America

IN CLOSE-UP

America
IN CLOSE-UP
ECKHARD FIEDLER REIMER JANSEN MIL NORMAN-RISCH

Pearson Education Limited
Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2]E, England and Associated Companies throughout the world.

www.longman-elt.com © Longman Group UK Limited 1990
All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, expect in those cases explicity allowed by local law, without the prior written permission of the Publishers.

ISBN 0582 74929 8 First published 1990 Tenth impression 2001 British Library Cataloging in Publication Data Fiedler, Eckhard America in close-up. 1. United States. Social life I. Title II. Jansen, Reimer III. Norman-Risch, Mill 973.927 Set in 10/12 pt. Palatino Printed in China EPC/10

Contents
UNIT 1 UNIT UNIT UNIT UNI T UNIT UNIT UNI T UNI 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15

T UNI T UNI T UNI T UNIT 13 UNI T UNI T

Index of Part В Texts Introduction The Making of a Nation American Beliefs and Values Regionalism vs. Americanization The U.S. Economy The Urbanization of America Law, Crime, and Justice Minorities The Changing Role of Women The Political System America's Global Role Education Religion The Arts Sports The Media Some Facts about the States Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the United States Index

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Brothers by Sylvester Monroe. 2. A French Fry Diary: From Idaho Furrow to Golden Arches by Meg Cox. Thoughts on the Supreme Court — excerpts from an interview with Tom Clark. From The New York Times magazine. From The New York Times magazine. From Dialogue. UNIT 7 Minorities 1. 2. Americanization 1. From A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry. From American Character: Views of America from the Wall Street journal. Street and H.PART в Texts 5. 4.A New City. 2. Only More So. In Search of Small Town America. The Forgotten Farmer by Danny Collum. What is a Middle Westerner? From "The Middle West" by John Fraser Hart in Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Second Thoughts on Having It All by Tony Schwartz. UNIT 4 The U. From Perspectives. From the Wilson Quarterly. American Dreams: Arnold Schwarzenegger and Florence Scala. Kipling and W. From USA Today. 5. From USA Today. From a Moral Majority Publication . UNIT 2 American Beliefs and Values 1. UNIT 6 Law. Gimlin in American Regionalism edited by Hoyt Gimlin. 2. Neighborhoods. From Special Places. UNIT 1 The Making of a Nation 1. Jessie de la Cruz. The Nation's Most Strongly Defined Region.S. Economy 1. How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court.A Melting Pot. I Am the Redman/My Lodge by Duke Redbird. "Just Like the Rest of Us. From The Observer. From "New England's Regionalism and Recovery" by W. 3. 3. Arming Citizens to Fight Crime by Frank Borzellieri. The Cooling of the South by Raymond Arsenault. Revival of a City's Virtues — Why a young single woman moves to the city by Mildred Norman-Risch. The American Idea by Theodore H. Lyrics from the musical West Side Story by Stephen Sondheim and Leonard Bernstein 2. From Time. Peter Drucker on Entrepreneurs. From U. UNIT 5 The Urbanization of America 1. Walker. From The Progressive. How to Have a Successful Christian Family by Jerry Falwell. 4. From Newsweek 3. UNIT 8 The Changing Role of Women 1. 3. Inside Bell Labs by Gene Bylinsky. From American Dreams: Lost and Found by Studs Terkel. From Sojourners. The text is taken from the back cover of MAYOR by Edward Koch." From "California: Living Out the Golden Dream" by R.Still Ladies? by Cora McKinney 3. 3. 3. The Choices That Brought Me Here by Amanda Spake. From New York. Immigration Today: A Case Study. From Newsweek. Small Town Life by Berton Roueche. Thomas in American Regionalism edited by Hoyt Gimlin. News & World Report. Crime.S. 3. and Justice 1. 4. Put Out No Flags by Matthew Rothschild. A Newsweek Poll on Immigration. 2. 5. An interview with four young Americans. 5. 2. From The New York Times magazine. From USA Today. 4. New York . White. 5. From Perspectives. The Death Penalty: Legal Cruelty? by Donald B. Economics vs. "America". 4. Pittsburgh . Children of Poverty . A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values. From Dialogue. From American Dreams: Lost and Found by Studs Terkel. From Ms. A Brother's Murder by Brent Staples. Where There's Smoke. Haseltine.Crisis in New York by Andrew Stein. 2. Lucky ОГ Sundowners by Peter Black. 4. Ecology: Problems with Solutions to Pollution by Robert W. 4. UNIT 3 Regionalism vs. Southern Women .

School Prayer . American Policy in Vietnam. From Special Places — In Search of Small Town America. 8. Sports in America: Colleges and Universities. America and the World: Principle and Pragmatism by Henry Kissinger. Literary Hollywood by Stanley Kauffman. Sunday in Hope by Berton Roueche. The Likability Sweepstakes by Richard Stengel. From Perspectives. Lousy at Sports by Mark Goodson. The Nature of TV in America by Richard Burke. Universities in Transition by David Riesman. Baseball. UNIT 14 Sports 1. Breaking New Ground on War and Peace by Paul Bock. A Dozen Outstanding Plays of the Past Quarter Century. An American Senior High School — an American student talks about his high school. From Film Comment. Perspective of a Public Man . What Students Think About Their Schools. UNIT 11 Education 1. The text is taken from the Reagan/Bush campaign leaflet for the 1984 presidential election. . talks about high school sports. From Public Opinion. "If Conservatives Cannot Do it Now . Statistics from the National Education Association. William Fulbright. The Human Side of Congress Representative Jim Wright. From Time. From Dialogue. William Fulbright. 3. 6. Husband's Hazard . 5. From Public Opinion. From Public Opinion. Top Dogs and Underdogs by J. Lobbyists and Their Issues a) American Israel Public Affairs Committee by Thomas Dine b) The Wilderness Society by Rebecca Leet. From Perspectives. From USA Today. From The New York Times magazine. Keynote Address by Governor Cuomo to the Democratic National Convention July 1984 (excerpts). What Makes Great Schools Great? From US News & World Report. 5. From U. From Time. Toward a National Theater by Howard Stein.excerpts from President Reagan's remarks to the Annual Convention of National Religious Broadcasters. 3. 2. From Dialogue.an extract from Martin Luther King's speech at the Lincoln Memorial on August 28 1963. . 4. From /. 2.Quincy Senior High Attendance Policy for 1984 to 1985. The text is the television column from The Herald-Telephone. A Wife's New Career Upsets Old Balances by Mary Bralove. 5. UNIT 12 Religion 1. Reagan/Bush '84. 2. From Sports in America by James A. 7. Americans Vote for Divided Government. 2. From the Washington Post. From Perspectives. 5. 2. The Chairman and the Boss by Jay Cocks. 3. The Case for Television Journalism by Eric Sevareid. 3. From Newsweek. 3.Steve Peter. From Time. 3. Power. Glory . 3.excerpts from an interview with Hubert Humphrey. 2. Television. 4. From The New Republic. From American Character: Views of America from the Wall Street Journal.S. 4. Exporting American Culture. an American exchange student who spent a year in a German school. 4. 4. Attendance Policy and Procedures . This Is Not Your Life: Television as the Third Parent by Benjamin Stein. Families. 5. News & World Report. UNIT 15 The Media 1. From "American Education: Has the Pendulum Swung Once Too Often?" in Humanities. UNIT 10 America's Global Role 1. From The Oxford Companion to Sports and Games. A President's Mission — extracts from George Bush's nomination acceptance speech. 6. Johnson. Michener. From Saturday Review.INDEX OF PART В TEXTS 9 4. " — an interview with Irving Kristol. . 5. 5. Dilemmas. 4. An Interview with Jack Nicholson by Beverly Walker. From the Wilson Quarterly. From a speech by Lyndon B.And Politics. Peace Without Conquest. UNIT 13 The Arts 1. 2. 6.For Middle-Aged Man. Running for Your Life by Matt Clark and Karen Springen. 4. American Educational Philosophies by Diane Ravitch. I Have a Dream . UNIT 9 The Political System 1. From Time. Interview: High School Sports .

. Taken from individual writers with lively and divergent views. It is suitable both for classroom use and for self-study and individual research. the texts explore a wide range of issues and accumulatively paint an authentic picture of current trends and debates. Content and Organization Each unit of America in Close-up is divided into three sections: Part A: factual background information Part B: authentic texts Part C: exercises The texts in Part В form the reader and the focus is on contemporary America. It is the factual information in the Part A sections which provides the historical and cultural context necessary for the students to understand these issues. How to Use the Book America in Close-up can be used in a number of different ways. students will become not only more sensitive to their own environment but also better able to understand and accept cultural differences wherever they meet them. The Part С exercises—linked to the texts in Part B —are designed to provoke discussion and to develop language skills such as comprehension and text analysis. America in Close-up is the ideal basic coursebook for an American Studies program. • Because of the breadth of historical and contemporary information that it contains. and because of its design is unusually flexible both in the classroom and as a self-study aid. Taken together. these build into a comprehensive work of reference that covers almost all major areas of American life. It is our belief that by studying American life. Some exercises reflect explicitly the important cross-cultural objective which underlies this book. By combining the two functions of reader and reference book it aims to offer students the most complete possible introduction to American life and institutions.Introduction Aims America in Close-up is a refreshingly different type of book for use by advanced students of English in the upper grades of secondary schools and on the more basic courses in colleges and universities. Some of these are listed below.

Used selectively. America in Close-up can be used equally well as a general companion to the study of other fictional (and non-fictional) texts —for example. short story or complete novel. Again the option is there for classroom use or individual study. Teachers will decide for themselves how much of the background information in the Part A sections to draw in. America in Close-up offers teachers and students information and reading material on a given aspect of America as and when this is appropriate. indeed.S. to provide the socio-economic background to a poem.INTRODUCTION 11 The authentic reading material and the wide variety of exercises in America in Close-up make it a stimulating textbook for use in advanced English language classes where the U. some may prefer to concentrate on these for a more systematic and factual approach. is the topic under consideration. drama. .

Prospects of wealth also motivated French fur traders. Lawrence River to the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River. religion. Most of the early settlers were British. WASPs are frequently considered to form the most privileged and influential group which formerly dominated U. the country has admitted more than 50 million newcomers. Africans. established settlements in the northeastern region. Most people came. provided slave labor in the southern colonies. had the overriding influence. In the New World they could worship as they pleased. Puritan: a member of an English sect of Protestants.S. The language and culture of the more numerous English colonists. When they settled in the New World. English Puritans. came for profit and also for religious freedom. was financed by a London company that expected to make money from the settlement. German farmers settled in Pennsylvania. and freedom. Swedes founded the colony of Delaware. . advocated simplification of the creeds and ceremonies of the Church of England and demanded strict religious discipline. Stories of the New World's gold attracted the first Spanish explorers. and Switzerland. The first successful English colony founded at Jamestown. and the Dutch settled in New York. Since its early days. and language of their particular culture. and still come today. America's unwilling immigrants. These early immigrants were soon joined by people of other nationalities. Virginia. Those immigrants who did not want to feel separate from the dominant WASP culture learned English and adopted English customs. who were the first to colonize on a large scale. for wealth. American society was predominantly English—white AngloSaxon Protestant (WASP). Throughout the 1600s and 1700s permanent settlements were rapidly established all along the east coast. a larger number of immigrants than any country in history.The Making of a Nation PART A Background Information NATION OF IMMIGRANTS FIRST IMMIGRANTS The United States is a society of immigrants. who in the 1500s established outposts in what is now Florida. an American of British or northern European ancestry who is a member of the Protestant church. WASP: W(hite) A(nglo)-S(axon) P(rotestant). The British. in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. many immigrants tried to preserve the traditions. Protestants who disagreed with the teachings of the Church of England. land. Immigrants also came from France. however. who set up trading posts from the St. who. society. Spain.

George A. and Jewish peoples from southern and eastern Europe. Between 1845 and 1860. Many left Europe to escape poor harvests. and was killed in the battle of the Little Bighorn. Those that remained tried to resist the U. Hungarians. The clash of cultures led to many battles.S. Poles.S. Europeans arrived in great numbers and needed land and game for their survival. German immigration was especially heavy. customs. all people whose languages. government's efforts to confine them to reservations. a serious blight on the potato crop in Ireland sent hundreds of thousands of Irish people to the U. came from northern or western Europe. general who fought the Indians. The new immigrants were Latin.120 Irish people settled in the U. 1890. During this period. among them General Custer's famous Last Stand at Little Bighorn in 1876. They were also called Buffalo Indians. cut forests.S. were recent immigrants. 10 million people came to America.: (1839-76). the United States received the greatest influx of immigrants ever. and children leaving more than 200 dead. Private companies supported by both state and private funds competed in this enterprise and hired vast numbers of laborers. U. In the mid-1800s. Wounded Knee: the battle at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota on December 29. They did not want the "white man's civilization. From the Indians' perspective. The Plains Indians' final defeat in 1890 at the Battle of Wounded Knee symbolized the end of the Indians' traditional way of life. women.S. the Native American Indians. marked the final act in the tragedy of the Indian wars. thousands of Chinese emigrated to California. Plains Indian: a member of the mostly nomadic tribes of Indians who once inhabited the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. where most of them worked on the railroad. In one year alone—1847— 118." A new wave of immigration began in the late 1800s. Russians. and treaties. and built big ci ties. They seized Indian lands through war.S. railroad: the building of railroads played an important role in the opening up of the American West. Rumanians. and appearance Custer. The proportion of newcomers increased rapidly so that by 1860 about 13 of every 100 persons in the U. to escape starvation." They had their own which had been successful for centuries. By the end of the nineteenth century disease and warfare had almost wiped out the Indian population. the story of European immigration is a story of struggle and displacement. By the middle of the century the United States. the overwhelming majority of immigrants. had a larger population than any single European country. especially during the great wave of railroad building in the 1850s.000 Germans came to live in the U. The northern and western Europeans who arrived between 1840 and 1880 are often referred to as the "old immigration. Slavic. Between 1840 and 1860. over 500. . To the Indians the white men were unwanted trespassers. and they hunted game. Little Bighorn: a river flowing northward from Wyoming to join the Bighorn in southern Montana where Custer and his men were massacred by Indians in 1876. Among these new arrivals were Italians. Northern and western Europe were no longer providing the majority of the immigrants. from 1852 to 1854. and Greeks. Up until 1880.S. famines or political unrest. however. threats. with over 23 million inhabitants.14 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP AMERICAN INDIANS OLD IMMIGRATION SOUTHEASTERN EUROPEANS European settlement changed the fate of America's only non-immigrants. During the peak years of German immigration. Shortly after the famous Indian leader Chief Sitting Bull (1834-90) had been killed. soldiers opened fire upon unarmed Indian men.

Cambodians and Vietnamese have usually shown a drive to succeed as Americans. were better able to identify themselves as Americans. Many old stock Americans observed with alarm that the ethnic composition of the country was changing and feared that America was losing its established character and identity. The first generation typically faced obstacles to assimilation on both sides: society's discrimination and their own reluctance to give up their language and culture. often became nostalgic about family heritage. These ethnic enclaves grew at an astonishing rate. Latin America. however. Many Americans treated them with prejudice and hostility. The descendents of these turn-of-the-century arrivals were gradually assimilated into American society. particularly New York and Chicago. America is again faced with an assimilation problem. Many are Cambodian and Vietnam refugees who fled the destruction and upheaval of the Vietnam War. intermarriage between ethnic groups usually worked against any yearnings towards reestablishing the ethnic identity. or Asia. Among these newcomers. The government responded to the prejudices of an older wave of immigrants. and the Vietcong (a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam) and North Vietnam. The flood of immigration affected American cities. They encourage their children to speak accentless English and play American games. desiring to regain the ethnic identity before it was lost. In 1893 Chicago had the largest Czech population in the world and almost as many Poles as Warsaw. so that recent statistics indicate an increase to perhaps 600. the Asians seem most willing to assimilate. By the fourth or fifth generation. In 1890 New York was a city of foreigners: eight out of ten of its residents were foreign-born. By the second generation. Chinese immigration to the Pacific coast had already been halted in 1882. the numbers have again risen dramatically.000 per year. In the 1920s Congress passed quota restrictions which favored immigration from northern and western Europe and drastically limited the number of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. aided by the United States. Religious prejudice against Catholics and Jews was another factor underlying much of the resentment towards immigrants. Immigrants were crowding into the largest cities. Americans feared the immigrants were taking away their jobs. when refugees are included. The assimilation of these new southern and eastern peoples was a source of conflict. Their children. often forming ethnic neighborhoods—"Little Italys" or "Chinatowns"—where they preserved their language and customs. Vietnam War: a conflict (1954—75) between South Vietnam. Many American workers resented new immigrant laborers who were willing to work for lower wages. usually no longer able to speak the language of their grandparents. Although immigration dropped after the 1920s. Growing industrialization in the late nineteenth century led industries to favor an "open door" immigration policy to expand the labor force. .THE MAKING OF A NATION 15 NATIVIST SENTIMENT ASSIMILATION PROCESS RECENT IMMIGRATION set them apart conspicuously from the earlier immigrants of Celtic or Teutonic origin. This new wave of immigration was so great that in the peak years of unlimited immigration between 1900 and 1920 the number of immigrants sometimes rose to as many as a million a year.000 or even 700. Members of the third generation. claiming racial superiority of the Nordic peoples of the old immigration over the Slavic and Latin peoples of the new immigration. receiving military aid mainly from Communist China. these families spoke mostly English and they practiced fewer ethnic traditions. The majority of the newest immigrants come from Mexico.

Castro. population could double in only 40 years. most of them fleeing poverty or war in Mexico or Latin America. close to one half of all growth was attributable to immigration. an immigration law passed on October 17. . Other arguments for restricting immigration are rooted in the same fears that aroused nativist sentiment at the turn of the century. 1986 attempted to stamp out the incentive for aliens to enter the country illegally by imposing strict penalties on businesses hiring illegal aliens. most notably activists in the church sanctuary movement. many Americans more optimistically emphasize the cultural wealth and diversity which immigrants have been bringing to the nation since its conception. Cuban revolutionary and prime minister since 1959. Some Americans. they argue that tightening restrictions is a necessary measure to preserve America's national identity.S.S. religion. Furthermore. As many as half the nation's estimated 3 to 5 million illegal immigrants became able to apply for legal status. has always given people the opportunity to help themselves.16 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP REFUGEES ILLEGAL ALIENS IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION Cubans. Restricting immigration would curb the rate of growth. On the other hand.S. Fidel: born 1927. In the years between 1980 and 1985. In the 1980s immigration.e.S. both legal and illegal. since 1981 to apply for status as permanent residents. nativist: protecting the interests of natives against those of immigrants. When both legal and illegal entries were counted. hundreds of thousands of persons entered the country illegally. would like to broaden the concept "refugee" to include economic refugees. In addition. had a substantial impact on U. often show a similar drive to fit in and become prosperous. Many illegal aliens supply cheap labor as farm workers at harvest time or work at menial tasks which Americans shun. Mexican-Americans. The argument against recognizing and admitting economic refugees is that the nation's resources could not accommodate a sudden influx of the world's poor and provide them with jobs and assistance. are not so easily assimilated.000 refugees per year who. In addition. Many Americans fear that immigrants may lower the quality of life in America by taking away Americans' jobs and by importing the same social and economic ills that exist in the countries they left. they point out. America's future ethnic composition and population growth will clearly be affected by the immigration and population policies the government pursues. church sanctuary movement: a movement of American churches helping refugees and illegal immigrants by giving them shelter and protection from eviction. However. They generally have a strong sense of their own culture and often marry among themselves Under the 1980 Refugee Act the United States has admitted some 50. American society. or political opinion. Based on current rates. U. many of whom were wealthy property owners before Castro's regime. now comprising about one-fifth of California's total population. about 600. Up to 1986 the law forbade illegal immigrants to work in the United States but did not penalize employers for hiring them. nationality. Some groups in favour of tightening immigration restrictions argue that overpopulation is a threat. Americans continue to debate the issue of immigration. are fleeing their country because of persecution on the basis of race. persons suffering from severe poverty. membership of a particular social group. as defined by this act. population growth. i.000 immigrants were legally admitted each year. These circumstances encouraged many people to risk illegal employment in the U. this law provided the opportunity for aliens who had lived and worked in the U.

where more than 10 percent speaks a language other than English at home.. religious identity—WASP — which once unified the country under certain shared assumptions and values. the country's leaders were old stock American Protestants. On the whole..THE MAKING OF A NATION 17 \ IDENTITY \CRISIS V— The debate over immigration comes at a time when Americans are wrestling with the problem of identity.. In the past.. Many groups. has disappeared. The well-known picture of America as a melting pot where all groups come together.... Americans are aware that the national ethnic. is vegetable soup. In a country where currently 6 percent of the population is foreign-born.. Since the 1960s. one that conveys its astonishing variety of cultures. Newcomers were expected to assimilate and live on the majority's terms. 1821 -1980) 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1830 -1841 -1850-1860-1870 -1880-1890 -1900-1910-1920-1930-1940 -1950-1960-1970-1980 Who WereThey? (Immigrants by Region. Americans' attitudes towards ethnic and religious differences have altered. Still.. a more accurate picture of American society today. whose ancestors were brought over as slaves.. Pressure on immigrants to Americanize and altogether forget their background has relaxed. as the ethnic composition changed even more.. I . America's policy towards Americanizing immigrants stressed assimilation into WASP culture.. each preserving its own distinctiveness. almond-eyed or olive-skinned... creating a new. were not regarded by the majority as true Americans. and. all other presidents were Protestant. 1821-1980) 100%- 7У1 /y VZ- : : ' ' ■ ' 1821-60 1861-1900 1901-30 1931-60 1961-70 M i l l . is not an adequate metaphor.. 1971-80 Asia Latin America II D II Southern and Northern and Canada Eastern Europe Western Europe Other( including Africa) .. the majority of Americans considered themselves WASPs. Before John F. in the early 1900s.. Kennedy became the first Catholic to be elected President of the United States in 1960.. MILLIONS How Many Came? (Immigration by decade. High political offices are held by non-whites and non-Protestants. distinct American type.. The mass migration at the turn of the century brought a new heterogeneity to American society which challenged WASPs to acknowledge that Americans could be Catholic or Jewish.. for example blacks. and where newcomers are crossing the borders daily in droves. diversity is a major characteristic.. still. with fewer and fewer people able to claim WASP status..

Ill Jl. What will you have though to keep clean? Skyscrapers bloom in America. I'll get a terraced apartment. You forget I'm in America. Terrible time in America. Twelve in a room in America.18 PART в Texts "AMERICA" In the musical West Side Story — lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and music by Leonard Bernstein — Puerto Ricans express their experiences as a minority in the U. Life is all right in America If you're white in America. Lots of doors slamming in our face. Here you are free and you have pride Long as you stay on your own side. Industry boom in America.3. Okay by me in America. Everywhere grime in America. For a small fee in America.^ « Щ\j 'BEST PICTURE' Winner of 10 Academy Awards "WEST SIDE STORY. Have a lot soon in America. Organized crime in America.A. Ev'rything free in America. * NATALIE WOOD . I know a boat you can get on. I'd have my own washing-machine.. Everyone there will give big cheer! Everyone there will have moved here. UNLIKE OTHER MUSICALS 'WEST SIDE STORY' GROWS YOUNGER: 3c 8. Lots of new housing with more space.. Better get rid of your accent! Life can be bright in America — If you can fight in America. One look at us and they charge twice.S. / think I'll go back to San Juan. RICHARD ВЕУМЕВ ■ RUSS TAMBLYN • RITA MORENO ■ GEORGE CHAKIRIS n 1 о' > 2 I like to be in America. Buying on credit is so nice.1 ^ \ in» . Free to be anything you choose -Free to wipe tables and shine shoes. .

He was succeeded by David Dinkins.1924. тштт Хос/г. .12. mayor of the "City of New York from 1978 to 1989. Edward: born 12.THE MAKING OF A NATION 19 ©New York— A Melting Pot?. BM». the first black mayor of New York City.

meanair." In 1979 he was reunited with one of a medical-diagnostic lab in Newton. "They play so close to the house.05 an hour . while watching game squirrels. if they are outside the country. At least 120. hold down one part-time and two fulltime jobs even as they serve as landlords in their multifamily house in Chelsea. if they are already here or at a port of entry. Cambodians. But recently the number of refugees admitted to the United States has dropped sharply.? "Money is a necessary tool for real estate. federal officials today keep a sharp eye out for those who seem to be "economic migrants" running from poverty." Sometimes he Mom Chhay. "When I pay off my food-processing plant in Watertown. 'You need only to make yourself look as decent as you can. The United States formally recognizes this by allowing the persecuted to circumvent the normal system. when A Cambodian immigrant working in the U. where he loans I'll really be on my own.view Cambodia. His first impression: the ones found m Cambodia. Mass. the Khmer Rouge drafted the young. do what you're required to do. but he feels that each loan — one of several jobs counseling Cambodians he's held means giving back a piece of his newfound freesince arriving in the United States. The two arrived in America. till 11 P. immigration to America can be a life-anddeath matter. "Boys and girls dried up like 50 percent more for overtime. For the next four years he lived surrounded by death and on from 3 P. and the three made their way to a That leaves Sath with a few hours at home. "I'm almost free.M. there he met and married he is "looking for something to do.000 and we had millions of rats. 1986 Khmer Rouge: red.and the edge of starvation. with a two-hour stint as a family for $800 a month. ." Besides. Mass. Often he peruses the real-estate ads. not persecution. 25. of Former refugee Savuth Sath. he was separated from his family in 1975. replicas of the luggage or money. "Girls especially would just lie down in while. opposing the right-wing nationalist regime of General Lon Nol. and you'll be fine. He would like to increase caseworker at the Jewish Vocational Training Center his real-estate holdings. They can apply either for asylum." he says. or later at $8. He bought his 80-year-old house for $107." But Sath has little time today for reflecting on nature. In my country shows on TV. 32. and refugee camp in Thailand. We could run out of food here next. or Communist. works a 45-hour week on the production line the water to die. Mom Chhay. unmarried men and women of his country into forced-labor camps. One of five children of a poor Cambodian noodle vendor.M." he says.000 Cambodians were accepted into the United States under this system by the early 1980s." works as a supervisor From Newsweek magazine. get to where you have to be on time. Mom Chhay. Although each case is theoretically considered on its own merits. religious or racial repression." Sath's penchant for security is easy to understand.S." So then why do Sath and his wife. or refugee status. expresses a somewhat cynical of what it takes to succeed in America. in 1981.." says Sath. without carves miniature wooden ox carts. "I'm still working for a living now.20 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Immigration Today: A Case Study For those fleeing political. Then he drives to a dom. "It's an acting exercise. July 14. rents the upstairs apartment to another Cambodian His workday starts at noon. brother and a cousin." he says. a militant force receiving military support from North Vietnam. "nothing's ever completely over.

1984 . Others oppose such a penalty because it would restrict U. Which comes closer to your view? Amnesty for Those Here 34% О Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Arrest and Deport 55% Immigrants take jobs from U. The Gallup Organization interviewed 751 adults by telephone on June 1. government forms and official messages in the United States.THE MAKING OFANATION 21 A NEWSWEEK POLL ON IMMIGRATION Americans surveyed by NEWSWEEK were divided in their views on immigrants several proposals to stem a rising tide of illegal immigration into this country. Or do you support the use of a second language in some areas to help immigrants participate in education. From Newsweek magazine. Which view comes closest to your own? Issue ID Card 42% Oppose ID Card 52% О Some people say there are too many illegal immigrants living in this country for the authorities to arrest and deport them. June 25. Which view comes close to your own? Penalize Companies 61% Oppose Penalties 28% 4. businesses too much and limit opportunities for legal immigrants — especially Hispanics.S. 'Don't knows' not shown. 2 and 3.Some people propose that the federal government issue identity cards to all citizens and legal immigrants to distinguish them from those who are in the country illegally. and on I Do you think the number of immigrants now entering the U. by penalizing companies that knowingly hire them. Many immigrants work hard — often taking jobs that Americans don't want. Many immigrants wind up on welfare and raise taxes for Americans Immigrants help improve our culture with their different cultures and talents.S. public signs. Do you feel that English only should 33% be used in all public schools. from each of the following areas is too many.S. public affairs and daily life? English Only 47% Second Language 49% О Some people say the government should make it much more difficult for illegal aliens to get work in the U. The NEWSWEEK Poll @ 7984 by NEWSWEEK Inc.S. Others say the government should do everything it can to arrest those living in this country illegally. Agree 61% 80% 59% 61% Disagree 36% 17% 33% 35% For this NEWSWEEK Poll. Others oppose this plan on the grounds that it would give the federal government too much knowledge and control over all Americans. business. workers. The margin of error is plus or minus 4 percentage points. too few or about Too Many Too Few right? About Right 26% 11% 50% 53% 5% European Countries Latin America 30% 31% 12% African Countries Asian Countries 37% 49% 6% £. they feel we should have an amnesty to let most of these aliens live here legally.

4. simulate an interview with Mayor Koch based on the information given on the back cover of his book. how is the theme of the ambivalent American experience developed? 3. Comprehension Check A Newsweek Poll on Immigration Determine whether the statements are true or false and correct the false ones with reference to the information given in the Newsweek poll. Analyzing a Song "America" 1. Chelsea. How are these stylistic devices used to convey the differing viewpoints of the singers? How would you describe the general tone of the song? 5. Most Americans believe that the fastest way of being integrated into American life is speaking only English. Which stylistic and syntactical means does Stephen Sondheim use when he makes the second group take up and react to the points brought up by the first group? 4. You want to know: • how he felt about being the mayor of New York • how many inhabitants the mayor of New York is responsible for • what he did to get to know the people of New York • how many people are represented at the U.N. About half the Americans surveyed believe that too many Asians immigrate into the U.S.22 PART C Exercises 1. What do you think Stephen Sondheim's intention was when writing the lyrics of this song? • the role ethnic traditions should play • why some immigrant groups changed their names • if he can give examples of the new awareness of ethnic traditions 3. We offer advancement opportunities and an attractive salary. 1. Inc. . Send your application with a resume in tabular form including • all personal facts • qualifications and present job • hobbies and other interests CHICKENHOUSE FREEZEWAY. Now have a closer look at the language which is used in the song to express the contrasting views of America. MA 2. Writing a Resume Immigration Today: A Case Study Savuth Sath reads the following ad in the Chelsea Gazette. The song is recited by two groups of Puerto Ricans. what is the difference in the two groups' views of America? 2. Major expanding food company is seeking careeroriented applicants for the position of MANAGEMENT ASSISTANT to supervise production of our chicken processing plant. Looking at each of the eight stanzas of the song. Interview Practice New York—A Melting Pot? Working in pairs. Generally speaking. plan and coordinate new food section. 2. • in which respects the people of New York differ • whether he thinks New York is a melting pot • what he thinks about those who tried to forget their heritage in order to become true Americans Write the tabularized resume and the application for Savuth Sath.

Discussion Points 1. To what extent do you think immigrants of different ethnic backgrounds should be integrated into society? How do the ethnic minorities themselves feel about this issue? 5. 6.? 2. 100 years ago and today. do they live? How do they differ from the majority of people in your country with respect to customs. 5. 4.S.THE MAKING OF A NATION 23 3. etc. A vast majority of Americans believe that firms which hire illegal aliens should be penalized. Illegal Mexican immigrants detected by helicopter border control as they try to cross the Rio Grande German immigrants in the 1890s greeting the Statue of Liberty as they enter New York Harbor . About a third of all Americans agree that many immigrants are a social and economic burden for society. Most Americans feel that the government would have too much control over them if identity cards were introduced. 8. religion. food. The notion that the culture of immigrants enriches the American culture is not shared by most people surveyed. clothing. There is almost unanimous agreement that illegal immigrants are hard-working people. 7. Picture Analysis Describe and compare these pictures featuring immigration to the U. music. How is immigration handled in your country? Are there any major restrictions? What do you know about the immigrants' motives for leaving their mother countries and what are their expectations about living in your country? 3. Most Americans would not like to see illegal immigrants return to their countries. Are there different ethnic groups in your country? Where do they come from? Where 6.

Today" Write an essay of about 300 words on this topic expressing why you could or could not imagine emigrating to the United States.S. the chairperson declares the motion open to general discussion by the audience. Then the proposer and the opposer are supported by their seconders. whereas the opposer speaks against it. Essay Writing "Emigrating to the U. 8.S. . at the end of which the opposer and then the proposer give summaries of the points which have been made. When the main speakers have finished. should strictly prohibit all illegal immigration. The audience may interrupt the speakers to ask questions on points of information (but not to discuss their arguments!).24 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 7. The proposer makes a short speech giving arguments for the motion. who take up the arguments already presented. Finally a vote is taken on the motion. Chairperson proposer opposer For seconder :: : seconder audience A debate is a formal discussion led by a chairperson who presents the subject of the debate which is called the motion." The following diagram and the text are meant to inform you about the structure and the rules of a debate. Debate Prepare and carry out a debate on the motion "The U.

sex. press. The news of a Soviet ballet dancer's or Polish artist's defection to the United States arouses a rush of national pride. Americans' understanding of freedom is shaped by the Founding Fathers' belief that all people are equal and that the role of government is to protect each person's basic "inalienable" rights. Americans commonly regard their society as the freest and best in the world.2 American Beliefs and Values PART A Background Information IDEALS AND VALUES What among all of its regional and cultural diversity gives America its national character and enables its citizens to affirm their common identity as Americans? Clearly. Yet this ideal has not always corresponded to reality. rooted in the country's history. In a real sense.S. American history is the Founding Father: member of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which drafted the fundamental law of the U. for such events give substance to the ideal of freedom that America represents to its people and to the world. Bill of Rights: the first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States. They like to think of their country as a welcoming haven for those longing for freedom and oppor tunity. .S. Constitution's Bill of Rights. such news events provide continuity to Americans' perception of their history as being that of a nation populated by immigrants who exercised free choice in coming to the New World for a better life. Reality continues to demonstrate that some social groups and individuals are not as fr ee as others. there are certain ideals and values. Moreover. The inconsistency of black slavery in a society supposedly dedicated to freedom and equality plagued the nation from the very beginning and was not resolved until the Civil War. They are proud to point out that even today America's immigration offices are flooded with hopeful applicants who expect the chance for a better life. assures individual rights. which many Americans share. However. and religion. including provisions for freedom of speech. racial. FREEDOM At the center of all that Americans value is freedom. The U. The notion that America offers freedom for all is an ideal that unifies Americans and links present to past. having a particular race or creed or lifestyle does not identify one as American. or age discrimination some Americans have not enjoyed the same rights and opportunities as others. ratified in 1791. Because of religious.

In American history. most Americans were farmers whose success depended not on cooperation with others but on their ability to confront the hardships of land and climate on their own. Ralph Waldo (1803-82): American philosopher. essayist. Crockett. argued for more individual self-reliance. Daniel (1734—1820): American pioneer. Government regulation is often resisted in the spirit of individualism. critic. Many historians believe that most of the beliefs and values which are characteristically American emerged within the context of the frontier experience. and author. Thomas Jefferson. Fuller. are defended on the grounds that they protect the independence of the individual worker. Even in today's society. James. and feminist leader. America's nineteenth-century Transcendentalist philosophers. Survival experiences also explain the American tendency to idealize whatever is practical. Both success and virtue were measured by individual resourcefulness. where most Americans work for large. individualism persists. philosopher. The American compact is altogether with individuals. has been a central theme in American history. believed that a free individual's identity should be held sacred and that his or her dignity and integrity should not be violated.26 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP INDIVIDUALISM IDEALIZING WHAT IS PRACTICAL history of groups and individuals struggling to attain the freedoms the Founding Fathers promised. In the early days. япс! poet. The idealization of the selfreliant individual translated itself in the industrial age into the celebration of the small businessman who became a financial success on his own. third president of the nation and author of the Declaration of Independence. . I swear nothing is good to me now that ignores individuals. essayist. Transcendentalists encouraged individuals to trust in themselves and their own consciences and to revolt against routine and habitual paths of conduct. understood not only as self-reliance but also as economic selfsufficiency. Americans' notion of freedom focuses on the individual. and poet. Henry David Thoreau. Survival in the wilderness was best achieved by robust individualists. including Ralph Waldo Emerson. Individualism. "Right to work" laws. Individual proprietorship in business is still extolled as the ideal. Dewey. Most pioneers who went west Emerson. Boone. John (1859-1952): American philosopher. educator. and individualism has strong philosophical roots in America. and Margaret Fuller. Henry David (1817—62): American philosopher. David ("Davy") (1786-1836): American frontiersman and politician. In By Blue Ontario's Shore Whitman writes. men who braved the wilderness alone. In America. The nineteenth-century poet Walt Whitman celebrated the individual in his poetry. which discourage union activity. Margaret (1810—50): American author. Early twentieth-century Pragmatists such as William James and John Dewey insisted upon the individual's ability to control his or her fate. William (1842—1910): American philosopher and psychologist. explored and settled Kentucky. Thoreau. what works is what counts. the concept of "rugged individualism' is commonly identified with frontier heroes such as Daniel Boone and Davy Crockett. complex organizations and few people can claim economic self-sufficiency. frontier: in American history the frontier was the edge of the settled country where unlimited cheap land was available attracting pioneers who were willing to live the hard but independent life in the West.

make no delay." Fertile land was cheap and available to anyone who wanted to farm. for example. When a high school football team requires money for uniforms. are highly motivated workers who organize themselves and others to solve a particular community problem or meet an immediate social need. Those who exploited the land exercised little . Americans have regarded their country as a land of limitless wealth. Sir Thomas Dale. The abundance of untapped natural resources on the American frontier attracted not only farmers. lumberjacks. contrasting the riches of America with the scarcity of the lands from which they came. but also game hunters. come from every way. and legal aid. agencies. but they trusted they would be able to devise workable solutions to the daily problems and dangers they faced. arising wherever social services do not cover community needs. The first colonists of the New World wrote letters back home. Our lands are broad enough. gold and silver miners. and cotton lands were also abandoned when their fertility was used up. Self-service arrangements include time-saving clerkless airline ticket counters and do-it-yourself telephone installment kits. Volunteerism means people helping people through privatelyinitiated. In which country does one find such a variety of "how-to" books and self-service opportunities? There are do-it-yourself books on everything from how to build and repair your own engine to how to be your own best friend. Inventiveness was necessary for survival. Volunteers. Yet as settlement on the east coast increased. Some tobacco lands began to be exhausted and abandoned before the end of the eighteenth century. For Uncle Sam is rich enough to give us all a farm. rather than government-sponsored. Volunteerism reflects Americans' optimistic pride in their ability to work out practical solutions themselves. Where there are gaps in federal social programs. Did it matter? No. rather than waiting for someone else—usually the government—to do it. usually unpaid. don't be alarmed. They like to think they are natural-born do-it-yourselfers. come along. governor of Virginia in 1611. said of his colony: "Take four of the best kingdoms in Christendom and put them all together. There were still inexhaustible acres in the limitless West. Volunteer fund-raising groups step in to help the needy in all spheres: there are groups that hold clothing drives for the poor and homeless as well as groups that organize expensive money-raising dinners to save a symphony orchestra. they may in no way compare with this country either for commodities or goodness of soil. resources were gradually depleted. The willingness to participate in such groups is so widespread that six out of ten Americans are members of a volunteer organization. Historically. These kinds of solutions appeal to Americans' preference for whatever is quick and practical. parents and students form an athletic association which organizes car washes and bake sales to raise money for uniforms. The do-it-yourself spirit is known as volunteerism in American community and political life. psychological counseling. It is easy to be an optimistic do-it-yourselfer in so many spheres when one takes for granted an abundance of resources. The words of a popular pioneer song capture the attitude that prevailed: Come along.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 27 VOLUNTEERISM PSYCHOLOGY OF ABUNDANCE had not trained themselves in prairie fanning or sod house construction. fur trappers. and cattle ranchers. Volunteerism is pervasive. volunteers provide services such as adult education. A country where everyone could take what he wanted was indeed alluring. This "can-do" spirit is something Americans are proud of today. Come from every nation.

Limits such as these are difficult to acknowledge because they contradict the psychology of abundance which has become so much a part of the American way of life. but they are becoming increasingly less distinct as mutual exchange occurs. this specific sense of place." the national anthem is played at every sporting event. others reluctantly recognize that the era of cheap and plentiful resources is over. national pride has become generally stronger than regional pride. hoping to secure a better job or enjoy a warmer climate. Consequently. The pragmatism of Americans and their trust in an abundance of resources relates to the American habit of mobility. is suffering from a severe water shortage. the least populated region of the country where resources seem barely tapped. . A further consequence of Americans' mobility is that they develop relatively little attachment to place. and forests. when Americans go house-hunting. Moving about from place to place is such a common and accepted practice that most Americans take it for granted that they may live in four or five cities during their lifetime. While some Americans still believe in the inexhaustibility of the nation's resources. National holidays such as Thanksgiving and Independence Day intensify the sense of national identity. Now. The buffalo was hunted to near extinction. Pioneers made the arduous journey westward because they believed they could establish a better life for themselves and their children. In many nations. But attitudes toward wastefulness are changing. their foremost concern is usually how profitably they will be able to resell the house. perhaps buying a house and then reselling it each time they move. Yet patriotism in America is in some ways distinct from patriotism in other countries. bumper stickers announce "I'm proud to be American. Americans have from the beginning shared the assumption that the practical solution to a problem is to move elsewhere and make a fresh start. A comfortable. however. well-designed house is not necessarily desirable unless it has a good resale value. After all. Independence Day: July 4. As a nation of immigrants. Songs celeb rate the scenery of certain rivers. millions of acres of forested land were cut and burned. valleys. thereby inhibiting their chances of bettering their lives. Foreign visitors to America are quick to observe the prevalence of patriotic symbols: flags fly in suburban neighborhoods. Today. this is the attitude that settled the West. a national holiday celebrating the anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776.28 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP MOBILITY PATRIOTISM restraint and opposed government regulation of their activities. Westerners are faced with the need to restrict population growth and reconsider uses for water. and rivers were polluted from mining. Cultural differences still exist from region to region. patriotism is essentially the love of the land. Americans move from place to place with the same sense of optimism. The American habit of mobility has been important in contributing a degree of homogeneity to a society of such extreme cultural diversity and spaciousness. In this century. Mobility in America is not a sign of aimlessness but optimism. In America. Americans hate to feel that buying a house might immobilize them forever. America's Mountain West. Still America is rich in natural resources. remembering particularly the first successful harvest of the early settlers who had suffered a terrible winter when they arrived. this identification with a particular geographical region as the Thanksgiving Day: a national holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November to give thanks to God for the harvest. They realize that America must adopt new values to cope with a shrinking world.

C. American patriotism is concentrated instead upon the particular historic event of the nation's creation as a new start and upon the idea of freedom which inspired the nation's beginnings. throughout America's history. The term American Dream. Some critics observe that with the breakdown of consensus on beliefs and values which began around 1970. President Nixon's cover-up led to his resignation in 1974. of this conservative revival is uncertain. . The great-grandparents. hard work. In this immigrant society." The American Dream is popularized in countless rags-to-riches stories and in the portrayal of the good life in advertising and on TV shows. as well as a renewal of national pride. Watergate scandal: an illegal break-in at the Democratic Party headquarters in Washington. work hard and suffer poverty and alienation so that they can provide a good education for their children. The classic American family saga is all about progress. in 1972. However. and fuller for every man with opportunities for each according to his abilities and achievement. that the American Dream is not open to all. arriving from the Old World with nothing but the clothes on their backs. motivated by the same vision of the future and willingness to work hard and make sacrifices. and no coherent. there has been increasing disparity of opinion about Americans' values and national goals. The mainstream Protestant values which had held society together seemed to be collapsing. unifying system of belief emerged as an alternative. Vietnam War: see page 15. Directly associated with the value of freedom is the ideal of progress. The desire to progress by making use of opportunities is important to Americans. particularly minorities. involving Republican presidential campaign employees. The attainment of the vision of one's grandparents is part of the American Dream. used in widely different contexts from political speeches to Broadway musicals. richer. D. most obviously the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal. the family's status has improved. pass these values to their children. and faith in the free enterprise system. T. Segregation and discrimination are effective tools which have barred minorities from equal opportunities in all spheres. however. jolted the country with doubts and insecurities and created fundamental divisions among Americans about their country's goals.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 29 PROGRESS AMERICAN DREAM QUESTIONING OF VALUES homeland. eludes precise definition. progress is personally measured as family progress over generations. J. The nation's progress has been measured by the taming of the frontier and industrial expansion. The ultimate significance. The second generation. It teaches Americans to believe that contentment can be reached through the virtues of thrift. The 1980s saw a return to conservative family values and morals. Events in the late 1960s and early 1970s. family loyalty. reality has also taught her citizens. Adams in The Epic of America (1931) expressed it as "the dream of a land in which life should be better. Many Americans can boast that with each succeeding generation since their first ancestors arrived. is generally not developed to this extent.

well before Thomas Jefferson put it into words — and the idea rang the call. Theodore H.30 PART в Texts THE AMERICAN IDEA By Theodore H. that we now celebrate. that all men are created equal. Below is an excerpt from the unfinished piece. and in the immigrants who answered the call. was working on an article for this magazine to commemorate the Fourth of July. It is the call from Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson himself could not have imagined the reach of his call across the world in time to come when he wrote: "We hold these truths to be self-evident. White When he died seven weeks ago. the paddyfields of China. the ghettoes of Europe. embodied in the great statue that looks down the Narrows of New York Harbor. stirring farmers to leave their lands and townsmen their trades and thus unsettling all traditional civilizations. SOME OF THE FIRST EUROPEAN Americans had come to the new continent to worship God in their own way. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. that among these are life. others to seek The Statue of Liberty . White." But over the next two centuries the call would reach the potato patches of Ireland. the Pulitzer Prize-winning author and journalist. T HE IDEA WAS THERE AT THE very beginning. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights.

Only something worth dying for could unite American volunteers and keep them in the field — a stated cause. it was adopted on July 4 1776. But what is most important is the story of the idea that made them into a nation. The story we celebrate this weekend is the story of how this idea worked itself out. drawn. All other nations had come into being among people whose families had lived for time out of mind on the same land where they were born. But Americans are a nation born of an idea.. their national states can be torn apart and remade without losing their nationhood. a flag. above all the Englishmen who had come to North America. continued their fortunes. And all knew what English law allowed in the case of a traitor. the colonial leaders who had been meeting as a Continental Congress in Philadelphia voted to approve Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. Frenchmen are French.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 31 1. By the time Jefferson drafted his call. given to the U. Neither King nor Court nor Church could stretch over the ocean to the wild continent. How they won their battles is a story for the schoolbooks. mean different things to different people . killing and being killed by English soldiers. created the United States Government. how it stretched and changed and how the call for "life. while still alive. supplied by the world's greatest navy. But the freedom of the wilderness whetted their appetites for more freedoms. liberty and the pursuit of happiness" does still. as it did in the beginning. but the idea. his entrails then burned and his body quartered. on the Fourth of July.. over a century-and-a-half. wrapped in myths by historians and poets. War of Independence: the war between Great Britain and her colonies in North America (1775—83) by which the colonies won their independence (also called the Revolutionary War). the new world changed those Europeans. the best-trained troops in the world. the idea that had an explosive power undreamed of in 1776. the Congressmen would be judged traitors as relentlessly as would the irregulars-under-arms in the field. Statue of Liberty: a large copper statue located on Liberty Island in New York harbor." Unless their new "United States of America" won the war. while their governments come and go. the first emigrants had to learn to govern themselves. To survive. But. not the place. Declaration of Independence: the document that proclaimed the freedom of the 13 American colonies from British rule. Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson. . it was not puffed-up rhetoric for them to pledge to each other "our lives. our fortunes and our sacred honor. Englishmen are English. or disemboweled. men were in the field fighting for those newlearned freedoms. Chinese are Chinese. When. 1776. The new Americans were tough men fighting for a very tough idea. The victim could be partly strangled.S. studied by scholars. a nation they could call their own. by France in 1886.

Everybody gave up competing against me. a majority of my classes were business classes. Universe title than anybody else. When I was a small boy. I had the dream of being the best in the world in something. It was also a daydream. . Universe. There was nobody even close to me. Olympia. outside Graz. Economics and accounting and mathematics. Also my dream was to end up in America. It took me five years of hard work. I won it six times. I had a dream that I wanted to be the best body builder m the world and the most muscular man. When I came over here to America. Other countries don't have those things. I won it five times consecutively. It was not only a dream I dreamed at night. Five years later.. the best-built man in the world. Turning one dollar into a million dollars in a short period of time. I have to win more often the Mr. When I was fifteen. In America. When I was in high school. we don't have an obstacle. It singles you out: the winner. When I was ten years old. It was so much in my mind that I felt it had to become a reality. my dream was not to be big physically. The bottom line for me was: Arnold has to be the winner. One of the things I always had was a business mind. because that's what America is best known for: business. When I came over here to this country. Also when you make money. You have the best tax advantages here and the best prices here and the best products here. I really didn't speak English almost at all. J Arnold Schwarzenegger It is the country where you can turn your dream into reality. the top professional body-building championship. There is one that achieves what he wanted to achieve and there are hundreds of thousands that failed. I learned English and then started taking business courses.32 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP ) Arnold Schwarzenegger I was born in a little Austrian town. That's what I call a winner. that people recognize me and see me as something special. "Winning" is a very important word. I'm trying to make people in America aware that they should appreciate what they have here. how do you keep it? . but big in way that everybody listens to me when I talk.. That's why I retired. that I'm a very important person. It was a 300-year-old house. You kind of run through the rest of the world like nothing. Number One in America pretty much takes care of the rest of the world. Nobody's holding you back. I had a big need for being singled out. I came out second three times. I felt I was in heaven. but that is not what I call losing. I turned this dream into reality and became Mr. I hold the record as Mr.

you can go in the desert the same day. your positive energies get channeled into another direction rather than going into your weight room or making money. a tailor shop. That's my love. and America should keep it up. I don't remember those days with loving nostalgia. My mother decided I should have a room for myself. and raw land. When I was in high school. Later they found out that's not the case. You have to choose at a very early date what you want: a normal life or to achieve things you want to achieve. selfish. and the ninety-seven percent is Western. you're thinking about your girlfriend. it was a wonder. I think everybody has that feeling. make up a new dream.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 33 2. She was very emotional and used to make scenes. the sewing in the evening. office buildings. working late at night. They worked with their hands all the time. feeling panicky and running all the way home. Nice Guy. I believe very strongly in the philosophy of staying hungry. At the same time. You must pay attention a hundred percent to the particular thing you're doing. You know what I mean? California is to me a dreamland. hanging on. I didn't want her to take me to school any more. I can be Mr. how can you keep it? Or make more out of it? Real estate is one of the best ways of doing that. . You had to when you're running a small business like that. show business there. It is the absolute combination of everything I was always looking for. Emotions must not interfere. The Eastern philosophy is passive. If you have a dream and it becomes a reality. I have emotions. It was one of the city's most alive areas. Florence Scala In the late fifties. It has all the money in the world there. When you have that dream achieved. I own apartment buildings. you keep them cold or you store them away for a time. and all of us playing out on the street. you must have command over yourself. He'd close the store about nine o'clock at night. as a small girl. continued That's one of the most important things when you have money in your hand. until my teens. I was a dreamer. He would do the pressing during the day. They all have a tan. Sport is one of those activities where you really have to concentrate. our neighborhood was a mess. After I achieve my goal. and the sun shining and people coming home. But what you do. I had a feeling that things would happen in my life that would be magical. He did the pressing and the tailoring. It is now a complex of institutions. Oh. I never wanted to win a popularity contest in doing things the way people want me to do it.. I am a strong believer in Western philosophy. But I always felt way up in the summertime and late afternoon. real estate. . I became ashamed of my mother. We lived in back of the store. Getting up very early in the morning. Florence Scala led the fight against City Hall to save her old neighborhood on Chicago's near West Side. You have beautiful-looking people there. Snow skiing in the winter. a journalist. conquering and going on. I wanted to be a writer. multiracial community. Make up a new dream and hunt after that one and turn it into reality. I thought I would grow up to be whatever it was I wanted to be. wonderful weather there. There must be nothing else on your mind. ocean is there. and my father on the pressing iron and my mother sewing in the store. expressways. I went the road I thought was best for me. I remember a crowded city street. Our parents . It's a beautiful philosophy. My mother did the more simple things of repairing. beautiful country. of progress. of public-housing projects. You must control your emotions. My first memory. . It was a multiethnic. There was a lot of anxiety because of the hooliganism. the philosophy of success. . and a few islands of old-timers. It was always a magic time for me. My parents worked very hard. My dreams have not been fulfilled personally. was going to school and not being able to speak English. I was born in 1918. You're in love. which I believe in maybe three percent of the times. Then we moved upstairs. of getting rich. The street was miserable. Otherwise.. A few people thought I was cold. don't stay satisfied with it too long.

Big Brother is there. They'll conform because it's the only way to go. People my age wanted to be more like the people from other communities . I see it becoming more and more disoriented. I don't dream any more like I used to. I think they will become digits. his business was closed down because they struck the plant and he had no place to send the clothes. They were people who painted and did carpentry. It's un-American.] I don't even know what the American Dream is any more. I never really got to talk to him. There's public housing. padrone: a man who exploitatively employs or finds work for Italian immigrants. [Laughs. but I doubt it. five or six square blocks. because. The medical center students and young people from advertising and TV see it as part of chic downtown. Even this city. They seem to be acting in their own selfinterest. Our parents had no animosity toward blacks. He thought the trip to the moon was a waste of time. He never saw it. Younger people growing up will find it easier to contend with. It's a world I don't know. I never remember any racial conflict when I was little. He was aloof. [Laughs. Anywhere I gotta pay cash. He was so tired by the time he had time that he was afraid to take the trip. left clothes. Black people came to our store. They — the immigrants — saw themselves as being in the same predicament. I'll never have one. He had this one dream that he wanted to see Grand Canyon. They remember the struggle to save the neighborhood with a certain amount of sadness and a certain amount of respect. Some old Italian families are hanging on. I don't see myself as a digit. because I don't have credit cards. They don't take things sitting down any more. I believed that in this country. The world doesn't seem definable any more. He was really an educated man by the standards of the time. largely black. there is nothing they discovered that he hadn't already known. We still have our old Caruso records. trying to make it in the city. I'm against bigness for its own sake. but I know I'm becoming one. . Later I saw it. We walk down the street and don't even look at one another. It's a time that's hard to figure out. a loner. It began to change as my generation was growing up. He would buy all the librettos. He was very shy and lonely. My father never participated in any of this. That didn't happen in my case because I was growing up in a whole different atmosphere of pride. They were craftsmen. how far Venus was. The other thing he loved was astronomy.] There are things alien to my understanding. Today the community is very small.. Then he was a scab and took the clothes to another cleaning establishment. he said. continued were worried because the kids might get involved and that it would touch their lives. Friends of mine would prefer to meet their friends elsewhere than invite them into the neighborhood. I don't see that any more. a waste of money. For weeks. Maybe it's picking up some pieces I've left behind. You see. we would have all we needed for the decent life.. I don't have regrets. He knew how far the moon was from the earth. The self-interest of the individual — "I'm number one" — is contaminating much of our thinking today. there were padrones who went to mediate the fights within the neighborhoods. We were used to seeing that. I'm not a digit yet. which was dominated by hoodlums. The world of the computer and the microwave oven. He loved opera. There were killings on the streets.34 AMERICA IN CLOSE UP 2. I believe strongly — and I see signs of it today — that what we were trying to do and didn't succeed in doing had left its mark on the people there. Among Italians. It's necessary for me to have my Social Security number available or my driver's license. We're strangers. My father was frightened during the trade union wars in the cleaning industry. He did a lot of reading. It's happening with our institutions as well.

I think that success has become more a measure of a person to himself rather than a person to society and that people don't . As seniors at Casa Grande High School in Petaluma. if they just tried really hard. if you're not a success. TV. if you're just a medium success. The participants are Shannon Alexander (18). And really that's all we are treated with all our life. anyone at all. And I think that being a success is really what's important in America — that society really frowns upon people who don't make it. you agree with your brother? Mark: No. Mark and Andrew Ferguson (17). Section 1 Interviewer: The traditional American value system has included preaching hard work and worshipping the dollar. I think they are really valid in America of nowadays because it's really coming back in on the media.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 35 A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values In the following interview four young Americans are asked what they think about their own country. And I think anyone. Andrew: I think they really are. newspapers about people who are successes from hard work. they all take English literature as on e of their college prep classes. California. you feel — like you're failing. Do you think these values are still important? Andrew. and Mike McKay (18). It has been part of the American Dream that if you only work hard enough. not really. Interviewer: Mark. I don't think it really matters about their background. no matter what. how they feel about being Americans. has a different definition and money isn't really as valuable. I feel that hard work still has its value in America but success. So. could make it really big. That's my feeling. and what their values are. I think. you can make it.

I feel that society's importance to the individual has lessened. However. You can just kind of look at what the Vietnam War did to us in the past 20 years. that would be my ideal because I love to act and I always wanted to be famous. It reached its height with the American yuppie. Many people felt we shouldn't have been in there first place. Interviewer: Andrew. which would be becoming a famous actress. Interviewer: Mark. others felt we really should be there trying to save Vietnam from itself or something to that effect. To the social workers it's the feeling that they want to help the poor and they want to help the elderly. and some like to help others and some people don't care about anyone but themselves. society's criticism isn't as important to people any more. Section 2 Interviewer: It is sometimes said that winning is an American passion. Interviewer: Mike. Mark: No. Interviewer: What would be winning to you? Shannon: Winning to me? Well. It really ripped apart American society. And while some people think winning would be becoming a president of a major corporation and running a whole bunch of financial situations. And it really ripped us apart. And it was really tough on America. Shannon: I wanted to say that winning is different things to different people. And actual money isn't really as important as it used to be. Interviewer: Do you agree. others felt that while we were there. I'd still be conscious of the society around me. of course. Section 3 Interviewer: One feature that has often been associated with the American dream is the desire to be well-liked. you know. Andrew? Andrew: No. But a lot of people like ourselves don't conform to this yuppie: (young urban professional). and everybody wants to own a BMW and things like that. rivalry and not cooperation is the spur to achievement. It is more important to people to be happy. and it is because of the fact. But I'd never want to tread over anyone else. not very much. and whether or not they are happy with themselves doesn't matter. The yuppie. on a social level there are still many people who have to be well-liked. you want to join in? Mike: I kind of feel that the society ideal of success has really been kind of drifting out. a young person in a professional job with a high income. And. Do you still subscribe to this idea? Mark. And people have found that less money can make you as happy as more money. and to them that's winning. It divided American society. Mike: I definitely think that winning is an American obsession. Everybody is trying to be alike. it was one of the first wars we really didn't win. I guess. Andrew: I think most people are like that. how do more social values fit in? Mike. though. And they like to form into different groups where they all dress the same and talk the same. even with our generation. Mark: Although that what you are saying is true. And it's sort of everyone has their own ideals. other people think winning is helping people around them. But in order to succeed you've got to compete. I don't agree because how you feel about yourself is influenced by your society and society does encourage success and does look down on its people who are not successful as far as money goes. if I won. It divided some people. But I wouldn't forget the people around me and I would never do any dirty tricks to get ahead. world-famous. Then. And. you know. In other words. they want to win without really hurting anyone else. It's part of their personalities. especially one who enjoys spending money and having a fashionable way of life. I guess that is the sort of attitude I have. is trying to achieve. continued look down on you if you're happy what you're doing. if this society is a society which encourages individualism. and everybody would rather really be a winner and that somebody else be the loser. we might as well win. . I think that the bottom line is that there are winners and there are losers.36 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3.

they have a lot more leeway in what goes in their lives.P. And now I live a different sort of life. class because the people there really think. They dress in a way they do not really want to just because their group is doing it and they want to fit in. you know. The most important matter is respect. Mike: Whether someone agrees with you or not isn't really necessarily the most important matter. Interviewer: Andrew. I think. I guess. have everyone like you for stupid reasons but because you respect each other. Andrew: There are a lot of people at this school who are. And being well-liked is very important because it can be very hard to have people not like you or just think you're very strange or something. And that's the life I like to live. They start out a step up. from 8th to 10th grade. I have people I act with and people that I talk with and I really enjoy my A. Not just. They want people to respect them and to listen to what they have to say. Interviewer: Mike. They do things they do not really want to. Mark: I feel that rich people have much more of an opportunity than the poor people. Section 4 Interviewer: The famous quote from the Declaration of Independence that this country grants equal opportunities for all — is that still valid? To what extent does a certain ethnic background or a certain family background help to predetermine future chances in life? Mark.. So we can't really get into that kind of mind. I did go through a phase. And none of us four really were ever like that. Shannon: Um. but in reality you also got to be aware of schooling. Mike: Under the law there is equal oppor tunity in the United States. So we have much fewer friends but a much more honest relationship. I think it's a goal that a lot of people have. Shannon: A lot depends on the type of family background you have and the type of parents you have and if they promote thinking and if they bring different views to you. Mike: It takes a lot more drive to succeed if you're black or if you're shall we say just kind of less advantaged. I had two things to say. more than there ever was before. . generally blacks in slum areas. Many poor people. Andrew: Respect is so important. A. P. And that's important too. The poor people can succeed but they need luck and there is no guarantee that goes with it. at least it's almost impossible. these views they have are so rigid and they refuse to think and they refuse to understand what other people have to say because their parents said well this is how it is. one about what they were speaking of. open to outstanding Seniors at an American high school. I feel lucky my parents have always told me the way many people thought and I was given opportunity to choose. Interviewer: Andrew. And I've known many friends that . Interviewer: Mike. really fairly phoney.. and that's the kind of liking that people want. Interviewer: Mike. and this is the way we think. bringing students to a first year of college (Freshman) level of proficiency. The rich people. Interviewer: Andrew. But it's more important to be more honest with yourself. to have a respect of other people. go to schools and they have to work and drop out of school by 10th grade and they will never finish high school and without a high school diploma you cannot make it in America. I think I'd much rather be respected for my opinion to being myself than just being liked.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 37 value at all. But then I just felt so out of place because I have my own ideas and I've been raised all my life to think the way I wanted to think. where it was important for me to be well-liked and I did dress like my friends and talk like my friends. Andrew: Yes. class: advanced placement class.

as well as on the radio waves and television screens. Free will and individual liberty are forsaken in this repressive philosophy. . church. and community. They see a rolling conservative in a social framework of family. we are told. The United States can kill two million Indochinese. . Rejoice. but Americans concern themselves only with the less than 60. Trying to extricate the virtues of patriotism from the vice of nationalism is like trying to pluck the quills from a porcupine. This is reification of the highest order. The notion that one owes an obligation to one's country is absurd. and loyalty. patriotism has carried the body bags for every modern ruler from Napoleon to Hitler. Our more philosophical friends tug us from the opposite direction. . the classroom. you won't be left with a petty individualistic concerns to an porcupine. . It can't be done. owe them an than our right-wing neighbors. It's been around for thousands of years. if we want to effect political change and gain the support of our unenlightened fellow citizens. is to get on that wave. . that translates into war slogans easy as apple pie. . And so. Nothing justifies a salute to patriotism. They infect people with a feeling of superiority. it reinforces the message that America is on the side of virtue. tide. condemned to purgatory — or at least to an uncozy predicament in trie Viere and now.S. but that doesn't mean we should celebrate the disease. the superliberals join the patriotic chorus. Stalin to Pol Pot. . we must be more patriotic to some extent at least. which denies the individual the right to create and develop his or her own identity. Many good-hearted souls starchy. And by playing the silly game of capture the flag. No day passes without our being bombarded by some patriotic message or symbol. citizens and not a whit for inhabitants of other countries. and that something is patriotism. they they conclude that our identities are say.S. soldiers who fell in the fetid conflict of Vietnam. From this. They utter patriotism. Patriotism and nationalism are identical twins. entwined with these institutions and. They tell us that the concept of patriotism — as distinct from nationalism — transports us from Patriotic Americans celebrating their country's independence Or if it can. Unfortunately. upright phrases about indisurvey the political horizon and deviduals not existing in a vacuum but spair. we only capture ourselves.38 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP ° Put Out No Flags by Matthew Rothschild ■ Patriotism is like religion.000 U. those who believe in it view the rest of us as sinners. Once we recognize this. Our identities should be of our own making. . matter the duplicity involved. the athletic field. . And our loyalties should not stop at the border. crest. the radicals. ye sinners! Fear not! This patriotism thing is a hoax. not to some bloodless concoction of bygone rulers. with Ronald Reagan riding its community. awareness of a greater. It's a tough bug to shake. Yet it's not ^ust a Uome-grown affliction. The only way to survive. When the Left. more noble Still." Jorge Luis Borges has observed. and these days the sentiment is transmitted in the home. . . . . we are implored to embrace identity that is communal. the champions of the modern nation state want us to believe that inanimate objects — mere social sandboxes — deserve to command our respect. we won't fall into the good old American trap of caring solely for U. Always a dutiful and willing servant. we'd succeed only in suffocating ourselves. . Our obligations should be to ourselves and our fellow living beings. No obligation. and country. Something's not right about that. love. we should wrap ourselves in trie flag. the assembly hall. not imposed by an ancient cartographer. . of bellicose pride. "Patriotism is the most primitive of passions. Like the defenders of family. This is sheer folly. . It is too dangerous a concept to be toyed with.

Then quickly read the beginning (first three paragraphs) of the article. c) when he was twenty. 7. b) has to be subordinated to success. c) the chances to be economically successful are better than in any other country.39 PART C The American Idea Exercises 2. 4. What is meant by "The American Idea" and who was the first to formulate it? 2. c) is as important as being successful. b) that people should never be content with what they have achieved. b) took courses in English and business. Arnold Schwarzenegger dreamed of being the best body builder in the world a) when he was a little boy. What does the author want to convey to the reader by writing this article? 3. Н. c) that hungry people are dreamers unable to achieve anything. Schwarzenegger maintains that emotions a) provide the energy that leads to success. 2. Where. 1. . Which decisive difference between the American nation and other nations does the author point out? 5. Why could the information given about the author be of interest to the reader? 3. America is the country where a) nothing can prevent people from fulfilling their dreams b) everybody is Number One. Which basic motives of the first European settlers for coming to America are mentioned in the text? 2. and on what occasion was the article published? 2. introduction and source. when. Schwarzenegger thinks that popularity a) is the key to success. Previewing and Anticipation Try to get a global idea of what the text is about by first looking at the headline. b) have to be suppressed if you want to be successful. Comprehension Arnold Schwarzenegger Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. c) became a real estate agent. White. According to Arnold Schwarzenegger. c) prevent you from concentrating on your primary goal of making money. 1. b) when he was fifteen. He stopped taking part in body-building competitions because a) he believed he had won the championship too often already. When Florence Scala was young she did not 'believe in the American Dream. Florence Scala Which of the following statements are true and which are false according to the information given in the text? Correct the false statements. Scanning Now go quickly through the text to extract information to answer the following questions: 1. 6. 1. 3. b) he was afraid that he might lose the title if he tried again. c) he had no serious competition. What would have happened to the colonial leaders if the war had been lost? 4. According to Т. 1. what was it that made the American volunteers persevere in their revolutionary war against the better-equipped English soldiers? 3. Arnold Schwarzenegger became a successful businessman because he a) was business-minded. As a small girl she was afraid of school because she could not speak English. 5. Schwarzenegger believes a) that poverty and hunger make people dream of success.

4. Florence Scala now thinks she wasted her energy. 8. 6. Everybody has a chance to succeed if he or she only works hard enough. 3. 9. They were afraid that their children might turn into hooligans. All people are given equal opportunity in life. Give the cartoon a title. 2. Being popular is as important as material success. Looking back on her efforts to save the neighborhood. Her father avoided getting involved in the fights that took place in the neighborhood. He never really had the time to fulfill his dream of going to the Grand Canyon. 7. 11. 12. When Florence Scala thinks of her childhood. 14. nostalgic memories come to her mind. 13. Comment on a Cartoon Comment on the following cartoon and show how it relates to the American Dream. How do you feel about these statements? strong agreement agreement undecided disagreement strong disagreement Reproduced by permission of United Feature Syndicate. Today the community she grew up in has changed a lot. 5. Her parents worked for a tailor who lived on the same street. . Evaluation Use the following scale to determine to what extent Arnold Schwarzenegger.40 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. 1. 4. Winning in competitions is one of the most important things in life. During the trade union wars in the cleaning industry her father went on strike. THE JOV NINTHS a AflN6 WHAT HAPPEN5 IF fOU PRACTICE FOR TUI£NT'CYEAR5. Florence Scala thinks that the American Dream promotes selfish attitudes. Her father was unusually well-educated.ANP THEN ENP UP NOT 0EIN6 RICH ANP FAMOUS 4. Inc. 10. Money and material wealth are what matters most in life. 5. Her parents were somewhat prejudiced against black people. Florence Scala and her parents would agree or disagree with the following statements. 5. 6. She believes that technical progress has led to a less humane world. Self-reliance is more important than concern for others.

Find the missing words. 4. Have a look at the statements below and decide who holds which view. 3. Comprehension questions A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values —Section 2 1. Shannon thinks that." What examples does she give to support her opinion? What does "winning" mean to her? 3. Summary A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values—Section 4 Summarize how the following aspects are related to the ideal of "equal opportunity": money family social ethnicity law background education 10. Comprehension Survey A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values —Section 1 Let us find out how the value systems of Andrew. the media greatly influence the American value system. By spreading the gospel of success. and Mike differ. Mark. Andrew Mark Mike 1.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 41 6. The participants agree that the notion of being "& is a ik that a great number of their fellow students "& to. How does Andrew view the concept of cooperation and rivalry in society? . To those young people who have developed their own "& it is more important to be W for their independent TwT than to be well-liked as a reward for their ■& They unanimously "£r that respect is the most important "& in human relationships. 5. How does Mike think the Vietnam War affected America as a "nation of winners"? 2. The yuppie's philosophy revives the traditional value of success. 2. Cloze Summary A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values—Section 3 This paragraph summarizes part 3 of the discussion. Society considers happiness to be as important as material success. They consider this value so important that they give up their "& and adopt the habits of "& and "& prescribed by their peers. Discussion To what extent can the values discussed by these four young Americans also be found in your country? What is your personal attitude towards them? 7. "winning is different things to different people. A minority of students "& this peer pressure and prefer more "& relationships which they "& higher than a large circle of so-called friends. People who fail are not accepted by society. Happiness is not a question of money. / / / 8. ) у 1 ) 9.

2. A metaphor is a simile condensed. The second metaphor suggests patriotism's harmful effects through the use of the word "infect. When the author ironically refers to the community as an institution providing a "noble identity. Whereas in a simile the imaginative comparison is expressed by the words like and as. What role does patriotism play in your country? 3. The text is full of comparisons. especially similes and metaphors. Look for more similes and metaphors in the text and explain their function. He then raises two objections to his thesis but immediately refutes each of them. What are the objections he mentions and how does he refute them? 3. A simile is a figure of speech in which two things or actions are compared because they have something in common. He is also being sarcastic when he compares patriotism with a disease. What is the conclusion the author finally draws? 12. although they are unlike in many other respects. Do you think that the author's viewpoint is logically consistent? 2.42 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 11. Matthew Rothschild makes two comparisons to defend the thesis that patriotism is harmful. This text has many satirical features because the author often uses irony and sarcasm to expose the "folly" of patriotism. What other examples of irony and sarcasm can you find in this text? 13." he actually regards this as a nonsensical idea. Structural Analysis Put Out No Flags Let us examine how the author structures his argument in this article. 2. Comment and Discussion 1." meaning to spread disease. He then develops his argument by drawing consequences from these comparisons. So when the author says that "patriotism is like religion" he uses a simile. 1. The author supports his argument with a quotation which he further illustrates by examples of patriotism in contemporary America. When he says that "patriotism and nationalism are identical twins" which "infect people" he uses metaphors. Style Let us now have a closer look at the stylistic means the author employs to convey his opinon to the reader. Irony is a figure of speech in which the author stresses his point by saying the opposite of what he means. To what extent is the average American exposed to sentiments and symbols of patriotism? 5. How do you feel about patriotism? . The author uses the first metaphor in this sentence to illustrate the identical nature of patriotism and nationalism. 1. Why does he mention the names of four "modern rulers"? 4. Find the comparisons in the text and show how they are used as a basis of his further argumentation. Sarcasm is aggressive and intended to injure. in a metaphor the comparison takes the form of an identification of the two things compared.

and the Midwest—maintains a degree of cultural identity. The population is concentrated in the Northeast. New England's colleges and universities are known all over the country for their high academic standards. businesses and industries have been moving to warmer climates in the South and West. Harvard is widely considered the best business school in the nation. regional identities are not as clear as they once were. and a certain relationship to the land. To get from New York to San Francisco one must travel almost 5. and wide plateaus. has traditionally been at the helm of the nation's economic and social progress. the Northeast is more urban. the West. the United States has seen its regions converge gradually. New Englanders often describe themselves as thrifty. arid deserts.з Regimalism vs. the mobility of people and the diffusion of culture through television and other mass media have greatly advanced the process of Americanization. Between the coasts there are forested mountains.000 kilometers across regions of geographical extremes. Much of the land is uninhabited. While important regional differences are discernible. comprising the New England and Mid-Atlantic states. Americanization PART A Background Information A LARGE COUNTRY WITH MANY DIFFERENCES THE NORTHEAST The United States is a spacious country of varying terrains and climates. People within a region generally share common values. around the Great Lakes. economic concerns. some parts of New England . The Northeast. The economic and cultural dominance of New England has gradually receded since the Second World War. A sense of cultural superiority sets Northeasterners apart from others. qualities they inherited from their Puritan forefathers. Compared with other regions. on the Pacific coast. Many factories and mills have closed. Each of the country's four main regions —the Northeast. and the population has stabilized or even declined. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology surpasses all others in economics and the practical sciences. more industrial. and dedicated to hard work. While areas of aging industry continue to suffer. the South. As with most modernizing nations. and in metropolitan areas dotted over the remaining expanse of land in the agricultural Midwest and Western mountain and desert regions. and they usually identify to some extent with the history and traditions of their region. the Northeast produced most of the country's writers. Today. fertile plains. and scholars. and more culturally sophisticated. During the nineteenth century and well into this century. artists. In the past decades. canyonlands. reserved. the South.

During the post-war period of reconstruction which lasted until 1877. shipped by the Spanish. New high-tech industries are boosting foreign investment and employment. became quite prosperous. and English.44 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP America on the» move»: but which \v. where the peculiarities of Southern history have played an important role in shaping the region's character. the South remained agricultural. The war that broke out as a direct result was the most bloody war in American history. Southerners were forced to accept many changes. Regional identity has been most pronounced in the South. but blacks were given a voice in Southern government.i\: THE SOUTH are experiencing economic recovery. Most farming was carried out on single family farms. With the South's surrender in 1865. As the century progressed. Many of them established large plantations. The South was originally settled by English Protestants who came not for religious freedom but for profitable farming opportunities. Even though the system of slavery was regarded by many Americans as unjust. The unresolved dispute over slavery was one of the issues which led to a national crisis in 1860. slavery was not only abolished. which stirred up bitterness and resentment towards Northerners and the Republican Party of the national government. . Economic and political tensions began to divide the nation and eventually led to the Civil War (1861—65). the economic interests of the manufacturing North became evermore divergent from those of the agrarian South. Portuguese. Even after the North began to industrialize after 1800. African slaves. These slaves were bought and sold as property. but some farmers. supplied labor for these plantations. Eleven Southern states left the federal union and proclaimed themselves an independent nation. Most Northerners opposed slavery. Southern slaveowners defended it as an economic necessity. Southerners opposed the Civil War (1861-65): the war between the Union (the North) and the Confederacy (the South). capitalizing on tobacco and cotton crops.

The Southern dialect characteristically uses more diphthongs: a one -syllable word such as yes is spoken in the South as two syllables. American author. Thomas Wolfe. Robert Penn Warren. and. Carson (1917—67): American author of novels. Wide regional diversity makes the West hard to typify. Among his novels are The Sound and the Fury. The Civil War experience helps explain why Southerners have developed a reverence for the past and a resistance to change. and pockets of poverty are scattered throughout the Southern states. short stories and poems. Robert Penn: born 1905. The Ballad of the Sad Cafe. and Absalom. and plays. The narrow band along its southern Pacific coast is densely populated and highly industrial. more religious. William (1897—1962): American author of novels. White Southerners created bluegrass mountain music. For the next century white Southerners consistently voted for Democrats. won the Pulitzer Prize for his novel All the King's Men. Even today. an d more violent than the rest of the country. California has some of the richest farmland in the country. does not share th e rest of the West's concern over the scarcity of water. While most of the Mountain West is arid wilderness interrupted by a few urban oases. Mormon-settled Utah has little Faulkner. California is different in other ways. Other regions have little in common with the South's bitterness over the Civil War. and Clock Without Hands. Southerners tend to have less schooling and higher illiteracy rates than people from other regions. the negro spiritual. and Carson McCullers have addressed themes of the Southern experience such as nostalgia for the rural Southern past. . AMERICANIZATION 45 THE WEST intervention of Northern Republican politicians. its one-party politics. Even if one disregards the Pacific coast states. agrarian traditions and racial tensions. Southerners are more conservative. In the time of slavery. Warren. Novelists such as William Faulkner. Southerners are the most "native" of any region. Americans of other regions are quick to recognize a Southerner by his/her dialect. Angel. and why the South is different from the rest of the country. among her works are Reflections in a Golden Eye. short stories. Most black and white Southerners can trace their ancestry in this country back to before 1800. an imaginary Southern provincial community. By combining the nation's highest concentration of high -tech industries with the greatest percentage of service industries. and most American country music has a Southern background. author of Look Homeward. the rest of the West is marked by cultural diversity and competing interests. Southern speech tends to be much slower and more musical. Southerners say "you all" instead of "you" as the second person plural. Wolfe. Absalom\ all of which are set in Yoknapatawpha. along with Oregon and Washington in the rainy Northwest. Light in August. Thomas (1900-38): American novelist. Later forms of black music which began in the South are blues and jazz. Southerners tend to be more mindful of social rank and have strong ties to hometown and family. California's pro gressive economy is a trend-setter for the rest of the nation as it enters a new post-industrial age. McCullers. The South has been one of the most outstanding litera ry regions in the twentieth century.REGIONALISM VS. As 1 Lay Dying. He received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1949. Because fewer immigrants were attracted to the less industrialized Southern states. In addition. Recent statistics show that the South differs from other regions in a number of ways. ya-es. black Americans created a new folk music. Sanctuary. The South is also known for its music.

The aims of Western commercial developers anxious for quick profits clash with environmentalists' campaigns for preservation of the region's natural beauty. Westerners are united in their long-standing hostility toward Washington and Eastern federal bureaucrats. Since the Second World War.1 percent of Colorado. the South.8 percent of Arizona. The distinctiveness of these regions is disappearing. Montana ranchers have different needs and different outlooks from the senior citizens clustered in a retirement community near Phoenix. The Midwest's position in the middle of the continent. the Western states face these problems together. the middle class rules. interstate high- . 47. Despite the differences that may exist within the region. Dominating the region's commerce and industry is Chicago. Particularly distressing to Westerners is their lack of control over Western land and resources. but they feel they cannot control their own destiny while Washington controls their land. Farmers are no longer isolationist or opposed to "big government. and pragmatic. farmers have changed their stance. Midwesterners are seen as commerciallyminded. oil shale . The fertile farmland and abundant resources have allowed agriculture and industry to thrive and to strengthen the Midwesterners' conviction that people can make something of themselves if they seize opportunities. and 36. As the population of the West rapidly increases. The federal government owns and administers vast portions of land in many Western states—86. Trying to support growing populations with limited supplies of water while at the same time preserving the land is. While the South and West have felt alienated. The Northeast. and they feel the West is already experiencing physical limits to growth. self-sufficient. 66. far removed from the east and west coasts. the Midwest. 42. coal. The Midwest is known as a region of small towns and huge tracts of farmland where more than half the nation's wheat and oats are raised. self-sufficient. While generalizations about the West are difficult to make. the nation's second largest city. Westerners feel alienated by government policies which fail to address the vital concerns unique to their region. has long been regarded as typically American. Chicago has long been a connecting point for rail lines and air traffic crossing the continent. The plains states which make up America's "Farmbelt" have traditionally favored a policy of isolationism in world affairs. impossible.46 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP THE MIDWEST AMERICANIZATION in common with Mexican-influenced Arizona and New Mexico. and other mineral deposits. by contrast. unsophisticated.1 percent of Utah. Although water is scarce in the Mountain West. and the Midwest are becoming evermore alike due to the homogenizing influence of mass media and regional convergence towards national sodoeconomic norms. Western states' troubles with water scarcity and government-owned land seem to matter little to the rest of the country. Located on the Great Lakes. Class divisions are felt less strongly here than in other regions.8 percent of Wyoming. the region does share concerns that are distinct from the rest of the country. avoiding matters of wider interest. the West. Western life is dominated by resources." It is often this very government which provides subsidies and price controls that preserve their incomes. crude oil. the region is rich in uranium. has encouraged Midwesterners to direct their concerns to their own domestic affairs. now that American agriculture has become dependent on unstable foreign markets. according to some Westerners. However. debate intensifies over how its resources should be used. and close to the land.6 percent of Nevada. Westerners like to think of themselves as independent.

Television has conveyed mainstream American culture to everyone. Poorer. U. including tax reliefs. population " (defined as the geographical point where the country would balance if it were flat and every American weighed the samel crossed the Mississippi River.1 Total Northeast North Central South West Due largely to interregional migration." The attractions of the Sunbelt are numerous.0 20. This process of Americanization has been accelerated by new migration trends. The new migration has brought economic prosperity to the warm "Sunbelt" while economic stagnation has occurred in the "Frostbelt. high taxes.0 23. and expensive housing. Others have moved to escape problems of urban crime.000 Figures indicate net population gains or losses due to regional migration between 1970 and 1980 Changes in Proportion of National Population Percent increase Percent of total 1970-1980 population 1970 1980 T1.8 30. Many corporations are relocating to the Sunbelt because of the more favorable business conditions. Most people move for better e mployment opportunities. and local governments offer a wide variety of incentives. . less populous areas in the South and West are experiencing tremendous growth as people and businesses move out of the historically dominant Northeast and Midwest in search of new opportunities in wanner climates. Americans have always been on the move in pursuit of opportunity.9 17. Wage scales are lower. unions are weak.4 WOO WOO 0. AMERICANIZATION 47 MOBILITY MIGRATION TO THE SUNBELT ways and communication lines have connected isolated rural areas to urban centers. to attract new industries. Many older couples.368.000 NORTH CENTRAL 2.have moved to the South in order to enjoy retirement in a less harsh environment. continuing the westward drift evident since the first census in 1790.1 21.1 27. Steady movements from farm to city. east to west. During the same period.2 4. Americans' mobility has also played an important part in leveling off regional differences. the proportion of national population in the South and West increased from 48 percent to 52 percent-a majority-in the decade between 1970 and 1980.REGIONALISM VS.0 33. S. overcrowding.828.7 26. and south to north brought about an intermixing of cultures.3 19.9 24. giving Ameri cans a shared national experience and identity. the imaginary "centre of U. fostering a high level of cultural interchange.S. REGIONAL MIGRATION: 1970-1980 NORTHEAST 2.

The increase in numbers moving to the Sunbelt has brought an increase in power. and Pittsburgh —cities that once specialized in heavy industry—have been rebuilt as cultural and convention centers. Some cities in the Frostbelt are registering a resurgence in population growth as people move back to take advantage of new opportunities. A clear rise in per capita income in the South and West is an indication that socioeconomic gaps between regions are narrowing. After both the 1970 and 1980 censuses. regional differences have not altogether disappeared. and the Rocky Mountain states had just over 90 percent. such as Atlanta. The downtown areas of Baltimore. but the core of the South had less than 70 percent. In this process. the South and West gained seats in the House of Representatives at the expense of the North and Midwest. The great universities of the Northeast are rivaled by Stanford in California and the Universities of Texas and North Carolina. but Southerners and Westerners have won the past five presidential elections. The most significant trend is not the decline of the Frostbelt. Adapting to the needs of a post-industrial age. the South had risen to 86 percent. The cultural dominance of the Northeast and Midwest is diminishing as cities in the South and West. and Los Angeles. During the past few decades the populations of the South and West have been growing rapidly while those of the Midwest or Northeast have grown slowly or not at all. Historically. . By 1970 the Northeast had fallen to about 110 percent. The shift in economic strength and status to the Sunbelt does not mean that the Northeast and Midwest are drained of power and promise. but rather a steady converging of the regions' economic status as the formerly lagging Sunbelt states catch up. Further narrowing had occurred by 1980. In 1940 the Northeast claimed more than 120 percent of the national income average. Boston. many communities are redirecting their economies to accommodate new service-related and high-tech industries. the winners of presidential elections have been Easterners or Midwesterners. Parts of the Northeast are recovering from economic decline. but they are significantly less striking today than they were 40 years ago.48 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP REGIONAL CONVERGENCE These recent migration patterns have had a dramatic effect on population growth. are gaining reputat ions as important cultural centers. Santa Fe. The political and social status of the South and West is on the rise. and the Rockies had held steady at 90 percent.

the city fathers sat and talked and drowsed. Air conditioning has helped to change all that. " Family ties and local folklore ruled life in a region that preferred. . . Southerners treasured life on the family homestead or in the small town where. A Southern family circa 1914 T ied to the land. in the words of Faulkner. .49 PART В Texts • THE COOLING OF THE SOUTH by Raymond Arsenault In the following text the historian Raymond Arsenault chooses a very interesting approach for his analysis of the "Americanization of Dixie" when he looks at the air conditioner as one of the important factors involved. "beneath the porticoes of the courthouse and on benches about the green. as John Crowe Ransom said. Long after the Civil War. with few big cities. the inhabitants of the old Confederacy remained culturally distinct. "to look backwards rather than forwards". a people apart from the rest of the Union and its ever-changing ethnic "melting pot".

William: see page 45. the legacy of the old Confederacy has begun to fade. ... to speed the demographic transformation. Others echo the sentiments of one Florida woman who recently told me: "I hate air conditioning.S. town.7 percent to almost 70 percent today. As long as air conditioning. A more noticeable effect of air-conditioned architecture has been its assault on the South's strong "sense of place". never to rise again. General Electric: a large American corporation. Civil War: see page 44. neighborhood. tract houses. factory workers outnumbered farm laborers by a margin of 3 to 1.". The number of Southerners employed in manufacturing exceeded those employed in agriculture for the first time in 1958.50 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1. from 36. they can move on back up north where they belong. The changes wrought in the South by the air conditioner helped. Epitomized by the fictional inhabitants of Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha County.. Although its population still remains the most "rural" in the United States. By 1980. offices. urbanization.S. Southerners have been rooted to local geography — to a county. this sense of local identity is bound to fade. continued Many Southerners who are old enough to remember life before the air conditioner give thanks for the artificial chill that now pervades cars. especially those eleven that formed the Confederacy and seceded from the United States in 1860—61. And with this increasing diversity. Dixie: The southern states of the U. the South's distinctive character will continue to diminish. But this time it won't be easy: General Electric has proved a more devastating invader than General William Tecumseh Sherman. Sherman. or homestead. If they don't like it hot.. the Southerner's special devotion to regional and local traditions will ensure the survival of Southern folk culture. of course. restaurants. William Tecumseh (1820-91): American Union General in the Civil War. Since 1940 the South has also been the most rapidly urbanizing section of the country. glass-sided skyscrapers. state. Yoknapatawpha County: the fictional setting of many of Faulkner's novels and short stories. Faulkner. By making life in the factory more bearable. climate control nurtured the expansion of industry in the New South. Perhaps. abetted by immigration. The proportion of the Southerners living in urban areas has nearly doubled. and family rooms. ending the region's long-standing cultural isolation. and wonder out loud how they ever survived without it. and shopping malls overwhelm the landscape in and around cities and towns.. and broad technological change.. . Yankee: a native or inhabitant of a northern U. The northern migration of the last two decades has infused the South with new ideas and new manners. especially a Union soldier during the Civil War. the South and the rest of the nation are no longer that far apart. As look-alike chain stores. .. continues to make inroads. it's a damnfool invention of the Yankees. as it has done so often in the past.

or does the Southern woman of the 1980s have something in common with her? Answer: Oh yes. but there are still Southern belles. Southern belles Question: When I think of the stereotypical Southern woman. because there are lots of social functions and mother-daughter banquets sponsored by the . in fact. The mothers pass on to their daughters the ideals of being a lady. Question: What characterizes a woman as a "lady" nowadays? Answer: A lady is gracious and charming and above all she's well-bred. A lady is a woman who is well-bred and who feels well-bred and who is proud to come from a good family. What's really important is that these qualities. is a measure of the degree to which she is a lady. They are passed on from mother to daughter in each generation. and Southern girls are still taught to be Southern ladies. what immediately comes to my mind is the image of the genteel Southern belle — the lady of the plantation — portrayed in so many books and films. I think the family background is actually the most important distinguishing feature of a lady. I think there are still Southern belles in the South today. AMERICANIZATION 51 Southern Women-Stiff Ladies? by CORA MCKINNEY The following interview seeks to discover whether the "moonlight-and-magnolia" stereotype of the "Gone-with-the-Wind" Southern lady still holds today. the degree to which a Southern girl approximates her mother.REGIONALISM VS. You can see in the South that Southern girls are willing to identify with their mothers. It hasn't changed so much. are learned. or is like her mother. these ideal qualities of charm and grace. She may not live on a plantation any more. I think you could say that the Southern woman is a breed that hasn't totally died out. Is this Southern lady a bygone figure of the past. That's why the Southern lady today isn't that different from the Southern lady back in the antebellum South. I think that says it all. And.

That's one difference: that the Southern girl cares so much about her appearance she would rather be pretty than comfortable. Sometimes the Southern girl ties her hair back in little colored ribbons. When I think about politics it seems to me that women in the South prefer being involved in things like sororities and partying and having a nice social life to being involved in politics. They are primarily social. You see. and very often the Southern girl just avoids controversy. You have to realize. continued cheerleading club. Women's Liberation: a movement striving for full educational. Well. a Northern girl might wear rugged outdoor sportswear. a Southern girl is rather vain about her appearances. simply by virtue of appearance? Answer: Yes. But I think the Northern girls don't mind getting into controversies as much as the Southern girls do. long knee-socks. I remember reading that you're never supposed to light a candle at the coffee-table when you're serving guests unless it's evening. and the ERA issue — the Equal Rights Amendment issue — was a very strong and controversial topic. there are also other ways to distinguish a Southern girl from a Northern girl besides just her clothing. or at least that's the way I see it. antebellum: before the Civil War. At the final balls. she usually wears nylon stockings and some dainty little pumps. But in the North. . This is a book that probably a lot of mothers give to their little girls when they reach the age of twelve. they are not that popular. how they are to act to be considered a young lady. for example. This is one kind of training for becoming a lady. I think of women on college campuses because I've just been to a university and I can best relate to the women there. I remember reading that when I go to a social function. You see. She prefers to be charming and gracious and never step on anyone's toes. Otherwise it's bad taste. intended to give women the same legal rights as men. But I mean. and when it's right to light a candle. you can participate in these dances. suggested change to American law. When you're fourteen or fifteen and fortunate enough to be invited to join the club. Question: Do you think that a Southern girl is different in other ways as well? What about a political involvement and issues like Women's Liberation? Answer: When you ask me that. I'm supposed to shake the hand of the hostess and say something nice to her and. well. very often. But in the North. They prefer to join social clubs. it tells you all the little niceties concerning how you're supposed to act at a party and when you're supposed to wear white gloves and when not. She just looks more feminine on the whole. Southern girls do well to be like mother. or to young ladies. a Northern girl. also a film classic. What's really popular in the South are sororities. let's say. and there are even look-alike mother-daughter dresses that you can buy in fashion shops. And somehow that doesn't mix so well with politics. Gone with the Wind: a novel by Margaret Mitchell (1900-49) featuring the American South before and during the Civil War. ERA: Equal Rights Amendment. Party Manners and White Kid Gloves explains to little girls. There are many semi-elite dancing societies which are especially popular in the South.52 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. and sometimes do things for charity. a skirt. For example. There's really a big difference in the women on Southern college campuses compared with the college women in the North. Question: Is it possible to distinguish a Southern girl from. and the women meet together and arrange social activities. for the Southern girl the highest virtue is to be gracious and warm and friendly and hospitable and always proud. my sister and I took dancing lessons. They arrange parties and dances. What comes to my mind is that in the South the women aren't particularly interested in politics. Politics is something controversial. But when a Southern girl wears a skirt. And in my family. So. okay. They are sort of semielite societies. politics are important. and comfortable shoes. social and economic opportunities for women. that's one example: we learn how to be ladies by reading books like that. my mother gave me a book called Party Manners and White Kid Gloves. the final big function — (and we really do wear white kid gloves) — we really get to test our manners. Question: What about you? In what ways were you brought up to be a "lady"? Answer: For my twelfth birthday. These sororities are really popular in the South.

hard-working. were the first to articulate what was to become Protestant America's characteristic image of its place in the world. people whom all Americans think of — however accurately or inaccurately — as conscientious. While people may argue about what the Mid-west or even the South includes today. which most New Englanders recognize as their regional capital." and when they bowl they use candlepins rather than tenpins. terse. New England consists of Connecticut. beans and black bread on Saturday evening. Massachusetts. practices and beliefs onto the nation as a whole. has a precisely defined identity. frugal. one of the Bay Colony's first and most influential leaders. eat hot dogs. AMERICANIZATION 53 The Nation's Most Strongly Defined Region N ew England. who came to New England in 1620." They pronounce Bingo "BeanO. reflecting New England's tendency to project its own traditions. candlepin: a slender bowling pin used in a variation of the game of tenpins. alone among the nation's regions. The Puritans. New CANADA Hampshire. Maine. Rhode Island U'SA and Vermont — nothing more and nothing less. and on Halloween they drink apple cider. Above all else New Englanders arc Yankees. and (like the climate) cold and inhospitable to outsiders. "For wee must consider that wee shall be as a Citty uppon a Hill.REGIONALISM VS. the ties of all people are uppon us. The inhabitants of this region call coffee with cream "regular" and carbonated beverages "tonic. Those who live in Boston." said John Winthrop. . Outside the United States people think of all Americans as Yankees.

and a profound respect for hard work. as I perceive them: Pecuniaristic: . been afflicted with self-doubts of their own righteousness. although no single trait is unique.54 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP What is a Middle Westerner? A congeries of traits seems to be more or less characteristic of the breed. black. which is not especially surprising. ." Critical re-evaluation of the value system has never really been necessary. or bearded. in a deep distrust of all governmental activity on the domestic scene. "somebody must be doing something right. Selfassured: — A value system based on money is unlikely to be questioned by a prosperous Farming in the Midwest people. status-oriented travel to places others cannot afford to visit. New and better machines always have been invented in the past: why should the future be different? Competent: — An almost childlike faith in perpetual progress through technology is coupled with enormous technological sophistication and competence." Materialistic: — Blatant worship of the almighty dollar."If I ask a guy why he does something. I don't see any need to probe any deeper. and if he gives me an answer that makes sense. at least. Functionalist: . if ever. if it doesn't work." Technologic: — Almost unbroken prosperity (especially in comparison with other parts of the nation) can easily be attributed to a predilection for the latest and most modern machines and techniques. long-haired. the most powerful and expensive speedboat or snowmobile. but conspicuous consumption can serve the same purpose: an expensive house in the "right" neighborhood. These caveats and provisos notwithstanding. and by strong social pressures on all nonconformists. and none is distinctive. and the Middle West has been enormously successful in terms of its own system of values. Most of the following adjectives are applicable in varying degree to most genuine Middle Westerners."If it works. Some. Simplistic: . is generally considered bad taste. after all. or even ostentation of income. Slav. wearing the latest fashions." Xenophobic: — A suspicion of anyone different is reflected in an isolationist stance in international affairs. and one need not be a native to hold any or all of them. the identification of this congeries of traits helps one to understand the people of the region and why they do the things they do. and many Middle Westerners have seldom. whether Catholic.A deep faith that all values can eventually be measured in terms of money: "the worth of a man is indicated by his income. None of them is mandatory for residence in the area. is the American heartland. might be considered standard American traits. I'll buy it. let's get rid of it and get something that does work. because the Middle West. and not ask any questions.

they are the most optimistic. they are more suburbanized. It pervades the political atmosphere as well. only more so" For more than a century. a "new" New World at the end of the continent. Nevertheless.. it is often said that California is not just a state but a state of mind. to live by one's own rules. the saying goes. . manifest destiny: the nineteenth-century belief that the U. only more so. . . and in a time of doubt and uncertainty. California stands for "absolute freedom. they have consistently been in the forefront of political trend-setting." This sense of freedom extends beyond what has come to be known as lifestyle. Americans have looked at California as something different. all have been nurtured by California's tolerant social climate. had the right and duty to expand across the North American continent. the desire . in a culture devoted to immediate satisfaction.REGIONALISM VS. It may well be true that Californians are quintessential Americans. In a wealthy nation. mobility and privacy.. . . It is difficult to characterize in a phrase a state that takes in over a thousand miles of coastline. in a suburban society. the ultimate expression of manifest destiny. new forms of entertainment from Disneyland to sexclubs. a place to find fortunes or spend fortunes made elsewhere. fashion and self-indulgence. California is the nation's leader in fads. new attitudes towards work. family and education.. for others. a native of the state. It represents "the instinct which drove America to the Pacific . frontier: see page 26. AMERICANIZATION 55 °'Just like the rest of us. are just like the rest of us. it represents the final embodiment of America's frontier spirit. For some. they have the most to be uncertain about. . in a country where optimism reigns supreme. they are satisfied faster. It is a place as distinct from the rest of the country as America was from the Old World it rejected some 200 years ago. While California voters do not easily fit into hard and fast ideological categories. they are wealthier than most. . new living arrangements. The wealthy lifestyle of California Californians. ." wrote author Joan Didion. New religions. it is a version of El Dorado. a variety of landscapes and more than 22 million people.S.

Text Analysis Exercises 3. When asked which region of the United States you would prefer to go to. Read the interview again and answer the following questions: a) What does Cora McKinney mean when she says "the Southern woman is a kind of breed that hasn't died out"? b) Name important preconditions for becoming a lady.56 PART C 1. Discussion "Americanization" In what areas do you find strong American influences in your country? How do you feel about these influences? 4. Comprehension Southern Women —Still Ladies? 1. c) How is a girl taught to be a lady? d) What visible differences are there between a Southern girl and a Northern girl? e) What is said about the political attitude of Southern girls? 2. c) Why is it that a Southern lady today is not that different from a lady in the antebellum South? d) Why is the book Party Manners and White Kid Gloves still popular in the South? e) What is the significance of the balls at the end of the dancing lessons? f) What does a Southern girl do to make herself look more feminine? g) How do Northern girls differ from Southern girls in their attitudes towards controversies? h) Why is it important for a Southern lady to join a sorority? The Cooling of the South Refer to the chart below and explain how air conditioning has affected the process of Americanization in the South. ECONOMY A" SENSE OF PLACE I AIR CONDITIONING RURAL & URBAN POPULATION ARCHITECTURE SOUTHERN WAY OF LIFE V- 2. After reading the interview for the first time. Discussion Imagine you have applied for a student's exchange with one of the exchange organizations like American Field Service or Youth for Understanding. answer the following questions: a) Is the Southern lady a bygone figure of the past? b) Describe the mother-daughter relationship. how would you decide on the basis of the information about the different regions given in this unit? .

e. simplistic 6.REGIONALISM VS. i. Boston is the official capital of New England. The immigrants who arrived in 1620 were known as Yankees. 4. The people who live in New England use some special words which are not used in the rest of the country. 2. Comprehension The Nation's Most Strongly Defined Region Decide whether the following statements are true or false and correct the false statements: 1. 3. New England is known for its good weather. John Winthrop was anxious that the New England settlers should set an example to the world. Characteristics Traits 1. competent 2. Opinions differ as to the number of states that make up New England. AMERICANIZATION 57 5. 5. 9. 10. materialistic 4. technologic 5. "regular" means coffee. 6. Comprehension What Is a Middle Westerner? Do you remember the traits of a Middle Westerner? Match numbers and letters. 8. New Englanders have a reputation for being warm and friendly to visitors. the Midwest and the South are all clearly defined regions of the United States. self-assured 3. pecuniaristic 8. with cream. To a New Englander. xenophobic a) hardly ever doubting the Tightnes s of his/her actions or words b) having the skill to do what is necessary and working hard to achieve it c) valuing everything in terms of money d) distrusting foreigners and outsiders e) believing strongly in modern machines and techniques f) valuing money and possessions highly and spending money in order to attract attention and prove one's high social position g) concerned with practical use. 7. Foreigners often expect all Americans to be like New Englanders because of the high profile of New England throughout the ages. 6. functionalist 7. "Does it work?" h) easily satisfied by answers that make sense . New England.

ask Americans you know to comment on the authors' descriptions.58 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 7. Discussion 1. Can you trace any definable traits in the regions of your own country? . Only More So" After reading the text. California is the ultimate expression of l^T It is not just a state but a "& and embodies America's "& For some people it is the place to find or spend "Й" New religions. because they do not fit into hard and fast ideological categories. sense of freedom quintessential fortunes manifest destiny state of mind tolerant social climate frontier spirit trend-setting 8. Then complete the task by choosing the right phrase from the list. Comprehension "Just Like the Rest of Us. Californians arc ■& Americans. Compare the characterizations of Middle Westerners. Being more self-indulgent. try to find the missing words first without looking at the list below. enjoying more privacy and being more mobile. living arrangements and forms of entertainment can be attributed to California's ■$" Being wealthier. Show how each of the authors relates regional traits to national characteristics. Californians have developed a greater -fr Californians have always been in the forefront of political "& . more easily satisfied and more optimistic than the ordinary American. In order to find out for yourself whether they are merely stereotypes or if there is some truth in them. New Englanders and Californians. For many Americans. 3. 2.

31. The country's reliance on private initiative and enterprise has produced impressive growth. are allowed to pursue profit freely. Although the generalization can be made that America is an affluent society. Smith argued that when indi viduals. Freedom from economic control seemed an extension of freedom from control of religion. The United States today is a leading economic power. Thus. ECONOMIC PROFILE HIGH LIVING STANDARD . The United States is one of the most affluent nations in the world. Competition benefits society by allowing the con sumer to seek the best product at the lowest price. Smith. speech. with a high standard of living and enormous productivity in industry and agriculture.700. The average annual income for American families in 1985 was $27. Since the 1930s. the result is good for all of society. American capitalism has undergone substantial change. market forces. Political conservatives frequently complain of too much government regulation. and the press. government regulation now exists in many areas of business ranging from product safety to labor conditions. in 1985 about 14 percent of the population (11.3 percent Black.4 percent White. which Smith termed "the invisible hand.4 The U.S. are generally more willing to accept government's role in business and the economy. and there is no serious political debate focusing on alternate economic systems. The theoretical foundation of the American economic system was provided by Adam Smith. and 60 percent of all families and individuals are in the middle -income or highincome ranks. which was then $10. Although private enterprise still flourishes. market forces in America operated with a minimum of government intervention. motivated by self-interest." control the efficient allocation of goods while each participant in the market is seeking his or her own self-interest. Adam (1723-90): author of The Wealth of Nations ROLE OF GOVERNMENT U.989 for a family of four. Throughout the nineteenth century. Liberals. which allows private business the freedom to operate for profit with minimum government interference and regulation.S. the eighteenth-century Scottish philosopher whose economic ideas of "laissez faire" (leave it alone) had a strong influence on the development of capitalism. and 29 percent Hispanic) lived below the official poverty level. The more people manufacture and trade. Americans on both sides of the political spectrum generally support "free" private enterprise. the greater the competition. on the other hand. Есотюту PART A FREE ENTERPRISE: THEORETICAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Background Information The American economy is described as a free enterprise system. These ideas were compatible with the high value America's Founding Fathers placed on individual liberty.

the U. aluminum.S. machinery. and paper. The United States is the world's leading producer of electrical energy. and chemicals. . remains the world's leading producer of goods and services. REP. aircraft. the achievements of this sector of the economy are extraordinary. and iron and steel products. although its margin of superiority is diminishing as other countries become more competitive in the world market. economy in the last 15 to 20 years has waned. Technological advancement has accelerated changes in American agriculture. has slipped from a better than 3 percent per year increase in productivity to an annual increase of below 1 percent. Agricultural Production as a Proportion of World Production in 1982/83 (in %) О" Э" 3" (5 О" Э" Wheat Corn Soy Beans Cotton Tobacco Vegetable Fats Production 64 Wheat Corn Soy Beans Cotton Tobacco Vegetable Fats Э Exports FOREIGN TRADE DECLINING GROWTH RATES Besides agricultural products. to be a formidable economic power. GERMANY 8 JAPAN 3 1960 1982 Industrial and technological production is high. importing more goods than it exports. sulphur. since 1971. U.S. economy depends heavily on foreign imports.S. Declining growth rates are a major concern.A. and one of the top producers of natural gas and automobiles. The leading U.S. foods and beverages. No other nation exports as much high technology as the United States. principal goods in America's export trade are machinery. copper. the U.S.S.S. has been operating under a trade imbalance. . While the profile of the modern U.S.The World's Leading Economic Power Share (%) of World Gross National Product (GNP) FED. U. Despite its huge domestic production. The U.S. economy shows the U. Farming is highly mechanized and commercialized. Within the past two decades. Until recently. In productive terms. the strength of the U.S.60 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP WORLD'S LEADING PRODUCER The U. imports are petroleum products. the U. automotive products. However. farmers produce enough food for domestic consumption and still supply 15 percent of the world's food needs. the United States consistently exported more goods than it imported.S. The United States is the world's largest importer and exporter.

Foreign manufacturers are now selling roughly 50 percent more in this country than Americans are exporting abroad. Steel production in Japan is now higher as well. manufacturers to step-up productivity levels. sir. it's made right here in this country with Jafanese know -how. the Japanese manufactured more automobiles than the United States. High productivity of Japanese industries has increased the appeal of lowerpriced Japanese goods.S. and currency exchange rates have posed . In 1980. for the first year ever. Most of America's television sets." Despite high productivity in farming. American farmers had difficulty exporting their goods because of import restrictions imposed by foreign countries and because of the high value of the American dollar in the early 1980s. Stiff foreign competition challenges U. indicated by the increasing trade deficit.S. modernize their factories. import/export policies.S. Productivity: The Lead Diminishes Comparison of some branches of industry with Japan AUTOMOBILES ELECTRIC APPLIANCES MACHINE BUILDING CHEMICAL PRODUCTS/ PETROCHEMICALS 20 0 STEEL/IRON Japan in each case = 100 1967 FOREIGN MARKETS 1973 1982 Confidence has also been shaken by the declining competitiveness of U. agricultural exports began to decline in the early 1980s. ECONOMY 61 U. Current international trade developments in areas such as foreign competitiveness. goods abroad.THE U. and provide better worker training.S. cameras and typewriters are made by foreign companies. "Yes.

Service Industries — the Decisive Sector of the U. Whether the deficit will be reduced depends on the ability of the president and Congress to agree on areas for spending cuts and/or tax increases. They believe the government should play a more active role in developing a long-term industrial policy that directs capital investment and training in the new service and high-tech industries. aerospace.S. as well as many other areas. and communications. Many economists feel that the U. products was these deficits. Leaders of labor and industry. agriculture forestry Primary Sector fishing mining energy industry Secondary Sector construction Tertiary Sector transportation service industries BUDGET DEFICIT Businesses that manufacture high-technology computer.A. however. which caused a drop in markets all over the world. One of the reasons for the high value of the American dollar abroad which hurt the sale of U.S. has the potential to increase its overall economic productivity by making heavier investment in the new service and high-tech industries instead of subsidizing competitive manufacturing industries.S.S." One of the most significant structural changes has been a shift in production of goods to the delivery of services as the dominant feature of the American economy.S. resist these proposals. hotels and restaurants. stock market has intensified Americans' fears of an . still organized for basic production. This sector of the economy now contributes the greatest share of the nation's gross national product.S. high interest rates. Deficit spending in the Reagan administration exceeded $200 billion a year—nearly three times greater than that of any previous administration.S. adopted in December 1985. Almost every year since 1930.S. business and industry. and unemployment. One important measure to control the budget deficit was the GrammRudman deficit reduction plan. is unprepared for the future. U. the rapid maturity of the United States' capitalist economy has prompted some economists to contend that the country's industrial policy is not prepared for the future in what is being termed the "post-industrial age.62 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP CHANGES OF A MATURE ECONOMY tough problems for the United States' economy.S. Economy Percentage of Gross National Product FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY U. Many experts blame the budget deficit for the sudden stock market crash in October. and biochemical products and services are also on the rise. Economic developments on the domestic front such as the shift in production from manufacturing to service industries and the federal budget deficit also create challenges for U. economy. the government has been spending more money than it has taken in. Service industries include banking. These observers believe that the U. This act calls for yearly spending cuts of $36 billion until a balanced budget is reached in 1991.R. The dramatic downturn of the U. Pressures to decrease the budget are strong. Such huge deficits can cripple the economy because they lead to inflation. In recent decades. 1987. One serious problem that hampers economic growth domestically and affects the United States' ability to sell products overseas is the enormous federal budget deficit. Most Americans are doubtful these targets will be met.

agricultural land has been concentrated into fewer and fewer hands as large-scale specialized farms replace small family farms. highly mechanized industry requiring huge investments. Increased mechanization of American farming is threatening the existence of the small farmer.... and high interest rates make it difficult for many farmers to keep up payments on loans and mortgages. Farmers have had to increase their debts to afford expensive farm equipment.. economy and create economic distress all over the world. economy facing tough challenges. American agriculture is a highly productive sector of the U.THE U. Farming nowadays has become an extremely efficient.....fewer workers bushels 30RESULT: . processing and distribution of farm products.fewer farms bushels 100 - . In the past thirty years. With as many as 200 farmers having to declare bankruptcy every day.more 1950 60 70 1981/82 1950 60 70 1981/82 1950 60 70 1981/82 . often do not bring farmers enough income to live on. Revolution in Agriculture US$ per farm 3000 - 1950 60 70 1981/82 . A falling market can contribute to a decline in spending which could severely weaken the U.S. .S.. Low crop prices. many farmers insist on emergency aid from the government. Small farmers are unable to compete with large agribusiness firms that usually have the capital needed to sustain themselves through periods marked by low crop prices and high interest rates. ECONOMY 63 AGRICULTURE imminent recession.increased mechanization kg by hectare 150 100 1950 60 70 50 1981/82 . one third of the crop land in the United States is planted in crops destined for export.. Farmers depend heavily on exports. including the production.increased agricultural acreage per farm 50 - 1950 60 70 1981/82 fertilizers .. Farming has become too productive to be profitable to many American farmers.S.higher performance Example: coin bushel per labor hour 1 bushel = 35.. But the market for these export crops is shrinking as the markets of the European community expand.3 litres 1950 60 70 1982/82 . Another difficulty the American farmer faces is the decline of agricultural exports..and higher yields Example: corn bushel per hectare CRISIS OF THE SMALL FARM The high efficiency and productivity of American agriculture has its negative side.. which have resulted from overproduction. A variety of agribusiness: farming engaged in as big business.

In 1984. 1 : . The problems of the American farm economy are not unique. that company. Giant corporations dominate. are often run by nearly anonymous career executives who rarely own more than a fraction of one percent of the corporation's stock.64 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP CORPORATIONS governmental and private programs. The trend in modern agriculture towards large-scale enterprise conforms to the overall pattern in American business. loan guarantees. .6 рЯ E ___ 1 4 ENTREPRENEURS SUCCESS YUPPIES Large corporations JAPAN | J30 were once run by individuals with high public profiles. One example from the 1970s is that of two young men who worked together to design a new and better computer.S. Modern corporations. Farmers in the European Economic Community are facing many of the same problems. which specializes in mustard.000 small businesses were started in the United States. Americans do believe in the potential for individual success that exists within their free enterprise system. and in 1977 Apple Computer Corporation was started. Americans are known for being highly success-oriented and dedicated to hard work. NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES USA. By the end of 1984. This success story is similar to others in American history. Today's baby boom generation has acquired a reputation for its baby boom generation: people born in the 1950s and 1960s when birthrates were extremely high. including crop insurance. The Dominance of the Large Corporations Percentage o' corporations with more than 250 employees around 1980 NUMBER OF CORPORATIONS JAPAN Ц0. 700. Henry INDUSTRY U.A. and ketchup. on the other hand. in the 1890s. The Coca-Cola company began when an American pharmacist mixed together the first CocaCola drink and began selling it in Atlanta. and price supports. | |56 . began when a teenager started to sell various food items on the street. The famous Heinz food company. They gathered money needed to pay for large-scale production. Georgia. started by two business-minded entrepreneurs. : ■ 164 Ford of the automobile RETURNS JAPAN | industry and Andrew Carnegie of the steel industry are well-known magnates of the early part of this century. Since the 1970s such businesses started by entrepreneurs have provided more new employment than larger corporations. pickles. : . Small corporations are being consumed by larger ones and large corporations become even larger through mergers. entrepreneurs also have a significant impact on the American economy. While most people who start businesses do not become millionaires. was one of the largest computer makers in the United States. The high-tech era has produced a new generation of entrepreneurs. While giant corporations determine much of the nation's economic behavior. have been set up to assist farmers.

In 1950. The AFL-CIO has also been troubled by a sharp decline in membership. In America. which employ fewer blue-collar workers. and employer subsidized health insurance plans. few employees can aspire to the job security won by unions in continental Europe. labor unions in America do not have the power or political direction of their counterparts in Europe. The AFL -CIO is active in the world labor movement. American labor unions today are losing members and influence.S. has contributed to the decline of America's labor unions. lay-offs of blue-collar workers in industries such as automobiles. Automation and other technological inno vations in industrial production have displaced many blue-collar workers. according to the stereotype. Furthermore. The decline in labor membership is related to the changing trends in the economy as a whole. Another explanation for the unions' loss of member ship is the movement of many industries to the South. Between 1975 and 1985. and the rise in service and high -tech industries.S. Laws require companies to make costly redundancy payment to workers who are dismissed. Although a legal framework for worker representation and collective bargaining was established by legislat ion in the 1930s. The lack of class consciousness and the belief that one can rise to a higher station in life through individual effort help explain why socialism has not gained mass appeal as a unifying ideology among American wo rkers. The transition to a post-industrial economy presents challenges not only to labor unions. where right -to-work laws hinder union organizers. Now that percentage has dropped to 18 percent and shows signs of shrinking further. ECONOMY 65 LABOR UNIONS AFL-CIO DECLINING MEMBERSHIP relentless drive for material success.THE U.S. but to all sectors of the U. the lack of rigid class distinctions has given many workers the feeling that they are not permanen tly destined to a working-class existence. Some significant gains American labor unions have won for their members include benefits such as increases in overtime pay. what is curiously absent is focused ideological support for America's labor unions. The decline in manufacturing industries. the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations. once a stronghold of unionism. Today the largest American labor union is the joint AFL -CIO. . industries and left many workers unemployed. as many as 1 in 3 wage earners were union members. The term "yuppie. economy. Foreign competition has depressed many U. In Europe. It is an affiliate of the International confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) which has members in 95 countries and territories. paid vacations. Whereas the drive for success is firmly entrenched in American ideology. devote themselves to careers and status. corporations are deterred from laying off workers. Although Amer ican workers are now beginning to focus their demands more on job security than benefits. membership dropped from 14 million to 11 million workers. premium pay for night work. has been coined to describe those people be tween the ages of 25 and 45 who. One explanation for this difference between labor unions in Europe and America is that American workers have traditionally valued self -reliance and individualism. and shipbuilding are routine. aerospace. such as worker participation in corporate strategy in West Germany and nationalization of industries in Great Britain seem radical compared with the achievements of American workers." meaning young upwardly-mobile professional. Achievements of European labor.

But if you run one of the world's great banks. Companies pay a price for size. A good many. We have on our hands an entrepreneurial boom the like of which we have not seen in a century. The fastest growing and most profitable new business I know is a chain of barbershops founded by two young men. They did nothing more than apply elementary management. © 1984 US News Sc World Report. They talk profit. The most important economic event of the last few years. too. In this interview with the editors «/U. they are not very agile. ♦ . and neither can huge organizations with all their layers of management. March 26. And you see it in business. they know a lot about what we call upper management and organization. don't go near glamour. and they don't know how to make a cash-flow forecast. in fact. they realize their next promotion is a ways off. where the spot light is shifting toward the smaller unit. By that time. Aren't these small businesses vulnerable to competition from giant companies? There is no longer a premium on big size in many industries. and after nine months I was in a cash bind and had to give away 40 percent of the business to the next batch of investors. One of them told me: "I started another business once. established companies have lost several million jobs. either. They knew how to build their team and how to train their people. D. Few of them have any illusion that they're going to build thousand million-dollar companies. With these barbershops. So they get an idea and start off on their own. The new entrepreneurs. You see it in hospitals. Too many hightech people can't build teams or train people. population trends and things of that sort.C. We are deinstitutionalizing. Drucker. once their businesses get to 10 or 15 million dollars in sales. discusses America's new wave of entrepreneurs. Most of these 20 million additional jobs are in small. is the emergence of this entrepreneurial trend. the United States has created 20 million new jobs—the largest number ever created anywhere in such a short period. Is it still possible to start new companies today and succeed? It's more than just possible. These barbershop fellows understand cash flow. neither of whom had ever had a pair of scissors in his hand. 1984.S. and in a new business it's not profit that matters but cash flow. they are too visible in a world in which business is damned if it does and damned if it doesn't. How do they get started? Most come out of big companies or institutions. In the past decade. where clinics now perform outpatient surgery.S. "What are the key factors?" The answers are location. either.S. // not in high technology. including most recently The Changing World of the Executive. I make sure of the money six months before I need it. At the same time. Would you characterize these as high-tech businesses? No. set out to start something new again. You see it in education. new enterprises." That's the whole secret of financial management: know when you'll need money and make sure of it before you need it. Government has not grown. corporations and management. then. The high-tech people are traditional entrepreneurs. For 30 years the trend was toward the large unit because it was the one we knew how to manage—or thought we did. Beginning in 1939 with The End of Economic Man. where the huge consolidated secondary school is being judged a failure. Are you implying that the day of the big company is over? I'm not saying we won't have large companies but that we no longer need them in many instances. That is over. News & World Report. N EWS & W ORLD R EPORT Peter Drucker is probably the most widely respected corporate management expert in the United States. and they absorbed the millions of women who entered the job market. theirs are earning 30 to 40 percent returns on investment. and they don't bet on new technology but on something far more predictable: demographics. News if World Report.66 PART в Texts The New Entrepreneurs Peter Drucker on Entrepreneur From U. don't expect to have it. large. after eight or 10 years of being trainees and young managers. Elephants can't turn on a dime. and the casualty rate of their businesses is quite low. published at Washington. where are these millions of jobs being created? I'll give you an example. he has written more than 20 books on economics. Reprinted from U. They absorbed all the postWorld War II babies. Typically. The smart business executive knows the advantages of anonymity. Rather than eke out an existence like most barbershops. traffic and the number of people you can cut in a day without anyone's having to wait. which means nine of every 10 of them will lose their business within two years. Their enterprises tend to resemble entrepreneurships of years ago—a game in which all the cards are marked and you don't know what anyone has up his sleeve. These are a stable group of people who look systematically for opportunities. They asked. Inc. Politically. a professor of social science at Claremont Graduate School in California.

. established the model of an alliance between creative genius and big business. He is the author of several books including Mood Control and Life in Darwin's Universe. a division of American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T).THE U.S. Similarly. Gene Bylinsky is on the board of editors of Fortune magazine. Research laboratories within large companies have been one of the great incubators of scientific discovery in the United States. when a federal judge ruled that AT&T must be split up because its control of U. ECONOMY 67 By Gene Bylinsky Scientific advances at America's top research laboratory run the gamut from building an efficient phone system to discovering evidence of the Big Bang. whose 30years of research at General Electric helped usher in the age of electricity at the beginning of this century. Charles Steinmetz. Bell Labs has survived the breakup and its research remains as innovative as ever. where he has been a science writer since 1966. however. America's largest and most famous research facility is Bell Laboratories.S. Scientists at Bell Labs have won more Nobel Prizes than any other industrial institution in the world. the American scientific community has been concerned about the scaled-down company's support for its distinguished research arm. As the author of this article reports. telephone service violated antitrust law. researchers at Du Pont have used chemical compounds discovered in their labs to develop plastics and other materials put to everyday use. Yet since 1984. in 1987 two of their colleagues were awarded a Nobel Prize for their pioneering work on superconductors. In more recent times IBM scientists have designed fundamental computer languages and software.

to building ceramic superconductors and creating so-called neural networks in silicon chips that mimic rudimentary animal brain pathways. developed at Bell Labs. The physics-research division alone employs 250. made his mark soon after he arrived at the labs in 1961. Bell Labs' method has always been to assemble a huge mass of diverse specialists who interact closely. It has 40 percent more capacity than any other commercial system. which can speed 24. computer science. which emit characteristic frequencies from fixed positions in the sky—would serve equally well at no cost whatever. Penzias and his colleague Robert Wilson built measuring devices for Bell Labs' radiotelescope as part of their effort to track down the source of static that often interfered with their studies of radio waves from the Milky Way. electronics and sundry other fields. the science of radio astronomy and crucial evidence for the theory that a Big Bang created the universe. for their discovery. "To an outside observer it may seem that we've gone product oriented. Recently AT&T began to install the world's most advanced fiber-optic transmission system. What happens at Bell Labs is of vital interest to American industry because of the labs' high quality of research and because it has been strong where the United States now finds itself weak: in the transfer of research results into products. but the intellectual content of the work is the same. vice-president in charge of research at Bell Labs. it's larger and more diverse than most university physics departments. But basic research at the Labs has always been a huge attentiongetter because of its unmatched results and epochal discoveries. It houses more than 3000 researchers. each twice the thickness of a human hair.s — more than the total research staff of the closest rival corporate lab. laboratory ever singled out for it. who have worked on applications. The staff includes 3430 Ph. The scientists at Bell are spread among physics. White. but Bell Labs is also branching into new commercial areas — in part by launching new R&D companies —and looking into licensing of companies as far afield from telecommunications as airlines and shipping firms. as well as sound motion pictures. He was asked to join a committee of older scientists who were trying to devise the best way to calculate the precise positions of communications satellites. Historically.68 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2.S. expensive radio masts when Penzias piped up with the suggestion that nature's own radio masts — radio stars. an ebullient astrophysicist. The scope of research at Bell remains wider than at most other industrial labs and even some universities. product developers and support staff along lengthy corridors lined with hundreds of small labs crammed with the latest instruments. the two men shared a Nobel Prize in 1978. the solar cell and the first communications satellite. Not only has basic research come through the court-ordered break-up of AT&T largely unscathed. but that shift in emphasis involved only about 40 of the 200 or so scientists who pursue the purest kind of pure research. Penzias's idea was accepted and the committee disbanded on the spot. the premier corporate research facility in the United States for most of its 62-year history. The 1947 invention of the transistor set off the world microelectronics and computer revolution. including such current topics in theoretical physics as instabilities and chaos.000 telephone calls simultaneously through a pair of fibers.D. chemistry. The economics and psychology departments have been cut drastically while robotics and computer science have grown. Bell Labs might wither into just another run-of-the-mill industrial research and development (R&D) operation. The sprawling headquarters building is an immense beehive. the laser. Seven Bell Lab scientists have won Nobel Prizes." says Arno A Penzias. at IBM. though that's not immediately apparent from the activities of some of the basic . mathematics. and that proportion remains unchanged. Bell Labs does that very well indeed. has produced the transistor. Today the vital signs are still strong at the Bell Lab headquarters in northern New Jersey. continued B ell Laboratories. not basic research. In 1985 President Reagan awarded Bell Labs the National Medal of Technology — the only U. Most of the employees are engineers. The most basic work at Bell Labs has a way of merging into development. the parent operating company. Says Robert M. Later. president of the National Academy of Engineering: "America's problem is not lack of basic research but inadequate conversion of scientific discovery to commercialization." Bell Labs is striving to help AT&T's businesses by tailoring basic research more closely to the needs of the parent company without sacrificing the scope and sweep of investigations. basic research absorbed only about 10 percent of manpower and spending at Bell Labs. The scientists were talking about setting up tall. Electronics and optics are two other large areas of emphasis. The noise they studied turned out to be the residual radiation from the Big Bang. Penzias. Investigations range from basic studies of the nature of matter. putting to rest fears that without the vast revenue base provided by ЛТ&Т.

One recently reported on the activities of ants in the jungles of Brazil. It worked well. Gradel's interest in the Amazonian ants is highly practical: he is a corrosion chemist. In the past." Among other things. Bell Labs is getting ready to apply it to airline and shipping businesses. Bell Labs pays competitive or somewhat higher salaries than other major corporate labs. such as those at IBM and Du Pont. Where programmers and mathematicians once took days to solve a problem with thousands of variables. technology drove Bell Labs' development. Bell Labs is also helping install a system that will connect McDonald's 7500 hamburger outlets and the company's administrative offices. and part of his job is to find out why telephone equipment can fail in various environments. And although Penzias says that some scientists earn more at Bell Labs. Nowadays Bell Labs would let the market determine whether it would develop a Picturephone. now the customer does. Bell Labs is now far along in harnessing the electron's ephemeral cousin." IBM: international Business Machines: large American corporation. which requires devising the shortest possible route connecting a given number of destinations. but it also has potential uses as the eyes of robots and in the precision manufacture of semiconductors. He is trying to improve another Bell Lab invention." as Penzias says. would work 1000 times faster than today's electronic variety—an almost unimaginable boon to everyone from theoretical physicists to weather forecasters. for the task of information movement and management.000 telephone calls an hour. a pungent. Competing against the rest of the world is teaching Bell Labs' product developers to couple R&D even more closely to both manufacturing and market needs. AT&T is already using the algorithm to design a vast and complex phone network among the 20 nations of the Pacific Rim. As Arno Penzias puts it. A classic example of a technology-driven product: the Picturephone of the mid-1950s. The stargazer. Harvesting the fruits of research happens faster than it did in the good old days. It has revolutionized astronomy because it collects light up to 1000 times more efficiently than film. Thomas Gradel. astrophysicist J. ECONOMY 69 scientists. Bell Labs traditionally has been a place that "made its own future happen. The freedom. In Bell Labs' bag of surprises there even could be an optical computer superior to its electronic counterpart. However. Just as it opened the new world of microelectronics by inventing the transistor. The optical computer.D. that they have always competed against the world at large. The algorithm is useful in other fields as well. In all these activities Bell Labs' people think they have a competitive advantage because research has been integrated into the work of the parent company better than at any other industrial lab. . the photon. reports that a major cause of acid rain in the Amazon is formic acid. Bell Labs' basic scientists insist that competition is nothing new for them. but market studies of the potential demand for it failed to make clearjust who could afford to use it. using laser beams instead of electrical connections. the charge coupled device — in effect a silicon chip that can see. Indianborn mathematician Narendra Karmarkar described this new insight in 1984.THE U. Progress in that field in recent months has been exceptionally rapid. Anthony Tyson. colorless substance released by the decomposing bodies of anls.S. The student of ants. which can cost several million dollars and handles up to 300. such connections help attract young scientists. Tyson is one of a handful of Bell's basic scientists who "couple us to the universe of science. another observes faint galaxies at the edge of the universe from observatories in Chile and Hawaii. the facilities and first-class colleagues come before that. Ross is a subdued Britishborn Ph. Into the competitive world today Bell Labs' developers are bringing such impressive products as a gigantic computerized electronic switching system. in electrical engineering with several advances in semiconductors to his credit. "It's a small but vital part of our business strategy to have a few scientists do work that gives Bell Labs a connection to the universities and the rest of the scientific community that it couldn't get otherwise. Bell Lab President Ian M. He cites the emergence and the rapid adoption of a remarkable mathematical shortcut to the celebrated traveling-salesman problem. has his feet on the ground as well. money is not the main draw for most of them. the Karmarkar algorithm allows them to do so in minutes.

McDonald's Has a Slicer. To keep them that way. The potatoes have been transplanted from their American homeland to a field in far-off Holland. Alas. inside his "war room. Once again. Thwarted but not defeated. I hope they didn't die. ILL." Chairman Fred Turner ponders a weighty business issue: the fate of five Idaho potatoes. eight months in Dutch quarantine followed before the potatoes could be planted. nearly 20% of annual revenue. McDonald's Corp. 2/8/82 D eep within the high-rise confines of McDonald's Corp. And why not? French fries currently pour more than $1 billion a year into McDonald's cash registers." Mr. To frustrate imitators. 10-year struggle to take its favorite source of French-fried potatoes to Europe has been thwarted. They are the most profitable food served under the Golden Arches. This company didn't get to be king of fast food by taking French fries lightly. Seven of every 10 customers arriving after the breakfast hour order fries. estranged from their native land. . have fallen victim to a virulent foreign potato virus. "God. Drier—and Ruler BY MEG COX OAK BROOK. The restaurants even use a special blend of frying oil. The five potatoes. headquarters. it has a patent on the precise combination of steps in making its fries. The attention McDonald's lavishes on the spindly side order suggests something approaching a corporate obsession. Lower-level McDonald's operatives are asked to check. Sprayer.70 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP A French-Fry Diary: From Idaho Furrow To Golden Arches For the Potato That Qualifies. Turner exclaims. the news is bad.'s costly. McDonald's has spelled out no fewer than 60 specifications a strip of potato has to meet to make it into the frying basket. Delicate negotiations with the government of the Netherlands preceded the move. Its name: Interstate 47.

What hungry diner wants to look into his bag and find a bunch of little stubby fries? McDonald's is ruthless about length: 40% of all fries must be between two inches and three inches long. But the big target is Europe. Fries have to be the right length. "Mac fries.S.." like the ones Simplot prepares for other companies. but they are sprayed rather than dipped. In looks." says Bi l l Atchley. other people's fries are dipped in sugar to make them brown better. we'll learn a lot about how to do it in other tropical countries. Nor is McDonald's indifferent to the amount of moisture that slips away between the frying and the drying. The time and the heat are covered by the patent. "small and soggy" French fries. in water. No russet Burbanks are grown there. too. McDonald's has its steamed. color isn't everything. the company believes.where on the Simplot production line. where women in aprons pluck out the bad potatoes. and the Common Market doesn't allow potato imports. though. "If we can grow these potatoes in the Philippines. continued Now.S. or quickscalded. . frying is important. But there are subtle differences. They call it "drier-frier weight loss. producing. then dried. but what good is it if you don't have a sturdy potato to begin with? At McDonald's the tuber of choice is the russet Burbank." Else. to make them chewy. but those going to McDonald's are dried at higher heat. ECONOMY 71 3. Like the others. Other fries are blanched." he says. the chief of McDonald's crew of spud scouts.THE U. those going to McDonald's are chopped. Company food scientists monitor this. but they aren't. and that makes them look more natural. Atchley recently returned from the Philippines. prefried and frozen. Mac fries get doused in sugar too. The state of the art in French-fry making today can be seen at the J. Mr. begin their journey on an assembly line. where he spent much of his time on his hands and knees in the dirt trying to teach farmers to plant the right kind of potatoes. which makes for crispier fries. "People think all potatoes are alike. Turner says they are small and yellow and low in solids. All the fries in the assembly line are prefried. Never mind that the Continent offers several hundred other varieties." There are plenty of russet Burbanks in the U. but overseas is another matter. Idaho. Mr. figuring that water carries off flavor and nutrients. Spraying the sugar on makes the fries brown unevenly. Simplot potato factory in Caldwell. He explains: "A russet Burbank potato has a distinctive taste and a higher ratio of solids to water. R. which processes a good portion of the billion potatoes McDonald's uses each year. he adds with distaste.

" Nutritionists tend to be less enthusiastic.72 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. the other 20%—well. it doesn't hurt to have a few stubby ones. says. there are very few vitamins. and you'd feel a whole lot fuller eating a comparable amount of green vegetables. It says a 1975 telephone survey showed that Mac fries were the favorite of 70% of those called. 1" ." WAYNE STAYSKAL Courtesy Chicago Tribune eei тне ммвек op THAT вияеек кт vewew ткиск. "I think McDonald's fries are remarkably good." says television chef Julia Child. a nutrition professor at Columbia University in New York. McDonald's is convinced all this trouble pays off. Isobel Contento. "They're cooked in extremely fresh fat. Even some gourmets like them. continued another 40% must be over three inches. "About half the calories in French fries come from fat.

000 full-time. In the county seat of Odenbolt (population 1. as were school enrollments which have now declined 7 percent since 1982. businesses. which further exacerbated both L ast year rural Sac County. and spiritual dislocation for hundreds of thousands of Americans with long-standing ties to the land and no other means of livelihood. already the proud owner of 300 farms. 12 businesses closed. There are about 600. . beginning with the stockmarket crash in October. and finally himself. the number of farms operated by those companies has risen by more than 40 percent daring the farm crisis." There is a crisis in American agriculture in the 1980s. his banker. renowned for its excellent news service. and entire communities. a man he had bought land from. cxperiend three bank failures. last December a farmer killed his wife. Also in 1985 more than 40 Sac County farms were lost to foreclosure. THE CURRENT CRISIS in American agriculture is not the result of bad weather. New York Times: established 1851. Iowa. emotional. the farmer was almost a million dollars in debt. It is instead the result of bad choices in U. Vietnam War: see page 15. bought out the nation's largest farm-management company. At the time of the tragedy.S. agriculture policy. Across the state in Hills. After 40 years of slow shrinkage. The U. But Great Depression: the economic crisis and worldwide decline in business activity. And as the experience of Odenbolt. Further evidence of corporate centralization of agriculture was recently provided when the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.S. Now the food-growing industry is taking the same route. from 'rural America to the industrial cities. In the early 1970s. which runs 3.S. near Iowa City.900 farms (including 200 of Metropolitan's) comprising more than a million acres in nine states. The current farm crisis is creating a nearly unbearable economic. 1929 and continuing through the 1930s. One big winner is the farm-management industry. a culture. Food processing and distribution in the United States has long been an oligopoly controlled by a handful ofcorporations. a crisis in many ways worse than the one accompanying the Great Depression of the 1930s. the ripple effects of farm foreclosures are taking down banks. or bad management. ECONOMY 73 9 The Forgotten Farmer THE C R I S I S IN AMERICAN AGRICULTURE fcyD A N N Y COLLUM today its customers include some of America's biggest banks and insurance companies who have "inherited" the land through foreclosure and other institutional investors taking advantage of crisis-induced low land prices. Originally the farm management industry mostly served retired people who didn't want to sell their land. family-run farms left in the United States. church attendance and collections were down. one of the most important national daily newspapers. Iowa. a fundamental shift occurred in the direction of federal agriculture policy. According to theA'ero York Times. At least a third of the nation's family farmers are carrying levels of debt that place them in imminent danger of bankruptcy. The local sheriff said the man left a note "indicating he couldn't stand the problems anymore. with another 120 in immediate danger. farm-related industries. Iowa.000 a year. the family farm as an institution. Their acreage now comprises an area roughly the size of Colorado. bad luck. economy was weakened by Vietnam War-induced inflation and new international trade competition from its European and Japanese allies. and a vocation is facing extinction.300). especially in the last 15 years. indicates.THE U. Then came the 1973 Arab oil embargo and the consequent doubling of oil prices. made up of companies that operate farms for institutional owners. and they are disappearing at the rate of about 30. there aresome winners. While the farm crisis is creating an ever-widening circle of losers.

and in the farm belt.S. Suddenly many farmers found themselves with an enormous debt load. Before long the current tidal wave of foreclosures began. had increased their food production to the point that they no longer needed U. Right now the damage is most visible in black and Hispanic inner-city communities without jobs or hope. had begun to compete with the United States on the world market. Ultimately. and the banks actively encouraged farmers to take out loans to buy more land and equipment to enlarge their operations and produce still more. . Demand for farm land increased as a result of these changes. already reduced by President Carter's grain embargo.S. Interest rates were low. Such a narrow approach to public life will inevitably leave behind staggering human damage. particularly those in the Third World. the crisis that is destroying family farms raises serious questions about the social and economic direction America will take in the rest of this century. The farm crisis is symptomatic of that trend. especially in Europe and Latin America. recession inevitably became a global recession.S. grain produciton to the highest possible level. as did bank deregulation. and no way to pay it. lower prices. expand more. in fact.S.. in the abandoned industrial towns of the Northeast and upper Midwest. The U. The old farm-policy emphasis on price maintenance was traded in for a policy that emphasized higher production. Some of them. Government policies encouraged farmers to plant their land from fence row to fence row. ■ . But it won't stop there. No one worried about it. of deep fertile soils which are especially adapted to the production of corn. The economics of the marketplace are increasingly replacing all notions of the common good in areas ranging from banking and telephore service to newspapers and other mass media. grain exports.74 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 4. and massive export sales. At the same time. because America was the bread-basket of the world and there was nothing but clear skies ahead. grain. taken on at the encouragement a few years before. now declined further because other countries. political debate for the idea that decentralized ownership and control of land and the institution of family farming might have an intrinsic social and moral value that outweighs the demands of the market. Banks were flooded with Middle Eastern petrodollars in search of investment opportunities. petrodollars: surplus profits accumulated by petroleum-exporting countries. Also other countries. wheat. This had the advantage of redressing the international trade problem while simultaneously holding down domestic food prices in a time of inflation. simply could not afford to buy them at any price. If farm families can be declared dispensable. The market for U. Little room exists in U^S. In 1981 the Reagan administration came into power and induced a crippling recession as the final solution to the domestic inflation problem. In turn the increased value of their landholdings (a farmer's primary loan collateral) allowed farmers to borrow even more. and produce more. Farmers' total indebtedness grew by leaps and bounds. making it more difficult for farmers to get the loans they needed for seeds and supplies from year to year. Hispanic: an American citizen or resident of Latin American descent. But the clouds soon appeared. the farm recession drove down the value of the land. The Reagan administration's policies of high military spending deficits and a tight money supply also combined to drive up the interest rates on farm loans. oats and soybeans.S. continued inflation and the export-import imbalance. though. At this time the decision was made to crank up U. so can we all. and the new levels of land productivity drove the price of farm land sky-high. farm belt: region in the midwestern U.

/s associate professor of economics. much as a child asks mommy to kiss the bruise and take away the hurt." by Robert W. the East River and Hudson River both give a good example of water pollution carried to its extreme." If we are hungry. in the area of fixing environmental problems which have been developing for well over 100 years. Business. The short-run problem Ever since business began to operate in the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution.. The pollution spewed into the atmosphere by the smokestack is a long-range problem.. . For anyone familiar with the New York City area. Most Americans are after the "quick fix. the environment or my family. is part and parcel of the problem. Our short-run look at income and profit keeps us from the long-run look at the future of life. One of the best examples of the debilitating effects of air pollution is Sudbury. Similarly. for about 20 miles east of Sudbury. we ask "them" (whoever we may think "them" to be) to quickly make the problem go away. Haseltine. with the concomitant erosion and loss of all soil down to bedrock. attempts to operate all of its production in a least-cost manner. Business. Economics Editor of USA Today. Unfortunately.S. my family has to take precedence. in putting together the resources . you and me. we starve to death — and there is no long run. we go to the nearest fast food place and quickly fill the vacuum. Both sides refuse to accept pollution in its various aspects as having any form of economic consequences. as with most complex problems. according to economic theory. The average citizen. has to be very cost-conscious if it is going to exist long in a free-market society. Prof. If there is no food coming into the house in the short run. The solutions are not that easily found. while my support of my family must be viewed as a short-range problem..THE U. . Ont. ECONOMY 75 ф Economics vs.. but in the consumer community as well. Haseltine Industrial pollution — no easy solution OF BOTH THE EFFECTSbeen observedAIR and water pollution on the environment have for years. That is. . . When it comes down to which is going to suffer. Ecology: Problems with Solutions to Pollution ".. At least that is what we are told by American business as it fights any of the laws which would place restrictions on the manner in which it dumps its wastes into the atmosphere. State University of New York at Geneseo. International Nickel and "the world's tallest smokestack" put enough sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide into the atmosphere to have caused the death of all vegetation. Canada. it has generally done so with a total disregard for the environment. or the ecosphere in general. there are more things involved than meet the superficial glance that most of us give to problems of this nature. A major lack of foresightedness has occurred not only in the business community. any business.

just as the high smokestack has added to the problem of long-distance pollution. This means that more and more jobs have disappeared from the industrial sector of the economy. with no corresponding positions opening up in the service sector.. in such a way that labor. Business.00. about $5. Polluting the air The major reason for air pollution. we are all a part of the "economics of greed. . their costs of production will rise while that of their competition will not. or buying a device which allows them to add regular gas to their tank instead of being forced to purchase unleaded. I find three other fingers pointing back at me. especially as one looks at the problems of hydrocarbons and lead. especially among tho. and countless other tedious jobs that up to now have been done by wage labor.76 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 5. . In order to save four to 10 cents per gallon. just as the business manager attempts to save the company as much money as possible. . e who have poorer levels of education and a need to protect their families and livelihoods. The problem which is caused is endemic throughout the world. we find people doing away with pollution control devices." like it or not. The cost is not exorbitant. . more and more businesses are turning to robots to do the painting. From this stems an over-all loss of jobs." and what affects other life will eventually affect me. it uses capital and labor in a manner which will produce the most output for the least possible cost per unit of production. it is only about $1. to save as much of my income as possible. it is pumped directly into the Mississippi River to become part of the problem of downstream urban areas which may take their drinking water from that river. if not death. then the market price of the good will have to be increased. For this reason. welding. Iowa does a thriving business in pumping! Where does it lead? While the first impact is on wildlife. however. This has caused a problem with the amounts of hydrocarbons and lead in the atmosphere close to the surface. This means that unit cost is more than it was previously and. as a consumer. if I do. it is pumped into a storage tank. especially. In the short run . or should I waste my money by pumping in Wisconsin? For some reason. . however. In Iowa. is the private consumer. will be most productive. therefore. The effect might be emphysema. . because. or general ill health. I can not point a finger of blame. Wisconsin has a law that all houseboats must have a self-contained head (toilet) which must be pumped out properly and dumped properly if you have it done in the state of Wisconsin. and have it pumped out in that state. Yes. will use capital. . . Polluting the water The waterways are another . our short-run look at income and profit keeps us from the long-run look at the future of life. heart problems. and the basic cause is that which is outlined above .iftheydothisand other competing businesses do not do this. If business puts into the production line the types of equipment which will clean up the residue so that what comes out of the smokestack is nothing but steam. continued which it uses to produce a final good.00.the economics of self-interest (greed) which causes me. area that we find it easier to pollute than to spend the money necessary to clean wastes properly. If. What is the difference? In Wisconsin. and it is definitely an economic problem affecting incomes of both business and workers. you go across the river to Iowa. if the levels of profits are to remain high enough to satisfy the stock- holders. . as it works with that capital. . For the individual. So far. they recognize that a number of things will have to occur. then into a sewerage disposal system. it becomes a dilemma: Should I save money by pumping in Iowa. and harming the river. we are all a part of this "marble in space..

Who is the author and what are his credentials? 3. 7. What can you anticipate about the article by just looking at the title photo and the subtitle? 2. Organization of the Text Now have a closer look at the organization of the text as a whole and the function of each paragraph. b) are not as efficient as they used to be. 3. 6. . (number) is to point out a) the growing expansion and diversity of Bell Labs in spite of the court-enforced break-up of AT&T. c) they only accepted cash from their customers. c) they could build a thousand million dollar company themselves. 1. 4. b) they do not have enough cash to start a business. c) is the extraordinary economic event of this century. b) has not been seen in this century. 2. c) like other big institutions. 2. Comprehension Peter Drucker on Entrepreneurs Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the original text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. b) the enormous attention basic research gets through epochal discoveries. c) enjoy a higher degree of anonymity. What aspects are mentioned in this introduction? Which ones would you be interested in following up? 3. c) demographical data. Anticipation Inside Bell Labs Before you read the text. 8. The italicized introduction or lead is meant to provide as much information as necessary to arouse the reader's curiosity about the text. The two men who started a barbershop chain were successful because a) they were real experts in haircutring. c) they know too little about financial planning. 5. b) they had a good idea which they thought they could sell themselves.77 PART C Exercises 1. An entrepreneurial boom a) will possibly emerge in this century. An enormous number of new jobs a) have been created by large established companies. 2. The large majority of high-tech entrepreneurs fail because a) they only talk about profit but do not work hard enough. b) predictable technology. . are often regarded as failures. c) the new emphasis on robotics and computer science. 1. c) have been taken up by the quickly growing population after the Second World War. . 1. b) have been taken by the millions of women who have entered the labor force. Most new entrepreneurs worked for big companies until they realized that a) there was no chance of being promoted in the near future. First read through the text and underline the key words or phrases of each paragraph. b) they applied all the elementary management techniques. look at the layout. Compared with giant companies small businesses a) are more flexible. Peter Drucker believes that big companies a) will die out soon. b) do not lay so much stress on the organization of management. Then number the eighteen paragraphs of the article and match them with the descriptions below using the following sentence: The function of paragraph. The new entrepreneurs rely heavily on a) glamor.

concentrate on the individual scenes and write a filmscript to include the setting the camera movements the dialogues of the interviews the remarks of the commentator the kind of music you would like to use. Here is a list of vocabulary connected with filmmaking: shot a unit in film-production. i. n) Bell Labs as the most important corporate research facility in the United States. Look at the questions asked in this article. Find examples in the text. with comments alternating with interviews. You have enjoyed reading this article so much that you have decided to use it as the basis for a loosely-connected documentary film showing low angle in a low angle a figure is seen as if from below: the effect is often one of a towering presence. h) the latest invention of the physics research division. m) the idea of market-oriented research and development. q) an ingenious idea of Arno Penzias. j) the development of an optical computer. p) the size and diversity of the Bell research staff. g) a Bell Lab invention that revolutionized astronomy. a nutritionist) expressing different opinions about McDonald's French fries. 1) the motives of scientists for joining Bell Labs. Style A French-Fry Diary: From Idaho Furrow to Golden Arches 1. i) a discovery for which Penzias and his colleague Wilson won the Nobel Prize in 1978. 2. r) the importance of the transfer of basic scientific discovery to the world of commerce.78 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP d) that competition has always been a constant driving force in research. Estimated length: 15-20 minutes. e) impressive technological products which support the view that Bell Labs have an advantage over their competitors. What do you think their function is? close-up a large-scale photograph taken from very near: the slightest nuance of expression in an actor's face is magnified by the close-up and can become significant long shot shot taken from a distance medium shot normal camera angle and distance special effects 5. f) the use of the Karmarkar algorithm. overriding power—otten associated with a sense of threat. After forming small groups or pairs. • the role of the commentator • the settings required • the total number of scenes. Especially at the beginning of this article the author aims at a comic effect when transferring words that originate in the fields of warfare or medicine to the potato and French-fry business." high angle high angle looks down on the . Draw up a plan for such a film and decide how to present the basic points you want to make. Think about • the kind of interviewees you will have to pick in order to present these points. k) an example of the practical use of basic research on ants. a gourmet. Producing a Filmscript Imagine you work for an American TV station. o) the percentage of staff doing basic research. • the business policies of McDonald's • potato processing from Idaho furrows to McDonald's restaurants • different people (young people. "The camera shoots from a low angle. The film is to be made on location. a single part of a film made by one camera without interruption exterior shot shot of an outdoor scene indoor shot shot of an indoor scene types of camera shots 4.e.

THE U. banks encourage farmers to lake out loans at low interest rates 1 high military spending deficits and a tight money supply drive up interest rates on farm loans government policies encourage farmers to plant their land from fence row to fence row increasing international trade competition countries in the Third World are no longer able to buy U.A.S." 6. Structuring an Article The Forgotten Farmer U.'s face.S. W. ECONOMY 79 subject. grain exports the high level of productivity drives the price of farms sky-high farmers buy more land and equipment to enlarge their operations and produce more . "The camera pans across the picture. expand more and produce more 8 Carter's grain embargo reduces U. Match numbers with letters. "The camera zooms in on Mr. agricultural policy decides to increase grain production to the highest level С farmers' indebtedness grows| by leaps and bounds FARM FORECLOSURES FARMS FOR SALE The diagram presents the logical organization of the article." camera tracks it moves along. "The camera tracks the movement of an actor.S. up and down.S. following the action. It shows how various factors contribute to the present farm crisis in the U. Decide on the logical position in the diagram of the following factors. grain at any price increased value of landholdings allows farmers to borrow more.S." camera zooms it moves quickly between a distant and a close-up view." camera is tilted "It is tilted to make a low angle shot. reversing the psychological effect of low angle to fade out gradually dissolve one picture in another camera movements camera pans it moves from side to side.

Comprehension Economics vs. . which are more competitive. replace small farms? Should governments guarantee family farming through subsidies and protective measures? How would you advise your government about its agriculture policy? 9. What are the effects of the air pollution caused by International Nickel? 2. Try to convince the audience. 4." What examples does the author use to explain the meaning of this way of solving problems? 3. Write a letter to the editor. Discussion Danny Collum's article points out why in the 1980s a great number of family farms in the U. a newspaper reporter. Text Production The following group work activity consists of three successive steps.A. Take notes on the business manager's statement and write an article for your newspaper. What can the private consumer do to reduce the air pollution caused by his/her car? 6. Choose one of the roles. A business manager. How do the different methods of cleaning wastes applied by Wisconsin and Iowa reveal the conflict between economics and ecology? reporters attending the news conference of Chemicals Internationa!. Write a statement which you are going to deliver at a press conference. Name the principles of American business that get in the way of any substantial progress in environmental improvements. then. closed down. As an active environmentalist you do not agree. Step 1 (statement): You are a representative of Chemicals International. The purpose of the statement is to announce the company's decision not to take immediate steps to reduce pollution of the environment. Step 2 (newspaper article): You are one of the 8. Americans have a special liking for the "quick fix. Why. Ecology: Problems with Solutions to Pollution 1. What about the situation of farmers in your country? Do you think that the "economics of the marketplace" should also be applied to farming? Should big agricultural firms.S.80 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 7. and an environmentalist are involved in the controversy of economics versus ecology. Step 3 (letter to the editor): You have read the article about the commercial views of Chemicals International on ecological problems. The average citizen acknowledges the necessity of an effective protection of the environment. does he/she not always advocate reasonable solutions to ecological problems? 5.

with a population of 7 million people of various ethnic groups. and other ethnic neighborhoods. American novelist. On the one hand. The city houses the national centers of finance. and communications. In many sections of Brooklyn and the Bronx. Each of these groups has resisted attempts by blacks to move into these occupations. Tensions surface when members of one e thnic group begin to challenge another group for housing. Acres of neglected tenements and failing business establishments betray the city's social and economic troubl es. deteriorating schools Bellow. It is easy to point out black. slums. . and financial difficulties. A well-known problem in New York City is its slums. and abandoned structures. Problems such as high crime rates. Chinese. advertising. New York is sometimes called "the melting pot that didn't melt.5 The Urbanization of America PART A NEW YORK Background Information The first glimpse of American city life for the 12 million foreigners who arrived in New York harbor during the wave of European immigration between 1892 and 1924 was New York City. Historically. outstanding museums. who observed that "what is barely hinted at in other American cities is condensed and enlarged in New York. Saul: born 1915. Broadway theaters." What one sees in New York City is in many ways the best and worst of American cities. Puerto Rican." All large cities. insurance. Many would agree with contemporary American novelist Saul Bellow. Some friction has arisen between • blacks and other city ethnic groups that have tended to be concentrated in certain occupations. New York's attractions include spectacular sky-scrapers. littered lots. Even the city's Swedes and Norwegians live in separate neighborhoods. As America's largest city. and posh department stores. not only in the United States but all over the world share many of New York's desirable and undesirable qualities. and power. The first destination of many tourists to the United States today is the "gateway to America. New York is a city of poverty and deterioration. Italian. New York is plagued by interracial conflicts." New York's ethnic groups generally do not intermix. Polish. New York is a focus of culture and power. author of Herzog. Jewish. Mr Sammler's Planet and Humboldt's Gift. jobs. New York City policemen have been pr edominantly Irish and garbage collectors have been mostly Italian. On the other hand. one can see demolished buildings.

One rather recent trend which reconciles the ambivalence Americans have felt towards their cities is suburbanization. and public education were inadequate. Chicago. Houston. American citi es did not experience the social problems resulting from overcrowding which were characteristic of European cities at that time. America's transition from a rural to an urban nation brought on new problems for cities. have become enormous. Many metropolitan areas have become so large that they have begun to merge into other metropolitan areas. metropolitan areas. New York City has suffered serious financial problems. more space. rapid urban population growth gave American cities the same unpleasant qualities associated with the world's older cities. The corrupting influence of cities con trasted with the wholesomeness of rural life has been a common theme in American literature and philosophy. By 1980. closeness to nature. housing quality laws. Within a few decades. but are shared by most large cities at this stage in the urbanization process. cities grew rapidly so that by 1920. Gradually.82 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP GROWTH OF CITIES SUBURBANIZATION and public services. while the suburbs have continued to expand as a result of America's increasing prosperity and desire for cleaner air. People are drawn by the promise of economic gain or cultural advantages that cities offer. however. Throughout the period of industrialization and immigration in the nineteenth century. Since the mid-1960s many central cities have experienced a decrease in population. Many of New York City's problems are not unique. Urbanization has continued in the twentieth century. 50 percent of the population were city dwellers. only 10 percent lived in cities. and poverty require costly solutions. countercurrents of hostility have run strong. forming a megalopolis. The metropolitan areas of each of the country's six largest cities. and freedom from restrictions imposed by living too close to others. and more adequate public schools. both the spaciousness of rural life and the bustling activity of urban life are available. the less heavily populated areas at the edge of the city. and Detroit. Even as the United States has become increasingly urbanized. At the same time. Social services such as sanitation. Today most Americans live in urban areas. By 1920 most cities had public health facilities. A look at present-day New York gives the reader an orientation point for a wider view of American urbanization. Yet urbanization is an inescapabl e fact of modern life. Americans have traditionally yearned for a separate piece of land. In the mid-1970s the city came near bankruptcy and was forced to appeal to the federal government for loan assistance. which . and facilities for sewage treatment and garbage collection were archaic or nonexistent. Financial problems have recently been worsened by the flight of many businesses and industries from the city to the suburbs. in the past ten or twenty years. Philadelphia. and a private house and yard. At the beginning of the 1800s. New York. however. This high concentration of the population in cities was not always the case in America. housing. America's metropolitan areas claimed 80 percent of the population. As suburban rings spread farther and farther out. One temporary solution for clearing the garbage-filled streets of large cities was to let pigs roam the streets as scavengers. conditions in large cities improved. In th e 1780s most Americans lived in rural areas. Los Angeles. Of the 80 percent of Americans who live in urban and metropolitan areas. Suburbs are regarded as part of a city's structure. In the suburbs. have populations of over a million. about two-thirds now live in suburbs.

when cities were scarcely able to cope with the demand for family housing. With suburbanization. In the baby boom of the 1950s. Between 1949 and 1968. and a separate bedroom for every child. look-alike houses set on unfenced lots. 425. quickly constructed. was the systematic clearance of slums and the construction of modern hig h-rise social housing units in their place. A direct consequence of the suburbanization of American cities has been the depletion of the central cities' financial resources. In the past two decades. Electric trolley lines and trains al lowed wealthy and middle-class city dwellers to move out from the city at a commutable distance from work. a condition which has led to a new problem: deterioration and abandonment of city centers. mostly blacks and Hispanics. there was an influx after 1945 of many newcomers to the city. nevertheless. The inner city slums. were then populated by those who could not afford to move out: the uneducated and unskilled. were able to move still farther out of crowded cities to find a suitable home with a private yard. With the increase of relatively unskilled poor people. the symbol of middle -class security. Thus. the wealthy and middle class. Lower taxes and the growing labor pool there have prompted many retail stores. soci al problems such as crime and slums were exacerbated.C. Not only have families been attracted to the suburbs. city centers were regarded as the least desirable areas in which to live. the wealthier moved even farther into the countryside. The first outward spread of cities away from the center. Another more recent response to the problems of cities has been preser vationist in nature. 80 percent of Americans will live in 28 or so of these megalopolises.THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 83 THE TRANSPORT FACTOR DETERIORATION AND ABANDONMENT SLUM CLEARANCE GENTRIFICATION is the term used to describe the urban network that results from such expansion. where rent for shabby buildings was cheaper.000 housing units for poor people were torn down in the belief that social problems could be erased by starting from scratch. many people are restoring and renovating. the possi bility of commuting allowed urban areas to spread outwards and provided for a rough stratification along class lines. It is estimated that by the year 2000. a den. and other firms to move from downtown to the suburbs. Rather than razing whole neighborhoods. In addition. for whom employment was not readily available. Houses and apartments were poorly maintained and allowed t o deteriorate to such a state that many residential areas have been abandoned. a movement ante cedent to suburbanization. The change which directly precipitated the emergence of suburbs was the popularization of the private car. the typical suburban home. attempts have been made to improve cities. . corporate centers. was made possible in the 1890s with the develop ment of better public transportation. Boston's Beacon Hill. In the 1950s and early 1960s. but businesses have also discovered the advantages of a suburban location. One megalopolis extends along the Atlantic coast from Boston through New York to Washington. Washington's Georgetown. the building industry responded to the demand by developing residential areas which characteristically were comprised of neat. This response failed to take into account the human element—the feelings of displacement and alienation which these underprivi leged families suffered at having to abandon their neighborhoods. One approach. now car owners independent of public transportation. whose livelihood had been lost through mechanization of farms. D. is comfortably equipped with at least two bathrooms. which was practiced in the 1960s. Today. As the middle class moved away from the working class.

leaves some of urban renewal's more difficult questions unanswered.84 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP THE NEW DOWNTOWN and Philadelphia's Society Hill are areas which. bankers. The interest in restoration has extended even to old warehouses where studio lofts are becoming trendy residences for artists and young professional singles. elaborately decorated plaza complex containing retail stores. Many of the new downtowns are modeled after Atlanta's Peachtree Center. who are displaced by the transformation of low-rent housing into luxury apartments. represents real progress in the urban center's struggle to bolster its impoverished rax base. viewing gentrification from the perspective of the poor. Another recent strategy for renewal has been targeted at the downtown the term which has come to refer to the central business district where banks and stores are located. Some cities have experienced not only cosme tic renewal but overall economic and social rejuvenation. Private sector groups. and retailers. protected from demolition. gentrification. as opposed to the inner city which connotes troubled. res- Modern office building in central San Francisco . However. For many people. have recently been restored as charming townhouse residences for the well-todo. have been active in redeveloping downtown areas. a spacious. including architects. crime-ridden residential areas. This private-sector restoration of dilapidated housing is known as gentrification. and thus the return of the middle class to the cities.

and more aesthetically interesting. In addition. GROWTH OF SMALL The recent urba n renewal programs have been successful in stimulating TOWNS population growth in at least some major cities. making car ownership optional rather than mandatory. many cities have been experiencing a continual decline in population. The present attraction to small towns represents not a ruralization trend. Since the Second World War. . small town life is far from idyllic. D. Rural population growth in the 1970s was the greatest since the 1870s. downtown areas undoubtedly have become more livable. Although the inner cities' social problems of poverty.C. What many of these city people hope to find by escaping to small com munities is the fulfillment of their wistful longings for friendly neighbors and a slower pace of life. They are discovering that America's small towns are beset by the same prob lems that affect cities.THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 85 taurants. cities such as New York. Many of these conditions occur because rural America is no longer econ omically or culturally isolated from the rest of America. the new interest in preserving the nation's downtowns provides hope for many cities as they compete with the suburbs for tax bases and federal assistance. tight budgets." Poverty exists in most small towns. what is actually happening is that the countryside is becoming more urbanized. Although the movement to small communities may at first seem like the beginning of a deurban ization of America. and even "downtown decay. Detroit. In recent years. warmer locations. Between 1970 and 1980. What accounts for the fact that so many Americans are now fulfilling this dream? New employment oppor tunities have opened up. Washington. Public opinion polls consistently show that most Americans would rather live in small towns or rural areas if they could. Where ten years ago it was virtually impossible in many cities to get around without a car. and Cleveland were among those cities with the greatest population losses between 1970 and 1980. rural America has been modernizing at such a rate that the gap between rural and urban is closing. thus once again attracting businesses and more affluent groups. except on a smaller scale.. Other downtown programs feature main-street malls. as light industries move to these less expensive. many small town s suffer from high unemployment rates. and cultural attractions such as art exhibits. While most newcomers find that small towns do provide the more congenial atmosphere they sought. it grew by over 11 percent. and San Francisco have succeeded in rebuilding and renovating large tracts of the central city area. but the continued suburbanization of an already quite suburbanized America. skywalks. Yet since the 1960s and 70s. when roads and communication lines permanently linked country to city. and crime are not adequately addressed by this focus on business districts. and dial-a-bus systems. especially in small southern towns. During the past two decades. more people-oriented. inadequate housing. today many cities offer pedestrian zones and improved mass transit systems. Boston. Pittsburgh. the improved network of highways gives smaller communities better access to supplies and markets. housing shortages. Like cities. According to the 1980 census. small towns have been experiencing heavy population growth. all designed to give office workers a reason to stay downtown. Not all of those who are leaving the city are settling in the suburbs. unemployment.

American press agency. And Bob O'Bannon. Linda." "She's probably even some kin to Marydee West. I think I miss big-city life more than Ed does. U. That's how Linda and I met. It's different here.86 PART в Texts • SMALL-TOWN LIFE We were sitting around a fireplace filled with greenery . . " "Small-town life has its drawbacks. But by the time Linda and I got married we were both getting tired of city life — the ugliness. And you can imagine their position on something like abortion. I think Linda and I are part of something interesting. sure. Corydon must be one of the last places on earth where people in real need are too proud. If you have trouble with your dry cleaner in Chicago. to go on welfare. For one thing. And so does the individual. Linda was demonstrating.his first job when he came to Corydon was teaching at the high school. and he teaches history at Corydon Central High School. We're in the first wave of people of our age and position who are moving away from the city — and not to the suburbs. He arrived in New York. until our deadly foreign policy made me sick. Her Cousin Bill runs the furniture factory. P. Linda was a Keller.P. I seem to need people more. It might if I had a Swiss bank account. and then I went with U." Runden said. formed in 1958. and I was covering it for the Associated Press. Runden. We subscribed to the Democrat — a terrific paper.) and United Press International are the two largest American press agencies. You can't be ripped off. is also a teacher. the misery. Runden is forty years old. to not be nosy. "There is a certain lack of privacy. and the first person he met who spoke German was a black freedman. by the way — to try to get the feel of the place. who was on his way west . I guess. in Iran. Associated Press (A. Still.Edward Runden and his wife. with an eager. we both married local girls. "I'm also related to Art Funk. one way and another. "Oh. So we got to thinking about Corydon. when I remember Chicago .P. boyish look and an inconspicuous mustache. Moving to the small town. "And." Mrs. I was glad to come back to Chicago. I think the good side of small-town life far outweighs the bad.: United Press International. And. A person's reputation matters." she said. "And I used to be a newspaperman myself. and I . That was in Chicago. started in 1848. There's a sense of the seasons. and then I tried the Foreign Service.drinking sherry and smelling the good smell of something roasting in the kitchen. But I just don't have that much to hide.on foot. But lack of privacy doesn't bother me.I. in Chicago. My great-grandfather came here from Germany in eighteen forty-six. There's a closeness to the basics." "I liked the idea of connectedness. he couldn't care less what you think or do. My great-grandfather walked along with him and ended up in Harrison County. an emancipated slave. "Another thing about Randy and me . in Teheran. "And to Fred Griffin's wife. although people are aware of that and make an effort to keep their distance. a vivid young woman with a fall of thick. or if I was into some kind of kinky sex." Runden said. He can still influence the course of events.I. dark hair. I think more and more people are coming to realize that. To Corydon. I started out on a paper in Elgin. It's something to be able to hear a rooster crow these days. Mrs." Mrs.P. "Randy West and I have a lot of things in common. too ashamed. we liked the feel we got. . And then there's the conservatism here. . at one of those demonstrations." Associated Press: the oldest of the American press agencies. Runden smiled across the lip of her glass." Runden was saying. Illinois. freedman: man who has been freed from slavery. Runden said. That's when I started working for the A. And Rosamond Sample. the roots." He took a sip of sherry. Corydon's still on a human scale. She teaches behavioral science twice a week in a family-practice residency program at the University of Louisville Medical School. the squalor.

"Besides. Richmond. a sagging front porch. the grand. Perhaps I had expected to see some chipped paint." are only a few blocks away from Susan's apartment. I was looking forward to seeing Susan's new apartment. Yellow shutters at the windows.THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 87 REVIVAL OF A CITY'S VIRTUES Why a young single woman moves to the city by Mildred Norman-Risch Last fall I spent a weekend visiting my friend Susan m Richmond. One purpose of my visit was to get away from the small town where I had been living and enjoy the motion and activity of a bigger city. we moved in here. The main business district. Furthermore. "Well. We've gotten used really didn't have much money when to walking softly. Four months earlier. all of which designate "downtown." ." This section gets its name because the streets here radiate from a central point in the city forming a fan shape. Virginia." Susan laughed. and a heavy colonial style door with a brass eagle knocker. We really like the floors. Susan met me at the door and proudly asked. old southern hotels. the tall. Renovated houses in "the Fan'[. brightened with geranium blooms. 25-story buildings. Virginia How long had it been since I was in a and we've learned to take off our house that had no carpeting? How many wooden clogs as soon as we come modern houses and apartments are even in. which I had already heard so much about. how do you like it? I'm dying to show you the inside!" We went up the stairs to her place. I was somewhat surprised. a solid yellow front porch. Susan's house was what I can only describe as neat and yellow. Susan and another girl had moved into the second floor of a two-story brick house in a part of the city known as "the Fan. What caught my attention were the beautiful wooden floors. or some feature of the picture I had had of inner-city houses. and hundreds of stores and parking garages. From the outside. it's a lot built with hardwood floors? "Ann and I cheaper than buying carpeting.

the city spread out until it met the Fan. the Fan is experiencing a changing identity. the composition and character of the neighborhood has started to change again. And there are a few streets in the Fan that I absolutely avoid. which included an antique bathtub complete with four little feet. too. It's certainly not my experience. Many mner-city residential areas are predominantly black. all you have to do is look out your window and you can see live scenes from Kojak and other crime shows passing before your very eyes. The Fan is one of the many city neighborhoods which follows the recent trends in urban community renewal. Throughout the years the population of the Fan community shifted to a greater percentage of black residents. This is why I moved to the Fan. Besides the Fan's students. We talked about how she and Ann had made the decision to move here to the Fan. The property in the Fan. typical not only of Richmond. "We haven't had any bad experiences. Richmond was much smaller then. which they considered "safer". which was large enough for a breakfast table. Susan told me. Sure.AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. every day you can pick up the newspaper and read about a robbery or a mugging. and the kitchen. in the last twenty years. where crime is supposedly a problem. Paint was peeling. went down in price. risk. The investment wouldn't have paid off. In the 1880s. and dilapidation were some of the new features. windows were broken. a red leather chair. these lower-income families couldn't afford to make repairs. and the landlords didn't take the responsibility to keep up the quality of the houses. danger. At that time. dominated the living room. But I think many people exaggerate the dangers and carry in their minds the delusion that life in the city is a constant fight for survival and selfdefense. continued The large room was in fact sparsely furnished — a big oak table. porches were sagging." The neighborhood has in recent years taken on a new identity and has become a popular area for students. and ready for use. For one thing. and most of the people living in the area were people with money. The houses by this time had become run-down. our parents and some of our friends tried to persuade us into moving into a modern apartment complex. they warned us against moving to the Fan. violence. . Many landlords invested money renovating the houses so that they could accommodate the students' demand for housing and also meet the student's expectations. a small table and some bookshelves. What was the neighborhood like many years ago? Quite different. when many houses in the Fan were built. for example. and very often there are tensions between whites and blacks. Next I was shown the bathroom. and what it's like to live here in the Fan. who come and go. "I think many people have a totally false impression of city life. However. where distance from the city was seen as more desirable. this residential area was not so near the city. Generally. Crime. most of whom rented the houses from former or other owners. Kojak: name of detective and police drama TV series. And there's adventure in discovering the little cafes and shops that only real city people know about. but other cities as well. This fad has brought new life and charm to the Fan. I was curious about the neighborhood. The neighborhood acquired another reputation by this time. already stacked with wood. With the influx of students. it happens. "I find another kind of challenge living here in the Fan: the challenge of restoring the neighborhood. the property was expensive. if you mean trouble between blacks and whites. lots of people are moving to the Fan to stay." That phrase captured my impression of Susan and Ann's renovated apartment. two bedrooms." Susan told me about her neighborhood. The people here in the city are so interesting to watch and to talk to. the university is located right in the Fan. segregation. A large fireplace. But as the businesses expanded. Many of the residents joined the middle-class exodus from the city to the suburbs. the Fan is one of those places that's "on its way up and in. in their short-sighted point of view. We don't take any more precautions against theft or rape than our girlfriends who live farther away from the city. Before we moved here. both of which had large windows. being therefore less desirable. Susan remarked that what she liked about the neighborhood was that it seemed "both old and new at the same time. As Susan put it. This area near downtown had followed the pattern of many neighborhoods in cities. and so the row houses have attracted students because of their convenience. It's becoming trendy among young professionals not just to live in the city but to live in city townhouses they've renovated to suit their personal style. Some people think that if you live in the city. These newcomers are often young professionals who take advantage of government programs that give tax breaks to anyone who buys and renovates an old house in this area.

BENEATHA Yes — and what are some of those? WALTER Girl. I'm the chairman of the committee.but we are trying to do something about it. Please. Care for something to drink? Ruth. WALTER Go ahead. Excuse me (She closes the door and turns to quiet the other two) Ruth! Brother! Somebody's here. thank you very much. — how do you do.. things like block upkeep and special projects and we also have what we call our New Neighbors' Orientation Committee . This is my wife — (Ruth nods politely) — and my sister. and he is off at last) I am sure you people must be aware of some of the incidents which have happened in various parts of the city when colored people have moved into certain areas — (Beneatha exhales heavily and starts tossing a piece of fruit up and down in the air) Well . Lindner? LINDNER (Some minor shuffling of the hat and briefcase on his knees) Well — I am a representative of the Clybourne Park Improvement Association — WALTER (Pointing) Why don't you set your things on the floor? LINDNER Oh — yes. Well — WALTER Be still now! (Still innocently) Would you like another chair you don't look comfortable. Well . WALTER (Freely. WALTER (Amiably. LINDNER BENEATHA LINDNER YeS. I mean they. RUTH . BENEATHA My mother isn't here just now.. Thank you.oh. but no thank you. (He slides the briefcase and hat under the chair) And as I was saying . LINDNER And we also have the category of what the association calls . well. . LINDNER (Coming in) Thank you.(he digs for the slip of paper again) — four о six Clybourne street . himself easily on a chair..to get right to the point I — (A great breath.special community problems . I am looking for a Mrs.. go around and see the new people who move into the neighborhood and sort of give them the lowdown on the way we do things out in Clybourne Park. thoughtful and somewhat labored in his manner) It is one of these community organizations set up to look after .THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 89 Beneatha goes to the door and opens it as Walter and Ruth go on with the clowning. (he looks at the slip of paper) Mrs. I guess. I'm going to try to get right to the point.. nothing at all. get Mr. Lindner a beer. Beneatha is somewhat surprised to see a quiet-looking middle-aged white man in a business suit holding his hat and a briefcase in his hand and consulting a small piece of paper. .I am from the Clybourne Park Improvement Association and we have had it brought to our attention at the last meeting that you people . really. WALTER (Stretching out his hand) Walter Younger. (Beneatha is watching the man carefully) Well. BENEATHA (Drily) Yes — and what do they do? LINDNER (Turning a little to her and then returning the main force to Walter) Well — it's what you might call a sort of welcoming committee.uh . I'm Mrs. and sitting) Well — my name is Karl Lindner . (Ruth and Beneatha exchange amused glances) LINDNER (Regarding Walter.or at least your mother — has bought a piece of residential property at . I mean thank you very much. Lena Younger? BENEATHA (Smoothing her hair with slight embarrassment) Oh — yes. WALTER That's right.. that's my mother. (He is a gentle man.no. which escape Ruth and Walter) Uh-huh. let the man talk. as he sits RUTH (Innocently) Some coffee? LINDNER Thank you. we. LINDNER Yes.) Uh — come in please. LINDNER (More frustrated than annoyed) No. I don't know how much you folks know about our organization. Well. Is it business? LINDNER Yes . LINDNER Uh LINDNER HOW do yOU do. BENEATHA (With appreciation of the two meanings. I mean I want to explain to you in a certain way. Mr.) (The man casts a curious quick glance at all of them.(He looks elsewhere) . (Then she opens the door. . I'm sure we'll all appreciate that in the long run. Younger's son. . leaning with interest forward on his knees and looking expectantly into the newcomer's face) What can we do for you.because we have what I think is going to be a unique type of organization in American community life — not only do we deplore that kind of thing . you know. I look after most of her business matters. of a sort. the Man of the House) Have a seat. I would sort of like to explain this thing in my own way. miss. LINDNER (Upset for some reason) Oh . LINDNER (With understated relief) Thank you.

looking at Lindner) Is this what you came marching all the way over here to tell us? LINDNER Well. Ruth just sits and Beneatha just stands. son. black American playwright. you through? LINDNER Well. the way people should talk to each other and see if we couldn't find some way to work this thing out. Mama and Travis enter) . man. now we've been having a fine conversation. Walter pushes the door to do with stinging hatred. there is always somebody who is out to take the advantage of people who don't always understand.most of the trouble exists because people just don't sit down and talk to each other. I want you to believe me when I tell you that race prejudice simply doesn't enter into it. quizzically. The other guy's point of view. (He turns and puts his card on a table and exits.. Now.. man. WALTER Never mind how I feel — you got any more to say 'bout how people ought to sit down and talk to each other? . BENEATHA (With a grand and bitter gesture) This. WALTER (Tightly) Go ahead. (Beneatha frowns slightly. ain't this the living gall? WALTER All right.90 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. RUTH Lord have mercy. just hardworking. I don't say we are perfect and there is a lot wrong in some of the things they want. Anybody can see that you are a nice family of folks. as I say. they live in their own communities. RUTH (Nodding as she might in church. They're not rich and fancy people. when you come right down to it — (He hits his knee for emphasis) . LINDNER (More encouraged by such affirmation) That we don't try hard enough in this world to understand the other fellow's problem. They say nothing. we are prepared to make your family a very generous offer . I want to give you the exact terms of the financial arrangement — WALTER We don't want to hear no exact terms of no arrangements. hard working and honest I'm sure. As I say.. RUTH Now that's right. honest people who don't really have much but those little homes and a dream of the kind of community they want to raise their children in. the whole business is a matter of caring about the other fellow. And of course. rightly or wrongly. LINDNER (Almost sadly regarding Walter) You just can't force people to change their hearts. to buy the house from you at a financial gain to your family. pleased with the remark) You can say that again. you know. I hope you'll hear me all the way through. It is a matter of the people of Clybourne Park believing. her head tilted regarding him) Today everybody knows what it means to be on the outside of something.people can get awful worked up when they feel that their whole way of life and everything they've ever worked for is threatened. has the right to want to have the neighborhood he lives in a certain kind of way. (Beneatha and Walter merely watch and listen with genuine interest) LINDNER Yes — that's the way we feel out in Clybourne Park. is the Welcoming Committee! WALTER (Dumbfounded.. WALTER Get OUt. and stands looking at it. But you've got to admit that a man. LINDNER (At the door. WALTER What do you mean? LINDNER Well — you see our community is made up of people who've worked hard as the dickens for years to build up that little community. friends. when they share a common background. holding a small card) Well — I'm sorry it went like this. (He turns his back and walks to the door) LINDNER (Looking around at the hostile faces and reaching and assembling his hat and briefcase) Well — I don't understand why you people are reacting this way. And at the moment the overwhelming majority of our people out there feel that people get along better. BENEATHA Thirty pieces and not a coin less! WALTER Yeah? LINDNER (Putting on his glasses and drawing a form out of the briefcase) Our association is prepared. continued (Beneatha stops tossing and turns with a new and quuizzical interest to the man) We feel — (gaining confidence in his mission because of the interest in the faces of the people he is talking to) — we feel that most of the trouble in this world. What do you think you are going to gain by moving into a neighborhood where you just aren't wanted and where some elements — well . I want to know if you got more to tell us 'bout getting together? LINDNER (Taking off his glasses) Well — I don't suppose that you feel . through the collective effort of our people. right or wrong. Lorraine: 1930—65. take more of a common interest in the life of the community. mister. Friendly like. WALTER Get out. And that's why I was elected to come here this afternoon and talk to you people. that for the happiness of all concerned our Negro families are happier when From A Raism in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry Hansberry. LINDNER You see — in the face of all the things I have said... Get out of my house.

because our city is threatened by the spreading blight of a poverty even crueler in some ways than that of the Great Depression half a century ago. even essential. have been telling a tale of two cities to describe the kind of community New York has become: while the city enjoys prosperity. including Mr. Social critics. Today's children of poverty are suffering in ways that would have dumbfounded those who knew the Great Depression: an estimated Harlem. New York. the "new" poverty goes unchecked. Moynihan. I believe some such drastic action is warranted. And it was precisely during the last two banner years of economic growth and enhanced city budgets that the child poverty rate accelerated dramatically. The stove is kept on all day to provide heat for the house. Almost 40 percent of our children — 700. The richest Congressional district in the nation shares a boundary with one of the poorest. The landlord has still not mended the window a year after it fell out. .THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 91 CRISIS IN NEW YORK By Andrew Stein CHILDREN OF POVERTY Imagine the Mayor of New York calling an urgent news conference to announce that the crisis of the city's poor children had reached such proportions that he was mobilizing the city's talents for a massive rescue effort not unlike the one that saved us from bankruptcy 10 years ago.000 boys and girls — now live in families with incomes below the poverty line. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan has estimated that half of the babies born in the city in 1980 can be expected to be on our welfare rolls before they reach the age of 18.

All too many poor children in New York are denied dignity even in death. Great Depression: See page 73. That held true until the mid-1970s. The likelihood of a child's growing up poor is four times as great if he is born into a household headed by a woman rather than a traditional two-parent home. All this poses a practical as well as a moral issue for the city. but it is not yet hopeless. . New York City has been massively afflicted by this "feminization of poverty. Historically. U. continued 3. cf. Matthew 27:7. .92 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 4. To understand what is happening in the city we must return to poverty and its related disorders — family disintegration and teenage pregnancy. Congressional District: a district within a state electing one member to the national House of Representatives. we would be saving ourselves. . The city's Adolescent Pregnancy Interagency Council has projected that if the present rates remain constant. . is the result of an unprecedented reversal of fortunes among our age groups. Alone.S.1 percent between 1975 and 1984.000 children who were abused or neglected so severely last year that they had to be removed from their homes and placed in foster care. Then a disproportionate number of children began to be poor. efforts to engage the private sector. Many sensible steps can be taken to attack the situation. a phenomenon exclusive to the United States among the industrialized nations. but most particularly in major urban areas such as New York. without work or without income. Patrick: born 1927.000 babies born addicted to drugs every year. Although the total number of teen pregnancies in the city has decreased in the last decade (as a result of a decline in the teenage population) pregnancies among 15. The report revealed that almost half of the infants under the age of 1 who died in the city between 1981 and 1984 were buried in potter's field in unmarked graves that their families thus could not visit. poverty had always struck hardest at the elderly. The city's welfare rolls now consist mainly of minority-group women and children." Though the city's population declined 11 percent between 1970 and 1980. In saving them. But if we move the problems of poor children to the top of our agenda. . And it is even more likely if the mother is a teenager. Moynihan. There are others as well. . There is no question that the problem is enormously difficult. potter's field: a place for the burial of poor and unknown persons. according to a recent report by the Coalition for the Homeless. 10. . the number of people living in female-headed families rose by almost 30 percent. including the appointment of one person — a "czar" if you will — to oversee all agencies that serve children. the city can't eliminate poverty among children. . it can't put back together families that fall apart. 1 out of 4 girls 14 years old today will be pregnant at least once before her 18th birthday. 1 out of 8 will have had at least 1 abortion before reaching 18. 12. for the way we deal with the problem will determine the quality of life for all of us in the future. senator.. The most potentially destructive of these trends is the epidemic of teenage pregnancy. we can find the means to intervene and save many from utterly shattered lives. revamping of the workloads of caseworkers and the increasing involvement of the school system. What we are experiencing throughout the country.3 percent to 13. because of that poverty. Demographic projections suggest that this most vulnerable group will continue to grow as a percentage of the population at least through the next decade.. and nearly 1 out of 11 will be a mother before she is 18.to 19-year-old females went up from 12. because they were most likely to be infirm. or are never formed.000 children living in shelters and hotels for the homeless.

down from 677. Universities and hospitals attracted companies in computer science.000 high-tech and 30. cleaner. That renaissance gave rise five years ago to a second one. In its place has risen a new city.THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 93 A NEW CITY S till synonymous in many minds with steel. more modern in its architecture and confident m its future — m effect a prototype of the postmdustrial metropolis. A city with a new image plays to packed houses.000. Pittsburgh is completing a new subway system and boasts a symphony that Pittsburgh. Since 1978 an estimated 15. smaller (estimated population: 410.000 m 1950). when 100 prominent citizens joined to spearhead an office building boom in the 1950s and 1960s that transformed the city's downtown — near the spot where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers meet to form the Ohio . seven major buildings went up downtown. robotics and other advanced technologies. Pittsburgh is not waiting for the resurrection of Smokestack America. Third only to New York and Chicago as a headquarters city for major companies.into what they named the Golden Triangle. including a $35million convention center and noted architect Philip Johnson's spectacular headquarters for PPG Industries (formerly Pittsburgh Plate Glass). While the steel industry was losing a great deal of money.000 in 1980 to 42.000 in 1983.000 service jobs have been created. The transition from a manufacturing to a service economy began way back during World War II. more than making up for the decline in steel-workers from 79. Even the city's football and baseball teams have the spirit: they have won more championships in the last six years than their counterparts in any other American city. The metropolis of blast furnaces and belching smokestacks is dead. from Fortune Magazine . Pennsylvania.

When comparing small-town life and life in the big cities a) both Ed and Linda were equally glad to have left big city life. purpose of the visit the outside of the house the inside of the house . c) Linda is happier about small-town life than Ed. Edward Runden a) had always wanted to become a teacher. c) the individual plays a more important role than in the big cities. 5. c) she took part in a demonstration. b) people look at each other from a distance. c) she hates the crowds in big cities. b) used to work as a correspondent for different press agencies. which falls into three parts: The visit Life in the city The development of inner city neighborhoods On the basis of the diagram. c) he does not want other people to know about his Swiss bank account. 2. In Ed's opinion. 1. According to Ed Runden. c) failed to make a career in the Foreign Service. 6. b) Ed is happier about small-town life than Linda. b) he protected her from demonstrators.S. b) the people there are very conservative. Ed Runden left the Foreign Service because a) they sent all newspapermen back to Chicago. use your own words to reconstruct the argument and organization of this text. Ed Runden met Linda in Chicago when a) he reported on a demonstration for a news agency. 8. b) people take less interest in their neighbors' affairs. Comprehension Small-Town Life Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the original text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. b) Ed had been offered a job at the local newspaper. Text Reproduction Revival of a City's Virtues The diagram below renders the structure and organization of the article. 2. c) they had been attracted by the reports in the local newspaper. for example. foreign policy. 3. the advantages of small-town life outweigh the disadvantages because a) there is not so much theft in small communities.94 PART C Exercises 1. Professionally. one of the disadvantages of small-town life is. 4. c) he did not agree with the U. however. 7. that a) private life is rather restricted. b) he tried in vain to get to Teheran. The Rundens moved to Corydon because a) Linda was born there. Linda Runden likes living in Corydon because a) everybody knows and is involved with everybody else.

deterioration of the neighborhood recent renewal of neighborhoods the diversity of neighborhoods 3. 4. Show how Karl Lindner and the Youngers are characterized through conversation and gestures. 6. What are the Youngers' reactions to Lindner's remarks in the different stages of the conversation? Why does the conversation inevitably lead to a crisis? 5. in a small town or in a big city a) in America? b) in your own country? Give reasons. city budgets have decreased. Correct the false statements. 4. What central issue about life in an urban community in the United States does the author want to illustrate in this scene? frequent misconceptions of city life attractiveness of city life the original neighborhood 60 or 70 years ago change of the social structure of the community 5. 2. Increasing prosperity has led to less child poverty. Is there a similar difference between small town life and city life in your country? ." 2. 7. In spite of the recent economic growth. 2. Summarize the contents of this scene in no more than three sentences. 6. List and discuss the arguments for and against small town or city life mentioned in the texts "Small-Town Life" and "Revival of a City's Virtues. 3. Many of the infants who die before their first birthday are not even properly buried. According to Senator Moynihan 50 percent of the babies born in 1980 will depend on welfare before they reach the age of 18. Discussion 1. Where would you prefer to live.000 children were abused and neglected in foster care. The crisis of New York's poor children is as urgent as the financial crisis of the city ten years ago. 4. 1. How does he try to achieve his aim? Point out the elements of the plan he has obviously worked out before. The poverty crisis equals that of the Great Depression in the 1930s. 5. 12. What is the purpose of Karl Lindner's visit? 3. Text Analysis first experience of living in an inner city neighborhood Neighborhoods 1. Comprehension Check Children of Poverty Determine whether the statements are true or false according to the information given in the text.THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 95 racial problems in inner city neighborhoods 3.

In its place has risen a new city. 6. Of all age groups in urban areas in the United States. 9. which could lead to serious social unrest and irreparable harm to the whole community. Cloze Comprehension Test Pittsburgh—A New City Test your memory. First read the text thoroughly. including a $35-million "fr tV and noted architect Philip Johnson's spectacular ■& for PPG Industries. Then try to remember those words which describe the old and the new city. the elderly are struck hardest nowadays. Interpretation of Photos Describe and interpret the pictures on this page and page 91 under the heading "A Tale of Two Cities. The metropolis of blast •ft and belching ■& is dead. "& . There are four times as many children growing up in female-headed households as in traditional two-parent families. Universities and hospitals attracted companies in ^ "fc . There were 30 percent more female-headed families in 1980 than in 1970." . transformed the city's downtown. 11. when 100 prominent citizens joined to spearhead an w "fr boom in the 1950s and 1960s that 8. tV in its architecture and confident in its future—in effect a prototype of the *fc metropolis. Between 1975 and 1985 the number of teenage pregnancies has decreased.96 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 8. Guided Letter Writing Write a letter to the editor of Fortune magazine in which you: • give a positive evaluation of the renaissance of Pittsburgh as described in the article • ask whether the text and the photo show the whole truth about Pittsburgh • state that the gap between the rich and the poor has widened in recent years • demand that the mayor and the city council take stern measures against the growth of poverty among children • warn them not to underestimate the problem. The transition from a manufacturing to a "& "ьГ began way back during World War II. seven major buildings were constructed downtown. While the steel industry was losing a great deal of money. Neither through more joint efforts nor through improved coordination of both the public and the private sector can the problem be tackled. Still synonymous in many minds with ■&■ . -£r . 7. ~fe and other advanced technologies. 10. Pittsburgh is not waiting for the resurrection of Smokestack America. 12.

state laws are quite similar. Within each state. framed in 1787 by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and put into effect in 1789. whereas in Japan there is one lawyer for every 10. the final interpreter of the Constitution. and federal courts handle approximately 12 million cases a year.C. authority is divided between state and federal (national) courts.000 people. If someone feels that these or other legal rights have been violated. Among the guarantees are freedom of religion. and Justice PART A Background Information CRIME AND JUSTICE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS JUDICIAL BRANCH STATE COURTS Issues of crime and justice have always held Americans' attention. The minimum age for marriage and the sentences for murder vary from state to state. area alone almost equals the 40. written in 1787.б Law. Generally. . At the head of the judicial branch is the Supreme Court. D. Local. Americans' claims for justice rest on the provisions of the United States Constitution. established a separate judicial branch of government which operates independently alongside the executive and legislative branches. police force. The minimum legal age for the purchase of alcohol is 21 in most states. with the result that each state has its own laws. There are few countries where so many people treat the law as part of their everyday lives.S. Most of the rights and freedoms that Americans enjoy are guaranteed in the first ten amendments or "Bill of Rights" of the Constitution. Constitution of the United States: fundamental law of the U. he or she may bring the case to court. state. but in some areas there is great diversity. Citizens have the right to be judged in a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury. and state court..000 lawyers in all of West Germany. Americans are accustomed to bringing their claims for justice to the courts. The Constitution. The number of lawyers practicing in the Washington. Supreme Court: the highest federal court in the United States consisting of nine justices and having jurisdiction over all other courts in the nation. and freedom to assemble in public. prisons. The Constitution recognizes that the states have certain rights and authorities beyond the power of the federal government. there are also county and city courts. States have the power to establish their own systems of criminal and civil laws. The sheer number of Americans employed in the legal profession is overwhelming. Crime. Within the judicial branch. there is one lawyer for every 440 Americans. freedom of the press.

Restricted to mopeds. A license restricted or qualified in some manner may be obtained at age set forth in "Restricted" column. Driver with Learner's Permit must be accompanied by locally licensed operator 21 years or older. a. bd 151/2d 15 yrs. g.98 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1987 License Laws for Passenger Cars AMERICAN AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION State Regular Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. Driver with Learner's Permit must be accompanied by locally licensed operator 18 years or older. d. с Must have completed approved Driver Ed Training course. c lorida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Mebraska Nevada Mew Hampshire Mew Jersey Mew Mexico Mew York Morth Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vemont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming 16 16 18 16 18 21 18 18 18 16 18 18 16 18 18 18 16 18 17 17 18 18 18 19 15 16 18 16 16 16C 17 16 17е 18 16 18 16 16 18 18 16 16 16 16е 16е 18 18 18 18 18 16 Age for driver's license2 Learner's 15 14 d 15 ce Restrictive d 15 & 7 mos. h. f.c d 15d 15 d d d 159 14 d d d d d 15"9 d d 15d 14' 14' 16" 14" 16е 16е 16е 16 bc 16" 15" 16b 15" 14е 16"° 16 & 1 mo. of Col. . b. Guardian or parental consent required. Learner's Permit required. & 10 mo. Must be enrolled in Driver Ed. c 16" 16Уг"с 16Ьс 16е 14 16" 15 15е c 16е 15е 15"° 151/2d 14 14Ь 16d 16 149 15 15" d 16bd 16" 16"° 14 ьс 15Угс 16"e 14' 15 d 15 & 8 m os M d 15h d 15d 15 d 15d 14 16" 16е 15 14 15 15е 16"С 16 15" 15s d de 16е 16" 16й а 14 " e. Full driving privileges at age set forth in "Regular" column.

An appeal may be made to the Circuit Court of Appeals. The Supreme Court hears cases in which someone claims that a lower court ruling is unjust or in which someone claims that Constitutional law has been violated. Each of the nine Supreme Court justices (judges) is appointed by the president and examined by the Senate to determine whether he or she is qualified. violence is so widespread that homicide is the leading cause of death among black males between the ages of 25 and 45. or that it will vote for limiting the rights of criminal suspects and defendants.fear of crime. In urban ghettos. and. Nevertheless. American jurist. possibly. with the hope that they can extend some of their power through the judicial branch. the authority of the judicial branch is independent from the other branches of government. In 1983. social. Constitution or under any law or treaty. The Supreme Court justices have no obligation to follow the political policies of the president or Congress. it does have the power to examine actions of the legislative. headed by Chief Justice William Rehnquist. a president can expect to appoint two new Supreme Court justices during one term of office. politics play a role in a president's selection of a Supreme Court justice. over 12 million crimes were committed. William: born 1925. Federal courts also hear disputes involving governments or citizens of different states. in the last resort. Conservatives in America hope that the present Supreme Court. a justice remains on the Supreme Court for life. The United States is notorious for its high crime rates. and administrative institutions of the government and decide whether they are constitutional. 45 percent of Americans surveyed admitted they were afraid to go out alone at Rehnquist. will override precedents such as the Burger Court's 1973 decision legalizing abortion. Once approved. Auto theft. Warren Earl: born 1907. The U. Its decisions are final and become legally binding. Supreme Court.S. CRIME. especially in cities. American jurist.LAW. In that year. executive. chief justice of the Supreme Court 1969-86. Presidents are likely to appoint justices whose views are similar to their own. All federal judges are appointed for life. chief justice since 1986. In the past. On average. Burger. as well as any controversy to which the federal government is itself a party. and burglaries occur so frequently. that many people live in constant.S. ideally. After three years of decline. Although the Supreme Court does not have the power to make laws. It is in this function that the Supreme Court has the potential to influence decisively the political. government is so designed that. President Reagan's appointments to the Supreme Court were judges with a decidedly conservative view of constitutional law. handles cases which arise under the U.S. A case which falls within federal jurisdiction is heard first before a federal district judge. Supreme Court rulings have given new protection and freedom to blacks and other minorities. AND JUSTICE 99 FEDERAL COURTS SUPREME COURT EXTENT OF CRIME The separate system of federal courts. the crime rate rose 5 percent in 1985. and economic life of the country. The Supreme Court has nullified certain laws of Congress and has even declared actions of American presidents unconstitutional. to the highest court in the land: the U. muggings. which operates alongside the state courts. robberies. . Their sole obligation is to uphold the laws of the Constitution.

establishing new Court -approved procedures. They claim that there is not enough evidence to prove that murderers are deterred by the threat of execution. Statistics indicate that only 20 percent of the people involved in illegal activity are apprehended. Many of these criminals belong to organized crime networks. Among these guarantees are the protection from unreasonable search and seizure.100 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP RIGHTS OF CRIMINAL SUSPECTS THE DEATH PENALTY PROBLEMS FOR LAW ENFORCERS night in their own neighborhoods. the suspect's right to decline to testify against himself/herself. and unstable families—are likely to persist. was unconstitutional because it was applied disproportionately to blacks and other minorities. among them. Responding to public pressure to get tough with criminals. as well as protection from excessive bail and from cruel and unusual punishment. Supporters of the death penalty argue that it is the only appropriate punishment for sadistic murderers. hold that the weakening of the rights of criminal suspects endangers the rights of all innocent people and gives too much power to the police. but also includes the protection of the rights of criminal suspects. which excludes from the trial any evidence gained by unlawful search and seizure. The Supreme Court has devised several rules to ensure the protection of these rights. Others. any evidence gained from questioning cannot be used in court. the right to counsel. . If the police do not inform the criminal suspect of his or her rights. States have since revised their death penalty laws. there has been a surge in recent years in the number of executions. Conservatives view these protections as serious obstacles to effective law enforcement. many of which derive from precedents created by the liberal Supreme Court of the 1960s. as carried out in most states. drug smuggling rings. In addition to the overcrowding in prisons. In the 1966 case. many states have been applying the death penalty as a deterrent to murder. and between 1980 and 1985. since the social problems which aggravate violence—poverty. Sometimes the exclusion of evidence from a trial means that some persons who are clearly guilty go free because of a technicality. many people hope that a more conservative court will weaken these protections. Looking for ways to secure community safety amidst rampant crime. Between 1970 and 1980. Courts have the difficult task of striking a balance between the needs of society on the one hand and the rights of the individual on the other. 47 prisoners were executed. Crime-stopping and crime prevention are formidable tasks for law enforce ment officials. They must be told of their right to remain silent and to have an attorney present during questioning. the accessibility of handguns is a major problem which further complicates the task of securing publi c safety. unemployment. the Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty. however. The Miranda rule is another controversial Supreme Court decision which extends the rights of criminal suspects. and street gangs. Although few criminals were sentenced to death between 1965 and 1983. Opponents of capital puni shment hope to see it declared unconstitutional. three prisoners were executed under the death penalty. the Mafia. In 1972. which sometimes result in a guilty suspect being relea sed from charges. One of these rules is the controversial exclusionary rule. the Court ruled that suspects must be read their legal rights before being questioned by police. The Constitution's guarantee of equal justice under the law for all citizens not only guarantees the individual's right to freedom and security.

Florida 2 Georgia Hawaii 2 Idaho Illinois 2 Indiana Iowa Kansas 2 Kentucky 2 Louisiana Maine 2 Maryland 5 Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota 2 Mississippi Missouri 2 Montana 2 Nebraska 2 Method Electrocution No death penalty Lethal gas Lethal injection Lethal gas Lethal gas Electrocution Hanging No death penalty Electrocution Electrocution No death penalty Firing squad or lethal injection Lethal injection Electrocution No death penalty No death penalty Electrocution Electrocution No death penalty Lethal gas No death penalty No death penalty No death penalty Lethal injection Lethal gas 6 hanging or lethal injection Electrocution State Nevada 2 New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico* New York 2 North Carolina North Dakota 2 Ohio Oklahoma 5 Oregon 2 Pennsylvania Rhode Island 2 South Carolina South Dakota 2 Tennessee 2 Texas 2 Utah Vermont Virginia 2 Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U. some states have imposed longer sentences for serious crimes and have restricted parole. Supreme Court decision ruling capital punishment unconstitutional. in another ruling the same day. .S. Method shall be that used by state in which sentence is imposed. 1976. One way to relieve overcrowding is parole. 3. must operate above capacity to accommodate the number of inmates. These decisions left uncertain the fate of condemned persons throughout the U. the conditional release of a pr isoner before the term of his or her sentence has expired. 2. many states.S. federal judge shall prescribe method for carrying out sentence." However. On Oct. Voted to restore death penalty after June 29. 4. 4. 1977. Supreme Court upheld the death penalty as not being "cruel or unusual. the U. Govt. Person shall be executed by gas if he commits murder while serving a prison term. The first execution in this country since 1967 was in Utah on Jan. The result of heavier prison sentences is that prisons are filling up before state and federal authorities can find the money to build new facilities. 17.C. NOTE: An asterisk after the name of the state indicates non-reply. AND JUSTICE 101 Methods of Execution1 State Alabama Alaska 2 Arizona 2 Arkansas California* 2 Colorado 2 Connecticut Delaware D.LAW. the Court refused to reconsider its July ruling. 6. Source: Information Please questionnaires to the states. (Fed. by a 7-2 decision. have changed their laws. many of which are old and rundown.S. stated that states may not impose "mandatory" capital punishment on every person convicted of murder. On July 1.)* American Samoa Guam Puerto Rico Virgin Islands 2 Method Lethal injection Hanging Lethal injection Lethal injection No death penalty Lethal gas or injection No death penalty Electrocution Lethal injection Lethal injection Electrocution 3 No death penalty( ) Electrocution Lethal injection Electrocution Lethal injection Firing squad or lethal injection Electrocution Electrocution Hanging or lethal injection No death penalty No death penalty Lethal injection 4 () No death penalty No death penalty No death penalty No death penalty 1. 1972. 5. but not been used. Nevertheless. which allows some states to proceed with executions of condemned prisoners. OVERCROWDED PRISONS The nation's prisons. responding to public pressure to get tough with criminals. Death penalty has been passed. Gary Mark Gilmore was executed by shooting. If state does not have death penalty. the Court. Defendant may choose between hanging and a lethal injection. For example. by a 5-4 vote. CRIME.

In a three-month trial in 1987 Goetz was finally acquitted of all but the relatively minor charge of illegally possessing a gun. he was hailed as a hero by most New Yorkers. Many Americans fear that gun control laws will prevent law-abiding citizens from being able to protect their homes. and legislators to deal swiftly with the problem of crime. the police. despite protest from law enforcers. The incident occurr ed in 1984 on a subway train when four youths demanded five dollars from him. An FBI report revealed that firearms were involved i n more than half of the murders in the United States in 1984. . all of who m had criminal records. two handguns for every three households. Refusing to be victimized. only 4 percent favored having a law to ban sale and possession. the lobbies against gun control are very influential. While 70 percent of all Americans surveyed in 1985 favored registration of handguns. Even sophisticated rapid -fire combat weapons are available. Some opponents of handguns favor a complete ban on their sale and possession. Americans now own 65 million pistols and revolvers. some people are willing to break the law in order to defend themselves. All the same.102 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP GUN CONTROL SELF-DEFENSE Many lawmakers favor stric ter gun control laws as a method of curbing crime. Until measures are taken to address the soda] factors which cause violence. Goetz. Lacking confidence in the ability of the courts. including convictions for armed robbery and burglary. When New York subway passenger Bernhard Goetz took the law into his own hands to avoid being the victim of another crime. many Americans look for ways to protect themselves from attacks and burglaries. Proponents of gun control are pressing the government to at least require registration of all handguns and to require background checks on all potential handgun buyers to ensure that they do not have a criminal record. The public's support for Goetz indicates Americans' frustration with the criminal justice system's inadequacy in protecting individual rights. Congress passed a bill in 1985 to loosen restrictions on firearms. reacted by pulling out a gun and shooting the four youths. crime wi \\ continue to aftect a \axge segment d the population. a man with no criminal record who had already been mugged and severely beaten several months earlier.

The first. Wearing a ski mask. they are . In the story. Not much later. was shot dead. house in a fight over a pool game. but by beautiful young men who lay wrecked after sudden explosions of violence. Leonard. an angry young neighbor. industrial city southwest of Philadelphia. suburban-born recruits to get hard-core soldiers from the inner city. In fact. 6ne from the Army — arguing fiercely. heavily poor. I remember from my 14th year — Johnny. whom I loved very much. to violence. stabbed to death two doors from my. These two items — the veterans arguing and the sergeant's words — still characterize for me the circumstances under which black men in their teens and 20's kill one another with such frequency. Milton. nearly at blows about which outfit had done the most in the war.just 22 years old — had been murdered. fired six times at close range with a massive . William. With a touchy paranoia born of living battered lives. he emerged from a car. severely beaten. in the 1960's. with an argument over a girlfriend — escalated from posturing.103 PART в О About Men BY BRENT STAPLES Texts A BROTHER'S MURDER I T HAS BEEN MORE than two years since my telephone rang with the news that my younger brother Blake . wounding him badly.44 Magnum. another teenage neighbor. we both were raised in Chester. to murder. they meant. Wesley. As I wept for Blake I felt wrenched backward into events and circumstances that had seemed light-years gone. Pa." I believe he said. I read a magazine article that set that dispute in a context. lost an eye and donned a black patch. The two had once been inseparable friends. a noncommissioned officer — a sergeant. the assailant had already survived multiple gunshot wounds from an incident much like the one in which my brother lost his life. The summers blur. took a shotgun blast to the shoulder in some urban drama and displayed his bandages proudly. It went on. then fled. two local Vietnam veterans — one from the Marines. There. an angry. The most killing. shot a crosstown rival. death could have come to either of them from anywhere. brash lover of fast cars. Though a decade apart. to threats. His brother. I recall not long before I left for college. heavily black. I was introduced to mortality. The young man who killed him was only 24. The way the two were living. not by the old and failing. A senseless rivalry — beginning. I believe — said he would pass up any number of affluent. my teenage cousin. They jumped into the rice paddies with "their manhood on their sleeves. I think.. The next year.

male and in its teens and early 2()'s — that is far and away the most likely to murder or be murdered. the hopeless. I rarely visited my hometown. As I stood in my apartment in Chicago holding the receiver that evening in February 1984. standing in some Roanoke dive among drug dealers and grim. I saw that Blake's romance with the street life and the hustler image had flowered dangerously. I said. I wanted desperately for him to live. This place and the way you are living smells of death to me. I shut it out. Incursions to be punished by death were many and minor. He took my alarm casually. kept me connected to the old world with news of deaths. We arranged to meet the following night — an appointment he would not keep. . then became a journalist. Take some time away. I felt emotionally beaten up. As I fled the past. tree-lined street where voices raised in anger were scarcely ever heard. imprisoning and misfortune. hair-trigger losers. and they remain so: they include stepping on the wrong toe.104 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1. I questioned myself then.. When I reached for him. My brother grew up to wear his manhood on his sleeve.and late-1970s in Chicago as a graduate student. idle young men crashing against one another — these reminded me of the embittered town we'd grown up in. he was in that group — black. taught for a time. He had affected the image of the tough he wanted to be. I drove away. It was a place where once I would have been comfortable. The telephone. simply saying "I dare you" to someone holding a gun. One evening that late December. Kickback from a shotgun. I nearly wept. continued desperate to be real men. spent the mid. He cried out as I took his right hand. I lacked the language simply to say: Thousands have lived this for you and died. take a bus trip. But behind the dark glasses and the swagger. hearing of my brother's forays into crime. anything to get away and-cool things off. and I still do. Within 10 years of leaving my hometown. The young think themselves immortal. I told him I feared for his life. On Christmas of 1983. he smiled and danced just beyond my grasp. I traveled from Chicago to a black section of Roanoke. And when he died. where he then lived. Let's go downtown tomorrow and buy a plane ticket anywhere. Did I not reach back soon or earnestly enough for him? For weeks I awoke crying from a recurrent dream in which I chased him. unsteady on foreign terrain. I added a psychological dimension to the physical distance I had already achieved. or at least sure of myself. his scrapes with police and street thugs. Now. I said. crossing territorial lines in a gang dispute. I fought the urge to lift him bodily and shake him. We embraced as though through glass. The desolate public housing projects. I glimpsed the baby-faced toddler I'd once watched over. I was scared. cheating in a drug deal. and a dangerous light shone in his eyes as he spoke laughingly of making fools of the policemen who had raided his apartment looking for drugs. literally. nothing serious. I left the East Coast after college. urgently trying to get him to read a document I had. Perhaps to protect myself. His eyes shining like black diamonds. so Blake embraced it. as though reading it would protect him from what had happened in waking life. Va. he explained. I felt as though part of my soul had been cut away. like some grim umbilical. A line of stitches lay between the thumb and index fmger. I caught only the space where he had been. Gunplay had become part of his life. Killing is only machismo taken to the extreme. I was overeducated and "upwardly mobile." ensconced on a quiet.

AND JUSTICE 105 О LAW & JUSTICE r to Fight Crime by Frank Borzellieri ARMING CITIZENS "The right to defend oneself is the highest natural law.'" Those words. But when you look at this conventional wisdom. normally a tough. anti-crime mayor. Innis. who offered to defend Bernhard Goetz for nothing even before he surrendered. we've got the space. wouldn't his constituents feel more secure if Koch assured." O NE of the basic issues the case of Bernhard Goetz . though illegally armed. and its gun law insures this toleration. In 1980. Borzellieri is a free-lance journalist from Glendale. we have. has not even remotely provided adequate protection for its citizens. chairman of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). fails to see these misconceptions. but naive and dangerous. it is time to reveal to the public the truth behind the entire gun issue. 'Don't you dare have a gun. guns should be kept out of the hands of people. janitor who works the midnight shift to support his family and feels it necessary to carry a weapon to ensure that he can arrive at his destination safely? More recently. public of the consequences of being caught possessing an illegal handgun. Civil rights leader Roy Innis. more self-evident than any law chiseled in stone by some legislature. CRIME. rather than the decent. once again focusing the public opinion spotlight on gun control. keep guns out of the hands of people. he informed the Mr. is the mistaken assumption that you can. has studied the gun question for many years." Koch warned the potential copycat shooters. Koch's intentions were noble.New York's "subway vigilante" . "If you've got the gun. in fact. "We will not tolerate vigilantism in New York. . really." As Ed Koch strode through a city prison.has brought to light is a person's right to defend himself. in fact. When an astute politician like Koch."? The sad truth is that New York does tolerate crime. guns should be restricted. N. but then they tell you. hit the nail precisely on the head and reveal certain inconsistencies in the gun control question. Y. Again. despite the tightest gun control law in the nation.LAW. "They don't protect you in New York.the criminal by making his work less difficult. to reason because the fault of the question of keeping guns out of the hands of people. aided and abetted. It has also shown itself to be not only ineffective. New Yorkers viewed their mayor on a television commercial proudly proclaiming the passage of what was hailed рч "the toughest gun law in America. "We will not tolerate crime. the mayor rekindled memories of his 1980 proclamation with another profound statement immediately following the Goetz shooting of four alleged muggers. it doesn't stand up. This train of thought has dominated the New York area and similar crime-plagued areas throughout the country. is the only prominent black leader to back Goetz. Innis blasts those who offer what he terms "liberal knee-jerk" arguments: The conventional wisdom around the gun question in the society we live in is that guns are dangerous. spoken by Bernhard Goetz. but wouldn't the subway riders prefer the "space" be reserved for the armed mugger. New York." Koch said as he opened a cell door. The knee-jerk reaction of many dealing with the gun control question is simple: guns are evil and therefore must be banned." Roy Innis: "With the armed criminal and the restrictive laws disarming the citizen.

not what simply seems the best. 1982.S. Since that time. and for the most part academically. What is the problem is that. being necessary to the security of a free State. the issue of capital punishment is once again in the public forum. in fact. is just another felony in a series of felonies that that person has dedicated Koch.500 condemned persons more than at the time of Furman! While the debate over capital punishment has continued sporadically. Today. Illinois. : see page 19. the debate . In addition. when Charlie Brooks. at the time of the Furman v. Nevada. just over 10 years later. to a lifelong criminal. It has effectively made the citizen prey to the armed criminal. Virginia.what is rightfully theirs according to the Constitution. . A well-thinking criminal will have to be a strong advocate of tight gun control. . This new method of execution raises additional ethical issues in the debate over the death penalty. Carrying a gun. In short.. the right of the people to keep and bear arms. was put to death by lethal injection. So the fact that criminals are armed should not be strange to us. 629 persons were housed on death rows throughout the U. over the past 20 years. under the present conditions. He has proposed a plan that will loosen the gun laws. by Donald B. marked the end of a 10-year moratorium on the use of capital punishment in the U. with the toughest gun law in the country. a black nationalist organization founded in 1942. continued Innis speaks wisely of the pragmatic effects. Roy Innis has done more than reveal the tragic results of this gun law situation. and Texas. Georgia decision. Florida. . The Innis plan is a manifold. .": 2nd Amendment: A well- regulated militia. allowing decent citizens to carry weapons. Jr. The latest innovation in the manner of killing was revealed in Texas on Dec. As a consequence of these eight executions and the impending death of numerous other death row inmates. О Parting Thoughts The Death Penalty: Legal Cruelty? T HE execution of Gary Mark Gilmore by a Utah firing squad on Jan. since the appeals process for many of these condemned persons has been virtually exhausted.106 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. The sheer size of the death row population creates a significant moral dilemma for our society.100 . 1977.. ". shall not be infringed. the issue today takes on a greater sense of urgency. 14. that restrictive gun laws have demonstrated: New York. It has effectively disarmed the citizen. USATODAY/JULY 1985 Congress of Racial Equality: (CORE). his life to. 17. seven more executions have taken place — one each in Alabama..S. Walker In 1972.. high-result program. Mississippi. Edward I . the death row population exceeds 1. the tangible effects. we have. What he is trying to do is give the public back what is rightfully theirs according to the Constitution and to do so in the perspective of what is pragmatically best for society. has not done very much to disarm the criminal. the debate takes on a heightened sense of immediacy. aided and abetted the criminal by making his work less difficult. with the armed criminal and the restrictive laws disarming the citizens.

8th Amendment: "Excessive bail shall not be required.. Both the actual manner of execution and the long period of confinement in death row preceding its application cause acute pain and mental suffering to the condemned person. the first person killed by lethal injection. in the U. The uneasiness which we. A moral and humane society constantly seeks to bring the law into closer harmony with the widest interpretation of justice in that society at any given time. In those cases. Kent (Ohio) State University USATODAY/NOVEMBER 1983 Furman v." the moral interpretation of that concept and its relationship to justice in our society remains unsettling.S. The court. Charlie Brooks. CRIME." . the Court held that the death penalty itself does not contravene the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment as long as it is applied in a fair and impartial manner. must fit that definition.LAW. has now taken his place in history along with other objects of experimentation in this quest to kill people painlessly. However. Jr. constitutes a flagrant example of the continuing gap between law and justice in our society. Georgia the Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty in Georgia was unconstitutional because it was applied inconsistently as far more blacks than whites were executed for similar crimes. The Gregg decision further clarified the procedure which the sentencing court must use in determining the fate of the guilty defendant. Gregg v. The contention here is that the continued use of the death penalty in the U. however." then capital punishment. The fundamental question which must be addressed with respect to the death penalty is under what circumstance does the state have the right to take the life of one of its citizens? That question. One hard lesson which the world should have learned as a consequence of the Holocaust is that law and justice are independent concepts. nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. nor excessive fines imposed. was answered by the Supreme Court in the Furman and Gregg decisions.S. Georgia decision: the Court ruled that the death penalty was not unconstitutional as such under the 8th and 14th Amendments. the creation of law is more frequently the result of the interpretation of justice by the powerful in the society which is then applied at the expense of the powerless. On the other hand. While the Su- preme Court has upheld the legality of capital punishment under the Eighth Amendment.S. did not rule that the death penalty violated the 8th Amendment.." it surely can not make it more ethical. Dr. AND JUSTICE 107 is far less an academic exercise over the significant levels of deterrence data than it is a significant public issue related to the concept of justice in our society. with respect to the use of capital punishment for first-degree murder convictions. feel towards the infliction of pain on the condemned prisoner has led to a continuous search for more refined and "humane" means of carrying out the execution order. the use of otherwise life-saving medical techniques and drugs to carry out executions raises serious ethical questions for the society as a whole and the medical profession in particular. The civil rights movement in the U. why is it necessary to make it "palatable"? Despite the legal interpretation of the concept "cruel. it has ignored the moral and ethical implications of the "cruel and unusual" clause. if we remain convinced that capital punishment is both a necessary and just means of ensuring social defense. regardless of its legal interpretation. If one considers the deliberate infliction of pain and suffering on others to be "cruel. What has been overlooked in these decisions is that the Supreme Court has answered the question only in a legal and not in any moral or ethical sense. is an excellent example of this process. Georgia decision: In Furman v. Walker is assistant professor of criminal justice studies. Even though Texas District Judge Doug Shaver feels that death by lethal injection "will make it more palatable. Furthermore. Law is the derivation of a society's interpretation of justice which is relative both to time and place.

. in Justice Clark's chambers in the Supreme Court." and finally we extended the ruling to misdemeanors as well. we use our authority to uphold these decisions. •Editor's Note: In the case of Griffin v. He then served on the Court until 1967. Now you say. Ramsey Clark. You also should remember that we on the Court serve another role. and one would be foolish to deny that courts are not affected by the time in which the justices live. Yet we are influenced by the necessities of the time. Wainwrighl (1963) the Court ruled that all defendants are entitled to a lawyer appointed by the court if they are unable to pay for one themselves. The same was true in segregation. The late Justice Clark spent more than 50 years as a lawyer and judge. Illinois (1956) the Supreme Court ruled that a defendant who is appealing a court decision should not be denied a copy of the transcript of his trial because of inability to pay for it. or what some individual claims. But once they got the transcript they couldn't tell much about it without a lawyer and they commenced again to "knockin' on our door. I rather think that the pinch was what caused it. I served 18 years on the bench and frankly. So you had it going full sway. Illinois* in which Griffin said. What happened was. He served as attorney general of the United States from 1945 to 1949." I rather think that the Court is somewhat of an umpire. I myself doubt if any public clamor or any political manipulation on the Court can be effective. I'm just a layman and couldn't remember everything. the Court had ruled that only in felony cases should a lawyer be appointed. QUESTION: Woodrow Wilson once called the Supreme Court "the balance wheel" in our system. they kept "knockin' on our door. We had one case which had to do with segregation in the field of graduate education. Take for example the criminal field. If the decisions of the other two branches are in keeping with constitutional doctrine.. and claims by comparing them with the law as laid down by the Constitution. until we had the Gideon case. It considers what the Congress proposes. After your many years of service on the Court. I wouldn't be able to appeal to a higher court. which is a felony. proposals. ••Editor's Note: In Gideon v." So when this came to us (the Supreme Court) on appeal. What about public accommodations? What about swimming pools and things like that? And the first thing you know they're "knockin' on the door. or what the executive proposes. when President Truman appointed him an associate justice of the Supreme Court. QUESTION: Justice William H. And if a citizen doesn't voluntarily follow the rules laid down by the Congress or by the president or by other courts. Without a transcript. and rules upon these laws. How much do you think the needs of the times affect the decisions of the Court? How is public opinion brought into the process of taking cases and making decisions? Justice Clark: Well. Justice Robert H. how do you see its role in our political system? Justice Clark: Well. That's because of the necessities that were brought to our attention.108 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Thoughts on the Supreme Court An Interview with Tom Clark (excerpts) This interview was conducted on August 23." In an old case before I became a justice. but not with the impact that they were brought to us. well. Every year there are new cases. otherwise the game is going to end up in a riot before the nine innings are played. Then other questions came up. why then it's our job to enforce those rules so that that individual will be punished or reprimanded. Board of Education (1954) the Court ruled segregation in public schools to be unconstitutional. was named attorney general. . and I ought to be entitled to read the transcript of what went on in the courtroom.*** which was on the grade school level. what do you have? You have an umpire. "If you want to play a baseball game. when he resigned because of a potential conflict of interest that arose when his son. "I'm being charged with murder. The Watergate case was a good example of the Supreme Court's responsibility to decide whether or not the Congress or the president had exercised authority in a constitutional way. I think that Chief Justice (Warren) Burger put it pretty well when he said. Exceptions were made to this case over the years as additional cases came before the Court. weren't those brought before? Possibly they were. Board of Education. new people who come "knockin' on our door" with constitutional questions which need to be resolved. or whether the lawyer looking out saw the pinch and tried to minimize it. Taft once said that courts are composed of people. Jackson said that the Court's function was nothing less than to be an arbiter among rival forces in our society. We ruled that this was unconstitutional and later there came the case of Brown v." I don't know whether you'd say that the individual citizen who felt the pinch knocked on the door. I did get quite a few letters from all over the country about various things. but I don't think any of those things influenced my thinking on the legal matters which were involved. We started out with the case of Griffin v.and then calls the strikes and the balls. See the "How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court" diagram for more details on the Gideon case. •••Editor's Note: In Brown v. 1976. we ruled that defendants are entitled to a transcript.** In this one we ruled that everyone accused of a crime was entitled to a lawyer.

Only a very small percentage of cases appealed are considered by the Supreme Court. During its 1976—77 term. Chief Justice Fred Vinson had died in September and President Eisenhower had appointed Earl Warren to replace him. The case was officially titled Brown v. 4> Trial in Federal District Court February 1951 — Her father. Generally speaking. However. Oliver Brown. Supreme Court from the highest courts in each state or from lower federal courts. Board of Education "My Rights Have Been Violated" September 1950 . the Court will be inclined to hear a case if it involves a basic constitutional principle.LAW. Ferguson case. Appeal to the United States Supreme Court While many cases must be appealed from district court to the court of appeals. Appeals are brought to the U. arguments were again heard for both sides. An appeal is not a new trial. CRIME. yet agreed to hear oral arguments for only 176.Arguments were heard from lawyers for both sides. Kansas. AND JUSTICE 109 How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court While there are certain cases that can be brought directly to the Supreme Court. During that time. the Court received petitions for 4. this case was appealed directly to the Supreme Court. December 1953 — A year later.An eight-year-old black student named Linda Brown was denied admission to an all-white elementary school in Topeka. the majority of cases are brought on appeal. but rather a reexamination of the evidence. it has the right to appeal that decision to a higher court. Board of Education of Topeka. From Federal District Court Brown v. procedures and legal or constitutional principles on which the decision was based in the previous trial.S. 4> The Supreme Court Decides May 1954 . It stated that segregated schools were unconstitutional because segregation "deprives children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities. . an important question of federal law or a conflict between state and federal law. a significant change had occurred on the Court. June 1952 — The Supreme Court agreed to hear the Brown case.By a 9 to 0 vote the Supreme Court overruled the district court's decision. the Court was divided and unable to arrive at a decision. December 1952 .731 cases." It nullified the "separate but equal" principle of the 1896 Plessy v. Kansas. If either party in a case is unhappy with the decision of a lower court. and 12 other black parents sued the city's Board of Education in the United States District Court.

Do you think guns should be banned in the U. HANDGUN CONTROL Should laws covering the sale of handguns be made more strict. The author compares Blake Staple's world of violence. 3. Global Comprehension Arming Citizens to Fight Crime Which of the following statements about the text is correct? In some cases more than one answer is possible.4/86-1 Favor Oppose All 47% 47 Men 39% 57 Women 55% 38 Whites 45% 49 Blacks 59% 34 3. take into consideration: . Give reasons for your decisions. 2. How strict are the gun control laws in your country? 4. How does its style differ from the style you normally find in magazine reports? 2. 1. In this text the author a) presents an objective discussion of the question of gun control. c) have made criminal activities less difficult. 3. List the arguments Frank Borzellieri uses for and against gun control. Describe how the author conveys to the reader that his brother's tragic end was almost inevitable.? When discussing this question. 2. b) have at least made the janitors feel safer at work. Show how he tries to put greater emphasis on his argument by • choosing examples that support his viewpoint • quoting people who share his view • using rhetorical devices to depreciate opposing views. c) to back his own viewpoint. What may have been Brent Staple's motives for writing this article? 3. b) to point out the inconsistencies in Mayor Koch's statements. This text comes from a special section of the New York Times Magazine. b) favors less strict gun laws. New York's gun laws a) have improved the protection of citizens. The author quotes Bernhard Goetz a) in order to reveal the inconsistency of Goetz's defense. Analyze the following opinion poll and compare the figures with the point Frank Borzellieri wants to make in his article. 4. Find the words and expressions he uses to indicate this contrast. 5. c) opposes the idea of gun control. According to Frank Borzellieri. 4. Would you favor or oppose having such a law in your community? (Gallup) I---------------------------------------------.110 PART C Exercises 1.S. 2. crime and aggression with his own much more secure and peaceful way of living. Text Analysis A Brother's Murder 1. c) believes that stricter gun laws help criminals more than ordinary citizens. less strict or kept as they are now? (Gallup) More strict 60% Less strict Kept same 1975 69% 3 24 1980 59% 6 29 1981 65% 3 30 1983 59% 4 31 1986 8 30 Some communities have passed laws banning the sale and possession of handguns. Roy Innis. Discussion 1. b) argues in favor of gun control. chairman of CORE. a) is one of the many black leaders who oppose stronger gun control laws. Show how the author's biography is woven into the account of his brother's life and death. Discuss whether you think the author succeeds in getting his message across to the reader.

In the Gideon case the court ruled that every citizen fa of a crime was entitled to a lawyer provided by the court if he was unable to pay for one himself. 4. Walker. Griffin was fa with murder.LAW. CRIME. now 47. A citizen who does not obey such rules will be fa . to recall the different stages of the case. How do the concepts of law and justice relate to each other? 5. that the justices have to consider the necessities of the time when dealing with constitutional questions which have not arisen before.S. being necessary to the security of a free State. her personal experiences in the years 1950-54 and the effects the Court's final decision has had on her life. Reading the transcript without a fa advice was too difficult for a layman. Illinois. which aspect of the issue did the Supreme Court deal with and which aspect did it ignore? 4. Preparing an Interview How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court Thirty-five years after the Supreme Court decided on the case of Brown v. the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. Justice Clark does not believe that political manipulation can influence the justices' thinking on fa matters. And the way to do that is with guns." 6. they are fa by the Supreme Court. What is the author's view on capital punishment? 6." . which is a fa . AND JUSTICE 111 • the situation of young urban blacks as described by Brent Staples in the text A Brother's Murder. Debate Have a debate on the motion: "Capital punishment is unethical and should be banned. H e believed that he ought to be entitled to read the fa of what was said in the courtroom in order to be able to fa to a higher court. As a reporter whose job it is to cover the Brown case you would like to interview Linda Brown. and if I know how to use a gun and feel I need one for self-defense. however. • the 2nd Amendment to the U. Why was the discussion about the death penalty more urgent at the time the article appeared than ten years before? 2. Constitution: "A well-regulated militia." • a statement by Neal Knox of the National Rifle Association: "The right of self-defense is a fundamental one. Comprehension The Death Penalty: Legal Cruelty? 1. If decisions of legislative and executive powers are constitutional. a city with a high crime rate: "It's getting to the point where it's up to the citizens to protect themselves. He admits. In the case of Griffin v. How does he support his view? 7. whose business is it to say that I shouldn't own one?" • the statement of a police sergeant in Houston. According to Donald B. an educational radio station is preparing a documentry series on the history of desegregation. proposals or actions made by the and claims made by fa. Prepare the questions for the interview. In its Furman and Gregg decisions how did the Supreme Court rule on the question of the circumstances under which the state has the right to take the life of one of its citizens? 3. The Supreme Court fa that a fa is entitled to a transcript. Board of Education. Modified Cloze Test Thoughts on the Supreme Court The Supreme Court considers laws passed by the fa. 5. It decides whether they are in keeping with the fa . In the Watergate fa the Supreme Court had to decide whether the president had exercised authority in a fa way. What is the author's opinion on carrying out executions by lethal injection? 7.

has kept many Americans from sharing equal protections and prospects in American society. Minority demands are sure to continue. Yet many groups wanting to share in the nation's overall prosperity have experienced how scarce opportunities can be in the competition for income and status. Thirteenth Amendment: "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude. are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery. In response to minority demands.7 Minorities PART A DISCRIMINATION AGAINST MINORITIES Background Information Americans cherish the picture of their country as a land of wealth and opportunity. laws alone cannot eliminate discrimination. despite the existence of laws that prohibit housing discrimination. When the Founding Fathers asserted in the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal" and possess inalienable rights to life. Hispanics and the elderly will account for an increasingly larger share of the population. The 1960s was a decade of turbulence and social change. shall exist within the United States. Three Constitutional amendments were passed and ratified between 1865 and 1870. the Fourteenth Amendment gave blacks the rights of citizenship. Attitudes change slowly. or property. the struggle for equal rights has been long and often bitterly opposed. bringing their protests to the streets and courts all over the country. Civil War: see page 44. for example. culture. except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. and new solutions will be essential as the composition of American society continues to change rapidly. Declaration of Independence: see page 31. Blacks and other minorities became politically active. However. nor shall any State deprive any person of life." Fourteenth Amendment: "All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof. many new laws were passed to outlaw and compensate for inequalities. Not until after the Civil War ended in 1865 did blacks begin to share in the most basic rights of citizenship. and Founding Father: see page 25. or any place subject to their jurisdiction. and age. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. For America's blacks. For example. Discrimination because of color." THE BLACKS . No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. without due process of law. women and blacks were excluded. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Constitution of the United States: see page 97. and society will have to make adjustments to these changing demographics. liberty. many people still refuse to rent to blacks and Hispanics.

In 1896 the Supreme Court had ruled that racial segregation was legal as long as "separate but equal" facilities were provided. and schools. Many of these laws were controversial and have been difficult to enforce. There were separate facilities marked "colored only" for blacks. . equal employment opportunities. As a result of these new laws. Brown v. awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. but additional legislation was found to be necessary. new legislation was passed in the 1960s to prohibit discrimination. the Board of Education decision: Supreme Court decision of 1954 ruling that public schools could not be separated by race. In accordance with this legislation. fair housing. Jr. The landmark case Brown v.: (1929-68) American Baptist minister and civil rights leader. Dr Martin Luther King. In 1957 Congress passed the first civil rights legislation in eighty years. voter registration among blacks has increased. Southern whites found ways to circumvent the intention of the amendments. It prohibited discrimination in public accommodations such as restaurants and hotels and also outlawed job discrimination by employers and unions. blacks and other Fifteenth Amendment: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race. provided leadership and strategy for the mass movement. color. Until his assassination in 1968. Black political power has also grown: more and more blacks are being elected to public office.MINORITIES 113 CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION the Fifteenth Amendment gave them the right to vote. This act was significant in other ways." Supreme Court: see page 97. The 1965 Voting Rights Act abolished literacy tests. which had been used to deny blacks the right to vote. The civil rights movement was a success in the areas of voting rights and public accommodations and facilities. He supported nonviolent tactics such as "sit-ins" at restaurants which segregated the races. federal examiners are still appointed in many communities to ensure that proper voter registration and election procedures are followed. King. In areas such as housing and employment. In 1963. making it illegal to administer voting laws in a discriminatory manner. and fair voting laws. Until the modern civil rights movement. the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s had the momentum of a social revolution. Despite these Constitutional provisions. and this practice of racial segregation was sanctioned by the courts. the Board of Education in 1954 was the first successful challenge to legalized segregation of blacks and whites. or previous condition of servitude. assassinated. hotels. theaters. blacks were denied access to public places such as restaurants. The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that maintaining separate but equal schools for blacks and whites was unconstitutional because separate schools can never provide the same educational opportunities. Some radical black leaders later advocated violent revolution as the way blacks could finally take control of the economic and political aspects of their lives. The legislation focused on protecting the voting rights of blacks. Congress passed a constitutional amendment prohibiting the use of a poll tax in federal elections. Civil rights legislation was again passed in 1964. Despite fair housing laws. Martin Luther Jr. although the percentage is still well below the comparable figure for whites. which began in the 1950s. Racial prejudice was rationalized and institutionalized in the South. With goals which included desegregation.

000. Besides the problems of discrimination which they have shared with other minorities. Employers are encouraged to hire and promote blacks. According to Census Bureau statistics. numbering about 28 million. Changes have occurred. two-thirds of all black children are born to unmarried mothers. the estimated 14 to 20 million Hispanics represent not only the second largest but also the fastest growing ethnic minority in the nation. The increase of Hispanic immigration has had a dramatic impact on American society. but the stream of illegal immigration across the Mexican border continues. The poverty rate for blacks is alarmingly high —31 percent compared with 11 percent for whites. While black Americans. The inequality gap between blacks and whites has been closing. the Native Americans were embittered by the United States government's long history of confusing policies. women. and others who had been denied opportunities. Hispanics number more than 50. they account for half of the male prison population. Hispanics have faced a tradition of job discrimination and poverty in the United States. Violence is another part of the poverty cycle. to institute bilingual education in schools. Spanish has become a major language in many areas. The issues are of increasing importance as the Hispanic population may soon become the nation's largest ethnic minority if present birth rates continue. Native Americans also adopted the techniques of protest. inspired by the black civil rights movement. and some cities are officially bilingual. Mexican Americans now make up one-fifth of California's population and the same proportion of the population of Texas. Because many Hispanics hold onto their language and customs. Among the legal Hispanic residents. Supporters of the policy insist that some form of preferential treatment must be used to break down the long-standing patterns of discrimination against minorities and women in the job market. After the Native . In the 1960s. Toward the end of the 1960s. Critics charge that it results in reverse discrimination against qualified white males. organized themselves to improve wages and working conditions. and to improve public services in Hispanic neighborhoods. 60 percent are of Mexican origin. Related to the problem of poverty is the breakdown of the urban black family. but 1985 Census Bureau statistics show that wide disparities remain in income and employment. questions are raised about how successfully they will assimilate into American culture. The goal of affirmative action is to match the racial and sexual composition of the working place with the composition of society. While black men make up only 6 percent of the population. but much remains to be done. make up the largest ethnic minority. one way the government has tried to correct job discrimination is through affirmative action laws that require most employers to take positive steps to remedy the effect of past discrimination against minorities. Many people wish to restrict immigration quotas in order to preserve the cultural dominance of nonHispanic whites. In 25 major cities. In the area of employment. A 1980 Public Health Reports study reveals that the leading cause of death among young black men is murder. and most of the rest are from Cuba or Puerto Rico. The unemployment rate for black teens is more than 40 percent. Hispanic groups.114 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP PROBLEMS OF URBAN BLACKS HISPANICS THE NATIVE AMERICANS minorities are often refused leases and contracts. The poverty and unemployment among America's urban blacks are reminders that inequalities have not been eliminated. particularly in the South and Southwest where the greatest settlement has occurred. The cultural infusion is resented by some Americans who fear that the country's ethnic identity is at stake.

the demands of the elderly are becoming harder to ignore. the number of people over age 65 grew twice as fast as the rest of the population. Activists have addressed the issues of job discrimination. During the 1960s and early 1970s. Many urban Native Amer icans reacted against these conditions and began to take pride in their heritage. the Supreme Court frequently made decisions which favored minorities. Although many states have passed laws banning discrimination against homosexuals. Between 1960 and 1982. Consequently. Besides ethnic minorities. senile. City life weakened tribal cus toms and bonds. army. Amer ica's d isab led are d etermi ned to cast o ff their i mage as seco nd class citizens. Conservatives have been gaining influence in the 1980s. the Age Discrimination Act was passed to prohibit discrimination against people between the ages of 40 and 65. With the number of older Americans on the rise. and student activists became targets of many middle-class Americans who resented what they regarded as the federal government's excessive protection of the "undeserving. tolerance of homosexuality undermines the nation's morality.MINORITIES 115 THE ELDERLY THE DISABLED HOMOSEXUALS Americans were subdued by the U." This so -called "Silent Majority" of the middle class demonstrated its presence at the polls. a nd helpless. Conservatives. applauded the 1986 Supreme Court decision that upheld the states' authority to make laws against homosexual acts. In the 1960s the federal government encouraged the retention of tribal governments and cultural identity. voting against homosexual rights and many federal programs that benefited minorities. Equal rights for homosexuals has been a more controversial issue. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 required employers who receive federal aid or work on government contracts to hire qualified disabled persons. the act required that public schools admit disabled children and that colleges make their buildings acces sible to the blind and those confi ned to wheelchairs. and have sought to dispel distorted perceptions of the elderly as weak. The Court. and homosexuals are minorities that suffer from discrimination. The elderly. In addition. In 1967. . These efforts have brought a greater degree of sovereignty and increasingly favorable interpretation of Native American rights by the federal courts. minorities are experiencing a less favorable political climate. and health care. retirement. 24 states have laws prohibiting certain kinds of sexual activity. The political setting for the civil rights movements of minorities was on e of liberalism. Many of the Court's decisions were considered controversial because they disrupted traditional social patterns. other fringe groups have voiced deman ds for recognition and equal rights. making Native American rights their prime political focus. The various groups which make up the conservative movement are united in their desire to conserve traditional values and social patterns. the handicapped. disabled people were institu tionalized or segregated and considered incapable of working and living as productive members of society. liberal reformers. fearing thaft. The American Indian Movement (AIM) demanded reforms that would give political autonomy to Native American groups an d recognize their special cultural needs. the government policy toward them wavered inconsistently between encouraging assimilation and promoting tribal autonomy. By this time the Native American population was becoming increasingly urban. For years.S. President Reagan was elected to two terms by a conservative majority. The courts and legislators responded to their demands by outlawing barriers to equal education and employment.

Redbird. . mountain and 1аке What use have I of the asphalt What use have I of the brick and concrete What use have I of the automobile Think you these gifts divine That I should be humbly grateful.116 PART в Texts I Am The Redman / am The Redman Son of the forest. water and sky What use have I of silk and velvet What use have I of nylon and plastic What use have I of your religion Think you these be holy and sacred That I should kneel in awe. Duke Redbird. Duke Redbird My Lodge Simple was my lodge of birch Pure was the water that I drank Swift was the canoe that carried me Straight was the arrow that protected me. I am the Redman Son of the tree. Duke: American Indian poet. I am the Redman I look at you White Brother And I ask you Save not me from sin and evil Save yourself. the Earth. Hopi elder at work in his fields I am the Redman Son of the earth. Wild was the meat that fed me Sweet was the sugar maple. hill and stream What use have I of china and crystal What use have I of diamonds and gold What use have I of money Think you these from heaven sent That I should be eager to accept. Strong were the herbs that sustained me Great was my mother.

hanging out with a gang called Satan's Saints and discovering the wonders of women. Not only would I be away from my family and friends. I read F. So when I returned to the Chicago housing projects where I grew up. I was one of only five blacks enrolled at the 200-student Episcopal school. R. I wanted to be a writer. and I didn't know what I would find. George's on a damp September night in 1966. all 11 of us were still in school. to retrace my life and those of my friends. Having to leave the safety and familiarity of home to get it was as difficult a decision as I've ever made. I was happy at Wendell Phillips High. No middle name: When I left Chicago for St.MINORITIES 117 SPECIAL REPORT By Sylvester Monroe T hey say you can't go home again. we might find some answers as to why black men in America seem almost an endangered species. Now I was being told that I could do better. I might never have gone to St.I. it was with ambivalence. It might as well have been the other side of the universe. We finish last in practically every socioeconomic measure from infant mortality to life expectancy. running on the track team. George's School in the fall of 1966. Through portraits of our lives together and apart. when I arrived at the front steps of St. through an outreach program called A Better Chance. a bit miffed that my mother had not given me a middle name. much better. but it meant leaving home to attend an all-boys boarding school in Newport. Pee Wee and Billy. We are two and a half times as likely to be unemployed. If it had been entirely up to me. It . I'd been back to the Robert Taylor Homes and Prairie Courts many times in the 20 years since I left in 1966. In fact. What had happened to us. making straight A's. And at the wide-eyed age of 14 and 15. And my mother convinced me that without an education the dream was impossible. I thought. and what did it say about growing up black? Black men are six times as likely as white men to be murder victims. I was journeying back to my past. I even started signing my name S. George's at all. The dream gave me hope. we still had dreams. Vest Monroe. It wasn't that I was afraid. Scott Fitzgerald and dreamed of authoring my own novel. But this time I was returning as a reporter. there wouldn't be any girls and barely any other blacks. to Half Man and Honk.

reversible-pleated baggy pants and brown and white StacyAdams wing tips. He was nice enough. I went to the phone. or so I thought.. I thought. I'd call my mother. but it sounded pretty serious to me. scanning my wide-brimmed Dunlop hat. I reminded myself." I began. "Yeah. Sick call: After roughly two weeks. The first person I met was Gil Burnett. Italian knit shirt. bought me a blue blazer. "Hey. They gave me the look of a preppy. I decided to find out exactly what was wrong with me. "Just like this. dark glasses. Mass." she said. "Hey. "Oh. Ma. And my mother had given me an out. I was thankful for the new duds. I think I ought to come home. and now I'm in the infirmary. "Do you have other clothes?" he asked. already planning my return. Wonderful. and catch the first ride home. the food is terrible. The main reason I was there. that I was admitted to the school infirmary. "The doctor says I've got a bad case of nostalgia." "What's the matter with you?" "I can't keep anything down. but something seemed to bother him. tell her what a godawful place boarding school was. two pairs of gray flannel slacks and a plain pair of black tie shoes. "Hey. . She said to me at the outset that I would never forgive myself if I didn't at least go and see what it was like. OK?" "Sure.118 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Sylvester Monroe 2. was to please my mother and Leroy Lovelace. my first faculty adviser. I think you're suffering from a really bad case of nostalgia. Secretly." I said. There's no way Mom won't let me come home now. what've I got. But I still found myself wondering why I agreed to leave 39 th Street. I had what I thought was a stroke of luck: I got sick — so sick." I said. I could always come home. George's exactly two weeks. in fact. To make my pitch even stronger. Doc. anyway?" I asked. I resolved to stay at St. you can come home but under one condition. then head for Chicago." she said. I'm sick as a dog." The next day he took me in his Land-Rover to the AndersonLittle knitting mills in Fall River. the schoolteacher largely responsible for getting me the scholarship. I hadn't the foggiest notion what that meant. This place is always cold. long enough to make a show of it. It was perfect. continued was culture shock on a mammoth scale. how you doin'?" "Not so good. Ma.

founded in 1636 by John Harvard (1607-38). and somehow I managed to survive. Fitzgerald. was that people were always trying I to separate me from other black [people in a manner strangely reminiscent of a time when slave owners divided blacks into "good Negroes" and "bad Negroes. . she confided years later. My own capacity for learning hadn't been stunted by life in the Taylor Homes. I even found myself actually beginning to like the place and its teachers. as less intelligent. especially black men. Prairie Courts: public housing projects in Chicago. if you are black. Another St.g. far away from a place like the Robert Taylors. Tender Is the Night. it could happen whether there was one parent or two. "The only way you're coming home before you're supposed to is in a box. My mother had been right: having worked hard. Faint disquiet: Looking back on it. George's made me a good Negro. More than a dozen cabbies had passed me by for a "safer" white fare. there's an artificial ceiling on your ambition. I had that love and support. George's. I wasn't sure he saw me at all. I'm not different. categorized and dismissed all within the space of a nervous glance solely on the basis of race is more than annoying. "We don't see black students or white students. to make straight A's: always get the best marks (A's) at school. I was pleased to show what black boys were capable of. in their eyes. But she also knew she had to. race relations is old news. an English Puritan clergyman in America. To be sized up. Even among people of good will. George's . and it's not just cabdrivers. everyone that I cared most about. male companion. through my 14-year career as a journalist — I have found myself looking over my shoulder on occasion. What bothered me was thatseai£_p£cjple ГпппН jf pasier tn prefenr] J ц/я^ something_else. Sometimes I get the feeling people are thinking. F. were still there? But you're different. "Why are there still Negroes?" . It's the same in other cities. Though economic-class divi- sions are rapidly producing a nation of haves and have-nots. I'd caught the break I needed to get out of the ghetto. it seems — unless somebody gets killed. Many people still perceive blacks. This Side of Paradise) and short stories. too: race is an inescapable burden for every black man. Ever since — through Harvard. George's teacher was surprised at my reaction when he implied that I should be grateful for the opportunity to attend St. while those left in Robert Taylor were bad Negroes or. It was three months before I got home again. an American church. race still tends to overshadow all else. or I've been walking on a deserted sidewalk with a black." Somehow." It was one of the hardest things she'd ever done. it's demeaning and damaging to the psyche of an entire people. And as my mother proved. poor man. my family. at the very least. I'm just lucky enough to have been in the right place at the right time. that can only come from the family. I've stepped into an elevator and noticed a woman clutch her purse a little tighter under her arm. beggar or thief. a few kids or a houseful. when my friends. That's why you got out. attending St. . . Recently. Harvard: prestigious private university in Cambridge. What the teacher failed to understand was that my background was not something to be ashamed of. In some ways. who tempered no-nonsense classes with a touch of compassion. there was a faint disquiet.MINORITIES 119 "What's that?" I asked. when a white couple spots us and suddenly decides to cross the street. I wanted to "say it loud: I'm black and I'm proud!" One of the greatest frustrations of my three years at St. I snapped back. for blacks. for Christmas vacation. I was on an equal footing with my wealthier classmates. But the men of my family were right. that sense of self-worth. I insisted."~~a well-meaning faculty member once told me. we just see students. Yet. in fact. Stacy-Adams wing tips: shoes with perforated parts covering the toes and sides. More than a few times. The Great Gatsby. less productive and generally more violent than the rest of society. which before 1789 was associated with the Church of England. Massachusetts. Robert Taylor Homes. As in the old James Brown song of the '60s. Scott (1896-1940): American author of novels (e. I waited 45 minutes one evening on Sixth Avenue in midtown Manhattan before a cab finally stopped for me. outreach program "A Better Chance": a program providing disadvantaged students with better educational chances. he continued. It doesn't matter whether you are rich man. I didn't have to go back to the Robert Taylor Homes to understand that. inferior ones. Episcopal school: school run by the Protestant Episcopal Church." But black was what I was. How could I be. "We're colorblind here.

American. so we could earn a little more money to buy food or buy them a pair of shoes or a coat that they needed. One room. . Now. ." She has six grown children. I-said: 'Jessie Lopez. So I missed a lot of school." Throughout the years. We had blankets that we rolled up during the day to give us a little place to walk around doing the housework. He would pick us up. (Laughs) I have a garden now. . we were living with my grandparents. Before that. the houses were just clapboard. flowers. something we did not very often have. I think. I attended. which was my grandmother's. She is active in National Land for People. I and my mother. That was home to us. The rest of us slept on the floor. A cot. while he went out to the store. The houses had two little windows and a front door. . dining room. we would move from place to place. This is one thing I . about forty-five schools. everything you see is green.120 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Jessie de la Cruz Л one-family dwelling in Fresno. as you walk onto my porch. There were just nails with two-by-fours around it. They would have us say our name and where we lived. Every winter. . about twelve by fifteen. wrap us in blankets. I think the longest time I went to school was two months in one place. well-kept garden is out front. but we saw to it that they went to school. In between. you're Mexican. ' We couldn't as migrant workers. and put us around this big woodburning stove. everything. She is fifty-nine. (Laughs. teachers told me the same thing. I musta been almost eight when I started following the crops. My happiest memories was when my grandfather had Sunday off. we wouldn't attend school because we weren't sure of staying there. I was on the end of the row of prunes. up north. There was only one bed.. My children were picking crops. the youngest is twenty-one. we used to live in tents. . He'd come up with oranges and apples and good things to cat. we used to live under a tree. They would help me fill up the cans and put 'em in a box while the rest of the family was picking the whole row. My father went back to Mexico. patched tents. . who we were.) I learned how to speak English and how to fight back. A small. That was very hard. I always looked at those flowers and said: 'If I could only have my own house and have a garden. . Before we had a tent. "When I was a child growing up as a migrant worker. Eight or nine of us. Now all of a sudden they want me to say I'm an American. In labor camps. I'd see homes with beautiful gardens. All the teachers were Anglos. taking care of my younger brother and sister. was a living room. Maybe one or two of the oldest would stay away from school during cotton-picking time around December. When my parents or my brothers didn't find any work. But we always wanted them to get an education." She said: "No.

like a green ocean. With us. It's not happening. My husband was born in Mexico.. we could be out there right now. You could grow anything: tomatoes. No houses. We followed the crops till around 1966.. that's losing everything. My kids would help me. bell peppers. Hope dies last. We wanted our children to pick in the shade. . Trees or just cotton and alfalfa. prominent Mexican-American. When I picked grapes. cantaloupes. Cesar. born 1927. thirteen-year-old kids. It's land that is irrigated with taxpayers' money. under a tree. If the law had been enforced. so they wanted to buy some land where they could raise a family. Anglo: Anglo-American descended from an English family. Your clothes were never dry. I organized people everywhere I went. I worked it there. These growers that have been using this water signed a contract that they would sell. . He came with his parents when he was two and a half years old." We stopped migrating when Cesar Chavez formed a union. We became members. but his dream was never realized. Ten cents an hour. He was irrigating when he was twelve years old. and we were able to take our refrigerator and my washing machine and beds and kitchen pots and pans and our clothing. there was no need to migrate after that. I'd know how to run it. successful strike against vineyard owners. If you lose hope. so if we ever owned a piece of land. . and I was the first woman organizer. they're always talking: "If I had my own place. We survive by hard work and sacrifices. in small parcels. vegetables. It's hard work." This is one thing that all Chicano families talked about. During the winter. We went up north around the Sacramento area to pick prunes. doing a man's work. where the government supplies the water. nothing. who organized the migrant farm workers in California into a union and led them. Our first year we stayed in the labor camps. I feel there's going to be a change. . We're out of the Wcstland district. Is America progressing toward the better? No. It's the very. . We worked the land all our lives.. There's acres and acres of land that if you go out there you can see green from one end to the other. Chavez. we knew that we could make it. the country will never do anything for us. I'm making it. That's what my grandfather kept talkin' about. within ten years. not until I see a lot of farm workers settle on their own farms. But I'm not satisfied. We had a big truck. Then I'll say it's happening. Mexicans have this thing about a close family. You can't lose hope. there's a saying: La esperanza muere al ultimo. When my husband and I started working under a signed contract.in a long. . We're the ones that are gonna do it. I'd be there all the time. All farm workers I know. 1 met him in 1933. I could hardly stand it. We have to keep on struggling. very best land. My husband said: "Let's go up north and pick prunes. I felt sorry for twelve-. Twelve hours for a dollar twenty. where it's very hot. instead of picking out in the vines. We're in very marginal land. corn.MINORITIES 121 hope nobody has to live through. the water was just seeping under the ground.. It wasn't a hardship any more.

Inside them. that retired folk who wished to enjoy themselves actively would be more contented especially as they grew older. Young people can't live there. are being built or planned right across the winter sunshine belt of the US.. or a group of young people. When phase one of the even larger Sun City West is complete. all to visitors passing through. she wouldn't want to live in Sun City. Thinking less crudely along these lines.) Mrs Toldrin was an old hand. carving wood. Arizona. even for the vigorous. wearing bright clothes and sexual collisions. At ground level the streets run between bungalows of varying size. From a helicopter one would look down on a vast expanse of streets and houses forming concentric circles. opments exist. eight shuffleboards. These two regulations are enough to produce the uniformity of age. PETER BLACK paid a visit ONE of the irritating things about growing old is that numerous pleasant physical activities. and the covered wagons become golf buggies.. Outside. . a children's nurse wheeling a pram. because they'd have to leave. and grandeur. or painting still life. it's not good for them to be always with older people. where you begin to see the point of Sun City. a gorilla on a bicycle. she added that there were no schools in the city and no maternity wards in the Walter O. or that these cities offer something older people need and enjoy.122 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP • LUCKY OL' SUN DOWNERS In Sun City. fashioning silver ornaments and sculptures. are deemed unsuitable. We've had five births in 18 years. Similar devel-. crescents. doing the same things and showing up the old by looking beautiful. they do not grow old as we who are here grow old. Residents undertake not to have children of school age living at home. tennis courts and bowling greens.' 'What if she came anyway. Arizona. . to the Bell Recreation Centre. Ten buildings covered 27 acres. unarmed but uniformed. . turning metal. But this is only when the young are around. a resident since 1960. 16 lanes of ten-pin bowling. Boswell Memorial Hospital.000 elderly people will have chosen this way of life. . well-matured men and women were at play on 19 pool tables. We must assume that either many comfortably off Americans over 50 go barmy. luxurious toy versions of the hard necessity of less than a century ago.' As a clincher. tanned and bust- ling Mildred Toldrin: 'Suppose a 50year-old man brought a 20-year-old wife here?' 'He wouldn't. if competitive and potentially irritating age groups were kept way from them. Hence the rules against the young. These things make up a lot of the traffic. flatstomached young insolently kicking beach balls about with their hard bare feet. They would not fit Del Webb's central idea. weaving rugs and baskets. . some 80. the hospital has no maternity ward and nobody laughs at a real tryer. She drove me round in one of those comfortable American cars. and had a baby?' 'She'd think twice about that too. reporting to the county sheriff's office any unusual sight such as a loose dog. One of them could contain a posse of the volunteer sheriff force — on routine patrol. Cars move along the streets. with its huge swimming pool. She'd feel too much out of it. firing pottery. They should be with their own age groups. interspersed by big splashes of green (golf courses) and little ones of turquoise (pools). the sun beat down on the sun court. or exchanging books (40. widowed five years ago and energetically involved in promoting the place. It is felt that the old cut unseemly figures at such pastimes.. Any of those would be equally improbable in this place.000 on the shelves) in the library. whorls. . an alien from space. There is something to be said for being able to take off your clothes on the beach without being obliged to make painful comparisons between yourself and the brown-skinned. the ingenious hotel tycoon Del Webb created the first retirement resort town in the world out of 9. (The Boswell family owned the land. One spouse in each couple must be at least 50. such as sunbathing. It isn't a suitable place for children to live in. I asked my guide. overtaking what look like covered wagons without horses.. all of them confidently predicted to earn high profits for their developers. as regular as thumbprints. If she wanted a family.000 acres of cotton land 12 miles outside Phoenix. or up to their armpits in the therapeutic pool.

. There must be a lot to be said for a community where people are sympathetic because they face the same problems of coping with the separations and ailments of age and have a good many interests and challenges in common. fussed and petted by their grandchildren in whom they see reminders of their own golden time. (The metal-working shop. and I'm delighted when they go. why don't they go for a walk. who gets the newspaper first. filled with burly old fellows in blue overalls. Some over-50s who go to look the place over recoil from the tightly structured life. Deed restrictions bar putting up tacky outbuildings.' said Mrs Toldrin. Anyway. reminded me so much of a prison movie that I had to concentrate on asking: 'How long have you been here?' and not: 'How long are you in for?') There is no corner shop or local bar.. and must the children play that infernal gramophone. The objective is to keep out untidiness and the unexpected. their presence among the family emphasising how life is a continuing procession. as though they were being conducted round a kind of Forest Lawn cemetery for the living. Sun City is a great place to visit but I'd sure hate to live there.. It is one of the pleasant American virtues to admire anyone who has a go. Arizona If it seemed sad and bizarre to me at first. The only way to avoid this fate is to be rich enough to live in a huge house where there is one lavatory for every two residents. but a loner wouldn't consider going there. . handing out opinions nobody wants to hear.' . A keen gardener who wants to raise vegetables rents a plot in the agricultural section. 'My grandchildren come to see me four times a year.' In the real world the old folks who live with their children's families get on everybody's nerves because they keep falling about. to combat at all times those lurking enemies of age. belonging to TV serials like 'The Waltons. And nobody laughs at anybody. it was because the realism of the policy of separation contradicts so bluntly the sentimental picture of ideal old age most of us carry about. In this the old live as part of the family unit. 'We enjoy having them as visitors. respected for their wisdom and experience. stepping on their teeth and glasses. Even then the old will irritate the young. and I think these must be part of the first impressions of every visiting European..MINORITIES 123 Sun City. . I'm delighted when they come. A loner would have a bad time. boredom and solitude. . But of course this is all rot. It must be a bit like living on campus. there is argument about which TV channel to watch. They don't lock us in here. It is slightly against the social ethos of the place to have a private swimming pool. Yet. as Americans joke about New York. . there's nothing to stop me going to stay with them if I want to. . . . . except that a then uncertain future has been accomplished. you know.

At the Department of Transportation. an ornithologist. Courtesy of the American Lung Association Prohibition: the period (1920-33) during which a law was enforced in the U. half the country smoked." Carnes helped persuade the commercial air carriers to begin segregating smokers in the early '70s.9% smoke. not since Prohibition has the U.124 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP United States Where There's Smoke There's fire these days. which has never been known for -hasty decision making. "It's misguided to think that this is about rights at all.S. What accounts for such a fast-rising crusade against an activity that was once considered sophisticated and until recently had at least been politely tolerated? One thing that happened was that Betty Carnes. . . and possession of alcoholic beverages. smokers now r etreat to the photocopy ing rooms in order to relax with a soothing cigarette. Government last week lurched into the era of the no-smoking sign.ere becoming health conscious." she says now." sighs an inhabitant of Foggy Bottom who has not stopped lighting up. The GSA joined what has become a nationwide crusade against smoking. And at the Internal Revenue Service they are still trying to figure out what to do about both W-4 forms and cigarettes. returned home from a 1969 expedition and found that her best friend. Although each agency head is authorized to designate certain areas for smoking — hence the confusion — new rules from the General Services Administration now restrict all smoking by the 890." Thus the entire U." cracks one bureaucrat. Says an IRS watcher: "They always smoked compulsively over there. The evidence "clearly documents that nonsmokers are placed at increased risk for developing disease as the result of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. which forbade the manufacture.000 federal employees in 6. "The time was right. the bearded U. and an employer who doesn't do anything is likely to be sued. smokers can puff away in half the rest rooms and corridors. 87% want to quit. "The air hasn't circulated in here in 20 years. transportation. And how does that affect working conditions? "We don't do any work here anyway.S. . Chicano: used of a Mexican American person. Surgeon General.S. nobody is quite sure where you can do it. director of the Institute for the Study of Smoking Behavior and Policy at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. who in 1984 called for a smoke-free society. In 1973 she spear-headed a movement that prodded the Arizona legislature to pass the first state law limiting smoking in public places. which has a keen sense of law-and-order. "Tobacco is a dangerous substance. the legislative director of Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights. and cited studies indicating that "sidestream" smoke can be harmful to others. "People w. Everett Koop." Says Koop: "We're sort of on a roll. "I even regret the name of my own organization..' says John Pinney. and adds. smokers are beginning to feel that they are a persecuted minority. "The Koop report added enormous impact because it establishes the rationale for corporate liability." he said.S. sale.800 federal buildings. Only thing was the majority of the nonsmokers were afraid to speak out: they thought they were in the minority. and of those. as the crusade against public puffing heats up AT THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE." Today the leading antismoking crusader is Dr. a 29-year-old mother of two. where things are supposed to move.. seen such a widespread attempt to change people's personal habits by regulation. . . Today only 29. Indeed. Last December he proclaimed that smokers were hurting not just themselves but their nonsmoking neighbors." Still. was dying of lung cancer. but at the State Department. C. . particularly smoking in public." Leaders of the crusade argue that government involvement is legitimate because the health of nonsmokers is at stake. Her last request to Carnes was to "try to make people aware of the dangers of smoking." says Mark Pertschuk. When we first started talking about a smoke-free society.

It is one of the characteristics of oral history that events are not always reported in chronological order. What do you think is the difference between this report and other reports Sylvester Monroe has written during his career as a journalist? 3. Text Analysis 1. Jessie de la Cruz describes different stages in the living conditions of migrant workers. maiden name present place of residence age education period of time spent as a migrant worker year of marriage children affiliation to a union. Have you heard of any examples of racial discrimination in the U. What kind of racial discrimination does Sylvester Monroe mention? 8. What other problems do you know that black Americans have to deal with? 4. What do you think the American Indian can teach the white man? 3. What kind of problems do you expect him to talk about in the following report? 5. Previewing Brothers 1. Can you account for Mrs Monroe's reaction when her son wanted to leave St. Whom does the Indian poet address in his poem "I Am The Redman" and what is the message he wants to convey? 2. Explain how this was facilitated by certain conditions and persons. How do the last four paragraphs differ from the rest? 2. George's School? What importance was attached to those new clothes by his former faculty advisor and the other students? 5. According to the introduction to the "Special Report" of Newsweek. .S. Comprehension Jessie de la Cruz 1. what aim did Sylvester Monroe have in mind when writing the report? 2. George's School? How must Vest Monroe have felt after his mother's remark? 6. Which characteristics of Indian culture can be found in the poems? 4. What tense is the poem "My Lodge" written in and how do you account for the choice of this tense? 5. George's School? What were his objections? 7. Scan through the text to find the basic autobiographical data concerning Jessie's family name. Why do you think he recalls the fact that he got new clothes at St. Interpreting Poems "I Am The Redman"/"My Lodge" 1. March 23. Characterize this sort of text. Subdivide the text into different sections and find a headline for each section. 3.L25 PART C Exercises 1. What did he find disquieting and frustrating about the way the whites treated him at St. 1987. What stages does she mention and how does she characterize each of them? Describe Jessie de la Cruz's attitude towards America and the American government. How does the structure of the poem "I Am The Redman" contribute to the poet's aim? 3. Why did Sylvester Monroe return to the Chicago housing projects with a feeling of ambivalence? 4. 4. Sylvester Monroe is one of the relatively few blacks who managed to get out of the black urban ghetto. that confirm Sylvester Monroe's views? 2. What is the exact socioeconomic data which he quotes about the situation of blacks today? He obviously would not have cited those statistics in the introduction if they had not been relevant.

. aged 60. "This weekend. Interpreting a Cartoon Interpret the following cartoon. Only 13 percent of all Americans who smoke do not think of giving it up. Point out where Peter Black leaves the position of objective reporting and expresses his personal view." Compare the use of the term "minority" here with that of the other texts of this unit. and his wife Jill. led by the U. Employees at the State Department are not allowed to smoke at work. 4. Discussion • The American campaign against smoking makes smokers feel like a "persecuted minority. employees can be sued if they do not follow the regulations. pottery • school for granddaughter Julia (her parents are planning to go to East Asia on business for half a year and have asked the grandparents to look after Julia during that time). 8. 3. Simulate such a phone call in which Brian Johnson. Discussion Lucky 01' Sundowners 1. places special emphasis on the effect that smoking has on non-smokers. 8. ^_ THANKYOU FOR NOT SMOKING 7. who later died of lung cancer. aged 55. According to the Koop report. Comprehension Where There's Smoke Which of the following statements are true and which are false? Correct the false ones. 5. 2.126 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 5. Fifty percent of all restrooms and corridors at the Department of Transportation are free from smoke. 3. New restrictive regulations by the General Service Administration drastically reduce smoking in federal buildings. • Do you think smoking should be restricted in your country? 9. Betty Carnes was one of the first to successfully persuade the airlines to restrict smoking to special sections of the aircraft. Employees at the Department of Justice hardly do any work at all. What do you think about the concept of building separate cities for the elderly? 6. I thought I'd pop over to Vegas and grab a smoke. a Chicago businessman. frequently has to answer phone calls from people who have heard of Sun City and are looking for a place to settle down when they have retired. The present crusade. 7. woodwork and metalwork. 10. tennis. Which arguments for and against separate cities does Peter Black mention in his article? 2. Dialogue Practice Mildred Toldrin. They have made some notes beforehand in order not to forget the following important points: • climate • houses for sale • sites available for a fairly luxurious bungalow plus swimming pool • medical and therapeutical care • opportunities to take part in social life • Brian's hobbies: golf. Surgeon General.S. The campaign against smoking was started in the 1970s by Betty Carnes. who works for Sun City Information Agency. gardening • Jill's hobbies: swimming. an ornithologist. 9. Not even during prohibition did regulations try to interfere so much with people's personal habits. 1. 6. are asking for information.

57 percent of women were convinced that a better marriage is one in which the husband and wife share responsibilities of careers. the average mother has 1 or 2 children.8 in 1986. In 1941. of all persons aged 25 and older who had been in college four or more years. Projections indicate that by 1990 women will constitute more than half of the American labor force. Marriage and motherhood are no . In 1960. the median ideal number was 3. education levels. and family roles and WOMEN expectations of American women. when men and women were asked what the y co n sid ered the id eal numb er o f child ren to have in a family.4 percent of all American women worked outside the home. That number dropped to 2.5 percent. In 1970.5 in 1983.7 percent. In 1974. 39 percent were women. • More women are entering the labor force. By 1985.6 and by 1986. • Women are having fewer children. in 1985. and it reached 45 percent by 1980. In 1940 only 27. These statistics o n demo graphics and attitudes indic ate that the role of wo men in American society is changing. however. • Women are marrying at a later age.7.8 The Changing Bole of Women PART A Background Information STATISTICS REVEAL Comparable statistics over the past years indicate important changes that have CHANGES FOR occurred in the emplo yment rates. In the 1980s. the proportion had grown to 41 percent. The median age of females at first marriage rose from 20. and child rearing. the proportion of single (never-married) women between those ages was 26. • More women have been attaining higher education levels. By 1975. Opinion polls reveal that women's attitudes toward family roles and child rearing are changing: • The majority of women no longer favor traditional marriages. 49 percent of American wo men said they favored traditional marriages in which the husband is the money-earner and the wife the homemaker and child rearer. • More young women are single. In the 1950s. • Couples want to have fewer children.4 percent. By 1970 the figure had risen to 42. housekeeping. 54.6 in 1970 to 22. the proportion of women from 25 to 29 who had never married was 10. the average mother had 3 or 4 children.

2 percent of the accountants. American women have many more rights than they did a hundred years ago. These laws were seen as necessary on the basis of "romantic paternalism. Navy. Women now compete with men for professional training. 3. 12. and 6. The same Congress passed a law making it easier for women to qualify for loans and mortgages. employment. Feminists demanded greater access to jobs and political power. discriminatory laws and practices barred women from entering male-dominated spheres. and an end to the condescending way in which men often treated women.3 percent of the lawyers and judges. Legislation prohibiting sex discrimination has benefited many women. or lawyers and are filling other high-salaried positions. she articulated a discontent that many women of her generation were feeling.128 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP SEX DISCRIMINATION THE MODERN FEMINIST MOVEMENT LEGISLATION FOR EQUALITY PROFESSIONAL WOMEN longer perceived as a woman's only areas of responsibility. buy liquor. In 1980 over 8 percent of the graduates of military academies for the Army." a concept held by men in power that it was their duty to protect women. and Coast Guard were women. Congress barred gender-based discrimination in all federally supported education programs. For many years. women have secured many rights as a result of the modern feminist movement. Women have entered many male-dominated professions. When Betty Friedan (born 1921) wrote The Feminine Mystique in 1963. leadership positions. This attitude persisted despite the women suffragists' campaign for the vote and other freedoms. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 guarantees that men and women filling the same jobs will receive the same pay. In more recent decades.8 percent of the lawyers and judges. With this book. equal pay for equal work. doctors. In 1972. women did not have many of the legal rights they take for granted today. which gained momentum in the 1960s. file lawsuits on their own behalf. By 1980 the proportion of women in these high-paid professions had risen considerably: 36. and 13. In 1960 women made up only 16. In 1966 she founded the National Organization for Women (NOW).4 percent of the nation's accountants. Women are securing more leadership positions in business and industry. Although the women's suffrage movement began in the 1830s. hold certain jobs. or retain custody of their children after a divorce. The women's movement has helped bring about legislation that ensures greater equality of the sexes. giving women the right to vote. They were not allowed to vote. During the nineteenth century.8 percent of the doctors. it was not until 1920 that a constitutional amendment was ratified. and political power. Although inequalities still exist. More and more women are training to become accountants. Job discrimination on the basis of sex was prohibited by the Equal Rights Act of 1964. especially those in professional or technical fields. Air Force. A 1978 amendment to the Civil Rights Act protects pregnant women from job discrimination. . declaring that motherhood and housekeeping do not provide the fulfillment women want. Friedan became the standard bearer of the modern feminist movement. Feminists have drawn attention to inequalities between the sexes and have succeeded in breaking down many of the barriers that kept women from professional and economic advancement.4 percent of the physicians were women.

095 668 783 1980 36 25 29 9 23 5 16 59 51 1980 2. 25 т Recent Increases in Women Elected Officials: Congress and State Legislatures Ш Women in the U.4 2.S. secretaries.259 550 235 402 481 536 258 17 7.1 1980 1. congressional leaders. Congress В Percentage of women state legislators 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 .3 1.1 1. senior White House advisors.0 2.7 10. senior partners in law and investment firms.8 1. and civic and cultural organizations. all corporate directors including officer-directors. and Supreme Court justices.6 9.7 0 4.9 Presidents. and in 1984. the election or appointment of a woman to political office is becoming more common.9 6. four-star generals and admirals on active duty. Geraldine Ferraro (born 1935) made history when she ran on the Democratic ticket as the vice-presidential candidate.2 0.0 7. Sandra Day O'Connor (born 1930) became the first female Supreme Court justice in 1981. undersecretaries and assistant secretaries of federal executive branch.4 2.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 129 Women in Institutional Leadership Positions.499 1. governing trustees of foundations.733 1.3 4.783 a 14. 1970 and 1980 TOTAL NUMBER 3 OF POSITIONS Industry Banking Utilities Insurance Law Investments Mass media Foundations Universities Civic and Cultural Government Military Total 1970 1.8 0.7 4.1 0. WOMEN IN POLITICS Although woman's share of political representation is still small. universities.2 7.189 476 362 NUMBER OF WOMEN 1970 3 2 0 3 12 3 9 9 11 70 10 0 132 PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN 1970 0.5 0 1.543 1.8 1.1 45 20 0 318 16.2 0 0.076 417 213 121 656 438 227 24 6.

Discrimination and inequalities still persist. Within this discipline. of Full-Time Women Workers as Median Annual Earnings Percentage of Men's Earnings (selected years 1955-1985) Annual 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 63. they represent a minority: most women are still paid less for equal work. however.130 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP PROGRESS FOR WOMEN PERSISTENT DISPARITIES EARNINGS GAP In addition to these professional and political gains. women's history has emerged as a new field of study.9 59.2 59.6 63.8 60. Federal agencies and other institutions have officially adopted non-sexist language. many goals have not been reached.2 58. While professional women have benefited from the new legislation regarding hiring and promotion practices. the word "chairperson" replaces "chairman. regardless of sex. working women still earn only two thirds of the average male salary.0 60. For example." and "mail carrier" is used instead of "mailman.4 58.7 EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT Even when men and women are doing similar work. On average. Despite the progress the women's movement has achieved in many areas.9 60." In the area of education and scholarship. the difference in earnings between men and women has not changed in more than forty years.7 64. Corporations have redressed past sex discrimination by providing compensatory back pay to female employees. scholars are reexamining the events of America's political and social history from a feminist perspective. and new conflicts have surfaced. This amendment.0 59. although 81 percent of all elementary school teachers are women. For example. the heightened aware ness of women's rights has brought progress in other areas.7 63.8 60. female college graduates continue to earn less than male high school dropouts. On average. the gap in earnings is wide. Even after the adoption of legislation such as the Equal Pay Act.2 61. The women's movement suffered a major setback when the states failed to ratify a constitutional amendment to guarantee equal rights to all. the median teacher's salary is higher for males than for females. encountered strong opposition from both men and women who vehemently disagreed with the goals and . Feminists argued that the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) would simplify the legal enforcement of equal rights and would provide more uniform legal protection for women.7 60.

Some feminists. the insistence on fulfillment through work and on equality with men in all spheres has placed a strain on the family. In addition. Some corporations are responding to women's needs by adapting the workplace to meet the demands of working mothers. and lunch hours according to individual and family needs.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 131 ANTI-FEMINISTS PREDICAMENT OF WORKING WOMEN assumptions of the women's movement. In some families. According to anti-feminists. These anti-feminists defended traditional role divisions and asserted that taking care of children. encourage homosexual marriages. and take away women's exemption from the draft. Many people feel t hat solutions such as these need to be more broadly instituted to relieve pressure on women and families. many companies and federal agencies have established a new system of working hours called "flex time. It is difficult for a professional woman to become highly successful if she must divide her energies between duties at home and those at work. Many women who do manage both careers and families complain they are overworked. Well-known anti-feminists Phyllis Schlafly (born 1924) and Midge Decter (born 1927) argued that the ERA would disrupt family life. Some factories and companies now run child-care nurseries on their premises." which allows workers to arrange starting. husband. But statistics continue to show that most working women still do a greater share of the housework than their husbands. and house hold was rewarding. it has left women with the double burden of family and career. quitting. Day care centers for pre-school-age children are often expensive. have acknowledged the predica ment of working women. Furthermore. Arranging and affording child care is another burden on working p arents. . including Betty Friedan. work ing husbands and wives share the housekeeping and child -rearing duties. Women who choose a successful career instead of a family sometimes wish they could have both.

"There's such a thing as quality of life. colleagues approached 38-year-old Rebecca Murray and volunteered identical assessments of her life: "You are the woman who has everything. now 42 . they can afford the $8. and a lot of money by nearly any standard. but once the day starts winding down. "Time." That night. I don't have enough time for myself. I'm fine once I get to work." she says. The notion staggered Rebecca. and I never have enough time for my husband. and sometimes the subway is interminable. Realistically. who'd been away from me the whole day.with plenty of potential to move up. Robert makes $43. At the same time. I get very anxious to rush to my kid. Freelance writing brings in another $5. crowded." they told her.000 is more than four times the salary earned last year by Robert's father. For the past eighteen years. Their five-year-old daughter is pretty and bright. I'm aware that I'm looking at an evening that's not going to be relaxing. Among other things. . "and this isn't it.and their marriage remains strong. hot train.. I don't want to leave my child in the mornings . that could change with a single success. "I have never. a construction supervisor in Florida. Rebecca has been married to the same man Robert." Rebecca reached her breaking point on a subway during rush hour last summer.000 a year as the business manager for a publishing house." she told her husband." she remembers. The Murrays' combined income of nearly $90.132 PART в Texts SECOND THOUGHTS ON HAVING IT ALL by TONY SCHWARTZ WICE during the past month. to go home to an apartment so small that my husband and I sleep in the living room on a futon mattress.and she doesn't want me to go. Rebecca works as a records manager for a large financial institution and earns $40. "coming from a job that doesn't give me all that much pleasure. . and although his advances have been small so far. and usually that's nothing. What's more. "I don't have enough tim e for my child.000 a year. But none of this compensates for what Rebecca feels is missing in her life." she says. He is a novelist. "I was standing on this miserable. Rebecca made a decision.000 a year . I'm facing three more hours of work — the child care — and I've already put in a full day at the office. I want to be there in a second.500 a year it costs to send their daughter to a private day-care center where the ratio of children to teachers is four to one. they pay just $450 a month for a rent-stabilized apartment on a pretty street on the Upper West Side. But it's not hard to see what her co-workers had in mind. to pick up my child." . He gets whatever I have left at the end of each day. ever thought of myself that way. I can't wait.

and the will to win — values that fit neatly into our struggle for "meaningful work". the awful truth that the traditional female roles we had been raised to emulate. Men. women's new marketplace values are antithetical to building the solid. wife and mother. I don't think there's a man left out there for me. My group.. where the Mormon Church is predominant." This woman is a successful television reporter for a primetime news show.. was to have a career. They are successful. assertiveness. create. respected in her field. and highly paid. . Men. So we have developed a new set of nontraditional female values — ambition. Mogul with A Mission Recently." my friend responded sarcastically. and impulse to yield. achievement-oriented women. my ear tuned in to a conversation about a different sort of modern female dilemma. Mormon state: here: Utah. society. "When I was growing up. As it turns out. These are the same values traditionally used by women to attract. and she has that same bitter tinge in her voice I've heard so often among a certain group of women. to be specific. She is attractive. "But I'm about to give up. "But do you really want to get married?" one woman asked a friend of mine. I went to an all-female dinner party in Washington on the occasion of a visit to town by Frances Farley.cooperation.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 133 ©The Choices That Brought Me Here by Amanda Spake M A MONEY TO SECUR YOUR FU How Much Do You Make Other Nosy PLUSOur Guide SPECIAL ISSUE: SMART MONEY OPRAH. a woman with the important but unenviable task of running for Congress in the State of Utah. INC. . well educated. nurturance. The 'extra' that we would try for. I call it feminist determinism. interpersonal relationships between women and men we took for granted. It was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 and called itself the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. still expect women to embody primarily "feminine" values ." .. assumed for all women. that is. and sustain long-term relationships with men our own age. bom in the 1940s and early 1950s. on a mass scale. Most of us came to adulthood in the 1960s and discovered the key to a "meaningful life" was not necessarily marriage.emotionally or economically. and often women themselves. As one woman put it. . whose own interpersonal values — and their resulting expectations about women . 35 years old. As Frances impressed the crowd with her tales of fighting a pro-ERA campaign in a Mormon state.. would not be enough to sustain our lives . "I wouldn't mind. . having a husband and family was absolutely irrefutable. competitiveness.changed very little." We baby boomers were unique in that we were the first generation of American women to accept. .

and adultery. for it is God who gave them to us.. Increased divorce has broken family loyalty. . and He is not a Baptist.134 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP °How to have a successful Christian Family by Jerry Falwell The greatest heritage Christian parents leave their children is the love and training they receive in a Christian home. "What right do you Baptists have to promote your ideas about the family being the acceptable style for all of humanity?" I replied that it was not Baptists who started the family. My wife is proud to be called a housewife. the more we want to invest in them. but should know they are fulfilling God's command for the home. unfulfilling. and communications. and I love and live for our children. they become weak people who in turn reproduce weak homes. Everything we talk about and plan around is for their benefit and welfare. without ever learning what prayer is. Families educating their children in moral principles have carried on the traditions of this free republic. They mean everything to us. civil or otherwise. Women who choose to remain in the home should never feel inferior to those working outside. When the family begins to falter. Families in search of religious freedom. the counterreaction to the cult of the playboy.. Men satisfy their lustful desires at the expense of their families.. The happiest people on earth are those who are part of homes and families where they are loved and shielded. Our first obligation is to rear godly children. A woman's call to be a wife and mother is the highest calling in the world. Macel." Feminists say that self-satisfaction is more important than the family. Women say. "Why should I be taken advantage of by chauvinists? I will get out and do my own thing. but should be some kind of "cool. Another weapon against the family is the feminist revolution. No nation has ever been stronger than the families within her. the first weapon is the cult of the playboy. There has been and continues to be a vicious assault upon the American family. with increased insecurity in children who are the victims. soulwinning local church. . free swingers". it was God Almighty. She does not consider her lifework of making my life happy and of loving and shaping the lives of our precious children inconsequential or demeaning. Historically the greatness of America can be measured in the greatness of her families. A commentator from a major network once asked me. it is great to walk into my home and know that there I will find my wife and children. Home is a haven to which I run from the troubles of this world.. discipline. and boring". homosexuality. not only to populate but also . Our nation is in serious danger when motherhood is considered a task that is "unrewarding. I am for the family. Apart from our devotion to Christ. men (they say) do not have to be committed to their wives and children. They have been reared in homes where there is no authority and in which there is no guidance or leadership. and without ever having been brought into and trained by a good. tamed this wild continent and built the highest living standard in the world.to control and contain the earth. we are on the precipice of real peril. Many such children harden themselves to the possibility of real love. In the war against the family today. who love me. The family is that basic unit that God established. . The consequences of defeat are tragic. When I have had a long. More than half the women in this country are currently employed. Children need love. More television programs depict homes of divorced or single parents than depict the traditional family. hard day. determined to work and enjoy the fruits of their labor. But in the past 20 years a tremendous change has taken place... The greatest desire of our hearts for our children is that they each find God's will and live in it all their days. when that basic Christian unit is destroyed. Sexual promiscuity has become the lifestyle of America. I will stand up for my rights. Each family is a battleground for the conflict going on today. Bible-believing. for fear they will be hurt again. often in a hostile environment. When they grow up without ever learning what the Bible has to say. and parental example. Nearly every major family-theme TV program openly justifies divorce. Many women who lead in the feminist movement promote an immoral lifestyle. my wife. No wonder we are raising up a generation of children with no respect for authority. . I am committed to helping families win the undeclared war that is ravaging American homes. unity. The longer we live.

That same year. but Smaller The U. population increased by 17 percent between 1970 and 1985. And people are marrying later. more than half of all women 20 to 24 years old had never been married.4 Million 1985 86. Over the past 15 years.S. .75 in 1980 . The reason: more people are living alone — and in smaller family units. 1970 .8 Million Other households (includes people living alone) Singles: More .11 in 1970 to 2.to 2. At the same time. 75 50 25 Three or more children One child Living with two parents Living in female-headed household Households: More . the percentage of children living in female-headed households has almost doubled. the Census Bureau reports. But the number of households grew more than twice as fast — increasing 37 percent over the 15year period.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 135 Families Changing Faces Of Families The profile of American families is rapidly changing. the percentage of children under 18 living in families with three or more children has dropped by more than half. 1970 1982 25-29 Males 30-34 2 0 2 4 y e a r s 20-24 25-29 Females A major reason why we have more and smaller households is 50 that there are more unmarried — and more divorced — adults. 23 percent of women aged 25 to 29 had never been married — up from just 11 percent in 1970.. .69 in 1985. 25 In 1982. The average number of people per household has dropped from 3. Number of Households. 1970-1985 1970 63. 75 and Longer o l d Percent Never Married.

30-34 1982 .

These men are of a generation in which marriage was typically a one-provider. He was dead wrong. And although the problems of younger two-career couples have been well-chronicled. A Wife's New Career Upsets Old Balances Her Outside Preoccupation Can Leave Him Isolated At Time of More Leisure 'Might as Well be Roommate' BY MARY BRALOVE 11/9/81 H erbert Gleason's wife tried to warn him. trying to accommodate to a wife's new career can be a confusing. one-homemaker effort. the emotional sands beneath the marriage shifted. From a comfortable life in which Mr. adjusting to my needs. Gleason's career success was balanced neatly by his wife's full-time support as homemaker. Nancy Gleason resumed her career as a psychiatric counselor. "I thought she'd always be there just like before — supportive. not a professional joint venture. They are of an age when change tends to come gradually and predictably. after a 10-year hiatus. At age 39." For middle-aged men like Mr. "I really didn't anticipate how it would affect our attitudes toward each other." Herb Gleason says of his wife's return to her career eight years ago. Quite unexpectedly. . bruising experience. not suddenly. Gleason. these men of a different generation are left to flounder on their own. the Gleason family abruptly changed course.136 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP HUSBAND'S HAZARD For Middle-Aged Man. but he was too busy to pay much mind." the Boston attorney recalls. "I kept thinking nothing was going to change.

" says Preston Munter. whose wife embarked on an airline career at age 46. yet are impatient with the demands of their wives' new jobs. adds: "What we're seeing is men expressing a lot more unhappiness and pain. yet they resent their newfound independence." Expressing Pain Just how successfully an older man adjusts to his wife's pursuit of a career depends on such variables as the underlying strength of the marriage. Some 6. or roughly 50% of the nation's married women. who has conducted national surveys on Americans' attitudes and concerns. "I was the sole breadwinner." . each spouse's personality and the nature of the two careers. But in a way it was a relief." Mrs Douvan. and a large portion of these are housewives who have only recently started new careers or revived old ones. I had been the only one bringing in the outside world. are working or looking for work. "Even if you could postulate an ideal man and an ideal marriage. "I felt deflated.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 137 5." says Elizabeth Douvan.5 million wives. "The marriage for the man provided his one big outlet for expressing dependency." recalls Al Graubard. and then all of a sudden she could take care of herself. Yet the metamorphosis of homemaker into breadwinner sends tremors through every relationship. an increasing number of men are attempting to negotiate such transitions. "She could get along without me. this would be a difficult transition to make." Although it may be cold comfort. a psychiatric consultant to Itek Corp. They are proud of their wives' work accomplishments. but the adaptive stress men undergo when their wives take on a career has been virtually lost sight of. As these homemakers seek out their professional fortunes. After all.2 million of them are between 35 and 44 years old." he says. their husbands are left behind to struggle with a welter of conflicting emotions. however. emotion and vulnerability. Today 24. the director of the University of Michigan's Family and Sex Roles Program. They are grateful that their wives are financially self-sufficient. "The wife. continued "Difficult Transition" "People talk about women's problems all the time. isn't as available for him.

he says quietly: "Look." Indeed.. Many men are ill-equipped to grapple with the emotional ambiguities of an evolving relationship. Asked about the adjustment he underwent when his wife returned to work. they are far more reticent when pressed to explain the sources of their discontent. Tentatively. after a long. Pm home!" . still moment. "They live lives of quiet desperation and isolation. Most agree it has little to do with sharing household chores." says Marjorie Shaevitz.. ." "Honey. Calif. a New York oil executive begs off with the excuse of a heavy workload.138 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 5. It's just too painful for me to talk about it. their silence on the subject is sometimes heartbreakingly eloquent. they speak instead of a newfound sense of isolation: of an emotional separation from a preoccupied wife who now seems to be more involved with the world than with husband. home and children. Finally. I'll be honest with you. "Men find it incredibly difficult to talk about feelings. Pm home!" "Honey. the co-director of the Institute for Family and Work Relationships in La Jolla. continued While men may vent their feelings to a pollster.

c) Great families have traditionally been the source of American greatness. b) would like to get married. a) impressed the Mormons. on the other. Quite a number of women born in the 1940s and early 1950s discovered that they could find a meaningful life a) only outside marriage. 2." on the other. b) gave an all-female dinner-party in Washington. j) The greatest concern for the author and his wife is the love of their children. . and successful career women. c) is somewhat frustrated because she has not yet managed to find a man she could marry. According to Amanda Spake. 1. A 35-year-old successful female television reporter a) does not think of getting married. this group of feminists a) considered the traditional female roles of wife and mother to be too emotional. and "What is missing." on the one hand. c) had a hard time fighting for equal rights for women in Utah. a) Anti-authoritarian education leads to the decay of the American family. e) Love and shelter in families produce happy people. 3. Second Thoughts on Having It All Other people's assessments of Rebecca Murray's life are obviously not identical with her own. Comprehension The Choices That Brought Me Here Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the original text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. b) fought for new female values that were traditionally associated with men. b) men still seem to prefer the traditional "feminine" values in women. d) The high percentage of working mothers leads to a perverted image of motherhood. 2. Today this group of women finds that a) they can build up more solid relationships between men and women. destroys the traditional family. 4. g) The feminist movement. c) also in a career. h) Conflict and undeclared war destroy the traditional family. c) were determined to be mothers and wives. b) God made the family the basic unit of society. c) society still does not accept women as equal partners of men. which regards selffulfillment higher than a family. a woman running for Congress in the state of Utah.139 PART C 1. 3. f) The playboy cult destroys the American family. Comprehension How to Have a Successful Christian Family Number the paragraphs following Falwell's assumption that "the greatest heritage Christian parents leave their children is the love and training they receive in a Christian home" and match each statement below with the paragraph it summarizes. b) only in marriage. Find arguments in the text which support the notion of "Having it all. Scanning Exercises 5. on the one hand. Frances Farley. i) The importance of the family has been undermined in recent years.

Within those 15 years the number of American households grew in proportion to the increase in population. One reason for more households is the decrease in family size. 6. 5. 3. 7. 2. Between 1970 and 1985 the number of children living with two parents decreased. 6.Ky m s 47-56years 57 years arm over j!g| It is more important for a wife to help her ' husband's career than to have one herself It is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever '""' outside the home and the woman takes care of home and family Ш A working mother can establish just as warm and secure a relationship with her children as a mother who does not work Source: Surveys by NORC-GSS. The paragraphs of the text either • support the assumption • indicate how the assumption has been endangered lately • give reasons for that danger. 4. i Л li ii W-Xyesrs 27-36years 3 7. Reading Statistics Families Which of the following statements are true and which are false? Correct the false ones. Another reason for more households lies in the tendency of people to marry at a later age. There were about twice as many American families with three or more children in 1985 as there had been in 1970. The increase of households other than families is at least partly due to the fact that men and women marry later. Functional Analysis It is the author's aim to convince the reader of the importance of his initial assumption. Determine which paragraph serves which function. 1985 and 1986 combined Reprinted with permission of American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research • How do you account for the divergent answers to the opinion polls among different age groups? • How does the role of women in your country relate to the roles described in the texts of this unit? • How do you think the role of women should be defined? . In 1985 almost twice as many children lived in female-headed households as in 1970.140 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 4. Discussion I I 5. 8. In 1982 fewer women than men were married between the age of 20 and 24. 1.

Does. from a husband's point of view. What is the impact of a wife's new career on her husband's life? 4. Comprehension For Middle-Aged Man. A Wife's New Career Upsets Old Balances 1.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 141 7. a wife's new career also include positive aspects? 5. How are the traditional roles of husband and wife described in the text? 2. To what extent does the situation in 1981 correspond with these traditional role patterns? 3. Why is it particularly difficult for a middleaged husband to cope with the changing role of his wife? .

and 3) a system of checks and balances to restrict the powers of each branch. the functions and framework of each branch of go vernment. which both the federal and state government share. power is also limited by the separation of power among three branches — legislative. each branch has a separate function. who direct policies by voting for government representatives. 2) the separation of powers among different branches of government. Congress is comprised of two groups. and marriage and divorce laws. Examples include the power to tax. Several features were created to guard again st this possibility: 1) the federal organization of government. For example. public schools. Under federalism. The states possess those powers which are not given to the national govern ment. borrow money. and the rights of individual citizens. it has the power to control communications among states. provide for the national defense. many Americans feared that government power could become concentrated in the hands of a few. All public officials of the national as well as state governments must swear to abide by the Constitution. All government power rests ultimately with the people. called concurrent powers. La wma k er s fr o m al l o f t he s ta te s ar e e lec ted to s erv e i n t he Ho u se o f LIMITED GOVERNMENT FEDERALISM SEPARATION OF POWERS LEGISLATIVE BRANCH . When the Constitution was first written about two hundred years ago. and declare war. The function of the legislative branch is to make laws.9 The Political System PART A FORM OF GOVERNMENT Background Information The United States is a representative democracy. There are certain powers. The principle of limited government is basic to the Constitution. the principle of limited go vernment was achieved by dividing authority between the central government and the individual states. each state establishes its own criminal justice system. The nation's constitution defines the powers of national and state governments. which was created to protect the democratic interests of the people and government. set up courts. and charter banks. Besides the division of power between state and national governments. executive. For example. The federal (national) government has powers over areas of wide concern. In the United States. The legislative branch is made up of representatives elected to Congress. and judicial. called houses: the House of Representatives (the House) and the Senate.

. it is sent to the appropriate committee. The most heavily populated states have more districts and. Each house of Congress is engaged in making laws.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 143 DIVISION OF POWERS POWERS OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT To regulate foreign trade and commerce between states To borrow and coin money To conduct foreign relations with other nations To establish post offices and roads To raise and support armed forces To declare war and make peace To govern territories and admit new states To pass naturalization laws and regulate immigration To make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its powers POWERS DENIED TO THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT To tax exports To suspend writ of habeas corpus To change state boundaries without consent of states involved To abridge the Bill of Rights CONCURRENT POWERS To collect taxes To borrow money To establish and maintain courts To make and enforce laws To provide for the health and welfare of the people POWERS RESERVED TO STATE GOVERNMENTS To regulate trade within the state To establish local governments To conduct elections To determine voter qualifications To establish and support public schools To incorporate business firms To license professional workers To ratify amendments To keep all the "reserved powers" not granted to the national government nor prohibited to the states POWERS DENIED TO BOTH NATIONAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS To pass ex post facto laws To pass bills of attainder To deny due process of law To grant titles of nobility POWERS DENIED TO STATE GOVERNMENTS To coin money To enter into treaties To tax agencies of the federal government To tax imports or exports HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW Representatives. therefore." Once a bill is introduced. Each house of Congress has committees which specialize in a particular area of legislation. defense. Every two years. regardless of population. such as foreign affairs. The number of representatives each state sends to the House depends upon the number of districts in each state. and each may initiate legislation. The Senate is the smaller of the two bodies. Each district chooses one representative. one third of the Senate stands for election. Each representative is elected to a two-year term. has two senators. more representatives than the sparsely populated states. Each state. The number of districts in each state is determined by population. There are currently 435 representatives in the House. The senatorial term is six years. A law first begins as a "bill.

and they operate separately. which is headed by the Supreme Court. This division is a unique feature of the American system. In the parliamentary systems that operate in most western democracies. The executive branch of government is responsible for administering the laws passed by Congress. The vice-president. housed separately. the president represents the country abr oad. The president appoi nts judges. Commerce. Under the Supreme Court. Defense. the vice-president may vote only in the event of a tie. As director of foreign policy. or prime minister. The Supreme Court can overturn laws passed by Congress and signed by the president. The division of government power among three separate but equal branches provides for a system of checks and balances. If that happens. . The Constitution gives the president many important powers. If both sides agr ee on the new version. If it passes. it is sent to the other house where it goes through a similar process. As chief executive. The first is to preside over the Senate. although Congress makes laws. is assigned only two constitutional duties. members study it and then send it to the Senate or House chamber where it was first introduced. Agriculture. Each branch checks or limits the power of the other branches. the national leader. With this system of checks and balances. but the Senate reviews his candidates and has the power to reject his choices. the president appoints secretaries of the major departments that make up the president's cabinet. no branch of government has superior power. the bill becomes a law. Health and Human Services. Energy. He is elected to a four-year term and can be re-elected to a second term. a "conference committee" made up of members from both houses tries to work out a compromise. The president of the United States presides over the executive branch. Today there are 13 major departments in the executive branch: the Departments of State. Treasury. who is elected with the president. When a bill is in committee. The president also serves as commander -in-chief of the armed forces and as head of his political party. there are many state and federal courts. the president also appoints senior officials of the many agencies in the expan sive bureaucracy. the bill is voted on. At this point. entertains foreign leaders. and addresses the public. As chief executive. Housing and Urban Development. However.144 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP EXECUTIVE BRANCH POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT JUDICIAL BRANCH CHECKS AND BALANCES banking. Justice. For example. In the United States. Even if the president vetoes a law. he appoints foreign ambassadors and makes treaties with other nations. As head of state. Interior. Congress may check the president by overriding his veto with a two -thirds vote. the bill is sent to the president for his signature. and agriculture. the president can veto them. The third branch of government is the judicial branch. is chosen by the parliament. the president and legislature are elected separately. and Education. An important function of the judicial branch is to determine whether laws of Congress or actions of the president violate the Consti tution. The structure and functions of the judicial system are discussed more thoroughly in Unit 6. becomes disabled. Labor. The second duty is to assume the presidency if the president dies. Transportation. The Senate may reject a bill proposed in the House of Representatives or add amendments. or is removed from office. The selection of federal and Supreme Court judges is made by the other two branches. After a debate.

there are other features of the political system. which directly and indirectly influence American politics. independent government agencies EXECUTIVE Congress can change laws. initiate a constitutional amendment. executive and cabinet departments. However. . not mentioned in the Constitution. People sometimes circulate petitions or write letters to editors of newspapers and magazines to try to influence politicians.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 145 Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances The President Executive office of the president. the Constitution effectively ensures that government power will not be usurped by a small powerful group or a few leaders. however. The basic framework of American government is described in the Constitution. create whole new court systems or abolish existing ones. Organized interest groups. can generally exert influence much more effectively than can isolated individuals. Groups and individuals have a variety of ways they can exert pressure and try to influence government policy. restrict jurisdiction of courts to hear certain types of cases. expand or contract times and places that federal courts sit The Senate must confirm the president's judicial appointments. Congress can impeach and remove judges from office The Court can declare laws unconstitutional The Congress House—Senate May reject each other's bills The Supreme Court of the United States Circuit Court of Appeals of the United States District Court LEGISLATIVE JUDICIAL POLITICAL PARTICIPATION By dividing power among the three branches of government. Many people write letters to elected officials expressing their approval or disapproval of a political decision.

and peace. for instance. Thus. civil rights. On the national level. a third . There are many different types of interest groups in the United States. three features have characterized the party system in the United States: 1) two major parties alternating in power. and sponsor newspaper advertisements. the balance between the Democrats and Republicans has shifted back and forth. business groups. The United States has had only two major parties throughout its history. such as the National Farmers' Union. they fulfill important needs of decision-makers. radio. Members of interest groups also write letters to government officials. two political groupings emerged-the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. The largest organizations are labor unions. organized interest groups and their lobbyists play a significant role in American democracy. A lobbyist. Even in years when one party dominated national politics. Yet lobbyists fulfill vital functions. Historically. they have been conspicuous in their inability to attract enough voters to enable them to assume power. The political party system is another important part of the political scene which is not described in the Constitution. Legislators and their staff frequently turn to lobbyists for valuable data they would otherwise have to gather themselves. but also possesses an insider's view of the lawmaking process. albeit one-sided. and television are the most obvious media through which interest groups may influence voters and politicians. the majority party in Congress has not always been the same as the party of the president. Lobbyists work for interest groups by keeping them informed about proposed legislation and by talking to decision-makers about their group's concerns. Besides voicing the concerns of a special group in society. 2) lack of ideology. has ever completely dominated American politics. America's two-party system has been dominated by the Democratic and Republican Parties. also called "third parties. For over one hundred years. generally a lawyer or former legislator. and professional groups. which will help the committee make a decision. such as the United States Chamber of Commerce. and 3) lack of unity and party discipline. Public officials and others sometimes resent lobbyists' interference. such as the AFL-CIO. While minor parties. lobbyists are invited to appear before congressional committees to provide advice and information. While they are not mentioned in the Constitution. Neither party. and continue to appear. farm groups. make telephone calls. hold public meetings. such as the American Medical Association. a major interest group may employ a professional lobbyist. however. There are many issue-oriented groups with broad concerns such as the environment. When the nation was founded." have appeared from time to time. What all the various interest groups have in common is the desire to sway public opinion and political policy.146 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP INTEREST GROUPS LOBBYISTS POLITICAL PARTY SYSTEM TWO-PARTY SYSTEM MINOR PARTIES Interest groups are organized by people who want to influence public policy decisions on special issues. the other party retained much support at state or local levels. is someone who not only specializes in the interest he or she represents. The term lobbyist often has a negative connotation. Occasionally. To exert direct pressure on legislators in Washington or in state capitals. two major parties have alternated in power. The press. During the committee stage in the legislative process. Since then. Some interest groups focus on narrow issues such as the preservation of historic buildings or the control of neighborhood crime.

1861-1983 Years House R R R R R R R D D D R D D D R D D R R R R R R R R D D D D R R R R Senate President R R R R R R R R R D R R R R R R D R R R R R R R R R D D D R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R D D R R D D R R R R R R R R D D D D R R R 1861-1863 1863-1865 1865-1867 1867-1869 1869-1871 1871-1873 1873-1875 1875-1877 1877-1879 1879-1881 1881-1883 1883-1885 1885-1887 1887-1889 1889-1891 1891-1893 1893-1895 1895-1897 1897-1899 1899-1901 1901-1903 1903-1905 1905-1907 1907-1909 1909-1911 1911-1913 1913-1915 1915-1917 1917-1919 1919-1921 1921-1923 1923-1925 1925-1927 Years 1927-1929 1929-1931 1931-1933 1933-1935 1935-1937 1937-1939 1939-1941 1941-1943 1943-1945 1945-1947 1947-1949 1949-1951 1951-1953 1953-1955 1955-1957 1957-1959 1959-1961 1961-1963 1963-1965 1965-1967 1967-1969 1969-1971 1971-1973 1973-1975 1975-1977 1977-1979 1979-1981 1981-1983 1983-1985 1985-1987 1987-1989 1989-1991 House R R D D D D D D D D R D D R D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Senate President R R R D D D D D D D R D D R D D D D D D D D D D D D D R R R D D R R R D D D D D D D D D D R R R R D D D D R R R R D D R R R R R R D Republican Democrat © American Government: Principals & Practices.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 147 MAJORITY PARTIES IN CONGRESS AND PARTY OF THE PRESIDENT. 1983. Reprinted by permission of the publisher (updated) . Merrill Publishing Company.

December 1980 Source: The Gallup Opinion Index D-Democrat l-lndependent © American Government: Principals & Practices.999 Under $5. Elections are held according to the single-member district system. however. the Libertarian Party. as of today Democrat.000-$14. Reprinted by permission of the publisher .rural Central city Suburb Labor Union Labor union families Non-labor union families 33 23 20 23 17 40 29 22 26 22 19 ЗП D 42 44 50 56 42 48 54 I 36 30 28 25 28 32 34 Male Female Race White Southern Non-southern Non-white Non-southern Education College High school Grade school Region East Midwest South West Age 27 25 28 28 29 7 5 ?n 12 31 24 22 34 45 55 35 31 23 34 44 46 40 51 32 48 33 33 34 37 32 28 23 24 26 25 30 44 37 49 41 32 37 26 29 21 23 25 30 30 19 21 51 42 43 40 39 51 39 28 35 32 30 31 30 34 18-24 years 25-29 30-49 50 and older Income $25. In most cases.000 & over 500.000-499. do you consider yourself a Republican." Under this system.999 $10.999 50.500-49. POLITICAL AFFILIATION Question: "In politics. the American Independent Party.000 Religion Protestant Catholic Jewish Occupation Professional & business Clerical & sales Manual worker Skilled Unskilled Farmer Non-labor force City Size 1. Seldom.000-999. D 43 % 40 46 38 43 36 80 82 I 31% 33 29 34 29 35 13 13 R $15.999 Under 2. minor parties have been assimilated by the larger two or have just faded away.000-$24.000.500.000 & over $20. have minor parties been successful for more than a short period of time. and the Peace and Freedom Party.000-$9. 1983.000-$19. they feel they are throwing away a vote since only one person wins.999 $5. or an Independent?" R 26% National Sex . Merrill Publishing Company.999 2. based on the principle of "winner take all.999 21 24 24 31 38 3fl 43 47 41 40 33 22 33 27 34 41 33 32 ?n 28 31 R-Republican m 41 30 Survey taken October. Some current third parties in the United States are the Socialist Labor Party. The way candidates are elected explains why two major parties have come to dominate the American political scene. The Democratic and Republican Parties have supporters among a wide variety of Americans and embrace a wide range of political views. Many people will not vote for a minor party candidate. only one candidate —the one with the most votes—is elected to a given office from any one district.148 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP ELECTION SYSTEM DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS party candidate will win a seat in Congress or in a state legislature.

American party politics has been largely devoid of ideology. These examples suggest that Americans tend to prefer somewhat vague party programs to the rigors of political ideology. tried to imbue his party with the spirit and force of a conservative ideology. A poll taken in 1986 by Louis Harris and Associates reveals how Americans perceive the stance of each party on certain key issues: Builds up defenses Cuts federal spending Keeps economy prosperous Handles federal deficit Controls arms race Cuts unemployment Works for peace Controls defense budget Gives women a break Protects environment Helps elderly and poor к» WHICH PARTY FARES BETTER ON THE i46% ISSUES? HI Republican "1 Democrat 99% LACK OF IDEOLOGY Because of these differences. . Senator Barry Goldwater. They tend to favor big business and private enterprise and want to limit the role of government. however. Several attempts at developing an ideological party were unsuccessful. Democrats generally believe that the federal government and state governments should provide social and economic programs for those who need them. Democrats and Republicans. Democrats and Republicans support the same overall political and economic goals. Neither party seeks to shake the foundation of America's economy or social structure. Yet the election resulted in a landslide victory for Democratic candidate Lyndon Johnson. they believe that many social programs are too costly for taxpayers.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 149 KEY ISSUES The parties tend to be similar. often propose different means of achieving their similar goals. The Populist Party of the 1890s and the Progressive Party of the early twentieth century gained only temporary support. the Republican candidate in the 1964 election. Americans tend to think of the Democratic Party as liberal and the Republican Party as conservative. While Republicans do not necessarily oppose social programs.

Parties are organized as loose confederations of state parties. with relatively few members. which contrasts sharply with more tightlyorganized. Political Participation in National Elections Ill® Ф. are politically uninvolved. The absence of an organized party structure and established hierarchy of leaders contributes to party disunity. however. Even at national party conventions. Political parties. pay no membership dues. which sometimes confounds foreign observers. There are conservative Democrats who agree with Republican ideas and liberal Republicans who agree with Democratic ideas. parties are decentralized. Local party committees.Риге f? 1964* 1966 1968* Percent who reported that they registered to vote 1970 1972* 1974 1976* „_ . The voting records of Congressmen and Senators demonstrate a baffling lack of party unity. insofar as it can be located. In the United States. Party leadership.150 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP LACK OF PARTY UNITY PARTY ORGANIZATION PARTY MEMBERSHIP LOW VOTER TURNOUT A third characteristic of the American party system. Republicans and Democrats undergo no official initiation. Disagreement among members of the same party is common. Identification with a particular political party has less significance in the United States than in most other western democracies. which. candidates and elected officials are not held accountable for following the party line. in turn. are decentralized down to the local level. Party membership is equally undemanding. the percentage of the voting age population that participates in elections is quite low. no formally binding party platform is drawn up. The loose organization of America's political parties helps explain this lack of unity within American parties. It is not uncommon for either a Democrat or a Republican to vote against the party line. and have no obligation to attend meetings or even vote for the party.j. Only during national elections do party committees join together to clarify issues. Percent who reported that they VOted 1978 1980* •Presidential Election Year . Although every citizen has the right to vote. Voter turnout for presidential elections is usually under 60 percent. are relatively independent of each other. and the percentage is even lower for state and local elections. and elections are opportunities for citizens to participate in the democratic process. is the lack of unity and discipline within each party. which are numerous. interest groups. Furthermore. is in the hands of a few officials and other notables. Personal views and the views of constituents often have priority over party views. ideologically-oriented western European parties. Many Americans.

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 151

Voter turnout in other democratic nations is much higher:
_L Percent of Voting Age Population
90 -

80

з

у

70

60 50

и з 5

115

T

1965

1970

1975

1980

Several factors may contribute to these differences in voter participation: — Unlike most of the nations shown on the graph, the United States requires early voter registration. —Election campaigns tend to be much longer in the United States than in many other nations. After following campaigns that sometimes begin a year or more before the election, many Americans lose interest and do not vote. — American elections are always held on Tuesdays, a normal working day, whereas elections in many other nations are held on weekends. —The American two-party system may contribute to low voter turnout because voters' choice is limited. —The other democratic nations shown on the graph have parliamentary systems, in which the outcome of the election determines both the executive and legislative branches of government. Voters in these countries may feel that their vote carries more weight. The United States Constitution established a system in which the people have the right, whether they exercise it or not, to influence the direction of government.

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Texts

Perspective of a Public Man
An Interview with Hubert Humphrey
The late Senator Hubert Humphrey was a leading figure in American government for more than 30 years. He served as mayor of Minneapolis, United States senator, vice president and was the Democratic party's candidate for president in 1968. He was an outspoken champion of civil rights, a strong advocate of nuclear disarmament and the author of much legislation on both domestic and foreign policy issues. In this interview with CLOSE UP, conducted in 1977, Senator Humphrey discusses his long experience in public life and the importance of inspiration and motivation in effecting change.

QUESTION All of the problems and policies that you have been discussing emphasize the need for leadership of the highest caliber in the halls of government. What are the qualities which make someone an effective leader of the people? Senator Humphrey: Motivation. The difference between a great president and just a president is whether or not he can motivate people to greater achievements. As Teddy Roosevelt said, "You have to make the White House a bully pulpit." You have to be a combination of educator and evangelist. You have to move people. What we need in our society today is a kind of clarion call. People also need to learn to have priorities, because you can't do everything. That's where leadership comes in. As a senator, I've always felt that my job is more than passing legislation. I see my role in politics as being the cutting edge of progress. I've spent most of my time out with the people, planting ideas by talking with hundreds of audiences. I've taken a lot of razzing for it, but I have my own methodology. I've tried to be a teacher as well as a senator. To do this you have to take your message out to the people. To be a teacher, you have to have more than a classroom, you've got to have students. You've got to have more than a rostrum, you've got to have people who will listen and you have to make your message sufficiently simple and yet profound. The good teacher is the one who knows how to simplify great, difficult problems and, at the same time, make them interesting so that he holds his audience. You have to recognize that it requires repetition. You must keep in mind that people can only absorb so much at any one session. You repeat, repeat, repeat with adaptation so that you make it interesting. It's like a song: Even the most beautiful classical music maybe has just two or three themes in it, repeated time after time in different variations. That is what a leader, what a teacher, has to do.

Hubert Humphrey

Another part of being a leader is being willing to run the risk of unpopularity. I don't like people in public life, particularly as presidents, mayors and governors, who can't make decisions. You have to make decisions. Sometimes people come to me and say, "Well, the reason I have to vote like this is that the Gallup poll showed this or that." The Gallup poll is a momentary, current, unscientific survey of what is called public opinion. The important question is, "What do you think is right?" Now you don't ignore public opinion, but if you have a strong conviction, you do it. I, for example, had a strong conviction about civil rights legislation. There wasn't much public opinion on my side— I'll guarantee you that—and surely not among the political powerhouses. I ran right smack bang into all of them. But I felt I was right. And, if you feel you're right, you stay with it. Yet you also recognize that you can't get everything you want on day one. It may be a long, arduous process.

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1. continued
QUESTION: What advice would you give to young people who mught be contemplating careers in politics, about the pitfalls and the rewards of public service? Senator Humphrey: When you are involved in anything, you have to expect criticism. You have to constantly ask yourself, am I prepared to do that? You can always run away from problems and hide out; many people do. If you are going to be involved, you must be willing to be criticized for your inadequacies and your limitations. This is especially true in public life, where you are constantly under examination. Some young people today feel that it isn't worth it. Why go through all the sweat? Why put up with it? Let somebody else do it. But they forget that politics is another word for people. Politics is the people's business, particularly in a democracy. If the people don't take care of their business by participating, by getting involved, then they will "get the business." While you may not think that your individual effort amounts to much, remember that every person sitting on the sidelines gives those that are involved that much more power. I always try to point out that while great decisions may carry the name tag of one or two leaders, in fact many more people are involved. Great decisions are the products of a kind of digestive process that takes place in the whole society, in which all individuals can express their feelings on new ideas and plans. In this process, we look to the younger generation, to those who are filled with the love of life and with bright ideals. They've got to contribute. If they are involved, then politics will really be the people's business.

Gallup poll: a special count of opinions done by questioning a representative section of the population. George Horace Gallup, born 1901, statistician, founded the American Institute of Public Opinion. Teddy Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) U.S. President 1901-1909.

Q A President's Mission
George Bush's Nomination Acceptance Speech (excerpt)
is to me the presidency provides an incomparable opportunity for "gentle persuasion." I hope to stand for a new harmony, a greater tolerance. We've come far, but I think we need a new harmony among the races in our country. We're on a journey to a new century, and we've got to leave the tired old baggage of bigotry behind. Some people who are enjoying our prosperity have forgotten what it's for. But they diminish our triumph when they act as if wealth is an end in itself. There are those who have dropped their standards along the way, as if ethics were too heavy and slowed their rise to the top. There's graft in city hall, the greed on Wall Street; there's influence peddling in Washington, and the small corruptions of everyday ambition. But you see, I believe public service is honorable. And every time I hear that someone has breached the public trust it breaks my heart. I wonder sometimes if we have forgotten who we are. But we're the people who sundered a nation rather than allow a sin called slavery - we're the people who rose from the ghettoes and the deserts. We weren't saints - but we lived by standards. We celebrated the individual - but we weren't selfcentered. We were practical - but we didn't live only for material things. We believed in getting ahead - but blind ambition wasn't our way. The fact is, prosperity has a purpose. It is to allow us to pursue "the better angels" to give us time to think and grow. Prosperity with a purpose means taking your idealism and making it concrete by certain acts of goodness. It means helping a child from an unhappy home learn how to read and I thank my wife Barbara for all her work in literacy. It means teaching troubled children through your presence that there's such a thing as reliable love. Some would say it's soft and insufficiently tough to care about these things. But where is it written that we must act as if we do not care, as if we are not moved? Well I am moved. I want a kinder, gentler nation. Two men this year ask for your support. And

154 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

2. continued
you must know us. As for me, I have held high office and done the work of democracy day by day. My parents were prosperous; their children were lucky. But there were lessons we had to learn about life. John Kennedy discovered poverty when he campaigned in West Virginia; there were children there who had no milk. Young Teddy Roosevelt met the new America when he roamed the immigrant streets of New York. And I learned a few things about life in a place called Texas. We moved to west Texas 40 years ago. The war was over, and we wanted to get out and make it on our own. Those were exciting days, lived in a little shotgun house, one room for the three of us. Worked in the oil business, started my own. In time we had six children. Moved from the shotgun to a duplex apartment to a house. Lived the dream - high school football on Friday night, Little League, neighborhood barbecue. People don't see their experience as symbolic of an era — but of course we were. So was everyone else who was taking a chance and pushing into unknown territory with kids and a dog and a car. But the big thing I learned is the satisfaction of creating jobs, which meant creating opportunity, which meant happy families, who in turn could do more to help others and enhance their own lives. I learned that the good done by a single good job can be felt in ways you can't imagine. I may not be the most eloquent, but I learned early that eloquence won't draw oil from the ground. I may sometimes be a little awkward, but there's nothing self-conscious in my love of country. I am a quiet man - but I hear the quiet people others don't. The ones who raise the family, pay the taxes, meet the mortgage. I hear them and I am moved, and their concerns are mine.

George Bush

A president must be many things. He must be a shrewd protector of America's interests; and he must be an idealist who leads those who move for a freer and more democratic planet. He must see to it that government intrudes as little as possible in the lives of the people; and yet remember that it is right and proper that a nation's leader takes an interest in the nation's character. And he must be able to define - and' lead — a mission. New Orleans, August 18, 1988

The Human Side of Congress
Representative Jim Wright
Representative Jim Wright (D-Tex.), a member of the House of Representatives since 1954, describes the "nuts and bolts" of congressional decision making—people and personalities. As majority leader, a post he has held since 1977, he works with the speaker and with committee chairmen to oversee party strategy and control the flow of legislation. After thirty years as a member of Congress, I am not an objective observer. I believe Congress is the most fascinating human institution in the world. It is bevond question the most criticized legislative assembly on earth, and yet it is the most honored. It can rise to heights of sparkling statesmanship, and it can sink to

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3. continued
levels of crass mediocrity. In both postures, it is supremely interesting—because it is human. The story of Congress is the story of people. Congress is a microcosm of the nation. It is a distillate of our strengths and weaknesses, our virtues and our faults. It is a heterogeneous collection of opinionated human beings. On the whole, members are slightly better educated and considerably more ambitious than the average American citizen. But members of Congress reflect the same human frailties and possess the same range of human emotions as their constituents. Senators and representatives are individualists, not easily stereotyped or categorized. If there is a single thread of similarity that unites most, it is that they are driven in their work. The average member of Congress works longer and harder than do members of any other professional or business group I have ever observed. The average one of my colleagues probably spends from twelve to fourteen hours on work in an average day. If a member of Congress were to expend the same amount of energy and time in furthering any soundly conceived business venture, I have no doubt that he or she would become rich. A member of Congress is not some inanimate cog in a self-propelling legislative wheel. He or she is a turner of the wheel, a decider—along with others—of the direction the vehicle will take. True, there is a mechanical process that makes the car function. It needs gasoline. It needs a battery, a working engine, tires, and a universal joint. But knowing the mechanics of a motor—important as that knowledge is—does not tell us where the car is going. Its direction and ultimate destination depend upon who is behind the wheel. That is why careful students of Congress will do well to pay attention to the personalities of decision makers. They will reflect on backgrounds, personal philosophies, religious persuasions, and economic and educational experiences of members of Congress. These elements determine how well legislators interact with their colleagues and how much they comprehend and even care about different issues. Constituency pressures and interests, political party affiliation, and results of public opinion polls are important factors, but not infallible prognosticators when it comes to understanding how the Congress operates. It is instructive to ponder how the typical member of Congress sees the job. It includes more than just passing laws. I would suggest that a U.S. representative is a tripartite personality. In the first place, members of Congress are required to be ombudsmen for their constituents. A less dignified term might be errand boy. A widow does not receive her survivor benefit check in the mail. A college

wants to apply for a federal grant. A student cannot find a bank for a student loan. One person wants out of the military service; another wants an emergency leave. The average representative may receive two hundred letters a day. Forty percent of them will deal with the individual problems of citizens enmeshed in the coils of government and looking to their representative as their intercessor. The ombudsman role should not be despised. If it takes a disproportionate share of representatives' time, it keeps them close to real people with real needs. If citizens are entitled to go through doors that they simply cannot find in the bureaucratic maze, by leading citizens to those doors, representatives perform necessary functions. Were government ever to become so remote and aloof that the average citizen had no intercessor it would be a sad thing indeed. In a second role, members of Congress serve as traveling salesmen for their districts. Each tries to see that his or her slice of America gets its share of the action. Members try to direct federal projects into their cities, contracts to their factories, and grants to their local institutions of learning. Anything that promotes business or employment opportunities in a member's district is fair game to be pursued with vigor.

Jim Wright

pork barrel: refers to the practice of using political office to further the interests of one's supporters. speaker. did not usually vote as most of their constituents found acceptable. He knew what made them tick. He was persuasive with his colleagues because he understood them. A southerner voting for civil rights two decades ago.. founded in 1909. a traitor to the southern cause. There is conviction among members. Building coalitions in Congress is like being a peacemaker within a family. a law maker is impelled to vote in ways that are at least temporarily unpopular. House of Representatives. a midwesterner supporting the Panama Canal Treaty. I am not ashamed of that. "That is the point. Jim Wright was Speaker of the House of Representatives." I want him to know that they are fully intended benefits. then Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson was in a fight for his political life on the Texas home front. Kerr replied that he wanted to offer only "one slight correction in the otherwise excellent recitation" of his colleague." Scorn the "pork barrel" function as they may. He has since resigned in disgrace. But occasions arise in the life of each when by reason of conviction deeply held or information not widely known. the United States agreed to hand over the canal to the Republic of Panama on December 31. Panama Canal Treaty: in the Panama Canal Treaties. while writing tax laws with "unintended benefits" for Oklahomans. I am proud of that. ratified under President Carter.S. and to make the canal a neutral waterway open to all shipping after 1999. "at which my friend refers to these as "unintended benefits. It is often frustrating but always fascinating. I am a senator from and for the state of Oklahoma. It is inherent in human nature.). collectively and individually. highways. 1999. the Congress synthesizes an amalgam that serves the nation as a whole. Gore gently upbraided Kerr for using his powerful posts to promote dams. evangelist. This interview was given when he was House Majority Leader. majority leader: party member directing the activities of the majority party on the floor of the U. In 1956.S. I am constantly trying to meld together a majority out of an assortment of minorities.) (D-Tex. Sometimes I see my role as a combination parish priest. NAACP: civil rights organization." It was a matter of conscience. From the clash of conflicting parochial and economic interests." he once said to me. but it is fun trying. ranking Democrat on both Public Works and Finance Committees. someone from the Bi- ble Belt resisting constituent pressures to breach the wall between church and state—these are examples of personal principle under pressure. "I am not going to demagogue on that issue. representatives are often statesmen.): Democrat/Texas. and part-time prophet. and courage. While I am a senator of the United States. Board of Education! Johnson never waivered. they probably would not be very good representatives for their districts. This is when the mettle of the person is tested.156 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. noted for religious fundamentalism. If the law makers. the presiding officer of the U. As House Majority Leader. purists in political science cannot wish it away." said Kerr. servility and courage—combine to make up the human mosaic of the congressional decision-making process. chiefly in the South and the Midwest. Board of Education: see pages 109 and 113. Bible Belt: those sections of the U. and public buildings for Oklahoma. (From 1987 to 1989. Brown v. "If I have to try to prove that I hate Negroes in order to win. House of Representatives. but because he had an instinctive "feel" for people. a tool of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). One must know the concerns and needs of the members and must be sensitive to their opinions and the uniqueness of their individual personalities. Powerful epithets two years after Brown v.S.). once was being chided by Senator Albert Gore (D-Tenn. Harmony among this mixture of strong-willed individualists is an elusive grail. Lyndon Johnson was a master of that process not because he knew the procedures better than others. In the third role. They might not be representatives at all for very long. . Sometimes you cannot find it at all. then I will just not win. Antagonists portrayed him as a turncoat. on the average. All of the above—a mixture of servitude and conviction. continued The late Senator Robert Kerr (D-Okla.

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Lobbyists and Their Issues
American Israel Public Affairs Committee
Thomas Dine, executive director The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) is the only American Jewish organization registered to lobby Congress on legislation affecting Israel. Headquartered in Washington, AIPAC is the nationwide American organization that has worked to strengthen U.S.-Israeli relations for more than 25 years. AIPAC has spearheaded efforts to defeat the sale of sophisticated American weaponry to hostile Arab regimes, and has helped to protect and defend foreign aid requests to Israel of more than $2.2 billion annually. On a daily basis, AIPAC lobbyists meet with representatives, senators and their staffs to provide useful material, monitor all relevant legislation and anticipate legislative issues affecting Israel. In this way AIAPC lobbyists serve an invaluable function in the American political process. They are a vital informational and creative resource for members of Congress, helping them to deal with the multitude of issues that confront them every day. In addition, AIPAC is active on university campuses, educating and involving pro-Israel students in the American political process and sensitizing America's future policymakers to Israel's strengths and needs. Once a year all 34,000 members of AIPAC, including students, are invited to Washington to meet with their U.S. representatives and to formally approve AIPAC's policy statement, which serves as the organization's guide throughout the year. of all federal lands—national forests, national parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas and the lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Although the Wilderness Society is a non-profit organization and not a lobby in the traditional sense, it is active in the arenas where public debate shapes federal policy. Primarily the Wilderness Society seeks to educate and influence decision-makers in a variety of ways. Sometimes it lobbies directly on specific legislation, talking with members of Congress or their staffs to persuade them to support a particular bill. The Society also seeks to educate the public about important public land issues by maintaining close contact with the news media. The Society recognizes that reporters and editorial writers who are well-educated about important issues are very likely to turn around and inform their readers about these same issues. In addition, the Society's staff discusses proper regulation and management of public lands with key government officials; sponsors workshops to teach citizens how to become involved in the policymaking process; analyzes and comments on new preservation and management proposals; testifies at congressional hearings in support of or in opposition to public land measures; and establishes cooperative programs with other conservation organizations. Occasionally the Society's staff has conducted original research. When the administration wanted to search for oil and gas deposits in wilderness areas, the Society, using federal data, found that despite claims by the administration, only a negligible amount of oil and gas exists in wilderness areas. The fairest public policy is developed when a variety of viewpoints are considered. The Wilderness Society considers that its role is to bring to the process of public policy formation a well researched and clearly articulated point of view that reflects the interests of the public—those concerned and those unaware—who depend on the federally-owned lands to provide recreation, to protect the air and water supplies, to protect wildlife and fragile ecological areas and to ensure a sustained yield of renewable resources like trees and grasslands.

The Wilderness Society
Rebecca K. Leet, director of education The Wilderness Society is a 65,000-member conservation organization founded in 1935 to ensure the preservation of wilderness and the proper management of all federally-owned lands. It is the only national conservation organization whose sole focus is the protection

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Q Lobbyists and Their Issues
American Israel Public Affairs Committee
Thomas Dine, executive director The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) is the only American Jewish organization registered to lobby Congress on legislation affecting Israel. Headquartered in Washington, AIPAC is the nationwide American organization that has worked to strengthen U.S.-Israeli relations for more than 25 years. AIPAC has spearheaded efforts to defeat the sale of sophisticated American weaponry to hostile Arab regimes, and has helped to protect and defend foreign aid requests to Israel of more than $2.2 billion annually. On a daily basis, AIPAC lobbyists meet with representatives, senators and their staffs to provide useful material, monitor all relevant legislation and anticipate legislative issues affecting Israel. In this way AIAPC lobbyists serve an invaluable function in the American political process. They are a vital informational and creative resource for members of Congress, helping them to deal with the multitude of issues that confront them every day. In addition, AIPAC is active on university campuses, educating and involving pro-Israel students in the American political process and sensitizing America's future policymakers to Israel's strengths and needs. Once a year all 34,000 members of AIPAC, including students, are invited to Washington to meet with their U.S. representatives and to formally approve AIPAC's policy statement, which serves as the organization's guide throughout the year. of all federal lands—national forests, national parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas and the lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Although the Wilderness Society is a non-profit organization and not a lobby in the traditional sense, it is active in the arenas where public debate shapes federal policy. Primarily the Wilderness Society seeks to educate and influence decision-makers in a variety of ways. Sometimes it lobbies directly on specific legislation, talking with members of Congress or their staffs to persuade them to support a particular bill. The Society also seeks to educate the public about important public land issues by maintaining close contact with the news media. The Society recognizes that reporters and editorial writers who are well-educated about important issues are very likely to turn around and inform their readers about these same issues. In addition, the Society's staff discusses proper regulation and management of public lands with key government officials; sponsors workshops to teach citizens how to become involved in the policymaking process; analyzes and comments on new preservation and management proposals; testifies at congressional hearings in support of or in opposition to public land measures; and establishes cooperative programs with other conservation organizations. Occasionally the Society's staff has conducted original research. When the administration wanted to search for oil and gas deposits in wilderness areas, the Society, using federal data, found that despite claims by the administration, only a negligible amount of oil and gas exists in wilderness areas. The fairest public policy is developed when a variety of viewpoints are considered. The Wilderness Society considers that its role is to bring to the process of public policy formation a well researched and clearly articulated point of view that reflects the interests of the public—those concerned and those unaware—who depend on the federally-owned lands to provide recreation, to protect the air and water supplies, to protect wildlife and fragile ecological areas and to ensure a sustained yield of renewable resources like trees and grasslands.

The Wilderness Society
Rebecca K. Leet, director of education The Wilderness Society is a 65,000-member conservation organization founded in 1935 to ensure the preservation of wilderness and the proper management of all federally-owned lands. It is the only national conservation organization whose sole focus is the protection

158 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

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THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

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9

"If Conservatives Cannot Do It Now. . . "
Interview with Irving Kristol Authority on Political Trends
At the beginning of the Reagan administration, Irving Kristol, a noted political expert, said that with the rise of conservatism, Republicans had their best chance in fifty years to become the country's "natural majority party" again. О Professor Kristol, what are the chances that President Reagan can mobilize conservative resources to forge an enduring coalition for governing the nation? A I think his chances are very good. And if he can establish that coalition, there is no reason why the Republican Party cannot again be the natural majority party in the country. This is the best chance conservatives have had in 50 years to create such a coalition. If they cannot do it now, one has to assume that they cannot do it at all. О Would conservatism then come to dominate politics as liberalism did after the 1930s? A I think so. People will have confidence in their government and its programs as long as they perceive that it's working in a vigorous way toward the solution of their problems. If President Reagan can generate the kind of economic growth that his policy forecasts, the American people will be perfectly satisfied. О Which elements in the conservative movement will President Reagan have to bring together into his governing coalition? A I'd say there are perhaps four main elements: One certainly is the Moral Majority — that is, the basically Christian-oriented, patriotic Americans who feel that the government has become too intrusive and the United States has been too weak in its foreign relations. Then you have what you might call the Establishment conservatives — namely, the governmental types who have been serving in various Republican administrations and who are cautious, prudent men of the middle. You also have the neoconservatives — with whom I am usually classified — who are really the people within academe, the media and the intellectual community generally who have become conservative over the past 15 years. The fourth component, I suppose, would be the traditional right-wing organizations, like the American Conservative Union, that are close to the Moral Majority but are also interested in such issues as right-to-work legislation. ... Q Can the Moral Majority element — emphasizing religious intervention in controversial issues — fit into a stable coalition? A Sure. Look, if Franklin D. Roosevelt could fuse the Southern-conservative vote and the Northernliberal-union vote into a single coalition, then Reagan should have no trouble fusing the existing conservative groups into a coalition. They're far less disparate in their interests than the coalition established by FDR. True, moral issues such as abortion can be very disruptive because it's hard to compromise on them. It's too bad that the Supreme Court made the abortion issue a national issue instead of leaving it to the states. There doesn't seem to be much possibility at the moment that it will revert to the states, so we'll just have to negotiate it as best we can. ... О What role will people like you play in the coalition-building process? A A crucial role, in my opinion. Every political movement needs its intellectual wing these days. It's the age of higher education and the media, and a movement can succeed only temporarily unless it has an intellectual segment to go along with its popular appeal and an interest group to articulate what the movement is up to. . . . Q What will be Reagan's most difficult challenge in translating conservatives ideas into government policy?

160 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

5. continued
A Foreign affairs, by far. He came into office with a very coherent and fully articulated economic policy, and he's going to get it through with the coalition entirely behind him. But he also took office with a set of attitudes on foreign policy, not a coherent, well-worked-out set of policies. Witness the controversy over the grain embargo within the administration. This lack of coherence is going to be a very serious problem for the administration. Let me put it this way: We have no conservative counterpart in foreign policy to "supply side" economics in economic policy — something which is identifiably ours. ... A To some degree, yes. Mainly, however, I think it results from the fact that a ruling party eventually hits a crisis which it cannot cope with, as happened to the Republicans with the Great Depression. Then people will turn to the other party almost regardless of what it has to offer.

О Now that liberalism seems to be declining, can it avoid the stagnation that typified conservatism for so long after 1932?

О As a student of politics and ideas, do you see the dramatic rise of conservatism as part of a cyclical pattern in the ascendancy of rival political philosophies?

A There is a cyclical pattern — yes — which to some degree is simply natural. Namely, a party becomes powerful, holds office until it makes mistakes, exhausts its agenda, then another party takes its place. But this, in a way, is simply a function of retrospection. There is a natural cycle in the sense no one ever expects any party to dominate forever in a democracy. I don't know that there's more of a cycle than that. О Does the

cycle shorten or lengthen according to how well the party out of power sees new situations emerging and develops new and persuasive ideas for meeting them?

A Well, what liberals have to do is to come up with an agenda. That is not going to be easy, because, to begin with, they enacted most of their agenda. Parts of it will be repealed or cut back, but most of their agenda will remain the law of land. No one's going to repeal medicare or medicaid. Certainly no one's going to repeal Social Security or unemployment insurance. That being the case, it's hard to see what the Democratic agenda can be. My own guess is that the Democratic Party will find its agenda on the left, because unless this administration behaves in a very stupid and inept manner, there will be no room on the right for liberals. Therefore, they will probably have to go into the wilderness for a few years before coming out with an agenda — perhaps something that sets the goal of total equality, with more state intervention and an emphasis not on job creation, which is Reagan's program, but on job retention — that sort of thing.

Kristol, Irving: professor of social thought at New York University, co-editor of Public Interest and senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute. Great Depression: see page 73. Social Security: government measures providing economic assistance to persons faced with unemployment, disability, or old age.

In this situation neither diplomatic efforts nor economic pressure accomplished anything. federal spending increased even more. Build a meaningful peace: President Reagan has proposed substantial reductions in nuclear weapons through genuine arms control. 3S t h u traditio _ our traditional values: President Reagan wffl continue to promote a renaissance in the traditional values of faith. New homes are being built and sold. "We know the tide of the future is a freedom tide. 4. Or we can move for-1 ward together with President ji. Our nation lacked leadership. and it has worked. leading advocate of peace and freedom in the world. . Inflation rose to over 12 percent in 1980. Real after-tax income is up. Develop space. and that America's new strength and sense of purpose will carry hope and opportunity far from our shores. Interest rates | have been cut in half. As President Reagan has said. Iranian revolutionaries invaded the American embassy in Teheran. Interest rates were over 21 percent. Economic recovery to 1961. President Carter's attempt in April 1980 to free the hostages through a surprise midnight raid failed. Wn-ttteadersliip _ America is hack Americans were ready to make a new beginning. work and neighborhood. "America is back. yet. taxes doubled. ГеЙ^Апвд?^ services those V^^^roffnowtatbeywertfour years ago. 1979. President Reagan offered a plan for economic recovery. The only things going up were prices. taxes and the size of government. Productivity.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 161 Inflation Where we were Four years ago. Ensure steady economic growth: President Reagan will continue his program of tax relief and steady economic growth. and we had lost the respect of other nations.S." Years of government overspending and overtaxing had left our economy in ruins. As President Reagan has said. not only for all Ameri b f ll l ~e future in which peace. ll Americans. but "—Я fa all peoples. in our institutions and in ourselves. America's next frontier: Presi dent Reagan has proposed the construction of a per manent manned space station. 2. Our nation's defenses were dangerously weak. We have new confidence in our leaders. We had suffered humiliation in Iran. The diplomats and their staffs were taken hostage. Consumer spending is rising.*^^ I Reagan s leadership to build a fuu in pace. Over four million Americans found jobs last humiliation in Iran: on November 4. fre dom and prosperity abound. Our elected officials failed to trust in the courage and character of Americans." The unfinished work d us to move forward again. freeperity a b u . We can I return to the failed policies of I the past. and it was not until more than a year later that the hostages were returned to the U. So we elected President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George Bush to lead us into a more promising future. industrial production and workers' earnings were down. unempbyment. to unite behind four great goals to America free. attributing our problems to a national "malaise." Leadership The choice is clear. family. America faced the greatest challenge in our post-war history. In the last half of the '70s. We have come a long way. secure and at peace for the '80s: 1.

Not so much with speeches that will bring people to their feet as with speeches that will bring people to their senses.. our great Democratic Party. And in between is the heart of our constituency. here we are at this convention to remind ourselves where we come from and to claim the future for ourselves and for our children.a. We must win this case on the merits. not to Sakharov. We speak for senior citizens who are terrorized by the idea that their only security. We must make the American people hear our "tale of two cities. You're exactly right. Today. . Of course. it won't be easy. beyond the showmanship — to the reality.. from racism. . we must have a strong defense! Of course.! We speak for young people demanding an education and a future. So. We speak for women who are indignant that this nation refuses to etch into its governmental commandments the simple rule "thou shalt not sin against equality".162 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Keynote Address by Governor Cuomo to the Democratic National Convention (Excerpts) San Francisco. . We must get the American public to look past the glitter. Democrats are for a strong defense.. Remember that unlike any other party." We must convince them that we don't have to settle for two cities.r. their Social Security. from corruption. is being threatened.. July 16. That's not going to be easy. not to human rights. indivigible. We speak for ethnics who want to add their culture to the magnificent mosaic that is America. those people who work for a living because they have to. Of course. the hard substance of things. White collar and blue collar. that we can have one city. which has saved this nation from depression. from the threat of eventual fiscal disaster and most of all from a fear of a nuclear holocaust. not to the refuseniks. And we have. And we speak for reasonable people who are fighting to preserve our very existence from a macho intransigence that refuses to make intelligent attempts to discuss the possibility of nuclear holocaust with our enemy. Young professionals. . 1984 . And in order to succeed. . And this is our answer to the question — this is our credo: we believe in only the government we need. from fascism. every creed.. the middle class. In our family are gathered everyone from the abject poor of Essex County in New York. We speak for the minorities who have not yet entered the mainstream. not because some psychiatrists told them it was a convenient way to fill the interval between birth and eternity. every orientation. . is called upon to do it again — this time to save the nation from confusion and division. we embrace men and women of every color. We believe in a government that is characterized by fairness and . Now our allies are as confused as our enemies. The middle class. our purposes were clear. We speak for millions of reasoning people fighting to preserve our environment from greed and from stupidity. Thousands of us have paid for freedom with our lives. They refuse because they believe we can pile missiles so high that they will pierce the clouds and the sight of them will frighten our enemies into submission. We still believe in this nation's future. we must answer our opponent's polished and appealing rhetoric with a more telling reasonableness and rationality. every economic class. the people not rich enough to be worry-free but not poor enough to be on welfare. But always. We Democrats still have a dream. Now they're not. . Democrats believe that there are times when we must stand and fight. not to Bishop Tutu and the others struggling for freedom in South Africa. Now we have no real commitment to our friends or to our ideals. but we insist on all the government we need. a rule so simple — I was going to say — and I perhaps dare not but I will — it's a commandment so simple it can be spelled in three letters: e.. shining for all of its people. . when this country has been at its best. Men and women in small business desperate for the capital and contracts that they need to prove their worth. And we will do that not so much with speeches that sound good as with speeches that are good and sound. to the enlightened affluent of the gold coasts of both ends of the nation.

America's first woman Vice-President: reference to Geraldine Ferraro. and she will open with one magnificent stroke a whole new frontier for the United States. fairly. We can have a future that provides for all the young of the present by marrying common sense and compassion. Sharing one another's blessings. We believe in a government strong enough to use words like "love" and "compassion" and smart enough to convert our noblest aspirations into practical realities. Cuomo.. adapting to new realities. 1985.. Only on a much. Feeling one another's pain. Mutuality. if you and I make it happen. We can build a future that deals with our deficit. Remember this that 50 years of progress under our principles never cost us what the last four years of stagnation have. we believe in privacy for people. It will happen. ought to be able to find work for all who can do it. for the love of God. We believe. Sakharov. shelter for the homeless. And we can do it again. with all parts of the nation's family contributing.. if only to affirm the simple truth that peace is better than war because life is better than death. we believe in civil rights. giving us direction and purpose. as Democrats. it will happen again. on Jan. and hope for the destitute. We — our government — should be able to rise to the level where it can fill the gaps that are left by chance or a wisdom we don't fully understand. providing a sound defense without depriving ourselves of what we need to feed our children and care for our people. because we did it for nearly 50 years before 1980. a new President of the United States: reference to Walter Mondale. We know we can. The idea of family. the most affluent democracy in the world's history. The sharing of benefits and burdens for the good of all. but constantly innovating. And I ask you now. brothers and sisters — for the good of all of us.. and we believe in human rights. that doesn't distort or promise to do things that we know we can't do. a reasonableness that goes beyond labels. Please make this nation remember how futures are built. or geography or political affiliation. We believe in firm but fair law and order. And we can deal with that deficit intelligently. without respect to race. . We will have America's first woman VicePresident. We believe in encouraging the talented. And. but we believe that while survival of the fittest may be a good working description of the process of evolution. . that a society as blessed as ours. Andrei: (1921—1989) Russian physicist and dissident. . We will have a new President of the United States. national convention: formal meeting of party delegates to adopt platforms and party rules and select presidential and vice-presidential candidates. for the family of America. room at the table.. Thank you and God bless you. Democrats did it — and Democrats can do it again. ladies and gentlemen.. a Democrat born not to the blood of kings but to the blood of pioneers and immigrants. Reasonably. Bishop Tutu: Anglican bishop in South Africa opposing apartheid. by shared sacrifice. a government of humans should elevate itself to a higher order. using traditional democratic principles as a fixed beacon. ought to be able to help the middle class in its struggle. 20.. for the love of this great nation. much grander scale. won the Nobel Peace Prize 1975. care for the elderly and infirm.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 163 reasonableness. ladies and gentlemen. one that can spend trillions on instruments of destruction. or sex. openness by government. And we proclaim as loudly as we can the utter insanity of nuclear proliferation and the need for a nuclear freeze. . we believe proudly in the union movement.. building partnerships with the private sector. For 50 years we Democrats created a better future for our children. Democratic presidential candidate in 1984. the child of immigrants. Mario: Governor of New York State since 1982. Democratic vicepresidential candidate in 1984. . refusenik: a citizen of the Soviet Union who has been refused permission to emigrate from his/her country. We believe in a single fundamental idea that describes better than most textbooks and any speech that I would write what a proper government should be. honestly.

. the present any impressions created by the trumped the future. An REPUBLICANS That left the question of mandate NBC News-Wall Street Journal poll open to interpretation. had sold arms to Iran and illegally diverted the profits to the contra rebels fighting the Sandinista government of Nicaragua. "I'd rather have a hands because they were worried little argument going to work things what he might do. one in which the White proving relations between the House and Congress will wrestle United States and the Soviet Union." Echoed Karen Ekegren. spoke for many when he were deliberately tying Bush's said Tuesday. they will probably get someClarkston. a tire-store owner in gains. a professor of the preference for divided govern1988 ELECTION public affairs at the University of ment — with Democrats looking Maryland and adviser to past Demafter domestic needs in Congress ocratic presidential candidates. Ken basis of their projected Senate Adams. the evidence suggests that BEFORE AND AFTER THE William Galston. for control of the policy agenda and boosted President Reagan's popboth parties will search for answers ularity back up from its Iran-Contra to vexing problems . the voters felt licans manage the economy. so did support for his loyal dates sidestepped on the stump." of ten-venomous campaign. low inflation and declining the start of a new round of political unemployment. . "All year long. and pro-Bush Demwhere with it.which the candirose. but pervasive anxiety about the much to do with the outcome as future.S. vice president. outcome of the long and expensive Six years of sustained economic struggle signaled little more than growth. и . coupled with imwarfare.. In the end. "It's not Iran-Contra: SENATE a reference to a scandal of the Reagan presidency when it was discovered that the U. a Chicago office worker. argued that "if the Democrats for different parties to control the DEMOCRATS take the policy initiative on the White House and Congress. 35. Broder good to have one party in control. dethe tension between general satis1/8 257 fense and foreign policy from the faction with the present and vague White House — may have had as 175. And as Reagan's standing budget deficit . . . Paul Weyjust before the election found voters rich. They could say voters ocrat. out.164 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP °The Washington Post Americans Vote For Divided Government By David S. a leading conservative stratby a 5-to-3 margin thought it better egist. Ga. 54. and the state capitols while RepubHOUSE said.like the lows." THE AMERICAN voters gave Scholars of presidential elections George Bush and the Republican said they were sure that in-depth Party a pattern-breaking presiden46 analysis of the unprecedented mass tial victory Tuesday but blurred the S4 : of polling data this election genimport of their decision by cautierated will demonstrate that peace ously opting once again for divided ilili! and prosperity were the fundagovernment in Washington." .. The mental forces behind Bush's victory.

c) to be prepared to put up with criticism. c) value their personal conviction higher than public opinion. Reprinted with permission of Universal Press Syndicate. 1. How does he react to these attacks in this speech? . c) by young people with bright ideas. Comprehension Perspective of a Public Man Which of the following statements about Hubert Humphrey's ideas is correct? In some cases. 5. In a democratic society decisions ought to be made a) by a few leading personalities. 2. In this excerpt from the nomination acceptance speech. The message that politicians convey to the public a) must be simplistic. c) must be simplified but nevertheless interesting. c) must make sure that he attaches equal importance to all fields of politics. AUTH COPYRIGHT 1988 Philadelphia Inquirer. of caring only for the rich and neglecting the poor and of letting officials violate people's trust in public service. Analysis of a Speech A President's Mission 1. b) is necessarily repetitive and boring. This speech must be seen in the context of the 1988 election campaign. 6. more than one statement applies. b) to expect unfair personal criticism. Describe this cartoon and explain the point the cartoonist wants to make. According to Hubert Humphrey. delivered at the Republican National Convention. During this campaign the Democrats accused the Republicans and the Reagan administration of showing little regard for ethnic minorities. A cartoon is a satirical drawing commenting on current events or politics. b) must be both a teacher and a preacher. Hubert Humphrey likes political leaders who a) are prepared to make unpopular decisions. 3. Which aspects of his mission does he mention? 2. George Bush defines a president's mission. b) took up a second job as a teacher. How does George Bush deal with these accusations? 3. c) believed that explaining politics to the people was more important than passing laws. b) base their decisions on opinion polls. As a senator Hubert Humphrey a) found that working as a legislator kept him away from the people. 2. b) after a long discussion process that •involves as many people as possible. All rights reserved. Hubert Humphrey advises prospective young politicians a) to avoid becoming involved in problems that invite criticism.165 PART C Exercises 1. a great president a) must be able to spur people on to act to the best of their abilities. 4. 4» During the campaign George Bush was frequently reproached for his prosperous social background and for his lack of eloquence.

which could have been taken from federal lands. development can damage water quality and increase soil erosion. when an emergency arises. the nation cannot afford to ignore resources in its own backyard. the search and development of these resources must begin now. Many endangered animals. 35 percent of its uranium. What is the function of a majority leader? 5. How much time does a member of Congress devote to the actual needs of his/her constituents? 6.. Considering the costs of energy dependence and our large trade deficit.166 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. say development supporters. Other critics of developing federally owned resources argue that those resources should be saved for future crises. During the 1980s. Scanning Lobbyists and Their Issues Quickly read through the presentations of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee and The Wilderness Society and find out about • • • • the type and size of the organizations the basic issues their activities on Capitol Hill other activities. roughly one-seventh of the nation's land area. what can he/she do? 8. and their own convictions. .. where they will be given the chance to interview a member of Congress. Questionnaire The Human Side of Congress High school students in Ohio have been discussing the structure of Congress and the legislative process. If a representative is strongly convinced that he/she ought to vote against the wishes of constituents. such as chromium and cobalt. and 60 percent of its low-sulfur coal. The class has prepared the following questionnaire for this interview. Environmentalists urge caution in the government's granting of development rights to any federal lands or waters. live in these lands. Is a member of Congress an active factor in the decision-making process or is he/she only part of a machine? 4. How can they possibly represent such conflicting interests? 5. such as the grizzly bear. and the building of roads and the clearing of forests would disrupt their habitats. particularly since the country's energy needs had become more urgent.. however. Simulation of a Debate Considering what you know about the Wilderness Society and with reference to the information about the "Use of Federally Owned Land" carry out a debate on the following issue: Federal Lands should be Opened to Energy Developers In this debate. Members of Congress are subject to all kinds of pressure from their constituencies. What can a member of Congress in Washington do for his/her home district? 7. Underneath that land is estimated to be 80 percent of the nation's oil shale deposits. Moreover. For years many people have looked upon resources located on protected federal lands as reserves for the long-term future. How would Jim Wright answer these questions? 1 Does Congress really represent a cross-section of the American people? 2. Those who support development point out that the country has had to import large amounts of oil and strategic minerals. 4. the opinion polls. Furthermore. Use of Federally Owned Land—The Department of the Interior controls 510 million acres of federal land.. Either would have a severe impact on fish. such as war or a minerals embargo. many people began to feel that the government should open up federal land for private development. Two of the students have received a grant for an educational trip to Washington. How does a member of Congress compare with the average American citizen? 3. environmentalists of the Wilderness Society and representatives of the coal industry and oil companies defend their viewpoints. otherwise. there will not be time to extract them. they contend. their parties.

has asked people to write articles covering the different viewpoints of the issue under the heading "Should the U. Thousands of homeless Holocaust survivors headed to Palestine in the postwar years. " Decide which of the three answers best applies to Irving Kristol's views: 1. While the Balfour Declaration was a significant step. Roosevelt established. areas that were supposed to form a separate Palestinian Arab state were instead absorbed by Egypt and Israel and annexed by Jordan. Modern Israel grew out of Zionism. . Imagine that the Minnesota Daily. 7.S. The United States was one of the first nations to recognize the state of Israel.2 million Palestinians who still live in the Israeli-occupied West Bank or Gaza Strip. Arafat's strongest support is among the 1. the question has been discussed wheth er the U. Tens of thousands of Jews immigrated to Palestine. Its methods have included both terrorism and diplomacy. However. In 1974 the United Nations granted the PLO observer status. Use the information boxes below for reference. and the Israeli-occupied West Bank. Arafat's PLO forces are being rearmed by Iraq and are training in Jordan and Iraq. Israel—Israel was formed from part of the Palestinian Mandate—the territory of Palestine that had been taken from the Turkish Ottoman Empire after its defeat in World War I and mandated to Great Britain by the League of Nations. which calls for the destruction of Israel. Palestine then included areas now comprising Jordan. many living in refugee camps in Jordan. . 1948. Global Comprehension "I f Conservati ves Cann ot D o it No w . a political movement founded in 1897 to establish a Jewish national homeland free from anti-Jewish persecution. joining Jews who had lived there for centuries. Israel has the strongest military force in the region and is also the only working democracy there.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 167 6. Today»the United States continues to look to Israel as its most reliable ally in the Middle East. Arab king. U. Syria. This land is now the kingdom of Jordan. Despite its having only four million citizens. the Jewish state of Israel declared its independence. They are now scattered throughout the region. That left the Palestinians without a country. Twenty years later in the Balfour Declaration. Solving economic problems will lead to little/nwre/complete acceptance of the whole government. The military power of the PLO has greatly diminished since the Israelis pushed them out of southern Lebanon and pro-Syrian elements of the PLO overran the forces of PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat in 1983. the British government agreed in principle to the establishment of a Jewish homeland.S. The Palestine Liberation Organization was founded in 1964 to lead the struggle for a Palestinian state. The PLO says it will not recognize Israel until the Palestinians have a state of their own. which allows it to participate in the United Nations General Assembly. Approximately four million Palestinians have been affected by the conflicts in the Middle East. 3. a newspaper published by and for students at the University of Minnesota. In 1921 the British gave twothirds of Palestine to a non-Palestinian. The different groups making up the conservative coalition are less divergent than/as divergent as/more divergent than those that Franklin D. . and Israeli-occupied territories on the west bank of the Jordan River (the West Bank). When the western third of Palestine was partitioned after World War II. From these bases Arafat is struggling to keep the PLO the sole representative of the Palestinian people. the feeling of a moral obligation to help the Jews establish a homeland after the Holocaust. 2. although it may not vote. Israel itself is only about the size of Massachusetts. and the belief that the new Israeli government would likely be democratic. Israel. On May 14. The Republican Party's chances of keeping power in conservative hands over a long period are: poor/fairly good/better than ever before. The United States has refused to recognize the PLO until it renounces its charter. Writing Newspaper Articles Since PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat addressed the United Nations on the subject of Palestinian rights.S. support for Israel was an outgrowth of American cultural and religious ties to Jews. the major drive to establish a Jewish state grew out of the Holocaust—the attempted extermination of theJewish people by the Nazis. In 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan proposed that two states—one Arab and one Jewish—be established on the section of Palestine west of the Jordan River. Others fled to Europe or North America. negotiate with the PLO?" Write such an article from the point of view of either an active AIPAC member or a proPalestinian. should recognize the PLO as the official representative of Palestinian refugees. Lebanon. The Palestinians—The Palestinians are a people without a homeland.

лиЛьбапса of thOngi*. are they identical with the future tasks envisaged in the pamphlet? 9. The conservatives are going to improve/retain/do away with most of the social achievements made under Democratic Party rule. 1АлиЖ rf p. oovttof (dl. The role intellectuals play in the conservative movement is negligible/of some importance/very important. 10. Describe the layout of this pamphlet and explain the purpose of • the structure • the headlines • the photos • the diagrams • the quotation with Reagan's signature. diptt&um. Jvut urnnarv via. eccrumtlo " e&mic mi/iou&u-. arj.. /сил. 8. 3. 4иипап АК^Х^. о. ifw гишпл. . . сст£иш>п.tmcau/MJje. -рал. Of course. After taking a first glance at this pamphlet explain why you think it was issued. thtitduitut but JUftct AWWWt/. 7. There is a natural cyclical pattern according to which a governing political party loses/ maintains/increases its impact on the people after some years. which policies of the Reagan administration were particularly successful? А&е&сА&ь tcr the. inflation.. ikt/cudo-" d Вт/ллайс owdfona.. Text Analysis Reagan-Bush '84—Leadership You Can Trust 1.J*om. iruuw bemevu&A римЖпЬ and t/u.iv$<wMtM of АДА*. in. 9..clau. In the left hand margin you have indicated the main ideas for the different paragraphs of your article. p>\. гшшлиМл* and caning. production. Writing a Newspaper Article Keynote Address by Governor Cuomo to the Democratic National Convention Imagine you are a reporter for a small daily paper and you have been sent to San Frandscc to cover the Democratic National Convention.. . 5.. ike.168 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 4.. You have listened to Governor Cuomo's speech and taken the following notes. (un-)employment. of h . interest rates. The Democratic Party will have a chance to regain power by becoming right-wing/ moderate/left-wing. According to the pamphlet. oowwtuHt: . 8. "Ji . 2. 6.tlwu-wdl it. АЛМ-. ълтшъ. durtAitm. eMvdf cmcL -nucC fob tiuduvu fitt^Cs. The moral issues in this coalition are the easiest/fairly easy/the most difficult to solve. one would not expect such a pamphlet to admit any failures or shortcomings. o&b " thoi& amor але.Attp tA^muUU. Now write such an article. . Reagan's ideas about foreign policy are not very clear/fairly well-structured/profound. 4.thiA bmt /лат. 5. the. cam. a. government spending.fitmovuxtic Padu AaotdL ■nattim. Are there any problems not explicity mentioned here that have not been satisfactorily tackled and solved by the Reagan administration? If so. what changes were brought about in the following fields of politics between 1980 and 1984? • self-confidence of the people and confidence in government defense nuclear arms control foreign affairs social policy economy: taxes. Find a suitable headline and begin with a paragraph that not only presents the keynote of Governor Cuomo's speech but also arouses the interest of the reader. In a severe crisis the dominant party will lose/keep/gain members.4TuJi/jaMu Лпалипа.сотиилле/t A art cutthl* ocwuvmtnb nudjtd*.JU€aJt.dcr)L . According to the pamphlet. лнмфи* апсС билами. ^UakU-. •utmaudtu.

Assess the degree of bias (Republican. According to an О poll just before the election. Between the Irving Kristol interview and the Washington Post article there is a time span of about eight years. to what extent did the new conservatism envisaged by Kristol in 1981 as part of a cyclical pattern of political philosophies become the dominant factor in American politics? 4. The О for divided government is due to the voters' О that Democrats should look after <C> needs while a Republican president and his О would be more О at dealing with the economy." 2. And as Reagan's O> rose. Scholars of presidential elections said they were О that peace and prosperity were the О forces behind Bush's victory. Judging from these four texts where do you see the basic differences in the political agendas of the two main parties? 3. Six years of О economic growth. C" President Reagan's popularity after its Iran-Contra lows. so did support for his loyal vice-president. The White House and Congress will О for control of the О agenda and both parties will search for answers to О problems—like the budget deficit—which the candidates О discussing during the campaign. the О of voters found it better for О parties to control the White House and Congress.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 169 10. defense and foreign policy. and the article from the Washington Post—"Americans Vote for Divided Government. Comprehension Americans Vote for Divided Government Find the missing words by choosing from the pairs in the list below. the Reagan-Bush pamphlet. Democrat. neutral) in the Irving Kristol interview. they again О divided government in Washington. О with improving relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. nouns faith/belief majority/minority reference/preference politics/policy reputation/isolation opinion/reason community/cabinet adjectives essential/mysterious continuous/conscious separate/combined domestic/static absent/certain superficial/critical identical/different increasing/decreasing competent/composed verbs prevented/avoided struggle/compromise raised/dropped preferred/related 11. Although the American voters gave Bush and the Republican Party a presidential victory. In light of the 1984 and 1988 elections. low inflation and О unemployment. How do the political philosophies of the two major parties compare with those of the main parties in your country? . Comparative Study 1. the address by Governor Cuomo.

...... As the leading power of the western hemisphere. While American military involvement has given European nations security against Soviet attack..... in many respects...025 669 63 24 3 DESCRIPTION 1980 1984 30 24 4......................... Navy:-Con........ 30] 1985 17 159 127 4 9....... Rotary-wing squadrons .................... Tactical (excluding air-lift) .. and most Western European nations..297 10... America's political and military alliances are backed by its formidable military and nuclear forces.. Antisubmarine air squadrons '............. Aircraft........... About one fourth of the United States military personnel serve overseas... the United States exerts wide-reaching political............. Strategic..... Often excluded from superpower arms talks...... number ... are concentrated in Western Europe under provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).... Marine aircraft combat squadrons: Fixed-wing squadrons ................. however....ю America's Global Role PART A Background Information SUPERPOWER INFLUENCE MILITARY STRENGTH As a global superpower.......... it has also made them dependent..........023 124 21 124 21 5 98 5 98 10..... The United States operates military bases in strategic areas throughout the world.....926 639 63 24 3 [As of Sept..002 5................... 538 61 Aircraft.......... Since 1949.......................039 1.............. It has strong political and military ties to democratic governments in Western Europe and in other areas of the world.731 Special forces groups ............... number .....031 1...... Air Force: ICBM launchers . Tactical air squadrons.... Aircraft. Most of its overseas forces.. Turkey... Western ............. Marine divisions...... number 2 .... the Middle East.......................... NATO Over 2 million men and women are members of the armed forces..... 8. the United States has acted as Western Europe's military leader........ Greece........... and economic influence................. Selected aircraft squadrons ...427 1 Does not include patrol squadrons.............. including Africa........ Central America.... Airdefense................ on American foreign policy.. and Australia. guarantees the defense of member nations against Soviet attack................. 2 31 28 35 33 5.................. military..........116 1985 Army: Divisions. This military alliance..861 1........... 16 168 Maneuver battalions .......... which includes the United States.............. Southeast Asia... Excludes foreign government-owned aircraft........ when the alliance was created... 22 3 Navy: Ship operating force ...... SUMMARY OF MAJO MILITARY FORCES: 1980 то 1985 R DESCRIPTION 1980 1984 16 155 135 4 8.. 154 3 Air defense battalions/batteries ...... the United States plays an active role in Latin America....................... Canada...054 125 26 6 93 10.....

98 3. All figures 1983/1984 16 8.S. JAPAN FOREIGN TRADE The United States is not only the world's leading producer. BRAZIL E. of CHINA INDIA Gross national product U.E.66 П U.1650 Gross industrial production U. its economic output.A. ------- ER.S. 4 2. CANADA 1Ю50 ER. Population (million) 750 [275 ~[273 ~|237 ------- 1 ER.E.R. ca.S. measured by gross national product (GNP).S. FOREIGN TRAPE BY REGIONS 1982 South Asia Southeast Asia East Asia (except Japan) Exports in billions of US $ Imports in billions oT US $ .S. is twice the Soviet Union's. of GERMANY ^.S. Although it is neither the world's largest nor most populous nat ion.S.36 S. America's political and military strength is generated.A. /'.—ч Н 50 __ 2250 U. A World Power.R.ca.R.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 171 ECONOMIC STRENGTH leaders must rely on the United States to negotiate settlements that serve Europe's security interests. A U. 9.800 500 ------FR.E. by a powerful economy.S.51 1. 1235 О JAPAN / ^-v 620 о U. but also the world's greatest importer and exporter of goods..\363 0 U.C. 9. E. of GERMANY U.S.S.S.S. Other nations rely heavily on trade with the United States.R.E.. E. О U. and six times West Germany's.S. decision to withdraw troops or missiles from Europe puts pressure on European leaders to strengthen their nations' defense. three times Japan's. $ (billion) x-------.S. 9.74 4. The U. 22.S.A.C. U.C.C. economy surpasses all other economies in overall production.S.A. in turn.S. although it is neither first in size nor in population: World Position Land area (million km2) 1.$ (billion) U.ofCHINR U. o" E.

172 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP FOREIGN INVESTMENT America's economic influence is also extended through foreign investment.A. $ 21 £ 200 | u. It exports more computer systems and electric machinery and invests more money in technological research than any other country. As a leading producer and exporter of technology.s Investment Abroad / > If 2 » 1 250 200 150 124 1) 11 f 68 / s 150 100 50 75 / 100 Asia 7% (except Japan) 50 3 i. 0 THE ROLE OF THE DOLLAR TECHNOLOGY Also contributing to America's economic power is the status of the dollar as the world's chief international currency. the United States contributes to worldwide economic growth. 37 Great other 11 Britain 10 West Germany 17 Japan 25 GLOBAL ECONOMIC INFLUENCE Given the huge volume of production. trading. The pre-eminence of American currency is observed in Latin American and Eastern European countries. American Firms in Foreign Countries U. The dollar is used for most inter national trading. Still Leading in High Technology Percentage of world exports of high technology U. where the dollar has become accepted as a second currency. American businesses and industries operate all over the world.S. interest rate levels. and investment. American investment boosts the economies of these nations by providing employment.SJnvestment Abroad 1982 according to economic other 34% sectors industry 141% petroleum 25% according to regions and countries 3% other 11% Japan Western Europe 45% 250 in billions U. the value of the dollar. traders. and lenders closely watch conditions in the American economy such as the balance of trade. Latin America 14% Canada 20% \ 28 : --------.A. and for practically all lending and borrowing transactio ns. technology and new products.S. and American investment policies.\ ----------\ Y Foreign Investments in the U. the American economy is bound to have a global economic influence. Foreign investors. .S.

American foreign policy serves a moral aim in promoting and protecting democratic systems and democratic values such as individual freedom and human rights. has been guided by several principles. Understanding the power and influence of the American economy is crucial to understanding America's role in global affairs. where economic conditions are backward. are accompanied by the loss of economic power and independence. Third World countries were severely affected by high interest rates charged in the early 1980s. Third World countries rely heavily on American investment to stimulate employment and industrial growth. the United States has experienced massive trade deficits. American foreign policy is directed toward maintaining the balance of international power. This trade imbalance has promoted growth in the rest of the world: other countries have been able to sell more of their products to the United States. American foreign policy is committed to the practical principle of protecting America's political and economic interests. Many developing countries could not afford to pay the interest on their loans. In industrial countries as well. or the set of goals that determines America's relations with other governments and its stance on international issues. Import restrictions would boost the sale of American goods and reduce the trade imbalance. This ideal is often referred to as "making the world safe for democracy. The markets of American manufacturers have been diminished both at home and abroad owing to increased foreign competition.S. U. Because dollars are used for borrowing and lending. trade deficit has benefited foreign economies. The high volatility of the American dollar in recent years has created instabilities on worldwide trade markets. In developing countries. American foreign policy. Before its involvement in the First World War.S.S." Second. Firms can use their economic power to influence foreign governments into adopting policies that serve American political and economic interests rather than local interests. Third. and these sales have provided them with export surpluses. American firms play a dominant role. Economic aid and economic sanctions are frequently used to implement foreign policy goals. Fluctuations in foreign currency rates and the prices of stocks and precious metals are due in part to the dollar's instability. Many American business and labor groups have called for the United States to adopt a protectionist trade policy. foreign economies. which meant it was importing more goods than it was exporting. it has created severe economic distress for the American economy. however. would suffer. It had concentrated .S. America's economic power is what ultimately underlies its political power and gives substance to foreign policy. First. These countries' economic gains. These principles have guided U. In the years between the First World War and the Second World War American foreign policy developed from isolationism to interventionism. policies since the early part of the century when the nation began playing an increasingly important role in international affairs.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 173 THE BALANCE OF TRADE PROTECTIONISM MARKET INSTABILITY INTEREST RATES INFLUENCE ON THE THIRD WORLD ECONOMICS AND POLITICS U. dependent on export sales to the United States. interest rates and dollar values are of particular concern to foreign debtor nations. the United States has often used its economic power to achieve its political aims. While the U. On the other hand. FOREIGN POLICY FROM ISOLATIONISM TO INTERVENTIONISM In the past years. the United States had remained aloof from the political conflicts of European powers.

Pearl Harbor: in a surprise attack on December 7. breaking the long tradition of neutrality and diplomatic independence. The Soviet Union and its eastern satellite nations formed the Warsaw Pact. known as the "cold war" period. During this period. most Americans clung to this old idea of staying out of Europe's quarrels. were characterized by mounting tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union.S. When the First World War broke out. Immediately after the Second World War. Only two great powers remained in the world — the United States and the Soviet Union. thereby establishing its own spheres of influence. the United States helped restore democracy in Western Europe and Japan. Japanese warplanes destroyed American airfields and aircraft and dropped bombs on the ships of the U. each side tried to establish political strongholds in Europe and Asia. American foreign policy. Hawaii causing the greatest disaster in American military history. known as containment. and billions of dollars went into technological research for advanced weaponry. The United States spent $2 billion on the development and testing of the atomic bomb. the United States had become the leading industrialized nation and could scarcely remain unaffected by world events. soon emerged. the United States declared its neutrality. both the United States and the Soviet Union established military alliances. the United States implemente d this policy by supplying both military and economic aid to war-devastated countries that were susceptible to communist takeover. communist and democratic. the global balance of power became per manently altered and the role of the United States in world affairs changed dramatically. Mean while. both powers built up vast military defense ar senals which relied heavily on nuclear weapons. the United States entered the war as an ally of France and Great Britain. coordinated defense in the NATO alliance. the United States tried to return to its policy of isolationism. In some instances. a "power vacuum" was left in Europe and another in Asia. During the cold war. Navy in Pearl Harbor. After the Second World War. As the conflicts in Europe escalated and entry in war seemed inevitable. and later Greece and Turkey. To consolidate power and discourage encroachment.174 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP WORLD WAR II COMPETING SPHERES OF INFLUENCE THE COLD WAR CONTAINING THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM instead on expanding territories and influence in the western hemisphere. and the Chinese later began to spread communist influence throughout Asia. The Soviet Union set up communist regimes in Eastern Europe. Competing spheres of influence. The Japanese invasion of Pearl Harbor settled the issue. Large-scale factories were constructed to produce war materials. committing its entire military and economic resources to defeating Germany and Japan. America entered the war as an Allied power. Americans were divided on the issue of isolationism versus interventionism. The years following the Second World War. When war broke out again in Europe in 1939. With the defeat of Germany and Japan. focused on protecting democracy and containing the spread of communism. In 1917. Yet by this time. After the war ended. The Second World War brought the American economy to unprecedented levels of industrial production. The United States and the western democracies. 1941. armed conflict resulted. At the same time. .

Aid was increased to contain the spreading communist influence in the region. Altogether the United States spent over $12 billion in economic aid. however. the United States sent aid to establish and maintain a pro-western democratic influence in Vietnam. President Kennedy imposed a blockade on Cuba and prepared for nuclear retaliation if the Soviets refused to dismantle the site. One such use of force was in Korea. and bombs were being dropped on North Vietnamese Marshall Plan: Secretary of State George С Marshall (1880-1959) proposed a plan in 1947 to help Europe overcome the economic. premier of the Soviet Union (1958-64). Europe's industrial production was up 64 percent. Between 1961 and 1963 President Kennedy sent thousands of military advisers. President Johnson favored direct intervention. cold war tensions were increased because of the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union. America became even more involved. During the cold war decades of the 1950s and 60s. By 1968. the United States sent troops to defend South Korea. During this period. By the end of 1950. Gradually.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 175 ECONOMIC AID MILITARY FORCE THE NUCLEAR THREAT THE VIETNAM WAR In 1947 the United States responded to communist pressures in Greece and Turkey by sending millions of dollars in military aid. The Cuban missile crisis proved that the United States was prepared to use nuclear force. and Asia. and in Grenada in 1983. fears of nuclear confrontation reached a climax. The plan brought remarkable recovery. where they would be able to reach American cities within minutes. first secretary of the Communist Party (1953-64). in Lebanon in 1958. The United States introduced a similar economic recovery plan in Japan. Similar perceptions of a communist threat led to U. . Both economic programs achieved the American foreign policy objectives of restoring democracy and containing the spread of communism.000 American troops were fighting.S. if necessary. to respond to a direct Soviet threat to American security. a U. In Vietnam. To ensure the stability of western European democracies. Throughout the 1950s and 60s. Each country used new developments in nuclear and space technology to produce weapons of devastating destructive capabilities. 500. The Marshall Plan was signed into law by President Truman in 1948. economic activity was well above prewar levels. Soviet Premier Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in return for an American promise not to invade Cuba. Nikita Sergeevich (1894-1971): Soviet statesman. in Cuba in 1961. the United States tried to curb Soviet influence by channeling economic aid to unstable governments in impoverished regions of the world such as Africa. the United States began a massive four-year program of economic reconstruction known as the Marshall Plan. When the communist-backed North Korean army invaded South Korea in 1950. In 1962. in the Dominican Republic in 1965. policy which began as an economic and military aid program gradually escalated into full-scale war. Khrushchev. intervention in Guatemala in 1954. Latin America. Under Presidents Truman and Eisenhower. and communist strength among voters was dwindling.S. the United States frequently used military force to support pro-western governments which were being threatened by communist invasion. The United States discovered that the Soviets were beginning to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. social and political deterioration after the Second World War through substantial financial aid.

named after Cesar Augusto Sandino. Henry: born 1923. Between 1972 and 1974 U. signed by President Carter and Premier Brezhnev. In Central America. National Security Adviser to the President from 1969 to 1975. He also strengthened the military by reimposing draft registration and increasing defense spending. President Reagan considered the left-wing Sandinista government of Nicaragua a threat to U. In the early 1980s. President Reagan advocated military involvement to stop the spread of communism. In the case of Vietnam. the Soviet Union and the United States began a series of negotiations to limit strategic weapons. professor in government at Harvard University.S. He imposed a grain embargo and called for the American boycott of the Moscow Olympics. and other fields.S. President Carter responded with harsh economic measures. The first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I). environmental protection. Senate failed to ratify the treaty because many senators believed the treaty made too many concessions to the Soviets. limited each country's defensive weapons and put a five-year restriction on the making of several types of offensive weapons. The 1979 SALT II treaty. Although President Reagan sometimes used economic measures to achieve foreign policy goals. but also against the Soviet Union. . Through Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities and military Kissinger. President Johnson's policy was continued by President Nixon. America's use of force to achieve foreign policy goals was neither popular nor successful. national security. the U. signed in 1972. placed restrictions on longrange bombers and missiles. Two major agreements were reached. the United States invaded Grenada to prevent a left-wing government from coming to power. Nobel Peace Prize 1973. However. agriculture. In 1983. During the period of detente. Leonid Ilyich (1906—82): Soviet statesman. Relations between the two nations became hostile again in 1979 when Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan. who increased bombing raids and sent American soldiers into Cambodia. he believed that the most effective way of dealing with the Soviet Union and other communist governments was through the projection of military force. By the early 1970s cold war tensions had eased and the United States began to pursue a policy of detente ("relaxation of tensions") with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. President Nixon and Secretary of State Kissinger met frequently with Soviet and Chinese leaders to make agreements that would minimize conflict and encourage trade. President Nixon ended up withdrawing American troops in 1973. When martial law was declared in Poland in 1981. Sandinistas: a leftist political force. Faced with a slim prospect of immediate victory and increasing public opposition to American involvement in the war. President Reagan also used economic measures to express disapproval of Soviet policies.176 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP DETENTE ARMS CONTROL TALKS RENEWED HOSTILITY CENTRAL AMERICA targets.S. Brezhnev. and Soviet leaders signed eleven separate agreements to enhance cooperation in space exploration. one of the leaders of the rebellion against the United States Marines from 1927 to 1933. Secretary of State from 1973 to 1977. President Reagan imposed economic sanctions not only against Poland. In 1975. President Reagan asked Congress to provide aid to the Salvadoran government to stop communist forces from taking over. South Vietnam's resistance broke. general secretary of the Communist Party (1966-82).

000 Bombers 1981:376 1987:315 Tanks 1981:12. including the secretary's office. was slow. Progress.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 177 INCREASED DEFENSE SPENDING aid.054 1987:1. This system would be able to shoot down Soviet missiles before they could reach the United States. Critics. fiscal years DEFENSE BUILDUP Fiscal years Surface ships 1981:201 1987:222 Submarines 1981:128 1987:139 ICBM's 1981:1. fearing that increased involvement might lead to war. DEFENSE SPENDING In billions of 1982 dollars. military strength. the two nations reopened arms talks under the Reagan administration. In order to project a stronger military presence. Between 1981 and 1986. The Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) were begun in 1982 but ended when the Soviets walked out a year and a half later in response to the NAT O deployment of Pershing missiles in West Germany. .S. the United States supported anti-Sandinista rebels in their fight to overthrow the communist government in Nicaragua. however. Despite sharp differences on arms control.have increased by $89 billion. opposed President Reagan's policies in Central America.821 1987: 14.296 7980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 ARMY OTHER* NAVY Ш Ш AIR FORCE И Defense outlays for all services. however. President Reagan increased defense spending to an unprecedented level. the defense budget rose 45 percent. President Reagan also proposed the development of a new space-based defense. argue that the plan can never be completely effective and fear that development of space-based missiles will only escalate the arms race. known as the Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars"). or nearly 45% 'includes expenses for joint services and for the office of secretary of defense SPACE-BASED MISSILES RENEWED ARMS TALKS As part of his plan to increase U. Many Congressional leaders. including the Soviets.

Because of its military and economic power. the United States and the Soviet Union resumed arms control talks in Geneva. As a negotiator. Nevertheless. two moderate nations in the region. the actions of the two superpowers can help decide whether peace or conflict reigns. Mikhail: born 1931. Switzerland to discuss medium-range. RESPONSIBILITY In 1985. the United States wants to limit the influence of the Soviet Union in the area. where conflicts have little to do with democracy versus communism. global power has become somewhat less polarized as other nations and regions have gained power and influence. The United States has become involved in Middle East conflicts for several reasons: First. the United States tried to control fighting in Lebanon by sending military troops to keep peace and distance between feuding factions. The sale of arms to Arab nations was controversial because it meant that the United States was helping sustain Arab-Israeli conflict by appearing to support both sides. The delicate conflicts of this region have become an important focus of American foreign policy. By seeking good relations with Arab states. These interests are difficult to secure. Yet global interdependence and the threat of nuclear confrontation increase the importance of diplomacy to American foreign policy. and sending military forces.178 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP THE MIDDLE EAST U. its most reliable ally in the region. In 1987. general secretary of the Communist Party since 1985. and troops were withdrawn in 1984. . Gorbachev. Third. Even in the Middle East. conflicts arising out of rivalry between the two superpowers have dominated world affairs. supplying arms.S. Global affairs continue to be dominated by the United States and the Soviet Union. by selling advanced military weapons. which supplies most of the world's oil. however. and spacebased missiles. Second. In 1982. the United States helped Israel and Egypt reach an historic peace agreement in 1979. Soviet statesman. Progress toward arms reduction was finally reached in 1987. it wants to maintain a friendly relationship with Israel. America increased its involvement in the Iran-Iraq War when it sent warships to escort oil tankers through the besieged Persian Gulf. By supporting Israel. when President Reagan and Premier Gorbachev signed a tentative agreement to limit intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) in Europe. the United States may anger Arab oil-producing states. The United States bears an important global responsibility as it balances its national security interests with the need for international stability and peace. the United States has the potential to impose solutions by the use of force. the United States has attempted to represent its interests by negotiating peace settlements. Both the Soviet Union and the United States acknowledge a degree of dependence on the Middle East. long-range. the United States wants to protect the world's oil supply. This military effort was unsuccessful. In recent decades. Since 1947. American leaders have tried to gain favor with Saudi Arabia and Jordan. it compromises its support for Israel.

Small wonder. • We must defend the rights and the dignity of man. ingenuity and spirit. We have made tolerance and compromise the basis of our domestic political life. Averting the danger of nuclear war and limiting and ultimately reducing destructive nuclear arsenals is a moral as well as a political act. liberty. Peace is a fundamental moral imperative. We have defined our fundamental goals — justice. equality and progress — in open and libertarian terms. America has been most effective internationally when we have combined our idealistic and our pragmatic traditions. undogmatic and undoctrinaire. Without it. enlarging opportunity and freedom rather than coercing a uniform standard of conduct.and the community of nations today faces inescapable tasks: • We must maintain a secure and just peace. we face the real moral dilemma of foreign policy: the need to choose between valid ends and to relate our ends to means. Each of these challenges has both a moral and a practical dimension. When that is the case. Americans have believed this country had a moral significance that transcended its military or economic power. the struggle Henry Kissinger AMERICA has perennially engaged in a search of its conscience.179 PART в Texts America & the World: Principles & Pragmatism HENRY KISSINGER Unique among the nations of the world. that Santayana concluded: "To be an American is of itself almost a moral condition. but ends that are sometimes in conflict. From its beginning. America was created as a conscious act by men dedicated to a set of political and ethical principles they believed to be of universal applicability. then. America . principle and survival? Today the challenge of American foreign policy is to avoid the illusion of false choices: we must live up to this nation's moral promise while fulfilling the practical needs of world order. nothing else we do or seek can ultimately have meaning. . How does our foreign policy serve moral ends? How can America serve as a humane example and champion of justice in a world in which power is still often the final arbiter? How do we reconcile ends and means.." But this idealism has also been in constant tension with another deep-seated strain in our historical experience. In the nuclear age. power politics. • We must create a cooperative and beneficial international order. Each involves important ends. Since Toqueville.. . it has been frequently observed that we are a pragmatic people — commonsensical. a nation of practical energy.

each asserting sovereignty and claiming the right to realize its national aspirations. before the world is irrevocably split into contending camps . between the need to defend our values and interests and the need to consider the views of others. Nationalism without a consciousness of human community and human rights is likely to become an instrument of oppression and a force for evil. Alexis de (1805-59): French statesman and historian who traveled through the United States for eight months in 1831. The process of building a new era of international economic relationships will continue through the rest of this century. But neither will there be security in a world in which mock tough rhetoric and the accumulation of arms are the sole measure of competition. The goals of the industrial nations are equally clear: widening prosperity. Common sense tells us that in the nuclear age history must not be repeated." There will be no security in a world whose obsession with peace leads to appeasement. negotiations and mutual regard among diverse and contending interests will clearly be required. Hence. But responsibility compels also a recognition of our limits. Henry: see page 176. George (1863—1952): Spanish-bom American philosopher and poet. between partial and total settlements. serve peace by strengthening regional and world security. Those who consider themselves dispossessed will become the seedbed of upheaval. as a general rule. sooner or later.180 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP for marginal advantages. they are not favors to others. an open world system of trade. His Democracy in America is one of the most important books about America. be used as levers. America's second moral imperative is the growing need for global cooperation. energy and raw materials. Kissinger. To seek it at any price would render us morally defenseless and place the world at the mercy of the most ruthless. a fair share of global economic benefits. as Tacitus said. Every President. while there is still time for conciliation . suffering and fear. They should be withdrawn when those interests change. investments and markets and reliable development of the resources of food. but a recognition of common interests. a world in which a few nations constitute islands of wealth in a sea of despair is fundamentally insecure and morally intolerable. national unity without freedom is a hollow triumph. continued The objectives of the developing nations are clear: economic development. On the part of the industrial nations. no nation can fulfill all its goals without infringing on the rights of others. In the search for peace we are continually called upon to strike balances — between strength and conciliation. But peace cannot be our only goal. . If those relationships are to be equitable and lasting. the political relationships built up with other nations. a role in international decisions that affect them. compromise and common endeavors are inescapable. As the world's leading democracy. will conclude with President Eisenhower that "there is no alternative to peace". for greater political cooperation and for a fair and flourishing international economy is rooted in our belief that only liberty permits the fullest expression of mankind's creativity. The growing interdependence of states in the face of the polarizing tendencies of nationalism and ideologies makes imperative the building of world community. Our third moral imperative is the nurturing of human values. Our alliances. Clearly. 1. If well conceived. We live in a world of more than 150 countries. Mankind must do more. Tocqueville.now.to make the sacrifices necessary to build a sense of community. there must be a moral commitment . .and a commitment to seek progress through cooperation. History teaches us that balances based on constant tests of strength have always erupted into war. We can spare no effort to bequeath to future generations a peace more hopeful than an equilibrium of terror. On the part of the developing nations. the drive for prestige and unilateral gains must yield to an unprecedented sense of responsibility. But the tactics of confrontation with which some of the developing nations have pursued their goals are as unacceptable as they are unproductive. All we do in the search for peace. . We live in an age of division — between East and West and between the advanced industrial nations and the developing nations. than "make a desert [and] call it peace.now. Technological progress without justice mocks humanity. Clearly. there must be an end to blackmail and extortion . Santayana. it is our obligation to dedicate ourselves to assuring freedom for the human spirit. Individual freedom of conscience and expression is the proudest heritage of our civilization. they should not. It is a tragedy that the very tools of technology that have made ours the most productive century in history have also served to subject millions to a new dimension of intimidation. .

This is a regime which has destroyed freedom in Tibet. and its power for the sake of a people so far away? We fight because we must fight if we are to live in a world where every country can shape its own destiny. The rulers in Hanoi are urged on by Peking. April 7. have ended their lives on Vietnam's steaming soil. The contest in Vietnam is part of a wider pattern of aggressive purposes. And helpless villages are ravaged by sneak attacks. And it is a war of unparalleled brutality'. And some four hundred young men. Thus. Since 1945 ever} American President has offered support to the people of South Vietnam. The war is dirty and brutal and difficult. It is a principle for which our sons fight tonight in the jungles of Vietnam. Why are these realities our concern? Why are we in South Vietnam? We are there because we have a promise to keep. Around the globe from Berlin to Thailand are . and its interest. The first reality' is that North Vietnam has attacked the independent nation of South Vietnam. Why must we take this painful road? Why must this nation hazard its ease. We have helped to build. We are also there to strengthen world order. and only in such a world will our own freedom be finally secure. 1965 I have come here to review once again with my own people the views of the American government. This kind of world will never be built by bombs or bullets. We have no territory there. The world as it is in Asia is not a serene or peaceful place.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 181 9 American Policy in Vietnam: Peace Without Conquest Lyndon B. Its object is total conquest. Vietnam is far away from this quiet campus. over many years. we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence. which has attacked India and has been condemned by the United Nations for aggression in Korea. Simple farmers are the targets of assassination and kidnapping. Tonight Americans and Asians are dying for a world where each people may choose its own path to change. Women and children are strangled in the night because their men are loyal to their government. This is the principle for which our ancestors fought in the valleys of Pennsylvania. Johnson Excerpt from a speech delivered at John Hopkins University. and terror strikes in the heart of cities. Large-scale raids are conducted on towns. nor do we seek any. and we have helped to defend. It is a nation which is helping the forces of violence in almost every continent. And I intend to keep that promise. born into an America that is bursting with opportunity and promise. Over this war — and all Asia — is another The misery of Vietnam reality: the deepening shadow of Communist China.

We want nothing for ourselves — only that the people of South Vietnam be allowed to guide their own country in their own way. but they are not entirely false. and most of all. continued people whose well-being rests in part on the belief that they can count on us if they are attacked. The result would be increased unrest and instability. they are frightened by the knowledge of their own inability to withstand our power. because we are successful. tenants in the world at our sufferance. . In recent months attacks on South Vietnam were stepped up. It is a change in what we believe that purpose requires. although we may be convinced that we are good top dogs. Anxiety about America's great power predisposes people. We do this in order to slow down aggression. most people around the world are convinced that there is no such thing. They do this not because we are Americans but because we are top dogs and they fear our power. . We will not grow tired. To leave Vietnam to its fate would shake the confidence of all these people in the value of an American commitment and in the value of America's world. This is not a change of purpose. We do this to increase the confidence of the brave people of South Vietnam who have bravely borne this brutal battle for so many years with so many casualties. we are perceived as voracious. even against their better judgment. Our objective is the independence of South Vietnam and its freedom from attack. VVhat do these feelings about American power have to do with the war in Vietnam? They go far.182 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. Because we are rich. to explain why our war policy commands so little support in the world. valleys of Pennsylvania: allusion to the War of Independence. should it ever be turned upon them. we are perceived as overbearing. I suspect. because we are strong. They are. We will not withdraw. We will do everything necessary to reach that objective. But we will use it. they are frightened by the ways in which we might use it. so to speak. We will use our power with restraint and with all the wisdom that we can command. Power does breed arrogance and it has bred enough in us to give some substance to the natural prejudices against us. I think. failures and transgressions. people all over the world seem to discount our good intentions and to seize upon our hypocrisies. Vietnam: see page 15. And we will do only what is absolutely necessary. . and even wider war. Top Dogs and Underdogs J. to take satisfaction in our frustrations and . either openly or under the cloak of a meaningless agreement. William Fulbright AMERICA is top dog in the world and. Much to our puzzlement. we are perceived as arrogant. And we do this to convince the leaders of North Vietnam — and all who seek to share their conquest — of a very simple fact: We will not be defeated. They are frightened by some of the ways in which we have used our power. and no amount of good will on our part can ever wholly dispel the anxiety bred by the feeling of helplessness. Thus it became necessary for us to increase our response and to make attacks by air. These perceptions may be distorted and exaggerated.

So it is with men. . and so. American educator and political leader. Inevitably and demonstrably. it will be said. in large measure. Marshall Plan: see page 175. the ideas about man and man's relations with other men that took root and flowered in the American soil. That brings me to one of the most important of the many flaws in our war policy in Vietnam — its failure to take account of people's feelings and instincts. the real America — and the real American influence — is something else. salve for the pride that was lost in the days of the Marshall Plan. The most we can hope to do with our fragile tool of reason is to identify. especially those pertaining to top dogs and underdogs. when France survived on American generosity. For all their worldwide influence. restrain and make allowance for the feelings and instincts that shape so much of our lives. It is the way our people live. but it would not be rewarding. an enemy who. endowed with a certain capacity for reason. think what they must mean to the real underdogs of the world. . but they are not. not their emotions. our tastes and games. People. ]. But they don't. . It asks them to believe that the world's most powerful nation is not only strong but motivated by deeply benevolent and altruistic instincts. Such attitudes. for example. Vietnam War. but it is not nearly great enough to dispel the human legacy of instinct and emotion. Africans and Latin Americans who can easily identify themselves with the Viet Cong guerillas but could never see themselves in the role of the lordly Americans. American policy asks people to believe things that they are deeply reluctant to believe. William: born 1905. We are. to the hundreds of millions of Asians. the way we treat one another. who well understand the importance to themselves of America's weight in the world balance of power. I might be able to think up some good reasons why elephants should fly. page 15. There may even be people in our own country who feel some sneaking respect for a resourceful enemy. ragtag: badly-behaved. . our products and preferences. Seeing the Americans cut down to size like that is balm for the wounds of Dien Bien Phu. they ought to be cool and rational and detached. our major impact on the world is not in what we do but in what we are. Fulbright. elephants cannot fly and there is nothing to be done about it. are irrational and unfair. nevertheless seem to derive some satisfaction from seeing more than half a million Americans fought to a stalemate — or worse — by a ragtag army of Asian guerrillas. Rich and powerful though our country is. Even if that were true — and on occasion it probably has been true — nobody would believe it. may even remind them of the ragtag American revolutionaries who humbled the mighty British Empire almost 200 years ago. If our military failures in Vietnam have this effect on the French. it is not rich or powerful enough to shape the course of world history in a constructive or desired direction solely by the impact of its power and policy. continued our setbacks. and so. indeed. unrelated even to national interests. in a curious and purely emotional way. they are. they should. because nobody would want to believe it. our aid and our diplomacy are only the shadow of America. to be sure. it will be argued. should be rational and should act on their interests.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 183 3. as I believe they do. chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1959-74). Viet Cong: cf. The French. the way we govern ourselves.

Our Values plus more in Opinion Roundup. Campaign Techniques. Movies. page 30 .184 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Published by American Enterprise Institute Feb/March 1986 ^ 4 ^ _ _ _ ____ 11 a I \C X. У r Яр ~ Exporting American Culture Our Music.

say. Carrington.S. it actually played to an American strength. And after the movies. and Bruce Springsteen brings them to their feet in Germany. Tim Page. pages 30-35. Fulbright for graduate study abroad. Around the world. Alexis: character in the TV series "Dynasty. ambassador to West Germany from 1985 to 1989. the political consultants. PUBLIC OPINION. More on the American cultural roadshow appears in Opinion Roundup. even as they deride them. or between miniseries. Bruce: see page 242. Richard: born 1947. . Much as some nations deplore what has been called the "Coca-colonization" of their cultures. and you have a collection of some of the best traveling salesmen around. Springsteen. and demand American television programs. Eastwood. and the foreign exchange students. He became known through the CBS Western series Rawhide and gained international recognition in Sergio Leone's trio of Italian-made Westerns. may be an emissary as important as Ambassador Burt himself— or any ambassador for that matter. Pepsi. there are Artistic Ambassadors—young American pianists who play newly commissioned pieces of American music." Nike: tradename of sport shoes. Clint: born 1930. perhaps.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 185 Exporting American Culture Richard Burt. Alexis Carrington is loved and loathed from London to Monaco. "Teenager in Love" and "Tell Me"—both sung in a West Berlin recording studio to the accompaniment of a local group called the "Subtones. in fact. the best seller in Bangkok. if it's a leisurely continental breakfast they want in.W. government scholarship sponsored by Senator J. For those who demand a little culture from American culture. Thailand." Surprising as such a performance was to German diplomats. Or. These expressions of America are explored by Richard Grenier. FEBRUARY/MARCH 1986 VAS and KHK Burt. they can hole up in any of fifteen Dunkin' Donuts shops with a cup of coffee and a good book— What They Don't Teach You at Harvard Business School. and Jack Valenti in the pages that follow. line up for American movies. recently startled the diplomatic community there with his rendition of two rock and roll classics. people hum American tunes. our young-at-heart ambassador to West Germany. John Russonello. American popular culture. American movie star. Fulbright scholar: recipient of a U. American journalist and diplomat. citizens abroad can lace up their Nikes and jog off to the local McDonald's or Burger King for a hamburguesa and a shake. their citizens adore Coca-Cola itself—and its major competitor. Clint Eastwood packs them in in France. Add to these the Fulbright scholars.

3. Johnson points out that a free and secure world "will never be built by bombs and bullets. at Johns Hopkins University on April 7. delivered this speech. How are these reasons related to each other? 3. do you think. Johnson defines America's role in Southeast Asia. How does he justify those attacks? Do you find his way of arguing convincing? 3. Johnson was obviously aware of the fact that his military policies did not meet with approval from all Americans. from 1963 to 1968. do not show some kind of malicious joy when half a million American soldiers do not stand a chance of winning the war against the Asian guerillas. however. In his essay. 1965. when U. which was broadcast nationwide. 2. Comprehension Top Dogs and Underdogs Determine which of the following statements agree with the text. Kissinger discusses idealism and pragmatism." Later on. Text Analysis America & the World: Principle & Pragmatism 1. In his address. . parallelism and accumulation. he speaks about American air raids. The Viet Cong guerillas arouse more sympathies among the underdogs of the world than the American soldiers. Lyndon B. 6. Kissinger deals with war. What is the effect the speaker wants to achieve by this enumeration of expressions of violence? 5. disorder and conflict on the one hand. 3. The underdogs' fear of the top dogs' power makes many people dwell on the negative sides of Americans. What is the function of these devices? Make a list of examples. who suffered a similar defeat in Dien Bien Phu. Read through the text again and find out all the reasons he gives for America's commitment in Vietnam. What. The way Americans see themselves is markedly different from the way they are seen by others. images and parallelism to convince the audience that his policy is right. we find metaphors. 7. 4. 5. and with peace. Only the French. Correct the false statements. Johnson. The distortions and exaggerations which can often be found in the perceptions of Americans by people all over the world cannot be substantiated at all. This was a few months after American military involvement had increased dramatically.186 PART C Exercises 1. Among the stylistic and rhetorical figures used by the author. order and appeasement on the other. At the end of the third paragraph. It is the anxiety of the less powerful rather than rational consideration that makes people derive satisfaction from the plight of the Americans in Vietnam. 2. 2. Text Analysis American Policy in Vietnam: Peace Without Conquest 1.S. 1.S. Define these terms according to the information given in the text. President of the U. The fight of the American soldiers in Vietnam is sometimes even compared with that of the American revolutionaries 200 years ago. Show how he uses rhetorical devices like comparison. antitheses. bombers had raided North Vietnam. 4. Make a list of all the words and phrases used in order to describe violence and aggression in Asia in the fourth and fifth paragraphs. was the main purpose of the President's speech in this situation? 2. Find the various words and expressions which are characteristic of these polarizing fields.

Among the numerous exchange programs for young people. 5. hosted 4. Try and find somebody who has taken part in a student exchange with the United States or has lived there for some time. 10." Have a look at the collage shown on the front page and identify as many facets of American culture as possible. Ask him/her about the aspect of American culture that he/she found and still finds most striking. 9.500 American high school students abroad in 1986/7. Senator Fulbright argues that Americans should exert an influence on others not by displaying their power abroad but by setting a positive example through their way of life at home. A more comprehensive impression of American culture is left on foreigners who have actually been to the United States. YFU. in the long run. Although at present the attitude towards Americans is largely emotional and irrational.A. well known. If American politicians had considered the psychological implications of the relationship between top dogs and underdogs.000 foreign high school students in America and sent 2. rational thinking will get the upper hand.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 187 8.S. 6. AFS was founded in 1947 and organized 10. American Field Service International (AFS) and Youth for Understanding (YFU) are especially 4. they would have understood the criticism America's involvement in Vietnam aroused outside the U. Interviewing Many of the cultural influences mentioned in the introduction to Public Opinion are rather accidental. Visual Comprehension Exporting American Culture In its February/March 1986 issue. Discussion Which aspects of American culture can you find in your own city or country? What do your friends think about the American cultural influence in your country? How do you personally feel about it? . founded in 1951. the American magazine Public Opinion dealt with "Exporting American Culture.000 student exchanges among 70 countries in 1985.

A. M. Ph.D..g.S.g. School attendance is compulsory for all children. from Sep tember to June.g. The System of Education in the U.S.) """Bachelor's Degree (e. Public education from kindergarten through grade 12 is tax-supported. five days a week for nine months each year.S.и Education PART A Background Information SCHOOL ATTENDANCE Every American is entitled to an education..A. B.) Technical Institute Private Career School Junior College Master's Degree (e.) Undergraduate Studies High School Diploma SECONDAR Y EDUCATION 4-year High School Senior High School Junior High School ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Elementary School Kindergarten Nursery School Grade (= School Year) Age .A. Students attend school five to seven hours a day. no tuition is required. HIGHER EDUCATION Postgraduate Studies Graduate Studies "Doctor's Degree (e. B. M.

film-making. 15. variety also exists in schools' academic standards and reputations. political science. the wide variety of degree programs is remarkable. Highly reputable . This contrasts with 17. The standards students must meet to attain a high school diploma are rigorous in some schools and lax in others.5 percent of Swedes. Some elementary schools offer computer and foreign language courses. The other 15 percent choose to pay tuition to attend private schools.EDUCATION 189 About 85 percent of American children attend public schools. and even circus performing. 17. the education system in the United States has made significant advances in educating an ever greater proportion of the population. Most pri vate schools are run by religious organizations and generally include religious instruction. and English. typing. but also on the particular course offerings of the school.3 percent of East Germans. The same is true for college admission standards.5 percent of Japanese. and 14. College-bound students may be enrolled in college-preparatory courses such as chemistry. In 1985. social studies. Besides colleges and universities which offer degrees in traditional fields of scholarship. A 1985 Census Bureau study reported that in 1940 only 38 percent of those between the ages of 25 and 29 had received a high school diploma and only 6 percent had college degrees. there are also small arts colleges which grant degrees to students who concentrate in specialized fields such as ballet. science.2 percent of Canadians. Which courses a student takes depends on his or her abilities and future goals. Percent of High School Graduates (18-24 years old) Enrolled in College I Hispanics 1984 Blacks Whites 1980 1974 20% VARIED OPPORTUNITIES 30% 40% Educational opportunities in the United States are highly varied. 86 percent of those surveyed said they had high school diplomas and 22 percent said they had college degrees. Students who do not plan to go to college may be enrolled in classes such as basic accounting. Besides the diversified course offerings at all levels. or advanced writing. High school students at the same grade level do not take the same courses. Since 1940. A 1981 survey showed that almost 32 percent of Americans 25 years or older had at least some college education. Courses in scuba diving or Russian are available at some high schools. or agricultural science. along with "core" curriculum courses such as mathematics. In higher education.

To eliminate inequalities. Spending for public education is also determined by state and local education leaders. Yet the education that each student receives is by no means equal. and student achievement standards are made by boards of education at the state and/or district level. teacher certification. and grammar). social studies. science. In some states. and social studies (which includes geography. the American educational ideal has been to offer equal opportunity for education to all citizens. . More money is spent for the education of a child living in a wealthy district than a child living in a poor community. music. One plan that was established in the spirit of equality was the Economic Opportunity Act. The first major contribution of federal aid for education was in 1965 when President Lyndon B.to seventeen-year-olds attend high school compared with only 50 percent in 1930. mathematics. mathematics. physical education. His new federal programs.300 a year in Mississippi to $2. textbook selection is made by state education officials. For example.3 billion dollars. spending per pupil varies considerably. In public schools. the selection of textbooks is decided by local officials. decisions about school curriculum. and that America produces proportionately more college graduates than any industrial nation. The fact that public schools receive the bulk of their funds from local property taxes creates inequalities. were initiated to provide remedial schooling for children from poor families. history.190 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP DECENTRALIZED FUNDING AND ADMINISTRATION CURRICULUM DEMOCRATIC IDEAL INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATION PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S GREAT SOCIETY colleges such as Harvard and Yale accept only students of exceptional ability. learning materials. Another was the Higher Education Act. and citizenship). certain subjects are generally taught in all public school systems across the country. Accordingly. science.400 a year in Massachusetts. which offers government scholarships to needy college students. which provides money for adult literacy programs and pre-school education for poor children. and teacher salaries. Most secondary schools require students to take English. The main reason for such diversity in course offerings and standards is that there is no national education system in the United States. language arts (which includes reading. The democratic ideal of providing equal education for all citizens has been hard to satis fy. education standards and requirements differ from state to state. Almost every elementary school instructs children in penmanship. art. The education system can boast that now more than 95 percent of all fourteen. The national average. from $1. and physical education. In addition to this "core" curriculum. whereas in other states. sometimes negatively referred to as "degree factories. Although there is no national curriculum. Rural farming communities and poor innercity districts have less money available for school buildings. Traditionally. writing. students choose "elective" courses in their areas of interest. New York administers standardized competency tests to students. the federal government has increased its share of school financing and now contributes between 10 and 15 percent." which accept practically any high school graduate. Some school systems require that a high school student complete three years of mathematics before graduation. is lower. Johnson proposed new programs as his instrument for realizing his liberal hope for a "Great Society" of greater equality and less poverty. backed by 1. Despite this injection of federal money. At the other end of the spectrum are less desirable institutions. however.

Opposition in the local white community was so strong that police were brought in from other states. compulsory bussing has worked. In some cities. the Board of Education: see page 113. whites began sending their children to private schools or moved to the suburbs. Before the Brown case. U. Three times as much money was spent per pupil in white schools as in black schools. Although progress has been slow. especially as a compulsory integration measure. Brown v.S. people reacted strongly against it. bussing: carrying students by bus to a school in a different area where the pupils are of a different race. The attempts of the last 30 years to achieve fully integrated schools have resulted in successes and failures. DESEGREGATION The discrimination against blacks which prohibited black children from attending white schools was finally declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the 1954 landmark case. Another measure introduced to speed up integration was the compulsory "bussing" of black children to schools in white areas and white children to schools in black neighborhoods. During the 1960s. When bussing was first introduced as a way to achieve integrated schools. Brown v. schools for blacks were not only separate but unequal. Congress passed laws denying federal aid to school districts that failed to comply with the ruling. Subsequent court decisions ordered schools to begin desegregation immediately. Census Bureau statistics show that the dropout rate among blacks declined from over 22 percent in 1970 to 16 percent in 1980 and to 12. . In the deep South. The dropout rate among black high school students has declined significantly. it was five times as much. Yet in many areas.6 percent in 1985.EDUCATION 191 Children being "bussed" to school in Boston. integration has succeeded in narrowing the education gap between blacks and whites. the Board of Education of Topeka.

In 1971. 3." The following statistics of the report bear out this claim: • 13 percent of all seventeen-year-olds in the United States are functionally illiterate. • among minority teenagers.192 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP PROTECTING THE HANDICAPPED NEED FOR QUALITY EDUCATION A NATION AT RISK In the 1970s. . The challenge for American education today is to improve the quality of learning without sacrificing these gains. well-qualified teachers. • average achievement of high school students on most standardized tests is lower than in the mid-1950s. with a back-to-basics emphasis on reading. and science. the figure may be as high as 40 percent. A Nation at Risk. Aside from the schools' task of socializing and equalizing youngsters of different social. including a heavier homework load and higher grading standards. handicapped children used to have to attend expensive private schools. widely supported by the public. stricter standards for students. by the National Commission on Excellence in Education asserted: "The education foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity. The commission's recommendations for improving student achievement. include the following points: 1. Because public schools were ill-equipped to handle their special needs. federal courts ruled that public schools should take measures to accommodate handicapped children. cultural. The 1983 report. 2. math. higher salaries to attract and keep talented. writing. schools have the obvious task of providing quality instruction. stronger academic curricula. and math skills are so poor among young people that employers have spent millions of dollars on remedial education and training programs for their employees. America has succeeded in educating the many and has made gains in evening out inequalities. • reading. By its democratic standard. measures to protect minorities from discrimination were extended to handicapped children. The public's concern for better schools and more learning is increasing as results of standardized tests show a continual decline in students' academic achievement. writing. and economic backgrounds.

and consumer arithmetic for algebra. Life adjustment education was condemned by some because it was anti-intellectual.. and education could right society's problems. Kennedy's assassination. also stimulated the popular belief that the identification of talent and the pursuit of excellence were appropriate educational goals. the rediscovery of poverty. talent. foreign languages. schools were encouraged to merge traditional subjects like English and history with health and guidance to create "common learning" courses.. Progressivism in the late 1940s was called "life adjustment education" by friend and foe alike. Beginning in 1949. It judged every subject by its everyday utility. the nation's competition with the Soviets for world supremacy had lost its motivating power. By 1965. Part of Kennedy's image was the idea that youth.. SINCE THE MIDDLE 1940S. . As the Cold War appeared to fade.. critics complained that "how-to" courses and socio-personal adjustment had been substituted for history. students in elite universities — the After the Russians orbited Sputnik in 1957. A series of cataclysmic events shook national selfconfidence: violence against blacks and civil rights workers in the South.. Under the rubric of life adjustment education. . many of the critic's worst complaints about the softness of American education. educators shifted their focus from "meeting the needs of the whole child" to "excellence". educational policy has swung from domination by "progressives" to domination by "traditionalists" in roughly ten-year periods. The political climate. The sudden and remarkably quiet disappearance of the "pursuit of excellence" in the mid-1960s showed how dependent it was on the sociopolitical climate. business English for the classics. substituting radio repair for physics. intelligence. along with standardized test scores. The drive for excellence was in high gear during the early 1960s. science. American involvement in Vietnam. the national press was filled with indictments of American schools for ignoring science and mathematics. With striking regularity. and enrollment in advanced courses and foreign languages rose steadily. . Programs were developed to identify talented youth at an early age and to speed their way through rigorous courses in high school and college. . . AMERICAN schools have been at the center of a tug of war between competing educational philosophies. During the late 1950s and early 1960s. . .. typified by the brief presidency of John F. and by others because it aimed to teach group conformity. in which students could examine their personal and social problems. The Russian's feat served as evidence for . mathematics. and literature... Kennedy.193 PART в Texts 0 American Educational Philosophies by Diane Ravitch.

it justified the equal sharing of power between the authority figure (the teacher) and the students...194 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1. .. and provisioned classrooms with the obligatory gerbils and sensory. and the widespread decline of critical reading and careful writing. it made a positive virtue of nonassertive leadership. . grade inflation. Watergate. and it insisted that children should study only what they wanted. open education was ideal. demanded that the teacher tell them what to do. children wandered about aimlessly. parents complained bitterly that their children couldn't read. the open philosophy led to dropping of requirements. absenteeism. and against the meritocratic pressures of an achievement-oriented society. Regardless of explanations blaming such factors as Vietnam. At the high-school level. continued presumed beneficiaries of the postSputnik years — protested against technology. On paper. tactile materials. hired open educators. some teachers couldn't handle the open-ended situation. Responding to changes in the social and cultural milieu. Diane: associate professor of History and Education at Teachers College. that the classroom was chaotic. standardized admission test for college. and alternative schools. got into fights. The swing away from open education was hastened by the public reaction to the news in 1975 that score on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) had dropped steadily since 1963. the problems appeared. Ravitch. Despite their training. and working mothers. against the middle-class values of their parents. Many schools removed classroom walls. schools-without-walls. drugs.. The innovation that had the most influence in the public schools was the open education movement. In some districts. By the mid-1970s. the open education movement had gone into decline. Watergate: see page 29. Scholastic Aptitude Test: (SAT). Once it was put into practice. adoption of mini-courses. The open education philosophy answered perfectly the need for a set of educational values to fit the countercultural mood of the late 1960s. sent their veteran teachers to workshops to be retrained. The College Board's 1977 report on the score drop confirmed that part of the drop was in fact due to lowered standards. and that there was no homework. the effect of television. . a substantial part of the public believed that the decline of standards in the school was primarily responsible for lower test scores. Columbia University. educators sought to adapt the schools to the new conditions and to placate their numerous critics. it stimulated participatory democracy.

049 — more than half of the school — to 430 in May. The burned-out area was sealed from view. From February." says Barbara Shealy. Starting at 7:30. the monthly number of late students dropped from 1. Still." Nakano immediately masterminded an overhaul of the buildings. Top scholars are recognized at an annual academic banquet where they receive Olympic-style medals for their efforts.000 full fire-and-security alarm system was installed. "But we're getting kids who care more about school and are willing to work. "When people feel safe. although the percentage of students scoring in the bottom quarter has steadily declined. serious academic problems remain." says Alberta Moss. who becomes studentbody president this fall. Students who are late three times in one month are assigned to 20 minutes of work cleaning up the campus. Standardized test scores remain low. head of the English department. we have students running to classes. "Climate for learning." Principal Nakano has brought order to Jefferson High School. An aging sprinkler system was repaired. Students freely roamed halls that crackled with an ever present threat of gang violence about to explode. and a new $85. Unlike before. students already have learned the first lesson about attending classes here: Be on time. Getting students to school on time is only one of the disciplinary measures adopted by the 46-year-old Nakano that have changed the fortunes of a troubled campus. Dr.m. Students felt proud of their school again. he says. at the inner-city campus of Thomas Jefferson High School. he found a graffiti-marred campus that openly showed its latest scars: The blackened hulls of three administrative offices gutted by fire." he says. a third-generation Japanese American. Honors programs were started last year at each of the three grade levels in English. Nakano locks the gates to keep out unwanted visitors." With physical changes has come a renewed attention to learning. "Now. . There have been no gang fights on campus for 18 months. you have a climate for learning. Principal Francis Nakano is standing by to greet the school's nearly 2. Nakano is trying to make school a good place. came to Jefferson High two years ago. "I'm not afraid any day I go to school. Promptly at 8.EDUCATION 195 What Makes Great Schools Great A Tough School Pays Off ^^^■^^^нн LOS ANGELES By 8:01 a. observes Eric Parker. Tardy students are screened by security personnel and sent to a holding room to wait for one period so that they won't disrupt classes for others. who heads the tardiness program.000 predominantly Hispanic and black students as they arrive. When Nakano. bringing back green grass and fresh plants to the campus. "Sixty percent of our 10th graders read at fifth-grade level от below.

" The district has spared little expense in making learning attractive. the dairy delivered it within an hour. As a result. "Everybody is really motivated. The curriculum guide. According to 1980 Census Bureau figures. a minicomputer with 24 terminals and one of the few advanced-placement computer-science courses in the nation.000 for teachers.196 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. . offers more than 200 courses. Participants sign learning contracts in which they accept responsibility for their own progress in exchange for special individual instruction. per pupil spending at Glenbrook South is nearly $6. The first computer was installed at Glenbrook South in 1968. I like that. DOUGLAS С LYONS and MICHAEL BOSC mm -. keeps staff stability from turning stale. the staff turnover rate is low. "There is something here for every student." says Harry Gottlieb. a new program. Glenbrook South is geared toward success. further boost the local tax base. Today." By LUCIA SOLORZANO witr JUANITA R HOGUE." The emphasis on achievement at home and school presents problems for many students in their first year. which exceeds 100 pages. with the financial wherewithal to support it. Glenview.000. the school has a microcomputer lab with 22 computers. To help young people cope. Students also appreciate the individual attention many teachers give. such as Zenith and publisher Scott Foresman. Innovations at Glenbrook South make classes stimulating. "We put as much emphasis on the lower-level student as on the gifted student. SARAH PETERSON." says English teacher Tom Valentin.—«-^ ^». and local business is actively lending its support. Hughes Aircraft Company provided a "quality circles" training program to help teachers identify and propose solutions to school problems.100 students. boasted the ninthhighest median income of all cities in the country. Aug. student-council president: "A teacher I had for freshman history still keeps in touch with me and asks how I'm doing. But an emphasis on innovation. provides on-site internships to students and donates dairy products for school fund-raising events. a 1983 graduate now attending Brown University. More than two thirds of the freshmen participate. a large dairy 3 miles from campus.S." says senior Stephanie Cotell. pushing for improvement.000 — about twice the state and national average.. More than 80 percent of last year's graduates went on to two and four-year colleges. Ready funding also has enabled the school to be at the forefront of educational innovations. More parents are coming to once sparsely attended school meetings.. "it's that putting money into education is worthwhile. Students can even use computers to compose music or simulate scientific experiments. Like the community in which it is located. Large corporations based here. students and the community again believe that anything is possible. Glenbrook South High School is a microcosm of the successful suburban Chicago community that surrounds it. Last spring. with a population of about 31. 1984 honors program: special program for more academically-minded students. "If there's a lesson to be learned here. One morning when school officials needed paint to cover graffiti. 27. continued About 225 sophomores with low scores will enter the 8-month-old School Within a School program this fall." Success-oriented. Going First Class iGLENVIEW. "The kids are achievers because their parents are all achievers. The sleek two-story structure offers an indoor swimming pool and a greenhouse for its 2. ranging from automotive repair to a special program of advanced study in English. "There's always a new approach. the school since 1973 has offered a peer-group counseling program in which upperclassmen help freshmen deal with personal and academic adjustments. In a school once plagued by fear and hopelessness." says Associate Principal David Smith. "Things are constantly changing around here. The Knudsen Corporation. U. NEWS & WORLD REPORT. teachers." Because of the bounteous working environment and an attractive to/> salary of about $42. We're always aiming a little higher. Says Lisa Kivirist. A full time studentactivities co-ordinator surveys students annually to see which extracurricular clubs should be expanded or dropped. social studies and foreign languages.

oral tests and quizzes as forty per cent and homework as ten per cent. one in math. three in English. the nearest big city. Besides sports there are also several other activities after school such as band. we have many different kinds of tests.EDUCATION 197 An American Senior High School An American student talks about his high school Quincy Senior High School. I attend school between Y^O and 2. three and a half in P. a half in health and one year of science. three in history. And that adds up to twelve credits. Usually we have essay tests. I've been there for four years. Illinois. Quincy Senior High with a student population of 1. .situated 120 miles north of St.. It is. 0: What are the subjects required in your four years of high school? A: Well. Illinois. Q: What does your schedule look like? A: Well.E.000 inhabitants. usually a teacher evaluates^the performance by written tests equalling fifty per cent of the grade. drama club. or so on. But I run track after school and so therefore I take a study hall instead of P. chess club. !t just depends upon their teaching style. theater. and I'm in the twelfth grade. Louis.E. in my four years of high school I have to complete twenty credits. Q: Can you tell me anything about the tests and examinations at your school? A: Well. Quincy.900 is the only public senior high school in the town and it also draws students from the surrounding region. history or I could take other subjects such as psychology or computers. And then usually we write a large paper twice a year called the term paper and that also adds mto the grade. Then there are other tests such as quizzes and oral examinations such as book reports and speeches and such. multiple choice tests. Illinois Quincy. And between each class I've five-minute breaks. German. Q: What about homework? A: It's different with every teacher. business law and one study hour which normally would be P. Q: Alan.E. computers. The other eight were optional and I could take more of any one subject such as math. Q: And what are your subjects now? A: My present subjects now are math. Some teachers like to give lots of homework and others don't give that much. which high school do you attend? A: I attend Quincy Senior High School m Quincy. is a typical midwestern town of about 50.20 every day and in that time period I have" six hour-classes and a thirty-minute break for lunch. many other clubs such as German club and Spanish club and so forth. English. Q: How do teachers evaluate the performance of students? A: Well.

I know these rules sound really strict. our attendance policy in 1984-85 insists that students attend class a given number of days before credit in the course is allowed. Serious illness in the family. in-school suspension. Illness of the student. Poor attendance affects learning and earned grades the most for those students who miss 20 days or more during the school year. I like Quincy High a lot. such as radios or weapons or drugs.what may and may not be brought to school. but for the most part they're common sense. Of course. It's actually quite relaxed and quite friendly.. 2. language obscene or vulgar . Our faculty feels strongly that students who miss class excessively miss so much content that it is very difficult to make up outside class. When a student reaches 12 class absences in a semester at Quincy Senior High. With this in mind.8 days in 1984 [. 5. Death in family. They're good teachers and they're easy to get along with. but we know we can do better. students and parents. continued 0: Is there a strict code of conduct at your school? 0: A: Each student receives a detailed student handbook which therein has the rights and responsibilities A: governing smoking.3% in 1984. this policy will be implemented fairly for students who have medical excuses from a doctor and other extenuating circumstances which contribute to absences which can't be avoided. Skipping classes or being unexcused is a more serious type of absence. I think they are too short. as a whole I like Quincy High a lot and if I could change one thing.. What part of the school life at Quincy would you be critical of? Well. The Illinois School Code. Each class absence for skipping or an unexcused reason counts the same as 3 days excused absence toward the limit of 12. lavatory use. . Tardiness. The efforts of the past school year on the part of students.. is also a bad habit for students to develop. . This means that credit is suspended until certain requirements are met. Attendance Policy & Procedures Quincy Senior High Attendance Policy for 1984—85 Improved attendance is a major goal for Quincy Senior High School because it means students should learn more and get better grades.] We are very happy about this trend. It is not a prison. When a student has 12 absences or more. Approved emergency needs at home. Within the guidelines of the school code. 3. gives school officials the right to excuse a student temporarily. . These are classified as excused absences as far as makeup work is concerned. I like the teachers the best.198 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. there will be some special circumstances where exceptions will need to be made in the interest of fairness. in Section 122:26-1. These absences count more heavily toward the 12-day limit.. Most students should miss less than 6 days a year for these reasons.3% in 1983 to 7. and they are a bit. . To change this "incomplete" to a credit-bearing grade will require much responsibility on the student's part to change the attendance pattern and meet other obligations set by the school. Absences which have been arranged by parents prior to the student's absence.3 days in 1983 and 12. There are also rules concerning absenteeism Q: and tardiness to class and the penalties such as A: detention. . 1. we believe that too much class time has been missed to justify granting credit for the course. Even our current improved record wouldn't be acceptable to employers. When a student is tardy three times. 4. parents and school staff yielded a decrease in absences from 9. it will be counted as a one-day absence. I also like the fact that Quincy is a bigger school because that gives me more opportunities in sports and in the variety of classes that I can take. out-of-school suspension and expulsion. it would probably be the breaks between class. The following reasons for absences are included in the 12 absence limit. Five minutes isn't enough time to get from one class to the other. his or her grade will become "incomplete". What do you like best about your school? Well. In actual days this means that the average student missed 16. or being late to class. And the atmosphere isn't as bad as it sounds.

13..... 2......................................................EDUCATION 199 In a 1984 opinion poll student leaders were asked to qualify the public schools in the U..............7% Other .................................. 18.... 14..2% They cannot maintain discipline in the classroom .....................3% Other .............9% Note: Percentage totals may exceed 100 because some students gave more than one response to certain questions.... 13....3% С (average) ........... 12........................... The statistics show their answers to five key questions...........1% They do not challenge students to work harder in class ..........6% Other ........................................ 2.............................1% Q More money could be spent best in my school by: Buying better textbooks and instructional materials.......4% D(fair) ..................... 28.................. 10.2% my school could take to improve my education is: Raise the quality of teachers .......... . 55.................. 57..............0% Make classwork more challenging ...................3% Improve discipline ................. 14.......... 26.........0% Extend the school day...................................2% С (average)...................................... 22...3% Q The biggest problem with the quality of teachers today is: They fail to make subject matter interesting ..........1% F(poor) ..2% D(fair) .S.......................23..................2% F(poor) .... 56........................................ 8................. 0..........................3% Raising all teachers' salaries ............ 4......... 0.47....2% Raising the salaries of a few superior teachers . What letter grade would you give to The single most important action the overall quality of education you are receiving at your school? A (excellent)........3% щщ What letter grade would you give to ^J the overall quality of your teachers? A (excellent) ............ 1........A........................1% Extending the school day ........................................ 50............1% B(good) .....1% В (good)............... 12....... 26.......................6% They do not have a good grasp of their subject matter ...................

so baffling to foreigners. .. universities. Today. At the end of World War II. Professor Riesman claims that the 1970s have brought about a more significant change in higher education. the idea of attending a private school has come to . for inflation spreads its penalties — and windfalls — all too evenly.075 accredited colleges and universities in the United States. . the land-grant schools and other state universities. At the heart of the problem is the fact that. .5 million college and university students in the United States were educated in private institutions. There were. .S. and schools affiliated with dozens of other religious denominations. the predominantly black schools. at last official count. or could safely borrow enough to send their children even to the most expensive private college. baffles many Americans as well. the former teachers' colleges and regional state universities.200 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP UNIVERSITIES IN TRANSITION By David Riesman The following text is taken from an essay in the Wilson Quarterly which deals with some fundamental changes at American universities during the 1970s. Many of them have their own separate lobbies in Washington: the community colleges. the other half in state or locally supported schools. There are still millions of Americans who have enough. 3. He sees the reasons for this in the large-scale tuition subsidies granted by Congress in 1972 and the active recruitment of blacks and other minorities which have brought eleven million students of all races and social backgrounds into U. it is not simply tuition that has taken private schools out of the market.. the private colleges. could save enough. . . Not to mention women's schools and Catholic schools. Although the explosive activism on university campuses during the 1960s gave that decade the greatest press coverage. as our culture becomes "democratized". private colleges educate barely one-fifth of the 11 million American students.. T Students at Bostcm University he sheer diversity of American higher education. approximately half of the 1.

state colleges and universities would never have sought to create enclaves of smallness. Yet opportunity to choose is supposed to be one of the very essentials of democratization. and they use these private models as spurs to their legislative supporters and beneficent graduates. . Among one group of victims of this egalitarianism . . These regional state colleges and universities are now large and well established. The ineluctable. David: born 1909. shunting those students with less demonstrable ability to the growing regional branches of central state universities. . The state universities of Michigan and Texas. Chicago and Yale. private schools were the first actively to seek re-cruitment of minority students. Yet an important difference remains: Private colleges. Riesman. They have even been able to maintain some selectivity. particularly insofar as it continually reminds the sprawling public campuses that "giantism" may itself be a deformity. . The University of California. are on average far smaller than public ones. Advocates of public higher education claim that there is virtually no innovation to be found in the private sector that cannot also be duplicated in the public sector. professor of social sciences at Harvard University and author of The Lonesome Crowd. And while small size is not necessarily a virtue. Virginia and North Carolina.. is more avowedly experimental than most private colleges.. begun 10 years ago in Olympia. it often is. Sheltered from the whims of angry governors and legislators. with its eight campuses. State university officials recognize the importance of maintaining a private sector.. Washington. I am inclined to believe that. And Evergreen State College. if not immediately perceptible. offers students everything from smallcollege clusters in rural settings of great natural beauty (Santa Cruz) to large urban universities (Los Angeles). Private colleges have also in fact (though by no means universally) possessed a somewhat greater degree of academic freedom and autonomy than public ones. from not having to compete /ith or for the opposite sex. Washington and California all want to be world-class institutions on a level with private universities like Stanford. of Illinois and Indiana.the exclusively private single-sex colleges — panic has been spreading since the late 1950s. . . It has become an increasingly idiosyncratic choice to attend the few single-sex schools that remain. these schools have no qualms about competing for state money with the older. . One element of American diversity is thus being lost as is an opportunity for some young people who would benefit. .. the public schools are often less monolithic than is often thought. .. State pride is a factor here. And indeed. continued seem unnatural and anachronistic to many people. and (with such exceptions as Northeastern and New York University) most private universities as well. they set a standard for academic freedom and non-inter- ference that the public institutions can — and do — use in defending themselves.EDUCATION 201 6. for a time. in the absence of the private model. . more prestigious parent campuses. . Given the general egalitarian temper of the times. the most celebrated and widely translated study of American character in the twentieth century. consequence is that of "leveling".

-the mid 1960s to the mid 1970s. geared to the special needs and requirements of society. which factors do you think mainly determine the character of a school? 2. If you compare both schools. d) problem areas and how they are tackled. Global Comprehension American Educational Philosophies 1. 5. Describe the characteristics of each educational movement.202 PART C Exercises 4. Taking into account the information about the 1983 report "A Nation at Risk" do you think that it is still true that policies swing from progressivism to traditionalism? 2. Besides the forces that constitute the "greatness" of both schools. Discussion and Comment 1. b) ethnic and social background of students. 1957 to the mid 1960s. i. corresponding educational movements. 2. Which period(s) does she regard as progressive and which as traditional? Find names for each of the three 2.e. Find arguments for both sides and discuss them in class. it is obvious that they are very different in type. Diane Ravitch's analysis of educational history finishes in 1977. Judging from the descriptions of these two schools. What kind of criticism did each movement evoke? 3. are there any other aspects of school-life not mentioned in the text that you would regard as important? How would you characterize your own school? 3. 2. . Make two columns and look at each of the following aspects: a) size of school. Diane Ravitch distinguishes between three clearly identifiable periods in American educational policy: -the late 1940s to 1957. Show how American educational philosophies respond to changes in the social and political climate. The controversy between progressives and traditionalists is basically about the question of whether education should be more childcentered. f) community support. centered around the indivi dual's capacities. 1. i.e. compare the situation at Thomas Jefferson and that at Glenbrook South High School. c) forces and efforts that make the school outstanding. Comprehension What Makes Great Schools Great When you have read the two texts. Interpretation and Discussion 1. interests and habits or more society-oriented. e) parent support. Text Analysis 1.

He has been late five times because he overslept. Text Production An American Senior High School Write a short newspaper article about Quincy Senior High School based on the information provided by the interview. Now imagine that NBC has planned to broadcast another program on schools in other countries. and then carry out the interview with one of you as the interviewer and the other the interviewee. 2. Which regulations do you consider appropriate? 8. and he has skipped his math class once because he had arranged to meet his girlfriend at that time. your school is going to be featured. In pairs. On the basis of the information given in the preceding articles. and a student has been selected to answer the reporter's questions. teacher. . What are the reasons for the Quincy Senior High attendance policy? 2. How often and for what reasons have you missed classes at your school? How often have you been late? What would your record mean at Quincy Senior High School? 7. Discussion and Comment Would you like to participate in a student exchange program and attend an American senior high school? Discuss the various aspects of such a venture. So far he has missed three days because his mother was taken to hospital and he had to stay at home to take care of his little sister. 9. What are Stephen's prospects for the rest of the school year? 3. Dialogue Writing and Interview Practice 1. Read the attendance regulations carefully and consider the following case: Stephen Brown has been in grade eleven of Quincy Senior High for two months. write an interview between the NBC-reporter and a student.EDUCATION 203 6. formulate the questions the reporter wants to ask. Comment and Discussion Find out about the attendance policy of your school and compare it with the Quincy Senior High regulations. 11. or parent involved in the life of one of the two schools. Among others. 10. Imagine NBC wants to produce a radio program featuring different types of outstanding American schools. Comprehension Attendance Policy and Procedures 1. Text Production What Students Think About Their Schools Write a newspaper commentary in which you interpret the findings. work out the structure of the interview.

Regional branches of state universities attract equally qualified students. 13. The tuition fees are the main reason for the relative decline in the number of students undergoing private education. Can you think of any other points for or against private schools and universities which Riesman does not mention? 2. Regional state colleges and universities cannot compete with their parent campuses because they get less financial support. 7. Do you think private schools and universities should have a place in a democratic society? . There are as many innovations and experiments to be found in public schools as in the private sector. 9. 2. Riesman believes that the decrease in the number of single-sex schools is a step towards equality of educational opportunities for young people. 3. Private colleges are much smaller than public colleges and universities can ever be.075 accredited colleges does not include church affiliated colleges.204 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 12. Comprehension Universities in Transition To make sure that you have understood the main points of this article find out whether the following statements are true or false. State universities are often proud to be able to compete with famous private univer sities. The total number of 3. 8. 4. Text Analysis 1. The academic freedom and independence of private colleges served as a model for public colleges. What advantages and disadvantages of private universities does he mention? 14. Panic which has broken out in some exclusive single-sex schools has led to a number of victims. 1. The idea of private education is not in accordance with a democratic society which guarantees equal rights to everybody. Discussion 1. 10. 11. 6. What can you deduce from this text about David Riesman's personal attitude towards private colleges and universities? 2. There are now about three times as many students attending private colleges and universities as at the end of the Second World War. 12. 5.

During inaugural ceremonies." There are even a few Disneyland-type tourist parks. Politicians frequently make reference to God and the Bible in their speeches. modernization has been accompanied by a marked decline in religious observance. whose religious activity has typically been less regular than that of their parents and grand parents. "Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God." devoted entirely to religious themes. Sunday morning traffic is typically congested as people drive to Sunday School and church.12 Religion PART A Background Information HIGH DEGREE OF RELIGIOUS PARTICIPATION In most western societies. the two words "under God" receive emphasis. A Gallup poll indicates that young Americans are far more religious than their counterparts in most other countries. American currency bears the inscription "In God We Trust." When the pledge of allegiance to the American flag is recited. outnumbering even the gas stations. T-shirts. The motto of the seal of the United States carries the biblical words. a percentage far greater than in Australia." Almost all American presidents have claimed affiliation with an established church. About 7 41 percent of America's young people feel that religion should be "very important" in life. U. Most bookstores have an entire section of religious books and report a tremendous volume of sales of books about Christianity and Christian living. Britain. has remained unusually religious. America. France. . Japan. Although the Constitution declares the separation of Church and State. These visible reminders of America's religious activity are accompanied by impressive statistics: • • • • More than nine out of ten Americans say they believe in God One third claim they are born-again Christians More than four out of ten attend church or synagogue at least once a week Two thirds are members of a local church or synagogue RELIGION AND POLITICS Interest in religion is high even among young people. and West Germany. in contrast. Sweden. Gallup poll: see page 153.S. Bibles continue to be the nation's best-selling books. Religion is bound to have an influence on politics in a society where s o many people value religion. religion has always pervaded American political life. and bumper stickers bear messages such as "Jesus Saves. Billboards. Every session of Congress opens with a prayer. such as South Carolina's "Heritage USA. Church buildings representing an astonishing variety of faiths line residential streets. presidents take their oath of office on the Bible. Religiousness is conspicuous.

...559....3 percent of the population.......446 730....................... Primitive Advent Christian Ch..... Free Will Baptists (2..................... Baptist Convention of America (11.......745 The Episcopal Church in the U.....000 "250.......954 2. Conservative Congregational Christian Conference (163) .......000.... Baptist Conference (258) . Ch....... Primitive Baptist Convention (606) .... Independent Fundamental Churches of America (1.... (5.870 185........... United Synagogue of America (Conservative) 85... (28) ...... U..................500 522.............082 28.863 5........ The number of churches appear in parenthess...700 6.........S.....000 192.............. Southern Baptist Convention (36.... (7.....g.............000 1..400 120............422 American Ethical Union (Ethical Culture Movement) (23) ............254 16............... Archdiocese of N....................... Ch........... Orthodox Ch...........000 97.........................A.A........... Scientist (3..... 1..009) ......799 103...................... Brethren............000 25... Reorganized Ch... IN) (107) . Baptist Convention... Syrian Orth..... Christian Catholic Church (4) .........206 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Religious Information Census of Religious Groups in the U...... Baptist Chs.......830 546 651................................000 "450....... Friends General Conference (505) . of God (Anderson........548) .....860...............000) Church of God by Faith (105) .571) .....722 16......... Natl..500................ (26...... of Antioch (Archdiocese of the U... but some Protestant groups count only "adult" members............ Seventh Day Baptist General Conference (60) .000 2.150) ... Greek Orth....... 838 300... of God.. Diocese of the Armenian Ch........274) __ 2.................. of Regular Baptist Chs.....739.. some groups compile data carefully...................... Jehovah's Witnesses (8................S...... Evangelical associations: Apostolic Christian Chs......000 (1......000..000 1.............. 1............ (38) ....................... (Nazarean) (48) ............A............. Comparisons of membership statistics from group to group are not necessarily meaningful.....................A.............591 (566)......... of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (1... Christian Union (114) ... Albanian Orth.............398) ..............000 1. of God (Seventh Day).641) .................000 115...604.... Gen................ Ohio) (122) ................. Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (1................................. (70) ...646) ................ Baptist Missionary Assn....... Apostolic Christian Ch.....140) ....—59............. Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (2... Buddhist Churches of America (100) ......... (5) .. Christian Congregation (la Follette............019) .............. Source: 1987 Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches The 1987 Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches reported a total of 142..................S............... (1........................ Denver.............A.......... (78) .....250 "100.................. American Rescue Workers (20) ........... Romanian Orth................ Roman Catholics count members from infancy.............500 (5......008 14.................000 9.............443 4............922 226 6000 1.. Natl.............. Ch.......... and S.....783 100..... "87............... Assn... Ch....... Amer........... (**) indicates figures date from 1977 or earlier. Ch.. in America (440) ..846 2...... (10) ........... Duck River (and Kindred) Assn....000 1..... Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the U.. but others estimate......654 3.. Christian Nation Church U... Diocese of America (10) .. Baptist Assn............ membership fell half a percent from the previous year.... of America (66) ..... No........830 "4...... Group Adventist Christian Ch............... Christian Congregation (1............S................................ in U................... America (535).. Churches of Christ (13.....546 227. Coptic Orthodox Ch......... in the U.... (13) ..........593 (135).............363 members of religious groups in the U.839 "2.. Membership definitions vary e..... Church of the Nazarene (4...........000 (1. Baha'l Faith (1650) ..668...... Friends United Meeting (536) ...........400 34........ of America Members 28.A..... of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) (28) ...............340) ..................123 30.....926.. Bulgarian Eastern Orth........ River: Brethren in Christ Ch.....................990 24...950..300...780 60....S. of Baptists 225.. : .....051...........487) ..... Evangelical Church of North America (138) __ Evangelical Congregational Church of America (1.... 5.... Fellowship of Grace Brethren (301) ..441) .... General Conference (353) ................................396) .989) ....469 718. Christian Churches and Churches of Christ 227. Seventh-day Adventists (4......S........150 95... Baptist churches: Amer..................A..720 Group Eastern Orthodox churches......814) .......... Grace Gospel Fellowship (52) .. Members 5.... of Jesus Christ (Bickertonites) (53) .............. and Canada) (22) ....229 (85) ............000 225.............477.000 **8.... Churches of Christ in Christian Union (260) __ Churches of God: Chs............... Serbian Eastern Orth... usually 13 years or older..367) ... Amer.....799 "5................. of America (1.. (Ashland.. Ind................. Patriarchal Parishes of the Russian Orth...000 280...........) (2..... Ch.........916 2......000) __ Natl........ Jewish organizations: Union of Amer Hebrew Congregations (Reform) (804) .... Ch................... (185) ... Conservative Baptist Assn...... Ch...S.. Old German Baptist Brethren (52) ..........441) ........898) ............... Antiochian Orth Christian Archdiocese of No...... of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) (8.......683 132... Evangelical Free Church of America (880) .....082 ............................700) ... Col.. Episcopate of America (34) .............600 57......... Latter-day Saints: Ch....000 "15....250........ Asterisk (*) indicates church declines to publish membership figures..000 100..... Amer........ of America (80) ........632 217. Church of Christ............. The Christian and Missionary Alliance 103.......733 5.....220) ........... Christadelphians (850) ........... (120) ..S..095 31.............S..... American Carpatho-Russian Orth Greek Catholic Ch......... Anglican Orthodox Church (40) ...364 14.....800 3. not all groups report annually.......291) ..500 12.. (368) ........624 (800) ...... Ukrainian Orth..............000 "86.. (1. Brethren (German Baptists): Brethren Ch...... Friends: Evangelical Friends Alliance (217) ...............990 41..441 1.... Baptist General Conference (753) ....................000 42.101) ...000 11..

................ Orthodox Presbyterian Ch.................... of No..............057) ...............205 13....................................... Cumberland Presbyterian Ch...654. The Roman Catholic Church (24. Vedanta Society (13) ..............146 219...... United Christian Ch......... Polish Natl.....374 8... Pentecostal Free Will Baptist Ch.... Volunteers of America (607) .............................................. 700 Primitive Methodist Ch..........231 United Methodist Ch..................... in the U..251) .... Assn........ Ch..... 32..100 2........ Ch.......... The Schwenkfelder Church (5) .....942 3............ Intl.......... (818) ........506 500..................... The Swedenborgian Church 13..... (34) ......572) ......825 2.....275 3..862 3813 16.927 62. of the Lutheran Brethren of America (108) ..... 9......... 3....... (150) .380 1..... Church of God of Prophecy (2.. (14) .541 (130) .... Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Chs............ in America (Unitas Fratrum).068 North American Old Roman Catholic Church (49) ...164 959 415....... (948) ..978 Reformed Methodist Union Episcopal Ch... No...... 1. Members 4. 2.988 11.... Pentecostal Church of God (1... (174) ..... United Pentecostal Ch..........988 91............................ (989) ..... Old Catholic churches: Christ Catholic Ch..................700 98.934 19.................... (Gen Synod) (172) . Reformed churches: Christian Reformed Ch......................202 2........ 7................... Evangelical Mennonite Ch.....S.......... Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church of America (59) ......... Christian Ch..... Presbyterian Ch. (11) .............202....... of Free Lutheran Congregations (156) ...... Old Order Amish Ch................777 34.. (272) __ Evangelical Lutheran Synod (116) ................................ Presbyterian Ch..........082........ The Wesleyan Church (1......... General Conference of Mennonite Brethren Chs. Ch......000 10.....411 36.......048) ... (128) ...... 33...................167 34...784 5.......878 4............................ Assemblies of God (10. in America (31) __ Protestant Reformed Chs........... (Unitas Fratrum).........000............ Convention.............876)... Intl.......229 Evangelical Methodist Ch.....500 36..800 (18) .....576 2....200) .................................. Ore.... Council.... Mennonite Ch........... Mennonite churches: Beachy Amish Mennonite Chs..952 8..........731 2. (87) .....223 Fundamental Methodist Ch.A.... Assn........ Church of God (Cleveland......558 (6......185) ...............500 89................. Province of North America (166) ..351 "4............850 18...245 171........787 46..... Northern Province (fOO) .) (5...... Lutheran Ch................ (598) ........ African Methodist Episcopal Zion Ch..990) ...714 Unity of the Brethren (27) ....000 Group Pentecostal churches: Apostolic Faith (Portland......................... in America (5... Bible Church of Christ (6) ................... 2.... Natl.....) (54) .......051) ..............638.... Ch.... (171) . ..RELIGION 207 Group Lutheran churches: American Lutheran Ch. Presbyterian churches: Associate Reformed Presbyterian Ch. Congregational Holiness Ch.415 Moravian Ch.............. Old Roman Cath.... Bible Way Church of our Lord Jesus Christ World Wide (350) ..........-Missouri Synod (5...... (37...................S..... Catholic Church of America (162) ....... America (650) ___ Hungarian Reformed Ch....350 "30.........881 "1. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (1...........817) ..000 + New Apostollic Church of North America (457) ....... Ch...269 357.. 62...908 427............... United Church of Christ (6. Methodist churches: African Methodist Episcopal Ch...347 (104) ..000 1................000 "282.....151 5.... of Evangelical Lutheran Chs........502 177.. Hutterian Brethren (77) ...... Old Order (Wister) Mennonite Ch (38) .......................210....... (Schweikert) (130) ... Amer..................... (230) . Amer (71) ...910 110.. Southern Methodist Ch..... Lutheran Ch.... Spiritualist Assn..S.........408) ....... (25) .... Open Bible Standard Chs (290) .......040 Free Methodist Ch.........761) .....683......... 9.... (6) .........142) ........... Amer... in America (21) .... United Brethren: Ch.......... Gen.. Reformed Presbyterian Ch... in America (878) .....380 ... Tenn...714) ......... (6............ of North America (1.. in America (926)... (130) Plymouth Brethren (1... Unitarian Universalist Assn..........179) ....266........... Mariavite Old Cath................... Evangelical Presbyterian Ch.......775 73............778 52....................... of the Foursquare Gospel (1...... of Churches (142) ...092. 9.......332...............316 11....... The Salvation Army (1....... Southern Province (56) ... (83) ... 72.... Protestant Conference (Lutheran) (9)..346) ............... Gen..869 421 1.......000 505.............. Reformed Ch........A... ...000 4.....150) ................. Social Brethren (40) ....037 27..500 177...........408) ....................................... 21... (126) ... of the Lutheran Confession (67) ....389 5............. Reformed Ch............ Members 2.853 Moravian churches: Moravian Ch.006 Moslems ....543 98....940) .....898........838 26..............544 342..634 109........... 3.................. U... Pentecostal Assemblies of the World (560) ............000 18......... in N....................917 3...... of No............ of the United Brethren in Christ (256) ..... (U...........................................000 9............... (3......) (11.. (100) .... (4..........088) ...........

United Church of Christ By ecumenical union. Sacrament is symbolic. Synods of bishops in autonomous. and laymen. Adult baptism. Scripture as interpreted by tradition. Congregational. which is partly recorded in scripture and expressed in church councils. all male adults are in priesthood which culminates in Council of 12 Apostles and 1st Presidency (1st President. others. not dogmatic. PresIn Calvinist Reformation in 1500s. in which he received a new revelation on golden tablets: The Book of Mormon The Bible. penance. symbolically headed by Archbishop of Canterbury. John Knox founded Scotch Presbyterian church about 1560. Lord's Supper. Highly structured representational system of ministers and laypersons (presbyters) in local. Book of Mormon and other revelations to Smith. anointing of the sick.Catholic Church from Rome. baptism for the dead. Hierarchy with supreme power vested in Pope elected by cardinals. Scripture. priests. broke with Rome. marriage.208 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Major Christian Denominations: How Do They Differ? Italics indicate that area which. R. in New York. Lord's Supper (weekly) Epis. founded 1789. church government. archbishop or metropolitan. Denomination Baptists Origins In radical Reformation objections to infant baptism. churches elect a patriarch. ordination. are elected by diocesan representatives: part of Anglican Communion. with. 1784. regional and national bodies (synods). .S. (1809). byter. marriage. Councils of Bishops advise on matters of doctrine and policy. Varies from congregational to episcopal: in U. denomination Baltimore. First U. Special rites Baptism. as shown in "speaking in tongues": healing and sometimes exorcism: adult baptism. 1517. esp. and experience. others. Roman Traditionally. Christ's true body and blood present "in. and certain pronouncements of the 1st Presidency. Holy Communion. English Separatist in 1609. Protestant Episcopal Church in U.Henry VIII separated English copal. "Where the Scriptures speak. not a formal organization. marriage. Seven sacraments: infant baptisrrand anointing. Scripture tradition. Seven sacraments: baptism. ordination. after about age 12. ians 1534. John Wesley began dists movement. Theocratic. marriage for eternity. some Baptists. and under the bread and wine. Peter the 1st Vicar. Eucharist (both bread and wine). Organization Congregational. Pentecostalism now has a variety of organized forms and continues also as a movement. only an office — who are elected for life. a General Synod. a combination of regional synods and congregational polities is most common. laying on of hands (which confers the gift of the Holy Spirit). Authority Scripture. the teachings of the Holy Spirit. Lutherans Martin Luther in Wittenberg. and anointing of the sick (unction).differed with Lutherans over ians sacraments. 1054. Pentecostal In Topeka. 1957. Orthodox Original Christian proselytizing in 1st century. individual charismatic leaders. demands for church-state separation. but has real spiritual effect. and tradition. representative of all congregations. we are silent" Adult baptism. I. Infant baptism. objected to Catholic doctrine of salvation by merit and sale of indulgences. Spirit baptism. Scripture The Pope when speaking for the whole church in matters of faith and morals.S. usually national. ordination. interpret the Bible literally. sets general policy. Infant baptism. Lord's Supper. Conference and superintendent system. for political reasons. most distinguishes that denomination from any other.e. by total immersion. of Congregationalists and Evangelical & Reformed representing both Calvinist and Lutheran traditions. Infant baptism. general superintendents are bishops—not a priestly order. esp. in early Christian proselytizing and the conversion of imperial Rome in the 4th century. Germany.Rev. Lord's Supper. and the first 7 church councils up to Nicaea II in 787. Temple rites. Bishops in council have authority in doctrine and policy. 1638.. Scripture and tradition as spelled out in Augsburg Confession (1530) and other creeds. particularly in South. we speak: where the Scriptures are silent. In United Methodist Church. Church of Christ (Disciples) Congregational. Infant baptism. bread and wine symbolize Christ's spiritual presence. МогIn visions of the Angel Moroni by mons Joseph Smith 1827. Lord's Supper. 1738. and Los Angeles (1906) in reaction to loss of evangelical fervor among Methodists and other denominations. are the heads of the church. Other rites. Scripture. John Smyth. after centuries of doctrinal disputes and diverging traditions. each local church is autonomous. as a group. generally speaking. Organized 1832. 39 Articles (1563). confirmation. These men. Originally a movement. 2 counselors). Lord's Supper.S. Roger Williams. These confessions of faith are binding although interpretations vary. Scripture as interpreted by tradition. inc. I Among evangelical Presbyterians in Ky. Kansas (1901). Providence. solemnize personal commitments Metho. by Jesus who Catho. Tri-annual convention of bishops. Lord's Supper commanded. in distress over Protestant factionalism and decline of fervor. Lord's Supper. reason. (1804) and Penn.named St. lies historically. contrition and penance. Eucharist." Baptism of infants or adults. Bishops in apostolic succession. break complete by 1519. within Church of England.

Celibate clergy. Church o Christ (Disciples) Episcopalians Formal. increasing action programs. United Church of Christ . Relatively simple formal liturgy . holding talks with all other branches of Christendom. Secret temple ceremonies may be more elaborate. Traditionally. orginally under Patriarch of Moscow. Orthodox Church in America. all persons can be saved and many will become divine. culminating in spirit baptism. strongly f supportive of scholarly education. Most other beliefs are traditionally Christian. Ethics Usually opposed to alcohol and tobacco. wide variety of public and private rites. Combine a strong work ethic with communal self-reliance. Originally pietist and perfectionist. Pres byterians Relatively elaborate ritual. with emphasis on the immediate presence of God in the Holy Spirit Emphasizes the sovereignty and justice of God. some social action programs. processions.RELIGION 209 Practice Worship style varies from staid to evangelistic. Tolerant: some social action emphasis. Emphasis on Christ's resurrection. doctrine of "2 kingdoms" (worldly and holy) supports conservatism in secular affairs. rather than crucifixion. Strongly ecumenical. geography. A simple. strict tithing. Some congregations may reject instrumental music. divorce.vith emphasis on the sermon. Simple traditional beliefs. remarriage permitted in some cases. based on Book ol Common Prayer (1549). Standard Protestant. Once confined to lower-class Pente"holy rollers. this idea is no longer a central element in Presbyterianism.g. Generally. Statement of Faith (1959) is not binding. considerable variation ranges rom rationalist and liberal to acceptance of most Roman Catholic dogma. Tolerant: very little social action. the Holy Spirit proceeds from God the Father only. UMs leaders in ecumenical movement. Orthodox Usually. e. Mormons regard mainline churches as apostate. Loosely structured service with rousing hymns and sermons. who are all equal. conservative in personal and social ethics. true church is of believers only.and self-discipline. a tendency toward strictness with firm church. corrupt." Pentecostalism now costal appears in mainline churches and has established middle-class congregations. was granted autonomy in 1970. Highly elaborated. Extensive missionary activity. sermon. no longer doctrinaire. Other Denomination Since no authority can stand Baptists between the believer and God. 25 Articles abriged from Church of England's 39 not binding. Tolerant. Salvation by faith alone through grace. local church. Roman Catholics Usually simple services with emphasis on the sermon. Strong missionary activity. sometimes tends towards a perfectionist ethical standard.. rosary recitation. Tries to avoid any rite or doctrine not explicitly part of the 1st century church. The liturgy is the essence of Orthodoxy. Highly tolerant in doctrinal and religious matters. novenas. Reorganized Church (founded 1860) rejects most Mormon doctrine and practice except Book of Mormon. the Baptists are strong supporters of churchstate separation. Some tendency toward perfectonism. Methodists Staid service with hymns. While traces of belief in predestination (that God had foreordained salvation for the "elect") remain. The 2 main churches in the 1957 union represented earlier unions with small groups of almost every Protestant denomination. Temperance. Salvation by merit gained through faith. Swede. Unusual development of doctrines surrounding Mary. Priests need not be celibate. Lutherans Worship style varies widely by denomination. Veneration of icons. etc. Simple New Testament faith. tolerant in practice on most issues. Roman Catholicism is presently in a period of relatively rapid change as a result of Vatican Councils I and II. he created the universe out of preexisting matter. main divisions are between fundamentalists and liberals. usually in the vernacular. Dogmatic. Divorce and remarriage not accepted. otherwise. emphasis on perfectionism with varying degrees of tolerance. Theoretically very strict.and German-speaking groups. though extremely traditional. bishops are. God is a material being. usually Protestant. In 1968. avoids any elaboration not firmly based on Scripture. Greek Orthodox do not recognize this autonomy. Apostles Creed is basic. Though still somewhat divided along ethnic lines (German. Doctrine Wo creed. except in Eastern rite. United Methodist Church joined pioneer English. always strong social activist elements. services range from austerely simple to highly elaborate. sober service in which the sermon is central.). Lutheranism has made major contributions to Protestant theology. sometimes permissive. No distinctive theological development. Mormons Elaborate liturgy. otherwise tolerant.

there are about 1. To account for 86 percent of America's total church membership. Canada's three largest denominations. RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE Major Faiths and Denominations 1981 Baptist Catholic Methodist Jewish E. it is necessary to add together 19 separate denominations. Roman Catholic. and the United Church of Canada. has until recent decades occupied a dominant position in American society. or the right of the people peaceably to assemble. Mexico's population is 96 percent Catholic. Anglican.210 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP THREE MAJOR FAITHS RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY Religion in America today is built primarily on the structure of Protestantism. First Amendment: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. or of the press. there are 186 different organizations. because of numbers and influence. The degree of religious diversity in America becomes evident when one compares the religious composition of American society with that of its neighbors. and Jews. and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Besides the three major groupings of Protestants. Among these sects are established groups such as the Quakers and Mormons. which is a snake-handling cult. Catholicism. Protestantism." .000 interviews PROTESTANTS The immigrants who first came to America from countries all over the world brought a variety of religions. Although the official separation of Church and State provided a climate for these diverse religious practices to flourish. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. Many came with the express purpose of establishing communities where they could practice their own form of worship without interference or fear of persecution. Among Protestants alone. account for 86 percent of total membership. and Judaism. Catholics.500 major and minor sectarian churches. Orthodox Other None Denomination undeslgnated Lutheran Presbyterian Episcopalian Mormon Other Protestant denominations Based on national surveys and approximately 29. There are also bizarre groups such as the Holiness Church. or abridging the freedom of speech. Within each of these groups there is great diversity. The First Amendment to the Constitution prohibits an established national religion and protects the individual's right to practice the religion of his or her choice.

" only certain persons to be saved. Many people trace the American drive for success through hard work to this Puritan. Devoting themselves to work as a way of pleasing God. and members of various European Reformed Churches. and France between 1830 and 1880 and from eastern and southern Europe during the 1880s. During the nineteenth and into the twentieth century. Lutherans from Scandinavia and Germany. Worship services of radical churches are less formal and liturgical than services of mainstream Protestants. They have suffered sizable membership losses. the most significant being the declining influence of the mainline Protestant churches. Catholics constitute the second largest religious group. Pentecostals. work ethic. was predominantly white Protestant. Baptists and Methodists. The first Catholics in America were missionaries from Spain. Lutheran. In the sixteenth century they set up churches in what is now Texas. In 1985. Mainstream churches tend to be middle or upper class. America's religious landscape has undergone major transformations. New Mexico. Jews constitute 2 percent of the population. They believed that God had elected. or "predestined. In the seventeenth century Catholics from England settled the colony of Maryland. and "born-again" conversion experiences. Jews frequently encountered hostility and resentment. are sometimes referred to as "radical" Protestants. Many Jews came to America during the nineteenth century to escape persecution in Europe. Other Protestant denominations. once peripheral sects. White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) set the basic character of national life and were often intolerant of Catholics. while radical churches usually consist of lower-income groups. Portugal. Speaking in tongues: prayer characterized chiefly by incomprehensible speech practiced in ecstatic forms of worship. Puritan: see page 13. are now usually considered part of mainstream Protestantism as well. California. Episcopal. Among the immigrants to America were Protestants of many denominations from all over Europe.RELIGION 211 PURITANS MAINSTREAM PROTESTANTISM CATHOLICS JEWS CHANGES IN THE RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE The first settlers of Massachusetts were members of a radical Protestant group called Puritans. Along with the Congregationalist Church. But the greatest influx of Catholics to America occurred in the nineteenth century. the Presbyterian. Episcopals from England. and France." faith healing. 57 percent of the population named Protestantism as their religious preference. American society. such that the Protestant majority in America decreased from 67 percent of the population to 57 percent in 1985. Since the 1960s. which is the denomination established by the early Puritans. WASP: see page 13. Like the Catholics. however. Many radical churches encourage "speaking in tongues. and Reformed churches constitute what is referred to as "mainstream Protestantism" in America. and Florida. Catholics emigrated to the United States from Ireland. such as Mennonites. . Puritans thought of themselves as God's chosen people. Germany. 28 percent of Americans surveyed identified themselves as Catholic. or Protestant. and Southern Baptists. they viewed their prosperity as an outward sign that God counted them among the saved. including Presbyterians from Northern Ireland. In 1985.

Anti-Catholicism and antiSemitism are now mainly confined to radical right-wing groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and the John Birch Society. . as well as a similar shift to conservatism. Membership has begun to stabilize. Their acceptance has been facilitated by many immigrant Jews' willingness to discard those practices that made Judaism seem exotic. mainstream Protestant churches have not insisted on strict obedience to a particular code of behavior.212 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP PROTESTANT DECLINE LIBERAL VS. Mainline churches have tended to be liberal in social outlook and theology. mainline Protestant churches have been shifting away from their relaxed. The trend towards pluralism has not only meant that Catholics and Ku Klux Klan: a secret society organized in the South after the Civil War to re-establish white supremacy with methods of terrorism. The Catholic community has experienced conflicts and developments of its own. such that their overall status levels now equal those of Protestants. and offering absolutist moral teachings. these churches seemed to fill the needs of many Americans who were frustrated by the lack of direction in modern life. An important pattern has emerged. American Jews. and Jews have become less divided. Intermarriage between Jews and Christians has also helped to create an atmosphere of tolerance towards Jews. the Church of the Nazarene. American bishops have been outspoken on political issues. The decline of mainstream Protestant influence has been accompanied by the rise in status of Catholics and Jews. In the late 1960s and 70s. Between 40 and 50 percent of all Jews marry non-Jews. once treated like outsiders. and Southern Baptists grew at phenomenal rates. many mainstream members abandoned churchgoing altogether. do not participate as actively in church activities as they once did. are now more readily accepted. challenging nuclear strategy and criticizing the presuppositions and policies of economic and political leaders. returning to traditional values. Assemblies of God. To attract members. celibacy for priests. evangelical and fundamentalist bodies such as the Seventh-Day Adventists. CONSERVATIVE CHURCHES TRENDS IN THE CATHOLIC COMMUNITY INCREASING PLURALISM Many observers link the decline of the major Protestant churches in America to the permissiveness of the 1960s. In contrast to more radical churches. the percentage of Catholics attending weekly mass declined sharply from 74 percent to 51 percent. Catholics made spectacular gains in education and income. America's Protestants. Today. Catholics. By drawing rigid behavioral boundaries. and women in the priesthood provoke dissidence and disobedience. there seems to be a growing desire for spiritual direction. Between 1958 and 1982. While liberal Protestant churches have lost members. A significant trend in American religious life is one towards increasing pluralism. conservative fundamentalist Protestant churches have been steadily attracting members. though increasing in population. however. During the liberal social climate of the 1960s. whose conservative stance on issues such as birth control. liberal stance towards a more conservative theology. American Catholics. John Birch Society: an ultraconservative anti-Communist organization founded by Robert Welch in 1958. The American Catholic Church has also had to cope with widening differences with Pope John Paul II. Coexistence among America's diverse religious groups and sects is stressed. strict. In the past decades. In the years after the Second World War.

V. opposes homo sexuality. . and its offspring. Falwell merged his Moral Majority with the Liberty Alliance. Besides the increasing visibility of cults and sects. Americans show little tolerance towards some cults. and that a personal relationship with Jesus is at the center of every Chri stian's life. Critics accuse the cults of manipulating and brain washing their members. which has quietly existed for a long time. they gained immediate attention by their involvement in politics and their media skills. derived new momentum from the anti-modern. Evangelicals also share a desire to convert others to their way of believing. the evangelical right gave Ronald Reagan and many conservative senators strong support. conservative fundamentalists actively lobbied for anti -abortion legislation and for a constitutional amendment permitting prayer in schools. a conserva tive lobby group. abortion. while most churches were experiencing declining memberships. or fundamentalist. The Moral Majority's political agenda. In the 1980s. Some. conservative countercurrents that were flowing in the 1960s. The term evangelical is applied across all Christian denominations to religious alliances that share the belief that a true Christian must have a born -again experience. the Hare Krishnas. In 1986. In the 1980 presidential elections. to form Liberty Federation. Many observers argue that not all sects should be condemned for the abuses of some. but events such as these are not characteristic of all cults. including Eastern religions such as B uddhism and Hinduism. The evangelical movement. there has been another recent development in American religious life: the rise of the evangelical. evangelist Pat Robertson. evangelicals attacked "secular humanism" and crusaded for moral issues. Representing the right-wing of the political spectrum. a religious -political lobby with an even broader appeal. These conservative Christian leaders did not limit their crusades to the pulpit. By persuasion and at gunpoint American cult leader Jim Jones led more than 900 members of his Peoples' Temple commune to commit suicide by drinking a mixture of fruit juice and cyanide. In the 1960s. who was a candidate for the 1988 presidential election. Despite the constitutional separation of religious and secular life. have crossed the boundar y between religion and politics altogether. focusing attention on the family and schools. and the teaching of evolution in schools. Fundamentalist minister Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority has been the most influential political lobby of the new Religious Right since the late 1970s. While open religious prejudice is not as pronounced as it used to be. One event which intensified the controversy over cults was the 1978 mass suicide that occurred at a commune in Jonestown. This movement has arisen so quickly and has acquired so much influence that it has drawn much national attention. evangelical churches were gaining members and in fluence. pornography. based on moral absolutism. like T. that the Bible is the authoritative word of God. In addition. the electronic church. movement. evangelist leaders successfully extended their spheres of influence far beyond the church. The Moonies. tolerance is extended to an even broader range of religious groups.RELIGION 213 SECTS AND CULTS RISE OF THE EVANGELICAL MOVEMENT POLITICAL ACTIVISM Jews are gaining acceptance in American society. Guyana. and the followers of Bhagwan Rajneesh are commonly regarded as bizarre and potentially dangerous. Their methods of attracting and holding members are controversial. Religious fanaticism exists.

0 1 Includes other denominations......... Over $35.. Church attendance: Once a week or more ..3 42..8 43...6 43.......7 14...9 31............8 53.0 41.3 55......... Local annual contributions: None .7 49.. Female........... With their show-biz flair............... Catholic . 50-65 years old................1 19.........7 45...1 39.......9 17......3 60.... and sermons designed to tug at viewers' emotions..... these preachers resemble commercial television show hosts more than ministers...........0 48.....9 33....1 42...214 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP THE ELECTRONIC CHURCH What has enabled the evangelical movement to take off with such speed and gain a powerful sphere of influence in American society is its skillful use of television.8 16. RELIGIOUS TELEVISION PROGRAM VIEWING BY SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS: 1983 VIEWERS GROUP Confirmed frequent 18..3 28...4 39...0 9.. $120 to $300 ..4 11.3 26.............6 21...4 47............9 20.....3 1..... Less than once a week.. Race White ...7 32.000 to $35......6 Household income: Under $15.....2 16.5 21...............2 42..8 51...0 36.000 ................ Lutheran . More than 1.........4 45.. In a sophisticated modern world..6 43...4 29..............4 50............ when connections between life and faith seem vague..1 25.. Education Less than high school .. Religious broadcasting has exploded into a multi-million dollar business.... High school graduate...3 42..8 64..... Denomination: Southern Baptist .7 46...0 5.2 22.......8 28.........4 13...........3 16. and Pat Robertson...2 42.7 42.6 60......6 43......3 16... not shown separately...0 39. 25........1 49..2 17.3 Nonviewers GROUP VIEWERS Confirmed frequent Nonviewers Other «her Total: ..6 50..........4 50. $15........6 40...1 85.....................3 39....6 37......3 25...0 48..5 28..3 9.....5 46... Over 65 years old ..........5 81.... The appeal of the so-called electronic church and its evangelical preachers to so many Americans is not just a matter of technique. millions of Americans tune in to elaborate television broadcasts of popular preachers such as Jerry Falwell.2 29... Sex Male .......300 radio and television stations devote all their time to religion..8 21.....4 22..........2 25....9 29.......... Non-White .... Gospel programs that buy time are proliferating......... this is the message many people desire....8 12.0 54..6 16...2 30-49 years old .. gospel entertainment...1 19... Not important at all ..............2 18.3 27..8 44...9 45..............7 37. Not very important ..9 11.....9 8..........9 23......000 .. Importance of religion: Very important ........000 .....6 36. They provide moral anchorage to many Americans by emphasizing the individual's personal responsibility and unswerving commitment.0 43.. Important ................. Southeast .6 39......4 15.0 25.....200 .... Some college and more 11..........2 9.. Jimmy Swaggart.2 43...................1 48.000 to $24... Robert Schuller............ $301 to over $1.4 2..5 34.... Age 18-29 years old......... Presbyterian ...........9 27... 42......... Methodist........ Under$120 .. $25...9 34..................5 44.5 12. .. Every Sunday morning......... Region Northeast .999 . Other Baptist .....

and there are some who attend them all. followed by an afternoon Church Training Program. no pantsuits. Stiltner's sermon was one of a series on the Ten Commandments. at nine-thirty.' " He said that the Old Testament accepts the right of a soldier to take a human life in war. Cleft for Me. It was a congregation of Sunday suits and Sunday bests. on the second Sunday of my stay. at ten forty-five. at the ritual Sunday dinner in the restaurant at the Quality Inn. and there were also people in the balcony. "This commandment is commonly taken to read. however. We sang a final hymn. There were no turtlenecks. as far as I could tell. When I arrived and was shown to a place." Dr. and for all but its two hundred-odd Roman Catholics. immaculate in a tan summer suit. followed by Morning Worship. . wore a dark suit. "A more careful rendering of the Hebrew is 'Thou shalt not murder. Almost everybody in Hope — old or young." and after the Invocation and another prayer we sang "Rock of Ages. After the opening prayer. The nave of the First Baptist Church seats six hundred and fifty people in comfortably cushioned pews. the nave looked almost full. 'Thou shalt not kill. Dr. Richard Stiltner. Stiltner waited in the vestibule to greet the departing congregation. and there is room for over two hundred more in a balcony. It is. we sang "O Worship the King. Dr." and received the Benediction. Most of my fellow diners began their meal with the usual aperitif of the region — a cup of coffee. "Something for Thee. An organ and a piano flanked the pulpit. in Christian churches the Sunday. And half an hour later." and dealt with the Sixth Commandment. I chose. Hope is not a Sabbatarian town. and a dozen other familiar faces. I recognized several of my fellow worshippers.215 PART в Texts Sunday in Hope S UNDAY in Hope is a day very largely shaped by Christian faith and social convention. I saw Hulan White. and all the women wore dresses. white or black — attends at least one of these services. a churchgoing town. the pastor. services usually begin with Sunday School (classes for both adults and children). followed. to attend Morning Worship at the First Baptist Church. at seven o'clock. not even. by Evening Worship. and it accepts the right of society to inflict the death penalty. It was entitled "The Sanctity of Life. as the day of rest. Most of the worshippers were families with one or more (well-behaved) children. Sabbaterian: strictly observing the Sabbath. any sports jackets: all the men wore business suits.'" he said. and there was a large choir. a youthful-looking man with an expressive face.

the black people were far from being free but found themselves segregated. discriminated against and impoverished within American society. which culminated in the meeting of 200. King reminded his audience in a carefully prepared speech that even 100 years after Abraham Lincoln had declared the slaves free. began to improvise.216 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP e I Have a Dream Martin Luther King (1929—1968). drawing on his experience as a minister. Commemorating the Emancipation Proclamation. Halfway through his speech. he was carried away by the enthusiastic reaction of the crowd and. ■ Martin Luther King at the Lincoln Memorial . was the outstanding leader of the nonviolent Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s. a Baptist minister. This part of his speech is covered by the following text. 1963.000 people in front of the Lincoln Memorial. he led the "March on Washington". On August 28.

let freedom ring. to struggle together." I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi. Jews and Gentiles. every hill and mountain shall be made low. even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow. "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God almighty. and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted. let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. of thee I sing. when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet. will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania! Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom ring from the curvacious slopes of California! But not only that. my friends. Protestants and Catholics. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. This is the faith that I go back to the South with." And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. I still have a dream. "My country 'tis of thee. from every state and every city. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident. sweet land of liberty. Land where my fathers died. a state sweltering with the heat of injustice. we are free at last!" . black men and white men. land of pilgrims' pride. from every mountainside. This is our hope. When we let freedom ring. and all flesh shall see it together. Let freedom ring from every hill and mole hill of Mississippi. I have a dream today. and the crooked places will be made straight. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. let freedom ring. one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification. and when this happens. to pray together. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day down in Alabama with its vicious racists. This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning. From every mountainside. sweltering with the heat of oppression. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. to stand up for freedom together. I have a dream today. the rough places will be made plains. With this faith we will be able to work together. we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children. will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. to go to jail together.RELIGION 217 I say to you today. knowing that we will be free one day.

and it must follow the principle of proportionality that is. Neb ed. especially from the government. and deployment of new nuclear weapons systems.218 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP RELIGION BREAKING NEW GROUND ON WAR AND PEACE "The American Catholic Church has made a striking change in its historic attitude toward war. saying that. it must be fought with the right attitude (no revenge). It states that massive retaliation on populated areas should never be allowed. that there should be a halt in the testing. there must be a just cause such as defense against aggression. that a "first-strike" policy must be challenged.." by Paul Bock Cardinal Bernardin: "If you take a strong stand against abortion as the unjust taking of human life. as reflected in the cover-page story in Time magazine.C. then you cannot remain indifferent to nuclear warfare. it is amazing to see how much public attention it received. Doane College. that a limited nuclear war is not likely to stay limit- Dr. Armaments and Peace. . thereby departing from the pacifist view which was dominant during the first three centuries of the church's history. the final document still breaks new ground. taking positions that are quite different from earlier American Catholic statements on war. The just war theory states that a war may be justified only if it meets certain conditions: it must be a last resort. National Security Advisor William P. production.. Something is happening when the government seeks to defend its morality to church leaders. First of all. 1983. and many people waited with eagerness to see what the final draft would say. and it certainly would not do more good than harm. it must be carried on with discrimination — aiming at military and not civilian targets. Clark sent a seven-page letter to the bishops. 1982. the theory is now being used to challenge military policies. Crete.D. The bishops drew heavily on the principles of discrimination and proportionality — nuclear war would not discriminate between military and civilian personnel. is associate professor of religion. and that serious questions must be raised about the morality of deterrence. the National Conference of Catholic Bishops met in Chicago and. There are several very remarkable things about the pastoral letter and the procedure followed in developing it. that vigorous steps should be taken toward multilateral disarmament. Nor can one remember an occasion when the government felt so challenged by a church document as to cause it to intervene in the development of the statement." I N May. Bock Associate Religion Editor of USA Today. the bishops worked extensively with the "just war" theory which has been the prevailing view in Catholic thought on war since Augustine developed it around 400 A. Although often used in the past to justify particular wars. D. It is hard to remember an occasion when a church document aroused such interest." The second draft discussed by the bishops in November. after making some revisions. it must do more good than harm. Consistent with their heritage. Although some of the forthright statements of the second draft were toned down. they adopted the final draft of the "Pastoral Letter on War. it must be declared by a proper governmental authority. the pastoral letter reflected a misunderstanding of government policy in regard to the bombing of populated areas. in its second draft. aroused an incredible amount of public attention. in Washington.

An example of superpatriotism is Francis Cardinal Spellman being photographed behind a machine gun in Vietnam and being quoted as saying. Catholics have often been superpatriotic in wartime. continued Second. they felt a need to prove how loyal they were. . Mennonite: member of an Evangelical Protestant Christian sect opposed to taking oaths. Saint (354—430): early Christian Church father and author. and the procedure followed may set a pattern for the future. right or wrong. even in addressing the Roman Catholics. and the theologians included Protestants as well as Catholics. but rather invites the faithful to think with the bishops on the issues raised. Essentially. Footnotes to the letter include Protestant authorities on war and peace. the bishops are saying. whereas there is on subjects such as abortion." A very specific example of the changed outlook is seen in the attention given in this document to the pacifist position. It should be pointed out that the letter has two audiences . only the just war view was recognized. Are not the current government policies in violation of the Catholic teaching on the just war?" Fourth. there is something special about the style of the letter. the wide consultation.. as late immigrants suspected of having beliefs incompatible with democracy. it does not command. Each draft took into account suggestions received through the mail . However.of which there were many — as well as those made at meetings and hearings. "Come let us reason together. The Catholic bishops have never engaged in so much consultation before. or performing military service. . holding public office. Augustine. It does not command obedience or dictate what is right. Third. Extensive hearings were held and experts were invited to testify. Before that. it is apparent that the American Catholic Church has made a striking change in its historic attitude toward war.American Roman Catholics and the public.RELIGION 219 3. These included top government officials as well as theologians. One reason for this approach is that there is no authoritative teaching on some aspects of nuclear deterrence. . In American history. and among them is a Mennonite. there is something quite unusual about the procedure used in drafting the document — namely. "My country. This is partly because. It is only since Vatican II that the Roman Catholic Church has regarded conscientious objection as a valid position.

Dozens of Senators and Congressmen made it their business to turn out for the cameras and lights. has been transmitting signals that he might join the race . simply because Jesus said to. these powerhouse preachers strutted their stuff.and recognizable faces . head of the Christian Broadcasting Network and a fixture on CBN's four-times-aday The 700 Club. cementing alliances and buffing up images. As the crowds of 4." And at one session after another. Robertson." Even White House Communications Director Patrick Buchanan drew audience cries of "Amen!" and "Praise the Lord!" when he exhorted Republicans to "tap into the spiritual revival that is going in the country.are the televangelists. and media consultants prowled the meeting rooms for new talent. President Reagan. Jimmy Swaggart roared that the Supreme Court is "an institution damned by God Almighty" for allowing abortions. any Christian has to support Israel." Pat Robertson If Buchanan sounded downright evangelical for a politician. Jerry Falwell argued that "theologically. part trade show — and all barn burner. the pastors of "Pray TV. sent a message on videotape. Gospel singers crooned. cheered on by such honored elders of the field as Billy Graham and Oral Roberts. the stars of the electronic church. 55.220 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP RELIGION Power. appropriately. Glory — And Politics Right-wing preachers dominate the dial I T WAS PART POLITICAL caucus.000 milled through the Sheraton Washington Hotel in the nation's capital last week. part camp meeting. This is a group whose most resonant names . video-equipment salesmen hawked their wares. a Southern Baptist. one evangelist in particular sounded mighty like a politician. Jeane Kirkpatrick and Jesse Jackson were there. The occasion was the convention of the National Religious Broadcasters. He was Marion Gordon ("Pat") Robertson.

making it not only the largest Christian cable operation but the fifth largest of any kind .. as well as a number of now widely imitated viewer-response and fund-raising techniques. the first religious network and the first Christian programming to use a talk-show format. they may be gradually altering the very nature of American Christianity.RELIGION 221 4. but they are convinced that he could energize the Christian right and siphon votes from other candidates. During the programs. combining Christian shows with wholesome reruns {Flipper. Preachers like Robertson command audiences that form.B.. a development that appears to be the trend of the 1980s.8 5. if not a true Moral Majority. the amiable Virginian took the N. Father Knows Best). colorful headliners of Gospel TV. .500 volunteers manning telephone banks in 60 counseling centers. yet none of these preachers can compare to Robertson as a TV entrepreneur.bestow blessings aplenty. prayers or pledges . in the form of money and votes. viewers of The 700 Club log 4 million prayer calls to 4. let alone the convention.and do . when Robertson switched from an all-religion schedule to a family entertainment approach. continued for the Republican nomination to succeed Reagan. Dynamic and high-profile achievers.8 5. platform to denounce the evils of abortion.R. Robertson pioneered the first religious TV station. old movies and game shows. a regular evening newscast produced in Washington. in millions Frequency of TV show Pat Robertson daily 16.. every one. at least several potent and readily mobilized minorities. all to be overcome by a flood tide of moral regeneration. Two weeks ago the network premiered CBN News Tonight. . comments. they bring real inspiration and solace to others. . Political pros are uncertain how big a factor he could be in the primaries. homosexuality and school violence. . Such motivated constituencies can . "and you are going to be a part of it. upon candidates who win their favor. The fact that a Robertson is even a potential candidate confirms the extraordinary power and influence amassed in the past decade by the shrewd. whatever skepticism might be aroused by their present enjoyment of stardom's rewards. Their past struggles in low-paid Gospel circuits bespeak a deep commitment.3 9. . RATING THE REVERENDS TV households reached per month. In a year. They have changed the face of television. As ROBERTSON IN 1988 buttons blossomed." Perhaps they are already.3 7. with special emphasis on right-wing issues . Robertson's following provides much of CBN's $233 million annual income. "We are going to see a change in this nation. His 24-hour CBN network reaches 30 million subscribers.. True believers are tingling at the prospect.6 Jimmy Swaggart weekly Robert Schuller Jim Bakker Oral Roberts Jerry Falwell weekly daily weekly weekly CBN's viewership has tripled since 1981. While impressing some as shallow and vulgar popularizers. 800 numbers continually flash onscreen.." he promised his listeners. westerns. He was also the first Christian broadcaster to sign up commercial sponsors.6 5. encouraging viewers to phone in their requests.

is funda mental — as a part of our American heritage and a privilege which should not be excluded from our schools. . through prayer. they created something new in all the history of mankind — a country where man is not beholden to government.222 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP SCHOOL PRAYER National Religious Broadcasters President Reagan's remarks at the Association's Annual Convention. But I want you to know something: I'm determined to bring that amendment back again and again and again and again. too. And we failed. . when coming here. high school students from even holding voluntary prayer meetings on the campus before or after class. to preserve those traditional values we share is by permitting our children to begin their days the same way the Members of the United States Congress do — with prayer. No one must be forced or pressured to take part in any religious exercise. I happen to believe that one way to promote. and forbid them not. Texas. The public expression of our faith in God. Our only hope for tomorrow is in the faces of our children. And we know Jesus said. 1983 . indeed. . And when a lower court recently stopped Lubbock. until — [applause] — ." Well. When the Supreme Court ruled that school prayer was unconstitutional almost 21 years ago. And. for such is the kingdom of God. January 31. government is beholden to man. that some divine plan placed this great continent here between the two oceans to be found by people from every corner of the Earth — people who had a special love for freedom and the courage to uproot themselves. I believe it ruled wrong. it ruled wrong. leave their homeland and friends to come to a strange land. . But neither should the freest country on Earth ever have permitted God to be expelled from the classroom. "Suffer the little children to come unto me. . I've always believed that this blessed land was set apart in a special way. last year we tried to pass an amendment that would allow communities to determine for themselves whether voluntary prayer should be permitted in their public schools.

Give examples and explain the effect on the audience. Quoting from the Bible (Isaiah 40. Comprehension Sunday in Hope Explain how the author tries to show the close link between Christian faith and social conventions by referring to: • • • • the number of church activities on a Sunday church attendance clothes the contents of the pastor's sermon. What strikes you most when you compare religious beliefs in the different parts of the world? Carry out an opinion poll in your class and compare the results with the figures in the chart. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS U. . Analysis of a Speech I Have a Dream Attend religious services Have something you call a 41% religious experience 34% Participate in a church social activity 37% i 38% Encourage others to turn to religion 43% Frequently Occasionally Listen to religious broadcast 1. Western Latin Afric Far Europe i Americ a East a "Do you believe in God?" 94% 78% 96% 95% 89% Yes 3% 16% 3% 2% 6% No 3% 6% 1% 3% 5% Don't know "How important to are your religious beliefs?" you 56% 27% 62% 73% 76% Very important 30% 32% 18% 13% 13% Fairly important 8% 26% 11% 7% 9% Not too important 5% 13% 7% 4% 2% Not important 1% 2% 1% 3% --Don't know 1. How do religious activities and experiences in your country differ from those in the Connecticut Mutual Life Report on American Values in the 1980s? Religious Activities and Experiences How frequently do you do each of the following? Feel that God loves you Number of Respondents Engage in prayer 3. 2. Interpret the statistics on religious beliefs." What does the American dream mean to him? 2. b) When he contrasts injustice and oppression with justice and freedom.223 PART C Exercises 2. How does he combine this religious conviction with his political hopes? 3. a) The most striking device is repetition. This speech has been called a masterpiece of rhetoric. he uses the device of antithesis. Listen to the speech and have a closer look at the rhetorical devices which King uses.4). Find more examples. How does the church attendance in Hope compare with the figures in the chart above? 3.S. King proclaims that his dream will come true as a result of the revelation of God's glory. Martin Luther King says that his dream "is deeply rooted in the American dream. Discussion 1.

New Catholic positions 3. the attempt to secure the support of the right-wing evangelical movement. church and state are strictly separate. 4. Texas? 5. Now write a letter to an American penfriend expressing your amazement about a constitutional amendment to allow voluntary prayer in public schools and ask your friend about his/her opinion. Public reactions 5. Whom is he addressing and how does he try to gear his speech to his audience? 4. The style of the letter 7. Scanning Power. Why does President Ronald Reagan disagree with this decision and why would he like to permit school prayer again? 3. 3. Discussion According to the First Amendment to the Constitution. You want to include the following ideas: • amazement at the President's support of school prayer • the President's attempt to override the First Amendment prohibition against government advancement of religion. d) Describe the interaction between the speaker and his audience. • fear that even voluntary school prayer would foster certain—but not all—religious practices . The procedure of drafting 6. Adoption of the Catholic bishops' "Pastoral Letter on War. 2. Armaments and Peace" 2. How did the Supreme Court rule on school prayer? 2. Text Analysis School Prayer 1. The "just war" theory 4. A changed attitude towards war. Letter Writing You have read the remarks the President made at the Annual Convention of National Religious Broadcasters. Take notes under each of the following headings: 1.S. What exactly did the President do to reintroduce school prayer? 4. Note Taking Breaking New Ground on War and Peace The article is clearly subdivided into seven paragraphs. 7. What is the occasion covered by this story? Why did politicians take part in the event? Who are the stars of the electronic church? Which of the political issues that Pat Robertson stands for are mentioned in the text? What is his power and influence based on? Why can Robertson rightly be called a TV entrepreneur? What has he done to attract larger audiences? How does Robertson manage to get the viewers involved in his programs? . Would you agree that the speech leads to a kind of hymnal climax? 7.224 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP c) Show how he draws his images from nature and religion. Congress and the court decision at Lubbock. Discuss whether. 8. Glory—and Politics Go quickly through the text to extract information on the following questions: 1. in your opinion. for example. 8. 6. 6. 5. 5. and beliefs • suspicion that the argument of traditional values is only used to hide the true motives. the Catholic bishops should comment on political issues. Why does he mention the Members of the U.

drawing. • the number of adults who play musical instrume nts went up from 18 percent to 31 percent. imposing new designs for museums and theaters suggests the elevated status of the arts in America today. many new cultural facilities are being built. Americans are deeply committed to the arts. • participation in local theater groups increased from 3 percent to 7 percent. • the number of people who write stories and poems almost doubled. but almost as many people go to art museums as to pop concerts. have generated a broad base of interest and enthusiasm for the arts through regular promotion and coverage of cultural events. going from 13 percent to 25 percent. almost all economic groups. attendance at arts events increased: • the number of people who attended movies r ose from 70 percent to 78 percent • attendance at theatrical performances rose from 53 percent to 67 percent • the number of people attending dance performances rose from 23 percent to 34 percent • attendance at live performances of classical or symphonic music went up from 25 percent to 34 percent • between 1980 and 1984. particularly television. sports and other forms of popular entertainment overshadow the arts. and all regions of the country. Louis Harris's Americans and the Arts poll reveals a surge of artistic activity in America from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s. In fact.13 The Arts PART A Background Information COMMITMENT TO THE ARTS One stereotype of the United States is that of a culture where television. During this period. The reach of the arts extends in sizable numbers to people of all ages. The same poll also reveals that more people are participating as amateurs or professionals in the arts: • from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s. the architectural trend towards expansive. To accommodate the public's increasing demand for the arts. • participation in ballet and modern dance increased significantly from 9 percent to 21 percent. Not only do more people today attend arts events than sports events. The media. INCREASING ATTENDANCE AT CULTURAL EVENTS MORE PARTICIPANTS IN THE ARTS MORE FACILITIES MASS APPEAL . the number of people involved in painting. attendance at live performances of operas or musicals rose from 25 percent to 30 percent. or the graphic arts rose from 22 percent to 29 percent.

Just as there is no single ethnic group. New York MINIMAL GOVERNMENT SUPPORT MIXTURE OF STYLES The cultural explosion is all the more remarkable when one considers the relative lack of government support of the arts. there is also no single American style. a government agency created in 1965. Recently. The National Endowment for the Arts. the arts still receive proportionately less government funding in the United States than in any other major Western nation. the government's role in supporting the arts has increased. the arts in America have flourished. Still. sculptors. . Painters. Even without the security of government subsidies that the arts in other countries traditionally enjoy. which exceeded $4 thousand million in 1985. has been contributing to the advancement of the arts. B} 1985. Moreover. including folk primitivism and European sophistication. the annual spending of state governments reached $160 million.226 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP The Guggenheim Museum. American artists have been inspired by a variety of influences. As American culture evolved. American artists began to create their own art forms. all government arts spending remains small compared with private arts contributions. and innovators in other fields have won fame both at home and abroad. Promotion of the arts through private and commerical funding rather than government funding is a firmly established tradition in the United States. however. the federal government was spending $163 million a year on this endowment. musicians. The styles of American art are as diverse as the people.

Mary's Table (1971) Willem de Kooning Mobiles by Alexander Calder . American art developed mainly through subject matter and skills. America's visual arts—painting and sculpture—were primarily influenced by European trends. as artists imitated the established styles of the European masters. The most significant developments in American art emerged in the years following the Second World War.THE ARTS 227 THE VISUAL ARTS Until the 1940s. f if* Flowers.

ragtime. still life. recognized for his mimicry of well -known comic strips. The black American music tradition has produced and influenced a variety of genres. and the interrelationship of colors. Alexander Calder (1898-1976) designed the mobile. Willem: born 1904. Instead. and Mark Rothko. blues music often expresses disap pointment or regret. famous for his multiple rows of soup cans and multiple portraits of Marilyn Monroe. Jazz is characterized by improvisation and a lively attention to rhythm. became the first American art movement to command the attention of artists abroad. Movements of the 1970s and 80s include performance art. jazz. dimension. graffiti art. blues. who is famous for his turbulent paint-splattered canvases. neo. Dutch-American painter. The music was inspired by African culture but evolved directly from spirituals. young artists reacted to abstract expressionism to produce works of "mixed" media. Abstract expres sionists rejected traditional subject matter. Unique forms and styles of music have developed in America. Mark (1903—70): Russian-born American painter. and other trends in American popular culture. they focused on such things as the utilization of space.and figural-expressionism. Composer Scott Joplin (1868—1917) helped develop ragtime from simple parlor piano music into a serious genre. now recognized as a world-wide art form. de Kooning. Sung by soloists or featuring solo instruments. and the musical are all American born. Revolting against traditional graphic styles. such as the human body. rock 'n' roll. Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns integrated everyday objects such as photographs and newspaper clippings into their paintings. conceptual art. originated around the turn of the century among black musicians in the American South. America's most original music form. mass media. and Roy Lichtenstein. Ragtime was the first black American music to gain wide popularity. who used savage brush strokes and intense colors. The blues evolved from African folk songs and church music. earth art. which then inspired jazz. and surface texture. In the late 1950s and early 1960s. Important in the pop-art movement were Andy Warhol (1930—87). The reaction to abstract expressionism continued with a movement called "pop art" ("pop" is short for "popular"). who is known for the bold blocks of color that dominate his huge canvases. and blues. Recent trends in art emphasize variety and innovation. The international influence of America's abstract expressionists was so great that the painting center of the world shifted from Paris to New York. Ragtime. . country-western. During this period. David Smith (1906-65) was the first sculptor to work with welded metals. the artists of this movement sought to remake the goals and methods of art. Ragtime is most important for its association with the blues. based on the principle of optical illusion. Jazz. The members of this movement attempted to produce works of art that would reflect the pervasive influence of mass marketing. or rural scenes. "Pop" was followed by "Op" art. Rothko. Among the movement's leaders were Jackson Pollack (1912-54). and neo-geo art.228 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM SCULPTURE MIXED MEDIA POP ART OP ART RECENT TRENDS AMERICAN MUSIC RAGTIME BLUES JAZZ Abstract expressionism. which was begun by a group of New York artists in the 1940s. Willem de Kooning. American sculptors developed new styles of their own.

Oscar. The music of George Gershwin (1898-37). "Dizzy" Gillespie and Charlie Parker. Eeonard: born 1918. jazz musicians began combining the rhythms of rock 'n' roll and electronic instruments with traditional elements of jazz to form a blend of music called "fusion. Lyrics generally focus on the sorrows of love or the economic hardships of poor whites. The music developed over a long period with melodies and lyrics reflecting rural life in the Southeast and Southwest. Jazz concerts draw thousands of listeners every year. (1900-71) a trumpeter and soloist. The musical was a new form of entertainment which combined acting. and in the 1930s. In the 1930s another native American-born art form emerged. music. However. The influence of jazz is found in many types of American music. Rock 'n' roll developed as a Ellington. Another popular type of music which came out of the American South is country-western. it reached its heyday of mass popularity as big band music. the central European operetta. Stephen: born 1930 American composer and lyricist.THE ARTS 229 COUNTRY-WESTERN MUSIC THE MUSICAL ROCK MUSIC something famous jazz musician Duke Ellington (1899—1974) called "swing. most early screen musicals were lavish and glamorous escapist fantasies. Although the improvisational style of early jazz still survives today. Rock music has dominated the popular music scene ever since America was inundated with the new sound in the 1950s. banjo and fiddle. was one of the first well-known jazz singers. American conductor. Hammerstein. Later musicals. . jazz had spread from the South. its cultural origin and musical sounds are totally different from jazz. The style of country western music has its roots in the folk songs and ballads of the early Scottish and English settlers in the southern colonies. II (1895-1960): American librettist and songwriter. Rodgers. Louis Armstrong. jazz has moved on to new frontiers. one of America's most popular song writers and composers. and the music began to attract nationwide attention. Richard (1902-79): American composer." first performed in 1975. In the 1940s. Weekly music ratings indicate the continuing popularity of this type of music. Dreams of success came true for characters who overcame hardships by faith and hard work. Bernstein. is still one of the most popular musicals today. pianist and bandleader." By 1920. Sondheim. In the 1960s and 70s. was strongly influenced by jazz. Other early jazz leaders were Duke Ellington. pianist and composer. The concerto "Rhapsody in Blue" and the opera "Porgy and Bess" were two of his works which incorporated jazz. The distinctive sound of country music depends on the guitar. and the American vaudeville minstrel show. such as Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Oklahoma" and Sondheim and Bernstein's "West Side Story." included serious themes and social criticism. The musical was inspired by the Anglo-Irish musical theater. and ballet. Edward Kennedy ("Duke") 1899-1974: American jazz composer. "A Chorus Line." Today. with some spectacular singing and dancing along the way. Basically entertaining in character. the appeal of country music extended beyond the rural South. jazz is extremely popular in America and abroad.

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have emerged from the studio with unique sounds and messages in their music. has been the most rapidly developing performing art in the nation. The creators of modern dance rejected the artificial formality of classical ballet. Modern Dance: The American Ballet Theater . The music quickly won intense and sustained appeal with young people not only in America. Closely tied to developments in American music was modern dance. both ballet and modern.THE ARTS 231 MODERN DANCE mixture of black blues and white country-western. The first and most influential leader of the movement was Isadora Duncan (1878-1927). Some rock musicians. however. New York City has become the dance center of the world. Martha Graham's New York-based group became the best known modern dance company. Among these artists are guitarist-songwriter Bruce Springsteen and singer Stevie Wonder. and Twyla Tharp. rock 'n' roll became heavily commercialized. In the 1970s and 80s. Instead. flowing dance movements. Hundreds of bands copied the formula of success and went into recording studios to make money rather than innovative music. they sought to convey the innermost feelings of the human mind and body in simple. In the past three decades. dance. who experiments with new areas for dance such as video and films. which emerged in America as a new art form early in the century. Early rock musicians such as Elvis Presley and Bob Dylan were idolized by millions of teenagers. America's newest generation of modern dance choreo graphers includes Alvin Ailey whose style features African dance elements and black music. but all over the world.

and musicals were some of the popular films that emerged as distinct genres. mythical themes of taming the frontier.232 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP HOLLYWOOD FILMS INFLUENCE OF TELEVISION Born in Hollywood after the turn of the century. gangster films. The western fused violence and rugged individualism into larger. films. and even the architec ture of the theaters were glittering and glorious. Class divisions were healed and everyone lived happily ever after. the motion picture became the monumental popular art form of the century. curbing lawlessness. Studios have recaptured television audiences by renting their feature films to television networks and by producing low-budget made-for-TV movies and television series. Film attendance declined sharply. and beliefs. and Hollywood's old monopoly on stardom and American style was lost. Today's moviegoers are mostly teenagers. comedies. Hollywood films were tailored to an American audience and appealed to its tastes by reinforcing traditional myths. motion picture executives and entrepreneurs wanted to develop products that had mass appeal. and forging a nation. and creating new markets. Audiences were charmed. targeting films to the younger audience. Once they found a successful formula. During these decades of Hollywood's golden age. Innovations in these varied artistic fields have enriched America's cultural life and have made an impact on the rest of the world. The movies have changed since television intervened. they repeated it in film after film. In film director Frank Capra's (born 1897) It Happened One Night (1934). the major studios were turning out over 400 movies each year. Video cassettes have also created new markets for film studios. In Hollywood's golden age during the 1940s. . Westerns. movie stars. values. Although the golden age is past. films remain a popular and profitable form of entertainment in America. The flourishing of the arts in America today signals a continued momentum for new developments in American art in the future. Like most businessmen. conglomerates bought up studios. the poor boy who fell in love with a rich girl managed to win her heart. Entertaining comedies and musicals carried messages of aspiration and optimism. Their parents prefer television entertainment. The major film studios have adapted to the new viewing patterns by cutting back on production.

known as Broadway. although it is not the kind of national theater one associates with the National Theatre of England or the Moscow Art Theater or the Comedie Frangaise. such as Edward Albee." Although For more than a century Broadway was a stable and profitable community. sometimes with the original cast. New York City. In New York City itself. more frequently with a second company. Sam Shepard and Neil Simon. for example. although many talented writers have emerged. and second. No longer dominated by the tyranny of Broadway moguls. the decentralization of theatrical activity. In fact. American theater now includes around 400 professional not-for-profit companies in cities across the country. toured the country. Philadelphia. depending upon a play's success or failure as determined by the New York newspaper critics. Originating its own shows. and energy. Therefore. it is a loose network of theaters presenting material that both reflects and illuminates American society. the theater world is divided between the commercial producers of Broadway and the scattered.233 PART в Texts a radical shift in the kinds of plays produced and the kinds of writers nurtured. Washington or New Haven). smaller. a society that continues to be a melting pot full of energy and variety. not-for-profit theaters known as "off-В road way. the encouragement of writers throughout the nation to develop plays rather than to write scripts which are then presented to a Broadway producer for final judgment. Arthur Miller and William Inge. Most of these have evolved over the last 20 years. from 1940 to I960 Tennessee Williams. Broadway producers tested their wares out-of-town in one of the major northeastern cities (Boston. Broadway produced show business. which has resulted in a nation of theaters rather than a nation whose theater is housed in the few square blocks in Manhattan. That patAlthough Broadway did not produce only one kind of play for all Toward a National Theater By Howard Stein Today no major playwrights dominate the Broadway stage in the way the giants of past decades once did: from 1920 to 1940 Eugene O'Neill and Clifford Odets. and then. These two changes in the pattern of playmaking in the United States have caused . Since I960 there have been no playwrights quite on the level of these. poetic imagination and vitality have sparked the American theater in a host of institutions across the country. In the past quarter century the focus has increasingly shifted away from Broadway to distant regions of the country. which some would describe as manufacturing its own products. Two significant changes have taken place: first. Instead. opened in Manhattan. since the establishment of the National Endowment for the Arts. America finally has a national theater. American theater is now made up of both commercial and nonprofit interests.

author of highly successful comedies like Barefoot in the Park. dealing with a taxi strike. William (1913-73): wrote plays about seemingly ordinary Midwestern people. Death of a Salesman (Pulitzer Prize) and The Crucible. The strength and identity of the nation is in its diversity and boundless energy. the New England folk comedy Ah. It was established to foster the growth and development of the arts in the United States .234 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1. and the autobiographical tragedy Long Day's Journey into Night. for the most part. an independent agency of the U. heritage. author of The Zoo Story.S. Albee. business and personal integrity. culture. a nation of significant variety and geography whose character is perhaps too vast to capture in the theater. National Endowment for the Arts: part of the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. Edward: born 1928. Wilderness*. to middle-class people talking in middle-class language about middle-class problems— problems that centered around marriage. The theater of the last 25 years has succeeded in reflecting that diversity and that energy. Odets. founded by Congress in 1965. raising children. Among his plays are the trilogy Mourning Becomes Electra. divorce. Simon. to the family. interest or set of values. extramarital affairs. The fact remains that a more authentic picture of the country would be one of a nation comprised of far more than middle-class families. Howard: professor and chairman of Columbia University's Hammerstein Center for Theatre Studies. Star Spangled Girl. and The Prisoner of Second Avenue. government. which reflect his ability to see the comic incongruities of everyday life. Neil: born 1927. Inge. Miller. Clifford (1906—63): actor and playwright who became famous by the production of his one-act play Waiting for Lefty. Eugene (1888-1953): His plays won him the Pulitzer Prize several times and earned him the Nobel Prize in 1936. Those plays. O'Neill. Arthur: born 1915. this nation of theaters offers the entire world a much more realistic image of America than the old Broadway ever did. True West and Fool for Love. language. author of All My Sons. American playwright and television writer. continued those years. The American Dream and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Shepard. were devoted to social realism. Picnic earned him the Pulitzer Prize. author of Buried Child (Pulitzer Prize). certainly in the theater of Manhattan. Stein. America is a nation of no single background. there was a significant similarity in Broadway playwrights' work. Sam: born 1943.

THE ARTS 235 A Dozen Outstanding Plays of the Past Quarter Century WIto's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Streamers Indians Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962) by Edward Albee—With this searing portrait of a marriage seemingly based on fantasies. "and excited and challenged his contemporaries. "Indians. Edward Albee. but out in the auditorium. acclimatizing the public to racial drama in which rage would be explained rather than exploited." The Great White Hope (1968) by Howard Sackler—This drama. according to critic Ethan Mordden. He had opened a new vein of dramatic writing. "made a breakthrough for black theater. is based on the life of black prizefighter Jack Johnson. where we were forced to reexamine some of our value judgments through a crack in our beloved national epic of the West. and two earlier plays.." House of Blue Leaves (1971) by John Guare—Produced off-Broadway. the third in 1968) by Robert Lowell— Commissioned by an off-Broadway theater dedicated to new works." wrote critic Otis Guernsey.. At a time when civil rights was a major issue in national politics. who challenged early 20th-century racial attitudes. "The title." The Old Glory (two parts of this trilogy first produced in 1964. one of the first to transfer directly from a regional theater to Broadway. "has two meanings: it refers both to the flag and also to the glory with which the Republic of America was started. "The quality and the character of his writing alerted the theater. then 33. this play is also a reconsideration of the treatment of American Indians during the settling of the West." writes critic Stuart Little. eminent poet Robert Lowell is based on three stories by 19th-century writers—two by Nathaniel Hawthorne and one by Herman Melville. achieved instant fame. Rabe became "the first American playwright to write unflinchingly about Vietnam. Photographs by Martha Swope ." Streamers (1976) by David Rabe—With this study of violence set in a military training camp. The Old Glory. and black culture might be explored. Sometimes criticized for failing to restrain what critic Ross Wetzsteon called "the wild inventions and weird mutations of his imagination." Indians (1969) by Arthur Kopit—A fantastical representation of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. this play by the late. infidelities and alcohol." said David Richards in The Washington Star." Guare maintains that the theater is "the last refuge for poetry. The Great White Hope. "reached its climax and fulfillment not in the events onstage." said Lowell in 1976. The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel and Sticks and Bones. Two of these plays were nurtured at Joseph Papp's influential Public Theater in New York. this black comedy about a middleaged zookeeper who longs to write songs for the movies is the work of one of America's most idiosyncratic playwrights.

but instead from tracking down the identity of the victim. Wasserstein's work." wrote Frank Rich in praise of Durang. who continues to work off-Broadway. this play was developed at the Mark Taper Forum in Los Angeles and later triumphed on Broadway. "Anyone can write an angry play.236 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. First produced at the Circle Repertory Company in New York.. "but only a writer of real talent can write an angry play that remains funny and controlled even in its most savage moments." Buried Child (1978) by Sam ShepardShepard writes plays that take place. allows Fuller to explore the uneasy contradictions of racism. "the excitement comes not from tracking down the criminal." Sister Mary Ignatius Explains It All for You (1979) by Christopher Durang—In this satiric comedy about parochial education and authority figures. "in an eternal present haunted fry an unknown past. Children of a Lesser God (1979) by Mark Medoff—Centering on a voice teacher and the strongminded deaf student he loves and marries. as critic Ronald Bryden has written. the play was revived on Broadway in 1980. where New York Times theater critic Frank Rich praised it as "Wilson's own morning-after-Independence-Day dream of a democratic America—an enlightened place where the best ideals can bloom. first staged at San Francisco's Magic Theatre. "In the Pulitzer-prizewinning Buried Child." Investigating the character of the victim. former students confront the righteous nun who taught them." Fifth of July (1978) by Lanford Wilson—An oddly assorted group of survivors from the turbulent 1960s try to build new lives in their old Missouri hometown." ASoldier's Play (1981) by Charles Fuller—Developed at the Negro Ensemble Company. both black and white. continued House of Blue Leaves Uncommon Women and Others (1977) by Wendy Wasserstein—First staged when its author was a student in Yale University's prestigious playwriling program. John Beaufort said in The Christian Science Monitor: "Children is not merely about the plight of physical impairment. It is about the human condition and the struggle to communicate across daunting barriers. as Walter Kerr wrote in The New York Times. this effervescent comedy focuses on a group of graduates from an elite women's college. wrote Michiko Kakutani in The New York Ti mes. this Pulitzer prizewinner is a murder mystery in which. a vicious black sergeant on a southern military base in 1944. a young man returns to his family's midwestern farm to find that no one recognizes him. concerns itself with "the choices facing contemporary women— and the additional pressures created by feminist ideals. .

and anything he does becomes in itself interesting. And I've always understood money. and Corey's classes got me into looking at life as—I'm still hesitant to say—an artist. It was then I started thinking that. This was the era of the Beat Generation and West Coast jazz and staying up all night on Venice Beach. or so it seemed at the time.A. This is very young thinking. it's just more pollution of the airwaves. "He is prepared to do whatever the part requires. "Here. Jack Nicholson achieved movie stardom in 1969 with the unheralded hit Easy Rider. in Terms of Endearment (1983) he played a seedy. as an office boy in [he cartoon program. Up until then I hadn't cared about much but sports and girls and looking at movies—stuff vou do when you're 17 or 18. and then burn it. I kind of believed what Nietzsche said. This was the collage period in painting. and since I wanted to see movie stars. contrary to conventional wisdom. Nicholson talks unth journalist and screenwriter Beverly Walker about the challenges inherent in Hollywood filmmaking. in my opinion. For a couple of years I saw movie stars.. The idea of not building monuments was very strong among idealistic people. i t's not a big mystical thing to me. that nothing not written in your blood is worth reading. I say this by way of underlining that it was then and is still the art of acting that is the wellspring for me. Since then. I met loads of people I s t i l l work with. Unlike many stars. one of the li tt le theaters in Los Angeles at the time. You could see anybody—anybody who wasn't a star—in theaters with 80 seats.. you're very idealistically inclined toward the art of the thing. I got out of school [in New Jersey] a year early. In that theoretical period of my life I began to think that the finest modern writer was the screen actor. a fine way to live your life. says. not the stage. They weren't. I decided I didn't want to do that. But it always bothered me when people came off stage and were told how great they were. let nobody read it.THE ARTS 237 DIALOGUE JACK NICHOLSON From FILM COMMENT After a decade of low-budget films. Or you don't stick because there's no money in it. out-of-shape astronaut. This risk-taking independence is evident throughout Nicholson л long movie career.. Through all these permutations and youthful poetry. the influence of Duchamp and others.rizzi's Honor. From that point on. I went to one acting class before I was taken to Jeff Corey's class. I got a job at MGM. As the producer of his recent film. I knew film deteriorated. That was as important as gettingjobs. but it is the seminal part of my life. I confess. really. I have mainly been interested in acting. theater then was very high because of the tremendous number of actors who were flying back and forth between the East Coast and Hollywood.. P. he has created a variety of menacing yet oddly sympathetic characters in such movies as Chinatown. literature. Tell me about your beginnings. write one poem all your life. Nicholson has never sought a glamorous screen image or insisted on leading roles. They opened up people. If you're going to write. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and The Shining. . Corey taught that good actors were meant to absorb life. It's been said that you gave yourself 10 years to become a star.. I came to believe that the film actor was the great "litterateur" of his time. From there I went to the Players Ring Theatre. and that's what I was trying to do. At the beginning. I think I know what I meant. in his directing and screenwriting as well as his acting. But Jeff Corey's method of working opened me up to a whole area of Study.. In fact. I came to California where my only other relatives were. Acting is lifestudy.. The quality of acting in 1. I think it's a great job. Is that true? No. and though I could've worked my way through college. This was in the spirit of the '50s where a very antiliterary literature was emerging. and then I was nudged into a talent program. film was the artful medium for the actor. yet he won all major movie awards for supporting actor.

In fact. and I had a commitment to do one of several things I was interested in. I'm a movie star. and the director has got to know when he wants one or the other. but it wasn't until the screening at the Cannes Film Festival that I had an inkling of its powerful superstructural effect upon the public. In actuality. You obviously saw Easy Rider [1969] before knowing the critical and public response. let it be a play. what I look for in a director and a movie is vision. This was one of a dozen theoretical discussions I'd have every day because this was a very vital time for me and my contemporaries. and unless you're after that. Roman is top five. Is the director central in your taking risk? Yes. There are many directors in the middle range who've made mostly successful pictures. I was writing a script [Head] based on the theories of Marshall McLuhan. up to that moment 1 had been thinking more about directing.movement. Because of the way the business is structured today. I believe I was one of the few people sitting in that audience who understood what was happening. but I'm probably after the directors more than anything. Which I did. But at Cannes my thinking changed. Motion. through which was coming a car pulling a trailer home behind it. a clue. supporting roles or directors than any American star of recent memory. I have sometimes turned down scripts that I might otherwise have accepted had I known who was directing them. The wildest one in the book was made by Steven Spielberg. The imagery of a movie is where it's at. I ' d been Jack Nicholson in Easy Rider Let me put it this way: both as an actor and a viewer. Did you have any clue it would become such a hit? there before. I suppose my life would be smoother if I wasn't almost totally enam ored of the latter category __ Do you enjoy directing? I love it. and I understood the audience and its relative amplitudes. Everybody's always talking about script. I thought it was very good. She asks everyone to make a drawing with two elements of her choosing: a heart and a house.. You've taken more risks with subject matter..explosion are all there in that one little Rorschach of a draw- .238 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. I thought the moment for the biker film had come. Because of my background with Roger Gorman. and it shows exactly why he's a great movie director. After all. continued The stage has a certain discipline. and that is based upon the director's vision. but because it's Roman [Polanski] I know it's going to be a great movie. so I understood what the release of hybrid communications energy might mean. and then there are a few great directors who've had some successes and some failures. because you have to see yourself— and you are your own toughest critic. Why? When I saw Easy Rider.". by what criteria do you select projects? Yes. "This is it.. The quality of a scene is different if it's set in a phone booth or in an ice house. I wasn't mad about Roman's Pirates script.. There's someone I know who keeps a book of drawings made by guests to her home.. But the ultimate standard is more exacting in film. I'm back into acting now. I directed Drive He Said. I'd just as soon be in the different medium. Scenes are different when the camera sits still or if it's running on a train. I knew that my last motorcycle movie had done $6 to $8 million from a budget of less than half a million.. If it's going to be about script. I thought. This is what he drew: a big paper heart as if it were a hoop. All these things are indigenous to the form. especially if the genre was moved one step away from exploitation toward some kind of literary quality. the same for Stanley [Kubrick] as well as John Huston. Did you think it would make you a star? I look for a director with a script he likes a lot.. Immediately after Easy Rider. I did not want to be coming off the stage at the mercy of what somebody else told me I did. cinema is that "other thing". Since Easy Rider. busted open..

what's more. They've created everything up to that moment when they turn on the camera—the clothes. I'd stop right there and say. obviously be cause I make 'em a lot of money as an actor ___ Have you been doing any other writing in recent years? The last credit I see on your filmography is for Head [1968]. I did not pander to them. and I think they have something special. the single most obvious thing to me." They hire someone like myself because they hope I 'l l do something beyond whatever they have in mind. you can't separate out the ac tor. I ' m very proud of my two movies. or Kubrick. "This boy here is a movie director. They want you to deliver "it. Duchamp. they don't know. The people I work with are auteurs in the sense that if they want something a certain way. Do you feel the more auteur-oriented directors are generally smart enough to incorporate a star into their own vision? Yes. motion picture producer. Roger: born 1926. in the real action of it. the day. auteur: (French = author). That's why they talk so long about a given scene. they'll tell you it was the peer-group picture of the time. I've contributed to other things. they're totally at the mercy of the actor. Beat Generation: young people who. That's it. Bring something they didn't write. The director says when to turn on the camera.. But I feel it's myjob to attempt to influence their thinking." So why do I want to direct? Well. poet. MGM: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.. invented a psychological test of personality. at which time I became someone who could add fuel to a project as an actor.. But some movies can't get made without someone like me in them... Looking over all of it. Since that's what I'm looking for when I'm in the other seat. I don't want to direct a movie as good as Antonioni.this time. At this moment. that I can make movies that are different and informed by my taste. Nietzsche. OK. . Rorschach. First time. But the creative moment is happening when the camera is turned on and stops when it's turned off. Marcel (1887-1968): French painter.Well. but you have to work your own field. I think I've got the seed of it and.only now. such as Goin' South [1978] and the scene on the bluff with my father in Five Easy Pieces. Everybody in town's in that book. here: film director who is regarded as the true author of a film. But in that sense. If you ask anybody who was in college during the period ot Drive. but I stopped because I felt I was more effective approaching filmmaking from a different vantage point. I wrote right up to Easy Rider.. in all we read and all we write about films. I have nothing to offer. I think I have special vision. I wonder why others aren't. He Said [1971]. the time—but when that rolls. Friedrich Wilhelm (1844-1900): German philosopher. they'll get it. If I were the head of a studio and I looked through the book.never again to be that way again. had lost faith in Western cultural traditions and rejected conventional norms of dress and behavior. I always try to get into whatever mold a director has in mind. I suppose I can do more for a script as an actor than as a writer—in the film sense. I love writing. whether to do another take. Hermann (1884—1922): Swiss psychiatrist.THE ARTS 239 ing.. Prom a collage point of view. McLuhan. director and distributor. But it cost me because it was very critical of youth. Marshall (1911—80): Canadian cultural historian and mass-communication theorist.. but in all honesty. I don't argue with them past a certain point. and he selects which of the moments he thinks is worthwhile. after the Second World War. or Polanski or who ever.. Hollywood movie studio. Corman.. is this: people fear the creative moment. and critic. he is primary. One person cannot be in charge of all that. Otherwise. the director makes the movie. I've always approached film as a unit. I want it to be my own...

) Except for one salient episode." That salutation. from space sagas and kid stories. The New Republic. The book is composed of letters. but in this case there's an extra dimension. achieves independence and at last is reunited with her missionary sister. a film of Alice Walker's novel The Color Purple. "I am fourteen years old. is first told otherwise by the singer. it is about the mistreatment. which he certainly has. He apparently operates on the assumption that if he wants to see it. If Spielberg is a congenital vicar for an immense public. © 1986. She doesn't know where they are. The landmark juncture of Steven Spielberg and a black subject in The Color Purple reflects current American society. The story follows this Georgia farm girl from 1909 to 1931. then takes the babies away.240 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP FILM Literary Hollywood By Stanley Kauffmann From THE NEW REPUBLIC The most commercially successful director-producer in the world history of film has directed and produced a virtually all-black film. of black women by black men. It seems inevitable that this should be the book to switch him. continually jeered at as ugly. Then: "1 have always been a good girl. the past is strewn with failed film transcriptions of best sellers. Walker's novel is often affecting. I . Inc. Then he hands her over for marriage to a widower who had come to ask for Celie's sister. the bewildered appeal launch the book at once on its accessible way. perhaps especially. thus wanted to make. Her stepfather twice gets Celie pregnant. The book might have been written for Spielberg. Spielberg has become a golden eminence not just through talent. which he seems to be. most of them oppressive. Specifically. (Later there are more literate and much less moving letters from her sister who escapes from rural Georgia to become a missionary in Africa. Celie. but Celie endures. Walker's novel won a Pulitzer Prize and an American Book Award in 1983 and has been read by millions. both skilled practitioners of popular art. (This is no guarantee of film success. as producer or producer-director. God gives Celie plenty of signs of what is happening to her. temporarily anyway. but also." Then come two crossed-out words. Allen Daviau has photographed the film in colors that are the visual equivalent of Quincy Jones's lush music: Spielberg apparently feels that the flooding music and color transcend artifice because of the authenticity they Stanley Kauffmann is film critic for The New Republic Reprinted by permission of The New Republic. Celie. the abuse. He is open and self-gratifying. So it's significant that he wanted to see. He and Walker are both genuine. with taciturn courage. Spielberg makes us feel that. because he is not the least bit shrewd.) "Dear God. Celie matures. The Color Purple is not about black-white relations: it is about blacks. but at a somewhat elemental level. addresses letters to God." begins the book. he makes films that he himself wants to see. most of them written in so-called black English that in itself evokes pathos. Her husband tyrannizes her and taunts her with his passion for a band vocalist. the international film public will also want it. Maybe you can give me a sign letting me know what is happening to me. those crossedout words. the heroine. an assumption that is now pretty well validated. who also brings Celie's children home. then an immense public is ready for a black film that offers some unpleasant views of black American life.

yet warm and lovely. Moreover. Margaret Avery is Shug (short for Sugar). continued adorn. Spielberg keeps the camera below eye-level a good deal of the time. the singer who bewitches Celie's husband but whose love turns out to be the liberation of Celie's spirit. but Spielberg's convictions carry it through: his conviction that this is now the moment for a mass-appeal film on these aspects of black life and his conviction about happy endings. Up to now.THE ARTS 241 4. that they are what film is for. he has played sympathetic roles — notably. Her Broadway appearance last year demonstrated that her performing talent is better than her writing. with his usual good instincts. As Celie. Avery is worldly wise. Danny Glover. as the widower who weds Celie reluctantly. The film travels a bit errantly and sluggishly toward the happy ending we know it must have. whether or not we've read the book. often near floor-level. of instance and of principle. Clearly he believes that happy endings are integral to film. Two women are outstanding. looking upward as if to assert that he feels the story is epic. a plump proud woman who pays grievously for her pride. goes from strength to strength as an actor. Glover makes the younger man both terrifying and understandable. and makes the mellowing as credible as anyone could do. Danny Glover and Whoopi Goldberg in The Color Purple 1985 Warner Brothers Company . the field hand Moses in Places in the Heart. chose comedian Whoopi Goldberg. Here he plays a brute who mellows with the years. Goldberg is perfect. These two convictions. Oprah Winfrey is Sophie. For Celie. sustain The Color Purple. She is a solo performer of sketches she herself creates. Spielberg.

The singer who now entertains at the White House — and at Sun City — also staged John Kennedy's inaugural. N. in each of his U. and they both got their moves down in the same neighborhood. the singer makes a compact between the will and the heart. There would be a pleasing symbolism in the fulfillment of one Springsteen friend's longcherished dream of having Sinatra record the Boss's grand melodrama Meeting Across the River. is a renewal of old ties and a reconfirmation of old values. are both peerless showmen. James (1931-55): American actor. appeared at plenty of civil rights benefits and was one of the first movie figures to try formally to break the I lollywood blacklist with his hiring clout. a tworecord set full of blind alleys. and desolation is what is left after the thrill is gone. Sinatra. Even their most sweeping upbeat numbers have an undertow from the outer darkness. Hollywood movie studio.S. dashed dreams and rave-ups that sound like last stands. in his time. Dean and Brando. The same perceived darkness is present in Presley and Dylan. hard pride and tenuous triumph where a song can be a testament or a talisman. but Sinatra's has been up for grabs since he wowed the bobby-soxers at the Paramount Theatre in 1944. Springsteen's effect on an audience can be just as devastating. but a great part of his appeal is the impression of a private man going public. Musicians who can sculpt in song an entire interior landscape of American dreams played out in latenight bars or on empty midnight highways. Springsteen has never been better than on 1980's The River. Springsteen's own changes may be different. with his unforced.). It would do both Springsteen and Sinatra proud. as it has with Sinatra. to local charities like food banks). Frank Sinatra and Bruce Springsteen have a lot more in common than their native state of New Jersey. is the primacy of the music. The Chairman of the Board.J. whose music usually avoided political matters. Despite Springsteen's Dutch surname. — By Jay Cocks Frank Sinatra the Chairman. and the Boss. who has the stage force of some as yet unclassified natural phenomenon. Jukebox visionaries. And something more. was also. concert venues. no chaser. even today. Marlon: born 1924.242 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP The Chairman and the Boss The first great American superstar singer. Alpine. Their music moves to different beats. romantic retribution. Their audiences do not overlap. Each concert becomes a ritual celebration. World-class artists. based on the same kind of willed misperception that twisted Springsteen into a Fenderbender Rambo. The Sinatra bloodlines have been evokecl to place him squarely within such varying Mediterranean traditions as bel canto and the Mafia. Brando. That is obvious. his lineage is halfItalian. The protagonists of Springsteen's songs all stand and fall by themselves. Springsteen's sense of himself and of the redemptive power of the songs Bruce Springsteen he sings has translated into political statement (as in his participation in Steve Van Zandt's antiapartheid Sun City project) and political action (as with his quiet contributions. however. American actor. slightly ironic ease. Sinatra has been happy to oblige. and the latest Voices for whole generations. the Boss: nicknames of Frank Sinatra and Bruce Springsteen. an outspoken populist. But whether Sinatra swings or Springsteen rocks. Springsteen plays his private life close. Paramount Theatre. just as a Sinatra performance. they both sound like they are singing about lives in the balance. but what will likely remain constant with him. want to have it My Way. and those who have hoisted One for My Baby may not feel they are Born to Run. The rock clubs all around the Jersey shore are not so very different now from jazz joints like the Rustic Cabin (Route 9W. where Sinatra spent 18 months in the late '30s. in which the haunted force of his singing transforms romantic abandonment into an elegant paradigm of spiritual despair straight up. They share some of the same background too. former guitarist in Springsteen's band. They share the same solitary spirit. That has changed now. that the Mob mythology surrounding Sinatra is simply part of the public projection of his nightshade personality.SA. Steve van Zandt. However it turned out such a recording would be an irresistible confluence of myths. They are both like separate swift currents in the American musical mainstream that has flowed around the world. It may be. They dwell in the same kind of spiritual territory: a world of loneliness. . learning his craft and occasionally waiting tables. Could Sinatra cover Cover Me} Could Springsteen get behind Spring Is Here} No matter. Americans like their superstars with an edge of danger and a whiff of sulfur. Sinatra's greatest record — and his self-acknowledged favorite — is the 1958 album Only the Lonely. Dean. Just in fact as they have done us. Not many kids Born in the U. In Sinatra's most indelible performances.

3. b) went to California to become a movie star. b) after a theater performance was not always fair. "Those plays. Howard Stein says. and show how. these plays differ from the traditional pattern. to the family. Due to Jeff Corey's influence. for the most part. . c) learned that acting requires an intensive insight into life. c) became an office boy in a California film company. in the choice of themes and main characters. Structural Outline Toward a National Theater Provide the missing information about the change undergone by the American theater. 5. 4. business and personal integrity. were devoted to social realism. Jack Nicholson a) became interested in sports. After leaving school Jack Nicholson a) went straight to college. Already at the beginning of his career as an actor a) money played such a crucial role that he almost gave up acting. Jack Nicholson is of the opinion that criticism a) from the theater audience helped him a lot. c) of acting is done best by the actor himself. c) thought that second-rate actors were to be found on the stage. 1. 2. divorce. girls and seeing films. Comparing film-acting and acting on the stage. Before the 1960s Since the 1960s domination of the stage by few major playwrights decentralization and regionalization of theatrical activities toward a national theater censorship in playwriting by Broadway producers expansion of the theatrical scene by around 400 non-profit theaters similarity of Broadway plays through middleclass orientation 2. b) tried to live an intensive life. Comprehension An Interview with Jack Nicholson Which ways of completing the following sentences are correct? There may be more than one possibility. to middle-class people talking in middle-class language about middle-class problems—problems that centered around marriage. 1.243 PART C Exercises 3. b) he strongly believed in acting as a literary art form. b) believed that screen-acting was the higher art form. raising children. Jack Nicholson a) regarded the stage as the true medium for an actor. extra-marital affairs. Scanning A Dozen Outstanding Plays of the Past Quarter Century Describing American drama before the 1960s. c) he considered scriptwriters to be the greatest literary artists of the time." Scan the survey of recent plays.

the interviewee relying on a few notes which he or she has made to each of the questions before. The interviewer at the radio station has read the review in The New Republic and. c) he has the special vision that is needed to produce the right images. b) the director is more important than the script. prepare questions which both interest the listeners and can be answered informatively by Stanley Kauffmann.244 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 6. based on an analysis of the review. Interview Practice Literary Hollywood Journalists such as Stanley Kauffmann often work in different media. 10. 8. The success of Easy Rider at the Cannes Film Festival a) made Nicholson think of directing films himself for the first time. Jack Nicholson gave up writing because he a) never really liked it. 9. Pay particular attention to • the impact of their music on American people and culture the spiritual character of their music their audiences their best albums the protagonists of their songs their (ethnic) backgrounds their personalities their performing powers their political commitments. c) caused him to give up all plans of directing films. Imagine he is going to be interviewed on a live radio morning show. b) there are always excellent scripts to rely on. c) only great directors guarantee the financial success of a film. as he has neither seen the film nor read the novel. Nicholson believes that a) the script is the most important criterion. Jack Nicholson anticipated that Easy Rider was not going to be a failure because a) the motorcycle film he had done before had been a success. b) felt that he was not effective enough as a writer. Put yourself into the position of the interviewer and. Categorize them and say whether you agree with the description the author gives of their songs. b) showed Nicholson that he was at his best as an actor. . 4. Jack Nicholson enjoys directing because he thinks a) he can do it as well as Antonioni. b) he had given up trying to reach a kind of literary quality with this film. and Bruce Springsteen. c) thought he could contribute to a film more through acting than through writing. Comparative Study The Chairman and the Boss 1. When choosing a new project. Where does the author see parallels and where does he see differences? 3. is basing his five-minute interview almost entirely on the review. Then conduct the interview in pairs. the Chairman of the Board. c) he was familiar with the basic ideas of this film. 7. 2. List what the author of this article says about Frank Sinatra. 5. Kubrick or Polanski. Pick a few songs from both superstars. the Boss.

the emergence of several cable channels that specialize in sports gives viewers even more options. Opportunities for keeping fit and playing sports are numerous. A real fan not only can recite each player's batting average. monitoring. Although estimates vary. and almost anything else that shows the results of a workout. pep rally: an assembly intended to inspire enthusiasm. regional. These are the tools for knowing all about pulse and heart rates. reports on local. convinced that staying fit requires much more than regular exercise and balanced meals. There is more to being a baseball fan than buying season tickets to the home team's games. not to watch an exciting game but just to demonstrate team support in a pre-Superbowl pep rally. and national sports events. and computer printouts. Jogging is extremely popular. Superbowl: the championship game of the National Football League. Every evening for five to seven minutes of the half-hour local news show. Recently. the millions of Americans who participate in sports are usually passionate about their games. Books. That's dedication. measuring. The emphasis on sports is evident in local evening news telecasts.14 SportS PART A Background Information A SPORTS-LOVING NATION MEDIA COVERAGE PRIVATE AND INSTITUTIONALIZED ACTIVITIES Whether they are fans or players. The foremost of these channels. fat cell per muscle cell ratios. whose territory is exclusively sports. ESPN. The immense popularity of sports in America is indicated by the number of pages and headlines the average daily newspaper devotes to local and national sports. the station's sports analyst. Television has made sports available to all. . For anyone who claims a real desire to stay healthy. For those who cannot afford tickets or travel to expensive play-offs like baseball's World Series or football's final Superbowl. perhaps because it is the cheapest and most accessible sport. the major networks average about 500 hours each of sports programming a year. or nearly half of the 86 million homes with television sets. days before the actual contest. Aerobic exercise and training with weight-lifting machines are two activities which more and more men and women are pursuing. too. but also competes with other fans to prove who knows the answers to the most obscure and trivial questions about the sport. a flick of the television dial provides close-up viewing that beats front row seats. runs sports shows at least 22 hours a day and is now received by 37 million American homes. Dedication short of madness is also what inspired hundreds of thousands of football fans to fill Denver's stadium in dangerously freezing temperatures. videos. And it is with passion that Americans pursue the latest fitness fad. calorie intake. graph charting. fitness has become a science of quantification involving weighing.

and basketball.246 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP American football and fitness-conscious movie stars that play up the glamour of fitness have heightened enthusiasm for these exercises and have promoted the muscular. Most clubs also offer instruction in various sports and exercise methods. hospitals. . and churches have indoor gymnasiums and organize informal team sports. golf. volleyball. For those who can afford membership fees. Most communities have recreational parks with tennis and basketball courts. racquetball. These parks generally charge no fees for the use of these facilities. Members of these clubs have access to all kinds of indoor and outdoor sports: swimming. the health and fitness center. healthy body as the American beauty ideal. there is the exclusive country club and its more modern version. a football or soccer field. handball. tennis. Some large corporations. and outdoor grills for picnics.

Base ball and football games are famil y affairs. originated in the United States and are largely unknown or only minor pastimes outside North America. investments are made and assets are exchange d. Although many spectator sports. swimming. particularly pro football. However. ice hockey. the network sports industries have not been faring well lately. Besides these top three sports. cars. Football. Commercial businesses enjoy the publicity which brings in sales. Just as in any business. The networks are glad to fill up program hours and attract audiences who might perhaps become regular viewers of other programs produced by those networks. one of the NFL teams. Part of the problem is that advertising costs got too high. Many sports get half of their revenues from the networks.SPORTS 247 AMERICAN SPORTS VIOLENCE AND SPORTS COMMERCIAL ASPECTS Schools and colleges have institutionalized team sports for young people. The football season starts in early autumn and is followed by basketball. team owners traded players back and forth as items for barter. basketball. The guaranteed mass viewing of major sports events means advertisers will pay networks a lot of money to sponsor the program with announcements for their products. Any business operator hopes to get a good deal. and rioting. and student athletes receive strong community support. for example. baseball. gymnastics. Star quarterback Joe Namath was invited to play for the New York Jets. Coveted baseball player Kirk Gibson recently signed a three-year contract with the Detroit Tigers for $4. and men's products are glad of the opportunity to push their goods to the predominantly male audience of the big professional sports. and then baseball. and tennis have been popular for decades and attract large audiences. are aggressive and sometimes bloody. High schools and colleges recognize outstanding athletic achievement with trophies. They have experienced financial setbacks mainly caused by the oversaturation of sports programming on networks and competing cable channels. Teams and competitions are highly organized and competitive and generally receive substantial local publicity. For many people. Team owners usually sign up individual players for lucrative long -term contracts. Advertisers for beer. More often in the past than now. baseball. and sometimes for soccer. the most pop ular sports in America. and scholarships. The major television networks contract with professional sports leagues for the rights to broadcast their games. Practices and games are generally held on t he school premises after classes are over. car racing. boxing. and track. and basketball. tennis. bottle throwing. ice hockey. National Football League (NFL) teams. awards. the slump in business is occurring at a time when sports shows are drawing larger audiences than in recent years.1 million. High schools and colleges commonly have a school team for each of these sports: football. Ironically. are not the rule among American fans.000 in 1965. golf. Fighting. fencing. common elsewhere. an indoor winter sport. sports are big business. volleyball. Networks claim they are now losing money on once-lucrative telecasts. get about 65 percent of their revenues from television. American spectators are notably less violent than are sports crowds in other countries. horse racing. played in spring and summer. and the major sports leagues enjoy the millions of dollars the networks pay for the broad -casting rights contracts. and golf. for $425. The networks' 1986 contract with the NFL provided each of the 28 teams in the league with an average of $14 million a year. and boxing. wrestling. and the . and cheerleaders command the remarkably non-violent crowd to root in chorus for their teams. hockey.

have initiated support pro grams to improve academic performance and graduation rates of athletes. American sports are becoming more competitive and more profit-oriented. a talented young tennis player has a much better chance for success if she is also attractive. The commercial aspects of American professional sports can make or break an athlete's career. such as the University of Michigan. On the other hand. a player has a very difficult time moving from amateur to professional sports. In 1986. are hoping that the market will change before they have to make drastic reductions i r sports programming. Of late. is not only a matter of game skill. particularly women's sports. dependent on advertising for revenue. Teams and events are institutionalized and contribute to college publicity and revenue. playing to win is emphasized more than playing for fun." The obsession with winning causes some people to wonder whether sports in America should be such serious business. the greater the ticket sales and television coverage. The better the team. for example. so colleges like having winning teams. many colleges are willing to go to great lengths. Other college sports. In women's tennis. The situation often embarrasses college administrators. but to play sports and perhaps use intercollegiate sports as a springboard for a professional career. providing full academic scholarships to athletes. but marketability as well. and infuriates other students." and "never be willing to be second best. where young players are encouraged by such slogans as "A quitter never wins. To recruit student athletes for a winning team. who are caught between educational ideals and commercial realities. As a result. . she must also get corporate agents on her side. Competition and success in sports. Many top players earn more money a year in productendorsement fees than in prize money. talented athletes make it to the top because they are exceptionally talented. Young. an aspiring young tennis star must not only possess a winning serve and backhand. some universities. but not in every case because they are the best. the news media. Increasing commercialization of college sports is part of a larger trend. Networks. The tacit understanding shared by college admissions directors as well as the potential sports stars they admit is that athletes do not enroll in college to learn. and the more money the college can channel back into athletics and other programs. while entertaining millions of spectators and television viewers. College sports lost its amateurism years ago. and sometimes putting the college's academic reputation at risk. top college teams get a lot of attention. and athletic directors who often disregard women's sports budgets and funnel money for equipment and facilities into the sports that pay. Sports bring in money to colleges from ticket sales and television rights. are often neglected and ignored by spectators. the Division 1 college football programs had a budget of nearly $1 billion. a winner never quits. Without agents who line up sponsors and publicity. This is true from the professional level all the way down to the level of children's Little League sports teams.248 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP PROFESSIONAL SPORTS COLLEGE SPORTS STUDENT ATHLETES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE WINNING industries that traditionally buy ads—beer and car companies —are not paying the high prices. then. who resent the preferential treatment given to athletes. Football and basketball are the most lucrative college sports because they attract the most fans. To get the endorsement of corporate advertising sponsors. Sales-conscious tennis sportswear companies pay large sums of money to tennis pros who promote their products.

and then the other teams are heavily dependent on success. course. although the basketball team has always had a cult following. Q: So.? A: Yes. which exist only in small numbers in the U. the students would be released from school early so that they would have the opportunity to travel with the team. if the basketball team were to go to the state tournament. and the courses meet five times a week for one hour a day. Q: Let's turn to competitive sports now. which means that every student must be enrolled in a P. the home games of the top teams are the important events in the life of the school. it's a requirement. with the P. And we can't forget the financial implications: the games generate revenue for the school.E. For instance. the girls' volleyball team has had some success. organized into squads. They're played at the senior high gym.E. whereas in the U. the function of the competitive sports is taken over by non-school sport clubs. through thick and thin. with his back to the crowd. He walks out with a flaming pitchfork. when the players are introduced. The basketball games attract a large. and it's always packed to capacity. school sports mean P.E. the mascot from Quincy comes out dressed as a blue devil. and. and. Q: What do you understand by cheerleaders? A: These are girls. that means a more popular following for the team. the students get to choose between various team and individual sports ranging from basketball. What were the most popular teams at your school. with the student section generating the loudest screams. which is divided into sections. after that. in the last couple of years. who perform various chants and acrobatics to hype up the crowd. Q: What other things beside the actual competition on the field add to the atmosphere of the game? A: At the very beginning of the game. What role does it play in the curriculum? A: Well.. program on one side and organized competitive sports on the other. diverse audience. of course. they are. obviously. On top of that there's a band to add to the pre-game and intermission carnival atmosphere. and everybody in that section stands up and cheers as loud as they can. he turns around. II. a large difference. you graduated from high school in Quincy.249 PART в Texts ° Interview: High School Sports Q: Steve.S. In Germany. and how important were they for the school? A: The biggest team at QHS is by far the boy's basketball team. All of a sudden.S. actually. Q: What kinds of sports are offered? A: There's usually a period right at the beginning of each semester where a general physical fitness program is done. They wear very provocative outfits. and. the school sports program has a double role.S. In Germany. As far as school sports are concerned. as it is commonly called. Q: Let's first talk about physical education or P. aren't they? A: Yes. weight lifting and aerobics. do you think there is a great difference between Germany and the U. and there's the omnipresent cheerleaders for the same purpose.A. he covers himself in his cape..E. Q: Do they wear special clothes? A: It's the lack of clothes more than the clothes. and he goes around the gym. throwing open his cape. Another thing. The high school team is called the Blue Devils. Q: To what extent does the community become . football and baseball to tennis. and afterwards went to school in Germany for almost a year.

you could see these posters with this huge blue devil staring out at you on just about every house. just general physical fitness. The community at large stands behind the coaches when they have a winning record. tourney. The other teams are more open to entrance later on. gets on board an old fire truck and parades around town before going to the gym for a victory rally. they're highly regarded by the major portion of the high school population. Q: I guess the members of the top basketball team are very popular with the other students and with the girls. and. like I said before. they're the stars of the high school community. he's gone as a coach. but he's retained as a teacher. when we went to the state tournament in 1981. For example. Coaches are hired by the school board as coaches first and as teachers second. And during the regular season. just for being a good coach. a local printing company distributed posters. A: Yeah. Q: How would you describe the role of the coach? A: The coach is of major importance for the team. teamwork and basic skills. the games are always broadcast on the radio. for instance. continued involved and interested in those games? Do you remember incidents that would illustrate this interest? A: The community has always been very much behind the basketball program at QHS. tournament. and there's quite a competition for membership. and the rest of the time is spent on tactics. as long as they don't get too arrogant. driving around town.250 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1. as he determines their success to a large extent. the gymnasium is always filled to capacity. a major portion of time is devoted to callisthenics. For example. Q: Imagine a student wants to join the basketball team. and. The girls find the guys to be quite sexy. so there is a very big grass roots support. which is like a large party for the players and fans. Q: What do they do to train? High-school basketball game A: As with any sport. when a team returns from state tourney. but it's pretty well all decided by the time the people are playing at the junior high. And when a coach's luck runs out. and. How does he go about it? A: Well. but the guys at the high school tend to lean toward the cheerleaders rather than the basketball players. the basketball team in Quincy is very selective. and then many Quincians went to the tournament to support the team. . one fan in Quincy gave a basketball coach a brand new Corvette. it goes to the mall. and that multiplies when the team is successful.

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e

SPORTS IN AMERICA:
COLLEGES & UNIVERSITIES
by James A. Michener
The athletic programs of American colleges and universities have come in for a great deal of criticism but there does not seem to be a chance to alter the system. James A. Michener gives background information and comments on the problems. First, the United States is the only nation in the world, so far as I know, which demands that its schools like Harvard, Ohio State and Claremont assume responsibility for providing the public with sports entertainment. Ours is a unique system which has no historical sanction or application elsewhere. It would be unthinkable for the University of Bologna, a most ancient and honorable school, to provide scholarships to illiterate soccer players so that they could entertain the other cities of northern Italy, and it would be equally preposterous for either the Sorbonne or Oxford to do so in their countries. Our system is an American phenomenon, a historical accident which developed from the exciting football games played by Yale and Harvard and to a lesser extent Princeton and certain other schools during the closing years of

College football

252 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

2. continued
the nineteenth century. If we had had at that time professional teams which provided public football entertainment, we might not have placed the burden on our schools. But we had no professional teams, so our schools were handed the job. Second, if an ideal American educational system were being launched afresh, few would want to saddle it with the responsibility for public sports entertainment. I certainly would not. But since, by a quirk of history, it is so saddled, the tradition has become ingrained and I see not the remotest chance of altering it. I therefore approve of continuing it, so long as certain safeguards are installed. Categorically, I believe that our schools must continue to offer sports entertainment, even though comparable institutions throughout the rest of the world are excused from doing so. Third, I see nothing wrong in having a college or a university provide training for the young man or woman who wants to devote his adult life to sports. My reasoning is twofold: 1) American society has ordained that sports shall be a major aspect of our national life, with major attention, major financial support and major coverage in the media. How possibly can a major aspect of life be ignored by our schools? 2) If it is permissible to train young musicians and actors in our universities, and endow munificent departments to do so, why is it not equally legitimate to train young athletes, and endow them with a stadium? Fourth, because our schools have volunteered to serve as unpaid training grounds for future professionals, and because some of the lucky schools with good sports reputations can earn a good deal of money from the semi-professional football and basketball teams they operate, the temptation to recruit young men skilled at games but totally unfitted for academic work is overpowering. We must seriously ask if such behavior is legitimate for an academic institution. There are honorable answers, and ! know some of them, but if we do not face this matter forthrightly, we are going to run into trouble.

BASEBALL
B
aseball is a nine-a-side game played with bat, ball, and glove, mainly in the U.S.A. Teams consist of a pitcher and catcher, called the battery, first, second, and third basemen, and shortstop, called the infield, and right, centre, and left fielders, called the outfield. Substitute players may enter the game at any time, but once a player is removed he cannot return. The standard ball has a cork-and-rubber centre wound with woollen yam and covered with horsehide. It weighs from 5 to 5 1/4 oz. (148 g.) and is from 9 to 9 1/2 in. (approx. 23 cm.) in circumference. .. . The bat is a smooth, round, tapered piece of hard wood not more than 2 3/4 in. (approx. 7 cm.) in diameter at its thickest part and no more than 42 in. (1.07 m.) long. Originally, fielders played barehanded, but gloves have been developed over the years. First basemen wear a special large mitt, and catchers use a large, heavily-padded mitt as well as a chest protector, shin guards, and a metal mask. Catchers were at first unprotected. Consequently, they stood back at a distance from home plate and caught pitched balls on the bounce, but the introduction of the large, round, well-padded mitt or "pillow glove" and the face mask enabled them to move up close behind the plate and catch pitched balls on the fly. Players wear shoes with steel cleats and, while batting and running the bases, they use protective plastic helmets. The game is played on a field containing four bases placed at the angles of a 90-ft. (27.4 m.) square (often called a diamond): home plate and, in counter-clockwise order, first, second, and third base. Two foul lines form the boundaries of fair territory. Starting at home, these lines extend past first and third base the entire length of the field, which is often enclosed by a fence at its farthest limits. The object of each team is to score more runs than the other. A run is scored whenever a player circles all the bases and reaches home without being put out. The game is divided into innings, in

SPORTS 253

3. continued

each of which the teams alternate at bat and in the field. A team is allowed three outs in each halfinning at bat, and must then take up defensive positions in the field while the other team has its turn to try to score. Ordinarily, a game consists of nine innings; in the event of a tie, extra innings are played until one team outscores the other in the same number of innings. The players take turns batting from home plate in regular rotation. The opposing pitcher throws the ball to his catcher from a slab (called the "rubber") on the pitcher's mound, a slightly raised area of the field directly between home and second base. ... Bases are canvas bags fastened to metal pegs set in the ground. The batter tries to reach base safely after hitting the pitched ball into fair territory. A hit that enables him to reach first base is called a "single," a twobase hit is a "double," a three-base hit a "triple," and a four-base hit a "home-run." A fair ball hit over an outfield fence is automatically a home run. A batter is also awarded his base if the pitcher delivers four pitches which, in the umpire's judgement, do not pass through the "strike zone" — that is, over home plate between the batter's armpits and knees; or if he is hit by a pitched ball; or if the opposing catcher interferes when he swings the bat. To prevent the batter from hitting safely, baseball pitchers deliver the ball with great speed and accuracy and vary its speed and trajectory. Success in batting, therefore, requires courage and a high degree of skill.

After a player reaches base safely, his progress towards home depends largely on his team mates' hitting the ball in such a way that he can advance. ... Players may be put out in various ways. A batter is out when the pitcher gets three 'strikes' on him. A strike is a pitch that crosses the plate in the strike zone, or any pitch that is struck at and missed or is hit into foul territory. After two strikes, however, foul balls do not count except when a batter 'bunts' — lets the ball meet the bat instead of swinging at it — and the ball rolls foul. A batter is also out if he hits the ball in the air anywhere in fair or foul territory and it is caught by an opponent before it touches the ground. He is out if he hits the ball on the ground and a fielder catches and throws it to a player at first base, or catches it and touches that base, before the batter (now become a base runner) gets there. A base nnner may be put out if, while off base, he is tagged by an opposing player with the hand or glove holding the ball, or if he is forced to leave his base to make room for another runner and fails to reach the next base before an opposing player tags him or the base; or if he is hit by a team mate's batted ball before it has touched or passed a fielder. An umpire-in-chief "calls" balls and strikes from his position directly behind the catcher at home plate, and one or more base umpires determine whether runners are safe or out at the other three bases.

254 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

HEALTH

Running for your Life
A Harvard study links exercise with longevity

T

HE hordes of Americans who roll out of bed, slip into their Reeboks and run for an hour in the face of snarling dogs, potential muggers and hordes of Americans heading in the opposite direction on their Schwinn 10-speeds must wonder sometimes whether it's worth the aggravation. After all, if a rash of recent books and articles like "The Exercise Myth" can be believed, the evidence that physical activity leads to a longer and healthier life is based on a flawed interpretation of cause and effect. It isn't that exercise prolongs life, the argument goes, it's just that people who engage in sports and active occupations are healthier in the first place. But the fitness buffs should not put their rowing machines in dry dock just yet. According to a long-term study involving nearly 17,000 loyal sons of Harvard, it now seems that athletic effort is far from a waste of time. Moderate exercise, said a report in last week's New England Journal of Medicine, can add up to two years to a person's life. In the mid-1960s Dr. Ralph S. Paffenbarger Jr. and his colleagues at the Stanford University School of Medicine recruited the Harvard graduates, 35 to 74, and asked them to answer detailed questionnaires about their general health and living habits. Followups carried out until 1978 showed that men who expended at least 2,000 calories per week through exercise had mortality rates one-quarter to one-third lower than those burning up fewer calories. The lifeprolonging level of activity cited in the report is the equivalent of five hours of brisk walking, about four hours of jogging or a shade more than three hours of squash. More exercise meant a better chance at a long life - up to a point. A regimen that burned more than 3,500 calories tended to cause injuries that negated most of the benefits derived from exercise. Countering disease: During the survey, 1,413 of the men died: 45 percent from heart disease, 32 percent from cancer, 13 percent from other "natural causes" and 10 percent

Jogging for health

from trauma. While previous studies indicated that exercise protects against heart disease, Harvard's is the first to show a favorable effect of exercise on mortality from all diseases. As would be expected, smoking, high blood pressure and a familial history of death at an early age were associated with an increased mortality risk. But, according to the study, exercise played a significant part in countering even these major factors. For example, hypertensive men who exercised had half the mortality rate of their counterparts who remained sedentary. Among smokers, exercise reduced deaths by about 30 percent. Harvard men who were varsity athletes while in college — and were thus presumed by the researchers to have been starting out life with basically strong bodies - had no advantage over their classmates in terms of survival rates. Indeed, lettermen who subsequently turned soft and sedentary increased their mortality risk. "It's not the kind of activity that you did in college . . . but the amount of contemporary activity that's associated with the long survival," says Paffenbarger.
MATT CI.ARK with KAREN SPRING^N

Reeboks: trademark of jogging shoes. Schwinn 10-speed: trademark of racing bicycles.

lettermen: people who have been awarded a letter, the initial of their school, for outstanding performance especially in sports.

SPORTS 255

Anything wrong?"

that. I felt the blood leave my face. I was hungry.) When I married and my wife became pregnant. "What sort of game?" I asked politely. although I knew that whatever it was. anxious and in need of work. "bui when we put a microphone in front of Jack's face. As a matter of fact. Do you know what it's like to be a man who is not a sports fan? Who not only doesn't care who wins the World Series but who is never exactly sure which teams are playing? Who never. but in truth it has been a problem that has plagued me for most of my life. I kept my fingers crossed. and I was saved. I was a "fairy" or reasonable facsimile thereof? (The euphemism "gay" came into the language later. I forced the poor kid to go to a park in New York. and some in-between love affairs. I saw. I kept it very quiet. Do you think you can handle it?" I agonized. "Please . plus the sure knowledge that I adore women." I looked the executive right in the eye. When he was 8 years old. I was called in by radio station WOR and told there was an opportunity to audition for the job of host of a panel game. I auditioned for everything. he froze. where I would lob softballs his way. I saw the $150 fee (huge money back then) fade into the distance. particularly back then. demanding that he hit them back to me. "We were hoping to make Jack Dempsey the host. He was lousy at sports. It is not an easy decision to admit openly that I really don't like sports. I had been a newscaster and announcer at a San Francisco radio station. When I first came to New York in the 1940s. Even after three marriages. "Absolutely. but you'll be the real moderator." He'll insist that I play ball with him. three children. at an early age. "It's a sports quiz. Jonathan was born. almost at once. indeed. when I began to face the awful truth that I simply had no taste for the world of athletics either as participant or observer. I'VE DECIDED TO COME OUT OF THE closet. particularly when I was a young boy. Could it be that. I would grab it if I could. Gotham was tough for a newcomer. take him to Yankee Stadium and engage in the sports rituals so necessary for healthy male bonding. For to be a boy not interested in sports was. It was a girl. that Jonathan had inherited my disease. One day. We've lined up the best sportswriters in the country to be on the panel. Three and a half years later. but never. There — I've said it. to run the risk of being thought a homosexual.256 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP LOUSY AT SPORTS don't make it a boy. reads the sports section? I approach this subject with a light touch. somehow. So what we want is for Dempsey to sit at your side to give the program authenticity." I said. I must be lacking in the right male genes. I took a breath. I still feel. too. "I can certainly handle a sports quiz." the executive explained. But only for a while. from time to time." he went on.

looking at his calendar. What do you do for a living?" Because "What's My Line?" was my show at that time. because not one of the sports mavens ever seemed to doubt that I knew whereof I spoke. It was a "men only" party. "What do you think I do?" He looked at me thoughtfully. I stood on the deck in a group that included Gene Tunney. guaranteed $25. where the precise measurements of the "diamond" were diagramed. every Monday night. I got away with the bluff.SPORTS 257 5." If it wasn't 100 pages thick." I said — and dashed to the nearest bookstore. the definition of a strike. He responded to my hesitation. "I'll do it. "We will give you an on-the-air test in about two weeks. Apparently. a foul. It made me remember boyhood nightmares in which I would be in a strange classroom about to take a final exam in a course I had never heard of. We are looking for someone to help describe the Dodger ball games from Ebbets Field. and the talk centered on business and. The proof came a few weeks after the demise of that quiz when I was once again called by WOR. sports. How does that strike you?" I paused. I bought "Baseball: The Official Rules. when Tunney suddenly broke off from the conversation." he replied. I had never been to a major-league ball game." "Good. an infield fly and on and on through the fine print. As I got to the 10th page. I began on page 1. I collapsed. "tell me about you." But I did bow out. Goodson. minus zero. turned. it seemed to be. Twenty years later. I knew nothing. I thought I was doing an acceptable job of being responsive to the sports chatter. but certainly it wasn't anything as shameful as "I've really never seen a baseball game. Now I have a real opportunity for you. long after I had given up performing and was running a television production company specializing in "game" shows (quite an irony for a non-sports-fan to earn a living at "games"). I'd say you are a poet. Mark Goodson is president of Goodson-Todman TV Productions. Much as I needed the money. of course." I blushed. There. It was an excruciating experience. For 26 weeks. I took care to find out that Jack Dempsey was a former heavyweight boxing champion. it seemed natural for me to respond. "This is a big deal. about baseball. continued Before the audition. My employer smiled benevolently." "Terrific. "You've done a good job. I was invited by my banker to have dinner on the company yacht while cruising around Manhattan Island. I would bravely pitch sports questions at the experts arrayed at the panel desk in front of me. After dinner. gazed down at me suspiciously from his enormous height. . "Goodson. "Goodson. I knew there was no way that I could manage this bluff! I can't remember the alibi I gave the executive. another former heavyweight champion and by then a successful Wall Street investor. Then I tried out and — mirabile dictul — got the job. He'd found me out.000 a year. I knew what he meant. then went on to the functions and duties of each player in the infield and outfield." I swallowed." he asked.

E.S. c) the basketball team's following. that he . 2. c) cannot be fired as a coach. equally important. b) attract new students. c) consist of competitive sports and. b) to create a stimulating atmosphere in order to support their team. spring and summer. The coach of the basketball team a) is a local. 3. b) the mascots. Give examples and show what function they serve. Any self-respectin' man with his head screwed on right must realize that football consumes so much of a boy's time. c) is strongly dependent on its success. b) as popular with the girls as the cheerleaders are with the boys. The members of the basketball team are a) popular unless they get too arrogant. b) attending the home games. b) are almost entirely organized by sports clubs. 10. I sort of get sick to my stomach when some faculty committee issues a statement that my boys should be scholars first and athletes second. b) it parades along the mall on an old fire truck. " . celebrity as long as the team is successful. winter. Where is Michener critical of the system? 3. 8. c) frequently accompanying the team to tournaments outside of Quincy. students a) do individual sports only. The basketball games are important for the school because they a) attract large audiences. b) will lose his coaching job if he is not successful. The community supports the basketball team by a) having large posters printed for every game. a) it is enthusiastically welcomed by the community. The author uses the rhetorical device of comparison. . school sports in the U. Comprehension Interview: High School Sports Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the information given in the interview? 1. 6. 9. c) to please the audience through their appearance and performance. The popularity of the basketball team at QHS a) has traditionally been strong. Text Analysis and Comment Sports in America: Colleges and universities 1. c) have to go through a general fitness program. The cheerleaders' function is a) to stimulate the players during the games. When compared with Germany. 7.258 PART C Exercises 1. 4. c) it first goes to the gym to celebrate its success. . c) improve the school's finances. At QHS 'Blue Devils' is the name of a) the school's teams. fall.E. b) can choose between team and individual sports. 5. c) unpopular because they are too arrogant. In P.. 2. P. Why does Michener consider the American college and university sports system unique? 2. b) has recently been matched by the girls' volleyball team. 5. What role do sports play in American society? 4. When a successful team returns from a tournament. a) put much more emphasis on competitive sports.

and it's only after their eligibility is used up that they got time to be scholars. Men who did not burn more than 2. 12. the teams change positions and the batters become the fielders. 3. 7. 9. p. the greater their life expectancy becomes. We hire them to play football. 3. 9. The study shows that people who jog four hours per week have a good chance of prolonging their lives. 2. what would you suggest to solve the problem? 4. The study covered 35-year-old and 74-yearold Harvard graduates. After three players are out. Letter Writing Write a letter to the editor in which you express your personal opinion about physical exercise. 11. and we pay them well to do it. . 5. If we didn't have a supply of snap courses.000 calories per week had a lower mortality rate. 1. Quite a number of recent books and articles refute the notion that physical exercise prolongs life. and point out concrete examples which either support or refute the findings of the Harvard study. Comprehension Baseball Decide whether the following statements are true or false and correct the false statements. The team which fields is called the battery. but now they catch the ball in their bare hands. 10. 1. A long-term Harvard study does not confirm that view. 6. Another result of the study is that regular exercise not only protects against heart disease but against other diseases as well." (A university football coach. The ball used in the game of baseball is covered with leather. 8. 3. University athletes are likely to live longer than their less athletic classmates. which are false? Correct the false ones. The catcher wears a face mask because the bouncing ball kicks up a lot of dust. Comprehension Running for Your Life Which of the following statements are true. and cooperatin' professors who know the score. 5. the game continues until one player scores a home run. ain't no way my boys could stay in school. quoted from Michener. According to the study. 6. The batter can go to first base if he is hit by the pitched ball. 30 per cent of the smokers who did regular exercises died during the survey. The batter is out if he hits the ball into the crowd. There is more than one umpire. 4. A player is out if he hits the ball into foul territory and a fielder catches it before it touches the ground. Sports activities in later years affect longevity much more than activities during the college years. A player does not score a run unless he runs round all the bases before the next ball is pitched. 5. 7. 2. There are eleven players in a baseball team. Fielders used to wear gloves. the more exercises people do. 8.SPORTS 259 simply ain't got time to be a scholar too. 4.228) In the light of this quotation. Sports in America. If both teams have scored the same number of runs at the end of nine innings. 10.

Preparing an Interview Lousy at Sports Imagine that this revelation of a prominent TV producer in The New York Times magazine has aroused the interest of a popular talk show host. who now uses the magazine article as the basis for his interview. . in which you • point out the importance of being a sportsman/sportswoman or at least a sports fan.260 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 6. Then prepare questions concerning • Mark Goodson's reasons for publicly confessing his absolute dislike of sports • the attitude of many Americans toward men who are uninterested in sports • Mark Goodson's anxieties as the father of a boy • his job as a moderator of a sports quiz • the offer to become a baseball reporter • his experience of being eventually found out at a dinner party. if you want to be accepted in American society • remind the audience of the large number of well-known athletes who have been invited to the show • introduce your guest and explain why he has been invited. Put yourself into the position of the interviewer and prepare an introduction.

includes any channel of information through which infor mation can pass. more than 11. radio and television networks in the United States are private commercial enterprises and must be responsive to their audience's dema nds. and to businessmen and women. especially for entertainment. sports. have been largely responsible for homogenizing cultural and regional diversities across the country. In 1986. all those involved in communicating information inevitably have an important role to play. Most newspapers. Since a democracy largely depends on publ ic opinion. who use the media to influence voters. newspapers have made changes to increase their readership levels. Newspapers have had to cope with competition from radio and television. Some established metropolitan newspaper s are no w p ublished in "zoned" editions for different regio nal COMMERCIAL CONTROL OF THE MEDIA NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES NEW PRESS DEVELOPMENTS . They have suffered a decline in circulation from the peak years around the turn of the century largely because of the trend of urban populations moving to the suburbs. if they are to stay in business. The audience's opinions influence the media industry. who use the media to encourage consumption of their products. and local news. More than 62 million copies of daily newspapers are printed every day and over 58 million copies of Sunday papers are published every week. it has given rise to what social observers sometimes call a media state. The term media. Accordingly. which typically tunes in about six hours a day. In the United States.15 The Media PART A U.S.000 different periodicals are published as either weekly. quarterly. monthly. understood broadly. Studies sho w that most suburban readers prefer to get "serious" news from television and tend to read newspapers primarily for comics. Newspapers and magazines have long been major lines of communication and have always reached large audiences. bimonthly. however. a total of 9.144 newspapers were published in the United States. a society in which access to power is through the media. are not as high as they once were. Today. the power of the media is important to politicians. with access to virtually every American household. is a powerful influence.A.-A MEDIA STATE? Background Information Mass communication has revolutionized the modern world. magazines. Readership levels. The broadcast media. and a majority ranks television as the most believable news source. Beyond this cultural significance. The relationship works in the other direction as well. fashions. or semiannual editions. Am ericans consider television their most important source of news. The print and broadcasting media not only convey information to the public. crime reports. but also influence public opinion. Television. capable of mass -producing messages and images instantaneously. Nowadays.

... Reader's Digest.450 3........ Time ........... 1.....239. Woman's World ... Travel & Leisure .393 5.. Family Circle .................324 Penthouse . ............ Magazine Circulation Magazine 16...412.... .......071 2..........019 1. Changing Times .......405........... Discover .....779..744........ has never had a national press or newspaper with a mass national circulation like The Times and The Daily Telegraph in Britain or the leading papers in other countries... Based on total average paid circulation during the 6 months prior to Dec.............862 . News & World Report .. 1...087 ...009...584 .......816 1............. In other areas around the country........ With a total circulation of over 22 million....... Glamour ...016 2....519 5........... 97 percent of the cities carrying daily papers have but a single publisher...038..842 5... Popular Mechanics ..............363 2..... more and more of the remaining newspapers are under chain or group control..843. ... .. Smithsonian....................348.....314 1................520.442............225 .. 1. ......109..201....045 ..386................ 1.......... .......328.. exclusive of groups and comics... Teen ... People . .090. Thirty years later........706...431....... ...... the choice was reduced by half..152 3....... Ladies' Home Journal ... American Legion . Good Housekeeping .......... Mademoiselle ............... Prevention ............ National Geographic............ New Woman ... Globe .... some publishers have started adding "lifestyle" and "home living" sections to their papers to make them more like magazines....201.... Outdoor Life ..... Better Homes & Gardens.........150 2......... Most newspapers rely heavily on wire copy from the two major news services..... they have lost their readership to new weekly suburban newspapers that resemble magazines in format.S..726 1.... 1..262 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP audiences......156..........963 1............... the percentages of cities with competing newspapers have decreased dramatically as publishers are driven out of business by larger competitors.... Ebony ........ Seventeen ..... Woman's Day .812 .......... ...721......619. 1986.. Rodale's Organic Gardening .. The American Rifleman ....501 1. 1..................895.... the Associated Press (AP) and United Press International (UPI).....067 1.106 1.. 1. 1. Today there are under 40 and the number is falling.. Magazines General magazines.. McCall's....118.......379....... 1.....297..121 1............... Home & Away .083 1....S.............287.922 2.. They are called "one-owner-towns.. At this point....027 TV Guide ....................581 ...... Home Mechanics .......800....540.. Chain publishers own newspapers all over the country........302 1.................938 ...... which gather wire copy: send in a news report (by telegram in former times). Boys' Life ...428 1.. Newsweek . In the 1920s people in Manhattan could choose from fourteen different morning and evening dailies. ................... Life ........ . Vogue ..... Modern Maturity .........726 ....... .....020. Playboy ..........847 14.151 ..................697 4.............. Southern Living . The American Hunter..575 5.... Adventure Road .. Popular Science ........600.862.973.. In 1926 there were more than 500 cities with competing newspapers.873.... the Times and the News......569.... the influence of a few large metropolitan newspapers. Parents......019 10.. Country Living .. Golf Digest .764..... 1............ 1.. In some cases.... ......... .....446 CONGLOMERATION LARGE NATIONAL PAPERS AND NEWS SERVICES Another trend which has accompanied the decline in readership and number of publications is the dramatic decline in competition................. Money .091................181..... Sesame Street ..........119 ........ 1.310.... most notably the New York Times and the Washington Post.......447.......221.. Circulation ...001 Home Ideas .186..........723 ........... To meet the public demand for more feature material..... plus one afternoon daily............. 31..........692..446. ........ 1.......159 4. The U..........970 2..............263...131 3... Circulation of Leading U..... The Workbasket . and today New York has only two morning papers...609.......... .... New York City is a good example......212.. U.... VFW ......551 4.. .781 ...463 1. 1....853... .. The Family Handyman ...........748 2..479 1.....718........749...047 .......172 ......................441 16.... 1. Variety at local and national levels has been reduced as media operations have become concentrated in the hands of just a few publishers and corporations. Self .........720.....751 6.703.....577. .. Discovery ....260. Both papers syndicate their staff-written stories to regional newspapers all over the country..............627 2.. Star ... Field & Stream...007....................... has increased so that these papers come close to constituting a national press. ....... 1...............S.... ... Rolling Stone .. Cosmopolitan..........098 ......478 .. 1.....597 ... Redbook .131 2.. True Story..........820......... ................ 1..634............. 1.004 1.........648.......... 3.......930 1.... .379...242 4......132 ...261..951 1............ ..381. Bon Appetit....... National Enquirer ... 1..........951. 1..." Moreover....... 1.306.281......915 1.............. .............. Elks ...... Guideposts .... Motorland ....101.998 8.......... However. Circulation Magazine Sunset ......234....534 ... chains comprise more than one third of the total daily newspaper circulation in the United States.............. Sports Illustrated ........333 2.......................362......... ..

This adversary stance toward government which many news executives and reporters advocate has led government officials and other critics to accuse the . .THE MEDIA 263 A wide variety of publications is available OBJECTIVITY FREEDOM OF THE PRESS national and international news stories and sell them to subscribing news papers. television news programs take a lead from the Times in deciding what is and is not a big story. Newspapers around the country and.of the press. for example. covered that year's presidential election by giving equal space to candidates Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter. When the Times ceased publication for several weeks in 1978. The stories reported in major papers often influence other news media. Would marketplace diversity not ensure that error and bias would be counterbalanced. The trend toward concentration of ownership is defended on the ground that large-scale organizations can provide the funds. usually imposing a more rigorous separation of fact from opinion than do newspapers in other countries. Opinion is excluded from news columns and is presented on separate editorial pages. and does monopoly not increase the chance that the public may be misinformed? The American press. has insisted on objectivity and detachment in news reports." Government and media often engage in confrontations when reporters disclose classified information or pursue investigative reporting to uncover injustices and corruption within American institutions. But conglomeration raises questions among some social commentators about objectivity. there was clear evidence of television news programs' lack of direction. abridging the freedom. . which in 1976 had a monopoly in the morning market in the Washington.C. and syndicated columnists. The Washington Post. which feature unsigned editorials and include opinions signed by readers. The First Amendment to the Constitution states: "Congress shall make no law.. contributors. area. D. significantly. The mass media in the United States claim explicit recognition of their right to be free from government control and censorship. Careful effort to preserve objectivity is made even among monopoly newspapers. . and management to keep a newspaper profitable and competitive. know-how. . Even the photographs of the candidates were scrupulously equal in size and placement. especially in recent decades.

Programs that aim at mass entertainment are preferred over educational and news programs. The funding for public broadcasting comes primarily from congressional appropriations.000 commercial AM and FM radio stations and over 850 commercial television stations. classical music. including country-western. . The story started a sequence of events that led to the resignation of President Nixon. Most radio stations offer listeners a variety of music programs. the Washington Post and New York Times published the "Pentagon Papers.S. during. Most commercial television stations are affiliated with one of the three major networks. The number of radio and television broadcasting stations provides for wide diversification in programming. appeal to a highly selective audience. The programs. and contributions from viewers. Supreme Court: see page 97. involvement in the Vietnam conflict. pop music. A network buys programs from independent television production companies. often educational or cultural.264 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP RADIO AND TELEVISION NETWORKS PROGRAMMING news media of transgressing the bounds of journalism and influencing events they once merely described. Watergate: see page 29. there is also noncommercial public broadcasting for radio and television. For the most part. Vietnam: see page 15. 30. NBC: National Broadcasting Company. As of 1984. and NBC. CBS: Columbia Broadcasting Service. ABC. and distributes these programs across the country to television stations that are affiliated with the network. but to become a radio or television broadcaster one must be granted a portion of the limited radio-television spectrum by the government's licensing board. Critics charge that networks often emphasize the personalities of newscasters at the expense of issues of public importance. the Supreme Court ruled that the newspapers were within their rights to publish the material. Advertising messages are usually presented as 15. the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). and religious programs exclusively. in 1971. talk interviews and discussions. and after programs. The Washington Post's role in uncovering the Watergate scandal is another example of the media's involvement in national events. most of which are located in Hollywood. Theoretically. CBS. and jazz.S. Because networks are commercial systems dependent on advertising. Other stations feature news. or 60second commercial announcements before. ABC: American Broadcasting Company. the American broadcasting system has always been a commercial system." a classified U. they compete with each other for viewers and are intent on choosing programs that will win high audience ratings. The network is paid by advertisers to insert commercial announcements on the programs the network buys. anyone in the United States can start a newspaper or magazine. there were over 8. Attracting a smaller audience. The controversy over the role of the media has led to many stormy court battles. Networks are essentially program distribution companies. Evening news programs and other news shows are often criticized for concerning themselves with entertainment. It is supported by money from businesses that pay to advertise goods or services to the audience. Defense document about the origins of the U. grants from foundations. Ссдцmercial broadcasting is a huge industry bringing in profits of about 1.8 billion dollars annually. When.

Satellite TV was originally designed to offer a gr eater selection of programs to people in rural areas that could not easily be connected to the cable system. adult programs containing violence and sexual suggestiveness are kept to a minimum. many critics complain that producers and network executives should be more sensitive to the effects of television violence on children and adults. and recent film releases. there are groups that lobby for a better standard of children's television. During these hours. The debate over the possible link between the amount of violence on television and the amount of violence in society has not yet been resolved. There has bee n a controversy recently as to the viewer's right to freely receive signals that are beamed down onto his or her property. Cable television companies receive signals from television stations through a larger master antenna or dish and relay the signal into the homes of subscribers by wires att ached to home receivers. satellite TV or renting video cassettes. There is a considerable amount of citizen involv ement on other issues as well. which are in fact small independent stations. and other groups associated with the religious right which object to explicit language and immorality on the television screen. As responsive as television is to audience ratings. utilize the power of both cable and satellite to program nationwide.00 for greater selection.THE MEDIA 265 CABLE TELEVISION SATELLITE TELEVISION ISSUES Viewers whose tastes are not satisfied by the many offerings of network and local programs are now increasing their options by subscribing to cable television. About 35 million Americans pay a monthly fee of approximately $17. The so -called superstateons. For example. Conventional television has had to struggle to retain its audience as people switch over to cable viewing. However. It now provides anybody who is ready to have a satellite dish installed in his or her backyard with the same programming as cable TV. . p rotest did lead to the introduction of "family viewing time" from seven to nine o'clock in the evening. Cable companies can program 40 different channels. providing viewers with many specialized programs such as Hollywood musicals. local theater productions.

what to pass by. The TV viewer is a restless prisoner. seems as important. Innumerable newspaper critics seem to insist that broadcast journalism be like their journalism and measured by their standards. a local bus accident has as much impact. Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter was right. has serious built-in limitations as well as advantages. It is a mass medium. It cannot be. he said there is no highbrow in any lowbrow. so far as that is possible. The two are more complementary than competitive. compared with print. blending fact and opinion. Though he was originally an essayist and became a broadcaster at 26 with reluctance. as the American public-education system is the world's first effort to teach everyone. They will kind Qf adversary relationship between print journalism and electronic journalism exists and has existed for many years in the United States. but there is a fair amount of lowbrow in every highbrow. he left television after 38 years a staunch defender of the medium. as an outbreak of a big war. he perfected his own literary form. This means that a newspaper or magazine reader can be his own editor in a vital sense. He can glance over it and decide what to read. little about the viewer's unconscious resentments. his fellow journalists bestowed on him tributes befitting a statesman. always leaving a twinge of optimism in the air." and the Christian Science Monitor called him TV's answer to antiquity's oracle at Delphi. While it is being shown. He can do little about tlrs. obliged to sit through what does not interest him to get to what may interest him. The journalism of sight and sound is the only truly new form of journalism to come along. Television is a combination mostly of lowbrow and middlebrow. including most of those who pretend they don't. It . In his two-minute commentaries on CBS's nightly news broadcast. but they are different. Broadcast news operates in linear time. but there is more highbrow offered than highbrows will admit or even seek to know about. Everyone in America watches television to some degree. newspapers in lateral space. a universal medium.266 PART в Texts THE CASE FOR TELEVISION JOURNALISM by ERIC SEVAREID Courtesy of Saturday Review When Eric Sevareid retired from CBS News in November 1977. Newsweek dubbed Sevareid "without doubt the most imposing of all broadcast commentators.

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make plans, go to trouble and expense, when they buy a book or reserve a seat in the theater. They will noi study the week's offerings of music or drama or serious documentaries in the radio and TV program pages of their newspaper and then schedule themselves to be present. They want to come home, eat dinner, twist the dial and find something agreeable ready, accommodating to their schedule. TV programming in America consumes 18 to 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year. No other medium of information or entertainment ever tried anything like that. How many good new plays appear in U.S. theaters each year? How many fine new motion pictures? Add it all together and perhaps you could fill 20 evenings out of the 365. Every new development in mass communications has been opposed by intellectuals of a certain stripe. I am sure that Gutenberg was denounced by the elite of his time—his device would spread dangerous ideas among the God-fearing, obedient masses. The typewriter was denounced by intellectuals of the more elfin variety—its clacking would drive away the muses. The first motion pictures were denounced—they would destroy the legitimate theater. Then the sound motion picture was denounced—it would destroy the true art of the film, which was pantomime. To such critics, of course, television is destroying everything. It is destroying conversation, they tell us. Nonsense. Nonconversing families were always that way. TV has, in fact, stimulated thousands of millions of conversations that otherwise would not have occurred. It is destroying the habit of reading, they say. This is nonsense. Book sales in the United States during the lifetime of general television have greatly increased and well beyond the increase in population. At the end of a program with Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, we at the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) announced on the air that if viewers wanted one of those little copies of the Constitution such as he had held in his hand, they had only to write to us. We received about 150,000 requests at CBS—mostly, I suspect, from people who didn't know the Constitution was actually down on paper, who thought it was written in the skies or on a bronze tablet somewhere. After my first TV conversation with Eric Hoffer, a longshoreman and author, his books sold out in nearly every bookstore in America—the next day. TV is debasing the use of the English language, they tell us. Nonsense. Until radio and

Eric Severeid

then TV, tens of millions of people living in sharecropper cabins, in small villages on the plains and in the mountains, in the great city slums, had never heard good English diction in their lives. If anything, this medium has improved the general level of diction. The print-electronic adversary relationship is a one-way street. Print scrutinizes, analyzes, criticizes us on TV every day; we do not return the favor. We have tried now and then, particularly in radio days with "CBS Views the Press," but not enough. On a nationwide network basis, it's almost impossible because we have no real national newspapers—papers read everywhere— to criticize for the benefit of the national audience. Our greatest failure is in not criticizing ourselves, at least through the mechanism of viewers' rebuttals. Here and there, now and then, we have done it. It should have been a regular part of TV from the beginning. The Achilles heel of TV is that people can't talk back to that little box. If they had been able to, over the years, perhaps the gas of resentment could have escaped from the boiler in There is the myth that since the pioneering, groundbreaking TV programs of Edward R. Murrow and Fred Friendly in the 1950s, CBS News has been less daring, done fewer programs of a hard-hitting kind. The Murrow programs are immortal in this business because they were the first. Since then we have dealt, forthrightly, with every conceivable controversial issue one can think of—drugs, homosexuality, government corruption, business corruption, TV commercials, gun control, pesticides, tax frauds, military waste,

268 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

1. continued
abortion, the Vietnam War—everything. What shortage has occurred has been on the side of the materials, not on the side of TV's willingness to tackle them. I have recently inquired of other CBS News veterans if they can recall a single case of a proposed news story or a documentary that was killed by executives of the parent organization. Not one comes to anyone's mind. Some programs have been anathema to the top executive level, but they were not stopped. Some have caused severe heartburn at that level when they went on the air. Never has there been a case of people at that level saying to the News Division, "Don't ever do anything like that again." For more than 13 years, I have done commentary—personal opinion inescapably involved— most nights of the week on the evening news. In that time exactly three scripts of mine were killed because of their substance by CBS News executives. Each one by a different executive, and none of them ever did it again. Three—out of more than 2,000 scripts. How many newspaper editorialists or columnists, how many magazine writers, have 9 had their copy so respected by their editors There is the perennial myth that sponsors [advertisers] influence, positively or negatively, what we put on the air. They play no role whatever. No public affairs program has ever been canceled because of sponsor objection. Years ago, they played indirect roles. When I started doing a 6 p.m. radio program, nearly 30 years ago, Ed Murrow, then a vice-president, felt it necessary to take me to lunch with executives of the insurance company sponsoring the program. About 14 years ago, when I was doing the Sunday night TV news, a representative of the advertising agency handling the commercials would appear in the studio, though he never tried to change anything. Today one never sees a sponsor or an agency man, on the premises or off. After all, in the United States TV network broadcasting might at its inception have become an appendage and apparatus of government; it might have gone completely Hollywood. It did neither. It grimly held to every freedom the law allows, and it fights for more. We are not the worst people in the land, we who work as journalists. Our product in print or on the air is a lot better, more educated and more responsible than it was when I began, some 45 years ago, as a cub reporter. This has been the best generation of all in which to have lived as a journalist in America. We are no longer starvelings, and we sit above the salt. We have affected our times. It has been a particular stroke of fortune to have been a journalist in Washington these years. There has not been a center of world news to compare with it since ancient Rome. We have donethe job better, I think, than our predecessors— and our successors will do it better than we. ■
Copyright s 1976 by SATURDAY REVIEW/WORLD, INC

Saturday Review: a bi-monthly general arts review. Christian Science Monitor: daily evening paper; general political tendency: independent; Christian moral attitude. Gutenberg, Johann: (circa 1400—1468), German inventor of movable type. Vietnam War: see page 15.

THE MEDIA 269

The Nature of TV in America
Richard Burke
Richard Burke is Professor of Telecommunications at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. PART I: In the programming strategy, particularly of the networks, what has always been the case is this. Within the prime time, i.e. from 8 in the evening until 11 — that's what we Consider our prime time of the day — the networks traditionally were fairly successful at sharing the mass audience that was out there. That is to say, NBC would have roughly 30 percent, and CBS would have had 30 percent and ABC would have had 30 percent. This is in the prime time. Those numbers would be slightly lower if you took them over a day's time, but I'm concerned only with the evening viewing time. And that other 10 percent of the audience traditionally would have watched public broadcasting or they would have watched independent stations or they might have, in the very early days of cable, been watching one of the superstations. But by and large the networks were reasonably satisfied to have 30 percent, 30 percent, 30 percent. Over the last 5 or 6 or 8 years that number has started to drop, and they are obviously very concerned about that. That number went down as low as 75 percent in the last 2 or 3 years. In a commercially based system every viewer that you lose and every rating point that you lose can be converted into dollars. And the advertisers are saying, "Well, now look. You used to be able to deliver to us, as they say, so many hundreds of thousands of viewers. You don't seem to be able to do it any more. Why should we pay the same advertising rate?" In trying to get this 30 percent the networks have been accused frequently of producing what some critics have called the least objectionable programming. And by least objectionable' what people mean is, it doesn't have to be good. You don't have to take any risks with it. You don't have to put a lot of time into it. It just has to be less objectionable than what the other network is looking at. Because the theory is that large numbers of people don't watch programs anyway. They watch television. They go over to the television and say, "What's on?" and keep turning through or pressing the buttons, and somebody says, "Oh, that's okay. Stop there. That's fine." Well, in this theory that I am explaining very superficially here, what you finally stop at is what's least objectionable, at least for you. So the networks will take and have taken this position that you don't have to win, you just don't fail. You see if you take big risks, you are likely to fail. So don't fail. That would be a primary rule. Don't lose your one third, and try to produce the least objectionable programming possible. PART II: Now, if you subscribe to this analysis of television programming, particularly by networks, what you find out is that there isn't really as much diversity as there appears to be. I look at the schedule sometimes and in my best efforts to find something least objectionable what I have to conclude is that it's all objectionable and I'll be better off to go for a walk or listen to music or do anything but watch the television. And I think if you looked at this and if you look at a weekly television guide, you'd say, "Yes, yes fine, I see 15 or 20 or 25 opportunities here, but I don't have any real choice at all. It's all

pretty much the same stuff." Then, of course, the networks of those programs would say, "You're being much too demanding." This is after all a mass medium and you may have highly advanced tastes." I don't really. I like police dramas a lot, but I can't always find them when I want them. So the argument here is that this compulsion to do the least objectionable, the least risk in fact leads to a rather mediocre, rather bland diet of the kinds of programs that you would see listed here. In attempting to stay with programming that has the broadest mass appeal they obviously will take programs which are pretty safe. [And they will take programs which aren't very controversial, and they will do programs which have obvious large audience appeaLJ Now in programming I think it is reasonable to say that the great bulk of it is designed for mass entertainment, as opposed to news, information, education, instruction. I think if you counted up the hours here and you looked at a week's worth you'd say, "This is clearly an entertainment-oriented medium." Now, what is the nature of this entertainment, of all the possible formats that we produce, of the western, the action drama and the variety show and this kind of thing. This so-called situation comedy is by far the most popular format that you would see here and also over a long period of time. When people are asked in various kinds of surveys what have been their favorite programs from 1950 on invariably 50 percent, 60 percent, 70 percent of that would identify the so-called situation comedy, that is to say a situation which is artificially contrived and created each week with a cast of characters that essentially remains the same. People come in and out. And that's really, not only this season, but over a long period of time probably the predominant format in this entertainment programming. From: A talk by Richard Burke, delivered at Bloomington, IN, April 24, 1986

270 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

The Herald-Telephone, Thursday, April 24,

All

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THURSDAY EVENING
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NBC News Company Business

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Fortune

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Happy Days

8:00
All In Family

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9:00
Cheers

9:30
Night Court

10:00 I 10:30
Hill Street Blues

11:00
News

11:30
Tonight News

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Movie

C 1 D © © — © ©

WTW O

wn v wn u WRTV
WTV W

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News Ditf Strokes Quilting News Benson News Good Times News A. Griffith

Cosby Show Family Ties

Little House On The Prairie MacNeil / Lehrer Newshour ABC News Ent. Tonight Ent. Tonight Chance B. Newhart Price Sanlord 700 Club Jeopardy Monkees Too Close Fortune

Baseball: Cincinnati Reds at Houston Astros Mysteryl Capitol Jrnl. 20/ 20 20/ 20 Bridges To Cross News Bridges To Cross I.U. Journal Business News News News WKRP News

Heart Of The Dragon Movie: "Invitation To Hell" Movie: "Invitation To Hell" Simon & Simon Movie: "The Chosen" Simon & Simon Movie: "Psycho" L. Sumrall Life

Gourmet Benson B. Miller H's Heroes Nightline WKRP Night Heat

ABC News

News CBS News

Jeftersons CBS News Gunsmoke

B. Miller Nevrtyweds

Trapper John, M.D. Night Heat

и ©

8 (9 8 1 a

Baseball: Atlanta Braves at Los Angeles Dodgers Lesea Alive Cheers Night Court In Touch Hill Street Blues Praise The Lord News Tonight Praise Lord

Jim And Tammy WTHR

И WX ) M m WBAK
MTV
ESPN

(В —

News

NBC News

Cosby Show Family Ties

VJ: Martha Quinn Star Trek Make A Deal Horse Racing ABC News

VJ: Martha Quinn Taxi Company SpeedWeek

VJ: Mark Goodman

Rock Influences B. Newhart 20/ 20 ML Zone Benny Hill Nightline SpoCtr.

VJ
H'mooners Sanford ! Outdoor Lite

Movie: "Right Of The Phoenix" Movie: "Invitation To Hell" Fashion Stanley Cup Playoffs: Division Final

Ent. Tonight SpoCtr.

— Radio 1990 Animals Motorcycle Racing: Daytona 200 Classic Petrocetli Alfred Hitchcock Hour EdgeNt. — Cartoons NASH Country Rock Be A Star Fandango Nashville Now Country Rock Videocount. Be A Star Fandango Nashville — Moneyline Crossfire Primenews Larry King Live News Moneyline Sports NewsNkjht CNN — Newswatch Showbiz о CSPN Viewer Call-In i National Press Club Congressional Hearing Viewer Call-In Today In Washington © — It Figures Family Cassie S Co. Regis Philbin's Lifestyles Dr. Ruth Show Movie: "September Storm" UFE — Simmons ARTS "Dinner At Ritz" Cont'd Shortstories Music Of Man Montserrat Caballe: The Woman, The Diva At The Met Madrigal Music — Alias Smith And Jones Wackiest Ship In The Army 700 Club Don't Die Girl From U.N.C.LE. Groucho CBN — Green Acres Rifleman PAY TV CHANNELS Movie: "Cat's Eye" Movie: "Code Of Silence" Movie: "Act Of Vengeance" (B HBO — Movie: "Between Friends" Cont'd Disney Ozzie Movie: "Treasure Island" Island Movie: "Country" "Darby O'Gill And The Little People" a ns — Movie Showtime Tom Petty & Heartbreakers Movie: "D.C. Cab" SHO Honeymooners "Ten From Your Show Of Shows" W @ MAX — Crazy About The Movies Movie: "Supergirl" Movie: "Body Heat" Comedy Movie: "Fanny Hill" — e
USA

THE MEDIA 271

The Herald-Telephone, Thursday, April 24,

All

Television
Movies
EVENING 8:00 Q SD ** "Invitation To Hell" (1984, Drama) Robert Urich, Susan Lucci. A devilish woman serves as the director of a country club where she seduces men physically and women materially. (R) g (2 hrs.) ® **H "The Chosen"(1961, Drama) Maximilian Schell, Rod Steiger. Based on Chaim Potok's novel. A friendship slowly develops between a worldly, assimilated Jew and the son of a Hassidic rabbi. (2 hrs.) (5) S3 * * * "Flight Of The Phoenix" (1966, Adventure) James Stewart, Peter Finch. When contact with rescuers becomes impossible, crash survivors begin repairing an old airplane forced down in the desert. (3 hrs.) Ш +* "D.C. Cab"(1983, Comedy) Mr. T, Adam Baldwin. Drivers of a nearly bankrupt Washington taxicab operation become heroes when they rescue two kidnapped children. 'R' g 8:05 QD **+Ъ "Psycho" (1960, Suspense) Anthony Perkins, Janet Leigh. A young woman encounters a psychotic killer at a secluded motel after stealing a large sum of money from her employer. (2 hrs., 25 min.) 9:00® **% "CodeOf Silence"{1984, Adventure) Chuck Norris, Henry Silva. A maverick Chicago cop wages a solitary war against rival drug-running gangs. 'R'g(l hr., 41 min.) @ *** "Country" (198i, Drama) Jessica Lange, Sam Shepard. Threatened with foreclosure of her farm, an Iowa woman struggles to hold on to her land and keep her family together. 'PG'(1 hr., 49 min.) (29 *+*H "Body Heat"(№1, Suspense) William Hurt, Kathleen Turner. A smalltime Florida lawyer is persuaded by his lover to murder her husband. 'R' (1 hr., 53 min.) 11:000) ** "SeptemberStorm"(1960, Adventure) Joanne Dru, Mark Stevens. An international group attempts to recover a large Spanish treasure from a sunken ship. (2 hrs.) (7) "Act Of Vengeance"(1986, Drama) Charles Bronson, Ellen Burstyn. Based on the true story of Joseph "Jock" Ya-blonski, whose crusade to rid the United Mine Workers union of corruption led to violence and ultimately to murder in December 1969. □ @9 *+* "Darby O'Gill And The Little People" (1959, Fantasy) Albert Sharpe, Sean Connery. An old Irish caretaker who is about to lose his job to a younger man captures the king of the leprechauns and forces him to grant three wishes. 'G' (1 hr., 35 min.) (57) +*H "Ten From Your Show Of Shows"(1973, Comedy) Sid Caesar, Imogene Coca. Ten classic skits from the original telecasts of "Your Show Of Shows," with personal anecdotes by Sid Caesar. 'G' (1 hr., 32 min.) 11:30® * "Fanny Hill"(1983, Drama) Lisa Raines, Oliver Reed. A woman of pleasure hopes to gain fortune in 18thcentury London. 'R' (1 hr., 30 min.) 12:000 **H "The Barbarian And The Geisba"(1958, Drama) John Wayne, Sam Jaffe. The first American ambassador to Japan receives cold rebuffs from the emperor and devotion from a geisha. (2 hrs.)

There is supposed to be trouble and danger. intrusive. Force and strength generally can be expected to solve problems. and particularly upon young people. a narcotic. television is a source of values." . often at war with observable reality. There is supposed to be action and excitement. I have talked to boys and girls who receive almost no clear messages about what the world is supposed to be from parents or friends. is so powerful. These are the values of television. an encourager for the future. I have been studying the other end of the funnel: the effect of mass culture. was that a politically and socially homogeneous clique makes television in the image of its own world view. California.272 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP ° This Is Not Your Life: Television as the Third Parent Benjamin Stein EN YEARS AGO. a large middle-class school with students of every ethnic description located in suburban Van Nuys. a child has only one parent at home. who is often absent. Frequently. now not seriously questioned. To that end. a parent. The Way the World Really Works Over and over in the past five years. If you ask a child who has seen nothing but chaos and disappointment in his or her own life just why he or she believes that things will turn out all right in the end — and if you push and don't take silence for an answer — you almost always hear a variant of. The children can barely recall even talking with their parents about any subject beyond home life. but it will all work out in the end. that it is virtually a "third parent" in the lives of American children. a confidant. I have questioned groups of students at ten high schools in the Los Angeles area. particularly the mass culture purveyed by television. I have also just spent eight months sitting in on classes at Birmingham High School. in fact. One basic hypothesis seems to me almost unassailable: American mass culture. For the child of 1986. upon the viewing public. specifically television. I have been trying to discover more about the intersections of youth culture and mass culture. For the past five years. I spent one year studying the handful of powerful people here in Hollywood who govern the general themes and specific social and political messages of prime time commercial television. and ubiquitous. a blanket of security and inadequacy — in short. attractive. That world view has little in common with the views of the larger society and is. so thoroughly unchecked in its ability to instruct and command. Yet they have an extremely well-developed idea of how the world is supposed to work. but a resolution leading to calm. The people who trust in goodness and act honestly will triumph. The conclusion. "Because that's the way it happens on 'Remington Steele'. In a nutshell.

but it also tends to confuse them about what their rational expectations should be. . accessible. I get crazy thinking about my own life.. coherent." he said. and no one's parents ever neglect them.THE MEDIA 273 4. problems with school — and then they talk about events on "The Cosby Show" or "Webster" as if they. and great cars to make it more tempting — all at the touch of a button. teaching. every bit as authentic and available as Van Nuys Boulevard or their own kitchens. we had better pay close attention to what the new parent is teaching our young about the world. That's the way life should be." If mass culture on TV offers a coherent world view. when discussing life. the real parents. \T\ Benjamin Stein. . "Even 'Falcon Crest' would be all right. even crucial challenge to us. "If I can live even half as well as the people on 'Dallas' by the time I'm their age. Is it any wonder that such an attractive. none of them is part of the gilded world of television or movie production. Again. moralizing. and no one is ever bored." Another. is a long-time observer of youth and mass culture. it looks — at least to me — very much like a parent. That lesson is definitely not going to help them or us. the promised land sounds surprisingly like the countries of "Dynasty" or "Dallas" or "Family Ties. At the least. and is indeed considered part of reality. it looks as if that new parent has already taught our children that there is no difference between reality and fantasy. in the society: If we have allowed a third parent to become part of our American family. so to speak. comforting parent is so appealing? All of this offers an important. TV shows are so much more attractive as a way of life than the lives of the children I talked to. whose stepfather routinely beat her when drunk. the clearer it became that for many of them. and the children are so unable to tell that TV is a fantasy. More bizarre still. "Sometimes when I see how easy it is for Bill Cosby's kids. there is no longer any line between what is real and what is on TV. too. and no one ever gets left out. more glamorous world awaits them somewhere beyond Ventura Boulevard. is perceived as at least as "real" as reality. not as a fantasy separate from it. many of them believe that the world of "Diff'rent Strokes" or "Miami Vice" is the real world. which encourages kids to believe life can be better than it is. That is. attractive portion. they will — and do — accept television's messages as part of the general wealth of experience offered by the world. car crashes. that'll be doing really well. but TV's way of life is also maddeningly unavailable. That is. and also implicitly holds up standards for personal accomplishment to children. Days of Their Lives The more time I spent with these children. these children talk about things that happen to them every day — fights with parents. Yet these young people are convinced that a larger. continued Although the children I talked to live in Los Angeles. TV offers a better way of life. and a well-ordered educational system. In a word. meaningful communication between parents and children. TV rushes into the void with a world view packaged in living color. handsome men. many of the children I talked to are morally certain that the "real" world is much more like the world they have seen on TV than the one they can smell and touch. with pretty girls. that they are both uplifted and saddened by TV shows. Their parents are far more likely to be working two jobs each than to be inking million dollar deals at Paramount. were part of daily life — as in a sense they have become.. no one is ever lonely. When you probe for details about that world. if it offers moral solace and moral structure. It is all one large sphere of experience — with television comprising by far the more compelling. Television appeals to young people as a friend and a source of values. in the absence of clear family structure. "On television." In fact. If children see the world of TV shows as part of their world.student in Encino told me matter-offactly that he measures his goals against the way people live on television." said the daughter of a broken home. and about us. who appears in the movie Ferris Bueller's Day Off.

and the Competent Man as nice. as well as tough and hard.By Richard Stengel Willy Loman: character in the play Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. And that's the wonder. In short. The Governor began to act more like Mike Douglas than Mike Dukakis. George Bush was seen as awkward. So what if he sometimes seemed to be running for Accountant in Chief? After the first debate." But Dukakis. The idea was to portray Bush's occasional goofiness as engaging. says Dukakis media chief David D'Alessandro. so you never make a mistake?" His aides later christened the contest the Nice Man vs. But likability goes deeper than gestures. They had him utter self-deprecating cracks about his lack of charisma. "Wouldn't it be nice to be the Ice Man. They arranged for him to be photographed amid his photogenic grandchildren. the Ice Man. But competence is only a part of image. Since Eisenhower won with the primitivist slogan "I Like Ike. In North Dakota he pecked two George Bush and Michael Dukakis cheerleaders o n the cheek and led a cro wd in a spirited rendition of Happy Birthday. "He's made competence his emblem. In another he sketches his hopes for the future. Likability is one component of that impression. "It is the ability to disclose a sense of the private self in public. He must project a comfortable image. No more clenched fists. In a campaign where no single issue commands attention. he sought to raise those of Dukakis.. Dukakis began showing open palms. Competence was what counted. "In the television age. It's tough for Dukakis to retrace his steps now and make himself nice. wars. But do not expect Phil Donahue. . is uncomfortable with self-disclosure. His manner suggests it's none of your business. The new strategy was simple: depict the Nice Man as incompetent. The ads. the President became the nation's surrogate grandfather. Mike Douglas: American actor. Bush smiled and said." says Bush's director of polling. A President has to be open and caring. as last week's debate showed. Noted campaign manager Susan Estrich after the debate: "I think we shouldn't make too much of likability. As Bush's negatives receded. it becomes even more significant." Dukakis talks directly to the camera. Pollsters say that the advent of television campaign coverage made "image impressions" more important than issues. less Zeno. gentler.. Says D'Alessandro: "Dukakis has a limit as to how much he can do as far as changing his persona." warmer Dukakis. however." says Kathleen Hall Jamieson. polls showed this to be costly. After slipping up in the first debate. that a man can end with diamonds here on the basis of being liked!" — Death of a Salesman W illy Loman knew how important it was to be well liked. Bush strategists had known they had to spruce up the Vice President's image. Dukakis aides began pushing for a "kinder. but that Bush (by 44% to 38%) was more likable. and Dukakis' competence as soulless. In one he recalls what it was like to be a young father.274 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP о The Likability Sweepstakes ". wimpish. Since last winter. Under Ronald Reagan. a scholar of the presidency. maladroit. a TIME poll revealed voters thinking that Dukakis had won. "Competent people are sometimes seen as arrogant." ." This week the Dukakis campaign unveils com mercials that attempt to thaw out the Ice Man." Americans seem to require a pleasing affability from their Commander in Chief. The Dukakis camp came late to the likability. Vince Breglio. So Bush's handlers engineered a make-over." Maybe all this touchy-feely stuff is not so important after all. they wanted more Zorba. the wonder of this country. candidates have to be comfortable with public intimacy and selfdisclosure. geniality was raised to an art form. "show who he really is.

However. i Almost always Sometimes. or whether it should almost never be reported. 6% 26% 68% You have a poll that says who will win the election. 4% 18% 78% A woman who has been held hostage escapes and runs half naked into the street.. The spy has played a key role in a major news event. 3% 21% 76% You have obtained some secret government documents dealing with an important national security issue. please say whether that story should almost always be reported. . 23% 41% 36% A reporter has learned that a government official has broken the law. government department that collects information about other countries. depending on particular circumstances Almost never A CIA spy's life may be in danger if his name is made public. but you 10% aren't certain that all the facts in the story are completely accurate. but there are still four hours left to vote. 13% 27% 60% "Reprinted with permission of American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research" A woman is in despair because her son has just been killed in a car accident. the U. especially in secret.. the source of that information can't be revealed. 34% 48% 18% CIA: Central Intelligence Agency. 5% 48% 46% A reporter has sent back a story from an area where American troops are fighting-even though the president has declared the area "off limits" to the press. 20% 41% 39% A major fire has occurred in your area. and one of your photographers takes a picture of her. whether it should sometimes be reported depending on the particular circumstances.S.THE MEDIA 275 О Dilemmas Question: (Respondents were asked to pretend they were editors) For each of the following stories. Story should be reported . One of your photographers takes her picture. Your deadline is approaching. 54% 36% A reporter discovers that someone who holds public office is a homosexual.

make up your mind about the relationship between print journalism and TV journalism by preparing and carrying out an opinion poll to be published in a student magazine. Sponsors influence public affairs programs. How does Richard Burke feel about the choice of programs offered by American TV? 6. criticism rebuttal Broadcast journalism is a new and distinctive form of journalism. Comprehension The Case for Television Journalism Pleading for television journalism. Remember to offer at least three alternative answers to each question. What. What are the financial implications of this change? 4. Eric Sevareid cites criticism normally put forward by newspaper journalists and intellectuals in order to refute it afterwards. Which format of TV entertainment is the most popular? 2. 1. Opinion Poll Following the text by Eric Sevareid. Looking at the design of American TV programming in general. 3. How has this pattern changed over the last years? 3. what is its predominant feature? 8. Find the missing criticism or rebuttal. TV debases the use of the English language. Develop a questionnaire including questions about • the attractiveness of print or electronic journalism • the standard of print and electronic journalism . Example: Which medium do you resort to when you want to be informed about current political affairs? a) mainly newspapers and magazines. TV destroys conversation TV has increased book sales in the U.S. b) mainly TV. according to Richard Burke. Global Comprehension The Nature of TV in America Parti: 1. What consequences does this change have on the programming? Part II: 5.276 PART c Exercises • the average time spent reading papers and watching TV • the dangers of TV as pointed out by some intellectuals • the criticism of TV by print journalists • the future development of print and electronic media. are the determining factors for TV programming? 7. What was the traditional pattern in the distribution of prime time ratings among the networks? 2. CBS has dealt with every conceivable controversial issue one can think of. c) both newspapers/magazines and TV equally.

tough and hard. Comparative Study 1. how would you react in each of the situations described? 3. How does the present object of research relate to the previous one? 3. reserved. Letter Writing Write a letter to the editor of PUBLIC OPINION and comment on the hypothesis and the findings of Benjamin Stein. How does the average child's real life experience compare with television reality? 7. Analysis and Discussion The Likability Sweepstakes 1. goofy and lacking charisma. any other country or your own country? . the images of candidates are more important than issues. Bush was seen as awkward. Choosing a TV Program Television—Thursday Evening Does American TV cater for a great variety of tastes? Make suggestions for an evening's viewing for people who are interested in situational comedy enjoy watching TV series are fond of police dramas are interested in politics like music videos are very religious are sports fans enjoy watching movie films. What was the object and the result of the research which the author pursued earlier? 2. What hypothesis is his research based on? 4. At the beginning of the 1988 presidential campaign. If you were an editor. What kind of values are propagated by TV? 8.S. Where did he try to find proof for this hypothesis? 5.A. To what extent do parents and TV form a child's view of the world? 6.THE MEDIA 277 4. maladroit. Do you share this view? 4. Do you know any similar cases that actually happened in the U. whereas Dukakis was characterized as competent. Which findings verify Stem's hypothesis and how does he support his arguments? 9. 2. To what extent do you think the likability ■ factor decides elections in your country? 5. Which cases mentioned in the opinion poll did the respondents find the most objectionable and which the least objectionable? How do you account for the results of this opinion poll? 2. How useful then are televised presidential debates? 3.. Text Analysis This is Not Your Life: Television as the Third Parent 1. How did the image-makers remodel their candidates to make them appear more likeable and appealing to a vast TV audience? 2. soulless. The quotation from Arthur Miller's Death of Salesman underlines the American belief that being well-liked is an important key to success. In the age of television. How does TV programming in your country compare with that in the United States? 6. wimpish. Compare Eric Sevareid's and Richard Burke's views on television. 8. 7. Comment Dilemmas 1.

916 69.280.134 55.554.000 11.257 10.027 39.109.361 79.000 438.782 121.609 33.181 110.000 3.523 36.000 10.000+ ____ 4 4 4 5 3 1 — — 10 6 5 1 — 2 4 7 4 5 1 3 4 — 4 1 8 8 15 3 2 26 2 2 3 — 2 2 5 — _ — 3 88 158 52 28 29 81 8 21 29 10 9 6 64 12 5 19 46 11 25 1 155 10.000 24.551.265.068 96.667.943.247 70.724.289 96.919 121.920 68.577 97.291 47.716 56.000 3.521 58.154 158.133.000 5.009 8.948.000 9.245.000 1.780 47.930 36.677 97.560 267.766 69.000 11. Paul Salem Topeka Charleston Carson City Lincoln Denver Bismarck Pierre Helena Olympia Boise Cheyenne Salt Lake City Oklahoma City Santa Fe Phoenix Area (sq.686 53.000 951.757 6.540 77.464 156.153.400 51.203 82.255 9.000 965.264 24.471.862 7.889 76.577 31.000 5.000 2.831 48.000 7.000 2.) 602.362.000 670.000 15.) 2.417 569.296 55.448.781.328 40.000 5.000 4.104 58.945 56.214 9.049 9.000 4.891 30.693 84.491.045.000 6.649.000 881.000 1.073 4.438.876 5.000 4.905.941 54.097 47.748 50.600 6.215 69.975 44.000 4.019.184 81.791.000 2.000 516.304 40.860.639.982 44.576 52.000 691.570 82.000 3.000 1.966 7.267 39.000 994.836 58.421 209 76 132 Population (1982 est.177.708 30.435 Land area 1.278 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Some Facts about the States State 1 Delaware 2 Pennsylvania 3 New Jersey 4 Georgia 5 Connecticut 6 Massachusetts 7 Maryland 8 South Carolina 9 New Hampshire 10 Virginia 11 New York 12 North Carolina 13 Rhode Island 14 Vermont 15 Kentucky 16 Tennessee 17 Ohio 18 Louisiana 19 Indiana 20 Mississippi 21 Illinois 22 Alabama 23 Maine 24 Missouri 25 Arkansas 26 Michigan 27 Florida 28 Texas 29 Iowa 30 Wisconsin 31 California 32 Minnesota 33 Oregon 34 Kansas 35 West Virginia 36 Nevada 37 Nebraska 38 Colorado 39 North Dakota 40 South Dakota 41 Montana 42 Washington 43 Idaho 44 Wyoming 45 Utah 46 Oklahoma 47 New Mexico 48 Arizona 49 Alaska 50 Hawaii Dist.203.798 1.333 7.981 82.951.000 34.000 801.665 77.227 104.587 66.000 102. of Columbia Puerto Rico Guam American Samoa Virgin Islands Date of admission 1787 1787 1787 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1796 1803 1812 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1836 1837 1845 1845 1846 1848 1850 1858 1859 1861 1863 1864 1867 1876 1889 1889 1889 1889 1890 1890 1896 1907 1912 1912 1959 1959 Capital Dover Harrisburg Trenton Atlanta Hartford Boston Annapolis Columbia Concord Richmond Albany Raleigh Providence Montpelier Frankfort Nashville Columbus Baton Rouge Indianapolis Jackson Springfield Montgomery Augusta Jefferson City Little Rock Lansing Tallahassee Austin Des Moines Madison Sacramento St.909 589.000 631.216 58.057 45.000 4.291.412 113.817 49.000 4.192 83.138 68.359.047 147.000 3.914 84.133.450 67 3.483 103.000 3.425 61 3.000 2.055 9. mi.585.995 51.000 3.650 41.096 68.395 42.586 1.000 2.000 502.000 Density1 312 264 996 97 647 739 434 106 106 138 373 123 908 56 92 113 263 98 152 54 206 78 37 72 59 160 192 58 52 Cities 100.000 958.338 56.090 262.222 48.817 54.273 75.261.000 10.000 111.826 9.000 1.787 24.000 17.659.016 943 531 447 772 1 — 1 Juneau Honolulu Washington San Juan Agana Fagotogo Charlotte Amalie 2 1 4 1 1 1 5 — — 'Density: persons per square mile of land area .290 56.000 1.000 3.416.651.244 41.000 5.070 109.865.609 40.666 113.408.000 2.000 4.955 145.765.

Johnson John Tyler George M. Wheeler Chester A./Tenn. lowa/Cal.PRESIDENTS AND VICE-PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 279 Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the United States President 1 George Washington 2 John Adams 3 Thomas Jefferson 4 James Madison 5 James Monroe 6 John Quincy Adams 7 Andrew Jackson 8 Martin Van Buren 9 William Henry Harrison 10 John Tyler 11 James K./Cal. Harding 30 Calvin Coolidge 31 Herbert С Hoover 32 Franklin D. Va.Y. New York New Hampshire Pennsylvania Ky. Stevenson Garret A. Hendricks Levi P. Truman Alben W. Eisenhower John F. N./La. Cal. Morton Adlai E. Neb. Ohio Ohio Vt.. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson Richard M../N./Tenn. New York 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Harry S./Tenn. Massachusetts Texas Ca. Ford Nelson A. Polk 12 Zachary Taylor 13 Millard Fillmore 14 Franklin Pierce 15 James Buchanan 16 Abraham Lincoln 17 Andrew Johnson 18 Ulysses S. Rockefeller Walter F. Humphrey Spiro T. Calhoun Martin Van Buren Richard M. Grant 19 Rutherford B./NJ. Pa. Marshall Calvin Coolidge Charles G. 1841 1841-1845 1845-1849 1849-1850 1850-1853 1853-1857 1857-1861 1861-1865 1865-1869 1869-1877 1877-1881 1881 1881-1885 1885-1889 1889-1893 1893-1897 1897-1901 1901-1909 1909-1913 1913-1921 1921-1923 1923-1929 1929-1933 1933-1945 Federalist Republican Republican Republican Nat. Ohio/Ind./N./N. King John C./NY.Y.Y. Johnson Hubert H. Nixon Lyndon B. Mass. Roosevelt Years in office 1789-1797 1797-1801 1801-1809 1809-1817 1817-1825 1825-1829 1829-1837 1837-1841 Mar. N.J.C. Dawes Charles Curtis John N.C.Y. Sherman Thomas R. Tompkins John C./Texas . Arthur Thomas A. Agnew Gerald R. Dallas Millard Fillmore William R. Fairbanks James S./Ill. Mondale George Bush James Danforth Quayle Va. Garfield 21 Chester A. Wallace Harry S. Ohio/Ill. Democratic Democratic Whig Whig Democratic Whig Whig Democratic Democratic Republican Republican Republican Republican Republican Republican Democratic Republican Democratic Republican Republican Republican Democratic Republican Republican Republican Democratic Party Born 1732 1735 1743 1751 1758 1767 1767 1782 1773 1790 1795 1784 1800 1804 1791 1809 1808 1822 1822 1831 1830 1837 1833 1837 1843 1858 1857 1856 1865 1872 1874 1882 Died 1799 1826 1826 1836 1831 1848 1845 1862 1841 1862 1849 1850 1874 1869 1868 1865 1875 1885 1893 1881 1886 1908 1901 1908 1901' 1919 1930 1924 1923 1933 1964 1945 State Born/Home Virginia Massachusetts Virginia Virginia Virginia Massachusetts S. Ohio New York Ohio Vice-President John Adams Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr George Clinton George Clinton Elbridge Gerry Daniel D. Truman Dwight D. Ford Jimmy (James Earl) Carter Ronald Reagan George Bush 1945-1953 1953-1961 1961-1963 1963-1969 1969-1974 1974-1977 1977-1981 1981-1989 1989- Democratic Republican Democratic Democratic Republican Republican Democratic Republican Republican 1884 1890 1917 1908 1913 1913 1924 1911 1924 1972 1969 1963 1973 Missouri Tex. Georgia Ill. Breckinridge Hannibal Hamlin Andrew Johnson Schuyler Colfax Henry Wilson William A.C. /Mich.D. Hayes 20 James A./Ohio Virginia N. N. Calhoun John C. Rep. Garner Henry A. Arthur 22 Grover Cleveland 23 Benjamin Harrison 24 Grover Cleveland 25 William McKinley 26 Theodore Roosevelt 27 William Howard Taft 28 Woodrow Wilson 29 Warren G./Mass./N. Hobart Theodore Roosevelt Charles W. Nixon Gerald R. Ohio Vt. Barkley Richard M. New York Va.J.

Midge 132 defense 262. 251 colonialism 30 colonies 23 commercial broadcasting 262. Andrew 64 car racing 247 Carter. 97. 99 prevention 200 rate 99 criminal 200 Crocket. 87. Duke 229 Emerson. 47 coaches 250 cold war 274 college 43. 73 Ailey. 7 7 2 Associated Press 262 Atlanta 48. 142. 93 counseling 296 country club 246 country music 45 country-western 229 courts 97. Ralph Waldo 26 entertainment 55. 220 family 232. 275 economic interests 273 Economic Opportunity Act 290 economic strength 272 economy 59. 252 Beacon Hill 83 Bellow. 25.CIO 65. 162. 212 church buildings 205 city 75. 257 college sports 248. 249. 67. Michael 274 Duncan. Warren Earl 99 burglary 99 Bush. 73. 31. 252 basketball 246. 262 communism 274. 229 bilingualism 774 Bill of Rights 25. 181 anti-feminism 737 architecture 50. 44. 220 abundance 27 abstract expressionism 228 achievement 292 Adams. 247. Saul 81 Bernstein. 66 Episcopal church 22 2 equality 228. Frank 232 career 233 career woman 233. 247. 185 American Medical Association 746 A Nation at Risk 192 antebellum South 57 anti-Communism 774. John 26 dialect. 97. 764 editorials 263 education 2 27. 84. 277 de Kooning. Leonard 18. 272. 55 Capra. 19. 762. 160. 206 Declaration of Independence 26. 82 crime 203. 162 Cleveland 85 climate 43. 228 boarding school 7 7 7 boards of education 790 Boone. 251 educational ideal 290 educational philosophies 793 egalitarianism 207 Eisenhower. Bob 232 ecology 75. 113. 45. 83 Detroit 82. 82 Chicanos 727 child care 732. 85 Dewey. 130. 115 do-it-yourselfer 27 dollar. Jimmy 262. 93 civil rights legislation 7 73 civil rights movement 7 73. the 2 25 discipline 295. 63. 143 blacks 77. 298. 228 California 45. 148. 264 democratic values 273 departments 244 Depression. 272. Cesar 222 checks and balances 244 cheerleaders 247. 200. 734. 46. Isadora 232 Dylan. 191 Buddhism 206. 276 Armstrong. 146. 292. 279 Equal Pay Act 728 equal rights 722 Equal Rights Act 128 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) 52. 227 detente 276 deterioration 82. 133 ethnic minorities 112 ethnicity 14. 236 Carnegie. 112 Decter. 84 automation 65 balance of power 173. 49. 262 computer 67. 733. 148. 272 Central America 276 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 276 chamber of commerce 246 Chavez. 705 planning 83. 62. 788. 85 boxing 247 Brezhnev. 757 conservatism 29. 275 community 89 commuting 83 . Sir Thomas 27 death penalty 200. 754. 50 Dukakis. 87. Davy 26 Cuban missile crisis 275 cultural diversity 25 cultural identity 2 24 culture 225 curriculum 290 Dale. 29 aerobics 245 affirmative action 723 affluence 59 Afghanistan 776 AFL . 157 economic aid 273. 83. 206. 274 electronic church 274 Ellington. 151. Daniel 26 Boston 48. 189. 109. 274 elderly. 50 federalism 242 . Southern 45 disabled. 774 balance of trade 273 ballet 232 Baltimore 48 baseball 245. 59.T.Index abortion issue 759. 247. 79. Leonid Ilyrich 776 Broadway 233 Brown v. 775. 112. 146 bussing 797 cabinet 244 cable television 265 Calder. 213 budget deficit 62 Burger. 146 Age Discrimination Act 115 agribusiness 63 agriculture 50. 196 Confederacy 49 congregation 275 Congregationalist church 277 Congress 242. 232 children 227. 228 Democratic Party 45. 264 entrepreneur 64. 48. William 45. 15. 297 excellence 293 executive branch 244 Falwell. 7 7 2 blues 45. 133. J. 99 crime 28. 225. 264. 299 discrimination 15. 217 American Independent Party 148 American Indian Movement 7 75 Americanization 46. 262. 226 Civil War 25. 81 European Economic Community 64 evangelical movement 223 evangelism 223. Alvin 231 air-conditioning 49 amendment to the Constitution 222 amendment I 220 amendment II 106 amendment VIII 107 amendment XIII 112 American culture 184 American dream 18. 264 communication 67. 81. 70. the 7 75. Willem 227. 29. role of 272 downtown 84 Dixie 49. 278 Catholicism 22 2. 88. George 253. 220 examinations 294. 262. 159 Constitution 25. Alexander 227. Jerry 223. Board of Education 108. 112 class 46. 735 farmer 73 farmland 46 fast food 70 Faulkner. 764 congressional committee 743. Dwight D. Great 73. 734. Louis 229 arts 225 assimilation 75. 249 Chicago 25. 248. 35. 160 desegregation 223. 18. 275 church attendance 205. 722 election campaign 48. 200. 32. 263 containment 174 convention 262 corporation 47. 274 business 84. 709. 65. 161. 263 Catholic bishops 218 Catholic Church 272. 737 church 206.competition 59. 776. 145. 97. 93 Arizona 46 arms control 762. 64.

82 integration 797 interest groups 746 interest rates 773 intermediate-range nuclear force (INF) 778 international affairs 270 international relations 279. 47 modern dance 237 Monroe. 180 National Organization for Women (NOW) 728 NATO 770 nature 75. 229 Namath. 211 magazines 267. 237. Margaret 26 fundamentalism 734. 49. 774 illiteracy 792 immigration 73. Geraldine 129 film 232. 775. 752. 82 Lutheran church 207. 173. 65. 100. F. 76. 27 7 judge 99 judicial branch 97 jury 97 justice 97. 756. Ed 29. 93 Hinduism 273 Hispanics 7 7 4 hockey 247 Holiness Church 270 Hollywood 232. 705 gymnastics 247 Hammerstein. 251 Ford. 27. 264 nonviolence 723 nuclear war 779. 59 industrialization 75. Scott 117. 112 free enterprise 59. Martha 237 graphic arts 227. 279 Koch. 732. Nikita Sergeevich 775 King. 181. 146. 224. 790 Joplin. 119 folk music 45 football 245.INDEX 281 Federal-Communications Commission 264 federal land 757 femaleheaded household 735 feminism 728. 160 Great Lakes 43. 264 homicide 99 homosexuals 775. 793 Khrushchev. 210 motherhood 232. 226 Kissinger. 66. 262 mainstream culture 47. 164. 254 Fitzgerald. Scott 228 Judaism 270. 278 O'Connor. 88. 735. 87. 120. John F. 112. Betty 228 frontier 26 Frostbelt 47 fruit picking 720 Fuller. Margaret 52 mixed media 228 mobility 28. 179 Oregon 45 painting 227. 787. 134 fencing 247 Ferraro. Richard 29. 742. 261. 22 2 job discrimination 728 jogging 245. George 229 Gibson. Kirk 247 Gillespie. 89 neoconservatives 759 networks 264. 254 John Birch Society 272 Johns Jaspar 228 Johnson. 92. 59. 146 law 97. 240 movie actor 237 mugging 99 murder 99. Gerald 263 Ford. 44. 77. Henry 64 foreign affairs 160 foreign investment 772 foreign policy 161. 782 interventionism 7 73 inventiveness 27 investment policies 272 Iran 767 Iran-Iraq War 278 isolationism 46. 253 gentrification S3 Georgetown 83 Gershwin. 237. 775. 228 Parker. 240. 132 lobby 746. 267 New England 43. 274 megalopolis 82 melting-pot 77. 133. 749. Henry 776. 82 New York Times 262 Nicaragua 776 Nixon. 252. 776. 733. Mikhail 178 government 37. 232 horse racing 247 House of Representatives 742 housing projects 704. 179. 795. 273 fund-raising 220 Gallup poll 252. 75. 777. 262 news services 262 New York 79. 251 health 724. 38 . 797 high technology 45. 173 Israel 257. 208. 240 film producer 237 fitness 245. 64 freedom 25. 220 James. 46. 703 museums 225 music 228 musical 78. 124. 119. 266. 787. 7 2 7 Houston 82 human rights 273 Humphrey. 28 nationalism 28. 232. 776 negro spiritual 45 neighborhood 79. 228 Jefferson. 59. 59. Bernhard 702. 81 metropolitan area 82 Mexican-American 76. 237. 226 individualism 26. Oscar 229 handguns. 273. 228 Great Depression 73. Sandra Day 729 "Op"-art 228 opera 229 optimism 27 opportunity 29. Lyndon B. 750 patriotism 28. Hubert 752 ice hockey 247 ideals 25 ideology 749 illegal aliens 76. 176. 162. 757 Los Angeles 48. 720 Mid-Atlantic states 43 migrant worker 720 migration 47 military aid 775. 200. 79. 67. 30. 179. 200 Miranda rule 700 Mitchell. Joe 247 National Commission on Excellence in Education 792 National Endowment for the Arts 226 National Farmers Union 246 National Football League (NFL) 244 national identity 77. 30 Jews 220. 787 military strength 770 Middle East 778 Midwest. 783 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 43 materialism 54 McCullers. 162 mainstream Protestant churches 277 majority leader 754 manager 732 manifest destiny 55 market instability 773 marriage 727. 767. Charlie 229 parties 746. 38. 143 lawyer 96 Lebanon 2 78 legislation 742. 179 foreign trade 272 Founding Fathers 25. the 792 Harvard 43. William 26 jazz 45. 278. 254 Higher Education Act 790 high school 789. 205 Korea 775 Ku Klux Klan 222 labor unions 47. 178 military intervention 775. the 46 minorities 78. registration of 702 handicapped. 736 Marshall Plan 775. 242. 21. Carson 45 mechanization (of farming) 63 media 38. Barry 249 golf 247 Gorbachev. 240 film director 237 film making 237. 81 independence 26 Independence Day 28 Indians 74. 278. 774. 46 growth 47 gun control 702. 748. Marilyn 228 Montana 46 Moral Majority 759. 173. 50. Thomas 26. 45 living standard 59. 234 movie 232. 773. 754 liberalism 759 liberals 59 Libertarian Party 748 liberty 779 Liberty Federation 273 Lichtenstein. 53 New Mexico 46 newspapers 267. 20. 25. Roy 228 literature 43. 208. 222 moral principles 234 Mormons 45. Martin Luther Jr. 705 Gold water. 27 illegal immigration 76. 216 freedom of the press 263 Friedan. 278 nuclear weapons 775. 217 Kennedy. "Dizzy" 229 Goetz. 762 Graham. 74.

175 Union. 190 public service 252 Puritans 23. 248 tests 292. 256 spectator 245. 248 Wolfe. Bruce 232 Stanford University 48 Statue of Liberty 30 stock market 62 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty 276 Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) 277 Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) 277 street gang 227. 43. Richard 229 roles 233 Roosevelt. 222 religious cults 223 religious diversity 222 religiousness 205 religious sects 223 representative 254 representative democracy 242 Republican Party 44. 144. 262 social services 82. 46. 45 White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) 23. 265 volleyball 247. 44. 133. 128 Silent Majority 225 singers 242 skyscrapers 82 slavery 25. 235 theft 99 Third World countries 273 Thoreau. 200. 49. Henry David 26 Tharp. 264 Whitman. 251 University of North Carolina 48 University of Texas 48 urbanization 50. Mark 228 ruralization 85 rural life 85 Sandinistas 2 76 San Francisco 85 Santa Fe 48 satellite TV 265 schedule 297 Schlafly. 264 resources 46. 262 public schools 189. 179 prejudice 18. 159. 252 suburbs 82 suburbanization 82 success 64. 279 prison 202. 223. Robert 228. 161 vice president 244. 272 television 224. 81 urban renewal 83. 63 professional sports 248 programming 264. 220 Pollack. 205 selfreliance 65 Senate 242. 116. 251 high school 297. 108. Jimmy 224. Thomas 45 women 227 Women's Liberation 52 Wonder. Jackson 228 pollution 75 pop art 228 pop concerts 225 Populist Party 249 post-industrial age 48. 53. 83. 264 video 265 viewing time 269 violence 45. 132. 38. 269 Rauschenberg. 222 public opinion 246. 29. 36. 62. 65 . 99. 259 Roosevelt. 249 professional 248. 28. 161 Society Hill 84 Sondheim. 264. 193. 220. 264 senator 255 service 225 service industries 62 sex discrimination 224. Phyllis 232 Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) 294 school 288. 249 Schuller. 54. 204 student athletes 248. Andy 227. Harry S. 264 suspect. 146. 84. 295. 274 Presley. 149 private schools 289 productivity 59. D. 228 Warren. 93 Utah 45 values 25. 274 recreational parks 246 Reformed churches 222 refugees 26. 256 and violence 247 college 248. 133 Sunbelt 47 Sun City 322 Superbowl 245 superstations 265 Supreme Court 97. the 49 United Press International (UPI) 262 universities 43. 270. 144. Twyla 232 tournaments 249 track 247 trade 60. 81. 247 Springsteen. 250. 86. 249 volunteerism 27 voter registration 252 war 228 war technology 277 Warhol. Stevie 232 worker participation 65 World War I 273 World War II 274 wrestling 247 Yankee 50. 85. 73.C. 299 technology 45. 164. 182. 262 protectionism 273 Protestants 23. 263 vigilantism 202. 179 Progressive Party 249 prosperity 59. 44. 113. 60. 161. 85. 208. 64. 163. 222 White House 252. 205 and politics 259. 193. Oral 220 Robertson. rights of criminal 200 Swaggart. 60. Franklin D. 157 restoration 83. Adam 59 Smith. moral 234. 227 racial prejudices 223 racism 227 radical churches 222 radio 264 ragtime 228 rape 88 ratings 264. 53 yuppies 36. 87 retirement resort 222 rights of man 280 robbery 99 Roberts. Theodore 252 Rothko. 220. Elvis 232 press 86. 297. 103. 51 plays 233. 297 textbooks 290 Thanksgiving 28 theater 225.282 INDEX peace 161. 213. 195. 202 political participation 245 politician 252 politics 252. 295. 172 trade deficit 173 transcendentalists 26 transportation 83 Truman. 83 slum clearance 83 small town 85. 179. 210. 222. 134. 261. 114 power politics 282 pragmatism 26. 223. Stephen 28. 62. Robert 224 screen writer 237 sculpture 228 segregation 223 selfdefense 202. 181. 109. 148. 91. the 27. 87. William 99 religion 43. David 228 smoking 224 soccer 247 social problems 200 social programs 249 Socialist Labor Party 248 Social Security 260. 48. 215 Smith. 232. 59. 112 slaves 44 slums 82. 20 regional identity 43 regions of the U. 272 progress 29. 55. 50. 113. 229 South. 211 president 99. 211 Quakers 220 quality of life 232 race relations 222. 62 poverty 57. 220 rock' n roll 229 Rodgers. 220. 220 swimming 246 teachers 292. 113 Presbyterian church 207. 176. 115.S. 233. 107. 191. 253. 205 Vietnam War 25. 224 private enterprise 26. 262 principles. 294. 230 Reagan. 264. 51 Southern belle 52 Spanish language 224 speaker 254 sports 245 and society 256 and sponsors 247. 235 playwrights 233 pluralism 222 police 300. 218 Peace and Freedom Party 248 Peachtree Center 84 Pearl Harbor 174 Pentagon Papers 264 Philadelphia 84 pioneers 26 Pittsburgh 48. 199 administration 290 attendance 288 prayer 213. 220 religious books 205 religious broadcasting 214. the 44. 93 plantation 44. Walt 26 wildlife 257 winning 36. 266 and society 272 and moral standards 275 and politics 274 journalism 266 stations 266 tennis 246. Pat 223. Robert Penn 45 water 46 Watergate 29. 83 Washington Post 264 welfare 262 West. 108. Ronald 38. 259. 269. 164 presidential elections 244. 222 sports 247. 175. 222. 153. 248 and the media 247. 264 War of Independence 31 Warsaw Pact 274 Washington. 161. 43 Rehabilitation Act 225 Rehnquist.

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The Observer for an abridged article by Peter Black in The Observer (17. The Washington Post Writers Group for an abridged article "Americans Vote for Divided Government" by David S Broder in The Washington Post. Inc 1983. The Progressive. 11. Inc. Seeker & Warburg Ltd & Random House.86).5. National Journal for the article "Hand Gun Control" in National Journal (31. (c) 1988. Close up Foundation for extracts from articles in Current Issues (1986). Joan Daves for an extract from "I Have A Dream" speech by Martin Luther King.2.10. Inc for an abridged article by Amanda Spake in MS (Nov 1984). Copyright © 1963 by Martin Luther King Junior. an extract from the article "How A Case Reaches the Supreme Court".

161. Inc. 220 and 227 (bottom). Inc. for page 73. Images Colour Library Ltd for page 226. 1987. Inc. Tony Stone Photo Library for pages 35 and 96. 1975-1985 Third Edition. From the 1988 INFORMATION PLEASE ALMANAC. Copyright © Newspaper Enterprise Association. 238 and 241. Picturepoint Ltd for page 253. Rex Features Ltd for pages 75 and 154. /John Nordell/JB for page 155. Inc. U. Joe Liesen for page 197. Bettman Newsphotos/Reuters for page 218 /UPI for page 274. Inc. /1985 Barbara Kinney for page 242 (top) and /John Moss for page 254. Newsweek/Arms Control Association for page 177. The Bridgeman Art Library for page_230. The Mansell Collection Ltd for page 23 (right). Gudrun Fiedler for page 84.S. Zefa for page 38. 172 (bottom). /1981 Michael Montfort for page 31. © 1985 The New Yorker Magazine. 62. Gerard for page 250. THE WORLD ALMANAC & BOOK OF FACTS. 60 (top). 61 (top). Vision International/J. for page 227. News & World Report for page 199. Copyright © 1987 by Horghton Mifflin Company. Reprinted by Permission of the Publisher for pages 147. Colorific/1984 Phil Huber for page 23 (left). U. All-Sport Photographic Ltd for page 251. Koch. New York. 171 (bottom). Immigration & Naturalization Service for page 17. Bart Bartholomew for page 195 (bottom). Peter Newark's Western Americana for page 49. 235 (top right). John Spragens Jr.S. 1984. Reprinted with permission of American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research for pages 140. . 1988 Edition.S. U. Reproduced by Permission of United Feature Syndicate. 189. All Rights Reserved. All rights reserved for pages 165 and 222. 60 (bottom). С>\\ет\е\. Inc. 191. /Louis Y s\\\o-y os tot pa^e %. From INSIDE AMERICA. Copyright Ms Magazine 1988 for page 133. 208-209 and 262. Copyright. Susan Griggs for page 123. 179 and 242 (bottom). for page 130. Department of Defense for page 170. Wayne Stayskal/From Best Editorial Cartoons for The Year 1983 Edition. 148. The Image Bank for pages 54 and 93. 198 Martha Shope for pages 235 (left). 135 (middle) and 135 (bottom). Hulton/The Keystone Collection for page 116. Photos by Longman Photo Unit for page 19. Popperfoto/UPI for page 105. We have been unable to trace the copyright holders of the photographs on pages 47. Allan Cash Photolibrary for page 263. Cover photographs by The Telegraph Colour Library Ltd. Popperfoto for page 267. University of Pennsylvania for Page 214. 1 (g) ^acoyvies \Л. by Louis Harris. for page 102. The Connecticut Mutual Life Report on American Values in the 80's. 235 (bottom right). 184 and 275. The Kobal Collection for pages 230 (top right). Kevin Horan for pages 195 (top) and 196. Reprinted by Permission of Sage Publications. Annenburg School of Communications. \^ ooAivt\ Сате^ & Assoc. Picture Research by Ann Hazelwood. Pelican Publishing Company. Frank Spooner Pictures for pages 51. All Rights Reserved for page 118. /UPI/Bettmann Newsphotos for pages 181 and 216. USA Today. The Gallup Poll for page 223 (right). 1986 Andre Deutsch Ltd for pages 61 (bottom). Zoe Dominic for page 231. Social Science Education Consortium. 1983. Best Editorial Cartoons of the Year 1983 Edition. Women In the Labor Market Copyright 1985. 1961 United Artists Pictures Corp. MAYOR. /Mary Fisher for page 152. Reprinted by Permission of Simon & Schuster. Society for The Advancement of Education. Eric Velasquez for page 103. /Gian Franco Gorgoni for page 230 (bottom). Reprinted by permission of Horghton Mifflin Company for page 101. Art Directors Photo Library for page 30. Douglas Smith for page 256. AUTH COPYRIGHT 1988 Philadelphia Inquirer. National Film Archive for page 18. Robert Hunt Library for page 215. Bilderberg/Wolfgang Volz for page 67.F. U. 236 (left) and 236 (right). 129 (top).S. Inc. Drawing by Geo Price. 255 and 265. Courtesy of American Lung Association for page 124 (upper middle). for page 40.We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright photographs: Ace Photo Agency/Gabe Palmer for page 200. for page 145. for page 149. The J. © American Government: Principals & Practice. Pelican Publishing Company. 64. 171 (top). Bureau of the Census for pages 135 (top). Inc. 63. Reprinted by permission of Random House. July 198^ for page 74. Reprinted with Permission of University Press Syndicate. Camera Press Ltd for pages 91. Inc for page 126. for page 72. 210 and would be grateful for any information to enable us to do so. NY 10166 for pages 206-207. 150 and 151. American Automobile Association for page 98. Topham Picture Library for page 20. 138. The Bridgeman Art Library/The Collection of Mr & Mrs Graham Gund Agent: Art Resources Inc. Francine Blau. The Herald Telephone for pages 270 and 271. National Women's Political Carcus for page 129 (bottom). copyright © 1984 by Edward I. Action Plus London for page 246. The New Yorker Cartoon Album. Virginia State Library & Archives for page 87. /Matthew McVay for page 124 (bottom). The Impact of Belief for page 223 (left). Merrill Publishing Company. Reproduced from a sign by ASH (Action on Smoking and Health) for pages 124 (lower middle) and 124 (top). 172 (top). Copyright © 1987 by Louis Harris.

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