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1 The early railway in Britain
In 1830, there were under 100 miles of public railway in Britain. Yet within 20 years, this (0)……. had grown to more than 5,000 miles. By the end of the century, almost enough rail track to (1) the world covered this small island, (2) ...the nature of travel for ever and contributing to the industrial revolution that changed the (3) ... of history in many parts of the world. Wherever railways were introduced, economic and social progress quickly (4) ....... In a single day, rail passengers could travel hundreds of miles, (5) ........previous journey times by huge margins and bringing rapid travel within the (6) of ordinary people. Previously, many people had never ventured (7)……. the outskirts of their towns and villages. The railway brought them (8) ........freedom and enlightenment. In the19th century, the railway in Britain (9)……..something more than just the business of carrying goods and passengers. Trains were associated with romance, adventure and, frequently,(10)…… luxury. The great steam locomotives that thundered across the land were the jet airliners of their (11) ........, carrying passengers in comfort over vast distances in unimaginably short times. But the railways (12) .........more than revolutionise travel; they also (13)……. a distinctive and permanent mark on the British landscape. Whole towns and industrial centres (14)……. up around major rail junctions, monumental bridges and viaducts crossed rivers and valleys and the railway stations themselves became (15)……. places to spend time between journeys. 0 A amount 1 A revolve 2 A altering 3 A route 4 A pursued 5 A cancelling 6 A reach 7 A further 8 A larger 9 10 11 12 A A A A served considerable date caused B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B figure enclose amending way followed subtracting capacity over higher functioned generous stage did set stood liked C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C sum encircle adapting line succeeded cutting facility beyond bigger represented plentiful day produced settled burst desirable D quantity D orbit D adjusting D course D chased D abolishing D hold D above D greater D performed D sizeable D phase D turned D left D sprang D wanted

13 A laid 14 A jumped 15 A preferable

2 Driving from Beijing to Paris
Every (0) ... begins with a single step.' We might (1) ......this proverb for the 16,000 km Beijing to Paris car rally, and say that every rally begins with a (2) .......... of the wheel. From China, several hundred courageous men and women will (3) ...out for Paris in pursuit of what, for many, is likely to prove an impossible (4) ... .Everybody is prepared for the worst and expects a high drop-out (5) ... , especially on the rally's difficult first (6) ... across central China and over the

high mountain (7) ...of the Himalayas .`If twenty-five cars (8) ... it to Paris, we'll be doing well,' says Philip Young, the rally organiser. Now planned as an annual event, the first Beijing-Paris car rally took place in 1907. It was won by Prince Borghese, an Italian adventurer, who crossed the (9) ... line just a few metres (10) ... of the only other car to complete the race. Nowadays, not many people know about Prince Borghese, but at the time his achievement was (11) ... as comparable to that of Marco Polo, who travelled from Venice to China in the thirteenth century. According to the (12) ... , all the cars in the rally must be more than thirty years old, which means that the (13) ... roads and high altitude are a (14) ...test of both the cars and the drivers. A sense of adventure is essential. One driver said,`Our (15) ...is to have a good time, enjoy the experience and the magnificent scenery - and the adventure of a lifetime.' 0A 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10 A 11A 12A 13 A 14 A 15 A journey adapt revolution head vision rate period crossings get closing forward thought orders crude firm aim B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B travel moderate circle move fantasy number stage passes take final ahead referred rules undeveloped strict target C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C route improve rotation set hope speed time directions have ending front regarded laws broken severe proposal D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D way form turn try dream frequency round passages make finishing advance noted customs rough grave intent

3 Smart shoes
Smart shoes that (0) ... their size throughout the day could soon be available. A prototype of such a shoe has already been produced and a commercial (1) ... may be in production within a few years. The shoe contains sensors that constantly (2) ...he amount of (3) ... left in it. If the foot has become too large, a tiny valve opens and the shoe (4)…slightly. The entire control system is about 5mm square and is (5) ... inside the shoe. This radical shoe (6) ... a need because the volume of the (7) ... foot can change by as much as 8% during the course of the day. The system is able to learn about the wearer's feet and (8) ... up a picture of the size of his or her feet throughout the day. It will allow the shoes to change in size by up to 8% so that they always fit (9)... .They are obviously more comfortable and less likely to (10)…blisters. From an athlete's point of view, they can help improve (11) ...a little, and that is why the first (12)… for the system is likely to be in a sports shoe. Eventually, this system will find a (13)… in other household items, from beds that automatically change to fit the person sleeping in them, to power tools that (14) …..themselves to the user's hand for better grip. There is no reason why the system couldn't be adapted for use in hundreds of consumer (15) ... 0 A adjust B fit C reform D move 1 A assortment B version C style D variety 2 A prove B confirm D check C inspect 3 A room B gap C area D emptiness 4 A amplifies B develops C expands D increases 5 A located B sited C established D laid 6 A detects B finds C meets D faces 7 A average B general C usual D medium

8 A 9 A 10 A 11 A 12 A 13 A 14 A 15 A

build exactly provoke achievement purpose function shape commodities

B pick B absolutely B form B performance B exercise B part B change B possessions

C C C C C C C C

grow completely initiate success use way respond goods

D D D D D D D D

set totally cause winning operation place convert objects

4
We really can tell if we are being watched
Stories about how people somehow know when they are being watched have been going around for years. However, few (0)…. have been made to investigate the phenomenon scientifically. Now, with the completion of the largest ever study of the so-called staring effect, there is impressive evidence that this is a recognisable and (1) ... sixth sense. The study (2) ... hundreds of children. For the experiments, they sat with their eyes (3) ... so they could not see, and with their backs to other children, who were told to either stare at them or look away. Time and time again the results showed that the children who could not see were able to (4) ... when they were being stared at. In a (5) ... of more than 18,000 trials (6)…… worldwide, the children (7)……. sensed when they were being watched almost 70% of the time. The experiment was repeated with the (8) ... precaution of putting the children who were being watched outside the room, (9)… from the starers by the windows. This was done just in case there was some (10) ... going on with the children telling each other whether they were looking or not. This (11) ... the possibility of sounds being (12) ... between the children. The results, though less impressive, were more or less the same. Dr Sheldrake, the biologist who designed the study, believes that the results are (13)….enough to find out through further experiments (14)…..how the staring effect might actually (15) ... 0A 1A 2A 3A 4 A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10 A 11 A 12 A 13 A 14 A 15 A tries genuine involved shaded find sum worked over correctly attached separated pretending prevented delivered satisfying really come about B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B tests accepted contained wrapped notice collection worked through exactly added parted lying omitted transported convincing carefully be looked at C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C attempts received comprised masked tell mass carried on thoroughly connected split cheating evaded transmitted concluding definitely set out D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D aims sure enclosed covered reveal total carried out perfectly increased divided deceiving ended distributed persuading precisely be held up

5
PAPER
Just (0)….a day without paper,' reads one advertisement for a Finnish paper company. It adds, `You almost (1) ...see our products every day.' And they're right. But in most industrial countries, people are a]so (2) ..... to paper - whether it's for holding their groceries, for drying their hands or for (3) .... them with the daily news - that its (4) ..... in their dailylives passes largely unnoticed. At one (5)….paper was in short supply and was used mainly for important documents, but more recently,

The company (6) .. of mustards. rapidly and in 1854 it moved to a suburb on the (7) ...growing economies and new technologies have (6) . visitors love to (1) . back to the nineteenth century. Colman's mustard was famous in many countries... the small.. Jeremiah Colman began to make mustard in 1814 in a nearby village. the history of mustard.. of Norwich. In particular.. The Mustard Shop is usually high on everybody's (2) . a type of sauce.. How much paper do we really need and how much is wasted? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A believe A positively Aconscious A providing A task A time A called on A total A point A Instead A method A involved A puts B imagine B obviously B acquainted B delivering B operation B instance B come around B portion B goal B Besides B order B contained B raises C realise C certainly C familiar C contributing C service C date C brought about C number C purpose C Otherwise C trend C held C gets D suppose D absolutely D accustomed D giving D role D occasion D drawn up D amount D result D Alternatively D system D connected D places 6 THE MUSTARD SHOP Norwich. .. a city in the east of England. there are more than 450 different grades of paper.. water and air resources... Upstairs there is a small museum where visitors can (10) .... all designed for a different (8) . shopping centre for thousands of people...of paper used. It is a shop not to be (12) .. in paper production.. cheese and other food. soon changed the appearance of the local (5) .. The yellow fields. between mustard. a collection of old Colman's posters and an exhibition (11) ... full of ustard flowers whose seeds were required for Colman's factory.. .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A known A explore A account A joinn A comes A view A expanded A limits A reality A amount A review B common B enquire B brochure B tie Bgoes B scenery B enlarged B frontiers B fact B extent B watch C popular C research C list C union C belongs C background C increased C sides C existence C range C examine D normal D analyse D guide D link D leads D nature D strengthened D outskirts D force D set D remark . when visiting Norwich. are high. is likely to be one of growth and interdependence.. . The company is still in (8) .a dramatic increase in the (7) .. However.. some people predicted a `paperless office'. and Norwich (4) ... unusual shops hidden away in Norwich's narrow streets.. of interesting shops to see.... This (12) .... (9) . in terms of the world's land.. It is a careful reproduction of a typical mustard shop of a hundred years ago and sells a wide (9). the company opened The Mustard Shop. and many people continue to enjoy eating mustard with meat.. is a (0) . the widespread use of new technologies has gone hand-in-hand with an increased use of paper.... In 1973..... Research into the relationship between paper use and the use of computers has shown that the general (10) . Today... some important questions. The (3) ...... By this time.. the costs (11) . Decades ago.

He also wanted people to be able to shop in all kinds of weather. more specialist audience.. quiet and spacious shopping environment with large car parks. . But nowadays television and computers (5) . an endless stream of easily (6) . They looked forward to these (3) .. but while these housed only small speciality shops. albeit with an older. entertainment. .... They did this by reading aloud. with. of a TV set may have encouraged a very lazy response from (10) . and would remember and discuss what they had seen for many weeks afterwards.. outside. up they were taken to public places of entertainment . ..live performance is gone forever. As there was no need to (9)… out bad . 0 A advantage 1 A controlling 2 A developed 3 A circumstances 4 A sensation 5 A supply 6 A applicable 7 A designs 8 A special 9 A attendance 10 A spectators 11 A want 12 A famous B benefit B handling B grew B occasions B action B send B convenient B inventions B peculiar B presence B onlookers B appeal B favourite C profit C doing C advanced C incidents C thrill C stock C available C exhibits C specific C being C viewers C pressure C popular D gain D playing D brought D situations D excitement D store D free D appearances D particular D company D listeners D desire D approved 8 SHOPPING MALLS Victor Gruen.... some of the older shopping arcades of city centres. . the sense of witnessing a very (8) .11 12 A explaining A unnoticed B announcing B missed C expressing C escaped D discovering D left 7 THE PERFORMING ARTS In the past. which (7) .. and children quickly accept these marvellous (7) ........ the shopping `streets' from the parking (8) . but the (11) . .... But all is not lost.as a very ordinary part of their everyday lives. in their own homes. revolutionised shopping in the 1950s by creating the type of shopping centre that we now (0) . The (9) . with great (4) . acting or (1) ...... circus or ballet..the theatre.. opera. Access to the whole shopping mall was gained by using the main doors.. He (3) . of adults..... on using building designs that he knew people would feel (4) .. British children were frequently encouraged to try out their performing skills for the (0) ... a shopping mall.. Gruen's (1) was to provide a pleasant... of those with ambitions to become performing artists themselves does not seem to have been at all diminished. Gruen's shopping malls were on a much grander (6) .. And live performances in public are still relatively (12) .. This was done to (5) . As they (2) .. an American architect..... For many children. . building in the suburbs....... but placed them in landscaped `streets' that were entirely enclosed and often covered with a curved glass roof.. a musical instrument. which usually (2) .....

put 11. we compare the situation here with the one back home. (15)… . band 13.A. in popularity.are bought (5)or wrapped in newspaper. wagons C. with them.to other uses. No environmentalist could have (3) …about it. padding . set C.. At (6) …we would carry one plastic bag separately. The (9)… is that. best 7.. For eggs we took a reusable plastic tray with us.A. dressed up in their layers of attractive. shops no longer needed windows and doors. A.A. In many cities.yet. question 10. sizes D. These are the (14)…products that demand your attention on the TV advertisements. clients D. single D.. biscuits.A. two eggs or 100 grams of sugar. simple B. There are no supermarket (4)… to push around. They hold out the (11)…of a clean.A. jars. people need to buy in small quantities. given D. qualified B. example D. urban consumers in Sri Lanka cannot afford the luxury of waste.A. we do not have a rubbish problem .A. like so many otherdeveloping countries.rice. flour. accused 4. bit by bit D. carriages 5. consumers C. We may not be the most environmentally (1) …citizens in the world but.A. made B. vegetables. criticised C. sole 9. range C. 0. It is quite normal to ask for a (8)… envelope. loose 6. case C. my partner Shahid and I used to have a cane basket we (2)… with us to the Sunday market or pola every week. packs C. set B. evidence D. point B. customers B. packaging D.. compared with this. took up 3. amounts C. in pieces C. Most people do not buy more from the grocers than they know they will actually consume. levels 8. from shop to shop. took along D. trolleys D.A. worried D. But in recent years Western-style supermarkets have begun to spring up in Colombo.. wheel barrows B. advantage C. complained B. You need a good strong basket at the po/a. and people could wander (10) . efficient.. most C highest D.. singular C... restaurants and other forms of entertainment are also (12) . tins or boxes that can be (10). store D. maximum B. fruit. shopping malls now (11) . Like many shoppers in Colombo. eggs . disapproved D. rates B.A. Most Items .. free B. cinemas. took over B. promise B. streamlined service to customers.. buyers 1.A.A.weather. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A consider A direction A resulted A insisted A favourable A model A measure A disconnected A strips A hold A freely A contain A becoming B know B aim B sought B demanded B agreeable B imitate B height B withdrew B lines B get B loosely B concern B growing C call C search C intended C requested C comfortable C repeat C size C separated C areas C stay C simply C consist C raising D label D view D meant D emphasised D enviable D shadow D scale D parted D plots D keep D entirely D compose D advancing 9 TALKING RUBBISH Reduce! Re-use! Recycle!The message hits Canadian (0)……… through all the media.A. for the most part. experienced 2. may have imported a problem that once never existed. A (12)… of imported goods. took away C. . much more than just shops. colourful (13)…beckons from the shelves. sight 12.They re-use whatever they can and are loath to discard bags. packets B. When income (7)…are low. As newcomers from Sri Lanka. concerned C. Sri Lanka.

..of engineers and historians For example.put A. took D...at least B. part in a coast-to-coast ceremony to commemorate the passing of a great man. very 15. up clever gadgets. to his colleagues: 'Well. a (5) .. of most major cities.went out C.role C.turned out A. millions of Americans (0) . In many ways.received 11 Under the city streets While skyscraper offices and elegant apartment blocks remain the public (0) ...caught C were C. .set D.get D...lower B. He possessedthe key characteristics that an inventor needs to (8)…… a success of inventions. One should never (6)…how revolutionary some of Edison's inventions were..4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A joined A..full B. to the city is the River Fleet.view D.gain A. As well C... great river which previously had beautiful houses on its (6) ..14.... Perhaps the greatest (4) .that is. sadly.indicated D. of experts is also important.. there are more than 150 kilometres of rivers under the streets of London.. It now goes underground in the north of the city and (7) ..mislead D.. over and.. is their names.... these cities also have a mass of secret tunnels and hidden pipes below ground which keep everything working.even though C.. forgotten or neglected by all but a tiny (1)..underestimate A..served C. Most have been (2) ..achieve C. Edison is the perfect example of an inventor . with total disbelief by eminent scientists.This other world exists.. notably sheer determination. likely D.notifying D. in homes and offices from New York to California.. until he lit up whole streets with his lights.' Knowing when to take no (11) .instructing C.shapes B. the death of arguably the most important inventor of (3) .... not just someone who (7). .for all D..effect A.by far Anotice Agathered B held B. ... (10). 0 1 2 3 . all that (3) .regard B.. Edison's proposal for electric lighting circuitry was (12) .drawn D..came off B. The London Underground (8) .1.announcing A..put off D. .000 things that don't work. and many of his inventions played a crucial(5) in the development of modern technology...decrease C.place B. into the River Thames by Blackfriars Bridge. but someone whose products transform the lives of millions.noted C. similar C Among D.distinguished B. such an impact on everyday life. Edison famously tried thousands of materials while working on a new type of battery.attention C. just B. .. In addition B.creates A.all D..forms D.. Along 10 THOMAS EDISON On the night of 21 October 1931.A. The ceremony (2) .. Lights (1) .make B.. time:Thomas Alva Edison.share D..entire C.marked A...000 kilometres of underground railway track winding under the capital .informing B...dreams C.had B. Few inventors have (4) . .whole A. reacting to failure by cheerfully (9) .A.. we know 8..

arranged A. connects D.. some are used as film sets. and. settled C.brief B.hidden C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A catch A.leaks C. use D..flows B.sharp D. a (4) . put D .. his family for lunch.covered A.. Then I was(11) .difference A. for me to visit her and her family.number A.going 13 Mountain climbing .Although C.Since D.banks C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A .and more than 100 stations below street level.miss A. face A.. contrast D. exercise C.contain B....Despite A..consists D.contains B. forgotten.stops B. where I spent my first night. ordered D.. port for a cyclist's arrival. approach D.lay D.knowledge B.experience A.... Within minutes...few D. on my way with a fresh loaf of bread to keep me (12) ..leads A.broken C surface Ctotal C..stays A..brought D top D.protected B. my time well... Some have had their entrances on the street turned into restaurants and shops.ready B.fast C. the ferry in early May.rides B. several small islands and various parts of the countryside.passed A.holds A.up A. to be the local baker..coasts B. join C.. a person travelling alone sometimes meets with unexpected hospitality. (10) .ive C...doing B.making C.gets A..lets D.has C.. he had (10) .Include A.suspected B. consist D convenient D. most (11) .out B.capable A. .wondered A. but most entrances have been (12) . he contacted his daughter in Odense.serve B.take A.once A..cut 12 A good start to a holiday I had never been to Denmark before.loss D. I little (1) ...see B. that by the end of the trip I'd have made such lasting friendships. over D. information D.....fixed B. moves C.. In my (6) .... I wanted to (2) .. down...keeps D. He insisted that I should (9) .greet A. I arrived at Esbjerg.change B. . begun C.waste C.rapid A...pulled B outline Bamount B.. being D. Along some underground railway lines.. pick B.remains C.absence B.rims D. while we were eating.. glimpse of the platforms of more than 40 closed stations which have been left under the city. I got into conversation with a cheerful man who turned (8) . exception C. observation C. and this trip was no (7) . and the feeling that this would turn out to be a wonderful holiday.sent B.prior D. so I had planned a route which would (3) .lie A..... out of town and own to Ribe..doubted C..In Ribe. gain D judged D.Unless B. where tourist information can be obtained and money changed.then C..borders A. and when I set out to (0) ... enclose C favourable C..past B. find C.sheltered D. commuters can sometimes catch a (9) .last B. in C.. A cycle track (5) .

priceless 1 A. have helped her up..indicates 7 A. prized D.out of his way. of pastimes is mountain climbing..support C..demand 14 FRIDAY THE THIRTEENTH Police are hunting for a hit-and-run driver who knocked a teenage cyclist off her bike in East Street. 13th May.. many different skills..shows D. a combination of gymnastic ability. "Sarah was lucky..requires 3 A." she said.... The Volvo (10) . The number of dangers (11) . I think I'll stay in bed. making the rope secure so that it is (7) . Rock climbing (2) ... "He could at (11) .hold B.sent D... out of Westwood Road onto Henley Road in front of the teenager's bicycle.." said her father.keep 6 A. Usually one person climbs while the other climbers (5) ...reliable D. back to safety. he or she can be held by the others and (10) .. Ice axes are used for 9) .. to ride a bike.felt C..act 9A.." The accident(7)….. She bruised her thigh and shoulder and her bicycle was (1) . of that sort of thing but I will now..calls C.faced D. I don't see why he should get away with it..a name or address and before Sarah could get his number...signals B.sure B. And the (12) .insists B... .work 4 A. but I couldn't. out how much weight a particular rock will (4) . by climbers is almost endless.steps into the snow and for testing the ground.supply 5 A. on Friday.at the (8)…with Westwood Road at about 6. the otherclimbers which way to go. With much mountain climbing.. touched B..make D.. Derek..offer D.pulled B..stay B. "I tried to (3) .try B..stand C... The most experienced climber goes first and (6) .points C. each climber at a distance of approximately six metres from the next... snow skills (8) ..play C..need B.One of the most difficult but (0) ...gap C precious C. a very important part..continue C.lack D.... of oxygen at high altitudes makeslife even more difficult for mountaineers. "Everyone at work kept (4) .cutting 10 A. on about it being Friday 13th. It is (13)…that nobody took down the number.possess D.orders Dset D. Mountaineers climb in groups of three or four.attention. had a lucky (0) .hold of the rope.. I don't usually take any (6) . 0 A. for the others to follow. when she was sent reeling by a black Volvo on her way home from work..... imagination and observation.provide B. The modern climber must (1) . Sarah was able to go .safe 8 A.splitting D.. .do B. ..breaking C. 17....." Though still too (14)…... but perhaps the most necessary skill is being able to (3) . He can't have been (12)….own 2 A. I'm not a bit (5)… and wouldn't change any of my plans just because Friday 13th is supposed to be unlucky.dependable C... . Sarah Tucker..put C.control C.rewarding B...given 11 A.30pm as Sarah was making her (9) .The driver stopped for a moment but then drove off without (2) . home to the Harley Estate.tearing B..maintain D.marked 12 A. I don't know why the driver didn't see her. if the leader falls. Climbers always tie themselves together so that.

is made of keratin and has no proven medicinal (12)…Traditional substitutes...5 metres was the longest in the world...The rhino horn is included in many (11) for disorders ranging from fevers to nosebleeds.. ingredient of many of their medicines. ... Recently. Ivory is a luxury. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ` A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A factories amounts reason essential chance design hardly vary threat rejection business recipes capacity regarded imagined variation B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B plants bundles intention real search plan even switch danger denial commerce aids values valued dreamed difference C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C workshops collections need actual fight programme nearly modify disaster refusal selling remedies control known thought gap D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D studios groups purpose true race form still adjust 'menace protest trading doses powers reputed viewed comparison .. conservationists met to (5)… a campaign to persuade countries where rhino horn is (6)... in rhino horn. as second best. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A break crashed leaving go chatting irrational notice took place junction route pulled once paying unfavourable discouraged work B escape B harmed B presenting B get B running B prejudiced B consideration B came about B joining B course B thrust B least B giving B inopportune B shaken B post C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C escapade devastated noting be going unreasonable note finished up roundabout way ran most attracting undesirable overcome job D incident D damaged D suggesting D stay D rambling D superstitious D care D turned up D crossing D path D crashed D best D providing D unfortunate D confused D employment 15 THE TRADE IN RHINO HORN Last year thieves broke into a Scottish castle and stole only one thing: a rhino horn. for the black rhino. which at 1. could save the life of their child. The biggest (8) to the survival of the rhinoceros is the (9) … of certain countries to enforce a ban on domestic (10) . such as horn from buffalo or antelope.. Horn. in Marlow on Monday...The battle is (14)… to be winnable.. part of the traditional medicine to (7) . And in Africa poachers continue to die in the (4) .. But it may be harder than the battle against the trade in ivory.of smashing them to powder to make the (3) .back to (15) . for there is a (15)…between the two commodities.. In China pharmaceutical(0)… have been building up (1) of antiques made from rhino horn. like fingernails. to substitutes. are (13) . rhino horn.... for the sole (2) .. people believe.

silver-smithing and (9)…Outdoor (10) ..Prices vary." It sounded like a splendid idea when the government (6) . "It is a grand national project that has become a great national scandal... Sophisticated electronic (7)…would help keep the library's irreplaceable stock at an optimal(8)… and humidity...came in June when inspectors discovered that 60 miles of new metal shelving had started to (3)… and needed to be (4) .. the library would also include (11)… galleries. to open in1990.16 THE NEW BRITISH LIBRARY Originally commissioned 14 years ago. Adventure and Special Interest Holidays in Scotland. a 300-ton schooner.That would (5) .. go on an archaeological holiday and be (4) .. . a restaurant and a conference hall... of Scotland from the sea but haven't got your own boat and prefer an experienced hand at the helm..can choose from a wide range too . . If you've always wanted to see the west (11) .." said Brian Lake. the project has been(1)… by political infighting. "Things have gone from bad to worse. members of the cabinet ordered a (14)… report and discovered that the committee responsible for (15) .. from gliding to golf. A computer-controlled delivery system would provide books to readers within minutes of a (9) . (12) .. of government. ... The start of construction was delayed until 1982 by arguments about planning and by a (13) . For creative people.. and part of the experience is that you are one of the (13) .... Four years later. for example..... containing (2)…of dozens of ideas for 'different' holidays together with addresses to (3) .. there are many opportunities open to you..... That was the plan. You can.. However.. of teaching and accommodation. rather than days.. there are any number of arts and crafts (6)…that offer instruction as well as (7)… . depending on the (8) . Subjects range from painting and music to wood-carving. try STA Schooners. on the Solway Coast and the Early Christian remains at Whithorn. poor planning and financial problems.. to the many prehistoric (5) . The Scottish Tourist Board publishes an excellent (1) ..from bird watching to camping. the new British Library was (0) .. They (12) . week-long voyages in the Tall Ship Malcolm Miller.the project hadn't met in four years.. .... the opening of the project's first phase for yet another two years. Write for a copy to any of their offices. And to (10) . other needs of the reading public.. an association of writers and scholars who are not happy with plans for the new library. 0 1 2 3 4 5 A projected A delayed A comeback A fade A substituted A distract B supposed B bothered B setback B melt B replaced B destroy 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A imposed A items A heat A reservation A fit A exposition A especially A variation A progress A guarding B unveiled B computers B temperature B demand B serve B show B anyway B difference B progression B supervising C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C assumed infected drawback mould abandoned postpone claimed equipment cold wish bring exhibition eventually shift progressive overlooking D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D pretended restricted cutback rust rejected postdate manifested tools warmth request obey demonstration meanwhile change progressing watching 17 THEME HOLIDAYS IN SCOTLAND If you like to build your holiday round a theme or particular (0) ... secretary of the Regular readers... The most recent (2) ... .its £164 million project in1978..

this could be the ideal holiday for you.... of conscious design marked the first step on a road that (4).. in childhood and persisting into old age.. .. to throw things is one of the most primitive and deep-seated of our instincts. man (2) . and brought to their (12) . that this (6) . It would seem.. which is the origin of most (8) ... forty passengers. The more mature ambition to throw things swiftly and accurately.. but that (3) . form at an early stage in history. 0 A clues 1 A value 2 A pursued 3 A act 4 A brings 5 A instant 6 A feeling 7 A coming 8 A exterior 9 A suitable 10 A involved 11 A invented 12 A last 13 A matters 14 A destroyed 15 A lengths B keys B approve B hunted for B deed B moves B day B urge B arriving B outside B fitting B meant B magined B older B substances B ruined B extents C responses C understand C chased C action C takes C hour C encouragement C appearing C external C related C told C planned C latest C materials C spoiled C areas D resolutions D realize D followed up D event D leads D moment D emotion D growing D outdoor D chosen D showed D produced D final D sources D exploded D distances 19 ... games... weapon and the ability to throw it with force and accuracy (10) . The arrow was the first true weapon capable of maintaining direction over considerable (15) . his food. this we must first go back to the time when primitive.. (7) .a pleasure for which you pay quite a lot. the difference between eating and starving. it is doubtful if we could produce better bows and arrows than those that (14) . in fact.. the armies of the past...... to (1) . We cannot know with any certainty when man first deliberately shaped weapons for throwing. However. a puzzle in which the essential (0) .. and only birds and insects flew... It is significant that such weapons were (11) . If we were restricted to the same (13) . 0 A action B activity C act D acting 1 A prospectus B catalogue C brochure D journal 2 A data B facts C information D details 3 A visit B contact C write D know 4 A invited B referred C introduced D presented 5 A situations B sites C sights D sightings 6 A practices B studies C careers D courses 7 A relaxation B learning C improvement D recuperation 8 A amount B quality C capacity D quantity 9 A sailing B water-skiing C stone-cutting D chess 10 A experts B sports C activities D enthusiasts 11 A bank B shore C coast D seaside 12 A set B run C take D stage 13 A group B staff C team D crew 14 A to look after B to help C to treat D to take on 15 A buy B afford C pay D spend 18 THE BEGINNINGS OF FLIGHT The story of man's mastery of the air isalmost as old as man himself.... probably has its roots in the ages when the possession of a (9) ...... were not found until a very late stage. ..... a luxury floating hotel with a crew of thirty (14) .. from the spear and the arrow to the aeroplane and the giant rocket of the present (5) . Hebridean Island Cruises offer a variety of cruises to many of the most beautiful spots on the western seaboard in the Hebridean Princess. If you're lucky with the weather and can (15) .. . . It was to be centuries before man himself could fly. it..

..and more can be done . on the easy opportunity... section of the book and then submit the book and the translation to a (10) .BECOMING A TRANSLATOR The role of the translator in enabling literature to pass beyond its natural frontiers is receiving growing recognition. age for offending is fifteen. and most crime is not carried out by professionals.. The least publishers will (6) . of being a victim of crime (8) ..REVERSING THE TREND Crime. to secure their cars by locking all the doors and shutting all the windows. before commissioning a translation is a fairly lengthy (7) . The first difficulty the beginner will (4) . serious crime. Of course....... against crime. publishers will (13) .. More (12) ..... If opportunities like these did not exist. nature which they already have in mind. there are many ways you can help reverse the trend. is the unwillingness of publishers to entrust a translation to anyone who has not already (5) . . of life for yourself and your community. the book as such but if they are favourably (14) . .... Much is being done . the (7) . This (9) ... to such would-be translators. by the translation.. for example.. The chances are that many crimes would not be committed. a reputation for sound work.the (6) .. greatly depending on where you live.. not (3) . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A regard field work made encounter formed instruct instance eager substantial fit finish surely exclude impressed common B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B view category employment given involve set oblige case nervous main right lead probably reject convinced same C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C awareness ground occupation told reveal founded demand specimen agitated grand convenient effect certainly object affected similar D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D consideration class line shown introduce established direct model excited plentiful suitable result expectedly disapprove taken joint 20 CRIME ..... in a commission to translate the book.. opportunity is the (10) ... Also. You can play a part in it.....In (0) .. of the general increase in this (1)… . .. criminals would have a much harder time. Perhaps the best way the would-be translator can begin is to select some book of the type which he or she feels competent and (8) . ...... they may very possibly commission some other book of a (15) .. Property crimes (4) . if unpublished.. as we are all (0) . Surveys have shown that approximately one in five drivers do not always (11) . But we are not (1) .. Motor cars. which would release more police time for (13) . of the applicant's work. but. nor is it carefully planned. publisher... it is not surprising that many people with literary interests and a knowledge of languages should think of adopting translating as a full-or part-time (2) .. with crime rests with the police and the courts. . Most crime is against property. If he or she is extremely lucky.... and in 30 per cent of domestic burglaries the burglar simply walks in without having to use (12) . has been a growing problem all over the world in the last thirty years. The first step towards preventing crime is understanding its (2) . are a sitting target for the criminal. to much crime prevention... to translate.. the majority of whom stop offending as they grow older . if you care about improving the (15) . the primary esponsibility for (14) . and not surprisingly. this may (11) . by criminals on the easy. 0 A aware B conscious C informed D known 1 A unprepared B hopeless C powerless D weak . even. Some advice may usefully be (3) .. translate a (9) ..to reverse the trend... however... by adolescents and young men. They are often (5) ..

but.. trained in... that secretarial staff should already be (11) .... A good secretary was an unremarkable one.of word processing packages... . the secret machinery of organisations.. Companies are (10) .. to be seen and not heard.. . it can be something rather surprising. The word itself has been with us since the 14th century and comes from the mediaeval Latin word secretarius meaning `something hidden'. business see all these developments as (14) . with the (7) . some personnel work and some research. ..... orders. The skills required are more (9) ...2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A nature the victim increase performed peak percentage varies awareness answer trouble force removing containing quality B B B B B B B B B B B B B B type the public thrive started major seriousness adapts seizing method bother threat facing destroying peacefulness C C C C C C C C C. the silent ones mysteriously (4) . Secretaries started out as those members of staff with knowledge hidden from others. A few years ago `something hidden' probably meant (5) . upgraded itself and the role has changed to one closer to the original meaning... C C C C C reason residents develop committed maximum rate transforms reliance way care tools tackling fighting enjoyment D D D D D D D D D D D D D D method citizens happen done top risk adjusts taking key ensure tricks dealing coping way 21 SECRETARIES What's in a name? In the case of the secretary. the jobs which secretaries are being asked to do. The professionals in the (13) .. 0 A orders 1 A explanation 2 A elderly 3 A characteristic 4 A operating 5 A kept 6 A satisfying 7 A advent 8 A truly 9 A thorough 10 A insisting 11 A considerably 12 A group 13 A appointment 14 A improving 15 A turn B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B handles detail unfashionable related pushing covered obeying approach validly demanding ordering highly collection hiring intensifying change C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C runs definition outdated likely vibrating packed completing entrance correctly severe claiming vastly cluster recruitment advancing switch D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D controls characteristic aged appropriate effecting held minding opening effectively critical pressing supremely range engagement heightening swing ... the job (8) . keeps records and does clerical work for others'.... a (12) .. correspondence.. The dictionary calls a secretary `anyone who (0) . of new technology. . In addition to this they need the management skills to take on some administration. .. out of sight. and more technical.. In the past it was usual to regard the secretary as almost dehumanised.. ... . looks a bit (2) . It may also encourage a dramatic (15) . . or at least familiar with.. .. But while this particular job (1) . and then returning mouse-like to his or her station behind the typewriter... tucked away with all the other secretaries and typists. efficiently (6) ..... in office practice.. the word's original meaning is a hundred times more exotic and perhaps more (3) .. .

in the USA. tell the story of the event. His pictures of a runner (1)…in every history of photography. ... to buildings so that original (10) ..... beside the boat and popped their heads out of the water to give us a wide grin. are preserved .. in the area. which is midway along the (6) . . With the engine (1) . . their cumbersome cameras behind.. .. . sports photographers were as interested in the stories behind the sport as in the sport itself. Eventually. it wasn't long before half a dozen dolphins came swimming around us.. At the (0) ... The significance of television as a transmitter of sport has (5) . two came up (2) . the limits of photographic technology with his study of a (3) . the still image as a reminder of the game.22 SPORTS PHOTOGRAPHY Sport as a spectacle.. sports events.... ...... the glamour of sport.. of the event as for emotions and relationships with which they can (10) . Edward Muybridge was experimenting with photographs of movement... we were told by the captain to (0) . But even the keenest golfer needs other diversions and we soon found the resorts had plenty to (5) . But the best sports photographers today still do more than (14) . (6) . ..... but see them through the eyes of the media. have developed together. The (7) . the colour and the action. Charleston.. Taking a guided horse and carriage tour through the quiet back streets you get a real (8) ... it is (4) .. In fact.... .. Looking back.. the prospects of still photographers.. of milk hitting the surface of a dish of milk.... The state has long been popular with golfers and. (12) . with all its movement and action....They (15)…in a single dramatic moment the real emotions of the participants... our eyes open. a golfer's paradise.... Strict regulations (9) .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A turn exhibit enlarged splash put improved choose high visit preservation identify highly Initial outlines simply seize B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B opening show extended drop keep aided value wide attend store share radically First signals alone grasp C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C origin feature prolonged dash lay benefited praise main follow mark unite extremely Early emphasises singly capture D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D introduction demonstrate spread drip leave assisted cheer vast meet record join severely Primary forms only secure 23 HOLIDAYS IN SOUTH CAROLINA Roaring across the bay in a motorised rubber boat. with dozens of (3) ... Contemporary sports photography (13) . All those people who watch a sports event on TV.. of the 20th century. ... majority of people do not actually (8) . we can see how (11) . Another advance was the development of miniature cameras in the late 1920s which made it possible for sports photographers to (4) ..... and photography as a way of recording action.. of the city's past.. Dolphin watching is just one of the many unexpected attractions of a holiday in South Carolina.. they look not so much for a (9) .. sports photography has changed. And when they look at sports photography... Another milestone was when the scientist/photographer Harold Edgerton (2) ... .... is one of the most interesting cities in America and is where the first shots in the Civil War were (7) ...

.. the usual rainfall for the (14) . however. . given the name Helen. a chair and umbrella. month. (13) . the high temperatures were ufficient to set off some (15) .. and just sit back and watch the pelicans diving for fish.. A tropical storm.... . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A A A A A A A A A A A A A kept extent shore residue extreme waited outbursts after general sting drowned only section B B B B B B B B B B B B B remained quantity coast remnant extravagant found outbreaks plus standard prick flooded fairly side C C C C C C C C C C C C C lasted proportion sands rest excessive felt outputs later medium stab immersed hardly face D D D D D D D D D D D D D held deal beach remains exaggerated warned outlets more average poke overflowed nearly part .. From noon on Friday. an island resort about 18 km long and (11) . The town centre of Shanwei. . (14) ...... hit Hong Kong on Saturday morning... On Tuesday morning...... which compared favourably with Alicante in southern Spain at 29°C. in Helen's tail..... Even on Sunday there was a (9) .... twice the normal August rainfall. On Saturday. when 468 mm of rain fell in the sixty hours leading up to midday on Sunday. of rain became more and more frequent so that by midnight on Sunday.. was coping with some (4) . the length of the island and this is perfect for all manner of water sports. ... It has a fantastic sandy beach (12) .. was (10) . of sunshine. showers..... a thunderstorm at Lyons in eastern France deposited 99 mm of rain in just six hours. .. settled last week. (11). head for an open (15) . of England was 28. ... for the month of August..... conditions.. like a foot. in advance. though her presence had been (5) .. 0 A stand B keep C hold D fix 1 A turned out B turned away C turned off D turned over 2 A direct B right C precise D exact 3 A courses B pitches C grounds D courts 4 A fully B truly C honestly D purely 5 A show B provide C offer D supply 6 A beach B coast C sea D shore 7 A thrown B aimed C pulled D fired 8 A significance B meaning C sense D comprehension 9 A apply B happen C agree D occur 10 A points B characters C aspects D features 11 A formed B shaped C made D moulded 12 A lying B running C going D following 13 A alternately B Conversely C Contrastingly D Alternatively 14 A charge B lend C hire D loan 15 A space B room C gap D place 24 UNIVERSAL WET WEEKEND The weather across much of the British Isles (0) . at 367 mm.2°C.South of Charleston lies Hilton Head.. Although most of Europe enjoyed sun.. .. if you feel like doing nothing. there had been 333 mm of rainfall. .. with a good (1) . tropical storm Gabrielle moved across the Gulf of Mexico and overnight rain (13).. the lunchtime temperature at Bridlington on the north-east (2) .. not far off the (8) .... of the world... of the globe. . The (3) .. thirty-six hours (7) .. the showers and (6) . On the other (12) . near Hong Kong..

warm D. A. A sheet of glass serves a dual purpose . resources 5. most of it is thrown away. extols C. evidence 2. doubt C. presented D. conversion B. way 7.A. store B. window 5. As sunshine rapidly…(6)…the plate. argued B. A. energy B. It operates when pipes on the plate channel water to and from the …(5)…hot water tank. likelihood D. wall C. profits D. concern B. A. A.. favoured C. the prevailing heat is absorbed by the water as it passes. (1) … to popular belief. It is essential that the sun must be high enough in the sky to …(9) … the water. originally C. its importance should never be underestimated. But there seems little (1) _________ it is here to say. dispose 4. The plastics themselves are extremely energy rich – they have a higher calorific value than coal and one (8)___________ of ‘recovery’ strongly (9) _________ by the plastic manufacturers is the (10)_________ of waste plastic into a fuel. allows B. A. piecemeal D.13 A 14 A 15 A overtook total huge B exceeded B sole B weighty C passed C single C heavy D beat D whole D strong 25 If you’re an environmentalist. gleams 7. A. enclose 3. gas or coal – non-renewable natural (4) _________. process D. A. A. The plate is kept warm by…(8)… the release of infra-red radiation. national C. trigger C. measure 9. burst 10. that plastics have brought enormous (2) _________ even environmental ones. strength C. roof B. A. entices D. A. portion 6. amount B. of our domestic refuse. endanger C. processes B. manufacture 8. plant B. vitality D. replacement 26 Everyone knows that our energy is derived . A. type C. A. The simplest way is to utilise the flat-plate collector sited on the …(4)… of a house. products C. simmers D. rather than wait for the slow forces of nature to …(3)…it into fossil fuels. lures 8. fuels D. pleasures 3. 1. It is wiser for mankind to…(2)…it immediately. medium D. melting C. change D. preventing B. boil B. private D. Games are not the haphazard creations of parents or educators. plastic is a word you tent to say with a sneer or a snarl. capture C. henceforth B. Almost all the 50 or so different kinds of modern plastic are made from oil. A. mould B. A.. but very little of it is. 1. throw-away society. A high (5) _________ of our annual consumption is in the (6) ________ of packaging and this constitutes about seven per cent by weight. and traps the infra-red radiation. We import well over three million tones of the stuff in Britain each year and. benefits B. discharging C.(1)…from the sun. industry D. bathroom D. sooner or later. spin 4. It’s not really the plastics themselves that are the environmental evil – it’s the way society chooses to use and (3) _________ them. lock D. A. and the truth is. They should be seen as educational (2) … . A. warms B. A. A. kind B. A. muscle 27 In child development there is an important phenomenon that shows very clearly the process of preparation for the future: play. mechanism C. sparkles C.It …(7)…the sunshine in. It has become a symbol of our wasteful. factory C. beginning 2. desired 10. though the plastic recycling (7) _________ is growing fast. savings C. method B. proportion C. promoting D. imprison B. abuse D. rectifying 9. flush C. of course. domestic B. Almost all of it could be recycled. On cloudy days and in winter a flat-plate collector may fail to provide sufficient …(10)…to warm a full tank of water. form D. rate D. international 6.

.. experience 5........ to slump on the sofa in front of the telly. adjusted C. trying to look cool. the weight evenly by wearing a rucksack or even a bag around your waist. 1... Sitting in this way (11)..... lying flat on your back. fellow B. try standing sideways on. likely 11. utmost C. open C..... A. In contrast B. A. approach C... Make sure you sleep on a firm mattress at night. In observing children at play we can see their whole attitude towards life...... As we grow older these poor (3) ........ nerves 4. too easy to neglect something as essential as good posture.. by far D.. Try to sit (12) ... (5) .. means B. Do you see a long elegant back or are your shoulders as rounded as the hump of a camel? Bad posture normally starts in our teenage years when we slouch around with our (0) ... mindset D. lay 6.. changed D.. But (1) . Contrary C..and as stimuli for the child’s (3) ….... Due 2... marked 8.... damage C.distinct B...great B. by watching children at play.. their choice of game and the importance they (5)…upon it. lack of (13)… and the consequent fear of ‘getting it wrong’ are the main reasons for this behaviour. scope D.... A.. A. instead try sleeping in a curled position on your side.. up those who now while away their days sitting in front of a computer where it’s (2) . feel comfortable but it prevents you from breathing properly. psyche B. are clearly (7)…in their play. centimetres high is just asking for (8) . The manner in which children (4) … a game..... Whether they are hostile or whether they are friendly......... physiology C.. with the stomach pulled firmly in. A. on B.. development 14.... Every game is a preparation for the future.. noticeable D.....operate B. for 15.... present D.. 1 A head B feet C eyes D hands 2 A so B quite C all D rather 3 A customs B habits C rituals D practices 4 A course B something C moves D action 5 A evade B prevent C avoid D restrain 6 A existing B topical C contemporary D current 7 A various B several C considerable D numerous 8 A concern B problem C trouble D fuss 9 A scatter B circulate C disseminate D distribute 10 A enticing B attractive C irresistible D tempting 11 A may B could C will D should ... Pride.. spoil B..... A.. A.. show their attitude and relationship to their environment and how they relate to their (6… human beings. or when they are sent to the playground with other children usually (12… the pleasure of others... sources C. A.. most 9. contemporary C. accord C..without doubts B.... scale C..... immediately we can not only look and feel better but protect our body for the future.. A. play is of the (8) …importance to every child.. above all 10.. level B... maturity B... (9) . A... Don’t load everything into a bag that you wear on one shoulder or you’ll end up lopsided..... A..... in all C.. extent 28 HOW TO HAVE PERFECT POSTURE Next time you take a look in the mirror.. The (6) .. In general.. prone D.... prime D... aids 3.. we can determine (14)… great certainty the (15) … and quality of their social feeling. Children who avoid games and play are always (10) … to the suspicion that they have not (11)… satisfactorily to life. tools D... in C. attached B... When you get home from a day’s studying or work it’s all too (10) .. but by taking (4) ....... and particularly whether they show qualities as leaders. give B.... A.. A... peer 7 .. vanish D... place D. imagination and life skills. evident C. These children gladly withdraw from all games.... are exacerbated... survived B...... egoism C..... A.... But play is more than preparation for life. A.. Games are (9)… communal exercises that enable children to develop their social feeling... revival in platform shoes doesn’t help and wearing shoes with heels more than (7) . with D. self-esteem D. grown 12. process D. worsen 13. According D..

... (8) ....... will be your own time and effort.. Drugs may be (11) ...... If you don't set achievable aims you are more likely to give up...... usual for all of us to have our own peculiar fears. By far the most (6) ...... Already fluent in four languages and with a sound knowledge of teaching methodology her chances of (10) ." 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A A A A A A A A A A A series domain wondering assess charge recognised sights by nose rapid achieving B B B B B B B B B B B ISSUE branch thinking review cost understood ends about push crash doing C C C C C C C C C C C programme field looking balance price valued objects into run quick gaining D release D area D considering D survey D valuation D regarded D goals D in D shop D fast D making ..... behavioural therapy during which they gradually get used to being near the object or the situation that causes them fear..... She feels her biggest mistake was not to follow (12) ....... phobia and potentially the most disruptive is agoraphobia. Three years (11) . It is important to (2) . be realistic in your (6) ... thinking that the most expensive courses are the best. progress were high. Their advice may prove invaluable for those (2) ... It's (3) .. of second language acquisition. Treatment of phobias usually consists of the patient (10) . only a very small proportion of us actually have a phobia of these things... One suggestion is that you (3) . When these fears begin to (4) .. in which people (9) .. Did you enjoy studying languages at school.. course... means 'fear of the marketplace' but we apply it today to describe a distressing (8) .... Therefore you must make sure that the course on offer leads to a (5) ... even if it were by myself... of a language learning magazine has consulted a number of experts in the (1) ................ to treat anxiety and many people opt for alternative therapy such as acupuncture or hypnosis to help them come to (12) . her first experience.... ... You should also bear in mind that the quicker you learn a language the more quickly you forget it... you embarrassment or you feel that your life is being disrupted then you would be wise to (5) ..... treatment for what could potentially be a phobia.. around to get the best possible value for money.. Sandra Miller... for example? Do you have enough time to learn a language? The major (4) .... whether you are likely to be successful at learning a language. "I should have consolidated what I'd learn by continuing to study.12 A level B erect C vertical D upright 29 PHOBIAS The (0) ...... of Phobia Awareness Week is to highlight the difficulties that many people (1) ... going outside because of the awful feelings of anxiety that arise... in everyday situations... qualification. a language course... The word derives from Greek and (7) . However... tried to teach herself German by enrolling on a (9) .... for example being anxious around snakes or nervous about flying.... between a fear and a phobia.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A reason A face A choose A very A cause A explore A standard A precisely A illness A dodge A undergoing A released A acceptance B POINT B confront B distinguish B absolutely B make B hunt B average B specifically B condition B avoid B taking B issued B terms C fact C meet C select C quite C create C search C normal C literally C disease C miss C experiencing C certified C realisation D logic D join D pick D truly D give D seek D common D exactly D injury D slip D doing D prescribed D comfort 30 SOUND ADVICE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS A recent (0) ..... with their fear and conquer it.... a French teacher... she remembers very little..... Do not be deceived (7) .... Also.......

strong characters and a memorable setting. Everywhere fertile soil is (5) . healthy and active.... warmth. Renewable resources are exploited so much that they will never be able to recover (6) ... If we are sensible in how we use the resources they will (12) . energy.... a train . If you have an ambition to become the (5) . (7) ... some loose (8) . but only a rare few have the determination to become professional authors. the planet's ability to support people is being (8) ... The Earth's (10) .. the appeal of famous detectives like Sherlock Holmes. and even fewer have the joy of seeing their novels top the (1) . You will need a notebook to carry around with you or. But if we use them wastefully and excessively they will soon run out and everyone will suffer. resources are there for us to use. to stay alive we are rapidly destroying the (4) .. comfortable.... We need food. Miss Marple or Hercule Poirot? Even if you haven't read the (4) ..may be the (11) .. 0 A situation 1 A although 2 A continues 3 A already 4 A alone 5 A sooner 6 A quite 7 A development 8 A stopped 9 A doing 10 A natural 11 A hold 12 A last B place B still B repeats B just B individual B neither B greatly B result B narrowed B having B real B maintain B stand C position C yet C carries C for C lone C either C utterly C reaction C reduced C taking C living C stay C go D D D D D D D D D D D D D site despite follows entirely lonely rather completely product cut making genuine keep remain 32 WRITE THE PERFECT CRIME NOVEL Most people are born with the natural ability to (0) . of paper that you can (9) .. human activities are making the planet less fit to live on. is to read lots of examples of crime fiction written by good authors. stories. the most everyday situation . of bestselling books. These are: an original story... 0 A say B TELL C speak D announce 1 A queue B list C row D line 2 A largest B greatest C highest D prime 3 A deny B refuse C insist D hide 4 A first B initial C early D original 5 A next B following C subsequent D later 6 A spot B tip C point D mark 7 A even B still C very D so 8 A strips B sheets C layers D pieces 9 A complete B do C fill D make 10 A out B down C off D from .. indefinitely... at the very time when rising human numbers and consumption are (9) . water. We discharge pollutants into the atmosphere without any thought of the consequences.. we know of in the universe that can support human life.for example. built on or washed into the sea.. resource we have by which all people can survive and prosper. watching a woman get (10) . After all... notes on and then file into a folder... for your first bestseller. As a (7) .. Who can (3) .... us fed... increasingly heavy demands on it.. Some of the world's famous crime writers have achieved the (2) .. Agatha Christie what should you do? The best starting (6) . books you will have seen them in films or on the TV.. of a successful novel. shelter and minerals to (11) . success of all.....11 A on 12 A up B forward B on C from C through D onward D out 31 ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Earth is the only (0) . better.... Like any good recipe you have to know the main (12) . medicines... air. (1) . As the western world (2) .. on consuming two-thirds of the world's resources while half of the world's population do so (3) ...

They might (5) . It was revealed that. take the books they need off the shelf and (4) . or a plane to England. maybe getting a hand (8) . a passenger had (10)…. 0 A in B at C of D to 1 A With B for C at D in 2 A Still B for C yet D already 3 A Place B put C set D get 4 A Take B do C catch D hold 5 A although B referably C instead D contrary 6 A force B hit C depress D push 7 A so B such C like D alike 8 A with B to C from D for 9 A role B duty C obligation D need 1 0 A replace B restore C succeed D recover 11 A definitely B mainly C totally D surely 12 A spend B make C have D do 34 A LUCKY ESCAPE This is about an extraordinary incident that took place in London a few years ago. Exciting? Certainly. The first carriage had to be jacked up to free the badly (4). conversations with other computerised students. But would it ever (10) .Suddenly. at least a little of their time with real people. The young woman (6)… out to be a gifted architect who was recovering from a nervous (7)… .. a young woman (2)… herself into the path of the moving train.. The horrified driver slammed on the brakes. the Transport Authority (14)… prosecuting the passenger on the rounds that he had had no (15)…cause for using the emergency system! 0 A so B like C by D such 1 A arriving B approaching C catching D advancing 2 A leapt B tossed C plunged D threw 3 A crushed B smashed C broken D squeezed 4 A damaged B wounded C survived D continued 5 A succeeded B overcame C made D turned 6 A proved B came C outbreak D setback 7 A breakdown B failure C injured D harmed 8 A coincidence B correspondence C occasion D opportunity 9 A examination B inquiry C view D search . at the computer. certain that there was no way to stop the train before the woman was (3)… under the wheels. All this perhaps... the platform. . Her amazing rescue from death was based on a remarkable (8)… . on their headset. The passenger had had no particular reason for doing so. In fact. any other. realistic settings where they could practice their English.. to catch the bus to college.. and an interesting alternative to traditional classroom lessons..11 A notion 12 A parts B idea B ingredients C invention C pieces D inspiration D sections 33 NO MORE CLASSES The use (0) . On one of the city's underground stations. and be transported into an imaginary school. from the comfort of their home: no (9) . another boring lesson. computers has meant students can study language programmes (1) .. in the virtual classrooms of the future the student will (3) ......which automatically (11) …the brakes of the train. At the (6) .... choose their class. What's more. down the emergency handle. the classroom? Hopefully not. (11) .. for the subsequent (9)… into the accident revealed that the train had not stopped during the river's hasty breaking.. their own speed when and for how long they want . of a button they would be transported to (7) .. choose to pay a visit to the supermarket or the train station.. a virtual English companion.. Unbelievable as it sounds. woman...But miraculously the train did stop.. he was completely (13)… of the fact that a young woman was about to hurl herself into the path of the oncoming train. seconds before.. but had acted (12)…. a train was (1).. the bank or the restaurant. but the wheels had not passed over her and she (5)…...and no need to worry about the teacher having a favourite or doing (2) . the need to relate to real people talking about real issues and generally learning a little more about others will always lead language learners to (12) ... It was a day (0) .

not merely in training the child's mind or in preparing the child for adult (11)_______ in a remote future. or essentialists. essentialists and progressives. and they view subject matter as a resource (12)________ total human development (13)_______ as a goal in itself. inquired B. but for B. when C. named 6. rather than C. job satisfaction undoubtedly (8)…overall satisfaction and vice versa . it B. A. counted D. meaningful school living in the present. A. utmost 2. as 8.10 11 12 13 14 15 A taken A joins A for a change A uninformed A considered A noticeable B handed B applies B by accident B unsure B meant B expected C pulled C presses C at random C unaware C advised C correct D lifted D attaches D on impulse D uncertain D faced D reasonable 35 While (1)________ everyone accepts the goal of developing (2)_______ in the three "R's" . living B. In the broadest (4)________. A. take D. A. viewed B. words C. whole C. and academic studies or strong vocational or business courses in the secondary school. A. They emphasize rich. liveliness D. Third. the conflict over educational goals can be (5)_______ as a conflict between conservatives and liberals. A. instead D. This is partly because of the (14)… themselves. life 12. and participation in voluntary work and social clubs of various kinds. A happiness seems to correlate quite (3) with the main dimensions of personality: extroverts are generally happier. Activities (13)… sport and music. in some people. total 11. They put (9)_______ on the training of the mind and cultivation of the intellect. techniques 3. The researchers have (1)… a number of factors which contribute to a definition of happiness. required C. (6)_______ they are sometimes called. stress C. lives C. tend to identify (7)________ desirable education with the transmission of the cultural heritage. but (10)…by social interactions with co-workers. most B. subject B. A. A. of D. although D. or progressives. for 13. A. partly because of the way friends use positive non-verbal (6)…such as caressing and touching. its C. thought C. A. Unemployment. but also because of the social support of other group . Second. curriculum C. A. terms B. The conservatives. in C. partly because of the agreeable things they do together. neurotics are less so. a C. their 36 HAPPINESS In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in (0) …. requested 15. better 14. at B. actions C. A. happiness (2)… in families. on the (11)…can be a serious cause of unhappiness. friends are a great (5)…of joy. They do not downgrade content but believe it should be (14)_______ not for (15)________ own sake but as a means of fostering thought and inquiry. program 9. mostly C. In particular. and arithmetic . accomplish C. means 5. get B. talents B. letters D.into happiness. them D. can give great joy. all-round D.reading. a moderate genetic predispositio to be happy: in other words. Marriage similar (7)… relationships can also form the basis of lasting happiness. significance B. strength 10. acquired D. A. The liberals. the D. Fourth. A. Job satisfaction is caused not only the essential nature of the work. First of all.it often seems impossible to (3)_______ agreement on any goal beyond that. but B. there is. complete B. almost D. a no-nonsense (8)_______ featuring the three R's at the elementary-school level. object D. A. reach 4. people often (4)…good social relations as a reason for their happiness. tend to be interested in the development of the (10)_______ child. certain B. 1. emphasis D. leisure is important because it is more under individual (12)… than most other causes of happiness. writing.perhaps this is why some people are happy in boring jobs: it (9)…both ways. as 7. to affirm their friendship. skills D. or.

however. if it is wider. in extreme cases. The picture (5) …more complicated by two factors. the (14)… between rich and poor will be so great that it will (15)… to social tension and. most countries now (10)…as socially acceptable a ratio of 7:1 between the best and the (11)…paid. 0 A research 1 A fallen back on 2 A arrives 3 A strongly 4 A explain 5 A meaning 6 A movements 7 A near 8 A consists of 9 A works 10 A too 11 A common 12 A check 13 A like 14 A facilities 15 A by B inquiry B gone in for B runs B nearly B prefer B origin B motions B close B applies to B effects B as well B contrast B power B such B activities B for C examination C got down to C goes C firmly C talk C base C slogans C tight C contributes to C makes C also C comparison C control C so C exercises C in D study D come up with D descends D hardly D report D source D signals D heavy D counts on D turns D plus D contrary D choice D thus D amenities D with 37 A FAIR WAGE? What constitutes a fair wage? The (0)… of money that people earn is (1)… determined not by fairness but by market forces. the benefits -(6)… as holidays. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A amount A by all means A admit A opening A remain A results A such A ensured A engine A rate A require A smallest A hold A pull away A gap A drive B size B for instance B prevent B beginning B exist B is drawn B so B enabled B instrument B cost B regard B least B wear B turn out B space B lead C lot C in reality C forbid C starting C stand C becomes C just C entrusted C appliance C range C review C lowest C carry C set off C hole C aim D sum D out of the question D prohibit D commencing D become D is made D like D entitled D apparatus D value D respect D fewest D bring D end up D size D urge 38 DO-IT-YOURSELF COMPUTERS Building (0)… own computer may appear a difficult task.members . If the ratio is narrower. the taxation system is often used as an (8)…of social justice by taxing the rich at a very high (9)…indeed..This fact. and have even . Allowing for these two things. to violence and revolution. should not (2)… us trying to devise a mechanism for deciding what is the right pay for the job. But if you have had one (1).But.it is very strong(15)… the case of religious groups. the highly-qualified people who usually (12)… heavy responsibilities may become so dissatisfied that they (13)… emigrating (the so-called `brain drain'). The first is the `social wage'. Secondly. that is.which everycitizen is (7)… to. sick pay and maternity leave . A (3)…point for such an investigation would be to try to decide the ratio which ought to (4)… between the highest and the lowest paid.

beach D. So. By the time the exhausted winchman has (6).. A.. It’s not easy to get the rescue line down on the pitching. engines paralysed are drifting helplessly towards rocks in a raging sea. direction B.. say.. shore B.. even something as basic as the case can (3)… a difference. on fuel.. 1. a change in wind direction was to (10). set out D. for home.. the CPU.or later. That was Mission 47. The terrified crews on Sundancer and Heather Berry are only half-a-mile from disaster when Hotel Oscar.. point 5. say ‘yes’ in all conditions and at all (15). (10)…. and you may soon have the (15)… you need to continue.. set off B. For Captain Lockey.. .. that is available too.. if you want to become a DIY expert.. this was the worst experience in a distinguished (9). Sundancer its horrible face. the helicopter is running (7). wide. of night and day. Captain Al Lockey hovers directly (5)... start by upgrading your existing machine.. saving their lives. As if that decision isn’t difficult enough.(4)… the computer magazines and you will see that cases come in all sort of shapes and sizes: small. land C. destination C. In fact.. most crews can and (14). that most painful decision to say ‘no’... you can find a case to (6)… your needs... for the boats – the conditions are too bad for that. seaside 2... luck B. If you get (11)… crashes... set about 4. Medals. narrow – whatever you (5)… If you think you would like to have ten hard disks in your computer. the two crew members of Heather Berry. something will go wrong. above B.. its (2)... it is said should be given to those who have to (13).. accomplished just over three months after Hotel Oscar’s contract began in July 1991. If you want a casethat will (7)… in a drawer. The pair on Sundancer will have to be abandoned if (8). way C.. tall. A. 0 A your B an C the D its 1 A in time B for a while C at the moment D since then 2 A put B install C place D set 3 A make B do C give D take 4 A Revise B control C Check D Inspect 5 A dream B fancy C hope D long 6 A respond B call C fill D meet 7 A arrange B conform C fit D get 8 A satisfy B notify C qualify D specify 9 A choice B pick C selection D pleasing 10 A before B sooner C earlier D after 11 A occasional B seldom C rare D sometimes 12 A in trouble B by mistake C out of use D at fault 13 A get B leave C find D stop 14 A their B who's C the D whose 15 A trust B confidence C belief D wish 39 OSCAR’S WINNING PERFORMANCE Two boats. The threatening rocks will make matchwood of them. arrival 3. over . the Irish Marine Emergency Service helicopter arrives and the winch crew (3). higher C. is Clew Bay in County Mayo. esle is to survive. is it the memory chip. There’s no (4).. screaming winds make for a treacherous flight out of the bay. of the rescue crew whose hearts were breaking as they were forced to turn their backs and (12).. A. A. set up C. A. the hard diskor the software that is (12)… ? You could (13)…yourself having to deal with all the various manufacturers of the different pieces in order to find out (14)… piece or program is causing the problem. you are ready to enter the do-it-yourself PC business. from the sound card and graphics cards to the backup device of your (9) Of course. journey D.progressed to being able to. ahead D.. rolling decks as the pilot. (2)… a video card. You can (8)… your requirements and get exactly the machine you want: everything. 25 years a helicopter pilot and veteran of typhoon conditions off oil rigs in the South China Sea.. much to the (11). Gale-force winds are blowing as a distress message is relayed to the (1)… The west coast search-and-rescue helicopter takes off from Shannon. In choosing the components. hope D... Fortunately.

the house is open to the public and visitors quickly (15) ____ that it is the closest they are ever likely to come to time travel. But (1) ____ inside and you go back into a vanished world. all they really want to do is to play games. number 20 Grayleave.a huge (6) ____ in those days . do B. it seems that they became (12) ___ of the value of what they had done. As soon as B. 2.A. relief C. 1. clown B. gaze B. 7. out D. may C. (73)…a family buy a new PC. employment 7. false D. immediately spending $170 . (2) ____ William Straw's house is exactly as his parents left it when they died in the 1930s. rescue C. minutes 40 FUN AND GAMES Do you think computer games are just for kids? Then you (71)… think again. short C. shapes D. satisfaction A. affair 9. story C.A. makes C. say C. accurate B. explaining where they (14) ____ came from. no one A. proper 8. the two cut themselves off from the rest of the world. save B. The big difference. someone C. A yet A step A then B still B stamp B for C just C tread C from D even D trip . prevent D. (10) ____ . task C. looks (0) ____ like any other fairly old house in Drugland. breath D. 11. attention C. because they began to put (13) ____ on various pictures and items of furniture. should A. taken over C. comfort B. lived in the house with his brother Walter after his parents' deaths. right C. pastime B. complete D. everyone B. match B. A. D so . 13. He (8) ___ his job and set up house with Walter. branches C. A. spare A. lend D. who had been (9) ____ the shop since their father's death. will D. Their parents had a successful grocery shop and the family moved into the house in 1923. You might be surprised to learn that the games industry now (72)…more money than Hollywood. In fact. moments C. routine D. has B. it will hold your (75)…. the (80)…growth area of the market is the 25-35 age group. Nothing that their parents had owned was ever moved or (11) ____ away. career D. Today. It is (79)…to think of gaming as something simply for children and teenagers.A. secret D. go A. dishonest 10. Finding the (77)…. biggest D. when William. control 6. A good game is like a good film. profession C. It is hardly surprising that video gaming has become one of the most popular (74)…of entertainment today. A. 1. all D. 10. As well as C. Fantasy. gratitude D. 12. 14. Towards the end of their lives. They had no social life and callers were never (5) ____ into the house. is that watching a movie is a passive (76)…You have no say in how the plot develops or which characters dominate the story. forms 5. A. makes B. job A. then a history lecturer at Welldone Univeristy. As far as D. With computer games. you direct the action and that is what makes them so exciting. does D. longest B. wrong C. ought B. do B. however. William Straw. immoral B. A. A. taken off D. need D. A. fly B. should C. who died in 1990. capture your imaginationand play with your emotions. head C. 9. hours D. 15. As long as 4.on (7) ____ redecoration.A. picked out A. deepest 41 To the passer-by. 0.game is likely to signal the beginning of a lasting love (78)…with the interactive world of make-believe. low A. picked up B. may 2. periods B. gains 3. role B. Their father died in 1932 and their mother in 1939. They lived (3) ____ a strict routine. widest C. make D. returned to Workshop.6. 8. never married and had no (4) ____ friends. give A.

.(8) live or on the small screen rush the next day to read a .. 11.(6) for newspapers by now.. let alone (7)….. Everywhere.(13) of not much more than outrageous headlines. though.(14) to be leading a charmed life. cable and satellite television.(1) for something of which she was probably innocent. possibly to have them (13)… off in spectacular fashion. but wait! Within hours the television station is being…(3) with calls of protest. The Internet.(9). she contemplates months of incarceration. A major ...(3) past people were predicting that the influence of the written word would diminish in . 10. A fair proportion of viewers were obviously . the power of newspapers seems to be on the .. Offices and factory floors .(1).. A based on A close A greeted A quantity A absolute A gave up A leading A Ever since A removed A clear A certificates A originally A catch B according to B deep B requested B wealth B whole B finished off B commanding B At the moment B thrown B aware B posters B at the earliest B regard C along with C familiar C invited C fund C throughout C ended with C running C From then on C done C thoughtful C messages C from the start C distinguish D as from D warm D offered D sum D total D got out D conducting D That time D dismissed D wise D labels D sooner D realize 42 As time . viewing figures are likely to soar by up to 25%. It is even mentioned in Parliament.... 14.(8) in by the story to such an extent that their perception of fact and fiction was clearly .. (6) tothe sounds of animated debate.. This is odd because in the relatively .to see if our ideas on any .. Teletext and multi-media computers in(5)… other home should surely have .. How have these organs survived.. particularly alongside a perceptible resurgence in the audiences for news-carrying radio stations....3. 5. 13.. Thousands of T-shirts are printed with slogans . When it finally goes. It's easy to (7)… off such idiocies as `a bit of fun'. 4. and the decision has been taken to (12)… him or her out. Having been .. subjective editorials and hyperbolic sports pages still doing in our lives? It seems for the time .. A national newspaper soon . If a character is (11)… to be past his or her sell-by date.. 12.. film or programme tally with others'? What is this product that ... A good story-line...(4) proportion to the rate of increase of the spoken word and moving image through TV and video.... 8. 15. millions will (10)… over their 7-day TV guide to get a preview of the week's soaps..(11) film in a newspaper? To see if s/he is right? Isn't that what friends are for? Don't we have colleagues for just that purpose . many may come to mourn its (15)… 1 A flies B passes C goes D drags 2 A increase B rise C expansion D build 3 A latest B distant C immediate D recent 4 A exact B direct C precise D equal 5 A all B any C every D one 6 A done B gone C stood D set 7 A flourished B bloomed C flowered D rooted 8 A game B set C match D meeting 9 A curtailed B cut C reduced D potted 10 A vivid B coloured C bright D direct 11 A above-mentioned B aforesaid C latter D previous 12 A given B taken C subjected D written 13 A comprises B contains C consists D informs 14 A out B being C given D present 15 A perishing B dying C falling D passing 43 A popular character in the nation's top television soap is .(12) song. 9.(2) guilty of a series of fraudulent acts.(4) up a campaign to have her freed.. 7...(9) version of it in four or five columns which surely cannot mean more to the reader than that self-same viewer of the previous afternoon or evening? Why would anyone who has seen a film and formed a (10)… impression of it the following day read a review of the . A life-threatening fire can be (14)… upon to add millions to the ratings.. particularly on a Sunday? Why do people who have seen a football or tennis . 6. but there's surely a more serious side. (5) for her release.wayward comment.(2).

Only for the tiny minority is Oxford the first . (6) where.Much of this is a myth... get through the three years' hard (13)… by simply putting their shoulders to the . (14) before going on to fairly average jobs. on a sunny winter's morning say. one feels as if one is . 0 A mind-blowing B clear-headed C backhanded D broken-hearted 1 A fish B duck C boat D swimmer 2 A backdrop B curtain C scene D screen 3 A flying B gliding C floating D swimming 4 A pretend B act C dissemble D produce 5 A wheel B engine C spoke D hub 6 A backwater B stream C tributary D watershed 7 A froth B cream C fat D caviar 8 A pavilion B dressing room C wings D foyer 9 A flourish B open C spread D float 10 A peak B abattoir C dead-end D fast-lane 11 A package B section C province D parcel 12 A level-headed B hot-headed C hot-blooded D kind-hearted 13 A push B pull C grind D roughage 14 A cart B wheel C engine D boat 15 A step B position Celevation D ascent 45 THE OPEN UNIVERSITY The Open University was created in 1968 to (0) … people who cannot afford to (1) … regular courses of study.(0) reputation that many who come here find themselves intimidated by the place and can't wait to leave. allowing their talents to ..(7) of their generation.(15) on the ladder to fame and fortune. (8).... taking to it like a (1)… to water. They study in order to update their job skills or for personal (5… At the heart of most courses is a (6) … of specially written and professionally printed textbooks and workbooks which students receive by post. transitory students. The (9) … . while others... but in many ways it is no more than a sleepy ... such is the sense of unreality. (9) before moving off into the industrial or political (10)… . The college lawns provide a gorgeous .. They study at home and their academic performance is assessed by (3… of written examinations or project work... (3) on air.. and in the right light. Hardship and hard work are very much part and (11)… of student life. Oxford may like to .(2) to serious study.. wait in the . of course. On many of the courses.. Most Open University students (4) … in study while also holding down a job or coping with a busy home life. the .wedding can find half of Britain sitting (15)… to the screen! It's all very strange. The(12)…. students are (7… to watch television programmes on the BBC network. which are usually broadcast in the (8) … hours of the morning. the opportunity of studying and (2… a university diploma or degree.. find themselves returning again and again..(4) that it is at the intellectual (5)… of things. 1 A jailed 2 A arrested 3 A bombed 4 A opens 5 A demanding 6 A echo 7 A laugh 8 A thrown 9 A blurred 10 A flick 11 A decided 12 A write 13 A ridden 14 A leaned 15 A swamped B prisoned B called B attacked B starts B calling B ring B smile B carried B hampered B go B resolved B cast B taken B construed B stuck C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C sentenced found streamed puts insisting fill take indulged tampered pore deemed sort driven relied paralysed D charged D discovered D inundated D establishes D sounding D deafen D put D taken D glossed D sit D suspected D work D killed D improved D glued 44 Oxford is a city with such a ... to mix metaphors.

. fall C. work B... know C. struggle C. A.. through D. A.... to work out the action scenes and form a team. affected 13. connected B.. limits B. handed 12. some courses also include audio and video cassettes and computer software. introduce B. pressure 14. At an early (6).. Anyone D. as if explaining something to a small child.... interests B.. method B.well have heard some or all of the (3)... give B. It’s the money of course... can crash a car. A.as stunts. some say with a smile.. precise 5. so C.. otherwise 10....A. assist C. named 2.. strict 6. them take the risk... managing B. first B.. fit B. (3). but if you are shooting a film. given B... insurance companies would never (13). These scenes. off 46 ACTION SCENES IN FILMS Modern cinema audiences expect to see plenty of thrilling scenes in action films.the same as I staggered along the swaying gangway trying to (7). present B. in all the important aspects of the character they are playing.. meet D. (9).of these programmes is to develop and broaden the study experience. considered 8. since stuntmen don’t have to (11).. drawn D.. provided C. rely B. part D. join 5. but without the recent progress in safety equipment. out B.... stage 7..A.well done. exact C. an expert stuntman is (7). Many famous actors like to do the dangerous parts themselves.A.. He is the only person who can go (8). delight B... I worked as a bus conductor once.. A. A. club C. fight B... 1. fulfilled D.. regards 11. needs C. borders 15.. satisfaction C. frontiers D. get C. A... put D.A. plain C. put D.. in front of the camera and film crew. believe C. bring C. go 47 Have you ever asked yourself what you are working for? If you have ever had the time to (1)... called 8.. stand 12. despite B.A. in (12) … . but they must also be sensible and know their (14). A. route D. which produces better shots. return 13. Or it’s the satisfaction of (4). straight D. A. attend D. across 9.. to a sudden halt. taken C. actors need to be good athletes. aim 10 .. period B. A. let C. studying at the Open University can be a (13) … because students have few opportunities to (14… each other. Everyone B. arranged C.. in for the actors. purposes D. joy D. by stuntmen who are specially trained to do dangerous things safely.. A... expected B. make 1. sometimes stopping (5). system 4. so that students do not have to (10) … only on the printed material they are sent. speak 15. Someone C.. end D. involved D.. obtaining 3. Students are (11) … with all the notes and books they need and. against C. cause B.. A.. displayed 3. or put it to others in moment of weakness or confidentiality. reaching D.A.. Actors like to become (12). apply 2. claiming C. up D.. That is why the University encourages students to set (15… and run informal study groups themselves. If they were to be hurt... permit D. right B.. A. However. and I can’t say I (6).. trust D. initial C. take C. admit 14. battle D.. A. the film would (15).out tickets without falling ...A. confide 11 A. over B.. allow B.. No one 4... heap 7 .. ends C. A. direct D.. led B. in the production. A. A. posted D. come B. of safety. challenge 6. let D. starting D.. are usually (2). in C.. this taboo question.... advance D.. although D.. remarked B. he will usually only do this in the (10). the wishes of the director. performed B. A. means C. addition B. particular C.. set D.. A. the sense of achievement behind the clinching of an important (5). 0. early 9. To do their own stunts. you (2). given C. A. needed C. referred D.. you have to be extremely (4).. detailed B.A.. hoped D. which are (1)... A. pull D. unit B. A.. reason C. A. minute C. known C...

the C.. opportunities C.. longer B. at the moment B. A... enjoyed B.. Micawber lived.... those B. to B.the world. over B. A. or feel aggrieved that nobody has yet recognized their leadership (10). latter 4... position C. A.. leisure C... move B... the family or the taxman. and tell the boss what we really think.. at 13. concern 7... We’ll win the pools.we deserve.. at this time D. must C. suspicion C. might D... 1.. A. present 4. what about farmers? it is the conservation in the farmyard that keeps them captivated by the job? Work is power and a sense of status say those (9).. Not only are more and more people reaching (2) . I wish someone (11) . A. use B... Not to mention the fact that people (5) . retirement 3. live in an age of increasing leisure. case C. A. that most of us work rather as Mr. Once day we’ll get that (15). pressure 12. tend B.. wished C. can C. the whole thing is another one of (7) ... keep 14. and say this under my (11). A. line B. And we are so busy doing it that we won’t have time to wonder why. A. their B..... A... job D. The little leisure time I have is eaten into by sitting in the traffic jams or waiting for trains to (13) . in our days 9. who D... hoped D. pension B. will D. have either attained these elusive goals. set D. an effort 5. A. all D. later C. engagement 6.. A.to spend less time travelling to work or may even be working from home.. would 12.. My own parents seem to (10) .over into someone’s lap. lifeline C..... into D. lifestyle B..the world. these C. over C. most of their time gazing at the television. oath B.up.. A. livelihood D. deal B.. or go (14). round 10. cost of living 15.... We’ll scrape together the (13). but perhaps I just have to wait until I get my (15) . A. property D.. one B. might B. felt 7. had C. a job C.. It’s the company of other people perhaps. nowadays C.. third D. imagine B. give 8. tell D. ease D.. is who these people are. survived B.. A. people B. now and again D. some D. A. qualities B.... turn C. A.....remind my company about it. A.. status C. A.Or we can blame it all on someone else. A. 1.are becoming greater and greater all the time. show C. hoping for something to (12). A. A. round B. demand D. we (1) .... resources B. meditate C... should 3. but until then at least we have something to do. a task D. the 8... people D. former 9.. ambition B. have C. end 13. make B.. requirements 11. rest D. spend D..... free C.. and open that little shop we always dreamed of. A. presently 2. breath D.. into D.up at rain-swept platforms. consider D. through C. question D.. age with their taste for enjoyment and even adventure relatively (3) . the time. intact D..either.. A. this 5.. journalistic fictions. A.. rest C...... A. promotion 48 According to a magazine article I read recently. to 15.... take C.. I suspect. A. A. vocation D. in these times B. launch 2. insurance D. I seem to be working longer and longer hours (12) . however. salary . propose B. I admit that there are a lot of retired people (8) …but I am not sure that all of them are dashing about learning hang-gliding or sailing single-handed (9) .. but if that is the (8).. A. A.... use 6. a work B. station C. now C.. turn C. And as for the shorter working week. issue D. money 14. What I can't understand. following D. A. but the working week is becoming shorter and the opportunities for (4) . for B. expect C. or spend more time in the garden. below B. to 10. have 11.. I haven't noticed any dramatic improvements in my (14) .. retirement C. As far as I can (6) .

The next development was probably the charity 'event'.(14)…inflation. aid C.it is not surprising that some people (15)…the coming of private enterprise as a mixed blessing. required D.in a collecting box. The first hint of what was to become the most successful means of (5) …. Many towns are experimenting with pooled pension funds from all businesses. bought through life insurance companies. avoid B. such C. Foreign companies increasingly (6)…housing in order to attract the workers they want. A. Taken with China's other problems . money C. The problems were becoming hard to (7) …. understand C. the methods used for collecting money from the public to (1) …the developing world have changed out of all recognition. famine B. and collected money from friends and relatives according to how far or long they managed to keep going. pooling means more people getting less. Today. As to health care.of the media. perhaps on the street or at church. the workers had their basic needs takencare of. personal pensions.by the public. rising unemployment and an increasing crime rate in the big cities . part of the fee from a worker's pay. as is happening now with the (3)…of private industry and the end of the welfare state? The trend is clear. cycle. and subsequent televised concerts. Why was so little being done? The huge success of Band Aid. where the artists donated their time and talent and the proceeds from sales went to a good cause. finance B. pay D.Some even (10)… private medical insurance. raised 10 A. lifestyles 7 A. But what happens when the bowl breaks. sponsored B. By the end of the next decade.. A. life C. and which also began to sell articles manufactured in the developing world in projects set up by the parent charity. China will need to look for ways of replacing state welfare. in the days when all industry was(1)…by the state. health care. to guarantee a fair income to local people. offered D.children.. if you have enough money to buy CDs and a stereo player. with workers (12)… about two percent of their income. They did not (2)…much.49 Over the past thirty years or so. . or to receive a small ‘flag’ to wear in the lapel. swim and what have you. and this concern was reflected in songs besides being clearly shown on television. freed C. At the beginning of this period.. This was the 'iron rice-bowl'. borrowing B. This was perhaps a reflection of the fact that young people felt increasingly concerned about the obvious differences between (6) …in Europe and the United States. them D. Under the old system. ability C. People phoned up in their thousands on the day and (9)… money by quoting their credit card numbers. style D. underdeveloped C. This (13)… well in places with lots of young people and high growth. A. awarded 4 A. (11) … pensions are concerned. and of music in particular but also differed in style from other events. are said to be growing in number by 25% a year. along with the gravity of the problems faced. being B. define D. pledged D. fewer than half the workers arenow (4)… by the state. donated B. you can afford something for the world's (10) …. it would have been common to put (2) …. further D. handed in C. but in areas of declining economy. power 9 .will be privately or self employed.money was the charity record. starving D. the end of free medicine is already (7)… . funds 3 A. The 1960s saw the development of shops which sold secondhand goods. raising 6 A.to run. (3) …. and that in most of Africa and Asia. used 5 A. loan 2. When this happens. but they could be sure of a house or flat. In some provinces. the hospital simply sent the bill to his factory. 1. loaned B. if a state worker needed (8). mass B. Most people who (0)…an interest in China know that. state firms (9). own 50 THE NEW CHINA All is not well in the state of China. in which participants were (4) . Take housing. After all. them D. and the increasing awareness among the population that something must be done. invited C.. A. state and private. implement 8. this B. at leasta quarter of China's (5)…. but a feeling of frustration was building up. reflected the (8) …. education and a pension.

sharp C. take C.A person's IQ is their intelligence (8)… it is measured by this special test. considerably D.no surprise to most of us to hear that yet another part of everyday lifeis about to go for ever. how A. natural A. to B. provided D. Anyone from the age of six can (13)…the tests. 6. the first sign of test we take. sophisticated C. 8. 3. on A. But do they realty show how intelligent we are? After all. All the questions are straightforward and most people can answer them if (14)… enough time..0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A take A run A spend A growth A overtaken A staff A propose A at present A health A deduct A speak for A Although A combining A works A wide A regret B make B held B gain B inflation B used B workforce B offer B on time B cure B reduce B insist on B As long as B withdrawing B makes B high B recall C play C ruled C earn C outburst C requested C personnel C invite C in sight C remedy C expect C hold with C Also C contributing C does C fast C regard D bring D governed D pay D addition D employed D manpower D suggest D undersuspicion D treatment D discharge D take in D As far as D receiving D comes D big D respect 51 School exams are. C. for the time being B. 12. so D. upper D.000 worldwide (11. Apparently. (7)…IQ tests are still the most popular ways of measuring intelligence. So it should come (1) . 13. A. caught D. spoken A. and those who score over 148 are entitled to join Mensa. common D. 10. matter D. 9. attached C. 14. as C. forward B. 5. steered D. 7. appointed A. 2. normal B. had B. They find out how much knowledge we have (2)…. run. get B. within the next decade. enormously B. held A. But that's the problem.. an organization that was founded in England in 1946. regard B. accord A. People taking the test are judged in (12)… to an average score of 100.the whole (15)… of the tests is that they're against the clock.000 in Britain and 100. generally (1)…. money as we(2)… it will probably (3) …to exist in technologically advanced countries. make A. mainly A.. that B. 11. react D. in speech D. speak B. now and then D. count C. 4. reason B. 1. let C. in C. By 1976 it (10)… 1. Although scientists are now preparing (6)…computer technology that will be able to 'read' our brains. answer C. (4)…Professor Gerry Montague of the Institute for Economic Reform. 15. one in which the familiar is constantly disappearing and technological change is often difficult to cope with. acquired B. association D. the familiar coins and banknotes will soon be replaced . concern A. Today there are 44. at now A. The most common IQ tests are (9)… by Mensa. at the time C. produce D. advancing A. isn't it a fact that some people who are very successful academically don't have any (3)… sense? Intelligence is a speed (4)…which we can understand and (5)… to new situations and it is usually tested by logic puzzles. fetched A. reply B. had B. commanded B. opinion 52 Ours is a vanishing world. speaking C. at D. belonged D. highly C. kept C.300 members in Britain.)… in the US. relation C. given A.

This may have something to do with the fact that the (6)… burglar is in his (or her) late teens. The most typical burglary. Even if my credit card of the future will be able to tell me exactly how much spending (9)… I have left in the computer files. 1) A with 2) A have 3) A cease 4) A With reference to 5) Afar 6) A deceit 7) A heavily 8) A cash 9) A capacity 10) A sheer 53 Ask most people for their Top Ten fears. So no more instances of credit card (6)… But I am afraid that I shall miss money. and probably wouldn't know what to do with a Picasso. it seems. ever since I received my first pocket (8)… when I was five. the police have no luck (12)… any of the stolen goods. (7)… selling a walkman or a vacuum cleaner is a much easier (8)… They are perhaps not so much professional criminals. they are probably unable to do anything at all. as hard-up young people who need a few pounds and some excitement. Not that this makes having your house (9)… upside down and your favourite things stolen any easier to (10)…In most (11)… . and kept it in a money-box. and you'll be sure to find being burgled fairly high on the (1) . To put the record (3)… . 1) A rank 2) A called up 3) A straight 4) A as well 5) A means 6) A common 7) A whereas 8) A concern 9) A put 10) A submit 11) A examples 12) A taking 13) A sound 14) A come up with 15) A takings B rating B held with B right B however B involves B medium B as yet B event B turned B receive B cases B making B look B make do with B profit C grade C set about C correct C in fact C affects C average C much as C situation C stood C accept C items C tracking C show C go through with C loot D list D carried out D steady D at any rate D covers D middle D as soon as D matter D pulled D admit D occasions D recovering D seem D get off with D receipts B as B see B stop B Further to B long B trickery B strongly B coins B potential B complete C to C know C fail C According to C tall C pretence C widely C money C capability C entire Din D believe D conclude D Owing to D deep D fraud D largely D gold D power D downright . And the shop of the future will be linked directly to the network of banking computers. nothing will be able to replace the (10)… pleasure I gained from rattling the coins in my money. and two had been burgled five times.. Three of them are students. You won't have to dig (5)… in your pockets for change. where the burglars' (15)… included the family's pet poodle.box. Unless there is definite evidence. (5) the theft of easily transportable items – the television. the video.An informal survey I (2)… among friends at a party last week revealed that eight of them had had their homes broken into more than twice. The assistant will simply key in your bank account code number and the amount you have spent. even food from the freezer.. And alarms or special locks don't (13)…to help either.entirely by credit cards of various kinds. none of my friends owns valuable paintings or a sideboard full of family silverware. and thank you politely. which reminded me of a case I read about. as the computer may by then be able to read your handprint. even if it lights up and plays a happy (or sad) tune at the same time. The only advice my friends could (14)… was 'Never live on the ground floor' and 'Keep two or three very fierce dogs'. (4)… . I have felt (7)… attached to it. You may not even have a number for your account as such.

From a 6 of more than 2 million in Alaska in 1948. Starting in the 1950s.. To put it (11)… parliament looks disorganised.which can weigh up to 270 kilograms . the coveted prize during the huge commercial sea harvests that were legal here in the Bering Sea through the early 20th century. telling jokes to their neighbour. it’s hard to imagine that they are at the1of a baffling scientific mystery: why is this species beginning to disappear? These seals . them. some of whom are quite clearly asleep. although theories 8 .have an important and symbolic 2 in Alaska’s history. This is presumably why members (14)… for so long the efforts of the BBC to (15)…parliamentary matters on television. 1) A likewise 2) A mixture 3) A call 4) A finalise 5) A take away 6) A average 7) A after all 8) A comes up 9) A point 10) A total 11) A bluntly 12) A ages 13) A full 14) A prevented 15) A circulate 55 Example: A noticeB regardC look atD stare at 0 A B C D DISAPPEARING ALASKAN SEALS On a winter afternoon. what in fact (8)…when bills are discussed andquestions are asked. To (0)………. the Houses of Parliament look impressive. was once so valuable it 3 Alaska’s economy. making them a (2)… between the country house of an eccentric duke and a Victorian railway station. their numbers have fallen to about 1. but scientists say they doubt that this alone B at least B combination B refer B end B bring about B ordinary B anyway B turns up B way B broad B shortly B times B filled B checked B beam C nevertheless C cross C speak C conclude C make up C normal C even C goes on C matter C overall C directly C moments C composed C defied C spread D as well D match D submit D complete D set in D general D furthermore D lets on D case D comprehensive D basically D years D comprised D resisted D broadcast .You have only to learn that the members (3)… to each other as 'TheHonourable Member to (4)… the picture of a dignified gentlemen's club. declining at an alarming 5 of 6 per cent a year since 1998. The first obvious fact is that the chamber is very rarely full. is clearly behind the (12)…and seems to be (13)…with bores and comedians. Their soft and luxurious fur.. and now television. But the (10)…impression that voters receive of the workings of government is not a good one. a dozen male Northern fur seals are on an island off south-western Alaska.54 Viewed from the outside (1) .1 million. or another species may be 10 on the seals . over the past fewyears first radio. Some people have suggested that the decline can be 11to entanglement in fishing nets.perhaps killer whales.The architecture gives the place a traditional look. which is a second worrying point. with of course a few ladies to (5)…the numbers. Of course. or shouting like badly-behaved schoolchildren. which no longer have as many great whales to eat because of harvesting of those mammals. The seals’ food supply may be 9 . which are the small discussion groups that do most of the real work of the House. and the buildings aresandwiched between a busy square and the river. fighting for territory on the rocks. for reasons that are 4 because the harvests by then tended to be fairly small. television does not follow the work of committees. Sadly. So 7 no one has been able to establish a precise cause for this. But lately it has been falling drastically. have shown the (6)…public. There is not enough room for them all in the chamber in any (9)… . who are(7)…the electorate. the seal population began a slow decline.. and there may be only a handful of members present.

b 6. They were operated by hand pumps and were almost as . as they do now ... d 7.. Cleaning often consisted of an annual .(10)..(15). as spring cleaning. .(13). hung on ropes and had the dust ... It was only when electric motors had become sufficiently . of this research . and offered a bit of advice that was to become . out of them . and that was that. became available to make homes cleaner. hygiene' appeared in households..(8). 1 A middle B centre 2 A location B situation 3 A drove B inspired 4 A unclear B unsure 5 A speed B pace 6 A top B summit 7 A long B far 8 A flourish B mushroom 9 A thinner B tighter 10 A preying B devouring 11 A designated B attributed 12 A reason with B answer to C inside C place C motivated C unsettled C scale C crest C on C abound C slimmer C hounding C stipulated C account for D focus D spot D set D undecided D rate D high D forth D escalate D scarcer D ravaging D consigned D match up 56 THE VACUUM CLEANER. The industrial revolution brought about a major change . b 10....(5). d 2. A much smaller proportion comes from dust and soil carried into the house from . a 11.could 12 the recent population decline. a kindly scientist took the proud inventor. d 14. This in turn led to the .(3)..it was a fact of life. a corresponding interest in '.(2)..humans .(14).(1). that vacuum cleaners suck up is mostly dead skin cells ..... called 'spring cleaning' when the furniture was moved aside.an exhausting and messy process.(11).(6).. d 15. ... a 5.... has it that when one of the first vacuum cleaners was demonstrated. Most of today's major . schools have to (2)……meals at lunchtime.. Until about 250 years ago. millions of cells every day. to become portable that vacuum cleaners became common household items. In Britain... b 57 SCHOOL LUNCH Research has (0) … that over half the children in Britain who take their own lunches to school do not eat (1)…in the middle of the day. of further products. Carpets and rugs were taken outside.were born in the 1920s. households did not take dirt as . .'make it suck. b 9.(12). The first vacuum cleaners appeared in the 1860s in the United States.. to the future evolution of the product . and all the linen products in the house were cleaned. c 8. Children can (3)……to bring their own food or have lunch at the school canteen. d 12...including Electrolux and Hoover . The household . 1 A importantly 2 A ritual 3 A cleaned 4 A products 5 A house 6 A fabrication 7 A Story 8 A away 9 A standard 10 A laborious 11 A scientific 12 Abrands 13 A grit 14 A lose 15 A external B crucially B result B taken B concepts B domestic B appearing B Epic B aside Bcrucial B hard B forward B marks B rubbish B outgrow B outside C considerately C resolution C beaten C ideals C homely C recreation C Legend C aback C regular C nefarious C technological C makes C refuse C omit C beyond D seriously D scrub D sucked D developments D internal D development D Tale D along D esteemed D straining D advanced D trademarks D dirt D shed D indoors 1. .as new . a 3. not blow'...(4).(7). a 13.(9).. one of which was the vacuum cleaner. One shocking (4)…... c 4.

0. A. steered C. investigated D. found B. behaviours 15. reduce C. shown C. consume C. beside B. and parents are the only ones who can (15)…it. Children can easily develop bad eating (14)…. The main function of this “ body clock” is to anticipate and prepare for external changes so that. do D. contain B. managed 2. A. give 3. fitting D. A. order C. possibly D. taken C. manage B. and begin to …(5) in the early evening. nutritional 13. subtract 6. properly B.delay 1b 2b 3d 4a 5 a6 b 7a 8c 9c 10a 11a 12 a 13 d 14 d 15a 58 Scientists used to believe that our 24-hour cycle sleeping and walking was … (1) entirely by external factors. attitudes C. positive C. define ©.at this age. operation B. A. poor work performance and even accidents can all be … (7) or aggravated by inaccurate body clocks. destroy C. fall B. prevent B. Lunchboxes (7) … by researchers contained sweet drinks. instruct B. A. around D. a dairy item and starchy food like bread or pasta.twice as much sugar as they should at lunchtime. predict B. A. increased 11. risk B. decide D. plunging D. put B. tell D. A.is that school meals are much ealthier than lunches prepared by parents. provide B. A. occupation 4. preserve 7. appropriately 2. which have to include one (6)…of fruit and one of vegetables.which are regulated internally by a special time-keeping mechanism within the brain. said D. Equally. which can greatly disturb their lives and even threaten their health. understanding C. keep B. fruit and vegetables. probably C. A. portion B. setting 3. figure C. styles B. opinion D. damage 14. A. take 9. threat D. factor D. as well as meat. lessen D. habits D. finding 5. want C. suiting 9. A. A. crisps and chocolate bars. A. A. A. Some people’s body clocks … (6) poorer time than others. A. kilo D. examined 8. Unfortunately. winding us down for sleep. conditional C. diving C. choose D. bowl C. but it can remind them of the (12)… value of milk. piece 7. Children (8)…. for example. A. gearing up for the day. affect D. formed C. A. Small changes in their children’s diet can (13)… their future health. digestion and mental (3) … . fatigue. depression. A. caused D. A. common B. healthy B. hold C. used . informed 1. governed D. activity C. adjusting C. process D. number B. conditions C. A. prefer 4. extended C. were the rising and … (2) of the sun. told B. But they have now established that there is a daily rhythm to a wide range of biological function – including temperature. expanded B. The research will provide a better (9)… of why the ercentage of overweight students in Britain has (10)… in the last decade. A. view 10. hazard 10. A. criticize 12. descending B. added D. they thought. consist D. A. altering B. Insomnia. The most notable of these. support D. standards 6. nearly 5. A. normal D. good D. Shift workers are known to run a higher-than-average … (9) of having a number of health problems and the disruption of … (10) body rhythms is one possible explanation for this 1. our body temperature starts to rise …(4) dawn. knowledge B. in C. make C. made 8. danger C. procedures B. There are strict (5)… for the preparation of school meals. severe problems can result from the difficulties of … (8) to different time zones and working by night instead of by day. A. the government can not (11)…parents. conducted B. ways D.

as well as being a potential higher (4) … through their own driving (5)… Reaction (6)… in an emergency involves many different physical (7) … such as the production of the nerve impulse. argues 2. B 12. If one is impolite or (6) … in these situations. prohibited 11. action B. and C. disrepute C. B 6. time C. might D. C 9. injustice D. A. A unable B. D 8. A legally B. (2) … . A not B. but the overall effect increases the time it takes to respond for more (10) … drivers. displease D. free 13. determines C. A 11. chance C. society D. Solemn C. practice B. impossible C. This law. correctly D. A survey of more than 3. C 14. we cannot (8) … punish someone for simply being inconsiderate or unpleasant. group 5. period B. C 3. A nation without laws (14) … be unstable. forces B. A. disobey 4. caused D. the "unofficial" rules of (15) … help us to show friendliness and kindness toward each other. Important D. our court system must punish people who disregard these formal rules. will C. unlikely D. behavior C. A 13. should B. A. or working in an office. experience D. the selling of alcohol was (10) … by the 18th Amendment to the Constitution. turning carelessly or changing lanes. Because illegal behavior generally harms other individuals or (4) … at large. For example. A. rightly C. decides D. susceptible C. liar 8. D 5. nor D. A. a new law was considered necessary to reflect that change. had to be changed because the government found it (11) … to force people to drink only nonalcoholic beverages. A breaker B. degree B. As women became more (12) … and took on new roles. however. users B. A. And although we can strongly disapprove of such misconduct. rich B.000 road accidents in Michigan involving drivers aged over 55 showed that in eight out of ten (1) … it was a driver over the age of 71 who had (2) … a collision by failing to yield. either written or unwritten. all citizens would need to actively distrust everyone. which (1) … how people act with each other. behaviour 6. avoided B. common 4. While laws protect. creative C. A discouraged B. independent D. both change as society develops. prevented C. or 10. band B. A. A. displace B. doer D. manners are inflexible. Older drivers are obviously more (3)… to injury in vehicle crashes. many people who were dissatisfied with the imbalance between the rights of men and women worked hard to pass the Equal Rights Amendment. cases D. disrepute C. inequality 14. A. C 4. Neither laws (9) . A. etiquette B. dating Answer : 1. possible D. factor D. misbehaves B. attempts 2. eating D. and they control how we drive. often called "manners" or "etiquette" describe correct and incorrect (5) … in such situations as eating in a restaurant going on a date . Individuals who (3) … laws may be fined or put in jail. Both laws and manners help a society run smoothly. activity C. Some of these (9) … more than others with age. activated 3. points C. other people often consider the (7) … immature and insensitive. behavior 6. A.. in the early twentieth century. Decent 3. disrespect B. A The point at which physical decline with age begins adversely to affect a driver’s capability has not yet been thoroughly studied. 1. A 7. A. system . risk 5. operate a business or run a government.59 Every nation has a set of rules. treatment D. illegal 12. likely B. More recently. A. thought C. 1. really 9. stopped C. Laws seek to prevent (13) … and protect the rights of citizens. (8) …of response and transmission to the muscles. Formal B. would 15. imbalance C. perception of the signal. written rules are often laws. us from one another. D 15. offender C. B 60 2. behavior 7. process D. Both laws and manners are important to society. A. D 10. misunderstands D. Informal rules. prevented D. A. A. violates C.

forms.. As (4) .. A. Clearly this heat loss needs to be prevented. ancient C.. A. cold or wet. 1a 12.buying one that has a drop down 'tail' at the back to stop your neck (9) . reduce C. (12) . factors C. 1b 10.your head.sunlight. 1a 3. the problem is that the head is (3) . 1b 4... 1c 2. D. deteriorate B.7. 1b 2a 2d 2d 2a 2d 2c 2b 2d 2c 2a 2a 2d 3d 3c 3a 3d 3a 3d 3b 3a 3a 3d 3c 3a 4b 4d 4c 4c 4d 4b 4d 4c 4c 4b 4d 4d 5c 5a 5a 5d 5a 5b 5a 5b 5d 5c 5a 5a 6a 6b 6c 6d 6c 6a 6c 6d 6c 6a 6c 6a 7c 7b 7a 7a 7d 7d 7b 7c 7d 7c 7b 7c 8d 8d 8a 8b 8c 8c 8a 8c 8b 8b 8c 8b 9c 9d 9a 9a 9a 9c 9b 9d 9a 9a 9b 9c 10a 10b 10d 10c 10c 10c 10c 10a 10d 10b 10c 10a 11c 11c 11b 11a 11a 11a 11d 11a 11d 11a 11a 11b 12b 12b 12c 12c 12b 12b 12c 12b 12b 12d 12a 12d 13d 14d 15c 13d 14c 15a 13d 14a 15c 13b 14d 15a 13c 14a 15a . 1b 9. preference D. If you prefer a baseball cap.. a single waterproof hat with a brim will do the (2) .. parts B.. That's why a hat is a good investment. air is that the human head doesn't work very well outdoors if it becomes too hot.. and the brim of your hat will do this. 1c 6. the hat goes withyou.you warm. older D.... elderly bcabdadcba 61 Don't forget your hat An important point to remember if you like spending time out in the (0) ...A. but it's important to remember that hats don't actually (6) .mature B.. sunburnt. Just as important is the need to protect your neck from the effects of (7) .. Surprisingly. 1d 8..... adequately in most conditions In cold climates. choice 9. A. they simply stopheat escaping. hats are often more practical than pulling up the hoodof your waterproof coat because when you (11) . 0A open B free C clear D wide 1 A around B about C along D above 2 A job B task C role D duty 3 A giving away B sending out C dropping off D running down 4 A soon B long C well D much 5 A according B regarding C depending D relating 6 A maintain B stay C hold D keep 7 A sharp B keen C bright Ddeep 8 A consider B recommend C advise D suggest 9 A suffering B going C having Dgetting 10 A occasions B positions C cases D conditions 11 A alter B switch C turn D spin 12 A instead of B whereas C rather than D thereby Keys 1. 1a 7. wherever you're planning to go out and (1) . 1c 11. as fifty to sixty percent of your body's heat is lost through the head and neck. heat all the time.. 1a 5.. (5) . improve 10. increase D. suggestion B. (8) . section C... on which scientist you believe. And in wet weather (10) .. the hood usually does not. events 8...

1b 2b 39. 1a 2c 44. 1c 2b 23. 1c 2c 22. 1b 2d 28. 1B 2b 33. 1c 2c 36. 1c 2d 46. 1d 2b 37. 1c 2b 24. 1b 2d 35. 1d 2a 15. 1c 2d 18. 1c 2b 19. 1b 2a 45. 1b 2b 50. 1b 2b 27.13. 1c 2c 34. 1c 2b 26. 1C 2c 32. 1b 2a 43. 1c 2d 16. 1a 2c 51. 1a 2b 17. 1c 2b 38. 1c 2b 3a 3b 3a 3d 3b 3a 3b 3b 3d 3b 3a 3c 3d 3c 3a 3b 3c 3a 3b 3a 3b 3a 3d 3a 3c 3a 3d 3a 3b 3d 3d 3c 3b 3c 3c 3d 3a 3a 3d 4c 4c 4b 4b 4c 4d 4a 4b 4a 4d 4b 4a 4a 4a 4b 4d 4a 4b 4d 4d 4d 4c 4a 4d 4b 4c 4c 4d 4a 4b 4b 4a 4a 4d 4b 4c 4a 4d 4d 5a 5d 5b 5c 5b 5b 5d 5c 5a 5a 5c 5c 5c 5a 5c 5c 5d 5a 5c 5a 5c 5c 5a 5d 5d 5b 5a 5b 5c 5c 5b 5d 5b 5a 5a 5b 5d 5b 5d 6d 6a 6d 6b 6d 6b 6c 6a 6b 6b 6b 6b 6a 6a 6a 6d 6d 6d 6d 6c 6d 6d 6d 6d 6a 6d 6b 6a 6d 6a 6a 6a 6c 6d 6d 6d 6b 6b 6c 7a 7a 7b 7c 7a 7c 7c 7d 7a 7d 7d 7c 7d 7a 7b 7b 7c 7c 7b 7a 7b 7a 7b 7b 7b 7c 7a 7b 7d 7a 7a 7b 7a 7d 7d 7b 7a 7c 7b 8c 8a 8a 8b 8b 8d 8a 8a 8d 8b 8c 8d 8b 8a 8b 8c 8b 8d 8c 8b 8c 8a 8b 8c 8d 8d 8b 8d 8a 8c 8d 8c 8d 8b 8b 8c 8d 8d 8c 9a 10b 11d 9c 10a 11b 9c 10d 11c 9d 10b 11c 9c 10d 11c 9a 10b 11d 9a 10d 11d 9c 10d 11b 9b 10a 11b 9d 10a 11b 9a 10d 11b 9a 10b 11d 9c 10a 9c 10a 9d 10b 11b 9d 10d 11a 9b 10a 11d 9b 10d 11a 9d 10a 11d 9d 10c 11d 9d 10a 11d 9b 10c 11b 9c 10c 11d 9a 10c 11d 9a 10b 11c 9a 10b 11a 9d 10a 11c 9b 10c 9c 10c 11b 9d 10a 11b 9a 10c 11c 9a 10d 11d 9d 10a 11b 9c 10a 11d 9c 10a 11c 9a 10d 11a 9c 10c 9a 10b 11d 9c 10b 11a 12c 12a 12d 12b 12b 12d 12b 12a 12d 12c 12b 12b 13d 13a 13d 13d 13c 13b 13c 13c 13c 13d 13b 14b 14c 14a 14a 14a 14a 14d 14a 14a 14c 14d 15a 15b 15b 15b 15d 15c 15a 15b 15c 15a 15c 12a 12d 12b 12a 12a 12b 12a 12d 12d 12c 12c 12d 12c 12b 12a 12a 12a 12a 12c 12b 12d 13c 14c 15d 13c 13b 13a 13d 13c 13d 13d 13c 13d 13c 13b 13b 13d 13c 14a 14c 14b 14a 14c 14b 14a 14b 14c 14b 14c 14a 14a 14b 15d 15d 15c 15b 15b 15c 15d 15d 15d 15a 15c 15a 15d 15a 12c 13a 14b 15c 12c 13c 14a 15c . 1a 2b 40. 1c 2a 49. 1d 2b 25. 1a 2c 20. 1a 2b 30 1C 2d 31. 1b 2b 41. 1a 2a 48. 1d 2c 29. 1c 2a 21. 1d 2a 14. 1b 2a 47. 1a 2b 42.

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