] Avoidance Being that the effects of employee silence can be severe and detrimental to the overall functioning of a company.[10] Employees "often have ideas. this term can be applied to managers within organizations. Clemmer uses a metaphor to explain the effects of employee silence and poor communication in organizations. First. that are ethical. but are being acted upon as well. and opinions for constructive ways to improve work and organizations" (Lin and Ang 1359). organizations should try to minimize its occurrence. information. who begins to see imaginary moose in his place of work that represent all the problems that aren't being addressed and have gotten larger over time. Employees within these organizations who feel that these procedures were[1] executed fairly reflect that there are high procedural fairness climate. who is an expert on the topic of employee silence.[4] Procedural fairness climates enable workers “to feel the most safe” and “provide favorable contexts for employees to speak up.[10] Procedural justice Procedural justice “refers to [7] how people go about planning decisions and implementing them” (Brockner). Another way to prevent employee silence is to create an employee that is committed the organization. procedural fairness climates make for the most favorable and healthy work environments for organizations and employees. and provide favorable contexts for employees to speak up. So when the organization is committed to the employee the employee in return is committed to the organization which limits employee silence (Glazer and Kruse 330-331). Procedural justice/fairness climates According to researcher Subrah Tangirala.[7] Research on this area suggests that “silence may be a rational response to some forms of unfairness when in a low power position” (Colquitt and Greenberg 312). exist when a majority of employees in a workgroup feel that their managers make decisions that include employee input. In doing so. One way to avoid this would be to try to establish procedural climates. in that they reduce the likelihood of employee silence. Clemmer suggests that organizations who suffer from employee silence should take an interactive approach. 130 Moose on the Table Moose on the Table by author Jim Clemmer is a useful tool in studying what can actually happen when employee silence is a problem in the workplace. that are consistent over time and based on accurate information. managers might conduct interviews with employees and disperse surveys. suppress any bias. “Procedural justice climate as related to employee silence. employees want to know that their opinions are important and are not only being taken into consideration. This is done by showing that the organization is fair and committed to the employees.[10] This book is instrumental in teaching different groups how to deal with employee silence. Specifically. it is important to recognize that there is in fact a problem with employee silence.

[1] “employees are especially uncomfortable conveying information about potential problems or issues to those above them. several studies have shown that subordinates distort the information that they convey to their superiors.[14] The article suggests: 1. ‘Thanks for your idea.” b. a slight smile.” In other words. communicating upward in a way that minimizes negative information. let me think about that. It takes getting used to. actually increases employee silence in organizations among remaining employees. shifting in the seat.” some advice is given for leaders looking to diminish employee silence (McDonald 1). restructuring. consistent over time. Other things that effect employee silence are commitment levels of employees to their careers. 3. the introduction of new technology. For example. This gesture gives a message of interest and connectedness. looking down.[7] When layoffs are performed fairly in organizations.[1] According to Subrah Tangirala “people who are committed to their professions and value their work highly are those who would be less likely to remain silent. particularly criticisms by low-status members toward those in higher-status positions. and one on one negotiations. do not rush to discount their opinion or defend your own.[13] When trying to avoid employee silence managers and leaders also need to know “how to facilitate varying opinions in a way that allows healthy discussion to develop towards consensus or best solutions” (McDonald 1).”[1] He also notes that the “status of the manager has an impact on employees speaking up. Learn to be comfortable with silence. allow room for employees to contribute input. high status can intimidate employees causing them to be silent in order to protect their jobs and relationships (Hewlin and Milliken 1455). but allowing silence to be in the room is a powerful presence that gives people a chance to digest what was said. Positive gestures include: maintaining eye contact. Organization changes such as “large scale layoffs.[14] . Instead.”[1] Employees are more likely to withhold information from managers with “high power status’” because they don’t want to be seen as criticizing them. such as downsizing. employees feel that decisions are being made unfairly. Holly. a slight sneer. If this happens employees fear the security of their own jobs. make eye contact with each person at the table or as many people as possible in the room. consider asking someone you trust after the meeting if there is something that you might have missed or could have done differently to achieve the desired result” (McDonald 1). For example if the process of the layoff was done poorly and without concern.” or withholds the information entirely (Hewlin and Milliken 1455). reactions are not varied and employees do not fear the security of their jobs. and [7] [7] relocation. Watch for the subtle signs of people agreeing or disagreeing with what is being said. and how they may want to present it. If you try to encourage more openness.[7] A “high degree of variance in survivors’ reactions to layoffs” indicates the absence of a procedural justice climate. rolling of eyes. and at first others are unresponsive or hesitant to participate. 5. 2. are correctable. and people will retreat back into non-participation. Individually targeted events such as “performance appraisals. say something like. To shut down someone who speaks up will send the message that you are not sincere. and to consider whether they have a response or contribution.[14] In a recent business column entitled “Silence Does Not Equal Agreement.Employee silence 131 Establishing procedural justice climates In order to establish procedural justice climates managers need to ensure that their decisions are “ethical.’ 4. and status of the manager. nodding. based on accurate information. and free of bias."[1] Managers can establish these climates by being mindful when executing: a.” Downsizing & procedural justice climates Often times changes that take place. When someone does make a comment or suggestion. “structuring groups into hierarchies automatically introduces restraints against free communication. Gestures of dissention include: raised eyebrows. “When presenting information or asking questions of a group. avoiding eye contact.[13] According to an article on employee silence.

. Jim (2008).J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2003: 25-25. Tony Dundon (NUI Galway) and Adrian Wilkinson (Griffith University) survey the existing literature on employee silence and argue that the approach taken to date neglects an analysis of the role of management in constructing silence. April 16. Colquitt. Hillsdale. [2] Milliken. Fineman. Moose on the Table: A Novel Approach to Communications @ Work (http:/ / www. "The Sound of Silence: the case of virtual team organising. "Recreating the Indifferent Employee. For instance in past years employees were handled as machines and less like people. it is not unusual that “employee silence has emerged as a subject of research only recently” (Rangaraj and Tangirala 38). how it effects organizations.Employee silence 132 Interactional justice In a podcast entitled “Under New Management” Joel Brockner. [8] Vakola. podcast. N.”[7] Interactional justice refers to “how the employee feels that the implementer did things. "Get Talking. ISBN 0-8058-4203-9. doi:10. Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy of Management. Journal of Management Studies 40 (6): 1563–1568.00391. . N. and Paul Robson. [7] "Podcast . It’s a Good Deal: Interview with Joel Brockner" (http:/ / www.[15] Current theories on the subject are in disagreement regarding the role of “individual-level antecedents (job satisfaction) or group-level antecedents (group climate. . org/ modules.[15] Further research regarding this area will more than likely help us to better understand employee silence. it is necessary to recognise that silence may work in favour of management and thus management may have an interest in maintaining or creating employee silence. Did they express concern? 2. Dennis.1111/1467-6486. Employment and Society in March 2011.. . podcast. Jerald (2005). interscience. [9] Joinson. wiley. ISBN 0978222172. Ecw Press." Employee Relations 27 (2005): 441-58. php?op=modload& name=News& file=article& sid=139). Frances J. 1996: 76-81." Entrepreneur Nov. Greenberg. Niall Cullinane (Queen's University Belfast). obweb. "Sense Making and the Distortion of Critical Upward Communication in Organizations.”[7] Some questions they might ask that “have a huge bearing on whether or not people think the procedure was fair” are: 1. presence of formal communication channels)” in employee silence (Rangaraj and Tangirala 38). As such. 2008. and Dimitris Bouradas. Organizations have come a long way in how they treat their employees.. Maria. Retrieved Journal of Management Studies. obweb. Did they provide an explanation? If employees can answer "yes" to these questions then the implementer has done things fairly and it is likely that employee silence has either been reduced or avoided. talks about the importance of the “interpersonal component of procedural fairness called Interactional Justice. [5] Tourish. [6] Pentilla. and S. Handbook of organizational justice. "Antecedents and consequences of organisational silence: an empirical investigation. [3] Panteli. Chris. com/ journal/ 118870443/ abstract?CRETRY=1& SRETRY=0). Jimmy Donaghey (University of Warwick). February 20. Areas for further research Employee silence is still a fairly new topic of exploration. A more critical approach In an article published in Work. Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy of Management. "Shades of Silence: Emerging Themes and Future Directions for Research on Silence in Organizations" (http:/ / www3. org/ modules. References [1] "Employee Silence on Critical Work Issues: Interview with Subra Tangirala" (http:/ / www. Did they show signs of treating the person with dignity? …respect? …compassion? [7] 3.Procedural Fairness. and how to reduce it." Journal of Management Studies 43 (2006): 711-30. mooseonthetable. Elizabeth Wolfe Morrison (4 Aug 2003). a professor of business at Columbia University. Carla. . com/ ). 2008. php?op=modload& name=News& file=article& sid=129). [4] Jason A. [10] Clemmer." HRM Magazine Aug. The thesis is put forward that to truly understand processes of employee silence." Behaviour & Information Technology 24 (2005): 347-52.

Linn V. 2007. in terms of the term EVP being used to define the underlying 'offer' on which an organisation's employer brand marketing and management activities are based. engagement and retention. [14] McDonald.[4] Tandehill (2006) reinforces this link to employer branding." Personnel Psychology 61 (2008): 37-68. and so on. The EVP is an employee-centered approach that is aligned to existing. the EVP should take the focus off of compensation as the primary "offer. Benefits to an organisation of a well formed EVP include attraction and retention of key talent. Bradford. ." Personal job satisfaction is driven by far more than financial factors such as salary and benefits.[5] Other key factors influencing how an individual may choose to balance his or her career path in an organisation are relocation services. management development. employee growth. Leslie R. An EVP must be unique. and urges all organisations to develop a statement of why the total work experience at their organisation is superior to that at other organisations. Elizabeth W. "An Exploratory Study of Employee Silence: Issues that Employees Don't Communicate Upward and Why. salary. Morrison." Journal of Management Studies 40 (2003): 1359-392.e. Soon Ang. The EVP should be actively communicated in all recruitment efforts." Journal of Management Studies 40 (2003): 1453-476. "EMPLOYEE SILENCE ON CRITICAL WORK ISSUES: THE CROSS LEVEL EFFECTS OF PROCEDURAL JUSTICE CLIMATE. ongoing employee recognition. retaining and engaging quality people"." The Post-Standard [Syracuse] 25 Jan. [13] Milliken. capabilities and experiences an employee brings to the organisation." International Journal of stress management 15 (2008) (329-344). In this context. "Conceptualizing Employee Silence and Employee Voice as Multidimensional Constructs.. and Patricia F. the EVP is often referred to as the Employer Brand Proposition. [12] Glazer. Botero. processes and programs that demonstrate the organisation’s commitment to i. creates a strong people brand. community service. "Employee Silence Does Not Equal Agreement. location. perquisites. [15] Tangirala.: C2-C2. The value proposition should identify the unique people policies. Subrahmaniam. and Rangaraj Ramanujam.. Business Column sec. and Isabel C. etc.[2] [3] (It is also sometimes referred to as Employee Value Proposition) It has become closely related to the concept of employer branding. 133 Employee value proposition Employee Value Proposition (EVP) is a term used to denote the balance of the rewards and benefits that are received by employees in return for their performance at the workplace. "The Role of organizational commitment in occupational stress models. Hewlin. relevant and compelling if it is to act as a key driver of talent attraction. helps prioritise the [6] HR agenda. career development. Sharon and Kruse..[1] Minchington (2005) defines an Employer Value Proposition (EVP) as a set of associations and offerings provided by an organisation in return for the skills. Contained within the value proposition are the central reasons that people will choose to commit themselves to an organisation. Frances J. and in letters offering employment. helps re-engage a disenchanted workforce and reduces hire premiums. An organisation's EVP has thus been described as "critical to attracting. integrated workforce planning strategies because it has been informed by existing employees and the external target audience.Employee silence [11] Dyne.

. S. Publisher: MCB UP Ltd. pdf [2] Lui. published 1994. "The Employment Value Proposition. Employeeship is a process where the traditional thinking around leadership and subordination in hierarchy is abandoned. Employeeship: The Necessary Prerequisite for Empowerment. subjects such as: What is loyalty?. a relationship where both managers and employees take ownership over their work situation. 'Employeeship Across Borders' Gothenburg University Thesis. Workspan Magazine 10/06 http:/ / www. Recruiters Network. This creates a workplace where employees feel valued and important. ub. . B (2010) Employer Brand Leadership – A Global Perspective. Medarbetarskap. Determinants. The main objective is to achieve a working environment that stimulates involvement among employees and managers. responsibility. pdf Employeeship What is Employeeship? Employeeship (or Medarbetarskap in Swedish) is an approach to developing a culture of ownership and responsibility in an organisation. engage. Wajda (2008) 'Employee Responsibility . . retain. Ackerman. Validation. [4] Barrow. Collective Learning Australia. com/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2010/ 02/ Employee-Value-Proposition-infosheet. gu. From words to action!) Published:Malmö: Liber. ub. revealing and learn to make better use of their employees’ knowledge. [4] Tengblad. F. Retrieved 2010-04-26. pdf). taking responsibility and increases trust. B (2006) Your Employer Brand – attract.ISSN: 0968-4891. the service we offer others. Hällsten. Typically the discussions follow a pre-designed questions so that deeper exploration can occur. Doctoral Dissertation. [1] accountability and taking initiative. se/ dspace/ handle/ 2077/ 2320 [3] Claus Møller. Irfaeya. C. & Velten. S. recruitersnetwork. se/ dspace/ bitstream/ 2077/ 17241/ 1/ gupea_2077_17241_1. Retrieved 05-06 2008. the meaning of work and how it fits in with our lives. canberra. . and Outcomes'. Managers develop their skills in facilitation. edu. Retrieved 15-01 2009. ideas and initiative. University of Canberra. . (2005). and Mosley R. The philosophy has been adopted and researched most notably in Sweden. John Wiley & Sons [5] "Developing an Employee Value Proposition" (http:/ / www. The traditional model is replaced by a mindset of partnership. openness and transparency. (2007). talentsmoothie. relationships between us in the team. honesty. The Elements of Employeeship The key to this approach is for teams to be able to have transparent conversations with their 'leader' regarding things that are not normally discussed in the work setting. One of the insights that organisations that embark on this approach uncover is that the characteristics often expected and valued in leaders is identical to co-workers and colleagues. com/ articles/ article.Från ord till handling! (Transl: Employeeship. [2] [3] [4] [1] Irfaeya. Therefore an organisation that embarks on developing 'Employeeship' engages the whole workforce not just the leadership community. University of Gothenburg. gu.Employee value proposition 134 Notes and references [2] Minchington. cfm?ID=1456). talentsmoothie. Liangyu. abstract http:/ / gupea. J. [1] "The Employee Value Proposition: 6 Things You Need to Know" (http:/ / www. [3] Minchington. Wajda. . com/ pdfs/ Total-Rewards. Research (see below) shows an increase in the levels openness. involving. published 2004 http:/ / gupea. by Tandehill Human Capital. [6] "Employee Value Proposition Infosheet" (http:/ / www." Article which introduces the original concept. tandehill. au/ pmp/ program/ courses/ developing-an-employee-value-proposition).Conceptualization. The Employer Brand: Bringing the best of brand management to people at work. Collective Learning Australia.

com/lorensbergs/english/ resources/case_studies/sj. there are three main factors that drive an organization to automate their expense management processes: • Compliance focus: The need to reduce the current risk levels posed by non-compliance with internal policies and external tax/government regulations • Cost reduction: The competitive pressure to reduce processing and auditing costs associated with expense reports • Employee productivity: The organizational pressure to improve employee productivity and satisfaction An automated solution typically provides the ability to code. expenses incurred for travel and entertainment. bring transparency to expense spend and improve adherence to corporate policy. References [1] http:/ / www. calculating and processing corporate expenses. as well as the technologies and services utilized to process and analyze the data associated with it. along with the relevant tax invoices (receipts). The accounts staff then key each expense item into the company's finance system before filing the claim and receipts away. com/ Aberdeen-Library/ 3903/ EMA_VP_3903. but are not limited to. SAAS providers offer on-demand Web-based applications managed by a third party to improve the productivity of expense management. Once the manager has approved the claim. from Software as a service (SAAS) providers. pay. to their manager for approval.Employeeship 135 External links • Case study of employeeship at Swedish Rail (SJ) (http://www. a manual process will involve an employee completing a paper. authorisation. approve and report on expenses. they forward it on to the accounts department for processing.lorensbergsorg. Typically. Expense Management automation is the means by which an organization can significantly reduce transaction costs and improve management control when logging. but can also enable an organization to have greater management control.the process an employee follows in order to complete an expense claim (for example logging a hotel receipt or submitting mobile phone records) and the activity accounts or finance staff undertake to process the claim within the finance system. or alternatively. Independent research evaluating the use of automated expense management systems has confirmed that the cost of processing an expense claim is reduced as the level of automation increases. implementation and support service. aberdeen.or spreadsheet-based expense claim which they then forward. Steps Expense management automation has two equally important aspects .html) Expense management Expense Management refers to the system and/or systems deployed by a business to process. Software to manage the expense claim. As found in an Aberdeen study on expense management automation[1] in February 2007. This will not only decrease the cost of processing expense claims. These costs include. audit and repayment processes can be obtained from organisations that provide a licenced software. and audit employee-initiated expenses. aspx . Expense management includes the policies and procedures which govern such spending.

Given the advent of widespread broadband connectivity. Baron found himself waiting in a long line. being featured in many articles and winning several awards since its inception.Experticity 136 Experticity Experticity Type Industry Founded Private Technology 2005  United States Headquarters Seattle. Red Herring included Experticity in its “Red Herring 100”. hospitality. Washington.[3] and was followed up with a Best in Show Award at the ACCE Show in 2005. Mr. service counters.[2] It was at the NRF trade show that Experticity began its relationship with Staples of Canada. Awards and Media Coverage 2005-2006 The Experticity platform has garnered attention in the U.com [1] Experticity is a Seattle-based sales and service solution company. later going on to implement the Experticity platform in 34 stores. Kiosk Marketplace. D.experticity. Seattle was specifically chosen to be the base of Experticity based on Seattle's history of successful technology firms. where the company’s founder. Baron regarding Experticity’s solution and their partnership with Staples of Canada.L. Retail Week. Baron decided that “single point staffing”. Shortly after Experticity was founded in 2005 the software solution was featured on Microsoft’s web site. which launched in 2001.[5] [6] 2007-Present Experticity continued to gain attention from American and Canadian media. whose Experticity software platform enables enterprises to deliver live on-screen customer service and sales experts to customers in stores.[9] Also in 2007. Using interactive video. Products Website business software. as a successor to Video-Mation. and in January 2007 was recognized at Self Service & Kiosk Association’s annual trade show.L. in retail. retail store automation www. as articles discussing the Experticity platform could be found in Advertising Age.[7] Soon after. etc. financial services. Watching the inefficiency of the staffing and operations. Mr. given to the top 100 private technology companies based in North America. The company was founded by Baron and a single software developer in Seattle.[4] Shortly thereafter Experticity began to gain momentum. as well as Canada and the UK. the Experticity platform allows companies to load balance staff to consumers on demand. and directly to consumer PCs.S. audio and data.[8] CBC Business Week also interviewed Experticity CEO and founder D. The genesis of the idea came from a moment of frustration at an airport. Washington. had not changed since the dawn of the industrial age. and Brand Week. Experticity solidified its first partnership with Microsoft and soon thereafter featured at the NRF trade show at Microsoft's booth. as it was practiced at airports. articles devoted to Experticity’s platform appeared in prominent news forums like . History Experticity was founded in 2005. Baron thought that distributing service and sales experts live over the internet for “multi-point staffing” would be possible and much more efficient.

0?” (http://experticity. com/ press/ SelfServiceNRF2007. References [1] http:/ / www. pdf) [13] (http:/ / www. Self Service & Kiosk Association.[13] [14] NCR and Experticity announced their Global Reseller Agreement on October 15. ACCE Show Archives.callcentermagazine. pdf) [7] (http:/ / experticity. com/ industry/ hospitality/ businessvalue/ experticityarticle. html) [10] (http:/ / consumerist.pdf). 2008. pdf) [9] (http:/ / experticity. com/ story/ 071808staples) [12] (http:/ / experticity. Kiosk Marketplace. callcentermagazine. July 16. 2005. experticity.com/ industry/hospitality/businessvalue/experticityarticle. January 24. 2005. • “NCR and Experticity Announce Global Reseller Agreement” (http://www. com/ press/ 2007SpringWinnerPressRelease. jhtml. Red Herring. • “Staples Trial: 2-Way Live Video Kiosk That Controls Payment. • “Remote Customer Service” (http://experticity.com/resources/CandianRetailer. July 18. Canadian Retailer. retailsolutionsonline.com/press/SelfServiceNRF2007. com/ staplesvideo.com/news/home/ 20081015005333/en).pdf). com/ article.microsoft. • “The Video Advantage (http://experticity.com/article.[10] Online business information resource StorefrontBacktalk also featured a story about the partnership between Experticity and Staples. IBM. pdf) [8] (http:/ / experticity. May 2. • “Experticity Offers Live Customer Support With NCR EasyPoint Kiosks” (http://www. • “Red Herring reveals winners of the Red Herring 100 Spring 2007” (http://experticity. com/ article. com/ industry/ hospitality/ businessvalue/ experticityarticle. Brandweek. Sept/Oct 2008. Microsoft Business & Industry. October 25. October 14. a few being NCR.com/press/ 2007SpringWinnerPressRelease. December 4. 2007. 2007. 2008. March 16. php?id=15056) [6] (http:/ / experticity. com/ shared/ video/ largeASPlayer_page.com/staplesvideo. • “Is Sluggish Sector Ready For Retail 2. html) [14] (http:/ / www. jhtml.com/ story/071808staples). • “Social Retailing splashes into NRF show: (http://experticity.com/ news/home/20080107006111/en). CBC Business Week. microsoft.com/5025840/staples-installs-two+ way-video-customer-service-stations) The Consumerist.html). October 15.kioskmarketplace. 2008.com/press/BrandweekArticle01-15-07.mspx).jsessionid=JAWA01J1FXWNEQSNDBCCKH0CJUMEKJVN?episode=20041019& autoplay=true) [5] (http:/ / www.pdf). June 15.[11] Also. 2006.businesswire. January 7.jsessionid=JAWA01J1FXWNEQSNDBCCKH0CJUMEKJVN?episode=20041019&autoplay=true).Experticity Retail Solutions Online and The Consumerist. a cover story in Canadian Retailer discussed Experticity’s partnership with Staples of Canada. 2005. php?id=15056).com/shared/video/largeASPlayer_page. com/ [2] (http:/ / www. . Scanners” (http://storefrontbacktalk. com/ press/ BrandweekArticle01-15-07. 2008.[12] 137 Partnerships Experticity has formed several strategic partnerships. microsoft. mspx) [3] (http:/ / www. mvc/ Self-Service-Experticity-Designated-As-An-IBM-0001?VNETCOOKIE=NO) • “Concierge solution lets hotels deliver highly polished service any time of day” (http://www. StorefrontBacktalk. 2007. and Microsoft. forbes. • “Editor Choice: Best of Show!!" (http://www.pdf). mspx) [4] (http:/ / www. kioskmarketplace. com/ resources/ CandianRetailer. • “Startup uses kiosks to bring expert advice in-store” (http://www. com/ 5025840/ staples-installs-two+ way-video-customer-service-stations) [11] (http:/ / storefrontbacktalk. 2008.businesswire. • “Staples Installs Two-Way Video Customer Stations” (http://consumerist. com/ businesswire/ feeds/ businesswire/ 2008/ 10/ 15/ businesswire20081015005333r1.

ncr. Its practical realization can mainly be attributed to the entrepreneur Wilhelm Haller who founded Hengstler Gleitzeit . Under flextime. In the United Kingdom Haller's employers Hengstler founded a company in the UK in 1971 and registered the trademark "Flextime".com) • Microsoft's official site (http://www. weekly or monthly hours in the region of what the employer expects. or the parents of In 2003 the UK Government introduced legislation disabled children under 18. while a flexplace policy allows staff to determine where they will work. Other groups of workers for whom flexitime arrangements are rare include those who serve the public during specific opening times. originally derived from the German word Gleitzeit which literally means 'sliding time') is a variable work schedule. It can also help provide staff cover outside normal working hours and reduce the need for overtime. [2] that gave parents of children under 6. In the United Kingdom. Its invention is usually credited to William Henning.experticity.Experticity 138 External links • Official website (http://www. . A survey in 2005 by the National Office of Statistics [3] showed that 71% of female workers and 60% of male workers were aware of the rights created under the 2003 legislation. in which employees can choose when they work. The practice is often found in administrative and back office functions of commercial organisations and local councils.com) • NCR's official site (http://www. subject to achieving total daily. the right in law to request a flexible working arrangement from their employer. 17. the mark remains the property of that company's successor hfx Ltd. flexitime can aid the recruitment and retention of staff.7% of women were employed with flexitime arrangements in the United Kingdom.and later 'Interflex Datensysteme GmbH' in Southern Germany where today a number of companies offer Flexitime (Gleitzeit) solutions which have grown out of his initiative.microsoft. and subject to the necessary work being done. In addition.com) Flextime Flextime (or flexitime. in contrast to traditional work arrangements requiring employees to work a standard 9am to 5pm day. From 6 April 2007 the law will extend the right to request flexible working to carers of adults. Between 2003 and 2005 more than 14% of all workers had requested a change to flexible working. flexi-time. Flexitime can give employees greater freedom to organise their working lives to suit personal needs. there is typically a core period (of approximately 50% of total working time/working day) of the day when employees are expected to be at work (for example. It has been a particularly popular option in 2009 for employers trying to reduce staff costs without having to make redundancies during the recession. In spring 2003. A flextime policy allows staff to determine when they will work. For employers. flexitime working is commonplace in both the private and public sectors. while the rest of the working day is "flexitime". Additionally flexitime can also improve the provision of equal opportunities to staff unable to work standard hours. between 11 am and 3pm). Shift workers are generally excluded from flexitime schemes as are senior managers.7% of men and 26. (Office for National Statistics 2003)[1] . travelling can be cheaper and easier if it is out of peak time.

This allows parents time to commute [4]. with many employees placing bets on who can accumulate the most number of flex hours by a particular date. such as 5 or 6 am. such as information technology. It is implemented formally in the Australian Federal Public Service and is available for staff in most state and territory government departments. Similarly.Flextime 139 In the United States In the United States. he or she is required to perform 'flex burndown'. Unlike exempted salaried workers. Workers may arrange to coordinate their days off so that their responsibilities are adequately covered. a worker could be required to work 70 hours one week and receive no overtime compensation as long as they work 10 hours or less the following week. In recent years. Other workers may opt simply to come in early. This has led to many employees staying behind at work until very late. are exempted from overtime regulations. or come in late and therefore leave late. taking a flex day off is known as 'flexing'. while the other parent works 7am-3pm and is in charge of the children after school/daycare. from State to Federal level there are no new published guidelines (online) for flextime.S. taking Monday or Friday off. Jane has worked 8 hours overtime meaning she is eligible for a paid day off. In Australia Flextime in Australia is usually referred to accumulated overtime hours that an employee can build up and exchange for the equivalent amount of time off. . Such arrangements are opposed by labor organizations such as the AFL-CIO.) If an employee accumulates too many flex hours. possessing a high flex balance is a point of honour. In the U. and are given broad leeway in setting their own work schedule. despite being completely idle. employers would not be required to pay non-exempt employees overtime for working more than 40 hours in a week so long as the employee works no more than 80 hours over a two week period. employers are still required to pay overtime to a flextime worker if they work more than 40 hours per week. Another flextime schedule is to work nine-hour days Monday through Thursday. flextime workers. flextime generally applies only to white collar workers. For example. For example. an eight-hour day on Friday. and leave in the mid-afternoon. [5] The word 'flex' has entered the lexicon of many Australians and. taking every other Friday off. the term "flextime" has acquired a more controversial definition when used to describe proposals to overhaul the nation's overtime regulations. some employers avoid this policy by dismissing their employees shortly before their scheduled working hours have been completed. in order to build up their flex. 2004. In certain industries and disciplines. in some workplaces. One benefit of such a schedule is that commuting times occur outside of the congested rush hour traffic within a given geographic region. Flextime arrangements also help parents: one parent works 10am-6pm and is in charge of the children before school/daycare. In addition. Over the past month. they may opt to work four 10-hour days per week. as they are burning down the flex. Under one such proposal by the Bush administration made public on August 5. (Example: Jane works 7am . Flextime is also beneficial to workers pursuing an education.. like salaried workers. flextime permits workers to vary their schedule. It is an ongoing part of the work-life balance discussions going on in many companies.3pm Monday to Friday. With current changes to industrial relations laws (2006). Flextime has also been implemented in the Victorian Public Service. the employer will usually require that a flextime employee works a minimum number of hours each week.

gov.Flextime 140 Recording flexitime working There are many different methods used for recording working time ranging from sophisticated software (computer programs) to handwritten time sheets.acas. Fong. uk/ files/ file38388.cfm?abstract_id=943323) • Reconciling labour flexibility with social cohesion — Facing the challenge (http://www. pdf) [4] http:/ / www.pdf) . Thornton. Most of these methods are associated with the payment of wages in return for hours worked. Bruce. 2007). uk/ StatBase/ ssdataset.aspx) • The Value of Flextime (http://papers. pdf External links • Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service (2006) ‘Flexible working hours’ (http://www. uk/ downloads/ theme_labour/ Flexible_working_July05. As a result they often do not address a fundamental difference of most flexible working systems namely the intention of flexible working to allow an employee to "trade hours" with their employer in return for a fixed wage (Hayward. PDF) [6] http:/ / www.com/Flexi-time-policy. aspx?articleid=630&articleaction=print) • Flexi time articles and links (http://www. There are also similar tracking tools for time and productivity more suited to small and medium business (SMBs).ssrn. Barry. au/ CA2571410025903D/ WebObj/ Worklife/ $File/ Worklife.coe. org/ work [5] (http:/ / www. momsrising. gov. uk/ employment/ employment-legislation/ employment-guidance/ page35662.int/t/dg3/ socialpolicies/socialcohesiondev/source/Trends/Trends-15_en. gov.org. "The Third Work-Life Balance Employer Survey: Main Findings" [6] (PDF). Enterprise and Regulatory Reform).com/sol3/papers. statistics. asp?vlnk=7691& Pos=& ColRank=1& Rank=272) [2] UK Department of Trade and Industry employment guidance (http:/ / www. ssa.flexitimeplanner. html) [3] (http:/ / www.uk/index. statistics. gov. References [1] (http:/ / www. UK Govt. gov. Department for Business. Alex (December. dti. berr. such as TimeOP. vic.

July 3. pp. 2010. heat. Facer II and Lori L. and gasoline for state-owned vehicles. 2011. 2009 Municipal Yearbook. [9] "Four-Day School Weeks" (http:/ / www.Four-day week 141 Four-day week A four-day week is an arrangement where a workplace or school has its employees or students work or attend school over the course of four days rather than the more customary five. (2): 166-177. org/ default. . Greg (August 20. (4): 1031-1046. March 8. National Conference of State Legislatures. 2002). “Four-day Workweeks: Current Research and Practice” Connecticut Law Review 42. [8] Toppo. [3] "Utah is going to a 4-day workweek" (http:/ / www. 2010. "In rural areas. MSNBC. com/ 2002/ 0820/ p14s02-lecs. com/ article/ SB10001424052748704869304575104124088312524. “Alternative Work Schedules and Work Family Balance: A Research Note. Wadsworth.” Review of Public Personnel Administration 28. 28-33. msnbc. msn. csmonitor. 2008. 2009. wsj. Facer II and Lori L. “Cities Leading the Way: The Use of Alternative Work Schedules by Cities. Rex L. the four-day school week is growing in popularity" (http:/ / www.[3] Many local governments have alternative schedules for many years. [1] Rex L. “Four-day Workweeks: Current Research and Practice” Connecticut Law Review 42. Wadsworth. Wadsworth. employees of the Utah state government all began working ten-hour days from Monday to Thursday. The Christian Science Monitor. and substitute teachers.[8] [9] The changes were often made in order to save money on transportation. . Facer II. Wadsworth. [4] Lori L. air conditioning. Associated Press. and is sometimes used to cut costs. 2010. and Chyleen Arbon. Wadsworth. [5] Rex L.[8] References [2] Rex L. com/ id/ 25518225). Facer II and Lori L. and Chyleen A. heating. Retrieved February 3. html). [4] [5] [6] Public schools in Hawaii closed on 17 Fridays in 2010. 2008. In 2008. most also extended each school day by an hour or more. aspx?tabid=12934). . Lori L. the state expected to save on operating costs such as electricity. (3): 322-340. [6] Rex L. html). Associated Press. ICMA Press: Washington DC. “Alternative Work Schedules in Local Government: Qui Bono?” Review of Public Personnel Administration 30. ncsl. Arbon. (4): 1031-1046. .[2] [3] By the closing state government offices on Fridays. Facer II.[7] Over 100 school districts in rural areas in the United States changed the school week to a four-day week. 2010. [1] This arrangement can be a part of flexible working hours. . The Wall Street Journal. [7] "Schools' New Math: The Four-Day Week" (http:/ / online.

A story of Ethics. Integrity and Chocolate. MySQL OpenCats PHP. (ISBN 978-0955802409) a combination of business text book and fable. responding to a brief from Pepsi Co. is a training and events business based in Hertfordshire. com/ cpl/ CPL. In 2009 a study into the personalities of brands resulted in the production of Innocent Success (released by Video Arts[2] ) which is a training film that goes behind the scenes at smoothie maker innocent to explore how their culture has impacted growth. MySQL External links • Five of the best free HR Management applications [2] References [1] http:/ / www. Further exercises have since been created for both corporate clients and a number of TV shows. ATS Package ANTS Language Base PHP. a team building exercise based around creating a brand of boxed chocolates. mainland Europe and the United Arab Emirates. including The Paul O'Grady Show[1] ) and Big Brother. com/ article/ 20091006153557925/ HumanResourceManagement. linuxlinks. Fresh Tracks teamed up with a former client David Thompson in 2007 to write: Trust Unwrapped. . Fresh Tracks created the Chocolate Challenge. It is extraordinarily difficult to find genuinely free and open source projects with no affiliation that can be used as an ATS.Free and Open Source ATS 142 Free and Open Source ATS Free and Open Source ATS software why this comparison? The world of Free and Open applications for Candidate Tracking is submerged by many vendors offering low-end cut-down versions of their commercial product. catsone. Having observed that trust is a primary factor in the success or demise of teams and customer relationships. History The business was founded in 1991 by Dan Collins focusing on designing and delivering experiential learning activities. The company delivers programmes worldwide with particular emphasis on United Kingdom. United Kingdom. MySQL License GPLv2 GPLv2 CPL [1] Other Info LAMP based system LAMP based system LAMP based system OpenApplicant PHP. txt [2] http:/ / www. In 1997. html Fresh tracks Fresh Tracks.

Reed Business. html). com/ entertainment/ tv/ microsites/ P/ paulogrady/ features/ teambuilding. 8th ed. [2] "Innocent's business approach inspires leaders to adopt new ways of working" (http:/ / www. Human Resource Management. May 20. (4) Worker Instructions. (6) Math. The most recent version of FJA uses seven scales to describe what workers do in jobs: (1) Things. [2] Managing Human Resources. (2) Data. 69-71. Retrieved 2010-11-15.[1] Quantitative approach to job analysis that utilizes a compiled inventory of the various functions or work activities that can make up any job and that assumes that each job involves three broad worker functions : 1)data 2)people 3)things. (3) People. (5) Reasoning.freshtracks. and (7) Language. 2010.uk/ Functional job analysis Functional job analysis (FJA) is a method of job analysis that was developed by the Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor. Channel 4. channel4. Retrieved 2010-11-15..Channel 4" (http:/ / www. [2] References [1] Byars.. South-Western College Pub. Lloyd L. Rue. (2003) .Fresh tracks 143 Fresh Charitable Trust The Fresh Charitable Trust is a UK registered charity which supports education and enterprise in the UK and Africa. External links • http://www. and Leslie W. Bohlander & Snell. . com/ articles/ 2010/ 05/ 20/ 55631/ innocents-business-approach-inspires-leaders-to-adopt-new-ways-of-working.co. FJA produces standardized occupational information specific to the performance of the work and the performer. References [1] "The Paul O'Grady Show . . It was set up in 2005 'with the idea of advancing education'. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. personneltoday. 13th Edition. The majority of funding goes to overseas projects. 2006. html).

as they are occupying the same type of place . Swarm intelligence is a special case of group behaviour. while group behaviour refers usually to people in one place. some which group members may not realize they are benefiting from:[1] • Companionship – groups provide members to simply be in the company of other people. participating in a fight or acting patriotically. • Affiliation and status – membership into various groups can provide individuals with certain socials status’ or security. referring to the interaction between a group of agents in order to fulfil a given task. This type of group dynamics has received much attention by the soft computing community in the form of the particle swarm optimization family of algorithms. • Power and control– with group membership comes the opportunity for leadership roles. etc. Membership into a group can fulfil numerous needs. as a member of a work group you may unintentionally reap the numerous benefits independent of the original group construct. Groups of a large number of people in a given area may act simultaneously to achieve a goal that differs from what individuals would do acting alone (herd behaviour).in front of television although they may physically be doing this all over the world. joining a protest or march.exception to the rule that the group must occupy the same physical place. Why do people join groups People join groups for a multitude of reasons. then it is called group action. Special forms of large group behaviour are: • crowd "hysteria" • spectators . individuals who feel they need to exert their power and opinions over others can have such experiences within group settings. cinema movie. football match. People watching same channel on television may react in the same way.Group behaviour 144 Group behaviour Group behaviour (or group behavior) in sociology refers to the situations where people interact in large or small groups. however.when a group of people gathered together on purpose to participate in an event like theatre play. The field of group dynamics deals with small groups that may reach consensus and act in a coordinated way. • public . • Achievement – groups have the capability to achieve more than individuals acting alone. Organizations typically form groups in order to accomplish work related tasks. Group behaviour differs from mass actions which refers to people behaving similarly on a more global scale (for example. • Survival and security – From a historic or evolutionary perspective our ancestors would partake in group experiences for hunting and defence. . A large group (a crowd or mob) is likely to show examples of group behaviour when people gathered in a given place and time act in a similar way—for example. a concert. If the group behaviour is coordinated. shoppers in different shops). A major reason is that group membership often results in some form of need satisfaction on the part of the individual.

norms. Group structure A group’s structure is the internal framework that defines members’ relations to one another over time. and planning. Examples include quality circles. Functional (task) roles are generally defined in relation to the tasks the team is expected to perform. Norms refer to what should be done and represent value judgments about appropriate behaviour in social situations. part of a group. such as airline teams. and status differentials.[5] Role differentiation is the degree to which different members of a group have specialized functions. military crews. • Project groups are generally cross-function groups of individuals brought together for the duration of a specific. call centres. • Social interaction: In order to accomplish the goal some form of verbal or nonverbal communication is required to take place amongst the members of the collective. shared physical work locations.[7] . maintenance groups. Although they are infrequently written down or even discussed. • Action and performing groups are groups that typically consist of expert specialists who conduct complex. • Service groups consist of employees that work with customers on a repeated basis. sales groups. Management groups are often able to organize themselves towards goals such as policy making. Project groups are usually disbanded once the project is complete. Groups can have varying numbers of members. communication styles. Group norms are the informal rules that groups adopt to regulate members' behaviour. budgeting. Autonomous production groups are self-directed or self-managing while semi-autonomous production groups typically have a dedicated supervisor who oversees all operations. Research has identified a few common requirements contributing to the recognition of individuals working in a collaborative environment to be considered a “group”:[1] • Interdependence: In order for an individual of the collective to accomplish their part in the assigned task they depend. Types of groups Group types are routinely distinguished by the work that the groups do:[2] [3] • Production groups consist of front line employees who produce some tangible output. but more often are defined through the process of role differentiation. surgery teams. and structures. Some researchers suggest additional characteristics need to be identified in order for a collective of individuals to be categorized as a group such as: working the same shifts. to some degree. the individual role and the leader role. staffing. • Advisory groups consist of employees that work outside of. values. • Commonality of purpose: All the members of the collective come together to serve or attain a common goal. on the outputs of other members of the collective. time-limited project. etc. • Management groups consist of an executive or senior manager along with managers that report directly to him/her. Examples include musical bands. or other advisory groups pulled together to make recommendations to an organization. However the commonalities of the multiple definitions reviewed suggest that the definition of a group is based on the interdependence of people who come together to accomplish a common goal. selection committees.[1] A role can be defined as a tendency to behave. time-limited performance events.[6] Other types of roles are the socio-emotional role which helps maintain the social fabric of the group.[4] The most important elements of group structure are roles. but parallel with. • Perception of a group: All members of the collective must agree they are. norms have powerful influence on group behaviour. in fact. rescue units or professional music groups. communication patterns. and reporting to the same manager. contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way. Roles may be assigned formally. production processes.Group behaviour 145 Defining characteristics of groups Currently there is not a universal definition of what constitutes a group.

• Norming: Norming in groups indicate that norms and role ownership are emerging.Group behaviour Group values are goals or ideas that serve as guiding principles for the group. However. 146 Stages of group development Group development focuses on the somewhat unique way groups are formed and the manner in which they may change over time. pronounced efforts to influence others. Chaos. Generally this means that conflict and chaos is decreasing or has ended. communications tend to flow more freely. performing occurs when the team completes their primary task(s). age. Centralized communications allow consistent.[9] The most common of these models is Tuckman’s (1965) Stage Model. the storming stage may decrease but not fully dissipate and continue across other stages. Communication patterns describe the flow of information within the group and they are typically described as either centralized or decentralized. gender or ethnic origin. Another potential downside of decentralized communications is the sheer volume of information that can be generated. particularly with electronic media. people with higher status are given more freedom to violate group norms). It breaks group development into the following five stages:[1] • Forming: As the group convenes. conflict is usually low to non-existent as everyone tries to determine their individual role and the personalities of fellow team members. some values (such as conformity) can also be dysfunction and lead to poor decisions by the team. This stage is often marked by agreeable neutrality while the group takes form and begins to navigate the unknown. When decentralized. • Performing: Originally noted as the final stage. values may be communicated either explicitly or on an ad hoc basis. While Tuckman’s (1965) model is useful in describing developmental processes. Status can be determined by a variety of factors. Status differentials are the relative differences in status among group members.[8] Like norms. also by nicki minaj .e. occupation. • Adjourning: Tuckman (1977) refined the model to include a fifth stage to address how the group begins to disengage and move on to new tasks potentially beyond the team. and instances of conflict and/or enthusiasm are common. Decentralized communications allow information to be shared directly between members of the group. • Storming: Storming occurs after the group overcomes the sense of uncertainty and begins to actively explore roles and boundaries. Additionally. With a centralized pattern. Status differentials may affect the relative amount of pay among group members and they may also affect the group's tolerance to violation of group norms (i. Values can serve as a rallying point for the team. there are instances when groups do not strictly adhere to the exact sequence. communications tend to flow from one source to all group members. including expertise. but the delivery of information may not be as fast or accurate as with centralized communications. There are a variety of development theories and some suggest that groups develop through a series of phases culminating in effective performance. standardization information but they may restrict the free flow of information.

budgets. Cordial individual group member interaction is believed to greatly impact the quality of intergroup relationships. Past History.Group behaviour 147 Intergroup dynamics and behaviour Intergroup behaviour. • Social networks in organizations are another vital factor when considering intergroup behaviour. • Compromise interaction occurs when two groups have a moderate need to interact to meet specific goals which are moderately compatible. the two groups may work together on a semi-regular basis to ensure they are on track to meet the relevant aspects of their overlapping goals. Both of these interactions are viewed as having no to low impact on successfully achieving each group’s goals. is best examined in terms of the frequency and interaction type the groups engage in. • Interdependence is the degree to which group depend on each other and is determined by the type of group tasks (i.[1] • Resources: Resources (e. • Collaboration interaction is necessary when the goals of two groups are largely compatible and partnership is required for successful goal accomplishment. time incompatibility. Organizational Culture. Whether the interaction was positive or negative. • Reciprocal interdependence: A series of mutual exchanges between groups. In this type of interaction. requiring a high degree of continuous interactions. and contentious influence tactics. and the degree of compatibility between the goals of different groups. and power structure. • Competition interaction usually occurs when two groups must interact to meet specific goals that are vastly incompatible...e. Interdependence may occur in one of three common forms: • Pooled interdependence: The combined efforts of largely separate groups positively contribute to the organization. • Past history with intergroup relationships also impact interdependence behaviour. and Organizational Social Networks. Examples of these include Interdependence. • Sequential interdependence: The effort or output of one group is used as the input for another group. There are activities that organizations can participate in to reduce or prevent competition between groups. goal incompatibility. The influence of this factor is directly connected to the past interaction experience between groups. its shared norms.g. • Time Incompatibility: Work groups perform different tasks.[1] • Accommodation interaction is based on groups having similar goals and taking part in minimal to moderate mutual concession and cooperation to achieve them. Intergroup conflict Intergroup conflict may be caused by competition for resources. • Avoidance interaction is found between groups where there are different or conflicting goals and even minimal collaboration is not warranted. Thomas (1976) elaborated on this concept by noting the nature of intergroup interactions depends largely on the degree to which groups must interact in order to achieve their goals. • Goal Incompatibility: Goal incompatibility occurs when the goals of two or more groups are in direct opposition such that one group will achieve its goal while the other group(s) will be unable to meet the goal. physical space) are generally limited within organizations so that competition for resources between groups is often unavoidable. new group members may be influenced in the direction of the group’s previous experience. have different goals. and interact with different customers such that groups will have different time frames or deadlines in which they operate. • Organizational culture. values. • Intergroup behaviour is influenced by factors beyond interaction types. organization structure. Goal incompatibility may be distinguished between real goal incompatibility and perceived goal incompatibility. will often dictate the frequency and degree to which intergroup interactions and collaborations occur. simple versus complex). and the organizational authority system). or the way groups interact with other groups. personnel. .

• Group members become more cohesive to compete against a “common enemy”. • Quality of intergroup interactions (e. A “coordinating group” may be used as an intermediary between groups so that each group would communicate through the “coordinating group”.[1] Negotiation may facilitate communication of issues causing conflict between groups so that groups can form a resolution that is suitable to members within both groups.e.g. produce a product. Organizations may create slack resources by adding additional inventory so that groups do not have to interact as frequently. . creating bad reputations). The resource allocation process should be fair so that all groups have access to the process and political considerations between groups are minimized. • Members of groups in conflict develop an “us versus them” mentality and view members of the other group as fundamentally different from themselves but similar to each other.. • Conflict may create discrepancies between the goals of the group and the goals of the organization. 148 Consequences of intergroup conflict Effects related to conflict between groups may be either negative or positive. Superordinate goals may also be used to create a “common enemy” that increases the cohesion among group members to defeat the enemy. (Fischer and Ury. • Group members’ perceptions of one another change in a negative manner where a distinction is made between “in-group” and “out-group”. prepare a report. the lists are then shared with both groups to reduce misperceptions. threats. Improving the quality of intergroup relations Superordinate goals are goals that are approved by all groups and that may require the groups to interact in a cooperative manner to achieve the goals (e. “Principled negotiation” refers to one style of negotiation so that members attempt to problem-solve until a resolution between groups is reached rather than focusing on which their individual positions.. Intergroup Team Development may be used to improve relations for members within the same group or between groups. communication) may decline among groups in conflict. demands. • Negative perceptions of the other group may be transferred to incoming group members.. and complete a service to customers). These exchanges are intended to provide a new perspective. One intervention developed by Blake... Shephard. 1981) Member exchanges allow group members to exchange roles with those of the other group members. physically separate the groups). Organizations may also reduce task interdependence between those groups that function under different time frames and deadlines (i.g.g. Organizations should first reexamine the process to determine that groups have the resources needed to be effective.Group behaviour • Contentious Influence Tactics: Contentious influence tactics (e.g. and other negative behaviours) may be used to attempt to influence others from another group creating cycles of retaliation and influencing the opinions of those within their own group (e. which in turn may decrease the quality of work. Reducing the need for intergroup interaction may be necessary for work groups that cannot work well together. and Mouton (1964) has members of both groups generate one list about how the group perceives the other group and one list that describes how they think the other group will describe them.

midwives. raising awareness of the critical role of HRH in strengthening health system performance and improving population health outcomes has placed the health workforce high on the global health agenda. (1991). The situation was declared on World Health Day 2006 as a "health workforce crisis" . (2007). (2008). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach (Second ed. Steve &. Nations identified with critical shortages of health care workers Shortages of skilled health workers are also reported in many specific care areas. Groups that work (and those that don't) : Creating conditions for effective teamwork. (2000). [5] Levine. medical records and health information technicians. according to the World Health Organization's World Health Report 2006. development. et al (2000). 628. Thomas (2008). medical secretaries. Regular statistical updates on the global HHR situation are collated in the WHO Global Atlas of the Health [5] Workforce. health supply chain managers. especially in sub-Saharan Africa.[1] The shortage is most severe in 57 of the poorest countries.000 psychosocial care providers needed to treat mental disorders in 144 low.and middle-income countries. and 493. Britt. Hoboken.18 million mental health professionals. (1998). [7] Hahn. Inc.Group behaviour 149 References [1] Jex. social health workers and other health care providers. health economists. Small-Group Research in Social Psychology: Topics and Trends over Time. largely related to weaknesses in the underlying human resource information systems (HRIS) within countries. retention. report maldistribution of skilled health workers leading to shortages in rural and underserved areas. Work Groups: From the Hawthorne Studies to Work Teams of the 1990's and Beyond. In recent years. training. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. However the evidence base remains fragmented and incomplete. Many countries.). as well as health management and support personnel – those who may not deliver services directly but are essential to effective health system functioning.000 nurses in mental health settings. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. including health services managers. (1990). The field of HRH deals with issues such as planning. (2010). management. community health workers. For example. allied health professions. information. pp. working environment and management. M. wages. Are There Universal Aspects in the Structure and Contents of Human Values? [9] Sundstrom. both developed and developing.[3] Global situation The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates a shortage of almost 4.000 psychiatrists.[1] Human resources for health are identified as one of the core building blocks of a health system.3 million physicians. [2] Sundtrom.[6] .”. [8] Schwarz.[4] Shortages of skilled birth attendants in many developing countries remains an important barrier to improving maternal health outcomes. performance.[2] They include physicians. 341–365. Health Human Resources Health Human Resources (“HHR”) — also known as “human resources for health” (“HRH”) or “health workforce” — is defined as “all people engaged in actions whose primary intent is to enhance health”. and research on human resources for the health care sector. nurses. and others. including 55. Group Norms in Organizations. [4] Wittenbaum and Moreland. Work Groups: From the Hawthorne Studies to Work Teams of the 1990's and Beyond.the result of decades of underinvestment in health worker education. midwives. dentists. [6] Senior. et al. nurses and support workers worldwide. there is an estimated shortage of 1. [3] Hackman. The Handbook of Social Psychology.

surveillance and collaborative practice. economic. distribution and productivity. The results are intended to be used to generate evidence-based policies to guide workforce sustainability. skills. equity.Health Human Resources In order to learn from best practices in addressing health workforce challenges and strengthening the evidence base.[20] It provides health managers a systematic way to make staffing decisions in order to better manage their human resources. For one. an increasing number of HHR practitioners from around the world are focusing on issues such as HHR advocacy. with activity (time) standards applied for each workload component at a given health facility. for example those responding to the Millennium Development Goals. New York [11] Canadian Institute for Health Information: Spending and Health Workforce [12] Public Health Foundation of India: Human Resources for Health in India [13] National Human Resources for Health Observatory of Sudan [14] OECD Human Resources for Health Care Study [15] Health workforce policy and planning In some countries and jurisdictions. Some examples of HRH information and research dissemination programs include: • Human Resources for Health [9] journal • • • • • • HRH Knowledge Hub. quality. An essential component of planned HRH targets is supply and demand modeling. and costs. academic institutions and related agencies have established research programs to identify and quantify the scope and nature of HHR problems leading to health policy in building an innovative and sustainable health services workforce in their jurisdiction. Some examples of global HRH partnerships include: • Health Workforce Information Reference Group (HIRG) [7] • Global Health Workforce Alliance [8] 150 Health workforce research Health workforce research is the investigation of how social.[17] [18] In resource-limited countries. distribution and quality of health workers to meet health care goals. attitudes and qualifications. organizational. University of New South Wales. In others. performing the right tasks in the right place at the right time to achieve the right predetermined health targets. there is an explicit policy or strategy adopted by governments and systems to plan for adequate numbers. the International Council of Nurses reports:[16] The objective of HHRP [health human resources planning] is to provide the right number of health care workers with the right knowledge. Australia [10] Center for Health Workforce Studies. or the use of appropriate data to link population health needs and/or health care delivery targets with human resources supply. . health workforce planning is distributed among labour market participants. and how the organization and composition of the workforce itself can affect health care delivery. HRH planning approaches are often driven by the needs of targeted programmes or projects. Many government health departments. University of Albany. [19] The WHO Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) is an HRH planning and management tool that can be adapted to local circumstances. political and policy factors affect access to health care professionals. based on a health worker’s workload.

http:/ / www. health workers in developing countries. who. asp [6] Dal Poz MR et al. 2006 – http:/ / www.. med. Health Systems Topics http:/ / www. pdf [18] Health Canada. Geneva. It also advocates the strengthening of health personnel information systems to support effective health workforce policies and planning in countries. int/ publications/ 2011/ 9789241501019_eng. Geneva. 2011 – available on http:/ / whqlibdoc. Geneva. Geneva. especially in some higher income countries.jsp?cw_page=hhrdata_e). org/ [14] http:/ / www.int/hrh/en/) programme of work on health human resources • Human Resources for Health Databases (http://secure. Health human resources planning. int/ whr/ 2006 [2] World Health Organization. Global Atlas of the Health Workforce [online database] – available on http:/ / www. who.org/go/topics/dossiers/ human-resources-for-health) . Canadian Institute for Health Information • Human resources for health in developing countries (http://www.00. and its impact on the ability of many developing countries to deliver primary health care services. org/ document/ 54/ 0. oecd. 2010 . int/ globalatlas/ autologin/ hrh_login. 24(6):479-482 http:/ / heapol. 2005. ca/ hcs-sss/ hhr-rhs/ strateg/ index-eng. html [3] Grepin K. References [1] World Health Organization. Geneva. Geneva. albany.who. who. Models and tools for health workforce planning and projections. com/ publications/ factsheets/ Health-Human-Resources-Plan_EN. 20(5):267–276. org/ HIRG [8] http:/ / www. Although non-binding on Member States and recruitment agencies." Health Policy and Planning. int/ workforcealliance [9] http:/ / www. 2009. adopted by the WHO's 63rd World Health Assembly in 2010.and middle-income countries. sd [15] http:/ / www. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 24/ 6/ 479 [4] Scheffler RM et al. html [16] International Council of Nurses.who. int/ publications/ 2010/ 9789241599016_eng. ca/ CIHI-ext-portal/ internet/ EN/ Theme/ spending+ and+ health+ workforce/ cihi010658 [13] http:/ / hrhindia. int/ hrh/ resources/ wisn_user_manual/ en/ [21] International recruitment of health personnel: global code of practice. who. Human resources for mental health: workforce shortages in low. World Health Organization. Resolution adopted by the Sixty-third World Health Assembly. [20] World Health Organization. [19] Dreesch N et al. html [7] http:/ / my. who. pdf [5] World Health Organization.http:/ / whqlibdoc. "10 Best Resources on .ca/cihiweb/dispPage. 2008 . human-resources-health. gc.a dossier from the Institute for Development Studies • Compendium of tools and guidelines (http://www. Health Human Resource Strategy (HHRS). World Health Organization. 2009 – available on http:/ / www. who. int/ gb/ e/ e_wha63. int/ healthsystems/ topics/ en/ index. com [10] http:/ / www." Health Policy and Planning. who. php) Accessed 12 April 2011.Health Human Resources 151 Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel The main international policy framework for addressing shortages and maldistribution of health professionals is the Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel. pdf [17] Dal Poz MR et al. Geneva. Handbook on monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. cihi.available on http:/ / apps. policies and management systems . ibpinitiative. who.http:/ / www. hrhobservatory. hc-sc. World Health Organization. html External links • World Health Organization (http://www.[21] The Code was developed in a context of increasing debate on international health worker recruitment. who. May 2010 . au/ HRHweb. the Code promotes principles and practices for the ethical international recruitment of health personnel. nsf [11] http:/ / chws.2340. ichrn. (http:/ / www. "An approach to estimating human resource requirements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN): User's manual. int/ hrh/ resources/ handbook/ en/ index. Savedoff WD.en_2649_37407_1935094_1_1_1_37407. edu.eldis. edu/ [12] http:/ / www. 2010 .html) for HRH situation analysis.int/hrh/tools/en/index. planning.. The world health report 2006: working together for health.cihi. oxfordjournals. unsw. (eds).

[3] DISC assessment. challenging assumptions.[7] . innovative. Preferred activities : collecting data.largest online collection of HRH research and materials. organized. sensory.Health Human Resources • Online community of practice for HRH practitioners (http://my.ibpinitiative.[5] Brain Dominance Model In his brain dominance model. Preferred activities : following directions. • B. Use of that metaphor brought later criticism by brain researchers such as Terence Hines for being overly simplistic. developed by William "Ned" Herrmann while leading management education at General Electric's Crotonville facility. and Michael Gazzaniga and further developed to reflect a metaphor for how individuals think and learn. Herrmann also coined the concept Whole Brain Thinking as a description of flexibility in using thinking styles that one may cultivate in individuals or in organizations allowing the situational use of all four styles of thinking.[1] [2] Learning Orientation Questionnaire. supported by the IntraHealth International-led CapacityPlus project • HRIS strengthening implementation toolkit (http://www. factual.org/). metaphoric thinking. Herrmann identifies four different modes of thinking: • A. • C. creative problem solving. It is a type of cognitive style measurement and model similar to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. criteria and logical reasoning. intuitive.capacityproject.html) • Africa Health Workforce Observatory (http://www.org/HIRG) on strengthening health workforce information systems • Human Resources for Health Global Resource Center (http://www. feeling. complexity or detailed. understanding how things work. taking initiative. and group interaction.hrhresourcecenter. His theory was inspired by the research into left-right brain laterilization by Roger Wolcott Sperry. judging ideas based on facts. 152 Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument The Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) is a system claimed to measure and describe thinking preferences in people. visuals.afro. detail oriented work. and conceptual.capacityplus. Robert Ornstein. organization and implementation.org/hris/hris-toolkit/index. holistic.int/) • CapacityPlus (http://www.who. technical and quantitative. Imaginative thinking Key words : Visual. planned. Preferred activities : listening to and expressing ideas.hrh-observatory. emotional. • D. step-by-step problem solving. structured. critical. Analytical thinking Key words : Auditive. spiritual. analysis. Interpersonal thinking Key words : Kinesthetic. long term thinking. [6] Henry Mintzberg. Preferred activities : Looking at the big picture.org/)--the USAID-funded global project uniquely focused on the health workforce needed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.[4] and others. Sequential thinking Key words : safekeeping.logical. looking for personal meaning. sensory input.

[17] Lateralization Herrmann International describes an underlying basis for HBDI in the lateralization of brain function theory championed by Gazzaniga and others that associates each of the four thinking styles with a particular locus in the human brain. for example. noted that "there appears to be little or no published independent evaluation of several self-report measures developed as management training tools."[16] However.[21] Hines stated "No evidence is presented to show that these 'brain dominance measures' measure anything related to the differences between the two hemispheres. Allinson and J.[19] [20] He asserts that current literature instead found that both hemispheres are always involved in cognitive tasks[19] and attempting to strengthen a specific hemisphere does not improve creativity. for example. A 1985 dissertation by C. W. In other words. and "The scores permit valid inferences about a person's preferences and avoidances for each of these clusters of mental activity".[12] [13] [14] Critiques Self Reporting Measurements that require people to state preferences between terms have received criticism.[15] However in a critique of the Cognitive Style Index indicator they opined that progress in the field had been "hampered by a proliferation of alternative constructs and assessment instruments" many unreliable with a lack of agreement over nomenclature. books.[18] Analytical and sequential styles are associated with left brain and interpersonal and imaginative styles are associated with right brain. "scores derived from the instrument are valid indicators of the four clusters".Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument 153 The Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument The format of the instrument is a 120 question online test which claims to determine which of the model's four styles of thinking is a dominant preference. and coaching claiming to improve personal or group communication. a differential item functioning review of HBDI was published in 2007 by Jared Lees. though he asserts all people use all styles to varying degrees. in Herrmann's presentation a person may be dominant in both analytical and sequential styles of thinking but be weaker in interpersonal or imaginative modes. no evidence of validity [of hemisphere dominance] is presented. and were therefore not completely independent. It asserts that "four stable. currently CEO of the non-profit EduMetrics Institute which has an ongoing business relationship with Herrmann International. some find usefulness in self reporting measurements. games. Hodgkinson and E. Researchers C.[8] [9] For example. his tests were supported by EduMetrics. Researchers G. More than one style may be dominant at once in this model. and other benefits. However. a company on contract with Herrmann International to evaluate the system.P.[15] To measure self-report consistency. notably by Terence Hines who called it "pop psychology" based on unpublished EEG data. Hayes. Ned Herrmann described dominance of a particular thinking style with dominance with a portion of a brain hemisphere. in their own 1996 publication of a competing cognitive style indicator called Cognitive Style Index[15] in the peer reviewed Journal of Management Studies. creativity. organizations such as Herrmann International and Herrmann Institute offer programs."[9] .[11] Training Based on the instrument and model. [including] Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument. Sadler-Smith in 2003 found cognitive style indicators generally useful for studying organizations. Bunderson.[7] The notion of hemisphere dominance attracted criticism from the neuroscience community. discrete clusters of preference exist".[10] is published on the Herrmann International website.

html) [7] Herrmann.1 • Allinson.1 [6] European Herrmann Institute FAQ (http:/ / www. 2338.[24] References [1] DeWald. [17] Lees (2007) pp.1 [20] Terence Hines (1987) p. (2005) p. M. com/ home/ friendlyDownload. com/ ) [13] Herrmann International web site (http:/ / www. 119–135. E. 50(06). Vol 61(10-A). hbdi.32 [11] C. Therefore. Dale S.3961 [4] Wilson (2007) pp. R. thinkingmatters. herrmann-europe. June) abstract [3] Bentley and Hall (2001) p. E.600 [21] Hines (1991) pp. 223–227 [22] Hines (1987) p. pdf& saveName=Coaching-With-Style.1-3 [8] Lees (2007) pp. [24] Meneely and Portillo (2005) p. 1985 [12] HBDI Services (http:/ / www. • DeWald. published by Herrmann International. & Hayes. Apr 2001. They did however find correlation between creativity in design students based on how flexible they were using all four thinking styles equally as measured by the HBDI.Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument 154 Creativity Herrmann offered creativity workshops based on strengthening particular thinking styles and strengthening the right hemisphere. 33:1 January 1996 • Bentley. 2005.[22] [23] A study published in the peer reviewed Creativity Research Journal in 2005 by J. (1987. hbdi. com/ uk/ faq. 1989).1-2 [16] Allinson & Hayes (1996) pp. Western Michigan University. Journal of Management Studies. (1996) 'Cognitive Style Index: A measure of intuition-analysis for organizational research'. Vol 66(4-B). G. 1079 [5] Deardorff. hbdi. J.. Dissertation Abstracts International.32 [18] Herrmann-Nehdi. Dale S. 2657B. (1989) abstract [2] Krause. Pamela (2001) Learning Orientation Questionnaire correlation with the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument: A validity study Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. Joanne and Hall.603 [23] McKean (1985) Discover pp. cfm?directory=100024_articles& actualFile=100153. which received critiques that creativity is not localized to a particular thinking style nor to a particular hemisphere. com/ Resources/ Research/ HBDI-Validation).604 [10] Lees (2007) p. Portillo agreed that creativity is not localized into a particular thinking style. pp. AAC89-21867) . pdf) [19] Hines (1985) p.30-41. 'Dissertation: The Validity of the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument' (http:/ / www. Ann (2003) Coaching With Style (http:/ / www. Meneely and M. hbdiservices. they found training thinking styles associated by Herrmann as right hemisphere did not necessarily improve creativity. Relationships of MBTI types and HBDI preferences in a population of student program managers (Doctoral dissertation. com) [15] Hodgkinson and Sadler-Smith (2003) pp. Victor Bunderson.20. (2005) An exploratory case study of leadership influences on innovative culture: A descriptive study Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. (1989). but training in thinking styles that measured less strongly in the instrument would produce greater creativity. When students were less entrenched in a specific style of thinking they measured higher creativity using Domino’s Creativity Scale (ACL-Cr).11-15 [9] Terence (1987) p. such as a right-brain dominance resulting in more creativity. Ned (1999) pp. 3961. pp. com/ ) [14] Herrmann Institute web site (http:/ / www. (University Microfilms No. • Deardorff. R. C.W.

North Carolina. the Seventh Biennial International Conference of the Association for Psychological Type. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol 25(3). ISBN 0-471-98303-9.byu. and Sadler-Smith. McGraw-Hill ISBN 0-07-039091-6. Terence (1987) 'Left Brain/Right Brain Mythology and Implications for Management and Training'. • Meneely. 32–34. J. 155 Further reading • Ned Herrmann (1990) The Creative Brain. 09631798. Dorothy Leonard. and Portillo. ISBN 0-944850-02-2. 1079.' Journal of Creative Behavior. June). pp. (1987. FL.lib. Vol. 1991. ISBN 978-0-87584-881-5.Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument • Herrmann. The Academy of Management Review. Eugene (2003) Complex or unitary? A critique and empirical re-assessment of the Allinson-Hayes Cognitive Style Index. Creativity Research Journal.30-41. and Wainer. Harvard Business Review on Knowledge Management.cfm?directory=100024_articles&actualFile=100543. 12. Dennis H. New York. and John Seely Brown. . No. Margaret. Vol 68(3-A). right brain: Who's on first?' Training & Development Journal. ISBN 0-935652-70-1. ISBN 978-0-944850-02-2. (2007) A comparison of the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument(TM) and the extended DISCMRTM behavior profiling tool: An attempt to create a more discerning management perspective. Lake Lure. (2005) The Adaptable Mind in Design: Relating Personality. G. (1984) Compass of the Soul: Archetypal Guides to a Fuller Life. Cognitive Style.hbdi. Jason. pp. Ned (1999) The Theory Behind the HBDI and Whole Brain Technology pdf (http://www. ISBN 0-07-028462-8. 155–166. Susan Straus. ISBN 978-0-07-039091-1.pdf) • McKean. Vol. Nov 1985. Terence (1985) 'Left brain. ISBN 978-0-07-028462-3. • Hines. Handout from presentation at APT-VII. 6(4). Gerard P. • Peter Ferdinand Drucker. K. ISBN 978-0-471-98303-3. 223–227. David Garvin.pdf& saveName=Theory-Behind-The-HBDI. (1998). • Ned Herrmann (1996) The Whole Brain Business Book. John L. Howard (1993) Differential Item Functioning ISDN 0-80580-972-4 • Krause.'. Sergio Della. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Gainesville. • Lees. pp. M. Issue 2 • Holland. Harvard Business School Press ISBN 0-87584-881-8. October 1987 • Hines.. pp. 20030601. 2005. A comparison of the MBTI and the Herrmann Participant Survey.com/ home/friendlyDownload. Brain Books. (1985) 'Of two minds: Selling the right brain. Lumsdaine (1994) Creative Problem Solving. ISBN 978-0-935652-70-3. Paul W. Brigham Young University . Vol 39(11). NY.pdf (http://contentdm. [Journal Article] • Hodgkinson. McGraw-Hill. 4. Mind Myths: Exploring Popular Assumptions About the Mind and Brain. Jared A. • Giannini. M. Vol 17(2-3).edu/ETD/image/etd2103. 76. [Journal Article] • Wilson. • Edward Lumsdaine.. and Creative Performance. Discover. • Sala. Editor (1999). pp.pdf) • Hines. (2007) Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument Masters Thesis. New York. Terence (1991) 'The myth of right hemisphere creativity. Wiley & Sons.

a flat plane upon which to communicate. as a way of describing the use of direct democracy and consensus in striving for dignity and freedom. joining the tips of their fingers together to form a kind of triangle or pyramid. and this has to do with a collective self-awareness of what was taking place within all of us. It is the walk. and ourselves questions. those continuing to build a new and revolutionary movement speak of horizontalidad as both a goal and a tool. information and experience. It is a goal in the sense that there is a clearer understanding now that all of our relationships are still deeply affected by capitalism. the process of questioning as we walk that enriched our growth. in this way it is similar . a participant in the unemployed workers movement of Solano. Argentina. Each day we continue discovering and constructing while walking. Ideology Horizontality is an attempt to decentralize power by allowing everyone to become active and direct participants in the decisions and actions that affect the individual most. development and maintenance of social structures for the equitable distribution of management power. and what we had in our hands at the time was what we used to go looking for solutions. in the months and even years after the rebellion it was common to have people set the palms of their hands to face down and then to move them back and forth to indicate a flat plane. Horizontalidad is a social relationship that implies. our difficulties. our life each day. outside Buenos Aires. These structures and relationships function as a result of dynamic self-management. when there is no one to tell you what you have to do. many began to speak of their relationships as horizontal. but we are not going to come across any definition. as it sounds. and from there we began to resolve things together. almost 9 years after the rebellion. we begin here. we know how it is done. Horizontalidad is a living word. Autonomy is constructed through mutual agreements and voluntary commitments that respect the diversity of individual capabilities and personal desires. The beginning of the practice of horizontalidad can be seen in this process. First we began by asking one another. This is accomplished without top-down directives or obligations to the individual. on the other hand. When explaining how an asamblea or unemployed workers movement functions. What we had was life. rather than a reflection of a living process. but a break that is also an opening. in order to indicate how it does not function. without what was in the past. Practice Neka. it was a sort of waking up to a knowledge that was collective. as well. I do not believe there is a definition for what we are doing. in how we relate to one another in term of gender and race. and this horizon does not have any recipe or program. crisis. in the sense that a danger is now more clearly recognized that language may become the politics and relationship. and thus by the sorts of power dynamics it promotes in all of our collectives and creative spaces. from a new way of interacting that has become a hallmark of the autonomous movements.Horizontalidad 156 Horizontalidad Horizontality or horizontalism is a social relationship that advocates the creation. It is like each day is a horizon that opens before us. involving continuous participation and exchange between individuals to achieve the larger desired outcomes of the collective whole. Its new meaning emerged from a practice. Horizontalidad in many ways is these hand gestures with the knowledge that they genuinely represent a new and powerful set of social relations. and helped us discover that strength is different when we are side by side. Months after the popular rebellion in Argentina. but rather when we decide who we are. described horizontalidad as: "“First we began learning something together. and so on. problems. reflecting an experience that is ever changing. Horizontalism is a tool. Horizontalidad requires the use of direct democracy and implies non-hierarchy and anti-authoritarian creation rather than reaction. It is a word that previously did not have political meaning. Now. “Horizontalidad” is a word that encapsulates most directly the ideas upon which the new social relationships in the autonomous social movements in Argentina are founded. It is a break with vertical ways of organizing and relating. This is an active conversation.

creativity. theories that are often converted into tools of oppression and submission. I believe it is an organic process. [2] Sitrin. horizontality is a necessary factor for real freedom because it allows personal autonomy within a framework of social equality. theories that we all know and have heard so often. Like under capitalism. . This includes even my own conduct. This is beyond revolutionary theories. and if you do it collectively it is that much more so. AK Press. Oscar."[1] in contrast to "verticals" who "assume the existence and legitimacy of representative structures. Mayo Fuster Morell. These ideologies advocate a kind of socialist direct democracy and workers' councils (autogestion). More than an answer to a practice. and do it well. phtml?act_id=16321& username=guest@tni." (Quoted in Horizontalism. which is something sane and that strengthens you. 2006) 157 In anti-globalization politics As a specific term. Constructing freedom is a learning process that can only happen in practice. and do so far away from those that try and tell us politics must be done in a particular way. Retrieved 2007-09-11. org/ detail_page. Marina. and it was difficult for me to enjoy myself. freedom.[2] To these radical left-wing ideologies. I think back to previous activist experiences I had and remember a powerful feeling of submission. and happiness are all concepts that go together and are all things that both have to be practiced and learned in the practice. Horizontalism. We need to constantly break with this idea. 2006 ISBN 1-904859-58-5. that bring us to processes of discovery. whose deliberative encounters (rather than representative status) form the basis of any decisions. horizontalidad. Hilary Wainwright. in which bargaining power is accrued on the basis of an electoral mandate (or any other means of selection to which the members of an organisation assent)".Horizontalidad to horizontalidad. Marco Berlinguer (December 2004). that give us strength. autonomist marxism and participatory economics. autonomy. titoism. we were giving up the possibility of enjoying ourselves and being happy. "European Social Forum: debating the challenges for its future" (http:/ / www. and not to wait to take any power so that we can begin to enjoy ourselves. this idea of discovering that we have collective knowledge that brings us together. For me. it is an every day practice. References [1] Reyes. tni. The related term horizontals arose during the anti-globalisation European Social Forum in London in 2004 to describe people organising in a style where they "aspire to an open relationship between participants. . which was often really rigid. org& password=9999& publish=Y).[1] This concept is related to the theory of communist anarchism. My personal perspective has to do with the idea of freedom. Transnational Institute. horizontalidad is attributed to the radical movements that sprouted in Argentina after the economic crisis of 2001. we have life and the life that we have is to live today. Sitrin. The practice of horizontalidad can give the possibility of breaking with this and creating something that gives us the security that we can self-organize.

Lawler & Levenson. (Boudreau. but it is also important to see if the money spent is used to hire right people. This is very important for HR because they are regarded as the leader for acquiring. Absent rate: It determines the company is having an absent problem from the employees. (Boudreau. The shorter the time. It provides a number of factors that can be measured to show how HR contributions to the business. Lawler & Levenson. . Lawler & Levenson. It shows if the expenses on HR practices are too much in terms of the whole company expense. (Boudreau. The following are some of the examples on efficiency of the HR functions: (Kavanagh & Thite. Defects rate: It indicates the number of defects products in the operation. The lower the defect rate. (Boudreau. 2003).[2] The data can be gathered in database and the multi-company database allows companies to compare the performance of their own HR department with other HR departments in other companies. the more effective the HR practices in developing companies core competency in terms of reducing cost. HR expense factor: It is the ratio between total company expense and HR expense. It also reflects the effectiveness of the HR policies as well as the company’s own policies. HR is now a key role in developing and implementing corporate strategy as well as becoming a high-valued-added part of organization. Lawler & Levenson. This approach often treats employees as their human capital instead of the expense. It is not only important to know how much it cost in hiring. 2004)[5] The following are some of the examples on effectiveness of the HR functions: (Kavanagh & Thite. 2004). 2009)[6] 1. It always goes along with employee satisfaction. 2009)[7] 1. 2. 2009) [3] 1. 1st kind of metrics: Efficiency of the HR functions It explains how well the HR is in doing their administrative work. Cost per hire: It is the cost associated with a new hire. Time to fill up the open position: It is the total days to fill up a job opening per each job. And HR Metrics provides a measurement and the analytic and data based decision-making capability to influence business strategy with an attempt to make business better decision and transform HR into strategic partners. 2nd kind of metrics: Effectiveness of the HR functions It shows whether the HR practices have a positive effect on the employees or the applicant pool. 2004)[4] 2. 2. developing and helping to deploy talent. the more efficient of the HR department in finding the replacement for the job 3.[1] (Lawler.HR Metric 158 HR Metric HR metric refers to Human Resource Metrics. It shows the effectiveness of the training program and how much it can benefit to the company after the training. 2004) The following are some of the examples on effectiveness of the HR functions: (Kavanagh & Thite. 3rd kind of metrics: Developing company’s core competency It helps to demonstrate the connection between HR practices and the tangible effects on organization’s abilities to gain and sustain their competitive advantages. Training ROI: It is the total financial gain an organization have from a particular training. Revenue factor: It indicates the effectiveness of company operation with the use of the employees as their human capital.

HR Magazine. HR no longer only accesses their effectiveness and efficiency and the contribution to the company. A. & Thite... company can achieve the maximum outputs from its own human capital and be superior than other competitors.. It helps measure human capital outcomes. when determining strategic KPIs. [10] Lockwood. Human Resource Information Systems: Basics. 51(9): 1-10. J. (Lockwood. Levenson. Working with HR to simplify metric and automate data collection. & Boudreau. (2009). [4] Lawler III. A.. N.. 51(9): 1-10. E. Inc. and Future Directions. Collaborating with business managers to ensure KPIs link to business unit strategic goals. . HR Metrics and Analytics: Use and Impact.W. Human Resource Planning.HR Metric 159 HR metric & Human Capital Human Capital is another big topic in nowadays HR practices. HR Metrics and Analytics: Use and Impact.g. & Mohrman. M. 2006) The best way to design a good KPI is to communicate with the company business managers who know the jobs the best in their own divisions. With effective management of the Human Capital. References [1] Lawler. [11] Lockwood. & Thite. financial and strategic goals. (2004).E. J. Levenson.[10] (Lockwood. [7] Kavanagh.J. 51(9): 1-10. such as talent management. & Boudreau. 27(3): 27-35. and Future Directions. 27(3): 27-35. (2006).W. Applications. The best KPIs should be able to reflect the human capital performance. Human Resource Planning. [6] Kavanagh. such as financial outcomes. [5] Lawler III. E.J.[11] (Lockwood. It includes involving HR in overall business strategy. M. Thousand Oaks: Saga Publications.J. M. N. customer satisfaction. Levenson. human capital measures indicate the health of the organization.A. Maximizing Human Capital: Demonstrating HR Value With Key Performance Indicator . HR Metrics and Analytics: Use and Impact. S.W. Human Resource Information Systems: Basics. engagement etc). (2004). Increasing manager acceptance through training programs and concrete action plans. M. Inc. They build company’s core competencies and competitive advantages to the organization. Maximizing Human Capital: Demonstrating HR Value With Key Performance Indicator . 2006) There is a special tool for HR to measure the human capital and it is called Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). employee engagement and high performance. Maximizing Human Capital: Demonstrating HR Value With Key Performance Indicator . [3] Kavanagh. [9] Lockwood. Creating a Strategic Human Resources Organization: An assessment of Trends and New Directions.E. HR Magazine. (2004). A. Human Resource Information Systems: Basics. Human Resource Planning. (2003a). Thousand Oaks: Saga Publications. 27(3): 27-35. Thousand Oaks: Saga Publications. performance drivers. & Thite. M. (2006). M. Applications.E. and Future Directions. Nancy Lockwood suggests the following 5 assists that can help HR to create a better KPI. HR Magazine. HR Magazine. (2009). Standford: Standford University Press [2] Lawler III. To conclude.. 2006) Nowadays. Maximizing Human Capital: Demonstrating HR Value With Key Performance Indicator . “Based on corporate culture. [8] Lockwood. N. Focusing more attention on links between people measures and intermediate performance drivers (e. Enlisting leaders outside of HR to help develop the KPIs. HR people integrated the traditional metrics to KPI which aligned with the cooperate objectives. organizational values and strategic business goals and objectives. but also they are starting to measure how those practices can positively affect the human capital (employees) in the organization. (2006). (2009). J.. E. Inc. N.E. & Boudreau. 2006) Human Capital is very important to organization because they are the people who actually working for the organization.” [8] (Lockwood. it is essential to consider who designs human capital measures and how they are created. and promotes partnership with senior management for [9] organizational success. E. Applications. (2006). At the same time. 51(9): 1-10. illustrates the firm's business.

HR & Benefits Essentials.[10] .com Limited is a privately held company based out of Aurora.com 160 HR.com has been an industry pioneer in hosting virtual events since 2007 on topics such as benefits. Company Background HR. webcasts and other features.000 registered users. Institute for Human Resources (IHR).com is an HRCI approved provider [5] .0 functionality.. Majority of the content on hr. wikis. Virtual Events HR.com has over 194.[6] HR. discussion forums. and training. 2010. and others.[2] HR. The site is "similar to Facebook. and other web 2. Canada. blogs.com HR.com partners with various industry providers to bundle human resources related services for its members. while in others the members receive product discounts. with a business community"[3] and allows HR professionals to share best practices and research techniques.com is community generated. Hr.HR. The programs are focused on providing specialized niche training and allow participants to accumulate both IHR and HRCI credits.[4] HR. forums. PayScale.com is the largest social networking site dedicated to the human resources professionals [1] . newsletters.[9] In October 2010 HR.[11] Its first virtual conference brought in 2.com members have access to articles.com was established in 1999 by Debbie McGrath who previously also set up CEO Group Inc. . In some cases the bundles include full use and access to a partner program.com announced the launch of its own accreditation program. hr. com/ Professional network service for HR Registration free Owner Launched Debbie McGrath 1999 HR.800 HR professionals [12] . In 2007 the network underwent a significant upgrade and incorporated features such as blogs.com URL Type of site http:/ / www. later sold to the Washington Post[7] . case studies. As of December 2. hiring. polls. Partnerships Hr. It was originally set up as an online magazine for HR professionals [8] but was subsequently turned into a social network. OrcaEyes[13] . Current partnerships include AthenaOnline.DDI/Opal.

canadianbusiness. May 12) "Mom's the Boss". www. Canadian Manager.Technology. the founder. Washington Business Journal [5] Approved Providers Listing (http:/ / www.humanresourcesjournal. org/ ForEducation. com/ networking/ articles/ 200801/ conferences. Kevin. HR. businessweek. com/ 2010/ 11/ hrcom-launches-new-service-to-members/ ). ' Human resources work marches toward the Web (http:/ / bizjournals.com Launches Revolutionary New Social Networking Website for HR Professionals (http:/ / www.Retrieved 2010-12-02 [10] HR. com/ washington/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 29/ smallb9. Canadian Manager [16] . Ryan. humanresourcesjournal. com/ ?p=435) . as well as one of top External links • HR. top100influencers.Technology. CNY Business Journal ( online copy (http:/ / findarticles.Retrieved 2010-12-02 [8] Ten Minutes with Debbie McGrath – Industry Expert (http:/ / blog. com/ 2010/ 11/ hrcom-launches-new-service-to-members/ ). Washington Business Journal [4] Tiernie Plumb (October 29. Limited (http:/ / investing. Debbie McGrath. com/ debbie-mcgrath-v-1-38) . Virtual Conferences: The Next Best Thing to Being There? (http:/ / technology. ( online copy (http:/ / findarticles. (April 2007) 'Performance Management Lacks CONSISTENCY'. html)'. com/ networking/ articles/ 200801/ conferences. Atlanta Business Chronicle[17] . Melinda. com/ washington/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 29/ smallb9. Retrieved 2010-12-02 [13] HR. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. hr.com Retrieved 2010-12-02 [2] HR. (Apr 20. hr. com/ w100/ list.com Retrieved 2010-12-02 [14] Acton. prweb. devongroup. Training & Development [15] .Retrieved 2010-12-02 [19] Canada's top women entrepreneurs (http:/ / rankings. [18] Top 100 v1. was named one of the top 100 influencers in the HR field 100 Canadian Women Entrepreneurs by the PROFIT Magazine in 2005[19] . [16] (Winter 2001) 'Why Many Top Leaders Land in the Rough: Development Programs can help Top Execs Overcome Flaws in their Style'. html?id=d8dfb3fd-405b-402a-a000-022faf42ef03)) . September 3.humanresourcesjournal. Retrieved 2010-12-02 [11] Zetlin. 2007) Survey: Employers looking more at interpersonal skills. asp?privcapId=7928274) businessweek. com/ en/ about_us/ ). html). canada. asp?pageID=list& year=2005& type=W100& listType=& page=2) Retrieved 2010-12-02 [20] http:/ / www.38 Debbie McGrath (http:/ / www. inc. html) Inc.com.Retrieved 2010-12-02 [9] HR. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3718/ is_20070420/ ai_n19287870/ ) -. Lori. [18] .com . com/ en/ about_us/ hr_com_press_releases/ hrcom-introduces-its-institutes-for-human-resourc_gf04gyzm.About Us (http:/ / www. (Monday. htm) .Com Launches New Free Service For Members (http:/ / www.com Introduces its Institutes for Human Resources with Certification and Accreditation Programs (http:/ / www. 2007). com/ p/ articles/ mi_6710/ is_4_26/ ai_n28886899/ )) -.com 161 Other Industry Contributions HR. inc. Retrieved 2010-12-02 [7] (2007. com/ releases/ 2007/ 06/ prweb536150. humanresourcesjournal. Melinda. com/ nationalpost/ financialpost/ story. Virtual Conferences: The Next Best Thing to Being There? (http:/ / technology. 2007). html)'. hr. ' Human resources work marches toward the Web (http:/ / bizjournals. Training & Development.com.Retrieved 2010-12-02) [15] Oakes.com [20] References [1] HR. com/ . html) Inc.com has conducted a number of industry surveys with results featured in trade publications such as CNY Business Journal [14] . hrci.com.Retrieved 2010-12-02 [17] Johnston. National Post. Retrieved 2010-12-02 [3] Tiernie Plumb (October 29. Retrieved 2010-12-02 [12] Zetlin. ( online copy (http:/ / www. www. 2007). ' Future on the Line (http:/ / bizjournals.Com Launches New Free Service For Members (http:/ / www.HR. html)'. com/ atlanta/ stories/ 2007/ 09/ 03/ focus1. aspx?id=2147483900) [6] HR.

is to create a management system to achieve long term goals and plans. Jackson defended the system. and fewer than 20 percent of officeholders were removed. did not require special intelligence or training and rotating the office would ensure that the government did not develop corrupt civil servants. and promotes a value-based system. record keeping. which sought to implement a merit-based program in the federal government. etc.000 civil servants due to politics. It's principal tenets include: • • • • Hiring employees by merit Receiving pay according to position. For any company to have an efficient ability to grow and advance human resource management is a key. and personal leave Sick banks Discipline Records (tax information. many political leaders appoint supporters of the party in political offices. Many of the men Jackson appointed to offices came from backgrounds of wealth and high social status. target. personnel files. ethical standards. Jackson maintained that to perform well in public office. promotion and advancement. compensation. During the first 18 months of Jackson's presidency he replaced fewer than 1. The system continued after Jackson's presidency and opposition against the system began to grow.000 of the 10. Function The function of human resources management is to provide the employees with the capability to manage: healthcare. The system was viewed as a reward to supporters of the party and a way to build a stronger government. in terms of the employers benefit. not personal characteristics Protection from political interference and dismissal via regime changes Government workers have an obligation to accountability (transparency) Chester Barnard: taught an organization was the cooperation of human activity and to survive an organization needed to have efficiency and effectiveness. Grant corruption and inefficiency began to reach staggering proportion. The function. etc. and execute long term employment goals. he believed that public offices should be rotated among supporters to help the nation achieve its ideals. His definition of effectiveness: being able to accomplish the goals that were set and efficiency – if the goals are reached by the individuals of the organization then cooperation among .Human resource management in public administration 162 Human resource management in public administration Human Resource Management associated with Public Administration is considered to be an in-house structure that insures unbiased treatment. This led to a larger outcry against the system and helped bring [1] about change in 1883. In his first address to Congress.) Recruitment and employee retention strategies Leading contributors When a political party comes into power. The management allows companies to study. During the presidency of Ulysses S. benefits. George H. Pendleton: Senator from Ohio sponsored the Civil Service Reform Act in 1883. This became known as the spoils system and became popular in the United States during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. sick. Human resources are designed to manage the following: • • • • • • • • Employee Benefits Employee health care Compensation Annual.

Volcker.S. The commission identified three main threats: Public attitudes and political leadership: the public did not trust or respect the government and the leaders. The commission was established by the United States Chairman of the Federal Reserve Paul A. The act also provides protection for "whistleblowers" and employees calling attention to any [3] government malpractices. The employee could not support or oppose a political party. If the employee works for a research or educational institutions supported by a state. It also made requiring employees to give political service or contributions unlawful. Under the amendment most federal employees are now able to take part in political management and political campaigns. the employee is not under the restrictions of the act. The government employees that are covered by the new amendment are in executive agencies or in positions in the U. Internal management systems: the federal agencies were losing experienced personnel due to problems with the leadership in the federal agencies.[4] Classification Act of 1949: established the classification standards program. In 1993. partisan political group. or a candidate for a partisan political party. Paul C. Civil Service Reform Act of 1978: encompassed a wide variety of reforms including the creation of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). The commission made some recommendations to address the problems. or mandates. This also included federal agencies. The Federal Labor Relations Authority. Postal Service and Postal Rate Commission. the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB). Hatch Act of 1939: was passed into legislation to prohibit federal government employees from participating in certain political activities both on and off duty. The . Congress passed legislation that amended the act as it applies to federal employees. The Shadow Government is made up of those entities that produce goods or services for the government under contracts. to rebuild the federal civil service. and abolished the Civil Service Commission.[2] 163 Pertinent legislation Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act 1883: designed to end to the spoils system and provide federal government jobs based on merit and be selected through competitive exams. The main concern of the commission was morale because it was beginning to fall as were recruitment and retention among civil service employees and would soon become a crisis. Providing competitive pay to aid in recruiting and retaining excellent people while demanding competitive performance of them. Mid-level workers were leaving the departments and entry level recruits were rethinking the commitments they made to the government. This possible crisis was believed to be hindering the ability of the government to function effectively as the demand on the government began to grow.Human resource management in public administration them will continue. The act seeks greater accountability of federal employees for their performance. Reducing the number of presidential appointees so that there is more room at the top for civil servants. The act also established the Civil Service Commission to enforce these rules. Volcker Commission: also known as the National Commission on Public Service was established in 1989. Light: discusses the Shadow Government and how it is used to make the Federal government appear smaller. These included: Strengthening the relationship between presidential appointees and career civil servants by building a spirit of partnership between the two. grants. even as the Federal government grows. this law states that positions are to be classified based on the duties and responsibilities assigned and the qualifications required to do the work. The act also made firing and demoting employees for political reasons unlawful. The act also applies to local and state employees who are employed with programs financed by loan or grants from the government or a federal agency.

gender." The former approach emphasizes equal treatment regardless of individual differences. or practice in the EEO process.gov" and the statutes. can be found in relevant parts in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations ("Labor"). The federal sector process itself is detailed in 29 C. national origin. regulations. Digest summaries and articles themselves do not have the force of law and the reader is advised to look to the actual decisions and other sources discussed for a more precise [7] understanding of applicable EEO law. Title VII from Civil Rights Act of 1964: founded the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and forbade discrimination in hiring. and directives cited in these articles. and forms contained therein regarding the EEO process and is available online to the public at: http://www. disability or genetic information. or national origin. It is also illegal to discriminate against a person because the person complained about discrimination.S. training. MD-110 has often been referred to as the EEO counselor's "bible" for the wealth of information.R. or national origin. Part 1614 (1999).eeoc. However. filed a charge of discrimination. "This discussion is to enhance the reader's understanding of the EEO process. Maryland-110). there are 8 bases of employment discrimination that may be alleged regarding an agency action. "The U.eeoc. policy.F. or retraining programs. limit. The number of EEO complaints and lawsuits remains significant. One way is to use the "blind to differences" approach. The second common approach is affirmative action. color. firing. see [8] EEOC's website at "www. the latter emphasizes fairness based on individual circumstances. indicating that ongoing progress is needed to decrease employment discrimination. age.[5] 164 Human Resource Management Focus In Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Equal Employment Opportunity is continually in the spotlight of human resource (HR) management even after over 40 years of progress. religion. It is also unlawful for an employer to segregate. The idea is to make up for historical discrimination by giving groups who have been [6] affected enhanced opportunities for employment. promulgated under applicable statutory law. it is unlawful to discriminate on these five bases in an apprenticeship. gender. "The Commission's regulations. color. or participated in an employment discrimination investigation or lawsuit. Initiating and Navigating the EEO Process Part 1: The Pre-Complaint Process The EEO process is initiated when an individual contacts an EEO counselor concerning a suspected violation of one or more of the laws that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces. or classify employees in any way that will deprive them of employment opportunities or affect their employment status.cfm [9]"[7] Under the EEOC-enforced statutes currently in force. the goal of this discussion is not to provide an exhaustive study of complex legal subjects. sex (including pregnancy). age (40 or older)." [10] . it is important for HR professionals to understand Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) discrimination process because of the significant complaints and lawsuits that will undoubtedly be encountered throughout HR Management. While HR professionals agree that equal employment opportunities are a legitimate focus. through which employers are urged to employ people based on their race. EEO issues in HR Management are so prevalent that it has become one of the biggest concerns for HR professionals.Human resource management in public administration position classifications standards are built on the foundation of the grade levels. appendices. which argues that differences among people should be ignored and everyone should be treated equally. guidance. In addition.gov/federal/index. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person's race." For a more detailed discussion of the topics addressed in this Digest. the parts in each section of this discussion track the EEO process as chronologically as possible. there is considerable controversy over best way to achieve equality. Thus. religion. and compensation based on race. decisions. and further amplified in Management Directive 110 (1999) (hereinafter.

"the Counselor 165 . during this process the EEO counselor must inform the counselee that. who may be an agency employee and work either full-time in EEO or in a collateral duty role. "and of the complainant's duty to assure that the agency is informed immediately if the complainant retains counsel or a representative"[7] In addition.e. or."[7] The Counselor must also notify the counselee of his or her right to remain anonymous until the grievance is officially filed. • The right to file a civil action in federal court after filing with EEOC a notice of intent to sue under the ADEA instead of pursuing a complaint of age discrimination in the administrative EEO process."[7] Further. the counselor shall explain the class complaint procedures and the responsibilities of a class agent. within 45 days of the effective date of the personnel action.. promotions. the aggrieved person) a written list of the counselee's rights and responsibilities. an EEO complaint may possibly be dismissed for failure to begin EEO counseling within 45 days of the suspected discriminatory incident or effective date of alleged discriminatory personnel action. the Counselor will also notify the counselee of pertinent legal choices that are available. • An understanding that only the claims raised in pre-complaint counseling (or issues and claims like or related to issues or claims raised in pre-complaint counseling) may be alleged in a subsequent complaint filed with the agency. an attorney. harassment. For example. However. • The need to be aware of administrative EEO and federal court time frames. is required to be neutral and favor neither the counselee nor the agency. After which. Also. where the agency offers ADR. The laws apply to all types of work situations. The counselor's role is to provide a solution of the alleged discrimination before the complaint is formally filed."[10] Once an individual has filed a charge of discrimination."[7] During the counselor's inquiry. where and with whom the formal complaint is to be filed. Throughout this counseling. and the counselor conducts a limited inquiry (not an investigation) for the purpose of achieving resolution. Despite the choice of ADR or continuing the process of informal counseling. the counselor may utilize certain procedures common to mediation but does not engage in actual mediation. At the time of initiating EEO counseling and throughout the EEO process. but not both. during the 30-day period the Counselor is to complete counseling. and benefits. • The responsibility to exercise certain election rights (which will be specified later in this section). including hiring. if resolution is not achieved. "Such EEO contact must occur within 45 days of when the aggrieved person knew or should have known of the alleged discriminatory matter.Human resource management in public administration "Most employers with at least 15 employees are covered by EEOC laws (20 employees in age discrimination cases). wages. even if that counselor is also a certified mediator. Through the counseling process claims are set forth and clarified. Most labor unions and employment agencies are also covered. "The ADR process in the pre-complaint phase is limited to a maximum of 90 days. an "aggrieved person" or "counselee" must consult with an EEO counselor prior to filing a complaint in order to resolve the disputed matter informally. firing. The notice [of the right to file a formal complaint within 15 days of the counselee's receipt of the notice] shall include notice of the right to file a class complaint. the counselee must elect to choose between engaging in ADR or continuing informal counseling. the counselee will have the opportunity to file a formal EEO complaint. in the case of a personnel action. but is not required to be. the counselee is permitted to have a representative who may be."[7] "Failure of the aggrieved person to raise a matter in counseling may result in subsequent dismissal of the formal EEO complaint. "Counselors must advise individuals of their duty to keep the agency and Commission informed of their current address and to serve copies of appeal papers on the agency. If the aggrieved person informs the Counselor that he or she wishes to file a class complaint. the EEOC encourages the parties to engage in ADR to attempt to resolve their dispute at any subsequent time up to and including the appellate process. provide for the counselee (i. These include the following: • The right to request a hearing or an immediate final decision after an investigation by the agency. training. The counselor. it is important that the individual must adhere to certain time frames and follow specified procedures in order to avoid dismissal of their complaints. However. or pre-complaint stage.

The investigation is limited to 120 days (not 180). Afterwards. CIA.. they may choose to file a petition with the EEOC from the MSPB decision. TVA. but not both. Postal Service. Those employees may.S. To determine if MSPB may have jurisdiction there are two important questions that must be answered.S. This is known as [exhaustion of administrative remedies]. on the other hand." Secondly. 7121(d).S. the more severe the personnel action at hand. The agency must issue a final agency decision (FAD) within 45 days following the investigation. pursue their [7] claims through the regular EEO process with their agency. must be filed within two years (or three years for willful violations) of the alleged discrimination. In the initial case of a mixed case complaint being filed. however. does the employee have standing to appear before the MSPB? "For example."[7] Equal Pay Act claims. and. a complainant should be aware that. "A complainant who is asserting a claim under the EPA. if he or she chooses to pursue a negotiated grievance before filing an EEO complaint. District Court and file a civil action naming the head of an allegedly discriminating agency. within 30 days of receipt of the FAD. may bypass the EEO administrative process completely and go directly to court. to the MSPB (not to the EEOC). despite their standing in the administrative process. If the complaint gives the commission at least 30 days written notice of the intent to file an action.Human resource management in public administration shall not attempt in any way to hinder the aggrieved person from filing a complaint. 166 If the aggrieved individual chooses to file a mixed case "appeal" instead of a mixed case "complaint". does the claim occur from an action appealable to MSPB? Commonly. e. First. and the ADEA—where the complainant chooses to go through the EEO process--the "exhaustion" requirement is satisfied after 180 days from the filing of the individual complaint or the class complaint if an appeal has not been filed and final action has not been taken by the agency. The filing of a civil action by the complainant will terminate the processing of an administrative complaint or appeal filed with the EEOC. the complainant should notify the agency and Commission when s/he has filed a civil action. An EEO complaint filed under the ADEA may exempt a complaint from the above requirement.g. In short.C. The aggrieved person must choose one or the other. the more likely it will be appealable to MSPB. There are exceptions to the above requirement. then this individual may request a hearing before an MSPB administrative judge (AJ) but not an EEOC administrative judge (AJ). therefore. complainant must appeal the FAD. the Rehabilitation Act. and certain non-appropriated fund activities (such as the Army and Air Force Exchange) do not have standing. . the U. a probationary employee does not have standing to go to MSPB on an EEO-based claim.g. Regulations related to mixed cases can be found at 29 C. a mixed case is a claim of discrimination that is appealable to the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB).302. "When an aggrieved person is employed by an agency that is subject to 5 U. the EEO administrative process reviews the claim. with these exceptions: • • • • There is no right to a hearing before an EEOC administrative judge (AJ) after an investigation. Employees of certain agencies. § 1614. If dissatisfied with the FAD. Another important election that an EEO Counselor must inform the counselee of is mixed cases."[7] Before a formal complaint may go to federal court as a civil action to pursue the aggrieved individual's discrimination claims. an aggrieved individual can file a mixed case complaint with the agency or a mixed case appeal with the MSPB but not both at the same time.F. the time limitations in the EEO process will not be extended unless the agency consents to an extension in writing.. the FBI. Essentially. that employee must elect to proceed either through the EEO process or the negotiated grievance procedure. it may bypass the EEO process and go directly to a U."[7] In addition to the claim processes discussed. removal. if the aggrieved individual is dissatisfied with the MSPB's verdict on his or her claims of discrimination under the statutes the EEOC enforces.R. and is covered by a collective bargaining agreement that permits claims of discrimination to be raised in a negotiated grievance procedure. the complaint proceeds through the EEO process as with any EEO complaint. suspension for more than 14 days. e. "In complaints concerning Title VII. and reduction in grade. however. a counselee may have to choose between continuing his or her claims in the negotiated grievance process or the EEO process."[7] However.

The complainant is responsible for proceeding with the complaint with or without a designated representative. The agency in turn. The new claim will be the subject of a separate complaint and be subject to all of the regulatory case processing requirements. are required to cooperate with the investigation and "witness testimony is given under oath or affirmation and without a promise that the agency will keep the testimony or information provided confidential. but does not raise a new claim. acknowledging receipt of the amendment and the date it was filed. The EEO official will also instruct the investigator to investigate the new claim. including the complainant. • The right to appeal the final action on or dismissal of a complaint. The evidence gathered by the investigator should only be relevant to the case in order to determine 167 . • The requirement that the agency conduct an impartial and appropriate investigation within 180 days of the filing of the complaint unless the parties agree in writing to extend the time period.F. "All agency employees. prior to the agency's mailing of the notice required by 29 C. Once the EEO officials review this request and determine the proper handling of the amendment they will decide if new EEO counseling is required.F. § 1614. The complaint must be amended where a new claim is like or related to the claim(s) raised in the pending complaint. and the EEO official must notify both the complainant and the investigator. Part 3: Amending and Consolidating Complaints A complainant may amend a pending complaint to add claims that are related or similar to those raised in the pending complaint."[7] During this process the investigators must thoroughly investigate the complaint and are authorized to administer oaths and require witness testimony and documentation. The letter submitted must describe the new incident or amendments added by the complainant. the complainant will be instructed by the investigator or other EEO staff person to submit a letter to the agency's EEO Director or Complaints Manager at that time. An investigator cannot make or suggest findings of discrimination and must be free of conflicts or the appearance of conflicts of interest throughout the investigation of complaints.R. An efficient investigation is one that is conducted impartially with and contains an appropriate factual record. The agency's acknowledgement letter will include the following information: • The address of the EEOC office where a request for a hearing is to be sent. must provide the complainant with written acknowledgement of the complaint and the date of filing."[7] Part 4: The Investigation EEO investigations are covered in 29 C. The complaint is also required to contain a phone number and address where the complainant or his or her attorney can be reached.108(f) at the conclusion of the investigation. the EEO counselor must provide the counselee with a Notice of Final Interview and the Right to File a Formal Complaint with the appropriate agency official. "Additional evidence becomes part of the investigation of the pending claim and the complainant is so notified. A correct factual record is one that allows a reasonable fact finder to draw conclusions as to whether discrimination occurred. § 1614. No new counseling is required when: • Additional evidence is offered in support of the existing claim. • The incident raises a new claim that is like or related to the claims(s) raised in the pending complaint. The counselee then is required to file the formal complaint within a time period of 15 days once the Notice of Final Interview has been received. New counseling will be required if the new claim is not like or related to the claim(s) in the pending complaint.108 and the instructions are contained in the Commission's Management Directives.Human resource management in public administration Part 2: Filing the Individual Complaint Once the counseling is over and if there has been no resolution to the claim or claims. in writing. If the complainant needs to add or amend a new incident of alleged discrimination during the processing of an EEO complaint.R. This complaint must be signed by either the complainant or the individual's attorney. The formal complaint must contain a precise statement that identifies the aggrieved individual and the agency and the actions or practices that form the basis of the complaint.

204. It also requires the exercise of judgment.R. judgment. and qualifications remain the same so careful application of appropriate classification of the standards needs to be related to the kind of work for the position. At the end of the investigation. establish official position titles. OPM approves and issues position classification standards that must be used by federal agencies to determine the title. When classifying a position the first decision to be made is the pay system. budget. § 1614. the goal of this discussion is not to provide an exhaustive study of complex legal subjects. and directives cited in these articles."[7] The overall purpose of this discussion is to enhance the reader's understanding of the EEO process. but do require skills . Part 1614. 168 HR structure Federal Level: The Federal classification system is not a pay plan. discretion. unless the parties agree in writing to extend the period an additional 90 days. which covers trade. medical officers. and has gone through the education required.gov" [8] regarding statutes. the agency must present the complainant with a copy of the complaint file. and the notice of the right to request either an immediate final decision from the agency or a hearing before an EEOC AJ. length of service. An overview of the EEO process: Conclusion This discussion has provided the detailed EEO process with regard to the processing of individual EEO complaints of discrimination. People of this category are seen in the upper management of HR departments.F. However.F. The official titles that are published in classification standards have to be used for personnel. and practices applicable to one or more fields of administration or management. A complainant also may request an AJ hearing after 180 days from the filing of the complaint even if the investigation has not been completed. and biologists. and describe the grades of various levels of work. discretion and personal responsibility." Generally. investigations should be completed within 180 days of the filing of the individual complaint. series. "The principles reflected in those procedures are also intended to guide the processing of class complaints of discrimination under 29 C. guidance. Digest summaries and articles themselves do not have the force of law and the reader is advised to look to the actual decisions and other sources discussed for a more precise understanding of applicable EEO law" [7] For a more detailed discussion of the topics addressed in this Digest. The pay system is influenced by the grade level and by quality of performance. The complainant must receive a copy of the complaint file.Human resource management in public administration whether discrimination has occurred and if so. including the report of investigation. Examples can be attorneys. plus the report of investigation (ROI). or laboring experience. responsibilities. 'General Schedule Covers positions from grades GS−1 to GS−15 and consists of twenty two occupational groups and is divided into five categories: Professional – Requires knowledge either acquired through training or education equivalent to a bachelor's degree or higher. Usually a person who is in the field of HR. and the application of a substantial body of knowledge of principles. Agencies are required to classify positions according to the criteria and the guidance that OPM has issued. see EEOC's website at "www. and personal responsibility. and recruitment and retention considerations.R. The occupations in federal agencies may change over time. the parts in each section of this discussion track the EEO process as chronologically as possible. in accordance with 29 C. These positions do not require specialized education. Administrative – Requires the exercise of analytical ability. concepts. The classification standards help assure that the Federal personnel management program runs soundly because agencies are now becoming more decentralized and now have more authority to classify positions. but the duties. There is the General Schedule (GS) and the Federal Wage System (FWS).eeoc. craft. create the "appropriate remedy. and fiscal purposes. decisions. and grade of positions. regulations. stays in the field for long term career goals. and a copy of the hearing transcript if a hearing was held. The law requires the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) to define Federal occupations. but is vital to the structure and administrations of employee compensation.

The Digest of Equal Employment Opportunity Law. Human Resource Management 12th ed. The Promise and Paradox of Civil Service Reform. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. January 2003. L. or fiscal operations. Examples can be budget analysts and general supply specialists. 1865-1883. Outlawing the spoils. 1976. Managing Equal Employment and Diversity. locating and compiling data or information from files. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Technical employees usually carry out tasks. eeoc. (1998). 2010. 2002. 169 References [1] Hoogenboom. Retrieved. XX. Urgent Business for America: Revitalizing the Federal Government for the 21st Century. Marcus D. eeoc. 1.[11] Some firefighter and various law enforcement agencies have specialized positions that manage HR duties within the organization. February 11. Examples can be secretaries. 1992. Retrieved. From http:/ / www.Human resource management in public administration usually gained while attaining a college level education. 1968. These positions will most likely be filed by career employees that act in a managerial function. Vol. and computations that are laid out either in published or oral instructions. pg. and David H. August 1991. processing transactions. [5] Pohlmann. Authority & Role. Classifier's Handbook. No. 105. methods. cfm [10] Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. About EEOC: Overview. Jackson. (2006). Patricia W. February 11. Pittsburgh Press. Washington. a history of the civil service reform movement. [8] http:/ / www. data transcribers. procedures. gov/ [9] http:/ / www. . [6] Mathis. Pittsburgh University. cfm [11] Office of Personnel Management. and verifying documents. Clerical – Involves work in support of office. H. Examples of the technical category would be forestry technician. Rosenbloom. these procedures often require a high degree of technical skill. gov/ federal/ index. gained through experience and specific training and these occupations may involve substantial elements of the work of the professional or administrative field. The Hatch Act: A Civil Libertarian Defense. Depending upon the level of difficulty of work. reviewing. SPECIAL FOCUS ISSUE I: AN OVERVIEW OF THE EEO PROCESS IN THE FEDERAL SECTOR FROM INITIATION THROUGH INVESTIGATIONS Retrieved. eeoc..S. accounting technician. Typically involves general office or program support duties such as preparing. Technical – Requires extensive practical knowledge.. maintaining office records. [7] U. and pharmacy technicians. business. 2010. John R. and precision.. [2] Volcker Report. and Linda Vallar Whisenhunt. Greenwood Press. Other – There are some occupations in the General Schedule which do not clearly fit into one of the groups. Student's Guide to Landmark Congressional Laws on Civil Rights. care. receiving. [4] Bolton. February 11. and mail clerks. Ari Arthur. gov/ eeoc/ index. [3] Ingraham. 2010. (2010).

Efficient and effective management of "Human Capital" progressed to an increasingly imperative and complex process. whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standardized routines and packages of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. many HR automation processes were relegated to mainframe computers that could handle large amounts of data transactions. 8. Currently Human Resource Management Systems encompass: 1. which makes this software application both rigid and flexible. accomplishments and salary. and payroll processes. Data is generally fed from the human resources and time keeping modules to calculate automatic deposit and manual cheque writing capabilities. The benefits administration module provides a system for organizations to administer and track employee participation in benefits programs. To reduce the manual workload of these administrative activities. labor distribution capabilities and data analysis features. The linkage of its financial and human resource modules through one database is the most important distinction to the individually and proprietary developed predecessors. see His/Her Dutch Majesty's Ship. 3. HR executives rely on internal or external IT professionals to develop and maintain an integrated HRMS. profit sharing and retirement. compensation. skills. calculating various deductions and taxes. Purpose The function of Human Resources departments is generally administrative and common to all organizations. 4. A Human Resource Management System (HRMS) or Human Resource Information System (HRIS). 6. The advent of client–server. Cost analysis and efficiency metrics are the primary functions. Payroll Work Time Appraisal performance Benefits Administration HR management Information system Recruiting/Learning Management TrainingSystem Performance Record Employee Self-Service The payroll module automates the pay process by gathering data on employee time and attendance. and Software as a Service SaaS or Human Resource Management Systems enabled increasingly higher administrative control of such systems. On the whole. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field. these internally-developed HRMS were limited to organizations that possessed a large amount of capital. Before the client–server architecture evolved in the late 1980s. 2. 7. evaluation. organizations began to electronically automate many of these processes by introducing specialized Human Resource Management Systems. The HR function consists of tracking existing employee data which traditionally includes personal histories. The work time module gathers standardized time and work related efforts. capabilities. The most advanced modules provide broad flexibility in data collection methods. In consequence of the high capital investment necessary to buy or program proprietary software. these ERP systems have their origin on software that integrates information from different applications into one universal database.Human resource management system 170 Human resource management system "HRMS" redirects here. and generating periodic pay cheques and employee tax reports. For the ship prefix. refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management (HRM) and information technology. Application Service Provider. This module can encompass all employee-related transactions as well as integrate with existing financial management systems. These typically encompass insurance. 5. . Organizations may have formalized selection.

health. selection. CDs. The system. with delegates and training resources being mapped and managed within the same system. 171 The significant cost incurred in maintaining an organized recruitment effort. web based learning or materials are available to develop which skills. job placement. hiring. Many organizations have gone beyond the traditional functions and developed human resource management information systems. which support recruitment. Online recruiting has become one of the primary methods employed by HR departments to garner potential candidates for available positions within an organization. Initially. The module also lets supervisors approve O. training and development. selection. allows HR to track education. evaluation. placement. employee benefit analysis. The training module provides a system for organizations to administer and track employee training and development efforts. normally called a Learning Management System if a stand alone product. compensation planning records and other related activities. compensation and development of the employees of an organization. businesses used computer based information systems to: • produce pay checks and payroll reports. while others integrate an outsourced Applicant Tracking System that encompasses a subset of the above. The Employee Self-Service module allows employees to query HR related data and perform some HR transactions over the system.T. • pursue Talent Management. recruiting through company-facing listings. requests from their subordinates through the system without overloading the task on HR department. Talent Management systems typically encompass: • • • • analyzing personnel usage within an organization. Human resource management function involves the recruitment. . Leading edge systems provide the ability to "read" applications and enter relevant data to applicable database fields. identifying potential applicants. safety and security. notify employers and provide position management and position control. module. • maintain personnel records. cross-posting within and across general or industry-specific job boards and maintaining a competitive exposure of availabilities has given rise to the development of a dedicated Applicant Tracking System. Employees may query their attendance record from the system without asking the information from HR personnel. or 'ATS'. Courses can then be offered in date specific sessions. recruiting through online recruiting sites or publications that market to both recruiters and applicants. capabilities and skills management. budgets and calendars alongside performance management and appraisal metrics. qualifications and skills of the employees. Assigning Responsibilities Communication between the Employees. The system records basic demographic and address data. Sophisticated LMS allow managers to approve training.Human resource management system The HR management module is a component covering many other HR aspects from application to retirement. performance appraisals. as well as outlining what training courses. books.

The establishment of an HR Policy which sets out obligations. For example recruitment and retention policies might outline the way the organization values a flexible workforce.[1] Each company has a different set of circumstances.Human resource policies 172 Human resource policies Human resource policies are systems of codified decisions. Purposes HR policies allow an organization to be clear with employees on: • • • • • • The nature of the organization What they should expect from the organization What the organization expects of them How policies and procedures work What is acceptable and unacceptable behavior The consequences of unacceptable behavior The establishment of policies can help an organization demonstrate. compensation policies might support this by offering a 48/52 pay option where employees can take an extra four weeks holidays per year and receive less pay across the year. For example. established by an organization. com/ search?hl=en& q=define:+ human+ resources)-Definition . that it meets requirements for diversity. References [1] definition (http:/ / www. it will normally be necessary to meet provisions within employment contracts and collective bargaining agreements. [1] Developing the HR Policies HR policies provide an organization with a mechanism to manage risk by staying up to date with current trends in employment standards and legislation. amongst other considerations. HR policies can also be very effective at supporting and building the desired organizational culture. both internally and externally. is now the standard approach to meeting these obligations. standards of behavior and document displinary procedures. to support administrative personnel functions. ethics and training as well as its commitments in relation to regulation and corporate governance. and so develops an individual set of human resource policies. in order to dismiss an employee in accordance with employment law requirements. google. performance management. employee relations and resource planning. The policies must be framed in a manner that the companies vision & the human resource helping the company to achieve it or work towards it are at all levels benefited and at the same time not deviated from their main objective.

Applicable legal issues. Human resources is also the name of the function within an organization charged with the overall responsibility for implementing strategies and policies relating to the management of individuals (i. demanded by corporate management to gain a competitive advantage. utilizing limited skilled and highly skilled workers. are also extremely important to HR managers. The following are typical of a wide range of organizations: • • • • • • • • • • • Maintaining awareness of and compliance with local. commitment and productivity. with the organization's ongoing and future business plans and requirements to maximize return on investment and secure future survival and success. This function title is often abbreviated to the initials "HR". taking into account federal. In ensuring such objectives are achieved. reflecting the adoption of a more quantitative as well as strategic approach to workforce management. Key functions Human Resources may set strategies and develop policies. . business sectors or even whole nations. selection. ethical business practices. although it is also applied in labor economics to. processes or standards may be directly managed by the HR function itself. and net cost. From these terms emerged a largely administrative management activity. standards. Human resource managers seek to achieve this by aligning the supply of skilled and qualified individuals and the capabilities of the current workforce. and on boarding (resourcing) Employee record-keeping and confidentiality Organizational design and development Business transformation and change management Performance. the human resource function is to implement an organization's human resource requirements effectively. as the 'personnel function'.Human resources 173 Human resources Human resources is a term used to describe the individuals who make up the workforce of an organization.e. the human resources). as far as possible. and processes that implement these strategies in a whole range of areas. systems. an organization's human resource management strategy should maximize return on investment in the organization's human capital and minimize financial risk. coordinating a range of worker related processes and becoming known. other business functions or via third-party external partner organizations. in time. for example. state and federal labor laws Recruitment. coined as late as the 1960s. in a manner that maximizes. state and local labor laws and regulations. Human resources is a relatively modern management term. or the function may indirectly supervise the implementation of such activities by managers. Human resources progressively became the more usual name for this function. such as the potential for disparate treatment and disparate impact. in the first instance in the United States as well as multinational or international corporations. Purpose and role In simple terms. conduct and behavior management Industrial and employee relations Human resources (workforce) analysis and workforce personnel data management Compensation and employee benefit management Training and development (learning management) Employee motivation and morale-building (employee retention and loyalty) Implementation of such policies. employee motivation. [1] The origins of the function arose in organizations that introduced 'welfare management' practices and also in those that adopted the principles of 'scientific management'.

but a series of organised processes. Human Resources Development is a combination of training and education. and monitor—for example—the organizational culture. or nation. 2. and the approach to ethical and corporate social responsibilities. Changes in society now mean that a larger proportion of organizations are made up of "baby-boomers" or older employees in comparison to thirty years ago.[4] . gender or social class. Human Resources Development is not a defined object. their behavior and their expectations of the organization. organization career (promotion through the firm) and unstructured (lower/unskilled workers who work when needed). • Generational difference: different age categories of employees have certain characteristics.. External factors are those largely outside the control of the organization. Skills and qualifications: as industries move from manual to more managerial professions so does the need for more highly skilled graduates. The analysis requires consideration of the internal and external factors that can have an effect on the resourcing. education level. Adam Smith states. motivation and retention of employees and other workers. insurance packages etc. This type of trend may have an effect in relation to pension offerings. “with a specific learning objective” (Nadler. • Occupational structure: the norms and values of the different careers within an organization. and the transportation and infrastructure of the area also influence who applies for a post. development.Human resources 174 Management trends and influences In organizations. sexual orientation etc. skills. that ensures the continual improvement and growth of both the individual. the following must be understood: • Geographical spread: how far is the job from the individual? The distance to travel to work should be in line with the pay offered. Major trends To know the business environment an organization operates in. 3. craft (loyalty to the profession). government investment into industries etc. Demographics: the characteristics of a population/workforce. determine. “The capacities of individuals depended on their access to education”. internal influences are broadly controlled by the organization to predict. environmental climate. employers must compete for employees by offering financial rewards. and the national human resourcefulness. If the market is "tight" (i. Advocates of "workplace diversity" simply advocate an employee base that is a mirror reflection of the make-up of society insofar as race. age.[2] Human Resources Development is the medium that drives the process between training and learning in a broadly fostering environment. it becomes a strategic approach to inter sectoral linkages between health. for example. Framework Human Resources Development is a framework for the expansion of human capital within an organization or (in new approaches) a municipality. etc. not enough staff for the jobs). three major trends must be considered: 1. the organization. namely. On the other hand. These include issues such as economic climate and current and future labor market trends (e. flexibility etc. for example. region. gender. education and employment.g.e. Mahoney 1989 developed 3 different types of occupational structure. community investment. in a broad context of adequate health and employment policies. Individual responses In regard to how individuals respond to the changes in a labor market. it is important to determine both current and future organizational requirements for both core employees and the contingent workforce in terms of their skills/technical abilities.1984)[3] Within a national context. underpinned by management style. competencies.). Diversity: the variation within the population/workplace.

which identify and secure people needed for the organization to survive and succeed in the short. at least occasionally if not substantially. To be effective. the organization . This may involve a range of support services. its human resource. candidate response handling. Human Resources enterprise effectiveness. Increasingly.and the nation and its citizens. robust task and person specification and versatile selection processes.[6] Training and development At the organizational level. Development of the individual benefits the individual. Olton and Trott 1996)[5] Human Resources Development in this treatment can be in-room group training. "Its primary focus is on growth and employee development…it emphasizes developing individual potential and skills" (Elwood. such as: provision of CVs or resumes. whose value is enhanced by development. It would be unusual for an organization to undertake all aspects of the recruitment process without support from third-party dedicated recruitment firms. At the level of a national strategy. "development occurs to enhance the organization's value. advertisement design and media placement for job vacancies. James W. the Human Resources Development framework views employees as an asset to the enterprise. Internal recruitment can provide the most cost-effective source for recruits if the potential of the existing pool of employees has been enhanced through training. . Recruitment and selection Applicant recruitment and employee selection form a major part of an organization's overall resourcing strategies. on external recruitment methods. training. these initiatives need to include how and when to source the best recruits. or the nation's goals.Human resources 175 Structure Human resources development is the structure that allows for individual development. Rapidly changing business models demand skill and experience that cannot be sourced or rapidly enough developed from the existing employee base. securing the best quality candidates for almost all organizations relies.to medium-term. to provide the possibility of performance change" (Nadler 1984). identifying recruitment media. potentially satisfying the organization's. Development from a business perspective is not entirely focused on the individual's growth and development. "organized learning over a given period of time. reward. employment relations and human resource policies. succession planning and development centres to review performance and assess employee development needs and promotional potential. Individual education and development is a tool and a means to an end. tertiary or vocational courses or mentoring and coaching by senior employees with the aim for a desired outcome that develops the individual's performance. Common to the success of either are: well-defined organizational structures with sound job design. Trott Jr). Recruitment activities need to be responsive to the increasingly competitive market to secure suitably qualified and capable recruits at all levels. In the corporate vision. In these settings. to satisfy the organization's long-term needs and the individual's career goals and employee value to their present and future employers. underpinned by a commitment for strong employer branding and employee engagement and onboarding strategies. internally or externally. Human Resources Development is the framework that focuses on the organization's competencies at the first stage. development and other performance-enhancing activities such as performance appraisal. not solely for individual improvement. Human Resources Development can be defined simply as developing the most important section of any business. a successful Human Resources Development program prepares the individual to undertake a higher level of work. Holton II. it can be a broad inter-sectoral approach to fostering creative contributions to national productivity. not the end goal itself" (Elwood F. through education. by attaining or upgrading employee skills and attitudes at all levels to maximize [2] The people within an organization are its human resource.[5] The broader concept of national and more strategic attention to the development of human resources is beginning to emerge as newly independent countries face strong competition for their skilled professionals and the accompanying brain-drain they experience. and then developing the employee.

as labor can develop skills and experience in various ways. In the most sophisticated of these arrangements the external recruitment services provider may not only physically locate.[8] Ethical management In the very narrow context of corporate "human resources" management. Where requirements arise. in some cases. humor. Except in sectors where high-volume recruitment is the norm.Human resources shortlisting. Finally. these are referred on an ad hoc basis to government job centres or commercially-run employment agencies. terms such as "human resources" and. Over time. which typically form long-standing relationships with their client organizations. the International Labour Organization decided to revisit and revise its 1975 Recommendation 150 on Human Resources [7] Development. The 2000 revision of ISO 9001. pets and children. ingenuity. Another view is that governments should become more aware of their national role in facilitating human resources development across all sectors. Also. despite assurances to the contrary. Typically. their resourcing team(s) in the client organization's offices. the United Nations have come to more generally support the developing nations' point of view. but work in tandem with the senior human resource management team in developing the longer-term HR resourcing strategy and plan. and to define and communicate responsibilities and authorities. may not possess the particular skill-set required to undertake a specific recruitment assignment. One view of these trends is that a strong social consensus on political economy and a good social welfare system facilitates labor mobility and tends to make the entire economy more productive. social connections and. but are creative and social beings in a productive enterprise. an organization faced with sudden. and careful listening. and have requested significant offsetting "foreign aid" contributions so that a developing nation losing human capital does not lose the capacity to continue to train new people in trades. small organizations may not have in-house resources or. like office machines or vehicles. certain organizations with sophisticated HR practices have identified a strategic advantage in outsourcing complete responsibility for all workforce procurement to one or more third-party recruitment agencies or consultancies. requires identifying the processes. ethics. similarly. their sequence and interaction. "human capital" continue to be perceived negatively and may be considered insulting. Trans-national labor mobility An important controversy regarding labor mobility illustrates the broader philosophical issue with usage of the phrase "human resources". in 2001. professions. conducting aptitude testing. Governments of developing nations often regard developed nations that encourage immigration or "guest workers" as appropriating human capital that is more rightfully part of the developing nation and required to further its economic growth. and alter the character of a workplace. In general. Such programs require foreign language and culture skills. preliminary interviews or reference and qualification verification. The term corporate culture is used to characterize such processes at the . in contrast. unexpected requirements for an unusually large number of new recruits often delegates the task to a specialist external recruiter. or ‘embed’. These indicate a general shift through the human capital point of view to an acknowledgment that human beings contribute more to a productive enterprise than just "work": they bring their character. Modern analysis emphasizes that human beings are not "commodities" or "resources". 176 Other considerations Despite its more everyday use. heavily unionised nations such as France and Germany have adopted and encouraged such approaches. creativity. in common with larger organizations. They create the impression that people are merely commodities. and the arts. and move from one enterprise to another with little controversy or difficulty in adapting. there is a contrasting pull to reflect and require workplace diversity that echoes the diversity of a global customer base. Sourcing executive-level and senior management as well as the acquisition of scarce or ‘high-potential’ recruits has been a long-established market serviced by a wide range of ‘search and selection’ or ‘headhunting’ consultancies.

August (2004). N. com/ dictionary/ human+ resources?show=0& t=1295638541)... Other Constituencies. merriam-webster. 1996. Human resource development as national policy.). `Changing Perspectives on Human Resources Development. New York. E. cornell. edu. ilo. 2001. 177 References [1] Merriam-Webster Dictionary (http:/ / www.& Cho. Advances in Developing Human Resources. Dual Perceptions of HRD: Issues for Policy: SME’s. p7 [6] http:/ / www. [5] Elwood F. John Wiley and Sons.. htm Broken link. au/ artspapers/ 26 [3] Nadler L Ed. G. Vol. 2. htm [7] http:/ / www-ilo-mirror. http:/ / ro. 1984. and the Contested Definitions of Human Resource Development.. M. A. Osman-Gani. ST/TCD/SER. edu/ public/ english/ employment/ skills/ recomm/ quest/ qr_1b. James W. Holton II. com/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 520/ 1/ 42] . 6 (3). The Handbook of Human resources Development. Trends Toward a Closer Integration of Vocational Education and Human Resources Development. org/ public/ english/ employment/ skills/ hrdr/ init/ cze_8. needs repair [8] [a broad inter-sectoral approach to developing human resourcefulness see United Nations Expert Meeting on Human Resources Development.E/25. 12. June 1994 http:/ / ann.Human resources organizational level. [4] McLean. (Eds. Trott. sagepub. Jr. No. First used in 1961 [2] Kelly D. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education. uow.

it was affiliated with the local Chamber of Commerce and had individual memberships.” The meeting was covered in the next morning’s Chicago Tribune in the article. and close cooperation of the schools and the industries. to assist in the proper placement and adjustment of those entering industries from the schools. Feeling ‘Em Now. Thus. As of 2011. mutual benefits. at the City Club. The Employment Advisors Club of Chicago held its first formal meeting on November 1. E.000 HR professionals. it has over 700 member-companies representing public and private organizations in every business sector and a network of about 6. Although no great harm . Illinois 700 Corporate Members http:/ / www. connect people and resources and grow Chicago businesses and talent. Though there appeared to have been one other such group in the country in Boston. of the training staff of Lakeside Press. exchange of young employees.S. invited several men from Chicago institutions to meet with him for the following purposes: acquaintance. rather than corporate. The speaker was Dr. Formation Type Headquarters Membership Website 1915 Professional association Chicago.”[1] The title is cryptic and today.I had to take myself down to the Tribune and find the reporter who had inserted that article…. later related. Organization Time Line 1915: Fred V. Kitson of the University of Chicago.. It is positioned to lead the dialogue about workplace issues.Human Resources Management Association of Chicago 178 Human Resources Management Association of Chicago Human Resources Management Association of Chicago The Chicago area's premier resource for advancing workplace strategy and leadership. org The Human Resources Management Association of Chicago (HRMAC) is a corporate membership organization focused on delivering services to primarily Chicago area employers. test and job analysis. one of the Club’s founders. Sheldon. service providers and business executives responsible for designing and implementing workforce strategies to drive business performance in their organizations. Cann. D. on the subject of “Psychological Tests in Employment. It serves as a forum for human resources leaders. rather than discharge of those not properly placed.E. hrmac. H.” This meeting led to the formation of the Employment Advisors Club of Chicago. study of employment records. but the writer’s opinion couldn’t be clearer on the “psychologists and character experts who say they are able to tell whether a man is fitted to become a cook or a carpenter by a look at his nose or a measurement of his head. “Bump Your Head If You Want Job.” Mr. “My telephone began ringing and continued to ring…. 1915. As the oldest traditional such organization in the U. it is a stand-alone group unaffiliated with any other state or national organizations. the Chicago group could have a claim to being the first human resources organization for corporate members in the United States. practitioners.

Samuel T. Army.00 for placement agencies and civic memberships. Topics included "Radicalism. Jr." The word of the charter was excitedly communicated to the members back in Chicago.” Throughout the 1950s. G. The first national conference was held in Cleveland in 1919. and linked them with job openings. 179 . S. Mitchell drew 430 to a meeting in Chicago's Prudential Building. 1930s: In 1934 IRAC holds the 1st annual Midwest Conference on Industrial Relations. Cyrus McCormick. IRAC continues to present information sessions for members and convene special committees on topics of interest. The former limitations to certain groups have been largely removed. the article states that “Chicago is the home of one of the oldest and most active of the many local personnel association in the country and Canada. 1959.” “How Many Hours per Day.00 for company membership and $10. In a recent conference with Commander Lyon of that group he advised me that they are now ready to start operating at capacity. The President of IRAC documents this in a letter to Mr. 1950s: In 1950 IRAC membership was over 200. featured an article about IRAC by Theron Wright.000 people from the United States and Canada. we did get a good deal of advertising from that half-page in the Tribune. and Chicago NAEM becomes the Industrial Relations Association of Chicago (IRAC. The three-day event drew more than 2. including Robert F. Throughout the thirties.” The afternoon was devoted to roundtables on subjects including: “Recent War Labor Board Directives. Personnel Manager at Marshall Field and Company: You are aware of the commitment we have with the Air Services Placement Center. 1943: IRAC and the University of Chicago School of Business hosted the 10th Annual Midwest Conference on Industrial Relations.” “Shortage of Labor. Loftus officially chartered the "Employment Managers Association of Chicago.” “Americanization. IRAC hosted the second annual national convention of the Industrial Relations Association. and the organization became “The Chicago Council of the National Association of Employment Managers (NAEM).” “Wage Incentives. gave the opening address. The trend is in the direction of vacations with pay for all groups of employees. “Constant pressure from the employee representatives for the further extension of vacations with pay is in evidence in the records of these joint bodies. was one of the first organizations in the country to focus on corporate training and personnel issues.Human Resources Management Association of Chicago came. Member companies provided personnel to give a day a month at the office of the Air Services Placement Center. Department of Labor to Mr. President of International Harvester. The Personnel Journal. and Secretary of Labor James P. 1920: The National Association of Employment Managers became the Industrial Relations Association of America. dear Association’ as an enormous birthday cake with lighted [3] candles was wheeled into the room and up to the speakers table… . working with separating fliers from the Navy. In November. 1919: In March a letter from the U. President.” The NAEM.” and “Employee Morale. and Chicago was one of the first cities in the country to join in the formation of the national association. 1940: IRAC celebrates its 25th anniversary with a gala dinner and meeting at the Palmer House.”[2] By 1938.” 1921: Chicago becomes the largest of the 36 affiliated chapters of the Industrial Relations Association of America. Marine Corps. In referring to IRAC.) In May.” September 1950. IRAC continued to expand its membership and present speakers of national prominence. and Coast Guard. Chicago Title and Trust Co. The celebration opened with the entire group singing ‘Happy Birthday.” ”Pension and Profit Sharing Plans Under Recent Governmental Regulations.” “Effective Utilization of Essential Manpower. Kennedy (Dec. [4] ) The theme was “Labor for the Duration: A Duration that will be Longer than the War.” and “Financial and Non-Financial Incentives. founded in 1918. One topic of discussion was vacation pay. then chief counsel for the Senate labor rackets committee. Chicago Industrial Relations Association and Personnel Officer. Bergen.L. IRAC members gave counseling and career guidance to the servicemen.. the group’s membership stands at 83.” 1945: IRAC pitched in to do its part for veterans of World War II. ’58).” 1916: the Employment Advisor’s Club Ways and Means Committee set dues at $25.

September 9. March 2005. 57 Issue 3. com/ watch?v=HDwkXnWYTnc/ [6] Association Management. 9 [2] Report by the Committee on Group Relations of IRAC. asp/ [8] http:/ / www. p58. 1970s: IRAC continues to grow and hold educational meetings for its members. p. themed “The Strategic New Role of Human Resource Management. As noted in the Annual Report of 1965. 1982: IRAC adopts its current name.org/) • 90th Anniversary Video (http://www. 1931 [3] From the Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Dinner and Annual Meeting and Election of the Industrial Relations Association of Chicago [4] Chicago Sun-Times. Mayor of Chicago. 1965 in the Grand Ballroom of the Conrad Hilton Hotel. Dr. Feeling 'em Now".youtube. “The Managerial Grid” which became one of the most famous models of management style and a cornerstone of organizational psychology for years to come.youtube.[6] 180 Interest Groups HRMAC Interest Groups provide a forum for HR professionals to connect with like-minded peers through the over 50 educational/networking events each year. Blake presented to IRAC on his new management model. being the Golden Anniversary of the Industrial Relations Association of Chicago.com/watch?v=HDwkXnWYTnc) • Summit 10th Anniversary Video (http://www. The Honorable Richard M. org/ membership/ groups. was the event's Honorary Chair. See the Summit 10th Anniversary Video [8] References [1] Chicago Tribune. hrmac. our Annual Meeting. was held on May 19. September 17. In the Fall Conference. Jane Byrne. youtube. "Bump Your Head if You Want Job. Programming is designed to address cutting edge issues facing businesses and provide strategies to create human capital practices that support organization objectives. 2005: HRMAC celetrates it's 90th anniversary with a special program "Celebrating Yesterday. See the 90th Anniversary Video [5]. Organization redesigns website. Daley.com/watch?v=gvgKwnKR5gI) . com/ watch?v=gvgKwnKR5gI/ External links • Organization Website (http://www.” drew an attendance of 350 members. gave the keynote speech. Robert R. Vol. 1943.Human Resources Management Association of Chicago 1965: IRAC celebrates its 50th anniversary. Mayor of Chicago at the time. 1915. “Building a Better Business Climate". HRMAC's capstone annual event is Summit held each fall. youtube. See HRMAC Interest Groups [7] Professional Development HRMAC offers over 65 professional development and networking events annually. The final meeting.hrmac. Shaping Tomorrow" at the Chicago Cultural Center. "Experts Warn of Peril Facing Postwar Labor" [5] http:/ / www. Also in 1965. "Rules of Redesign" [7] http:/ / www. "Human Resources Management Association of Chicago" (HRMAC).

. XM Satellite Radio. Retrieved 2010-12-22. Banner Health. 966 on Inc.com.ICIMS 181 ICIMS iCIMS. 145 www. . Retrieved 2009-09-03. ViewPage& PageID=342& ).aspx) . including Continental Airlines.com/demo/demo_center.iCIMS" (http:/ / www. html?id=200909660). cfm). inc.[3] The company has also been named a finalist by The New York Enterprise Report 2009 Small Business Awards[4] in the category of Excellent Customer Service and by The Stevies.com/) • Software Demo Center (http://www. Type Industry Founded Headquarters Key people Products Employees Website Private Human Resources 1999 Hazlet. Stevie Awards. cfm?fuseaction=Page. . [5] "The American Business Awards: The Stevies" (http:/ / www. 500's 5000 fastest growing companies list for 2009.icims. com/ index. Inc. com/ inc5000/ 2009/ company-profile. [3] "Company Profile . External links • Official Website (http://www. Magazine. Amazon. Liz Claiborne. icims. and others. [4] "Small Business Awards 2009" (http:/ / www.icims. iCIMS has approximately 850 clients worldwide[2] . . Retrieved 2009-09-03. stevieawards. Tommy Hilfiger.com. com/ pubs/ awards/ 403_2617_19872. FedEx Corporation.com [1] iCIMS is a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) provider of a Web-based Talent Management Solution known as the iCIMS Talent Platform. New York Enterprise Report. aspx). iCIMS has been ranked no. Founder & CEO iCIMS Talent Platform. icims. icims. com/ [2] "Clients" (http:/ / www. Inc. nyreport.icims. com/ content/ clients. NJ Colin Day."[5] Typical split-screen view of an applicant profile from the back-end References [1] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-09-03. also known as The American Business Awards in the category of "Best Innovation of the Year.

gathering ideas and feedback for new products. .Idea portal 182 Idea portal Several companies have created idea portals for their customers and employees. new features and process improvements. Adobe Idol and the Cisco I-Prize Innovation Competition. Examples include the My Starbucks.

a subsidiary of Sweet & Maxwell.IDS HR Studies 183 IDS HR Studies IDS HR studies Discipline Language Edited by HR English John Robertson Publication details Publisher Incomes Data Services Ltd (United Kingdom) Publication history 1971 – present Frequency Twice monthly Indexing ISSN 1748-2828 [1] Links • Journal homepage [2] IDS HR Studies is a subscription-based service offering analysis and coverage of best practice in all major areas of HR. or use a keyword search facility to bring up a list of the most relevant content. organisation or sector. It features named case studies and benchmarking data on a wide range of employee benefits and allowances. including: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Absence management Alcohol and drugs policies Assessment centres Coaching and mentoring Corporate social responsibility Discipline. IDS HR Studies is published by Incomes Data Services Ltd. Best practice case studies IDS HR Studies provides analysis and named company case studies of best practice on all major HR topics. A subscription to IDS HR Studies also includes access to an online library containing all IDS HR Studies research back to 2003. highlighting everything an HR professional would need to know about good practice in that area. Products and services Subscribers to IDS HR Studies receive 24 issues a year – each edition features detailed analysis of a key HR topic. Users can search the back catalogue by subject. grievance and mediation e-HR e-learning Employee assistance programmes Employee engagement Employee health and well-being Employer branding Flexible benefits .

org/ issn/ 1748-2828 [2] http:/ / www. worldcat.com (http://www. ece [4] http:/ / www. com/ [3] http:/ / business.10 July 2008 [3] HR departments have survived the recession with relatively few job cuts – 14 December 2009 [4] References [1] http:/ / www.IDS HR Studies • • • • • • • • • • • • • Flexible working Improving staff retention Internet and e-mail policies Job evaluation Job families Leadership development Managing redundancy Performance management Succession planning Talent management Total reward Training strategies Work-life balance 184 Benchmarking data IDS HR Studies also publishes benchmarking data on a wide range of employee benefits and allowances. co. co.incomesdata.idshrstudies.uk/areas-of-expertise/hr-policy-practice/ ids-hr-studies.uk/ids-hr-studies (http://www.co.com/) .idshrstudies. timesonline.aspx/) • www. including: • • • • • • • • • Annual hours Bonus schemes Employee share schemes Flexitime schemes Hours and holidays London allowances Overtime Shift pay Sick pay • Standby and call-out pay IDS HR Studies in the press What is your redundancy cheque worth? . uk/ news/ 973782/ HR-departments-survived-recession-relatively-few-job-cuts/ External links • www. hrmagazine.incomesdata. idshrstudies.co. uk/ tol/ business/ career_and_jobs/ article4310364.

dangerous working environment. Illness-related absence times and planned working times are calculated in days.Illness rate 185 Illness rate The illness rate is calculated by comparing employee illness-related absences against planned working time. low employee satisfaction. to shift resources from one area into an area with a high Illness Rate. As a simple key figure it can be used for planning purposes. An analysis of the illness reasons or causes must include other factors as well. Industry and Country Relevance The illness rate is generic for all industries and countries. Interpretation A high illness rate may be interpreted as an indicator of a heavy workload. for example. and so on. For example. bad working conditions. a high overtime rate combined with a high number of accidents may indicate the reasons for an increase of the illness rate. Calculation Formula • Unit of Measure: % Direction of Improvement One will usually try to minimize the illness rate. . within a specific period.

Scientific literature also refers to this concept as Pay for Performance. rather. and the ability to measure progress. or increases in expectations from management. high turnover or loss of talent. To facilitate the creation of a profitable program. Incentive programs are based upon the concept that effort increases as people perceive themselves progressing towards their goal. An incentive program represents a substantial investment to most organizations. yet achievable. Incentive Programs are particularly used in business management to motivate employees. poor behaviors or performance. recognizing performance. rather than raising the performance of the organization as a whole. the program will be destined for failure.[3] In addition. incentive schemes will very often create moral hazard. Often companies turn to incentive programs to counter failures in meeting targets. With monetary rewards. suitable rewards. all the factors that affect behavior must be recognized. Program design considerations If programs are to be effective. He encouraged management to find ways to lift the performance of the whole system. every feature must be tailored to the participants’ interests. By giving the incentive of hitting specific targets. poor morale or attitude. efficient communication strategies. He argued that the overall performance of a unit was much more a function of the quality of materials. If successful. taught and demonstrated that motivation efforts are a form of tampering because they try to make improvements to individual components of what is largely common cause variation. A successful incentive program requires clearly defined rules. companies are better able to engage program participants and enhance the overall program effectiveness. Many companies mistakenly assume that what works for one organization will work well for all organizations." Deming went on to demonstrate that the result of an improvement strategy based on trying to lift the performance of each worker one-at-a-time would be no system improvement. and measurable success metrics. objectives should provide measurable results allowing the organization to track performance and measure the overall success of the program. the "system. Objectives may include motivating employees. Once the program goals have been determined. give only small short-term gains. They should be challenging.Incentive program 186 Incentive program An Incentive Program is a formal scheme used to promote or encourage specific actions or behavior by a specific group of people during a defined period of time. every aspect of the program must be measured against this goal in order to ensure the program's success in goal achievement. at its core. persuading customers to make a purchase. However. Therefore programs should offer participants a variety of products and services based on their unique interests and diverse needs. Receiving a sufficient return on that investment requires the full participation of the program participants. recognition. Objectives should be drawn up on the basis of the organization's strategic goals and should be straightforward and specific so that participants clearly understand the expectations. quality specifications and machine performance – in other words. This causes reduction . Edwards Deming. Companies often attempt to create incentive programs without thinking in detail about how each program feature will best suit their targeted audience. By adapting each element of the program to fit the target audience. unengaged employees. process design and management. the targets become the goal. or even reinforcing a marketing message. including: motivation. W. Successful programs need to carefully develop their reward methods to keep participants eager to approach a new goal once they have achieved a reward. and in sales in order to attract and retain customers. an incentive program is designed to lift the performance outputs of a group of people engaged in some activity by increasing their motivation. or even reduce performance. this has often been shown to completely [1] [2] fail. a leading Quality Management scholar and consultant. an understanding of the goals. it would simply be increased variation in performance. skills. if they are viewed as unattainable.

or even the use of proper safety precautions. repeat customer purchases. a SIP can incorporate sales metrics other than goods sold(or value of goods sold). Sales incentive programs have the most direct relationship to outcomes. Depending on the program type and the organizational objectives. It can motivate the staff which in turn only helps business. In addition to point awarding. researchers found that a simple 5% increase in a company’s customer retention rates will increase the average lifetime profits per customer. increase retention. A SIP is very similar to a commission plan. Sales metrics used in a SIP are typically in the form of sales quotas (sometimes referred to as point of sale or POS shipments). and ultimately drive sales. however. SIPs are used to incentives sales professionals where total dollars sold is not a precise measure of sales productivity. the sale of new products. usually broken into a plan for a fiscal quarter or fiscal year. develop new territory.[4] Consumer programs are becoming more widely used as more companies realize that existing customers cost less to reach. points can be awarded on a number of criteria including positive employee behavior. Dealer/channel Dealer incentive programs are used to improve performance for dealer and channel resellers using sales incentive programs. increase product adoption. are less vulnerable to attacks from the competition. the levels at which points can be redeemed can be customized by the organization and set at virtually any level.[5] Sales These programs are primarily used to drive sales. cost less to sell. increased overall sales. Employee Employee incentive programs are programs used to increase overall employee performance. Points programs are a way for organizations to motivate behavior over time while improving the organizations’ overall performance. which is traditionally how a commission plan is derived. reduce cost of sales. 187 Types Points program Points-based incentive programs are a type of program where participants collect and redeem points for awards. each contributing unique skills to the sales process. A Sales Incentive Plan (SIP) is a business tool used to motivate and compensate a sales professional (or sales agent) to meet goals or metrics over a specific period of time. This is usually due to the complexity or length of the sales process or where a sale is completed not by an individual but by a team of people. even while increasing the rate of hitting targets. and enhance margins. and buy more over the long term. launch new products. In a recent study conducted by Bain & Company’s research. SIPs are used to encourage and compensate each member of the sales team as he/she contributes to the team's ability to sell. These programs help companies capture market share. improve employee wellness. Employee programs are often used to reduce turnover. Consumer Consumer incentive programs are programs targeting the customers and consumers of an organization. and drive daily employee performance. boost morale and loyalty.Incentive program in overall performance. increase profitability. reduce sales costs. It is not uncommon for the members of such teams to be located in different physical locations (often working in different countries) and for . new business opportunities and/or management by objectivess (MBOs) independent action of the sales professional and is usually used in conjunction with a base salary. the demonstration of organizational values.

defunct). According to the Online Incentive Council (OIC. The goal in choosing rewards is to select items that will spark the participant’s interest or feelings. and (2) retailer-specific cards. and are redeemable at all merchants accepting the credit card brand. the use of online incentive programs was extremely rare." In a recent study conducted by the Center for Concept Development. commonly referred to as universal gift cards (UGC). since its emergence. Gift cards/certificates Gift cards/certificates are prepaid retail cards or certificates which are redeemed at a later time at checkout. nearly every traditional incentive company offers an online component in programs including employee motivation and recognition. and support the program’s objectives. In general. Cash While incentive program participants often state that they prefer cash to non-cash rewards. they are available in two types: (1) cards which carry a major credit card brand. sales performance.[7] Non-cash rewards Merchandise and other non-cash rewards are more often perceived as separate from compensation. issued by well-known merchants. Companies that run their programs online experience efficient communication. cash programs do little to generate the interest required to create an effective incentive program. Accordingly. 188 Online programs When first emerging in 1996. and may give reduced performance. the number of online programs has almost doubled in size every year. redeemable only through the issuing retailer. There are several types of rewards. and awards fulfillment. three of five respondents agree that a cash payment is perceived to be part of an employee’s total compensation package and not as part of an incentive program.Incentive program the product introduction to happen in one location and the purchase of such a product to occur in another location. Effective rewards will both motivate short-term behavior and provide motivation over time. and consumer promotions. non-cash rewards tend to stand out as rewards for performance. cash is quickly forgotten as many participants tend to spend it on everyday items or use it to pay bills. Monetary rewards Selecting the appropriate rewards is vital to any programs success.[6] Additionally. gift cards were ranked as the most frequently used type of corporate reward.[8] . At present. Online incentive programs pose an attractive alternative to traditional offline programs since online programs save money and time and allow organizations to have much greater control. frequently gives no gains at all. Branded merchandise and other non-cash rewards have high trophy value. research has shown that cash is a poor motivator due to its lack of "trophy value. reporting. bringing greater recognition to the recipient at the time of the award and possessing a long-term lasting effect that can result in increased engagement in the organizations goals. Research shows that pay for performance often gives only short term gains. channel programs. Given that most people do not generally talk about cash awards. which enhances their long-term effect. In the 2005 Incentive Federation Study of Motivation and Incentive Applications.

Examples might include a seaplane flight and lunch. D. If it comes to environmental behavior. . (2008) A caution on reward programs. au/ key-benefits-of-rewards-loyalty-incentive-programs/ employee-incentives-key-benefits-of-rewards-loyalty-incentive-programs/ reapingtherewards). health savings or reimbursement accounts. A.com. payroll or premium contributions. [6] "Center for Concept Development: A Study Conducted among Current Users of Merchandise and Travel Items for Motivation/ Incentive Applications" (http:/ / www. com/ library/ content/ c080331a. com.. org/ pubs/ In_Queue/ vol3no15. a day of sailing for two. http:/ / www.isixsigma. Pink Adsit. This may include stickers. asp "Keeping Your Best Customers for the Long Term" (http:/ / www. Non-monetary rewards Non-monetary incentives are used to reward participants for excellent behavior through opportunities. isixsigma.[6] Travel Travel rewards can best be defined as a face-to-face event designed to motivate. (2008) The futility of call center coaching. nationalcallcenters. a two hour horse ride on the beach.[6] Experiential Experiential rewards provide program participants with an experience.Incentive program 189 Merchandise Merchandise rewards can range anywhere from small branded key chains to high-end electronics. . . 73% of respondents agreed that more stimulating. incentivemarketing. Experiential rewards allow participants to share their experiences with others and reinforce the reward and the behavior that led to the giving of the reward. benefits. org/ pdf/ 2005_incentive_federation_study. [7] Drive: The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us-Daniel H. In Queue. T-shirts with banner logo etc. a chance to meet a star athlete. incentivemarketing. PIC. or even paid sabbaticals. or the use of a party planner for an occasion of the recipient’s choice. pdf). . pdf). either directly or indirectly. http:/ / www. . www. 51% of respondents perceived that travel is remembered longer than other incentive rewards. Pink [8] "Federation Study 2005: Incentive Federation Survey of Motivation and Incentive Applications" (http:/ / www. org/ associations/ 2592/ files/ 0506-13b rpt. pdf). This form of reward gives organizations the ability to offer their employees and customers interesting experiences as incentives. In a 2005 study conducted by the Center for Concept Development. Non-monetary incentives may include flexible work hours. training. References Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Coombs. memorable incentive programs can be built around merchandise as opposed to cash rewards. html Drive: The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us-Daniel H. incentivecentral. [5] "Reaping the Rewards" (http:/ / pinpoint. org/ associations/ 2592/ files/ Customer Retention. In a 2005 study conducted by the Center for Concept Development. often labeling and recognition certificates are used.

The process will cover the employer and employee rights and the terms and conditions of employment. integrated member of the team. or how their role fits in with the rest of the company. Some focus on short-term goals and development.Individual Development Plan 190 Individual Development Plan An Individual Development Plan. External links • Using IDPs to Leverage Strengths (GovLeaders. org/ idp. include development of theoretical and practical skills. but also meet interaction needs that exist among the new employees[1] . These programs can also play a critical role under the socialization to the organization in terms of performance. One key component to any good IDP is that the employee feels total ownership of the content. attitudes and organizational commitment[2] . rather than being "thrown in at the deep end" without understanding how to do their job. It provides an introduction to the working environment and the set-up of the employee within the organisation. Good induction programmes can increase productivity and reduce short-term turnover of staff. other on the long-term. They also discuss various option and approach to achieve the plan. usually one year. Induction training should. Others focus on playing to their strengths. htm Induction programme An induction programme is the process used within many businesses to welcome new employees to the company and prepare them for their new role.org) [1] References [1] http:/ / govleaders. Some employees focus on fixing weaknesses. according to TPI-theory. An induction programme is part of an organisations knowledge management process and is intended to enable the new starter to become a useful. is a document completed by individual for the plan of self development over the next period. . Benefits of an induction programme An induction programme is an important process for bringing staff into an organisation. Contents of the IDP can vary. It's generally regarded a bad practice to write "what the boss wants to hear". As a priority the induction programme must cover any legal and compliance requirements for working at the company and pay attention to the health and safety of the new employee. At the end of one year (or other time period) this plan is reviewed to see how much goal is fulfilled and then what are the new goals and plans for the next year. This plan is then reviewed and discussed by supervision to match the individual goals with company goals. also named a IDP.

(For example. [2] *Alvenfors. but who can undertake some of the tasks on the induction programme. including a named member of staff who will be responsible for each activity.Induction programme 191 A typical induction programme A typical induction programme will include at least some of the following: • • • • • • • • • • any legal requirements (for example in the UK. selection and induction (http://www.aspx?articleid=892) • Alvenfors.) References [1] *Alvenfors. including the new starter. 2009) . Guy (15 July 2004) New kid on the block People Management Magazine . • Browning. se/ resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:his:diva-4281 [3] "Onboarding . A timetable should be prepared. This plan should be circulated to everyone involved in the induction process. by ensuring they are included in any lunchtime social activities.Integration? On the introduction programs’ importance for the integration of new employees. kb. Adam (2010) Introduction . Adam (2010) Introduction . if not co-created with the new starter It is also considered best practise to assign a buddy to every new starter.gov. how to make expense claims. the induction programme should be planned in advance. kb. holiday entitlement.Integration? On the introduction programs’ importance for the integration of new employees http:/ / urn. some Health and Safety training is obligatory) any regulatory requirements (for example in the UK banking sector certain forms need to be completed) introduction to terms and conditions (for example. se/ resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:his:diva-4281. detailing the induction activities for a set period of time (ideally at least a week) for the new employee. George Bradt and Mary Vonnegut (John Wiley & Sons.uk/index. Adam (2010) Introduction .How to Get Your New Employees Up to Speed in Half the Time".ISBN 0470485817 • ACAS article "Recruitment. and how the particular department fits in a guided tour of the building completion of government requirements (for example in UK submission of a P45 or P60) set-up of payroll details introductions to key members of staff specific job-role training 1111 Best practise In order to fully benefit the company and employee. If possible it should be sent to the [3] new starter in advance. If possible this should be a person who the new starter will not be working with directly. etc) a basic introduction to the company. as well as generally make the new employee feel welcome.acas.Integration? On the introduction programs’ importance for the integration of new employees. http:/ / urn.

according to TPI-theory.Induction training 192 Induction training Induction training is a type of training given as an initial preparation upon taking up a post. [2] *Alvenfors. it is a critical time for the employer to gain commitment from the employee. sometimes the work place may have "bullies". Its goal is to help new employees reach the level of performance expected from an experienced worker.Integration? On the introduction programs’ importance for the integration of new employees http:/ / urn. etc. . who may give the new employee the wrong impression of the company or organization at first. If carefully done.). etc. Adam (2010) Introduction . but also meet interaction needs that exist among the new employees[1] . and the latter to understand the expectations. To help start up This training is done systematically and is often the responsibility of the immediate supervisor to make sure that its done smoothly. se/ resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:his:diva-4281. include development of theoretical and practical skills. Adam (2010) Introduction .Integration? On the introduction programs’ importance for the integration of new employees http:/ / urn. kb. It often contains information dealing with the layout of the firm's operating facility. These programs can play a critical role under the socialization to [2] the organization in terms of performance. it will save time and cost(in terms of faulty products or poor services. performance standards. An attempt may also be made to introduce the individual to key employees and give an impression of the culture of the organisation. attitudes and organizational commitment . targets and so on. It is imperative that managers place their authority and power to make sure that the new employee is carefully helped to adjust to the new work surroundings and culture Just as in schools. The induction provides a really good opportunity to socialise and brief the newcomer on the company's overall strategy. References [1] *Alvenfors. kb. Induction training should. health and safety measures and security systems. se/ resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:his:diva-4281.

Blum & Naylor (1968) define it as "simply the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry" (p.. industrial–organizational psychology.[1] I–O psychology can also be viewed as the equivalent of the economics concept of human capital. and feedback systems. industrial psychology. An I–O psychologist researches and identifies how behaviors and attitudes can be improved through hiring practices. I–O psychology has historically subsumed two broad areas of study. and organizations. I–O psychology is considered a sister field or branch of organizational studies. commitment. Common research and practice areas for I–O psychologists include: • • • • • • • Job performance Job analysis/competency modeling Personnel recruitment and selection Student/educational selection and assessment Judgment and decision making Performance appraisal/management Individual assessment (knowledge. workplaces. human resources. and ability testing. organizational science. It has roots in social psychology. I–O psychology is represented by Division 14 of the American Psychological Association. job satisfaction. although this distinction is largely artificial and many topics cut across both areas. Industrial–organizational psychologists contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance and well-being of its people. known formally as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). organizational psychologists examine the role of the work environment in performance and other outcomes including job satisfaction and health. 817). personality assessment.Industrial and organizational psychology 193 Industrial and organizational psychology Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I–O psychology. work psychology. organizational psychology. assessment centers) • Psychometrics • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Compensation Training and training evaluation Employment law Work motivation Job attitudes (e. organizational citizenship. in the process of making a living" (p. and/or management.g.. Overview Guion (1965) defines I–O psychology as "the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work: .. 4). Sometimes. training programs. but there is no universally accepted classification system for these related fields. An applied science. or personnel psychology) is the scientific study of employees. and retaliation) Occupational health and safety Work/life balance Human factors and decision making Organizational culture/climate Organizational surveys Leadership and executive coaching Ethics Diversity Job design Human resources . work sample tests. organizational behavior. skills. as evident by its name.

They use what they have learned in applied settings to help clients address workplace needs. I–O psychologists are trained in the scientist–practitioner model. who was elected President of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1919. Study designs employed by I–O psychologists include surveys. I–O psychologists also employ psychometric methods including methods associated with classical test theory (CTT). and analysis of variance).Industrial and organizational psychology • • • • Organizational development (OD) Organizational Research Methods Technology in the workplace Group/team performance 194 I–O psychologists are trained in the "scientist-practitioner" model. multiple regression. I–O researchers employ both quantitative and qualitative research methods.. cognitive ability tests. sales volume). and questionnaires and surveys. construction workers in studies of construction projects) to describe a work situation that . After the War. influenced by the Hawthorne studies and the work of researchers such as Kurt Lewin and Muzafer Sherif. [13] [14] help of meta-analysis. in response to the need to rapidly assign new troops to duty stations. researchers. validity generalization has broad acceptance with regard to many selection instruments (e.[4] HLM is particularly applicable to research on team. assessment.g.. focus groups. correlation. The training enables I–O psychologists to employ scientific principles and research-based designs to generate knowledge. They also work within organizations. was arguably the most prominent I–O psychologist of his time.g. and several other observational techniques. Qualitative methods employed in I–O psychology include content analysis. although James McKeen Cattell (elected APA President in 1895) and Hugo Münsterberg (1898) were influential in the early development of the field. specifically cognitive ability tests (see especially Hunter [1986][15] and Hunter & Schmidt [1996][16] ) have a relatively stable and positive relation to job performance across all jobs. historical databases. I–O psychologists are employed as professors. objective measures of work performance (e. Research methods As described above.[3] and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM.g.[6] In the 1990s. a growing body of empirical research in I–O psychology was influential in the application of meta-analysis. and the prediction of performance.g. case studies. interviews. One well-known qualitative technique employed in I–O psychology is John Flanagan's Critical Incident Technique. Walter Dill Scott. I–O psychologists rely on diverse data sources including human judgments. quasi-experiments. I–O psychologists rely on a variety of methods to conduct organizational research. often as part of a human resources department where they coordinate hiring and organizational development initiatives from an evidence-based perspective. Quantitative methods used in I–O psychology include both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (e. and item response theory (IRT)..[17] which requires "qualified observers" (e. the growing industrial base in the US added impetus to I–O psychology.and organization-level effects on individuals. structural equation modeling.[5] generalizability theory. History The "industrial" side of I–O psychology has its historical origins in research on individual differences.[2] Organizational psychology gained prominence after World War II. The most well-known meta-analytic [7] [8] [9] Rosenthal. multivariate analysis of variance. particularly in the area of the stability of research findings across contexts. Although not unchallenged. which suggests that some performance predictors. Hunter & Schmidt advanced the idea of validity generalization. work samples. pilots in studies of aviation. I–O research on organizational culture research has employed ethnographic techniques and participant observation to collect data. and observational studies. and structured interviews) across a broad range of jobs. also known as multilevel modeling).[10] [11] and Hedges & Olkin. experiments. job knowledge tests.[12] With the approaches are those associated with Hunter & Schmidt. and consultants. This branch of the field crystallized during World War I. More advanced statistical methods employed by some I–O psychologists include logistic regression.

i.e. Additional uses of job-analytic information include job evaluations for the purpose of determining compensation levels and job redesign. performance appraisals and criteria. and work samples. Most notably. personality tests. Job-analytic data are often collected using a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods.g. literally saving thousands of lives since its introduction. Personnel recruitment is the process of identifying qualified candidates in the workforce and getting them to apply for jobs within an organization. defining key qualifications for applicants. when constructing behaviorally-anchored rating scales (BARS). this technique has been employed to improve performance among aircraft crews and surgical teams. and practice analysis. For example. construct validity. These two approaches are not mutually exclusive. and screening out unqualified applicants. placing ads. I–O psychologists must evaluate evidence regarding the extent to which selection tools predict job performance. cognitive. An application of the technique in research on coping with job stress comes from O'Driscoll & Cooper. and/or competencies required by a job. tasks. a worker-oriented job analysis. shown to be job relevant. Personnel recruitment and selection I–O psychologists typically work with HR specialists to design (a) recruitment processes and (b) personnel selection systems. This technique is then used to describe the critical elements of performance in certain jobs and how worker behavior relates to outcomes. such as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology's (SIOP) Principles for Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures[19] and the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Each potential item would additionally be correlated with an external criterion in order to evaluate its usefulness if it were to be selected to be included in a BARS metric.[20] The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Uniform Guidelines[21] are also . The second approach. involves an examination of the knowledge. Objectivity is ensured when multiple observers identify the same incidents. Personnel selection is the systematic process of hiring and promoting personnel. the task-oriented job analysis. Personnel selection involves both new hires and individuals who can be promoted from within the organization. The observers are also asked to provide information about what the actor in the situation could have done differently to influence the outcome.[18] I–O psychologists sometimes use quantitative and qualitative methods in concert. 195 Topics Job analysis Job analysis is often described as the cornerstone of successful employee selection efforts and performance management initiatives. Personnel selection procedures are usually validated. Personnel recruitment processes include developing job announcements. involves an examination of the duties. skills. One approach. using one or more of the following types of validity: content validity. a job analyst may use qualitative methods.. A job analysis involves the systematic collection of information about a job. which examines large groups of duties and tasks related to a common goal or process. the systematic collection of biographical data. Personnel selection systems employ evidence-based practices to determine the most qualified candidates. Job-analytic methods are often described as belonging to one of two approaches. I–O psychologists adhere to professional standards. evidence that bears on the validity of selection tools. or psychomotor). abilities. and/or criterion-related validity. Then the analyst would have SMEs rate those examples on a Likert scale and compute inter-rater agreement statistics to judge the adequacy of each item.. and other characteristics (KSAOs) required to successfully perform the work.Industrial and organizational psychology resulted in a good or bad outcome. structured interviews. knowledge tests. Various adaptations of job-analytic methods include competency modeling. which examines the way work is performed in an occupation across jobs. Common selection tools include ability tests (e. physical. or training programs. The information obtained from a job analysis is then used to create job-relevant selection procedures. such as critical incidents interviews and focus groups to collect data bearing on performance.

[22] 196 Performance appraisal/management Performance appraisal or performance evaluation is the process of measuring an individual's work behaviors and outcomes against the expectations of the job. I–O psychologists may also serve as expert witnesses in pay discrimination cases when disparities in pay for similar work are alleged. Performance appraisal is frequently used in promotion and compensation decisions. and assessment centers. Similar to performance management (see above). an I–O psychologist would employ a job analysis in concert with principles of instructional design to create an effective training program. bonuses. to help design and validate personnel selection procedures. and perquisites that can be converted to cash or replace living expenses. such as knowledge. and the performance of teachers and K–12 schools. These assessments can include written tests. I–O psychologists may be asked to conduct a job evaluation for the purpose of determining compensation levels and ranges.Industrial and organizational psychology influential in guiding personnel selection although they have been criticized as outdated when compared to the current state of knowledge in I–O psychology. A meta-analysis of selection methods in personnel psychology found that general mental ability was the best overall predictor of job performance and training performance. pension/retirement contributions. An I–O psychologist would typically use information from the job analysis to determine a job's performance dimensions. The constructs measured pertain to job performance. With candidates for employment. Training programs often include formative evaluations to assess the impact of the training as the training proceeds. the I–O psychologist may consult with the organization on ways to use the performance appraisal information for broader performance management initiatives. and graduate and professional schools as well as the assessment of student achievement.. coaching. work samples. including ways to minimize bias when using the rating scale. Increasingly.g. Additionally. personality tests. and for performance management. I–O psychologists not only help in the selection and assessment of personnel for jobs. Often. I–O psychologists are generally well-trained in psychometric psychology. skills. individual assessment is often part of the personnel selection process. Performance management is the process of providing performance feedback relative to expectations and improvement information (e. Formative evaluations can be used to locate problems in training procedures . Psychometrics is the science of measuring psychological variables. Training and training evaluation Most people hired for a job are not already versed in all the tasks required to perform the job effectively. I–O psychologists are working for educational assessment and testing organizations and divisions. and then construct a rating scale to describe each level of performance for the job. universities. Individual assessment and psychometrics Individual assessment involves the measurement of individual differences. mentoring). physical tests. I–O psychologists perform individual assessments in order to evaluate differences among candidates for employment as well as differences among employees. the I–O psychologist would be responsible for training organizational personnel how to use the performance appraisal instrument. but also assist in the selection of students for admission to colleges. Remuneration and compensation Compensation includes wages or salary. and abilities. psychomotor tests. A training program is likely to include a summative evaluation at its conclusion in order to ensure that trainees have met the training objectives and can perform the target work tasks at an acceptable level. and how to provide effective performance feedback. Performance management may also include documenting and tracking performance information for organization-level evaluation purposes. student aptitude.

Building on Maslow's theory. does not propose that employees attempt to satisfy these needs in a strictly hierarchal manner.[23] [24] There is general consensus that motivation involves three psychological processes: arousal. The next three levels in Maslow's theory relate to intellectual and psycho-emotional needs: love and belonging. either totally or partially. such as having enough money to purchase food. and finally the highest order need. behavioral. Next. esteem (which refers to competence and mastery). called the ERG theory.[23] Maslow theorized that people will not seek to satisfy a higher level need until their lower level needs are met. which could be interpreted to mean adequate housing or living in a safe neighborhood. motivation serves to direct attention. and intensity. Finally. Direction refers to the path employees take in accomplishing the goals they set for themselves. There has been little empirical support for the idea that employees in the workplace strive to meet their needs only in the hierarchical order prescribed by Maslow.[23] At the most basic level. can be defined as the energy a person puts toward work-related behaviors. It also serves to stimulate an employee to put forth effort. The level of intensity is based on the importance and difficulty of the goal. In accordance with Maslow's theory. These psychological processes result in four outcomes. self-actualization. tasks. which was not specifically developed to explain behavior in the workplace. cognitive process."[24] A number of various theories attempt to describe employee motivation within the discipline of I–O psychology. employees strive to satisfy their needs in a hierarchal order. Finally. direction. Because of motivation's role in influencing workplace behavior and performance. motivation results in persistence. Although Maslow's theory is widely known. people. Empirical support for this theory has been mixed. which as defined by Mitchell & Daniels.Industrial and organizational psychology and help I–O psychologists make corrective adjustments while the training is ongoing.[23] Need-based theories Need-based theories of motivation focus on an employee's drive to satisfy a variety of needs through their work. motivation results in task strategies. Arousal is what initiates action. The next level of need in the hierarchy is safety. This theory. are "patterns of behavior produced to reach a particular goal. 197 Motivation in the workplace Understanding what motivates an organization's employees is central to the study of I–O psychology. Motivation. preventing one from deviating from the goal-seeking behavior. Most of these theories can be divided into the four broad categories of need-based. It is fueled by a person's need or desire for something that is missing from their lives at a given moment. it varies greatly among individuals and must often be combined with ability and environmental factors to actually influence behavior and performance. relatedness and growth. These needs range from basic physiological needs for survival to higher psychoemotional needs like belonging and self-actualization. and job-based. etc. intensity is the vigor and amount of energy employees put into this goal-directed work performance. in the workplace it has proven to be a poor predictor of employee behavior.[23] . at its core. While motivation can often be used as a tool to help predict behavior. and employee is motivated to work in order to satisfy basic physiological needs for survival. Alderfer (1959) collapsed the levels in Maslow's theory from five to three: existence. First. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (1943) was applied to offer an explanation of how the work environment motivates employees. focusing on particular issues. it is key for organizations to understand and to structure the work environment to encourage productive behaviors and discourage those that are unproductive.

Employee inputs take the form of work volume and quality. then. Cognitive process theories Equity Theory Equity Theory is derived from social exchange theory. make an impact and be heard by others. feedback. If the employee perceives an inequity. Achievement motivation can be broken down into three types: Achievement seeks position advancement. Because most individuals have a combination of these three types (in various proportions). The employee's evaluation of input-to-output ratios and subsequent striving to achieve equilibrium is an ongoing process. Authority – need to lead. knowledge.[23] The Need for Achievement is in many ways similar to the need for mastery and self-actualization in Maslow's hierarchy of needs and growth in the ERG theory. Equity Theory research has tested employee sentiments regarding equitable compensation. The theory is referred to as Need for Achievement because these individuals are theorized to be the most effective employees and leaders in the workplace. They tend to be dedicated to their work and strive hard to succeed. Studies show those who have a high need for achievement prefer moderate levels of risk. Need for Achievement allows the I–O psychologist to concentrate research into a tighter focus. recruitment. and. It explains motivation in the workplace as a cognitive process of evaluation. skills. The company-generated outcomes include rewards such as compensation. seek feedback. The achievement orientation has garnered more research interest as compared to the need for affiliation or power. These individuals strive to achieve their goals and advance in the organization. extrapolating to the social context. and sense of accomplishment. and are likely to immerse themselves in their work. attributes and behaviors. performance. Concepts of organizational justice later expanded upon the fundamentals of Equity Theory and pointed to the importance of fairness perceptions in the workplace. it could be said Equity Theory is more useful in describing factors that contribute to a lack of motivation rather than increasing motivation in the workplace. Unlike other need-based theories. Equity Theory has proven relevance in situations where an employee is undercompensated. praise and advancement opportunities. the theory has generally failed to demonstrate its usefulness in understanding scenarios of overcompensation. then the employee will be satisfied. Such individuals also demonstrate a strong desire for increasing their knowledge and for feedback on their performance.Industrial and organizational psychology Need for Achievement Atkinson & McClelland's Need for Achievement Theory is the most relevant and applicable need-based theory in the I–O psychologist's arsenal. In particular. which try to interpret every need. The employee compares his inputs relative to outcomes. the theory posits that the employee will adjust his behavior to bring things into balance. an understanding of these achievement motivation [25] characteristics can be a useful assistance to management in job placement. There are three fairness perceptions applied to organizational settings: . the employee compares his input/outcome ratio with the perceived ratios of others. If an employee perceives that he is undercompensated. whereby the employee seeks to achieve a balance between inputs or efforts in the workplace and the outcomes or rewards received or anticipated. he can adjust his behavior to achieve equilibrium in several different ways: • • • • • reduce input to a level he believes better matches his level of compensation change or adjust the comparative standard to which he is comparing his situation cognitively adjust his perception of his inputs or the outcomes received withdraw address the situation with his employer by asking for a raise 198 If the employee is able to achieve a ratio of inputs to outputs that he perceives to be equitable. While it has been established that Equity Theory provides insight into scenarios of under-compensation. etc. and Affiliation – need for friendly social interactions and to be liked.[26] In this way.

it is more useful in predicting how an employee might choose among competing [23] choices for their time and energy. . or the fairness of the procedures used to determine one's outcomes 3.[27] If the employee foresees a high probability that the can successfully carry out a desired behavior. A precursor to motivation is that the employee finds the reward(s) attractive. if a pattern is established whereas an employee understands his performance will lead to certain desired rewards. and that their behavior will lead to a valued outcome. 4. an employee will work smarter and/or harder if he believes his additional efforts will lead to valued rewards. In some instances. Expectancy Theory has been show to have greater validity in research in within-subject designs rather than between-subjects designs. an employee's motivation can be strengthened based on anticipation. then the valence would be also considered high. When workplace policies are perceived as unfair. If policies are consistently. risks for retaliation and related behaviors such as sabotage and workplace violence can increase. E (Expectancy) = Belief that effort will result in desired level of performance. In such environments.Industrial and organizational psychology 1. 6.[24] Leventhal (1980) described six criteria for creating fair procedures in an organization. Procedural justice. Expectancy Theory explains this increased output of effort by means of the equation F = E (Σ I × V) whereas: F (Effort or Motivational Force) = Effort the employee will expend to achieve the desired performance. the benefits to an organization can be high. Expectancy Theory posits employee satisfaction to be an outcome of performance rather than the cause of performance. 5. or the perception of equality of an individual's outcomes 2. 2. Distributive justice. In such an instance. the reward or outcome might inadvertently be unattractive. He proposed that procedures and policies should be[24] : 1. for example. then the instrumentality would be high. such as increased workload or demanding travel that may come with a promotion. rather than predicting the choices two different employees might make. V (Valence) = Value of the outcome to the employee[23] Expectancy Theory has been shown to have useful applications in designing rewards systems. employees are more likely to comply with policies even if their personal outcome is less than optimal. the valence might be lower for individuals who feel work–life balance is important. If the rewards are substantial enough to be meaningful to an employee. or the perception that one has been treated fairly with dignity and respect[24] When workplace processes are perceived as fair. then they will direct their efforts toward that end. clearly and fairly implemented. That is. consistently applied to everyone in the organization free from bias accurate correctable representative of all concerns based on prevailing ethics 199 Expectancy Theory According to Vroom's Expectancy Theory. However. I (Instrumentality) = Belief that desired level of performance will result in desired outcome. 3. Interactional justice.

because clear goal specificity is essential to a properly designed goal-setting task. In anticipation of success. especially if they conflict with one another. Similarly.[23] Feedback while the employee or group is striving for the goal is seen as crucial.[29] However. several studies have shown this motivational theory may not be applicable in all situations. seek feedback and choose more effective task strategies. It has been shown that setting high expectations can lead to improved performance. goals can actually inhibit performance because they demand cognitive resources. lead to task persistence and the development of task strategies for accomplishing the goal. Specific goals that set a performance expectation are more motivating than those that are vague. which is a group's belief that it can achieve success with a given task or project. goal-setting can even be counterproductive. when someone is learning a new task. Low expectations can lower self-efficacy and is referred to as the golem effect. Individuals who believe that mastery can be achieved through training and practice are more likely to develop greater self-efficacy than those who see mastery as a product of inherent talent than is [24] largely immutable. In order for a goal to be motivating. capabilities to achieve a goal) within the employee must be present for goal-setting to be effective. 200 . over one thousand articles and reviews published in just over thirty years. In such an approach. Goals require a narrowing of one's focus. The concept has been extended to group efficacy. Self-efficacy is an individual's belief in his or her ability to achieve results in a given scenario. performance-related goals can distract from the learning process. such as the level of effort and persistence. studies have shown a strong correlation between self-efficacy and performance. a mastery-oriented approach has been shown to be an effective way to bolster self-efficacy.[30] Furthermore. Feedback keeps employees on track and reinforces the importance of the goal as well as supporting the employees in adjusting their task strategies.[23] An employee with high self-efficacy is confident that effort he or she puts forth has a high likelihood of resulting in success. and (4) feedback providing. known as the Pygmalian effect.[24] Relative to training. In fact. Empirically. remain focused on the task. a goal still needs to appear achievable. During the learning process. it may be better to focus on mastering the task than achieving a particular result.[24] [32] Locke suggested several reasons why goals are motivating: they direct attention. (2) specific. multiple goals can create confusion for the employee and the end result is a muted overall drive. because of the tunnel vision focus created by goal-setting theory. too many goals can become distracting and counterproductive.Industrial and organizational psychology Goal-setting An I–O psychologist can assist an employer in designing task-related goals for their employees that are (1) attainable. However. or goal acceptance could be negatively impacted. in tasks that require creative on-the-spot improvising. so for more complex or creative tasks. Goal-setting Theory is arguably the most dominant theory in the field of I–O psychology. there are some boundary conditions that indicate in some situations. The person or group should have the necessary skills and resources to achieve the goal. Social Cognitive Theory Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory is another cognitive process theory that offers the important concept of self-efficacy for explaining employee's level of motivation relative to workplace tasks or goals.[24] Self-efficacy is seen to mediate important aspects of how an employee undertakes a given task. Goal-setting Theory has strong empirical support dating back thirty years. in hopes of rousing tunnel vision [28] Studies have shown both feedback from the employer and self-efficacy (belief in one's focus in the employees.[24] Finally. an employee is willing to put forth more effort. (3) appropriately difficult. Similarly.[31] Despite its flaws. persist longer. the employee or work group must first accept the goal. The antecedents of self-efficacy may be influenced by expectations. which in turn will lead to greater goal acceptance. training or past experience and requires further research. While difficult goals can be more motivating. the goal of training is to focus on mastering skills or tasks rather than focusing on an immediate performance-related outcome. more proximal goals have greater motivation impact than those that are very long range or distal goals. goal-setting can be detrimental to performance on certain types of tasks.

Industrial and organizational psychology Behavioral approach to motivation The behavioral approach to workplace motivation is known as Organizational Behavioral Modification. This approach applies the tenets of behaviorism developed by B.F. Skinner to promote employee behaviors that an employer deems beneficial and discourage those that are not. Any stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behavior increasing is a reinforcer. An effective use of positive reinforcement would be frequent praise while an employee is learning a new task. An employee's behavior can also be shaped during the learning process if approximations of the ideal behavior are praised or rewarded. The frequency of reinforcement is an important consideration. While frequent praise during the learning process can be beneficial, it can be hard to sustain indefinitely.[23] A variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement, where the frequency of reinforcement varies unpredictably, can be also be highly effective if used in instances where it is ethical to do so. Providing praise on a variable-ratio schedule would be appropriate, whereas paying an employee on an unpredictable variable-ratio schedule would not be. Compensation and other reward programs provide behavioral reinforcement, and if carefully crafted, can provide powerful incentives to employees. Behavioral principals can also be used to address undesirable behaviors in the workplace, but punishment should be used judiciously. If overused, punishment can negatively impact employee's perception of fairness in the workplace.[23] In general, the less time that elapses between a behavior and its consequence, the more impactful a consequence is likely to be. Job-based theories The job-based theories hold that the key to motivation is within an employee's job itself. Generally, these theories say that jobs can be motivating by their very design. This is a particularly useful view for organizations, because the practices set out in the theories can be implemented more practically in an organization. Ultimately, according to the job-based theories, the key to finding motivation through one's job is being able to derive satisfaction from the job content.[23] Motivation–Hygiene Theory It is impossible to discuss motivation and job attributes in I–O psychology without crediting Herzberg's Motivation–Hygiene Theory (also referred to as Herzberg's 2-Factor Model). Published in 1968, Herzberg's Motivation–Hygiene Theory holds that the content of a person's job is the primary source of motivation. In other words, he argued against the commonly-held belief that money and other compensation is the most effective form of motivation to an employee. Instead, Herzberg posed that high levels of what he dubbed hygiene factors (pay, job security, status, working conditions, fringe benefits, job policies, and relations with co-workers) could only reduce employee dissatisfaction (not create satisfaction). Motivation factors (level of challenge, the work itself, responsibility, recognition, advancement, intrinsic interest, autonomy, and opportunities for creativity) however, could stimulate satisfaction within the employee, provided that minimum levels of the hygiene factors were reached. For an organization to take full advantage of Herzberg's theory, they must design jobs in such a way that motivators are built in, and thus are intrinsically rewarding. While the Motivation–Hygiene Theory was the first to focus on job content, it has not been strongly supported through empirical studies.[23] Job Characteristics Theory Shortly after Herzberg's 2-Factor Model, Hackman and Oldham contributed their own, more refined, job-based theory; Job Characteristics Theory. JCT attempts to define the association between core job dimensions, the critical psychological states that occur as a result of these dimensions, the personal and work outcomes, and growth-need strength. Core job dimensions are the characteristics of a person's job. The core job dimensions are linked directly to the critical psychological states. According to JCT, an organization that provides sufficient levels of skill variety,


Industrial and organizational psychology task identity, and task significance to its employees will, in turn, provide experienced meaningfulness. That is, employees will feel that the work they do has meaning and value. Sufficient levels of autonomy will inspire felt responsibility for the employee, and proper feedback will provide the employee with knowledge of results. The combined effect of these psychological states results in desired personal and work outcomes: internal motivation, job satisfaction, performance quality, low absenteeism, and low turnover rate.[23] Lastly, the glue of this theory is the "growth-need strength" factor which ultimately determines the effectiveness of the core job dimensions on the psychological states, and likewise the effectiveness of the critical psychological states on the affective outcomes.[29] Further analysis of Job Characteristics Theory can be found in the Work Design section below. Applications of motivation Organizational reward systems Organizational reward systems have a significant impact on employees' level of motivation. Rewards can be either tangible or intangible. Various forms of pay, such as salary, commissions, bonuses, employee ownership programs and various types of profit or gain sharing programs, are all important tangible rewards. While fringe benefits have a positive impact on attraction and retention, their direct impact on motivation and performance is not well-defined.[23] Salaries play a crucial role in the tangible reward system. They are an important factor in attracting new talent to an organization as well as retaining talent. Compensating employees well is one way for an organization to reinforce an employee's value to the organization. If an organization is known for paying their employees top dollar, then they may develop a positive reputation in the job market as a result. Through incentive compensation structures, employees can be guided to focus their attention and efforts on certain organizational goals. The goals that are reinforced through incentive pay should be carefully considered to make sure they are in alignment with the organizational objectives. If there are multiple rewards programs, it is important to consider if there might be any conflicting goals. For example, individual and team-based rewards can sometime work at cross-purposes. Important forms of intangible rewards include praise, recognition and rewards. Intangible rewards are ones from [23] Such rewards have the greatest impact when they soon which an employee does not derive any material gain. follow the desired behavior and are closely tied to the performance. If an organization wants to use praise or other intangible rewards effectively, praise should be offered for a high level of performance and for things that they employee has control over. Some studies have shown that praise can be as effective as tangible rewards.[23] Other forms of intangible performance include status symbols, such as a corner office, and increased autonomy and freedom. Increased autonomy demonstrates trust in an employee, may decrease stress and improve job satisfaction. Since it may be hard for an employee to achieve a similar level of trust in a new organization, increased autonomy may also help improve retention.[23] Motivation through design of work Reward-based systems are certainly the more common practice for attempting to influence motivation within an organization, but some employers strive to design the work itself to be more conducive. There are multiple ways an organization can leverage job design principles to increase motivation. Three of the predominant approaches will be discussed here: the Humanistic Approach, the Job Characteristics Approach, and the Interdisciplinary Approach.[23] Humanistic Approach The Humanistic Approach to job design was a reaction to "worker dissatisfaction over Scientific Management" and focused on providing employees with more input and an opportunity to maximize their personal achievement as referenced by Jex and Britt. Jobs should also provide intellectual stimulation, opportunities for creativity, and greater discretion over work-related activities. Two approaches used in the Humanistic Approach to job design are job rotation and job enrichment. Job rotation allows employees to switch to different jobs which allows them to learn


Industrial and organizational psychology new skills and provides them with greater variety. According to Jex and Britt, this would be most effective for simple jobs that can become mundane and boring over time. Job enrichment is focused on leveraging those aspects of jobs that are labeled motivators, such as control, intellectual challenge, and creativity. The most common form of job enrichment is vertical loading where additional tasks or discretion enhances the initial job design. While there is some evidence to support that job enrichment improves motivation, it is important to note that it is not effective for all people. Some employees are not more motivated by enriched jobs.[23] Job Characteristics Approach The Job Characteristics Approach to job design is based on how core dimensions affect motivation. These dimensions include autonomy, variety, significance, feedback, and identity. The goal of JCT job design is to utilize specific interventions in an effort to enhance these core dimensions. 1. Vertical Loading – Like the tactic used in the Humanistic Job Enrichment approach, this intervention is designed to enhance autonomy, task identity, task significance, and skill variety by increasing the number of tasks and providing greater levels of control over how those tasks are completed. 2. Task Combination – By combining tasks into larger units of work and responsibility, task identity may be improved. 3. Natural Work Units – A form of task combination that represents a logical body of work and responsibility that may enhance both task significance and task identity. 4. Establishing Client Relationships – Designs interactions between employees and customers, both internal and external, to enhance task identity, feedback, and task significance. This is accomplished by improving the visibility of beneficial effects on customers. 5. Feedback – By designing open feedback channels, this intervention attempts to increase the amount and value of feedback received. While the JCT approach to job design has a significant impact on job satisfaction, the effects on performance are more mixed. Much of the success of implementation of JCT practices is dependent on the organization carefully planning interventions and changes to ensure impact throughout the organization is anticipated. Many companies may have difficulty implementing JCT changes throughout the organization due to its high cost and complexity.[23] Interdisciplinary Approach One of the most recent approaches to work design, the Interdisciplinary Approach is based on the use of careful assessment of current job design, followed by a cost/benefit analysis, and finally changes based on the area in which a job is lacking. The assessment is conducted using the Multi-method Job Design Questionnaire, which is used to determine if the job is deficient in the areas of motivational, mechanistic, biological, or perceptual motor support. Motivational improvements are aligned with the Job Characteristics theory dimensions. Mechanistic improvements are focused on improving the efficiency of the job design. Biological improvements focus on improvements to ergonomics, health conditions, and employee comfort. Finally, perceptual motor improvements focus on the nature and presentation of the information an employee must work with. If improvements are identified using the questionnaire, the company then evaluates the cost of making the improvements and determines if the potential gains in motivation and performance justify those costs. Because of the analysis and cost/benefit components of the Interdisciplinary Approach, it is often less costly for organizations and implementations can be more effective. Only changes deemed to be appropriate investments are made, thus improving motivation, productivity, and job [23] satisfaction while controlling costs.


Industrial and organizational psychology Other factors affecting motivation Creativity On the cutting edge of research pertaining to motivation in the workplace is the integration of motivation and creativity. Essentially, according to Ambrose and Kulik,[26] the same variables that predict intrinsic motivation are associated with creativity. This is a helpful conclusion in that organizations can measure and influence both creativity and motivation simultaneously. Further, allowing employees to choose creative and challenging jobs/tasks has been shown to improve motivation.[32] In order to increase creativity, setting "creativity goals" can positively influence the process, along with allowing more autonomy (i.e., giving employees freedom to feel/be creative). Other studies have found that team support may enable more creativity in a group setting,[33] also increasing motivation. Groups and teams As the workplace is changing to include more group-based systems, researching motivation within these groups is of growing importance. To date, a great amount of research has focused on the Job Characteristics Theory and the Goal-setting Theory. While more research is needed that draws on a broader range of motivation theories, research thus far has concluded several things: (a) semi-autonomous groups report higher levels of job scope (related to intrinsic job satisfaction), extrinsic satisfaction, and organizational commitment; and (b) developmentally mature teams have higher job motivation and innovation. Further, voluntarily formed work teams report high work [26] Though research shows that appropriate goal-setting influences group motivation and performance, motivation. more research is needed in this area (group goals, individual goals, cohesiveness, etc.). There are inseparable mediating variables consisting of group cohesiveness, commitment, and performance. As the workplace environment calls for more and more teams to be formed, research into motivation of teams is ever-pressing. Thus far, overarching research merely suggests that individual-level and team-level sources of motivation are congruent with each other.[34] Consequently, research should be expanded to apply more theories of motivation; look at group dynamics; and essentially conclude how groups can be most impacted to increase motivation and, consequently, performance. Culture Kotter & Heskett[35] categorize organizational cultures into three groups: Strong, Strategically Appropriate, and Adaptive. Each has been identified with high performing organizations and has particular implications on motivation in the workplace. Strength the most widely-reported effect of culture on performance is that strong cultures According to Kotter & Heskett, result in high performance. The three reasons for this are goal alignment, motivation, and the resulting structure provided. Goal alignment is driven by the proposed unified voice that drives employees in the same direction. Motivation comes from the strength of values and principles in such a culture. And structure is provided by these same attributes which obviate the need for formal controls that could stifle employees. There are questions that concern researchers about causality and the veracity of the driving voice of a strong culture. Strategic Appropriateness A strategically appropriate culture motivates due to the direct support for performance in the market and industry: "The better the fit, the better the performance; the poorer the fit, the poorer the performance," state Kotter & Heskett.[35] There is an appeal to the idea that cultures are designed around the operations conditions a firm encounters although an outstanding issue is the question of adapting culture to changes in the environment. Adaptability


and individual development. When viewed through the lens of accepted behaviors and ingrained values. local culture. Adhocracy. Motivation results from human development. Motivation in such a culture relies on effectiveness. According to Ralph Kilmann. some researchers have developed models to describe different organizational cultures. • And finally.[35] or at the style of culture—Clan. Organizational culture has been shown to have an impact on important organizational outcomes such as performance. 205 Adhocracy. As with the strong culture. continually improving. Effective hierarchy cultures have developed mature and capable processes which support smooth operations. • Market cultures focus on value to the customer and are typically competitive and aggressive. the culture is infused with a high degree of self-efficacy and confidence. employee engagement. and motivate employees. and consistency. task. critics point to the fact that the theory provides nothing in the way of appropriate direction of adaptation that leads to high performance. capability. retention. Basic beliefs and assumptions include individuals' impressions about the trustworthiness and supportiveness of an organization. culture also profoundly affects motivation. Organizational culture Organizational culture can be described as a set of assumptions shared by the individuals in an organization that directs interpretation and action by defining appropriate behavior for various situations. or Hierarchy—as Cameron & Quinn do. Whether one looks at the type of culture—strong. communication. There are three levels of organizational culture: artifacts. Competing Values Framework Another perspective on culture and motivation comes from the work of Cameron & Quinn[36] and the Competing Values Framework. strategically appropriate. and a high degree of open communication. organizations also have subcultures. it must be able to adapt to changes in the environment. Hierarchy cultures value control. . or adaptive—as Kotter & Heskett do. efficiency. • Adhocracy cultures are creative and innovative. and employee well-being. Motivation in such cultures arises from finding creative solutions to problems. and are often deeply ingrained within the organization's culture. Hierarchy. Culture has been shown to directly affect organizational performance.Industrial and organizational psychology Another perspective in culture literature asserts that in order for an organization to perform at a high level over a long period of time. organizations with an adaptive culture tend to perform better than organizations with an unadaptive culture. loyalty. • Clan cultures are collaborative and driven by values such as commitment. and issue-related culture. They divide cultures into four quadrants: Clan. employee satisfaction. Also. departmental culture. and predictability. While there is no single "type" of organizational culture. Shared values are individuals' preferences regarding certain aspects of the organization's culture (e.[36] the connection between culture and motivation becomes clear and provides insights into how to hire. customer service). in such a culture "there is a shared feeling of confidence: the members believe. without a doubt. Motivation in the market culture results from winning in the marketplace and creating external partnerships. that they can effectively manage whatever new problems and opportunities will come their way. shared values. with particular characteristics that directly affect employee motivation. Market. Examples of subcultures include corporate culture.g. and empowering agility. attraction. and basic beliefs and assumptions. Artifacts comprise the physical components of the organization that relay cultural meaning." In effect. Market. recruitment.. In addition to an overall culture.

To achieve these types of results. (3) organizational resources. because teams can accomplish a much greater amount of work in a short period of time than can be accomplished by an individual contributor.. For example.Industrial and organizational psychology 206 Group behavior Group behavior is the interaction between individuals of a collective and the processes such as opinions. task design can play a key consist primarily of interdependent work. and (5) team goals. a positive relationship between the team-level traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness and the team performance has been shown to exist (Van Vianen & De Dreu. 2001). and teams that include a diversity of skills have improved team performance (Guzzo & Shea. Aspects of team composition that should be considered during the team selection process include team member: knowledge. Additionally. attitudes. feedback loops. Teams that are composed of members that have the same KSAs may prove to be ineffective in meeting the team goals.[37] The interactions serve to fulfill some need satisfaction of an individual who is part of the collective and helps to provide a basis for his interaction with specific members of the group. task significance. The Job Characteristics Theory of motivation identifies core job dimensions that provide motivation for individuals and include: skill variety. 2000). and adaptations that occur and change as a result of this interaction. growth. and attitudes. interesting. and engaging are more likely to be motivated to exert greater effort and perform better than those team members that are working on those tasks that do not have these characteristics.[23] Team composition The composition of teams is initially decided during the selection of individual contributors that are to be assigned to specific teams and has a direct bearing on the resulting effectiveness of those teams. personalities... since these individual traits have been found to be good indicators of team effectiveness. and because the collective results of a group of contributors can produce higher quality deliverables. one of the reasons organizations support the use of teams is the expectation of the delivery of higher quality results. Task design A fundamental question in team task design is whether or not a task is even appropriate for a team. 1998). (4) team rewards. Individual contributors that perform team tasks that are challenging. The idea behind team effectiveness is that a group of people working together can achieve much more than if the individuals of the team were working on their own. role in team effectiveness (Sundstrom. As previously stated. (2) task design. increased average cognitive ability of team members has been shown to consistently correlate to increased work group effectiveness (Sundstrom et al. skills and abilities [23] (KSAs). no matter how talented the individual members are. Team effectiveness Organizations support the use of teams. 2000). et al. and team tasks should include those tasks that [23] When a given task is appropriate for a team.[23] . task identity. These dimensions map well to the team environment. organizations should seek to assign teams with team members that have a mix of KSAs. highly skilled members are more effective than teams built around those with lesser skills. 1980). Those tasks that require predominantly independent work are best left to individuals. Team effectiveness refers to the system of getting people in a company or institution to work together effectively.[23] A specific area of research in group behavior is the dynamics of teams. The personalities and attitudes of the individuals that are selected as team members are other aspects that should be taken into consideration when composing teams.[23] Five elements that are contributors to team effectiveness include: (1) team composition. Therefore. 1992). autonomy and feedback (Hackman & Oldham. et al. Differing personalities of individual team members can affect the team climate in a negative way as members may clash and reduce team performance (Barrick.

During the chartering of new teams. Teams also function in multi-team environments that are dynamic in nature and require teams to respond to shifting organizational contingencies (Salas. greater motivation is likely to result for both parties as the expert becomes the mentor and trainer and the cross-training team member finds learning new tasks to be an interesting change of pace. & Sundstrom. Such expansions of team task assignments can make teams more effective and require teams to spend greater amounts of time discussing and planning strategies and approaches for completing assigned tasks (Hackman. individual assessment is more appropriate than team assessment (Wageman & Baker. In the team setting. 1985). Goal acceptance and specificity is also applicable to the team 207 .g. can lead to higher levels of performance. Eby. et al. equipment. budgetary resources. and (3) specificity (Lock & Latham. information.: constraint resource scheduling) must be provided to enable effective multi-team utilization. 1976). That team member would most likely view teams and team work in a negative fashion and not want to participate in a team setting in the future. Team-specific human resources represent the individual contributors that are selected for each team as team members.. Examples of these scarce resources include subject matter experts. In other words.g.. it would be an unfair situation to reward the entire team for a job well done if only one team member did the great majority of the work. In this case. human resources). the provided resources include various resource types that teams require to be effective. but rests on team member perception that they now view themselves as more competent than others in the organization who were not chosen to complete such difficult goals. A final design element is the creation of an organizational culture that supports and rewards employees who believe in the value of teamwork and who maintain a positive mental attitude towards team-based rewards (Haines and Taggar. (2) acceptance.. 1997). This belief (collective efficacy) is somewhat counterintuitive.Industrial and organizational psychology Interrelated to the design of various tasks is the implementation method for the tasks themselves.. Examples of enabling resources include facilities. Team rewards Organizational reward systems are a driver for strengthening and enhancing individual team member efforts that contribute towards reaching collective team goals (Luthans & Kreitner.g. certain team members may find it challenging to cross train with other team members that have subject matter expertise in areas in which they are not familiar. et al. the group's tasks must be highly interdependent. In utilizing this approach. organizational enabling resources are first identified. simulation and testing facilities. training and leadership. such contingencies include the constraints imposed by organizational resources that are not specifically earmarked for the exclusive use of certain teams. This in turn. task assignment) are sufficient for effective utilization of these team-specific resources. For example. 2006).. If this is not the case.. 1990). 1998). These types of resources are scarce in nature and must be shared by multiple teams. and limited amounts of time for the completion of multi-team goals. Organizational resources Organizational support systems impact the effectiveness of teams (Sundstrum. et al. A second design element is the compatibility between individual-level reward systems and team-level reward systems (DeMatteo. For example. For these types of shared resources inter-team management processes (e. 1990). 1994). Several design elements of organizational reward systems are needed to meet this objective. 1990) and provide resources for teams operating in the multi-team environment. Team goals Goals for individual contributors have been shown to be motivating when they contain three elements: (1) difficulty.[23] Also identified during team chartering are team-specific resources (e. Intra-team processes (e. 2004). task design. rewards that are given to individual team members should be contingent upon the performance of the entire team (Sundstrom. goal difficulty is related to group belief that the team can accomplish the tasks required to meet the assigned goal (Whitney. et al. In regards to resources. The first element for reward systems design is the concept that for a collective assessment to be appropriate for individual team members.

Job performance Job performance represents behaviors employees engage in while at work which contribute to organizational goals. absenteeism. research has found that although a positive relationship exists between job satisfaction and performance. . effectiveness. and attitudes about their work experience. an employee typically needs job-related training as well as more general information about the culture of the organization. 2005). organizational [23] citizenship behavior. and their productivity (how much they help the organization reach its goals). in turn. frustration. Jex & Britt outline three different forms of productive behavior that industrial–organizational psychologists frequently evaluate in organizations: job performance. lead to team recognition. Job satisfaction has theoretical and practical utility for the field of psychology and has been linked to important job outcomes including attitudinal variables. 1990). industrial–organizational psychologists are able to assess employees' effectiveness (how well they do what they were hired to do). such as a league championship.[23] When an employee begins a new job. team effectiveness is increased and is a function of increased supportive team behaviors (Aube & Rousseau. efficiency (their relative outputs to relative inputs). employee turnover. When team members individually and collectively commit to team goals. the costs involved in achieving results (productivity).[23] Industrial–organizational psychologists are typically more focused on productive behavior rather than simple job or task performance because of the ability to account for extra-role performance in addition to in-role performance. It is one of the most heavily researched topics in industrial–organizational psychology with several thousand published studies. 208 Job satisfaction and commitment Job satisfaction reflects an employee's overall assessment of their job.Industrial and organizational psychology setting.[38] These behaviors are formally evaluated by an organization as part of an employee's responsibilities. Productive behavior Productive behavior is defined as employee behavior that contributes positively to the goals and objectives of an organization. As related to the team setting. there is a transition period during which he or she is not contributing positively to the organization. This individual performance generally contributes to improved team performance which can. the results that can be achieved in a period of time (efficiency). particularly their emotions. it is also important be aware of the interplay between the goals of individual contributors that participate on teams and the goals of the teams themselves. Finally. Individual goals must be in line with team goals (or not exist at all) to be effective (Mitchell & Silver. and innovation. extra-role performance includes behaviors not necessarily required as part of the job but still contribute to organizational effectiveness. The selection of team goals must be done in coordination with the selection of goals for individuals. behaviors. While in-role performance tells managers or researchers how well the employee performs the required technical aspects of the job. productive behavior represents the point at which an organization begins to achieve some return on the investment it has made in a new employee. organizational commitment. Job performance is about behaviors that are within the control of the employee and not about results (effectiveness). productivity or efficiency [23] (utility). To successfully transition from being an outsider to a full-fledged member of an organization. and feelings of anxiety. job tensions. For instance. and job performance. it is important to be precise when defining the term. By taking both in-role and extra-role performance into account. job satisfaction is strongly correlated with attitudinal variables such as job involvement. it is moderated by the use of rewards at an organization and the strength of employee's attitudes about their job. In financial terms.[38] In order to understand and ultimately predict job performance. For example. or the value an organization places on a given level of performance. a professional ball player that does well in their sport is rewarded individually for excellent performance. Job satisfaction also has a weak correlation with employee's absentee behaviors and turnover from an organization with employees more likely to miss work or find other jobs if they are not satisfied.

procedural knowledge (knowledge of what needs to be done and how to do it). While there are many sources of error [45] and through the use of with performance ratings. in-role performance was reflected through how well "employees met their performance expectations and performed well at the tasks that made up the employees' job. According to Campbell's Model of The Determinants of Job Performance.[23] Murphy's model of job performance also broke job performance into in-role and extra-role categories. Performance is commonly broken into two major categories: in-role (technical aspects of a job) and extra-role (non-technical abilities such as communication skills and being a good team member). have a low level of declarative knowledge.[23] Van Dyne and LePine developed a measurement model in which overall job performance was evaluated using Campbell's in-role and extra-role categories.[42] However.[43] These various tools are often used to evaluate performance on specific tasks and overall job performance. on-site hands-on tests. down-time behaviors and destructive and hazardous behaviors. and motivation (reflective of an employee's choices regarding whether to expend effort.[40] Here.[38] Additional factors that complicate the measurement of job performance include the instability of job performance over time due to forces such as changing performance criteria. researchers have attempted to define a set of dimensions that are common to all jobs. symbolic simulations.[23] The interplay between these factors show that an employee may.[38] [41] job performance is a result of the interaction between declarative knowledge (knowledge of facts or things). These determinants appear to influence performance largely through the acquisition and usage of job knowledge and the motivation to do well. Regardless of the job. Using a common set of dimensions provides a consistent basis for assessing performance and enables the comparison of performance across jobs. To assess job performance. three determinants stand out as predictors of performance: (1) general mental ability (especially for jobs higher in complexity). and superior performance. Such scales can be used to clearly define the behaviors that constitute poor.[38] [41] Campbell labeled job-specific task proficiency and non-job-specific task proficiency as in-role dimensions and written and oral communication.[40] A model of performance by Campbell breaks performance into in-role and extra-role categories. and whether to persist with the level of effort chosen).[23] However. While this distinction in behavior has been challenged[39] it is commonly made by both employees and management."[44] Dimensions regarding how well the employee assists others with their work for the benefit of the group. task ratings and global ratings. demonstrating effort. supervision and leadership and management and administration as extra-role dimensions. maintaining personal discipline. if the employee voices new ideas for projects or changes to procedure and whether the employee attends functions that help the group composed the extra-role category. off-site hands-on tests. who plan well). the structure of the job itself [42] and the restriction of variation in individual performance by organizational forces. an expanding area of research in job performance determinants includes emotional intelligence. the level of effort to expend. The determinants of job performance consist of factors having to do with the individual worker as well as environmental factors in the workplace. job skills tests. but may still have a high level of performance if the employee has high levels of procedural knowledge and motivation. Further. reliable and valid measures must be established.Industrial and organizational psychology To model job performance. These factors include errors in job measurement techniques. average. for example. facilitating peer and team performance. (2) job experience (although there is a law of diminishing returns). it has been challenged as to whether the measurement of job performance is usually done through pencil/paper tests. and (3) [23] the personality trait of conscientiousness (people who are dependable and achievement-oriented.[46] [47] 209 . task-orientated behaviors composed the in-role category and the extra-role category included interpersonally-oriented behaviors. high-fidelity simulations. acceptance and the justification of poor performance and lack of importance of individual performance. error can be reduced through rater training behaviorally-anchored rating scales.

This theory stems from a history of numerous studies indicating that positive mood increases the frequency of helping and prosocial behaviors. such as whining and complaining about minor issues or tough work assignments. researchers have found that certain forms of fairness or justice are able to better predict OCBs than others. While these behaviors are not formally part of the job description. which is in turn a better predictor than distributive justice. having been shown to be beneficial to both organization and team effectiveness. • Courtesy These behaviors can be seen when an employee exhibits basic consideration for others. an overall positive mood increases the frequency of helping behavior. Vigoda-Gadot uses a sub-category of OCBs called CCBs." adhering to the rules. Jex & Britt mention research that indicates that interactional justice is a better predictor than procedural justice. elaborated. supervisors ("OCBSs"). • Conscientiousness Conscientiousness is basically defined as self-discipline and performing tasks beyond the minimum requirements. There are also employees who will perform organizational citizenship behavior to influence how they are viewed within the organization. sportsmanship involves not engaging in certain behaviors. • Civic virtue Civic virtue differs from other OCBs because the target of the behavior is the group or organization as a whole.[51] Additionally. performing them can certainly influence 210 . which stems from the equity theory. separating them into those targeted at individuals ("OCBIs"). courtesy.[53] The second explanation.[48] [49] [50] Researchers have adapted. is that employees reciprocate fair treatment that they have received from the organization. Examples of civic virtue OCBs are participating in charitable functions held by the organization and defending or otherwise [48] speaking well of the organization. OCBs have also been categorized using other methods. cleanliness. and civic virtue. Jex & Britt offer three different explanations for why employees engage in organizational citizenship behavior. Examples of courteous OCBs include "checking up" on coworkers to see how they are doing and notifying coworkers of commitments that may cause you to be absent from work. or "compulsory OCBs" which is used to describe OCBs that are done under the influence of coercive persuasion or peer pressure rather than out of good will. For example.[52] This theory stems from debates concerning the reasons for conducting OCBs and whether or not they are truly voluntary in nature. The third explanation offered by Jex & Britt says that some employees have personality traits that predispose them to participate in organizational citizenship behavior. especially in its efforts outside of its major business objectives. • Sportsmanship Unlike other forms of OCBs. Conscientious OCBs involve planning ahead. In regards to equity theory. or otherwise changed Organ's (1988) five OCB categories. punctuality. and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Williams and Anderson categorize OCBs by their intended target. sportsmanship. not "slacking off. conscientiousness. Dennis Organ is often though of as the father of OCB research and defines OCBs as "individual behavior that is discretionary." Behaviors that qualify as OCBs can fall into one of the following five categories: altruism.Industrial and organizational psychology Organizational citizenship behavior Organizational citizenship behaviors ("OCBs") are another form of productive behavior. The categories and descriptions of each include: • Altruism Sometimes referred to as "prosocial behavior" altruistic OCBs include helping behaviors in the workplace such as volunteering to assist a coworker on a project.[23] The first has to do with positive affect. rather than an individual coworker. and being an overall good citizen in the workplace. Civic virtue OCBs include being a good representative of the organization and supporting the organization. not directly or explicitly recognized by the [48] formal reward system. For example. but they remain popular today. and those targeted at the organization as a whole ("OCBOs").

but instead as a way of being noticed by superiors and looking good in the eyes of others. positive affect. therefore. Innovation is a form of productive behavior that employees exhibit when they come up with novel ideas that further the goals of the organization. which he suggests are a form of "abusive supervision" and will result in poorer organizational performance. individual and organization research can be divided into four unique research focuses. knowledge." a term coined by Erving Goffman in his 1959 book The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. but many may be more involuntary in nature and "may arise from coercive managerial strategies or coercive social pressure by powerful peers.. the first focus looks specifically to find certain attributes of an individual that may lead to innovation.Industrial and organizational psychology performance appraisals. "Are there quantifiable predictors that an individual will be innovative?" Research indicates if various skills. including the "father of OCB research.[23] A brief overview of these characteristics are listed below. to abandon unproductive searches. Vigoda-Gadot categorizes these behaviors in a separate category of OCBs as "compulsory OCBs" or CCBs. In short. characteristics of an individual that may predict innovation. however. Many researchers. and other external forces. and to temporarily put aside stubborn problems).[23] With this research on why employees engage in OCBs comes the debate among I–O psychologists about the voluntary or involuntary nature of engaging in OCBs. Innovation Innovation is considered by I–O psychologists as a sub-topic of job performance. one must ask. and how organizations may be structured to promote innovation. For example. this is the process of communicating an innovation to members of an organization.[23] • Focus Four: A shared perspective of the role of the individual and the organization's culture which contribute to innovation. similar to what [52] has seen in other research on abusive supervision and coercive persuasion. etc."[54] Researchers such as Bolino have hypothesized that the act of performing OCBs is not done out of goodwill. or the supervisor." Dennis Organ have consistently portrayed OCBs as voluntary behaviors done at the discretion of the individual.[56] • Focus Three: The process by which an organization adopts an innovation. OCBs may be performed voluntarily out of goodwill. but not all.[23] • Creativity-relevant skills (ability to concentrate on a problem for long periods of time.[23] This stream of thought focuses primarily on the employee or the individual contributor.[23] • Focus One: The examination of the process by which an employee develops innovations and the unique characteristics of an individuals which enables them to be highly innovative. the organization."[52] As mentioned previously. presents himself and his activity to others. more recently researchers have brought attention to potential underlying causes of OCBs. and abilities are present then an individual will be more apt to innovation. rather than another individual.[48] However. • Task-relevant skills (general mental ability and job specific knowledge). and the kinds of things he may and may not do while sustaining his performance before them.[55] The key difference between this view and those mentioned by Jex & Britt is that the intended beneficiary of the behavior is the individual who engages in it. The ability to put aside stubborn problems is referred to by Jex & Britt as productive forgetting...[23] As indicated above. • Focus Two: The macro perspective which focuses upon the process that innovation is diffused within a specific organization. coercion. Goffman defines impression management as "the way in which the individual . it may also be gained by mentoring and experience in a given field. According to Jex & Britt. These qualities are generally linked to creativity. including social pressure.[23] Innovation is a form of productive behavior that employees exhibit when they come up with novel ideas that further the goals of the organization. This section will discuss three topics of interest: research on innovation. some I–O psychologists believe that employees engage in OCBs as a form of "impression management. Task specific and subject specific knowledge is most often gained through higher education. Eran Vigoda-Gadot suggests that not some.[23] In contrast to this view.[23] Creativity-relevant skills also require the individual contributor to 211 . the ways in which he guides and controls the impression they form of him.

• Task motivation (internal desire to perform task and level of enjoyment). It has been proposed that a person-by-environment interaction can be utilized to explain a variety of counterproductive behaviors (Fox and Spector. The forms of counterproductive behavior with the most empirical examination are ineffective job performance. compensation. assistant. and sexual harassment. and ideas. informational. having leaders encourage and model innovation. such as the perception of being a subject matter expert. • Linking innovation to the cultural values of the organization. job turnover. Less common but potentially more detrimental forms of counterproductive behavior have also been investigated including theft. A population with high levels of technical knowledge. stated.[57] These are: 1.[23] 212 Additionally. allowing employees to question current procedures and rules. • Acknowledging those who contribute time. 3. For example. Some of these items include providing creativity training. 1999). These behaviors can be intentional or unintentional and result from a wide range of underlying causes and motivations. an Operation Manager analyzing a reporting issue and developing an innovative solution would consider the perspective of a sales person. documenting innovations in a professional manner. allowing employees to have autonomy and freedom in their job roles. This recognition may come from senior leaders or through peer recognition. • Provide special recognition to innovators while keeping names associated with contributors. seeing that the implementation of innovations had real consequences. and giving employees access to resources (whether these are monetary.Industrial and organizational psychology evaluate a problem from multiple vantage points. substance use. "It requires a blending of creativity within business processes to ensure good ideas become of value to the company . an employee who steals from the company may do so because of lax supervision (environment) and underlying psychopathology (person) that work in concert to result in the counterproductive behavior. and Functional Differentiation. APQC Knowledge Management expert. nurtured. The level an organization communicates externally. there are basic things that organizations can do in order to breed innovation in the workplace.. effort."[58] Counterproductive work behavior Counterproductive work behavior can be defined as employee behavior that goes against the goals of an organization. An interesting study by Damanpour identified four specific characteristics that may predict innovation within an organization. and accidents. . Kimberly Lopez. absenteeism. finance. violence.[58] In discussing innovation for a Best-Practice report.. and rewarded. For instance. 2. or access to key people inside or outside of the organization). Supporting a creative environment requires innovation to be recognized.[23] According to the American Productivity & Quality Center ("APQC") there are basic principles an organization can develop to encourage and reward innovation. • Disseminate success stories concerning invention. and compliance officer. reducing the number of obstacles that may be in the way of innovation.[23] In addition to the role and characteristics of the individual one must also consider what can be done on an organizational level to develop and reward innovation. • The creation of a design team. 4. One must be able to take on the perspective of various users. The organization's level of specialization. • Creating a committee of business leaders from various lines of business and human resources focused on developing guidelines and suggestions to encourage innovation. • Make innovation self-rewarding.

leaders must skillfully select from four different leadership styles to meet the situational factors. Managers process administrative tasks and organize work environments. Fiedler's Contingency Theory holds that a leader's effectiveness depends on the interaction between their characteristics and the characteristics of the situation. high [61] Another leader-focused approached is the behavioral approach which self-motivation. are a product of the characteristics of subordinates and the characteristics of the environment. Behaviors associated with the category of consideration include showing subordinates they are valued and that the leader cares about them. To be most effective a leader should be able to influence others to behave in ways that are in line with the organization's mission and goals. when a subordinate performs well or when there are positive exchanges between a leader and a subordinate. and pressure. and Follower-focused approaches. exchange.[63] Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model focuses on decision making with respect to a feasibility set[62] which is composed of the situational attributes. this approach is being used to predict leader emergence. leaders typically focus on inspiring followers and creating a shared organizational culture and values. An example of a consideration behavior is showing compassion when problems arise in or out of the office. leadership can be defined as a process of influencing others to agree on a shared purpose. Managers deal with complexity. their relationship is strengthened. personal appeal. Path–Goal Theory asserts that the role of the leader is to help his or her subordinates achieve their goals. focuses on the behaviors that distinguish effective from ineffective leaders. expert power. ingratiation. . and (2) initiating structure. performance and job satisfaction are enhanced. inspirational appeal. and the subordinate will feel more commitment to the leader and the organization as a whole. One example of an initiating structure behavior is meeting one-on-one with subordinates to explain expectations and goals.[62] These theories assume that an effective leader can accurately "read" a situation and skillfully employ a leadership style that meets the needs of the individuals involved and the task at hand. and motivating. staffing. legitimating. A brief introduction to the most prominent contingency-focused theories will follow. How influential a leader can be depends on their social power or their potential to influence their subordinates. These common tactics include: rational persuasion. controlling and problem solving. Behaviors associated with the category of initiating structure include facilitating the task performance of groups. Leader-focused approaches Leader-focused approaches look to organizational leaders to determine the characteristics of effective leadership. More recently. reward power.[62] Contingency-focused approaches Of the three approaches to leadership. and socially perceptive. organizing. The situational factors. Managers undertake the tasks of planning. and to work towards shared objectives. legitimate power.Industrial and organizational psychology 213 Leadership In I-O psychology. In contrast. while leaders deal with initiating and adapting to change.[59] A distinction should be made between leadership and management. high needs for dominance. referent power. coalition. To effectively do this. more effective leaders possess certain traits that less effective leaders lack. The following traits have been identified as those that predict leader emergence when there is no formal leader: high intelligence. Generally speaking. contingency-focused approaches have been the most prevalent over the past 30 years. Contingency-focused approaches. According to the trait approach. There are two categories of leadership behaviors: (1) consideration. consultation. Contingency-focused theories base a leader's effectiveness on their ability to assess a situation and adapt their behavior accordingly. and informational power. Although leaders may be required to undertake managerial duties as well. communicating. budgeting. leaders undertake the tasks of setting a direction or vision. The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model focuses on how leader–subordinate relationships develop.[60] Approaches to studying leadership in I-O psychology can be broadly classified into three categories: Leader-focused approaches. There are six bases of power: coercive power. The final leader-focused approach is power and influence. A leader can use several different tactics to influence others within an organization. aligning people to shared goals.

Industrial and organizational psychology In addition to the contingency-focused approaches mentioned, there has been a high degree of interest paid to three novel approaches that have recently emerged. The first is transformational leadership, which posits that there are certain leadership traits that inspire subordinates to perform beyond their capabilities. The second is transactional leadership, which is most concerned with keeping subordinates in-line with deadlines and organizational policy. This type of leader fills more of a managerial role and lacks qualities necessary to inspire subordinates and induce meaningful change. And the third is authentic leadership which is centered around empathy and a leader's values or character. If the leader understands their followers, they can inspire subordinates by cultivating a personal connection and leading them to share in the vision and goals of the team. Although there has been a limited amount of research conducted on these theories, they are sure to receive continued attention as the field of I–O psychology matures. Follower-focused approaches Follower-focused approaches look at the processes by which leaders motivate followers, and lead teams to achieve shared goals. Understandably, the area of leadership motivation draws heavily from the abundant research literature in the domain of motivation in I–O psychology. Because leaders are held responsible for their followers' ability to achieve the organization's goals, their ability to motivate their followers is a critical factor of leadership effectiveness. Similarly, the area of team leadership draws heavily from the research in teams and team effectiveness in I–O psychology. Because organizational employees are frequently structured in the form of teams, leaders need to be aware of the potential benefits and pitfalls of working in teams, how teams develop, how to satisfy team members' needs, and ultimately how to bring about team effectiveness and performance. An emerging area of research in the area of team leadership is in leading virtual teams, where people in the team are geographically-distributed across various distances and sometimes even countries. While technological advances have enabled the leadership process to take place in such virtual contexts, they present new challenges for leaders as well, such as the need to use technology to build relationships with followers, and influencing followers when faced with limited (or no) face-to-face interaction.


Relationship to occupational health psychology
A separate but related discipline, occupational health psychology (OHP) is a relatively new field that combines elements of industrial–organizational psychology, health psychology, and occupational health.[64] Unlike I–O psychology, the primary emphasis in OHP is on the physical and mental health and psychological well-being of the person. For more detail on OHP, see the section on occupational health psychology.

Training and outlook
Graduate programs
A comprehensive list of US and Canadian master's and doctoral programs can be found at the web site of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP).[65] Some helpful ways to learn about graduate programs include visiting the web sites on the SIOP list and speaking to I–O faculty at the institutions listed. Admission into I–O psychology PhD programs is highly competitive given that many programs accept a small number of applicants every year. There are graduate degree programs in I–O psychology outside of the US and Canada. The SIOP web site[65] also provides a comprehensive list of I–O programs in many other countries.

Industrial and organizational psychology


Job outlook
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2007), the job outlook for industrial–organizational psychologists is promising. Businesses enlist the services of these psychologists in order to retain employees and maintain a good work ethic. I–O psychologists specializing in research often conduct studies within companies to aid in marketing research. In 2006, the median annual salary for industrial–organizational psychologists was US$86,420.[66]

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• Aube, C. & Rousseau, V. (2005). Team goal commitment and team effectiveness: The role of task interdependence and supportive behaviors. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 9, 189–204. • Barrick, M.R.; Stewart, S.L.; Neubert, M.J. & Mount, M.K. (1998). Relating member ability and personality to Work-team processes and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 377–91. • Dematteo, J.S.; Eby, L.T. & Sundstrom, E. (1998). Team-based rewards: Current empirical evidence and directions for future research. Research in Organizational Behavior, 20, 141–83. • Guzzo, R.A. & Shea, G.P. (1992). Group Performance and intergroup relations in organizations. Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 269–313). • Hackman, J.R.; Brousseau, K.R. & Weiss, J.A. (1976). The interaction of task design and group performance strategies in determining group effectiveness. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 350–65. • Hackman, J.R. & Oldham, G.R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. • Haines, V.Y. & Taggar, S. (2006). Antecedents of team reward attitude. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 10, 194–205. • Lock, E.A. & Latham, G.P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. • Luthans, F., & Kreitner, R. (1985). Organizational behavior modification and beyond: An operant and social learning approach (2nd ed.). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. • Mitchell, T.R. & Silver, W.R. (1990). Individual and group goals when workers are interdependent. Effects on task strategy and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 185–193. • Salas, E.; Stagl, K. & Burke, C. (2004). 25 years of team effectiveness in organizations: Research themes and emerging needs, in C. Cooper & I. Robertson (eds), International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 19 (pp. 47–91). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. • Sundstrom, E.; De Meuse, K.P. & Futrell, D. (1990). Work teams: applications and effectiveness. American Psychologist, 45(2), 120–33. • Sundstrom, E.; McIntyre, M.; Halfhill, T. & Richards, H. (2000). Work Groups: From the Hawthorne Studies to Work Teams of the 1990s and Beyond. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice (Vol 4, No 1. 44–47). • Van Vianen, A.E.M. & De Dreu, C.K.W. (2001). Personality in teams: Its relationship to social cohesion, task cohesion, and team performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10(2), 97–120. • Wageman, R. & Baker, G. (1997). Incentives and cooperation: The joint effects of task and reward interdependence on group performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 139–58. • Whitney, K. (1994). Improving group task performance: The role of group goals and group efficacy. Human Performance, 7, 55–78.

Further reading
• Anderson, N.; Ones, D.S.; Sinangil, H.K. & Viswesvaran, C. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology, Volume 1: Personnel psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd. • Anderson, N.; Ones, D.S.; Sinangil, H.K. & Viswesvaran, C. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology, Volume 2: Organizational psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd. • Borman, W.C.; Ilgen, D.R. & Klimoski, R.J. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of psychology: Vol 12 Industrial and organizational psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. • Borman, W.C. & Motowidlo, S.J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. Chapter in N. Schmitt and W.C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel Selection. San Francisco: Josey-Bass (pp. 71–98). • Campbell, J.P.; Gasser, M.B. & Oswald, F.L. (1996). The substantive nature of job performance variability. In K.R. Murphy (Ed.), Individual differences and behavior in organizations (pp. 258–99). San Francisco:

E. T. (2002).E. • Hunter. (1976). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Within group norming and other forms of score adjustment in pre-employment testing.).org/journal/ siopjournal. L. The Human Factor: Inside the CIA's Dysfunctional Intelligence Culture. & Hunter. S. 929–54. F. Mahwah. Frederick W. Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology. "Organizational Cognition and Interpretation.aspx) • Work & Stress • Organizational Research Methods (http://orm." in Baum. • Jones. F. 218 Key journals • Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice (http://www.co.aomonline. • Lant. (2007). CA: Jossey-Bass. M. J. • Guion. F. Vols. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. 124. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. CA: Sage.L. (Ed.M. (Ed.). American Psychologist. S.D.org/amp/) • Academy of Management Review • Human Performance • Journal of Applied Psychology • Journal of Management • Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (http://www. (2002).siop. I and II. San Francisco. P. (Ed.. (1994). R.).L. • Dunnette. (1998).). • Copley.).org/tip/April09/TIPApril09versions. Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. MA: Blackwell. • Lowman.G. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.sagepub. Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings.L.D. Mahwah. measurement and prediction for personnel decisions. & Wilk. • Rogelberg. 262–74.aspx) • Academy of Management Journal • Academy of Management Perspectives (http://journals.sagepub. (1991). (1990). New York: Encounter Books. (1998). Taylor father of scientific management.bpsjournals.com) • Personnel Psychology • The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist (http://www. Psychological Bulletin. • Koppes. L. Handbook of industrial/organizational psychology (4 Volumes).K. M. (Ed.com/) .L.uk/journals/joop/) • Journal of Occupational Health Psychology • Journal of Organizational Behavior • Journal of Personnel Psychology • Organizational Psychology Review (http://opr. (Ed). Ishmael (2008). & Hough. Newbury Park.M.siop. & Schmidt. • Dunnette. The Blackwell Companion to Organizations. (1923). 49.L. skills and techniques. • Sackett. The California School of Organizational Studies handbook of organizational consulting psychology: A comprehensive guide to theory.R. Assessment. Malden. J. (Eds.B. Palo Alto.Industrial and organizational psychology Jossey-Bass. Chicago: Rand McNally. R. Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. • Schmidt. New York: Taylor Society.

org/) European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (http://www.iocareers.com) (search and discussion site for employment in the I-O field) Research on Organizations: Bibliography Database and Maps (http://ot. organized by topic.net) (you can post messages and/or read and reply to others' postings.psy.edu/About.Industrial and organizational psychology 219 External links • • • • • • • • Canadian Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (http://psychology.org) Society for Occupational Health Psychology (http://sohp.uwo. maintains anonymity via use of avatars) I/O Careers (http://www.cavarretta.com) Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (http://www.uconn.org/) Professional I-O Psychologist Network (http://www.ea-ohp.eawop.piop.htm) .siop.ca/csiop/) European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology (http://www.

• 2002 The IAM forms a Strategic Alliance with the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators.instam. With the intentions of forming a self-development group with the aim and intention of shared best practice in administrative management. .[2] • 1915 Foundation of the Personal Development Meeting at the LSE. with students and members in 65 countries worldwide.the scheme has it roots in the very first meeting in 1915. • 1936 The OMA becomes the Institute of Office Management (IOM). • 1972 The IOM changes its name to The Institute of Administrative Management (IAM). • 1971 The IOM initiates the Office of the Year Award. • 1976 The Office Job Evaluation Handbook is published. • 1932 The Office Management Association is formed during the First National Conference on Office Management. publishes the First Clerical Salaries analysis. • 1946 The IOM.Institute of Administrative Management 220 Institute of Administrative Management Institute of Administrative Management (IAM) Founded Headquarters Website 1915 London www. • 1995 The IAM celebrates its Eightieth Anniversary. • 2003 The IAM launches the BA (Hons) in Strategic Administrative Management. • 1994 The IAM launches its Continuing Professional Development Scheme for members . • 1916 The Office Machinery Users Association (OMA) is set up. • 1948 The first Members Journal is launched. launches an examination scheme. • 1933 The first OMA Survey of Office Practices & Salaries is published.[2] Administration Management is concerned with the following areas: • • • • • • • Systems Human Resources Communication Information Technology Facilities Training & Development Finance History The IAM was formed[3] in 1915 when a group of executives from the private and public sector met at the London School of Economics. in conjunction with the LSE. together with the Regent Street Polytechnic. • 1942 The IOM.org [1] The Institute of Administrative Management (IAM) is an awarding organisation and professional membership body for practising and aspiring Administrative and Business Managers.

Institute of Administrative Management • 2004 The IAM launches the new Bachelor of Arts (Honours) Strategic Administrative Degree awarded by Oxford Brookes University. 120 credits) Mandatory Units: • • • • • • • • Unit 401 Fundamentals of administrative management (15) Unit 402 Administrative systems (10) Unit 403 Managing operations (15) Unit 404 Managing quality (10) Unit 405 Personal effectiveness (15) Unit 406 Managing people in organisations (10) Unit 407 Managing information and knowledge (15) Unit 408 Finance for administrative managers (10) . the West Indies and Southern Africa. local and central government in the UK and abroad. 221 Present day The IAM operates a number of branches across the UK. • 2007 The IAM forges a strategic alliance with the Council for Administration. Wales and Northern Ireland by Qfqual. providing members with networking opportunities. commerce. DCELLS and CCEA respectively. Current qualifications QCF Business and Administrative Management Qualifications Level 4 Certificate in Business and Administrative Management (25 credits) Optional Pathway 1 (unit credit values in brackets): • Unit 401 Fundamentals of administrative management (15) • Unit 402 Administrative systems (10) Optional Pathway 2: • Unit 403 Managing operations (15) • Unit 404 Managing quality (10) Optional Pathway 3: • Unit 405 Personal effectiveness (10) • Unit 406 Managing people in organisations (15) Optional Pathway 4: • Unit 407 Managing information and knowledge (15) • Unit 408 Finance for administrative managers (10) Level 4 Diploma in Business and Administrative Management (Min. as well as delivering qualifications which are recognised across England. • 2006 The IAM introduces several new National Qualifications Framework (NQF) programmes.[4] IAM qualifications are delivered by around 250 IAM-accredited centres. the IAM offers independent study options to unattached students. Hong Kong. The IAM has students working in business. industry. In addition. • 2011 The IAM introduces a new suite of Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF) qualifications. the Gulf. • 2010 The IPA becomes part of the IAM. • 2008 The IAM undergoes a re-brand and re-launch. offering campus-based and distance learning options to IAM students. Malaysia. for example in Singapore.

motivation and group dynamics (10) Level 5 Diploma in Business and Administrative Management (120 credits) Mandatory Units: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Unit 501 Operations management (15) Unit 502 Information for strategic decision-making (10) Unit 503 Advanced finance for business managers (10) Unit 504 Organisational analysis and change (15) Unit 505 Human resource management (10) Unit 506 Knowledge management strategy (5) Unit 507 The context of corporate governance (10) Unit 508 Leadership. motivation and group dynamics (10) Unit 509 Business research (15) Unit 510 Economics for business (15) Unit 511 Organisational facilities management (10) Unit 512 Islamic finance (10) Unit 531 Financial systems and auditing (15) Unit 532 Small business enterprise (15) Unit 533 European business (15) Unit 534 Business ethics (15) Optional Units (two only): . Leadership and Motivation (20 credits) Mandatory Units: • Unit 507 The context of corporate governance (10) • Unit 508 Leadership.Institute of Administrative Management Optional Units (two only): • • • • • • • Unit 409 Administration for executive assistants (10) Unit 410 Introduction to Islamic finance (10) Unit 411 Managing business facilities (10) Unit 431 Management accounting: costing and budgeting (15) Unit 432 Marketing intelligence (15) Unit 433 The Internet and e-business (15) Unit 434 Business events management (15) 222 Level 5 Certificate in Business and Administrative Management (Min. 30 credits) Optional Pathway 1: • Unit 501 Operations management (15) • Unit 502 Information for strategic decision-making (10) • Unit 503 Advanced finance for business managers (10) Optional Pathway 2: • Unit 504 Organisational analysis and change (15) • Unit 505 Human resource management (10) • Unit 506 Knowledge management strategy (5) Level 5 Certificate in Governance.

Institute of Administrative Management Level 6 Diploma in Business and Administrative Management (120 credits) Mandatory Units: • • • • • • • • Unit 601 Strategic management (20) Unit 602 The dynamics of leadership (20) Unit 603 Management information systems for business (20) Unit 604 Advanced finance for decision makers (20) Unit 605 Marketing management in business (20) Unit 606 Customer focus for strategic advantage (20) Unit 607 Leadership skills (20) Unit 608 Managing risk in business (20) 223 Optional Units (two only): Level 6 Extended Diploma in Business and Administrative Management (360 credits) Mandatory Units: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Unit 641 Fundamentals of administrative management (15) Unit 642 Administrative systems (10) Unit 643 Managing operations (15) Unit 644 Managing quality (10) Unit 645 Managing information and knowledge (15) Unit 646 Finance for administrative managers (10) Unit 647 Managing business facilities (10) Unit 651 Operations management (15) Unit 652 Information for strategic decision-making (10) Unit 653 Advanced finance for business managers (10) Unit 654 Organisational analysis and change (15) Unit 655 Human resource management (10) Unit 656 Knowledge management strategy (5) Unit 657 The context of corporate governance (10) Unit 658 Leadership. motivation and group dynamics (10) Unit 661 Strategic management (20) Unit 662 The dynamics of leadership (20) Unit 663 Management information systems for business (20) Unit 664 Advanced finance for decision makers (20) Unit 665 Marketing management in business (20) Unit 666 Customer focus for strategic advantage (20) Unit 667 Leadership skills (20) Unit 668 Managing risk in business (20) Unit 669 Business research (30) .

Institute of Administrative Management 224 NQF Administrative Management Qualifications Level 3 Certificate in Administrative Management Mandatory Units: • Inside organisations • Working with people • Administrative practice Level 4 Diploma in Administrative Management Mandatory Units: • • • • People in organisations Administrative systems and processes Professional administration Information for decision-making Optional Units (one only): • Case study 1 • Project report 1 Level 5 Advanced Diploma in Administrative Management Mandatory Units: • • • • Administrative systems in the organisation Strategic issues in administration Administrative management of resources Human resources and practice Optional Units (one only): • Case study 2 • Project report 2 BA (Hons) in Administrative Management Mandatory Units: • • • • • • • Corporate culture Cross-culture communication Organisational perspectives information security and computer law Law and practice of meetings Administrative systems training Independent study (Research and Dissertation) Optional Units (one only): • Business project management • Operations management .

22. & Neuman. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. htm) Interactional justice Interactional Justice is defined by sociologist John R. Carlson. 78. Schermerhorn.[2] Abuse directed toward a subordinate from a supervisor often stems from displaced aggression. References [1] Aryee. L. In this case. the individual (supervisor) is unwilling to retaliate against the direct source of mistreatment and will therefore abuse a less threatening target such as a subordinate since the subordinate is incapable of retaliation. dignity. M. N. 191-201.. H.degree to which the people affected by decision are treated by dignity and respect. [3] Marcus-Newhall. (2007. Z. Greenberg. then the subordinate will hold feelings of resentment toward either the supervisor or institution and will therefore seek to “even the score.. the perceived level of informational justice is higher.. A. R.. ( John R.. January). com/ IAM.Institute of Administrative Management 225 External links • Institute of Administrative Management [1] References [1] http:/ / www. W. labeled informational justice. . Workplace violence and workplace aggression: Evidence on their relative frequency and potential causes. interactional injustice can essentially trickle-down from the top of an organization to the bottom due to displaced aggression that exists in the top ranks of the hierarchy. 670–689. Schermerhorn as the ". C. and respect by authorities or third parties involved in executing procedures or determining outcomes. htm) [4] London School of Science and Technology (website accessed 19 March 2207) (http:/ / www. Displaced aggression is alive and well: A meta-analytic review. a subcomponent of organizational justice. 161–173.. Interactional justice. [2] Baron. J. Aggressive Behavior..[3] Thus. com/ IAM. (2000). Journal of Applied Psychology.. The first labeled interpersonal justice. org [2] Institute of Administrative Management (website accessed 19 March 2007) (http:/ / www. The second. Interactional Justice within an Organization It is important that a high degree of interactional justice exists in a subordinate/supervisor relationship in order to reduce the likelihood of counterproductive work behavior. focuses on the explanations provided to people that convey information about why procedures were used in a certain way or why outcomes were distributed in a certain fashion. 1993b). org/ ) [3] London School of Science and Technology (website accessed 19 March 2007) (http:/ / www. A. lsst. 1990a.g. instam. & Debrah.” [1] A victim of interaction injustice will have increased expressions of hostility toward the offender which can manifest in actions of counterproductive work behavior and reduce the effectiveness of organizational communication. Where more adequacy of explanation is prevalent. Antecedents and outcomes of abusive supervision: Test of a trickle-down model. & Miller. (Sam Fricchione 2006). If a subordinate perceives that interactional injustice exists.. lsst. has come to be seen as consisting of two specific types of interpersonal treatment (e. S. Sun. Y. (1996). Chen. instam. 92(1). Pedersen. Organizational behavior) The theory focuses on the interpersonal treatment people receive when procedures are implemented. reflects the degree to which people are treated with politeness.

As noted in Quirke (2008)[4] : "Traditionally. not least journalism. in a third. Effective internal communications is one of the key drivers of employee engagement (see.. the UK [3] for a summary of research) and proven to add significant value to government-sponsored Macleod Report organizations on all metrics from productivity to customer research. In one. This article is less concerned with the interpersonal communications that take place in most workplaces and which are explored by writers such as Phillip Clampitt. Importantly. the EU has made very specific provision about workers' rights to be informed and consulted. marketing and human resources. Filming a day's work for the US Armed Forces Network Television Services. internal communications has focused on the announcement of management conclusions and the packaging of management thinking into messages for mass distribution to the 'troops'". sociology and political science. it may come to play a wider role in facilitating conversations "upwards". The purpose that a formally-appointed IC manager or IC team will serve within a given organization will depend on the business context. Joep Cornelissen in his book Corporate . social psychology. media relations. public relations.[5] As the IC function matures within the organization. the IC function may perform the role of 'internal marketing' (i. broadcasting tends to be more effective at influencing senior and middle managers than frontline employees . It is important to distinguish between communications on behalf of the organization and the day to day intercourse [1] within work groups or between managers and subordinates. In Europe. attempting to win participants over to the management vision of the organization). there is commonly a legal requirement for organizations to communicate with their workers. A relatively young profession. it might perform a 'logistical' service as channel manager. for example.g. e.g. communication theory. Larkin and Larkin (1994). then.[2] There are a number of reasons why organisations should be concerned about internal communication. as well as wider organizational studies...see.[6] Organizations increasingly see IC as playing a role in external reputation management. an internal communication channel. Research indicates a limit to the value of this 'broadcasting' model of IC. in another.e. Minzberg talks about the fact that communications is intrinsic to the work of a manager . IC draws on the theory and practice of related professions. e. Without feedback loops and harnessing the active involvement and mediation skills of frontline supervisors or team leaders. "downwards" and "across" the organization.it is the very essence of work in many situations. it might act principally as strategic adviser. knowledge management. Role of IC in the organization People at work communicate regardless of the intentions of their managers or leaders. per Stohl (1995).Internal communications 226 Internal communications Internal communications (IC) is the function responsible for effective communication among participants within an organization.

Examples include a 'cascade' of team meetings or briefings. • Workspace: . 227 IC practice Internal Communication has today become the core part of the Corporate Communication.[8] Market researchers MORI[9] have likewise highlighted the effects of employee advocacy on an organisation's external reputation. Message distribution The American political scientist and communication theorist Harold Lasswell popularised the concept of the communication channel in his 1948 paper The Communication of Ideas. conferences.g. round-table discussions. desktop news feeds and internal social media tools (e. site visits. often more likely to stimulate and create discussion and dialogue. than official channels.Communications that are delivered and/or accessed electronically. Examples include magazines. etc. graffiti. arranged along a spectrum from the tactical to the strategic • Print: . spoof newsletters. Five general modes of IC practice are itemised below. DVD. conference calls. Informal channels reflect the non-linear dynamics of a social network and can be as influential. for example in the work of Scoble and Israel. brochures. intranet. video and webcasts.Paper-based communications. desktop alert messages.: internal Twitter-style sites such as Yammer) The modes of IC practice. telephone. posters. Many a time the Human resource department are especially kept out of it as they are termed as the voice of the management and not the employees. newsletters. etc. electronic newsletters. window decals. ranked loosely according to their position along a spectrum from tactical to strategic activities.: mousemats). if not more so. . blogs. social networking. This trend reaches its full potential with the arrival of new 'norms' and customer expectations around social media. 'brown bag' lunches.the working environment. • Face-to-face: . voicemail. consultation forums. accessories (e. Examples include notice boards. communication packs or 'toolkits' for line managers. to improve the quality of that decision and improve the chances it will be accepted by all participants within the organization.One-to-one and one-to-many forums where people are physically present. podcasts. IC managers aim to achieve strategic influence. etc.g. screensaver messaging. SMS text messaging. plasma and LCD screens. memos. Examples include email. etc. either by computer. television or other devices. postcards and other 'desk drops'. water-cooler conversations.Internal communications Communications [7] touches on the relationship between reputation and internal conversations. 'back to the floor'. Formal channels typically fall into one of four broad categories: • Electronic: . to help bring reputational risk analysis to bear before senior leaders take a final decision. 'town meetings'. The channels may manifest themselves via the rumour-mill. wikis.

IC tends to focus on the existing resources of the organization. causing vital audience groups to filter them out. The strengths and uses of different techniques are discussed by FitzPatrick in the Public Relations Handbook[12] Line manager 'cascade' Sending information down the line to local supervisors. The range of media available is wide . interpretation or deviation has long been the main focus of 'cascaded' internal communications (for example. or print production. now the Work Foundation [13].[14] Clampitt (2005) lists three approaches managers use to communicate with their employees. focused on giving managers very clear instructions about what to say and how to say it). Initially. think.Internal communications Selecting channels One of the key challenges any internal communicator will face is how to select the right channels . However. typically an intranet. UK guidance from The Industrial Society. or email) are over-used for inappropriate. Bill Quirke enabled in 'face-to-face' communications is appropriate where risks of misunderstanding or emotional impact are high. This raises debate around the following issues: • The nature of supervisory relationships and organisational communication • The potency of managers as a channel of official communications 228 .and growing fast with new electronic media.for both the audience and the message. how do they prefer to access information and how effective will the proposed channel be in reaching them and engaging them? • Objectives: what does the organisation want people to learn.[15] Employee communication is an important skill for all line managers. low value messages. Such organisations typically face a risk that channels (such as intranet news. in recent years thinking has evolved and literature now concentrates on empowering managers to facilitate discussion rather than cascade management of messages which will have little authority or impact.) Traffic control A typical large organisation IC function will be concerned to monitor and limit the quantity of information flowing through each internal channel. Often. organisations do not invest the appropriate amount of time and effort in developing managers' communications skills. One common element of channel development and administration involves managing supplier relationships agencies external to the organization typically specialise in one main channel area. rather than by. See Weick[11] for some theoretical grounds for this basic insight. This is a particularly strong theme in the writing of TJ and Sandar Larkin. irrespective of their seniority. such as audiovisual. prioritising according to the relevance of a given message to the audience implicated in that channel. Like any skill it requires training and development. the 'rich' interaction of channels . as well as the urgency and impact of the message. feel or do as a result of the message? • Content: what is the context and substance of the message? (For example. Too often this leads to managers abdicating responsibility for communications to their 'internal communications department' and a lack of confidence in facilitating discussion in their teams. where are they based. email distributions. Channel development and administration IC teams will often (but not always) hold responsibility for the administration and development of several of the organisation's communications channels. the 'lean' interaction offered in written or one-way communications are better suited to the low impact. say. low emotion distribution of information.and the right mix [10] offers a simple guide. expecting them to deliver it without any corruption. and newsletters. The practical considerations are: • Availability: what channels either already exist within the organisation or can be introduced effectively? • Audience: who are they. sensitive messages may need to be communicated face-to-face. SMS text message.

. Transitional communications (for want of a better term) will often draw heavily on HR thinking and practice and may reflect psychological models such as that proposed by grieving. and so on. Project communicators might produce a schedule of communication objectives and milestones for the project. Larkin and Larkin (1994). the appropriate 'production values'. 'tone of voice'. The skillset involved relates closely to media professions such as journalism. They might also contribute to the project's aggregate risks 'log' on the reputational risks. optimal audience segmentation.e. and work-up contingency plans covering unintended situations. and initiating message production. IC practitioners might simply correct basic grammar. Organizational development is a growing competency within HR. relaying them to the relevant organizational leader. the organization must innovate to adapt to or control that environment.either fine-tuning messages drafted by participants in the organization.. whether this message is intended to inform.[16] Kotter (1996). your internal environment should adjust as well.[17] Schein (2004)[18] ) and more widely acknowledged in large organizations. and internal communication is vital during these times. to negotiate. Change communications Organisation are increasingly turning to communications to help implement change. Change writer (John Kotter says: "When the environment constantly changes. to consult. the most effective communication channel. When your external environment changes. There is also significant discussion into the impact of social media on company culture and internal communication. timing of message delivery. 229 Message design and production Basic IC services to an organization begin with editorial services . especially in organisations where many participants may be operating in their second or third language. However. Message design may be iterative.the process though which an indidual passes as part of the proces of coping with change. It is useful to distinguish between change . by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross).") .making sure that people understand a change and how it will impact on thier work and lives.g. The use of the two terms interchangeably causes some confusion. including the best 'source' for the message. there is little documented evidence of where is is being used successfully as part of a planned campaign of employee communications. a map of vital stakeholders (senior individuals or large groups / segments of the overall population). more aspects of the message are available for the IC practitioner to refine or make recommendations on. the mode of interpellation (i. or involve a range of participants in an approvals process.Internal communications • How best to support managers in their roles Social Media Social media is becoming increasingly discussed in the field of Internal communication. to support the stages of the project that carry a communications or engagement component. Change communication is often focused on logistical matters . to instruct. and a message framework to guide project participants towards a single. In this case. or drafting new material on their behalf. copywriting and film or print production. and the vital role played by the communications component in change efforts is becoming better theorised (e. Or they might re-work it to conform to house style or its branded equivalent. coherent message about their work. More advanced IC services might include identification of needs arising.the act of altering something within an organisation (such as the introduction of a new IT system or the closure of a office) and 'transition' . Project communications IC practitioners may be seconded to a specific project team. etc. or to involve).

. 230 Business partnering In common with the Ulrich model for Human resources practice. As a representative of the audiences with a stake in the developments under discussion. . etc. As with Media relations and PR. organizations tend to prove resistant to the possibility that IC would add value to strategic decision-making. Strategic leadership In the most mature IC functions. offering metrics which help leaders understand more clearly the Return on investment the IC function is delivering. They are also more likely to have 'well flexed'. acting as adviser to a given function or unit on IC issues relevant to the delivery of their strategic plans and projects. IC may be delivered via a 'business partnering' relationship. making crisis communications more effective. the role IC plays in a crisis can be decisive for the success or failure of an organization. requiring skills of diplomacy and objectivity. ready to be tailored to the particulars of the situation. the support of the internal constituency becomes especially valuable. S/he may either act as a representative of the internal constituency. Although unplanned and usually under-resourced. Dewhurst and FitzPatrick. as well as how and when to communicate it. when critical stakeholders such as investors or customers appear more likely to desert the organization. the quality of an IC function's response in a crisis often has a decisive impact in the maturing of an IC function within an organization. refining the decision to be communicated. following the crisis.Internal communications Crisis communications Organizations occasionally face unplanned reputational crises which can destroy brand value or even finish the organization. or provide senior leaders with processes that make it feasible to consult or directly involve participants in such decisions. the IC leader 'brings' the internal constituency to senior leader discussions and decision-making processes. Establishing IC in a strategic role may require a crisis to prove that value. Organizations with a mature IC function may have contingency planning in place. Effective responses bring IC up the list of priorities for senior leaders.for example. as it responds to a critical challenge. or IC functions might earn their place in the decision-making process by making their contribution more tangible . as employees' friends and relatives seek their account of events. and as talented and motivated participants consider whether or not to remain with the organization. Given the origins of IC as a "mouthpiece" of the senior leadership. Less mature IC functions may find it difficult to bring senior leaders' attention to the internal audience. in their 2007 report How to Develop Outstanding Internal Communicators [19] identified how business partnering was often the route into the most senior positions in Internal Communications. this can be both an awkward and a privileged position to occupy. At such moments. well-rehearsed line management communications capability.

There is a well-established postgraduate diploma / Masters programme in Internal Communications Management at Kingston University and a formal qualification in Internal Communication at Certificate and Diploma level is also offered by the Chartered Institute of Public Relations. For much of the 20th century. The predominantly North American members of the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) can apply for recognition as an Accredited Business Communicator. UK While this might be seen as a purely antagonistic relationship. In Europe. and the communities in which organizations operated became more mobile. The UK's Institute of Internal Communication offers a framework of IoIC training and accreditation in internal communications. In the UK. the bodies representing the profession are fragmented and offer competing qualifications.Internal communications 231 History of internal communications Large industrial organizations have a long history of promoting pride and a sense of unity among the employees of the company. . who experienced it in terms of a crisis of 'trust' or 'legitimacy'. Lady Lever Art Gallery. courses are available at Ithaca College. trade unions represented the mass of employees in questions of organizational legitimacy and changes to working practices.Port Sunlight. built in 1888 as part of a model village for the workers of the Lever's soap factory . Company newsletters competed with Union-run media. organizations to some extent depended on the Union to do the work of cohering a constituency around a manageable set of messages and values. evidenced in the cultural productions of Victorian-era soap manufacturers as far apart as the UK's Lever Brothers (right) and the Larkin Soap Company of Buffalo. and senior leaders had to deal frequently with the demands of this 'stakeholder'. the lack of such a natural constituency became a problem for organizational leaders. In the US. New York. As unions became weakened in the 1970s and 1980s. In recent years there has been a growth in the range of short skills courses offered by a range of commercial suppliers as well as institutions such as the London College of Communication and Leeds Metropolitan University. though various training courses and formal qualifications have been established to create and maintain standards. on behalf of employees. courses are available at the University of Lugano and Rotterdam School of Management. IC associations and accreditation There is not yet a globally recognised internal communication qualification.

theworkfoundation. Clarke N (2009) Engaging for Success: enhancing performance through employee engagement. (1996). "Communicating Change: winning employee support for new business goals". CA: Sage Publications. Inc. NY: McGraw-Hill. "Organizational Communication: connectedness in action". "Making the Connections. E. [17] Kotter. Abingdon • Duhe. Gower References [1] cited in Hargie O and Tourish D eds. staff communication. web production. • Wright. (2004). Burlington. internal marketing. CA: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0-415-59814-9. http:/ / www.: writing. HR and the CEO office. J. TJ and Larkin S. London: melcrum.Internal communications 232 Synonyms IC may variously be referred to as: employee communications. Thousand Oaks. NY: McGraw-Hill. Inc. VT: Gower Publishing Company [5] Larkin. (2005). employee engagement. CA: Sage Publications Inc [7] Cornelissen. K. (2008).H. Inc. S. . aspx [14] Larkin. LLC. (1984). Inc. NY: McGraw-Hill. (2008). e. Hoboken NJ. Gower • McNamara. (2004) "Organizational Culture and Leadership". Routledge • Quirke. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. P. P. [12] Theaker. TJ and Larkin S. John Wiley & Sons [9] Corporate responsibility: The communication challenge Jenny Dawkins Journal of Communication Management. • Hargie. Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness. advertising. (2008).E. & Hunt.g. • Theaker. Managing public relations.uk. MN: Authenticity Consulting. San Francisco. [8] Scoble R.108 [10] Quirke. Inc. M ed (2009) The Gower handbook of internal communication. (1995). facilitation. pdf [4] Quirke. • Grunig. www. Responsibility for IC may sit within various established functions. Department for Business Innovation and Skills. 2004. com/ aboutus/ ourhistory. Alison (2011). Internal communications functions can require several skills. The Public Relations Handbook. corporate social responsibility. (2004) Handbook of Communication Audits for Organisations London Routledge [2] Clampitt P. corporate communications.. Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness. Inc. Thousands Oaks. CA: John Wiley and Sons. [15] Clampitt. including marketing. Israel S.gov. Corporate Communication: a guide to theory and practice". Minneapolis. T. berr. B. Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision. O and Tourish D (eds) (2004) The handbook of Communications audits for Organisations. employee relations. Abingdon: Routledge. Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness. VT: Gower Publishing Company [11] Weick. TJ and Larkin S. B. E. gov. Inc. B 92003) Making the Connections. New York. branding and communications training. [6] Stohl. (1994). stakeholder management. event organisation. CA: Sge Publications. The Public Relations handbook. (2006) Naked Conversations: how blogs are changing the way businesses talk to customers. (1994). New York. Thousand Oaks. Boston MA: Harvard Business School Press [18] Schein. pp. (2005). "Communicating Change: winning employee support for new business goals". p. Thousand Oaks. C.bis. J. "Making the Connections. "Communicating Change: winning employee support for new business goals". C. Public Relations and the Path to Innovation: Are Complex Environments Good for Business?: Public Relations Society of America. Inc [16] Larkin. transformation. using Internal Communications to turn strategy into action". [13] http:/ / www. CA: Sage Publications. Sage 2009 [3] Macleod D. company communications. New York. using Internal Communications to turn strategy into action". J. marketing.P. [19] Dewhurst S and Fitzpatrick L (2007). Routledge. (2008). A (2011). "Leading Change". (1995) "Sensemaking in Organizations". 273-310. Burlington. How to Develop Outstanding Internal Communicators. uk/ files/ file52215. (1994). Works Cited • Clampitt. Thousand Oaks.

high level jobs are associated with higher levels of compensation. The remainder of jobs within the ILM is filled by the promotion or transfer of workers who have already gained entry. since the eldest worker is not afraid that the young one replaces him. but different from those required in other job clusters. therefore they offer the employees job security and structured promotions. Internal labor markets are shielded from the competition of external labor markets (ELM). selection and assignment of persons to higher level jobs . competition of ILM exists within the firm in the form of job promotions and pay. there exists a hierarchy of skills and capacities such that the demands for application of skills on certain jobs facilitate the development of further skills required for other jobs. In this hierarchy those with lower-level jobs requiring skills are usually available in the ELM and higher level jobs require capacities developed from the performance of lower-level jobs usually within the ILM. different job levels receive different compensation. within any one job cluster.[1] The internal labor market is composed of many facets. The first is ILMs which consist of clusters of jobs related by the skills and capacities required for their successful performance. Second. Employers benefit from this more stable relationship because they reduce the cost of training.[4] Analysis Analysis of Internal Labor Markets concerns the causes of an organization’s (or geography’s) workforce dynamics – attraction. Firms want to maintain the investment afterwards. Third.[1] [3] Companies are ever more seeking individuals with specific talents that can be an asset to their organization. Fourth. the sets of skills required within one job cluster are similar. the promotion is often given by seniority. Also. Finally. and retention as well as the rewards that motivate them. Customary law is of special interest in the analysis of internal labor markets both because of the stabilizing influence which it imparts to the rules of the workplace and because the rules governing the pricing and allocation of labor within the market are particularly subject to the influence of custom. this way of promotion encourages on the job training. they prefer to promote young workers and train them on-the-job.[5] Since they find no use in workers with experience from other places. company management practices and labor market dynamics.[4] On the job training Many firms are willing to train internal employees for other positions.Internal labor market 233 Internal labor market Internal labor markets are an administrative unit within a firm in which pricing and allocation of labor is governed by a set of administrative rules and procedures.[2] The main reasons why internal labor markets were developed are as follows[1] : Skill specificity Skill specificity has two effects important to the generation of the ILM: it increases the proportion of training costs borne by the employer. development. Due to the importance of on the job training. as opposed to by the trainee and it increases the absolute level of such costs.[6] Customary Law Custom at the workplace is an unwritten set of rules based largely upon past practices or precedent. These rules can govern any aspect of the work relationship from discipline to compensation. Work customs appear to be the outgrowth of employment stability within the internal labor markets. Statistical models are often used to explain and predict outcomes because internal labor markets are a complex system of interactions between workers. Firms that require specifically trained individuals look for a stable labor force.[1] However.

• Human Resource Information Management Foundation [1] The Human Resource Information Management (HRIM) Foundation is an independent.Net Encyclopedia. 501(c)(3) organization chartered with promoting scholarships. charitable.[2] 234 References [1] Doeringer. skill specificity). McGrawHill. Guzzo. External links • IHRIM home page [7] Formed when HR and IT professionals found themselves needing mediators. One of our recent achievements has been to fund the development of the only professional certification program designed to solidify and enhance the HRMS profession . org/ index. References [1] http:/ / www. EH.Economics. and faculty that continues to grow. [3] Chase. • Encourage development of educational programs and course curriculum to advance the HRIM profession. edited by Robert Whaples. pdf#search='internal labor markets . 2004 International Association for Human Resource Information Management The International Association for Human Resource Information Management (IHRIM) is a professional association for information management in human resources founded in 1980. Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis. & Piore Michael J. Today. 1991. Lawrence. net/ encyclopedia/ ?article=owen. ubc. (1971). and the use of technology and information management in the human resource (HR) profession. vendors.C. Plenum Press. April 30. students. Turnover (http:/ / eh. 2005 [5] Owen. "History of Labor Turnover in the U. Retrieved on October 10. The Operation of Internal Labor Markets. (1995).the Human Resource Information Professional (HRIP) Certification Program. Annul. turnover) [6] Nalbantian. Heath and Company [2] Pinfield.". Ivan D. For additional information about the HRIM Foundation’s initiatives or to inquire about donation opportunities. Play to Your Strengths. Review Sociology.a dynamic group of practitioners. econ. ihrim. [4] Labor Markets: Institutional Factors (http:/ / www.Internal labor market occurs according to the rules that describe the criteria to be used in these decisions. IHRIM is the only Professional Human Resource Association dedicated to the HRIS and HR Technology professions. Peter B. Future plans include to: • Fund scholarly publications on specific HR and HRIM issues. research and education to drive innovation.S. IHRIM is a community of experts . Managing Internal Labor Markets. IHRIM is the clearinghouse for the HRIM (Human Resource Information Management) industry. New York. • Conduct research and development activities related to HRIM and the needs of HR systems professionals. Laura. University of British Columbia . ca/ ferrer/ ec317/ lecture 7. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=140& Itemid=184 . Massachusetts. consultants. D. 2004. Kieffer and Doherty. Vacancy Chains.

Chief among these goals is to initiate and support research. state and local levels of government. Executive Officer . Dean of the Institute of Research and Consulting. Founded in 2008. and to gather scholars and professionals in the fields of talent development. Germany. professional development. Chinese Academy of Sciences. Head of Educational Psychology at the Institute of Psychology and Education. Chinese Academy of Sciences. Iratde logo professionals. Heidrun Stoeger. Professor in Educational Psychology and Associate Dean in the Faculty of Education. Director of the Division of Developmental and Educational Psychology. creativity. Institute of Psychology. Director of the National Research Center for Giftedness and Creativity.Prof. Jiannong Shi. excellence. Professor of Education. University of Wollongong.International Public Management Association for Human Resources 235 International Public Management Association for Human Resources The International Public Management Association for Human Resources (IPMA-HR) is an organization that represents the interests of human resource professionals at the federal. Al-Ahsa.Prof. IPMA-HR members include all levels of public sector HR professionals. creativity and innovation. develop and evaluate educational programs.Prof. University of Ulm. Executive committee President . Germany. Secretary General . Abdullah Aljughaiman.Prof. . the IRATDE seeks to promote collaboration and cooperation between scholars. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Chair for School Research. People's Republic of China. King Faisal University. Treasurer . Albert Ziegler. The association's goal is to provide information and assistance to help HR professionals increase their job performance and overall agency function by providing cost effective products. Wilma Vialle. Professor of Psychology. services and educational opportunities. innovation and excellence. information and services to enhance organizational and individual performance in the public sector. The mission of IPMA-HR is to provide human resource leadership and advocacy. and organizations to further its goals. Vice President . disseminate research findings. International Research Association for Talent Development and Excellence The International Research Association for Talent Development and Excellence (IRATDE) is a non-profit professional organization of international scientists in the fields of talent development. Australia. School Development and Evaluation. Director of the Research Center for Supernormal Children.Prof. Institute of Psychology. University of Regensburg.

Talent Talks is an informal venue for IRATDE members to discuss issues related to their fields. 2011. 2010. IRATDE offers Full Membership for scientists and researchers and Affiliated Memberships for organizations and practitioners. The conference is held during odd years typically during the months of September through November.[2] Publications Journal Talent Development & Excellence is the official peer-reviewed scholarly journal published by the International Research Association of Talent Development and Excellence (IRATDE). org/ journal/ http:/ / www. and excellence across domains. the IRATDE periodically hosts scientific symposia. Membership The International Research Association of Talent Development and Excellence currently includes approximately 400 members from over 60 countries. org/ sym/ english/ home.com . nrcgc.International Research Association for Talent Development and Excellence 236 Activities Conference and Symposia The IRATDE hosts an international conference biennially on gifted and talented children. innovation or expertise. such as the symposium entitled Nurturing Giftedness Starts Early hosted at King Faisal University in Saudi Arabia from May 31 through June 2. iratde. The first biennial IRATDE conference was entitled the International Conference on the Cultivation and Education of Creativity and Innovation and was held in Xi'an China (October 30 . excellence. htm http:/ / www. The journal is currently published twice annually and presents articles containing original research or theory in the fields of talent development. In addition.[3] Newsletter Talent Talks is the official newsletter of the International Research Association of Talent Development and Excellence. cn/ http:/ / www.iratde.[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. Saudi Arabia from November 26–30.November 2).org/ • http://www. org/ about External links • http://www. creativity.ictde2011. Applications for membership are available on their official web site. innovation and invention.[1] The second IRATDE conference is scheduled in Jubail. ac. iratde.

. was established to offer diverse employment opportunities to groups of people who often find themselves excluded from the mainstream labor force. "IT Business Strategy and Corporate Hospitality". has pioneered hospitality in the IT services sector(the adoption of 5-star hotel service standards). html . ISFnet Inc. pdf [2] ISFnet Company Profile http:/ / www. co. such as primary caregivers. "IT Business Strategy and Corporate Hospitality" [4] by Japanese business guru Masamitsu Hayashida. accj.00. Osaka. htm [4] Masamitsu Hayashida. Sendai. References [1] American Chamber of Commerce Japan Journal July 2006 "Upsetting the Status Quo: From Service to Customer Serving" http:/ / www. Tokyo [5] Hayashida Institute. Utsunomiya.[2] [5] Domestic Offices Sapporo. people with disabilities or mental [2] health problems. Morioka. com/ company/ story/ 0. 2010. ISFnet Harmony Ltd. Shizuoka. Hospitality In IT ISFnet Inc. Hiroshima. jp/ doclib/ journal/ 15_ss_it_july06. Diamond Inc. or. Nagoya. Yukiyoshi Watanabe (渡 邉 幸 義 ). (株 式 会 社 ア イ エ ス エ フ ネ ッ ト ) is a multinational integrated IT services company based in Tokyo. hayashida-cs. offers employment opportunities in the IT sector to people with disabilities. Japan. http:/ / japan. April 18th 2008. Korea and Singapore. and was the focus of a book. Fukuoka. co. ISFnet Harmony Ltd.3200081168. It currently operates in 16 locations [2] across Japan and has subsidiaries in China. ISFnet Harmony Ltd. isfnet. html [3] ZDnet Japan. Tokyo. The company was founded in January 2000 [1] by Japanese entrepreneur. ISFnet Care Ltd. Set up in 2008. "Company Stories: ISFnet Harmony". http:/ / www.[3] ISFnet Care Ltd. zdnet.ISFnet 237 ISFnet ISFnet Inc.. designated as a special subsidiary under the Japanese Disability Employment Encouragement Law. jp/ company/ office. jp/ profile. Numazu. is a wholly owned subsidiary of ISFnet Inc.20170610.

some service. However. Campbell describes job performance as an individual level variable. Despite the confusion over how it should be exactly defined. It is usually measured with a paper-and-pencil test. changes in customer preferences. However. For example. Revenue can be generated or not. Campbell defines performance as behavior. It can consist of mental productions such as answers or decisions. certain factors other than employees' behavior influence revenue generated. For instance. Among the most commonly accepted theories of job performance comes from the work of John P. yet poorly defined concept in industrial and organizational psychology. Outcomes are the result of an individual's performance. etc. monetary costs. The difference between individual controlled action and outcomes is best conveyed through an example. Campbell allows for exceptions when defining performance as behavior. he clarifies that performance does not have to be directly observable actions of an individual. the content domain from which test questions will be constructed must be clearly identified. Job knowledge is a complex concept that includes elements of both ability (capacity to learn) and seniority (opportunity to learn).[3] Another closely related construct is productivity. That is. The first is performance and the second is the effectiveness of that performance. sales might slump due to economic conditions. etc. the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. Job performance Job performance is a commonly used. performance is something a single person does. resources. insurance). employee performance can be adequate. For example. depending on the behavior of employees.Job knowledge 238 Job knowledge Job knowledge measures one’s mastery of the concepts needed to perform certain work. regardless of whether the performance of interest is mental or behavioral. performance is an extremely important criterion that relates to organizational outcomes and success. This concept differentiates performance from outcomes. In other words. To develop a paper-and-pencil test to assess job knowledge. Campbell and colleagues. In these conditions. This differentiates it from more encompassing constructs such as organizational performance or national performance which are higher level variables. performance needs to be under the individual's control. Features of job performance There are several key features to Campbell's conceptualization of job performance which help clarify what job performance means. These two can be decoupled because performance is not the same as effectiveness. On a sales job. . When the employee performs this sales job well. It is something done by the employee. a favorable outcome is a certain level of revenue generated through the sale of something (merchandise. In other words. production bottlenecks.[4] This can be thought of as a comparison of the amount of effectiveness that results from a certain level of cost associated with that effectiveness. Performance versus outcomes First. but they are also the result of other influences. yet sales can still be low. he is able to move more merchandise. It most commonly refers to whether a person performs their job well. effectiveness is the ratio of outputs to inputs—those inputs being effort. there are more factors that determine outcomes than just an employee's behaviors and actions.[1] [2] Coming from a psychological perspective. a job knowledge test used to select sales managers from among salespeople must identify the specific knowledge necessary for being a successful sales manager.

performance does not include activities where effort is expended toward achieving peripheral goals. . 5. These aspects of performance happen in a face to face manner. 1. etc. job performance is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of more than one kind of behavior. 2. effectiveness.) that are not targeting an organization's goal. 239 Organizational goal relevance Another key feature of job performance is that it has to be goal relevant. A non-task specific behavior of a sales person might be training new staff members. The first factor is task specific behaviors which include those behaviors that an individual undertakes as part of a job. 1. or when there are extraordinary circumstances. Performance must be directed toward organizational goals that are relevant to the job or role. 2. An individual's performance can also be assessed in terms of effort. the second factor. 4. Campbell (1990) proposed an eight factor model of performance based on factor analytic research that attempts to capture dimensions of job performance existent (to a greater or lesser extent) across all jobs. These can be task related or non-task related. and productivity are value judgments. Utilities of performance.Job performance Utility is another related construct which is defined as the value of a particular level of performance. Individuals would be expected to be in good standing with the law. For example. but on the adeptness with which they deliver the communication. either day to day. Employees need to make formal and informal oral and written presentations to various audiences in many different jobs in the work force. This dimension includes any major tasks relevant to someone's job. giving advice or helping maintain group goals. the effort put toward the goal of getting to work in the shortest amount of time is not performance (except where it is concerned with avoiding lateness). Task-oriented behaviors are similar to task-specific behaviors in Campbell's model. This model is significantly broader and breaks performance into only four dimensions. socializing. The individual will be relied upon to undertake many of the things delineated under the previous factor and in addition will be responsible for meting out rewards and punishments. 3. This dimension diverges from Campbell's taxonomy because it included behaviors (small talk. In addition a manager might be responsible for monitoring group and individual progress towards goals and monitoring organizational resources. non-task specific behaviors. Interpersonally oriented behaviors are represented by any interaction the focal employee has with other employees. 7. coaching. This might include acting as a good role model. A managerial task would be setting an organizational goal or responding to external stimuli to assist a group in achieving its goals. Returning to the sales person. Another taxonomy of job performance was proposed and developed for the US Navy by Murphy (1994). The performance domain might also include an aspect of personal discipline. On the other hand. etc. not abuse alcohol. performance may include the degree to which a person helps out the groups and his or her colleagues. Written and oral communication tasks refer to activities where the incumbent is evaluated. an example of a task specific behavior would be showing a product to a potential customer. 8. In jobs where people work closely or are highly interdependent. They are the core substantive tasks that delineate one job from another. not on the content of a message necessarily. 6. There are vastly many jobs each with different performance standards. or productivity. This factor reflects the degree to which people commit themselves to job tasks. are those behaviors which an individual is required to undertake which do not pertain only to a particular job. Multidimensionality Despite the emphasis on defining and predicting job performance. it is not a single unified construct. Managerial and administrative performance entails those aspects of a job which serve the group or organization but do not involve direct supervision. effectiveness. Therefore. Many jobs also have a supervisory or leadership component. Therefore.

the impact of organizational justice perceptions on performance is believed to stem from Equity Theory. 240 Different types of performance Another way to divide up performance is in terms of task and contextual (citizenship and counterproductive) behaviors. principles. For example. and Fogli supermarket cashiers and found that there was a substantial difference between scores reflecting their typical performance and scores reflecting their maximum performance. It represents the knowledge of a given task's requirements. [11] did a study on The second distinction is between typical and maximum performance. Destructive/hazardous behaviors In addition to these models dividing performance into dimensions.[7] Determinants of performance A meta-analysis of selection methods in personnel psychology found that general mental ability was the best overall predictor of job performance and training performance. contextual behaviors are behaviors that do not fulfill specific aspects of the job's required role. which refers to "a combined effect from three choice behaviors—choice to expend effort. Declarative knowledge refers to knowledge about facts. Regular work situations reflect varying levels of motivation which result in typical performance. procedural knowledge and skill is knowing how to do it. are intentional actions by employees which circumvent the aims of the organization. outside behaviors that cause absenteeism). It reflects the direction. Citizenship behaviors are defined as behaviors which contribute to the goals of the organization through their effect on the social and psychological conditions. etc. Zedeck. others have identified different types of behaviors making up performance. One way that employees restore justice is by altering their level of performance. For instance. intensity. Sackett.[9] Campbell (1990) emphasized that the only way to discuss motivation as a direct determinant of behavior is as one or more of these choices. This distinction is similar to the one between quantity and quality. Individual differences on performance are a function of three main determinants: declarative knowledge. etc. choice of level of effort to expend. and persistence of volitional behaviors. maximized speed. 4. ideas. Down-time behaviors are behaviors that employees engage in during their free time either at work or off-site. on the other hand. The third predictor of performance is motivation. etc. Campbell (1990) also mentioned several performance parameters that may have important implications for the job performance setting and should be investigated by industrial and organizational psychologists. Special circumstances generate maximum employee motivation which results in maximum performance. procedural knowledge and skill includes cognitive skill. objects. maximized accuracy. Additionally. The first one is the distinction between speed and accuracy. perceptual skill. or some balance between the two? What kind of trade offs should an employee makes? The latter question is important because speed and accuracy for the same task may be independent of one another.Job performance 3. interpersonal skill. 1990). This study suggested the distinction between typical and maximum performance. procedural knowledge and skill. and motivation.[8] Campbell (1990) also suggested determinants of performance components.[6] Counterproductive behaviors. declarative knowledge includes knowledge of principles.[5] Whereas task performance describes obligatory behaviors. Down-time behaviors that occur off-site are only considered job performance when they subsequently affect job performance (for example.[10] Important questions that should be considered include: which is most valued by the organization. facts. This would suggest that when people perceive injustice they seek to restore justice. If declarative knowledge is knowing what to do. Procedural justice affects performance as a result of its . and choice to persist in the expenditure of that level of effort" (Campbell.

Schmitt & W. citizenship. Zedeck. Personnel Selection in Organizations (pp. (2001). Ones.. Oppler. & Sager. J.. Journal of Applied Psychology. New York: Routledge.[13] 241 References [1] Campbell. [3] Campbell. C. [9] Dalal. & Fogli. Relations between measures of typical and maximum job performance. P. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. In N. (1993). E. J. Counterproductive behaviors at work. Frank L. (1970). 1. S. 66-80.D. R. Distributive justice affects performance when efficiency and productivity are involved. M. Journal of Applied Psychology. J.E. S. London.[12] Improving justice perceptions improves productivity and performance.. (1973).E.. & C. Palo Alto. (1988). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. C.P.. P. Dunnette & L. Sinangil.Job performance impact on employee attitudes. Borman (Eds. Motivation in work organizations.. & Motowidlo. 86. Motivation for what? A multivariate dynamic perspective of the criterion. P. In M. M.. A theory of performance: In N. 35-70). C.. & Campbell. [12] Cohen-Charash. S. C. Borman (Eds. D. E. Managerial behavior. Hunter. Work motivation: Past. (2002).J.E.. Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. 278-321. apa.P. & DeVore. S. optionToBuy& id=1998-10661-006& CFID=5257837& CFTOKEN=93267042). Monterey. & Hulin. G. cfm?fa=buy. L. 145–164). C. L. Pritchard (Eds. In R. J. C. The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. 687-732). [11] Sackett.. M. Williams ML (2009). & Sackett. [5] Borman. org/ index.. New York: McGraw-Hill. (1998). (1988). Schmitt & W. J. UK: Sage.). R. (2001). 262-274. pp. San Francisco: Jossy-Bass. The relative importance of task. P. (1990). A. & Weick. H.. 87. McCloy. & R. Sep 1998. and organizational psychology (Vol. JH. [8] Schmidt. [6] Rotundo. and future (pp. 73. performance. W. H. and effectiveness. Handbook of industrial. [13] Karriker.). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings (http:/ / psycnet.). and counterproductive performance to global ratings of job performance: A policy-capturing approach. present.. P. J. D. Y. R.. P. Chen. K. John E.). [10] Lawler. (1993). Hough (Eds. Personnel Selection in Organizations (pp. [4] Campbell. & Spector. 112. R. C. R.A: Brooks/Cole. E. Lawler. Dunnette. Vol 124(2). work.). 63-100). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. [2] Campbell. (2008). CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Psychological Bulletin.. Journal of Management 35. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 71-98). Kanfer. Viswesvaran (Eds. In N. 482-486.E. Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Mediated Multifoci Model. Productivity in Organizations: New perspectives from industrial and organizational psychology. [7] Sackett. Anderson. Inc. R. . Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. D.

bizjournals. History The news media began reporting in earnest on job sharing in the 1970s and 1980s.[1] The practice was most often described as a solution tailored for women. Allison (2005-04-11). html).[4] Studies have shown that net productivity increases when two people share the same 40-hour job.[1] The banking. com/ human-resources/ 121136-1. Retrieved 2009-08-13.Google News Archive Search" (http:/ / news. and Walgreens drugstores. Retrieved 2009-08-13. [2] "Rome News-Tribune . [5] Shirreffs. . Compensation is apportioned between the workers. com/ humanresources/ employeemanagementcolumnistdavidjavitch/ article170244. for example. insurance.[2] [5] However. Retrieved 2009-08-13. . but another on Tuesday. Job sharing should not be confused with the more pejorative term featherbedding.[2] Job sharing became even more prevalent during the 2000s. html). . htm).2397709). Retrieved 2009-08-13. job sharing may be a way to take back more control of their personal lives. [4] "The Pros and Cons of Job Sharing . [3] "Should your organization use job sharing? .gov/Employment_and_Benefits/WorkLife/ WorkplaceFlexibilities/JobShare/). The "handoff" communication between those sharing the job is essential. about. . there is an inherent challenge in making job sharing work for the rest of the company's stakeholders. References [1] "Job Sharing .com" (http:/ / www. com/ atlanta/ stories/ 2005/ 04/ 11/ focus11. html#ixzz0JPCmZEYt& C). allbusiness. External links • "OPM-Part-time/Job Sharing" (http://www. thus leading to a net reduction in per-employee income.opm. Retrieved 2009-08-13. teaching and library professions are cited as more commonly using job sharing. Retrieved 2009-08-13.An Interview" (http:/ / careerplanning. google.Labor & Employment > Working Hours & Patterns from AllBusiness. Fireman's Fund Insurance Company. . "Job-share programs reap financial rewards .Entrepreneur.[4] Employees who job share frequently attribute their decision to "quality of life" issues. which describes the deliberate retention of excess workers on a payroll. one person being responsible for a task on Monday. Some companies that use job sharing include New York Life Insurance Company. as women have succeeded professionally in greater numbers and proportionally seek out alternative work arrangements. entrepreneur.com" (http:/ / www. com/ newspapers?id=bRgHAAAAIBAJ& sjid=wzUDAAAAIBAJ& dq=job-sharing& pg=7290. "a compromise between fulltime housework and full-time employment". com/ od/ jobsharing/ a/ job_sharing. as one Associated Press article summarized.[3] Advantages and disadvantages For employees seeking more free time for themselves. .Job sharing 242 Job sharing Job sharing is an employment arrangement where typically two people are retained on a part-time or reduced-time basis to perform a job normally fulfilled by one person working full-time. and co-workers must adapt to working with.Atlanta Business Chronicle:" (http:/ / www.

com/ blog/ 2010/ 50-best-blogs-for-hr-wisdom/ [4] http:/ / www. about. com/ Tools/ Top-50-HR-Blogs-In-2009. com/ ultimate-hrcareer-blog-list-for-2011/ [9] http:/ / www. fistfuloftalent. com/ blog/ [2] http:/ / www. com/ blog/ 2006/ 08/ 21/ top-10-best-presentations-ever/ [3] http:/ / www. knowhr. entrepreneur. knowhr.Know HR 243 Know HR KnowHR Blog [1] is an online magazine about human resources processes. The publication has consistently been cited as a top source for human resources material and commentary. External links • • • • • • • • • • KnowHR Blog [1] KnowHR named one of the Top HR Influencers 2007 by HR World[4] KnowHR selected by Human Resource Magazine as Best of the Web[5] KnowHR cited as one of the Top 50 HR Blogs to Watch: 2009[6] KnowHR voted #4 in Fistful of Talent's Blog Power Rankings[7] KnowHR on The Cynical Girl's Ultimate HR/Career Blog List[8] KnowHR listed as a top HR blog by Entrepreneur Magazine[9] KnowHR listed as one of the Top 50 HR Blogs to Watch in 2010 by Evan Carmichael[10] KnowHR voted one of the Top 50 HR Blogs by About. html [8] http:/ / thecynicalgirl. hreonline. performance management and executive compensation. including being named #1 by Career Overview in the 50 Best Blogs for HR Wisdom[3]. htm [7] http:/ / www.com[11] KnowHR ranked #1 by Career Overview in the 50 Best Blogs for HR Wisdom[3] References [1] http:/ / www. com/ features/ top-25-2007-influencers-121707/ [5] http:/ / www. evancarmichael. com/ tradejournals/ article/ 205755084. htm . jsp?storyId=10811821 [6] http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 05/ fothrcapitalist-v-70-talent-management-blog-power-rankings-our-top-25-blogs. com/ HRE/ story. employee motivation. html [10] http:/ / www. htm [11] http:/ / humanresources. com/ b/ 2009/ 04/ 13/ top-50-hr-blogs. evancarmichael. 2006 with an article titled Top 10 Best Presentations Ever[2]. hrworld. careeroverview. com/ Tools/ Top-50-HR-Blogs-To-Watch-In-2010. Its inaugural publication was on August 21.

human resources. D. AFL-CIO Thomas Kochan.S. management and "neutrals. law firms and institutes. as the Industrial Relations Research Association. Headquartered at the School of Labor and Employment Relations [2] at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign [3]. labor. Wells. Colo.000 members.C. and Ray Marshall. all of whom went on to serve as U. founded in 1947. labor and "neutrals. and union administration and organizing.. The executive director of LERA is Paula Wells." The organization uses the slogan "Advancing Workplace Relations. LERA Organizational Members LERA organizational members [5] include unions. state and local government employees." LERA's constituencies are professionals in the areas of academic research and education. public policy. and its National Policy Forum in alternate years in June in Washington. USA Key people Gordon Pavy. and Equity in the Economic Recovery [7]. Ill. The 2011 National Policy Forum (June 6-7. Employment Policy Research Network Steering Committee chair Francoise Carre and Christian Weller. Shultz. labor and management resources. arbitrators and mediators. Editors-in-Chief Paula D. President. Secretary of Labor. Dunlop. LERA held its 63rd annual meeting [6] in Denver. universities. LERA Director Website http:/ / www. 2011)is entitled: Competition. ." The organization provides professional development for human resource professionals. LERA is a non-profit. [4] Past presidents of LERA include John T. national. Jobs. labor attorneys and others. labor markets and economics. LERA holds an annual membership and professional development meeting in January each year. compensation and benefits.Labor and Employment Relations Association 244 Labor and Employment Relations Association Labor and Employment Relations Association Type Founded Labor Relations and Human Resources Professional Organization 1947 Headquarters Champaign. leraweb. training and development. In 2011. org The Labor and Employment Relations Association[1] (LERA). corporate and non-profit managers. labor and employment law. as part of the Allied Social Sciences Association. the national organization has more than 3. management. academic schools and departments. is an organization for professionals in industrial relations and human resources. Individual members come from the ranks of academe. non-partisan organization that draws its members from the ranks of academia. management schools. union members.

a senior economist at the Center for Economic and Policy Research. Neil H. topic leaders) • Labor-Management Relations [33] (Peter Berg [34]. to promote general economic prosperity and to enable the nation to compete successfully in the global economy.C. topic leader) Globalization. historians and sociologists) from 30 universities. Massachusetts (several campuses). the first cohort of doctoral students from MIT and Cornell joined EPRN as graduate student researchers who are sponsored by EPRN researchers. Pennsylvania State University. Mitchell [17]. Sum [31] and Paul Harrington [32]. The EPRN principal investigator is Thomas A. 2011. • Andrew Sum [18]. Michigan State. topic leader) • Labor Force Demographics/Supply [30] (Andrew M.B. in Washington. It originally consisted of about 100 researchers (economists. UCLA. Like LERA. George Maverick Bunker Professor of Management at MIT's Sloan School of Management and co-director of both the MIT Workplace Center and the Institute for Work and Employment Research. Columbia. other members of the EPRN Steering Committee include: • • • • Eileen Appelbaum [12]. LERA launched the Employment Policy Research Network [8] Web site (EPRN). there were 125 EPRN researchers from 50 universities [9]. Michigan State.S. as well as universities in Canada and the United Kingdom. Lisa Lynch [16]. As of May 1. EPRN Steering Committee In addition to Kochan. Lawrence Katz [13]. Kochan. topic leader) Labor and Employment Law [29]. Michigan. management. Employment and Labor Standards [25] (tba) Immigration [26] (tba) Industry Studies/Strategies [27] (Larry Hunter [28]. Brandeis University. work and labor. EPRN realizing its mission means to contribute to healthier and more productive lives of American workers and their families. policy proposals and reasoning to improve national and state employment laws. MIT. Boston University. Northeastern. attorneys. In March. including California-Berkeley. Cornell. Northeastern. employment. professor of labor economics and director of the Center for Labor Market Studies [19] at Northeastern University in Boston. University of Wisconsin. 2011. EPRN received start-up funding from the Rockefeller Foundation [10] and Sage Foundation [11]. Elisabeth Allison Professor of Economics at Harvard University's economics department [14]. professor emeritus at the Anderson Graduate School of Management and the School of Public Affairs. D. Hexter Professor of Social and Economic Policy at the Heller School for Social Policy and Management. University of Massachusetts Amherst. EPRN is a employment research repository and virtual collaboration space whose mission is to replace ideology and partisan rhetoric with facts and objective. Ultimately. Rutgers. human resources. Dickinson School of Law.and labor relations researchers. EPRN is non-profit and non-partisan. David Lewin [15]. dean and Maurice B. Stanford and UCLA. Employment Policy Research Topics and Research Clusters EPRN divides the large subject of employment and work into 15 topics [20] and research clusters of 20-40 researchers: • • • • • Equal Employment Opportunity [23] (Fidan Ana Kurtulus [24]. Ellen Dannin. topic leader) • Employment Regulations [21] (David Weil [22]. topic leader) .Labor and Employment Relations Association 245 Employment Policy Research Network At the 2011 Januray annual meeting. Jacoby Chair in Management at the UCLA Anderson School of Management. EPRN's goal is to provide the data. evidence-based research in discussions of U. research. • Daniel J. Illinois. its parent organization. policies and practices.

fsu. "Addressing the Problem of Stagnant Wages. topic leaders) Social Insurance [40] (Christian Weller. College of Business [48] Harvard University [49] Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers [50] Sloan School of Management|Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Collective Bargaining EPRN researchers [9] self post formal academic research.B. topic leader) Unemployment . During its first three months. Boston University. and University of Massachusetts Boston's Christian Weller." MIT's Frank Levy and Kochan wrote the wage-stagnation paper. Unemployment.edu/ Florida State University. O'Hara & Samuelian Pennsylvania State University Rutgers University." Organizational members [5] in 2010 include (an abbreviated list): • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • AFL-CIO American Federation of Teachers [47] Boston University School of Management Human Policy Institute Communication Workers of America Cornell University. Sloan School of Management [51]] Michelin North America. Rutgers' Saul Rubinstein. Scott Walker's bill to take away collective-bargaining rights from public-sector state and local and local public employees. Clark. Columbia University. New School for Social Research's Teresa Ghilarducci. LERA Membership LERA is a "big-tent" organization that has both individual and organizational members drawn from the ranks of academe. topic leader) Work-Family Policy [43] (Nancy Folbre. Mitchell. Cornell's Harry Katz. University of Massachusetts Boston. Inc. MIT. and the Consequences for Workers. topic leader) Regional Economic Development/Adjustment [37] (Peter B. School of Management and Labor Relations . UCLA's Daniel J. to the EPRN web site and on public radio and television and satellite radio. wage stagnation [45] and public-sector collective bargaining [46]. Columbia University economist Till von Wachter wrote the unemployment paper. Wage Stgnation. EPRN researchers served as expert media sources and contributed op-ed commentaries in Wisconsin media. Kochan was co-author.cob. topic leader) 246 EPRN Research-Policy Briefs: Unemployment. Rutgers. School of Industrial and Labor Relations Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service [http://www. During and after the February and March 2011 standoff over Wisconsin Gov. "Jobs Deficit and Job Growth. National Labor College New York State Nurses Association Parker. topic leader) Wages-Compensation [42] (Frank Levy. EPRN researchers published three major in-depth research-policy briefs on unemployment [44]. including teachers. Work and Technology [39] (David Feingold. Illinois' Craig Olson. management and "neutrals. Doeringer [38]. Milliken.Labor and Employment Relations Association • • • • • • • Public-Sector Employment Issues [35] (Jeffrey Keefez [36] Rutgers. op-ed commentaries and blogs. Stephen Barley. labor. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Scheinman Institute on Conflict Resolution Cornell University. Stanford. topic leader) Skills.Jobs Deficit/Growth [41] (Till von Wachter." UCLA's Lewin was the lead writer of the collective-bargaining paper "Getting It Right: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications from Research on Public-Sector Unionism and Collective Bargaining". Rutgers' Jeffrey Keefe. Also contributing to the writing and editing were University of Illinois' Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld.

Eaton Scholar-Practitioner Award Susan C. Local chapter members value the opportunity to learn about matters of importance in their area and to exchange observations and ideas informally with chapter speakers and members. Kochan and Stephen R.Scoville Best International Paper Award John T. advance information and discounts on meetings. an annual proceedings. Dunlop Scholar Award. Institute for Research on Labor and Employment United Food and Commercial Workers Local 1776 United Steelworkers of America West Virginia University Department of Industrial Relations and Management 247 Membership at both the individual and organizational levels includes subscriptions to a number of publications. Losey Human Resource Research Award Sloan Industry Fellowships Woodrow Wilson Women's Studies Dissertation Grant LERA Publications LERA publishes [53] a number of research reports and books. Two Dunlop Scholar Awards are given each year.Labor and Employment Relations Association • • • • • • • • Seabury Group LLC Society for Human Resource Management Southwest Airlines Pilots' Association Tennessee Employment Relations Research Association University of California at Los Angeles. The LERA Labor and Employment Law Section publishes a monthly online newsletter that is posted on the [54] . as well as faculty from local universities and third-party neutrals. Perspectives on Work. It also publishes the biannual journal. A second award recognizes an academic for research that addresses an industrial relations/employment problem of national significance in the United States. One goes to an academic who makes the best contribution to international and/or comparative labor and employment research. . LERA Awards LERA offers a number of awards [52]. Eaton Scholar-Practitioner Grant Michael R. Dunlop Scholar Awards Outstanding Practitioner Awards Susan C. Other awards include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Thomas A. public and federal sectors. a newsletter and a membership director. as well as an annual compendium of research. LERA website and distributed through the main LERA listserve LERA Chapters The Labor and Employment Relations Association has more than 50 local chapters [55] where members meet colleagues in the private. recognitions and grants each year. Sleigh Best Dissertation Award Chapter Merit Awards Excellence in Education Awards LERA Fellows Lifetime Achievement Award James G. Its most prestigious award is the John T. and many other opportunities to meet the leaders in the field and share ideas through participating in industry councils and interest sections.

employmentpolicy. employmentpolicy. employmentpolicy. org/ topic/ 402 http:/ / www. org/ topic/ 403 http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. org/ topic/ 10/ research/ jobs-deficit-and-job-growth-unemployment-and-consequences-workers [45] http:/ / www. org/ people/ lynch-lisa http:/ / www. clms. employmentpolicy. employmentpolicy. org/ people/ lawrence-katz http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. employmentpolicy. org/ files/ EPRN%20Wages%20March%2017%20edits2. org/ people/ lewin-david http:/ / www. org/ topics http:/ / www. org/ contact/ contact-lera/ Paula_D. org/ meeting/ 63rd-lera-annual-meeting [7] http:/ / www. edu/ http:/ / www. mit. org/ topic/ 578 http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. leraweb. org/ topic/ 23 http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. org [11] http:/ / en. org/ people/ jeffrey_keefe http:/ / www. org/ topic/ 19 http:/ / www. leraweb. employmentpolicy. employmentpolicy. employmentpolicy. economics. org/ people/ paul_harrington http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. edu/ http:/ / www. org/ topic/ 15 http:/ / www. org/ people/ eileen-appelbaum [13] [14] [15] [16] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. org/ Russell [12] http:/ / www. org/ people/ fidan_ana_kurtulus http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. leraweb. employmentpolicy. org/ people/ andrew_m_sum http:/ / www. org/ topic/ 17 http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. org/ topic/ 13 http:/ / www. html [53] http:/ / www. org/ participate/ chapters . illinois. _Wells [5] http:/ / leraweb. org [9] http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. org/ topic/ 16 http:/ / www. goiam. gov/ internet/ [49] http:/ / www. org/ people/ david_weil http:/ / www. org/ publications/ labor-and-employment-law-newsletter/ labor-and-employment-law-news-november-2010-0 [55] http:/ / www. edu/ [4] http:/ / leraweb. employmentpolicy. org/ topic/ 402/ research/ getting-it-right [47] http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. wikipedia. lera. org/ topic/ 10 http:/ / www. org/ sites/ www. org/ people/ peter_b_doeringer http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. org/ publications [54] http:/ / www. org/ people/ daniel-jb-mitchell [43] http:/ / www. edu/ [3] http:/ / illinois. org/ researchers [10] http:/ / en. employmentpolicy.org (http:/ / www. leraweb. employmentpolicy. org/ people/ sum-andrew http:/ / www. bu. uiuc. employmentpolicy. employmentpolicy. harvard. org/ people/ peter_berg http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. ler. org/ topic/ 21 http:/ / www. leraweb. org/ membership/ organizational-membership-listing [6] http:/ / www. org/ topics/ 22 [44] http:/ / www. harvard. employmentpolicy. org/ people/ larry_hunter http:/ / www. neu. fmcs. wikipedia. org/ topic/ 12 [17] http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. edu/ awards/ index. employmentpolicy. org/ meeting/ 2011-national-policy-forum [8] http:/ / www. org/ topic/ 226 http:/ / www. org/ ?utm_src=google& utm_medium=ppc& gclid=CI6G5KGdu6kCFYEUKgod93rn_QInternational [51] http:/ / mitsloan. employmentpolicy. org/ topic/ 24 http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. edu/ MIT [52] http:/ / www.Labor and Employment Relations Association 248 References [1] leraweb. employmentpolicy. pdf [46] http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. edu/ hrpi/ [48] http:/ / www. leraweb. edu/ [50] http:/ / www. employmentpolicy. org/ about-lera) [2] http:/ / www. employmentpolicy.

Editors Corey M. com/ books?id=RtxEW6XZzL4C& pg=PA121& dq=Carolyn+ McKecuen& cd=6#v=onepage& q=Carolyn McKecuen& f=false). Barbara Mackoff.html/) • Employment Policy Research Network (http://www. ISBN 9789231032011 . Cornell University Press. International Labour Organization. google. Foundation • 1994 MacArthur Fellows Program References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. ISBN 9780875461724 [6] Leadership as a Habit of Mind (http:/ / books.Labor and Employment Relations Association 249 External links • Labor and Employment Relations Association (http://www. presskit247. by the Ms. com/ books?id=NOs6R2v5HysC& pg=PA151& lpg=PA151& dq=Carolyn+ McKecuen& source=bl& ots=74orKJxRT9& sig=cG-xXLylPDAo_Zk6MgtNjNiI9Hk& hl=en& ei=_AXjS4nkEILw9gTl3dyHAw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=6& ved=0CCEQ6AEwBTge#v=onepage& q=Carolyn McKecuen& f=false). illinois. Gary Wenet. ISBN 9789221091899 External links • "Do children and business trips mix?" (http://www. org/ story/ business/ 070424/ girls-work-day-event-grows-moves http:/ / www. Young. msnbc. 1991.msnbc. a member-owned craft cooperative.edu/) • Employee Relations Specialist Career Information (http://www.org/) • School of Labor and Employment Relations.org/) Carolyn McKecuen Carolyn McKecuen is an American economic development leader. Rosen. com/ newsroom/ releases/ 2008/ 20081016-NationalPressReleaseTODP. and President of the Take Our Daughters And Sons To Work Foundation.msn. womensenews.com/id/24243774/). Jocelyne Etienne-Nugue.[4] [5] [6] [7] Awards • Presidential Award for Public/Private Support in Microenterprise. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (http://www. google. com/ books?id=PH4q1G6SvwoC& pg=PA96& dq=Carolyn+ McKecuen& cd=4#v=onepage& q=Carolyn McKecuen& f=false). Ursula Huws. com/ s9.mba-today. thewhitehouseproject. ISBN 9780595349036 [7] Action programmes for the protection of homeworkers: ten case studies from around the world (http:/ / books.C. 1995. google.[2] She supported Take our Daughters to the Polls as a non-partisan initiative. 1995.employmentpolicy. Harriet Baskas • Talented women. UNESCO Publishing. asp?ArticleID=3471 http:/ / www. 2005.com/hr-career/ employee-relations-specialist. Karen M. iUniverse.ler.leraweb.[3] She is founder and director of Watermark. in Elizabeth City.com. N. htm Understanding employee ownership (http:/ / books. php http:/ / www. com/ content/ content-article. takeourdaughtersandsonstowork. peoplecounttv.[1] She is a consultant for Human Resources Development.

References [1] http:/ / www. Kosovo. she graduated from Texas Woman’s University and the National War College.%20and%20Faculty. she held a variety of Human Relations positions. pdf [3] http:/ / www. She serves on the board of directors for Lon Morris College. She also served as Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel and Installation Management in Europe where she provided human resource and quality of life support to soldiers in Germany. Croatia. She also taught national strategic studies and leadership. As Director.[1] In organisational development (OD). [1] General McWilliams holds degrees from Lon Morris College and Stephen F. sfaalumni. commanding four companies. In 2004 the spend per annum per manager on management and leadership development was £1. Austin University where she was named a distinguished alumnus. an average of 6. Additionally. and a personnel brigade. In thirty years with the Army.[3] and the Women in Military Service Association/Women’s Memorial at Arlington Cemetery. Italy. Greece. Military Personnel Management for Department of the Army. investment in management development can have a direct economic benefit to the organization.%20Administration. a training battalion. org/ about/ about. and served as an Equal Opportunity Officer. General McWilliams developed policy and strategy for staffing.[2] the US Army Women’s Foundation. Bosnia. salary compensation.035. lonmorris. DC.3 days per manager. General McWilliams served as Acting Director of the Institute for National Intelligence in Washington.[2] What management development includes • structured informal learning: work-based methods aimed at structuring the informal learning which will always take place • formal training courses of various kinds: from very specific courses on technical aspects of jobs to courses on wider management skills • executive education: which might range from courses for (perhaps prospective) junior managers or team leaders • • • • Level 2 Teamleading (ILM) NVQ Level 3 Certificate in Management /Studies Diploma in Management /Studies . Therefore. Managers are exposed to learning opportunities whilst doing their jobs. to include recruitment of more than one hundred thousand annually. USA (Ret) After retiring from the United States Army. com/ ?awardrec [2] http:/ / www. edu/ webfiles/ Board. Hungary. armywomensfoundation. and training for over one million soldiers. the effectiveness of management is recognised as one of the determinants of organisational success.Dee Ann McWilliams 250 Dee Ann McWilliams Major General Dee Ann McWilliams. if this informal learning is used as a formal process then it is regarded as management development. and Egypt. shtml Management Development Management Development is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations.

’ From this. capability. organising. 2005) 1.1 Management styles can be defined as “the approach and advances initiated by enterprise management to the supervision and control of the operational productivity. these competencies are now part of the National Qualification Framework (NQF).Management Development • MSc/MA in management or Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees. Leaning Outcomes 1 1. the supervisors are the victims of exploitation in the ground of financial parity which doesn’t meet the amount of work load they are putting. to protect the laws and rules of the company. directing and controlling. representation and innovation (Everard. Behaviour Management is responsible for positive outcome of the business and to maintain interaction with all the aspects of the business. the persisting nature of the expectations of external stakeholder. reporting. capacity and competence of employer and employee categories occupational state and level in the hierarchy and degree to which organisation structure is massive (Sakthvel. To enhance the skills. 2008) Management can be defined as “Management consists in guiding human and physical resources into dynamic. task performance and work behaviour of subordinates” Styles of management vary according to the degree of management which can be comprehended in terms of direct oversight of subordinates and helpful behaviour by managers and supervisors (Sakthvel. it is clearly evident that. task for higher goal achievement strategy. to set boundaries for the members to achieve their goal successfully and finally the managerial behaviour is essential to maintain accordance in working area. The term 'leadership' is often used almost interchangeably with 'management. that there has been some sort of exploitation. technology. customer services or client requirements and the level of need for output quality and reliability (Sakthvel. 251 Approaches to management development • • • • • • • • • Dysfunction analysis Mentoring Coaching Job rotation Professional development Business Workflow Analysis Upward feedback Executive education Supervisory training Introduction The management process comprises various stages which can be termed as functions of management can be elaborated as planning. and when managerial functions are to be carried smoothly (Tony. staffing. the span of control and hierarchy. 2005) The comparison between two styles of management can be described as:. All the functions of management are primary in nature albeit there are various numerous functions performed by the managers like forecasting.[1] The Management Charter Initiative (MCI) originally set out management competencies for management S/NVQ’s. The foremost priority of managerial behaviour are to create a ambience of mutual understanding among the employee. hard hitting organisation unit that attains its objectives to the satisfaction of those served and with a high degree of morale and work” Chester I.a) External Environmental factors of management styles This factor comprises technology.' Leadership which deals with emotions is an important component of management which is about rational thinking. The plummeting spiral downfall of motivation results due to ‘lack of facility’. it is from these competencies that managers can be assessed and development needs determined. knowledge and abilities to improve organizational mechanisms.2 Armstrong (1990) leadership in terms of getting things done through people. The leadership aspect in the organisation and management exists due to the availability of more than one person in the task. budgeting. Bernard Understand principles and practices: (Managerial Behaviour) The burning angst and furore against the bureaucratic authority mainly stems from the fact. 2004) The success of Organisation and every firm depends upon the . 2005) b) Internal factors of management styles This factor comprises the size and scale of organisation. the nature of market. ‘pressure of work’ and ‘reduction in available funds.

this can be referred back to Herzberg’s theory of motivation. One of the functions of Informal communication in organisation is known as the “grapevine” (Tripathi. The supervisors argued.Proper leadership enables the smooth functioning of the enterprise. 2008) Taking business into consideration two process of Communication can be identified:. It is the foremost requirement in management to maintain the proper leadership quality in order to achieve the desired results (Tony. the staffs regarded the supervisors as a level of management poor at managing their sections. 2008) Herzberg and aspects of Supervisor’s performance (Task 1) Herzberg’s dual theory of motivation can be found in best forms here. a key point is. is lacking here.Management Development quality of leadership. Hygiene factors which are cyclical in nature. the staffs are right or the supervisors are in 252 . The younger trainers are trained hard. He should not this fact. the blame has been put on the supervisors regarding their work ethics. They have failed to maintain a certain level of performance standard and ignore work practices.1. The problem faced by the supervisors and their grievances against the authority clearly goes line in line with Herzberg’s theory of motivation. to replace the supervisors. as Herzberg said personal growth is necessary for high motivation.The main objective and perspective of the leader is to maintain a formal accord between the employer and employee in order for a smooth functioning of the Organisation (Tony. the growth is shunned. orders are communicated to the subordinates through this channel. The cause however is known. They feel. Leadership involves a community of Interest between the employer and employee: . In other words communication is not merely the transmission of information from one person to another but also correct interpretation and understanding of the Information (Tripathi. Informal Organisation: . A key hygiene factor as mentioned by Herzberg was Job security. relation with the co-worker is an important aspect in keeping high motivation. downward channel of management and channel between department and organisations (Tripathi. Potential Prospective Manager review (Task 2) The Manager here must need to address few problems. the position in the company (recognition) was unsure in the beginning. All decisions. Here. funding shortages (growth). There are four areas in business where formal communication exists which are upward channel of management. 2004) 1. Pay benefit is a hygiene factor. Such incendiary statements caused dissent and revulsion. Learning Outcomes 2 This dissatisfaction is manifold as discussed earlier. there is mistrust amongst the co-workers. performance standard. Whether. command and responsibility. there is a poor working condition prevailing in the company. They are unrest about the lack of facility. unrealistic targets (poor administration and company policy).1. Company policy and administration is very important in keeping workers happy. Hygiene factors operate independently. In Herzberg’s hygiene theory. that there is a certain level of exploitation going on. The supervisors countered each and every allegation with crassly attitude. 2004) 2. The supervisors claimed that there is no job security in the work place. Financial cutbacks and changes in service lead to the rumours of substantial cutbacks in staffs. Only two areas comprises Informal communication in business which are –work related areas and people related areas. Leadership implies the emergence of followers: . with no clear line of authority. no job descriptions and lack of facility (achievement and promotion). The work pressure is high and recognition is low. the grievances are on the same line though.Basically the organisation comprises majorly of the Formal communication which runs through a channel of work related matters. Here. instructions.3 A proper understanding of the information is important feature of communication in business. This clearly edifies why there is a cut-price and low salary for the supervisors.‘’ what have you done for me’’ recently. Even the administration was held loose. The problem of mistrust between the staff and senior management is a major concern though. 2004) 3. However. which keeps a worker happy. Here. 2008) 2. The people are made unhappy by unhealthy environment. This has hampered in taking strong decisions. Coupled with the fact.Informal Communication is not generally used in the business. Again. In this case. Leadership applies an unequal distribution of authority among leaders and group members: . leads to a syndrome. The characteristics of leadership can be classified as:. here it is disrupted. Formal Communication: . Moreover. they were left unrecognised (not bothering about recognitions).The amount of followers signifies the impact of the leader and the quality of leadership. promotion. Here. The problem of supervision is also noticeable. Growth. The correct amount of work is distributed by the leader according to the authorities in organisation (Tony. and work itself are the main motivating factor that drives a worker. They are given technological benefits. the co-workers are dissatisfied with the work environment.

Management Development their protests. M. Had they been trained properly. they would have also performed. England: Ashgate publisher. This must be a concern. England: Cengage. that younger trainers are getting to do the jobs of the supervisors and as a result there is a massive pay-cut. on the contrary. New Delhi: Mc grew hill publishers. staffing and directing. However. in doing so. Tripathi. the supervisors demanded. Tony. The manager should look in to the matter that Why there is a reduction in wage? This clearly states us. Principles of management. the important aspect is finance. In this situation. the important aspect is finance. Simply because. There are many functions and operations to be performed with the high responsibilities of the managers as panning. they have neglected the supervisors. there is a lack of facility. younger trainers are getting good trainings with good software. 253 . principles of management. Secondly. M. that regarding distribution of wage is not a ground level problem. While trying to address it. is. given proper injunction. it astute the manager and makes him aware about the business policies and the environment of the organisation. (2004). while addressing this issue. even few are shown exit doors. Various qualities develop within the manager due course of the management like leadership. R. new delhi: International pvt. controlling. it is a problem of administration and the company policy. there are some administrative flaws. (2005). The manager should look in to the matter that Why there is a reduction in wage? This clearly states us. ltd. Managerial and personal skills play a vital role in the career development. that why the younger trainers are trained so hard so that they can do a supervisor job? That means. that regarding distribution of wage is not a ground level problem. P. at the cause of reduction of wage. Apart from man-management. communication. the staffs doesn’t want extra people in the company or they want to reduce the wage of the supervisors. Therefore manager should work for the welfare of the masses and the organisation rather thinking and working for the individual. These are the factors which might influence the manager’s decision. (2008). it is a problem of administration and the company policy. he must look. This is a micro-problem. poor conditions of the working place should also be taken into account. After the performance of the compulsory functions of the management it is foremost task of the manager to maintain proper communication with all the channels of business states in order for a smooth functioning of the business According to the scenario of the business and keeping Herzberg theory of motivation in mind it is important to keep in the business policies and advantages of the employers. The manager will find. Sakthvel. Management principle and practices. All the nature and essential feature of a good manager are the requirement in the future to develop and enhance the productivity for a firm in all forms. Learning Outcome 3 Analysis of managerial skills within a business and services Managerial post comes with the great level of responsibilities first of all it is essential to know all the aspects of business in which it persists. that pay benefit has been hampered due to the reason. they were neglected and there is no growth. There is unrest about the job. motivational and aim oriented all the above qualities are very helpful in enlarging individuals career opportunities and built a strong curriculum vitae for career development Career and personal development needs can be supported by the characteristics of a good manager. organising. (2008).there are few ways to check and handle it. That means. The problem here. The fragile infrastructure and the beurocratic organisation are equally responsible for the present problem that needs addressing. Business principles and management. This must be addressed. 3rd edition. References Everard. In this situation. subsequently the manager should look into another important aspect.

(http:/ / www. co. Action Learning sets allow individuals to try out different approaches to solving issues and problems. Action Learning recognises that individuals learn best from experience. htm) London. postgraduate and professional courses. Management Development factsheet.M. CIPD (November 2004 .[1] Coaching Main article: business coaching see also :Main article: executive coaching • • • • • • An effective learning tool Impact on bottom line/productivity Intangible benefits Aids improvement of individual performance Tackles underperformance Aids identification of personal learning needs Management education One of the biggest growth areas in UK education since the early 1980s has been the growth of university level management education. Whereas there were only two business schools in the early 1970s. there are now over a hundred providers offering undergraduate. cipd.rev 2008) [2] Chartered Management Institute . As well as weekly part time attendance at College/University many students are also undertaking distance learning.Management Development 254 Action learning Many management qualifications now have an action learning element. References [1] Cannell. so that process is structured. uk/ subjects/ lrnanddev/ mmtdevelop/ mngmntdevt.

are based upon the performance of over 110. that licenses the tool into organisations. Planning and Scheduling Work Cognitive (Thinking Clearly) Identifying and Solving Problems Making Decisions and Weighing Risk. developed the MAP competency framework by first analysing the results of a series of large competency studies conducted by a number of major organisations. Giving Clear Information. defines competencies as "a group of related skills. The assessment involves studying a series of real-life management situations covering a week in the life of a typical manager and his team and answering a series of questions about your judgement of what you’ve seen. and attitudes that correlate with success in one’s job and can be improved through training. and attitudes that correlate with success in one’s job and that can be improved through training”. The situations covered include: • • • • Team meetings Time management Delegating Discipline and empathy . The 12 competencies are fundamental in determining the proficiency of an effective manager. and other criteria. across 17 countries. Development Processes Group plc. Academy of Resource Development.Managerial Assessment of Proficiency 255 Managerial Assessment of Proficiency The term Managerial Assessment of Proficiency (MAP) describes a methodology for the assessment of managerial competence in human resource and training applications. who leads the further development of MAP with fellow Director Cameron Robertson has used the tool in studies across 100's of major public and private sector organisations and he says' "we now have powerful benchmarking data of leadership competencies across most organisational sectors. knowledge. Disciplining and Counselling Dr. knowledge. according to the UK based company. IBM. and arranged them in 4 clusters and 2 broad categories: task-handling (left column) and people-handling (right column). is that MAP is the only objective diagnostic tool for managerial and leadership compenece measurement that exists in the world. Assessments can be generated for an employee. according to the methodology. The developers of MAP selected 12 of the most frequently mentioned competencies.000 managers. Implicit in the approach for developing managerial excellence is the definition of the competencies: a "group of related skills. Normative values. Delegating Appraising People and Performance. Coaching. AT&T. Ford and Kodak came up with very similar managerial competencies and these were analysed. creator of the tool and 1999 inductee into the HRD. MAP is designed for evaluation of a manager's proficiency in 12 prescribed competencies. developer of the MAP Assessment competency framework and tool." MAP Assessment Process Dr. Getting Unbiased Information Supervisory (Building a Team) Training. Administrative (Managing Your Job) Time Management and Prioritising. What is unique here. 360 degree opinion or subjective judgement by an assessor". those common to most frameworks. as well as for a department or the organisation as a whole. Scott Parry. Scott Parry. Setting Goals and Standards. The studies looked at a number of leading corporations to identify the competencies and attributes that were important to the performance of managers. Cliff Lansley. Hall of Fame. used for comparative purposes in each assessment. All other tools are based merely on self-report. Henley Management College. Thinking Clearly and Analytically Communication (Relating to Others) Listening and Organizing. in more than 600 organisations that have used MAP.

not competencies. the assessment instrument could therefore be used as a predictive index of one’s performance on the job. The construct validity can be measured by the degree to which the developers’ assessment data agrees with the actual performance of managers at work. initiative. ranging from . These are best defined as personality traits. On the post-assessment evaluation sheet. are not subject to significant change through participation in a training programme. using the Spearman's rank order correlation analysis. qualities. The second day of the process is the interpretation of the assessment scores providing delegates with a development ‘road map’ for their ongoing development. according to Dr. They are typically formed early in life and. 92% said they had no difficulty relating to the episodes. resulting in high face validity scores. short of clinical intervention. Validating the MAP Assessment Before making the assessment available to clients. . and 86% said that the scores they received were probably accurate. The scenarios are very effective in getting managers to be a part of the assessment process because they are based on the real situations that they regularly have to deal with on a day to day basis. Their overall proficiency percentiles (average of the 12 competency scores) were compared with their senior managers’ ratings of their performance at work. the management behaviour they have seen is good or bad practice. Cliff Lansley. Managers were selected to cover the full range of proficiency at work from ‘excellent’ to ‘below average’. This is in contrast to the characteristics. Correlations were positive. Working independently. three senior managers assigned ratings on a 5-point scale to each manager being assessed. If a team is being assessed then a group profile is also produced to take into account the department or team’s training and development needs. the degree to which they can identify with the video episodes and accept their proficiency profile as accurate. A total of 253 managers from 11 organisations went through the video-based assessment. At the end of the day the assessment is scored online and a personal profile produced within minutes. the competencies that were assessed enabled the developers to discriminate between high performing managers and their less effective counterparts. There are also two paper-based questionnaires that help determine their preferred styles of managing and communicating and the impact that can have in the workplace. Scott Parry. the process constituted the basis for a ‘needs analysis’ for identifying training and development opportunities. the developers of MAP validated the methodology in 11 organisations. Director and owner of Development Processes Group plc. the lead organisation for MAP across the UK. 3.Managerial Assessment of Proficiency • • • • Appraising staff Performance management Problem solving Listening. This supported the following assumptions:1. is undertaking an extended research and validation exercise and the results will be referenced on completion. A further examination of the list of 12 competencies will support the assumption that they can all be improved via training. 2.92. ambition and so on. But participants are also concerned with face validity. in their opinion.71 to . thereby establishing a rank order. flexibility. 256 Following each short scene the delegates answer a series of questions based on what they have been watching. The developers of MAP restricted the assessment to competencies that can be developed through training. and attributes that appear in some organisations’ lists of competencies¼ self-confidence. They are then asked if. This is in readiness for Day 2 of the MAP Assessment process.

Modes of delivery matched to all learning styles: such as workshops. coaching and self-study 7. The goal was to identify the implications of any deficiencies for the businesses concerned and assess how and where they impacted upon the organisation. following MAP assessment 6. 5. experienced the tool himself and he outlines in the link below how he used MAP within his organisation and found it to be a good predictor of managerial performance. 6. teams and the organisation 5. according to a MAP analysis. to ensure assimilation and minimise the disruption of training 10. legislation: struggling to respond and develop commercial advantage aging workforce: inability to recruit and retain sufficient new staff skills gaps: staff lacked the management and technical skills to compete successfully Specification of a Development Programme The work of Metricate Ltd went on to confirm in their study that development programmes were most effective in resolving the deficiencies in competence where they met the following programme design specifications:1. engineering and logistics industry sectors. Establish self and organisational awareness. The specific management competencies in deficit on this study. MAP measurement before and after the intervention. technology. to ensure an integrated understanding of the issues for the organisation 8. and against relevant industry and national benchmarks 3. with active endorsement by the directors 4. have supported its work in assessing and researching competencies in the construction. (‘Understanding the Real Skills Gap: Management and Leadership’ 2008. Raymond Blanc. coaching and delegating 2. MAP has been deployed across the UK by a range of Licenced Delivery Centres by Development Processes Group [1] PLC . Post development assessment to measure progression and ROI (Return on Investment) . were identified as:1. to embed a culture of autonomous development 9. A thorough needs analysis undertaken at the outset. Thinking clearly and analytically 3. techniques. to support an agreed understanding of the problems and desired outcomes 2. MAP has also been used as a central part of qualifications accredited by the Institute of Leadership and Management and the Chartered Management Institute. Programme over an extended period . The development programme should be led ‘from the top down’. One of its centres. 4. 7. 2.‘little and often’ – up to 12 months. Development of a cross-functional approach involving different teams/ departments. 3.Managerial Assessment of Proficiency 257 The Impact of MAP Famous chef. there were a number of strategic and operational problem areas for companies stemming from the deficit in the management competencies described:1. problems with succession planning for the business and key staff low profitability: chasing turnover at the sacrifice of margin poor productivity: unproductive use of staff at all levels response to globalisation: failure to grow and compete with larger rivals new environmental. Training. Listening and organising From follow-up interviews with managers at Company Board level. Customised to organisational challenges and personalised to individuals’ needs: this is achieved through interviews. Training programme targeted at three levels simultaneously: the individual. Metricate Ltd. Metricate Ltd).

co. (Paperback0. Scott Parry. co. Design Learning Programmes: Cliff Lansley. org/ mc/ page. HRD Manager's Route to Competence: Cliff Lansley. html/ http:/ / www. highbeam.ahrd. ISBN 1860930069 1. metricate. based in the UK [4] • the MAP tool explained in detail [4] • Raymond Blanc's experience with the diagnostic tool [5] • HRD. dpgplc. 2000. Developing a Strategic Approach to HRD v. dpgplc. com/ case http:/ / www. ASTD March 7. com/ http:/ / mapassessment. dpgplc. uk http:/ / www. com/ doc/ 1G1-176129792. com/ doc/ 1G1-186951088. encyclopedia.org/mc/page.Managerial Assessment of Proficiency 258 Websites and links • studies and product details about MAP [2] • a round table discussion on MAP [3] • the national training and development organisation responsible for MAP. one of the DPG plc Licenced Delivery Centres providing assessment and development programmes for the construction. co. ahrd. Hall of Fame – the Award is presented to scholars in human resource development and related disciplines http://www. uk/ _includes/ pdf/ Le-Manoir-and-MAP-Assessment. ISBN 1562861328 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. pdf http:/ / www. 3 (Paperback). ISBN 1860930077 1. Training for Results. engineering and logistics sectors [7] • Article: Performance management masterclass: the fifth TJ roundtable discussion hosted by DPG plc and Dr Peter Honey examined the impact performance assessment has had on the ever-changing role of the manager [8] Books 1. uk/ http:/ / www. do?sitePageId=56783 http:/ / www. html/ . Academy of Resource Development.do?sitePageId=56783 [6] • Metricate.

Philosophy.[2] The department has been offering an M.Executes outreach programmes. Kharagpur MHRM 1982 as M. and lawyers.Generates and disseminates knowledge to the larger community through education/training. Philosophy. The Department is actively engaged in teaching.Its objective was to provide value-based liberal education to budding scientists and engineers so that they can become professionals with a difference to understand the social realities.For attainment of its vision. German. and [4] runs its own master programmes. engineers. outreach activities. and Sociology. the Department teaches humanities and social sciences to potential scientists.MHRM. research. 2. History The Department of Humanities and Social Sciences started with the very inception of IIT Kharagpur in 1951. 2. training. IIT Kharagpur Mission 1.Tech course in Human Resource Management since 1982. managers. Economics.Tech(HRM).[3] About the Department The department houses many disciplines. German. Psychology.To achieve excellence in teaching. it restructured the course and has been offering it as Master of Human Resource Management since July 2010. and offers masters programmes in economics and human resource management. training and research in the areas of humanities and social sciences. . Restructured in 2010 as MHRM [1] The Master of Human Resource Management (MHRM) is a specialized management programme in the field of Human Resource offered by Department of Humanities and Social Sciences(HSS) at IIT Kharagpur(also known as IIT KGP). 4. They are English literature and communication. IIT Kharagpur Course Master of Human Resource Management Department Humanities and Social Sciences University Acronym Established Website Indian Institute of Technology.Undertakes research in the broad and emerging areas of humanities and social sciences including English Literature and Communication. Economics. Human Resource Management. Department of Humanities & Sciences. and Sociology. Human Resource Management.To prepare professional leaders to address the emerging global challenges and to deal with social and business realities. 3. IIT Kharagpur MHRM. With the objective to meet the demands of contemporary business. Vision 1. IIT Kharagpur 259 MHRM. Psychology.

It has brought an opportunity of global competition where effective and sustainable performance of the corporate world has become a key to organizational success. at the end of the second semester.[7] Student Committees Various committees are run by MHRM students like Placement Committee(PLACECOM). in/ [2] History (http:/ / www. hss. iitkgp. the programme focuses on the development of knowledge. Human Resource (HR) offers competitive advantage to meet the demands of contemporary business.[5] Admissions Appearing for Joint Management Entrance Test (JMET) is the first step in the process of seeking admission to the MHRM programme. The dissertation work will start during the summer vacation. The band of HR managers must understand and know how to add value to business. The role of HR professionals needs a shift from technical to tactical and legitimate to strategic.[6] Course Structure The course structure of the program is comprehensive and takes into consideration the needs of business. hss. iitkgp. php?id=About MHRM& smn=yes& stype=mhrm/ ) [6] Admission (http:/ / www. in/ indexs. Apart from these committees an HR club known as KHROM(KGPians for Human Resource Management) is also run by the students. The first semester will expose students to the basics of business management. hss. the Academic Committee etc. in/ ) [3] MHRM History (http:/ / www. Against this backdrop. php?id=About MHRM& smn=yes& stype=mhrm/ ) [4] HSS (http:/ / www. IIT Kharagpur 260 Objective The impact of economic reforms in the 90's on the Indian market has been unprecedented. php?id=Admission on MHRM& smn=yes& stype=mhrm/ ) . The second and third semesters will cover the HR-related core subjects. work experience and academic. in/ ) [5] Objective (http:/ / www. ernet. (b) make HR professionals understand business dynamics. Also Check IIT Kharagpur References [1] http:/ / www. hss. iitkgp. In such a scenario. iitkgp. in/ indexs. The fourth semester will focus on specific and specialized HR issues. hss. the Admissions Committee(ADCOM). skills. It is a four-semester course. iitkgp. hss. ernet. iitkgp. ernet. It emphasizes building in-depth knowledge in human resource management.MHRM. Performance in JMET. ernet. ernet. and (d) inculcate business ethics in HR professionals. iitkgp. as well as extra-curricular achievements are taken into consideration for short-listing candidates for group discussion and personal interviews. hss. ernet. HR functions demand multi-fold skills to achieve key performance. and attitudes to enable students to meet the requirements of the modern organization as HR professionals. in/ indexs. (c) prepare HR professionals to take up strategic roles. The objective of this programme is to train human resources to: (a) meet the demands of the industry. in/ indexs. php?id=Admission on MHRM& smn=yes& stype=mhrm/ ) [7] Course (http:/ / www. The curriculum is rigorous and at par with reputed business schools in India and abroad. ernet.

Ph. Recently. ksu.pdf External links • KSU Faculty Member site (http://faculty.aspx) . [1] Academic career Since 1997 Alhammad worked as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Educational Administration. Publications • The role of scholarship in the development of human resources in the era of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz References [1] http:/ / faculty.ksu. Education. IIT Kharagpur 261 External links • HSS Homepage (http://www.sa/ Malhammad/default. Then. Alhammad Born Residence Nationality Fields Institutions Wadi ad-Dawasir. from the Vanderbilt University Biography Mubarak Alhammad was born in 1956 in the village of Wadi ad-Dawasir.aspx) (http://faculty.MHRM. Saudi Arabia. He received his bachelor degree in Islamic Law in 1978. he has been the general supervisor of the colleges in Wadi ad-Dawasir and Assulayyel. in 2007 he established the College of Arts and Science in Wadi ad-Dawasir and is currently the Dean of the college. Then he received a Masters Degree in Human Resource Development from the University of South Florida in Tampa in 1987 and later a PhD in Human Resource Development from Vanderbilt University in Nashville in 1995.sa/Malhammad/default.edu.iitkgp.ernet.D. Mubarak M.ac. Saudi Arabia Saudi Human Resource. Saudi Arabia. In 2002 Alhammad established the Riyadh Community College of King Saud University and was Dean of the college until 2006.edu.in/) Mubarak Alhammad Mubarak Alhammad is a Saudi Human Resource Development Consultant and a Professor of Educational administration at King Saud University in Riyadh. College of Education in King Saud University in Riyadh. Communication King Saud University (professor) Alma mater MPA at University of South Florida.in/) • IIT Kharagpur Website (http://www.hss.iitkgp. Saudi Arabia Riyadh. edu.ksu. sa/ Malhammad/ Documents/ Resume_english_new[1].

interscience. the seniority-wage system has become less popular amongst business as they could not afford to keep older employees with high salaries on the payroll.Nenko System 262 Nenko System The seniority-wage system (年 功 序 列 Nenkō joretsu) is the Japanese system of promoting an employee in order of his or her proximity to retirement. The labor turnover rate in Japan is less than half the US level. The seniority-wage system can also be seen in Japanese government. the seniority-wage system is seen as a decadent system that has spoiled the older generations. Japanese parliament seats are usually filled with the older members from each party. Many mid-level executives that climbed the corporate ladder with the Nenko system fell victim to corporate restructuring. in the 21st century. wiley. com/ cgi-bin/ fulltext/ 119957777/ PDFSTART . After the economic bubble burst in Japan in the late 80s and the venture capital (dot-com) shock of the 90s. External links • LABOR TURNOVER IN THE USA AND JAPAN: A TALE OF TWO COUNTRIES [1] References [1] http:/ / www3. The disadvantage of the system is that it does not allow new talent to be merged with the experience and those with specialized skills cannot be promoted to the already crowded executive ranks. Without knowing how to compete for a high wage position unlike the younger talents. It also does not guarantee or even attempt to bring the "right person for the right job". The advantage of the system is that it allows older employees to achieve a higher salary level before retirement and that it usually brings more experience to the executive ranks.

resulting in team resentment of management. the steps are:[1] • Management distraction and team autonomy – A climate exists where management is consumed by other issues and the team is a cohesive unit of highly motivated and skilled individuals who thrive on autonomy and avoid publicity. • Assumptions and resentment – Management assumes team self-sufficiency and begins to ignore requests for assistance. in an article in the Harvard Business Review published in 2001. Background .Nut Island effect 263 Nut Island effect The Nut Island effect describes a human resources condition in which a team of skilled employees becomes isolated from distracted top managers resulting in a catastrophic loss of the ability of the team to perform an important mission. resulting in repeated failure and eventual catastrophic collapse. In summary. which describes conditions at the authority’s Nut Island sewage treatment facility in Quincy. Description Levy served as executive director of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) from 1987 to 1992 before writing "The Nut Island Effect: When Good Teams Go Wrong". • Self-rule – In order to satisfy external requirements the team creates self-imposed regulations which create hidden problems. • De-facto separation – The team cohesiveness and resentment of management results in a full separation characterized by limited communication and complete refusal of outside assistance. and proposes that the name of the facility involved be applied to similar situations in other business enterprises. Massachusetts over a three decade period ending in the plant’s closure in 1997. a former Massachusetts state official. The work is used as a source in human resources management case studies and is featured on the websites of several business management consulting firms and health care institutions. • Chronic systemic failure and collapse – Management indifference and misguided team self-regulation become systemic. The article uses the history of the facility to illustrate a five-step process that defines a business scenario that progressively leads to management-employee alienation. Levy. employee self-regulation of critical processes and finally catastrophic mission failure. The article outlines a situation which resulted in massive pollution of Boston Harbor. The term was coined by Paul F.

Bush defeated Dukakis partly through campaign speeches casting doubt on the governor’s environmental record. consistent operation of the facility that the workers gladly provided.[6] The lawsuits forced then Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis to propose separating the water and sewer treatment divisions from the MDC. resulting in a landmark court-ordered cleanup of Boston Harbor.020 km2) former island in Boston Harbor that was joined by landfill to the Hough's Neck peninsula in northeastern Quincy by the 1940s for use as the site of a sewage treatment facility.[5] The City of Quincy sued the MDC and the separate Boston Water and Sewer Commission in 1982.Nut Island effect Nut Island is a small roughly 5-acre (0. recreational facilities such as swimming pools and hockey rinks and water distribution infrastructure.[4] The failures at Nut Island and the companion Deer Island plant adjacent to Winthrop. As a result. Position of Nut Island on the eastern shore of Quincy Bay with inset became known as fertile ground for political patronage showing the location in Boston Harbor. Fecal coliform bacteria levels forced frequent swimming prohibitions along the harbor beaches and the Charles River for many years.[6] 264 . [2] in Massachusetts. presidential election as George H. following the ends of World War II and the Korean War the sewage treatment facility opened in 1952 at Nut Island was manned by several ex-servicemen. These men were by nature of their military experience both strongly inclined to build a powerfully cohesive unit possessing excellent [3] improvisational skills and well suited to operating in isolation under adverse conditions. At the same time. which Dukakis had claimed was better than that of Bush. The management and employee situations satisfied the requirements of step one of Levy’s analysis. Massachusetts had far-reaching environmental and political effects. The plant staff found management to be so trusting and distracted as to provide little or no assistance in the resolution of problems.[7] The court-ordered cleanup continued throughout the next two decades and is still ongoing. The commission.S. charging unchecked systemic pollution of the city’s waterfront. less visible responsibilities including sewage treatment facilities operations. Eventually a series of plant failures culminated in a massive four-day discharge of untreated sewage in January 1976. As time progressed management focused on political issues and became reliant on the quiet. This environment led to staff reliance on unscientific treatment procedures and improvised unorthodox plant operation. also responsible for the construction and maintenance of several roadways. The operation of sewage treatment and disposal facilities in populous eastern Massachusetts was the responsibility of an independent state agency known as the Metropolitan District Commission (MDC). primarily to avoid equipment replacement that required management approval. top management became focused on the satisfaction of political goals and constituent recreation requests at the expense of mundane. self-regulating operation that often misreported situations and problems in an effort to both satisfy outside regulators and avoid management entirely. The slow progress of the cleanup became a central theme of the 1988 U.W. That suit was followed by one by the Conservation Law Foundation and finally by the United States Government. resulting in the creation of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority in 1985. This resulted in the workers resenting the distant managers and creating a self-sustaining.

91-3. JICA-MP Reproductive Health Project. infomanagementcenter. 9-11 "A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Boston Harbor Microbiological Data" (http:/ / www. June 1991.Nut Island effect 265 Conclusions Levy became head of the MWRA in 1987 and presided over harbor cleanup and management reforms for the next four-and-a-half years. A. Eric Jay (2004) (in English). html). [8] Levy. mwra. (March 1. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Levy. 2001). Paul F. dirty. com/ ?id=G6rcthRoifcC . 10 [9] Hackos. . asp) (in English). In the paper Levy provides a brief framework of recommendations for companies that wish to forestall or avert similar communication crises in their organizations. lib. The New York Times. His experiences with those efforts and dialog with managers and employees at the time and in the following years led to publication of the paper. constant management presence and communication with remote operations centers and regular turnover of new employees at those centers. Stephen (May 2007). Retrieved 2009-06-14. Retrieved 2009-06-11. Political waters: the long. Technical Report No. . Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press. umb. JoAnn (September 2004). "Mazzone. Among his proposed remedies are creation of links between employee actions and external controls with performance-based rewards. "Life On Nut Island" (http:/ / www. pp. Judge A. contentious. p. Retrieved 2009-06-11. ISBN 9781558494459. "Boston Harbor cleanup haunts a new governor" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 8 Dolin. harvardbusiness. 7-9 Levy. Retrieved 2009-06-11. com/ 1991/ 04/ 06/ us/ boston-harbor-cleanup-haunts-a-new-governor. The Walrus. "The Nut Island Effect: When Good Teams Go Wrong" [12] (in English). • Dolin. PhD. Hon. org/ knowledge_thoughts_smarts. [10] Williams. Retrieved 2009-06-11. p. 1991). jicamprhp. [11] "Thoughts and Smarts" (http:/ / www. org/ 2001/ 03/ when-good-teams-go-wrong/ ar/ 1 [13] http:/ / books. Harvard Business Review (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing). htm). . [12] http:/ / hbr. edu/ node/ 1620). incredibly expensive but eventually triumphant history of Boston Harbor--a unique environmental success story [13]. Retrieved 2009-06-11. com/ enewsletter/ 200409/ feature. com/ harbor/ enquad/ pdf/ 1991-03. [6] Mazzone. David : Chamber Papers on the Boston Harbor Clean Up Case. 63 Levy.[9] [10] [11] Sources • Levy. google. 05-society-history-chippewa-indian-reservation-/ ). [7] Butterfield. . pp.[8] The prominence of the Boston Harbor case has led to the paper being featured in human resources curriculums and as a training tool by business consulting firms. Retrieved 2009-06-11. "The Nut Island Effect" (http:/ / www. David. Fox (April 6. pdf) (PDF). nytimes. . . walrusmagazine. 1985-2005" (http:/ / www. p. Center for Information-Development Management. com/ articles/ 2007. Amherst. Massachusetts Water Resources Authority.

iu. exhaustion refers to the depletion or draining of emotional resources. and issues in performance appraisal systems.[5] . Therefore. kelley. the process of burning out is the realization and reflection of the failure to find meaning and growth in life. asp) Occupational burnout Job burnout is characterized by exhaustion.[4] Occupational burnout is associated with increased work experience. leadership behavior. and reduced professional efficacy within the workplace. teachers. including both masters and doctoral programs. and police officers. Such jobs that naturally experience high amounts of occupational burnout include: social workers. cynicism.OBHR 266 OBHR Organizational Behavior and Human Resources (OBHR) is a field of study housed in most business schools that has evolved from the overlap in offerings and objectives from courses taught in organizational behavior and human resource management. impaired empathy and cynical attitudes toward clientele. lawyers.[1] Organizational Behavior studies human behavior in social settings with an emphasis on explaining. emotional involvedness. and involved in the work in which they partake.[2] Human Resource Management emphasizes human resource systems.[3] References [1] Organizational Behavior and Human Resources : Harvard Extension School (http:/ / www.[2] Occupational burnout is typically and particularly found within the human service professions. edu/ Doctoral/ Academic Disciplines/ page2299. increased workload.[2] The Society for Human Resource Management reports that there are at least 190 OBHR graduate programs worldwide. it is significant that they find meaning by achieving their goals and expectations. and other classes of behavior relevant to organizational effectiveness. design and implementation of various personnel tests. collection and validation of employee demographic data. edu/ 2007-08/ courses/ obhr. jsp) [2] (http:/ / www. harvard. dedicated. and thoughts of quitting. physicians. group functioning. task performance. org/ foundation/ undergraddirec. Empirical generalizations and theories emanating from the cognitive and reinforcement paradigms and models of social influence are examined as the basis for analysis and understanding of topics such as motivation.List Your Undergraduate HR Program (http:/ / shrm. The individuals who are most vulnerable to occupational burnout are ones who are strongly motivated. predicting.[4] As work for these individuals is a source of importance in which they derive meaning in life. and understanding behavior in organizations. absences and time missed from work. and reduced professional efficacy refers to the lack of satisfaction with past/present expectations.[1] More accurately defined. training impact analysis. extension.[3] The reason why burnout is so prevalent in the human service professions is due in part to the high stress environment. and outcomes that are independent of the effort exerted by the working individual. cynicism refers to the indifference or distant attitude of work. . examination of psychometric requirements in compensation programming. job classification techniques. html) [3] SHRM Foundation . problem solving and decision making. nurses.

a strategy of combining both organizational and individual level activities may be the most beneficial approach to reduce the three main symptoms. T. November). R. (1998).. (2005. & Visser. as well as. & Enzmann. The burnout companion to study and practice: A critical analysis. recent research indicates that. [6] Hätinen. Pekkonen. 62-77. tolerance for stress. Shewchuk. B. [3] Jackson. Comparing two burnout interventions: Perceived job control mediates decreases in burnout.. Kinnunen. A.. & Kalimo. 397–422. 14(3). U. 62-77. D. W. 83. 71(4). 12(1). [11] Elliott. [8] Schaufeli.. didactic stress management. Kinnunen. tolerance for stress.. W. . C. International Journal of Stress Management.[10] Employee rehabilitation Employee rehabilitation is defined as a tertiary preventive intervention which means the strategies used in rehabilitation are meant to alleviate. Garssen.. B. Rehabilitation Psychology. R. The evaluation of an individual burnout intervention program: The role of inequity and social support. Rehabilitation Psychology. S. A.. December). M.). & Visser. February). February). T. London: Taylor & Francis. at the individual level. [9] Hätinen. (1998).. Shewchuk. Insulation from burnout One study suggest that social-cognitive processes such as commitment to work. Journal of Applied Psychology. self-efficacy. (1996. [2] van Dierendonck. B. Occupational burnout. 52. D. M.. Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual (3rd ed... (2007. 14(3). Annual Review of Psychology. 12(1). B.. Research shows that intervention actually may worsen the professional efficacy of one who originally had low professional efficacy. D.[8] It is more complicated at the organizational level where reducing or removing job stressors have been shown to decrease burnout. M. Comparing two burnout interventions: Perceived job control mediates decreases in burnout.[4] These types of prevention programs rely upon reducing the exhaustion component of occupational burnout. & Leiter. learned resourcefulness.Occupational burnout 267 Occupational burnout prevention In order to quell occupational burnout. (2001). CA: Consulting Psychologist Press. Jackson. B. S. However. and relaxation. U... Palo Alto. & Harkins.. Schaufeli. Occupational burnout... 41(4). (1996). [5] Elliott. R. Burnout Prevention Through Personal Growth. cognitive restructuring. International Journal of Stress Management.[6] Such rehabilitation of the working population includes multidisciplinary activities with the intent of maintaining and improving employees' working ability and ensuring a supply of skilled and capable labor in society. it is important to reduce or remove the negative aspects of the three main components that make up occupational burnout. 41(4). R. R. Improving upon job-person fit by focusing attention on the relationship between the person and the job situation appears to be a promising way to deal with burnout.. K. M. Journal of Applied Psychology.[9] Burnout experts believe that in order to reduce occupational burnout. August). Rybarczyk... which tend to be more resistant to treatment. M. 392–407. C.[6] Exhaustion is more easily treated than cynicism and professional efficacy. K. D. S. it is difficult to treat all three components as the three burnout symptoms react differently to the same preventive or treatment activities. & Schuler. International Journal of Stress Management. & Buunk. Garssen.[7] Burnout prevention programs in the past have focused upon cognitive-behavior. Job burnout. & Harkins.. B. Hagglund. 267-284. [7] van Dierendonck. Burnout Prevention Through Personal Growth. M. International Journal of Stress Management. 227-248. P. and coping among nurses in rehabilitation units.. & Leiter.. and hope may insulate individuals from experiencing occupational burnout. (1996. December). (2007. 630-640.. and coping among nurses in rehabilitation units. W. (1986.. [4] van Dierendonck. (2005. 267-284. cognitive-behavioral strategies have the best potential for success. & Kalimo. However. Hagglund. B.. R. prevent burnout symptoms. Pekkonen. S.. B. [10] Maslach. August). Schwab. Schaufeli. 227-248. Rybarczyk. Toward an understanding of the burnout phenomenon.[11] References [1] Maslach.

• Clanton. and Leslie W. is developed by the National Center for O*NET Development. org/ ) [2] Byars. S. it offers a finer level of detail.org/) (official website) • O*net vs DOT Analysis (http://www. & Taylor. Rehabilitation Psychology. C. (1997). New York: McGraw-Hill / Irwin.com/id13.html) . which was considered obsolete and inefficient during the early 1990s and abandoned by the Department of Labor in 1998. C. onetcenter.. org/ taxonomy. 43. D. L.. Rude. As a result.02 Auditors. the O*NET lacks information regarding the physical demands of listed jobs at the same level of detail as the DOT. the SOC occupation 13-2011 Accountants and Auditors has the O*NET-SOC code of 13-2011. Human Resource Management. References [1] O*NET OnLine (http:/ / online. 13-2011. 2006.theworksuite. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. html External links • O*NET Resource Center (http://www. O*NET has failed to replace its predecessor for this function.[3] For example. This is based on the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).. Rue.01 Accountants and 13-2011.Occupational burnout 268 Further reading • Cooper. L.. The O*NET uses an occupational taxonomy called O*NET-SOC. sponsored by the Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor. onetcenter. 8th ed. However. (1992). 131–140.[2] However.00 and is linked to two more-detailed O*NET occupations. S. 69-71. DOT was heavily relied upon by the Social Security Administration in making disability determinations because of this feature. to conform with the practices of all governmental sources of occupational information. Lloyd L. 37. & Cartwright.[1] O*NET was created to replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). Learned resourcefulness as a moderator of burnout in a sample of rehabilitation providers.onetcenter. 7–16. [3] http:/ / www. An intervention strategy for workplace stress. Occupational Information Network Occupational Information Network (O*NET) is the primary source of occupational information for the United States. O*NET.

an international expert in escalating business growth specifically in the software industry was made part of the OrangeHRM Advisory board in year 2009.OrangeHRM 1.OrangeHRM 269 OrangeHRM OrangeHRM Stable release [1] 2.This module is designed for the HR Manager or other administrative members to perform the necessary administration tasks. Spanish and Danish languages. Over the past 6 years. The company was established in 2005. the company reached a noteworthy number of downloads and the application was made available to diverse user communities by introducing the application in Russian.com [2] OrangeHRM is a leading open source Human Resource Management (HRIS) solution which is headquartered in USA and has subsidiaries deployed across Europe and Asia. OrangeHRM had evolved into an HR solution with new modules and feature enhancements to suit the user’s needs. David Axmark is a founder of MySQL AB and also a developer of the free database server. and the stepping stone of OrangeHRM was their first Beta release in January 2006. In year 2007. and Reports modules. On the same year. History The co-founder and Chief Executive Officer of OrangeHRM. . OrangeHRM is an open source HRIS solution partnered and used by organizations worldwide.Larry Stefonic.0 which was released in March 2006. The organization started with four employees which included one developer. comprised features such as PIM. thus providing a precise and convenient HRM System. while having the ability to maintain different authority levels for each user.[3] and is thus free software. The company formed it's first partnership with Ross-Canada. The architecture of the application targets small and medium Enterprises. OrangeHRM is released under the GNU General Public License. also enabling Admin users and ESS users to have different authority levels to the data in the application.net. OrangeHRM launched it's web-based HR Management system. OrangeHRM Live. Linux Type License Website HRIS GNU General Public License (GPL) www. The latest version of OrangeHRM includes the following modules: • Admin module . OrangeHRM was ranked as the fourth best solution in the category of Enterprise projects and was among the top ten of all projects. Sujee Saparamadu had formed the building blocks through his expertise in developing and deploying enterprise applications. ESS.in the world's largest software development web site. and other information that forms the backbone for the entire system.orangehrm. 2011 Operating system Windows. OrangeHRM Today Today.SourceForge. MySQL whose prime objective was to build a successful business aided by free open source software.6. The administrator can define the company structure.6 / August 12. pay grades. OrangeHRM comprises skilled developers as well as professional support and services which is a solid foundation to a stable system. laid hands on OrangeHRM which was a major turning point of the company. making OrangeHRM services available to the Canadian market. In year 2010.

This module includes. approval of vacancies‚ capturing candidate’s information‚ short-listing‚ attaching resumes and many more tasks related to recruitment. view leave summary of all employees in one screen.This feature handles all time and attendance needs of the company. which are readily available features such as: • • • • • • • • • Theme change LDAP Expense tracker Time-sheet Report CSV extractor Leave calendar Notifications Leave details CSV extractor Recruitment details CSV extractor . • Recruitment module – This feature produces a solution to the time consuming and laborious recruitment process. The employees can access their records from any location.The PIM module holds all the employee related information such as. OrangeHRM Live consists of many add-ons and advanced modules.The user can define leave types. Rackspace (SaS70 certified server). educational and professional qualifications. work experience and job related information. or an IT infrastructure. Companies using OrangeHRM Live are at the ease of following payment plans such as pay as you go and pay per user. personal information. giving a flexible and productive system to HR Personnel. Add-ons If the user is not satisfied with the features present in the current application. OrangeHRM Live is hosted and maintained with timely upgrades and it is accessible at anytime from any part of the world. • Leave module .This module can help to perform all leave related tasks. define days-off and the user can apply for and assign continuous leave and receive auto notification e-mails after performing leave related operations. OrangeHRM Live is hosted on a highly secured server. posting job vacancies. OrangeHRM provides add-ons. This feature allows the user to define new benefits‚ by type‚ provider and several other areas. 270 OrangeHRM Live OrangeHRM is also available as a hosted version namely. The benefits can also be assigned to employees in different ways. • ESS module . • Benefits module – Allows the user to manage benefit-related tasks such as covering medical and welfare benefits. It uses a cloud-based data hosting system built on a proven LAMP architecture. The application can be deployed in minutes and it does not require any installation. • Performance module – A detailed analysis of the time spent by each employee on different projects or tasks can be retrieved using this module. OrangeHRM Live. • Time module . The sophisticated module helps to efficiently organize labor data‚ improve the workforce management and minimize errors in enforcement of company’s attendance policies. The module automates time tracking related processes. Any number of reports can be defined by selecting from a range of search criteria and report fields. IT staff. thus ensuring higher performance and highly secured data storage.Each employee is given access to his or her personal information and the personal information could also be updated without a need to inform the HR staff.OrangeHRM • Personal Information Management . This is a great tool aiding employees to keep track of their performance and reach work targets. • Reports module – This feature allows the user to produce customized reports depending on the user requirements.

zdnet.. which allows small training groups to participate from any location.com/read/383019. OrangeHRM On-site training is where OrangeHRM certified trainers will conduct training sessions at any location upon request. OrangeHRM Online training is conducted via Cisco’s Webex.Indonesia Cirrus Computing . Moreover. .Canada Notes and references [1] http:/ / www. net/ viewvc/ orangehrm/ trunk/ php/ orangehrm/ README. OrangeHRM Training OrangeHRM Online/Onsite training is conducted by professional lecturers.sys-con.Costa Rica Komunitas OrangeHRM . com/ [3] "README. Partners OrangeHRM offers partnerships to those who are capable of providing support and customizations to OrangeHRM customers.au/content/view/13030/53/1/3/) • Enterprise Open Source Is Not Just the Code (http://opensource. provided that the requirements are met.India K|P|K Ltd .asp) . gold and platinum.txt from the project's source code" (http:/ / orangehrm. svn. asp?id=42998&cid=2) • OrangeHRM and the new development model (http://blogs.pcquest. where each plan offers a variety of privileges. the user is offered support/maintenance plans such as silver. This training targets large groups of trainees.com.com/open-source/?p=962) • Open-Source Software Opening HR Doors (http://www. OrangeHRM partnerships program comprises Gold.itbusiness.com/opensourceunleashed/2007/ 07/orangehrm_and_the_two_sides_of.workforce.Canada VHC Advance . Silver and Bronze partnerships which treats partners with many benefits.com/archive/feature/24/64/34/index. orangehrm. TXT?view=markup)." • OrangeHRM and the two sides of global open source (http://www. php) • Online HR Information System (http://www. orangehrm. to enrich individuals with up-to-date HR Management techniques and greater knowledge on the application which benefits the user as well as the organization. to suit the requirements of the company by contacting the professional services team of OrangeHRM.itgumbo. "OrangeHRM is free software.Spain Factor Humano .OrangeHRM 271 Customizations The user is also given the privilege of requesting for customizations in the application.com/content/enterprise/2006/106120601.. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License. sourceforge.USA ProcessMaker . Individuals who successfully complete the training session and sit for the examination will be awarded a certificate of OrangeHRM Certified Administrator.USA SCsoft LLP .Thailand Identity Automation .itwire.php) • Open source's hottest 10 apps (http://www. The company has privileged partners from all over the world namely: • • • • • • • • • • Ross .ca/it/client/en/home/News.Singapore ODED Transformational Technologies . com/ blog/ 2011/ 08/ 18/ orangehrm-266-out/ [2] http:/ / www.htm) • Open source startups seek to fill vertical voids (http://www.

Organizational development and in particular the diagnostic phase of activities is spreading from the occupational psychologists towards main stream business. diagnosis has moved from the purely behavioral towards a strategic and holistic business diagnostic approach.com . and structural and operational strengths and weaknesses are fundamental to any successful organizational development intervention. The purpose of the diagnosis is to examine the problem faced by the organization in detail. commonly called 'a consulting process'. it is also the first fully operational phase of the consulting process or cycle. An example of such a process is: Entry --> Diagnosis --> Action Planning --> Implementation --> Termination [2] As the second phase in the consulting cycle. . Since the beginnings of organizational development as a profession.OrangeHRM Blog http://www.. more effective goal-setting and planning processes must be learned. to identify factors and forces that are causing the problem and to prepare the collected information to decide how to implement possible solutions to the identified problems.html .orangehrm. Competing or conflicting groups must move towards a collaborative way of work.com/blog .fsf. new organization forms must be developed. equally as organizations are increasingly collaborative in nature.orangehrmlive.com . and practiced teams of independent people must spend real time improving their methods of working.com/orangehrm . As Beckhard[1] said in the preface to his seminal work .com Organizational diagnostics In the field of Organizational Development there are many activities and disciplines. French. decision-making and communicating. Spanish and portugues @ Demolabo. The diagnosis of the problem is a separate phase from the solutions themselves. managed change effort is necessary . in our rapidly changing environment. the traditional silo approach to diagnostics is becoming increasingly rare.orangehrm. This was written in 1969 and while much has been learnt it is just as true today. This is important for OD practitioners as the role is increasingly holistic The Consulting Process The organizational Diagnostic phase is often integrated within an overal OD process.Demos available in English.OrangeHRM 272 External links • • • • • • http://www.GNU General Public License (GPL) http://demolabo.a program of organizational development.OrangeHRM Sourceforge Project Site http://www. a planned.OrangeHRM Hosted service http://sourceforge.OrangeHRM home page http://www. The effective diagnosis of organizational culture. One of those is the area of organizational diagnosis and the use of structured organizational diagnostic tools..org/licensing/licenses/gpl. to exploring the interactions of people in the context in which they operate. Moving away from looking at human interventions in isolation.net/projects/orangehrm . In order for these changes to occur and be maintained.

A practical approach to company problem solving and growth. 1972 Organizational Diagnosis . The converse is generally true. Organizational Diagnosis . Harry. and it is how an organization ethically responds to an internal or external stimulus. This human capital results in less employee turnover and less time to train new employees. Marvin R. and corresponding industries. organizational ethics is neither OB. such as. 1999 Levinson.Beckhard 1969 [2] Management Consulting . There are laws that have the same type of prohibition for European companies.S. Organizations that do not have an outlook for positive ethical practices as part of their cultures. . usually lead to their own demise. organizations that have integrity and encouraging ethical practices as part of their culture are viewed with respect by their employees. Although. firms. Organizational ethics is interdependent with the organizational culture. because of greater sales along with their ability to retain and attract new and talented personnel.[1] Such laws are not a restricting element to organizations that have highly elevated ethical behavior as part of their values.Organizational diagnostics 273 Notes [1] Organizational Development: strategies and models . it is akin to both organizational behavior (OB) and business ethics on the micro and macro levels. Organizational ethics express the values of an organization to its employees and/or other entities irrespective of governmental and/or regulatory laws. More importantly. Overview of the field The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) restricts U. which in turn allows for greater output of services (or production of goods). the positive ethical outlook of an organization results in a solid financial bottom-line. These laws create a disadvantage competitively for both European and U. firms from engaging in bribery and other illegal practices internationally. community. Enron and WorldCom by their questionable accounting practices. 1988 Weisbord.S.A workbook of theory and Practice. an ethical organization will have the ability to retain employees that are experienced and knowledgeable (generally referred to as human capital). nor is it solely business ethics (which includes corporate governance and corporate ethics). [2] Thereby.Kubr References • • • • Cameron & Quinn. 1978 External links • [] • [] • [] Organizational ethics Organizational Ethics is the ethics of an organization. Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture. Organizational Diagnosis.

In particular. and employees. an organization will allow for paid maternity leave. “on-site” childcare. and he knew that his employer (extrinsic) would reimburse him in full. as well as. Other perks may include. managers. and 4) systems for confidential reporting. [5] [6] Importantly. 3) availability for advice on ethical situations (i. and goals of the organization. Actions of employees can range from whistle blowing (intrinsic) to the extraordinary actions of an hourly employee buying all the peanut butter (as produced by his employer). an examination of business methodology reveals that most leaders approach the ethical theory from the perspective of values for business. All the above are just a few examples of employee benefits that quality organizations offer to their employees. Further. the employees. or even paid time off for new parents after an adoption.[3] Good leaders strive to create a better and more ethical organization. any meaningful objects. Restoring an ethical climate in organization is critical. because the labels were not centered. In fact. as it is a key component in solving the many other organizational development and ethical behavior issues facing the organization. stakeholder. These theories and studies can range from individual(s). In turn.e. human resources. leadership using this management style of empowerment for their subordinates is based upon view of: “Achieving . Leadership and theory for ethics in an organization There are many theories and organizational studies that are coarsely related to “organizational ethics”. flextime for work hours. it is the influence of leadership in any organization that cannot go unexamined. It is the leadership that sets the tone for organizational impression management (strategic actions taken by an organization to create a positive image to both internal and external publics). goals (to include immediate and long term strategic plans). As among these areas. team(s). the psychological framework behind each area to include the distribution of job tasks within various types of organizations. and values. leadership.[4] Above and beyond Above and beyond is a standard part of the operational and strategic plans for organizations that have positive organizational ethics. values. 2) ethics training to executives. as transverse alongside of presenting the vision. the leadership should infuse a spirit of empowerment to its members. Based upon the reliability and support structure of each of the four areas needed for ethical behavior. Intrinsic and extrinsic The intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of an ethical organization are tethered to the organizational culture and business ethics of an organization. representations.Organizational ethics 274 Basic elements of an ethical organization There are at least four elements which exist in organizations that make ethical behavior conducive within an organization. management. The organization. group(s) interaction(s). but "organizations" and "ethics" are wide and varied in application and scope. then the organizational ethics will be evident throughout the organization. leadership directly influences the organizational symbolism (which reflects the culture. an entity will plan for its employees by offering “wellness programs” along with general health coverage. and even telecommuting for various days during a week. the language of the members. advice lines or offices). These benefits are not mandates by law. The four elements necessary to quantify an organization's ethics are: 1) written code of ethics and standards. The values and ideals within an organization are generally center upon “values for business” as the theoretical approach that most leaders select to present to their "co-members" (which in truth maybe subordinates). and/or a viable stable retirement plan. employee education reimbursement. and they represent only a few of benefits that best known corporations and firms offer to their employees throughout the world. and other entities will receive intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Above and beyond the quarterly or yearly income statements. because they must have a clear understanding of the direction of the organization’s vision. and/or how someone may act or think within an organization).

strategies. Importantly. desires. the ability for any organization to reason. the implementation should be done accordingly to the entire areas of operations within the organization. nor any singular decisive way that is able to be presented as a standard across the board for any organization – as due to each organization’s own culture. performances. Also. systems. or even unethical behavior throughout the organization. as well as. productivity. any other leadership of organizations have to take upon themselves the arduous task of ensuring an “ethics system” for their own management styles. personalities. [8] Leadership has to not only place aside each of their individual (or personal) ambitions (along with any prejudice) in order to present the goals of the organization. then all stakeholders (including leadership) will have at the very less a positive and functional success as the basis for continuous improvement (or kaizen) to present as the norm for its organizational ethics. the leadership (or stakeholder management) has to have the desire. it is leadership that has to be able to influence the stakeholders by presenting the strong minority voice in order to move the organization’s members towards ethical behavior. If it is not implemented pragmatically and with empathic caution for the needs. openness. because there is no clear.Organizational ethics organizational ownership of company values is a continuous process of communication. or a large international entity. stakeholder management. it may require a great deal of time. or the culture. small group. Therefore. discussion. and leadership has to ensure that those other voices are not expressing views (or needs as in respects to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs) that are not shared by the larger majority of the members (or stakeholders). then all stakeholders (not just the leadership) have accepted the task of benchmarking not only the implantation of an “ethics system”. Further. When executed timely and with care. especially. then unethical views may be taken by the stakeholders. It is the stakeholder theory that implies that all stakeholders (or individuals) must be treated equally regardless of the fact that some people will obviously contribute more than others to an organization. plans. policies. . but each stakeholder feels empowered for the moment to moment daily decisions that are ethically positive for the organization. the very basics of a person’s desire to belong and fit into the organization. and debate throughout all areas of the organization” [7] as. and personalities (consider the Big Five personality traits) of the stakeholders. Leadership must have the ability to recognize the needs of its members (or called “stakeholders” in some theories or models). and even risk(s) within their cultures or industries. will. stakeholder management should consider the Rational Decision-Making Model for implementation of various aspects of an ethical system to the stakeholders. act rationally. Therefore. 275 Stakeholder and other theories Whether it is a team. Ethical system implementation and consideration The function of developing and the implantation of an “ethics system” is difficult. and respond ethically is paramount. but they have to also have the stakeholders engaged for the benefit of the organization. If implantation is done successfully. and the skills to ensure that the other stakeholders’ voices are respected within the organization. although.

W. ethicaledge.J. Passion for Excellence: The Leadership difference.A. com/ introduction. but not the only difference". • Driscoll. W.” Quarterly Journal of Economics. Dawn-Marie and Hoffman. html [10] http:/ / www.(1985). N. Michael. "Corporate Ethics Programs Make a Difference. page 207 [2] Managing with Soul: Combining Corporate Integrity with the Bottom Line. Elaine. New York: Ballantine. Gioia. Dawn-Marie and Hoffman. ethics. Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Margaret M. Waltham. pp.hreonline. [9] http:/ / www. asp [11] http:/ / www. (1999). (2004).JD. (2002). Michael (2002). “Who Must Pay Bribes and How Much? Evidence from a Cross-Section of Firms. ca/ resources/ business/ [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] • Halbert. page 36. 5th edition (2006). 228–232..ca [11] References [1] Svensson. . org/ resources/ articles-organizational-ethics. Ethics Matters: How to Implement Values-Driven Management (2000). Ethics Matters: How to Implement Values-Driven Management McDaniel." Academy of Management Review. . and Problems in Stakeholder Theorizing.” November 14. ethicsweb. HR Magazine. OH: Thomson Learning. page 39 Dricscoll.Organizational ethics 276 Theories and models • • • • Stakeholder theory Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Rational Decision-Making Model Big Five personality traits External links • Organizational Ethics and Integrity [9] • Organizational Ethics Articles [10] • ethicsweb. "Practicability. and Austin. Michael. July 1. 118(2003). Mason. Jakob. and Ingulli. Charlotte. 2003. 24(2). MA: Bently College Center for Business Ethics... Paradigms. www. Terry. Dawn-Marie and Hoffman. Ethics Matters: How to Implement Values-Driven Management. Dricscoll.com/HRE. Peters. Organizational Ethics: Research And Ethical Environments. page 172 D. W. [3] Clark.SPHR. 2003. T.

These individuals see their work as the central part of their lives and are very devoted to their career (Goodboy 2007). this is because they know that they can rely on these people to do what is asked of them (Organizational orientations and communication traits). motivation to work. Different Types of Organizational Orientations Upward mobile This type of orientation is the most recognized. Three organizational orientations have been identified as. motivation to work. His theory produced three different traits that employees would have. It can also be referred to the different ways people approach their roles in an organization and the different approaches people have toward work and the place of work in their lives (Organizational orientations). These orientations are also believed to be traits. McCroskey conducted research that explained a large amount about the relevance of this concept to organizational communication (McCroskey 2004). An upward mobile has a high level of job satisfaction. The people with this type of orientation are highly concerned with their own success then gaining approval from their peers. Recently the organizational orientation concept has drawn the attention of quantitative researchers in the field of communication. upward mobile. indifferent. and supervisors on the job (Papa 2008). Upward mobiles have strong decision making skills and are also willing to take risks to keep the success of the organization and their own (McCroskey 2005).Organizational Orientations 277 Organizational Orientations Organizational Orientation is defined as an individual's predisposition toward work. He believed that people learned their traits through experiences while working in an organization. Many organizations are looking to hire these type of people. upward mobile. motivation to work. a feeling of attachment to the organization and an exceptional drive for power (Pruden). These three types of orientations are associated with organizational communication behavior and organizational outcomes such as employee job satisfaction and motivation. people will have these orientations regardless of the organization they are working for. Brief history The organizational orientation concept was advanced decades ago in the field of management by Presthus in 1962. and job satisfaction (McCroskey 1998). Presthus believed that these orientations results in employees having different orientations toward work itself. and ambivalent (Goodboy 2007). They do not like associating with people who don't have the same career path that they desire. He viewed his theory of as organizational behavior. and ways of dealing with peers. and ways of dealing with coworkers or supervisors. indifferent. These workers are also believed to identify with whatever organization they are employed at and are more than willing to defend their organization against people that may attack it. They are very self motivated and believe in the rules and the procedures of the organization. . They are procedure oriented and identifies strongly with the organization and has a desire to secure high status rewards. job satisfaction. They are able to make positive contributions through their willingness to work hard and achieve goals. subordinates. He believed that the different types of orientations results in employees having different views about their job satisfaction. and ambivalent (McCroskey 1998). These are Individuals within an organization who desire advancement within the organization hierarchy.

they can be very supportive one day and then can be very discouraging the next. They are mostly concerned with the paychecks that they will be receiving and are not interested in their job or the organization (McCroskey 1998). high cosmopolitanism. Communicating with ambivalents can be very difficult. Ambivalent people tend to be very moody. indifferents. These people make up a large portion of the employees in an organization. high upward-downward career mobility orientation. They do the tasks that others would not enjoy doing (D. Russ). . It is easy to get along with these type of people as long as you don't push them to do extra work. and ambivalents which is derived from the theory that he constructed (McCroskey 1998). low cosmopolitanism and high organizational rank. Ambivalents This refers to workers who tend to be highly critical of any job and seem to find problems with any organization. therefore it makes it hard to work with them or for them. These type of people are very skilled. Their life begins when work is over (Goodboy 2007). They would also never volunteer to do more work then they have to. All organizations needs these type of people in the workplace because they can be assigned to do routine tasks that require very little thought. and they see their live existing separate from their work.They do not see themselves as part of the organization and do not accept the organization or the people within the organization for what they are(Pruden). the only topic that you might be able to communicate with them is on criticizing the organization (Organizational orientations and communication traits). they come to work to do the job they were assigned to do. They work to live. For indifferents it shows that they have a high job satisfaction. Talking to them about their family and their life outside of work is a good idea (Organizational orientations and communication traits). Ambivalents need some type of security.Organizational Orientations 278 Indifferents This refers to workers who are committed to their job as a way of earning a living. medium upward-downward career mobility. low alienation. They also do not adapt well to organizations. These type of people do not like to participate in organizational routines that occur on a daily basis. A good way to get along with them is to talk to them about other things besides work. Work is separated from the meanings of life and his/her relationship with the organization is strictly economic based (Presthus). and medium organizational rank. low upward-downward career mobility orientation. To them working is a necessity in life. but since they don't like authority they will try to turn others against the organization. medium alienation. in which the organization can provide but they are unable to obtain it (Presthus). and will also openly chastise the organization. Other characteristics of indifferents are that they have a high level of job satisfaction and not many upward mobility aspirations. When communicating they often talk more about their family and life at home instead of organizational matters that are going on in the workplace. For ambivalents it shows that they have a low job satisfaction. Highly indifferent people are worried about being accepted by their peers at work (Organizational orientations and communication traits). They don't mind doing these types of jobs because they get a paycheck out of it. medium cosmopolitanism and low organizational rank. Ambivalent people tend to be introverts who also do not like rules or authority and do not fit into the roles that the organizations assigns them (McCroskey 2004). high alienation. They are very unpredictable and change jobs very often it order to fine the perfect organization because they are never truly comfortable in an organization (Goodboy 2007). Research In Organizational Orientation Presthus Presthus created an ideal pattern of accommodation for upward mobiles. It showed that upward mobiles have a high job satisfaction. and then go home (McCroskey 2004). Indifferent's only work to satisfy the basic needs of their loved ones.

negative moderate relationship for trustworthiness. 5. indifferent. and upward mobile (Papa 2008). "The upward mobile. and Richmond. For the indifferent it showed negative weak relationship for job satisfaction. Pruden's research was qualitative in nature (McCroskey 2004). C James. extraversion. Organizational Communication perspectives and trends." Human communication 11 (2007): 293-308. negative weak relationship for competence. McCroskey McCroskey did two studies putting different variables into each study to see the effect on the three different types of orientations. Alan K. and positive moderate relationship for psychoticism. Linda L. Lastly for the upward mobile it showed positive weak relationship for job satisfaction." International journal of business 16 454-462. James C. Los Angeles: SAGE publications. His study confirmed the hypothesis expected on the three orientations with regard to the five outcome variables. and a positive moderate relationship for responsiveness(Pruden). positive moderate relationship for assertiveness. 7. assertiveness. trustworthiness. McCroskey. positive WR for competence. indifferent. no relationship for extraversion." Communication and mass media complete 52 (2004): 1-14. V Robert. His results showed that the three orientations are in fact distinct from one another.. For ambivalents the result showed that they had a negative strong relationship for job satisfaction. Goodboy. positive WR for extraversion. and responsiveness. negative moderate relationship for nonverbal immediacy. P Virginia. and James C. Papa. no relationship for nonverbal immediacy. D. "Applying organizational orientations theory to employees of profit and non-profit organizations. "Toward a theory of organizational behavior. communication. J. 6. For the ambivalent it showed a negative moderate relationship for job satisfaction. a negative weak relationship for assertiveness and no relationship for responsiveness. positive weak relationship for neuroticism. 2008. McCroskey. Presthus. "Organizational orientations and communication traits. negative weak relationship for caring. For study 2 the outcome variables were job satisfaction." Communication and mass media complete 48-72." Communication and mass media complete 53 (2005): 21-40. For the indifferents it showed that they had a negative moderate relationship for job satisfaction. positive weak relationship for communication apprehension. negative moderate relationship for competence. no relationship for communication apprehension. Pruden. "Organizational orientations theory and measurement: development of measures and preliminary investigations. negative strong relationship for caring. The outcome variables in study 1 were job satisfaction. negative weak relationship for trustworthiness. nonverbal immediacy. negative weak relationship for communication apprehension. References 1. 3. 2. For the upward mobile it showed that there was a positive weak relationship for job satisfaction. and positive moderate relationship for psychoticism. no relationship for assertiveness.S businessmen designed to validate expected outcomes based on Presthus's theoretical typology. competence. and ambivalent typology of managers. Positive WR for trustworthiness. and McCroskey. apprehension. negative weak relationship for neuroticism.Organizational Orientations 279 Pruden (1978) Pruden conducted a study of 150 U. ambivalent. C James. Tom. caring. and negative weak relationship for responsiveness. neuroticism and psychoticism. . positive weak relationship for neuroticism.. Michael and Daniels. positive WR for caring. negative weak relationship for extraversion. and negative moderate relationship for psychoticism (Pruden). "Toward a theoretical model of the role of organzational orientations and machiavellianism on nonverbal immediacy behavior and job satisfaction." 83-93. 4. McCroskey. O Henry. positive moderate relationship for nonverbal immediacy.

Organizational Orientations 8. If the new staff's performance is ok. pp. David. 10. compare their output and prove the reliability of the new system.cambridge.org/9780521545402 IGSCE and O level Computer Studies and Information Technology]. 29." Business source premiere 16 (1994): 58 9." http://www. [www. "Predicting organizational orientation towards teams. and will be replaced. The practical example of parallel running in human resource management is job placement. . A new staff and an old staff work for the same job. Tibbles. "Organizational orientations in an instructional setting. the existing system will stop running and will be replaced by the new one.jamescmccroskey. a new system and an existing system run side by side.com/measures/org_orient. If the new system is accepted. the existing staff may not be needed any more. Cambridge. www.org/9780521545402. To input the same data and perform the same processes. there is direct changeover and phased implementation. "Organizational Orientations. Stewart (2009). D." Communication and mass media complete 57 (2008):389-407. Russ.cambridge. This is different from direct changeover and phased implementation because parallel running requires two systems working at the same time. [1] Wainwright. During changeover.htm 280 Parallel running [1] Parallel running is one of the ways to change from an existing system to a new one. Other than this.

As of 2005. legislation.gov. Pink External links Harvard Business School Working Knowledge: Pay-for-Performance Doesn’t Always Pay Off (http:/ / hbswk. edu/item/3424. is a motivation concept in human resources. sometimes abbreviated "P4P". frequently gives no gains at all. Notes [1] Employment Rights Act 1996 . (http:/ / www.gov. Also in pdf format (http://www. uk/ ukpga/ 1996/ 18/ section/ 86) External links • Employment Rights Act 1996 (http://www. rather than the employee working through their statutory[1] notice period.legislation.uk/ukpga/1996/18#printLegislationModPdf) • HMRC .Pay for performance (human resources) 281 Pay for performance (human resources) Pay for performance. 18). An employee dismissed for gross misconduct is not entitled to any pay or notice.Termination payments and benefits (http://www. 75 percent of all U. department or company reaches certain targets.Section 86.hmrc. hbs.htm) . Research shows that pay for performance often gives only short term gains. and may give reduced performance.uk/manuals/eimanual/eim12976.[1] See • Pay for performance advertising References [1] Drive: The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us-Daniel H. in which employees receive increased compensation for their work if their team.uk/ukpga/1996/18) (1996 c.gov.legislation.html) (Retrieved 2007-03-19) Pay in lieu of notice Payment in lieu of notice or 'PILON' is an employment law term used to describe a payment made to an employee by the employer. companies connect at least part of an employee's pay to measures of performance.S. gov.

monthly... Administration etc) PLI vs other financial remuneration PLI vs salary Salary is paid for the efforts that one puts in and PLI is paid for the results. Provide the following information: Customer Contact Information. and.e. irrespective of the employee's individual performance. quarterly or half-yearly. to summarize the work that needs to be done for a contract (i. or as a fixed amount. with the U. Human Resources. Operation. Period of Performance.yearly. Salary is paid in short. and. Applicable Documents. PLI vs bonus Bonus is paid for the performance of the organization while PLI is paid for the individual's performance. weekly. Applicable Directives. Place of Performance. This is normally paid as a percentage of one's salary.. Department of Defense). Government Furnished Property/Equipment/Information. Bonus is normally paid yearly or half-yearly. Include at least the following sections for an acquisition: Scope. definitive cycles (e. Performance Requirements.Performance Work Statement 282 Performance Work Statement PWS is Performance Work Statement. PLI may either be open ended (does not have a fixed ceiling) or close ended (has an upper ceiling which is normally stipulated in the employment contract) Open ended incentives are normally applicable revenue generating activities (eg. fortnightly etc) while PLI is paid in a longer cycle of monthly. Sales) and Close ended incentives are associated to support functions (eg. Scope. Performance Requirements/Tasks. References Performance-linked incentives A Performance Linked Incentive (PLI) is a form of payment from an employer to an employee. Background. .g. Contractor Quality Assurance.S. which is directly related to the performance output of an employee and which may be specified in an employment contract.

References External links • 17 Things (http://business. the objects should be chosen to reflect those activities whose results are visible immediately after the effort. being permanent increase. This is paid for the value added by the employee by virtue of mere presence and not necessary for the efforts or work output.html) Explanation of salary requirements and how to establish these. measurable and visible results. PLI vs Appraisal Appraisals. only the performance and not the potential of the employee should be considered. takes both performance and potential of the employee. Since PLI is paid for the results and not merely for the efforts. in calculating PLI. normally conducted half-yearly or annually is used to decide on the salary increments and promotions of the employee. is paid for objective. Method of calculating PLI PLI.Performance-linked incentives 283 PLI vs retention bonus Some organizations give a retention bonus which is payable for the period that an employee stays back in the organization. Management by objectives is the generally used to define the output which determines the payment of PLI.com/what-are-salary-requirements. This.17things. PLI should be based on metrics which are absolutely objective and clearly perceived as fair by both employee and employer. Potential of the employee is normally subjective and can be contested. Also. by virtue of being sanctified in the employment contract. Normally retention bonus is paid yearly or half-yearly which will incentivise the employee to stay back in the organization for the payment. .

Elements of a person specification include: • • • • Attainments (experience and qualifications) Specialized skills Interests Personality References • acas. education and training. relationship or for self-improvement. and alternative plans (Plan B). education. It is a profile of the type of person needed to do a job and is produced along with a job description following a job analysis. In higher education.Person specification 284 Person specification The person specification is an extension of the job description. reflection. businesslink. acas. gov. uk [2] http:/ / www. usually includes a statement of one's aspirations. personal development plans typically include a portfolio containing evidence of the skills gathered over a particular timeframe. also called an IDP (individual development plan) or PEP (personal enterprise plan). values.gov.and a curriculum vitae. career positioning. and stages or steps to indicate how the plan is to be realized. strengths or competencies. Personal developments plans are often a requirement for employee CVs. Employees who are participating in business training are often asked to complete a personal development plan.uk [1] • businesslink. It is presumed in education that undertaking PDP will assist in creating self-directed independent learners who are more likely to progress to higher levels of academic attainment. . The PDP (personal development plan).uk [2] References [1] http:/ / www. goal-setting and planning for personal development within the context of a career. Personal development plans may also include a statement of one's career and lifestyle priorities. analysis of opportunities and risks.gov. gov. It is also used in Human resource management. uk/ bdotg/ action/ detail?type=RESOURCES& itemId=1073793806 Personal development planning Personal development planning is the process of creating an action plan based on awareness.

.). L. Situational Analysis. J. 2001. ac. L. S. J. In Paine. Stress at work. 1978.. how well they will fit in and work. Personnel Psychology. net/ personal-development-program-amare/ Personality-Job Fit Theory The Personality-Job Fit Theory assumes that examining a person's personality will give insight into their adaptability in an organization. Basically. we can say that the Individual would be able to adjust in the company environment and work culture and would be able to perform at his Optimum level. (Eds. The Organisational Competencies are defined in order to look at the requirements of the company which an individual is applying to. Theory building: Integrating individual and environmental factors within an ecological framework. [2] Carroll. C. Notes [1] McMichael. 1982. R. K. F. ac. Competency Based Interview. (Ed.Personal development planning 285 External links • QAA Guidelines for Progress Files [1] • ISLE Project [2] • AmAre Personal development plan [3] References [1] http:/ / www. The Competencies can be assessed using various tools like Psychological Tests. By matching the right personality with the right company you can achieve a better synergy and avoid pitfalls such as high turnover and low job satisfaction. A.. behavioural. W. & Payne. 54(1): 1–23. Beverly Hills: Sage. Personality. uk/ Publications/ InformationAndGuidance/ Pages/ Guidelines-for-HE-Progress-Files. C. W. Etc.. & White. aspx [2] http:/ / isle. paisley. and situational modifiers of work stressors. taking the performance to maximum level when required. amareway. Job stress and burnout. [3] Cable.). Person-Environment Fit[1] [2] [3] : Says that employees seek organisations that are good match for them (the Organizational culture appeals to them). D. uk [3] http:/ / web. M. Spring. X. Socialization tactics and person–organization fit. & Parsons. The Individual is then Assessed on these competencies and the competency fitment between the individual and the company is found out. New York: Wiley. qaa. They also stay committed to these organisations if the fit is 'good'. If the Individual is found out to be good on competencies defined for the company using the various tools. In Cooper.

exchange rates and the inflation rate. Specifically. business position. population growth rate. climate. • Economic factors include economic growth. Economic. technological shifts can affect costs. consumer law. For example. These factors have major impacts on how businesses operate and make decisions. STEER analysis systematically considers Socio-cultural. Furthermore. • Legal factors include discrimination law. Furthermore. It is a useful strategic tool for understanding market growth or decline. potential and direction for operations. companies may change various management strategies to adapt to these social trends (such as recruiting older workers). and Technological analysis" and describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in the environmental scanning component of strategic management. an aging population may imply a smaller and less-willing workforce (thus increasing the cost of labor). Composition • Political factors are how and to what degree a government intervenes in the economy. political factors include areas such as tax policy. and gives an overview of the different macroenvironmental factors that the company has to take into consideration. antitrust law. labour law. They can determine barriers to entry. which is popular in the United Kingdom. environmental law. and health and safety law.PEST analysis 286 PEST analysis PEST analysis stands for "Political. interest rates. farming. Technological. Furthermore. trade restrictions. and the demand for its products. Political factors may also include goods and services which the government wants to provide or be provided (merit goods) and those that the government does not want to be provided (demerit goods or merit bads). technology incentives and the rate of technological change. • Environmental factors include ecological and environmental aspects such as weather. For example. employment law. Trends in social factors affect the demand for a company's products and how that company operates. • Technological factors include technological aspects such as R&D activity. Some analysts added Legal and rearranged the mnemonic to SLEPT. and Regulatory factors. which may especially affect industries such as tourism. and insurance. tariffs. minimum efficient production level and influence outsourcing decisions. Economic. It is a part of the external analysis when conducting a strategic analysis or doing market research. education. . career attitudes and emphasis on safety. Ecological. and climate change.[1] inserting Environmental factors expanded it to PESTEL or PESTLE. These factors can affect how a company operates. age distribution. The growing importance of environmental or ecological factors in the first decade of the 21st century have given rise to green business and encouraged widespread use of an updated version of the PEST framework. its costs. governments have great influence on the health. Social. Furthermore. interest rates affect a firm's cost of capital and therefore to what extent a business grows and expands. Exchange rates affect the costs of exporting goods and the supply and price of imported goods in an economy • Social factors include the cultural aspects and include health consciousness. both creating new markets and diminishing or destroying existing ones. automation. and infrastructure of a nation. growing awareness of the potential impacts of climate change is affecting how companies operate and the products they offer. adding Ethics and demographic factors. and lead to innovation. and political stability.[2] The model has recently been further extended to STEEPLE and STEEPLED. quality.

a company which has borrowed heavily will need to focus more on the economic factors (especially interest rates). [3] "PEST: Political.uk/subjects/corpstrtgy/general/pestle-analysis.PEST analysis 287 Applicability of the Factors The model's factors will vary in importance to a given company based on its industry and the goods it produces. Retrieved 2009-01-27. com/ pest/ ). national. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) .co. thetimes100. while a global defense contractor would tend to be more affected by political factors. factors that are more likely to change in the future or more relevant to a given company will carry greater importance. Retrieved 2009-10-21.cipd. Retrieved 2009-01-27. The Decision Group. Oxford University Press. Use of PEST analysis with other models The PEST factors.businessballs. . 2007. conglomerate companies who produce a wide range of products (such as Sony. [2] PESTLE analysis history and application (http:/ / www. and global (also known as LoNGPESTEL). The Times. Social. A company may also wish to divide factors into geographical relevance. . combined with external micro-environmental factors and internal drivers.htm). co. References [1] SLEPT analysis with example (http:/ / www. [4] "PESTEL analysis of the macro-environment" (http:/ / www. and Technology Analysis" (http:/ / decide-guide. Businessballs. consumer and B2B companies tend to be more affected by the social factors. uk/ subjects/ corpstrtgy/ general/ pestle-analysis. com/ uk/ orc/ bin/ 9780199296378/ 01student/ additional/ page_12. External links • PEST analysis method and examples (http://www.htm). For example. For example. co. can be classified as opportunities and threats in a SWOT analysis. cipd. uk/ theory/ theory. htm). such as local. Retrieved 2009-10-21. Disney.com • PESTLE analysis factsheet (http://www. CIPD. htm).[4] Furthermore. php?tID=235).com/pestanalysisfreetemplate. Economic. oup. or BP) may find it more useful to analyze one department of its company at a time with the PESTEL model. thus focusing on the specific factors relevant to that one department.[3] Additionally.

That was what gave me [3] my start in the training and consulting industry.7 Pike is part of the video faculty at CrestCom videos.. he was awarded the Council of Peers Award of Excellence (CPAE). now in its third edition. January 2008 [2] According to publisher Bob Carkhuff at HRD Press which publishes The Creative Training Techniques Handbook and Bob Pike in emails. Carkhuff estimated the third edition had sold about 50.” Since 1969. According to ISA. including The Creative Training Techniques Handbook. Ford and John Newstrom.000 for the second edition. Since 2005. [3] http:/ / www. Pike has contributed to magazines like TRAINING. learningwiki. “So I used affirmations such as ‘I’ll do it now’ and my favorite. He has been involved in training since 1969 and has authored and co-authored 29 books. He has served on the boards of ASTD. According to an interview with American Society for Training and Development. pdf [4] According to an email from Phyllis Hendry.000 copies since its first printing in 1989. had paid him royalties based on 140. full name Robert William Pike. participant-centered model as an alternative to primarily lecture-based training in 1983 and more than 100. In an email. and at the end of 30 days. Then he read Psycho-Cybernetics and decided to ignore his fear of rejection for a month and sell whole-heartedly. He’s known as “the trainer’s trainer” as he specializes in training those who train others. which has sold more than 285.’ In those 30 days. astd. which in 1970 was a lot of money. He tried selling training and management development programs but made only $150 in the first month in 1967.[1] He originated the idea of participant-centered training where instructors facilitate learning through the use of hands-on. “So for 30 days..000 books sold for the first edition and 95. Pike earned the professional designation of Certified Speaking Professional (CSP) from the National Speakers Association (NSA).[5] In 1991.000 copies. crestcom. com/ Crstcom_web/ video_faculty/ vid_pike. Pike introduced the instructor-led. and that’s where I started designing training programs. president and CEO of Lead Like Jesus [5] ISA press release 2007 [6] http:/ / www. he has designed and delivered over 600 training programs of one day or longer. ‘I’m a master salesman.000 trainers worldwide have been through the Creative Training Techniques Train-the-Trainer Boot Camp. In 2007. In 2003. Training Magazine subscribers voted The Bob Pike Group the best “Train-the-Trainer” company in the industry. Pike joined the National Board of Lead Like Jesus.[6] Over the years.” Pike related to ASTD. 1947) is the founder.100 in commissions. Pike has been developing.Bob Pike (trainer) 288 Bob Pike (trainer) Bob Pike. htm . Pike began one career as a pastor while doing a side job but still couldn’t make ends meet. The Personnel Administrator and The Self Development Journal. he has served as Chairman of the Executive Board for that organization.[2] His most recent book is The Fun Minute Manager (May 2009) which is co-authored with Robert C. In 1999. I made a little more than $1. I decided I would do everything I could to succeed. He is the founder and editor of the Creative Training Techniques Newsletter. He served as a designer for the Leadership Encounter with Jesus Seminar/Retreat and is [4] a master trainer for the Encounter certification program. pdf [7] http:/ / www. training and consulting on training and human performance improvement. In 2002. interactive lessons. org/ NR/ rdonlyres/ D0BD6F94-07F9-4623-890F-9E308A04B821/ 15001/ LongView_BobPike_FINAL1. Bob received the ISA-The Association of Learning Professionals “Thought Leader” award for his contributions to the field. Pike said original publisher Lakewood. (born April 22. I could say ‘I’m just not cut out for this.’ and I could go do something else. chairman and CEO of The Bob Pike Group in Minneapolis. now defunct. marketing. [7] References [1] T&D Magazine. Since then. National Speakers Association and the International Alliance for Learning. com/ f/ Learn2007Webinar1022bp.

Plateau Talent Management Suite 289 Plateau Talent Management Suite Plateau Systems Industry Founded Talent Management 1996 Headquarters Arlington. Plateau Systems developed one of the industry’s first Learning Management Systems (LMS).plateau. History Plateau Systems was founded in 1996 by Paul Sparta. Virginia with offices across the United States. and performance of the Talent Management Suite . Bank of America. monitors the adoption. • Plateau Analytics. Plateau Systems delivered an integrated J2EE-based talent management platform.the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and Capital One Services. iContent 350 www. systems usually used by Human Resources departments for the management and delivery of learning and training across organizations.com [1] Plateau Systems is a provider of Talent Management Systems headquartered in Arlington. effectiveness. 2011 it was announced that Plateau would be acquired by SuccessFactors for $145 million in cash plus $145 million in stock. VA. which comprises • • • • Learning Management Performance Management Career & Succession Planning Compensation Management Additional products: • Plateau Talent Gateway combines social networking and collaboration technology with content management and user management functionality. Senior Vice President. Chairman and CEO. one of the key factors that affect workforce productivity and operating performance. a provider of Web-based compensation management software and integrated Nuvosoft’s functionality into its talent management platform. In early 2000. and Brad Cooper. analyze and manage organizational talent. a business intelligence system.[2] On April 26. Plateau acquired Nuvosoft. Europe and Asia Pacific. [3] Products Plateau Systems’s major offering is the Plateau Talent Management Suite (TMS). USA Key people Products Employees Website Paul Sparta Talent Management Suite. which allowed organizations to link learning and training with employee performance to measure whether employee goals were aligned with corporate objectives. Product Strategy – both of whom still serve as Plateau executives. The company provides SaaS solutions that allow organizations to develop. Plateau's customers include some of the major global organizations and government agencies such as General Electric. In 2007.

Product Management and Alliances Sunil Chandran . Implementation Experiences. Quality Assurance & Corporate Security Awards • Plateau Systems debuted in the “Visionary” sector of Gartner’s 2009 “Employee Performance Management (EPM) Software Magic Quadrant” [4] • Customers and industry analysts recognized Plateau Systems as a customer satisfaction leader and for its continued leadership. deployment and security for all online content These enterprise-class applications can be deployed independently or together as an integrated multi-tenant SaaS solution. vision and technology innovation.Chief Financial Officer Brad Cooper . Product Strategy Jeff Kristick .President and COO Ed Cohen . Marketing Joe Herman .Senior Vice President.Senior Vice President.Chairman & CEO Brian F. Q3 2007” report [9] • Plateau Systems was recognized as a Talent management Market-Leader in Bersin’s 2008 Essentials of Performance Management Practices” report [10] • Plateau Systems was recognized for customer satisfaction and vision in Bersin & Associates' 2008 “Talent Management Suites: Market Realities. for fifth straight year . validation.Senior Vice President. manages the testing. a content management system and Content-as-a-Service solution. Murphy .Senior Vice President.Executive Vice President Global Operations Stephen Blodgett .X.[5] • Plateau Systems positioned as a Major Player in IDC’s 2009 Integrated Talent Management MarketScape report [6] • Leader in Gartner’s 2008 “Magic Quadrant for Corporate Learning Systems” for fifth consecutive year [7] • Leader for the second consecutive year in the “Forrester Wave: Enterprise Learning Management Suites.Senior Vice President.Plateau Talent Management Suite • iContent. Q1 2008” report [8] • Leader in the “Forrester Wave: Integrated Performance and Compensation Solutions. and Vendor Profile” [11] • Consistently recognized by Bersin & Associates as a Leader for LMS Customer Satisfaction • Plateau Systems was recognized as one of Virginia's 2008 Fastest Growing Companies in Deloitte's Technology [12] Fast 50 Program. 290 Management team • • • • • • • • • • Paul Sparta .Chief Technology Officer Shelly Heiden . Product Engineering Larry Thomas .

. forrester._q1_2008/ q/ id/ 37146/ t/ 2?src=53282pdf). SuccessFactors. com/ files/ DCEO. . and Vendor Profiles" (http:/ / www. bersin. forrester._integrated_performance_and_compensation_solutions. 08. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. com/ rb/ Research/ wave& trade.com (http://www. 2007-08-17. [6] "New IDC MarketScape Provides First Definitive Assessment of Worldwide Integrated Talent Management Vendors" (http:/ / www. [3] "Press Releases" (http:/ / www. 2008-06-30.plateau. com/ Lib/ Rs/ Details. IDC. idc. "Plateau Systems buys Nuvosoft" (http:/ / washington. [11] "Talent Management Suites: Market Realities. kenexa. Washington Business journal. bersin. External links • Plateau Systems Official Website: www. Bersin & Associates. Gartner. com/ washington/ stories/ 2007/ 02/ 19/ daily25. Bersin & Associates. com/ DisplayDocument?id=710307). . . [5] "Plateau Systems: Evolution of an Enterprise Talent Management Software Company" (http:/ / www. [10] "The Essential Guide to Employee Performance Management Systems: Part 2" (http:/ / www. smartceo. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 2008-01-11. 10. 2009-01-07. Neil (2007-02-21). Forrester Research. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. . gartner. [12] "Deloitte's Technology Fast 50 Program" (http:/ / www. Implementation Experiences. com/ Store/ Details. pdf). 2008-10-14. successfactors._q3/ q/ id/ 42218/ t/ 2). com/ [2] Adler.plateau. Q3 2007" (http:/ / www. . 2009-09-08. [8] "Forrester Wave: Enterprise Learning Management Suites. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 2009-02-03. Bersin & Associates. com/ documents/ gartner-reports/ magic-quadrant-performance-management-2009). aspx?docid=10337750). Retrieved 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-06-01. Q1 2008" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-04-26.smartceo. Retrieved 2010-06-01. html). Retrieved 2010-06-01. www. 2008-10-01._enterprise_learning_management_suites. . Gartner.com. aspx?docid=103311440& title=Plateau-Systems-Evolution-of-an-Enterprise-Talent-Management-Software-Company& id=).com/) . jsp?pid=23571113& containerId=prUS21612409). 2008-02-12. com/ getdoc. 2011-04-26. com/ rb/ Research/ wave& trade. aspx?docid=10336624& id=). com/ press-releases/ 1554901/ ). com/ Lib/ Rs/ Details. bersin. [9] "The Forrester Wave™: Integrated Performance And Compensation Solutions. Forrester Research.Plateau Talent Management Suite 291 References [1] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-06-01. [4] "Magic Quadrant for Employee Performance Management Software" (https:/ / www. [7] "Magic Quadrant for Corporate Learning Systems" (http:/ / www. . plateau. bizjournals. .

otherwise they will leave the company they are working for or even the country. A market can be analyzed to estimate its potential for a certain product. an employee has to fit his job and purpose. who cannot be identified by school or college grades but for example in terms of social competence. Concerning costs. Due to the future demographic change the “war for talents”. the company’s future competitiveness and efficiency should be improved as well as the attractivity as employer in . flexibility or emotional behavior. • Validity Validity should show that the used potential analysis tool is suitable and whether the significance of the examination of future executives is established or not. This means. Objectives of potential analysis The objectives of potential analysis are mainly based on the punctual identification.and future-oriented talent management. Potential analysis´ are used to identify talents. In addition.[1] Quality criteria of a potential analysis The bases of a qualitative potential analysis are the following quality criteria that need to be fulfilled for any kind of potential analysis. costs due to miscast amount to 50% of the annual salary plus wage labor costs whereas for executives costs are a total of 75%-100% of the annual salary plus wage labor costs.[2] Potential Analysis in the Talent Management Importance of the potential analysis The Potential Analysis in Human resources is pioneering as a part of a goal.Potential analysis 292 Potential analysis cleanup The term "Potential Analysis" consists of the terms "Potential" and "Analysis" and describes the structural examination of specific characteristics and competencies. companies intend to achieve the optimal fit of individual – job and organization. development and retention of talents or future high potentials. future events. the financial sphere. which is searching and retaining future talents/executives will be intensified. • Objectivity The quality criteria objectivity should ensure that the results of potential analysis´ were not disturbed by personal influences. Talents or “High potentials” need to have a professional perspective. Talent Management characterizes the acquisition. and the company and its corporate culture. Processes can be structurally analyzed due to their optimization. Using potential analysis. This knowledge-migration needs to be avoided and thus the potential analysis becomes even more important. Every year a high number of well-educated persons leave their home country. miscasts should furthermore be avoided. methods or organizations. The potential analysis tools should have the same result after being carried out several times. Due to that the analysis of the branch of production. For professionals. Furthermore employers have to offer certain attractivity. A company might analyze its own potential (productivity. development and long-term retention of qualified employees. • Reliability Reliability in potential analysis means to make tests comparable. market position) by comparing it to those of the competitors (Benchmarking). Talents need to be acquired. Potential analysis´ provide information about abilities of employees. the research & development and the Human resources is differentiated. Nowadays transparent career paths and conveying processes are more important than solely high wages. their skills must be [3] [4] developed and in the end talents should be retained in companies.

Cognitive criteria describe criteria that can be observed like organization. while companies with a negative image are confronted with the problem of requiring but not getting talented. Therefore it is significant that a precise definition of the examined competencies is given. Conclusively. To achieve the already mentioned optimal fit of individual – job and organization. it becomes obvious that both the Human resources and the candidates need to be prepared and introduced to the topic of potential analysis. are risk-prone. the division into cognitive. leads to an insufficient and unsatisfying succession planning and in the end to failed employee retention. motivational and social interaction criteria is used to make this multitude comprehensible. A problem that might cause risks. First of all Human Resource managers should combine various methods to identify more specific characteristics and skills of a candidate. In association with a failed retention and high fluctuation companies are facing enormous costs due to the already mentioned miscast of employees. In cases of a university graduate other criteria should be examined in comparison to a professional who wants to become an executive. The choice of the selection criteria is substantial to what extent potential analysis is accomplished carefully.[5] [6] [7] 293 Employee selection criteria Subsequent selection criteria of potential analysis´ are going to be explained. According to the mentioned time and preparation aspect. Potential analysis and transparent career paths can avoid this problem. stress-coping and self-confidence characterize motivational criteria whereas communication. A qualitatively good potential analysis is based on a solid preparation. Potential analyses of single candidates require one day whereas the analysis of a group needs up to three days. professional competence as well as critical thinking and competence in modification. requiring a certain period of time. The professional differentiation of criteria out of future strategic requirements should be done by Human resource management. teamwork and empathy belong to social-interactive criteria. Companies with a good reputation have less problems with obtaining young and skilled employees. problem-solving and flexibility. which ignore the demographic and social changes and do not recognize that their future economic competitiveness and efficiency is based on talented and highly qualified employees. subordinate criteria are assigned. All these characteristics are regarded as a part of an employee’s potential. Leadership motivation. Due to a multitude of criteria. highly qualified employees. The selection criteria of employees are based on characteristics such as methodological expertise.Potential analysis the mentioned “war for talents”. who are aware of their competencies and who do not have the possibility to develop those by taking the next step on career paths. considering the future “war for talents” . Because of the fact that these characteristics are difficult to measure. Employees. will leave a company immediately. Furthermore it is important that candidates have the possibility to get feedback and an explanation where their strengths and weaknesses are situated. the careful selection of criteria is founded on the knowledge about the target group. social competence. an orientation of the candidates target profile and the competencies are needed for a job.[6] Risks Companies.[5] Quality features of potential analysis In the preceding part quality criteria of potential analysis´ were described. Not identifying “High potentials” and developing their skills. In the following features which have to be fulfilled to ensure a qualitative and professional implementation of potential analysis´ in Human Resources are pronounced.

The validity of interviews varies substantially in dependence of the used method. It is mainly used to select junior-specialist or experts. • Intelligence test Intelligence tests measure intellectual abilities like mathematical analogies in which the quality and quickness of question-solving is crucial. specific requirements. Tests can be distinguished into intelligenc