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1 The early railway in Britain
In 1830, there were under 100 miles of public railway in Britain. Yet within 20 years, this (0)……. had grown to more than 5,000 miles. By the end of the century, almost enough rail track to (1) the world covered this small island, (2) ...the nature of travel for ever and contributing to the industrial revolution that changed the (3) ... of history in many parts of the world. Wherever railways were introduced, economic and social progress quickly (4) ....... In a single day, rail passengers could travel hundreds of miles, (5) ........previous journey times by huge margins and bringing rapid travel within the (6) of ordinary people. Previously, many people had never ventured (7)……. the outskirts of their towns and villages. The railway brought them (8) ........freedom and enlightenment. In the19th century, the railway in Britain (9)……..something more than just the business of carrying goods and passengers. Trains were associated with romance, adventure and, frequently,(10)…… luxury. The great steam locomotives that thundered across the land were the jet airliners of their (11) ........, carrying passengers in comfort over vast distances in unimaginably short times. But the railways (12) .........more than revolutionise travel; they also (13)……. a distinctive and permanent mark on the British landscape. Whole towns and industrial centres (14)……. up around major rail junctions, monumental bridges and viaducts crossed rivers and valleys and the railway stations themselves became (15)……. places to spend time between journeys. 0 A amount 1 A revolve 2 A altering 3 A route 4 A pursued 5 A cancelling 6 A reach 7 A further 8 A larger 9 10 11 12 A A A A served considerable date caused B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B figure enclose amending way followed subtracting capacity over higher functioned generous stage did set stood liked C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C sum encircle adapting line succeeded cutting facility beyond bigger represented plentiful day produced settled burst desirable D quantity D orbit D adjusting D course D chased D abolishing D hold D above D greater D performed D sizeable D phase D turned D left D sprang D wanted

13 A laid 14 A jumped 15 A preferable

2 Driving from Beijing to Paris
Every (0) ... begins with a single step.' We might (1) ......this proverb for the 16,000 km Beijing to Paris car rally, and say that every rally begins with a (2) .......... of the wheel. From China, several hundred courageous men and women will (3) ...out for Paris in pursuit of what, for many, is likely to prove an impossible (4) ... .Everybody is prepared for the worst and expects a high drop-out (5) ... , especially on the rally's difficult first (6) ... across central China and over the

high mountain (7) ...of the Himalayas .`If twenty-five cars (8) ... it to Paris, we'll be doing well,' says Philip Young, the rally organiser. Now planned as an annual event, the first Beijing-Paris car rally took place in 1907. It was won by Prince Borghese, an Italian adventurer, who crossed the (9) ... line just a few metres (10) ... of the only other car to complete the race. Nowadays, not many people know about Prince Borghese, but at the time his achievement was (11) ... as comparable to that of Marco Polo, who travelled from Venice to China in the thirteenth century. According to the (12) ... , all the cars in the rally must be more than thirty years old, which means that the (13) ... roads and high altitude are a (14) ...test of both the cars and the drivers. A sense of adventure is essential. One driver said,`Our (15) ...is to have a good time, enjoy the experience and the magnificent scenery - and the adventure of a lifetime.' 0A 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10 A 11A 12A 13 A 14 A 15 A journey adapt revolution head vision rate period crossings get closing forward thought orders crude firm aim B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B travel moderate circle move fantasy number stage passes take final ahead referred rules undeveloped strict target C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C route improve rotation set hope speed time directions have ending front regarded laws broken severe proposal D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D way form turn try dream frequency round passages make finishing advance noted customs rough grave intent

3 Smart shoes
Smart shoes that (0) ... their size throughout the day could soon be available. A prototype of such a shoe has already been produced and a commercial (1) ... may be in production within a few years. The shoe contains sensors that constantly (2) ...he amount of (3) ... left in it. If the foot has become too large, a tiny valve opens and the shoe (4)…slightly. The entire control system is about 5mm square and is (5) ... inside the shoe. This radical shoe (6) ... a need because the volume of the (7) ... foot can change by as much as 8% during the course of the day. The system is able to learn about the wearer's feet and (8) ... up a picture of the size of his or her feet throughout the day. It will allow the shoes to change in size by up to 8% so that they always fit (9)... .They are obviously more comfortable and less likely to (10)…blisters. From an athlete's point of view, they can help improve (11) ...a little, and that is why the first (12)… for the system is likely to be in a sports shoe. Eventually, this system will find a (13)… in other household items, from beds that automatically change to fit the person sleeping in them, to power tools that (14) …..themselves to the user's hand for better grip. There is no reason why the system couldn't be adapted for use in hundreds of consumer (15) ... 0 A adjust B fit C reform D move 1 A assortment B version C style D variety 2 A prove B confirm D check C inspect 3 A room B gap C area D emptiness 4 A amplifies B develops C expands D increases 5 A located B sited C established D laid 6 A detects B finds C meets D faces 7 A average B general C usual D medium

8 A 9 A 10 A 11 A 12 A 13 A 14 A 15 A

build exactly provoke achievement purpose function shape commodities

B pick B absolutely B form B performance B exercise B part B change B possessions

C C C C C C C C

grow completely initiate success use way respond goods

D D D D D D D D

set totally cause winning operation place convert objects

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We really can tell if we are being watched
Stories about how people somehow know when they are being watched have been going around for years. However, few (0)…. have been made to investigate the phenomenon scientifically. Now, with the completion of the largest ever study of the so-called staring effect, there is impressive evidence that this is a recognisable and (1) ... sixth sense. The study (2) ... hundreds of children. For the experiments, they sat with their eyes (3) ... so they could not see, and with their backs to other children, who were told to either stare at them or look away. Time and time again the results showed that the children who could not see were able to (4) ... when they were being stared at. In a (5) ... of more than 18,000 trials (6)…… worldwide, the children (7)……. sensed when they were being watched almost 70% of the time. The experiment was repeated with the (8) ... precaution of putting the children who were being watched outside the room, (9)… from the starers by the windows. This was done just in case there was some (10) ... going on with the children telling each other whether they were looking or not. This (11) ... the possibility of sounds being (12) ... between the children. The results, though less impressive, were more or less the same. Dr Sheldrake, the biologist who designed the study, believes that the results are (13)….enough to find out through further experiments (14)…..how the staring effect might actually (15) ... 0A 1A 2A 3A 4 A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10 A 11 A 12 A 13 A 14 A 15 A tries genuine involved shaded find sum worked over correctly attached separated pretending prevented delivered satisfying really come about B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B tests accepted contained wrapped notice collection worked through exactly added parted lying omitted transported convincing carefully be looked at C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C attempts received comprised masked tell mass carried on thoroughly connected split cheating evaded transmitted concluding definitely set out D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D aims sure enclosed covered reveal total carried out perfectly increased divided deceiving ended distributed persuading precisely be held up

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PAPER
Just (0)….a day without paper,' reads one advertisement for a Finnish paper company. It adds, `You almost (1) ...see our products every day.' And they're right. But in most industrial countries, people are a]so (2) ..... to paper - whether it's for holding their groceries, for drying their hands or for (3) .... them with the daily news - that its (4) ..... in their dailylives passes largely unnoticed. At one (5)….paper was in short supply and was used mainly for important documents, but more recently,

. the company opened The Mustard Shop.. Jeremiah Colman began to make mustard in 1814 in a nearby village... cheese and other food.. soon changed the appearance of the local (5) . water and air resources.. all designed for a different (8) .. in paper production.. .. the small. the costs (11) ..a dramatic increase in the (7) .growing economies and new technologies have (6) . a type of sauce. By this time. . and Norwich (4) ... of mustards. is likely to be one of growth and interdependence. However. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A known A explore A account A joinn A comes A view A expanded A limits A reality A amount A review B common B enquire B brochure B tie Bgoes B scenery B enlarged B frontiers B fact B extent B watch C popular C research C list C union C belongs C background C increased C sides C existence C range C examine D normal D analyse D guide D link D leads D nature D strengthened D outskirts D force D set D remark . It is a shop not to be (12) .... between mustard... a city in the east of England. Today........ Research into the relationship between paper use and the use of computers has shown that the general (10) . some people predicted a `paperless office'.....of paper used... the history of mustard.... full of ustard flowers whose seeds were required for Colman's factory. The (3) .... Decades ago. How much paper do we really need and how much is wasted? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A believe A positively Aconscious A providing A task A time A called on A total A point A Instead A method A involved A puts B imagine B obviously B acquainted B delivering B operation B instance B come around B portion B goal B Besides B order B contained B raises C realise C certainly C familiar C contributing C service C date C brought about C number C purpose C Otherwise C trend C held C gets D suppose D absolutely D accustomed D giving D role D occasion D drawn up D amount D result D Alternatively D system D connected D places 6 THE MUSTARD SHOP Norwich. In particular.. a collection of old Colman's posters and an exhibition (11) ..... shopping centre for thousands of people... and many people continue to enjoy eating mustard with meat. The company is still in (8) .. there are more than 450 different grades of paper.. some important questions. when visiting Norwich. . is a (0) . are high. Colman's mustard was famous in many countries. of interesting shops to see...The company (6) .. the widespread use of new technologies has gone hand-in-hand with an increased use of paper. back to the nineteenth century. This (12) .. The Mustard Shop is usually high on everybody's (2) . The yellow fields. in terms of the world's land.. In 1973. Upstairs there is a small museum where visitors can (10) . unusual shops hidden away in Norwich's narrow streets... rapidly and in 1854 it moved to a suburb on the (7) . of Norwich... visitors love to (1) . It is a careful reproduction of a typical mustard shop of a hundred years ago and sells a wide (9). (9) .

But all is not lost. some of the older shopping arcades of city centres.. and would remember and discuss what they had seen for many weeks afterwards. As there was no need to (9)… out bad . But nowadays television and computers (5) . circus or ballet... which (7) .....the theatre. . up they were taken to public places of entertainment . ... opera..... Gruen's shopping malls were on a much grander (6) ... entertainment. Gruen's (1) was to provide a pleasant.... acting or (1) ... British children were frequently encouraged to try out their performing skills for the (0) . revolutionised shopping in the 1950s by creating the type of shopping centre that we now (0) . the sense of witnessing a very (8) . a musical instrument. .. of adults.. and children quickly accept these marvellous (7) .. which usually (2) . They looked forward to these (3) . For many children. a shopping mall... an endless stream of easily (6) . .. And live performances in public are still relatively (12) .. outside.. He (3) . more specialist audience. on using building designs that he knew people would feel (4) .. an American architect... . but placed them in landscaped `streets' that were entirely enclosed and often covered with a curved glass roof.. but while these housed only small speciality shops.. This was done to (5) .. .. quiet and spacious shopping environment with large car parks...11 12 A explaining A unnoticed B announcing B missed C expressing C escaped D discovering D left 7 THE PERFORMING ARTS In the past.. albeit with an older. building in the suburbs.live performance is gone forever. with. the shopping `streets' from the parking (8) .. As they (2) . in their own homes.. of a TV set may have encouraged a very lazy response from (10) .. with great (4) .. They did this by reading aloud..... The (9) .......as a very ordinary part of their everyday lives. but the (11) . of those with ambitions to become performing artists themselves does not seem to have been at all diminished. Access to the whole shopping mall was gained by using the main doors.. 0 A advantage 1 A controlling 2 A developed 3 A circumstances 4 A sensation 5 A supply 6 A applicable 7 A designs 8 A special 9 A attendance 10 A spectators 11 A want 12 A famous B benefit B handling B grew B occasions B action B send B convenient B inventions B peculiar B presence B onlookers B appeal B favourite C profit C doing C advanced C incidents C thrill C stock C available C exhibits C specific C being C viewers C pressure C popular D gain D playing D brought D situations D excitement D store D free D appearances D particular D company D listeners D desire D approved 8 SHOPPING MALLS Victor Gruen... He also wanted people to be able to shop in all kinds of weather...

amounts C.A. jars. question 10. made B.yet.. took up 3. The (9)… is that. set C.. most C highest D. 0. flour. eggs . We may not be the most environmentally (1) …citizens in the world but. concerned C. took over B. worried D. store D. shops no longer needed windows and doors. biscuits.A. Most Items . Like many shoppers in Colombo. No environmentalist could have (3) …about it.A. case C. . urban consumers in Sri Lanka cannot afford the luxury of waste.A. disapproved D.weather.. buyers 1. criticised C. In many cities. may have imported a problem that once never existed. A. At (6) …we would carry one plastic bag separately. consumers C. sole 9. fruit. simple B. promise B. For eggs we took a reusable plastic tray with us. packets B. example D.. bit by bit D. It is quite normal to ask for a (8)… envelope. dressed up in their layers of attractive.A. took away C. But in recent years Western-style supermarkets have begun to spring up in Colombo. like so many otherdeveloping countries. compared with this..A. for the most part. loose 6. single D..to other uses. advantage C. When income (7)…are low. qualified B. put 11. carriages 5. with them. You need a good strong basket at the po/a. set B. streamlined service to customers. people need to buy in small quantities.A.A. in pieces C. we do not have a rubbish problem . As newcomers from Sri Lanka. band 13. rates B. customers B. Most people do not buy more from the grocers than they know they will actually consume. point B. shopping malls now (11) . cinemas.A. levels 8. range C. best 7.. (15)… . clients D. accused 4. colourful (13)…beckons from the shelves. we compare the situation here with the one back home. efficient.. wheel barrows B. sight 12. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A consider A direction A resulted A insisted A favourable A model A measure A disconnected A strips A hold A freely A contain A becoming B know B aim B sought B demanded B agreeable B imitate B height B withdrew B lines B get B loosely B concern B growing C call C search C intended C requested C comfortable C repeat C size C separated C areas C stay C simply C consist C raising D label D view D meant D emphasised D enviable D shadow D scale D parted D plots D keep D entirely D compose D advancing 9 TALKING RUBBISH Reduce! Re-use! Recycle!The message hits Canadian (0)……… through all the media. sizes D. singular C.. experienced 2. These are the (14)…products that demand your attention on the TV advertisements. evidence D.They re-use whatever they can and are loath to discard bags. free B. given D. There are no supermarket (4)… to push around. trolleys D. took along D. A (12)… of imported goods. complained B.A.. padding . restaurants and other forms of entertainment are also (12) . my partner Shahid and I used to have a cane basket we (2)… with us to the Sunday market or pola every week. and people could wander (10) .rice. They hold out the (11)…of a clean.. packaging D. much more than just shops. tins or boxes that can be (10).are bought (5)or wrapped in newspaper. two eggs or 100 grams of sugar. wagons C. vegetables.A.A. Sri Lanka. packs C. from shop to shop.A. maximum B. in popularity.

.attention C.had B. ..put off D.. millions of Americans (0) . until he lit up whole streets with his lights...000 things that don't work. . in homes and offices from New York to California. .entire C. took D. to the city is the River Fleet. all that (3) . of experts is also important. just B. sadly.. there are more than 150 kilometres of rivers under the streets of London. these cities also have a mass of secret tunnels and hidden pipes below ground which keep everything working..that is. .gain A.. In addition B.. great river which previously had beautiful houses on its (6) ..whole A... Edison is the perfect example of an inventor .. As well C. to his colleagues: 'Well.even though C. ....set D.received 11 Under the city streets While skyscraper offices and elegant apartment blocks remain the public (0) .This other world exists...instructing C.achieve C.. similar C Among D.. Most have been (2) . is their names.. The London Underground (8) .. up clever gadgets. In many ways.turned out A.. Edison's proposal for electric lighting circuitry was (12) . time:Thomas Alva Edison..of engineers and historians For example.effect A.' Knowing when to take no (11) .regard B.decrease C. Few inventors have (4) .. into the River Thames by Blackfriars Bridge.notifying D.mislead D. likely D.. very 15..000 kilometres of underground railway track winding under the capital . of most major cities. He possessedthe key characteristics that an inventor needs to (8)…… a success of inventions.place B.... . with total disbelief by eminent scientists..underestimate A.shapes B.14.forms D.get D... reacting to failure by cheerfully (9) .share D..indicated D.marked A.lower B.drawn D.noted C.. the death of arguably the most important inventor of (3) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A joined A..put A. Along 10 THOMAS EDISON On the night of 21 October 1931.view D.for all D.went out C.caught C were C... 0 1 2 3 . (10)..all D.. such an impact on everyday life. over and.. notably sheer determination. One should never (6)…how revolutionary some of Edison's inventions were. not just someone who (7).make B. Edison famously tried thousands of materials while working on a new type of battery.. It now goes underground in the north of the city and (7) .A.creates A....came off B.announcing A.distinguished B. but someone whose products transform the lives of millions. Lights (1) . we know 8... The ceremony (2) . part in a coast-to-coast ceremony to commemorate the passing of a great man. a (5) .dreams C.1. Perhaps the greatest (4) ...informing B.by far Anotice Agathered B held B. and many of his inventions played a crucial(5) in the development of modern technology.served C.A....full B. forgotten or neglected by all but a tiny (1)..at least B.role C..

. enclose C favourable C.. I got into conversation with a cheerful man who turned (8) .waste C.. my time well. Along some underground railway lines..covered A.out B.knowledge B.. the ferry in early May...past B..prior D. settled C.lets D.remains C.suspected B.....greet A.. out of town and own to Ribe. Some have had their entrances on the street turned into restaurants and shops. approach D.broken C surface Ctotal C. gain D judged D. I arrived at Esbjerg...arranged A.capable A. and when I set out to (0) .and more than 100 stations below street level. I wanted to (2) ..... exercise C. a person travelling alone sometimes meets with unexpected hospitality.difference A..rapid A.flows B. that by the end of the trip I'd have made such lasting friendships. he contacted his daughter in Odense.doing B. forgotten. Within minutes... down.once A. I little (1) ..change B.rims D. exception C.Since D.wondered A. to be the local baker. find C.rides B.fixed B.Although C.miss A.. his family for lunch.passed A. He insisted that I should (9) ..pulled B outline Bamount B.lie A.number A.. observation C.take A.sheltered D.going 13 Mountain climbing .lay D. in C.up A.serve B.loss D.. on my way with a fresh loaf of bread to keep me (12) . he had (10) ..leads A. for me to visit her and her family. and. and this trip was no (7) .In Ribe.sent B. begun C.sharp D.banks C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A catch A.then C.. several small islands and various parts of the countryside. Then I was(11) ..Unless B.. join C.consists D. (10) . A cycle track (5) .. where I spent my first night.ive C. over D..keeps D. most (11) .borders A..coasts B. and the feeling that this would turn out to be a wonderful holiday. . ordered D. face A.ready B. but most entrances have been (12) .hidden C. .experience A. consist D convenient D. In my (6) . use D.. commuters can sometimes catch a (9) .... while we were eating.making C...protected B..holds A. some are used as film sets...Include A.. a (4) ..has C. moves C.gets A.. pick B.doubted C..absence B. glimpse of the platforms of more than 40 closed stations which have been left under the city. so I had planned a route which would (3) .stops B.stays A. contrast D...brought D top D..leaks C.see B. information D. port for a cyclist's arrival.. where tourist information can be obtained and money changed.contains B.brief B. connects D.last B. being D..few D..fast C. put D .cut 12 A good start to a holiday I had never been to Denmark before..Despite A..contain B. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A ..

possess D.... out how much weight a particular rock will (4) ... many different skills.support C.given 11 A.. And the (12) .reliable D. . of pastimes is mountain climbing.. to ride a bike.hold of the rope. priceless 1 A.faced D.. out of Westwood Road onto Henley Road in front of the teenager's bicycle.. Sarah was able to go .indicates 7 A.gap C precious C. He can't have been (12)….. when she was sent reeling by a black Volvo on her way home from work. on about it being Friday 13th.orders Dset D.a name or address and before Sarah could get his number.play C.calls C.demand 14 FRIDAY THE THIRTEENTH Police are hunting for a hit-and-run driver who knocked a teenage cyclist off her bike in East Street..shows D. "Everyone at work kept (4) . but I couldn't. a combination of gymnastic ability. I think I'll stay in bed.One of the most difficult but (0) .....out of his way. if the leader falls.lack D.. ..keep 6 A....splitting D.signals B.. but perhaps the most necessary skill is being able to (3) .try B. I don't usually take any (6) ..own 2 A..at the (8)…with Westwood Road at about 6.continue C. for the others to follow. "I tried to (3) . of oxygen at high altitudes makeslife even more difficult for mountaineers..provide B.control C.30pm as Sarah was making her (9) .. snow skills (8) ." Though still too (14)….The driver stopped for a moment but then drove off without (2) . The number of dangers (11) . I don't know why the driver didn't see her. had a lucky (0) ... .sure B. Mountaineers climb in groups of three or four.tearing B.. have helped her up." The accident(7)…." said her father.requires 3 A... by climbers is almost endless....work 4 A..put C.points C... Ice axes are used for 9) . I'm not a bit (5)… and wouldn't change any of my plans just because Friday 13th is supposed to be unlucky.. 13th May.. The most experienced climber goes first and (6) .. With much mountain climbing. Derek.....safe 8 A...offer D... Usually one person climbs while the other climbers (5) .." she said.stay B.make D. "He could at (11) ... he or she can be held by the others and (10) . 0 A.. imagination and observation..sent D.steps into the snow and for testing the ground.. prized D. on Friday... Climbers always tie themselves together so that... touched B. It is (13)…that nobody took down the number.stand C. back to safety.pulled B.act 9A. of that sort of thing but I will now. "Sarah was lucky.. making the rope secure so that it is (7) .need B. The Volvo (10) .attention. Rock climbing (2) . ..breaking C.do B.. She bruised her thigh and shoulder and her bicycle was (1) .felt C. home to the Harley Estate..dependable C.hold B. each climber at a distance of approximately six metres from the next.marked 12 A. I don't see why he should get away with it.cutting 10 A...supply 5 A. 17. The modern climber must (1) .rewarding B.maintain D. the otherclimbers which way to go. a very important part..insists B. Sarah Tucker.

. part of the traditional medicine to (7) . could save the life of their child. in rhino horn. in Marlow on Monday. such as horn from buffalo or antelope..5 metres was the longest in the world.The battle is (14)… to be winnable... like fingernails. which at 1. Horn.. for the sole (2) .. . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ` A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A factories amounts reason essential chance design hardly vary threat rejection business recipes capacity regarded imagined variation B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B plants bundles intention real search plan even switch danger denial commerce aids values valued dreamed difference C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C workshops collections need actual fight programme nearly modify disaster refusal selling remedies control known thought gap D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D studios groups purpose true race form still adjust 'menace protest trading doses powers reputed viewed comparison . conservationists met to (5)… a campaign to persuade countries where rhino horn is (6). are (13) .. people believe.of smashing them to powder to make the (3) . And in Africa poachers continue to die in the (4) .. The biggest (8) to the survival of the rhinoceros is the (9) … of certain countries to enforce a ban on domestic (10) . Ivory is a luxury. for the black rhino. ingredient of many of their medicines..The rhino horn is included in many (11) for disorders ranging from fevers to nosebleeds. Recently.. In China pharmaceutical(0)… have been building up (1) of antiques made from rhino horn.. is made of keratin and has no proven medicinal (12)…Traditional substitutes..back to (15) .. rhino horn.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A break crashed leaving go chatting irrational notice took place junction route pulled once paying unfavourable discouraged work B escape B harmed B presenting B get B running B prejudiced B consideration B came about B joining B course B thrust B least B giving B inopportune B shaken B post C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C escapade devastated noting be going unreasonable note finished up roundabout way ran most attracting undesirable overcome job D incident D damaged D suggesting D stay D rambling D superstitious D care D turned up D crossing D path D crashed D best D providing D unfortunate D confused D employment 15 THE TRADE IN RHINO HORN Last year thieves broke into a Scottish castle and stole only one thing: a rhino horn... But it may be harder than the battle against the trade in ivory... as second best. for there is a (15)…between the two commodities.. to substitutes..

of teaching and accommodation.. and part of the experience is that you are one of the (13) . The start of construction was delayed until 1982 by arguments about planning and by a (13) .. there are many opportunities open to you. a 300-ton schooner.... The Scottish Tourist Board publishes an excellent (1) . of Scotland from the sea but haven't got your own boat and prefer an experienced hand at the helm. Write for a copy to any of their offices.Prices vary.. . there are any number of arts and crafts (6)…that offer instruction as well as (7)… .... And to (10) ." It sounded like a splendid idea when the government (6) ...can choose from a wide range too ... to open in1990.... (12) .. members of the cabinet ordered a (14)… report and discovered that the committee responsible for (15) . from gliding to golf. "Things have gone from bad to worse. for example. week-long voyages in the Tall Ship Malcolm Miller. 0 1 2 3 4 5 A projected A delayed A comeback A fade A substituted A distract B supposed B bothered B setback B melt B replaced B destroy 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A imposed A items A heat A reservation A fit A exposition A especially A variation A progress A guarding B unveiled B computers B temperature B demand B serve B show B anyway B difference B progression B supervising C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C assumed infected drawback mould abandoned postpone claimed equipment cold wish bring exhibition eventually shift progressive overlooking D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D pretended restricted cutback rust rejected postdate manifested tools warmth request obey demonstration meanwhile change progressing watching 17 THEME HOLIDAYS IN SCOTLAND If you like to build your holiday round a theme or particular (0) ... Sophisticated electronic (7)…would help keep the library's irreplaceable stock at an optimal(8)… and humidity. on the Solway Coast and the Early Christian remains at Whithorn..... You can.. .. go on an archaeological holiday and be (4) . the opening of the project's first phase for yet another two years... the new British Library was (0) ... . silver-smithing and (9)…Outdoor (10) ." said Brian Lake.the project hadn't met in four years.That would (5) .. an association of writers and scholars who are not happy with plans for the new library. try STA Schooners. depending on the (8) . of government...came in June when inspectors discovered that 60 miles of new metal shelving had started to (3)… and needed to be (4) ..16 THE NEW BRITISH LIBRARY Originally commissioned 14 years ago... However. secretary of the Regular readers. Subjects range from painting and music to wood-carving. containing (2)…of dozens of ideas for 'different' holidays together with addresses to (3) .. The most recent (2) . .. For creative people.from bird watching to camping. "It is a grand national project that has become a great national scandal..... Four years later..its £164 million project in1978. That was the plan. They (12) .. other needs of the reading public. poor planning and financial problems. a restaurant and a conference hall.. the library would also include (11)… galleries. A computer-controlled delivery system would provide books to readers within minutes of a (9) . the project has been(1)… by political infighting. Adventure and Special Interest Holidays in Scotland... rather than days. . If you've always wanted to see the west (11) . to the many prehistoric (5) ..

. It was to be centuries before man himself could fly. . this we must first go back to the time when primitive.. However.. If we were restricted to the same (13) ... in childhood and persisting into old age. the difference between eating and starving. (7) . . It is significant that such weapons were (11) .. were not found until a very late stage.... If you're lucky with the weather and can (15) . that this (6) . .. which is the origin of most (8) ... forty passengers. a luxury floating hotel with a crew of thirty (14) . and only birds and insects flew. weapon and the ability to throw it with force and accuracy (10) .... probably has its roots in the ages when the possession of a (9) .... It would seem.. this could be the ideal holiday for you... The more mature ambition to throw things swiftly and accurately.. to (1) ... but that (3) . The arrow was the first true weapon capable of maintaining direction over considerable (15) .. We cannot know with any certainty when man first deliberately shaped weapons for throwing.. his food. a puzzle in which the essential (0) . from the spear and the arrow to the aeroplane and the giant rocket of the present (5) . games. form at an early stage in history.. man (2) .. it is doubtful if we could produce better bows and arrows than those that (14) .. . 0 A clues 1 A value 2 A pursued 3 A act 4 A brings 5 A instant 6 A feeling 7 A coming 8 A exterior 9 A suitable 10 A involved 11 A invented 12 A last 13 A matters 14 A destroyed 15 A lengths B keys B approve B hunted for B deed B moves B day B urge B arriving B outside B fitting B meant B magined B older B substances B ruined B extents C responses C understand C chased C action C takes C hour C encouragement C appearing C external C related C told C planned C latest C materials C spoiled C areas D resolutions D realize D followed up D event D leads D moment D emotion D growing D outdoor D chosen D showed D produced D final D sources D exploded D distances 19 . 0 A action B activity C act D acting 1 A prospectus B catalogue C brochure D journal 2 A data B facts C information D details 3 A visit B contact C write D know 4 A invited B referred C introduced D presented 5 A situations B sites C sights D sightings 6 A practices B studies C careers D courses 7 A relaxation B learning C improvement D recuperation 8 A amount B quality C capacity D quantity 9 A sailing B water-skiing C stone-cutting D chess 10 A experts B sports C activities D enthusiasts 11 A bank B shore C coast D seaside 12 A set B run C take D stage 13 A group B staff C team D crew 14 A to look after B to help C to treat D to take on 15 A buy B afford C pay D spend 18 THE BEGINNINGS OF FLIGHT The story of man's mastery of the air isalmost as old as man himself.. and brought to their (12) . to throw things is one of the most primitive and deep-seated of our instincts. in fact. of conscious design marked the first step on a road that (4)..a pleasure for which you pay quite a lot...... Hebridean Island Cruises offer a variety of cruises to many of the most beautiful spots on the western seaboard in the Hebridean Princess.. the armies of the past. it...

. Some advice may usefully be (3) ... serious crime.REVERSING THE TREND Crime.. nor is it carefully planned.... is the unwillingness of publishers to entrust a translation to anyone who has not already (5) . . the book as such but if they are favourably (14) . criminals would have a much harder time.. The least publishers will (6) ... has been a growing problem all over the world in the last thirty years.. Perhaps the best way the would-be translator can begin is to select some book of the type which he or she feels competent and (8) . the majority of whom stop offending as they grow older . . for example.. to secure their cars by locking all the doors and shutting all the windows... and not surprisingly. The chances are that many crimes would not be committed. opportunity is the (10) . Surveys have shown that approximately one in five drivers do not always (11) . to translate. The first step towards preventing crime is understanding its (2) ... but.. to much crime prevention... Much is being done . The first difficulty the beginner will (4) ... If he or she is extremely lucky. it is not surprising that many people with literary interests and a knowledge of languages should think of adopting translating as a full-or part-time (2) .... 0 A aware B conscious C informed D known 1 A unprepared B hopeless C powerless D weak . More (12) . not (3) . a reputation for sound work.. This (9) .. of the applicant's work.. on the easy opportunity.. and in 30 per cent of domestic burglaries the burglar simply walks in without having to use (12) .. are a sitting target for the criminal. nature which they already have in mind. there are many ways you can help reverse the trend... if unpublished. which would release more police time for (13) .. of life for yourself and your community. . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A regard field work made encounter formed instruct instance eager substantial fit finish surely exclude impressed common B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B view category employment given involve set oblige case nervous main right lead probably reject convinced same C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C awareness ground occupation told reveal founded demand specimen agitated grand convenient effect certainly object affected similar D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D consideration class line shown introduce established direct model excited plentiful suitable result expectedly disapprove taken joint 20 CRIME .. however.BECOMING A TRANSLATOR The role of the translator in enabling literature to pass beyond its natural frontiers is receiving growing recognition... with crime rests with the police and the courts. as we are all (0) . Property crimes (4) . Most crime is against property... of being a victim of crime (8) . the primary esponsibility for (14) . translate a (9) . They are often (5) .and more can be done . before commissioning a translation is a fairly lengthy (7) .to reverse the trend.... this may (11) . section of the book and then submit the book and the translation to a (10) .. by criminals on the easy... If opportunities like these did not exist. of the general increase in this (1)… . You can play a part in it.. ......... Motor cars. and most crime is not carried out by professionals. But we are not (1) . .. Of course. the (7) .In (0) .. to such would-be translators....... age for offending is fifteen. against crime. publisher. even.. if you care about improving the (15) . in a commission to translate the book. publishers will (13) . by the translation. they may very possibly commission some other book of a (15) . greatly depending on where you live..the (6) . by adolescents and young men. Also..

. trained in... that secretarial staff should already be (11) .. tucked away with all the other secretaries and typists. the word's original meaning is a hundred times more exotic and perhaps more (3) .. the jobs which secretaries are being asked to do.. orders. keeps records and does clerical work for others'. C C C C C reason residents develop committed maximum rate transforms reliance way care tools tackling fighting enjoyment D D D D D D D D D D D D D D method citizens happen done top risk adjusts taking key ensure tricks dealing coping way 21 SECRETARIES What's in a name? In the case of the secretary. the secret machinery of organisations.. The word itself has been with us since the 14th century and comes from the mediaeval Latin word secretarius meaning `something hidden'.... and more technical.. In addition to this they need the management skills to take on some administration. and then returning mouse-like to his or her station behind the typewriter. upgraded itself and the role has changed to one closer to the original meaning. A few years ago `something hidden' probably meant (5) . . Companies are (10) . The skills required are more (9) . some personnel work and some research. ... it can be something rather surprising. . efficiently (6) ... .. the job (8) .... The dictionary calls a secretary `anyone who (0) .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A nature the victim increase performed peak percentage varies awareness answer trouble force removing containing quality B B B B B B B B B B B B B B type the public thrive started major seriousness adapts seizing method bother threat facing destroying peacefulness C C C C C C C C C.... . ..of word processing packages. to be seen and not heard. a (12) .. of new technology. the silent ones mysteriously (4) .. out of sight.. But while this particular job (1) . . correspondence.... The professionals in the (13) . in office practice.. business see all these developments as (14) .. It may also encourage a dramatic (15) . A good secretary was an unremarkable one. looks a bit (2) .. Secretaries started out as those members of staff with knowledge hidden from others.. with the (7) . 0 A orders 1 A explanation 2 A elderly 3 A characteristic 4 A operating 5 A kept 6 A satisfying 7 A advent 8 A truly 9 A thorough 10 A insisting 11 A considerably 12 A group 13 A appointment 14 A improving 15 A turn B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B handles detail unfashionable related pushing covered obeying approach validly demanding ordering highly collection hiring intensifying change C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C runs definition outdated likely vibrating packed completing entrance correctly severe claiming vastly cluster recruitment advancing switch D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D controls characteristic aged appropriate effecting held minding opening effectively critical pressing supremely range engagement heightening swing . .. .... In the past it was usual to regard the secretary as almost dehumanised. or at least familiar with. but.... ...

. . . the glamour of sport.. (6) . The state has long been popular with golfers and. Strict regulations (9) ..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A turn exhibit enlarged splash put improved choose high visit preservation identify highly Initial outlines simply seize B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B opening show extended drop keep aided value wide attend store share radically First signals alone grasp C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C origin feature prolonged dash lay benefited praise main follow mark unite extremely Early emphasises singly capture D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D introduction demonstrate spread drip leave assisted cheer vast meet record join severely Primary forms only secure 23 HOLIDAYS IN SOUTH CAROLINA Roaring across the bay in a motorised rubber boat. to buildings so that original (10) . and photography as a way of recording action.. . of the event as for emotions and relationships with which they can (10) . our eyes open..... . With the engine (1) .. but see them through the eyes of the media.. . the still image as a reminder of the game. it wasn't long before half a dozen dolphins came swimming around us.. their cumbersome cameras behind. with all its movement and action. have developed together. Edward Muybridge was experimenting with photographs of movement. Contemporary sports photography (13) . majority of people do not actually (8) .... But even the keenest golfer needs other diversions and we soon found the resorts had plenty to (5) . it is (4) .. of milk hitting the surface of a dish of milk. two came up (2) . Looking back. (12) .... the limits of photographic technology with his study of a (3) .. of the city's past. His pictures of a runner (1)…in every history of photography.. of the 20th century. sports events.. Charleston.. with dozens of (3) ... .. are preserved . At the (0) ... But the best sports photographers today still do more than (14) . which is midway along the (6) . they look not so much for a (9) . The (7) .... sports photography has changed.. in the USA. In fact..... is one of the most interesting cities in America and is where the first shots in the Civil War were (7) .. the prospects of still photographers..22 SPORTS PHOTOGRAPHY Sport as a spectacle... And when they look at sports photography... ...... Another advance was the development of miniature cameras in the late 1920s which made it possible for sports photographers to (4) . we were told by the captain to (0) ...They (15)…in a single dramatic moment the real emotions of the participants. in the area. Another milestone was when the scientist/photographer Harold Edgerton (2) . tell the story of the event. All those people who watch a sports event on TV.. the colour and the action.......... ....... . sports photographers were as interested in the stories behind the sport as in the sport itself. beside the boat and popped their heads out of the water to give us a wide grin. Taking a guided horse and carriage tour through the quiet back streets you get a real (8) ... The significance of television as a transmitter of sport has (5) . Dolphin watching is just one of the many unexpected attractions of a holiday in South Carolina. Eventually. . a golfer's paradise...... we can see how (11) .

. conditions.. an island resort about 18 km long and (11) .. and just sit back and watch the pelicans diving for fish. 0 A stand B keep C hold D fix 1 A turned out B turned away C turned off D turned over 2 A direct B right C precise D exact 3 A courses B pitches C grounds D courts 4 A fully B truly C honestly D purely 5 A show B provide C offer D supply 6 A beach B coast C sea D shore 7 A thrown B aimed C pulled D fired 8 A significance B meaning C sense D comprehension 9 A apply B happen C agree D occur 10 A points B characters C aspects D features 11 A formed B shaped C made D moulded 12 A lying B running C going D following 13 A alternately B Conversely C Contrastingly D Alternatively 14 A charge B lend C hire D loan 15 A space B room C gap D place 24 UNIVERSAL WET WEEKEND The weather across much of the British Isles (0) ... . . (11). . there had been 333 mm of rainfall.. the showers and (6) .. A tropical storm. (14) . of rain became more and more frequent so that by midnight on Sunday. of England was 28. month.. however.. in Helen's tail..... On the other (12) ... in advance.... It has a fantastic sandy beach (12) . tropical storm Gabrielle moved across the Gulf of Mexico and overnight rain (13).. with a good (1) .. at 367 mm.. near Hong Kong. hit Hong Kong on Saturday morning...... On Saturday.. . twice the normal August rainfall. though her presence had been (5) . the high temperatures were ufficient to set off some (15) . head for an open (15) . if you feel like doing nothing.. given the name Helen. . a thunderstorm at Lyons in eastern France deposited 99 mm of rain in just six hours. Even on Sunday there was a (9) . like a foot.. the length of the island and this is perfect for all manner of water sports. The town centre of Shanwei.. of the world. the lunchtime temperature at Bridlington on the north-east (2) ....South of Charleston lies Hilton Head. of sunshine.... Although most of Europe enjoyed sun..... was (10) .. thirty-six hours (7) .. a chair and umbrella.. The (3) ... when 468 mm of rain fell in the sixty hours leading up to midday on Sunday.. . (13) . .. of the globe. From noon on Friday... showers. .. for the month of August. not far off the (8) ... was coping with some (4) ...2°C. which compared favourably with Alicante in southern Spain at 29°C. .. settled last week. the usual rainfall for the (14) .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A A A A A A A A A A A A A kept extent shore residue extreme waited outbursts after general sting drowned only section B B B B B B B B B B B B B remained quantity coast remnant extravagant found outbreaks plus standard prick flooded fairly side C C C C C C C C C C C C C lasted proportion sands rest excessive felt outputs later medium stab immersed hardly face D D D D D D D D D D D D D held deal beach remains exaggerated warned outlets more average poke overflowed nearly part .. On Tuesday morning..

piecemeal D. evidence 2. Almost all the 50 or so different kinds of modern plastic are made from oil. sparkles C. A. doubt C. of our domestic refuse. muscle 27 In child development there is an important phenomenon that shows very clearly the process of preparation for the future: play. wall C. medium D. But there seems little (1) _________ it is here to say. A sheet of glass serves a dual purpose . vitality D. They should be seen as educational (2) … . factory C. enclose 3. A. gas or coal – non-renewable natural (4) _________. mechanism C. Almost all of it could be recycled. conversion B. A high (5) _________ of our annual consumption is in the (6) ________ of packaging and this constitutes about seven per cent by weight. the prevailing heat is absorbed by the water as it passes. A.. beginning 2. spin 4. A. burst 10. simmers D. boil B.It …(7)…the sunshine in. The simplest way is to utilise the flat-plate collector sited on the …(4)… of a house. allows B. gleams 7. A. rather than wait for the slow forces of nature to …(3)…it into fossil fuels. henceforth B. amount B. change D. presented D. fuels D. savings C. mould B. 1. abuse D. that plastics have brought enormous (2) _________ even environmental ones. extols C. products C. warm D. lock D. discharging C. concern B. A. its importance should never be underestimated. 1. manufacture 8. imprison B. industry D. A. (1) … to popular belief. international 6. kind B. profits D. The plate is kept warm by…(8)… the release of infra-red radiation. national C. capture C.A. private D. A. A. A. strength C. We import well over three million tones of the stuff in Britain each year and. trigger C. originally C. resources 5. warms B. most of it is thrown away. benefits B. roof B. favoured C. though the plastic recycling (7) _________ is growing fast. On cloudy days and in winter a flat-plate collector may fail to provide sufficient …(10)…to warm a full tank of water. plant B. method B. A. way 7. It has become a symbol of our wasteful. It is wiser for mankind to…(2)…it immediately. A. form D. A. A. type C.(1)…from the sun. portion 6. replacement 26 Everyone knows that our energy is derived . likelihood D. and traps the infra-red radiation. but very little of it is. A. melting C. flush C. rate D. throw-away society. processes B. promoting D. store B. energy B. process D. proportion C. desired 10. dispose 4. The plastics themselves are extremely energy rich – they have a higher calorific value than coal and one (8)___________ of ‘recovery’ strongly (9) _________ by the plastic manufacturers is the (10)_________ of waste plastic into a fuel. preventing B. A. measure 9. A. rectifying 9. of course. Games are not the haphazard creations of parents or educators. argued B. window 5.. plastic is a word you tent to say with a sneer or a snarl. and the truth is. bathroom D. pleasures 3. A. It’s not really the plastics themselves that are the environmental evil – it’s the way society chooses to use and (3) _________ them. domestic B. A. endanger C. It operates when pipes on the plate channel water to and from the …(5)…hot water tank. sooner or later. entices D. As sunshine rapidly…(6)…the plate.13 A 14 A 15 A overtook total huge B exceeded B sole B weighty C passed C single C heavy D beat D whole D strong 25 If you’re an environmentalist. lures 8. It is essential that the sun must be high enough in the sky to …(9) … the water.

lay 6. sources C..without doubts B. up those who now while away their days sitting in front of a computer where it’s (2) .... likely 11... revival in platform shoes doesn’t help and wearing shoes with heels more than (7) . are exacerbated.. Make sure you sleep on a firm mattress at night. in all C. process D... self-esteem D. Due 2.. maturity B..and as stimuli for the child’s (3) ….. A.... physiology C.. tools D...... A.... by far D. instead try sleeping in a curled position on your side. the weight evenly by wearing a rucksack or even a bag around your waist.. prime D... survived B..... A.... nerves 4.distinct B. A.. adjusted C.. A.. most 9. attached B.. Do you see a long elegant back or are your shoulders as rounded as the hump of a camel? Bad posture normally starts in our teenage years when we slouch around with our (0) . we can determine (14)… great certainty the (15) … and quality of their social feeling. extent 28 HOW TO HAVE PERFECT POSTURE Next time you take a look in the mirror... Contrary C. Sitting in this way (11). noticeable D.... present D.. worsen 13...... psyche B.. A. The (6) . marked 8. Don’t load everything into a bag that you wear on one shoulder or you’ll end up lopsided... In observing children at play we can see their whole attitude towards life. A.. approach C....... prone D... Whether they are hostile or whether they are friendly.. Children who avoid games and play are always (10) … to the suspicion that they have not (11)… satisfactorily to life... fellow B. scope D.... above all 10. but by taking (4) . A...... The manner in which children (4) … a game. In contrast B... These children gladly withdraw from all games. lying flat on your back...... or when they are sent to the playground with other children usually (12… the pleasure of others. trying to look cool... When you get home from a day’s studying or work it’s all too (10) .. A.. grown 12..... Every game is a preparation for the future.. According D. and particularly whether they show qualities as leaders.... show their attitude and relationship to their environment and how they relate to their (6… human beings. feel comfortable but it prevents you from breathing properly.. (9) .. A..... play is of the (8) …importance to every child. Pride... mindset D. 1 A head B feet C eyes D hands 2 A so B quite C all D rather 3 A customs B habits C rituals D practices 4 A course B something C moves D action 5 A evade B prevent C avoid D restrain 6 A existing B topical C contemporary D current 7 A various B several C considerable D numerous 8 A concern B problem C trouble D fuss 9 A scatter B circulate C disseminate D distribute 10 A enticing B attractive C irresistible D tempting 11 A may B could C will D should .great B.. experience 5. development 14. A....... Try to sit (12) .. 1. A... for 15. A.. spoil B... on B.. to slump on the sofa in front of the telly. are clearly (7)…in their play.. As we grow older these poor (3) .. level B..... their choice of game and the importance they (5)…upon it.. try standing sideways on. aids 3.. changed D. place D. peer 7 . means B. with D.. In general... A.. damage C. scale C...... centimetres high is just asking for (8) ... accord C... with the stomach pulled firmly in... egoism C. Games are (9)… communal exercises that enable children to develop their social feeling. utmost C..... by watching children at play. give B...... vanish D. But play is more than preparation for life.. contemporary C.. in C..... too easy to neglect something as essential as good posture.... evident C.operate B.... (5) .... A..... But (1) .. lack of (13)… and the consequent fear of ‘getting it wrong’ are the main reasons for this behaviour. immediately we can not only look and feel better but protect our body for the future.... imagination and life skills.... open C...

. If you don't set achievable aims you are more likely to give up... phobia and potentially the most disruptive is agoraphobia.... be realistic in your (6) . (8) ... It is important to (2) . She feels her biggest mistake was not to follow (12) .... around to get the best possible value for money.. you embarrassment or you feel that your life is being disrupted then you would be wise to (5) .. her first experience. However... behavioural therapy during which they gradually get used to being near the object or the situation that causes them fear.... going outside because of the awful feelings of anxiety that arise.......12 A level B erect C vertical D upright 29 PHOBIAS The (0) ... a language course. tried to teach herself German by enrolling on a (9) ... progress were high.. in which people (9) .. treatment for what could potentially be a phobia.... Drugs may be (11) .. a French teacher... Therefore you must make sure that the course on offer leads to a (5) .. Did you enjoy studying languages at school... When these fears begin to (4) .. whether you are likely to be successful at learning a language.... Also. qualification. of Phobia Awareness Week is to highlight the difficulties that many people (1) . Three years (11) . Do not be deceived (7) . "I should have consolidated what I'd learn by continuing to study....... It's (3) . The word derives from Greek and (7) ..." 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A A A A A A A A A A A series domain wondering assess charge recognised sights by nose rapid achieving B B B B B B B B B B B ISSUE branch thinking review cost understood ends about push crash doing C C C C C C C C C C C programme field looking balance price valued objects into run quick gaining D release D area D considering D survey D valuation D regarded D goals D in D shop D fast D making ....... By far the most (6) .. ... she remembers very little........ with their fear and conquer it... for example being anxious around snakes or nervous about flying....... Already fluent in four languages and with a sound knowledge of teaching methodology her chances of (10) . Sandra Miller...... between a fear and a phobia. to treat anxiety and many people opt for alternative therapy such as acupuncture or hypnosis to help them come to (12) . One suggestion is that you (3) .. means 'fear of the marketplace' but we apply it today to describe a distressing (8) ........ for example? Do you have enough time to learn a language? The major (4) . of second language acquisition.......... You should also bear in mind that the quicker you learn a language the more quickly you forget it... thinking that the most expensive courses are the best.. Their advice may prove invaluable for those (2) ........... usual for all of us to have our own peculiar fears. in everyday situations..... only a very small proportion of us actually have a phobia of these things.. course.... even if it were by myself.... of a language learning magazine has consulted a number of experts in the (1) ........ Treatment of phobias usually consists of the patient (10) . will be your own time and effort..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A reason A face A choose A very A cause A explore A standard A precisely A illness A dodge A undergoing A released A acceptance B POINT B confront B distinguish B absolutely B make B hunt B average B specifically B condition B avoid B taking B issued B terms C fact C meet C select C quite C create C search C normal C literally C disease C miss C experiencing C certified C realisation D logic D join D pick D truly D give D seek D common D exactly D injury D slip D doing D prescribed D comfort 30 SOUND ADVICE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS A recent (0) ....

. books you will have seen them in films or on the TV.. strong characters and a memorable setting... stories... energy. Some of the world's famous crime writers have achieved the (2) .. These are: an original story.. the planet's ability to support people is being (8) .... medicines. us fed. of paper that you can (9) .. at the very time when rising human numbers and consumption are (9) . of a successful novel. of bestselling books.. indefinitely... notes on and then file into a folder.. built on or washed into the sea. a train ... but only a rare few have the determination to become professional authors. human activities are making the planet less fit to live on. we know of in the universe that can support human life. Renewable resources are exploited so much that they will never be able to recover (6) . air. You will need a notebook to carry around with you or. some loose (8) .. is to read lots of examples of crime fiction written by good authors... success of all. The Earth's (10) .. shelter and minerals to (11) ..... (7) .. If you have an ambition to become the (5) . We discharge pollutants into the atmosphere without any thought of the consequences. 0 A say B TELL C speak D announce 1 A queue B list C row D line 2 A largest B greatest C highest D prime 3 A deny B refuse C insist D hide 4 A first B initial C early D original 5 A next B following C subsequent D later 6 A spot B tip C point D mark 7 A even B still C very D so 8 A strips B sheets C layers D pieces 9 A complete B do C fill D make 10 A out B down C off D from . better. (1) .. resource we have by which all people can survive and prosper... comfortable. After all... and even fewer have the joy of seeing their novels top the (1) ... the appeal of famous detectives like Sherlock Holmes.. Agatha Christie what should you do? The best starting (6) ..... As the western world (2) .. resources are there for us to use.. 0 A situation 1 A although 2 A continues 3 A already 4 A alone 5 A sooner 6 A quite 7 A development 8 A stopped 9 A doing 10 A natural 11 A hold 12 A last B place B still B repeats B just B individual B neither B greatly B result B narrowed B having B real B maintain B stand C position C yet C carries C for C lone C either C utterly C reaction C reduced C taking C living C stay C go D D D D D D D D D D D D D site despite follows entirely lonely rather completely product cut making genuine keep remain 32 WRITE THE PERFECT CRIME NOVEL Most people are born with the natural ability to (0) . watching a woman get (10) . But if we use them wastefully and excessively they will soon run out and everyone will suffer. for your first bestseller. warmth. healthy and active...... As a (7) . Like any good recipe you have to know the main (12) .. We need food. to stay alive we are rapidly destroying the (4) ... water.. Who can (3) . Everywhere fertile soil is (5) . increasingly heavy demands on it... If we are sensible in how we use the resources they will (12) .11 A on 12 A up B forward B on C from C through D onward D out 31 ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Earth is the only (0) . on consuming two-thirds of the world's resources while half of the world's population do so (3) .for example.may be the (11) . Miss Marple or Hercule Poirot? Even if you haven't read the (4) . the most everyday situation .

maybe getting a hand (8) . on their headset. Her amazing rescue from death was based on a remarkable (8)… . at the computer. the Transport Authority (14)… prosecuting the passenger on the rounds that he had had no (15)…cause for using the emergency system! 0 A so B like C by D such 1 A arriving B approaching C catching D advancing 2 A leapt B tossed C plunged D threw 3 A crushed B smashed C broken D squeezed 4 A damaged B wounded C survived D continued 5 A succeeded B overcame C made D turned 6 A proved B came C outbreak D setback 7 A breakdown B failure C injured D harmed 8 A coincidence B correspondence C occasion D opportunity 9 A examination B inquiry C view D search .. down the emergency handle. and an interesting alternative to traditional classroom lessons. The horrified driver slammed on the brakes... The young woman (6)… out to be a gifted architect who was recovering from a nervous (7)… . but the wheels had not passed over her and she (5)…. at least a little of their time with real people.. to catch the bus to college. the classroom? Hopefully not. At the (6) . another boring lesson. certain that there was no way to stop the train before the woman was (3)… under the wheels. Exciting? Certainly.11 A notion 12 A parts B idea B ingredients C invention C pieces D inspiration D sections 33 NO MORE CLASSES The use (0) . a young woman (2)… herself into the path of the moving train. and be transported into an imaginary school. In fact. It was a day (0) . They might (5) .and no need to worry about the teacher having a favourite or doing (2) . choose their class. conversations with other computerised students.... On one of the city's underground stations. computers has meant students can study language programmes (1) . the bank or the restaurant.But miraculously the train did stop. of a button they would be transported to (7) . realistic settings where they could practice their English.... their own speed when and for how long they want . What's more.. a virtual English companion.. the platform.. for the subsequent (9)… into the accident revealed that the train had not stopped during the river's hasty breaking. woman.. All this perhaps.. a passenger had (10)…. any other. from the comfort of their home: no (9) . he was completely (13)… of the fact that a young woman was about to hurl herself into the path of the oncoming train.... take the books they need off the shelf and (4) ... or a plane to England.. but had acted (12)…. The passenger had had no particular reason for doing so. the need to relate to real people talking about real issues and generally learning a little more about others will always lead language learners to (12) ... a train was (1). It was revealed that. The first carriage had to be jacked up to free the badly (4). But would it ever (10) .... seconds before.Suddenly.which automatically (11) …the brakes of the train... 0 A in B at C of D to 1 A With B for C at D in 2 A Still B for C yet D already 3 A Place B put C set D get 4 A Take B do C catch D hold 5 A although B referably C instead D contrary 6 A force B hit C depress D push 7 A so B such C like D alike 8 A with B to C from D for 9 A role B duty C obligation D need 1 0 A replace B restore C succeed D recover 11 A definitely B mainly C totally D surely 12 A spend B make C have D do 34 A LUCKY ESCAPE This is about an extraordinary incident that took place in London a few years ago. choose to pay a visit to the supermarket or the train station.. Unbelievable as it sounds. (11) .. . in the virtual classrooms of the future the student will (3) .

not merely in training the child's mind or in preparing the child for adult (11)_______ in a remote future.into happiness. the D. when C. in C. counted D. acquired D. tend to identify (7)________ desirable education with the transmission of the cultural heritage. A. The conservatives. take D. actions C. but also because of the social support of other group . Second. tend to be interested in the development of the (10)_______ child. reach 4. They do not downgrade content but believe it should be (14)_______ not for (15)________ own sake but as a means of fostering thought and inquiry. curriculum C. for 13. partly because of the way friends use positive non-verbal (6)…such as caressing and touching. A. Third. A. but B. whole C. certain B. significance B. Marriage similar (7)… relationships can also form the basis of lasting happiness. meaningful school living in the present. talents B. but for B. Activities (13)… sport and music. but (10)…by social interactions with co-workers. In particular. A. to affirm their friendship. at B. partly because of the agreeable things they do together. or essentialists. inquired B. A. The liberals. A. techniques 3. people often (4)…good social relations as a reason for their happiness. requested 15. job satisfaction undoubtedly (8)…overall satisfaction and vice versa . a no-nonsense (8)_______ featuring the three R's at the elementary-school level. essentialists and progressives. thought C. viewed B. liveliness D. mostly C. almost D. letters D. A. (6)_______ they are sometimes called. a C. instead D. terms B. words C. First of all. In the broadest (4)________. as 8. They emphasize rich. program 9. in some people. there is. or. named 6. life 12. A.reading. their 36 HAPPINESS In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in (0) …. the conflict over educational goals can be (5)_______ as a conflict between conservatives and liberals. total 11. leisure is important because it is more under individual (12)… than most other causes of happiness. The researchers have (1)… a number of factors which contribute to a definition of happiness. skills D. friends are a great (5)…of joy. neurotics are less so. them D. of D. writing. on the (11)…can be a serious cause of unhappiness. A. A. utmost 2. complete B. A. all-round D. can give great joy. A. most B. This is partly because of the (14)… themselves. living B. or progressives. and arithmetic .10 11 12 13 14 15 A taken A joins A for a change A uninformed A considered A noticeable B handed B applies B by accident B unsure B meant B expected C pulled C presses C at random C unaware C advised C correct D lifted D attaches D on impulse D uncertain D faced D reasonable 35 While (1)________ everyone accepts the goal of developing (2)_______ in the three "R's" . better 14. lives C. its C.perhaps this is why some people are happy in boring jobs: it (9)…both ways. A. Job satisfaction is caused not only the essential nature of the work. A. 1. object D. get B. rather than C. subject B. as 7. A. means 5. accomplish C. They put (9)_______ on the training of the mind and cultivation of the intellect. required C. Unemployment. stress C. A happiness seems to correlate quite (3) with the main dimensions of personality: extroverts are generally happier. Fourth. and academic studies or strong vocational or business courses in the secondary school. happiness (2)… in families. a moderate genetic predispositio to be happy: in other words. although D. and participation in voluntary work and social clubs of various kinds.it often seems impossible to (3)_______ agreement on any goal beyond that. it B. strength 10. and they view subject matter as a resource (12)________ total human development (13)_______ as a goal in itself. emphasis D.

Allowing for these two things.This fact.members . most countries now (10)…as socially acceptable a ratio of 7:1 between the best and the (11)…paid.which everycitizen is (7)… to. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A amount A by all means A admit A opening A remain A results A such A ensured A engine A rate A require A smallest A hold A pull away A gap A drive B size B for instance B prevent B beginning B exist B is drawn B so B enabled B instrument B cost B regard B least B wear B turn out B space B lead C lot C in reality C forbid C starting C stand C becomes C just C entrusted C appliance C range C review C lowest C carry C set off C hole C aim D sum D out of the question D prohibit D commencing D become D is made D like D entitled D apparatus D value D respect D fewest D bring D end up D size D urge 38 DO-IT-YOURSELF COMPUTERS Building (0)… own computer may appear a difficult task. in extreme cases. to violence and revolution. however.it is very strong(15)… the case of religious groups. The first is the `social wage'.. sick pay and maternity leave . should not (2)… us trying to devise a mechanism for deciding what is the right pay for the job. 0 A research 1 A fallen back on 2 A arrives 3 A strongly 4 A explain 5 A meaning 6 A movements 7 A near 8 A consists of 9 A works 10 A too 11 A common 12 A check 13 A like 14 A facilities 15 A by B inquiry B gone in for B runs B nearly B prefer B origin B motions B close B applies to B effects B as well B contrast B power B such B activities B for C examination C got down to C goes C firmly C talk C base C slogans C tight C contributes to C makes C also C comparison C control C so C exercises C in D study D come up with D descends D hardly D report D source D signals D heavy D counts on D turns D plus D contrary D choice D thus D amenities D with 37 A FAIR WAGE? What constitutes a fair wage? The (0)… of money that people earn is (1)… determined not by fairness but by market forces. the benefits -(6)… as holidays. The picture (5) …more complicated by two factors.But. the highly-qualified people who usually (12)… heavy responsibilities may become so dissatisfied that they (13)… emigrating (the so-called `brain drain'). and have even . that is. A (3)…point for such an investigation would be to try to decide the ratio which ought to (4)… between the highest and the lowest paid. Secondly. if it is wider. But if you have had one (1). the (14)… between rich and poor will be so great that it will (15)… to social tension and. the taxation system is often used as an (8)…of social justice by taxing the rich at a very high (9)…indeed. If the ratio is narrower.

1. Captain Al Lockey hovers directly (5). destination C. A.. the CPU. this was the worst experience in a distinguished (9). (10)…. (2)… a video card.. If you get (11)… crashes... most crews can and (14). wide. In choosing the components. you can find a case to (6)… your needs.. you are ready to enter the do-it-yourself PC business. In fact... beach D. 25 years a helicopter pilot and veteran of typhoon conditions off oil rigs in the South China Sea. even something as basic as the case can (3)… a difference.. something will go wrong. Gale-force winds are blowing as a distress message is relayed to the (1)… The west coast search-and-rescue helicopter takes off from Shannon. A. That was Mission 47.. As if that decision isn’t difficult enough.. By the time the exhausted winchman has (6).. seaside 2.or later.. say ‘yes’ in all conditions and at all (15). . For Captain Lockey... and you may soon have the (15)… you need to continue.. accomplished just over three months after Hotel Oscar’s contract began in July 1991.. tall.. for home... There’s no (4). set off B. much to the (11). screaming winds make for a treacherous flight out of the bay. You can (8)… your requirements and get exactly the machine you want: everything. from the sound card and graphics cards to the backup device of your (9) Of course. ahead D. rolling decks as the pilot.. A. say. set up C. esle is to survive. A. for the boats – the conditions are too bad for that... way C. the helicopter is running (7). arrival 3. set about 4. direction B. if you want to become a DIY expert. of the rescue crew whose hearts were breaking as they were forced to turn their backs and (12). Fortunately. on fuel... that is available too. luck B. is Clew Bay in County Mayo... that most painful decision to say ‘no’.progressed to being able to. The terrified crews on Sundancer and Heather Berry are only half-a-mile from disaster when Hotel Oscar. saving their lives. land C... Medals.. hope D. The threatening rocks will make matchwood of them.. is it the memory chip. higher C. shore B. start by upgrading your existing machine.. A. it is said should be given to those who have to (13).(4)… the computer magazines and you will see that cases come in all sort of shapes and sizes: small. engines paralysed are drifting helplessly towards rocks in a raging sea. Sundancer its horrible face. So.. If you want a casethat will (7)… in a drawer. its (2). set out D. above B. the Irish Marine Emergency Service helicopter arrives and the winch crew (3). of night and day. the two crew members of Heather Berry... The pair on Sundancer will have to be abandoned if (8).. the hard diskor the software that is (12)… ? You could (13)…yourself having to deal with all the various manufacturers of the different pieces in order to find out (14)… piece or program is causing the problem. It’s not easy to get the rescue line down on the pitching.. narrow – whatever you (5)… If you think you would like to have ten hard disks in your computer. journey D. a change in wind direction was to (10). 0 A your B an C the D its 1 A in time B for a while C at the moment D since then 2 A put B install C place D set 3 A make B do C give D take 4 A Revise B control C Check D Inspect 5 A dream B fancy C hope D long 6 A respond B call C fill D meet 7 A arrange B conform C fit D get 8 A satisfy B notify C qualify D specify 9 A choice B pick C selection D pleasing 10 A before B sooner C earlier D after 11 A occasional B seldom C rare D sometimes 12 A in trouble B by mistake C out of use D at fault 13 A get B leave C find D stop 14 A their B who's C the D whose 15 A trust B confidence C belief D wish 39 OSCAR’S WINNING PERFORMANCE Two boats. over . point 5.

gratitude D. Today. William Straw. no one A. complete D.A. clown B. Finding the (77)…. all D. looks (0) ____ like any other fairly old house in Drugland. number 20 Grayleave. false D. ought B. lend D. immoral B. it will hold your (75)…. the two cut themselves off from the rest of the world. 9. minutes 40 FUN AND GAMES Do you think computer games are just for kids? Then you (71)… think again. may C. pastime B. dishonest 10. They had no social life and callers were never (5) ____ into the house. deepest 41 To the passer-by. employment 7. someone C. may 2. who had been (9) ____ the shop since their father's death. low A.6. match B. rescue C. (73)…a family buy a new PC. however. picked up B. You might be surprised to learn that the games industry now (72)…more money than Hollywood. then a history lecturer at Welldone Univeristy. 15. has B. never married and had no (4) ____ friends. do B. prevent D. It is (79)…to think of gaming as something simply for children and teenagers. say C. go A. does D. capture your imaginationand play with your emotions. immediately spending $170 . taken off D. A yet A step A then B still B stamp B for C just C tread C from D even D trip . it seems that they became (12) ___ of the value of what they had done. control 6. give A. gaze B.A. A. comfort B. 13. 11. story C. 8. With computer games. gains 3. 14. accurate B. satisfaction A. branches C. As soon as B. job A. 1. need D. D so . He (8) ___ his job and set up house with Walter. In fact. fly B. 7. picked out A. 2. when William. Fantasy. who died in 1990. widest C. The big difference. It is hardly surprising that video gaming has become one of the most popular (74)…of entertainment today. relief C. makes C. (10) ____ .A. hours D. will D. longest B. spare A.on (7) ____ redecoration. biggest D. save B. 12. head C. everyone B. is that watching a movie is a passive (76)…You have no say in how the plot develops or which characters dominate the story. make D. Nothing that their parents had owned was ever moved or (11) ____ away. 1. do B. moments C. task C. affair 9. A. lived in the house with his brother Walter after his parents' deaths. forms 5. As long as 4. explaining where they (14) ____ came from. returned to Workshop. periods B. makes B.A. the (80)…growth area of the market is the 25-35 age group. you direct the action and that is what makes them so exciting. A. 10.game is likely to signal the beginning of a lasting love (78)…with the interactive world of make-believe. profession C. the house is open to the public and visitors quickly (15) ____ that it is the closest they are ever likely to come to time travel. Their parents had a successful grocery shop and the family moved into the house in 1923. But (1) ____ inside and you go back into a vanished world. should C. Their father died in 1932 and their mother in 1939. routine D. taken over C. wrong C. secret D. right C. shapes D. As well as C. 0. role B. should A. out D. career D. Towards the end of their lives. They lived (3) ____ a strict routine. (2) ____ William Straw's house is exactly as his parents left it when they died in the 1930s. attention C. A. proper 8.a huge (6) ____ in those days . A good game is like a good film. short C. A. A. A. because they began to put (13) ____ on various pictures and items of furniture. all they really want to do is to play games. breath D. As far as D.

but wait! Within hours the television station is being…(3) with calls of protest.. particularly on a Sunday? Why do people who have seen a football or tennis . The Internet... film or programme tally with others'? What is this product that .. 6. Thousands of T-shirts are printed with slogans ......(8) live or on the small screen rush the next day to read a .(8) in by the story to such an extent that their perception of fact and fiction was clearly .. many may come to mourn its (15)… 1 A flies B passes C goes D drags 2 A increase B rise C expansion D build 3 A latest B distant C immediate D recent 4 A exact B direct C precise D equal 5 A all B any C every D one 6 A done B gone C stood D set 7 A flourished B bloomed C flowered D rooted 8 A game B set C match D meeting 9 A curtailed B cut C reduced D potted 10 A vivid B coloured C bright D direct 11 A above-mentioned B aforesaid C latter D previous 12 A given B taken C subjected D written 13 A comprises B contains C consists D informs 14 A out B being C given D present 15 A perishing B dying C falling D passing 43 A popular character in the nation's top television soap is .. 4. If a character is (11)… to be past his or her sell-by date. Everywhere..to see if our ideas on any .(3) past people were predicting that the influence of the written word would diminish in . 9. she contemplates months of incarceration. How have these organs survived. 8.. subjective editorials and hyperbolic sports pages still doing in our lives? It seems for the time .3. A life-threatening fire can be (14)… upon to add millions to the ratings.. 5. A good story-line.(1) for something of which she was probably innocent..... and the decision has been taken to (12)… him or her out.. let alone (7)…..(13) of not much more than outrageous headlines. It's easy to (7)… off such idiocies as `a bit of fun'.. A national newspaper soon .(14) to be leading a charmed life. (6) tothe sounds of animated debate. 10..(6) for newspapers by now. It is even mentioned in Parliament.. Teletext and multi-media computers in(5)… other home should surely have . millions will (10)… over their 7-day TV guide to get a preview of the week's soaps. A based on A close A greeted A quantity A absolute A gave up A leading A Ever since A removed A clear A certificates A originally A catch B according to B deep B requested B wealth B whole B finished off B commanding B At the moment B thrown B aware B posters B at the earliest B regard C along with C familiar C invited C fund C throughout C ended with C running C From then on C done C thoughtful C messages C from the start C distinguish D as from D warm D offered D sum D total D got out D conducting D That time D dismissed D wise D labels D sooner D realize 42 As time .(9) version of it in four or five columns which surely cannot mean more to the reader than that self-same viewer of the previous afternoon or evening? Why would anyone who has seen a film and formed a (10)… impression of it the following day read a review of the ..(2) guilty of a series of fraudulent acts. When it finally goes.wayward comment. This is odd because in the relatively ... but there's surely a more serious side.. Offices and factory floors . possibly to have them (13)… off in spectacular fashion. 14.(12) song.. 15. particularly alongside a perceptible resurgence in the audiences for news-carrying radio stations. 11.(4) proportion to the rate of increase of the spoken word and moving image through TV and video.(9). A fair proportion of viewers were obviously . A major ... Having been .(1).(2).. 7. 12. 13..(11) film in a newspaper? To see if s/he is right? Isn't that what friends are for? Don't we have colleagues for just that purpose . the power of newspapers seems to be on the . cable and satellite television... viewing figures are likely to soar by up to 25%.(4) up a campaign to have her freed... though. (5) for her release.

..(7) of their generation... (9) before moving off into the industrial or political (10)… . (14) before going on to fairly average jobs. transitory students. such is the sense of unreality. The(12)…. Only for the tiny minority is Oxford the first .... the opportunity of studying and (2… a university diploma or degree.. to mix metaphors.. and in the right light. 0 A mind-blowing B clear-headed C backhanded D broken-hearted 1 A fish B duck C boat D swimmer 2 A backdrop B curtain C scene D screen 3 A flying B gliding C floating D swimming 4 A pretend B act C dissemble D produce 5 A wheel B engine C spoke D hub 6 A backwater B stream C tributary D watershed 7 A froth B cream C fat D caviar 8 A pavilion B dressing room C wings D foyer 9 A flourish B open C spread D float 10 A peak B abattoir C dead-end D fast-lane 11 A package B section C province D parcel 12 A level-headed B hot-headed C hot-blooded D kind-hearted 13 A push B pull C grind D roughage 14 A cart B wheel C engine D boat 15 A step B position Celevation D ascent 45 THE OPEN UNIVERSITY The Open University was created in 1968 to (0) … people who cannot afford to (1) … regular courses of study... allowing their talents to . The (9) … .wedding can find half of Britain sitting (15)… to the screen! It's all very strange. Most Open University students (4) … in study while also holding down a job or coping with a busy home life.. (3) on air.(2) to serious study. The college lawns provide a gorgeous . on a sunny winter's morning say. the . 1 A jailed 2 A arrested 3 A bombed 4 A opens 5 A demanding 6 A echo 7 A laugh 8 A thrown 9 A blurred 10 A flick 11 A decided 12 A write 13 A ridden 14 A leaned 15 A swamped B prisoned B called B attacked B starts B calling B ring B smile B carried B hampered B go B resolved B cast B taken B construed B stuck C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C sentenced found streamed puts insisting fill take indulged tampered pore deemed sort driven relied paralysed D charged D discovered D inundated D establishes D sounding D deafen D put D taken D glossed D sit D suspected D work D killed D improved D glued 44 Oxford is a city with such a .. Oxford may like to .. wait in the . (6) where. students are (7… to watch television programmes on the BBC network.Much of this is a myth. but in many ways it is no more than a sleepy . They study at home and their academic performance is assessed by (3… of written examinations or project work.... Hardship and hard work are very much part and (11)… of student life.(0) reputation that many who come here find themselves intimidated by the place and can't wait to leave... taking to it like a (1)… to water.(4) that it is at the intellectual (5)… of things. On many of the courses. find themselves returning again and again.. (8). They study in order to update their job skills or for personal (5… At the heart of most courses is a (6) … of specially written and professionally printed textbooks and workbooks which students receive by post. which are usually broadcast in the (8) … hours of the morning.(15) on the ladder to fame and fortune. while others. get through the three years' hard (13)… by simply putting their shoulders to the . of course. one feels as if one is .

. detailed B.. which are (1). unit B. limits B. believe C. purposes D.. given C. aim 10 ... are usually (2). you have to be extremely (4). exact C. early 9. handed 12..A. some say with a smile. admit 14. method B.. obtaining 3. or put it to others in moment of weakness or confidentiality. regards 11.A.. strict 6. 0.. advance D. and I can’t say I (6).. referred D. A..out tickets without falling ..... return 13.. insurance companies would never (13).. called 8.. To do their own stunts.. the film would (15).. Many famous actors like to do the dangerous parts themselves. satisfaction C. permit D.A.. so C. fight B. assist C. straight D. starting D... in for the actors. them take the risk..the same as I staggered along the swaying gangway trying to (7).. joy D. needed C.A...of these programmes is to develop and broaden the study experience. claiming C. Students are (11) … with all the notes and books they need and. so that students do not have to (10) … only on the printed material they are sent. frontiers D. let C. means C.. an expert stuntman is (7). actors need to be good athletes.A. first B.. work B.. stand 12.. Everyone B.. remarked B... A. which produces better shots.. addition B.. know C. needs C. delight B. in C. I worked as a bus conductor once. hoped D. period B. expected B. led B. despite B. interests B... of safety. over B. initial C. sometimes stopping (5). to work out the action scenes and form a team. A. posted D. but they must also be sensible and know their (14).. involved D.. he will usually only do this in the (10).. managing B.. system 4.. provided C... rely B... A. Anyone D. go 47 Have you ever asked yourself what you are working for? If you have ever had the time to (1). A.. ends C. through D. drawn D... A.. meet D. fall C. can crash a car. That is why the University encourages students to set (15… and run informal study groups themselves. given B. displayed 3. plain C. A. These scenes. bring C. considered 8. A. introduce B. arranged C.as stunts. connected B.. confide 11 A. reason C.. reaching D. A. in (12) … . known C. If they were to be hurt. A.. take C.. present B.. A. come B. fulfilled D.. speak 15. in front of the camera and film crew. A. end D. However. Or it’s the satisfaction of (4). Someone C. It’s the money of course. A.well have heard some or all of the (3). this taboo question.. fit B.. (3).. A.. to a sudden halt. performed B. otherwise 10.A. the wishes of the director. although D.. trust D. but if you are shooting a film.. out B. affected 13. A. He is the only person who can go (8). route D.. apply 2. get C... minute C.. borders 15.. A. challenge 6. A. A. part D. by stuntmen who are specially trained to do dangerous things safely. since stuntmen don’t have to (11).. put D.. taken C. across 9. give B. No one 4.. precise 5.. A.. off 46 ACTION SCENES IN FILMS Modern cinema audiences expect to see plenty of thrilling scenes in action films.. A. against C. but without the recent progress in safety equipment. attend D. club C.well done. put D. the sense of achievement behind the clinching of an important (5)... make 1. struggle C. up D.. A. in the production. pull D. let D. 1... cause B... you (2).. pressure 14. battle D. heap 7 .. particular C. studying at the Open University can be a (13) … because students have few opportunities to (14… each other.. some courses also include audio and video cassettes and computer software. in all the important aspects of the character they are playing. (9). set D. right B. named 2.... A. allow B.. join 5. Actors like to become (12). as if explaining something to a small child. At an early (6).A...A.. direct D. stage 7.

. following D. lifestyle B. ambition B. position C. later C. requirements 11. insurance D. case C.. 1... might D. but the working week is becoming shorter and the opportunities for (4) . A. live in an age of increasing leisure. issue D... salary . engagement 6. propose B. resources B. A. A. A. one B. And as for the shorter working week... over B. the C. and tell the boss what we really think.. but if that is the (8). tell D. enjoyed B. I seem to be working longer and longer hours (12) . rest C. It’s the company of other people perhaps.... in our days 9. rest D..up. present 4. A.... that most of us work rather as Mr... As far as I can (6) .. the whole thing is another one of (7) . round B. breath D. The little leisure time I have is eaten into by sitting in the traffic jams or waiting for trains to (13) .... A..... through C... A. station C.. tend B. at the moment B.. job D... give 8. A. leisure C.. people B..remind my company about it. qualities B... who D. imagine B. an effort 5.. to 15. use B.. latter 4. retirement 3. at 13. Micawber lived.. and say this under my (11). oath B.the world. turn C. pension B....we deserve. money 14. a task D. I wish someone (11) .. question D...either.. meditate C. move B.. longer B... these C.. take C.. must C. now and again D.. people D. former 9. hoping for something to (12). can C. for B. A. have 11.. concern 7.... those B. A. have C. what about farmers? it is the conservation in the farmyard that keeps them captivated by the job? Work is power and a sense of status say those (9)... A. show C. is who these people are. And we are so busy doing it that we won’t have time to wonder why. demand D. ease D. cost of living 15. A. at this time D... use 6. their B. A. retirement C... A. promotion 48 According to a magazine article I read recently. We’ll scrape together the (13). or feel aggrieved that nobody has yet recognized their leadership (10).. A. deal B.. but until then at least we have something to do..up at rain-swept platforms.. free C. 1..... should 3. over C. journalistic fictions. hoped D. A. or go (14). A. intact D. third D... A.Or we can blame it all on someone else. My own parents seem to (10) . suspicion C. We’ll win the pools.. round 10.. presently 2... status C. A.. the family or the taxman. A.. A. set D. launch 2. have either attained these elusive goals. had C. age with their taste for enjoyment and even adventure relatively (3) .. expect C... pressure 12. or spend more time in the garden.. all D.. in these times B. I admit that there are a lot of retired people (8) …but I am not sure that all of them are dashing about learning hang-gliding or sailing single-handed (9) .. A. some D.. A. but perhaps I just have to wait until I get my (15) .. make B. might B.. A.. A.are becoming greater and greater all the time. A. and open that little shop we always dreamed of. livelihood D. A. I suspect. now C. Not only are more and more people reaching (2) .over into someone’s lap.. to 10. wished C.to spend less time travelling to work or may even be working from home. a work B. turn C. will D.. this 5. to B. opportunities C. the time. I haven't noticed any dramatic improvements in my (14) . A. consider D. end 13.the world. spend D. A. Not to mention the fact that people (5) . A. into D.. however. nowadays C.. would 12. survived B. the 8. most of their time gazing at the television. felt 7... line B. Once day we’ll get that (15).. below B. property D. lifeline C... keep 14. a job C. into D. we (1) ... What I can't understand. vocation D.

loaned B. with workers (12)… about two percent of their income. A. being B. if you have enough money to buy CDs and a stereo player. Many towns are experimenting with pooled pension funds from all businesses. People phoned up in their thousands on the day and (9)… money by quoting their credit card numbers. starving D.it is not surprising that some people (15)…the coming of private enterprise as a mixed blessing. raised 10 A. if a state worker needed (8). Take housing. underdeveloped C. the end of free medicine is already (7)… . it would have been common to put (2) …. lifestyles 7 A.to run. (3) ….49 Over the past thirty years or so. education and a pension. They did not (2)…much..(14)…inflation. but a feeling of frustration was building up. sponsored B. But what happens when the bowl breaks. invited C.. in which participants were (4) . Foreign companies increasingly (6)…housing in order to attract the workers they want. avoid B. A. mass B.Some even (10)… private medical insurance. pledged D. them D. China will need to look for ways of replacing state welfare. . Under the old system. the methods used for collecting money from the public to (1) …the developing world have changed out of all recognition. Today. This was the 'iron rice-bowl'. where the artists donated their time and talent and the proceeds from sales went to a good cause. In some provinces. reflected the (8) …. own 50 THE NEW CHINA All is not well in the state of China. the hospital simply sent the bill to his factory. 1. As to health care. bought through life insurance companies. borrowing B. personal pensions. or to receive a small ‘flag’ to wear in the lapel. style D. donated B.money was the charity record. such C. raising 6 A. as is happening now with the (3)…of private industry and the end of the welfare state? The trend is clear. A. fewer than half the workers arenow (4)… by the state.children. required D. handed in C. state and private.. the workers had their basic needs takencare of. this B. funds 3 A. cycle. At the beginning of this period. famine B. The 1960s saw the development of shops which sold secondhand goods.. understand C. pay D.in a collecting box. you can afford something for the world's (10) …. awarded 4 A. and subsequent televised concerts. and of music in particular but also differed in style from other events. Why was so little being done? The huge success of Band Aid. power 9 . offered D. pooling means more people getting less. When this happens. The first hint of what was to become the most successful means of (5) …. swim and what have you. The problems were becoming hard to (7) …. used 5 A. implement 8. at leasta quarter of China's (5)…. A. and collected money from friends and relatives according to how far or long they managed to keep going. By the end of the next decade. are said to be growing in number by 25% a year. and the increasing awareness among the population that something must be done. Most people who (0)…an interest in China know that.by the public. This (13)… well in places with lots of young people and high growth. along with the gravity of the problems faced. loan 2. This was perhaps a reflection of the fact that young people felt increasingly concerned about the obvious differences between (6) …in Europe and the United States. Taken with China's other problems . aid C. The next development was probably the charity 'event'. further D. ability C. finance B. freed C. After all. (11) … pensions are concerned. perhaps on the street or at church. health care. in the days when all industry was(1)…by the state. but they could be sure of a house or flat.of the media.will be privately or self employed. and this concern was reflected in songs besides being clearly shown on television. and that in most of Africa and Asia. part of the fee from a worker's pay. but in areas of declining economy. and which also began to sell articles manufactured in the developing world in projects set up by the parent charity. to guarantee a fair income to local people. rising unemployment and an increasing crime rate in the big cities . them D. state firms (9). define D. money C. life C.

make A. sophisticated C. 1. held A. matter D. count C. reason B. 2. 9. 12. within the next decade. in speech D. 4. (7)…IQ tests are still the most popular ways of measuring intelligence. kept C. speaking C. reply B. caught D. attached C. fetched A. But that's the problem. relation C. in C.A person's IQ is their intelligence (8)… it is measured by this special test.000 in Britain and 100. speak B. the familiar coins and banknotes will soon be replaced . 15. 8. steered D. on A. react D. at the time C. 3. C. sharp C. A. to B. 6. spoken A. so D. All the questions are straightforward and most people can answer them if (14)… enough time. an organization that was founded in England in 1946. and those who score over 148 are entitled to join Mensa. Apparently. Today there are 44. as C. belonged D. considerably D. answer C. mainly A. enormously B. given A. one in which the familiar is constantly disappearing and technological change is often difficult to cope with. regard B. at D. run. isn't it a fact that some people who are very successful academically don't have any (3)… sense? Intelligence is a speed (4)…which we can understand and (5)… to new situations and it is usually tested by logic puzzles. (4)…Professor Gerry Montague of the Institute for Economic Reform. But do they realty show how intelligent we are? After all.no surprise to most of us to hear that yet another part of everyday lifeis about to go for ever. 10. for the time being B. acquired B. accord A. now and then D. generally (1)…. take C... opinion 52 Ours is a vanishing world.000 worldwide (11.. common D. let C. They find out how much knowledge we have (2)…. get B. at now A. 11. Anyone from the age of six can (13)…the tests.)… in the US. 13. had B. normal B. 5. The most common IQ tests are (9)… by Mensa. provided D.the whole (15)… of the tests is that they're against the clock. advancing A. that B. 7. upper D. appointed A. produce D. So it should come (1) . People taking the test are judged in (12)… to an average score of 100. association D.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A take A run A spend A growth A overtaken A staff A propose A at present A health A deduct A speak for A Although A combining A works A wide A regret B make B held B gain B inflation B used B workforce B offer B on time B cure B reduce B insist on B As long as B withdrawing B makes B high B recall C play C ruled C earn C outburst C requested C personnel C invite C in sight C remedy C expect C hold with C Also C contributing C does C fast C regard D bring D governed D pay D addition D employed D manpower D suggest D undersuspicion D treatment D discharge D take in D As far as D receiving D comes D big D respect 51 School exams are. the first sign of test we take. concern A. By 1976 it (10)… 1. had B. commanded B. natural A. 14. money as we(2)… it will probably (3) …to exist in technologically advanced countries. Although scientists are now preparing (6)…computer technology that will be able to 'read' our brains. highly C. forward B. how A.300 members in Britain.

even if it lights up and plays a happy (or sad) tune at the same time. I have felt (7)… attached to it. Not that this makes having your house (9)… upside down and your favourite things stolen any easier to (10)…In most (11)… . Three of them are students. and two had been burgled five times. (7)… selling a walkman or a vacuum cleaner is a much easier (8)… They are perhaps not so much professional criminals. To put the record (3)… . You won't have to dig (5)… in your pockets for change. as the computer may by then be able to read your handprint. ever since I received my first pocket (8)… when I was five. (4)… .box. they are probably unable to do anything at all.. which reminded me of a case I read about. 1) A rank 2) A called up 3) A straight 4) A as well 5) A means 6) A common 7) A whereas 8) A concern 9) A put 10) A submit 11) A examples 12) A taking 13) A sound 14) A come up with 15) A takings B rating B held with B right B however B involves B medium B as yet B event B turned B receive B cases B making B look B make do with B profit C grade C set about C correct C in fact C affects C average C much as C situation C stood C accept C items C tracking C show C go through with C loot D list D carried out D steady D at any rate D covers D middle D as soon as D matter D pulled D admit D occasions D recovering D seem D get off with D receipts B as B see B stop B Further to B long B trickery B strongly B coins B potential B complete C to C know C fail C According to C tall C pretence C widely C money C capability C entire Din D believe D conclude D Owing to D deep D fraud D largely D gold D power D downright . The only advice my friends could (14)… was 'Never live on the ground floor' and 'Keep two or three very fierce dogs'. and probably wouldn't know what to do with a Picasso. (5) the theft of easily transportable items – the television. Even if my credit card of the future will be able to tell me exactly how much spending (9)… I have left in the computer files. So no more instances of credit card (6)… But I am afraid that I shall miss money. The most typical burglary. This may have something to do with the fact that the (6)… burglar is in his (or her) late teens. 1) A with 2) A have 3) A cease 4) A With reference to 5) Afar 6) A deceit 7) A heavily 8) A cash 9) A capacity 10) A sheer 53 Ask most people for their Top Ten fears.. the video. and you'll be sure to find being burgled fairly high on the (1) . And the shop of the future will be linked directly to the network of banking computers. as hard-up young people who need a few pounds and some excitement. Unless there is definite evidence. The assistant will simply key in your bank account code number and the amount you have spent. none of my friends owns valuable paintings or a sideboard full of family silverware. and thank you politely.An informal survey I (2)… among friends at a party last week revealed that eight of them had had their homes broken into more than twice. it seems.entirely by credit cards of various kinds. where the burglars' (15)… included the family's pet poodle. You may not even have a number for your account as such. and kept it in a money-box. the police have no luck (12)… any of the stolen goods. nothing will be able to replace the (10)… pleasure I gained from rattling the coins in my money. And alarms or special locks don't (13)…to help either. even food from the freezer.

have an important and symbolic 2 in Alaska’s history. which are the small discussion groups that do most of the real work of the House. their numbers have fallen to about 1. the seal population began a slow decline. which no longer have as many great whales to eat because of harvesting of those mammals.which can weigh up to 270 kilograms ..perhaps killer whales. them. is clearly behind the (12)…and seems to be (13)…with bores and comedians. it’s hard to imagine that they are at the1of a baffling scientific mystery: why is this species beginning to disappear? These seals . with of course a few ladies to (5)…the numbers. fighting for territory on the rocks.The architecture gives the place a traditional look. the Houses of Parliament look impressive. declining at an alarming 5 of 6 per cent a year since 1998. who are(7)…the electorate. the coveted prize during the huge commercial sea harvests that were legal here in the Bering Sea through the early 20th century. or another species may be 10 on the seals . telling jokes to their neighbour. over the past fewyears first radio. was once so valuable it 3 Alaska’s economy. and now television. To (0)………. Some people have suggested that the decline can be 11to entanglement in fishing nets. a dozen male Northern fur seals are on an island off south-western Alaska. The first obvious fact is that the chamber is very rarely full. television does not follow the work of committees. But the (10)…impression that voters receive of the workings of government is not a good one... Of course. This is presumably why members (14)… for so long the efforts of the BBC to (15)…parliamentary matters on television. Starting in the 1950s. From a 6 of more than 2 million in Alaska in 1948.54 Viewed from the outside (1) . although theories 8 . But lately it has been falling drastically. but scientists say they doubt that this alone B at least B combination B refer B end B bring about B ordinary B anyway B turns up B way B broad B shortly B times B filled B checked B beam C nevertheless C cross C speak C conclude C make up C normal C even C goes on C matter C overall C directly C moments C composed C defied C spread D as well D match D submit D complete D set in D general D furthermore D lets on D case D comprehensive D basically D years D comprised D resisted D broadcast . The seals’ food supply may be 9 . So 7 no one has been able to establish a precise cause for this. Sadly. There is not enough room for them all in the chamber in any (9)… . or shouting like badly-behaved schoolchildren. and there may be only a handful of members present. 1) A likewise 2) A mixture 3) A call 4) A finalise 5) A take away 6) A average 7) A after all 8) A comes up 9) A point 10) A total 11) A bluntly 12) A ages 13) A full 14) A prevented 15) A circulate 55 Example: A noticeB regardC look atD stare at 0 A B C D DISAPPEARING ALASKAN SEALS On a winter afternoon. have shown the (6)…public. making them a (2)… between the country house of an eccentric duke and a Victorian railway station. what in fact (8)…when bills are discussed andquestions are asked. some of whom are quite clearly asleep.You have only to learn that the members (3)… to each other as 'TheHonourable Member to (4)… the picture of a dignified gentlemen's club. for reasons that are 4 because the harvests by then tended to be fairly small. which is a second worrying point. and the buildings aresandwiched between a busy square and the river. To put it (11)… parliament looks disorganised.1 million. Their soft and luxurious fur.

(8).. a 11... a kindly scientist took the proud inventor.. a 13. 1 A middle B centre 2 A location B situation 3 A drove B inspired 4 A unclear B unsure 5 A speed B pace 6 A top B summit 7 A long B far 8 A flourish B mushroom 9 A thinner B tighter 10 A preying B devouring 11 A designated B attributed 12 A reason with B answer to C inside C place C motivated C unsettled C scale C crest C on C abound C slimmer C hounding C stipulated C account for D focus D spot D set D undecided D rate D high D forth D escalate D scarcer D ravaging D consigned D match up 56 THE VACUUM CLEANER..(6). In Britain.(2).'make it suck. d 15. 1 A importantly 2 A ritual 3 A cleaned 4 A products 5 A house 6 A fabrication 7 A Story 8 A away 9 A standard 10 A laborious 11 A scientific 12 Abrands 13 A grit 14 A lose 15 A external B crucially B result B taken B concepts B domestic B appearing B Epic B aside Bcrucial B hard B forward B marks B rubbish B outgrow B outside C considerately C resolution C beaten C ideals C homely C recreation C Legend C aback C regular C nefarious C technological C makes C refuse C omit C beyond D seriously D scrub D sucked D developments D internal D development D Tale D along D esteemed D straining D advanced D trademarks D dirt D shed D indoors 1. b 57 SCHOOL LUNCH Research has (0) … that over half the children in Britain who take their own lunches to school do not eat (1)…in the middle of the day. A much smaller proportion comes from dust and soil carried into the house from .(10). d 2. Most of today's major .(11). Until about 250 years ago. as they do now . .. b 9..... schools have to (2)……meals at lunchtime. households did not take dirt as .. One shocking (4)…. The first vacuum cleaners appeared in the 1860s in the United States... out of them . became available to make homes cleaner. The industrial revolution brought about a major change . hung on ropes and had the dust . and all the linen products in the house were cleaned.(5).. has it that when one of the first vacuum cleaners was demonstrated... one of which was the vacuum cleaner. millions of cells every day. .. of this research . c 8. Children can (3)……to bring their own food or have lunch at the school canteen... They were operated by hand pumps and were almost as . d 7. .including Electrolux and Hoover . a 3.as new .humans ..(15)..(12).(14). that vacuum cleaners suck up is mostly dead skin cells .. The household ... and that was that.an exhausting and messy process.(3)..could 12 the recent population decline... to become portable that vacuum cleaners became common household items. of further products.. as spring cleaning. Cleaning often consisted of an annual .were born in the 1920s. d 12. Carpets and rugs were taken outside.(7). . This in turn led to the . b 10..(4).it was a fact of life. hygiene' appeared in households. b 6. d 14. It was only when electric motors had become sufficiently . not blow'.(1). c 4.(9).. and offered a bit of advice that was to become .. called 'spring cleaning' when the furniture was moved aside. a 5.(13)... to the future evolution of the product . a corresponding interest in '.

Lunchboxes (7) … by researchers contained sweet drinks. bowl C. A. were the rising and … (2) of the sun. depression. suiting 9. a dairy item and starchy food like bread or pasta. But they have now established that there is a daily rhythm to a wide range of biological function – including temperature. said D. A. standards 6. Shift workers are known to run a higher-than-average … (9) of having a number of health problems and the disruption of … (10) body rhythms is one possible explanation for this 1. shown C.is that school meals are much ealthier than lunches prepared by parents. attitudes C. the government can not (11)…parents. setting 3. A. around D. choose D. examined 8. damage 14. informed 1. beside B. make C. made 8. procedures B. Children (8)…. taken C. danger C. they thought. A. normal D. crisps and chocolate bars. A.at this age. subtract 6. understanding C. A. view 10. A. and parents are the only ones who can (15)…it. finding 5. provide B. digestion and mental (3) … . positive C. instruct B. activity C. opinion D. which have to include one (6)…of fruit and one of vegetables. portion B. winding us down for sleep. behaviours 15. added D. Unfortunately. A. want C. decide D. A. healthy B. in C. prevent B. used . affect D. The main function of this “ body clock” is to anticipate and prepare for external changes so that. reduce C. formed C. occupation 4. descending B. but it can remind them of the (12)… value of milk. keep B. A. A. destroy C. which can greatly disturb their lives and even threaten their health. our body temperature starts to rise …(4) dawn. kilo D. give 3. prefer 4. Equally.delay 1b 2b 3d 4a 5 a6 b 7a 8c 9c 10a 11a 12 a 13 d 14 d 15a 58 Scientists used to believe that our 24-hour cycle sleeping and walking was … (1) entirely by external factors. threat D. predict B. governed D. A. as well as meat. 0. expanded B. adjusting C. conditional C. A. increased 11. contain B.twice as much sugar as they should at lunchtime. poor work performance and even accidents can all be … (7) or aggravated by inaccurate body clocks. found B. properly B. A. A. lessen D. A. factor D. A. fitting D. nearly 5. extended C. and begin to …(5) in the early evening. common B. A. told B. hazard 10. put B. consist D. fruit and vegetables. consume C. Some people’s body clocks … (6) poorer time than others. styles B. The most notable of these. gearing up for the day. piece 7. ways D. A. managed 2. take 9. do D. knowledge B. fatigue. There are strict (5)… for the preparation of school meals. altering B. support D. hold C. A. manage B. diving C. define ©. number B. order C. investigated D. fall B. figure C. for example. The research will provide a better (9)… of why the ercentage of overweight students in Britain has (10)… in the last decade. A. plunging D. A. conditions C. A. steered C. A. tell D. caused D. Small changes in their children’s diet can (13)… their future health.which are regulated internally by a special time-keeping mechanism within the brain. nutritional 13. probably C. A. conducted B. process D. severe problems can result from the difficulties of … (8) to different time zones and working by night instead of by day. risk B. operation B. A. possibly D. Insomnia. good D. preserve 7. Children can easily develop bad eating (14)…. habits D. appropriately 2. criticize 12.

A. A not B. however. As women became more (12) … and took on new roles. A. illegal 12. in the early twentieth century. behavior 6. If one is impolite or (6) … in these situations. argues 2. a new law was considered necessary to reflect that change. independent D. behavior C. A. prevented D. correctly D. unlikely D. period B. both change as society develops. points C. thought C. inequality 14. offender C. as well as being a potential higher (4) … through their own driving (5)… Reaction (6)… in an emergency involves many different physical (7) … such as the production of the nerve impulse. avoided B. attempts 2. other people often consider the (7) … immature and insensitive. A. (8) …of response and transmission to the muscles. A. Older drivers are obviously more (3)… to injury in vehicle crashes. 1. misunderstands D. will C. D 15. A legally B. D 10. Some of these (9) … more than others with age. This law. degree B. Formal B. A. impossible C. imbalance C. likely B. our court system must punish people who disregard these formal rules. Informal rules. disrepute C. A nation without laws (14) … be unstable. behavior 7. A. A The point at which physical decline with age begins adversely to affect a driver’s capability has not yet been thoroughly studied. decides D. process D. misbehaves B. C 14. (2) … . band B. And although we can strongly disapprove of such misconduct. stopped C. society D. forces B. A survey of more than 3. risk 5. disrepute C. turning carelessly or changing lanes. or 10. Both laws and manners help a society run smoothly. or working in an office. A. eating D. Solemn C. would 15. A 13. disobey 4. time C. A discouraged B. B 60 2. chance C. operate a business or run a government. violates C. A unable B. action B. displease D. susceptible C. rightly C. really 9. should B. D 8. Individuals who (3) … laws may be fined or put in jail. A. For example. Decent 3. might D. Neither laws (9) . the "unofficial" rules of (15) … help us to show friendliness and kindness toward each other. creative C. cases D. had to be changed because the government found it (11) … to force people to drink only nonalcoholic beverages. possible D. behaviour 6. A. all citizens would need to actively distrust everyone. doer D. practice B. disrespect B. A. free 13. C 4.000 road accidents in Michigan involving drivers aged over 55 showed that in eight out of ten (1) … it was a driver over the age of 71 who had (2) … a collision by failing to yield. many people who were dissatisfied with the imbalance between the rights of men and women worked hard to pass the Equal Rights Amendment. written rules are often laws. dating Answer : 1. group 5. A. C 3. B 6. liar 8. prohibited 11. A. While laws protect. etiquette B. treatment D. Important D. Laws seek to prevent (13) … and protect the rights of citizens. Because illegal behavior generally harms other individuals or (4) … at large. activated 3. system .. factor D. perception of the signal. A 7. A breaker B. A 11. rich B. common 4. C 9. and they control how we drive. experience D. manners are inflexible. A. activity C. A. caused D. users B. nor D. B 12. either written or unwritten. the selling of alcohol was (10) … by the 18th Amendment to the Constitution. us from one another. determines C. we cannot (8) … punish someone for simply being inconsiderate or unpleasant. A. Both laws and manners are important to society. 1. injustice D. which (1) … how people act with each other. often called "manners" or "etiquette" describe correct and incorrect (5) … in such situations as eating in a restaurant going on a date . prevented C. but the overall effect increases the time it takes to respond for more (10) … drivers.59 Every nation has a set of rules. displace B. and C. D 5. More recently.

the hood usually does not.. 1d 8. And in wet weather (10) .7. sunburnt.. wherever you're planning to go out and (1) .. ancient C. preference D. 1a 7... As (4) . 1c 11. adequately in most conditions In cold climates.. 1b 9. heat all the time.your head.. Just as important is the need to protect your neck from the effects of (7) . events 8. and the brim of your hat will do this. but it's important to remember that hats don't actually (6) . improve 10. elderly bcabdadcba 61 Don't forget your hat An important point to remember if you like spending time out in the (0) . (12) . 1b 10. increase D.. If you prefer a baseball cap. deteriorate B.mature B.A... That's why a hat is a good investment.. Clearly this heat loss needs to be prevented. 1c 6. they simply stopheat escaping...buying one that has a drop down 'tail' at the back to stop your neck (9) .. 0A open B free C clear D wide 1 A around B about C along D above 2 A job B task C role D duty 3 A giving away B sending out C dropping off D running down 4 A soon B long C well D much 5 A according B regarding C depending D relating 6 A maintain B stay C hold D keep 7 A sharp B keen C bright Ddeep 8 A consider B recommend C advise D suggest 9 A suffering B going C having Dgetting 10 A occasions B positions C cases D conditions 11 A alter B switch C turn D spin 12 A instead of B whereas C rather than D thereby Keys 1. 1b 2a 2d 2d 2a 2d 2c 2b 2d 2c 2a 2a 2d 3d 3c 3a 3d 3a 3d 3b 3a 3a 3d 3c 3a 4b 4d 4c 4c 4d 4b 4d 4c 4c 4b 4d 4d 5c 5a 5a 5d 5a 5b 5a 5b 5d 5c 5a 5a 6a 6b 6c 6d 6c 6a 6c 6d 6c 6a 6c 6a 7c 7b 7a 7a 7d 7d 7b 7c 7d 7c 7b 7c 8d 8d 8a 8b 8c 8c 8a 8c 8b 8b 8c 8b 9c 9d 9a 9a 9a 9c 9b 9d 9a 9a 9b 9c 10a 10b 10d 10c 10c 10c 10c 10a 10d 10b 10c 10a 11c 11c 11b 11a 11a 11a 11d 11a 11d 11a 11a 11b 12b 12b 12c 12c 12b 12b 12c 12b 12b 12d 12a 12d 13d 14d 15c 13d 14c 15a 13d 14a 15c 13b 14d 15a 13c 14a 15a . older D. reduce C. cold or wet. parts B... A.you warm... choice 9. hats are often more practical than pulling up the hoodof your waterproof coat because when you (11) . a single waterproof hat with a brim will do the (2) ... on which scientist you believe. forms. factors C..sunlight. suggestion B. 1a 12. A. 1a 3. 1b 4. Surprisingly.. the hat goes withyou. the problem is that the head is (3) . air is that the human head doesn't work very well outdoors if it becomes too hot. (8) . 1c 2. 1a 5. (5) . as fifty to sixty percent of your body's heat is lost through the head and neck.. section C.. A.... D.

1a 2c 44. 1c 2b 38. 1d 2b 37. 1a 2c 20. 1c 2b 23. 1d 2c 29. 1a 2b 30 1C 2d 31. 1c 2d 46. 1c 2b 19. 1a 2a 48. 1b 2a 43. 1c 2c 36. 1c 2b 3a 3b 3a 3d 3b 3a 3b 3b 3d 3b 3a 3c 3d 3c 3a 3b 3c 3a 3b 3a 3b 3a 3d 3a 3c 3a 3d 3a 3b 3d 3d 3c 3b 3c 3c 3d 3a 3a 3d 4c 4c 4b 4b 4c 4d 4a 4b 4a 4d 4b 4a 4a 4a 4b 4d 4a 4b 4d 4d 4d 4c 4a 4d 4b 4c 4c 4d 4a 4b 4b 4a 4a 4d 4b 4c 4a 4d 4d 5a 5d 5b 5c 5b 5b 5d 5c 5a 5a 5c 5c 5c 5a 5c 5c 5d 5a 5c 5a 5c 5c 5a 5d 5d 5b 5a 5b 5c 5c 5b 5d 5b 5a 5a 5b 5d 5b 5d 6d 6a 6d 6b 6d 6b 6c 6a 6b 6b 6b 6b 6a 6a 6a 6d 6d 6d 6d 6c 6d 6d 6d 6d 6a 6d 6b 6a 6d 6a 6a 6a 6c 6d 6d 6d 6b 6b 6c 7a 7a 7b 7c 7a 7c 7c 7d 7a 7d 7d 7c 7d 7a 7b 7b 7c 7c 7b 7a 7b 7a 7b 7b 7b 7c 7a 7b 7d 7a 7a 7b 7a 7d 7d 7b 7a 7c 7b 8c 8a 8a 8b 8b 8d 8a 8a 8d 8b 8c 8d 8b 8a 8b 8c 8b 8d 8c 8b 8c 8a 8b 8c 8d 8d 8b 8d 8a 8c 8d 8c 8d 8b 8b 8c 8d 8d 8c 9a 10b 11d 9c 10a 11b 9c 10d 11c 9d 10b 11c 9c 10d 11c 9a 10b 11d 9a 10d 11d 9c 10d 11b 9b 10a 11b 9d 10a 11b 9a 10d 11b 9a 10b 11d 9c 10a 9c 10a 9d 10b 11b 9d 10d 11a 9b 10a 11d 9b 10d 11a 9d 10a 11d 9d 10c 11d 9d 10a 11d 9b 10c 11b 9c 10c 11d 9a 10c 11d 9a 10b 11c 9a 10b 11a 9d 10a 11c 9b 10c 9c 10c 11b 9d 10a 11b 9a 10c 11c 9a 10d 11d 9d 10a 11b 9c 10a 11d 9c 10a 11c 9a 10d 11a 9c 10c 9a 10b 11d 9c 10b 11a 12c 12a 12d 12b 12b 12d 12b 12a 12d 12c 12b 12b 13d 13a 13d 13d 13c 13b 13c 13c 13c 13d 13b 14b 14c 14a 14a 14a 14a 14d 14a 14a 14c 14d 15a 15b 15b 15b 15d 15c 15a 15b 15c 15a 15c 12a 12d 12b 12a 12a 12b 12a 12d 12d 12c 12c 12d 12c 12b 12a 12a 12a 12a 12c 12b 12d 13c 14c 15d 13c 13b 13a 13d 13c 13d 13d 13c 13d 13c 13b 13b 13d 13c 14a 14c 14b 14a 14c 14b 14a 14b 14c 14b 14c 14a 14a 14b 15d 15d 15c 15b 15b 15c 15d 15d 15d 15a 15c 15a 15d 15a 12c 13a 14b 15c 12c 13c 14a 15c . 1d 2a 14. 1c 2a 49. 1B 2b 33. 1c 2a 21. 1a 2b 42. 1c 2c 34. 1b 2a 45. 1a 2c 51. 1b 2b 39. 1b 2b 27. 1b 2d 28. 1c 2d 16. 1c 2d 18. 1b 2b 41.13. 1c 2b 26. 1d 2b 25. 1a 2b 17. 1d 2a 15. 1C 2c 32. 1b 2d 35. 1c 2b 24. 1b 2b 50. 1b 2a 47. 1a 2b 40. 1c 2c 22.