YS% ,xldfõ

fou<
NdId whs;sjdislï

wdpd¾h foajfkaika fkaihshd

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

YS% ,xldfõ
fou<
NdId whs;j
s dislï

wdpd¾h foajfkaika fkaihshd

YS% ,xldfõ fou< NdId
whs;sjdislï
l¾;D

: wdpd¾h' foajfkaika fkaihshd

ISBN

: 978-955-1655-84-6

m% : u uq ø Kh : wfma%,a 2012
uq ø Kh

: .af,daí ms%kaáx : 011-2689259

m% l dYkh

: úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh hkq iajdëk foaYmd,k mCIjdÈ;ajfhka
f;dr ixúOdkhla jk w;r th uQ,sl jYfhka rdcHlrKh iy
.egqï ksrdlrKh yd ine¢ .eg¨ flfrys ish wjOdkh fhduq
lrhs' 1996 § úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh msysg jkq ,enqfha uyck
m%;sm;a;Ska ms<sn|j jQ l;sldj; i|yd isú,a iudcfha iÔú
odhl;ajh w;HjYH jk njg yd th Yla;su;a l< hq;=j mj;sk
njg jk ±ä úYajdih fmr±ß fldg f.k h' uyck m%;sm;a;Ska
úfõpkd;aul úu¾Ykhg Ndck lrk" úl,amhka y÷kd .kakd
yd tajd jHdma; lrk m¾fhaIK yd n,mEï lsÍfï jevigyka
fjkqfjka úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh lemù isà'

2

,smk
s h
ÿrl:k
*elaia
fjí wvúh
Bfï,a

( 24$2" 28 jeks mgqu." u,a mdr" fld<U 07'
( +94 (11) 2565304/5/6
( +94 (11) 4714460
( www.cpalanka.org
( info@cpalanka.org

mgqk
fmrjok ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
ye¢kaùu ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
I jk mßÉfÉoh ---------------------------------------------------------- 12
II jk mßÉfÉoh

ks¾foaYhka ---------------------------------------------------------- 28
blauka mshjrhka -------------------------------------------------- 29
flá ld,Sk mshjrhka -------------------------------------------- 30
È.= ld,Sk mshjrhka ---------------------------------------------- 37
l%h
s djg ke.Su iy kshdukh ----------------------------------- 44
III jk mßÉfÉoh --------------------------------------------------------- 47

NdId m%;m
s ;a;h
s ---------------------------------------------------- 48
wOHdmkh iudk wjia:d ----------------------------------------- 52
idu wOHdmkh --------------------------------------------- 55
LLRC jd¾;dfõ by; Wmqgd±laùï j,g wod<
ksÍCIkd;aul woyia ---------------------------------------------- 56
IV jk mßÉfÉoh

YS% ,xldfõ NdId( cd;sl tlai;anj i|yd jHjia:djla ----- 63

3

.

4

fmrjok
hdmfka iy fld<U § ,enQ udf.a mdi,a
wOHdmkfhka yd bka m iq fld<U úYa j
úoHd,fha wOHdmk lghq;j
= ,ska wk;=rej ud
,xld isú,a fiajhg n|jd .kq ,eîñ' ta isxy,
muKla rdcH NdIdj njg m;a lsÍfuka t;rï
wE;l fkdjk 1959 wfm%,
a j
a , § h' fou< NdIdj
o rdcH NdIdjla f,i y÷kajd fok ,o 13 jk
yd 16 jk wdKavl
q u
% jHjia:d ixfYdaOk j,ska
jir lSmhlg miq 1995 wfm%a,ays § ud úY%du
.;af;ñ' ud fiajh l< jir 36 ;=< mqrd jir
11 lA nÿ,a," ukakdru" uvl,mqj yd hdmkh
hk Èia ; s % l a l j, fia j h lf<ñ' nÿ,a ,
Èia;l
%s l
a h oaú NdIsl jQ w;r wfkla Èia;l
s% l
a
;=k m%Odk jYfhka fou< l;d lrk Èia;l
s% l
a
úh'
udf.a fiajd l< ld,h ;=< ud ck;djf.a
NdId m%Yk
a ms<n
s |j fnfyúka oekqj;a jQ w;r
tajd iïnkaOfhka ixfõ§ ùñ' fuu l=vd
ksnkaOkh udf.a rdcldß ld,h ;=< ud ,nd
.;a oekqj;aNdjfha yd miqj ud ksr;
m¾fhaIKhka yS m%;sM,h hs'
ud ks;r ks;r Wvrg m%foaYj, ixpdrh lr
we;af;ñ' fuu .ukaj, § we;eï úg bkaÈhka
id.rh olajd ol=Kg úysfok ukialdka;
o¾Ykhla iys; ymq;f,a miq lr .sfhñ' tu
foajia:dk N+ñfhys ;s;
% j
a úoHd,fha ysgmq Wm
úÿy,am;sj isá ví,sõ' tia' iSksh¾f.a w¿

5

;ekam;a lr ;sfí' Tyqf.a ks;r isysm;a jk
The Call of Lanka uefhka hq;a moH mx;shla
fuu ksnkaOkhg we;=<;a lr we;'
fuu ksnkaOkh m< lsÍfï § Bg kka whqßka
wdOdr l< ,hk,a .=ref.a" wfYdal fyar;a"
lu,dfoaù iIspkaøka yd ,xld fkaihshd hk
uy;au uy;aókag udf.a ia;;
= h
s m, lr isáñ'

foajfkaika fkaihshd

2012 ud¾;=

,xld ud;djf.a wdhdpkh
(The call of Lanka – W.S. Senior)

isß,la ìfï .sß ysia u;g ke.=Kq uu
wE; rkajka ihqr krUñka isáfhñ'
túg bmerKs kgnqka w;ßka u;=ù
,xld f.a wd;auh ud fj;g meñK"
zzldjH m%nkaOlhl= ug ,nd ÿk uekúZZ
zzbÈßfha isÿjkakg hk foa .ek
jeKsh yels uf.a lúhd
ug ,ndÿk uekúZZhs lSjd h'
uf.a yeu kqjrla u kgnqka w;rh
yeu wx.Khlau j,a ìysù we;'
uf.a wdêm;Hh fjkaù fndfyda l,a h'
ta fjkqjg wd.ka;=l iajdñfhla fjhs'
tfia jqjo ug lúhl= uqK .iajkq uekú'
ud ;ju;a Ôj;=ka w;rh' ueÍ ke;ZZ hs ´ mejiqjdh'

6

uf.a Wia ;eks;,djkayso"
my< ksïkhkays o
ck;djf.a f,a kyrj, w;S; fm%!v;ajh
WKqiqug .,dh hs'
uf.a iem fõokd m%ldY l< yels
lúhl= ,nd ÿk uekúZhs ,xld lSjd h'

tïnd ,xld! uu Tng y~la foñ'
uu úfoia Èjhskl orefjla ñ'
Tfí wdhdpkh uf.a yojf;a ±,aúK'
Tn;a" Tfí iskdj;a uf.a oEfiys Ôj;afõ'
hkak lsßujqks" th iq¿ fudfyd;la muKla
mj;sk fyhska thska jevla .kak'
Tfí l=iska Wmka Tfíu orejka
ksielju i| jeysfrk ;=re w;f¾
WKqiqï wyia .efí"
uõ welfhys iefmag
wef.a oEfiys t<sfhka nenf<ñka
lúhd mqnqokq we;'
;kshu wyi Wig ke.S isák
ysu ;=ysk .ejiqKq isßmd l÷lrh" yd
Èh ÿñka jeiqKq ÿkays| .ek
lúhd ne;s .Shla .hkq we;'
,la ìfï is;al¨ jQfha l=ula o
Tyq th fidhd f.dia thg wdorh lrkq we;'
wjHdc iS.sßh .ek" ñkafkaßfha ießirk
fokqka .ek Tyq .dhkd lrdú'
jeõo" msmqKq fk¿ï o" .sßf,kaj,
Y=oaO jia;+ka o Tyqf.a lúfhys Èiafõ'
fï N+ñfha bmerKs jQfha l=ula o" th Tyqf.a
uydkqNdj iïmkak mrmqf¾ Ôj;ajkq we;'
fï ish,a,g u jvd lúhd ,xld .ek
.dhkd lrkafka l=ula o"
bÈßfha tk tä;r jljdkqjla .ekh'
tkï" zzish¨u cd;Ska tlg uqiqù
wr., .egqï y~ f.d¿ù" wms tl fm<lg
iE§ tlu fnr kdohlg .ufka fhfouq'ZZ
oEjeka; mrud¾:hla Wfoid" tlu ñksfila
bjqfrka bjqrg .ufka fhfoa
wuq;a;d ifydaor;ajfhka ie,fla

7

wmg .=reyrelï fok whf.a ldßh ksufõ'
kgnqka k.r ke.S isák úg
h<s;a jrla rc ud,s.h nenf<a'
;SrKd;aul wkd.;hla yd
Wodjk w¨;a wdf,dalh .ek lúhdfKks
ijka fokak" yß; l÷ jeáfhka iy
rkajka ihqfrka tk fï y~g ijkafokak"
zzke.S isákak ,la orej" ms<s;=re fokak
Tfí wïud Tng wdhdpkd lrhsZZ

8

ye¢kaùu
zzYS% ,xldfõ fou< NdId whs;k
S ˜a kï jQ fuu
lD;sh ,shk ,oafoa lS¾;su;a ysgmq isú,a
fiajlfhl= jQ yd úl,am m%;m
s ;a;s flakøa fhys
udf.a w.kd ñ;%fhl= jk wdpd¾h foajfkaika
fkaihshd uy;d úisks' wdpd¾h fkaihshd
uy;d W;=re kef.kysfrka ndysr m<d;aj,
fou< NdIdj rdcH NdIdjla f,i Ndú;d lsÍu
ms<sn| ;;a;ajh úNd. lsrSu i|yd YS% ,xld
rdcH NdId fldñiu úiska 1998 § m;a lrk
,o lñgqfõ iNdm;sjrhd o úh' tys m%;M
s ,hla
jYfhka fuu ksnkaOkh YS% ,xldfõ ck
jd¾.sl .egqfï flakøa fha jQ úIhhla ms<n
s |j
w;aoelSï yd úfYaI{;djh hk foflka u
fmdfydi;a jQ o mYapd;a hqo iudchl isg
mYapd;a .egqï iudchla lrd jk wmf.a
mßj¾;kh ms<sn| wNsfhdackSh f,i h yd
wúfhdackSh ne£ we;a;djQ o tlla fjhs'
YS% ,xldj jeks nyq;ajjd§ iudchl NdId
whs;k
S a iduh" iu.s ikaOdkh yd tlai;aNdjh
iu. tlg ne÷Kq tajd fjhs' rfÜ ish¨u
ck;djkaf.a NdId whs;k
S a tys kS;"s mßmd,k
Í;s" úêúOdk yd Ndú;hka ;=< ixia:dmkh
lrkakg we;s wfma fkdyelshdj yd $fyda
wleue;a; fjkialï lsÍu ixfla;j;a l,d
fukau msgia;r ùu wdh;k.; l< w;r th
wjidkfha § rdcHhg tfrys jQ ikakoaO le/
,a,la u.ska m%ldYhg m;aúh' ikaëh l%uh
yd iajhx md,kh i|yd jk b,a,Sï jvd
wka;.dó fjkaùfï b,a,Sula o ;%ia;jdoh
iu. ne÷kq lDDrlï yd b;du uE; § t,a,jQ
hqo wmrdO yd ne÷Kq ck jd¾.sl hqoaOhl
fõokdj yd mSvdj u.ska jHdl+, lr oeñK'

9

2009 hqoaOfha wjidkfhka jir ;=klg miq
wdKavj
q rg uq¿,af,a ff;% NdIsl m%;m
s ;a;u
s h
b,lalhla m%ldYhg m;a lf<a h' fuu
ksnkaOkfhys kej; m,fldg we;s 1998 NdId
ú.Kk lñgqj yd W.;a mdvï yd m%;i
s kaOdk
fldñiu hk foflau ks¾foaY flfrys
ie,ls,su;a jkq we;ehs o wruqK wjxlj bgq
lsÍug lghq;= lrkq we;ehs o n,dfmdfrd;a;=
iy.;j wfmalaId flf¾' tfia u fï yd
iïnkaO m%.;sh ksielju W.;a mdvï yd
m%;sikaOdk fldñifï ks¾foaY ms<sn|j
tlai;a cd;Skaf.a udkj ysñlï ljqkais,fha
fhdackdjg miqj cks;jQ cd;Hka;r ie,ls,,
a
iuyka lsÍug WmldÍ jkq we;'
iudc ika o ¾Nhla ;= < NdIdj hka k
wkkH;dfõ yd ta wkqj whs;h
s ms<n
s |" iudk
mqrjeisNdjh yd b;du;au ie,lsh hq;= uQ,sl
whs;k
S a yd .re;ajh ms<n
s | fjka l< fkdyels
fldgila fõ' udkj ysñlï yd md,kh ms<n
s |
cd;Hka;r ,shú,s .Kkdjl NdId whs;Ska
.eí fldg we;s w;r YS% ,xldfjys o NdId
whs;Skag .re lsrSu yd bgq lsrSu iïnkaO
úYajdih ;yjqre lsÍu cd;Hka;r m%cdfõ
j.lsj hq;= idudðlfhl= f,i wfma cd;Hka;r
ne£ïj, fldgila fjhs' tfia u wd¾Ól
ixj¾Okh i|yd lghq;= lsÍu o NdId whs;k
S a
;yjqre lsÍu u.ska wdOdr lrkq ,enqfõ kï
úYd, jYfhkaa myiq jkq we;s w;r th >Dcqj
n,mdk ck;dj w;r úYd, iqcd; Ndjhla
w;alr.kq we;' ixj¾Okh hkq m%:ufhka u
yd m%Odk jYfhka u ck;djf.a Y=N isoaêh
yd w¾: idOkh úIfhysjQ wdfhdackhla fõ'
w;sYh uQ,sl jYfhkau th ueksh hq;af;a
mx.=lrejka f,i iudk mqrjeishka yd

10

lsh
% dldÍ iyNd.slhka f,i ta iïnkaOfhka
jk Tjqkaf.a úYajdih u.sks'
oYl follg muK fmr rdcH NdId fldñiu
msyg
s ù
q fï mgka fou< NdId whs;k
S a ms<s .kakd
njg lemùu ms<n
s | w,xldfrdal;
a u
s h m%ldY
flreK o th m%dfhda.slj ls%hdjg ke.Su
lK.dgqodhl f,i W!k jQfha h' 1998 NdId
ú.Kk lñgqfõ o Bg oYlhlg muK miq
W.;a mdvï yd m%;sikaOdk fldñifï o
ks¾foaYhka fï iïnkaOfhka jk m%.;sfha
W!k;dj o ufkda N djhka yd ne÷kq
wNsfhda.hkaf.a fkdyeiS mej;au" foaYmd,k
lemùfï yd iïm;aj, W!k;dj o igyka
lrhs'
iduh" iu.s ikaOdkh yd tlai;aNdjh iy;sl
lsÍu i|yd YS% ,xldfjys fou< NdId whs;Ska
ms<s .ekSu u m%udKj;a fkdjkq we;' flfia
jqj o th wújdÈ;ju iduh" iu.s ikaOdkh
yd tla i ;a N djh i|yd wjYH lrk
m%;sixialrK meflachl ixhqla; fldgila
fjhs tys ish¨ ckhd ±äf,i wfmaCId lrk
m%cd;ka;%jd§ md,khlska hq;a ienE" ;srir
mYapd;a .egqï iudchla njg YS% ,xldj m;a
lsÍu i|yd jk úi÷ul § wjYH lrkakd jQ
wfkl= ; a ldrKd iïnka O fhka fia u
wNsfhda.fha flakøa fhys we;af;a iïm;a imhd
.ekSug fkdyels nj fkdj" foaYmd,k
lemùu yd ta i|yd jk ufkda Ndjhla
fkdue;sluhs'

mdlHfida;s irjkuq;a;=
úOdhl wOHCI
úl,am m%;m
s ;a;s flakøa h

11

Y%S ,xldfõ fou< NdId
whs;j
s dislï
I jk mßÉfþoh
1956 rdcH NdId mk; iïu; jQ ;eka isg
isxy, NdId whs;sjdislï úYd, jYfhka
;yjqre úh' ta ksid" ud m%Odk jYfhka
wjOdkh fhduq lrkafka fou< NdId
whs;Ska ms<sn|jh" Bg wvq m%udKhlska
bx.%Sis NdId whs;Ska ms<sn|jo wjOdkh
fhduq lrñ' iïms K a v kh lrk ,o
ft;sydisl iels,a,lska wdrïN lsÍu
m%fhdackj;a fõ hhs isñ'

hdmkfha
;reK
fldx.%ih
Jaffna
Youth
Congress
(JYC)
12

ì%;dkH hq.h iy ksoyiska miq m<uq
oYlh ;=< rdcH NdIdj jQfha bx.%sishhs'
mßmd,kfha ; a " wOHdmkfha ; a " cd;s l
NdIdjka Ndú;d ls Í u i|yd jQ
Woaf>daIKhg kdhl;ajh fokq ,enqfõ
hdmkfha ;reK fldx.%ihhs ^JYC& '
tfia kdhl;ajh ÿka wh w;r m%uqL;ajh
.kq
,enq f õ
keiS . s h
yeka ä
fmßïnkdh.ï uy;d h' uy;aud .dkaê
;= u df.a wdNdIh ;= , s k a Ôjkh ,;a
hdmkh ;reK fldx.%ih uq¿ukska u
mdfya iukaú; jQfha ;reK .=rejreka
iy fcHIag isik
q a f.ks' Tjqyq hdmkfhka

msg; ish¨u foaYmd,k kdhlhska ^Wvrg
isxy," my;rg isxy," fhdakl" uef,a"
l÷rg fou< iy kef.kysr fou<&
iuÕ o" .dkaê" fkare iy rdcf.damd,djdÍ
jeks m%Odk bkaÈhdkq kdhlhska iuÕ o
hym;a in|;djhla meje;a j q y ' 1920
.kkaj, § iy ;sia .Kkaj, uq,a Nd.fha§
o hdmkh ;reK fldx.%ih WÉpia:dkhg
m;a j ;snQ w;r" miqj l%ufhka ÿ¾j, ù
.sfha h'
hdmkh ;reK fldx.%ifha m%;sm;a;shg
wkql+,j" Tjqyq hdmkfha§ m%uqLfmf,a
mdi,aj, wksjd¾h NdIdjka f,i isxy,"
fou< iy bx.%sis b.ekajQy' Tjqka g b;d
blaukska u ksoyi wjYH úh' fï fya;=j
ksidu Tjqyq fvdkfud¾ m%;i
s xialrKhka
m%udKj;a fkdjkafka hehs o" th mudjQ
tlla hehs o" i,lñka thg úreoaO jQ
w;r fvdkfuda¾ m%;sixialrK hgf;a
jQ 1931 rdcH uka;%K iNd ue;sjrKho
j¾ckh l<y' 1931 § fuu j¾ckh
hdmkh w¾Ooaúmfha§ 100] lau mdfya
id¾:l jQ w;r j¾ckh wkqu; fkdl<
fou< cd;sljd§yq w¾Ooaùmfhka msg;§
;rÕ l<y' ^Wod - Ô'Ô' fmdkakïn,ï
ukakdrfï§ ;rÕ lr mrdchg m;aúh'&
flfia fj;;a j¾ckh wLKa v j
mj;ajd.ekSug meyeÈ,s f,i fkdyels
jq w;r 1936 § rdcH uka ; % K iNd

1931 rdcH
uka;K
% iNd
ue;sjrK
j¾ckh
13

hdmkfha
;reK
fldx.%ifha
jeàu iy
iuia; ,xld
fou<
fldx.%ifha
ke.Su

l÷rg oñ<
ck;djf.a
mqrjeis
whs;h
s fukau
Pkao whs;sh
meyer.ekSu
14

ue;s j rKh mj;a j k úg j¾ckhla
mej;=fka u ke;' wjdikdjka; f,i
hdmkh ;reK fldx.%ih úiska j¾ckh
lrk f,i jq le|ùu mdrdj<,a,la jq
w;r hdmkh ;reK fldx.%ifha ;reK
wêrdcH úfrdaê nqoaêu;=ka m%dfhda.sl
fkdjQ mrudo¾Yjd§ka f,i i,ld
wj,x.= ù ;sìK' fï ;;a;j
a h ksid fou<
fldx.%ihg" hdmkfha ;reK fldax.%ih
u; uq,sl wdrïNhla ,nd .ekSug yels
jQ w;r 1936 isg oYl folla mqrd fou<
foa Y md,kfha wdêm;Hhla mj;a j d
.ekS u g Ô'Ô fmdka k ïn,ï uy;dg
yelsúh' fï ld,h ;=,§ hdmkfha ;reK
fldx.%ih úiska f.dvkÕk ,o jd¾.sl
fyd|ys; l%ufhka uelS .sfha h'
fï w;r;=r 1944 § fÊ'wd¾' chj¾Ok
uy;d úiska isxy, NdIdj tlu rdcH
NdIdj úh hq;=nj;a" mdi,aj, wOHdmk
udOH f,i isxy, NdIdj ie,lsh hq;=
nj;a rdcH uka;%K iNdjg fhdackdjla
f.k tk ,§' fuu fhdackdj Pkaohg
bÈßm;a lsÍug fmr ù' k,a,hshd úiska
ixfYdaOkhla bÈßm;a lrñka isxy,
muKla hkak fjkqjg " isxy, iy fou<
hk oaùNdIdjka we;=<;a l< hq;=hehs
fhdackd lrk ,§' miqj tu fhdackdj
ms<s.;a w;r ta wkqj ixfYdaOkh ilik
,È' kuq ; a tuÕs k a ;rul jd¾.s l

fkdukdmhla iy fou<" uqi,
a ï
s wh w;r
wkdrCIs; yeÕSula ks¾udKh úh' 1948
§ iy kej;;a 1952 § meje;s md¾,sfïka;=
ue;sjrKfha§ W;=f¾ Pkao fldÜgdY ;=<
wdikak jYfhka ish¨u wdik fou<
fldx.%ih úiska Èkd .kakd ,È' bka
miqj tia'fÊ'ú' fp,ajkdh.ï uy;d úiska
kdhl;ajh fokq ,enq f*vr,a mCIh
úiska fou< kdhl;ajh w;am;a lr.;a
w;r 70 oYlh w. Nd.fha§ isÿjQ Tyqf.a
wNdjh f;lau th oYl folla mqrd
mj;ajdf.k .sfha h' 1977 jk ;=re iEu
ue;s j rKhl§ u f*vr,a mCIh
Yla;u
s ;aj;a id¾:lj;a rgfn§ug tfrysj
Woaf>daIKh lf<ah' f*vr,a mCIh fï
ld,h ;=< § W;=re yd kef.kysr uqia,sï
ck;djf.a iyfhda.h o ,nd.ekSug
iu;aúh' l,dmfha uqia,sï ksfhdað;hska
isxy, muKla rdcH NdIdj úh hq;= hehs
hk fhdckdjg úreoaOj Pkaoh ÿka w;r"
W;=re yd kef.kysßka msg; mokula
iys; jQ uqia,sï kdhlfhda isxy, muKla
rdcH NdIdj úh hq;= hehs hk fhdackdjg
mCIj Pka o h ÿka y ' fifkÜ iNs l
ta'tï'ta' wiSia uy;d ^Tyqf.a uq,a mÈxÑh
hdmkfhah& muKla fuhg úreoaO úh'
fï m%Yakh u; Tyq tcdm fhka bj;a jQ
w;r isxy, muKla mk;g úreoaOj
Pkaoh mdúÉÑ lf<ah'

f*vr,a
mlaIfha
ke.Su

isxy,
muKla rdcH
NdIdj úh
hq;h
= ehs hk
fhdackdjg
W;=re
kef.kysr
uqi,
a ï
s
md¾,sfïka;=
uka;S%jre
úreoaOj
Pkaoh ÿkay
15

isxy,
muKla rdcH
NdIdj ùu
ckjd¾.sl
fn§u ;Sõr
lf<ah

wysñ jQ
wjia:djla
16

1956 ue;s j rKfha § is x y,hs k a úis k a
kdhl;a j h ÿka m% O dk mCI fol"
Y%s,ksmh ^uyck tlai;a fmruqK kñka
ye¢kajQ iNd.fha fldgialrefjls& iy
tcdmh isxy, muKla rdcH NdIdj lsÍfï
mk;g mCI jQ w;r" ta uÕska ckjd¾.sl
fn§u jvd;a mq¿,a úh' udlaiajd§ ,xld
iuiudc mlaIh iy fldñhqki
s Ü
a mlaIh
isxy, iy fou< NdIdjka rdcH NdIdjka
f,i .; hq;=h hk moku u; Pkao
jHdmdrh f.k .sh w;r Y%s,ksm iuÕ
uq,§ ks;rÕ .súiqula w;aika lsÍfuka
ie,lsh hq;= wdik ixLHdjla W;=re yd
kef.kysßka msg;§ ;yjqre lr .;ay'
kuq;a Tjqka W;=f¾ fyda kef.kysr n,hla
w;alr .ekSug wiu;ajQy' fldñhqksiaÜ
mlaIh W;=f¾§ tla wdikhla Èkd.;a
w;r ,'i'i'm h rg ;=,§ md¾,sfïka;=fõ
fojk úYd,;u mCIh njg m;a úh'
tfy;a" Tjqka fyda fou< mCI M,odhS
foaYmd,k ikaOdkhla fidhd bÈßhg
.sfha ke;' jir .Kkdjla uq¿,af,a
jd¾.sl fn§ï ;j ;j;a mq¿,a úh' 1956
ue;sjrKfha§ W;=re kef.kysr m<d;aj,
f*vr,a mCIh uq¿ukska u ch.;a w;r
rfÜ wfkl=;a m%foaYhkays§ YS%','ks'm
kdhl;a j fhka hq ; = uyck tla i ;a
fmruqK ch.;af;ah' jd¾.sl O%eùlrKh
ksoyig fmr ;j ;j;a j¾Okh ùug
fya;= jQ w;r úáka úg ÿ¾j, úh' kuq;a

±ka kej;;a iaÓridr f,i Yla;su;a
fjñka ;sfí'
W;=re yd kef.kysr uqia,sïjrekaf.a
Wjukdjka wdrCId lsßug tï'tÉ'tï
wIafrd*a uy;df.a kdhl;ajh hgf;a Y%s
,xldfõ uqia,sï fldx.%ih biau;=jqfha
Tjqka wh;a jQ foaYmd,k mCIj, ^UNP/
SLFP & fufyhùu hgf;a W;= r e
kef.kys ß ka ms g ; Pka o fldÜGdY
ksfhdackh l< uqia,sï uka;%Sjre isxy,
muKla rdcH NdIdj lsÍfï mk;g mCIj
Pkaoh §fï m%;sM,hla jYfhks' W;=re
yd kef.kys ß ka ms g ; iuyr Pka o
fldÜGdYj, n,mEu fuu mCIh úiska
;yjqre lr.kq ,eìu;a iuÕ Y%s ,xldfõ
uq i a , s ï jreka f .a m% O dk mCIh f,i
uqia,sï fldx.%ih biau;=úh' wIafrd*a
uy;df.a fÄockl wk;=rlska wl,a
urKhg f.dÿrejk ;= r eu f*vr,a
mCIh;a iuÕ jQ Tyqf.a iïnkaOh hym;a
f,i mej;=Ks'
1981 ck ix.Kkhg wkqj ^iuia; ,xld
uÜgñka mej;s wjika ix.Kkh& fou<
l;d lrk m%cdj ^Y%S ,dxlsl fou< ckhd"
uqia,sïjre" fhdakl iy l÷rg fou<& ta
ld,h jk úg iuia; ck.yKfhka 30]
la ksfhdackh l< nj;a" isxy, ckhd
^Wvrg yd my;rg& 69] la ksfhdackh

YS% ,xld
uqi,
a ï
s
fldx.%ih
biau;=ùu

wIar*a uy;d
fío ckl
wk;=rlska
wl,a
urKhg
f.dÿre jk
;=reu wIarma
iy YS%' uQ'
fldx.%i
Èjhsk mqrd
;u n,mEu
jHdma; l<y
17

isxy,
muKla
m%;sm;a;sfhka
bj;aùu

bkaÈhdkq
f*vr,a
l%uh
18

l< nj;a" wfkl=;a ish¨ fldgia 1] lg;a
wvq m%udKhla ksfhdackh l< nj;a"
fmka k q ï flßKs ' 1981 is g jd¾.s l
wkqmd;h ^fou< ckhd wiudkqmd;sl
f,i by< m%udKhla& ixl%uKh ksid
ie,lsh hq;= uÜgñka fjkia úh' NdId
Ndú;h ;=< fou< l;d lrk fldgiska
úfYa I fhka uq i a , s ï jreka f .ka is x y,
idlaIr;djh ,nd.;af;a iq¿ fldgils'
flfia jqj;a Y%S ,dxlslhska f.ka nyq;rh
talNdIsl f,i mej;=Ks' isxy, NdIdj
rdcH NdIdj njg m;al< wdldrh;a ta
iuÕu we;s jQ m%pKav;ajh ksid;a isxy,
idCIr;djh fou< ckhd w;r me;sÍug
wjysrhla úh' Y%S ,xldfõ wOHdmk l%uho
oa ú NdIduh
fyda
ff;% N dIduh
l%shdldÍ;ajhlska me;sÍhdug Wmldrhla
jQ f ha ke;' fuh bka È hdfõ mej;s
;;a;ajhg jvd iïmQ¾Kfhkau mriamr
;;a ; a j hls ' tys b;d wvq uÜgfï
idCIr;djhla mej;sh o nyq NdIduh
;;a j h k.dis g q ù ug wOHdmk l% u h
Wmldrhla jq w;r th bkaÈhdfõ cd;sl
iu.s h f.dv ke.S u i|yd m% O dk
idOlhla úh'
bkaÈhdfõ ;j;a lemSfmfkk ,CIKhla
jkafka th NdIduh m%dka; fndfyda
.Kkla we;s f*vr,a rdcHhla ùuhs' fuu
iEu f*vr,a rdcHhla u m%Odk jYfhka

md,kh jkafka wod< m%dka;fha cd;sl
NdIdfjks ' kuq ; a iEu m% d ka ; hla u
Tjqkaf.a m%dfoaYsh NdIdjka Ndú; lrk
w;r tjeks jQ NdIduh iq¿;rhka wod<
m% d ka ; fha úYd, .Kkla we;' Wod(
;ñ,akdvq m%dka;fha rdcH NdIdj jkafka
fou< NdIdjhs' kuq;a u,hd,ï lkav
iy f;,s.= l;dlrk fjka jQ tall
;ñ,akdvq m%dka; iSudj ;=< mj;S' tys§
Tjqkag tu NdIdjka Ndú;d l< yel'
flar<" l¾kdgl iy wdkaød hk m%dka;
iSudjkays fou< l;d lrkakkag fjka
jQ tall mej;s w;r Tjqkg
a wOHdmkfha§;a"
m%dka; rdcHhka iuÕ lghq;= lsßfï§;a
fou< NdIdj Ndú; lsÍug bvlv ,enqK's
fï ish¨ foaj,a cd;sh f.dvke.Sfï
ld¾hhg bjy,a úh' óg mriamrj Y%s
,xlslhka m%Odk jYfhka tal NdIslj
mj;s k w;r mßmd,kfha § cd;s l
iq¿;rhkag ^m%Odk jYfhka fou< NdIdj
l;d lrk ck;djg& m%udKj;a f,i
fiajh lf<a ke;' tfia ke;akï m%dfoaYh
S
iq¿;rhkag o ^isxy, fyda fou< l;d
lrk wh jqj;a& fiajh lf<a ke;' fuys
m%;sM,h f,i Y%S ,dxlsl cd;sh w;S;fha
ljrodg;a jvd ±ka jd¾.slj tlsfkld
fj;ska ÿria ù we;'
Y%S ,xldfõ isxy, l;dlrk ckhdf.a
wkqmd;h 75]l g;a jvd jeäjk w;r

bkaÈhdj nyq
NdIsljQ w;r
YS% ,xldfõ
tal
ndIsl;ajh
k.disgù
q u

iq¿;r NdId
lKavdhï
fjkiafldg
i,lkq ,eîu
19

wdKavql%u
jHjia:dfõ
13 jeks
ixfYdaOkh
mßÈ fou<
rdcH
NdIdjla f,i
y÷kajd§u
iy bx.Si
% h
s
ikaOdk
NdIdjla f,i
ms<.
s ekSu

fou< l;dlrk wh 25]lg;a jvd wvqh'
wfkla w;ska NdIdjkag iïnkaO kS;s
Ndú; lsÍu fjkia ù we;' 1956 § isxy,
tlu rdcH NdIdj jQ w;r fuh 1972 iy
1978 jHjia:dj,g o we;=,;a úh' 1987
oy;=kajk jHjia:d ixfYdaOkh u.ska
fou< NdIdj o rdcH NdIdjla f,i
ixlS¾K wdldrhlska y÷kajd ÿka w;r
^isxy, NdIdj rdcH NdIdj f,i mej;s
ft;sydisl ;;a;ajh ì|oukafka ke;sj&
bx.%sis NdIdjo iïnkaëlrk NdIdjla
f,i ms<s.kq ,enqKs' jHjia:dfõ 18 jk
j.ka;shg wod< jdlH fufiah'
18 ^1& YS% ,xldfõ rdcH NdIdj isxy,
NdIdj jkafka h'
^2& fou< NdIdjo rdcH NdIdjla jkafka
h'

j¾;udk
wdKavql%u
jHjia:djg
wkqj
mßmd,k
lghq;= j,§
isxy, fou<
iy bx.S%is
NdIdj,
Ndú;h
20

^3& bx.S%is NdIdj ikaOdk NdIdj jkafka
h'
^4& fï mßÉfÊofha úêúOdk ls%hd;aul
lsÍu i|yd md¾,sfïka;j
= úiska kS;s u.ska
úêúOdk ie,eiaúh hq;=h
j¾I 1988 wxl 16 orK ixfYdaOkh u.ska
iuia; YS% ,xldfõ mßmd,k NdIdjla
f,i fou< NdIdj o ms<sf.k we;' wêl
úia ; rd;a u l kj ;;a ; a j hla fou<
NdIdjg ,eî we;' j¾;udkfha § fou<
NdIdjo rdcH NdIdjla" mßmd,k NdIdjla
iy wêlrK NdIdjla f,i ms<s.kq ,en

we;' bx.S % i s NdIdj iïnka ë lrK
NdIdjla fukau mßmd,k lghq;=j,§
b;d wvq uÜgulska Ndú;d fõ' wdKavl
q u
%
jHjia:dfõ oyih jk ixfYdaOkh wkqj
j.ka;s 22^1&" ^2& iy ^3& jk j.ka;s my;
±lafjk mßÈ w¾: ksrEmkh flf¾'
mßmd,k NdIdj

16 jeks
ixfYdaOkh
wkqj fou<
iy bx.S%is
NdIdj,
jHjia:duh
;;ajh

22^1& isxy, iy fou< NdId YS% ,xldj
uq¿,af,a mßmd,k NdId úh hq;af;a h'
rcfha wdh;k úiska fmdÿ jd¾;d ;nd
.ekSu i|yd iy ish¨ lghq;= bgq lsÍu
i|yd fou< NdIdj Ndú;d lrk W;=re
iy kef.kysr m<d;a yer" YS% ,xldfõ
ish¨u m<d;aj, mßmd,k NdIdj isxy,
úh hq;= w;r ta m<d;aj, rcfha wdh;k
úiska fmdÿ jd¾;d ;nd .ekSu i|yd iy
ish¨ lghq;= bgq lsÍu i|yd isxy, NdIdj
Ndú;d l< hq;=h'
tfia j Q j o Wm Èidm;s fldÜGdYhla
ixhqla; jk hï tallhl uq¿ ck.khg
tu m%foaYfha isxy, fyda fou< NdIduh
iq¿ ck fldgi ork wkqmd;h flfrys
ie,ls,a, we;sj" ckdêm;sjrhd úiska "
isxy, iy fou< NdId folu fyda ta
m%foaYh msysá m<df;a mßmd,k NdIdj
jYfhka Ndú;d lrkq ,enQ NdIdj fkdjk
fjk;a NdIdjla fyda ta m%foaYh i|yd
mßmd,k NdIdj jYfhka Ndú;d lrkq
,eîug úOdk lrkq ,eìh yelsh'

16 jeks
ixfYdaOkh
wkqj NdId
Ndú;h
ms<n
s |
m%;m
s dok
21

22^2& ;u ks, ;;a;ajfhka ls%hd lrk
ks,Orhl= fkdjk ;eke;a;l=g ^w& fou< fyda bx.Si
% s NdId foflka ljr
jQ fyda NdIdjls k a ljr jQ fyda
ks,Orhl=f.ka ta ks,Orhdf.a ks,
;;ajfhka ,sms .kqfokq Ndr .ekSug"
ta ks,Orhdg ks, ;;a;ajfhka ,sms
.kqfokq heùug iy ta ks,Orhd
iu. ta ;;ajfhka lghq;= lsÍug
ysñlï we;af;a h¦

rdcH
ixksfõokfha§
iy jd¾;d
;nd .ekSfï§
NdId Ndú;h
22

^wd& hï ks , f,a L khla " jd¾;djla
m%ldYkhla fyda fjk;a ,shú,a,la
mÍla I d ls Í ug ke;fyd;a ta
f,a L khls k a "
jd¾;djls k a "
m% l dYkhls k a fyda fjk;a
,shú,a,lska msgm;la fyda WOD;hla
,nd.ekSug Tyqg we;s whs;sjdislu
kS ; s f hka ms < s . kq ,nka f ka kï"
wjia : djg WÑ; mßÈ tu
f,aLkfhka msgm;la fyda WOD;hla
fyda mßj¾;khla fou< fyda bx.S%is
NdId foflka ljr NdIdjlska jqjo
,nd .ekSug ysñlu we;af;a h'
^we& ta ;eke;a;dg ksl=;a lrkq ,eîfï
ld¾hh i|yd hï ks,Odßhl= úiska
hï ,shú,a,la ,shd w;aika lrkq
,nk wjia:djl ta ,shú,a, fyda ta
,shú,af,a mßj¾;khla fyda fou<

fyda bx.S % i s NdId foflka ljr
NdIdjlska jqjo ,nd.ekSug ysñlu
we;af;a h'
22^3& mßmd,k NdIdj jYfhka fou<
NdIdj Ndú;d lrkq ,nk hï m%foaYhl"
ia j lS h ks , ;;a ; a j fhka ls % h d lrk
ks,Orhl= fkdjk hï ;eke;a;l= fï
jHjia:dfõ ^2& jk wkq jHjia:dfõ ^w&"
^wd&" iy ^we& fþoj, i|yka whs;j
s dislï
iy fiajdjka isxy, NdIdfjka fyda bx.Si
% s
NdIdfjka ls%hd;aul lrjd .ekSug iy
,nd .ekSug ysñlu ,eìh hq;af;ah'
wdKavl
q u
% jHjia:dfõ 16 jeks ixfYdaOkhg
wkqj
24^1& jHjia : dj my; ±la f jk mßÈ
ixfYdaOk ù we;'
—24^1& YS% ,xldj uq¿,af,a u wêlrKj,
NdId isxy, iy fou< NdId úh hq;=
w;r" fou< NdIdj mßmd,k NdIdj jk
hï m%foaYhl yer" YS% ,xldfõ ish¨u
m%foaYj, msyá
s wêlrKj, isxy, NdIdj
wêlrK NdIdj jYfhka Ndú; l<
hq;af;a kvq jd¾;dj iy kvq lghq;=
wêlrKfha NdIdfjka úh hq;=h' hï
wêlrKhlska wNshdpkhla bÈßm;a lrk
wjia:djl" wNshdpkh úNd. lrkq ,nk
wêlrKfha NdIdj wNshdpkh bÈßm;a

wêlrKj,
NdIdj
23

lrkq ,enqfõ hï wêlrKhlskao tata
wêlrKfha NdIdj fkdjk fjk;a
NdIdjla jk úg" wNshdpkh úNd. lrkq
,nk wêlrKfha NdIdfjka o jd¾;d
ms<sfh, l< hq;=h'
tfia jqjo" hï wêlrKhl kvq jd¾;dj
;nd .ekSu o kvq lghq;= mj;ajdf.k
hdu o wêlrKfha NdIdj fkdjk
NdIdjlskoa úh hq;= hehs" wêlrK úIhh
Ndr wud;Hjrhd úiska wud;H uKav,fha
tlÕ;ajh we;sj úOdk l< yelafla h'˜

NdId
whs;j
s dislï
ms<n
s |
kS;Hdkql,
+
;;ajh;a
h:d¾:h;a
w;r mr;rh
24

mßmd,k lghq;= j,§ fou< NdIdj Ndú;
lsÍug wdKavql%u jHjia:dfõ fukau
fjk;a m%;m
s dok iy kS;Í
s ;s u.ska miqlï
i,id we;;a fou< NdIdj l;d lrk
m%cdjg ìïuÜgfï § m%dfhda.slj b;d
wvq myiqlï lSmhla muKla ie,iS we;'
fuu lreKq ms<sn|j j¾I 1998 foieïn¾
30 jeks Èk bÈßm;a lrk ,o NdId
Ndú;h ms<n
s | rdcH NdId fldñIka iNdj
fj; ^ud m%Odk;ajfhka jQ lñgqj& bÈßm;a
lrk ,o NdId ú.Kk jd¾;dfõ ^6jeks
msgqfõ& fufia ±lafõ'
^w& §¾> ld,hla fou< l:dlrk
fiajl uKav,j, ysÕhla mej;sfha
h' fou< ni l:dlrk úYd, ck
ixLHdjlg fuu fiajl uKav,h
fiajh l<;a" wm ksÍlaIKh l<

lsisÿ ld¾hd,hl fï ysÕh msrùug
lghq ; = lr fkd;s n q K s ' fuys
m%;sM,hla jYfhka" fou< NdIdj
l:d lrk fndfyda fokd yg
isxyf,ka ^iuyr wjia:dj,§ Tjqka
le|jdf.k tk l:d mßj¾;lhska
yryd& fyda we;eï úg bx.S%isfhka
;u lghq;= lsÍug n,lrkq ,enQy'

fou< NdIdj
l:d lrk
ck;dj
uqyqK fok
iuyr m%Yak

^wd& fou< m%ùK;d mÍCIKj,ska iu;aj
Èß §ukdjla ,nk ks,OdÍka mjd
fndfyda ÿrg fou< niska lghq;=
lsÍug fkdyelsj isá;s' úfYaIfhka
fou< niska ,sms .kq fokq lsÍug
fkdyels ;;ajhl miqfj;s'
^we& fndfyda ld¾hd,j, h;=re ,shk
hka;% jeks uQ,sl WmlrK mjd
fkd;s n q K s ' ke;fyd;a b;d wvq
m%udKhla muKla ;snqKs' iuyr
ld¾hd,j, fou< h;=re f,aLlfhda
fkdisáhy'
^wE& isxy, iy fou< NdIdj,ska ish¨u
kdu mqjre iy u.fmkaùfï mqjre"
±kaùï mqjre hkdÈh m%o¾Ykh lsÍu
jeks b;d ir, fukau wvq msßjeh
iys ; jevlghq ; = mjd fndfyda
ld¾hd,j, olskakg fkd,eìKs'
^b& rdcH mßmd,k wud;HdxYh iy
rdcH NdId fldñIka iNdj úiska

fou< NdIdj
l:d lrk
fiajl
ixLHdfõ
mj;sk W.%
ysÕh
25

1998 fou<
NdId ú.Kk
jd¾;dj

ksl=;a lrk ,o kS;suh f,aLK fyda
pl% f ,a L kj, fj¿ï ls i s ÿ
ld¾hd,hl fkd;snqKs'
fou< NdIdj o rdcH NdIdjla f,i
m%ldYhg m;afldg jir 11la f.ù f.dia
we;' tfy;a" fou< niska rdcldß bgq
l<yels ks,OdÍkaf.a úYd, ysÕhla mj;S'
fuh uQ,sl m%Yakhla f,i y÷kd.kakd
,§' n|jd .ekSfï § fukau fiajhg
wkqhqla; lsÍfï§ o úúO Èia;%slalj,
ckjd¾.ssl wkqmd;h ie,ls,a,g f.k
ke;'

26

Y%S ,xldfõ fou< NdId
whs;j
s dislï
II jk mßÉfþoh
fuu mßÉfþofha wvx.= jkafka jir 13
lg fmr rdcH NdId fldñIka iNdj
^OLC & uÕska W;=re kef.kysßka msg;
m<d;a j,§ fou< NdIdj Ndú;d lsÍu
ms < s n | l% u dkq l + , NdId ú.Kkhla
meje;aùug fuu ksnkaOkfha f,aLlhd
úiska kdhl;ajh ÿka lKavdhu uÕska
bÈßm;a lrk ,o ks¾foaYhkah' fuu
ú.Kkh uÕska W;=f¾ fyda kef.kysr
mÍCIKhla fkdlrk ,o kuq ; a "
ks¾foaYhka uq¿ rggu n,meje;ajQ w;r
W;=f¾ yd kef.kysr isxy, Ndú;ho thg
we;=<;a úh' 1998 foieïn¾ 30 bÈßm;a
jQ ks ¾ foa Y hkg ÿrola k d fjkia l ï
we;=,;a jq w;r tajdhska fndfyduhla
j,x.= jq kuq;a " l%shdjg ke.=fka ke;'
fï fya;=j ksid tajd kej; bÈßm;a
lrkqfha fjkia lsÍulska f;drjh'

fou< NdId
úêúOdk
ls%hd;aul
lsÍug
wfmdfydi;a
ùu
27

ks ¾ foa Y hka
fou< l;d lrk ck;djf.a wjYH;djhka
iïmQ¾K lsÍug mßmd,khg wjYH kï"
rdcH wdh;kj, iy ixia:dj, fou<
NdId m%ùK;djh ,;a ks,OdÍka" isáh
hq ; = h ' mßj¾;lhs k a " ,s m s l rejka "
h;=re,shkakka" fukau fmd,sia ks,Odßka
jeks ish¨u uÜgïj, fomd¾;fïka;=
fY%aKSka o isáh hq;=h' fou< l;d lrk
ld¾h uKav,hla m%udKj;a ;rñka n|jd
.ekSu w;HdjYHh' kuq;a fuh tl /
hlska l< fkdyel' blauka" fláld,Sk
yd È.= ld,Sk mshjr wjYH jk nj
ksÍCIK lKavdhu f;areï f.k ;sfí'

blauKska
ls%hd;aul
l<hq;=
ks¾foaY
28

m<uq yÈis wjYH;dj jkq f ha rdcH
mßmd,k wud;HxYh;a" uqo,a yd ie,iqï
lsßfï wud;HxYh;a jegqma yd fiajl
ixLHd lñgqj;a" rdcH NdId fldñiu;a"
rdcH NdIdjla f,i fou< NdIdj
l%shd;aul lsÍu i|yd wjYH jk blauka
flá ld,Sk yd È.= ld,Sk w;HjYH
mshjrhka .ekSuh' wfma NdId ú.Kkfha
moku u; i,ldne,S ï i|yd my;
i|yka ks¾foaYhka wms ilia lf<uq'

blauka mshjrhka - ^ó<Õ i;s fol
we;=<; .; hq;=h&
w&

WmlrK yd f,aLk wd§fha ysÕlu
jeks ndOdjka je,elaùu yd ta i|yd
.;hq;= blauka mshjr f,i wjYH
WmlrK ñ<§ .ekSu" f,aLk uqøKh
ls Í u wdos h i|yd ±kg ;s f nk
wruqo,a Ndú; lsÍu fyda fjk;a
whs;u hgf;a we;s jeh b;sß lsÍï
Ndú;d l< hq;=h'

blaukska
ls%hd;aul
l<hq;=
ks¾foaYhka

wd& ish¨u tal NdIsl yd oaù NdIsl kï
fyda uÕ fmkajk mqjre ff;%NdIsl
kï yd uÕfmkajk mqjre njg
mßj¾;kh l< hq;=h' fuh lsÍu
i|yd wjYHjkafka wju uqo,ls'
fuu ld¾h ls Í u i|yd wu;r
iïm;a fhoùula wjYHfõ hehs
fkdfmfka'
we& fomd¾;fïka ; = j , ff;% N dIs l
fkdjk fmdaru ish,a, bj;alr" tajd
úkdY lr" rcfha uqøKd,fhka tu
fmdaru NdId ;=fkkau tu lvodis
j¾.fha u uq ø Kh lrùu' rcfha
uqøKd,hdêm;sf.ka fï ld¾h i|yd
m%uqL;ajhla ,nd fok f,i b,a,d
isáh hq;=h'

ck;djf.a
NdId
whs;j
s dislï
ms<sn| rcfha
fiajlhskg
a
meyeÈ,s úh
hq;h
=
29

wE& cd;sl NdIdjka ms<sn| wdKavqfõ
m%;sm;a;shg tlÕj lghq;= lrk
f,i ish¨u rdcH fiajlhkayg
Wmfoia Èh hq;h
= ' úfYaIfhka fou<
NdIdj rdcH NdIdjla njg m;a lsÍu
l%shdjg ke.Sfï jEhu mq¿,a f,i
wid¾:l jQ nj Tjqkag u;la l<
hq;=h'
b&

rdcH NdId
m%;sm;a;s
ls%hd;aul
lsÍug rdcH
fiajlhkaf.a
lemùu
w;HjYH
idolhls'
30

fou< NdIdj Ndú; ls Í u
iïnka O fhka wdKa v q f õ NdId
m%;sm;a;sh ms<sn|j rdcH mßmd,k
wud;HxYh;a rdcH NdId fldñIka
iNdj;a taldnoaOj pl%f,aLkhla
ilia lr th ish¨ ld¾hd,j,g;a"
Wmld¾hd,j,g;a fnod yeßh hq;h
= '
pl% f ,a L kfha § fou< l;dlrk
mq o a . ,hs k a iïnka O j rdcH
fiajlhskaf.a j.lSu úia;r l<
hq;=h'

flá ld,Sk mshjrhka - ^1999 jir
;=,§ fuu mshjrhka .; hq;=h&
w&

wdKavqfõ NdId m%;sm;a;sh mQ¾K
jYfhka l%shd;aul lrùug yelsjk
mßÈ fou< l;d lrk ks,OdÍka
w¨f;ka n|jd .ekSug wjYHjk
fomd¾;fïka ; = yd fia j d fY% a K s

y÷kd.; hq;=h' fuu y÷kd .ekSu
rdcH mßmd,k wud;HxYh úiska
rdcH NdId fldñifï Wmfoia mßÈ
l< hq;= w;r udi 3 fyda 4 l ld,
rduqjla ;=< fuh l< hq;=fõ'

fou< NdIdj
l:d l<yels
fiajl
ixLhdj
úfYaIfhka
n|jd .ekSu

wd& fou< l;d lrk fiajl ixLHdjla
i|yd wjYH ixLHdj úfYaIfhka
n|jd.ekSug rdcH NdId fldñiu
úiska wdKavqfõ wkque;sh b,a,d
isáh hq;=h' mj;sk mqrmamdvq i|yd
kj m;a ù ï ielis h hq ; = w;r"
m% u dKj;a
;rï
mq r ma m dvq
fkdue;skï wu;r fiajl ixLHdj
ks ¾ udKh l< hq ; = h ' fuh l<
hq;af;a iajNdúl bj;aùu uÕska
w;s ß la ; wh wjika jk ;= r e
wfkl=;a n|jd .ekSï w;aysgqùfï
wjfndaOh u;h'
we& bka wk;= r ej rdcH mßmd,k
wud;HxYfha f,alï úiska iqÿiq
wfmaCIlhskf
a .ka b,a¨ïm;a le|úh
hq;=h' m;aùï i|yd fou< NdIdj
l;d ls Í u" ls h ùu iy ,s ù fï
yelshdj iïnkaOj;a m;aùï ,nk
wjia:dj jk úg ksmqK;djla ;sìh
hq;=h' fuu m;aùï j,§ fojk yd
;= k a j k
NdIdjka
ms < s n |j

NdId
m%ùKd;ajh
wkqj n|jd
.ekSfï
kshuhka
31

ksmqK;djla we;s whg m%uqL;ajhla
Èh hq;=h'
wE& rdcH mßmd,k wud;HxYh tla tla
fomd¾;fïka ; = f õ wjYH;djka g
wkqj ks,OdÍka wkqhqla; l< hq;=h'
m;a ù ó §ug m% : u rdcH NdId
fldñiu tu ks,OdÍkaf.a NdId
yelshdj ie,ls,a,g .; hq;=h' 1999
jir ;=<§ fuu l%shdj,sh wjika
lsÍug yels úh hq;= w;r wjYH
m;aùï ,nd Èh hq;=h'
b&

isxy, fou< iy bx.%sis NdId mqyqKq
jevigykaj,g §m jHdma;j uq,
ms ß h hq ; = w;r is h ¨u j¾.j,
ks,OdÍkag wvq ;rñka NdId folla
ms<sn| ksmqK;ajhla fyda" yelshdjla
we;a k ï NdId ;= k u ms < s n |j
ksmqK;ajhla ,nd .ekSug ta uÕska
yelsúh hq;=h'

B&

rdcH NdId m%;sm;a;shg wkql+, yd
wdKavql%u jHjia:djg wod< j.ka;s
ms<sn| ±kqj;a lsßu i|yd taldnoaO
f;dard.;a mqyK
q q mdGud,djka wdrïN
l< hq;=h'

W&

iEu mq o a . ,hl= g u rfÜ ´kEu
m<d;l§ isxy," fou< fyda bx.%Sis

läkï NdId
mqyqKq
jevigyka
32

hk NdId ;=fkka ´kEu NdIdjlska
rdcldß lghq;= lsÍug we;s whs;sh
ms < s n |j uyck ±kq j ;a Ndjhla
f.dvke.sh hq;=h' tfiau ish¨u
rcfha ld¾hd, iy tajdfha fiajh
lrk ks,Odßka" wh÷ïlrejka úiska
bÈßm;a lrk ,o ´kEu jd¾;djla"
,shdmÈxÑ iy;slhla" m%ldYkhla
fyda fjk;a ,shú,a,la whÿï lrk
,o NdIdfjkau ,nd§ug yd Bg wod,
ms<s;=re iemhSfï fiajdjla Tjqkg
,nd§ug ne£ isáh hq;=h'
W!& NdId ;=fkkau ksmqk;djla ,nd
.kakd ks,OdÍkag kj Èß §ukd
jevms<sfj,la y÷kajd foñka wod,
úNd.hka iu;a jQ whg ks Y a Ñ ;
uq o ,la f.úh hq ; = h ' tÈfkod
ld¾hhka y s § = w;s f ¾l NdIdjls k a
lghq ; = l,yels fhdod.ka k
mqoa.,hskag udisl §ukdjla ,ndÈh
hq;=h' tu udisl §ukdj ,ndÈh
hq;af;a idudkH ld¾hhkag wu;rj
jevlrk iy Tjqkaf.a uq,a NdIdj
fkdjk NdIdjkaf.ka jev lrk
whgh' fuu f.ùu ±ä f,i mÍCId
lsÍfuka wk;=rej f.úh hq;=h'
fhda.H iïu;hka msysgqúh hq;=h' ta

fojeks iy
f;jeks NdId
m%ùK;djhg
Èß §ukd

33

i|yd udis l §ukdj ,nka k ka
wjYH jqjfyd;a msg m<d;aj, fiajh
lsßug iqodkï úh hq;=h'

±kg isxy,
iy fou<
NdIdjka YS%
,xldfõ
mßmd,k
NdIdjka fõ
34

t&

ld¾h uKav,hg fuu iemhSïj,ska
miq jßka jr wëCIKhka l< hq;=
w;r ta iïnkaOj ,efnk meñKs<s
ms<sn| WÑ; i,ld ne,Sï l< hq;=h'
rdcH NdId fldñiu úiska ´kEu
wud;HxYhl fyda fomd¾;fïka;j
= l
wvqmdvqjla fyda w,i wdl,amhla
we;s jka f ka kï" ckdêm;s f .a
wjOdkh ta flfrys fhduq lsÍug;a
ckdêm;s j rhd úis k a iq ÿ iq h ehs
i,lk ´kEu mshjrla ta iïnkaOj
.; hq;=h'

ta&

wdKa v q l % u jHjia : dfõ 22^1&
j.ka;shg y÷kajd§ we;s 16 jeks
jHjia:d ixfYdaOkh mßÈ wjYH
úêúOdkhka ckdêm;sjrhdg l<
yelsh'

iuia; YS% ,xldfõu mßmd,k NdIdj
jkafka isxy, fou< NdIdjka fõ' fou<
NdIdj Ndú;d lrk W;=re kef.kysr
m<d;aj, yer YS% ,xldfõ wfkl=;a ish¨u
m<d;a j, rdcH wdh;k j, iy ld¾hd,
j, f,aLk .; lsÍu iy tajd kv;a;=

lsÍu iy .kqfokq lsÍï i|yd isxy,
NdIdj fhdod.kq ,efí'
zzhï m%dfoaYh
S f,alï fldÜGdYhl isxy,
fyda fou< iq¿;r ck ixLHdjla jdih
lrkafka kï Tjqkaf.a m%;sY;h iy
Wjukdj mokï lrf.k;a" tu m%foaYfha
iuia: ck .ykh .ek ie,ls,a,la
olajñkq;a isxy, fyda fou< NdId ta
m% f oa Y fha mßmdIk NdIdj f,i
fhdod.efka' tla NdIdjlg wu;rj ;j;a
NdIdjla tu m%dfoaYh
S f,alï fldÜGdYfha
mßmd,k NdIdj f,i fhdod.kakd fuka
ckdêm;s j rhd fldka f oa i s iys ; j
m%ldYhg m;a l< yelsh'ZZ
iuia; YS% ,xldfõu mßmd,k NdIdjka
f,i Ndú;d fõ' tfy;a Bg mgyeks
m% l dYkhla ckdêm;s j rhd úis k a
m% l dYhg m;a fkdl<fyd;a ks I a Ñ ;
m<df;a rdcH f,aLk.; lsÍu fojeks
NdIdjlska fyda f;jeks NdIdjlska fyda
l,skau m%ldYhg m;a l<hq;= hehs' by;
fþofhka úia ; r flf¾' fï ks i d
wdKavf
q õ rdcH NdId m%;m
s ;a;h
s lsh
% d;aul
lsÍug M,odhS Wmdh ud¾.hka ie,iqïl<
yelsh'

rdcH ,sms
f,aLK
f,aLk.;
lsÍfï
NdIdjka f,i
2jeks iy 3
jeks NdIdjka
kshu lr
.kakd m%foaY
m%ldYhg m;a
lsÍu
35

È.= ld,Sk
mshjrhka
36

zzis x y, fou< NdIdjka mßmd,k
NdIdjka jk w;r hï ksYaÑ; m<d;l
f,aLk.; lsÍfï NdIdj f,i hï tla
NdIdjla kshulr.; yels fõ' kuq;a
ckdêm;s j rhd óg mria m r fohla
m%ldYhg m;al< fyd;a fuh fjkiafõ'
fhda.H m<d;aj,g f,aLk.; lsßfï
NdIdjka f,i fojk fyda ;= k a j k
NdIdjka Ndú;d l<yels jk w;r by;
fþoh hgf;a ta i|yd l,a we;sj mshjr
.; hq;=h' ta wkqj wdKavqfõ rdcH NdId
m% ; s m ;a ; s h l% s h d;a u l l< yel' hï
m<d;l mßmd,k NdIdj yd f,aLk.;
lsÍfï NdIdj f,i isxy, NdIdj fhdod
.kafka kï fou< NdIdj mßmd,k yd
f,aLk.; lsÍfï wu;r NdIdjla f,i
tu m<df;a ksYaÑ; m%dfoaYSh f,alï
fldÜGdY i|yd m%ldYl, yels jkqfha
fou< l;dlrk ckhd 12 1$2 ] lg
fkdwvqj fjfikafka kï muKs' tfiau
mßmd,k yd f,aLk.; lsÍfï wu;r
NdIdj f,i isxy, NdIdj m%ldYl< yels
jkqfha tu m%dfoaYSh f,alï fldÜGdYj,
isxy, wkqmd;h 12 1$2] lg fkdwvqj
ðj;ajkafka kï muKs'

È.= ld,Sk mshjrhka
mÍCId lsÍug iyNd.s jQ lKavdhu W;=re
kef.kysr" uOHu" W;=re ueo fyda ol=Kq
m<d;aj, lsi÷
s ld¾hd,la mÍCId fkdl<
w;r fï m<d;a" iïnkaOj jd¾;dlsÍug
yels ;;a ; a j hla fkd,enq K s ' wfma
ióCIKh wdjrKh lrkq ,enqfõ" ngysr"
jhU" W!j iy inr.uq m<d;a j ,
ld¾hd,hkah' mÍCIKhg Ndckh l<
iEu ld¾hd,hlu mdfya fou< NdId
ksmqK;ajhla fkdue;slu È.gu mj;sk
meyeÈ,s ;;ajhls' tfia jqj;a fou< l;d
lrk ckhd iEfyk msßilg fiajdjka
iemhSug tu ld¾hd,j,g isÿj ;sfí'
NdIdj l;d lsÍug lshùug yd ,sùug
we;s fkdyelshdj ksjerÈ lsÍug by<u
m%uL
q ;djhla Èh hq;h
= ' fuh fkdlrkafka
kï mßmd,kfha§ fou< NdIdj Ndú;d
lsÍu iïnkaOj kS;suh wjYH;djhka
iïmQ¾K l< fkdyels jkq we;' rdcH
fiajfha iEu tallhlgu iqúfYaIS NdId
yelshdjka w;HdjYHfõ' ck.ykfha
wjYH;djka <Õd lr .ekSug jvd;a myiq
f,i NdIdj udOHhla f,i Ndú;d
lsÍug yelsúh hq;=h'
rfÜ ish¨ fldgiaj, ish¨ mqrjeishkag
iudk whs;h
s la ;sfnk w;r iEu m%dfoaYh
S

ck.yKh
mokï
lr.ksñka
m%dfoaYh
S
f,alï
fldÜGdY
j¾.SlrKh
fldg ta wkqj
NdId
m%ùK;ajh
,nd§u
37

f,a l ï
fldÜGdYhlgu
ieu
ld¾hd,hlgu NdId ;=ku ms<sn| tlu
uÜgfï ±kqula ;sîu iy;sl l< hq;h
= ehs
is;kafka kï ta h:d¾:hla fkdfõ'
fndfyda ld¾hd,j,g isxy, fyda fou<
ks< jd¾;d ;nd .ekSfï NdIdj f,i
mj;S' lsysmhlg bx.%sis NdIdjo ;sfí'
kuq;a ish¨ ld¾hd,j,g ;u lghq;= NdId
3 kau mj;ajd f.k hdug wju yelshdjla
;s ì h hq ; = h ' tneúka wms fuu
wjYH;djhka <Õd lr .ekSu iy;sl
lsßug fhdackdjka bÈßm;a lrkafkuq'
úúO m% d foa Y S h f,a l ï fldÜGdY
ck.ykfha NdId ixhq ; s h g wkq j
j¾.SlrKh l<yels hehs wms fhdackd
lruq'

NdId
ksmqK;djh
wkqj fiajl
ixLHdj
j¾.l< úg
38

I.

isxy, l;d lrk wh 87 1$2] lg
fkdwvq

II.

fou< l;d lrk wh 87 1$2] lg
fkdwvq

III. is x y, l;d lrk wh 50] lg
fkdwvq yd fou< l;d lrk wh
12 1$2] lg fkdwvq
IV. fou< l;d lrk wh 50] lg
fkdwvq yd isxy, l;d lrk wh
12 1$2] lg fkdwvq

tla tla m% d foa Y S h f,a l ï
fldÜGdYj, NdId ks m q K ;djh
wkqj fiajl ixLHdj j¾.l, úg
wju wjYH;djhka iïmQ¾Kl< wh
f,i my; wdldr iïu;hla we;s
lr.; yelsh'
1'

isxy, NdIdj ms<sn| mQ¾K f,i
ksmqK;djhla we;s iy isxyf,ka
iïnkaO;d meje;aúh yels ks,OdÍka
^fuh iliajkq we;af;a fndfyda ÿrg
isxy, uõNdIdj jQ whf.ka úhyels
w;r th tfiau úhhq;=j hehso lsj
fkdyelsh' úfYaIfhka by< uÜgfï
ksmqK;d úNd.h;a isxy, uõ NdIdj
fkdjq whg ks¾foaY lrkq ,efí' &

2'

fou< NdIdj ms < s n | mQ ¾ K
ks m q K ;djhla we;s yd fou<
NdIdfjka iïnkaO;d meje;aúh yels
wh ^fuh iliajkq we;af;a fndfyda
ÿrg fou< uõNdIdj jQ whf.ka
úhyels w;r th tfiau úhhq;=j
hehso lsj fkdyelsh' by< uÜgfï
ksmqK;d úNd.hla fou< NdIdj
uõNdIdj fkdjQ wh i|yd ks¾foaY
lrkq ,efí&

3'

bx.% s i s NdIdfjka iïnka O ;d
meje;a ú h
yels
iïmQ ¾ K

NdId
wjYH;djhkag
wkqj rdcH
fiajlhka
rdcH wdh;k
j,g wkq
hqla; lsÍu
39

ksmqK;djhla we;s wh ^fuu ld¾h
i|yd by< uÜgfï ks m q K ;d
úNd.hla ks¾foaY lrkq ,efí&

uyck;djf.a
NdId
wjYH;dj
hkag;a fiajd
wjYH;djhkag;a
.e,fmk
mßÈ NdId
ksmqK;djh
.e,mSu
40

4'

fuys ^1& i|yka úfYaI úNd.h yer
b;d by< uÜgfï isxy, ks¾foaYs;
ksmk
q ;d úNd.hla iu;a jQ ks,OdÍka
^fuh ieliS we;a f ;a nyq ; rhla
fou< uõNdIdj jq whgh&

5'

fuys ^2& i|yka úfYa I úNd.h
yerfou< NdIdj ms<sn| ks¾foaYs;
ksmqK;d úNd.hlska iu;a jQ ta yer
úfYaI by< uÜgfï úNd.hlska
iu;a jQ wh ^isxy, uõNdIdj jQ
whf.ka fuh ieliS we;'&

6'

wxl 3 g wh;a fkdjk bx.%sis NdIdj
ms<n
s | wju ksmK
q ;djhla we;s whhs'
^fï ld¾h i|yd ks¾foaYs; ksmqK;d
úNd.hka ks¾foaY lrkq ,efí&

ish¨ m%dfoaYh
S f,alï fldÜGdY ^I& hgf;a
j¾.SlrKh l< tajdfha ^I& fldgiska wvq
;rñka 50] lao" ^2& fldgiska 10] lao "
^3& fldgiska 10] lao ^5& fldgiska 15]
la o fhda c kd lrkq ,efí' fld<U
Èia;%slalfha ish¨u fldÜGdY" fld<U

m%dfoaYSh f,alï fldÜGdY yer" fuu
j¾.hg wh;a h ' ks ¾ foa Y l< iïu;
<Õdlr .ekSug fou< l;d lrk ld¾h
uKav,h wju uÜgñka 10] la wjYHfõ'
tfuka u is h ¨u m% d foa Y S h f,a l ï
fldÜGdYj,g ^ii& hgf;a j¾.SlrKh l<
tajdg 50] flavrhlao ^1& fldgiska 10]
la o ^3& fldgfia 10]la o ^4& fldgfia
15] lao we;=,;a fõ' uvl,mq Èia;l
S% l
a fha
ish¨u fldÜGdYj,g wh;ajkafka 10]l
is x y, l;dlrk wjuh wjYHjk
ks¾foaYs; iïu;hla <Õd lr .ekSuh'
^iii& hgf;a j¾.S l rKh ,o is h ¨u
m%dfoaYSh f,alï fldÜGdYj,g wju
uÜgñka 50]la ^1& fia j l ixLHdj
fY%aKshla ^2& j¾.fha 25] lao ^3& j¾.fhaa
10] la o wjYHfõ' fld<U m%dfoaYSh
f,alï fldÜGdYh fuu j¾.hg wh;a
jk w;r ks¾foaYs; iïu;hla <Õdlr
.ekSu i|yd fou< l;d lrk 25] l
ld¾h uKav,hla wju jYfhka wjYHfõ'
fï wdldrfhka ^IV) jeks j.= f õ
j¾.SlrKh lr we;s iEu Wm Èidm;s
fldÜGdYhlu fojeks j¾.fhka wju
jYfhka 50]la o" ^1& j¾.fhka 25] ^3&

bx.Si
% s
NdIdfõ
ksmqK;djh
by<
uÜgulg
tiùu i|yd
wdh;k
myiqlï we;s
lsÍu
41

j¾.fha 10]la o iuka ú ;" is h ¨u
fY%aKsj, fiajl ixLHdjka iïkaú; úh
hq;=h' fuu j¾.SlrKhg kqjrt<sh Wm
Èidm;s fldÜGdYh we;=<;a fõ' ks¾foaY
l< we;s mßÈ hf;daloa wdo¾Yh lsh
% d;aul
lsÍug wju jYfhka 50]l fou< NdIdj
l:d lrk ld¾huKav,hla wjYH fõ'
iuyr úg tjeks jQ iïu;hla iEu
uyk.r iNdjlg;a" k.r iNdjlg;a
ks¾foaY lrkq ,nk w;r k.riNd iSudj
;=< ck.yKhla NdIduh ixhq;sh u;
mokï ù mßmd,kh ielish hq;=fõ'

NdIdj
flfryS
ixfõ§ jQ
n|jd .ekSï
yd m;alsÍï
j,g
úl,amhla
fkdj tl;=
lsÍula jQ
NdId
mqyqKqjla
42

óg wu;rj by< uÜgfï bx.S%is NdId
ksmK
q ;djhla wjYHjk úfYaI;
s wdh;k
;sfí' ^3& jk yd ^6& jk m%fNaoh;a w;r
wju jYfhka Yla ; s u ;a ls Í u i|yd
wjYHjk wdldrfha ks¾foaYhka ;sìh
yel' by; i|yka iïu;hka <Õdlr
.ekSu i|yd wjYHjk fou< l;d lrk
fiajl ixLHdfõ uq¿ ixLHdj" kj n|jd
.ekSfï m%;sm;a;sfha§ isxy, yd fou<
NdId yelshdjkaf.a m%udKj;a nj iy;sl
lsÍu iudkqmd;sl kj n|jd .ekSfï
uQ,O¾u iuÕ .e,msh hq;=h'
wfmaCId lrk NdId iunr;djh idCId;a
lr .eksug w;sf¾l fiajlhskaf.a kj

n|jd .ekSï ie,iqï lsÍu i|yd NdId
mqyqKq jevms<sfj,j,a Yla;su;a yd mq¿,a
l< hq;=h' tuÕska fojks iy f;fjks
NdIdjkaf.a ksmqK;djhla we;s úYd,
ixLHdjla we;s l< hq;=h'
wdrCIl wud;HdxYh úiska fmd,Sisfha
iy ikakoaO yuqod idudðlhka i|yd
i;s fod<yl fkajdisl mqyK
q q jevigyka"
fld;auf,a iy .ïmy hk m%foaYj,
wdrïN lrk ,È' tn÷ jevigyka È.=
ld,Skj mej;sh hq;= w;r" rdcH fiajfha
ish¨u fY%aKska i|yd jHdma; l< hq;=h'
flfia jqj;a mqyqKqj w;r;=r§ ^4& ^5& iy
^6& hk m%fNaohkaf.ka by<g ixLHd;aul
j¾Okh we;s l< hq;= nj is;ays ;nd .;
hq;h
= ' tu.ska uyck fiajdjka jeä ÈhqKq
l< yelsh' ^2& iy ^3& m%fNaohka mq¿,a
lsÍu i|yd mqyqKqjl n,mEu ukao.dó
iy fkdi,ld yeßh hq;= ;rïh'
úúO NdIdjka l;d lsÍu" lshùu yd ,sùu
iïnkaOfhka iïmQ¾K ksmqK;djhla
iys; ks,OdÍka m%udKj;a ixLHdjla
n|jd .ekSug úl,amhla f,i NdId
mqyqKqj fhdod.; yels fõ hehs jerÈ
is;ú
= ,a,la mj;ajd .; hq;= ke;' wdrïNl
ia:dkfha§ NdId mqyqKqj ms<sn| fhda.H
iïnka O ;djhla ,nd§ug úl,a m hla

l,la ;siafia
l< hq;=j
;snQ kuq;a
±kaj;a
isÿùu .ek
i;=gqúh yels
wdrCIl
wud;HdxYfha
uq,msÍula
43

ke;' rdcH fiajfha ish¨ tallj,g jir
5 la ;=<§ NdId ixhq;sfha ^l;d lsÍu iy
,sùu& ish¨ md¾Yajhkaf.a NdId ixhq;sh
foig .uka lsÍu jeks fohls' ta wkqj
kj n|jd .kakkaf.a jevms,sfj< fojk
fyda f;jk ni ms<sn| l=i,;djh iys;
jqjkag wu;r jdishla ,ndfokakla úh
hq;=h'
l%shdjg ke.Su iy kshdukh

wod<
fr.=,disj,g
wkqj
ls%hd;aul úh
yels mßÈ
rdcH NdId
fldñiu
n,.;= lsÍu
44

fld;rï mßmQ ¾ K jq j ;a m% ; s l drl
ms h jrhka " foa Y md,k wêIa G dkhl
fm<Uùula iys; M,odhS l%h
s djg ke.Sula
iy ks h dukh l% u hla fkdue;s j
n,dfmdfrd;a;= jQ m%;M
s ,hka ,nd fkdfoa'
wfma fidhd .ekSïj,ska fhdackd jq mßÈ
iuia:hla jYfhka .eg¿ mek kÕskafka
jHjia : duh j.ka ; s j ,s k a u;= j k
wvqmdvqj,g jvd ^jHjia:dfõ ms<sìUq jk
iuyr j.ka;sj, wvx.=jk fkdmeyeÈ,s
m%;súfrdaOd;aul foaj,a" ksYaÑ; jYfhka
i|yka l<fyd;a 22 ^1& iy 24 ^1&
j.ka;sj,ska& úúO uÜgïj, l%shdjg
fmr,Sï wëCIKh lsÍfï yd n,d;aul
lsÍï fkdi,ld yeÍu ksidh'

ish¨u ks, lghq;= j,§ isxy," fou<
yd bx.S%is NdIdjkaf.a ;;ajh iy Ndú;h
iïnkaO ish¨ kS;s Í;s" fr.=,dis yd rdcH
m%;sm;a;s ls%hd;aul lsÍu iïnkaO lreKq
j,§ ish¨u rdcH wdh;k j,g ksfhda.
ksl;
= a lsÍug rdcH NdId fldñIka iNdjg
n,h ,ndÈh hq;=fõ hehs fhdackd lrkq
,efí'wod< wud;HdxY yryd is h ¨u
rdcH wdh;k j,ska úáka úg ,efnk
jd¾;d mokï lrf.k miq úmrï l%uhla
rdcH NdId fldñIka iNdj ls%hd;aul
l<hq;=h' ff;% NdIdjkag wod< m%.;sh
jd¾Isl jd¾;djla u.ska iïmdokh lrk
f,i rdcH NdId fldñifï iNdm;sjrhd
fj; b,a,Sula bÈßm;a l< hq;=h'

NdId
ú.Kkhla
l%udkql,
+ j
ls%hd;aul
fldg Bg
wod<
jd¾;dj
rdcH NdId
flduidßia
jrhd
bÈßm;a l<
hq;h
=

óg wu;rj wdo¾Y m% ñ ;S k a mokï
lrf.k W;=rekef.kysr m<d;a j,g
mßndysrj msyà
s m<d;a yf;a fou< NdIdfõ
;;ajh we.hSulg ,la l< hq;=h'
rdcH fiajhg mßNdysr wdh;khla úiska
jd¾Islj fou< NdId ú.Kkhla bÈß
jir 5 i|yd wdrïN l<hq;=hehs ks¾foaY
lrkq ,efí' fuu jd¾;dj rdcH NdId
fldñIka iNdfõ iNdm;sjrhd fj;
bÈßm;a l< hq ; = w;r by; fÊoh

45

±la f jk mßÈ rdcH NdId fldñIka
iNdfõ jd¾;djla jYfhka ;u ksÍCIK
iy ksjerÈ lsÍfï ls%hdud¾.hka iuÕ
w;s.re ckdêm;s ;=ud fj; fhduql<
hq;=h'
foajfkaika fkaihshd
jHdmD;s wOHCIl 1998

ckdêm;s
jrhd m%.;sh
wëCIKh
lsÍu
46

Y%S ,xldfõ fou< NdId
whs;j
s dislï
III jk mßÉfþoh
j¾I 2011 foieïn¾ ui m%ios ê
a hg m;al<
W.;a mdvï yd m%;sikaOdk fldñIka
iNd (LLRC) jd¾;dfõ i|yka NdId
m%;m
s ;a;h
s " wOHdmkh iy idu wOHdmkh
ms<n
s | fldgia fuys§ kej; igyka lrkq
,efí' fojeks fldgfia bÈßm;a lrk
,o NdId ú.Kk jd¾;dfõ i|yka lreKq
j,g jvd fïjd uE;l§ bÈßm;a lrk
,o lreKq fõ' fïjd mokï jkafka
mqoa.,hska iafõÉPdfjka W.;a mdvï yd
m%;sikaOdk fldñIu bÈßfha bÈßm;a
lrk ,o idCIs u;h' wdKavqfõ wdh;k
j, mj;ajk ,o ióCIK f;dr;=rej,g
jvd fïjd fnfyúka fjkia h' tuksid
uQ,sl jYfhka fuu lreKq úúO fCIa;%
Tiafia fjkiajkafka h' ;ukag iïnkaO
ks, mejreï u.ska II jk mßÉfýoh iy
III jk mßÉfýoh hk folu
fkdje,elaúhyels mßÈ iSuds lrkq ,en
we;' tfy;a fou< NdId whs;sjdislï
iïnkaOfhka tlsfkl M,odhS wldrhka
W!K mqrKh lr.kq ,nknj lsjhq;=h'

LLRC
jd¾;dfjka
Wmqgd.;a
fldgia
47

NdId m%;sm;a;sh
9'238 ms<sfj<ska meje;s wdKavqj, NdId
m%;sm;a;sh yd th l%shd;aul lsÍfï§
olajk ,o ÿ¾j,;djhka fya;f
= jka ;uka
hï fldka lsÍulg k;=jK
q d hEhs yeÕSula
;ukag we;sjQ nj fndfyduhla oñ<
jeis h ka fldñiu yuq f õ idla I s
,ndfoñka m%ldY lr isáhy'
9'239 j¾;udkfha § mjd iq ¿ ck
fldgia j , fndfyda f okdg ;uka f .a
lghq ; = mj;a j df.k heug is ÿ j
;sfnkafka ;ud f;dard.;a NdIdfjka
fkdjk nj .egqï mej;s m%foaYhkays l<
ixpdrj,§ fldñiu w;aÿgq lreKls'

mdi,aj,
NdIdjka
b.e;aùu
48

9'240 oñ< NdIdj l;dlrk fmd,sia
ks,OdÍka n|jd .ekSfï m%.;sh ms<.
s kakd
w;r fldñiu ;u w;= r e jd¾;dj
ckdêm;s;=udg ms<s.kajñka fuu .eg¨
iïnkaOfhka b;d blau‚ka .; hq;=
l%h
s dud¾.hka we;=<;a ks¾foaYhka bÈßm;a
l<o ;ju;a th l%shd;aul lr fkdue;s
nj lk.dgqfjka igyka lrhs'
9'241 NdId m% ; s m ;a ; S k a iy tys
l%h
s dldÍ;ajh wëlaIKh lrkq ,nk ks,
wdh;khka ;=< oñ< NdIdj l;d lrk

mqoa.,hka iy oñ< NdIdj Ndú;d lrk
m%foaYhka ;=<ska m%udKj;a ksfhdackhla
;s ì h hq ; = h ' NdId m% ; s m ;a ; s h mQ ¾ K
jYfhka l%shdjg kexùfï § m%cd uÜgu
olajd úysÿKq l%shdldß ie,iqï wka;¾.;
l< hq;=jdla fukau jiï iy m<d;a
md,k wdh;k wjYH f,i wkdjrKh
jk m%cd iyNd.s;ajfhka wëlaIKh l<
yels b,lal ;sìh hq;=hs'
9'242 ika k s f õok ndOl fya ; = f jka
ol=fKa ck;dj W;=r yd kef.kysr
m%foaYfha ck;djf.ka wE;aù isáhy'
cd;s h " wd.u fyda iudc ;;a ; a j h
fkdi,ld iEu mqrjeisfhla w;ru ;uka
tlsfkldg wh;ah hk yeÕSu we;slsÍug
iEu W;aiydhlau .; hq;=h' cd;shla
tlai;a fldg n|jd ;nkafka NdIdjhs'
tneúka NdIdjka iïnkaO m%;sm;a;Ska
ieliSu fuu wruqK wrNhd l< hq;=hs'
ks, NdId m%;sm;a;sh l%shd;aul lsÍfï§
th wjfndaOh" úúO;ajh iy cd;sl
ta l dnoa O ;dj Èhq K q lrk M,odhS
wdldrhlska l%shd;aul l< hq;=hs'
9'243 mdi,a úIh ud,dj ;=< tlsfkldf.a
NdIdjka yeoeÍu wksjd¾h l< hq;h
= 's fuh
cd;Ska fol w;r wdl,ams; fjkila

NdId
m%;sm;a;sh
ms<sn| LLRC
ks¾foaY
49

NdIduh
ndOl
fya;f= ldgf.k
W;=re
kef.kysr
ck;dj
yqol,dùu

ish¨u
fmd,sia ia:dk
oaú NdId
l=i,;djh
iys;j 24
mehu fiajh
ie,ish
hq;h
= '
50

;yjqre l< yels uQ,sl fuj,ula úh
yelsh's isxy, orejkag fou< b.ekaùu;a"
fou< orejkag isxy, b.ekaùu;a ;=<ska
tlsfkldf.a ixialD;Ska ms<sn| ukd
wjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSug yelsfõ'
9'244 NdId m%;m
s ;a;h
s fhda.H wdldrfhka
l% s h d;a u l ls Í u;a wkd.; mrïmrdj
is x y," fou< iy bx.% S i s hk
ff;%NdIdjkaf.ka jHla; lsÍu;a b;d
jeo.;ah' ff;%NdId wOHdmkh orejkag
l=vd wjêfha isgu tlsfkld wjfndO
lr .ekSug uÕ mdokq ,nhs'
9'245 jir 2020 jk úg ff;NdIsl
cd;shla ìys lsÍug wdKavqj uq,msÍu
fldñiu w.h lrhs' fuh h:d¾:hla
njg m;alr .ekSu i|yd wjYH .=rejreka
mqyqKq lsÍug iy Tjqka n|jd .ekSug
wjYH m%;smdok fjka lsÍu whjeh u.ska
m%uL
q wjYH;djhla f,i i,ld l< hq;h
= 's
9'246 lsisÿ Èia;%slalhla fyda m<d;la
NdIdj u; mokïj j¾.SlrKh fkdl<
hq;=hs' rdcH fiajfha ks,OdÍkag rfÜ
l=uk fldgil fyda fiajh l< yels
wdldrhg NdId fl!I,Hh ;sìh hq;=hs'

9'247 iEu wdKa v q f õ ld¾hd,hlu
ieuúgu oñ< NdIdj l;d lrk
ks,OdÍka wksjd¾hfhka isáh hq;=hs'
fmd,sia ia:dkhl kï meh 24 uq¿,af,au
oaù NdId Ndú;d lrk ks,OdÍka fiajfha
fhÈh hq ; = h ' meñ‚,s l rejl= g ia j
leue;af;ka f;dard .kakd NdIdjlska
;ukaf.a m%ldYh ,nd §fï whs;sh ;sìh
hq;=hs'
9'248 rdcH NdId fldñiu fld<U k.rh
mdol fldgf.k flakaø.; ù we;s w;r
thg .%dóh jeishkag myiqfjka m%fõY
úh fkdyel' m%n, l%shd;aul lsÍfï
n,hla iys ; wêldßhla njg NdId
fldñiu m;aúh hq;= w;r tys YdLdjka
iEu m<d;lu msysgqúh hq;=h'
9'249 NdId ndOlh ì| fy<s h yels
fuj,ula f,i f;dr;=re ;dlaIKh
Wmfhda.S lr.;yels wdldrh fidhd
ne,Su i|yd uy;a wjOdkhla ,ndÈh
hq;=hs' fï i|yd È.=ld,Sk m%;sm;a;Ska
y÷kajd§u iy l%shdud¾. .kakd f;la
tla NdIdjlska wfkla NdIdjg mßj¾;k
lghq ; = is ÿ ls Í u i|yd mß.Kl
uDÿldx.hka ;djld,sl úi÷ula f,i
fhdod.; yelsh'

f;dr;=re
ldlaIKh
ms<sn|j
wjOdkh
fhduq l<
hq;h
=
51

9'250 fï iïnka O fhka " oa ù NdId
ola I ;djh we;s úY% d u,;a fmd,s i a
ks,OdÍka fhdojñka fmd,sia ia:dkj,
mßj¾;lhka
ia : dmkh
ls Í u
iïnka O fhka fldñiu tys w;= r e
ks¾foaYh fj; wjOdkh fhduq lsÍug
woyia lrhs'
wOHdmkh iudk wjia : d
9'251 tlai;a jQ Y%S ,xldjla ;=< isxy, yd
fou< cd;Ska w;r m%;sikaOdkh we;s
lsÍug kï fjkia whqßka i,l=Kq ,nk
njg we;s yeÕS u bj;a ls Í u mQ ¾ j
wjYH;djhls' úúO ck fldgiaj,g ,nd
fok ,o wOHdmk wjia : dj, ;s n Q
wiu;= , s ; ;djh ke;s ls Í ug rch
Okd;a u l l% s h doduhla f,i .;a
m%ñ;slrKh lsÍu y÷kajd§fuka miq
fndfyda l,la .; ù ;sfí' tu ksid"
wkd.; mrïmrdjka f .a iq n idOkh
wOHdmkh ,nd Wfoid" olaI;d u; mokï jQ m%fõY
.ekSug
l%uhla y÷kajd§u wruqKq fldgf.k"
mj;sk
fuu fldagd l%uh fyd¢ka úYaf,aIKh
fjkialï
ls Í u ldf,da Ñ ; jkq we;' tjka
bj;al<
úYa f ,a I Khla l< hq ; a f ;a wOHdmk
hq;h
=
lafIa;f
% ha m%ùKhkaf.ka ieÿKq lñgqjla
úiska neõ fldñiu ks¾foaY lrhs'
52

9'252 wOHdmk myiqlï iudkd;aulj
fnÿKq jevigykla" wdKavqj kjH jQ
cjhlska mgka.; hq;= w;r th iq¿;rh
yg lsishï fyda fkdie,lSfï yeÕSula
we;s ùu wju lsÍfï iduQyl
s m%h;akhlg
msájy,la jkq we;' oekg fhdað;" 2011
jif¾ isg §m jHdma;j oaú;Shsl mdi,a
oyila Wiia fYa‚.; lsÍfï fhdað;
ie,iqu" wiudkd;au;d wju lsÍug;a"
wjidkfha tajd ÿr,Sug;a ;j;a wjia:djla
imhkq we;' fuu m%;sm;a;sh l%shdjg
kexúh hq;af;a iudch ;=< mSvkhla iy
fn§ï we;s fkdjk mßÈh' fuu m%h;akh
id¾:l úh yela f la fuu mdi,a
wmla I md;S ñKq ï ;,hla u; iy
foaYmd,kfhka wE;a jQ f;dard .ekSula
u; y÷kd .;fyd;a mu‚' rfÜ úúO
me;sj, ;sfnk wOHdmk myiqlïj,
wiudkd;au;dj wju l< hq;= nj;a"
wjidkfha ÿre l< hq;= nj;a fldñiu
ks¾foaY lrhs'
9'253 úúO ckjd¾.sl fukau wd.ñl
miq ì ïj,s k a meñfKk orejka g
wOHdmkh imhk ñY% mdi,a Èß.kajk
il%Sh m%;sm;a;shla rchg ;sìh hq;= njo
fldñiu wjOdrKh lrhs ' fï
iïnkaOfhka" fuu mdi,aj,g úúO

nyq NdId
wOHdmkh
mdie,aj,g
kej;
y÷kajdÈh
hq;h
=
53

ckjd¾.sl iy wd.ñl fldgiaj,ska
orejka we;=<;alsÍug myiqlï iemhSug
iqmÍlaIdldÍj ks¾udKh l< m%;m
s ;a;h
s la
wdKa v q j úis k a j¾Okh l< hq ; = h '
mdi,aj,g we;=<;a lsÍfï§" ckjd¾.sl
fyda wd.ñl moku u; Ys I Hhka
kqiqÿiaika lsÍu m%;sikaOdkfha § hym;a
fkdfõ' tjka ´kEu l%shdjla msgqoelsh
hq;=h'

YS% ,xldfõ
mj;sk
ixialD;sl
úúO;ajh
we.hSu;a
wjfndaO lr
.ekSu;a
m%j¾Okh
lsÍu
54

9'254 w.kd ixialD;sl úúO;ajh yd úúO
ck fldÜGdi iïnkaOfhka jQ wfkHdakH
wjfndaOh yd m%Yxidj mdi,a orejkaf.a
iy ;reKhkaf.a uki ;=<g ldjeoaÈh
hq;= w;r tu.ska m%;sikaOdk l%shdoduh
rfÜ iudc jHqyh ;=< fyd¢ka ia:dmkh
fõ' tu ksid" fldñiu ks¾foaY lrkafka"
úúO m<d;aj, mdi,a hq.< lsÍu" YsIH
yqjudre l%u iy mdi,aj, m%;sikaOdk
iudc we;s lsÍu jeks Wml%u yryd isiqka
w;r jvd fyd| wka ; ¾ in|;d Èß
.ekaúh hq;= njhs'

idu wOHdmkh
9'255 m%ùK cd;Hka;r kS;sfõÈfhla
fldñiu bÈßfha idlaIs foñka" tluq;n
= j
yd m%;sikaOdkh j¾Okh lsÍfï§ idu
wOHdmkfha we;s jákdlu wjOdrKh
lr isáfhah' úIh moaO;sfha l< yels
fjkialï ms<sn|j fldñiï iNdfõ
woyia jd¾;dj ;=< i|yka fldg we;'
9'256 ff;%NdId m%;sm;a;shla l%shd;aul
lrkq jia yels ; dla ÿrg úúO ck
fldÜGdij, YsIHhkag wka;¾ in|;d
meje;aùug iEu wjldYhlau ie,iSug
lghq;= fhÈh hq;=h' yels;dla m%dfhda.sl
f,i tlu mka;sh ;=< wka;¾ in|;d
Èßu;a l< hq;=h' flfia jqjo" fjk;a
NdIdjka f .ka úIhhka W.ka j k
wjia : djka y s § Tjq k a j fjk;a mka ; s
ldurj,g fhduq l< yel'
9'257 ff;%NdIsl mdGud,d rdYshla f;dard
.ekSug we;s" ckjd¾.sl ñY% jQ YsIH
m%cdjla isák fmdÿ úYajúoHd, we;s
lsÍug mshjr .; hq;h
= ' uE;la olajd fmkS
.s h lreKla jQ f ha fndfyda fou<
l;dlrk úYajúoHd, isiqka W;=rg yd
kef.kys r g;a " is x y, l;dlrk
úYajúoHd, isik
q a ol=Kg;a iSudjk njhs'

iduh iy
tlai;aNdjh
i|yd jQ
wOHdmkh

oaú;Sh iy
;D;Sh
uÜgfï
wOHdmkh
,nk isxy,
iy fou<
YsIHhka w;r
wka;¾
l%shdldß;ajh
m%j¾Okh
lsÍu
55

9'258 fldñiu ork woyila kï úúO
ck fldÜGdij, ñks i q k a w;r
m%;sikaOdk l%shdoduhg wjYH wka;¾ mqoa., in|;d j¾Okh lsÍug l%Svdj
bjy,a jk njhs' fï woyi fmroeß
lrf.k wka;¾ m<d;a uÜgñka l%Svd
W;aij meje;aúh hq;= nj;a" úfYaIfhkau
W;=r yd kef.kysr o we;=<;a jk mßÈ
rg mqrd o jeo.;a l%Svd ;r. meje;aúh
hq;= nj;a fldñiu ks¾foaY lrhs'
LLRC jd¾;dfõ by; Wmqgd±laùï j,g
wod< ks Í CIkd;a u l woyia

cd;sl
taldnoaO;djh
m%j¾Okh
l<yels
wdldrfhka
b;sydih
ms<n
s |
fm<fmd;a
m%;fs YdaOkh
lsÍu
56

fuu úIh ms<sn|j LLRC jd¾;dj W!K
mQ¾Kh lsÍfï wjYH;djhla mj;S th
lsÍfï úfYaIs; ±lau jkqfha Y%s ,dxlsl
cd;sh f.dv ke.Suhs' jHjia:dfõ 13 jk
iy 16 jk ixfYdaOkhka NdId whs;Skag
iïnkaê;j m%udKj;ao@ tfia ke;sj
jHjia:dfõ uQ,sl fjkila wjYHo @
nqoaêu;=ka iy úY%dñl rdcH fiajlhska
we;=¿j isú,a iudcfha N+ñldj l=ulao@
fuu ld¾hkaf.ka flá ld,Sk iyk
ie,iS ï jka f ka fudkjdo@ fujeks
wka ; ¾ld,S k ie,iq ï wks h ; f,i
È.a.eiaiSu je<elaùu iy;sl lrkafka
flfiao@ uQ,l
s m%;i
s xialrKhka wdfoaYl
uÕska hgm;a ùu j<lajkafka flfiao@
cd;s h f.dv ke.S u i|yd wjYHjk

m%;sixialrK jevms<sfj,j, l%shdjg
keÕS u g iy ie,iq ï ls Í ug wmg
foaYmd,k wêIaGdkhka ;sfío@
LLRC jd¾;dfõ we;s wOHdmkh keue;s
ud;Dldj ms , s n |j we;s fldgfia
wOHdmkh ,eîug we;s iudk wjia:djka
.ek wjOdkh fhduq lr we;' th .uka
.ka k d ud¾.h w;s úYs I a G h' kuq ; a
;jÿrg;a th bÈßhg j¾Okh úh hq;=j
we;' idu wOHdmkh kïjQ ud;Dldfõ
±la f jk fldgi ;j ÿrg;a bÈßhg
j¾Okh úh hq;=h' tlaùu fyda fjkaùu
;S r Kh ls Í fï úYd, YlH;djhla
b;sydih yd idys;Hh i;=j we;' YS%
,xldfõ mdie,aj, Ndú;d jk b;sydih
ms<sn| fm<fmd;a we;=¨j b;sydih yd
idys;Hh úfYaIfhkau b;sydifha isxy,
fou< in|;d ksrEmkh jk wdldrh
cd;sh fnod fjkalrk iajrEmhla .kS'
iuia:hla f,i YS% ,dxlslhskg
a TífnkajQ
úfoaY wdl%uKslhskf
a .a meñKSu hkqfjka
i|yka lrñka fYaI jQ wh isxy,fhda N+ñ
mq;%fhda f,i ye¢ka ùug;a W;aidyhla
ord we;' wOHdmk wdh;k j, isxy,
idys;H úIh ks¾foaYhka ys f;dard.;a
fou< iy uqia,sï idys;H ks¾udkj,
uq,a lD;Ska fyda mßj¾;s; lD;Ska we;=,;a
l< yelsh' wfkla w;g fou< idys;H

cd;sl
taldnoaO;djh
m%j¾Okh
l<yels mßÈ
idys;H
fm<fmd;a
iy
mßj¾;k
lD;Ska
y÷kajd§u

57

úIh ks¾foaYhka ys f;dard.;a isxy,
idys;H ks¾udKj, uq,a lD;Ska fyda
mßj¾;khka we;=,al< yelsh' fï yryd
wfkHkH úYajdihla we.hSula j¾Okh
l< yelsh' we;af;kau ls%ia;shdksjre iy
uqia,sïjre úiska isxyf,ka iy fouf<ka
rÑ; w;s úYsIaG .Kfha idys;H ks¾udK
olskakg ,efnhs' ^fndfyda ÿrg §¾>
ld,Sk in|;djhka ksid fou< niska
fïjd ±l.; yelsh' fuu ks¾udK mjd
úIh ks¾foaYhg we;=<;a lr.; yelsfõ'
ckj¾. w;r tla i ;a N djh j¾Okh
lsÍug;a YS% ,dxflah foaYh f.dvke.Sug;a
idys ; H fhdod.ekS f ï W;a i dyhla
fkdue;s ùu lk.dgqjg lreKla fõ&

oñ<
ck;djf.a
fn!oaO
w;S;h iy
fn!oaO
W;aijhkays
yskÿa uQ,hka
w.h lsÍu
58

rcfhka lsis÷ Èß.ekaùulska f;drj mjd
YS% ,xldfõ úúO ckj¾. úúO wd.ï j,g
wh;a ck iuQyhka taldnoaO lsÍfï ne£ï
b;d m%n,h' wi,ajeis rgj,aj,g jvd
Tjqka fjkalrjk idOlhka b;d ÿ¾j,h
YS % ,xldfõ Ôj;a j k is h ¨ m% O dk
ckiudchka w;r mq ¿ ,a f,i fmdÿ
ixialD;sl wx.hka mj;S' tlaù W;aij
mj;ajkq ,efí' tfukau Èjhsk mqrd msyá
s
mQ c kS h ia : dkj,g ks ; r f.dia
jka o kdudk lrkq ,efí' ks o iq k la
jYfhka fn!oaOhska iy yskaÿjre hï hï

fjkialï iys;j fmdah Èk iurkq ,efí'
is x y, fou< w¨;a wjq r eÿ W;a i jh
fn!oaOhska iy yskaÿjre úiska muKla
fkdj ls%ia;shdks iy uqia,sï ksfjiaj,
o w¨;a wjqreÿ mj;ajkq ,efí' YS% mdoh"
l;r.u" uvq foajia:dkh jeks úúO
mQckSh ia:dk fn!oaOhska" yskaÿjreka
ls%ia;shdks ne;su;=ka iy uqia,sïjre ;u
wd.ñl j;dj;a bgq ls Í u i|yd yd
ksoyfia tlsfkld iuÕ ñY%j .ejfik
ia:dkhkafõ' fndfyda fn!oaO mQckSh
ia:dkj, fmryerj,§ fukau fjk;a
úúO W;aij j,§ o úIaKq iy md¾j;s
jeks yskaÿ foújre jkaokdudk lsÍu
isÿfõ' fndfyda ls%ia;shdks foajia:dkj,
w¨;a udÈ,sfha wdldr j,ska isxy, fou<
w¨;a wjqreÿ W;aij mj;ajkq ,efí' wd.ï
w;r wka;¾ ine¢hdjka flfrys wleue;s
we;eï mgq wd.ñl woyia ork wh fuu
kj iïm%odhhkag úreoaO úh yelsh'
tfy;a tjeks fjkia jQ wd.ñl m%;sm;a;s
ye ne÷Kq taldnoaO W;aidyhka YS% ,dxflah
cd;s l tluq ; = j la i|yd ks i elju
odhlfõ' m%n,h' foaj O¾u jdohg jvd
ixialD;sl jYfhka fndfyda ls%ia;shdks
W;aij ^k;a;,a" Biag¾" iy wiajekak
fk,Sfï W;aij we;=¿j& meje;afjk
ld,h fyda W;aijfha iajNdjhg fyda wkqj

isxy, oñ<
ck;dj w;r
mj;sk
ixialD;sl
idys;H iy
wd.ñl
uQ,hka iq,N
lsÍu
59

tajdfha mQ¾j lsi
% ;
a h
s dks uQ,hkaf.ka fjka
l< fkdyels njo wmf.a wjOdkhg
,laúh hq;=h' tjeks W;aij hqfrdamfha
iy W;=re wms%ldfõ ls%ia;shdks fkdjk
uQ , dY% h ka f .ka ,nd.;a wx.hka f .ka
fmdaIKh ,nd idïm%odhsl f,i iurk
ls%ia;shdks wd.ñlhka yg tjeks wx.hka
wdishdfjka ,nd.ekSug úreoaOúh yelso@

fmdÿ W;aij
taldnoaOj
meje;aùug;a
fmdÿ mQckSh
ia:dk tlg
jkaokdudk
lsÍug;a
Èß.ekaùu
60

fndfyda wvq f jka u;fNa o d;a u l jk
fjk;a fCIa;% o ;sfí' ol=Kq bkaÈhdfõ
nqÿoyu ^Buddhism in South India) kñka
úYsIaG .%ka:hla mQcH O¾ur;ak ysñhka
úiska m,fldg we;' wdikak jYfhka
wjqreÿ 2000 lg fmr ol=Kq bkaÈhdfõ
úfYaIfhka fou< m%cdj w;r mej;=kq
m%Odk wd.ï jQfha fn!oaO O¾uh;a ffck
O¾uh;a nj fuu l=vd fmd;a msxp ikd:
lrhs' fuu l=vd fmd;a msxp NdId ;=fkkau
ish¨u mdie,a mqia;ld, j,g ,ndÈh
hq;=fõ' wjdikdjlg fujeks f;dr;=re
mq¿,a wdldrfhka m%p,s; ke;' wd.ka;=l
wo oñ, ck;dj ;ukag yd úfoaYSh
wd.ula f,i fn!oaO O¾uh i,l;s'
we;af;kau YS% ,xldfõ nqÿoyu me;sÍug
fmr th ol=Kq bkaÈhdfõ me;sÍ mej;sks'
YS% ,xldj .sKsfldkÈ. iy kef.kysr
wdishdfõ úúO rgj,a j, b;du uq,a
ld,fha fn!oaO wd.ñl O¾u m%pdrfha
kshe,s isáfha fou< NsCIqkah' kd,kaod

úYa j úoHd,fha ^hq f rda m fha mj;s k
fm!rdKs l u úYa j úoHd,hka g jvd
fndfyda merKs jQ fuu úYaj úoHd,h
Tlaia*¾â iy flaïì%Ê úYaj úoHd,
msyg
s ù
q ug ishjia .kkdjlg fmr úkdY
lrk ,§& m%OdkSka bkaÈhdfõ úúO m%foaY
is,mamÈ.drï"
j,ska meñK f;aÍm;ajQ whjQy' jvd;au
uksfïl,dj"
m% i s o a O kdhlhs k a fom, ;ñ,a k dvq
;srelal=r,a
m% d ka ; fha whjQ y ' YS % ,xldfõ mej;S
jeks oñ<
merKsu ckdjdi j,ska lsysmhla" Wod(
Ydia;h
%S
ú,am;a;=fõ ;sfnk fmdïmßmamq wdikak
idys;H lD;s
jYfhka wjqreÿ 2000lg fmr ;ñ,a kdvq
isxy, NdIdjg
m%dka;fha fn!oaO m%cdjf.ka mej; ta'
mßj¾;kh
fujeks i;H f;dr;=re mq¿,a jYfhka
lrñka o
me;srùu hym;a fkdjkafka o@
ud¾áka
jir 2000lg fmr ks¾udKh jQ uyd úl%uisxy jeks
fY%I
a G
a
ldjHhla j Q z zis , ma m ÈldrïZZ kïjQ
f,aLlhkaf.a
.%ka:hla we;' fuh rpkd lf<a m%ùk
idys;HOrhl= jQ fou< cd;sl ffck isxy, idys;H
lD;s oñ<
wd.ñl NsCIqjls' tfukau zzuksfïl,dZZ
nig;a
.%ka:h .ksuq ^fuh rpkd lrk ,oafoa
mßj¾;kh
fou< fn!oaO idys;HOrfhl=jQ fou<
lrñka o
fn!oaO NsCIqjla úisks' we;af;kau uq,a
mdi,a fm<
ldjH.% k a : fha fldgila f,i fuh fmd;a ks¾foaY
i,lkq ,efí' uksfïl,d ldjHh fn!oaO j,g we;=,;a
NsCIqkshlf.a l;d jia;=jla fõ' l,ska
l< hq;=h
i|yka l< —is,mamÈldrï˜ kue;s lD;sfha'
l:d kdhsldjf.a ^m;a;sks foaúh& {d;s
61

cd;sl iu.sh
fukau
wfkHdkH
f.!rjh
m%j¾Okh
lrk
wdldrfhka
fm< fmd;a
m%;fs YdaOkh
lsÍu
62

Èhkshls' —uksfïl,dj˜ YS% ,xldj iu.
.eUqßka ne£ we;s lD;shla fõ' fpda, rc
l=url=f.a wkjYH n,mEfuka fíÍu
i|yd uksfïl,dj YS% ,xldjg meñKshdh'
is,mamÈldrï iy uksfïl,dj fukau
;srelal=r,a .%ka:fha isxy, mßj¾;kh
wOHdmk wdh;k j, isxy, idys;H úIh
ks¾foaYhg we;=<;a úh hq;h
= ' wfkla w;g
ud¾áka úl%uisxy jeks mq¿,a ±laula iys;
fY%aIaG f,aLlhkaf.a lD;s ks¾udk fou<
idys;H úIhOdrdjg we;=<;a jkafka kï
YS% ,dxflah cd;sh f.dvke.Sug fïjd
ufyda m ldÍ jkq we;' mdie,a fmd;a
ks ¾ foa Y ilia l rka k ka ;u m% u q L ;d
ks i s h dldrfhka kej; ilid .ekS u
w;HjYH jQjls' rdcH NdId m%;sm;a;s mjd
kej; kjHlrKhlg ,la lsÍu ,la
lsÍu b;d jeo.;a jkafka h'

Y%S ,xldfõ fou< NdId
whs;j
s dislï
IV jk mßÉfþoh

udOH N+ñldj

YS % ,xldfõ NdId( cd;s l tla i ;a n j
i|yd jHjia : djla
iuyr rgj,a m%Odk jYfhka tla NdIdjla
l:dlrk tajdh' we;eï úg hï iSudjkag
hg;a j tx.,ka ; h" cmdkh" m% x Yh"
c¾uksh yd ;dhs,ka;h jeks rgj,a o
fuu j¾.hg we;=<;a lrkakg mq¿jk'
we;eï rgj,a m%Odk jYfhka oaú NdIsl
jk w;r tajd o we;eï iSudjkag hg;a fõ'
fuu m%j¾.hg Y%S ,xldj" iafldÜ,ka;h"
fn,aðhu yd iamd[a[h we;=<;a lrkakg
mq¿jk' wfkl=;a fndyda rgj,a meyeÈ,s
f,iu nyq NdIsl h' bkaÈhdj" ol=Kq
wms%ldj yd merKs fidaúhÜ ix.uh fuu
m%j¾.hg wod< iïNdjH kso¾Yk h' Tfí
j¾.S l rKh i|yd" Tn b;s y difha
fldf;la wdmiaig hkafka o hkak u;
muKla fkdj NdId ldKavhla fl;rï
úYd, úh hq;= o yd Tfí wjOdkh Èkd
.ekSug NdIdj ixj¾Okh ù we;af;a
flfia o hkak u; o /f|k neúka fuu

ff;% NdId
m%;sm;a;shla
lrd .uka
lrk
oaú NdIsl
YS% ,xldj
63

ks¾jpk fkdu. hjkiq¿ úh yels h'
ksoiqka f,i mDÓú f.da,h u; úisÍ
is á k f.da ; % s l m% c djka f .a wfka l úO
NdIdjkaf.ka ie,ls,a,g f.k we;af;a
fldal o@ wfma ks¾jpkh l=ula jqj o
wfma iei÷u oYlfhka oYlhg fjkia
jkq we;' kj Wm NdId ilia fjñka
mj;sk w;r iuyr merKs tajd wNdjhg
m;a fjñka we;' we;eï úg Wm NdId
lSmhla úfYaIs; NdId f,i ms<s.kq
,eîfï ls%hdj,shla Tiafia .uka lrñka
;sfnk w;r NdId lsysmhla oeka tajdfha
Ndú;h yS k ùu Tia f ia we;eï úg
wNdjhg m;aúh yels hhs ms<s .kq ,efí'

bkaÈhdfõ
cd;sl
tlai;aNdjh
rlsk ff;%
NdId iQ;h
%
64

iyY% j¾I ld,hla mq r d tjeks
ixj¾Okhka isÿj we;af;a jqj o kQ;k
udOHh ikaksfõokh fuka u ;r.h
myiq l rKh Tia f ia ls % h dj,s h ;= <
fjkialï y÷kajd foñka ;sfí' tla
w;lska udOHh ;=<ska úfYaIs; NdIdjl
ixrlaIKh yd jHdma;sh wNsjDoaêhla
,nkakg mq¿jk' wfkla w;ska udOHh
tys ;r.lrejka m%j¾Okh l< yels w;r
we;eï NdIdjka f .a wNdjh läkï
lrkakg mq¿jk' fuf,i bx.%Sis NdIdj
f,dalh mqrd j¾Okh fjñka ÈhqKqj w;a
lr .ks ñ ka mj;S ' we;eï l,dmj,
l,dmSh jYfhka m%uqL NdIdj j¾Okh

fjñka ÈhqKqj w;a lr .kS' ksoiqka f,i
Ökfha yd isx.mamQrefõ ks, Ök NdIdj
^uekavßka& l=vd lKavdhï úiska Ndú;
lrkq ,nk m%dfoaYSh NdIdj, meje;au
wk;=rg fy,ñka me;sf¾' tfia jqj o
udOHh úiska m%dfoaYSh NdId lsysmhlg
fkdkeiS mej;Sug yd ;yjqre ùug wdOdr
lrkq ,en ;sfí'
ks o yfika miq bka È hdj jydu iEu
;eklu m%uqL NdIdj f,i yskaÈ NdIdj
fhdod .ekSug m%h;ak orñka lghq;=
wdrïN lf<a h' fuu uq , ms r eug
úfYa I fhka ol= K q bka È hdfjka oeä
úfrdaOhlg uqyqK mEug isÿ úh' tfia u
ngysr fnx.d,h jeks fjk;a m%dka;
rdcHhkays o Bg úfrdaOh u;= õh' m%;sM,
jYfhka bkaÈhdj oeka ms<s f.k ;sfnk
;s% NdId iQ;%h tkï yskaÈ" bx.S%is yd
wfkl= ; a cd;s l NdIdjka f .ka tlla
Ndú;d ls Í fï iQ ; % h ms < s .;s ' fï
NdIdjka f .ka l= u k fyda NdIdjla
mdi,aj, b.ekaùfï udOH f,i o l=uk
fyda NdIdjla úfYaI;
s m%foaYj, mßmd,k
NdIdj f,i yd jd¾;d ;eîfï NdIdj
f,i o kuH;djhlska hq;=j Ndú;d l<
yels úh' fuu iQ;%h fyd¢ka ls%hdjg
ke.=Kq w;r ienúkau NdId u; mokïjQ
ler,s flda,dy, ke;sj hdu o nyq NdIsl

wOHdmkh
fCIa;%fhys
bx.Si
% s
jeäfhka
Ndú;d lsÍu
65

bx.Si
% s
W.ekaùu

bx.Si
% s
NdIdfjka
úúO
úIhhka
b.ekaùug
iqÿiqlï ,;a
.=rejre iy
bx.Si
% s
.=rejre
fldka;%d;a
mokula u;
n|jd.ekau
66

m%ùK;dj l%udkql+,j ;yjqre ùu o isÿ
úh' úfYaIfhkau bx.%Sis Ndú;h jHdma;
jkakg úh'
YS% ,xldfjys bf.kSfï udOHh f,i yd
úfYaIs; m%foaYj, mßmd,k yd jd¾;d
;nd .ekS f ï udOHh f,i ks i s
kuH;djhlska hq;=j isxy," fou< yd
bx.S%is Ndú;d lsÍfï ;s% NdId m%;sm;a;sh
fhda.H jkq we;' oaú;Shsl mdi,a$Wiia
mdi,a$;D;Shsl wOHdmkh hk tajdfha
bf.kSfï udOHh f,i fjk;a NdIdjlg
^bx.S%is jvd fyd|h& udreùfï úl,amh
we;s m%d:ñl mdif,ys bf.kSfï udOHh
f,i uõ NdIdj ^foaYSh NdIdj& Ndú;d
lsÍug fyd| wOHdmksl fya;= ;sfí'
úoHdj mokï lr .;a Odrdjkays yd fjk;a
iuyr lafIa;%j, oaú;Shsl mdi,a$Wiia
mdi,aj,§ yels ;dla blaukska bx.S%ishg
udreùfï o tf,iu ;D;Shsl wOHdmkh
bx.S%isfhka úh yels nj iy;sl lsÍfï o
úfYaI jdis ;sfí' fuh úfYaIfhka fufia
jkq we;af;a we;eï wOHhk fCIa;%hka ys
Ndú;d lrk fndfyda mdßNdIsl jpk o
kj oekqfuka jeä yßhla o .,d hkafka
bx.S%isfhka jk ksid h' mdG .%ka:j,
fhda.H mßj¾;kj, wvqj isxyf,ka fyda
fouf<ka ;D;Shsl wOHdmkh lr f.k
hk whg ndOlhla úh yels h' ;j o

bx.S%ish NdIdfjys ukd oekqu lafIa;%
.Kkdjl jefvk wjYH;djla jk úfoia
nqoaêu;=ka iu. wka;¾ ls%hdldß;ajh
myiq lrkq we;'
mdi,aj, bx.%Sis udOHh m,odhS f,i
Ndú;d lsÍfuys,d m%Odk m%Yakh jkafka
bx.S % i s NdIdj b.eka ù fuys iu;a
.=rejrekaf.a ys`.h hs' flá ld, iSudjka
i|yd iuyr bx.S%is udOH yd bx.S%is NdId
.=rejreka úfoaYj,ska f.kajd .ekSu
wjYH úh yels h' msßjeh idOlh we;=¿j
fya ; = .Kkdjla ks i d wmg tjeks
.= r ejreka f .ka
jeä fofkla u
bkaÈhdfjka n|jd .ekSug isÿ úh yels
h' tfia u tlai;a rdcOdksh" ´iafÜ%,h
s dj"
kjiS,ka;h" wefußld tlai;a ckmoh
yd lekvdj jeks bx.S%is l;d lrk
rgj,ska tjeks .=rejreka iq¿ ixLHdjla
n|jd .; yels h' tfia u úfoaY.; YS%
,dxlSh m%cdjf.ka o wmghï m%udKhla
n|jd .kakg mq¿jk' wfma ck jd¾.sl
.egqu úi£fuys,d m%.;shla isÿjkafka
kï fuh jvd myiq yd jvd fyd¢ka
ls%hd;aul l< yels jkq we;'
iyY% follg wêl b;sydihlg Èfjk
fmdfydi;a Ydia ; S % h Wreuhla iys ;
fnfyúka W.;a oY ,la I .Kkl
ck;djka úiska l;d lrkq ,nk isxy,

nyq NdIsl
udOH mdie,a
weöug
myiqlï
ie,iSu ;=<ska
ff;% NdIsl
ksmqK;djh
m%j¾Okh
lrñka
ckjd¾.sl
lKavdhï
w;r tlai;a
Ndjhla we;s
lsÍu
67

mdi,aj, iy
iriõj, nyq
ydIsl;ajh
m%j¾Okh
lsÍu
68

yd fou< hk NdId folu ukdj
ixj¾ê; NdId folls ' ;j o is x y,
NdIdj YS% ,xldfõ m%Odk rdcH yd cd;sl
NdIdj f,i o fou< NdIdj o ks, yd
cd;sl NdIdjla f,i o jHjia:dms;j
iqrlaIs; lrkq ,en ;sfí' tfiau fou<
NdIdj bkaÈhdfõ cd;sl yd rdcH NdIdjla
o isx.mamQrefõ rdcH NdIdjla o jk w;r
uef,aishdfõ yd fjk;a fndfyda rgj,
oY ,laI .Kka ckhd mq¿,a f,i Ndú;d
lrk NdIdjla fõ' mj;akd ;;a;ajhka
;=< fï NdId foflau wkd.;h iy;sl
ù we;' bx.S%ish o Èjhsk mqrd jHdma;
fjñka mj;s k w;r iïnka ë lrK
NdIdjla f,i oeka jHjia:dkql+,j ms<s
.kq ,en we;' wm l< hq;=j ;sfnk foh
jkafka YS% ,xldfjys fuu NdId ;=fkys
Ndú;h yd ixj¾Okh myiqlrKh lsÍu
yd tajdfha wka;¾ lsh
% dldß;ajfhka Wmßu
iudc yd ixialD;sl m%;s,dNh Wlyd
.ekSu h' jir fooyilg wêl ld,hla
mqrd Ndú;fha mej;s cd;sl NdId foflys
fmdfydi;a Wreuh o bx.Sisfhys iqúYsIag
jákdlu o fuu rfÜ iuia; ck;djf.a
hym; i|yd Wlyd .; hq;= h'
bx.S % i s NdId —áhq g ß— o meyeÈ,s j u
bf.kSfï udOHhla f,i bx.S%ish f;dard

.ekSu myiqlrKh i|yd jeä jYfhka
msysgqjk ,o —cd;Hka;r mdi,a˜ o nyq,
ùu u.ska fmkakqïlr we;s mßÈ bx.S%is
Ndú;hg ;snQ m%;sfrdaOh úYd, jYfhka
wvqù f.dia ;sfí' fou< NdIdfõ Ndú;hg
wod< we;eï m%Yak yd isxy, yd fou<
NdIdjka Ndú;h yd wod< we;eï fhdackd
II mßÉfýaofha ixlaIsma;j olajd ;sfí'
ks¾foaYs; m%;sixialrK ls%h;aul lsÍu
wjYH h' úi¢h hq;=j ;sfnk wfkl=;a
yÈis m%Yak yd wjYH lrk jeäuk;a
m%;sixialrK fudkjd o@
iïm%odhsl jYfhka .;a l, ckjd¾.sl
jYfhka ñY% m%foaYj, mdi,a úúO ck
j¾.hka g wh;a ;reK ckhd tlg
uqiqjk yd l,a mj;akd iïnkaO;d f.dv
k.d .kakd wdh;k njg m;aj ;sfí'
fuh myiq l rKh lrkq ,enq f õ tu
m%foaYj, fndfyda mdi,a ck jd¾.sl
jYfhka iïñYs%;j ;sîu u.sks' 1956 §
tlu rdcH NdIdj njg isxy, NdIdj
m;a ùfï o úfYaIfhka isxy, yd fou<
NdIdjka u.s k a bx.s % i s h mdi,a j ,
bf.kSfï udOHh f,i ú;eka lsÍfï isg
yd wk;=rej uqia,sï mdi,a hk ;=kajk
j¾.hla y÷kajd §fuka fuu ckjd¾.sl
m%j¾.hka ;=k jeä jeäfhka yqol,d njg

Wiia
wOHdmkhg
yd
/lshdj,g
n|jd .ekSfï
§ nyq NdIsl
yelshdjka
we;s whg
jeä jdishla
ie,fik
l%ufõohka
ilial<
hq;h
= '
69

nyq NdIsl
YS% ,xldjla
lrd .uka
lsÍu

fjk;a
m%foaYj,
msysá
mdie,aj,
;;ajhg j;=
mdie,aj,
;;a;ajh
kÕd isgù
q u
70

m;aj ;sfí' óg l,ska mjd jeú,s m%foaYj,
l÷rg fou< ckhd i|yd jQ —j;= mdi,a˜
tu fou< ckhd yqol,d lsÍug odhl ù
we;' t;eka mgka —h:d¾:lrKfha ˜
m,m%fhdack ;ld oaú mdi,a tla NdIdjla
njg fjka lsÍu u.ska oaú NdId mdi,a
.Kk úYd, jYfhka wvq lr ;sfí'
wjfYaI mdi,a ;=< mjd isiqka NdIduh
Odrdjkag fnokq ,efí' Wiia uÜgfï
ls % i a ; s h dks mdi,a ia j ,a m hla muKla
NdIduh fjkalsÍu fkdje<laúh yels
úIhhkays § yer mx;s ñY%j mj;ajd .ekSu
u.s k a tjeks fn§ulg tfrys j w¾O
jYfhka m%;spdr olajd ;sfí' we;eï
mdi,aj, úIhhka y;rla ^tu úIhhka
y;f¾ mx;s ;= < is x y, yd fou<
Odrdjkaf.a isik
q a ñY% lrñka& bx.Si
% f
s hka
b.ekaùug wjldY i,ikq ,nk —ñ;%;j
a ˜
uq , ms r eu ie,iq ï lr we;a f ;a úúO
ckj¾.hkag wh;a isik
q a w;r —ñ;%;j
a h˜
fia u bx.S%is m%ùK;dj o m%j¾Okh lsÍu
i|yd h' tfy;a iuia;hla jYfhka .;a
l, fjka fjka NdIduh$jd¾.s l uh
Odrdjkag fn§u u.ska §¾>ld,Skj yd
cd;sl;aj" iudc" wd¾Ól yd foaYmd,k
iud.uhg
n,mdk
ckjd¾.s l
O%eùlrKhg odhl úh yels h'

YS% ,xldfõ tla NdIdjlska fndfyda /iaùï
mj;ajkq ,nkqfha we;eï úg mßj¾;k
fiajd iemhSu wêl úhoï iys; ksid
iy fjfyilr ksid úh yels h' nyq;rh
bx.%Sis l;d lrkq ,nkafka kï th tu
NdIdfjka l< yels h' jeä jYfhkau
fndfyda /iaùï mj;ajkq ,nkafka" m%Odk
jYfhkau fou< l;d lrk m%foaYj,
yer ^tajdfha tajd fouf<ka meje;a úh
yels h&" isxy, NdIdfjks' fld<U jeks
m%Odk k.rj, fndfyda /iaùï mj;ajkq
,nka f ka fou< muKla l;d lrk
we;eï wh isáh§ mjd bx.Sisfhka yd
is x yf,ks ' fï is h ,a , ck jd¾.s l
wukdmlï yd O%eùlrKhg odhl fjhs'
wm nyq NdIduh cd;shla njg m;a jkafka
kï mßj¾;k wjYH;dfjka f;drj NdId
;=fkkau /iaùï meje;aúh yels neúka
fuh m%Yakhla fkdjkq we;'
ksis rdcH yd isú,a iudc wkq.%yh iys;
mdi,a j ,g NdId ;= k u b.eka ù fuka
muKla fkdj fhda.H mßÈ rpkd" lÓl
yd újdo ;r. meje;aùu u.ska o nyq
NdISh m%ùk;djh i|yd ;Hd. msßkeóu
u.ska o oaú NdISh yd ff;% NdISh m%ùk;dj
m% j ¾Okh ls Í fuys , d ;S r K;a u l
ld¾hNdrhla bgq lrkakg mq¿jk' tfiau

wdKavql%u
jHjia:dj
yryd
ckj¾.
w;r iu.sh
m%j¾Okh
lsÍu

wka;¾.;fhys
fukau
iïmdokfhys
§o ish¨
fokd
wka;¾.;
l<yels
wdKavql%u
jHjia:djl
wjYH;djh
71

wdKavql%u
iïmdokfhys
bka§h yd
ol=Kq
wmsl
% dkq
kso¾Yk
wkq.ukh
lsÍu
72

rchg o rdcH úNd.j, § fhda.H ;Hd.
msß keóu yd n|jd .ekSfï § yd rdcH
fiajh we;=<; Wiiaùï ,nd §fï § jeä
ie,ls,a,la oelaùu u.ska nyq NdISh
m% ù k;djh i|yd fjk;a Èß §ï
iemhSfuka ,eîfuka fuhg wdOdr l<
yels h' m%Odk fldgu tal jd¾.sl jk
mdi,a m%Odk fldgu tal jd¾.sl jk
wfkla ckj¾.hl mdi,a iu. ióm
in|;d we;s lr .ekSug Èß .ekaúh yels
h' tjeks mdi,a w;r mdi,a jdr tlla
fyda jeä .Kkla i|yd ixpdr" YsIH
yqjudre jev igyka jeks jev igyka
ixúOdkh lsÍu hkdÈ mshjrhka o óg
wdOdrhla úh yels h' rdcH" fm!oa.,sl
yd rdcH fkdjk wxYj,g wdkqIdx.slj
n|jd .ekSï j,§ tjeks jev igykaj,g
iyNd.s ù ;sîug ksis ie,ls,a, ,eìh
hq;= h'
fuu is h ,a , iEu uÜgul§u cd;s l
m% ; s m ;a ; s yd ffk;s l rduq j ;= <
úfYa I fhka u cd;s l jHjia : dj ;= <
msysgqùu wjYH h' lK.dgqodhl ldrKh
jkafka wfma lsiÿs wdKavl
q u
% jHjia:djla
tf,i ie,iq ï lr fkd;s î u h'
i;a ; ls k a u wfma ls i s ÿ wdKa v q l % u
jHjia:djla lsisodl f,dalfha wfkl=;a

iuyr
wdKa v q l % u jHjia : djka "
úfYa I fhka u bka È hdfõ yd ol= K q
wms%ldfõ" fuka mq¿,a uyck ms<s.ekSula
yd wkkHlrKhla nqla;sú| ke;' wfma
m<uq ksoyig fmrjQ wdKavl
q u
% jHjia:dj
^fida,anß jHjia:dj& iïmdokh lrkq
,enqfõ wfma hg;a úð;hla lr.;a rdHh
úisks' 1972 wdKavql%u jHjia:dj tjlg
YS%,ksmh kdhl;ajh ÿka l=vd jHjia:d
iïmdol uKav,hla úiska iïmdokh
flßK' 1978 wdKavql%u jHjia:dj ilia
lrk ,oafoa tjlg tcdmh kdhl;ajh
ÿka l=vd jHjia:d iïmdol uKav,hla
úisks' tfy;a wdKavql%u jHjia:d ;=ku
tajd iïmdokh lsÍfï § mq¿,a uyck
iyNd.s ; a j hla ,enq f õ ke;' fï
iïnkaOfhka .;a l, fjk;a rgj,a
lsysmhlu wdKavql%u jHjia:d mq¿,ajQ o
úúOjQ o m%;súmdlhkag u. u. mdoñka
fnfyúka úúO jQ tajd úh'
bkaÈhdfjys jHjia:d flgqïm;a lñgqfõ
iNdm;s jQfha —ySk l=,˜ ^o,s;a& m%cdfõ
kdhlhd jQ o .dkaê yd fkare we;=¿
bka§h cd;sl kdhl;ajh iu. oYl
.Kkla È.=" ;on, m%lg fjkialï we;sj
isáhdjQ o wdpd¾h î' wïfnâld¾ h' Tjqyq
bka È hdj iuka ú ;jk l= , " f.da ; % "

YS% ,dxflah
wdKavq l%u
jHjia:d
iïmdokfhys
bkaÈhdkq iy
ol=Kq
wmsl
% dkq
wdo¾Yhkaf.ka
wdfõ.d;aul
m%fndaOkhla
,nd.ekSu
73

1947" 1972"
1978
wdKavql%u
jHjia:d
iïmdokfhys
y÷kd.;a
wvqmdvqlï
u.yrjdf.k
wdKavql%u
jHjia:djla
iïmdokh
lsÍu
74

wd.ñl" NdId" ck jd¾.sl wd§ jYfhka
jk iEu úl,amSh m%j¾.hlau fuka u
ia ; S % k a " jD;a ; S h iñ;s " u;jdoh yd
ft;sydisl miqìu ^ksoiqka f,i rdclSh
md,khla mej;s md,k tall wdÈh o
ksfhdackh lrkakdjq fndfyda yd b;d
úúO lñgq msyg
s jQy' oyia .Kka mqo.
a ,hska
fuu lñgqj, idudðlhka jQ w;r b;d
úYd, mqoa.,hka ixLHdjla fïjdfha §
ilaIs ÿkay' fuf,i lsisfjl=g ;uka
neyer l<d hhs ye`.S u la we;s ùug
fya;=jla fkdjQ w;r bkaÈhdkq wdKavql%u
jHjia:dj iïmQ¾Kfhkau jdf.a uq¿uy;a
bkaÈhdkq ck;djgu ysñ jHjia:djla
úh' ™—bkaÈhdkq wdKavql%u jHjia:dj(
cd;sfha uq,a., ^The Indian Constitution:
Cornerstone of a Nation”& kï jQ 1966
m< l< .% e ka ú ,a Tia á ka f .a lD;s h "
Tlaia*¾â" la,erkavka uqøKd,hš ol=Kq
wms % l dkq wdKa v q l % u jHjia : dj o
tmßoafokau ol=Kq wms%ldkq cd;sfha ish¨
fldgia we;=¿ lr .;a;la úh'
wmg tjeks ish,a, we;=<;a lr .;a
wdKavql%u jHjia:djla iïmdokh lsÍfï
úl,amh ;snqK kuqÿ tfia fkdlsÍu
f;da r d .ka k d ,§' 1947 wdKa v q l % u
jHjia:dfõ m%Odk ks¾udmlhd jQfha

ì%;dkHh hs' 1972 yd 1978 wdKavql%u
jHjia:djka ie,iqï lf<a ish,a, we;=<;a
lr .kakjdg jvd neyer lrkakg h'
1972 wdKavql%u jHjia:dj flgqïm;a l<
whg ;;a ld¾h iuia; ,xld fou<
iïfï,kh fjkqfjka hdmk ;reK
iïfï,kh tjlg Ôksfhdackh lrñka
mqoa.,hka lsysm fofkl= úiska m< lrk
,o yd —YS% ,xldfõ wd.u yd iudch
ms < s n | wOHhkh i|ydjQ l% s i a ; s h dks
wdh;kh˜ 1983 pqkakdlïys m< lrKq
,enQ fla' fkaihshd uy;df.a —YS% ,xldfõ
wOHdmkh yd udkj ysñlï˜ lD;sfhys
Wmqgd olajk ,o wjika igyk Wmqgd
olajñka fuu ksnkaOkh wjika lsÍu
WÑ; hhs is;ñ'
—YS% ,xldj wehg wjxl ùug kï wef.a
wdKa v q l % u jHjia : dj ,s ù fï Wodr
rdcldßh mjrd fokq ,enQ j ka úis k a
wdKavql%u jHjia:dj iïmdokh lsÍfï
m%fõYh yd Tjqka tys ,súh hq;af;a l=ula
o hk foflys § u wfma Wreuhg
wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;= h' wfma orejkag
iy orejkaf.a orejkag ,xldj wfma
fY%aIaG ud;D N+ñh h" tla fjr<dka;hl
isg wfkla fjr<dka;h olajd wms tlu
ck;djla fjuq' wm W;=ï NdId folla

YS% ,xldfõ
ish¨u
ck;dj úiska
je<|.kq
,nk ku
wdKavql%u
jHjia:djla
lrd'''
75

l;d lrkafka kuqÿ ta tlu y`äka h'
wfma mS;Djreka wdÈ ld,fha tlg tlaj
ks¾udKh lrk ,o fuu wdKavql%u
jHjia :dj t<fUk ld,h mqr d wfma
cd;sfha m%{ma;h
s f,i fiajh lrkq we;'˜

76

YS% ,xldfõ fou< NdId whs;sjdislï

wdpd¾h foajfkaika fkaihshd

ISBN: 978-955-1655-84-6

ISBN: 978-955-1655-84-6