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# Chapter 20

:

ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

1. In a reversible process the system: A. is always close to equilibrium states B. is close to equilibrium states only at the beginning and end C. might never be close to any equilibrium state D. is close to equilibrium states throughout, except at the beginning and end E. is none of the above ans: A 2. A slow (quasi-static) process is NOT reversible if: A. the temperature changes B. energy is absorbed or emitted as heat C. work is done on the system D. friction is present E. the pressure changes ans: D 3. The diﬀerence in entropy ∆S = SB − SA for two states A and B of a system can be computed as the integral dQ/T provided: A. A and B are on the same adiabat B. A and B have the same temperature C. a reversible path is used for the integral D. the change in internal energy is ﬁrst computed E. the energy absorbed as heat by the system is ﬁrst computed ans: C 4. Possible units of entropy are: A. J B. J/K C. J−1 D. liter·atm E. cal/mol ans: B 5. Which of the following is NOT a state variable? A. Work B. Internal energy C. Entropy D. Temperature E. Pressure ans: A

308

Chapter 20:

ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

1 and 2 tie. does not decrease for any of them C. Non-cyclic isothermal (constant temperature) D. increases for all of them E. 3. goes from 40◦ C to 45◦ C 4. As a result there is: a change in entropy an increase of pressure a change in temperature a decrease of internal energy a change in phase ans: A 10. reversible isothermal processes C. ideal gas expands into a vacuum in a rigid vessel. reversible adiabatic processes B. None of these ans: D 8. from smallest to largest. The change in entropy is zero for: A. 2. goes from 30◦ C to 40◦ C 3. 3. then 1 and 2 tie E. Which of the following processes leads to a change in entropy of zero for the system undergoing the process? A. 3 and 4 tie. Non-cyclic isobaric (constant pressure) B. then 3 and 4 tie D. 1 ans: E 9. E. 1. 4 B.6. C. Rank. 4. An A. goes from 80◦ C to 85◦ C A. D. the changes in entropy of a pan of water on a hot plate. all adiabatic processes ans: A 7. 4. The change in entropy of the gas: A. 1 C. B. Non-cyclic isochoric (constant volume) C. 2. is zero for all of them B. as the temperature of the water 1. goes from 20◦ C to 30◦ C 2. reversible processes during which no work is done D. reversible isobaric processes E. Consider all possible isothermal contractions of an ideal gas. does not increase for any of them D. 2. 3. decreases for all of them ans: E Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 309 . Any closed cycle E.

.. . ... III... .... .... . and V tied I. IV... ... ... ... .... . none of the above (entropy can’t be calculated for a reversible process) ans: C 13.. . .......... ..... .. III..... .. . II.... .. 0 D....... . .. . .. ..... .. . The change in entropy of the thermal reservoir in contact with the gas is given by: A... i . .... RT ln 2 E.... All are at the same temperature T2 ... . ...... An ideal gas is to taken reversibly from state i... . . R ln 2 B. .......... .. at temperature T1 . E...... (ln 2)/T C... .. IV ......... C...... V ... nR(Vf − Vi ) B.. .. One mole of an ideal gas expands reversibly and isothermally at temperature T until its volume is doubled..... .... . .. .... ...... ... IV.. . .......... . . B. . III........... . nR ln(Vf /Vi ) E.... least to greatest.... ..... An ideal gas... ... . . III . nR ln(Vi /Vf ) D...... I I... p T2 .. .... ..... III..... .... .... .... . .... and V on the p-V diagram below.. ... . .. .. .. ... ....... ..... ... .. then II.. . .... nR ln(Vf − Vi ) C.. . .... II. ..... . . ......... then V I and V tied. ... .. ............ .... . ..... . . . . ... IV.... IV. undergoes a reversible isothermal process during which the volume changes from Vi to Vf ...... II..... D.. .... ... . Rank the ﬁve processes according to the change in entropy of the gas. .. III.... . ...... ........ then II....... .... . . III.. ...... T1 V A.. ..... I. IV ans: A 12. to any of the other states labeled I. and IV tied... ...... ... 2R ans: A 310 Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS .. .... ...... .I ... ..... . .. The change of entropy of this gas for this process is: A. II....... . V V... ...... ........ II ............ .... ........ consisting of n moles....... ... ........ . .... .......................... ... .11. ..

An ideal gas. They transfer energy until they reach a common temperature. is greater for A C. ∆Stotal < 0 D. nCV (Tf − Ti ) ans: A 16. ∆Sc < 0. nCV ln(1 − Ti /Tf ) E. Consider the following processes: The temperature of two identical gases are increased from the same initial temperature to the same ﬁnal temperature. nR ln(Vf /Vi ) E. If the molar speciﬁc heat at constant volume is CV and is independent of temperature. ∆Sc > 0. ∆Stotal > 0 C. The temperature of n moles of a gas is increased from Ti to Tf at constant volume. ∆Stotal > 0 B. nCV ln(Ti /Tf ) C. is greater for A only if the initial temperature is high ans: C 17. Reversible processes are used. nR(Vf − Vi ) B. the change in entropy of the gas is given by: A. ∆Sc > 0.14. ∆Sh < 0. nR ln(Vf − Vi ) C. is the same for A and B B. If the volume changes from Vi to Vf . then change in the entropy of the gas is: A. none of the above (entropy can’t be calculated for an irreversible process) ans: D 15. and the change ∆Stotal in the entropy of the combination are: A. For gas A the process is carried out at constant volume while for gas B it is carried out at constant pressure. ∆Sc < 0. ∆Sh > 0. ∆Sh > 0. is greater for B D. the change ∆Sc in the entropy of the cold object. undergoes an irreversible process in which the temperature has the same value at the beginning and end. ∆Sc > 0. consisting of n moles. ∆Stotal < 0 ans: B Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 311 . ∆Sh > 0. is greater for A only if the initial temperature is low E. nCV ln(Tf − Ti ) D. ∆Stotal > 0 E. nR ln(Vi /Vf ) D. The change ∆Sh in the entropy of the hot object. ∆Sh < 0. nCV ln(Tf /Ti ) B. The change in entropy: A. A hot object and a cold object are placed in thermal contact and the combination is isolated.

SI < SR D. D. E. E. C. B. Let SR denote the change in entropy of the same sample for a reversible process from state A to state B. all of the above are true ans: A 312 Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS . SI = 0 E. SI = SR C. D. B. For A. the reason all heat engine eﬃciencies are less than 100% is friction. According to the second law of thermodynamics: A.18. C. for all cyclic processes we have dQ/T < 0 D. SR = 0 ans: B 19. 22. all reversible processes involving a system and its environment: the entropy of the system does not change the entropy of the system increases the total entropy of the system and its environment does not change the total entropy of the system and its environment increases none of the above ans: C all irreversible processes involving a system and its environment: the entropy of the system does not change the entropy of the system increases the total entropy of the system and its environment does not change the total entropy of the system and its environment increases none of the above ans: D 21. SI > SR B. For A. C. which is unavoidable E. B. Let SI denote the change in entropy of a sample for an irreversible process from state A to state B. all adiabatic processes: the entropy of the system the entropy of the system the entropy of the system the entropy of the system the entropy of the system ans: E does not change increases decreases does not increase does not decrease 20. D. heat energy cannot be completely converted to work B. work cannot be completely converted to heat energy C. E. For A. Then: A.

remains constant according to the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics B. increases according to the second law of thermodynamics ans: B 26. He claims that the energy supplied to the house as heat can exceed the work required to run the refrigerator. is impossible by ﬁrst law B. uses positive work done on the system to transfer heat from a low temperature reservoir to a high temperature reservoir E. Only I B. A heat engine: A. Only II and III E. and III ans: C 24. does work. Consider the following processes: I. and loses energy as heat D. an ordinary refrigerator is turned on and its door is left open. converts heat input to an equivalent amount of work B. I. decreases according to the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics D. is possible ans: E 25. converts work to an equivalent amount of heat C. increases according to the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics C. An inventor suggests that a house might be heated by using a refrigerator to draw energy as heat from the ground and reject energy as heat into the house. remains constant according to the second law of thermodynamics E. would only work if the ground and the house were at the same temperature D. The temperature of the room: A. is impossible by second law C. ans: C Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 313 . This: A. Only II C. is impossible since heat energy ﬂows from the (hot) house to the (cold) ground E.23. Work is done on a system and an equivalent amount of energy is rejected as heat by the system III. Energy ﬂows as heat from a hot object to a colder object II. uses positive work done on the system to transfer heat from a high temperature reservoir to a low temperature reservoir. takes heat in. Energy is absorbed as heat by a system and an equivalent amount of work is done by the system Which are never found to occur? A. II. In a thermally insulated kitchen. Only III D.

Raise the temperature of the cold reservoir by ∆T C. |QH |/|W | B. 1 and 2 tie. A heat engine absorbs energy of magnitude |QH | as heat from a high temperature reservoir. You want to increase its eﬃciency. Lower the temperature of the hot reservoir by ∆T D. Lower the temperature of the cold reservoir by ∆T E. 3 ans: E 29. The temperatures TC of the cold reservoirs and the temperatures TH of the hot reservoirs for four Carnot heat engines are engine 1: TC = 400 K and TH = 500 K engine 2: TC = 500 K and TH = 600 K engine 3: TC = 400 K and TH = 600 K engine 4: TC = 600 K and TH = 800 K Rank these engines according to their eﬃciencies. 4. A.27. least to greatest A. A certain heat engine draws 500 cal/s from a water bath at 27◦ C and transfers 400 cal/s to a reservoir at a lower temperature. Its eﬃciency is: A. 4. 1. 4 D. 3 E. then 3 and 4 tie C. and transfers energy of magnitude |QL | as heat to a low temperature reservoir. A Carnot heat engine runs between a cold reservoir at temperature TC and a hot reservoir at temperature TH . 2. 2. 3. Raise the temperature of the hot reservoir by ∆T B. 1. 3. which change results in the greatest increase in eﬃciency? The value of ∆T is the same for all changes. 25% E. 4 B. |QH |/|QL | D. 20% ans: E 314 Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS . The eﬃciency of this engine is: A. Of the following. 2. 31. 1. does work of magnitude |W |. 1. |QL |/|W | C. 2. |W |/|QL | ans: D 28. 80% B. |W |/|QH | E. 55% D. 75% C. Lower the temperature of the hot reservoir by 1 ∆T and raise the temperature of the cold 2 reservoir by 1 ∆T 2 ans: D 30.

none of the above ans: E 34. This is a direct violation of: A. the second law of thermodynamics D. A heat engine in each cycle absorbs energy from a reservoir as heat and does an equivalent amount of work. none of the above ans: C Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 315 . the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics C. the second law of thermodynamics D. A heat engine in each cycle absorbs energy of magnitude |QH | as heat from a high temperature reservoir. A heat engine that in each cycle does positive work and loses energy as heat. the zeroth law of thermodynamics B. with no other changes. the second law of thermodynamics D. the third law of thermodynamics E. does work of magnitude |W |. the zeroth law of thermodynamics B. the third law of thermodynamics E. the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics C. would violate: A. This engine violates: A. Newton’s second law ans: B 33. On a warm day a pool of water transfers energy to the air as heat and freezes. the third law of thermodynamics E. the second law of thermodynamics D. the second law of thermodynamics D.32. and then absorbs energy of magnitude |QL | as heat from a low temperature reservoir. the zeroth law of thermodynamics B. the third law of thermodynamics E. the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics C. A cyclical process that transfers energy as heat from a high temperature reservoir to a low temperature reservoir with no other change would violate: A. the zeroth law of thermodynamics B. the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics C. none of the above ans: C 36. the zeroth law of thermodynamics B. the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics C. none of the above ans: C 35. If |W | = |QH | + |QL | this engine violates: A. the third law of thermodynamics E. with no heat energy input.

A Carnot heat engine operates between a hot reservoir at absolute temperature TH and a cold reservoir at absolute temperature TC . all reversible heat engines have the same eﬃciency C. Its eﬃciency is: A. 44% D. consists of two isothermal and two constant volume processes C. only if the engine is quasi-static D. is any four-sided process on a p-V graph D. is bounded by two isotherms and two adiabats on a p-V graph B. A Carnot heat engine operates between 400 K and 500 K. only if the working substance is an ideal gas B. 20% B. has an eﬃciency equal to the enclosed area on a p-V diagram ans: A 38. TC /TH C. 25% C. 1 − TC /TH E. 1 − TH /TC D. According to the second law of thermodynamics: A. only exists for an ideal gas E. A heat engine operates between a high temperature reservoir at TH and a low temperature reservoir at TL . Its eﬃciency is given by 1 − TL /TH : A. the eﬃciency of a Carnot engine depends only on the temperatures of the two reservoirs E. 79% E. 100% ans: D 41. only if the engine is reversible C. A Carnot cycle: A. no matter what characteristics the engine has ans: B 316 Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS . the eﬃciency of any heat engine is independent of its working substance D. all Carnot engines theoretically have 100% eﬃciency ans: D 39. only if the engine operates on a Stirling cycle E. all heat engines have the same eﬃciency B. 100% ans: A 40.37. Its eﬃciency is: A. TH /TC B.

the ﬁrst law but not the second law of thermodynamics C. If the pump motor does work at the rate of 1 kW. The irreversible engine: A. A heat engine operates between 200 K and 100 K. They absorb the same energy from the high temperature reservoir as heat. must violate the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics C. 80% E.07 kW E.42. This heat engine violates: A. has the same eﬃciency as the reversible engine E. must violate the third law of thermodynamics E. at what rate does the pump supply energy to the building as heat? A. This engine: A. must violate the second law of thermodynamics D. both the ﬁrst and second laws of thermodynamics B. does more work B. A perfectly reversible heat pump with a coeﬃcient of performance of 14 supplies energy to a building as heat to maintain its temperature at 27◦ C. In each cycle it takes 100 J from the hot reservoir. 20% C.35 kW D. 15 kW B. cannot answer without knowing the mechanical equivalent of heat ans: C Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 317 . has the greater eﬃciency D. 99% ans: B 43. and does 75 J of work. A Carnot heat engine and an irreversible heat engine both operate between the same high temperature and low temperature reservoirs. 50% D.85 kW C. 3. 1. 1. does not necessarily violate any of the laws of thermodynamics ans: C 44. The maximum theoretical eﬃciency of a Carnot heat engine operating between reservoirs at the steam point and at room temperature is about: A. must violate the zeroth law of thermodynamics B. the second law but not the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics D.02 kW ans: A 46. An inventor claims to have a heat engine that has an eﬃciency of 40% when it operates between a high temperature reservoir of 150◦ C and a low temperature reservoir of 30◦ C. neither the ﬁrst law nor the second law of thermodynamics E. 10% B. 1. loses 25 J to the cold reservoir. transfers more energy to the low temperature reservoir as heat C. cannot absorb the same energy from the high temperature reservoir as heat without violating the second law of thermodynamics ans: B 45.

(TH − TC )/TH D. TC /(TH − TC ) C. TH (TH + TC ) ans: B 49. the change in the internal energy of the working gas D. |QH |/W C. Lower the temperature of the hot reservoir by ∆T D. the work done by the working gas E. |QC |/W B. which change results in the greatest increase in the coeﬃcient? The value of ∆T is the same for all changes. Raise the temperature of the hot reservoir by ∆T B. Its coeﬃcient of performance is given by: A. W/|QC | E. Of the following. which of the following quantities is NOT zero? A. A reversible refrigerator operates between a low temperature reservoir at TC and a high temperature reservoir at TH . You want to increase its coeﬃcient of performance. (TH − TC )/TC B. (|QC | + |QH |)/W D. W/|QH | ans: A 48. Raise the temperature of the cold reservoir by ∆T C. Lower the temperature of the hot reservoir by 1 ∆T and raise the temperature of the cold 2 reservoir by 1 ∆T 2 ans: B 50. TH /(TH − TC ) E.47. the change in the temperature of the working gas ans: D 318 Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS . For one complete cycle of a reversible heat engine. the change in the pressure of the working gas C. An Carnot refrigerator runs between a cold reservoir at temperature TC and a hot reservoir at temperature TH . the change in the entropy of the working gas B. Lower the temperature of the cold reservoir by ∆T E. A. A refrigerator absorbs energy of magnitude |QC | as heat from a low temperature reservoir and transfers energy of magnitude |QH | as heat to a high temperature reservoir. Work W is done on the working substance. The coeﬃcient of performance is given by: A.

25 E.9 × 1019 microstates. ∆S = 3k ln 2 C.22 × 10−23 J/K ans: A 53.27 × 106 C. The change in entropy is: A. 1. ∆S = −k ln 3 E.91 × 10−23 J/K E. ∆S = 4. ∆S = −1. ∆S = k ln(M2 /M1 ) ans: E Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 319 . The Boltzmann constant is 1. ∆S = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K.07 × 10−22 J/K B. 4.19 × 10−23 J/K E.8 × 1018 microstates to one with 7. If the conﬁguration of the molecules in a gas changes so that the multiplicity is reduced to one-third its previous value.38 × 10−23 J/K. Microstates are designated by identifying the molecules in the left and right halves of the box. Twenty-ﬁve identical molecules are in a box. 6.51.04 × 10−23 J/K D. The thermodynamic state of a gas changes from one with 3. If the conﬁguration of molecules in a gas changes from one with a multiplicity of M1 to one with a multiplicity of M2 .44 × 10−23 J/K D.19 × 10−23 J/K ans: D 54. ∆S = −3k ln 2 D. 2. Microstates are designated by identifying the molecules in the left and right halves of the box. then entropy changes by: A. Let k be the Boltzmann constant. ∆S = kM2 /M1 D. ∆S = k ln(M2 M1 ) E. ∆S = 0 B. 2. 7. The Boltzmann constant is 1. 3. the entropy of the gas changes by: A. 150 D. ∆S = k ln 3 ans: D 55. Let k be the Boltzmann constant. The multiplicity of the conﬁguration with 15 molecules in the right half and 10 molecules in the left half is: A. ∆S = 0 B. ∆S = k(M2 − M1 ) C. ∆S = −4.31 × 10−22 J/K C. 5 ans: B 52. The entropy associated with the conﬁguration for which 15 molecules are in the left half and 10 molecules are in the right half is: A. Twenty-ﬁve identical molecules are in a box.04 × 10−23 J/K C. ∆S = 0 B.03 × 1023 B.

the energy input to the gas as heat is: A. Q = −3kT D. −kT ln 3 ans: D 320 Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS . Q = 0 B.56. If the thermodynamic state of a gas at temperature T changes isothermally and reversibly to a state with three times the number of microstates as initially. kT ln 3 E. Q = 3kT C. Let k be the Boltzmann constant.

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