,yq;ifapy; jkpo; nkhop chpikfs;

fyhepjp. NjtNerd; Neirah

,yq;ifapy; jkpo; nkhop chpikfs;
Mq;fpy %yk; : fyhepjp. NjtNerd; Neirah ISBN Kjw; gjpg;G mr;Rg; gjpg;G ntspaPL : 978-955-1655-85-3 : Vg;uy; 2012 : f;Nshg; gpupd;bq; Ntu;f;]; njh.Ng: 011-2689259 : khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

khw;Wf;nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyankd;gJ RahjPd> murpay; fl;rp Ngjkw;w mikg;ghFk;. mJ gpujhdkhf murhq;fk;> Kuz;ghLfisj; jPu;j;jy; mjDld; ,ize;j Kuz;ghLfs; kPJ mtjhdk; nrYj;Jk;. nghJ kf;fspd; nfhs;if njhlu;ghd rk;gh\idf;F rptpy; r%fj;jpd; Neub xj;Jiog;G Njitg;gLtjhYk;> mijg; gyg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ njhlu;ghf kpFe;j ek;gpf;if fhuzkhfTk; 1996 ,y; khw;Wf; nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. nghJ kf;fspd; nfhs;if tpku;rd uPjpahf tpku;rpf;fg;gly;> khw;W topfis ,dq;fhzy;> mij tpupthf;fy; njhlu;ghd Ma;T> mOj;jk; nfhLf;Fk; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fSf;fhf khw;Wf; nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak; jd;id mu;g;gzpj;Js;sJ.

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: 24{2> 28tJ xOq;if> g;/stu; tPjp> nfhOk;G - 07 : +94(11) 2565304/5/6 : +94(11) 4714460 : www.cpalanka.org : info@cpalanka.org

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tUk; ,yq;ifj; jhapd; miog;G (The Call of Lanka) vd;Dk; ftpij mbfis ,r;rpW E}ypy; ehd; ,izj;Js;Nsd;. ,r;rpWE}iy ntspapLtjw;F gy;NtW tifapYk; xj;Jioj;j yady; FUNf> mNrhf;f N`uj;> fkyhNjtp rrpr; r e; j pud; > yq; f h Neirah MfpNahUf; F vdJ kdkhu; e ; j ed; w piaj; njuptpf;fpd;Nwd;.

NjtNerd; Neirah

2012 Vg;uy;

,yq;ifj; jhapd; miog;G – W.S. Senior*
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6

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7

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8

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xU fPhjjpkpff Kd;dhs; rptpy; NritahsUk;> khw;Wf; ; ; ; nfhs;if epiyaj;jpd; ngWkjpkpf;f rfghbAkhd fyhepjp NjtNerd; Neirahtpdhy; ',yq;ifapy; jkpo; nkhop chpikfs;" vd;w ,e;jj; jdptpguE}y; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. tlf;F fpof;F khfhzq;fSf;F ntspNa cs; s khfhzq; f spy; murfUk nkhopnahd;whf jkpopd; cgNahfk; kPJ Ma;nthd;iw elj; J tjw; f hf> ,yq; i f murfUk nkhop Mizf;FOtpdhy; 1998,y; epakpffg;gl;l FohKf;F ; fyhepjp Neirah jiyik tfpj;jhh;. ,ijj; njhlh; e ; J > ,yq; i fapy; ,dj; J t Nkhjypd; ikakhfTk; > mj; J ld; Aj; j j; j pw; F g; gpe; j pa r%fj;jpypUe;J NkhjYf;Fg; gpe;jpa xd;Wf;F vkJ khw;wj;jpd; rthYf;F ikakhfj; njhlh;e;JNk ,Uf;fpd;w xd;whfTk; tpsq;Ffpd;w tplankhd;wpd; kPJ mDgtKk;> epGzj;JtKk; vd ,uz;bdhYk; ts%l; l g; g l; l jhfNt ,e; j jdptpgu E}y; tpsq;FfpdwJ. ; ,yq;if Nghd;w gd;ikj;Jtkhd r%fnkhd;wpy; rkhjhdj; j pw; F k; > ey; y pzf; f j; j pw; F k; kw; W k; If;fpaj;jpw;Fk; nkhop chpikfs; Kf;fpakhditahFk;. mjd; rl;lq;fspYk;> epUthf tpjpfspYk;> xOq;FtpjpfspYk; kw;Wk; eilKiwfspYk; ehl;bd; rfy kf;fspdJk; nkhop chpikfis xd; w pizg; g jw; F vkJ jFjpAk; mj;Jld;/my;yJ ,zf;fkpdikAk; ghFghl;bidAk;> ; epWtdhPjpapyhd me;epag;gLj;jiyAk; milahsg; g Lj; J fpd; w d. ,J fhyg; N ghf; f py; murhq;fj;jpwF vjpuhd MAjghzpapyhd fpsh;rrpapy; ; ; mh;jjq;nfhs;sg;gLfpdwJ. gphptpidthjj;jpd; kpfTk; ; ; kpjkpQrpa xd;wpdhYk;> gaq;futhjj;jpd; tpisthf ; Vw; g l; b Ue; j muh[fq; f spdhYk; kw; W k; kpf mz;ikapyhd Aj;jf; Fw;wq;fspd; rhh;j;JiufspdhYk; rk\;bf;Fk;> Rahl;rpf;Fkhd Nfhhpf; i ffs; ed; F Gyg; g lhjitfshfNt tpsq;Ffpdwd. ;

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10

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11

,yq;ifapy; jkpo; nkhop chpikfs; ghfk; I
1956,d; murfUk nkhopr; rl;lk; mKyhf;fg;gl;ljd; gpd;dH rpq;fs nkhop chpikfs; cWjpggLj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. vdNt> ; gpujhdkhf jkpo; n khop chpikfisg; gw;wpAk;> Fiwe;j mstpy; Mq;fpy nkhopapd; chpikfisg; gw;wpAk; ehd; RUf;fkhd tuyhw;Wj; njhFg;Gld;; vdJ fl;Liuia Muk;gpg;gJ gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;Fk;. gphpj;jhdpaupd; fhydpj;Jt Ml;rpf;fhyk; Kjy; ,yq; i f Rje; j puk; mile; j KjyhtJ jrhg;jk; tiuAk; Mq;fpyNk murfUk nkhopahfj; jpfo;e;jJ. epUthfj; j pYk; > fy; t papYk; Njrpa nkhopfspd; cgNahfj; j pw; f hd vOr; r p aho;g;ghz ,isQh; fhq;fpu]pdhy; (Jaffna Youth Congress) topelj;jg;gl;lJ. fhyQ;nrd;w `z;b Nghpd;gehafk; ,t;tpaf;fj;jpw;Fj; jiyik jhq;fpdhH. fhe;jpapd; eltbf;iffspdhy; ftug;gl;l aho;g;ghz ,isQH fhq; f pu]; mNdfkhf ,sk; ghlrhiy Mrphpah; f isAk; > rpNu\; l khzth; f isAk; cs; s lq; f papUe; j J> aho;g;ghzj;jpw;F ntspNa rfy murpay; jiyth;fSlDk; (fz;ba kw;Wk; fiuNahur; rpq;fsth;fs;> Nrhdfh; kw;Wk; kyhah;fs;> kiyaf kw; W k; fpof; F j; jkpoh; f s; ) >

aho;gghz ; ,isQu; fhq;fpu]; (JYC) 12

fhe;jp> NeU kw;Wk; uh[Nfhghyhr;rhhpahh; MfpNahh; cl;gl kpfg; nghpJk; kjpf;fg;gl;l ,e;jpaj; jiyth;fSlDk; kdg;g+h;tkhd cwitj; jhgpj; j pUe; j J. 1920fspYk; > 1930fspd; Kw; g FjpapYk; aho; g ; g hz ,isQh; fhq;fpu]; cr;repiyapy; ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy;> mjd; gpd;dh; mJ gbg;gbahf kq;fpg;NghdJ. aho;g;ghz ,isQh; fhq;fpu]pd; nfhs; i ff; F mikthf> fl; l hakhd nkhopfshf rpq;fsj;ijAk;> jkpioAk;> Mq;fpyj;ijAk; aho;g;ghzj;jpy; cs;s Kd; d zpg; ghlrhiyfs; fw; g pj; j d. mth; f Sf; F cldbahfNt Rje; j puk; Njitg; g l; l fhuzj; j pdhy; > nlhd%h; rPh;jpUj;jq;fis vjph;j;jJld;> nlhd%h; rPh;jpUj;jq;fspd; fPo; eilngw;w 1931 mur rl;l rigj; Njh;jy;fisAk; gfp\fhpjjdh;. ; ; 1931,y; aho;g;ghzf; Flhehl;by; ,e;jg; gfp\;fhpg;G 100% ntw;wpia mspj;jJld;> gfp\; f hpg; g pid mq; f P f hpf; f hj jkpo; Njrpathjpfs; $l (cjhuzk;: kd;dhhpy; Nghl;bapl;L> Njhy;tpaile;j [p.[p.nghd;dk;gyk;) Flhehl;Lf;F ntspNa Nghl; b apl; l hh; f s; . Mdhy; > njhlHe; J gfp\fhpgG ntspggilahfNt jhf;Fg;gpbf;f ; ; ; Kbatpy;iy vd;gJld;> 1936 mur rl;l rigj; Njh;jy; eilngw;w NghJ gfp\fhpgG ; ; ,lk;ngwtpyiy. Jujph\ltrkhf> 1931,y; ; ; ; aho; g ; g hz ,isQh; fhq; f pu]pdhy; miof;fg;gl;l gfp\;fhpg;G vjpuhd tpisTfis Vw;gLj;jpaJld;> aho;g;ghz

1931 mur rl;l rigj; Nju;jy;fs; gfp\;fupg;G 13

aho;gghz ; ,isQu; fhq;fpu]pd; tPo;r;rpAk; ,yq;ifj; jkpo; fhq;fpu]pd; vOr;rpAk;

,isQh; fhq;fpu]pd; Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpw;F vjpuhd ,sk; Gj;jp[tpfs;; fw;gdhthj cah; P ,yl; r paq; f isg; gpd; g w; W gth; f s; vd cjhrPdk; nra;ag;gl;lhh;fs;. ,J aho;gghz ; ; ,isQh; fhq; f pu]_f; F Nkyhf jkpo; ; fhq;fpui] Muk;gpggjw;fhd ce;Jrf;jpia toq;fpaJld;> jdJ Mjpf;fj;ij [p.[p. nghd;dk;gyk; Ngzf;$bajhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. 1936 Kjy; ,U jrhg;jq;fSf;F jkpo; murpaypy; mth; jdJ Mjpf; f j; i jr; nrYj;jpdhh;. ,f; fhyj;jpDs; aho;g;ghz ,isQh; fhq;fpu]pdhy; fl;bnaOg;gg;gl;l ,dhP j pahd ey; n yz; z k; gbg; g bahf rpijtile;jJ. ,jdpilNa murfUk nkhopahfTk; > ghlrhiyfspy; Nghjdh nkhopahfTk; rpq;fsj;ij kl;LNk nfhz;LtUtjw;fhf 1944,y; mur rl;l rigapy; jPhkhdnkhd;iw ; N[.Mh; . [ath; j dh nfhz; L te; j hh; . thf;fspg;gpw;F ,J rkh;g;gpf;fg;gLtjw;F Kd;> rpq;fsk; kl;LNk vd;gjw;Fg; gjpyPlhf rpqfsKk;> jkpOk; vd jpU.tp.ey;iyahtpdhy; ; jpUj;jnkhd;W nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. jpUj;jk; xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gl;L> Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. Mdhy;> ,J jkpoh;fspdJk;> K];ypkfspdJk; ; kj;jpapy; ,dthj tpNuhjj;jd;ikiaAk;> ghJfhg; g pd; i k gw; w pa czh; i tAk; cUthf;fpaJ. 1948 ghuhSkd;wj; Njh;jy;fspYk;> kPz;Lk; 1952 ghuhSkd;wj; Njh;jy;fspYk; tlf;fpd; Njh;jy; njhFjpfspy; mNdfkhf rfy Mrdq;fspYk; jkpo; fhq;fpu]; ntw;wpaPlbaJ. vdNt> ,jd; ;

kiyafj; jkpou;fspd; thf;FupikAk; gpu[h cupikAk; gwpf;fg;gLjy; 14

gpd; d h; > v]; . N[.tp.nry; t ehafj; j pd; jiyikapyhd jkpouRf; fl;rpapdhy; jkpo; jiyikj;Jtk; nghWg;Ngw;fg;gl;lJld;> 1970fspd; gpw; g Fjpapy nry; t ehafk; ; fhykhFk; tiu ,U jrhg; j q; f Sf; F Nkyhf mtuJ jiyik ePbj;J epiyj;jJ. Mdhy;>1977 tiu xt;nthU Njh;jypYk; gphptpidf; F vjpuhf jkpouRf; fl; r p Mf;Nuh\khfTk;> ntw;wpfukhfTk; gpur; r huk; nra; j J. nry; t ehafj; j pd; fhyj;jpd; NghJ> tlf;fpYk;> fpof;fpYk; cs;s K];ypk;fspd; Mjuit jkpouRf; fl;rp mDgtpj;jJ. gpuhe;jpaj;jpd; K];ypk; gpujpepjpfs; rpq;fsk; kl;Lk; rl;lj;jpw;F vjpuhf thf; f spj; j dh; . ,NjNtis> tlf;Ff;Fk>; fpof;Ff;Fk; ntspNa jsj;ijf; nfhz;bUe;j K];ypk; jiyth;fs; rpq;fsk; kl;Lk; rl;lj;jpw;F thf;fspj;jdh;. Mdhy;> ,jpy; nrNdl;lh; v.vk;.v.m]P]; (Muk;gj;jpy; aho;gghzj;ijr; Nrh;ejth;) tpjptpyf;fhfr; ; ; nray;gl;lhhh;. ,g;gpur;ridiaj; njhlh;eJ ; mth; If; f pa Njrpaf; fl; r papypUe; J ntspNawpaJld;> rpq;fsk; kl;Lk; rl;lj;jpw;F vjpuhfTk; thf;fspj;jhh;. xNunahU murfUk nkhopahf rpq;fsj;jpw;fhf gpur;rhuk; nra;j = yq;fh Rje;jpuf; fl;rp (k`[d vf;]j; nguKd vd;w gjj;jpyhd $l;lzpnahd;wpd; mq;fk;) kw; W k; If; f pa Njrpaf; fl; r p Mfpa rpqfsth;fspdhy; topelj;jg;gl;l ,U ghhpa ; fl; r pfs; Nghl; b apl; l 1956 Njh; j y; f s; ,dj; J tg; gphptpidia tphpTgLj; j pd.

,yq;ifj; jkpouRf; fl;rpapd; vOr;rp

rpq;fsk; khj;jpuk; mur fUk nkhop vd;Dk; rl;lj;jpw;F tlf;F fpof;F K];ypk; gh.c.f;fs; thf;fspj;jdu; 15

rpq;fsk; khj;jpuk; mur fUk nkhopr; rl;lKk; ,d uPjpahd gpsT mjpfupj;jYk;

,oe;j xU re;ju;ggk; ; 16

murfUk nkhopfshf rpq; f sj; j pw; F k; > jkpOf;Fk; khh;f;]pa yq;fh rk rkh[f; fl;rpAk;> fk;a+dp];l; fl;rpAk; gpur;rhuk; nra;jJld;> = yq;fh Rje;jpuf; fl;rpAld; Vw; f dNt ifr; r hj; j pl; l Nghl; b aw; w xg;ge;jj;jpdhy;> tlf;Ff;Fk;> fpof;Ff;Fk; ntspNa xU Fwpg;gplj;jf;f vz;zpf;ifapyhd Mrdq;fis mit ngw;Wf;nfhz;ld. Mdhy;> tlf;fpy; my;yJ fpof;fpy; rpwpjsT jhf;fj;ijNa ,f; fl;rpfs; nfhz;bUe;jd. tlf;fpy; fk;a+dp];l; fl;rp Xh; Mrdj;ij ntw;wpaPl;baJld;> ehL g+uhTk; ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; ,uz;lhtJ ghhpa fl; r pahf yq; f h rk rkh[f; fl; r p tpsq;fpaJ. xd;wpy; ,lJrhupf; fl;rpfNsh my;yJ jkpo;f; fl;rpfNsh gaDWjptha;ej ; murpay; $l; l zpnahd; i w Vw; g Lj; j pf; nfhs; s tpy; i y. 1940fspy; kiyafj; jkpoh;fisAk;> ,lJrhhpfisr;rhuhj jhuhs thj fUj;jpaiyf; nfhz;l rpqfsth;fisAk; ; gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jk; fl;rpfis xd;wpizf;Fk; ,j;jifanjhU $l;lzp mikf;fg;gl;bUe;jhy;> mit 1947 Njh;jy;fspy; ntw;wpaPl;bapUf;Fk;. mNj rkak; > vkJ tuyhw; w pd; khh; f ; f j; i j khw; w paikj; J > kiyafj; jkpoh; f spd; FbAhpik> kw;Wk; thf;fspf;Fk; chpikfs; ,of;fg;gLtijAk;> murfUk nkhopnahd;whfj; jkpio tpyf;fp itg;gijAk;> njhlh;r;rpahf ,lk;ngw;w fytuq;fisAk;> ,dRj;jpfhpg;GfisAk; mj;Jld; ,tw;iwg; gpd;njhlh;e;j rptpy; Aj;jj;ijAk; jtphjjpUf;fyhk;. ,jdpilNa> ; ;

,dthjg; gpsT tUlq;fs; kiwe;Njhl tphptile;jJ. 1956 Njh;jy;fspy; tlf;fpYk;> fpof;fpYk; jkpuRf; fl;rp ntw;wpaPlbaJld;> ; ehl;bd; vQ;rpa gFjpfspy; k`[d vf;]j; nguKd ntw;wpaPl;baJ. Rje;jpuj;jpw;F Kd;dNuNa Muk;gpj;j ,dj;Jtg; gpsTfs; ,Wf; f kile; j Jld; > Neuj; j pw; F Neuk; ,Wf; f k; Fiwe; j J Mdhy; > jw; N ghJ cWjpahfj; jhgpf; f g; g l; L > kP z ; L k; ,Wf;fkilfpd;wJ. jkJ murpay; fl;rpfspd; (If;fpa Njrpaf; fl;rp kw;Wk; = yq;fh Rje;jpuf; fl;rp) J}z;ly;fSf;F mikthf rpq;fsk; kl;Lk; rl;l%yj;jpw;F tlf;Ff;Fk;> fpof;Ff;Fk; ntspNa cs;s njhFjpfisg; gpujpepjpg;gLj;Jk; K];ypk; ghuhSkd;w cWg; g pdh; f s; thf; f spj; j du; . ,jd; tpisnthd;whfNt tlf;fpYk;> fpof;fpYk; cs; s K]; y pk; f spd; mf; f iwfisg; ghJfhg; g jw; f hf vk; . vr; . vk; . m\; u g; g pd; jiyikapd; fP o ; = yq; f h K]; y pk; fhq;fpu]; Njhd;wpaJ. ,f; fl;rp tlf;Ff;Fk;> fpof; F f; F k; ntspNa rpy Njh; j y; njhFjpfspy; ntw;wpaPl;baJld;> ,yq;if K]; y P k ; f spd; Kd; d zpf; fl; r pahfj; Njhw;wk; ngw;wJ. fLe;Jaukhd tpgj;njhd;wpy; mtuJ mfhy kuzk; tiu jkpouRf; fl; r pAld; m\; u g; g pd; cwT njhlh;e;JNk ed;whf tpsq;fpaJ. 1981 Fbrdf; fzf;nfLg;gpy; (filrpahf ,lk;ngw;w ehL g+uhtpYkhd Fbrdf;

= yq;fh K];ypk; fhq;fpu]pd; vOr;rp

m\;ug;Gk; = yq;fh K];ypk; fhq;fpuRk; jkJ nry;thf;if ,yq;ifapy; tpupTgLj;jpdu;. Mdhy; m\;ug; tpkhd tpgj;njhd;wpy; mfhy kuzk; 17

rpq;fsk; khj;jpuk; vd;w nfhs;ifapypUe;J tpyfy;

,e;jpa rk\;b Kiwik 18

fzf;nfLg;G) jkpo; NgRk; rdr%fq;fs; (,yq; i fj; jkpoh; f s; > K]; y pk; f s; / Nrhdfh;fs; kw;Wk; kiyafj; jkpoh;fs;) mr; rkaj; j py; rdj; n jhifapd; 30%I mlf;fpapUe;jJld;> rpq;fsth;fs; (fz;ba kw;Wk; fiuNahur;rpq;fstH) 69%MfTk;> VidNahh; xU rjtPjj;ij tplf; FiwthfTk; tpsq;fpdh;. 1981 Kjy; Gyk; ngah;tpd; fhuzkhf Fwpg;gplj;jf;fstpy; ,dj;Jt tpfpjhrhuq;fs; khw;wkile;Js;sd (jkpoh;fs; kj;jpapy; ,J <by;yhj tpjj;jpy; cah; t hFk; ) . nkhop cgNahfj; i jg; nghWj;jstpy;> jkpo; NgRgth;fspd; xU rpwpa gFjpapdh;> tpNrlkhf K];ypk;fs; rpq; f s nkhop mwpit <l; b As; s dh; . vdpDk; > ,yq; i fah; f s; njhlh; e ; J Nk xNunahU nkhopiaj; njhpe;jth;fshfNt ,Uf; f pd; w dh; . murfUk nkhopahfr; rpq; f sk; Kd; i tf; f g; g l; l jd; i kAk; > mjDld; ,ize;jpUe;jJk;> gpd; tpistpyhdJkhd td;KiwAk; jkpoh;fs; kj; j papy; rpq; f s nkhopapd; mwpT guTtijj; jLj;Js;sd. ,U nkhopfisAk; ; kw; W k; Kk; n khopfisAk; gug; G tjw; F ,yq;ifapd; fy;tp KiwikAk; cfe;jjhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. ,J ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s #o;epiyf;F Kw;wpYNk kWjiyahdjhFk;. mq;F gbg;gwpT kl;lq;fs; kpff; Fiwthf ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> gynkhopfis Nkk; gLj;Jtjw;F fy;tp Kiwik ce;Jrf;jpahf tpsq;FtJld;> ,J me; ehl;by; Njrpa If; f paj; i jf; fl; b naOg; G tjpy; ghhpa fhuzpnahd;whfTk; ,Ue;J tUfpwJ.

ngUksT nkhoprhh; e ; j khepyq; f s; rk\; b ahf tpsq; F tNj ,e; j pahtpy; ,d;ndhU Fwpg;gplj;jf;f mk;rkhFk;. ,q;F jkJ nkhopfisg; gad; g Lj; J tjw; F xt;nthU khepyj;jpDs; vz;zpfif hPjpapy; ; cs; @ hpy; Fwpg; g plj; j f; f nkhoprhh; e ; j rpWghd;ikapdh;fSf;fhd Vw;ghl;Lld; mk; khepyj; j pd; ,e; j pa Njrpa nkhopfs; xt; n thd; W Nk mjpfhuj; J ld; Ml; r p nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. cjhuzkhf> jkpo; ehL khepyj;jpy; murfUk nkhop jkpohFk;. Mdhy;> jkJ rk;ge;jg;gl;l nkhopfisg; gad;gLj;Jtjw;F jkpo; ehl;bd; vy;iyfspDs; kiyahsk;> fd;dlk; kw;Wk; njYq;F Mfpatw;iwg; NgRgth;fs; cs;s gFjpfspy; Vw; g hLs; s J. kWGwj; j py; > Nfush> fh; d hlfh kw; W k; Me; j puh Mfpatw;wpd; vy;iyfspDs; jkpo; NgRgth;fs; cs;s Fwpggplj;jf;f ,lq;fspy; ; mth; f s; fy; t papYk; > khepyj; J ld; njhlh;Gnfhs;tjpYk; jkpiog; gad;gLj;jf; $bajhfTs;sJ. ,it ahTNk Njrj;ijf; fl; b naOg; G tjw; F gq; f spf; f pd; w d. kWjiyahf> ,yq; i f njhlh; e ; J Nk jdpnkhopahf mjpfhuk; nrYj;jg;gLtJld;> Njrpa rpWghd;ikapdUf;Nfh (nghpJNk jkpo; NgRgth; f s; ) my; y J gpuhe; j pa rpWghd;ikapdUf;Nfh (rpq;fsk; NgRgth;fNsh my;yJ jkpo; NgRgth;fNsh) NghjpasT Vw;ghl;bid epUthfk; nra; j pUf; f tpy; i y. ,jd; tpisthf> Kd;diutpl ,yq;ifj; Njrk; jw;NghJ ,dj;JthPjpapy; mjpfsT Kwptile;Js;sJ.

,e;jpahtpy; gy nkhopfs; NkNyhq;fpa mNj Ntis ,yq;ifapy; xU nkhop NkNyhq;fpaJ

,yq;ifapy; nkhopthupahd rpWghd;ik ,dq;fs; ghugl;rkhf elj;jg;gLjy; 19

murpay; mikg;gpd; 13tJ jpUj;jj;jpw;F mika jkpo; mur fUk nkhopahfTk; Mq;fpyk; ,izg;G nkhopahfTk; mq;fPfupj;jy;

jw;NghJ mNdfkhf rpqfsk; NgRgth;fspd; ; tpfpjhrhuk; 75%f; F NkyhfTk; > jkpo; NgRgth; f spd; tpfpjhrhuk; 25%I tpl FiwthfTk; ,Uf;Fk;. kWGwj;jpy;> nkhop cgNahfk; njhlh; g pyhd rl; l q; f s; khw;wkile;Js;sd. 1956,y; xNunahU murfUk nkhopahf rpq;fsk; nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJld;> ,J 1972 kw;Wk; 1978 murpayikg;gpy; xd;wpizf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. murfUk nkhopahf jkpioAk; (murfUk nkhopahf rpq;fsj;jpd; tuyhw;WhPjpapyhd me;j];ij kjpg;G Fiwf;fhky;)> ,izg;G nkhopahf Mq; f pyj; i jAk; rpwpjsT jphpGgLj;jg;gl;l gjj;jpy; 1987,d; gjpd%d;whtJ jpUj;jk; mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ. ; murpayikg;gpd; rk;ge;jg;gl;l cWg;Giu 18 jw;NghJ gpd;tUkhW mh;j;jg;gLfpd;wJ: 18 (1) ,yq;ifapd; murfUk nkhop rpqfs ; nkhopahjy; Ntz;Lk;. (2) jkpOk; murfUk nkhopnahd;whjy; Ntz;Lk;.

jw;Nghija murpayikg;gpwF ; mika epu;thfj;jpy; rpq;fsk;> jkpo; Mq;fpy nkhopfspd; me;j];J 20

(3) Mq;fpyk; ,izg;G nkhopahjy; Ntz;Lk;. (4) ghuhSkd; w k; rl; l j; j p; d ; %yk; ,t;tj;jpahaj;jpd; Vw;ghLfis eilKiwg; gLj;Jtjw;F xOq;Ffisr; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. 1988,d; 16MtJ jpUj; j j; j pd; rP h pa gz;gpdhy;> ,yq;if KOtJk; epUthf nkhopnahd;whf jkpo; cs;slf;fg;gl;lJld;> mjpfstpyhd tpguj;Jld; mjd; Gjpa

me;j];J cr;rhpf;fg;gl;lJld;> mJ kPzLk; ; jphpGgLj;jg;gl;l gjkhfNt tpsq;fpaJ. jkpOk; jw;NghJ murfUk> epUthf kw;Wk; ePjpkd;w nkhopahFk;. Mq;fpyk; ,izg;G nkhopahFk; vd; g Jld; > epUthfj; j py; Fiwe;j msnthd;Wf;Nf mJ gad; g Lj; j g; g LfpwJ. murpayikg; g pd; jpUj;jg;gl;l cWg;Giufs; 22 (1)> (2) kw;Wk; (3) Mfpad jw;NghJ gpd;tUkhW mh;j;jg;gLfpd;wd: epUthf nkhop 22 (1) ,yq; i f KOtJk; epUthf nkhopfshf rpq;fsKk;> jkpOk; ,Uf;f Ntz; L k; . epUthf nkhopahf jkpo; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;w tlf;F kw;Wk; fpof;F khfhzq;fisj; jtpu ,yq;ifapd; Vida rfy khfhzq;fspd; murhq;f epWtdq;fspdhy; rfy mYtyfq;fspd; nghJg; gjpNtLfspd; guhkhpg; G f; F k; > njhopy; eltbf;iffSf;Fk; gad;gLj;jg;gl ; Ntz;Lk;. cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; my;yJ gpuNjrr; nrayhsu; xUthpd; gphpnthd; i wf; nfhz;Ls;s VjhtJ myfpy; cs;s rpqfs ; my;yJ jkpo; nkhop rhh;e;j rpWghd;ik kf;fspd; tpfpjhrhuj;jpd; mf;fiwiaf; nfhz;Lk;> mg;gFjpapd; nkhj;j rdj;njhifia kdjpy; nfhz;Lk; rpq; f sj; i j my; y J jkpio my; y J mj;jifa gFjp mike;Js;s khfhzj;jpy;

16tJ jpUj;jj;jpd;gb jkpo; Mq;fpy nkhopfspd; rl;lthf;f me;j];J

16tJ jpUj;jj;jpw;F mika nkhop cupik Vw;ghLfs; 21

epUthf nkhopahf gad; g Lj; j g; g Lk; nkhopiaj; jtpu NtW xU nkhopia mj;jifa gFjpapd; epUthf nkhopahfg; gad; g Lj; j g; g l KbAk; vd [dhjpgjp epge;jidapd; Nghpy; gzpf;fyhk;. (2) epUthf nkhopahfr; rpq;fsk; cgNahfpf;fg;gLk; VjhtJ gFjpapy;> jdJ cj;jpNahfg+h;t Mw;wystpy; nraw;gLk; mYtyh; xUtiuj; jtpu Ms; xUth;: (m) jdJ cj;jpNahfg+h;t Mw;wystpy; ahNuDk; mYtyh; xd;wpy; jkpopy; my;yJ Mq; f pyj; j py; jfty; njhlh; G fisg; ngWtjw;Fk;> jfty; njhlh;Gfis mDg;Gtjw;Fk;> mYty;fis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fk;@ (M) VjhtJ cj;jpNahfg+h;t ,lhg;gpy;> gjpNtl;by;> ntspaPl;by; my;yJ NtW Mtzj;jpy; ,Ue;J gpujpfis my;yJ gphpjnjLg;Gf;fisr; Nrhjpggjw;fhd my;yJ ; ; ngWtjw;fhd mtuJ chpikia rl;lk; mq;fPfhpj;jhy;> tplaj;jpw;F Vw;w khjphp> xd; w py; jkpopy; my; y J Mq; f pyj; j py; mj;jifa ,lhg;gpy;> gjpNtl;by;> ntspaPl;by; my;yJ NtW Mtzj;jpy; my;yJ mtw;wpd; nkhopngah;g;gpy; ,Ue;J gpujpnahd;iw my;yJ gphpj;njLg;nghd;iw ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;Fk;@; (,) mtUf;F toq;fg;gLk; Nehf;fj;jpw;F ahNuDk; mYtyhpdhy; Mtznkhd;W ifnahg;gkplg;gl;lhy; mj;jifa

cj;jpNahfg+u;t njhlu;ghlYf;F nkhopfSk; Mtzg;gLj;jYk; 22

Mtzj;ij my;yJ mjd; nkhopngah;g; nghd; i w xd; w py; jkpopy; my; y J Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngWtjw;Fk;> chpj;Jilatuhthh;. (3) epUthf nkhopahfj; jkpo; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; VjhtJ gFjpapy;> jdJ cj;jpNahfg+h;t Mw;wystpy; nray;gLk; mYtyh; xUtiuj; jtph;e;j Ms; xUth; rpq;fsj;jpy; my;yJ Mq;fpyj;jpy; ,e;j cWg;Giuapd; ge;jp (2),d; Jiz-ge;jpfs; (m)> (M) kw; W k; (,) Mfpatw; w py; Fwpj; J iuf; f g; g l; L s; s chpikfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;Fk;> Nritfisg; ngWtjw;Fk; chpj;Jilatuhthh;. jpUj; j g; g l; l cWg; G iu 24(1) jw; N ghJ gpd;tUkhW mh;j;jg;gLfpd;wJ: (M) cWg;Giu 24 '(1) ,yq;if KOtJk; ePjpkd;wq;fspd; nkhopfshf rpq;fsKk;> jkpOk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld;> epUthf nkhopahf jkpo; cs;s VjhtJ gFjp jtph;e;j ,yq;ifapd; rfy gFjpfspYk; mike;Js;s ePjpkd;wq;fspd; nkhopahfr; rpq; f sk; gad; g Lj; j g; g l Ntz; L k; . eP j pkd; w j; j pd; nkhopapNyNa gjpTk; > tprhuizfSk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. VjhtJ eP j pkd; w j; ; j pypUe; J Nkd; K iwaP n lhd; W ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy> Nkd;KiwaPlil mDg;gp ; ; itf;Fk; ePjpkd;wj;jpdhy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; nkhopia tpl mj;jifa ePjpkd;wj;jpd; nkhop Ntwhf ,Ue;jhy;> Nkd;KiwaPlil ;

ePjp kd;wq;fspd; nkhopfs; 23

tprhhpf;Fk; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; nkhopapNyNa gjpNtLfs; jahhpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ePjpkd;wj;jpd; nkhopia tpl NtnwhU nkhopapy; VjhtJ ePjpkd;wj;jpd; gjpNtLfs; guhkhpf; f g; g LtJld; > tprhuizfs; elj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd mikr;ruitapy; cld; g hl; L ld; eP j papd; tplaj; j pw; F nghWg;ghd mikr;rh; epge;jidapd; Nghpy; gzpf;fyhk;." epUthfj; j py; mjpfsT cgNahfj; i j toq;Ftjw;F murpay; mikg;gpy; ,itAk;> NtW Nkk; g Lj; j y; f Sk; kw; W k; NtW xOq;FtpjpfSk; cs;s NghjpYk;> nrayhw;Wk; ,lj;jpy; jkpo; NgRgth;fSf;F kpfr; rpwpjsT ed; i kNa cs; s J. murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf; FOTf;F (vdJ jiyikapyhd xU Fohk; ) rkh;g;gpf;fg;gl;l 1998 brk;gh; 30,d; nkhop Ma; T gpd; t Utdtw; i w (gf; f k; 6) Rl;bf;fhl;baJ: m) jkpo; NgRk; Copah;Nfhg;gpy; ePz;l fhyk; gw;whf;Fiwfs; ,Ue;Js;sJld;> mth;fs; ghhpa vz;zpf;ifapyhd jkpo; NgRk; kf;fSf;F Nritahw;wpa NghjpYk;> tUif jug;gl;l VjhtJ mYtyfq;fspy; ,f; Fiwghl;bidj; jpUj;Jtjw;F kdg;g+h;tkhd Kaw;rp vLf;fg;gl;ljhfj; Njhd;wtpyiy. ,jd; ; tpisthf> jkpo; NgRk; kf; f s; mNdfkhf rpq;fsj;jpy; (rpy

nkhop cupikfs; gw;wpa rl;luPjpahd jd;ikf;Fk; ajhu;jjj;jpw;Fk; ; ,ilNa epyTk; ,ilntsp 24

Ntisfspy; mth; f s; jk; K ld; $l; b tUk; ciungah; g ; g hsh; f s; Clhf) my;yJ rpy tplaq;fspy; Mq; f pyj; j py; jkJ mYty; f is Nkw; n fhs; t jw; F fl; l hag; g Lj; j g; gLfpwhh;fs;. M) j k p o ; N j h ; r ; r p g ; g h P l ; i r f s p y ; rpj;jpaile;J> Cf;Ftpg;Gg; gbfisg; ngWfpd;w mYtyh;fs; $l ngUk;ghYNk jkpopy> Fwpgghf fbjj; ; ; njhlh;G rk;ge;jkhf gzpahw;Wtjw;F ,ayhj epiyapy; ,Ug; g jhfj; Njhd;wpaJ. ,) ngUksT mYtyfq;fspy; jl;lr;R ,ae; j puq; f s; Nghd; w mbg; g il cgfuzq;fs; ,Uf;ftpy;iy my;yJ Fiwe;jsNt ,Ue;jd. rpy mYtyfq;fspy; xd;W my;yJ ,uz;L jkpo; jl;lr;R ,ae;jpuq;fs; ,Ue;jd. Mdhy;> jkpo; jl;nlOj;jhsh; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. rpq;fsj;jpYk;> jkpopYk; rfy ngah; kw;Wk; topfhl;ly; gyiffisAk;> mwptpjjy; gyiffisAk; nfhz;bUg;gJ ; Nghd;w vspaJk;> MFnryT Fiwe;jJkhd eltbf;iffs; $l ngUksT mYtyfq;fspy; vLf;fg; gl;bUf;ftpyiy. ;

jkpo; nkhop NgRNthu; vjpu;Nehf;Fk; rpy gpur;rpidfs;

<)

jkpo; NgRk; Mszpf;F epyTk; gw;whf;Fiw 25

jkpo; nkhopf; fzf;fha;T 1998

c) murhq;f epUthf mikr;rpdhYk;> murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FOtpdhy; toq;fg;gl;l rl;l Mtzq;fspdJk;> Rw; W epUgq; f spdJk; KOikahd njhFjpnahd;iw ve;j mYtyfq;fSk; nfhz;bUf;ftpy;iy. murfUk nkhopnahd;whfj; jkpo; Vw;fg;gl;L gjpndhU Mz;Lfs; fle;Jtpl;ld vd;w cz;ik epytpa NghJk;> jkpo; NgRk; mYtyh;fspd; Klkhdepiyapyhd gw;whf;FiwNa mbg;gilg; gpur;ridahf milahsq; fhzg;gl;lJ. Ml;Nrh;gGf;fspYk;> gjtpfF mkh;jJtjpYk; ; ; ; gyjug; g l; l khtl; l q; f spd; ,dj; J t mlf;fj;ijaplL ftdk; nrYj;jg;gltpyiy ; ; vdj; Njhd;Wfpd;wJ.

26

,yq;ifapy; jkpo; nkhop chpikfs; ghfk; II
tlf;Ff;Fk;> fpof;Ff;Fk; ntspapy; cs;s khfhzq;fspy; jkpopd; cgNahfk; kPjhd Ma;nthd;iw elj;Jtjw;fhf fl; L iuahrphpahpd; jiyikapyhdJk; > murfUk nkhop Mizf; F Otpdhy; epakpf; f g; g l; l Jkhd Fohnkhd; w pdhy; murfUk nkhop Mizf; F OTf; F 13 tUlq;fSf;F Kd;G nra;ag;gl;l gupe;Jiufis ,g; ghfk; mlf;fpAs;sJ. tlf;fpy; my;yJ fpof;fpy; Ma;T elj;jg;glhj NghjpYk;> KO jPtfj;jpwFkhd ; gupeJiufs; njhlh;ghdit vd;gJld;> ,J ; tlf; f pYk; > fpof; f pYk; rpq; f sj; j pd; cgNahfj;ijAk; cs;slf;Ffpd;wJ. 1998 brk;gh; 30 jpfjpaplg;gl;l gupe; J iufs; mjpfsT Nehf; f j; j pyhd khw; w q; f is cs; s lf; F fpd; w d. ,tw; w py; ngUk; ghyhdit njhlh;eJNk nry;Ygbahdit@ ; Mdhy;> mKy;gLj;jg;glhky; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,f; fhuzj; j pw; f hf ,it khw; w kpd; w p kPs;gpuRhpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. gupeJiufs; ; jkpo; NgRk; kf;fspd; Njitfis epUthfk; epiwNtw;Wtnjd;why; murhq;f

jkpo; nkhop gw;wpa xOq;F tpjpfis mKyhf;f Kbahik 27

epWtdq; f spYk; > $l; L j; j hgdq; f spYk; NghjpasT vz; z pf; i fapyhd jkpo; Njh;r;rpiaf; nfhz;l mYtyh;fs;; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. rfy kl;lq;fspYk; nkhopngah;g;ghsh;fs;> vOJtpidQh;fs;> jl;nlOj;jhsh;fs; kw;Wk; VidNahh; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mj;Jld; nghyp]; Mszpapdh; Nghd;w jpizf;fsj; juj;jpdh; MfpNahh; mtrpag;gl;l mYtyh;fshf tpsq;Fth;. jkpo; NgRk; gzpahsiug; NghjpasT vz;zpf;iffspy; Ml;Nrh;g;gJ mtrpakhdjhFk;. Mdhy;> ,ij XhputpNyNa nra;a KbahJ. cldbahd> FWfpa fhy kw;Wk; ePz;l fhy eltbf;iffs; mtrpakhditahFk; vd Fohk; czh;fpd;wJ. murfUk nkhopnahd;whf jkpio mKy;gLj;Jtjw;F mtrpakhd cldbahd> FWfpa fhy kw;Wk; ePz;l fhy eltbf;iffs; kPJ murhq;f epUthf mikr; R > epjp> jpl; l kply; mikr; R > rk;gsq;fs;> Copah;Nfhg;Gf; FO kw;Wk; murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FO Mfpatw;Wf;F ,ilapy; fUj;J xUikg;ghL ,Ug;gJ kpfTk; mtrukhdjhFk;. vkJ nkhop Ma; T kP j hd mbg; g ilapy; > fhpridf;fhf gpd;tUk; Kd;nkhopTfis ehk; tFj;jikj;Js;Nshk;.

cldb mKyhf;fj;jpwfhd ; gupe;Jiufs; 28

mLj;J tUk; rpy thuq;fspy; cldbahf Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;ba eltbf;iffs;

(m) cgufzq; f Sk; > Mtzq; f Sk; ,y; y hjpUj; j y; Nghd; w kl; L g; gLj;jy;fis milahsq; fz;L> tuTnryTj; jpllj;jpy; Vida tplaq;fspd; ; fPo; fpl;Lfpd;w epjpaq;fis my;yJ NrkpgGf;fisg; gad;gLj;jp mtrpakhd ; cgfuzq;fisf; nfhs;tdT nra;tjw;Fk;> Mtzq;fis mr;rpL tjw;Fk; cldbahd eltbf;iffis vLj;jy;. (M) rfy jdp nkhopapyhdJk; > ,U nkhopapyhdJkhd ngah; kw; W k; topfhl;ly; gyiffis Kk;nkhop apyhd ngah; kw; W k; topfhl; l y; gyiffshf khw; W jy; . ,ijr; nraw; t jw; f hd MFnryT kpff; Fiwthf ,Uf; F k; vd; g Jld; > mNdfkhf ,e;j eltbf;iffSf;F VjhtJ Nkyjpf tsq;fs; xJf;fg; gLtjw;fhd mtrpak; ,Uf;fkhl;lhJ. (,) jpizf; f sj; j py; Kk; n khopapy; ,y;yhj rfy gbtq;fisAk; kPsg;ngw;W> mtw;iw mopj;Jtpl;L> mNj tiff; fljhrpapy; %d; W nkhopfspYk; murhq;f mr;rfhpdhy; gbtq;fs; mr;rplr; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,g; gzpf;F cr;rj;jpyhd Kd;Dhpikia toq;FkhW murhq;f mr;rfh; Nfl;Lf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

gupe;Jiu nra;ag;gl;l cldbahf Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;ba eltbf;iffs;;

nghJ kf;fSila nkhop cupikfs; njhlu;ghf mur Copau;fSf;Fj; njspthd gzpg;Giufs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; 29

(<)

Njrpa nkhopfspd; cgNahfk; rk;ge;jkhf murhq;ff; nfhs;ifAld; ,zq;FkhW rfy murhq;fr; Nritahsh; f isAk; gzpg; g Jld; > Fwpg;ghf murfUk nkhopnahd;whfj; jkpio mKy; g Lj; J tjw; F gue; j hPjpapy; jtwg;gLtij mth;fSf;F epidg;g+l;l Ntz;Lk;.

(c) jkpopd; cgNahfk; rk; g e; j khf murhq;fj;jpd; nkhopf; nfhs;ifiaf; Fwpj; J iuf; F k; Rw; W epUgnkhd; W murhq;f epUthf mikr;rpdhYk;> murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf; F O tpdhYk; ,ize;J tiuag;gl;L> rfy mYtyfq;fSf;Fk;> cg-mYtyfq; fSf;Fk; tpepNahfpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. jkpo; NgRk; kf;fSld; njhlh;igf; nfhs;Sjy; rk;ge;jkhf murhq;fr; Nritahsh; f spd; flg; g hLfis Rw;WepUgk; tpghpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
FWfpa fhy eltbf;iffs; (1999Mk; Mz;bd; NghJ vLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;)

1999 Mk; Mz;Lf;Fs; Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;ba eltbf;iffs;; 30

(m) murhq;fj;jpd; nkhopf; nfhs;ifapd; KOikahd mKyhf;fj;ij ,ayr; nra;tjw;fhf jkpo; NgRk; mYtyh; fspd; Gj; j k; G jpa Ml; N rh; g ; G f; F mtrpakhd jpizf;fsq;fisAk;> Nritj; juq;fisAk; milahsq; fhZjy;. %d;W my;yJ ehd;F khj fhy tiuaiwapDs; murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FOTldhd fye;jhNyhridAld; murhq;f epUthf

mikr; r pdhy; ,e; j milahsq; fhl;ly; nra;ag;glyhk;. (M) jkpo; NgRk; Copah; N fhg; G f; f spd; mtrpakhd vz;zpf;iffspd; tpNrl Ml; N rh; g ; G f; f hf murhq; f j; j pd; mq;fPfhuj;ij murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FO ehl KbAk;. eilKiwapyhd ntw;wplq;fSf;F vjpuhfg; Gjpa epakdk; fopf;fg;gl KbAk; vd;gJld;> NghjpasT ntw;wplq;fs; ,Uf;fhtpl;lhy;> ,aw;ifahd tPz;tpuaj;jpd; Clhf Nkd;kpif kiwAk; tiu Vida Ml;Nrh;g;G epWj;jpitf;fg;gLk; vd;w GhpeJzh;T kPJ Nkyjpfkhd gjtpfs; ; cUthf;fg;gl KbAk;. (,) ,jd; gpd;dh; Ml;Nrh;g;G Neuj;jpy; NgRfpd;w> thrpf;fpd;w kw;Wk; vOJfpd; w jpwd; f s; rk; g e; j khf mtrpag;gLk; tpNrl jkpo; nkhopfs; Vw;ghLfisf; Fwpj;Jiuj;J> nghUj; j khd NjUeh; f splkpUe; J tpz;zg;gq;fis murhq;f epUthf mikr;rpd; nrayhsh; Nfhu KbAk;. ,e;j Ml;Nrh;ggpy> ,uz;lhtJ my;yJ ; ; %d;whtJ nkhopnahd;wpy; jpwd; f isf; nfhz; l th; f Sf; F tpUg;Ghpik toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. (<) xt;nthU jpizf;fsj;jpYk; NjitfSf;F Vw;g mYtyh;; fis murhq;f epUthf mikr;R gjtpf;F

tpNrlkhf jkpo; nkhop NgRk; Mszpapdiu ,izj;jy;

Ml; Nru;fFk; ; NghJ mDrupf;f Ntz;ba nkhopj;Nju;r;rp njhlu;ghd epakq;fs; 31

mkh;j;j Ntz;Lk;. gjtpf;F mkh;j;Jtjw;F Kd;> rk;ge;jg;gl;l mYtyfq;fspy; nkhopj; Njh;r;rpia Ml;rp nra;Ak; tpjpfisj; jpllkpLtJ ; gw;wp murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf; FOTld; MNyhrid elj; j g; g l Ntz;Lk;. 1999f;Fs; ,e; eilKiwia epiwNtw; W tjw; F k; > mtrpakhd epakdq; f isr; nra; t jw; F k; ,J rhj;jpakhdjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. (c) Mff; F iwe; j J ,U nkhopfspy; > rhj;jpankd;why; rfy %d;W nkhopfspy; Njh;r;rpia vl;Ltjw;F mYtyh;;fspd; rfy tFjpfisAk; ,ayr;nra;tjw;fhf rpq;fsj;jpYk;> jkpopYk; kw; W k; Mq; f pyj; j pYk; gapwrpr; nray; jpllq;fs; Muk;gpffg;gl ; ; ; Ntz;Lk;. (C) murhq; f j; j pd; nkhopf; nfhs; i f rk; g e; j khd nkhba+y; f isAk; > murpayikg;gpd; rk;ge;jg;gl;l Vw; g hLfspd; tpopg; G zu; T rfy J}z;ly; kw;Wk; njhpTnra;ag;gl;l gapw; r p newpfs; vd; g tw; i wAk; xd;wpizf;f Ntz;Lk;.

Jupjkhd nkhopg; gapw;rp epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fs; 32

(v) jPtfj;jpd; VjhtJ ghfj;jpy; cs;s VjhtJ murhq; f mYtyfj; j py; rpq;fsj;jpy;> jkpopy; my;yJ Mq;fpyj;jpy; mYtiy elj;Jtjw;F xt; n thU egUNk nfhz; L s; s chpikiaAk; kw;Wk; vOjpathpdhy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;l nkhopapy; fbjq;fSf;F gjpyspj; j y; > tpz; z g; g jhhpapdhy;

njhpTnra;ag;gl;l nkhopapy; VjhtJ gjpNtl; b d; > gjptpd; > ntspaP l ; b d; my;yJ NtW Mtzj;jpd; VjhtJ gphpj; n jLg; g pid my; y J nkhop ngah; g ; g pid toq; F jy; Mfpad cl;gl mj;jifa Nritia toq;Ftjw;F rk;ge;jg;gl;l mYtyfq;fspdJk;> mYtyh;fspd; kPJ Rkj;jg;gl;Ls;s flg;ghl;bidAk; gw;wp nghJrd tpopg;Gzu;T fl;bnaOg;gg;gl Ntz;Lk;. (V) rfy %d;W nkhopfspYk; Njh;r;rpia <l;Ltjw;fhf mYtyh;;fisr; nray;Nehf;fkspf;FKfkhf> rk;ge;jg;gl;l ghPlirfspy; rpjjpailtJ ; ; kP J epiyahd njhiffisAk; mj;Jld; ehshe;jg; gzpapy; Nkyjpf khf nkhopiag; gad;gLj;Jtjw;F khjhe;jg; gbiaAk; nfhz;l xU Gjpa Cf;Ftpg;Gj; jpl;lk; mwpKfg; gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. jkJ toikahd flikfSf; F Nkyjpfkhf jkJ KjyhtJ nkhopiaj; jtpu NtW nkhopnahd;wpy; gzpahw;Wk; mYtyh;fSf;F kl;LNk Cf;Ftpg;Gg; ; gb nfhLg;gdT nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,f; nfhLg;gdT kPJ fLikahd Nrhjid ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld;> nghUj;jkhd khjphpfs; jhgpffg;glTk; ; Ntz;Lk;. khjhe;j gbiag; ngWgth;fs; mtrpag;gl;lthW ntspaplq;fSf;F gjtpapy; mkh;jjg;gLtjw;F fpl;lTk; Ntz;Lk;. ;

,uz;lhk; %d;whk; nkhopj; Nju;r;rpf;fhd Cf;Ftpg;Gf; nfhLg;gdTfs;

33

(I) gzpahsUf;F Nkw;$wpa gapw;rpfis toq;fpa gpd;dh;> mt;tg;nghOjpyhd fz; f hzpj; j y; ,Uf; f Ntz; L k; . nghJrd Kiwg;ghLfSf;F chpa fhprid toq; f g; g l Ntz; L k; . [dhjpgjp nghUj; j khdJ vdf; fUJfpd;w eltbf;iff;F VjhtJ mikr;rpy;/jpizf;fsj;jpy; VjhtJ FiwghLfis my; y J VjhtJ Nrhk; N gwpj; j dkhd kdg; g hq; f pid [dhjpgjpapd; ftdj;jpw;F murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf; F O nfhz; L tuNtz;Lk;. (x) gjpdhwhtJ jpUj; j j; j pd; Clhf mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l murpayikg;gpd; gphpT 22 (1),d; fPo; nghUj;jkhdthW [dhjpgjpapd; gzpg;Giu nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,J gpd;tUkhW mh;j;jg;gLfpd;wJ: “,yq;if KOtJk; epUthf nkhopfshf rpq; f sKk; > jkpOk; ,Uf; f Ntz; L k; vd;gJld;> epUthf nkhopahf rpq;fsk; ,Uf; f Ntz; L k; vd; g Jld; > jkpo; mt;thwhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;w tlf;F kw; W k; fpof; F khfhzq; f isj; jtpu ,yq;ifapd; Vida rfy khfhzq;fspd; murhq;f epWtdq;fspdhy; rfy mYtyfq;fspd; nghJg; gjpNtLfspd;

epu;thf nkhopfshf ,yq;if g+uhTk; rpq;fsKk; jkpOk; 34

guhkhpgGf;Fk;> njhopy; eltbf;iffSf;Fk; ; rpq;fsk; gad;gLj;jg;;gl Ntz;Lk;.” “c j t p m u r h q ; f m j p g h ; x U t h p d ; gphpnthd;iwf; nfhz;Ls;s VjhtJ myfpy; cs;s rpq;fs my;yJ jkpo; nkhoprhh;e;j rpWghd;ik rdj;njhifapd; tpfpjhrhuj;jpd; mf; f iwiaf; nfhz; L k; > mg; g Fjpapd; nkhj;j rdj;njhifia kdjpy; nfhz;Lk; rpq; f sj; i j my; y J jkpio my; y J mj;jifa gFjp mike;Js;s khfhzj;jpy; epUthf nkhopahf gad; g Lj; j g; g Lk; nkhopiaj; jtpu xU nkhopia mj;jifa gFjpapd; epUthf nkhopahfg; gad; g Lj; j g; g l KbAk; vd [dhjpgjp epge;jidapd; Nghpy; gzpf;fyhk;.” ,yq;if KOtJk; epUthf nkhopfshf rpq;fsKk;> jkpOk; tpsq;Ffpd;wd vd ftdj; j pw; n fLf; f g; g Lfpd; w J. Mdhy; > Neh;vjph;kiwahf [dhjpgjpapd; gpufldnkhd;W ,Ue;jhy; md;wp> Fwpg;gpl;l khfhznkhd;wpy; murhq;fg; gjpNtnlhd;wpd; nkhopahf xU nkhop my;yJ Ntnwhd;W kl;LNk ,Uf;Fk;. murhq;fg; gjpNtl;L nkhopfshf ,uz;lhtJ my;yJ %d;whtJ nkhopnahd;W gpufldg;gLj;Jtjw;F Nkw;gb ge; j papd; fP o ; Kd; $ l; b Na eltbf; i f vLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vdr; Rl;br; nrhy;yg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jdhy;> murhq;fj;jpd; murfUk nkhopf; nfhs;ifapd;

Mtzq;fis gjpAk; nkhopfshf ,uz;lhk; %d;whk; nkhopfs; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl Ntz;ba gpuNjrq;fis gpufldg;gLj;Jjy; 35

mKyhf; f j; j pw; f hf gaDWjptha; e ; j %Nyhghaq; f isj; jpl; l kpl KbAk; . epUthf kw;Wk; nghJg; gjpNtl;bd; nkhop rpq;fskhf cs;s VjhtJ khfhzj;jpy;> jkpo; NgRk; kf;fspd; tpfpjhrhuk; 12½ % rjtPjj; j pw; F Fiwahky; ,Uf; F k; khfhzj; j pd; cjtp murhq; f mjpgh; gphpTfspy; epUthfk; kw; W k; nghJg; gjpNtl;bd; Nkyjpfkhd nkhopnahd;whf jkpo; gpufldg; g Lj; j g; g l Ntz; L k; vd;gJld;> ,t;thwhfNt> epUthf kw;Wk; nghJg; gjpNtl;bd; nkhop jkpohf cs;s VjhtJ khfhzj; j py; > rpq; f sk; NgRk; kf;fspd; tpfpjhrhuk; 12½ % rjtPjj;jpw;F Fiwahky; ,Uf;Fk; khfhzj;jpd; cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpTfspy; epUthf kw;Wk; nghJg; gjpNtl;bd; nkhopnahd;whf rpqfsk; ; gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ePz;l fhy eltbf;iffs; tlf;F> fpof;F my;yJ kj;jpa> tl kj;jpa my; y J njd; khfhzq; f spy; cs; s VjhtJ mYtyfq;fSf;F Fohk; tUif jutpy;iy vd;gJld;> ,g;gpuhe;jpaq;fs; rk;ge;jkhf mwpf;ifapLtjw;fhd epiynahd;wpYk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Nky;> tl Nky;> Cth kw;wk; rg;ufKt khfhzq;fspy; cs;s ngUksT mYtyfq;fisNa vkJ mstPL cs;slf;fpAs;sJ. kpfTk; fzprkhd msT tpfpjhrhuq;fisf; nfhz;l jkpo;

ePz;lfhy eltbf;iffs; 36

NgRk; kf;fSf;F ngUksT mYtyfq;fs; Nritahw;Wfpd;w NghjpYk;> rfy kl;lq;fspYk; rfy mYtyfq;fspYNk jkpo; nkhop Njh;rrpapdik ntspggilahfNt ; ; ; xU Kuzw;w ghq;fhfj; Njhd;wpaJ. NgRjy;> thrpj;jy; kw;Wk; vOJjy; nkhopf; FiwghLfisj; jpUj;Jtjw;F Mff;$Ljyhd Kd;Dhpik toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,J nra;ag;gl;lhyd;wp> epUthfj;jpy; jkpo; nkhopiag; gad;gLj;JtJ rk;ge;jkhd rl;lj; Njitg;ghLfis epiwNtw;w KbahJ. kf; f s; kpfTk; nrsfhpakhd nkhop Clfj; j py; mth; f spd; Njitfis epiwNtw;wf;$ba mj;jifajhf murhq;fr; Nritfspd; xt;nthU myfpdJk; Fwpgghd ; nkhop Mw;wysT ,Ug;gJ mtrpakhdjhFk;. jP t fj; j pd; rfy ghfq; f spYk; mNj chpikfisr; rfy gpui[fSNk nfhz; L s; s mNjNtis> rfy %d; W nkhopfspYk; xNu kl;lj;jpyhd jFjpia xt;nthU cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpTfspy; cs;s xt;nthU mYtyfKk; nfhz;bUg;gij cWjpggLj;Jtij ehLtJ ; rhj;jpakhdnjhd;wy;y. ngUksT mYtyfq;fs; cj;jpNahfg+h;t gjpNtl;bd; nkhopahf rpq;fsj;ij my;yJ jkpiof; nfhz;bUf;Fk;> ngUk;ghyhdit

rdj;njhifia mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l cjtp murhq;f mjpgu; gpupTfspd; tif Fwpg;ghf mjw;F mika nkhopj; Nju;rrp ; toq;Fjy; 37

,uz;ilAk; nfhz;bUf;ff;$Lk;@ xU rpy Mq; f pyj; i jAk; nfhz; b Uf; f f; $ Lk; . Mdhy;> rfy %d;W nkhopfspYk; mYtyf tptfhuj;ij eph;tfpg;gjw;F Fiwe;jgl;r jFjpia rfy mYtyfq;fSk; nfhz;bUg;gJ mtrpakhFk;. vdNt> ,j; Njitg; g hLfs; epiwNtw; w g; g Ltij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F rpy Kd;nkhopTfis ehk; fPNo nra;Js;Nshk;. rdj; n jhifapy; nkhop mlf; f j; i jg; nghWj;jstpy; gyjug;gl;l cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpTfs; gpd;tUkhW tifg;gLj;jg; glyhk; vdr; Rl;br;nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ: (i) (ii) (iii) 87½% f; F NgRgth;fs; Fiwahj rpq; f sk;

87½% f;F Fiwahj jkpo; NgRgth;fs; 50% f;F Fiwahj rpq;fsk; N g R g t h ; f s ; m j ; J l d ; 1 2 ½f ; F Fiwahj jkpo; NgRgth;fs; 50%f;F Fiwahj jkpo;; NgRgth;fs; mj;Jld; 12½%f;F Fiwahj rpqfsk; ; NgRgth;fs;

nkhopj; Nju;r;rpf;F mika cj;jpNahfj; ju;fis tifaPL nra;jy; 38

(i)

nkhopj; Njh;r;rp rk;ge;jkhf tifg;gLj;jg; gl;Ls;s Copah;Nfhg;Gf;fspy; Fiwe;jgl;r Njitg;ghLfis eph;zapg;gjw;fhf Nkw;gb xt;nthU cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpT rk;ge;jkhf gpd;tUkhW khjphpfs; Fwpj;Jiuf;fg;glyhk;.

(1)

rpq;fsj;jpy; KOikahfj; Njh; r ; r paile; j Jk; > fbjj; n jhlh; G nfhs; s f; $ baJkhd mYtyh; f s; (,J nghpJNk Mdhy; gpuj;jpNafkhftd;wp> rpq;fsj;ij jha; nkhopahff; nfhz;lth;fis mlf;Fk;@ rpq;fsj;ij jha; nkhopahff; nfhz;bUf;fhjth;fSf;F xU tpNrlkhd cah; kl;l Njh;rrpg; ghPlir ; ; Fwpj;Jiuf;fg;glyhk;). jkpopy; KOikahfj; Njh; r ; r paile; j Jk; > fbjj; n jhlh; G nfhs; s f; $ baJkhd mYtyh; f s; (,J nghpJNk Mdhy; gpuj;jpNafkhftd;wp> jkpioj; jha; nkhopahff; nfhz;lth;fis mlf;Fk;@ jkpioj; jha; nkhopahf nfhz;bUf;fhjth;fSf;F xU tpNrlkhd cah; kl;l Njh;rrpg; ghPlir ; ; Fwpj;Jiuf;fg;glyhk;). Mq;fpyj;jpy; KOikahd Njh; r ; r paile; j Jk; > fbjj; n jhlh; G nfhs; s f; $ baJkhd mYtyh; f s; (,e;Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf Xh; cah; kl; l j; j pyhd Njh; r ; r pg; ghP l ; i r Fwpj;Jiuf;fg;glyhk;) NkNy (1),y; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s tpNrl cah; kl;lj;jpyhd ghPl;iria tpl rpq; f sj; j py; Fwpj; J iuf; f g; g l; l Njh;r;rpg; ghPl;irfspy; rpj;jpaile;j

(2)

(3)

(4)

nkhopj; NjitfSf;fika mur cj;jpNahfj;ju;fis mur epWtdq;fspy; ,izj;jy; 39

mYtyh;fs; (,J nghpJNk jkpio jha; n khopahff; nfhz; l th; f is mlf;Fk;) (5) NkNy (1),y; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s tpNrl cah; kl;lj;jpyhd ghPl;iria tpl jkpopy; Fwpj;Jiuf;fg;gl;l Njh;r;rpg; ghPl;irfspy; rpj;jpaile;j mYtyh;fs; (,J nghpJNk rpq;fsj;ij jha;nkhopahff; nfhz;lth;fis mlf;Fk;) (6) NkNy (3),y; cs;slf;fg;glhj Mdhy; Mq;fpyj;jpy; Fiwe;jgl;r Njh;r;rpAldhd mYtyh;fs; (,e;Nehf;fj;jpwfhf Njh;rrpg; ghPlirfs; ; ; ; Fwpj;Jiuf;fg;glyhk;)

nghJ kf;fspd; nkhopj; NjitfspdJk; nghJ kf;fspd; NritfSf;fhd nkhopj; Nju;r;rpapdJk; nghUj;jg;ghL 40

(i),d; fPo; tifg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s xt;nthU cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpTk; (1),d; Mff;Fiwe;jJ 50%If; nfhz;lJk;> (2),d; 10%If; nfhz; l Jk; (3),d; 10%If; nfhz;lJk;> (5),d; 15%If; nfhz;lJkhd rfy Copah;Nfhg;Gj; juq;fspy; gzpahsiuf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. nfhOk;G cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpTfs; GwePq;fyhf> nfhOk;G khtl;lj;jpd; rfy gphpTfSk; ,e;j tFjpfFs; tUk; vd;gJld;> gupeJiuf;fg;gl;l ; ; khjphpia epiwNtw;Wtjw;F Fiwe;jgl;rk; 10%If; nfhz;l jkpo; NgRk; gzpahsh; mtrpag;gLk;.

,NjNghy> (ii),d; fPo; tifg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s xt;nthU cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpTk; (2),d; Mff;Fiwe;jJ 50%If; nfhz;lJk;> (1),d; 10%If; nfhz;lJk; (3),d; 10%If; nfhz;lJk;> (4),d; 15% If; nfhz;lJkhd rfy Copah;Nfhg;G juq;fspy; gzpahsiuf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,t;tFjpapDs; kl;lf;fsg;G khtl;lj;jpd; rfy gphpTfSk; tUk; vd; g Jld; > tpje; J iuf; f g; g l; l khjphpia epiwNtw;Wtjw;F Fiwe;jgl;rk; 1 0 %I f ; n f h z ; l r p q ; f s k ; N g R k ; gzpahsiu mtrpag;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. iii,d; fPo; tifg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s xt;nthU cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpTk; (1),d; Mff;Fiwe;jJ 50%If; nfhz;lJk;> (2),d; 25%If; nfhz; l Jk; (3),d; 10%If; nfhz; l Jkhd rfy Copah; N fhg; G j; juq;fisf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd Kd; n khopag; g LfpwJ. ,t; t FjpapDs; nfhOk;G cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpT tUk; vd; g Jld; > gupe; J iuf; f g; g l; l khjphpia epiwNtw;Wtjw;F Fiwe;jgl;rk; 25%If; nfhz;l jkpo; NgRk; gzpahsiu mtrpag;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. ,NjNghy> (iv),d; fPo; tifg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s xt;nthU cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpTk; (2),d; Mff;Fiwe;jJ 50%If; nfhz;lJk;> (1),d; 25%If; nfhz;lJk; (3),d; 10%If; nfhz; l Jkhd rfy Copah; N fhg; G j;

Mq;fpyj; Nju;r;rpapd; cau; kl;lq;fis va;Jtjw;fhd epWtd trjpfis Vw;gLj;Jjy; 41

juq; f isf; nfhz; b Uf; f Ntz; L k; . ,t;tFjpapDs; Etnuypah cjtp murhq;f mjpgh; gphpT tUk; vd;gJld;> gupe;Jiuf;fg; gl;l khjphpia epiwNtw;Wtjw;F Fiwe;jgl;rk; 50%If; nfhz;l jkpo; NgRk; gzpahsiu mtrpag;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. mNdfkhf khefu vy;iyfspDs; nkhoprhh;e;j mlf;fk; xt;nthU rigapdJk; ,ijnahj;j khjphpfs; kw; W k; efu rig rdj;njhifapd; kPjhd mbg;gilapy; epUthfk; rk;ge;jkhf FwpjJiuf;fg;glyhk;. ;

nkhopj; Njitia czu;e;J Nkw;nfhs;Sk; gw;whf;Fiwia eptu;j;jp nra;tjhfNt nkhopg; gapw;Wtpj;jy; mike;Js;sJ 42

Nkyjpfkhf> Mq;fpyj;jpy; cah;ejstpyhd ; Njh; r ; r p Fwpg; g pl; l epWtdq; f Sf; F mtrpag;glyhk; vd;gJld;> ,jw;F mtrpag;gl;lthW gFjpfs; (3) kw;Wk; (6) Mfpatw;wpd; Nkk;gLj;jg;gl;l Fiwe;jgl;r tpfpjhrhuq; f s; Fwpj; J iuf; f g; g lyhk; . Nkw; g b khjphpfis epiwNtw; W tjw; F mtrpag;gLk; jkpo; NgRk; Copah;Nfhg;Gf;fspd; nkhj;j vz;zpfiffs;> ; rk;ge;jg;gl;l murhq;f epUthf Rw;WepUgq;fspy; Fwpj;Jiuf;fg;gl;Ls;s tpfpjhrhu Ml;Nrh;g;Gj; jj;Jtk; gpd;gw;wg;gl;bUe;jhy; fpl;Lfpd;w vz; z pf; i ffspDs; mlq; f papUf; F k; . rpq;fsj;jpYk;> Mq;fpyj;jpYk; NghjpasT nkhopj; Njh;rrpfis cWjpggLj;Jtjw;fhd ; ; Ml; N rh; g ; G f; nfhs; i ffs; tpfpjhrhu Ml;Nrh;g;gpd; jj;Jtj;Jld; ,zf;fkhf ,Uf;Fk;.

tpUg; g j; j pyhd nkhopr; rkepiyiar; rhjpggjw;F tbtikf;fg;gl;l Copah;Nfhg;G ; Ml;Nrh;g;gpid KOepiwthf;Ftjw;fhf> nkhopg; gapw;rpr; nray;jpl;lq;fs; gyg;gLj;jg;gl;L> ,uz;lhtJ nkhopapYk;> tpUg;gj;jpw;Fhpajhf %d;whtJ nkhopapYk; ghhpa vz;zpf;iffspyhNdhh; kpf mjpfsT Njh;r;rpiaf; nfhz;bUg;gij ,ayr;nra;tjw;fhf tp]jhpffg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ; ; cz;ikapy; nghyp]; kw;Wk; MAjg;gil MszpapdUf; f hf nfhj; k iyapYk; > fk;g`htpYk; 12 thu tjptpl gapw;rpr; nraykHTfis ghJfhg; G mikr; R Muk;gpjJs;sJ. ,j;jifa nray;jpllq;fs; ; ; eP z ; l jtiz fle; j J vd; g Jld; > murhq;fr; Nritapd; rfy juq;fSf;Fk; ePbf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. vdpDk;> NkNyAs;s tFjpfs; (4)> (5) kw;Wk; (6) Mfpatw;wpy; vz; z pf; i ffisg; gapw; r p J}z; L fpd; w mNjNtis> nghJkf;fSf;fhd Nritfis Nkk;gLj;jTk; KbAk; vd;gJld; ,t;thwhf> tphptilfpd;w tFjpfs; (2) kw; W k; (3) Mfpad kP j hd ,j; j ifa gapw;rpapd; jhf;fk; nkJthfTk;> mw;gkhfTk; ,Uf;Fk; vd;gij kdjpy; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. NtWgl;l nkhopfisg; NgRjy;> thrpj;jy; kw; W k; vOJjy; Mfpad rk; g e; j khf KOikahd Njh;r;rpaile;j NghjpasT vz;zpf;iffisf; nfhz;l mYtyh;;fSf;F gjpyPnlhd;whf nkhopg; gapw; r p ,Uf; f yhk; vd; w jg; n gz; z k; ,Uf; f f; $ lhJ@ cs; n sLg; G Neuj; j py;

fhyk; fle;j NghjpYk; ghJfhg;G mikr;rpd; Kaw;rp tuNtw;fg;; gLfpd;wJ. 43

nghUj; j khd rkepiyapyhd nkhopj; Njh; r ; r pfis toq; F tjw; F khw; W top ,y;iy. Ie;J tUlq;fspDs; murhq;fr; Nritfspd; rfy myFfspYk;> nkhopj; jFjpapd; (NgRjy; kw;Wk; vOJjy;) rfy mk;rq;fisAk; KOikahf epiwNtw;Wtij Nehf;fp efUfpd;w mt;tpjkhf rfy Gjpa Ml;Nrh;f;fg;gLgth;fspd; nkhop mlf;fk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,uz;lhtJ my;yJ %d;whtJ nkhopnahd;wpy; jpwd;fisf; nfhz;lth;fSf;F Nkyjpfkhd ngWkjpia toq;Fk; mt;tpjkhf Ml;Nrh;gGj; jpllq;fs; ; ; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mKyhf;fKk;> fz;fhzpj;jYk; vdpDk;> jPh;tpyhd eltbf;iffs; tphpthdit vd;gJld;> murpay; kdTWjpapyhd MjuTld; gaDWjptha;ej ; mKyhf;fy; kw;Wk; fz;fhzpj;jy; Kiwikapd;wp tpUg;gg;gl;l KbTfis Vw;gLj;jkhl;lh. nkhj;jj;jpy;> rl;lthf;f Vw;ghl;bd; FiwghLfspypUe;Jk; (murpayikg; g pd; rpy cWg; G iufs; > Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;tnjd;why; cWg;Giufs; 22 (1) kw;Wk; 24 (1) Mfpad nghUs; n j s p t p d ; i k f i s /K u z ; g h L f i s mlf;fpAs;sjhfj; Njhd;Wfpd;wJ) mjpfstpy; gyjug; g l; l kl; l q; f spy; mKyhf;fj;jpYk;> fz;fhzpjjypYk;> kw;Wk; ; tpidg; g Lj; j ypYk; cjhrP d j; j pypUe; J Fiwe;jsNt gpur;ridfs; Njhd;Wfpdwjhf ; vkJ fz;Lgpbg;Gfs; Rl;br;nrhy;fpd;wd.

Vw;Gila xOq;F tpjpfSf;F mika nraw;gLk; tifapy; mur fUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FOtpw;F tYt+l;Ljy; 44

rfy cj; j pNahfg+h; t tplaq; f spYk; rpq; f sj; j pdJk; > jkpopdJk; kw; W k; Mq; f pyj; j pdJk; me; j ]; J cgNahfk; rk; g e; j khf rl; l q; f isAk; > xOq; F tpjpfisAk; kw;Wk; murhq;ff; nfhs;if iaAk; mKyhf;FtJ njhlh;gpyhd tplaq; fspy; rfy murhq;f epWtdq;fSf;Fk; gzpg;Giufis toq;Ftjw;F murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FOTf;F mjpfhukspffg; ; gl Ntz;Lk; vd Kd;nkhopag;gLfpd;wJ. rk;ge;jg;gl;l mikr;Rf;fs; Clhf rfy murhq;f epWtdq;fspypUe;J fpilf;fpd;w mt;tg;nghOjpyhd mwpf;iffs; kPjhd mbg; g ilapy; fz; f hzpj; j y; Kiwik nahd;iw murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FO epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk;. rfy %d;W nkhopfs; rk;ge;jkhd Kd;Ndw;wk; kPJ tUlhe;j mwpfifnahd;iwj; jahhpfFkhW murfUk ; ; nkhopfs; Mizf;FOj; jiyth; Nfl;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Nkyjpfkhf> khjphp mstPLfspd; mbg;gilapd; kPJ tlf;Ff;Fk;> fpof;Ff;Fk; ntspNaAs;s VO khfhzq;fspy; jkpo; nkhopapd; me; j ]; i j kjpg; g ha; t jw; F murhq;fr; NritfSf;F ntspNa jhgdnkhd;wpdhy; tUlhe;j jkpo; nkhop Ma;nthd;W mLj;j Ie;J Mz;LfSf;fhf Muk;gpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lnkd gupe;Jiuf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j mwpf;if murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FOj; jiytUf;F rkh;g;gpf;fg;gl;L> mth; mij Nkw;gb ge;jpapy; Fwpggplg;gl;Ls;s murfUk ;

nkhopf; fzf;fha;tpid xOq;fhf mKyhf;fp mJ rk;ge;jkhd mwpf;ifia mur fUk nkhopfs; Mizahsu; rku;ggpf;f ; Ntz;ba Njit

45

nkhopfs; Mizf;FOtpd; mwpf;ifahf jdJ mtjhdpg;GfSlDk;> nrk;ikg;gLj;jy; eltbf;iff;fhd jdJ gupe;Jiug;GfSlDk; Nrh;j;J> mjpNkd;ik jq;fpa [dhjpgjpf;F mDg;g Ntz;Lk;. NjtNerd; Neirah fUj;jpl;lg; gzpg;ghsh;> 30 brk;gh; 1998

[dhjpgjpahdtu; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijaplL ; Nkw;ghu;it nra;jy; 46

,yq;ifapy; jkpo; nkhop chpikfs; ghfk; III
nkhopf;nfhs;if> fy;tp kw;Wk; rkhjhdf; fy;tp vd;w jiyg;gpy; 2011 brk;ghpd; fw;Wf; nfhz; l ghlq; f s; kw; W k; ey; y pzf; f Mizf;FOtpd; (LLRC) xU rpy gphpTfspd; kPs;gpuRunkhd;Nw ,g;ghfk; MFk;. NkYk;> ,J murhq;f epWtdq;fspd; mstPLfis tpl LLRC,d; Kd; jd; d pr; i rahfNt M[uhfpa jdpg;gl;lth;fspd; thf;F%yk; kPjhd mbg;gilapyhdJ vd;gJld;> vdNt mbg;gilapy; ngUksT mk;rq;fspYk; tpj;jpahrkhdjhFk;. jkJ rk;ge;jg;gl;l Mizfspdhy; ghfk; II kw;Wk; ghfk; III Mfpa ,uz;LNk jtph;ff Kbahj tpjj;jpy; ; fl;lhag;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJld;> Mdhy;> jkpo; nkhop chpikfs; rk;ge;jkhf xd;iwnahd;W gaDWjptha;e;jjhf KO epiwthf;Ffpd;wJ. nkhopf; nfhs;if 9.238 njhlh;e;J te;j murhq;fq;fspd; nkhopf; nfhs;ifAk;> mjidr; nray;gLj;Jtjpy; ,Ue;j FiwghLfs; fhuzkhf jhq;fs; XusT Xuq; f l; l g; g l; N lhk; vd; w czh; T k;

LLRC mwpfifapypUe;J ; Nju;e;njLj;j gFjpfs; 47

jq;fSf;F Vw;gl;ljhf jkpo; kf;fs; gyh; Mizf;FO Kd; njhptpj;jdh;. 9.239 jw;NghJk; $l rpWghd;ik kf;fspy; ngUk;ghyhdth;fs; jkJ tpahghu mYty;fis elhj;JtJ jhk; nghpJk; tpUk;Gfpdw nkhopapy; my;y vd;gJ Nkhjy; ; eilngw;w gpuNjrq;fSf;F Nkw;nfhz;l tp[aq;fspd; NghJ Mizf;FO fz;lwpej ; tplakhFk;. 9.240 jkpo; nkhop NgRfpd; w nghyp]; cj;jpNahfj;jh;fis Ml;Nrh;gG nra;tjpYs;s ; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpd;w mNj Neuj;jpy;> Mizf;FO jkJ ,ilf;fhy mwpf; i fia [dhjpgjp mth; f Sf; F r; rkh;g;gpj;J> ,r;rpf;fy;fs; njhlh;gpy; kpfj; Jhpjkhf vLf;f Ntz;ba eltbf;iffs; cs;spl;l gupe;Jiufisr; rkh;g;gpj;jhYk; $l ,d;Dk; mit eilKiwg;gLj;jtpyiy ; vd;gijf; ftiyAld; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. 9.241 nkhopf; nfhs;iffisAk;> mtw;wpd; nraw; g hLfisAk; fz; f hzpf; f pd; w cj;jpNahfg+h;t epWtdq;fspy; jkpo; nkhop NgRfpd;w egh;fSk;> jkpo; nkhopiag; gad;gLj;Jfpd;w gpuNjrq;fspd; NghjpasT gpujpepjpj;JtKk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. nkhopf; nfhs; i fia KOikahf eilKiwg; gLj;Jfpd;w NghJ r%f mbg;gil tiu tphptile;Js;s nraw;ghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fis

ghlrhiyfspy; nkhopfisf; fw;gpj;jy; 48

cs;slf;f Ntz;baNjhL gphpTfs; kw;Wk; cs; @ uhl; r p epWtdq; f s; Njitahd tifapy; cs; s lf; f g; g Lfpd; w r%fg; gq;Nfw;Gld; fz;fhzpf;ff;$ba ,yf;Ffs; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. 9.242 njhlh;ghly; jilfs; fhuzkhf njd;dpyq;if kf;fs; tlf;F> fpof;F gpuNjr kf;fsplkpUe;J J}u tpyfp ,Ue;jdh;. ,dk;> kjk; my;yJ r%f epiyiag; nghUl; gLj; j hky; midj; J g; gpui[fSf; F kpilapy; jhk; xUtUf;nfhUth; nrhe;jkhdth;fs; vd;w czh;it Vw;gLj;Jtjw;F midj;J Kaw;rpfisAk; Nkw; n fhs; s Ntz; L k; . xU ehl; i l If;fpag;gLj;jp gpizj;J itg;gJ nkhopahFk;. MfNt> nkhop njhlh;ghd nfhs;iffisj; jahhpg;gJ ,e;j Nehf;fj;ij miltjw;fhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz; L k; . cj; j pNahfg+h; t nkhopf; nfhs;ifia eilKiwg;gLj;Jfpdw NghJ ; mij Ghpe;Jzh;T> gy;tifik> Njrpa xUikg;ghL vd;gtw;iw Nkk;gLj;Jfpd;w cw;gj;jpj;jpwd;kpf;f tifapy; eilKiwg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. 9.243 ghlrhiyg; ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy; mLj;jtUila nkhopiaf; fw;Wf; nfhs;tijf; fl;lhag;gLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,J ,U ,dq;fSf;fpilapy; kNdhghthPjpahd khw;wj;ij cWjpg;gLj;jf;$ba mbg;gilf;

nkhopf; nfhs;if gw;wpa LLRC gupe;Jiufs; 49

nkhopj; jil fhuzkhf tlf;F fpof;F kf;fs; jdpikg;gly;

fUtpahf mikayhk;. rpq;fsg; gpsisfSf;Fj; jkpo; nkhopiaf; fw;gpggJ> ; ; jkpo;g; gps;isfSf;F rpq;fs nkhopiaf; fw;gpg;gJ vd;gtw;wpd; %yk;> xUtUf;nfhUth; fyhrhuq;fs; njhlh;ghd rpwe; j Ghpe; J zh; i tg; ngw; W f; n fhs; s KbAk;. 9.244 nkhopf; nfhs;ifiag; nghUj;jkhd Kiwapy; eilKiwg;gLj;JtJk;> vjphfhyr; ; re;jjp rpq;fsk;> jkpo;> Mq;fpyk; Mfpa Kk;nkhopfspy; mwpitg;ngWtJk; kpfTk; Kf; f pakhdjhFk; . Kk; n khopf; fy; t p gps;isfSf;F rpWtajpypUe;Nj xUtiunahUth; Ghpe; J nfhs; t jw; F topaikf;Fk;. 9.245 2020Mk; Mz; l hfpd; w NghJ Kk;nkhopj; Njrnkhd;iw cUthf;Ftjw;F murhq;fk; gzpfis Muk;gpj;jpUg;gij apl;L Mizf;FO ghuhl;LfpwJ. ,ij ajhh;j;jkhf;Ftjw;Fhpa Mrphpah;fSf;Fg; gapw;rpaspg;gjw;Fk;> mth;fis Ml;Nrh;gGr; ; nra;tjw;Fk; chpa epjp Vw;ghLfis tuTnryTj; j pl; l j; j pd; %yk; xJf; F tij Kjd;ikj; Njitahff; fUjp eltbf;ifia Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. 9.246 ve;jnthU khtl;lj;ijNah my;yJ khfhzj;ijNah nkhopia mbg;gilahff; nfhz; L tifg; g Lj; j yhfhJ. mur Nritapy; cs;s cj;jpNahfj;jh;fSf;F ehl;bd; ve;jg; gFjpapYk; Nritahw;wf; $ba nkhopj;jpwd; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

,U nkhop Mw;wYld; 24 kzp NeuKk; gzpahw;Wk; nghyp]; epiyaq;fs; 50

9.247 xt;nthU murhq;f mYtyfj;jpYk; vg;nghOJk; jkpo;nkhop NgRfpd;w cj;jpNahfj;jh;fs; fl;lhakhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. nghyp]; epiyakhf ,Ug;gpd;> 24 kzpj;jpahyq;fSk; ,U nkhopfisg; gad;gLj;Jfpd;w mYtyh;fs; Nritapy; <LgLj;jg;gl;bUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. Kiwg;ghl;lhsh;fs; jkJ Ra tpUg;gj;jpy; njhpTnra;fpd;w nkhopapy; jkJ thf;F%yj;ijg; gjpe;J nfhs;Sk; chpik ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. 9.248 murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FO nfhOk;G efuj;ij ikakhff; nfhz;L ,aq;Ffpd;w mNj Neuj;jpy; mij fpuhkpa kf;fs; ,yFtpy; mZf KbahJs;sJ. jPtpu nraw;gLj;Jk; mjpfhuk; nfhz;l mjpfhurigahf nkhop Mizf;FO ,Uf;f Ntz;ba mNjNeuj;jpy; mjd; fpisfs; midj;J khfhzq;fspYk; epWtg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. 9.249 nkhopj; jilfisj; jfh;jnjwpaf;$ba ; fUtpahf jfty; njhopy; E l; g j; i jg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;sf;$ba Kiwiaf; fz;lwptjw;F Kf;fpa ftdk; nrYj;jg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. ,jd; nghUl;L ePz;l fhyf; nfhs;iffis mwpKfg;gLj;jp eltbf;if vLf; F k; tiu xU nkhopapypUe; J ,d; n dhU nkhopf; F nkhopngah; g ; G r; nra;tjw;fhf fzpdp nkd;nghUl;fisj; jw;fhypfj; jPh;thfg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s KbAk;.

jfty; njhopy;El;gk; gw;wp mf;fiw nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. 51

9.250 nghyp]; epiyaq;fspy; ,U nkhopj; jpwDila Xa;Tngw;w nghyp]; mYtyh; f is ciungah; g ; g hsh; f shf epakpg;gJ njhlh;ghf jdJ ,ilf;fhyr; rpghhpRfspy; Fwpg;gpl;lij Mizf;FO ftdj;jpy; <h;f;f tpUk;Gfpd;wJ. fy;tp
rktha;g;Gf;fs;

fy;tp tha;gGfSf;fhd ; ghugl;rq;fis ,y;yhnjhopj;jy; 52

9.251 If;fpa ,yq;ifapy; rpq;fsth;fs; kw;Wk; jkpoh;fSf;fpilapy; ey;ypzf;fg; ghl; i l Vw; g Lj; J tjw; F > Xhpdj; J f; F ghFghL fhl;lg;gLfpwJ vd;w czh;it Kjypy; mfw; w ptpLtJ mtrpakhFk; . gyjug; g l; l r%fq; f spilNa fy; t p Vw; w j; j ho; i t rkepiyg; g Lj; J tjw; F murhq;fk; Nkw;nfhz;L te;j jug;gLj;jy; eltbf; i fapdhy; gy; N tW ghjpg; G fs; ehl; b y; Njhd; w pd. vdNt> vjph; f hy re;jjpapdhpd; ey;tho;Tf;fhf ,e;j fy;tpj; Jiwapy; eilKiwapYs; s 'Nfhl; l h Kiw" FwpjJ mtjhdkhf kPsha;T nra;a ; Ntz;ba fhyk; ,d;W Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. jpwik mbg; g ilapy; khzth; f isr; Nrh; j ; J f; nfhs;Sk; eilKiwia mwpKfg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fpy; fy;tpj; Jiwapy; epGzj;Jtk; ngw;wth;fs; ,lk;ngWk; xU FOtpD}lhf ,jid kPsha;T nra;a Ntz;Lnkd;W Mizf;FO rpghhpR nra;fpd;wJ.

9.252 ,e;jj; jpl;lj;ij kPsha;T nra;Ak; NghJ murhq; f k; fy; t p trjpfis epahakhd Kiwapy; gfph; e ; j spj; J > rpWghd;ik kf;fspilNa jhq;fs; fy;tpapy; ghFghl;L nfhs;iff;F ,yf;fhfpNwhk; vd;w czh;itf; Fiwf;f eltbf;if vLf;f Ntz;Lk;. 2011Mk; Mz;by; ehnlq;fpYKs;s Mapuk; ,uz;lhk; epiyg; ghlrhiyfis juk; cah;j;Jtjw;fhd jpl;lk; Kd;itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jd; %yk; ,Wjpapy; fy; t pj; JiwapYs; s Vw; w j; j ho; i t Mff;Fiwe;j mstpwF Fiwj;JtpLtjw;F ; top gpwf;Fk;. r%fj;jpy; gjw;w epiyia Vw;gLj;jhj Kiwapy; kpfTk; mtjhdkhf ,e;jf; nfhs;ifia mKyhf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jg; ghlrhiyfis ,dk; fhz;gjd; %yNk murpay; kakw;w njhpTnra;Ak; eilKiwnahd;iw ntw;wpfukhd Kiwapy; epiwNtw;wf;$bajhf ,Uf;Fk;. ehl;bd; gy gFjpfspy; fy;tp trjp rkepiy mw; w pUg; g ij gbg; g bahff; Fiwj; J > ,Wjpapy; ,jid Kw; w hf mfw; w ptpl Ntz;Lnkd;W Mizf;FO gupeJiuf;fpdwJ. ; ; ; 9.253 gyjug; g l; l ,dq; f s; kw; W k; kjq;fisr; rhh;e;j gps;isfs; fyg;Gg; ghlrhiyfspy; fy;tp fw;f Ntz;Lnkd;w cd; d jkhd nfhs; i fia murhq; f k; filg;gpbg;gJ mtrpankd;Wk; Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;;fpd;wJ. ,J njhlh;ghf murhq;fk; gyjug;gl;l ,dq;fs; kw;Wk; kjf;

gd;ikj;Jt nkhopf; fy;tpia ghlrhiyfspy; mwpKfk; nra;jy; 53

FOf;;fisr; Nrh;e;j gps;isfis ,e;jg; ghlrhiyfspy; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;tjw;fhd trjpaspf;Fk; nfhs;iffis newpg;gLj;jp mtjhdkhf mKyhf;f Ntz;Lk;. ghlrhiyfSf;F gps;isfisr; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;Sk; NghJ ,d> kj> mbg;gilapy; ghlrhiyapy; Nrh; j ; J f; n fhs; t jw; F jFjpapy;iy vd;W kWg;gJ ey;ypzf;fg; ghl; L f; F cjtf; $ bajhf mikahJ. ,j;jifa eltbf;iffis MjhpffyhfhJ. ; 9.254 gy;NtW r%fq;fspd; ey;y ngUikf;Fhpa fyhrhug; ghuk;ghpaq;fis> gu];guk; Ghpe;J nfhz;L ghuhl;lf;$ba kNdhepiyia ghlrhiyg; gps;isfs; kw;Wk; ,isQh;fs; kj;jpapy; cUthf;Ftjd; %yk; ey;ypzf;fg;ghl;L eilKiw vq;fs; ehl;bd; r%f mikg;gpy; tYthd mbj;jskhf mikAk;. vdNt> rfy gps;isfSf;Fkpilapy; ey;ypzf;fg; ghl;il Vw;gLj;Jtjw;F mth;fs; $Ljyhf xUtNuhL xUth; neUq;fpg; goFtjw;fhd tha;gGf;fSf;F Cf;fkspff Ntz;Lnkd;W ; ; Mizf;FO gupe;Jiuf;fpd;wJ. ntt;NtW khfhzq;fisr; Nrh;e;j ghlrhiyfis xd;wpizf;Fk; eilKiw iaf; filg;gpbj;J khzth;fisg; ghpkhwpfnfhs;Sk; epfo;rrpfs; ; ; ghlrhiyfspy; ey;ypzf;fg;ghl;L fofq;fis mikg;gjd; %yk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;glNtz;Lk;. ,tw;Wld; ,isQh; kl;lj;jpy;> ,t;tpjk; rfy gpuNjrq;fSldhd ,isQh;fSf;fp ilapy; gu];gu re;jpg;igAk;> el;GwitAk;

,yq;ifapd; gd;ikj;Jt rpwg;Gf; fyhrhuq;fis kjpf;fTk; Gupe;Jnfhs;sTk; eltbf;if vLj;jy; 54

Vw; g Lj; j f; $ ba epfo; r ; r pfis Njrpa ,isQh; Nguit xOq;F nra;a Ntz;Lk;. rkhjhdf; fy;tp 9.255 xU kjpg;gpw;Fhpa rh;tNjr rl;lNkij ,e;j Mizf;FOtpd; Kd;dh; rhl;rpakspf;ifapy; rkhjhdf; fy;tpapd; %yk; ehl;bd; If;fpaj;ijAk;> ey;ypzf;fg;ghl;ilAk; Vw;gLj;jyhk; vd;w Nahridia Kd;itj;jhh;. ,jdbg;gilapy; rhj;jpag;ghlhd ghl tpjhd khw;wq;fs; gw; w pa Mizf; F Otpd; fUj; J f; f s; mwpf;ifapy; fhz;gpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. 9.256 Kk;nkhopf; nfhs;ifia eilKiwg; g Lj; J tjw; f hf gyjug; g l; l r%fq; f isr; Nrh; e ; j khzth; f Sf; F kw;wth;fSld; neUq;fpg; goFtjw;fhd tha;g;Gfisg; ngw;Wf;nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. xNu tFg;gpYs;s khzth;fSf;fpilNa neUf;fkhd ey;Ywit cUthf;Ftjw;F Cf; f kspg; g jw; F KbAkhdsT rfy Kaw;rpfisAk; Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. vt; t hwhapDk; ntt; N tW nkhopfspy; ghlq;fisf; fw;gpf;Fk; NghJ gps;isfs; ntt;NtW tFg;giwfspy; ,Ug;gJ ey;yJ. 9.257 %d;W nkhopfspYk; elj;jg;gLk; rfy ghlq; f isAk; fw; W f; n fhs; s f; $ ba tifapy; murhq;fk; gy;fiyf;fofq;fspy; gy;ypd khzth;fs; fye;J fy;tpiaf; fw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd tha;g;Gf;F

rkhjhdj;jpw;Fk; If;fpaj;jpw;Fkhd fy;tp

,ilepiyapYk; %d;whk; epiyapYk; fy;tp fw;Fk; rpq;fsj; jkpo; khztu;fspd; ,ilaPl;il Nkk;gLj;Jjy; 55

cj;juthjk; mspf;ff;$ba eltbf;iffs; vLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. rkPg fhyk; tiuapy; jkpo; NgRk; gl;ljhhp khzth;fs; tlf;fpYk;> fpof;fpYk; khj;jpuk; fy;tp fw;whh;fs;> rpqfsk; NgRk; gl;ljhhp khzth;fs; njw;fpy; ; fy;tp fw;W te;jhh;fs;. 9.258 kP s pzf; f j; j pd; eilKiwapy; mj; j pahtrpakhf ,Uf; f pd; w NtWgl; l rdr%fq;fspd; kf;fs;; kj;jpapy; gu];gu njhlh;Gfis tpisahl;Lf;fs; fl;bnaOg;G nkd Mizf;FO fUJfpd;wJ. ,jid kdjpw; n fhz; L tpisahl; L r; Rw; W g; Nghl;bfs; khfhzq;fSf;fpilapy; elj;jg;gLtJld;> gpujhd Njrpa tpisahl;L Nghl;bfs; ehl;bd; gy gFjpfspy; Fwpg;ghf tlf;fpYk;> fpof;fpYk; elj;jg;gl Ntz; L nkd; W Mizf; F O rpghhpR nra;fpd;wJ.

Njrpa xUikg;ghl;il Nkk;gLj;Jk; tifapy; tuyhw;Wg; ghl E}y;fis jpUj;jp mikj;jy; 56

LLRC mwpfifapd; Nkw;Nfhs;fs; ; gw;wpa Fwpg;Giufs;
,t; t plak; kP J LLRC mwpf; i fia KOepiwthf;Ftjw;Ff;> Fwpg;ghf ,yq;if Njrj;ij kPs-epUkhzpfFKfkhf ; ; vJ mtrpag;gLfpd;wJ? nkhop chpikfs; rk;ge;jkhf murpay; mikg;Gf;fhd 13MtJ kw;Wk; 16MtJ jpUj;jq;fs; NghJkhditah my;yJ me;j mbg;gilapyhd rl;lthf;f khw;wq;fs;

mtrpakhditah? NtW ghhpa nfhs;ifAk;> epWtdhPjpapyhd khw;wq;fSk; mtrpakh? GyikthjpfSk;> ,isg;ghwpa murhq;f Nritahsh;fSk; cl;gl rptpy; r%fk; vd;d tfpgq;Ffis Mw;w Ntz;Lk;? ,e;j tfpgq;Ffspy; vit FWfpa fhy rkg;gLj;jf;$bait vd;gJld;> mbg;gil apyhd rP h ; j pUj; j q; f Sf; F ,j; j ifa ,ilf; f hy xOq; F fs; epr; r akw; w jhf ePbf;fg;glhjpUg;gijAk;> gjpyPL nra;ag; gLtijAk; vt;thW cWjpg;gLj;j KbAk;? Njrj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;F mtrpakhd rP h ; j pUj; j q; f spd; nray; j pl; l q; f is tbtikg; g jw; F k; > mKy; g Lj; J tjw; F k; murpay; kdTWjpia ehk; nfhz;Ls;Nshkh? fy;tp vd;w jiyg;gpyhd LLRC gphpthdJ rkkhd tha;g;G kPJ Nehf;fpidf; nfhz;bUg;gJld;> mJ nry;Yk; J}uk; tiu mjprpwe;jhfNt tpsq;Fk;. Mdhy;> mjpfsT NkYk; nry;tJ mtrpakhdjhFk;. rkhjhdf; fy; t p vd; w jiyg; g pyhd RUf;fkhd gphpTk; NkYk; mjpfsT nry;tJ mtrpakhdjhFk; . xd; W gLj; J tjw; F my;yJ gpsTgLtjw;F mjpfsT Mw; w ysit tuyhWk; > ,yf; f paKk; nfhz;Ls;sd. ,yq;ifapy;> ghlrhiy tuyhw;Wg; ghlg;Gj;jfq;fs; cl;gl tuyhW tpNrlkhf rpq; f s - jkpo; cwTfs; njhlh;gpy; gpsTgLj;JtjhfNt ,Ue;Js;sJ. Mdhy;> ntspehl;L %yq;fSld; rfy

Njrpa xUikg;ghl;il Nkk;gLj;Jk; tifapy; ,yf;fpag; ghlE}y;fisAk; nkhop ngau;gGfisAk; ; mwpKfk; nra;jy;

57

jkpo; kf;fspd; fle;j fhy ngsj;j nfhz;lhl;lq;fisAk; ngsj;j tpohf;fspYs;s ,e;J Nfhl;ghLfisAk; ntspf;nfhzuy; 58

mk; r q; f spYk; ,d; w paikahjtpjj; j py; ntSj; J g; Nghdjw; F mg; g hw; g l; l > KOikahftw;w ,yq;ifaUf;F mg;ghy; ntspehl;L mj;JkPwpNahh;/tUif jUNthh; vd kPjpAs;sth;fsplkpUe;J rpqfsth;fis ; ('g+kpGj; j puh; f s; " ) Gwk; g hf; F tjw; f hf Kaw;rpg;gjpYk; ,J ,Ue;Js;sJ. fy;tprhh; epWtdq;fspy; rpq;fs ,yf;fpag; ghltpjhdj;jpy; njhpTnra;ag;gl;l jkpo; my;yJ K];ypk; ,yf;fpag; gilg;Gf;fspd; %yq;fis my;yJ nkhopngah;g;Gf;fis cs; s lf; f KbAk; . kWGwj; j py; jkpo; ,yf;fpa ghltpjhdj;jpy; njhpTnra;ag;gl;l rpqfs ,yf;fpag; gilg;Gf;fspd; %yq;fis ; my;yJ nkhopngah;g;Gf;fis cs;slf;f KbAk;. ,jd; %yk; gu];gu GhpeJzh;itAk;> ; ghuhl;LjiyAk; cah;jJtjw;F mjpfsitr; ; nra;a KbAk;. cz;ikapy;> fpwp];jth; fspdhYk;> K];ypkfspdhYk; rpqfsj;jpYk;> ; ; jkpopYk; vOjg;gl;l mjprpwe;j ,yf;fpaq;fs; cs;sd (mNdfkhf ePz;l njhlh;Gfspd; fhuzkhf jkpopy; mjpfkhf). ,it $l ghltpjhdq; f spy; cs; s lf; f g; g lyhk; . ,dj;Jtq;fSf;F ,ilapyhd If;fpaj;ij Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;Fk;> ,yq;ifj; Njrj;ijf; fl; b naOg; G tjw; F k; ,yf; f paj; i jg; gad; g Lj; J tjw; f hf vd; W Nk VjhtJ czh;T g+h;tkhd Kaw;rp ,Uf;ftpy;iy vdj; Njhd;WtJ Jf;ffukhdjhFk;. murhq;fj;jpypUe;J VjhtJ Cf;Ftpg;G ,d;wp $l ,yq;ifapy; NtWgl;l ,dj;Jt> rka kw;Wk; nkhoprhh;ghd rdr%fq;fis ,izf;Fk; gpizg;Gf;fs; kpfTk;

gykhdit vd;gJld;> maypy; cs;s ehLfis tpl gpsTgLj;Jk; fhuzpfs; kpfTk; gytPdkhditAkhFk;. ,yq;ifapy; cs; s rfy ghhpa rdr%fq; f isr; Nrh; e ; j th; f spdhy; ngUksT fyhrhu mk;rq;fs; ghpkhwpf; nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd> gz; b iffs; nfhz; l hlg; g Lfpd; w d. mj;Jld; jPtfk; KOtJk; cs;s ahj; j piuj; jyq; f Sf; F r; nrd; W tUtJld;> topgL fpd;wdh;. cjhuzkhf> ngsj; j h; f spdhYk; > ,e; J f; f spdhYk; NtWgl;l topfspy; KO Nehd;kjp jpdk; nfhz; l hlg; g Lfpd; w J. rpq; f s> jkpo; Gj;jhz;L ngsj;jh;fspdhYk;> ,e;Jf;fspdhYk; kl;Lkd;wp Mdhy;> kPzLk; ; NtWgl;l topfspy;> fpwp];jt kw;Wk; rpy K];ypk; tPLfspYk; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpd;wJ. rptndhspghjkiy> fjph;fhkk;> kL kw;Wk; ngUksT NtW Gdpjj; jyq;fs; ngsj; j h; f spdJk; > ,e; J f; f spdJk; > fpwp]jth;fspdJk; kw;Wk; K];ypkfspdJk; ; ; rkaj; Njitfis epiwNtw;WtJld;> ,e; j g; Gdpjj; jyq; f spy; ,th; f s; Rje;jpukhfNt xd;W$Lfpd;whh;fs;. kpfTk; ngUksT ngsj; j tzf; f j; j yq; f s; > ngu`uh kw;Wk; NtW nfhz;lhl;lq;fs; Mfpad tp\;Z kw;Wk; ghh;tjp Nghd;w ,e; J f; flTs; f Sld; ,ize; J s; s d. ngUksT fpwp]; j tj; Njthyaq; f s; GJkhw;wj;jpyhd mikg;Gf;fspy; rpq;fs> jkpo; Gj;jhz;ilf; nfhz;lhLfpd;wd. rpy rka FWfpa kdg;ghd;ik nfhz;l rpyu; ,jid vjph; f ; f f; $ Lk; . Mdhy; > mj;jifa khWgl;l rkaf; nfhs;iffspd;

rpq;fs jkpo; kf;fSf;fpilapNy fhzg;gLk; fyhrhu kj xUikg;ghLfisr; Rygkhf;Fjy; 59

xUikg;ghl;L Kaw;rp (Ntjhe;j rh];jpuj;ij tpl fyhrhuhPjpapyhd) ngUksT fpwp];jtg; gz; b iffs; (ej; j hh; > <]; l h; kw; W k; mWtilg; gz;bif cl;gl) Neufhyg;gLj;jypNyh my;yJ nfhz;lhl;lj;jpd; jd;ikapNyh mtw;wpd; fpwp];jtj;jpw;F Ke;jpa %yq;fspypUe;J Gwk;ghf;fg;gl KbahjitahFk; vd;gijf; ftdj;jpw;nfLg;gJ vkf;F mtrpakhFk;. INuhg;ghtpYk;> tl Mgphpf;fhtpYk; cs;s fpwp];jtk;-rhuhj %yq;fspypUe;J ,uty;fSld; ,j;jifa gz;biffis vt;thW fpwp];jth;fs; nfhz;lhl KbAk; vd;gJld;> MrpahtpypUe;J ,ijnahj;j ,uty; thq;fy;fis vt;thW vjphff KbAk;? ; ; kpff; Fiwe;jsT thjhLk; ,ay;Gila NtW Jiwfs; cs;sd. 'njd; ,e;jpahtpy; ngsj;jk;" (Buddhism in South India) vd;w jiyg;gpyhd mjprpwe;j rpw;Nwnlhd;iw tz.jh;kuj;d Njuh; ntspapl;Ls;shh;. ,J ngsj;j ntspaPl;L epiya tpw;gidf; $lq;fspy; tpw;fg;gLfpd;wd. mz;zsthf ,uz;lhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd; njd; ,e;jpahtpy; tpNrlkhf jkpoh;fs; kj;jpapy;> ,U Kf;fpakhd rkaq;fshf ngsj;j rkaKk;> rkz rkaKk; tpsq;fpajhf ,r; rpw;NwL cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. ,r;rpw;NwL> %d; W nkhopfspYk; rfy ghlrhiy E}yfq; f spYk; fpilf; f r; nra; a g; g l Ntz; L k; . Jujph; \ ; l trkhf> ,j; j ifa jfty; gue; j hP j papy; mwpag; g ltpy; i y vd; g Jld; > rpy Ntisfspy; jw; N ghJ jkpoh;fSf;F me;epakhd rkankhd;whf

nghJ tpohf;fisf; $l;lhff; nfhz;lhLk; tifapYk;> nghJg; Gdpjj; jyq;fis $l;lhf juprpf;fTk; Cf;Ftpj;jy;. 60

ngsj;jk; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. cz;ikapy;> ,yq;ifapy; ngsj;jk; guTtjw;F Kd;dNu mJ njd; ,e; j pahtpy; gutpaJld; > ,yq;iff;Fk; mj;Jld; njd; fpof;F> kw;Wk; fpof;F Mrpahtpd; gyjug;gl;l ehLfSf;Fkhd ngUksT Muk;g fhyg; ngsj;j kjg;gpurhufh;fshf jkpo; JwtpfNs ,Ue;Js;sdh;. ehye;jh gy;fiyf;fofj;jpd; jiyth;fs; (INuhg;ghtpy; cs;s ghhpa gy;fiyf;fofq;fis tpl kpfTk; goikahdJ@ xf;]Nghh;l; kw;Wk; Nfk;gphpl[; ; ; gy;fiyf;fofq;fs; jhgpf;fg;gLtjw;F gy E}w;whz;LfSf;F Kd; ,J mopf;fg;gl;lJ) ,e;jpahtpd; NtWgl;l ghfq;fspy; ,Ue;J njhpT nra;ag;gl;lhh;fs;. ed;F mwpag;gl;l jiyth; f spy; ,Uth; jkpo; ehl; i lr; Nrh;ejth;fshth;. ,yq;ifapy; cs;s kpfTk; ; Muk;gfhyf; FbNaw;wq;fspy; rpy (cjhuzk;: tpygj;Jtpy; cs;s nghk;ghpgG) ; ; Rkhh; ,uz;lhapuk; tUlq;fSf;F Kd; jkpo;ehl;bd; ngsj;j rdr%fq;fspypUe;J te;jitahFk;. ,j;jifa cz;ikfs; gue;jstpy; mwpar; nra;ag;gl;lhy; ,J cjtkhl;lhjh? Rkhh; ,uz;lhapuk; tUlq;fSf;F Kw;gl;l ,U ghhpa caph;tho;fpd;w jkpo; fhg;gpaq;fspy; xd;W rpyg;gjpfhuk; (,ij vOjpath; ,yf;fpa NkijAk; jkpoUkhd rkz rkaj; Jwtp) mLj;jJ kzpNkfiy MFk; (,ij vOjpath; ,yf;fpa NkijAk; jkpoUkhd ngsj;j Jwtp). cz;ikapy> ; Kd;idajd; njhlh;rrpnahd;Nw gpd;ida ; fhg; g pakhFk; . gpd; i dajd; fjhehafp

rpyg;gjpfhuk; kzpNkfiy jpUf;Fws; Mfpa jkpo; E}y;fspd; rpq;fs nkhop ngau;gGf;fisAk; ; khu;bd; tpf;fpukrpq;f Nghd;w vOj;jhsu;fspd; rpq;fs E}y;fspd; jkpo; nkhop ngau;gGfisAk; ; ghl E}y;fshf epakpj;jy; 61

Njrpa If;fpaj;ijAk; gu];gu ed;kjpg;igAk; Nkk;gLj;Jk; tifapy; ghlE}y;fis rPuhf;fy; 62

(kzpNkfiy) xU ngsj;j Jwtp vd;gJld;> Kd;ida fjhehafpapd; (fz;zfp) ngwh kfshthh; . ,yq; ifAld; kzpNkfiy Mokhf ,ize; j pUe; j Jld; > Nrho ,sturh; xUthpd; Njitaw;w ftdj;jpypUe;J jg;Gtjw;fhf kzpNkfiy ,yq;iff;F jg;gpNahbdhh;. rpyg;gjpfhuk; kw;Wk; kzpNkfiy mj;Jld; jpUf;Fws; Mfpatw;wpd; rpq;fs nkhopngah;g;Gf;fs; fy;tp epWtdq;fspd; rpq;fs ,yf;fpag; ghltpjhdq;fspy; Fwpj;Jiuf;fg;gLtJld;> kWGwj;jpy;> khh;l;bd; tpf;ukrpq;f Nghd;w Nkd; i kkpf; f Jk; > gue; j kdg; g hd; i k apyhdJkhd rpq; f s vOj; j hsh; f spd; gilg;Gf;fs; jkpo; ,yf;fpag; ghltpjhdq;fspy; FwpjJiuf;fg;gl;lhy; ,J ; ,yq;ifj; Njrj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;Gjiy Kd; N dw; W k; vd; g J epr; r ak; . ghlg; Gj; j fq; f is Fwpj; J iug; g th; f s; jkJ Kd; D hpikfis kP s ; - jpiraikj; J f; nfhs; t J mtrpakhFk; . murhq; f f; nfhs;iffisf; $l kPs;jpiraikj;Jf; nfhs;tJ mtrpakhFk;.

,yq;ifapy; jkpo; nkhop chpikfs; ghfk; IV
,yq;ifapd; nkhop: Njrpa If;fpaj;jpw;fhd Xh; murpayikg;G rpy ehLfs; kpf cah;e;jstpy; jdpnkhopapyhditahFk; . mNdfkhf ,q;fpyhe;J> [g;ghd;> gpuhd;];> N[h;kdp kw;Wk; jha;yhe;J Mfpad rpy tiuaiwfSf;F cl;gl;L ,t; tFjpapDs; cs;slf;f KbAk;. rpy NtW ehLfs;> rpy tiuaiwfSf;F cl;gl;L kpf cah;ejstpy; gy nkhopfspyhditahFk;. ; ,t;tFjpapDs; ,yq;if> ];nfhl;yhe;J> ngy; [ pak; kw; W k; ]; n gapd; Mfpad cs;slf;fg;gl KbAk;. ngUksT NtW ehLfs; Iaj;jpw;fplkpd;wp gy nkhopfisf; nfhz;litahFk;. ,t;tFjpffhd rpwg;ghd ; cjhuzq;fshf ,e;jpah> njd; Mgphpf;fh kw;Wk; Kd;dhs; Nrhtpaj; u\;ah Mfpad tpsq;Ffpd;wd. cq;fs; tifg;gLj;jiy ePq;fs; jlk;gjpg;gjw;F tuyhw;wpy; ve;jsT J}uk; gpdNdhf;fpr; nry;y Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy; ; kl;Lk; mit jq;fpapUf;fhky;> nkhopf; FOnthd; W ve; j sT nghpjhf ,Uf; f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpYk;> cq;fs; ftdj;ijf;

Clfq;fspd; tfpgq;F

Kk;nkhopf; nfhs;ifia Nehf;fpr; nry;Yk; ,U nkhopfs; ghtidapYs;s ehL ,yq;if 63

<u;g;gjw;F nkhop ve;jsT tpUj;jpaile;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpYk; mit jq; f pAs; s d vd; j dhy; ,e; j tiutpyf;fzq;fs; Vkhw;Wk; jd; i kapyhditahFk; . cjhuzkhf> NtLth; f spdhy; Ngrg; g Lk; gyjug; g l; l nkhopfis ehk; fzf;nfLf;fpd;Nwhkh? cyifr; Rw; w pr; rpjwpAs; s 'goq; F b" rdr%fq;fspd; gyjug;gl;l nkhopfspy; vJ fzf;nfLf;fg;gLfpd;wJ? vkJ tiutpyf;fzk; vd;dthf ,Ue;jhYk;> jrhg; j j; j pypUe; J jrhg; j j; j pw; F vkJ fzf;fpLjy; NtWgLfpd;wJ. Gjpa Ngr;Rtof;F nkhop cUthf;fg;gLtJld;> rpy gioa nkhopfs; mw; W g; N ghFk; epiyapy; cs;sd. mNdfkhf xU rpy Ngr;Rtof;F nkhopfs; Kw;wpYk; NtWgl;l nkhopfshf mq;ffhpffg;gLk; eilKiwf;F P ; tUfpd;wd. mj;Jld; jw;NghJ mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;Ls;s xU rpy nkhopfs; Fiwe;jsT cgNahfg;gLtjdhy; mit ,y;yhky;Nghtjw;fhd topapy; cs;sd.

,e;jpahtpd; Njrpa If;fpaj;ij epiy ehl;l Kk;nkhopr; #j;jpuk; 64

,j;jifa Kd;Ndw;wq;fs; fle;J Nghd Gj; j hapukhz; b y; ,lk; n gw; W s; s Jld; > njhlh;ghliyAk;> Nghl;biaAk; trjpg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; eilKiwapy; khw;wq;fis etPd Clfk; Rkj;Jfpd;wJ. kWGwj;jpy;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l nkhopiag; NgZtjw;Fk;> gug;Gtjw;Fk; Clfq;fspd; %yk; Cf;Ftpg;G toq;fg;glyhk;.

kWGwj;jpy; mjd; Nghl;bapyhd nkhopfis Clfq;fs; Kd;Ndw;w KbAk; vd;gJld;> mt; t hwhf rpy nkhopfs; ,y; y hky; Nghtijj; Jhpjkhf;fyhk;. ,t;thwhf> cyfshtpahPjpapy; Mq;fpyk; tsh;fpd;wJ. rpy gpuhe;jpaq;fspy;> gpuhe;jpahPjpapyhd Kf;fpa nkhopAk; tsh;fpd;wJ. rPdhtpYk;> rpqfg;g+hpYk; rpwpa FOf;fspdhy; Ngrg;gLk; ; cs;@h; nkhopfs; njhlh;e;JkpUg;gjw;F kd; l hpd; nkhop CWtpistpf; f pd; w J> mNjNtis> njhlh; e ; J kpUg; g jw; F k; > gyg;gLj;jg;gLtjw;Fk; Clfq;fspdhy; xU rpy cs;@h; nkhopfSf;F cjtp nra;ag;gLfpd;wd. ,e;jpahtpy;> Rje;jpuj;jpd; gpd;dh; vy;yh ,lq;fspYk; Kf;fpakhd nkhopahf `pe;jp Vw; W f; n fhs; s g; g Ltjw; f hd Kaw; r pia me;ehL vLj;jJ. ,e;j Kd;ndLg;Gf;F Fwpgghf njd; ,e;jpahtpYk;> Nkw;F tq;fk; ; Nghd;w rpy NtW khepyq;fspYk; fLikahd vjph;;g;G Vw;gl;lJ. mijaLj;J jw;NghJ epyTfpd;wthW ghlrhiyfspy; Nghjdh nkhop Clfnkhd; w hfTk; > Fwpggpll ,lq;fspy; epUthfj;jpdJk;> gjpT ; ; nra;jypdJk; nkhopnahd;whfTk; ve;j nkhop gad;gLj;jg;glyhk; vd;w tise;JnfhLj;jYld; `pe;jp> Mq;fpyk; kw;Wk; NtW Njrpa nkhopfspy; xd;W vd Kk;nkhopr; #j;jpuj;ij ,e;jpah Vw;Wf;nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,e;j #j;jpuk; rpwg;ghf

fy;tpj; Jiwapy; Mq;fpyj;ij $Ljyhf gad;gLj;Jjy; 65

Mq;fpyk; fw;gpj;jy;

nraw;gl;lJld;> nkhophjpapyhd fpsh;rrpfs; P ; cz;ikapNyNa kiwe;J Nghapd vd; g Jld; > gy nkhopapyhd Njh; r ; r p gbg;gbahf Kd;Ndw;wkilfpdwJ. Fwpgghf> ; ; Mq;fpyj;jpd; cgNahfk; tphptilfpd;wJ. ,yq; i fapy; > ghlrhiyfspy; Nghjdh nkhop Clfj;jpdJk;> Fwpg;gpl;l ,lq;fspy; epUthfj; j pdJk; > gjpTnra; j ypdJk; nkhopapdJk; njhlh;gpy; chpa tise;JnfhLj;jYld; rpq;fsj;jpdJk;> jkpopdJk; > kw; W k; Mq; f pyj; j pdJk; nghUj;jkhd cgNahfj;jpyhd Kk;nkhopf; nfhs; i fnahd; W tpsq; F k; . ,uz; l hk; e p i y g ; g h l r h i y a p y ; /c a h ; e p i y g ; ghlrhiyapy; /%d; w hk; e piyf; fy; t papy; Nghjdh nkhop Clfkhf ,d; n dhU nkhopf; F (Mq; f pyk; tpUk; g j; j f; f J) khWfpd;w tpUg;Gld; Muk;gg; ghlrhiyapy; Nghjdh nkhopahf jha;nkhopapd; (tPl;L nkhop) cgNahfj;ij Cf;Ftpggjw;F rpwe;j ; fy;tprhh; fhuzq;fs; cs;sd. Mq; f pyj; j py; %d; w hk; e piyf; fy; t p Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLtij cWjpggLj;Jk;gbahf ; tpQQhd mbg;gilapyhd gphpTfspYk;> rpy ; NtW JiwfspYk; ,uz; l hk; e piyg; ghlrhiyapy;/cah;epiyg; ghlrhiyapy; rhj;jpakhdsT Kd;$l;bNa Mq;fpyj;jpwF ; khWtjpy; NtWgl;l mD$yq;fs; cs;sd. ,J ngUksT njhopy; E l; g g; gjq; f s; gad; g Lj; j g; g Lfpd; w Jk; > Mq; f pynkhop ClhfNt Gjpa mwpT gha;fpd;wJkhd

Mq;fpy nkhop %yk; gy;NtW ghlq;fis Nghjpf;Fk; jifik ngw;w Mrpupau;fisAk; Mq;fpy Mrpupau;fisAk; xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; ntspehLfspypUe;J Ml;Nru;j;jy; 66

Jiwfspy; Fwpg;gpl;lhPjpapy; mt;thwhf ,Uf;Fk;. rpq;fsj;jpy; my;yJ jkpopy; %d;whk;epiyf; fy;tpiag; gpd; g w; W gth; f Sf; F NghjpasT ghlg; Gj;jfq;fspd; nkhopngah;g;Gf;fs; ,y;yhjpdhy; mJ mth;fSf;F gpujp$ykhf tpsq;Fk;. NkYk;> fly;fle;j ehLfspy; cs;s fy;tpkhd;fSld; gu];guk; ,ize;J nraw;gLtjw;F Mq;fpyj;jpd; rpwe;j mwpT trjpg;gLj;Jk;. ,J ngUksT Jiwfspy; mjpfhpj;jstpy; mtrpakhdjhFk;. Mq;fpy nkhopapy; fw;gpg;gjw;F jFjpahd Mrphpah;fspd; gw;whf;FiwNa ghlrhiyfspy; Mq;fpy nkhop %yj;jpd; gaDWjptha; e ; j cgNahfj; j pd; ghhpa gpur;ridahFk;. kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l fhyq;fSf;F fly;fle;j ehLfspypUe;J rpy Mq; f pynkhop %y Mrphpah; f is xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; jUtpg;gJ mtrpakhdjhFk;. nrytpdf; fhuzp cl;gl ngUksT fhuzq; f Sf; F ,e; j pahtpy; ,Ue;J mj;jifa ngUk;ghyhd Mrphpah; f isr; Nrh; j ; J f; nfhs; t J mtrpakhFk;. If;fpa uh[;ak;> mT]; j pNuypah> epa+rpyhe; J > If; f pa mnkhpf;fh kw;Wk; fdlh Nghd;w Mq;fpyk; NgRk; ehLfspypUe;J xU rpwpa vz;zpf;ifapyhd mj;jifa Mrphpah;fs; Nrh;jJf;nfhs;sg;glyhk;. ,yq;ifapypUe;J ; ntspehLfspy; Gfyplk; Njbath;fspy; ,Ue;Jk; rpyiu ehk; Nrh;jJf; nfhs;syhk;. ; vkJ ,dj;Jtg; gpur;ridiaj; jPh;j;J

gy nkhopfis Nghjdh nkhopahff; nfhz;l ghlrhiyfis cUthf;f trjp nra;jy; %yk; Kk;nkhopj; Nju;r;rpia Nkk;gLj;jTk; gy;NtW ,df;FOkq;fs; kj;jpapy; If;fpaj;ij Vw;gLj;jTk; eltbf;if vLj;jy; 67

itg;gjpy; Kd;Ndw;wk; ,Ue;jhy;> ,J ,yFthf ,Ug; g Jld; > rpwg; g hfTk; nraw;gLk;. rpq;fsKk;> jkpOk; ,U E}w;whz;LfSf;F mg; g hy; nry; f pd; w tskhd ,yf; f pa kuGhpikAld; cah; e ; j stpyhd fy; t p epiyiaf; nfhz;l ngUksT kpy;ypad; fzf;fhd kf;fspdhy; Ngrg;gLk; ed;F Kd;Ndw;wkile;j nkhopfshFk;. NkYk;> ,yq;ifapy; gpujhd murfUk nkhopahfTk; > Njrpa nkhopahfTk; murpay; h P j papy; tYthd epiyapyhd nkhopahfr; rpqfsk; tpsq;FtJld;> jkpOk; ; murfUk nkhopahfTk;> Njrpa nkhopahfTk; tpsq;Ffpd;wJ. ,e;jpahtpd; Njrpa nkhopahfTk;> khepy nkhopahfTk;> rpq;fg;g+hpy; murfUk nkhopahfTk; jkpo; tpsq; F fpd; w J. ,J kNy\pahtpYk; > ngUksT NtW ehLfspYk; kpy;ypad; fzf; f hd kf; f spdhy; gue; j hP j papy; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,r; #o;epiyfspy;> ,t;tpU nkhopfspd; vjph;fhyk; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. ehL KOtJk; Mq;fpyKk; Kd;Ndw;wkiltJld;> ,izg;G nkhopnahd;whf murpayikg;G hP j papyhd mq; f P f huj; i jAk; jw; N ghJ nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,yq;ifapy; ,k; %d;W nkhopfspd; cgNahfj;ijAk;> Kd;Ndw;wj;ijAk; trjpggLj;JtJk;> mit ; xd;Wld; xd;W ,ize;J nraw;gLj;Jtjp

gy nkhopfisg; Nghjpf;Fk; ghlrhiyfisAk; gy;fiyf; fofq;fisAk; Nkk;gLj;jy; 68

ypUe;J Mff;$ba r%f kw;Wk; fyhrhu ed;ikia miltJNk vkf;F mtrpakhdjhFk; . ,e; e hl; b d; rfy kf;fspd; ed;ikf;fhf ,U Njrpa nkhopfspd; tskhd kuGhpikAk;> ,U E}w; w hz; L f; F Nkw; g l; l Mq; f pyj; j pd; GJikahd ngWkjpAk; milag;gLtJ mtrpakhFk;. nghpJNk Nghjdh nkhopnahd; w hf Mq;fpyj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhf ntspggilahfNt cUthf;fg;gl;l Mq;fpy ; nkhop “ba+l;lhpfspdJk;” kw;Wk; 'rh;tNjrg; ghlrhiyfspdJk;" mjpfhpg;gpdhy; rhd;W gfug;gl;lthW Mq;fpyj;jpd; cgNahfj; j pw; f hd vjph; g ; G ghhpastpy; mw; W g; N ghAs; s J. jkpo; nkhopapd; cgNahfk; njhlh;gpyhd rpy gpur;ridfSk;> rpq;fs nkhopapdJk;> jkpo; nkhopapdJk; cgNahfk; njhlh;gpyhd rpy NahridfSk; ghfk; II,y; RUf;fkhf tpghpf; f g; g l; b Ue; j d. gupe; J iuf; f g; g l; l rP h ; j pUj; j q; f s; Vw; W f; n fhs; s g; g LtJ mtrpakhFk;. rkhspf;fg;gLtjw;F mtrpakhd NtW mtrukhd gpur;ridfs; vit vd;gJld;> NkYk; vd;d rPhjpUj;jq;fs; ; mtrpakhditahFk;? ghuk;ghpakhf ,dj;JthPjpapyhd fyg;Gg; gFjpfspy> NtWgl;l ,dj;Jtj;ijr; Nrh;ej ; ; ,isQh;fs; xd;W Nrh;fpd;wJk;>

gy nkhop Mw;wy; cs;stu;fSf;F Cf;Ftpg;Gf; nfhLg;gdTfis toq;fTk; njhopy; tha;g;Gf;fis toq;fTk; cau; fy;tpia ,izj;Jf; nfhs;sTk; eltbf;if vLj;jy; 69

gy nkhopfisg; gad;gLj;Jk; ,yq;ifia Nehf;fp efu;jy;

Vida gpuNjrq;fspy; cs;s ghlrhiyfspd; juj;jpw;F Njhl;lg; ghlrhiyfspd; juj;ij juKau;jJjy; ; 70

ePbj;Jiof;fpd;w cwTfis mikf;fpd;wJkhd epWtdq;fshf ghlrhiyfs; tpsq; F fpd; w d. me; j miktplq;fspy; ,Ue;J ngUksT ghlrhiyfs; ,dj;JthPjpapy; fyg;gpyhdit vd;w cz;ikapdhy; ,J trjpg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. 1956,y; xNunahU murfUk nkhopahf rpq;fsk; te;jjpypUe;Jk;> Fwpg;ghf ghlrhiyfspy; Nghjdh nkhop %ykhf Mq; f pyj; i j rpq;fsKk;> jkpOk; Gwe;js;spajpypUe;Jk;> mijj; njhlh;e;J K];ypk; ghlrhiyfisf; nfhz; l %d; w htJ tFjpnahd;wpd; mwpKfj;jpypUe;Jk; ,e;j %d;W ,dj;Jt tFjpfSk; mjpfhpjjstpy; ; jdpikg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. Vw;fdNt $l> kiyafj; jkpoh;fSf;fhf fUkkhw;wpa ngUe;Njhl;lg; gFjpfspy; cs;s ngUksT 'Njhl;lg; ghlrhiyfs;" gpdida tFjpapd; ; jdpg;gLj;jYf;F gq;fspj;jJ. mJ Kjy; 'gFj; j wptpd; " mf; f iwapd; Nghpy; gy nkhopfspyhd ghlrhiyfisj; jdp nkhopapyhd ghlrhiyfshfg; gphpg;gjd; %yk;> gy nkhopapyhd ghlrhiyfspd; vz;zpf;if ghhpastpy; Fiwtile; J s; s J. vQ; r papUe; j gy nkhopfspyhd ghlrhiyfspy; $l> nkhoprhh; e ; j gphpTfspDs; khzth; f s; gphpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. nkhoprhh;e;j Gwk;ghf;fy; jtph;f;f Kbahj ghlq;fs; GwePq;fyhf fyg;gpyhd tFg;Gf;fisf; nfhz;bUg;gjd; %yk; mj;jifa Gwk;ghf;fiy XusTf;F vjph; g ; g jw; f hd Kaw; r pia xU rpy

cah;epiyapyhd fpwp];jtg; ghlrhiyfs; kl;LNk vLj;jd. Mq;fpyj;jpy; ehd;F ghlq;fisf; fw;gpg;gjw;F mDkjpf;fg;gLfpd;w rpy ghlrhiyfspd; Gjpa Kd; n dLg; g hdJ (ehd; F ghl tFg;Gf;fspy; rpq;fs kw;Wk; jkpo; gphpT khzth;fis xd;WNrh;j;jy;) NtWgl;l ,dj;Jtj;ijr; Nrh;ej khzth;fs; kj;jpapy; ; 'xw;Wikia" Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhf tbtikf; f g; g l; L s; s J. Mdhy; > KO mstpy; Gwk; g hd nkhophP j papyhd / ,dhPjpahd gphpTfspDs; gphpj;J itf;Fk; NghJ> mJ ,dj;JthPjpapy; gpsTgLtjw;F gq; f spg; g Jld; > ,J MAs; KOtJk; > mj;Jld; Njrpa r%f> nghUshjhu kw;Wk; murpay; njhlh;GfspDs; nfhz;L nry;yg;gLfpd;wJ. ngUksT $l;lq;fs; xU nkhopapy; kl;LNk elj;jg;gLfpdwd. Vnddpy; nkhopngah;gig ; ; toq; F tjdhy; mJ nrytpyhdjhf tpsq; F tJld; > fisg; g pyhdjhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;. ngUk;ghd;ikahNdhh; Mq;fpyk; NgRgth;fs; vd;why;> mJ mk;nkhopapy; elj;jg;glyhk;. mjpfhpj;jstpy; xU rpy jkpo; NgRk; gFjpfspy; jtpu ngUksT $l;lq;fs; rpqfsj;jpNyNa elj;jg;gLfpdwd ; ; (jkpo; NgRk; gFjpfspy; jkpopy; elj;jg;glyhk;). nfhOk;G Nghd;w ghhpa efuq;fspy; ngUksT $l;lq;fs; - mq;F gpurd; d khfpAs; s rpyh; jkpo; kl; L Nk Ngrf;Rbath;fshf ,Uf;fpd;w NghjpYk;> rpq;fsj;jpYk;> Mq;fpyj;jpYNk

murpayikg;gpd; Clhf ,dq;fSf;fpilNa mikjpia Nkk;gLj;Jjy;

cs;slf;fj;jpYk; cUthf;fj;jpYk; midtiuAk; cs;thq;ff; $ba murpayikg;gpd; Njit 71

elj;jg;gLfpd;wd. ,J vy;yhk; ,dj;Jt kdf;frg;Gf;Fk;> gpsTf;Fk; gq;fspf;fpd;wd. ehk; gy nkhopfspyhd Njrnkhd;whf ntspg; g l; l hy; > ,J xU gpur; r idahf ,Uf;fkhl;lhJ. Vnddpy; nkhop ngah; g ; G fSf; F mtrpakpd; w p %d; W nkhopfspy; $l;lq;fis elj;j KbAk;. chpa murhq; f kw; W k; rptpy; r%f MjuTldhd ghlrhiyfspy; rfy %d;W nkhopfspy; fw; g pg; g jd; %yk; md; w p> Mdhy;> nghUj;jkhd fl;Liu> Ngr;R kw;Wk; tpthjg; Nghl;bfspYk;> gy nkhopfspd; Njh;rrpf;Fg; ghpRfis toq;Ftjd; %yKk; ; ,U nkhop kw;Wk; Kk;nkhop Njh;r;rpia Kd;Ndw;Wtjpy; Kf;fpakhd tfpgq;nfhd;iw Mw;wyhk;. nghJg; ghPl;irfspy; nghUj;jkhd ghpRfisAk;> Ml;Nrh;g;gpy; tpUg;gpidAk;> murhq;fr; NritfspDs; gjtpAah;itAk; toq;Ftjd; %yk; gy;nkhop Njh;r;rpf;F NtW Cf;Ftpg;Gf;fis toq; F tjd; %yk; murhq; f k; cjt KbAk;. xU nkhopiaNa Kjd;ikahff; nfhz; L s; s ghlrhiyfs; > ,d; n dhU ,dj;Jtj;jpd; Kjd;ikahd Xh; ,dj;Jtg; ghlrhiyfSld; xd; W NrUtjw; F Cf; f kspf; f g; g l Ntz; L k; . mj; j ifa ghlrhiyfSf;F ,ilapy; xd;W my;yJ mjw; F Nkw; g l; l miu Mz; L fSf; F khzth; f spd; tUifjuy; f s; kw; W k; ghpkhw;wq;fs; Nghd;w epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fs; cjtf;$Lk;. ,j;jifa epfo;r;rpj; jpl; l q; f spy; gq; n fLg; g hdJ gpd; d h; ,lk;ngWfpd;w murhq;f> jdpahh; kw;Wk;

murpayikg;ig cUthf;Fk; NghJ ,e;jpa njd; Mgpupf;f cjhuzq;fis mDrupj;jy; 72

mur rhh; g w; w jhgdj; JiwfSf; f hd Ml;Nrh;g;gpy; chpa fhpridiag; ngwNtz;Lk;. rfy kl;lq;fspy; Njrpa nfhs;ifapdJk;> rl;lq;fspdJk; - Fwpg;ghf Njrpa murpayikg;gpd; tiur;rl;lj;jpDs; ,it midj;Jk; cUthf;fg;gLtJ mtrpakhFk;. vkJ murpayikg; G f; f spy; vJTNk ,t;thwhf tbtikf;fg;glhjJ Jf;ffukhdjhFk;. cz;ikapy;> rpy NtW murpayikg;GfSf;F> Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;tnjd;why; ,e;jpahtpdJk;> njd; Mgphpf; f htpdJk; murpayikg; G fSf; F kWjiyahf vkJ murpayikg;Gf;fspd; vJTNk gue;jhPjpapy; kf;fshy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtijAk;> milahsq; fhzg;gLtijAk; mDgtpf;ftpy;iy. vkJ Rje;jpuj;jpw;F Ke;jpa KjyhtJ (Nrhy;ghp) murpayikg;G vkJ fhydpj;Jt v[khdh;fspdhy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. 1972 murpayikg; G mg; N ghija =.y.R.f. jiyikapyhd $l;lzpapd; xU rpwpa fl;rp mikg;gpdhy; tFj;jikf;fg;gl;lJ@ 1978 murpayikg; G mg; N ghija I.Nj.f. jiyikapyhd $l;lzpapd; xU rpwpa fl;rp mikg;gpdhy; tFj;jikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J njhlh; g py; ngUksT NtW ehLfspd; murpayikg;Gf;fs; kpfTk; tpj;jpahrkhdit vd;gJld;> gue;jstpy; NtWgl; l gpd; t pisTfSf; F ,l; L r; nrd;Ws;sd.

vkJ murpayikg;igj; jahupf;Fk; NghJ ,e;ejpa njd; Mgpupf;f khjpupfs; %yk; Cf;Ftpg;igg; ngwy; 73

1947> 1972> 1978 Mfpa ,yq;if murpayikg;G f;fis cUthf;Fifapy; milahsk; fz;l FiwghLfis eptu;jjp nra;J ; Gjpa murpayikg;ig cUthf;Fjy; 74

,e;jpahtpy; murpayikg;gpid tiutjw;fhd FOtpd; jiyth; fyhepjp gP.mk;Ngj;fhh;. ,th; jypj; rdr%fj;jpd; jiyth; vd;gJld;> fhe;jp kw;Wk; NeU cl; g l Njrpa jiyikj; J tj; J ld; ghuJ}ukhd NtWghLfisj; njhlh;e;Jk; nfhz;bUe;jhh;. ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s rhjp> ,dk;> rkak;> nkhop> ,dj;Jtk; Mfpatw;iwf; nfhz;l xt;nthU Ghpe;J nfhs; s j; j f; f tFjpiaAk; > mj; J ld; ngz;fs;> njhopw;rq;fq;fs;> rpj;jhe;jk; kw; W k; tuyhw; W hP j papyhd gpd; d zp (cjhuzk; muRhpikf;Nfw;w khepyq;fsp ypUe; j J) Nghd; w NtW tFjpiaAk; gpujpepjpg; g Lj; J k; ngUk; vz; z pf; i f apyhdJk;> kpfTk; gd;dpiyapyhdJkhd FOf; f s; ,Ue; j d. ,f; FOf; f spd; cWg; g pdh; f s; gy Mapuf; f zf; f hd jdpggl;lth;fs; vd;gJld;> kpfTk; mjpfsT ; vz; z pf; i fahNdhh; rhl; r pakspj; j dh; . ,t;thwhf> jhk; tpyf;fpitf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhf czh;tjw;F xUtUf;Fk; fhuzk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy vd;gJld;> nghpJNk KO ,e;jpa NjrNk ,e;jpa murpayikg;gpid 'nrhe;jkhff;" nfhz;bUe;jJ (Granville Austin’s book of 1966 titled “The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of a Nation”, Oxford: Clarendon Press). njd; Mgphpf;f Njrj;jpy; rfy JiwfisAk; xj;jhw;Nghd;W cs;slf;Ftjhf njd; Mgphpf;f murpayikg;G tpsq;fpaJ.

,j;jifanjhU cs;slq;fyhd murpayikg;nghd;iw tFj;jikg;gjw;fhd njhptpid ehk; nfhz;bUe;Njhk;> Mdhy; mt;thW nra;ahkypUg;gij ehk; njhpTnra;Njhk;. cs;slq;fyhf ,Ug;gij tpl tpyf;fp itg;gjhfNt 1972 kw;Wk; 1978 murpayikg;G tbtikf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. 1972 murpayikg; g pid tiue; j th; f Sf; F vOe;jkhdj;jpyhd mfpy ,yq;if jkpo; fhq;fpu]pd; rhh;ghf vOjpa aho;g;ghzk; ,isQh; fhq;fpu]pd; vQ;rpath;fisg; gpujpepjpg;gLk; xU rpy jdpg;gl;lth;fspd; Kbj; J itf; F k; thh; j ; i jfisAk; Nf.Neirahtpd; Education and Human Rights in Sri Lanka, 1983, Chunnakam: Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society in Sri Lanka vd;gjpy; vLj;Jf;$wg;gl;lijAk; vLj;Jf; $Wtjd; %yk; Kbg;gJ nghUj;jkhdjhFk;. ',yq; i fahdJ jdf; N f cz; i kahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lnkd;why;> jdJ murpayikg;gpid vOJk; gagf;jpapyhd flikAld; Rkj;jg;gl;Ls;sth;fs;> murpayikg; g pid cUthf; F tjw; f hd mZFKiwapYk;> mjpy; mth;fs; vd;d vOjp ,Ue; j hh; f s; vd; g jpYk; vkJ kuGhpikf;F ftdj;ijr; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,yq; i f vkJ khngUk; jha; e hL> fiuapypUe;J fiuf;F ehk; xNu kf;fs;@ ehk; ,U kpfr; rpwe; j nkhopfisg; NgRfpd; N whk; > Mdhy; xNu Fuypy; NgRfpd;Nwhk;> gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; xd;whf vkJ je;ijkhhpdhy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,e;j

,yq;ifapd; midj;J kf;fSk; cupik Nfhuf;$ba Gjpa murpayikg;ig Nehf;fp 75

murpayikg;G ,dp tuTs;s tUlq;fspy; vkJ Njrj;jpd; gl;lakhff; fUkkhw;w Ntz;Lk; vd vkJ gps;isfSk;> vkJ gps; i sfspd; gps; i sfSk; nrhy; y f; $bath;fshf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;."

Kw; W k;

76

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