America

IN CLOSE-UP

America
IN CLOSE-UP
ECKHARD FIEDLER REIMER JANSEN MIL NORMAN-RISCH

Pearson Education Limited
Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2]E, England and Associated Companies throughout the world.

www.longman-elt.com © Longman Group UK Limited 1990
All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, expect in those cases explicity allowed by local law, without the prior written permission of the Publishers.

ISBN 0582 74929 8 First published 1990 Tenth impression 2001 British Library Cataloging in Publication Data Fiedler, Eckhard America in close-up. 1. United States. Social life I. Title II. Jansen, Reimer III. Norman-Risch, Mill 973.927 Set in 10/12 pt. Palatino Printed in China EPC/10

Contents
UNIT 1 UNIT UNIT UNIT UNI T UNIT UNIT UNI T UNI 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15

T UNI T UNI T UNI T UNIT 13 UNI T UNI T

Index of Part В Texts Introduction The Making of a Nation American Beliefs and Values Regionalism vs. Americanization The U.S. Economy The Urbanization of America Law, Crime, and Justice Minorities The Changing Role of Women The Political System America's Global Role Education Religion The Arts Sports The Media Some Facts about the States Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the United States Index

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4. Children of Poverty . Ecology: Problems with Solutions to Pollution by Robert W. Thomas in American Regionalism edited by Hoyt Gimlin. The Forgotten Farmer by Danny Collum. The Choices That Brought Me Here by Amanda Spake. UNIT 1 The Making of a Nation 1. 5. From New York. From A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry. From Newsweek. UNIT 7 Minorities 1. The Nation's Most Strongly Defined Region. The Cooling of the South by Raymond Arsenault. From a Moral Majority Publication . 4. From USA Today. Southern Women . From The New York Times magazine. UNIT 3 Regionalism vs. UNIT 5 The Urbanization of America 1. 2. Gimlin in American Regionalism edited by Hoyt Gimlin. Inside Bell Labs by Gene Bylinsky. Arming Citizens to Fight Crime by Frank Borzellieri. Lucky ОГ Sundowners by Peter Black. UNIT 6 Law. "America". 2. Lyrics from the musical West Side Story by Stephen Sondheim and Leonard Bernstein 2. From The Progressive. 3. Jessie de la Cruz. From USA Today. 2.PART в Texts 5. What is a Middle Westerner? From "The Middle West" by John Fraser Hart in Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Pittsburgh . From American Character: Views of America from the Wall Street journal. From Dialogue." From "California: Living Out the Golden Dream" by R. American Dreams: Arnold Schwarzenegger and Florence Scala. Walker. From U. The American Idea by Theodore H.Crisis in New York by Andrew Stein. 3. A French Fry Diary: From Idaho Furrow to Golden Arches by Meg Cox. From American Dreams: Lost and Found by Studs Terkel. Put Out No Flags by Matthew Rothschild. and Justice 1. From The New York Times magazine. 2.S. News & World Report. 3. In Search of Small Town America. Americanization 1. How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court. Peter Drucker on Entrepreneurs. From Newsweek 3. From American Dreams: Lost and Found by Studs Terkel. Economy 1. 3. From Perspectives. From Sojourners. 3. Immigration Today: A Case Study. 2.A Melting Pot. A Newsweek Poll on Immigration. A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values. A Brother's Murder by Brent Staples. 2.A New City. From "New England's Regionalism and Recovery" by W. UNIT 4 The U. Brothers by Sylvester Monroe. Kipling and W. From USA Today. 4. Revival of a City's Virtues — Why a young single woman moves to the city by Mildred Norman-Risch. 4. UNIT 8 The Changing Role of Women 1. I Am the Redman/My Lodge by Duke Redbird. 4. 4. New York . UNIT 2 American Beliefs and Values 1. Where There's Smoke. From Time. 2.Still Ladies? by Cora McKinney 3. Crime. Small Town Life by Berton Roueche. The text is taken from the back cover of MAYOR by Edward Koch. From Perspectives. From Dialogue. How to Have a Successful Christian Family by Jerry Falwell. 5. 5. From the Wilson Quarterly. Second Thoughts on Having It All by Tony Schwartz. White. From The New York Times magazine. Thoughts on the Supreme Court — excerpts from an interview with Tom Clark. 4. From Ms. Neighborhoods. "Just Like the Rest of Us. The Death Penalty: Legal Cruelty? by Donald B. Economics vs. Street and H. Only More So. From Special Places. 5. From The Observer. An interview with four young Americans. 3.S. Haseltine.

Quincy Senior High Attendance Policy for 1984 to 1985. Johnson. From The New Republic. I Have a Dream . From /. A Dozen Outstanding Plays of the Past Quarter Century. News & World Report. Lousy at Sports by Mark Goodson. An American Senior High School — an American student talks about his high school. From "American Education: Has the Pendulum Swung Once Too Often?" in Humanities. 6. 4. Toward a National Theater by Howard Stein.S. 2. Sports in America: Colleges and Universities. Literary Hollywood by Stanley Kauffman. Power. Interview: High School Sports . Running for Your Life by Matt Clark and Karen Springen. talks about high school sports. Sunday in Hope by Berton Roueche. 5. American Educational Philosophies by Diane Ravitch. 5. From Public Opinion. 3. From the Wilson Quarterly. 5. The text is the television column from The Herald-Telephone. The Likability Sweepstakes by Richard Stengel. What Makes Great Schools Great? From US News & World Report. UNIT 9 The Political System 1.excerpts from President Reagan's remarks to the Annual Convention of National Religious Broadcasters. 2. Families. 2. From Public Opinion. Breaking New Ground on War and Peace by Paul Bock. 5. 4. From the Washington Post. 4. 7. 3. A Wife's New Career Upsets Old Balances by Mary Bralove. From Dialogue. From Special Places — In Search of Small Town America. Americans Vote for Divided Government. 4. America and the World: Principle and Pragmatism by Henry Kissinger. 3. From American Character: Views of America from the Wall Street Journal. UNIT 12 Religion 1. The Case for Television Journalism by Eric Sevareid.Steve Peter. 2.INDEX OF PART В TEXTS 9 4. 3. Attendance Policy and Procedures . Baseball. From Perspectives. Universities in Transition by David Riesman. 4. Keynote Address by Governor Cuomo to the Democratic National Convention July 1984 (excerpts). The Chairman and the Boss by Jay Cocks. From The New York Times magazine. Perspective of a Public Man . From Time. . From Newsweek. What Students Think About Their Schools. The Nature of TV in America by Richard Burke. Husband's Hazard . 3. From U. 2. Glory . 5. an American exchange student who spent a year in a German school. This Is Not Your Life: Television as the Third Parent by Benjamin Stein. 6. From Dialogue. From Perspectives. 3. Television. 2. From a speech by Lyndon B. Peace Without Conquest. Exporting American Culture. . The Human Side of Congress Representative Jim Wright. "If Conservatives Cannot Do it Now . From Film Comment. 3. From Perspectives. School Prayer . The text is taken from the Reagan/Bush campaign leaflet for the 1984 presidential election. UNIT 15 The Media 1. Reagan/Bush '84. From The Oxford Companion to Sports and Games. 4. UNIT 14 Sports 1. UNIT 11 Education 1.excerpts from an interview with Hubert Humphrey.an extract from Martin Luther King's speech at the Lincoln Memorial on August 28 1963. . An Interview with Jack Nicholson by Beverly Walker. Statistics from the National Education Association. Lobbyists and Their Issues a) American Israel Public Affairs Committee by Thomas Dine b) The Wilderness Society by Rebecca Leet. 5. From Time. UNIT 10 America's Global Role 1.For Middle-Aged Man. 8. William Fulbright. " — an interview with Irving Kristol. A President's Mission — extracts from George Bush's nomination acceptance speech. From Public Opinion. Top Dogs and Underdogs by J. From USA Today.And Politics. 2. 4. Michener. From Saturday Review. 5. Dilemmas. William Fulbright. From Time. American Policy in Vietnam. UNIT 13 The Arts 1. From Time. From Sports in America by James A. 6.

The Part С exercises—linked to the texts in Part B —are designed to provoke discussion and to develop language skills such as comprehension and text analysis. Some of these are listed below. • Because of the breadth of historical and contemporary information that it contains. It is suitable both for classroom use and for self-study and individual research. How to Use the Book America in Close-up can be used in a number of different ways. the texts explore a wide range of issues and accumulatively paint an authentic picture of current trends and debates. and because of its design is unusually flexible both in the classroom and as a self-study aid.Introduction Aims America in Close-up is a refreshingly different type of book for use by advanced students of English in the upper grades of secondary schools and on the more basic courses in colleges and universities. Some exercises reflect explicitly the important cross-cultural objective which underlies this book. It is our belief that by studying American life. By combining the two functions of reader and reference book it aims to offer students the most complete possible introduction to American life and institutions. It is the factual information in the Part A sections which provides the historical and cultural context necessary for the students to understand these issues. America in Close-up is the ideal basic coursebook for an American Studies program. Taken together. . students will become not only more sensitive to their own environment but also better able to understand and accept cultural differences wherever they meet them. Content and Organization Each unit of America in Close-up is divided into three sections: Part A: factual background information Part B: authentic texts Part C: exercises The texts in Part В form the reader and the focus is on contemporary America. these build into a comprehensive work of reference that covers almost all major areas of American life. Taken from individual writers with lively and divergent views.

indeed. America in Close-up can be used equally well as a general companion to the study of other fictional (and non-fictional) texts —for example. Again the option is there for classroom use or individual study.S. Teachers will decide for themselves how much of the background information in the Part A sections to draw in. is the topic under consideration. some may prefer to concentrate on these for a more systematic and factual approach. America in Close-up offers teachers and students information and reading material on a given aspect of America as and when this is appropriate.INTRODUCTION 11 The authentic reading material and the wide variety of exercises in America in Close-up make it a stimulating textbook for use in advanced English language classes where the U. drama. short story or complete novel. . Used selectively. to provide the socio-economic background to a poem.

advocated simplification of the creeds and ceremonies of the Church of England and demanded strict religious discipline. however. America's unwilling immigrants. for wealth. The first successful English colony founded at Jamestown. Virginia. Protestants who disagreed with the teachings of the Church of England. When they settled in the New World. Spain. Since its early days. Lawrence River to the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River. Most people came. had the overriding influence. religion. established settlements in the northeastern region. Immigrants also came from France. English Puritans. was financed by a London company that expected to make money from the settlement. Most of the early settlers were British. WASPs are frequently considered to form the most privileged and influential group which formerly dominated U. German farmers settled in Pennsylvania. an American of British or northern European ancestry who is a member of the Protestant church. a larger number of immigrants than any country in history. who. These early immigrants were soon joined by people of other nationalities. the country has admitted more than 50 million newcomers.The Making of a Nation PART A Background Information NATION OF IMMIGRANTS FIRST IMMIGRANTS The United States is a society of immigrants. land. The language and culture of the more numerous English colonists. The British. came for profit and also for religious freedom. society. Puritan: a member of an English sect of Protestants. . Prospects of wealth also motivated French fur traders. Throughout the 1600s and 1700s permanent settlements were rapidly established all along the east coast. and the Dutch settled in New York. and still come today. and language of their particular culture. who in the 1500s established outposts in what is now Florida.S. Africans. American society was predominantly English—white AngloSaxon Protestant (WASP). In the New World they could worship as they pleased. WASP: W(hite) A(nglo)-S(axon) P(rotestant). who set up trading posts from the St. in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Swedes founded the colony of Delaware. provided slave labor in the southern colonies. and Switzerland. Stories of the New World's gold attracted the first Spanish explorers. and freedom. who were the first to colonize on a large scale. many immigrants tried to preserve the traditions. Those immigrants who did not want to feel separate from the dominant WASP culture learned English and adopted English customs.

Little Bighorn: a river flowing northward from Wyoming to join the Bighorn in southern Montana where Custer and his men were massacred by Indians in 1876. Slavic. and Jewish peoples from southern and eastern Europe. general who fought the Indians. the Native American Indians. and was killed in the battle of the Little Bighorn. especially during the great wave of railroad building in the 1850s. U. women. Among these new arrivals were Italians. The new immigrants were Latin. soldiers opened fire upon unarmed Indian men. the overwhelming majority of immigrants. They did not want the "white man's civilization. Russians. Northern and western Europe were no longer providing the majority of the immigrants. and they hunted game. famines or political unrest. Up until 1880. Between 1845 and 1860. During the peak years of German immigration. Plains Indian: a member of the mostly nomadic tribes of Indians who once inhabited the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. Europeans arrived in great numbers and needed land and game for their survival.S." A new wave of immigration began in the late 1800s. During this period.000 Germans came to live in the U. and treaties.S. Those that remained tried to resist the U. The clash of cultures led to many battles. and Greeks. The Plains Indians' final defeat in 1890 at the Battle of Wounded Knee symbolized the end of the Indians' traditional way of life. government's efforts to confine them to reservations.: (1839-76). came from northern or western Europe. The proportion of newcomers increased rapidly so that by 1860 about 13 of every 100 persons in the U. To the Indians the white men were unwanted trespassers. By the end of the nineteenth century disease and warfare had almost wiped out the Indian population. Shortly after the famous Indian leader Chief Sitting Bull (1834-90) had been killed. They seized Indian lands through war. In one year alone—1847— 118. railroad: the building of railroads played an important role in the opening up of the American West. In the mid-1800s. . George A. from 1852 to 1854.S. cut forests. were recent immigrants. thousands of Chinese emigrated to California. German immigration was especially heavy. had a larger population than any single European country. and appearance Custer. with over 23 million inhabitants. From the Indians' perspective. Many left Europe to escape poor harvests. The northern and western Europeans who arrived between 1840 and 1880 are often referred to as the "old immigration.S. 1890. Between 1840 and 1860. the United States received the greatest influx of immigrants ever.S. Private companies supported by both state and private funds competed in this enterprise and hired vast numbers of laborers. the story of European immigration is a story of struggle and displacement. 10 million people came to America. all people whose languages. They were also called Buffalo Indians. Wounded Knee: the battle at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota on December 29. By the middle of the century the United States. over 500. Rumanians." They had their own which had been successful for centuries. and children leaving more than 200 dead. Hungarians. Poles. a serious blight on the potato crop in Ireland sent hundreds of thousands of Irish people to the U. marked the final act in the tragedy of the Indian wars.120 Irish people settled in the U. to escape starvation. however.S. where most of them worked on the railroad. customs. and built big ci ties. threats.14 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP AMERICAN INDIANS OLD IMMIGRATION SOUTHEASTERN EUROPEANS European settlement changed the fate of America's only non-immigrants. among them General Custer's famous Last Stand at Little Bighorn in 1876.

000 per year. Many American workers resented new immigrant laborers who were willing to work for lower wages. Immigrants were crowding into the largest cities. receiving military aid mainly from Communist China. The government responded to the prejudices of an older wave of immigrants. Chinese immigration to the Pacific coast had already been halted in 1882. the Asians seem most willing to assimilate. Among these newcomers.THE MAKING OF A NATION 15 NATIVIST SENTIMENT ASSIMILATION PROCESS RECENT IMMIGRATION set them apart conspicuously from the earlier immigrants of Celtic or Teutonic origin.000 or even 700. the numbers have again risen dramatically. The descendents of these turn-of-the-century arrivals were gradually assimilated into American society. By the second generation. The assimilation of these new southern and eastern peoples was a source of conflict. often forming ethnic neighborhoods—"Little Italys" or "Chinatowns"—where they preserved their language and customs. Americans feared the immigrants were taking away their jobs. Many old stock Americans observed with alarm that the ethnic composition of the country was changing and feared that America was losing its established character and identity. These ethnic enclaves grew at an astonishing rate. By the fourth or fifth generation. so that recent statistics indicate an increase to perhaps 600. and the Vietcong (a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam) and North Vietnam. often became nostalgic about family heritage. however. Many are Cambodian and Vietnam refugees who fled the destruction and upheaval of the Vietnam War. when refugees are included. these families spoke mostly English and they practiced fewer ethnic traditions. Religious prejudice against Catholics and Jews was another factor underlying much of the resentment towards immigrants. Cambodians and Vietnamese have usually shown a drive to succeed as Americans. or Asia. particularly New York and Chicago. were better able to identify themselves as Americans. The first generation typically faced obstacles to assimilation on both sides: society's discrimination and their own reluctance to give up their language and culture. . Members of the third generation. America is again faced with an assimilation problem. desiring to regain the ethnic identity before it was lost. This new wave of immigration was so great that in the peak years of unlimited immigration between 1900 and 1920 the number of immigrants sometimes rose to as many as a million a year. In the 1920s Congress passed quota restrictions which favored immigration from northern and western Europe and drastically limited the number of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. They encourage their children to speak accentless English and play American games. usually no longer able to speak the language of their grandparents. The majority of the newest immigrants come from Mexico. Their children. intermarriage between ethnic groups usually worked against any yearnings towards reestablishing the ethnic identity. Vietnam War: a conflict (1954—75) between South Vietnam. Growing industrialization in the late nineteenth century led industries to favor an "open door" immigration policy to expand the labor force. In 1893 Chicago had the largest Czech population in the world and almost as many Poles as Warsaw. claiming racial superiority of the Nordic peoples of the old immigration over the Slavic and Latin peoples of the new immigration. Latin America. aided by the United States. Many Americans treated them with prejudice and hostility. Although immigration dropped after the 1920s. In 1890 New York was a city of foreigners: eight out of ten of its residents were foreign-born. The flood of immigration affected American cities.

are not so easily assimilated. Americans continue to debate the issue of immigration. they point out. Some groups in favour of tightening immigration restrictions argue that overpopulation is a threat. In addition.S. Other arguments for restricting immigration are rooted in the same fears that aroused nativist sentiment at the turn of the century. about 600. In the 1980s immigration.e. Some Americans. U. nationality. Restricting immigration would curb the rate of growth. America's future ethnic composition and population growth will clearly be affected by the immigration and population policies the government pursues. since 1981 to apply for status as permanent residents. has always given people the opportunity to help themselves. membership of a particular social group. On the other hand. now comprising about one-fifth of California's total population. Mexican-Americans.000 refugees per year who. most notably activists in the church sanctuary movement. population growth. i. Many Americans fear that immigrants may lower the quality of life in America by taking away Americans' jobs and by importing the same social and economic ills that exist in the countries they left. . often show a similar drive to fit in and become prosperous. most of them fleeing poverty or war in Mexico or Latin America.S. hundreds of thousands of persons entered the country illegally. As many as half the nation's estimated 3 to 5 million illegal immigrants became able to apply for legal status. many Americans more optimistically emphasize the cultural wealth and diversity which immigrants have been bringing to the nation since its conception. they argue that tightening restrictions is a necessary measure to preserve America's national identity.16 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP REFUGEES ILLEGAL ALIENS IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION Cubans. However. Fidel: born 1927. Furthermore. had a substantial impact on U.S. an immigration law passed on October 17. religion.000 immigrants were legally admitted each year. Cuban revolutionary and prime minister since 1959. The argument against recognizing and admitting economic refugees is that the nation's resources could not accommodate a sudden influx of the world's poor and provide them with jobs and assistance. American society. Many illegal aliens supply cheap labor as farm workers at harvest time or work at menial tasks which Americans shun. When both legal and illegal entries were counted. Castro. nativist: protecting the interests of natives against those of immigrants. persons suffering from severe poverty. would like to broaden the concept "refugee" to include economic refugees. close to one half of all growth was attributable to immigration. Based on current rates. many of whom were wealthy property owners before Castro's regime. These circumstances encouraged many people to risk illegal employment in the U. They generally have a strong sense of their own culture and often marry among themselves Under the 1980 Refugee Act the United States has admitted some 50. are fleeing their country because of persecution on the basis of race. 1986 attempted to stamp out the incentive for aliens to enter the country illegally by imposing strict penalties on businesses hiring illegal aliens. In the years between 1980 and 1985. church sanctuary movement: a movement of American churches helping refugees and illegal immigrants by giving them shelter and protection from eviction. this law provided the opportunity for aliens who had lived and worked in the U.S. Up to 1986 the law forbade illegal immigrants to work in the United States but did not penalize employers for hiring them. as defined by this act. In addition. population could double in only 40 years. or political opinion. both legal and illegal.

a more accurate picture of American society today. with fewer and fewer people able to claim WASP status. in the early 1900s.. where more than 10 percent speaks a language other than English at home. 1971-80 Asia Latin America II D II Southern and Northern and Canada Eastern Europe Western Europe Other( including Africa) . diversity is a major characteristic. as the ethnic composition changed even more. In the past. distinct American type. 1821 -1980) 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1830 -1841 -1850-1860-1870 -1880-1890 -1900-1910-1920-1930-1940 -1950-1960-1970-1980 Who WereThey? (Immigrants by Region.... one that conveys its astonishing variety of cultures. In a country where currently 6 percent of the population is foreign-born.. all other presidents were Protestant. America's policy towards Americanizing immigrants stressed assimilation into WASP culture.... Since the 1960s. High political offices are held by non-whites and non-Protestants. has disappeared. The well-known picture of America as a melting pot where all groups come together. Before John F.. creating a new. Many groups. almond-eyed or olive-skinned. were not regarded by the majority as true Americans... the majority of Americans considered themselves WASPs.. religious identity—WASP — which once unified the country under certain shared assumptions and values. Americans' attitudes towards ethnic and religious differences have altered. Kennedy became the first Catholic to be elected President of the United States in 1960. Americans are aware that the national ethnic. each preserving its own distinctiveness.... Pressure on immigrants to Americanize and altogether forget their background has relaxed. the country's leaders were old stock American Protestants... is not an adequate metaphor. 1821-1980) 100%- 7У1 /y VZ- : : ' ' ■ ' 1821-60 1861-1900 1901-30 1931-60 1961-70 M i l l . On the whole. The mass migration at the turn of the century brought a new heterogeneity to American society which challenged WASPs to acknowledge that Americans could be Catholic or Jewish.THE MAKING OF A NATION 17 \ IDENTITY \CRISIS V— The debate over immigration comes at a time when Americans are wrestling with the problem of identity... is vegetable soup.. I . for example blacks. still.. Newcomers were expected to assimilate and live on the majority's terms. Still. and. whose ancestors were brought over as slaves. MILLIONS How Many Came? (Immigration by decade.. and where newcomers are crossing the borders daily in droves.

Here you are free and you have pride Long as you stay on your own side.^ « Щ\j 'BEST PICTURE' Winner of 10 Academy Awards "WEST SIDE STORY.A. Organized crime in America. You forget I'm in America. Everywhere grime in America. One look at us and they charge twice. Terrible time in America. Twelve in a room in America. UNLIKE OTHER MUSICALS 'WEST SIDE STORY' GROWS YOUNGER: 3c 8. Lots of new housing with more space.S. Ev'rything free in America. Life is all right in America If you're white in America. I'll get a terraced apartment. Everyone there will give big cheer! Everyone there will have moved here. What will you have though to keep clean? Skyscrapers bloom in America. Have a lot soon in America.1 ^ \ in» . * NATALIE WOOD . RICHARD ВЕУМЕВ ■ RUSS TAMBLYN • RITA MORENO ■ GEORGE CHAKIRIS n 1 о' > 2 I like to be in America. Better get rid of your accent! Life can be bright in America — If you can fight in America. Okay by me in America. Buying on credit is so nice. / think I'll go back to San Juan. Free to be anything you choose -Free to wipe tables and shine shoes. I know a boat you can get on.3. .. Lots of doors slamming in our face. Ill Jl. Industry boom in America.. For a small fee in America.18 PART в Texts "AMERICA" In the musical West Side Story — lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and music by Leonard Bernstein — Puerto Ricans express their experiences as a minority in the U. I'd have my own washing-machine.

the first black mayor of New York City. BM». mayor of the "City of New York from 1978 to 1989. тштт Хос/г.12. Edward: born 12.THE MAKING OF A NATION 19 ©New York— A Melting Pot?.1924. . He was succeeded by David Dinkins.

the Khmer Rouge drafted the young. They can apply either for asylum. "nothing's ever completely over. brother and a cousin. expresses a somewhat cynical of what it takes to succeed in America. 32. The United States formally recognizes this by allowing the persecuted to circumvent the normal system. The two arrived in America. with a two-hour stint as a family for $800 a month. without carves miniature wooden ox carts." says Sath. works a 45-hour week on the production line the water to die. get to where you have to be on time." So then why do Sath and his wife. when A Cambodian immigrant working in the U. of Former refugee Savuth Sath. where he loans I'll really be on my own. He bought his 80-year-old house for $107. and the three made their way to a That leaves Sath with a few hours at home. Mom Chhay. 1986 Khmer Rouge: red." But Sath has little time today for reflecting on nature. Although each case is theoretically considered on its own merits.20 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Immigration Today: A Case Study For those fleeing political." Sometimes he Mom Chhay. . But recently the number of refugees admitted to the United States has dropped sharply. "I'm almost free. Mom Chhay. "Boys and girls dried up like 50 percent more for overtime.M. he was separated from his family in 1975.000 Cambodians were accepted into the United States under this system by the early 1980s. a militant force receiving military support from North Vietnam. not persecution.? "Money is a necessary tool for real estate." he says. Then he drives to a dom.M. For the next four years he lived surrounded by death and on from 3 P. Cambodians. "It's an acting exercise.000 and we had millions of rats. 25." In 1979 he was reunited with one of a medical-diagnostic lab in Newton. "Girls especially would just lie down in while. Mass." Sath's penchant for security is easy to understand. if they are outside the country. there he met and married he is "looking for something to do.. and you'll be fine. unmarried men and women of his country into forced-labor camps. replicas of the luggage or money. rents the upstairs apartment to another Cambodian His workday starts at noon.view Cambodia. or later at $8. "I'm still working for a living now. 'You need only to make yourself look as decent as you can. meanair. His first impression: the ones found m Cambodia. religious or racial repression. Often he peruses the real-estate ads. till 11 P. Mass. while watching game squirrels. He would like to increase caseworker at the Jewish Vocational Training Center his real-estate holdings." works as a supervisor From Newsweek magazine. do what you're required to do." he says.S. in 1981. At least 120. or refugee status. immigration to America can be a life-anddeath matter. "They play so close to the house. One of five children of a poor Cambodian noodle vendor. July 14." Besides.05 an hour . and refugee camp in Thailand. or Communist. "When I pay off my food-processing plant in Watertown. In my country shows on TV. hold down one part-time and two fulltime jobs even as they serve as landlords in their multifamily house in Chelsea. but he feels that each loan — one of several jobs counseling Cambodians he's held means giving back a piece of his newfound freesince arriving in the United States." he says. opposing the right-wing nationalist regime of General Lon Nol. if they are already here or at a port of entry.and the edge of starvation. We could run out of food here next. federal officials today keep a sharp eye out for those who seem to be "economic migrants" running from poverty.

S. too few or about Too Many Too Few right? About Right 26% 11% 50% 53% 5% European Countries Latin America 30% 31% 12% African Countries Asian Countries 37% 49% 6% £. Others oppose this plan on the grounds that it would give the federal government too much knowledge and control over all Americans. Others say the government should do everything it can to arrest those living in this country illegally.S. Others oppose such a penalty because it would restrict U. The Gallup Organization interviewed 751 adults by telephone on June 1. 1984 .THE MAKING OFANATION 21 A NEWSWEEK POLL ON IMMIGRATION Americans surveyed by NEWSWEEK were divided in their views on immigrants several proposals to stem a rising tide of illegal immigration into this country.S. Or do you support the use of a second language in some areas to help immigrants participate in education.S. by penalizing companies that knowingly hire them. public signs. government forms and official messages in the United States. 'Don't knows' not shown. Many immigrants wind up on welfare and raise taxes for Americans Immigrants help improve our culture with their different cultures and talents. June 25. public affairs and daily life? English Only 47% Second Language 49% О Some people say the government should make it much more difficult for illegal aliens to get work in the U. The margin of error is plus or minus 4 percentage points. The NEWSWEEK Poll @ 7984 by NEWSWEEK Inc. From Newsweek magazine. Many immigrants work hard — often taking jobs that Americans don't want. Agree 61% 80% 59% 61% Disagree 36% 17% 33% 35% For this NEWSWEEK Poll. workers. Which view comes close to your own? Penalize Companies 61% Oppose Penalties 28% 4. Do you feel that English only should 33% be used in all public schools. Which comes closer to your view? Amnesty for Those Here 34% О Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Arrest and Deport 55% Immigrants take jobs from U. business.Some people propose that the federal government issue identity cards to all citizens and legal immigrants to distinguish them from those who are in the country illegally. they feel we should have an amnesty to let most of these aliens live here legally. businesses too much and limit opportunities for legal immigrants — especially Hispanics. and on I Do you think the number of immigrants now entering the U. Which view comes closest to your own? Issue ID Card 42% Oppose ID Card 52% О Some people say there are too many illegal immigrants living in this country for the authorities to arrest and deport them. from each of the following areas is too many. 2 and 3.

Now have a closer look at the language which is used in the song to express the contrasting views of America. Chelsea. Inc. 1. Major expanding food company is seeking careeroriented applicants for the position of MANAGEMENT ASSISTANT to supervise production of our chicken processing plant. what is the difference in the two groups' views of America? 2. The song is recited by two groups of Puerto Ricans. • in which respects the people of New York differ • whether he thinks New York is a melting pot • what he thinks about those who tried to forget their heritage in order to become true Americans Write the tabularized resume and the application for Savuth Sath. Which stylistic and syntactical means does Stephen Sondheim use when he makes the second group take up and react to the points brought up by the first group? 4. 4. plan and coordinate new food section. Analyzing a Song "America" 1. Writing a Resume Immigration Today: A Case Study Savuth Sath reads the following ad in the Chelsea Gazette. 2. About half the Americans surveyed believe that too many Asians immigrate into the U. Comprehension Check A Newsweek Poll on Immigration Determine whether the statements are true or false and correct the false ones with reference to the information given in the Newsweek poll. You want to know: • how he felt about being the mayor of New York • how many inhabitants the mayor of New York is responsible for • what he did to get to know the people of New York • how many people are represented at the U. We offer advancement opportunities and an attractive salary. Send your application with a resume in tabular form including • all personal facts • qualifications and present job • hobbies and other interests CHICKENHOUSE FREEZEWAY. Most Americans believe that the fastest way of being integrated into American life is speaking only English. Generally speaking. simulate an interview with Mayor Koch based on the information given on the back cover of his book.N. MA 2. . What do you think Stephen Sondheim's intention was when writing the lyrics of this song? • the role ethnic traditions should play • why some immigrant groups changed their names • if he can give examples of the new awareness of ethnic traditions 3. how is the theme of the ambivalent American experience developed? 3.22 PART C Exercises 1.S. Looking at each of the eight stanzas of the song. How are these stylistic devices used to convey the differing viewpoints of the singers? How would you describe the general tone of the song? 5. Interview Practice New York—A Melting Pot? Working in pairs.

do they live? How do they differ from the majority of people in your country with respect to customs. 4. 7. Most Americans would not like to see illegal immigrants return to their countries. A vast majority of Americans believe that firms which hire illegal aliens should be penalized. Discussion Points 1.THE MAKING OF A NATION 23 3. The notion that the culture of immigrants enriches the American culture is not shared by most people surveyed. To what extent do you think immigrants of different ethnic backgrounds should be integrated into society? How do the ethnic minorities themselves feel about this issue? 5. food. Most Americans feel that the government would have too much control over them if identity cards were introduced. clothing. How is immigration handled in your country? Are there any major restrictions? What do you know about the immigrants' motives for leaving their mother countries and what are their expectations about living in your country? 3.? 2. About a third of all Americans agree that many immigrants are a social and economic burden for society. There is almost unanimous agreement that illegal immigrants are hard-working people. Picture Analysis Describe and compare these pictures featuring immigration to the U. etc. Illegal Mexican immigrants detected by helicopter border control as they try to cross the Rio Grande German immigrants in the 1890s greeting the Statue of Liberty as they enter New York Harbor . 8. 6. 5. music.S. religion. 100 years ago and today. Are there different ethnic groups in your country? Where do they come from? Where 6.

S. When the main speakers have finished.24 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 7. Debate Prepare and carry out a debate on the motion "The U. should strictly prohibit all illegal immigration. at the end of which the opposer and then the proposer give summaries of the points which have been made. who take up the arguments already presented." The following diagram and the text are meant to inform you about the structure and the rules of a debate. Finally a vote is taken on the motion. The audience may interrupt the speakers to ask questions on points of information (but not to discuss their arguments!). The proposer makes a short speech giving arguments for the motion. Chairperson proposer opposer For seconder :: : seconder audience A debate is a formal discussion led by a chairperson who presents the subject of the debate which is called the motion. 8. Essay Writing "Emigrating to the U. Then the proposer and the opposer are supported by their seconders. the chairperson declares the motion open to general discussion by the audience.S. whereas the opposer speaks against it. Today" Write an essay of about 300 words on this topic expressing why you could or could not imagine emigrating to the United States. .

Because of religious. press. Yet this ideal has not always corresponded to reality.S. including provisions for freedom of speech. assures individual rights. Americans commonly regard their society as the freest and best in the world. racial.S. American history is the Founding Father: member of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which drafted the fundamental law of the U. for such events give substance to the ideal of freedom that America represents to its people and to the world. there are certain ideals and values. and religion. Bill of Rights: the first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States. or age discrimination some Americans have not enjoyed the same rights and opportunities as others. The notion that America offers freedom for all is an ideal that unifies Americans and links present to past. The news of a Soviet ballet dancer's or Polish artist's defection to the United States arouses a rush of national pride. which many Americans share. Americans' understanding of freedom is shaped by the Founding Fathers' belief that all people are equal and that the role of government is to protect each person's basic "inalienable" rights. sex. The inconsistency of black slavery in a society supposedly dedicated to freedom and equality plagued the nation from the very beginning and was not resolved until the Civil War. having a particular race or creed or lifestyle does not identify one as American.2 American Beliefs and Values PART A Background Information IDEALS AND VALUES What among all of its regional and cultural diversity gives America its national character and enables its citizens to affirm their common identity as Americans? Clearly. Moreover. They are proud to point out that even today America's immigration offices are flooded with hopeful applicants who expect the chance for a better life. ratified in 1791. Constitution's Bill of Rights. rooted in the country's history. They like to think of their country as a welcoming haven for those longing for freedom and oppor tunity. such news events provide continuity to Americans' perception of their history as being that of a nation populated by immigrants who exercised free choice in coming to the New World for a better life. FREEDOM At the center of all that Americans value is freedom. . Reality continues to demonstrate that some social groups and individuals are not as fr ee as others. The U. However. In a real sense.

William (1842—1910): American philosopher and psychologist. In By Blue Ontario's Shore Whitman writes. Early twentieth-century Pragmatists such as William James and John Dewey insisted upon the individual's ability to control his or her fate. япс! poet. men who braved the wilderness alone. The idealization of the selfreliant individual translated itself in the industrial age into the celebration of the small businessman who became a financial success on his own. believed that a free individual's identity should be held sacred and that his or her dignity and integrity should not be violated. argued for more individual self-reliance. "Right to work" laws. understood not only as self-reliance but also as economic selfsufficiency. critic. . David ("Davy") (1786-1836): American frontiersman and politician. and author. James. Government regulation is often resisted in the spirit of individualism. what works is what counts. Fuller. and feminist leader. Even in today's society. Survival in the wilderness was best achieved by robust individualists. including Ralph Waldo Emerson. third president of the nation and author of the Declaration of Independence. Thoreau. Henry David Thoreau. and individualism has strong philosophical roots in America. Dewey. The American compact is altogether with individuals. America's nineteenth-century Transcendentalist philosophers. Henry David (1817—62): American philosopher. John (1859-1952): American philosopher. individualism persists. most Americans were farmers whose success depended not on cooperation with others but on their ability to confront the hardships of land and climate on their own. essayist. the concept of "rugged individualism' is commonly identified with frontier heroes such as Daniel Boone and Davy Crockett. Daniel (1734—1820): American pioneer. Ralph Waldo (1803-82): American philosopher. The nineteenth-century poet Walt Whitman celebrated the individual in his poetry. I swear nothing is good to me now that ignores individuals. In the early days. which discourage union activity.26 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP INDIVIDUALISM IDEALIZING WHAT IS PRACTICAL history of groups and individuals struggling to attain the freedoms the Founding Fathers promised. are defended on the grounds that they protect the independence of the individual worker. Crockett. Survival experiences also explain the American tendency to idealize whatever is practical. where most Americans work for large. Individual proprietorship in business is still extolled as the ideal. explored and settled Kentucky. In America. Transcendentalists encouraged individuals to trust in themselves and their own consciences and to revolt against routine and habitual paths of conduct. complex organizations and few people can claim economic self-sufficiency. In American history. Boone. essayist. Most pioneers who went west Emerson. Both success and virtue were measured by individual resourcefulness. educator. philosopher. Americans' notion of freedom focuses on the individual. Individualism. Margaret (1810—50): American author. Many historians believe that most of the beliefs and values which are characteristically American emerged within the context of the frontier experience. and Margaret Fuller. has been a central theme in American history. frontier: in American history the frontier was the edge of the settled country where unlimited cheap land was available attracting pioneers who were willing to live the hard but independent life in the West. Thomas Jefferson. and poet.

The do-it-yourself spirit is known as volunteerism in American community and political life. make no delay. The willingness to participate in such groups is so widespread that six out of ten Americans are members of a volunteer organization. Sir Thomas Dale. The first colonists of the New World wrote letters back home. resources were gradually depleted. Volunteer fund-raising groups step in to help the needy in all spheres: there are groups that hold clothing drives for the poor and homeless as well as groups that organize expensive money-raising dinners to save a symphony orchestra. Self-service arrangements include time-saving clerkless airline ticket counters and do-it-yourself telephone installment kits. and legal aid. These kinds of solutions appeal to Americans' preference for whatever is quick and practical. Americans have regarded their country as a land of limitless wealth. fur trappers. are highly motivated workers who organize themselves and others to solve a particular community problem or meet an immediate social need. Did it matter? No. They like to think they are natural-born do-it-yourselfers. Our lands are broad enough. for example. When a high school football team requires money for uniforms. arising wherever social services do not cover community needs. This "can-do" spirit is something Americans are proud of today. volunteers provide services such as adult education. they may in no way compare with this country either for commodities or goodness of soil. Volunteerism is pervasive." Fertile land was cheap and available to anyone who wanted to farm. but they trusted they would be able to devise workable solutions to the daily problems and dangers they faced. A country where everyone could take what he wanted was indeed alluring. agencies. said of his colony: "Take four of the best kingdoms in Christendom and put them all together. don't be alarmed. Historically. The abundance of untapped natural resources on the American frontier attracted not only farmers. Those who exploited the land exercised little . rather than government-sponsored. There were still inexhaustible acres in the limitless West. The words of a popular pioneer song capture the attitude that prevailed: Come along. psychological counseling. contrasting the riches of America with the scarcity of the lands from which they came. gold and silver miners. parents and students form an athletic association which organizes car washes and bake sales to raise money for uniforms. Come from every nation. but also game hunters. and cotton lands were also abandoned when their fertility was used up. In which country does one find such a variety of "how-to" books and self-service opportunities? There are do-it-yourself books on everything from how to build and repair your own engine to how to be your own best friend. It is easy to be an optimistic do-it-yourselfer in so many spheres when one takes for granted an abundance of resources. Volunteerism reflects Americans' optimistic pride in their ability to work out practical solutions themselves. Some tobacco lands began to be exhausted and abandoned before the end of the eighteenth century. For Uncle Sam is rich enough to give us all a farm. Where there are gaps in federal social programs.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 27 VOLUNTEERISM PSYCHOLOGY OF ABUNDANCE had not trained themselves in prairie fanning or sod house construction. and cattle ranchers. come from every way. governor of Virginia in 1611. come along. usually unpaid. Inventiveness was necessary for survival. lumberjacks. rather than waiting for someone else—usually the government—to do it. Volunteerism means people helping people through privatelyinitiated. Volunteers. Yet as settlement on the east coast increased.

Yet patriotism in America is in some ways distinct from patriotism in other countries. As a nation of immigrants. when Americans go house-hunting. perhaps buying a house and then reselling it each time they move. A comfortable. Today. however. their foremost concern is usually how profitably they will be able to resell the house. bumper stickers announce "I'm proud to be American. Consequently. this identification with a particular geographical region as the Thanksgiving Day: a national holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November to give thanks to God for the harvest. Now. Pioneers made the arduous journey westward because they believed they could establish a better life for themselves and their children. . Mobility in America is not a sign of aimlessness but optimism. Cultural differences still exist from region to region. others reluctantly recognize that the era of cheap and plentiful resources is over. Americans move from place to place with the same sense of optimism. Westerners are faced with the need to restrict population growth and reconsider uses for water. The buffalo was hunted to near extinction. Foreign visitors to America are quick to observe the prevalence of patriotic symbols: flags fly in suburban neighborhoods. After all. national pride has become generally stronger than regional pride. hoping to secure a better job or enjoy a warmer climate. America's Mountain West.28 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP MOBILITY PATRIOTISM restraint and opposed government regulation of their activities. In America. But attitudes toward wastefulness are changing. but they are becoming increasingly less distinct as mutual exchange occurs. thereby inhibiting their chances of bettering their lives. and forests. The pragmatism of Americans and their trust in an abundance of resources relates to the American habit of mobility. In this century. In many nations. valleys. The American habit of mobility has been important in contributing a degree of homogeneity to a society of such extreme cultural diversity and spaciousness. They realize that America must adopt new values to cope with a shrinking world. a national holiday celebrating the anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Still America is rich in natural resources. Moving about from place to place is such a common and accepted practice that most Americans take it for granted that they may live in four or five cities during their lifetime. Americans have from the beginning shared the assumption that the practical solution to a problem is to move elsewhere and make a fresh start. remembering particularly the first successful harvest of the early settlers who had suffered a terrible winter when they arrived. and rivers were polluted from mining. this is the attitude that settled the West. well-designed house is not necessarily desirable unless it has a good resale value. is suffering from a severe water shortage." the national anthem is played at every sporting event. the least populated region of the country where resources seem barely tapped. National holidays such as Thanksgiving and Independence Day intensify the sense of national identity. A further consequence of Americans' mobility is that they develop relatively little attachment to place. Independence Day: July 4. patriotism is essentially the love of the land. Songs celeb rate the scenery of certain rivers. While some Americans still believe in the inexhaustibility of the nation's resources. Americans hate to feel that buying a house might immobilize them forever. this specific sense of place. Limits such as these are difficult to acknowledge because they contradict the psychology of abundance which has become so much a part of the American way of life. millions of acres of forested land were cut and burned.

Segregation and discrimination are effective tools which have barred minorities from equal opportunities in all spheres. The mainstream Protestant values which had held society together seemed to be collapsing. The ultimate significance. However. most obviously the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal.C. pass these values to their children. The great-grandparents. . there has been increasing disparity of opinion about Americans' values and national goals. In this immigrant society. Adams in The Epic of America (1931) expressed it as "the dream of a land in which life should be better. Directly associated with the value of freedom is the ideal of progress. eludes precise definition. progress is personally measured as family progress over generations. The classic American family saga is all about progress. that the American Dream is not open to all. particularly minorities. richer. as well as a renewal of national pride. used in widely different contexts from political speeches to Broadway musicals. Vietnam War: see page 15. is generally not developed to this extent. The attainment of the vision of one's grandparents is part of the American Dream. Many Americans can boast that with each succeeding generation since their first ancestors arrived. of this conservative revival is uncertain. however. The desire to progress by making use of opportunities is important to Americans. Watergate scandal: an illegal break-in at the Democratic Party headquarters in Washington. It teaches Americans to believe that contentment can be reached through the virtues of thrift. The second generation. throughout America's history. and fuller for every man with opportunities for each according to his abilities and achievement. The term American Dream. and no coherent. T. President Nixon's cover-up led to his resignation in 1974. family loyalty." The American Dream is popularized in countless rags-to-riches stories and in the portrayal of the good life in advertising and on TV shows. The 1980s saw a return to conservative family values and morals. involving Republican presidential campaign employees. American patriotism is concentrated instead upon the particular historic event of the nation's creation as a new start and upon the idea of freedom which inspired the nation's beginnings. Some critics observe that with the breakdown of consensus on beliefs and values which began around 1970. jolted the country with doubts and insecurities and created fundamental divisions among Americans about their country's goals. in 1972. and faith in the free enterprise system. J. work hard and suffer poverty and alienation so that they can provide a good education for their children. unifying system of belief emerged as an alternative. reality has also taught her citizens. hard work. The nation's progress has been measured by the taming of the frontier and industrial expansion.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 29 PROGRESS AMERICAN DREAM QUESTIONING OF VALUES homeland. the family's status has improved. Events in the late 1960s and early 1970s. D. arriving from the Old World with nothing but the clothes on their backs. motivated by the same vision of the future and willingness to work hard and make sacrifices.

others to seek The Statue of Liberty . White When he died seven weeks ago. the paddyfields of China." But over the next two centuries the call would reach the potato patches of Ireland. Below is an excerpt from the unfinished piece.30 PART в Texts THE AMERICAN IDEA By Theodore H. Jefferson himself could not have imagined the reach of his call across the world in time to come when he wrote: "We hold these truths to be self-evident. SOME OF THE FIRST EUROPEAN Americans had come to the new continent to worship God in their own way. stirring farmers to leave their lands and townsmen their trades and thus unsettling all traditional civilizations. was working on an article for this magazine to commemorate the Fourth of July. the Pulitzer Prize-winning author and journalist. that all men are created equal. that among these are life. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights. that we now celebrate. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. embodied in the great statue that looks down the Narrows of New York Harbor. the ghettoes of Europe. Theodore H. and in the immigrants who answered the call. It is the call from Thomas Jefferson. well before Thomas Jefferson put it into words — and the idea rang the call. T HE IDEA WAS THERE AT THE very beginning. White.

or disemboweled. continued their fortunes. it was adopted on July 4 1776. while still alive. By the time Jefferson drafted his call. the best-trained troops in the world. the colonial leaders who had been meeting as a Continental Congress in Philadelphia voted to approve Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. The story we celebrate this weekend is the story of how this idea worked itself out.. men were in the field fighting for those newlearned freedoms. How they won their battles is a story for the schoolbooks. studied by scholars.. But the freedom of the wilderness whetted their appetites for more freedoms." Unless their new "United States of America" won the war. given to the U. how it stretched and changed and how the call for "life. the Congressmen would be judged traitors as relentlessly as would the irregulars-under-arms in the field. their national states can be torn apart and remade without losing their nationhood. Only something worth dying for could unite American volunteers and keep them in the field — a stated cause. a flag. the first emigrants had to learn to govern themselves. When. drawn. the new world changed those Europeans.S. wrapped in myths by historians and poets. But. as it did in the beginning. And all knew what English law allowed in the case of a traitor. Englishmen are English. . Statue of Liberty: a large copper statue located on Liberty Island in New York harbor. above all the Englishmen who had come to North America. Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 31 1. a nation they could call their own. it was not puffed-up rhetoric for them to pledge to each other "our lives. by France in 1886. while their governments come and go. But what is most important is the story of the idea that made them into a nation. Declaration of Independence: the document that proclaimed the freedom of the 13 American colonies from British rule. on the Fourth of July. To survive. Frenchmen are French. Neither King nor Court nor Church could stretch over the ocean to the wild continent. The new Americans were tough men fighting for a very tough idea. created the United States Government. mean different things to different people . All other nations had come into being among people whose families had lived for time out of mind on the same land where they were born. the idea that had an explosive power undreamed of in 1776. not the place. The victim could be partly strangled. War of Independence: the war between Great Britain and her colonies in North America (1775—83) by which the colonies won their independence (also called the Revolutionary War). 1776. our fortunes and our sacred honor. over a century-and-a-half. his entrails then burned and his body quartered. but the idea. supplied by the world's greatest navy. Chinese are Chinese. But Americans are a nation born of an idea. killing and being killed by English soldiers. liberty and the pursuit of happiness" does still.

Olympia. Universe. It took me five years of hard work. J Arnold Schwarzenegger It is the country where you can turn your dream into reality. that I'm a very important person. When I came over here to America. I hold the record as Mr. I have to win more often the Mr.. Everybody gave up competing against me. that people recognize me and see me as something special. When I was a small boy. the top professional body-building championship. Other countries don't have those things. my dream was not to be big physically. When I was fifteen. Economics and accounting and mathematics. I came out second three times. how do you keep it? . Turning one dollar into a million dollars in a short period of time. . It was also a daydream. but big in way that everybody listens to me when I talk. That's why I retired. In America. One of the things I always had was a business mind. I learned English and then started taking business courses. It was a 300-year-old house. Number One in America pretty much takes care of the rest of the world. I had the dream of being the best in the world in something. It was so much in my mind that I felt it had to become a reality. Also my dream was to end up in America.. That's what I call a winner. You kind of run through the rest of the world like nothing. When I was in high school. I felt I was in heaven. When I was ten years old. It singles you out: the winner. Also when you make money. the best-built man in the world. we don't have an obstacle. because that's what America is best known for: business. Five years later. I won it five times consecutively. "Winning" is a very important word. When I came over here to this country. a majority of my classes were business classes. I won it six times. You have the best tax advantages here and the best prices here and the best products here. I turned this dream into reality and became Mr. There is one that achieves what he wanted to achieve and there are hundreds of thousands that failed. but that is not what I call losing.32 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP ) Arnold Schwarzenegger I was born in a little Austrian town. The bottom line for me was: Arnold has to be the winner. I'm trying to make people in America aware that they should appreciate what they have here. I really didn't speak English almost at all. It was not only a dream I dreamed at night. I had a big need for being singled out. There was nobody even close to me. Universe title than anybody else. Nobody's holding you back. outside Graz. I had a dream that I wanted to be the best body builder m the world and the most muscular man.

But I always felt way up in the summertime and late afternoon. until my teens. of progress. It was always a magic time for me. beautiful country. continued That's one of the most important things when you have money in your hand. Our parents . which I believe in maybe three percent of the times. . Then we moved upstairs. We lived in back of the store. There was a lot of anxiety because of the hooliganism. . He'd close the store about nine o'clock at night. My parents worked very hard. You had to when you're running a small business like that. of getting rich. Sport is one of those activities where you really have to concentrate. Otherwise. I own apartment buildings. When I was in high school. She was very emotional and used to make scenes. I didn't want her to take me to school any more. It has all the money in the world there. . That's my love. a journalist. I believe very strongly in the philosophy of staying hungry.. You must control your emotions. If you have a dream and it becomes a reality. Later they found out that's not the case. Oh. When you have that dream achieved. you can go in the desert the same day. don't stay satisfied with it too long. It is now a complex of institutions. I wanted to be a writer. You must pay attention a hundred percent to the particular thing you're doing. It's a beautiful philosophy. I am a strong believer in Western philosophy. I was born in 1918. My dreams have not been fulfilled personally. There must be nothing else on your mind. Make up a new dream and hunt after that one and turn it into reality. I went the road I thought was best for me. working late at night. But what you do. I became ashamed of my mother. and America should keep it up. wonderful weather there. I can be Mr. You know what I mean? California is to me a dreamland. and all of us playing out on the street. After I achieve my goal. hanging on. You have beautiful-looking people there.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 33 2. He would do the pressing during the day. They all have a tan. real estate. A few people thought I was cold. Florence Scala led the fight against City Hall to save her old neighborhood on Chicago's near West Side. My mother decided I should have a room for myself. as a small girl. I had a feeling that things would happen in my life that would be magical. It was a multiethnic. . I think everybody has that feeling. At the same time. conquering and going on. Florence Scala In the late fifties. My first memory. of public-housing projects. was going to school and not being able to speak English. the philosophy of success. office buildings. ocean is there. Getting up very early in the morning. I thought I would grow up to be whatever it was I wanted to be. My mother did the more simple things of repairing. I was a dreamer. and raw land. Emotions must not interfere. and the sun shining and people coming home. you must have command over yourself. multiracial community. show business there. and the ninety-seven percent is Western. You're in love. It is the absolute combination of everything I was always looking for. and my father on the pressing iron and my mother sewing in the store. the sewing in the evening. The street was miserable. Snow skiing in the winter. how can you keep it? Or make more out of it? Real estate is one of the best ways of doing that. It was one of the city's most alive areas.. feeling panicky and running all the way home. I don't remember those days with loving nostalgia. expressways. a tailor shop. You have to choose at a very early date what you want: a normal life or to achieve things you want to achieve. your positive energies get channeled into another direction rather than going into your weight room or making money. it was a wonder. I remember a crowded city street. Nice Guy. I have emotions. our neighborhood was a mess. make up a new dream. They worked with their hands all the time. selfish. and a few islands of old-timers. I never wanted to win a popularity contest in doing things the way people want me to do it. you're thinking about your girlfriend. He did the pressing and the tailoring. you keep them cold or you store them away for a time. The Eastern philosophy is passive.

We're strangers. He was really an educated man by the standards of the time. Big Brother is there. how far Venus was. They remember the struggle to save the neighborhood with a certain amount of sadness and a certain amount of respect. Among Italians. People my age wanted to be more like the people from other communities . but I doubt it. He was so tired by the time he had time that he was afraid to take the trip. We were used to seeing that. I'm against bigness for its own sake. largely black. I never really got to talk to him. He was very shy and lonely. He thought the trip to the moon was a waste of time. The self-interest of the individual — "I'm number one" — is contaminating much of our thinking today. My father was frightened during the trade union wars in the cleaning industry. They seem to be acting in their own selfinterest. He was aloof. It's necessary for me to have my Social Security number available or my driver's license. I think they will become digits. we would have all we needed for the decent life. I never remember any racial conflict when I was little. I don't dream any more like I used to. There's public housing. .. left clothes. He knew how far the moon was from the earth.. It's a world I don't know. which was dominated by hoodlums. I don't see that any more.] There are things alien to my understanding. They were craftsmen. a waste of money.34 AMERICA IN CLOSE UP 2. because. The medical center students and young people from advertising and TV see it as part of chic downtown. They — the immigrants — saw themselves as being in the same predicament. because I don't have credit cards. a loner. The world doesn't seem definable any more. Our parents had no animosity toward blacks. For weeks. The world of the computer and the microwave oven. [Laughs. I see it becoming more and more disoriented. He loved opera. Anywhere I gotta pay cash. his business was closed down because they struck the plant and he had no place to send the clothes. padrone: a man who exploitatively employs or finds work for Italian immigrants. I'm not a digit yet. He would buy all the librettos. It's a time that's hard to figure out. Then he was a scab and took the clothes to another cleaning establishment. there is nothing they discovered that he hadn't already known. It's un-American. They don't take things sitting down any more. We still have our old Caruso records. Maybe it's picking up some pieces I've left behind. Even this city. There were killings on the streets. They were people who painted and did carpentry. Some old Italian families are hanging on. there were padrones who went to mediate the fights within the neighborhoods.] I don't even know what the American Dream is any more. [Laughs. It began to change as my generation was growing up. he said. They'll conform because it's the only way to go. We walk down the street and don't even look at one another. He did a lot of reading. That didn't happen in my case because I was growing up in a whole different atmosphere of pride. Later I saw it. Younger people growing up will find it easier to contend with. I believe strongly — and I see signs of it today — that what we were trying to do and didn't succeed in doing had left its mark on the people there. continued were worried because the kids might get involved and that it would touch their lives. Black people came to our store. Friends of mine would prefer to meet their friends elsewhere than invite them into the neighborhood. trying to make it in the city. The other thing he loved was astronomy. My father never participated in any of this. He had this one dream that he wanted to see Grand Canyon. It's happening with our institutions as well. Today the community is very small. I'll never have one. I don't have regrets. I believed that in this country. but I know I'm becoming one. I don't see myself as a digit. He never saw it. five or six square blocks. You see.

Section 1 Interviewer: The traditional American value system has included preaching hard work and worshipping the dollar. TV. I think that success has become more a measure of a person to himself rather than a person to society and that people don't . newspapers about people who are successes from hard work. I think they are really valid in America of nowadays because it's really coming back in on the media. and Mike McKay (18). could make it really big. if you're not a success. how they feel about being Americans. And I think anyone. if you're just a medium success.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 35 A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values In the following interview four young Americans are asked what they think about their own country. California. you can make it. It has been part of the American Dream that if you only work hard enough. The participants are Shannon Alexander (18). you feel — like you're failing. no matter what. has a different definition and money isn't really as valuable. And I think that being a success is really what's important in America — that society really frowns upon people who don't make it. if they just tried really hard. Interviewer: Mark. you agree with your brother? Mark: No. they all take English literature as on e of their college prep classes. That's my feeling. not really. I think. So. As seniors at Casa Grande High School in Petaluma. Do you think these values are still important? Andrew. and what their values are. Andrew: I think they really are. anyone at all. Mark and Andrew Ferguson (17). I feel that hard work still has its value in America but success. And really that's all we are treated with all our life. I don't think it really matters about their background.

Interviewer: Mike. It's part of their personalities. Interviewer: Do you agree. I think that the bottom line is that there are winners and there are losers. It divided American society. Mark: No. And they like to form into different groups where they all dress the same and talk the same. Interviewer: What would be winning to you? Shannon: Winning to me? Well. which would be becoming a famous actress. a young person in a professional job with a high income. Interviewer: Mark. and everybody would rather really be a winner and that somebody else be the loser. Many people felt we shouldn't have been in there first place. . Mark: Although that what you are saying is true. you want to join in? Mike: I kind of feel that the society ideal of success has really been kind of drifting out. You can just kind of look at what the Vietnam War did to us in the past 20 years. society's criticism isn't as important to people any more. Section 3 Interviewer: One feature that has often been associated with the American dream is the desire to be well-liked. Do you still subscribe to this idea? Mark. But in order to succeed you've got to compete. that would be my ideal because I love to act and I always wanted to be famous. and to them that's winning. others felt that while we were there. And. And while some people think winning would be becoming a president of a major corporation and running a whole bunch of financial situations. But I'd never want to tread over anyone else. and everybody wants to own a BMW and things like that. and it is because of the fact. they want to win without really hurting anyone else. you know. It is more important to people to be happy. I guess that is the sort of attitude I have. But a lot of people like ourselves don't conform to this yuppie: (young urban professional). even with our generation. though. is trying to achieve. you know.36 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. And actual money isn't really as important as it used to be. I'd still be conscious of the society around me. And it was really tough on America. not very much. Interviewer: Andrew. if I won. other people think winning is helping people around them. Section 2 Interviewer: It is sometimes said that winning is an American passion. However. especially one who enjoys spending money and having a fashionable way of life. I guess. continued look down on you if you're happy what you're doing. It reached its height with the American yuppie. Andrew? Andrew: No. But I wouldn't forget the people around me and I would never do any dirty tricks to get ahead. of course. it was one of the first wars we really didn't win. The yuppie. if this society is a society which encourages individualism. world-famous. In other words. Then. It divided some people. It really ripped apart American society. I don't agree because how you feel about yourself is influenced by your society and society does encourage success and does look down on its people who are not successful as far as money goes. To the social workers it's the feeling that they want to help the poor and they want to help the elderly. Shannon: I wanted to say that winning is different things to different people. Andrew: I think most people are like that. others felt we really should be there trying to save Vietnam from itself or something to that effect. I feel that society's importance to the individual has lessened. And. we might as well win. Everybody is trying to be alike. rivalry and not cooperation is the spur to achievement. And it's sort of everyone has their own ideals. And people have found that less money can make you as happy as more money. how do more social values fit in? Mike. and whether or not they are happy with themselves doesn't matter. And it really ripped us apart. and some like to help others and some people don't care about anyone but themselves. on a social level there are still many people who have to be well-liked. Mike: I definitely think that winning is an American obsession.

Andrew: There are a lot of people at this school who are.P. The rich people.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 37 value at all. really fairly phoney. I have people I act with and people that I talk with and I really enjoy my A. And that's the life I like to live. open to outstanding Seniors at an American high school. But it's more important to be more honest with yourself. Andrew: Yes. to have a respect of other people. you know. They want people to respect them and to listen to what they have to say. where it was important for me to be well-liked and I did dress like my friends and talk like my friends. Shannon: Um. I feel lucky my parents have always told me the way many people thought and I was given opportunity to choose. Interviewer: Andrew. Mike: Whether someone agrees with you or not isn't really necessarily the most important matter. Not just.. Andrew: Respect is so important. Section 4 Interviewer: The famous quote from the Declaration of Independence that this country grants equal opportunities for all — is that still valid? To what extent does a certain ethnic background or a certain family background help to predetermine future chances in life? Mark. Interviewer: Andrew. They do things they do not really want to. Shannon: A lot depends on the type of family background you have and the type of parents you have and if they promote thinking and if they bring different views to you. from 8th to 10th grade. And being well-liked is very important because it can be very hard to have people not like you or just think you're very strange or something. Mike: It takes a lot more drive to succeed if you're black or if you're shall we say just kind of less advantaged. And none of us four really were ever like that. The poor people can succeed but they need luck and there is no guarantee that goes with it. So we have much fewer friends but a much more honest relationship. They start out a step up. They dress in a way they do not really want to just because their group is doing it and they want to fit in. So we can't really get into that kind of mind. But then I just felt so out of place because I have my own ideas and I've been raised all my life to think the way I wanted to think. have everyone like you for stupid reasons but because you respect each other. generally blacks in slum areas. more than there ever was before. bringing students to a first year of college (Freshman) level of proficiency. Interviewer: Mike. Mike: Under the law there is equal oppor tunity in the United States. . And I've known many friends that . I think I'd much rather be respected for my opinion to being myself than just being liked. Mark: I feel that rich people have much more of an opportunity than the poor people. I had two things to say. P. class: advanced placement class. I guess. Interviewer: Mike. at least it's almost impossible. but in reality you also got to be aware of schooling. Interviewer: Andrew. And now I live a different sort of life. And that's important too. and this is the way we think. The most important matter is respect. they have a lot more leeway in what goes in their lives.. I think it's a goal that a lot of people have. go to schools and they have to work and drop out of school by 10th grade and they will never finish high school and without a high school diploma you cannot make it in America. I think. I did go through a phase. these views they have are so rigid and they refuse to think and they refuse to understand what other people have to say because their parents said well this is how it is. class because the people there really think. Many poor people. one about what they were speaking of. and that's the kind of liking that people want. A. Interviewer: Mike.

crest. but that doesn't mean we should celebrate the disease. Free will and individual liberty are forsaken in this repressive philosophy. It is too dangerous a concept to be toyed with. . They infect people with a feeling of superiority. Unfortunately. and community. that translates into war slogans easy as apple pie. the radicals. of bellicose pride. those who believe in it view the rest of us as sinners. . The notion that one owes an obligation to one's country is absurd. From this. It's a tough bug to shake. ye sinners! Fear not! This patriotism thing is a hoax. the athletic field. owe them an than our right-wing neighbors. The United States can kill two million Indochinese. awareness of a greater. Our obligations should be to ourselves and our fellow living beings. . upright phrases about indisurvey the political horizon and deviduals not existing in a vacuum but spair. "Patriotism is the most primitive of passions. we should wrap ourselves in trie flag. we only capture ourselves.S. Nothing justifies a salute to patriotism. and these days the sentiment is transmitted in the home. if we want to effect political change and gain the support of our unenlightened fellow citizens. and loyalty. the superliberals join the patriotic chorus. And so. and that something is patriotism. not imposed by an ancient cartographer. as well as on the radio waves and television screens. . Rejoice. It's been around for thousands of years. They utter patriotism. we must be more patriotic to some extent at least. you won't be left with a petty individualistic concerns to an porcupine. tide. with Ronald Reagan riding its community. And by playing the silly game of capture the flag.S. The only way to survive. Something's not right about that. entwined with these institutions and. and country. . which denies the individual the right to create and develop his or her own identity. we'd succeed only in suffocating ourselves. more noble Still. they they conclude that our identities are say. church. . Our more philosophical friends tug us from the opposite direction. Many good-hearted souls starchy. Like the defenders of family. . it reinforces the message that America is on the side of virtue. And our loyalties should not stop at the border. Trying to extricate the virtues of patriotism from the vice of nationalism is like trying to pluck the quills from a porcupine. is to get on that wave. Patriotism and nationalism are identical twins. This is reification of the highest order. No obligation. No day passes without our being bombarded by some patriotic message or symbol. Stalin to Pol Pot. but Americans concern themselves only with the less than 60. Once we recognize this. love. . not to some bloodless concoction of bygone rulers. . citizens and not a whit for inhabitants of other countries.38 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP ° Put Out No Flags by Matthew Rothschild ■ Patriotism is like religion. . we are implored to embrace identity that is communal. Yet it's not ^ust a Uome-grown affliction. matter the duplicity involved. soldiers who fell in the fetid conflict of Vietnam. . the champions of the modern nation state want us to believe that inanimate objects — mere social sandboxes — deserve to command our respect. They see a rolling conservative in a social framework of family. patriotism has carried the body bags for every modern ruler from Napoleon to Hitler. the assembly hall. This is sheer folly. . the classroom.000 U. ." Jorge Luis Borges has observed. They tell us that the concept of patriotism — as distinct from nationalism — transports us from Patriotic Americans celebrating their country's independence Or if it can. Our identities should be of our own making. we won't fall into the good old American trap of caring solely for U. . . When the Left. It can't be done. . condemned to purgatory — or at least to an uncozy predicament in trie Viere and now. we are told. Always a dutiful and willing servant.

7. As a small girl she was afraid of school because she could not speak English. When Florence Scala was young she did not 'believe in the American Dream. c) became a real estate agent. 6. c) prevent you from concentrating on your primary goal of making money. 1. Arnold Schwarzenegger dreamed of being the best body builder in the world a) when he was a little boy. Schwarzenegger maintains that emotions a) provide the energy that leads to success. What does the author want to convey to the reader by writing this article? 3. b) when he was fifteen. Н. Schwarzenegger thinks that popularity a) is the key to success. Arnold Schwarzenegger became a successful businessman because he a) was business-minded. 4. Schwarzenegger believes a) that poverty and hunger make people dream of success. b) have to be suppressed if you want to be successful. Which basic motives of the first European settlers for coming to America are mentioned in the text? 2. b) has to be subordinated to success. 3. America is the country where a) nothing can prevent people from fulfilling their dreams b) everybody is Number One. 1. White. Comprehension Arnold Schwarzenegger Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. b) he was afraid that he might lose the title if he tried again. . According to Arnold Schwarzenegger. c) the chances to be economically successful are better than in any other country. Scanning Now go quickly through the text to extract information to answer the following questions: 1. introduction and source. Previewing and Anticipation Try to get a global idea of what the text is about by first looking at the headline. 5. when. What is meant by "The American Idea" and who was the first to formulate it? 2. Florence Scala Which of the following statements are true and which are false according to the information given in the text? Correct the false statements. Where.39 PART C The American Idea Exercises 2. b) that people should never be content with what they have achieved. c) he had no serious competition. c) when he was twenty. b) took courses in English and business. According to Т. Then quickly read the beginning (first three paragraphs) of the article. What would have happened to the colonial leaders if the war had been lost? 4. Which decisive difference between the American nation and other nations does the author point out? 5. c) that hungry people are dreamers unable to achieve anything. and on what occasion was the article published? 2. c) is as important as being successful. 1. He stopped taking part in body-building competitions because a) he believed he had won the championship too often already. Why could the information given about the author be of interest to the reader? 3. what was it that made the American volunteers persevere in their revolutionary war against the better-equipped English soldiers? 3. 1. 2.

Evaluation Use the following scale to determine to what extent Arnold Schwarzenegger. Money and material wealth are what matters most in life. 4. Her parents worked for a tailor who lived on the same street. During the trade union wars in the cleaning industry her father went on strike. . They were afraid that their children might turn into hooligans. Florence Scala and her parents would agree or disagree with the following statements. 7. 5. THE JOV NINTHS a AflN6 WHAT HAPPEN5 IF fOU PRACTICE FOR TUI£NT'CYEAR5.ANP THEN ENP UP NOT 0EIN6 RICH ANP FAMOUS 4. 4. Today the community she grew up in has changed a lot. Inc. 14. 6. 5. Her father was unusually well-educated. 5. Winning in competitions is one of the most important things in life. Florence Scala thinks that the American Dream promotes selfish attitudes. Give the cartoon a title. Being popular is as important as material success. Comment on a Cartoon Comment on the following cartoon and show how it relates to the American Dream. Her father avoided getting involved in the fights that took place in the neighborhood. How do you feel about these statements? strong agreement agreement undecided disagreement strong disagreement Reproduced by permission of United Feature Syndicate. 2. Self-reliance is more important than concern for others. All people are given equal opportunity in life. Everybody has a chance to succeed if he or she only works hard enough. When Florence Scala thinks of her childhood. 13. Looking back on her efforts to save the neighborhood. Florence Scala now thinks she wasted her energy. 3. 9. 10. 8. 11. Her parents were somewhat prejudiced against black people. 6. He never really had the time to fulfill his dream of going to the Grand Canyon. 1. nostalgic memories come to her mind. 12. She believes that technical progress has led to a less humane world.40 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3.

Shannon thinks that. 2. / / / 8. They consider this value so important that they give up their "& and adopt the habits of "& and "& prescribed by their peers. How does Mike think the Vietnam War affected America as a "nation of winners"? 2. 5. Comprehension questions A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values —Section 2 1. 3. The participants agree that the notion of being "& is a ik that a great number of their fellow students "& to. Mark.AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 41 6. Have a look at the statements below and decide who holds which view. Summary A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values—Section 4 Summarize how the following aspects are related to the ideal of "equal opportunity": money family social ethnicity law background education 10. The yuppie's philosophy revives the traditional value of success. Andrew Mark Mike 1. To those young people who have developed their own "& it is more important to be W for their independent TwT than to be well-liked as a reward for their ■& They unanimously "£r that respect is the most important "& in human relationships. Society considers happiness to be as important as material success. "winning is different things to different people. People who fail are not accepted by society. A minority of students "& this peer pressure and prefer more "& relationships which they "& higher than a large circle of so-called friends. the media greatly influence the American value system. 4. Find the missing words. Happiness is not a question of money. How does Andrew view the concept of cooperation and rivalry in society? . ) у 1 ) 9. and Mike differ. By spreading the gospel of success. Cloze Summary A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values—Section 3 This paragraph summarizes part 3 of the discussion." What examples does she give to support her opinion? What does "winning" mean to her? 3. Comprehension Survey A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values —Section 1 Let us find out how the value systems of Andrew. Discussion To what extent can the values discussed by these four young Americans also be found in your country? What is your personal attitude towards them? 7.

So when the author says that "patriotism is like religion" he uses a simile. Matthew Rothschild makes two comparisons to defend the thesis that patriotism is harmful. The author supports his argument with a quotation which he further illustrates by examples of patriotism in contemporary America. although they are unlike in many other respects. What other examples of irony and sarcasm can you find in this text? 13.42 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 11. especially similes and metaphors. Structural Analysis Put Out No Flags Let us examine how the author structures his argument in this article. Style Let us now have a closer look at the stylistic means the author employs to convey his opinon to the reader. Whereas in a simile the imaginative comparison is expressed by the words like and as. A simile is a figure of speech in which two things or actions are compared because they have something in common. Irony is a figure of speech in which the author stresses his point by saying the opposite of what he means. He then develops his argument by drawing consequences from these comparisons." meaning to spread disease. 1. The text is full of comparisons. Sarcasm is aggressive and intended to injure. Comment and Discussion 1. Look for more similes and metaphors in the text and explain their function. How do you feel about patriotism? ." he actually regards this as a nonsensical idea. What are the objections he mentions and how does he refute them? 3. When the author ironically refers to the community as an institution providing a "noble identity. He is also being sarcastic when he compares patriotism with a disease. The second metaphor suggests patriotism's harmful effects through the use of the word "infect. This text has many satirical features because the author often uses irony and sarcasm to expose the "folly" of patriotism. 2. What role does patriotism play in your country? 3. Do you think that the author's viewpoint is logically consistent? 2. The author uses the first metaphor in this sentence to illustrate the identical nature of patriotism and nationalism. Why does he mention the names of four "modern rulers"? 4. 2. To what extent is the average American exposed to sentiments and symbols of patriotism? 5. When he says that "patriotism and nationalism are identical twins" which "infect people" he uses metaphors. in a metaphor the comparison takes the form of an identification of the two things compared. What is the conclusion the author finally draws? 12. He then raises two objections to his thesis but immediately refutes each of them. 1. A metaphor is a simile condensed. Find the comparisons in the text and show how they are used as a basis of his further argumentation.

around the Great Lakes. Much of the land is uninhabited. Americanization PART A Background Information A LARGE COUNTRY WITH MANY DIFFERENCES THE NORTHEAST The United States is a spacious country of varying terrains and climates.000 kilometers across regions of geographical extremes. the mobility of people and the diffusion of culture through television and other mass media have greatly advanced the process of Americanization. the Northeast is more urban. As with most modernizing nations. economic concerns. While important regional differences are discernible. and scholars. and dedicated to hard work. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology surpasses all others in economics and the practical sciences. and they usually identify to some extent with the history and traditions of their region. the South. comprising the New England and Mid-Atlantic states. During the nineteenth century and well into this century. and in metropolitan areas dotted over the remaining expanse of land in the agricultural Midwest and Western mountain and desert regions. fertile plains. arid deserts. businesses and industries have been moving to warmer climates in the South and West. has traditionally been at the helm of the nation's economic and social progress. Harvard is widely considered the best business school in the nation. more industrial. The population is concentrated in the Northeast. New England's colleges and universities are known all over the country for their high academic standards. the West.з Regimalism vs. Between the coasts there are forested mountains. artists. While areas of aging industry continue to suffer. on the Pacific coast. and the Midwest—maintains a degree of cultural identity. the United States has seen its regions converge gradually. Today. canyonlands. The Northeast. Many factories and mills have closed. Compared with other regions. and more culturally sophisticated. To get from New York to San Francisco one must travel almost 5. some parts of New England . and the population has stabilized or even declined. the South. In the past decades. A sense of cultural superiority sets Northeasterners apart from others. reserved. Each of the country's four main regions —the Northeast. and wide plateaus. The economic and cultural dominance of New England has gradually receded since the Second World War. and a certain relationship to the land. New Englanders often describe themselves as thrifty. People within a region generally share common values. the Northeast produced most of the country's writers. qualities they inherited from their Puritan forefathers. regional identities are not as clear as they once were.

Regional identity has been most pronounced in the South. The unresolved dispute over slavery was one of the issues which led to a national crisis in 1860. Eleven Southern states left the federal union and proclaimed themselves an independent nation. which stirred up bitterness and resentment towards Northerners and the Republican Party of the national government.i\: THE SOUTH are experiencing economic recovery. Most farming was carried out on single family farms. Most Northerners opposed slavery. African slaves. Many of them established large plantations. Economic and political tensions began to divide the nation and eventually led to the Civil War (1861—65). supplied labor for these plantations. the economic interests of the manufacturing North became evermore divergent from those of the agrarian South. became quite prosperous. These slaves were bought and sold as property. The South was originally settled by English Protestants who came not for religious freedom but for profitable farming opportunities. Even after the North began to industrialize after 1800. but some farmers. Southerners opposed the Civil War (1861-65): the war between the Union (the North) and the Confederacy (the South). The war that broke out as a direct result was the most bloody war in American history. shipped by the Spanish. and English. but blacks were given a voice in Southern government. slavery was not only abolished. Portuguese. With the South's surrender in 1865.44 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP America on the» move»: but which \v. As the century progressed. Southern slaveowners defended it as an economic necessity. capitalizing on tobacco and cotton crops. New high-tech industries are boosting foreign investment and employment. . Southerners were forced to accept many changes. where the peculiarities of Southern history have played an important role in shaping the region's character. the South remained agricultural. Even though the system of slavery was regarded by many Americans as unjust. During the post-war period of reconstruction which lasted until 1877.

Carson (1917—67): American author of novels. author of Look Homeward. Southerners are the most "native" of any region. AMERICANIZATION 45 THE WEST intervention of Northern Republican politicians. He received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1949. an d more violent than the rest of the country. and why the South is different from the rest of the country. and plays. an imaginary Southern provincial community. more religious. and pockets of poverty are scattered throughout the Southern states. Southerners say "you all" instead of "you" as the second person plural. along with Oregon and Washington in the rainy Northwest. For the next century white Southerners consistently voted for Democrats. Later forms of black music which began in the South are blues and jazz. won the Pulitzer Prize for his novel All the King's Men. While most of the Mountain West is arid wilderness interrupted by a few urban oases. Absalom\ all of which are set in Yoknapatawpha. The South has been one of the most outstanding litera ry regions in the twentieth century. Sanctuary. As 1 Lay Dying. Wolfe.REGIONALISM VS. Other regions have little in common with the South's bitterness over the Civil War. Even if one disregards the Pacific coast states. the negro spiritual. Wide regional diversity makes the West hard to typify. Because fewer immigrants were attracted to the less industrialized Southern states. Novelists such as William Faulkner. By combining the nation's highest concentration of high -tech industries with the greatest percentage of service industries. and. and Clock Without Hands. Southerners tend to have less schooling and higher illiteracy rates than people from other regions. the rest of the West is marked by cultural diversity and competing interests. Angel. short stories and poems. and most American country music has a Southern background. Among his novels are The Sound and the Fury. California is different in other ways. Mormon-settled Utah has little Faulkner. In addition. The Ballad of the Sad Cafe. William (1897—1962): American author of novels. Americans of other regions are quick to recognize a Southerner by his/her dialect. short stories. black Americans created a new folk music. Southern speech tends to be much slower and more musical. agrarian traditions and racial tensions. The Civil War experience helps explain why Southerners have developed a reverence for the past and a resistance to change. its one-party politics. Robert Penn: born 1905. ya-es. Light in August. Robert Penn Warren. Thomas (1900-38): American novelist. Southerners tend to be more mindful of social rank and have strong ties to hometown and family. . among her works are Reflections in a Golden Eye. Most black and white Southerners can trace their ancestry in this country back to before 1800. The narrow band along its southern Pacific coast is densely populated and highly industrial. Southerners are more conservative. The Southern dialect characteristically uses more diphthongs: a one -syllable word such as yes is spoken in the South as two syllables. The South is also known for its music. does not share th e rest of the West's concern over the scarcity of water. Warren. Thomas Wolfe. and Carson McCullers have addressed themes of the Southern experience such as nostalgia for the rural Southern past. In the time of slavery. McCullers. Recent statistics show that the South differs from other regions in a number of ways. Even today. White Southerners created bluegrass mountain music. American author. and Absalom. California has some of the richest farmland in the country. California's pro gressive economy is a trend-setter for the rest of the nation as it enters a new post-industrial age.

Western life is dominated by resources. by contrast. the Western states face these problems together. 66. The plains states which make up America's "Farmbelt" have traditionally favored a policy of isolationism in world affairs. the region does share concerns that are distinct from the rest of the country. has encouraged Midwesterners to direct their concerns to their own domestic affairs. Particularly distressing to Westerners is their lack of control over Western land and resources. Chicago has long been a connecting point for rail lines and air traffic crossing the continent.6 percent of Nevada.8 percent of Arizona. self-sufficient. farmers have changed their stance. The Midwest is known as a region of small towns and huge tracts of farmland where more than half the nation's wheat and oats are raised. and other mineral deposits. Located on the Great Lakes. The fertile farmland and abundant resources have allowed agriculture and industry to thrive and to strengthen the Midwesterners' conviction that people can make something of themselves if they seize opportunities." It is often this very government which provides subsidies and price controls that preserve their incomes. the nation's second largest city. 47. the South. While generalizations about the West are difficult to make. avoiding matters of wider interest. and they feel the West is already experiencing physical limits to growth. The Midwest's position in the middle of the continent. Class divisions are felt less strongly here than in other regions. the Midwest. Westerners like to think of themselves as independent. Westerners are united in their long-standing hostility toward Washington and Eastern federal bureaucrats. Trying to support growing populations with limited supplies of water while at the same time preserving the land is. Farmers are no longer isolationist or opposed to "big government. Dominating the region's commerce and industry is Chicago. The distinctiveness of these regions is disappearing.46 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP THE MIDWEST AMERICANIZATION in common with Mexican-influenced Arizona and New Mexico. impossible. The Northeast. and pragmatic. coal. now that American agriculture has become dependent on unstable foreign markets. The aims of Western commercial developers anxious for quick profits clash with environmentalists' campaigns for preservation of the region's natural beauty. As the population of the West rapidly increases. unsophisticated. Although water is scarce in the Mountain West. has long been regarded as typically American. The federal government owns and administers vast portions of land in many Western states—86. While the South and West have felt alienated. and close to the land. and 36. self-sufficient. but they feel they cannot control their own destiny while Washington controls their land.1 percent of Utah. and the Midwest are becoming evermore alike due to the homogenizing influence of mass media and regional convergence towards national sodoeconomic norms. Western states' troubles with water scarcity and government-owned land seem to matter little to the rest of the country. interstate high- . Westerners feel alienated by government policies which fail to address the vital concerns unique to their region. the region is rich in uranium. Despite the differences that may exist within the region. 42. crude oil. Since the Second World War. debate intensifies over how its resources should be used. the West.8 percent of Wyoming. However. Montana ranchers have different needs and different outlooks from the senior citizens clustered in a retirement community near Phoenix. far removed from the east and west coasts. the middle class rules.1 percent of Colorado. oil shale . according to some Westerners. Midwesterners are seen as commerciallyminded.

Steady movements from farm to city. population " (defined as the geographical point where the country would balance if it were flat and every American weighed the samel crossed the Mississippi River. During the same period. Poorer. Many corporations are relocating to the Sunbelt because of the more favorable business conditions.REGIONALISM VS.8 30. the proportion of national population in the South and West increased from 48 percent to 52 percent-a majority-in the decade between 1970 and 1980. Most people move for better e mployment opportunities.828. and local governments offer a wide variety of incentives.1 21.3 19. The new migration has brought economic prosperity to the warm "Sunbelt" while economic stagnation has occurred in the "Frostbelt.0 33. the imaginary "centre of U.000 Figures indicate net population gains or losses due to regional migration between 1970 and 1980 Changes in Proportion of National Population Percent increase Percent of total 1970-1980 population 1970 1980 T1. and south to north brought about an intermixing of cultures. . to attract new industries. S.have moved to the South in order to enjoy retirement in a less harsh environment.4 WOO WOO 0. U.1 Total Northeast North Central South West Due largely to interregional migration. including tax reliefs.0 20. fostering a high level of cultural interchange. less populous areas in the South and West are experiencing tremendous growth as people and businesses move out of the historically dominant Northeast and Midwest in search of new opportunities in wanner climates. Wage scales are lower. Americans' mobility has also played an important part in leveling off regional differences. REGIONAL MIGRATION: 1970-1980 NORTHEAST 2. giving Ameri cans a shared national experience and identity.9 24.1 27.368. unions are weak. This process of Americanization has been accelerated by new migration trends. overcrowding. Others have moved to escape problems of urban crime. AMERICANIZATION 47 MOBILITY MIGRATION TO THE SUNBELT ways and communication lines have connected isolated rural areas to urban centers. and expensive housing.2 4. Television has conveyed mainstream American culture to everyone. high taxes. east to west. continuing the westward drift evident since the first census in 1790.7 26.9 17.0 23.000 NORTH CENTRAL 2. Many older couples. Americans have always been on the move in pursuit of opportunity." The attractions of the Sunbelt are numerous.S.

The great universities of the Northeast are rivaled by Stanford in California and the Universities of Texas and North Carolina. Boston. are gaining reputat ions as important cultural centers. By 1970 the Northeast had fallen to about 110 percent. and the Rockies had held steady at 90 percent. A clear rise in per capita income in the South and West is an indication that socioeconomic gaps between regions are narrowing. and the Rocky Mountain states had just over 90 percent. In 1940 the Northeast claimed more than 120 percent of the national income average. Santa Fe. and Los Angeles. Adapting to the needs of a post-industrial age. but they are significantly less striking today than they were 40 years ago. and Pittsburgh —cities that once specialized in heavy industry—have been rebuilt as cultural and convention centers. Historically. The political and social status of the South and West is on the rise. The most significant trend is not the decline of the Frostbelt. many communities are redirecting their economies to accommodate new service-related and high-tech industries. The shift in economic strength and status to the Sunbelt does not mean that the Northeast and Midwest are drained of power and promise. but rather a steady converging of the regions' economic status as the formerly lagging Sunbelt states catch up. During the past few decades the populations of the South and West have been growing rapidly while those of the Midwest or Northeast have grown slowly or not at all. After both the 1970 and 1980 censuses. The downtown areas of Baltimore. the South had risen to 86 percent. Parts of the Northeast are recovering from economic decline. regional differences have not altogether disappeared. Some cities in the Frostbelt are registering a resurgence in population growth as people move back to take advantage of new opportunities. The cultural dominance of the Northeast and Midwest is diminishing as cities in the South and West. The increase in numbers moving to the Sunbelt has brought an increase in power. such as Atlanta.48 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP REGIONAL CONVERGENCE These recent migration patterns have had a dramatic effect on population growth. In this process. but the core of the South had less than 70 percent. the winners of presidential elections have been Easterners or Midwesterners. but Southerners and Westerners have won the past five presidential elections. . the South and West gained seats in the House of Representatives at the expense of the North and Midwest. Further narrowing had occurred by 1980.

. .49 PART В Texts • THE COOLING OF THE SOUTH by Raymond Arsenault In the following text the historian Raymond Arsenault chooses a very interesting approach for his analysis of the "Americanization of Dixie" when he looks at the air conditioner as one of the important factors involved. "to look backwards rather than forwards". " Family ties and local folklore ruled life in a region that preferred. in the words of Faulkner. the city fathers sat and talked and drowsed. with few big cities. Air conditioning has helped to change all that. . A Southern family circa 1914 T ied to the land. Long after the Civil War. a people apart from the rest of the Union and its ever-changing ethnic "melting pot". Southerners treasured life on the family homestead or in the small town where. "beneath the porticoes of the courthouse and on benches about the green. as John Crowe Ransom said. the inhabitants of the old Confederacy remained culturally distinct.

climate control nurtured the expansion of industry in the New South.. abetted by immigration. as it has done so often in the past. and broad technological change. General Electric: a large American corporation. and wonder out loud how they ever survived without it. the South and the rest of the nation are no longer that far apart. But this time it won't be easy: General Electric has proved a more devastating invader than General William Tecumseh Sherman. especially those eleven that formed the Confederacy and seceded from the United States in 1860—61. of course. tract houses.. Yankee: a native or inhabitant of a northern U. state. By making life in the factory more bearable. continued Many Southerners who are old enough to remember life before the air conditioner give thanks for the artificial chill that now pervades cars. urbanization. it's a damnfool invention of the Yankees. Yoknapatawpha County: the fictional setting of many of Faulkner's novels and short stories.. Since 1940 the South has also been the most rapidly urbanizing section of the country. Perhaps. William Tecumseh (1820-91): American Union General in the Civil War. Faulkner. Others echo the sentiments of one Florida woman who recently told me: "I hate air conditioning. And with this increasing diversity.. from 36. the legacy of the old Confederacy has begun to fade. ending the region's long-standing cultural isolation. A more noticeable effect of air-conditioned architecture has been its assault on the South's strong "sense of place". factory workers outnumbered farm laborers by a margin of 3 to 1. William: see page 45. glass-sided skyscrapers. Epitomized by the fictional inhabitants of Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha County. If they don't like it hot. As long as air conditioning. this sense of local identity is bound to fade. or homestead. By 1980. . . town. As look-alike chain stores. they can move on back up north where they belong.S.. Dixie: The southern states of the U. The number of Southerners employed in manufacturing exceeded those employed in agriculture for the first time in 1958. Southerners have been rooted to local geography — to a county. Sherman. Civil War: see page 44. never to rise again. The changes wrought in the South by the air conditioner helped. the Southerner's special devotion to regional and local traditions will ensure the survival of Southern folk culture. The proportion of the Southerners living in urban areas has nearly doubled. and family rooms. neighborhood. to speed the demographic transformation. The northern migration of the last two decades has infused the South with new ideas and new manners. the South's distinctive character will continue to diminish. restaurants.". especially a Union soldier during the Civil War.S.50 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1.7 percent to almost 70 percent today. offices.. continues to make inroads.. . Although its population still remains the most "rural" in the United States. and shopping malls overwhelm the landscape in and around cities and towns.

in fact. And. the degree to which a Southern girl approximates her mother. are learned. Is this Southern lady a bygone figure of the past. The mothers pass on to their daughters the ideals of being a lady. and Southern girls are still taught to be Southern ladies. That's why the Southern lady today isn't that different from the Southern lady back in the antebellum South. It hasn't changed so much. Question: What characterizes a woman as a "lady" nowadays? Answer: A lady is gracious and charming and above all she's well-bred. or is like her mother. They are passed on from mother to daughter in each generation. What's really important is that these qualities. Southern belles Question: When I think of the stereotypical Southern woman. You can see in the South that Southern girls are willing to identify with their mothers. I think that says it all.REGIONALISM VS. but there are still Southern belles. I think there are still Southern belles in the South today. AMERICANIZATION 51 Southern Women-Stiff Ladies? by CORA MCKINNEY The following interview seeks to discover whether the "moonlight-and-magnolia" stereotype of the "Gone-with-the-Wind" Southern lady still holds today. these ideal qualities of charm and grace. I think you could say that the Southern woman is a breed that hasn't totally died out. She may not live on a plantation any more. or does the Southern woman of the 1980s have something in common with her? Answer: Oh yes. I think the family background is actually the most important distinguishing feature of a lady. what immediately comes to my mind is the image of the genteel Southern belle — the lady of the plantation — portrayed in so many books and films. A lady is a woman who is well-bred and who feels well-bred and who is proud to come from a good family. is a measure of the degree to which she is a lady. because there are lots of social functions and mother-daughter banquets sponsored by the .

They are primarily social. and sometimes do things for charity. simply by virtue of appearance? Answer: Yes. ERA: Equal Rights Amendment. This is one kind of training for becoming a lady. . long knee-socks. These sororities are really popular in the South. Women's Liberation: a movement striving for full educational. You see. she usually wears nylon stockings and some dainty little pumps. You have to realize. But in the North. okay. and there are even look-alike mother-daughter dresses that you can buy in fashion shops. Well. for example. But I mean. She just looks more feminine on the whole. At the final balls. they are not that popular. my mother gave me a book called Party Manners and White Kid Gloves. and comfortable shoes. They prefer to join social clubs. a Northern girl. well. a Southern girl is rather vain about her appearances. What's really popular in the South are sororities. But when a Southern girl wears a skirt. For example. I remember reading that you're never supposed to light a candle at the coffee-table when you're serving guests unless it's evening. There's really a big difference in the women on Southern college campuses compared with the college women in the North. let's say. And in my family. it tells you all the little niceties concerning how you're supposed to act at a party and when you're supposed to wear white gloves and when not. Question: What about you? In what ways were you brought up to be a "lady"? Answer: For my twelfth birthday. a Northern girl might wear rugged outdoor sportswear. suggested change to American law. That's one difference: that the Southern girl cares so much about her appearance she would rather be pretty than comfortable. Question: Do you think that a Southern girl is different in other ways as well? What about a political involvement and issues like Women's Liberation? Answer: When you ask me that. Gone with the Wind: a novel by Margaret Mitchell (1900-49) featuring the American South before and during the Civil War. When I think about politics it seems to me that women in the South prefer being involved in things like sororities and partying and having a nice social life to being involved in politics. But I think the Northern girls don't mind getting into controversies as much as the Southern girls do. and the women meet together and arrange social activities. that's one example: we learn how to be ladies by reading books like that. But in the North. you can participate in these dances. What comes to my mind is that in the South the women aren't particularly interested in politics. Question: Is it possible to distinguish a Southern girl from. They arrange parties and dances. Party Manners and White Kid Gloves explains to little girls. the final big function — (and we really do wear white kid gloves) — we really get to test our manners. for the Southern girl the highest virtue is to be gracious and warm and friendly and hospitable and always proud. I remember reading that when I go to a social function. They are sort of semielite societies. Otherwise it's bad taste. I'm supposed to shake the hand of the hostess and say something nice to her and. continued cheerleading club. how they are to act to be considered a young lady. So. When you're fourteen or fifteen and fortunate enough to be invited to join the club. Politics is something controversial. my sister and I took dancing lessons. Sometimes the Southern girl ties her hair back in little colored ribbons. Southern girls do well to be like mother. You see. and when it's right to light a candle. antebellum: before the Civil War. intended to give women the same legal rights as men. very often. social and economic opportunities for women. a skirt. There are many semi-elite dancing societies which are especially popular in the South. I think of women on college campuses because I've just been to a university and I can best relate to the women there. or to young ladies. and the ERA issue — the Equal Rights Amendment issue — was a very strong and controversial topic. and very often the Southern girl just avoids controversy. or at least that's the way I see it. She prefers to be charming and gracious and never step on anyone's toes.52 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. This is a book that probably a lot of mothers give to their little girls when they reach the age of twelve. there are also other ways to distinguish a Southern girl from a Northern girl besides just her clothing. And somehow that doesn't mix so well with politics. politics are important. also a film classic.

Outside the United States people think of all Americans as Yankees. New CANADA Hampshire. and (like the climate) cold and inhospitable to outsiders. Maine. the ties of all people are uppon us. people whom all Americans think of — however accurately or inaccurately — as conscientious. which most New Englanders recognize as their regional capital. were the first to articulate what was to become Protestant America's characteristic image of its place in the world. and on Halloween they drink apple cider. Those who live in Boston. frugal. New England consists of Connecticut. The Puritans. reflecting New England's tendency to project its own traditions." They pronounce Bingo "BeanO. Massachusetts. While people may argue about what the Mid-west or even the South includes today. has a precisely defined identity. Above all else New Englanders arc Yankees." said John Winthrop." and when they bowl they use candlepins rather than tenpins.REGIONALISM VS. one of the Bay Colony's first and most influential leaders. . eat hot dogs. candlepin: a slender bowling pin used in a variation of the game of tenpins. alone among the nation's regions. The inhabitants of this region call coffee with cream "regular" and carbonated beverages "tonic. AMERICANIZATION 53 The Nation's Most Strongly Defined Region N ew England. Rhode Island U'SA and Vermont — nothing more and nothing less. beans and black bread on Saturday evening. "For wee must consider that wee shall be as a Citty uppon a Hill. terse. who came to New England in 1620. hard-working. practices and beliefs onto the nation as a whole.

if it doesn't work. but conspicuous consumption can serve the same purpose: an expensive house in the "right" neighborhood. and by strong social pressures on all nonconformists." Materialistic: — Blatant worship of the almighty dollar. . Slav. and not ask any questions. in a deep distrust of all governmental activity on the domestic scene. the most powerful and expensive speedboat or snowmobile. wearing the latest fashions.54 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP What is a Middle Westerner? A congeries of traits seems to be more or less characteristic of the breed. or bearded. or even ostentation of income." Technologic: — Almost unbroken prosperity (especially in comparison with other parts of the nation) can easily be attributed to a predilection for the latest and most modern machines and techniques. whether Catholic. status-oriented travel to places others cannot afford to visit. and many Middle Westerners have seldom. and a profound respect for hard work. "somebody must be doing something right." Critical re-evaluation of the value system has never really been necessary. and if he gives me an answer that makes sense."If I ask a guy why he does something." Xenophobic: — A suspicion of anyone different is reflected in an isolationist stance in international affairs. is generally considered bad taste. These caveats and provisos notwithstanding. might be considered standard American traits. after all. let's get rid of it and get something that does work. Simplistic: . and the Middle West has been enormously successful in terms of its own system of values. although no single trait is unique. Selfassured: — A value system based on money is unlikely to be questioned by a prosperous Farming in the Midwest people. New and better machines always have been invented in the past: why should the future be different? Competent: — An almost childlike faith in perpetual progress through technology is coupled with enormous technological sophistication and competence.A deep faith that all values can eventually be measured in terms of money: "the worth of a man is indicated by his income. None of them is mandatory for residence in the area. been afflicted with self-doubts of their own righteousness. is the American heartland. the identification of this congeries of traits helps one to understand the people of the region and why they do the things they do. I don't see any need to probe any deeper. black. Some. long-haired. Most of the following adjectives are applicable in varying degree to most genuine Middle Westerners. at least. and one need not be a native to hold any or all of them. and none is distinctive. I'll buy it. if ever. because the Middle West."If it works. as I perceive them: Pecuniaristic: . which is not especially surprising. Functionalist: .

It pervades the political atmosphere as well. for others. in a culture devoted to immediate satisfaction. AMERICANIZATION 55 °'Just like the rest of us. it is a version of El Dorado. a variety of landscapes and more than 22 million people. It is difficult to characterize in a phrase a state that takes in over a thousand miles of coastline. to live by one's own rules. they are more suburbanized.. new forms of entertainment from Disneyland to sexclubs. they are satisfied faster. It represents "the instinct which drove America to the Pacific . In a wealthy nation. manifest destiny: the nineteenth-century belief that the U. . It is a place as distinct from the rest of the country as America was from the Old World it rejected some 200 years ago. new living arrangements. . It may well be true that Californians are quintessential Americans." This sense of freedom extends beyond what has come to be known as lifestyle. For some. and in a time of doubt and uncertainty. the saying goes." wrote author Joan Didion.REGIONALISM VS. the ultimate expression of manifest destiny. family and education. . only more so" For more than a century. the desire . .. new attitudes towards work. mobility and privacy. . California is the nation's leader in fads.. had the right and duty to expand across the North American continent. only more so. a native of the state. fashion and self-indulgence. they are the most optimistic. a place to find fortunes or spend fortunes made elsewhere. all have been nurtured by California's tolerant social climate. frontier: see page 26. a "new" New World at the end of the continent. in a suburban society. are just like the rest of us. they are wealthier than most. Americans have looked at California as something different. it represents the final embodiment of America's frontier spirit. they have consistently been in the forefront of political trend-setting.S. The wealthy lifestyle of California Californians. New religions. . . they have the most to be uncertain about. California stands for "absolute freedom. it is often said that California is not just a state but a state of mind. . While California voters do not easily fit into hard and fast ideological categories. in a country where optimism reigns supreme. Nevertheless.

how would you decide on the basis of the information about the different regions given in this unit? . Read the interview again and answer the following questions: a) What does Cora McKinney mean when she says "the Southern woman is a kind of breed that hasn't died out"? b) Name important preconditions for becoming a lady. c) Why is it that a Southern lady today is not that different from a lady in the antebellum South? d) Why is the book Party Manners and White Kid Gloves still popular in the South? e) What is the significance of the balls at the end of the dancing lessons? f) What does a Southern girl do to make herself look more feminine? g) How do Northern girls differ from Southern girls in their attitudes towards controversies? h) Why is it important for a Southern lady to join a sorority? The Cooling of the South Refer to the chart below and explain how air conditioning has affected the process of Americanization in the South. Discussion Imagine you have applied for a student's exchange with one of the exchange organizations like American Field Service or Youth for Understanding. Comprehension Southern Women —Still Ladies? 1.56 PART C 1. When asked which region of the United States you would prefer to go to. answer the following questions: a) Is the Southern lady a bygone figure of the past? b) Describe the mother-daughter relationship. c) How is a girl taught to be a lady? d) What visible differences are there between a Southern girl and a Northern girl? e) What is said about the political attitude of Southern girls? 2. ECONOMY A" SENSE OF PLACE I AIR CONDITIONING RURAL & URBAN POPULATION ARCHITECTURE SOUTHERN WAY OF LIFE V- 2. After reading the interview for the first time. Text Analysis Exercises 3. Discussion "Americanization" In what areas do you find strong American influences in your country? How do you feel about these influences? 4.

8.e. To a New Englander. technologic 5. 7. 3. 2. simplistic 6. i. "Does it work?" h) easily satisfied by answers that make sense . Foreigners often expect all Americans to be like New Englanders because of the high profile of New England throughout the ages. "regular" means coffee. self-assured 3. New England is known for its good weather. The people who live in New England use some special words which are not used in the rest of the country. 10. Characteristics Traits 1. 5. The immigrants who arrived in 1620 were known as Yankees. AMERICANIZATION 57 5. Boston is the official capital of New England. with cream. 6. 6. Comprehension The Nation's Most Strongly Defined Region Decide whether the following statements are true or false and correct the false statements: 1. John Winthrop was anxious that the New England settlers should set an example to the world. Comprehension What Is a Middle Westerner? Do you remember the traits of a Middle Westerner? Match numbers and letters. functionalist 7.REGIONALISM VS. the Midwest and the South are all clearly defined regions of the United States. New Englanders have a reputation for being warm and friendly to visitors. New England. xenophobic a) hardly ever doubting the Tightnes s of his/her actions or words b) having the skill to do what is necessary and working hard to achieve it c) valuing everything in terms of money d) distrusting foreigners and outsiders e) believing strongly in modern machines and techniques f) valuing money and possessions highly and spending money in order to attract attention and prove one's high social position g) concerned with practical use. materialistic 4. Opinions differ as to the number of states that make up New England. 9. pecuniaristic 8. competent 2. 4.

Californians arc ■& Americans. In order to find out for yourself whether they are merely stereotypes or if there is some truth in them. sense of freedom quintessential fortunes manifest destiny state of mind tolerant social climate frontier spirit trend-setting 8. try to find the missing words first without looking at the list below. 3.58 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 7. Compare the characterizations of Middle Westerners. because they do not fit into hard and fast ideological categories. Californians have developed a greater -fr Californians have always been in the forefront of political "& . Comprehension "Just Like the Rest of Us. enjoying more privacy and being more mobile. Can you trace any definable traits in the regions of your own country? . Being more self-indulgent. Only More So" After reading the text. 2. Discussion 1. Show how each of the authors relates regional traits to national characteristics. more easily satisfied and more optimistic than the ordinary American. ask Americans you know to comment on the authors' descriptions. living arrangements and forms of entertainment can be attributed to California's ■$" Being wealthier. New Englanders and Californians. For many Americans. Then complete the task by choosing the right phrase from the list. California is the ultimate expression of l^T It is not just a state but a "& and embodies America's "& For some people it is the place to find or spend "Й" New religions.

in 1985 about 14 percent of the population (11. The country's reliance on private initiative and enterprise has produced impressive growth. Smith argued that when indi viduals. The theoretical foundation of the American economic system was provided by Adam Smith. Throughout the nineteenth century. Since the 1930s. Freedom from economic control seemed an extension of freedom from control of religion. on the other hand. government regulation now exists in many areas of business ranging from product safety to labor conditions. which was then $10.4 The U. the greater the competition. which allows private business the freedom to operate for profit with minimum government interference and regulation. and 60 percent of all families and individuals are in the middle -income or highincome ranks. the result is good for all of society. Thus. Political conservatives frequently complain of too much government regulation. The average annual income for American families in 1985 was $27. market forces in America operated with a minimum of government intervention. are allowed to pursue profit freely. Americans on both sides of the political spectrum generally support "free" private enterprise. The United States today is a leading economic power. These ideas were compatible with the high value America's Founding Fathers placed on individual liberty. market forces.S. The more people manufacture and trade. Smith. The United States is one of the most affluent nations in the world. Есотюту PART A FREE ENTERPRISE: THEORETICAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Background Information The American economy is described as a free enterprise system. which Smith termed "the invisible hand. Liberals. with a high standard of living and enormous productivity in industry and agriculture.989 for a family of four. Adam (1723-90): author of The Wealth of Nations ROLE OF GOVERNMENT U.4 percent White. Although private enterprise still flourishes. American capitalism has undergone substantial change. motivated by self-interest. and 29 percent Hispanic) lived below the official poverty level. are generally more willing to accept government's role in business and the economy. Competition benefits society by allowing the con sumer to seek the best product at the lowest price. and the press. the eighteenth-century Scottish philosopher whose economic ideas of "laissez faire" (leave it alone) had a strong influence on the development of capitalism. and there is no serious political debate focusing on alternate economic systems." control the efficient allocation of goods while each participant in the market is seeking his or her own self-interest. ECONOMIC PROFILE HIGH LIVING STANDARD .3 percent Black. 31. speech. Although the generalization can be made that America is an affluent society.S.700.

REP. While the profile of the modern U. GERMANY 8 JAPAN 3 1960 1982 Industrial and technological production is high. The leading U. Declining growth rates are a major concern. the strength of the U. automotive products. However. remains the world's leading producer of goods and services. economy shows the U. the achievements of this sector of the economy are extraordinary. farmers produce enough food for domestic consumption and still supply 15 percent of the world's food needs. Within the past two decades.S. the United States consistently exported more goods than it imported.S. The United States is the world's largest importer and exporter. .S. has been operating under a trade imbalance. although its margin of superiority is diminishing as other countries become more competitive in the world market.60 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP WORLD'S LEADING PRODUCER The U. aluminum. has slipped from a better than 3 percent per year increase in productivity to an annual increase of below 1 percent.S. U. and paper. . The U. the U.S. foods and beverages.S. imports are petroleum products. The United States is the world's leading producer of electrical energy. and iron and steel products. In productive terms. to be a formidable economic power. importing more goods than it exports. economy depends heavily on foreign imports.S. Until recently.The World's Leading Economic Power Share (%) of World Gross National Product (GNP) FED.S. Despite its huge domestic production. sulphur. the U.S. the U. principal goods in America's export trade are machinery. economy in the last 15 to 20 years has waned. and one of the top producers of natural gas and automobiles. and chemicals.S. Farming is highly mechanized and commercialized.S. copper. U. since 1971.A. No other nation exports as much high technology as the United States. aircraft. machinery. Technological advancement has accelerated changes in American agriculture. Agricultural Production as a Proportion of World Production in 1982/83 (in %) О" Э" 3" (5 О" Э" Wheat Corn Soy Beans Cotton Tobacco Vegetable Fats Production 64 Wheat Corn Soy Beans Cotton Tobacco Vegetable Fats Э Exports FOREIGN TRADE DECLINING GROWTH RATES Besides agricultural products.

and provide better worker training. import/export policies. ECONOMY 61 U.S. Most of America's television sets. cameras and typewriters are made by foreign companies. goods abroad. the Japanese manufactured more automobiles than the United States. High productivity of Japanese industries has increased the appeal of lowerpriced Japanese goods.S. indicated by the increasing trade deficit. Current international trade developments in areas such as foreign competitiveness. manufacturers to step-up productivity levels. Productivity: The Lead Diminishes Comparison of some branches of industry with Japan AUTOMOBILES ELECTRIC APPLIANCES MACHINE BUILDING CHEMICAL PRODUCTS/ PETROCHEMICALS 20 0 STEEL/IRON Japan in each case = 100 1967 FOREIGN MARKETS 1973 1982 Confidence has also been shaken by the declining competitiveness of U. Foreign manufacturers are now selling roughly 50 percent more in this country than Americans are exporting abroad. agricultural exports began to decline in the early 1980s.THE U. modernize their factories. and currency exchange rates have posed ." Despite high productivity in farming. Steel production in Japan is now higher as well. for the first year ever. "Yes.S. Stiff foreign competition challenges U. American farmers had difficulty exporting their goods because of import restrictions imposed by foreign countries and because of the high value of the American dollar in the early 1980s. In 1980. it's made right here in this country with Jafanese know -how.S. sir.

economy.A. Leaders of labor and industry. as well as many other areas. and unemployment. the government has been spending more money than it has taken in.S. The dramatic downturn of the U. aerospace. Pressures to decrease the budget are strong. agriculture forestry Primary Sector fishing mining energy industry Secondary Sector construction Tertiary Sector transportation service industries BUDGET DEFICIT Businesses that manufacture high-technology computer.S. Such huge deficits can cripple the economy because they lead to inflation.S. 1987. One serious problem that hampers economic growth domestically and affects the United States' ability to sell products overseas is the enormous federal budget deficit. and communications. Economy Percentage of Gross National Product FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY U. Many experts blame the budget deficit for the sudden stock market crash in October. still organized for basic production. high interest rates.62 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP CHANGES OF A MATURE ECONOMY tough problems for the United States' economy. In recent decades. the rapid maturity of the United States' capitalist economy has prompted some economists to contend that the country's industrial policy is not prepared for the future in what is being termed the "post-industrial age. One of the reasons for the high value of the American dollar abroad which hurt the sale of U.S.S. Economic developments on the domestic front such as the shift in production from manufacturing to service industries and the federal budget deficit also create challenges for U. These observers believe that the U.S. is unprepared for the future.S. This act calls for yearly spending cuts of $36 billion until a balanced budget is reached in 1991. U.S. products was these deficits. This sector of the economy now contributes the greatest share of the nation's gross national product. Whether the deficit will be reduced depends on the ability of the president and Congress to agree on areas for spending cuts and/or tax increases. They believe the government should play a more active role in developing a long-term industrial policy that directs capital investment and training in the new service and high-tech industries. which caused a drop in markets all over the world. Many economists feel that the U.S. Deficit spending in the Reagan administration exceeded $200 billion a year—nearly three times greater than that of any previous administration. Almost every year since 1930. stock market has intensified Americans' fears of an . and biochemical products and services are also on the rise. Service Industries — the Decisive Sector of the U. Service industries include banking. resist these proposals. business and industry." One of the most significant structural changes has been a shift in production of goods to the delivery of services as the dominant feature of the American economy. Most Americans are doubtful these targets will be met.R. One important measure to control the budget deficit was the GrammRudman deficit reduction plan. has the potential to increase its overall economic productivity by making heavier investment in the new service and high-tech industries instead of subsidizing competitive manufacturing industries. however. adopted in December 1985. hotels and restaurants.

Increased mechanization of American farming is threatening the existence of the small farmer. Farmers have had to increase their debts to afford expensive farm equipment.fewer farms bushels 100 - ..S. American agriculture is a highly productive sector of the U...THE U. . and high interest rates make it difficult for many farmers to keep up payments on loans and mortgages. one third of the crop land in the United States is planted in crops destined for export.S.. Farmers depend heavily on exports.. Small farmers are unable to compete with large agribusiness firms that usually have the capital needed to sustain themselves through periods marked by low crop prices and high interest rates. many farmers insist on emergency aid from the government.more 1950 60 70 1981/82 1950 60 70 1981/82 1950 60 70 1981/82 .3 litres 1950 60 70 1982/82 . A variety of agribusiness: farming engaged in as big business. With as many as 200 farmers having to declare bankruptcy every day.increased mechanization kg by hectare 150 100 1950 60 70 50 1981/82 . Revolution in Agriculture US$ per farm 3000 - 1950 60 70 1981/82 . economy and create economic distress all over the world. economy facing tough challenges.. agricultural land has been concentrated into fewer and fewer hands as large-scale specialized farms replace small family farms. processing and distribution of farm products.. Low crop prices.. ECONOMY 63 AGRICULTURE imminent recession... highly mechanized industry requiring huge investments.and higher yields Example: corn bushel per hectare CRISIS OF THE SMALL FARM The high efficiency and productivity of American agriculture has its negative side. including the production. In the past thirty years. Another difficulty the American farmer faces is the decline of agricultural exports. Farming nowadays has become an extremely efficient. Farming has become too productive to be profitable to many American farmers. often do not bring farmers enough income to live on. which have resulted from overproduction.fewer workers bushels 30RESULT: . A falling market can contribute to a decline in spending which could severely weaken the U.increased agricultural acreage per farm 50 - 1950 60 70 1981/82 fertilizers ... But the market for these export crops is shrinking as the markets of the European community expand.S...higher performance Example: coin bushel per labor hour 1 bushel = 35.

One example from the 1970s is that of two young men who worked together to design a new and better computer. pickles.64 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP CORPORATIONS governmental and private programs. loan guarantees. While giant corporations determine much of the nation's economic behavior. and in 1977 Apple Computer Corporation was started.6 рЯ E ___ 1 4 ENTREPRENEURS SUCCESS YUPPIES Large corporations JAPAN | J30 were once run by individuals with high public profiles. and ketchup. . 1 : . Modern corporations. Henry INDUSTRY U. 700. Americans do believe in the potential for individual success that exists within their free enterprise system. Georgia. | |56 . The trend in modern agriculture towards large-scale enterprise conforms to the overall pattern in American business. that company. was one of the largest computer makers in the United States. The Dominance of the Large Corporations Percentage o' corporations with more than 250 employees around 1980 NUMBER OF CORPORATIONS JAPAN Ц0. : ■ 164 Ford of the automobile RETURNS JAPAN | industry and Andrew Carnegie of the steel industry are well-known magnates of the early part of this century. Since the 1970s such businesses started by entrepreneurs have provided more new employment than larger corporations. Americans are known for being highly success-oriented and dedicated to hard work. The famous Heinz food company. including crop insurance. The high-tech era has produced a new generation of entrepreneurs. in the 1890s. By the end of 1984. Giant corporations dominate. The Coca-Cola company began when an American pharmacist mixed together the first CocaCola drink and began selling it in Atlanta. The problems of the American farm economy are not unique. and price supports.000 small businesses were started in the United States. This success story is similar to others in American history.S. In 1984. on the other hand. began when a teenager started to sell various food items on the street. are often run by nearly anonymous career executives who rarely own more than a fraction of one percent of the corporation's stock. They gathered money needed to pay for large-scale production. which specializes in mustard. Farmers in the European Economic Community are facing many of the same problems. While most people who start businesses do not become millionaires. entrepreneurs also have a significant impact on the American economy. NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES USA. started by two business-minded entrepreneurs. Small corporations are being consumed by larger ones and large corporations become even larger through mergers. have been set up to assist farmers. Today's baby boom generation has acquired a reputation for its baby boom generation: people born in the 1950s and 1960s when birthrates were extremely high. : .A.

" meaning young upwardly-mobile professional. Now that percentage has dropped to 18 percent and shows signs of shrinking further. .S. The decline in labor membership is related to the changing trends in the economy as a whole. where right -to-work laws hinder union organizers. premium pay for night work. and employer subsidized health insurance plans. as many as 1 in 3 wage earners were union members. Whereas the drive for success is firmly entrenched in American ideology. what is curiously absent is focused ideological support for America's labor unions. Although Amer ican workers are now beginning to focus their demands more on job security than benefits.S. and shipbuilding are routine. according to the stereotype. paid vacations. Foreign competition has depressed many U. In 1950. ECONOMY 65 LABOR UNIONS AFL-CIO DECLINING MEMBERSHIP relentless drive for material success. industries and left many workers unemployed. Laws require companies to make costly redundancy payment to workers who are dismissed. corporations are deterred from laying off workers. In America. few employees can aspire to the job security won by unions in continental Europe. Today the largest American labor union is the joint AFL -CIO.THE U. Automation and other technological inno vations in industrial production have displaced many blue-collar workers. The AFL -CIO is active in the world labor movement. but to all sectors of the U. lay-offs of blue-collar workers in industries such as automobiles. Between 1975 and 1985. The decline in manufacturing industries. devote themselves to careers and status. has contributed to the decline of America's labor unions. Although a legal framework for worker representation and collective bargaining was established by legislat ion in the 1930s. labor unions in America do not have the power or political direction of their counterparts in Europe. such as worker participation in corporate strategy in West Germany and nationalization of industries in Great Britain seem radical compared with the achievements of American workers. economy. Another explanation for the unions' loss of member ship is the movement of many industries to the South. Achievements of European labor. aerospace. membership dropped from 14 million to 11 million workers. has been coined to describe those people be tween the ages of 25 and 45 who. American labor unions today are losing members and influence. which employ fewer blue-collar workers. In Europe. The lack of class consciousness and the belief that one can rise to a higher station in life through individual effort help explain why socialism has not gained mass appeal as a unifying ideology among American wo rkers. It is an affiliate of the International confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) which has members in 95 countries and territories. The AFL-CIO has also been troubled by a sharp decline in membership. the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations. Some significant gains American labor unions have won for their members include benefits such as increases in overtime pay. The term "yuppie. The transition to a post-industrial economy presents challenges not only to labor unions. the lack of rigid class distinctions has given many workers the feeling that they are not permanen tly destined to a working-class existence. and the rise in service and high -tech industries. once a stronghold of unionism. Furthermore. One explanation for this difference between labor unions in Europe and America is that American workers have traditionally valued self -reliance and individualism.S.

he has written more than 20 books on economics. At the same time. N EWS & W ORLD R EPORT Peter Drucker is probably the most widely respected corporate management expert in the United States. Beginning in 1939 with The End of Economic Man. and they absorbed the millions of women who entered the job market. Companies pay a price for size. Inc. For 30 years the trend was toward the large unit because it was the one we knew how to manage—or thought we did. population trends and things of that sort. set out to start something new again. neither of whom had ever had a pair of scissors in his hand. large. they are too visible in a world in which business is damned if it does and damned if it doesn't.S. So they get an idea and start off on their own. don't go near glamour. News if World Report. "What are the key factors?" The answers are location. These are a stable group of people who look systematically for opportunities. Politically. Elephants can't turn on a dime. They talk profit. The smart business executive knows the advantages of anonymity. Too many hightech people can't build teams or train people. The new entrepreneurs. © 1984 US News Sc World Report. They absorbed all the postWorld War II babies. in fact. Is it still possible to start new companies today and succeed? It's more than just possible. once their businesses get to 10 or 15 million dollars in sales. News & World Report. Are you implying that the day of the big company is over? I'm not saying we won't have large companies but that we no longer need them in many instances. new enterprises. and the casualty rate of their businesses is quite low. Government has not grown. In the past decade. established companies have lost several million jobs. You see it in hospitals. Most of these 20 million additional jobs are in small. ♦ . don't expect to have it.S. a professor of social science at Claremont Graduate School in California. By that time. We are deinstitutionalizing. They asked. We have on our hands an entrepreneurial boom the like of which we have not seen in a century. 1984. and neither can huge organizations with all their layers of management. where the spot light is shifting toward the smaller unit. published at Washington. Reprinted from U. after eight or 10 years of being trainees and young managers. But if you run one of the world's great banks. where are these millions of jobs being created? I'll give you an example. The most important economic event of the last few years. where clinics now perform outpatient surgery. Would you characterize these as high-tech businesses? No. and they don't know how to make a cash-flow forecast. either. These barbershop fellows understand cash flow." That's the whole secret of financial management: know when you'll need money and make sure of it before you need it. the United States has created 20 million new jobs—the largest number ever created anywhere in such a short period. Typically. You see it in education. Rather than eke out an existence like most barbershops. theirs are earning 30 to 40 percent returns on investment. A good many. That is over.S. they are not very agile. D. March 26. where the huge consolidated secondary school is being judged a failure. is the emergence of this entrepreneurial trend. including most recently The Changing World of the Executive. They did nothing more than apply elementary management. How do they get started? Most come out of big companies or institutions. Drucker. and after nine months I was in a cash bind and had to give away 40 percent of the business to the next batch of investors. either. and they don't bet on new technology but on something far more predictable: demographics. And you see it in business. They knew how to build their team and how to train their people. traffic and the number of people you can cut in a day without anyone's having to wait. Aren't these small businesses vulnerable to competition from giant companies? There is no longer a premium on big size in many industries. discusses America's new wave of entrepreneurs. The fastest growing and most profitable new business I know is a chain of barbershops founded by two young men. I make sure of the money six months before I need it. too. and in a new business it's not profit that matters but cash flow.66 PART в Texts The New Entrepreneurs Peter Drucker on Entrepreneur From U. // not in high technology. they know a lot about what we call upper management and organization. corporations and management. they realize their next promotion is a ways off. One of them told me: "I started another business once. then.C. Their enterprises tend to resemble entrepreneurships of years ago—a game in which all the cards are marked and you don't know what anyone has up his sleeve. The high-tech people are traditional entrepreneurs. In this interview with the editors «/U. Few of them have any illusion that they're going to build thousand million-dollar companies. which means nine of every 10 of them will lose their business within two years. With these barbershops.

. a division of American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T). established the model of an alliance between creative genius and big business. Yet since 1984. where he has been a science writer since 1966. Gene Bylinsky is on the board of editors of Fortune magazine. He is the author of several books including Mood Control and Life in Darwin's Universe. in 1987 two of their colleagues were awarded a Nobel Prize for their pioneering work on superconductors. In more recent times IBM scientists have designed fundamental computer languages and software. Research laboratories within large companies have been one of the great incubators of scientific discovery in the United States. As the author of this article reports. ECONOMY 67 By Gene Bylinsky Scientific advances at America's top research laboratory run the gamut from building an efficient phone system to discovering evidence of the Big Bang. Bell Labs has survived the breakup and its research remains as innovative as ever. Charles Steinmetz.THE U.S. Scientists at Bell Labs have won more Nobel Prizes than any other industrial institution in the world. telephone service violated antitrust law. however. America's largest and most famous research facility is Bell Laboratories. researchers at Du Pont have used chemical compounds discovered in their labs to develop plastics and other materials put to everyday use. the American scientific community has been concerned about the scaled-down company's support for its distinguished research arm. whose 30years of research at General Electric helped usher in the age of electricity at the beginning of this century. Similarly. when a federal judge ruled that AT&T must be split up because its control of U.S.

The scientists at Bell are spread among physics. What happens at Bell Labs is of vital interest to American industry because of the labs' high quality of research and because it has been strong where the United States now finds itself weak: in the transfer of research results into products. the premier corporate research facility in the United States for most of its 62-year history. as well as sound motion pictures. vice-president in charge of research at Bell Labs. president of the National Academy of Engineering: "America's problem is not lack of basic research but inadequate conversion of scientific discovery to commercialization.000 telephone calls simultaneously through a pair of fibers. Not only has basic research come through the court-ordered break-up of AT&T largely unscathed. Penzias's idea was accepted and the committee disbanded on the spot. basic research absorbed only about 10 percent of manpower and spending at Bell Labs. In 1985 President Reagan awarded Bell Labs the National Medal of Technology — the only U." Bell Labs is striving to help AT&T's businesses by tailoring basic research more closely to the needs of the parent company without sacrificing the scope and sweep of investigations. He was asked to join a committee of older scientists who were trying to devise the best way to calculate the precise positions of communications satellites. continued B ell Laboratories." says Arno A Penzias. The scientists were talking about setting up tall. not basic research. has produced the transistor. including such current topics in theoretical physics as instabilities and chaos. it's larger and more diverse than most university physics departments. The sprawling headquarters building is an immense beehive. Recently AT&T began to install the world's most advanced fiber-optic transmission system. the parent operating company. It houses more than 3000 researchers. The staff includes 3430 Ph. But basic research at the Labs has always been a huge attentiongetter because of its unmatched results and epochal discoveries. The economics and psychology departments have been cut drastically while robotics and computer science have grown. the solar cell and the first communications satellite. which emit characteristic frequencies from fixed positions in the sky—would serve equally well at no cost whatever. The most basic work at Bell Labs has a way of merging into development. The 1947 invention of the transistor set off the world microelectronics and computer revolution. mathematics. Says Robert M. product developers and support staff along lengthy corridors lined with hundreds of small labs crammed with the latest instruments. electronics and sundry other fields. Electronics and optics are two other large areas of emphasis. the science of radio astronomy and crucial evidence for the theory that a Big Bang created the universe. for their discovery. Seven Bell Lab scientists have won Nobel Prizes. Penzias. the two men shared a Nobel Prize in 1978. to building ceramic superconductors and creating so-called neural networks in silicon chips that mimic rudimentary animal brain pathways. The noise they studied turned out to be the residual radiation from the Big Bang.s — more than the total research staff of the closest rival corporate lab. Bell Labs does that very well indeed. which can speed 24. but Bell Labs is also branching into new commercial areas — in part by launching new R&D companies —and looking into licensing of companies as far afield from telecommunications as airlines and shipping firms. White. The physics-research division alone employs 250. and that proportion remains unchanged. chemistry. but the intellectual content of the work is the same. Later. Most of the employees are engineers. Today the vital signs are still strong at the Bell Lab headquarters in northern New Jersey. Bell Labs might wither into just another run-of-the-mill industrial research and development (R&D) operation.D. made his mark soon after he arrived at the labs in 1961. The scope of research at Bell remains wider than at most other industrial labs and even some universities. Historically. developed at Bell Labs. each twice the thickness of a human hair. but that shift in emphasis involved only about 40 of the 200 or so scientists who pursue the purest kind of pure research. Bell Labs' method has always been to assemble a huge mass of diverse specialists who interact closely. who have worked on applications.S. the laser. putting to rest fears that without the vast revenue base provided by ЛТ&Т. laboratory ever singled out for it. though that's not immediately apparent from the activities of some of the basic . an ebullient astrophysicist. Investigations range from basic studies of the nature of matter.68 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. at IBM. It has 40 percent more capacity than any other commercial system. Penzias and his colleague Robert Wilson built measuring devices for Bell Labs' radiotelescope as part of their effort to track down the source of static that often interfered with their studies of radio waves from the Milky Way. "To an outside observer it may seem that we've gone product oriented. expensive radio masts when Penzias piped up with the suggestion that nature's own radio masts — radio stars. computer science.

another observes faint galaxies at the edge of the universe from observatories in Chile and Hawaii. AT&T is already using the algorithm to design a vast and complex phone network among the 20 nations of the Pacific Rim. Progress in that field in recent months has been exceptionally rapid. Bell Labs pays competitive or somewhat higher salaries than other major corporate labs. Where programmers and mathematicians once took days to solve a problem with thousands of variables. now the customer does. One recently reported on the activities of ants in the jungles of Brazil. the photon.000 telephone calls an hour. Indianborn mathematician Narendra Karmarkar described this new insight in 1984. which requires devising the shortest possible route connecting a given number of destinations. colorless substance released by the decomposing bodies of anls. would work 1000 times faster than today's electronic variety—an almost unimaginable boon to everyone from theoretical physicists to weather forecasters. The algorithm is useful in other fields as well. Bell Labs is now far along in harnessing the electron's ephemeral cousin. The freedom. It has revolutionized astronomy because it collects light up to 1000 times more efficiently than film." as Penzias says. Bell Labs is getting ready to apply it to airline and shipping businesses. A classic example of a technology-driven product: the Picturephone of the mid-1950s. for the task of information movement and management. and part of his job is to find out why telephone equipment can fail in various environments. but it also has potential uses as the eyes of robots and in the precision manufacture of semiconductors. He cites the emergence and the rapid adoption of a remarkable mathematical shortcut to the celebrated traveling-salesman problem. which can cost several million dollars and handles up to 300." Among other things. The student of ants. a pungent.S.D. Bell Lab President Ian M. Tyson is one of a handful of Bell's basic scientists who "couple us to the universe of science. The optical computer. the facilities and first-class colleagues come before that. reports that a major cause of acid rain in the Amazon is formic acid. Harvesting the fruits of research happens faster than it did in the good old days. He is trying to improve another Bell Lab invention. It worked well. technology drove Bell Labs' development. in electrical engineering with several advances in semiconductors to his credit. Gradel's interest in the Amazonian ants is highly practical: he is a corrosion chemist. Competing against the rest of the world is teaching Bell Labs' product developers to couple R&D even more closely to both manufacturing and market needs. ECONOMY 69 scientists. Just as it opened the new world of microelectronics by inventing the transistor. Nowadays Bell Labs would let the market determine whether it would develop a Picturephone. using laser beams instead of electrical connections. that they have always competed against the world at large. . "It's a small but vital part of our business strategy to have a few scientists do work that gives Bell Labs a connection to the universities and the rest of the scientific community that it couldn't get otherwise. such as those at IBM and Du Pont. Bell Labs traditionally has been a place that "made its own future happen. In the past. The stargazer. astrophysicist J. Into the competitive world today Bell Labs' developers are bringing such impressive products as a gigantic computerized electronic switching system." IBM: international Business Machines: large American corporation. As Arno Penzias puts it. Anthony Tyson. Ross is a subdued Britishborn Ph. Thomas Gradel.THE U. In all these activities Bell Labs' people think they have a competitive advantage because research has been integrated into the work of the parent company better than at any other industrial lab. Bell Labs' basic scientists insist that competition is nothing new for them. such connections help attract young scientists. However. money is not the main draw for most of them. but market studies of the potential demand for it failed to make clearjust who could afford to use it. In Bell Labs' bag of surprises there even could be an optical computer superior to its electronic counterpart. the charge coupled device — in effect a silicon chip that can see. Bell Labs is also helping install a system that will connect McDonald's 7500 hamburger outlets and the company's administrative offices. the Karmarkar algorithm allows them to do so in minutes. has his feet on the ground as well. And although Penzias says that some scientists earn more at Bell Labs.

's costly. nearly 20% of annual revenue. They are the most profitable food served under the Golden Arches. it has a patent on the precise combination of steps in making its fries. The five potatoes. Alas.70 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP A French-Fry Diary: From Idaho Furrow To Golden Arches For the Potato That Qualifies. Thwarted but not defeated. To frustrate imitators. McDonald's Corp. ILL. inside his "war room. Delicate negotiations with the government of the Netherlands preceded the move. "God. McDonald's has spelled out no fewer than 60 specifications a strip of potato has to meet to make it into the frying basket. The potatoes have been transplanted from their American homeland to a field in far-off Holland. Sprayer. 10-year struggle to take its favorite source of French-fried potatoes to Europe has been thwarted. Once again. This company didn't get to be king of fast food by taking French fries lightly. 2/8/82 D eep within the high-rise confines of McDonald's Corp. Turner exclaims. have fallen victim to a virulent foreign potato virus. estranged from their native land. . I hope they didn't die. The restaurants even use a special blend of frying oil. Its name: Interstate 47. McDonald's Has a Slicer. The attention McDonald's lavishes on the spindly side order suggests something approaching a corporate obsession. eight months in Dutch quarantine followed before the potatoes could be planted. Drier—and Ruler BY MEG COX OAK BROOK. headquarters. And why not? French fries currently pour more than $1 billion a year into McDonald's cash registers." Mr." Chairman Fred Turner ponders a weighty business issue: the fate of five Idaho potatoes. the news is bad. Seven of every 10 customers arriving after the breakfast hour order fries. Lower-level McDonald's operatives are asked to check. To keep them that way.

but they aren't. Like the others. other people's fries are dipped in sugar to make them brown better. but what good is it if you don't have a sturdy potato to begin with? At McDonald's the tuber of choice is the russet Burbank. Other fries are blanched. Spraying the sugar on makes the fries brown unevenly. which makes for crispier fries. All the fries in the assembly line are prefried. But there are subtle differences. "If we can grow these potatoes in the Philippines. Turner says they are small and yellow and low in solids. Never mind that the Continent offers several hundred other varieties. too. . "People think all potatoes are alike. R. but overseas is another matter. frying is important. What hungry diner wants to look into his bag and find a bunch of little stubby fries? McDonald's is ruthless about length: 40% of all fries must be between two inches and three inches long.where on the Simplot production line. he adds with distaste. figuring that water carries off flavor and nutrients.. and that makes them look more natural. Atchley recently returned from the Philippines. Nor is McDonald's indifferent to the amount of moisture that slips away between the frying and the drying. Simplot potato factory in Caldwell.S. He explains: "A russet Burbank potato has a distinctive taste and a higher ratio of solids to water. those going to McDonald's are chopped." says Bi l l Atchley. They call it "drier-frier weight loss. though. producing. where he spent much of his time on his hands and knees in the dirt trying to teach farmers to plant the right kind of potatoes. but those going to McDonald's are dried at higher heat. which processes a good portion of the billion potatoes McDonald's uses each year. Idaho. Fries have to be the right length. No russet Burbanks are grown there. continued Now. we'll learn a lot about how to do it in other tropical countries. the company believes.THE U. to make them chewy." he says. Mr. but they are sprayed rather than dipped. McDonald's has its steamed. or quickscalded. The time and the heat are covered by the patent. prefried and frozen. color isn't everything." There are plenty of russet Burbanks in the U. and the Common Market doesn't allow potato imports. The state of the art in French-fry making today can be seen at the J. ECONOMY 71 3. "Mac fries.S." like the ones Simplot prepares for other companies. the chief of McDonald's crew of spud scouts. in water. Mac fries get doused in sugar too. "small and soggy" French fries. But the big target is Europe. In looks. begin their journey on an assembly line." Else. Mr. where women in aprons pluck out the bad potatoes. then dried. Company food scientists monitor this.

the other 20%—well." WAYNE STAYSKAL Courtesy Chicago Tribune eei тне ммвек op THAT вияеек кт vewew ткиск. continued another 40% must be over three inches." Nutritionists tend to be less enthusiastic. Isobel Contento. McDonald's is convinced all this trouble pays off. 1" . a nutrition professor at Columbia University in New York. there are very few vitamins." says television chef Julia Child. It says a 1975 telephone survey showed that Mac fries were the favorite of 70% of those called.72 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. "They're cooked in extremely fresh fat. says. it doesn't hurt to have a few stubby ones. Even some gourmets like them. "I think McDonald's fries are remarkably good. "About half the calories in French fries come from fat. and you'd feel a whole lot fuller eating a comparable amount of green vegetables.

family-run farms left in the United States.S. It is instead the result of bad choices in U. Food processing and distribution in the United States has long been an oligopoly controlled by a handful ofcorporations. made up of companies that operate farms for institutional owners. According to theA'ero York Times. At least a third of the nation's family farmers are carrying levels of debt that place them in imminent danger of bankruptcy. Across the state in Hills. a man he had bought land from. Originally the farm management industry mostly served retired people who didn't want to sell their land. bad luck. a fundamental shift occurred in the direction of federal agriculture policy. 1929 and continuing through the 1930s.000 a year.000 full-time. a culture." There is a crisis in American agriculture in the 1980s. In the early 1970s. already the proud owner of 300 farms. farm-related industries. agriculture policy. economy was weakened by Vietnam War-induced inflation and new international trade competition from its European and Japanese allies. renowned for its excellent news service. which runs 3. there aresome winners. which further exacerbated both L ast year rural Sac County. the number of farms operated by those companies has risen by more than 40 percent daring the farm crisis. and entire communities. cxperiend three bank failures. and they are disappearing at the rate of about 30.S. a crisis in many ways worse than the one accompanying the Great Depression of the 1930s. emotional. Their acreage now comprises an area roughly the size of Colorado. But Great Depression: the economic crisis and worldwide decline in business activity. There are about 600. Vietnam War: see page 15. businesses. especially in the last 15 years. At the time of the tragedy. After 40 years of slow shrinkage. Then came the 1973 Arab oil embargo and the consequent doubling of oil prices. Iowa. near Iowa City.THE U. Also in 1985 more than 40 Sac County farms were lost to foreclosure. ECONOMY 73 9 The Forgotten Farmer THE C R I S I S IN AMERICAN AGRICULTURE fcyD A N N Y COLLUM today its customers include some of America's biggest banks and insurance companies who have "inherited" the land through foreclosure and other institutional investors taking advantage of crisis-induced low land prices. and a vocation is facing extinction. Iowa. with another 120 in immediate danger. In the county seat of Odenbolt (population 1. .900 farms (including 200 of Metropolitan's) comprising more than a million acres in nine states. his banker. One big winner is the farm-management industry. Iowa. last December a farmer killed his wife. the ripple effects of farm foreclosures are taking down banks. THE CURRENT CRISIS in American agriculture is not the result of bad weather. The current farm crisis is creating a nearly unbearable economic. one of the most important national daily newspapers. bought out the nation's largest farm-management company. New York Times: established 1851. Now the food-growing industry is taking the same route. The local sheriff said the man left a note "indicating he couldn't stand the problems anymore. Further evidence of corporate centralization of agriculture was recently provided when the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. The U. or bad management.S. 12 businesses closed. And as the experience of Odenbolt. beginning with the stockmarket crash in October.300). as were school enrollments which have now declined 7 percent since 1982. the family farm as an institution. the farmer was almost a million dollars in debt. While the farm crisis is creating an ever-widening circle of losers. from 'rural America to the industrial cities. and spiritual dislocation for hundreds of thousands of Americans with long-standing ties to the land and no other means of livelihood. indicates. and finally himself. church attendance and collections were down.

S. In 1981 the Reagan administration came into power and induced a crippling recession as the final solution to the domestic inflation problem. This had the advantage of redressing the international trade problem while simultaneously holding down domestic food prices in a time of inflation. the farm recession drove down the value of the land. and the banks actively encouraged farmers to take out loans to buy more land and equipment to enlarge their operations and produce still more.S.74 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 4. Government policies encouraged farmers to plant their land from fence row to fence row. If farm families can be declared dispensable. and in the farm belt. In turn the increased value of their landholdings (a farmer's primary loan collateral) allowed farmers to borrow even more. grain produciton to the highest possible level.S. though.. and no way to pay it. the crisis that is destroying family farms raises serious questions about the social and economic direction America will take in the rest of this century. petrodollars: surplus profits accumulated by petroleum-exporting countries. and produce more. Demand for farm land increased as a result of these changes. simply could not afford to buy them at any price. already reduced by President Carter's grain embargo. Farmers' total indebtedness grew by leaps and bounds. The farm crisis is symptomatic of that trend. No one worried about it. lower prices. The Reagan administration's policies of high military spending deficits and a tight money supply also combined to drive up the interest rates on farm loans. making it more difficult for farmers to get the loans they needed for seeds and supplies from year to year. had begun to compete with the United States on the world market. farm belt: region in the midwestern U. wheat. because America was the bread-basket of the world and there was nothing but clear skies ahead. Banks were flooded with Middle Eastern petrodollars in search of investment opportunities. especially in Europe and Latin America. taken on at the encouragement a few years before. and the new levels of land productivity drove the price of farm land sky-high. as did bank deregulation. Before long the current tidal wave of foreclosures began. The U. so can we all. At this time the decision was made to crank up U. ■ . But the clouds soon appeared. Right now the damage is most visible in black and Hispanic inner-city communities without jobs or hope. . But it won't stop there. Suddenly many farmers found themselves with an enormous debt load. recession inevitably became a global recession. particularly those in the Third World.S. and massive export sales. in the abandoned industrial towns of the Northeast and upper Midwest. At the same time. Ultimately. had increased their food production to the point that they no longer needed U. Such a narrow approach to public life will inevitably leave behind staggering human damage.S. continued inflation and the export-import imbalance. The old farm-policy emphasis on price maintenance was traded in for a policy that emphasized higher production. The market for U. grain. grain exports. expand more. Some of them. Little room exists in U^S. political debate for the idea that decentralized ownership and control of land and the institution of family farming might have an intrinsic social and moral value that outweighs the demands of the market. Hispanic: an American citizen or resident of Latin American descent. Also other countries. The economics of the marketplace are increasingly replacing all notions of the common good in areas ranging from banking and telephore service to newspapers and other mass media. Interest rates were low. of deep fertile soils which are especially adapted to the production of corn. oats and soybeans. now declined further because other countries. in fact.

" If we are hungry. it has generally done so with a total disregard for the environment. Haseltine. State University of New York at Geneseo." by Robert W. my family has to take precedence. in putting together the resources . Unfortunately. . Both sides refuse to accept pollution in its various aspects as having any form of economic consequences. any business. attempts to operate all of its production in a least-cost manner.S. while my support of my family must be viewed as a short-range problem.. is part and parcel of the problem. but in the consumer community as well. the environment or my family. International Nickel and "the world's tallest smokestack" put enough sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide into the atmosphere to have caused the death of all vegetation. we starve to death — and there is no long run. Prof. in the area of fixing environmental problems which have been developing for well over 100 years. Ecology: Problems with Solutions to Pollution ". we go to the nearest fast food place and quickly fill the vacuum. A major lack of foresightedness has occurred not only in the business community. . or the ecosphere in general. ECONOMY 75 ф Economics vs. One of the best examples of the debilitating effects of air pollution is Sudbury. Business. has to be very cost-conscious if it is going to exist long in a free-market society.THE U.. Most Americans are after the "quick fix. Similarly. Canada. /s associate professor of economics. as with most complex problems. If there is no food coming into the house in the short run. That is. Business. .. according to economic theory. Ont. you and me. The pollution spewed into the atmosphere by the smokestack is a long-range problem. with the concomitant erosion and loss of all soil down to bedrock. Haseltine Industrial pollution — no easy solution OF BOTH THE EFFECTSbeen observedAIR and water pollution on the environment have for years. the East River and Hudson River both give a good example of water pollution carried to its extreme. we ask "them" (whoever we may think "them" to be) to quickly make the problem go away. Economics Editor of USA Today. much as a child asks mommy to kiss the bruise and take away the hurt. there are more things involved than meet the superficial glance that most of us give to problems of this nature. . The short-run problem Ever since business began to operate in the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution. The average citizen. At least that is what we are told by American business as it fights any of the laws which would place restrictions on the manner in which it dumps its wastes into the atmosphere. When it comes down to which is going to suffer.. for about 20 miles east of Sudbury. For anyone familiar with the New York City area. Our short-run look at income and profit keeps us from the long-run look at the future of life. The solutions are not that easily found..

" and what affects other life will eventually affect me. welding. Polluting the air The major reason for air pollution.iftheydothisand other competing businesses do not do this.the economics of self-interest (greed) which causes me. just as the business manager attempts to save the company as much money as possible. and the basic cause is that which is outlined above . Polluting the water The waterways are another . Wisconsin has a law that all houseboats must have a self-contained head (toilet) which must be pumped out properly and dumped properly if you have it done in the state of Wisconsin. In the short run . will be most productive. . more and more businesses are turning to robots to do the painting. For this reason. and have it pumped out in that state. . then into a sewerage disposal system.. especially as one looks at the problems of hydrocarbons and lead. and it is definitely an economic problem affecting incomes of both business and workers. if the levels of profits are to remain high enough to satisfy the stock- holders. is the private consumer. . If. to save as much of my income as possible. . we are all a part of this "marble in space. if I do. just as the high smokestack has added to the problem of long-distance pollution. The problem which is caused is endemic throughout the world. our short-run look at income and profit keeps us from the long-run look at the future of life. it becomes a dilemma: Should I save money by pumping in Iowa. or general ill health. as it works with that capital. If business puts into the production line the types of equipment which will clean up the residue so that what comes out of the smokestack is nothing but steam. with no corresponding positions opening up in the service sector. continued which it uses to produce a final good. What is the difference? In Wisconsin. and harming the river. I can not point a finger of blame. This has caused a problem with the amounts of hydrocarbons and lead in the atmosphere close to the surface. then the market price of the good will have to be increased. . From this stems an over-all loss of jobs. In order to save four to 10 cents per gallon. you go across the river to Iowa. . . heart problems. it uses capital and labor in a manner which will produce the most output for the least possible cost per unit of production. Iowa does a thriving business in pumping! Where does it lead? While the first impact is on wildlife. area that we find it easier to pollute than to spend the money necessary to clean wastes properly. they recognize that a number of things will have to occur. Yes. because. especially among tho.00. or buying a device which allows them to add regular gas to their tank instead of being forced to purchase unleaded. and countless other tedious jobs that up to now have been done by wage labor. will use capital. or should I waste my money by pumping in Wisconsin? For some reason. e who have poorer levels of education and a need to protect their families and livelihoods. This means that more and more jobs have disappeared from the industrial sector of the economy. we find people doing away with pollution control devices. it is pumped directly into the Mississippi River to become part of the problem of downstream urban areas which may take their drinking water from that river. Business. . therefore. This means that unit cost is more than it was previously and. . we are all a part of the "economics of greed. The cost is not exorbitant. it is pumped into a storage tank. especially. if not death. For the individual. however. I find three other fingers pointing back at me. .. In Iowa. in such a way that labor. their costs of production will rise while that of their competition will not. however. The effect might be emphysema. about $5. So far.00.76 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 5. as a consumer." like it or not. it is only about $1.

c) have been taken up by the quickly growing population after the Second World War. (number) is to point out a) the growing expansion and diversity of Bell Labs in spite of the court-enforced break-up of AT&T. 1. b) do not lay so much stress on the organization of management. 7. What aspects are mentioned in this introduction? Which ones would you be interested in following up? 3. b) they had a good idea which they thought they could sell themselves. The italicized introduction or lead is meant to provide as much information as necessary to arouse the reader's curiosity about the text. 1. 2. . c) the new emphasis on robotics and computer science. c) they only accepted cash from their customers. are often regarded as failures. An enormous number of new jobs a) have been created by large established companies. The large majority of high-tech entrepreneurs fail because a) they only talk about profit but do not work hard enough. b) have been taken by the millions of women who have entered the labor force. b) predictable technology. What can you anticipate about the article by just looking at the title photo and the subtitle? 2. . b) has not been seen in this century. 8. Compared with giant companies small businesses a) are more flexible. b) they do not have enough cash to start a business. First read through the text and underline the key words or phrases of each paragraph. 4. c) is the extraordinary economic event of this century. Most new entrepreneurs worked for big companies until they realized that a) there was no chance of being promoted in the near future. b) the enormous attention basic research gets through epochal discoveries. The two men who started a barbershop chain were successful because a) they were real experts in haircutring. b) are not as efficient as they used to be. 3. The new entrepreneurs rely heavily on a) glamor. An entrepreneurial boom a) will possibly emerge in this century. b) they applied all the elementary management techniques. 5.77 PART C Exercises 1. Comprehension Peter Drucker on Entrepreneurs Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the original text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. 2. Then number the eighteen paragraphs of the article and match them with the descriptions below using the following sentence: The function of paragraph. look at the layout. Peter Drucker believes that big companies a) will die out soon. 1. Who is the author and what are his credentials? 3. 2. c) demographical data. Organization of the Text Now have a closer look at the organization of the text as a whole and the function of each paragraph. c) enjoy a higher degree of anonymity. c) they know too little about financial planning. . c) they could build a thousand million dollar company themselves. 6. c) like other big institutions. Anticipation Inside Bell Labs Before you read the text.

with comments alternating with interviews. Especially at the beginning of this article the author aims at a comic effect when transferring words that originate in the fields of warfare or medicine to the potato and French-fry business. p) the size and diversity of the Bell research staff. The film is to be made on location. 1) the motives of scientists for joining Bell Labs. What do you think their function is? close-up a large-scale photograph taken from very near: the slightest nuance of expression in an actor's face is magnified by the close-up and can become significant long shot shot taken from a distance medium shot normal camera angle and distance special effects 5. • the role of the commentator • the settings required • the total number of scenes. "The camera shoots from a low angle. Producing a Filmscript Imagine you work for an American TV station. Draw up a plan for such a film and decide how to present the basic points you want to make. concentrate on the individual scenes and write a filmscript to include the setting the camera movements the dialogues of the interviews the remarks of the commentator the kind of music you would like to use. m) the idea of market-oriented research and development.78 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP d) that competition has always been a constant driving force in research. Style A French-Fry Diary: From Idaho Furrow to Golden Arches 1. k) an example of the practical use of basic research on ants. Think about • the kind of interviewees you will have to pick in order to present these points. Here is a list of vocabulary connected with filmmaking: shot a unit in film-production. a nutritionist) expressing different opinions about McDonald's French fries. a single part of a film made by one camera without interruption exterior shot shot of an outdoor scene indoor shot shot of an indoor scene types of camera shots 4. i. After forming small groups or pairs. r) the importance of the transfer of basic scientific discovery to the world of commerce. q) an ingenious idea of Arno Penzias. j) the development of an optical computer. Estimated length: 15-20 minutes. Find examples in the text. a gourmet. n) Bell Labs as the most important corporate research facility in the United States. Look at the questions asked in this article. f) the use of the Karmarkar algorithm. e) impressive technological products which support the view that Bell Labs have an advantage over their competitors. i) a discovery for which Penzias and his colleague Wilson won the Nobel Prize in 1978. h) the latest invention of the physics research division." high angle high angle looks down on the . • the business policies of McDonald's • potato processing from Idaho furrows to McDonald's restaurants • different people (young people. o) the percentage of staff doing basic research. overriding power—otten associated with a sense of threat.e. g) a Bell Lab invention that revolutionized astronomy. 2. You have enjoyed reading this article so much that you have decided to use it as the basis for a loosely-connected documentary film showing low angle in a low angle a figure is seen as if from below: the effect is often one of a towering presence.

Decide on the logical position in the diagram of the following factors.A. ECONOMY 79 subject. grain exports the high level of productivity drives the price of farms sky-high farmers buy more land and equipment to enlarge their operations and produce more . "The camera pans across the picture. up and down. It shows how various factors contribute to the present farm crisis in the U. banks encourage farmers to lake out loans at low interest rates 1 high military spending deficits and a tight money supply drive up interest rates on farm loans government policies encourage farmers to plant their land from fence row to fence row increasing international trade competition countries in the Third World are no longer able to buy U.S.THE U. W.'s face." camera zooms it moves quickly between a distant and a close-up view. expand more and produce more 8 Carter's grain embargo reduces U." 6." camera tracks it moves along. following the action. Structuring an Article The Forgotten Farmer U. "The camera tracks the movement of an actor.S.S. Match numbers with letters." camera is tilted "It is tilted to make a low angle shot.S.S. grain at any price increased value of landholdings allows farmers to borrow more. "The camera zooms in on Mr. agricultural policy decides to increase grain production to the highest level С farmers' indebtedness grows| by leaps and bounds FARM FORECLOSURES FARMS FOR SALE The diagram presents the logical organization of the article. reversing the psychological effect of low angle to fade out gradually dissolve one picture in another camera movements camera pans it moves from side to side.

which are more competitive. The purpose of the statement is to announce the company's decision not to take immediate steps to reduce pollution of the environment. What can the private consumer do to reduce the air pollution caused by his/her car? 6. Americans have a special liking for the "quick fix. Try to convince the audience. Why. Ecology: Problems with Solutions to Pollution 1. Step 1 (statement): You are a representative of Chemicals International. then.80 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 7. How do the different methods of cleaning wastes applied by Wisconsin and Iowa reveal the conflict between economics and ecology? reporters attending the news conference of Chemicals Internationa!. Step 3 (letter to the editor): You have read the article about the commercial views of Chemicals International on ecological problems. A business manager. What about the situation of farmers in your country? Do you think that the "economics of the marketplace" should also be applied to farming? Should big agricultural firms. As an active environmentalist you do not agree. Write a statement which you are going to deliver at a press conference. Choose one of the roles.S. Take notes on the business manager's statement and write an article for your newspaper. a newspaper reporter. and an environmentalist are involved in the controversy of economics versus ecology. . Name the principles of American business that get in the way of any substantial progress in environmental improvements. The average citizen acknowledges the necessity of an effective protection of the environment. Step 2 (newspaper article): You are one of the 8. 4.A. replace small farms? Should governments guarantee family farming through subsidies and protective measures? How would you advise your government about its agriculture policy? 9. Discussion Danny Collum's article points out why in the 1980s a great number of family farms in the U. Text Production The following group work activity consists of three successive steps. does he/she not always advocate reasonable solutions to ecological problems? 5." What examples does the author use to explain the meaning of this way of solving problems? 3. Write a letter to the editor. Comprehension Economics vs. What are the effects of the air pollution caused by International Nickel? 2. closed down.

Many would agree with contemporary American novelist Saul Bellow. not only in the United States but all over the world share many of New York's desirable and undesirable qualities.5 The Urbanization of America PART A NEW YORK Background Information The first glimpse of American city life for the 12 million foreigners who arrived in New York harbor during the wave of European immigration between 1892 and 1924 was New York City. and abandoned structures. A well-known problem in New York City is its slums. one can see demolished buildings. Acres of neglected tenements and failing business establishments betray the city's social and economic troubl es." New York's ethnic groups generally do not intermix. Saul: born 1915. littered lots. . New York City policemen have been pr edominantly Irish and garbage collectors have been mostly Italian. who observed that "what is barely hinted at in other American cities is condensed and enlarged in New York. outstanding museums. New York is a city of poverty and deterioration. advertising. and financial difficulties. Polish. New York's attractions include spectacular sky-scrapers. jobs. insurance. On the one hand. The first destination of many tourists to the United States today is the "gateway to America. The city houses the national centers of finance. Italian. Broadway theaters. Tensions surface when members of one e thnic group begin to challenge another group for housing. On the other hand. with a population of 7 million people of various ethnic groups. As America's largest city." All large cities. Each of these groups has resisted attempts by blacks to move into these occupations. Chinese. Even the city's Swedes and Norwegians live in separate neighborhoods. and power. and communications. and posh department stores. deteriorating schools Bellow. Problems such as high crime rates. New York is plagued by interracial conflicts. New York is a focus of culture and power. New York is sometimes called "the melting pot that didn't melt. author of Herzog. American novelist. Puerto Rican. Some friction has arisen between • blacks and other city ethnic groups that have tended to be concentrated in certain occupations. In many sections of Brooklyn and the Bronx." What one sees in New York City is in many ways the best and worst of American cities. Mr Sammler's Planet and Humboldt's Gift. Historically. Jewish. It is easy to point out black. slums. and other ethnic neighborhoods.

At the beginning of the 1800s. metropolitan areas. while the suburbs have continued to expand as a result of America's increasing prosperity and desire for cleaner air. The corrupting influence of cities con trasted with the wholesomeness of rural life has been a common theme in American literature and philosophy. New York City has suffered serious financial problems. and poverty require costly solutions. Throughout the period of industrialization and immigration in the nineteenth century. closeness to nature. In th e 1780s most Americans lived in rural areas. People are drawn by the promise of economic gain or cultural advantages that cities offer. By 1920 most cities had public health facilities. cities grew rapidly so that by 1920. and facilities for sewage treatment and garbage collection were archaic or nonexistent. By 1980. A look at present-day New York gives the reader an orientation point for a wider view of American urbanization. This high concentration of the population in cities was not always the case in America. and a private house and yard. which . In the mid-1970s the city came near bankruptcy and was forced to appeal to the federal government for loan assistance. One temporary solution for clearing the garbage-filled streets of large cities was to let pigs roam the streets as scavengers. more space. have populations of over a million. Even as the United States has become increasingly urbanized. Financial problems have recently been worsened by the flight of many businesses and industries from the city to the suburbs. and more adequate public schools. American citi es did not experience the social problems resulting from overcrowding which were characteristic of European cities at that time. Gradually. both the spaciousness of rural life and the bustling activity of urban life are available. Of the 80 percent of Americans who live in urban and metropolitan areas. As suburban rings spread farther and farther out. Today most Americans live in urban areas. Urbanization has continued in the twentieth century. conditions in large cities improved. Since the mid-1960s many central cities have experienced a decrease in population. At the same time. Chicago. in the past ten or twenty years. Within a few decades. however. forming a megalopolis. Los Angeles. Yet urbanization is an inescapabl e fact of modern life. America's metropolitan areas claimed 80 percent of the population. Suburbs are regarded as part of a city's structure. have become enormous. housing. and public education were inadequate. In the suburbs. housing quality laws. Many of New York City's problems are not unique. however. Philadelphia. 50 percent of the population were city dwellers. and freedom from restrictions imposed by living too close to others. countercurrents of hostility have run strong. the less heavily populated areas at the edge of the city. The metropolitan areas of each of the country's six largest cities. Social services such as sanitation. but are shared by most large cities at this stage in the urbanization process. Americans have traditionally yearned for a separate piece of land. America's transition from a rural to an urban nation brought on new problems for cities. Houston. about two-thirds now live in suburbs.82 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP GROWTH OF CITIES SUBURBANIZATION and public services. New York. only 10 percent lived in cities. rapid urban population growth gave American cities the same unpleasant qualities associated with the world's older cities. Many metropolitan areas have become so large that they have begun to merge into other metropolitan areas. and Detroit. One rather recent trend which reconciles the ambivalence Americans have felt towards their cities is suburbanization.

is comfortably equipped with at least two bathrooms. where rent for shabby buildings was cheaper. Washington's Georgetown. 80 percent of Americans will live in 28 or so of these megalopolises. Between 1949 and 1968. Electric trolley lines and trains al lowed wealthy and middle-class city dwellers to move out from the city at a commutable distance from work. Houses and apartments were poorly maintained and allowed t o deteriorate to such a state that many residential areas have been abandoned. This response failed to take into account the human element—the feelings of displacement and alienation which these underprivi leged families suffered at having to abandon their neighborhoods. Boston's Beacon Hill. when cities were scarcely able to cope with the demand for family housing. soci al problems such as crime and slums were exacerbated. Rather than razing whole neighborhoods. city centers were regarded as the least desirable areas in which to live. which was practiced in the 1960s. . was the systematic clearance of slums and the construction of modern hig h-rise social housing units in their place. but businesses have also discovered the advantages of a suburban location. A direct consequence of the suburbanization of American cities has been the depletion of the central cities' financial resources. the wealthier moved even farther into the countryside. Lower taxes and the growing labor pool there have prompted many retail stores. Another more recent response to the problems of cities has been preser vationist in nature. With suburbanization. Not only have families been attracted to the suburbs. One megalopolis extends along the Atlantic coast from Boston through New York to Washington. there was an influx after 1945 of many newcomers to the city. were able to move still farther out of crowded cities to find a suitable home with a private yard. a den. for whom employment was not readily available. whose livelihood had been lost through mechanization of farms. look-alike houses set on unfenced lots. With the increase of relatively unskilled poor people. the typical suburban home. the symbol of middle -class security. many people are restoring and renovating. corporate centers.C. 425. mostly blacks and Hispanics. now car owners independent of public transportation. The inner city slums. The change which directly precipitated the emergence of suburbs was the popularization of the private car. As the middle class moved away from the working class.THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 83 THE TRANSPORT FACTOR DETERIORATION AND ABANDONMENT SLUM CLEARANCE GENTRIFICATION is the term used to describe the urban network that results from such expansion. a condition which has led to a new problem: deterioration and abandonment of city centers. and a separate bedroom for every child. quickly constructed. Today. In the past two decades. nevertheless. and other firms to move from downtown to the suburbs. the wealthy and middle class. the building industry responded to the demand by developing residential areas which characteristically were comprised of neat. In the baby boom of the 1950s. D. Thus. In the 1950s and early 1960s. attempts have been made to improve cities. It is estimated that by the year 2000. The first outward spread of cities away from the center. was made possible in the 1890s with the develop ment of better public transportation. In addition. One approach.000 housing units for poor people were torn down in the belief that social problems could be erased by starting from scratch. were then populated by those who could not afford to move out: the uneducated and unskilled. the possi bility of commuting allowed urban areas to spread outwards and provided for a rough stratification along class lines. a movement ante cedent to suburbanization.

leaves some of urban renewal's more difficult questions unanswered. and thus the return of the middle class to the cities. elaborately decorated plaza complex containing retail stores. This private-sector restoration of dilapidated housing is known as gentrification. Many of the new downtowns are modeled after Atlanta's Peachtree Center.84 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP THE NEW DOWNTOWN and Philadelphia's Society Hill are areas which. gentrification. as opposed to the inner city which connotes troubled. Private sector groups. crime-ridden residential areas. have recently been restored as charming townhouse residences for the well-todo. res- Modern office building in central San Francisco . and retailers. viewing gentrification from the perspective of the poor. represents real progress in the urban center's struggle to bolster its impoverished rax base. have been active in redeveloping downtown areas. For many people. However. who are displaced by the transformation of low-rent housing into luxury apartments. The interest in restoration has extended even to old warehouses where studio lofts are becoming trendy residences for artists and young professional singles. including architects. bankers. protected from demolition. Another recent strategy for renewal has been targeted at the downtown the term which has come to refer to the central business district where banks and stores are located. Some cities have experienced not only cosme tic renewal but overall economic and social rejuvenation. a spacious.

the new interest in preserving the nation's downtowns provides hope for many cities as they compete with the suburbs for tax bases and federal assistance. D. inadequate housing. the improved network of highways gives smaller communities better access to supplies and markets. but the continued suburbanization of an already quite suburbanized America. downtown areas undoubtedly have become more livable. and cultural attractions such as art exhibits. Although the inner cities' social problems of poverty. Public opinion polls consistently show that most Americans would rather live in small towns or rural areas if they could. The present attraction to small towns represents not a ruralization trend. and even "downtown decay. Washington. While most newcomers find that small towns do provide the more congenial atmosphere they sought.. cities such as New York. warmer locations. rural America has been modernizing at such a rate that the gap between rural and urban is closing. Where ten years ago it was virtually impossible in many cities to get around without a car. small town life is far from idyllic. and more aesthetically interesting. GROWTH OF SMALL The recent urba n renewal programs have been successful in stimulating TOWNS population growth in at least some major cities." Poverty exists in most small towns. many cities have been experiencing a continual decline in population. According to the 1980 census. Although the movement to small communities may at first seem like the beginning of a deurban ization of America. Rural population growth in the 1970s was the greatest since the 1870s.C. Detroit. unemployment. especially in small southern towns. it grew by over 11 percent. They are discovering that America's small towns are beset by the same prob lems that affect cities. what is actually happening is that the countryside is becoming more urbanized. and crime are not adequately addressed by this focus on business districts. skywalks. What accounts for the fact that so many Americans are now fulfilling this dream? New employment oppor tunities have opened up. Since the Second World War. making car ownership optional rather than mandatory.THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 85 taurants. Other downtown programs feature main-street malls. when roads and communication lines permanently linked country to city. more people-oriented. In recent years. . Not all of those who are leaving the city are settling in the suburbs. thus once again attracting businesses and more affluent groups. today many cities offer pedestrian zones and improved mass transit systems. Boston. except on a smaller scale. Between 1970 and 1980. What many of these city people hope to find by escaping to small com munities is the fulfillment of their wistful longings for friendly neighbors and a slower pace of life. and Cleveland were among those cities with the greatest population losses between 1970 and 1980. and dial-a-bus systems. small towns have been experiencing heavy population growth. Many of these conditions occur because rural America is no longer econ omically or culturally isolated from the rest of America. Like cities. In addition. all designed to give office workers a reason to stay downtown. Yet since the 1960s and 70s. housing shortages. tight budgets. many small town s suffer from high unemployment rates. Pittsburgh. as light industries move to these less expensive. During the past two decades. and San Francisco have succeeded in rebuilding and renovating large tracts of the central city area.

although people are aware of that and make an effort to keep their distance.I.86 PART в Texts • SMALL-TOWN LIFE We were sitting around a fireplace filled with greenery . sure. Runden smiled across the lip of her glass. That's how Linda and I met. "Randy West and I have a lot of things in common. I think I miss big-city life more than Ed does. "And to Fred Griffin's wife. to go on welfare. I guess. Linda was demonstrating. Moving to the small town." Runden said. He can still influence the course of events. It might if I had a Swiss bank account. P." Mrs. And Bob O'Bannon. and I . and the first person he met who spoke German was a black freedman. " "Small-town life has its drawbacks. who was on his way west .Edward Runden and his wife. Runden said. But by the time Linda and I got married we were both getting tired of city life — the ugliness. in Teheran. "And. American press agency." "She's probably even some kin to Marydee West. Her Cousin Bill runs the furniture factory. and he teaches history at Corydon Central High School. And then there's the conservatism here. Mrs. That's when I started working for the A. I started out on a paper in Elgin. Corydon's still on a human scale." "I liked the idea of connectedness. And you can imagine their position on something like abortion. Runden is forty years old. started in 1848. U. Runden. the roots. is also a teacher. "Oh. dark hair. If you have trouble with your dry cleaner in Chicago. too ashamed. Associated Press (A." Mrs. You can't be ripped off. And Rosamond Sample. To Corydon.his first job when he came to Corydon was teaching at the high school. Linda. My great-grandfather walked along with him and ended up in Harrison County. It's different here. "I'm also related to Art Funk." Runden said. formed in 1958. . until our deadly foreign policy made me sick. "Another thing about Randy and me . boyish look and an inconspicuous mustache. the squalor. . Still. to not be nosy. That was in Chicago. I was glad to come back to Chicago. and then I went with U. And so does the individual. I think Linda and I are part of something interesting. we liked the feel we got. We're in the first wave of people of our age and position who are moving away from the city — and not to the suburbs.P. freedman: man who has been freed from slavery. I seem to need people more. But lack of privacy doesn't bother me. I think the good side of small-town life far outweighs the bad. the misery. and I was covering it for the Associated Press. For one thing. in Chicago. A person's reputation matters. . My great-grandfather came here from Germany in eighteen forty-six. at one of those demonstrations. It's something to be able to hear a rooster crow these days. There's a closeness to the basics. he couldn't care less what you think or do. I think more and more people are coming to realize that. But I just don't have that much to hide. We subscribed to the Democrat — a terrific paper. by the way — to try to get the feel of the place. or if I was into some kind of kinky sex." He took a sip of sherry. "And I used to be a newspaperman myself.on foot." Runden was saying. Illinois.: United Press International. He arrived in New York.P. "There is a certain lack of privacy.P. So we got to thinking about Corydon. an emancipated slave. in Iran.I." she said. Linda was a Keller. There's a sense of the seasons. we both married local girls. a vivid young woman with a fall of thick. one way and another. Corydon must be one of the last places on earth where people in real need are too proud." Associated Press: the oldest of the American press agencies. She teaches behavioral science twice a week in a family-practice residency program at the University of Louisville Medical School. And.drinking sherry and smelling the good smell of something roasting in the kitchen. and then I tried the Foreign Service.) and United Press International are the two largest American press agencies. when I remember Chicago . with an eager.

Susan met me at the door and proudly asked." are only a few blocks away from Susan's apartment. Perhaps I had expected to see some chipped paint." . I was looking forward to seeing Susan's new apartment. Furthermore. Four months earlier. the tall. Susan's house was what I can only describe as neat and yellow. old southern hotels. Virginia How long had it been since I was in a and we've learned to take off our house that had no carpeting? How many wooden clogs as soon as we come modern houses and apartments are even in." Susan laughed. Renovated houses in "the Fan'[. or some feature of the picture I had had of inner-city houses. it's a lot built with hardwood floors? "Ann and I cheaper than buying carpeting. From the outside. I was somewhat surprised. Virginia. One purpose of my visit was to get away from the small town where I had been living and enjoy the motion and activity of a bigger city. Susan and another girl had moved into the second floor of a two-story brick house in a part of the city known as "the Fan. Yellow shutters at the windows. a sagging front porch. 25-story buildings. "Besides. which I had already heard so much about. how do you like it? I'm dying to show you the inside!" We went up the stairs to her place. all of which designate "downtown.THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 87 REVIVAL OF A CITY'S VIRTUES Why a young single woman moves to the city by Mildred Norman-Risch Last fall I spent a weekend visiting my friend Susan m Richmond. What caught my attention were the beautiful wooden floors. we moved in here. a solid yellow front porch. the grand. "Well. brightened with geranium blooms. and hundreds of stores and parking garages. The main business district. Richmond. We've gotten used really didn't have much money when to walking softly." This section gets its name because the streets here radiate from a central point in the city forming a fan shape. and a heavy colonial style door with a brass eagle knocker. We really like the floors.

The property in the Fan. these lower-income families couldn't afford to make repairs. The houses by this time had become run-down. Some people think that if you live in the city. but other cities as well. the property was expensive. which was large enough for a breakfast table. both of which had large windows. the university is located right in the Fan. Paint was peeling. being therefore less desirable. the city spread out until it met the Fan. windows were broken. two bedrooms. Crime. Kojak: name of detective and police drama TV series. and so the row houses have attracted students because of their convenience. This is why I moved to the Fan. all you have to do is look out your window and you can see live scenes from Kojak and other crime shows passing before your very eyes. this residential area was not so near the city. ." The neighborhood has in recent years taken on a new identity and has become a popular area for students. And there are a few streets in the Fan that I absolutely avoid. already stacked with wood. porches were sagging. which included an antique bathtub complete with four little feet. Susan told me. We don't take any more precautions against theft or rape than our girlfriends who live farther away from the city. when many houses in the Fan were built. We talked about how she and Ann had made the decision to move here to the Fan. Richmond was much smaller then. The people here in the city are so interesting to watch and to talk to. most of whom rented the houses from former or other owners. It's becoming trendy among young professionals not just to live in the city but to live in city townhouses they've renovated to suit their personal style. Throughout the years the population of the Fan community shifted to a greater percentage of black residents. in the last twenty years. too. And there's adventure in discovering the little cafes and shops that only real city people know about. Susan remarked that what she liked about the neighborhood was that it seemed "both old and new at the same time. where distance from the city was seen as more desirable. if you mean trouble between blacks and whites. What was the neighborhood like many years ago? Quite different. they warned us against moving to the Fan. risk. continued The large room was in fact sparsely furnished — a big oak table. it happens." That phrase captured my impression of Susan and Ann's renovated apartment.AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. "I think many people have a totally false impression of city life. the Fan is experiencing a changing identity. and most of the people living in the area were people with money. and the kitchen. Generally. It's certainly not my experience. But as the businesses expanded. In the 1880s. A large fireplace. The Fan is one of the many city neighborhoods which follows the recent trends in urban community renewal. every day you can pick up the newspaper and read about a robbery or a mugging. As Susan put it. the composition and character of the neighborhood has started to change again. I was curious about the neighborhood. and the landlords didn't take the responsibility to keep up the quality of the houses. These newcomers are often young professionals who take advantage of government programs that give tax breaks to anyone who buys and renovates an old house in this area. for example. which they considered "safer". went down in price. our parents and some of our friends tried to persuade us into moving into a modern apartment complex. the Fan is one of those places that's "on its way up and in. The neighborhood acquired another reputation by this time. Many of the residents joined the middle-class exodus from the city to the suburbs. dominated the living room. With the influx of students. in their short-sighted point of view. For one thing. Besides the Fan's students. a small table and some bookshelves. a red leather chair. lots of people are moving to the Fan to stay. This area near downtown had followed the pattern of many neighborhoods in cities. Before we moved here. "We haven't had any bad experiences." Susan told me about her neighborhood. violence. where crime is supposedly a problem. Next I was shown the bathroom. This fad has brought new life and charm to the Fan. Many landlords invested money renovating the houses so that they could accommodate the students' demand for housing and also meet the student's expectations. "I find another kind of challenge living here in the Fan: the challenge of restoring the neighborhood. and ready for use. segregation. At that time. Many mner-city residential areas are predominantly black. danger. typical not only of Richmond. But I think many people exaggerate the dangers and carry in their minds the delusion that life in the city is a constant fight for survival and selfdefense. The investment wouldn't have paid off. However. and what it's like to live here in the Fan. and dilapidation were some of the new features. Sure. who come and go. and very often there are tensions between whites and blacks.

) (The man casts a curious quick glance at all of them.or at least your mother — has bought a piece of residential property at . (Beneatha is watching the man carefully) Well. the Man of the House) Have a seat. Well.I am from the Clybourne Park Improvement Association and we have had it brought to our attention at the last meeting that you people .special community problems . which escape Ruth and Walter) Uh-huh. (he looks at the slip of paper) Mrs.uh . LINDNER (With understated relief) Thank you. that's my mother. WALTER (Freely. LINDNER (More frustrated than annoyed) No. Care for something to drink? Ruth. . I'm the chairman of the committee. I mean thank you very much. go around and see the new people who move into the neighborhood and sort of give them the lowdown on the way we do things out in Clybourne Park. get Mr. Well — WALTER Be still now! (Still innocently) Would you like another chair you don't look comfortable. Mr.because we have what I think is going to be a unique type of organization in American community life — not only do we deplore that kind of thing . Younger's son. leaning with interest forward on his knees and looking expectantly into the newcomer's face) What can we do for you. BENEATHA (Drily) Yes — and what do they do? LINDNER (Turning a little to her and then returning the main force to Walter) Well — it's what you might call a sort of welcoming committee. Lena Younger? BENEATHA (Smoothing her hair with slight embarrassment) Oh — yes. Please. WALTER (Amiably..THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 89 Beneatha goes to the door and opens it as Walter and Ruth go on with the clowning. I guess. WALTER Go ahead.) Uh — come in please. Excuse me (She closes the door and turns to quiet the other two) Ruth! Brother! Somebody's here. LINDNER (Upset for some reason) Oh . let the man talk. but no thank you.(He looks elsewhere) .to get right to the point I — (A great breath.oh. Lindner a beer. I'm going to try to get right to the point. LINDNER Yes. really. WALTER That's right. (Ruth and Beneatha exchange amused glances) LINDNER (Regarding Walter. Beneatha is somewhat surprised to see a quiet-looking middle-aged white man in a business suit holding his hat and a briefcase in his hand and consulting a small piece of paper. of a sort. LINDNER (Coming in) Thank you. I look after most of her business matters. (He slides the briefcase and hat under the chair) And as I was saying . I mean I want to explain to you in a certain way. — how do you do. . I'm Mrs. LINDNER BENEATHA LINDNER YeS.. (Then she opens the door. Well . BENEATHA (With appreciation of the two meanings. .no.(he digs for the slip of paper again) — four о six Clybourne street . I am looking for a Mrs. things like block upkeep and special projects and we also have what we call our New Neighbors' Orientation Committee . BENEATHA Yes — and what are some of those? WALTER Girl.. himself easily on a chair. Lindner? LINDNER (Some minor shuffling of the hat and briefcase on his knees) Well — I am a representative of the Clybourne Park Improvement Association — WALTER (Pointing) Why don't you set your things on the floor? LINDNER Oh — yes. I don't know how much you folks know about our organization. This is my wife — (Ruth nods politely) — and my sister. WALTER (Stretching out his hand) Walter Younger. thoughtful and somewhat labored in his manner) It is one of these community organizations set up to look after . I'm sure we'll all appreciate that in the long run. Is it business? LINDNER Yes .. and he is off at last) I am sure you people must be aware of some of the incidents which have happened in various parts of the city when colored people have moved into certain areas — (Beneatha exhales heavily and starts tossing a piece of fruit up and down in the air) Well . nothing at all. (He is a gentle man. .. RUTH . as he sits RUTH (Innocently) Some coffee? LINDNER Thank you. I mean they. I would sort of like to explain this thing in my own way. and sitting) Well — my name is Karl Lindner . miss. LINDNER Uh LINDNER HOW do yOU do. you know.but we are trying to do something about it.. LINDNER And we also have the category of what the association calls . thank you very much. Thank you. well. we. BENEATHA My mother isn't here just now.

Mama and Travis enter) ..most of the trouble exists because people just don't sit down and talk to each other. mister.. as I say. we are prepared to make your family a very generous offer . looking at Lindner) Is this what you came marching all the way over here to tell us? LINDNER Well. her head tilted regarding him) Today everybody knows what it means to be on the outside of something. there is always somebody who is out to take the advantage of people who don't always understand. has the right to want to have the neighborhood he lives in a certain kind of way. continued (Beneatha stops tossing and turns with a new and quuizzical interest to the man) We feel — (gaining confidence in his mission because of the interest in the faces of the people he is talking to) — we feel that most of the trouble in this world. son. WALTER Get OUt. I want you to believe me when I tell you that race prejudice simply doesn't enter into it. holding a small card) Well — I'm sorry it went like this. to buy the house from you at a financial gain to your family.people can get awful worked up when they feel that their whole way of life and everything they've ever worked for is threatened. What do you think you are going to gain by moving into a neighborhood where you just aren't wanted and where some elements — well . the way people should talk to each other and see if we couldn't find some way to work this thing out. I want to know if you got more to tell us 'bout getting together? LINDNER (Taking off his glasses) Well — I don't suppose that you feel . They say nothing. quizzically. Ruth just sits and Beneatha just stands. black American playwright. friends. As I say. (Beneatha and Walter merely watch and listen with genuine interest) LINDNER Yes — that's the way we feel out in Clybourne Park. LINDNER (More encouraged by such affirmation) That we don't try hard enough in this world to understand the other fellow's problem. when you come right down to it — (He hits his knee for emphasis) . Anybody can see that you are a nice family of folks. RUTH Now that's right. now we've been having a fine conversation. I hope you'll hear me all the way through. And at the moment the overwhelming majority of our people out there feel that people get along better.. I want to give you the exact terms of the financial arrangement — WALTER We don't want to hear no exact terms of no arrangements. But you've got to admit that a man. LINDNER You see — in the face of all the things I have said. Now. man. rightly or wrongly. RUTH (Nodding as she might in church. Lorraine: 1930—65. just hardworking. LINDNER (Almost sadly regarding Walter) You just can't force people to change their hearts. pleased with the remark) You can say that again. (Beneatha frowns slightly. honest people who don't really have much but those little homes and a dream of the kind of community they want to raise their children in. (He turns his back and walks to the door) LINDNER (Looking around at the hostile faces and reaching and assembling his hat and briefcase) Well — I don't understand why you people are reacting this way. LINDNER (At the door. you know. RUTH Lord have mercy. WALTER Never mind how I feel — you got any more to say 'bout how people ought to sit down and talk to each other? . they live in their own communities. They're not rich and fancy people. Get out of my house. through the collective effort of our people. Walter pushes the door to do with stinging hatred. WALTER (Tightly) Go ahead. man. BENEATHA (With a grand and bitter gesture) This. I don't say we are perfect and there is a lot wrong in some of the things they want. you through? LINDNER Well. hard working and honest I'm sure. Friendly like. is the Welcoming Committee! WALTER (Dumbfounded. that for the happiness of all concerned our Negro families are happier when From A Raism in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry Hansberry. The other guy's point of view. and stands looking at it.. It is a matter of the people of Clybourne Park believing. And of course. BENEATHA Thirty pieces and not a coin less! WALTER Yeah? LINDNER (Putting on his glasses and drawing a form out of the briefcase) Our association is prepared. the whole business is a matter of caring about the other fellow.. take more of a common interest in the life of the community. right or wrong.90 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. WALTER What do you mean? LINDNER Well — you see our community is made up of people who've worked hard as the dickens for years to build up that little community. (He turns and puts his card on a table and exits. WALTER Get out. when they share a common background. ain't this the living gall? WALTER All right.. And that's why I was elected to come here this afternoon and talk to you people.

THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 91 CRISIS IN NEW YORK By Andrew Stein CHILDREN OF POVERTY Imagine the Mayor of New York calling an urgent news conference to announce that the crisis of the city's poor children had reached such proportions that he was mobilizing the city's talents for a massive rescue effort not unlike the one that saved us from bankruptcy 10 years ago. have been telling a tale of two cities to describe the kind of community New York has become: while the city enjoys prosperity. Almost 40 percent of our children — 700. New York. The stove is kept on all day to provide heat for the house. Social critics. the "new" poverty goes unchecked. including Mr. And it was precisely during the last two banner years of economic growth and enhanced city budgets that the child poverty rate accelerated dramatically. even essential. I believe some such drastic action is warranted.000 boys and girls — now live in families with incomes below the poverty line. Moynihan. because our city is threatened by the spreading blight of a poverty even crueler in some ways than that of the Great Depression half a century ago. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan has estimated that half of the babies born in the city in 1980 can be expected to be on our welfare rolls before they reach the age of 18. . Today's children of poverty are suffering in ways that would have dumbfounded those who knew the Great Depression: an estimated Harlem. The landlord has still not mended the window a year after it fell out. The richest Congressional district in the nation shares a boundary with one of the poorest.

is the result of an unprecedented reversal of fortunes among our age groups. Great Depression: See page 73. Although the total number of teen pregnancies in the city has decreased in the last decade (as a result of a decline in the teenage population) pregnancies among 15. But if we move the problems of poor children to the top of our agenda. 10. There is no question that the problem is enormously difficult.. . including the appointment of one person — a "czar" if you will — to oversee all agencies that serve children. because they were most likely to be infirm. 1 out of 8 will have had at least 1 abortion before reaching 18. Patrick: born 1927. Alone. . the number of people living in female-headed families rose by almost 30 percent. That held true until the mid-1970s. it can't put back together families that fall apart.to 19-year-old females went up from 12. senator. according to a recent report by the Coalition for the Homeless. Demographic projections suggest that this most vulnerable group will continue to grow as a percentage of the population at least through the next decade. . but most particularly in major urban areas such as New York." Though the city's population declined 11 percent between 1970 and 1980. . . In saving them. a phenomenon exclusive to the United States among the industrialized nations. The most potentially destructive of these trends is the epidemic of teenage pregnancy. for the way we deal with the problem will determine the quality of life for all of us in the future. cf. continued 3. . 1 out of 4 girls 14 years old today will be pregnant at least once before her 18th birthday. 12. U. or are never formed. Historically. The city's Adolescent Pregnancy Interagency Council has projected that if the present rates remain constant. Many sensible steps can be taken to attack the situation. .3 percent to 13. And it is even more likely if the mother is a teenager. revamping of the workloads of caseworkers and the increasing involvement of the school system. Then a disproportionate number of children began to be poor. To understand what is happening in the city we must return to poverty and its related disorders — family disintegration and teenage pregnancy. potter's field: a place for the burial of poor and unknown persons. What we are experiencing throughout the country. efforts to engage the private sector.000 babies born addicted to drugs every year. because of that poverty. All too many poor children in New York are denied dignity even in death. poverty had always struck hardest at the elderly. New York City has been massively afflicted by this "feminization of poverty.. The city's welfare rolls now consist mainly of minority-group women and children. but it is not yet hopeless.000 children living in shelters and hotels for the homeless. Moynihan. .92 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 4. without work or without income. The report revealed that almost half of the infants under the age of 1 who died in the city between 1981 and 1984 were buried in potter's field in unmarked graves that their families thus could not visit.000 children who were abused or neglected so severely last year that they had to be removed from their homes and placed in foster care. and nearly 1 out of 11 will be a mother before she is 18. The likelihood of a child's growing up poor is four times as great if he is born into a household headed by a woman rather than a traditional two-parent home. we would be saving ourselves. There are others as well. the city can't eliminate poverty among children.S. we can find the means to intervene and save many from utterly shattered lives. Congressional District: a district within a state electing one member to the national House of Representatives. All this poses a practical as well as a moral issue for the city.1 percent between 1975 and 1984. Matthew 27:7.

000. The metropolis of blast furnaces and belching smokestacks is dead. The transition from a manufacturing to a service economy began way back during World War II. Universities and hospitals attracted companies in computer science. seven major buildings went up downtown.into what they named the Golden Triangle. Pittsburgh is completing a new subway system and boasts a symphony that Pittsburgh. when 100 prominent citizens joined to spearhead an office building boom in the 1950s and 1960s that transformed the city's downtown — near the spot where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers meet to form the Ohio .000 service jobs have been created.000 m 1950). Pittsburgh is not waiting for the resurrection of Smokestack America. including a $35million convention center and noted architect Philip Johnson's spectacular headquarters for PPG Industries (formerly Pittsburgh Plate Glass). A city with a new image plays to packed houses. Third only to New York and Chicago as a headquarters city for major companies. That renaissance gave rise five years ago to a second one.THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 93 A NEW CITY S till synonymous in many minds with steel. cleaner. more than making up for the decline in steel-workers from 79. robotics and other advanced technologies. In its place has risen a new city.000 in 1983.000 in 1980 to 42. down from 677. Even the city's football and baseball teams have the spirit: they have won more championships in the last six years than their counterparts in any other American city. more modern in its architecture and confident m its future — m effect a prototype of the postmdustrial metropolis.000 high-tech and 30. While the steel industry was losing a great deal of money. from Fortune Magazine . Since 1978 an estimated 15. Pennsylvania. smaller (estimated population: 410.

6. purpose of the visit the outside of the house the inside of the house . 2. When comparing small-town life and life in the big cities a) both Ed and Linda were equally glad to have left big city life. Edward Runden a) had always wanted to become a teacher. c) they had been attracted by the reports in the local newspaper. one of the disadvantages of small-town life is. c) failed to make a career in the Foreign Service. however. In Ed's opinion. The Rundens moved to Corydon because a) Linda was born there. Text Reproduction Revival of a City's Virtues The diagram below renders the structure and organization of the article. 2. 7.94 PART C Exercises 1. Linda Runden likes living in Corydon because a) everybody knows and is involved with everybody else. 5. 8.S. foreign policy. which falls into three parts: The visit Life in the city The development of inner city neighborhoods On the basis of the diagram. 1. the advantages of small-town life outweigh the disadvantages because a) there is not so much theft in small communities. b) Ed is happier about small-town life than Linda. b) people take less interest in their neighbors' affairs. c) she took part in a demonstration. According to Ed Runden. Ed Runden met Linda in Chicago when a) he reported on a demonstration for a news agency. b) Ed had been offered a job at the local newspaper. use your own words to reconstruct the argument and organization of this text. that a) private life is rather restricted. Comprehension Small-Town Life Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the original text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. c) Linda is happier about small-town life than Ed. b) he tried in vain to get to Teheran. b) used to work as a correspondent for different press agencies. b) people look at each other from a distance. Professionally. Ed Runden left the Foreign Service because a) they sent all newspapermen back to Chicago. for example. 4. 3. b) the people there are very conservative. c) he did not agree with the U. b) he protected her from demonstrators. c) she hates the crowds in big cities. c) he does not want other people to know about his Swiss bank account. c) the individual plays a more important role than in the big cities.

Correct the false statements. Text Analysis first experience of living in an inner city neighborhood Neighborhoods 1. The poverty crisis equals that of the Great Depression in the 1930s. in a small town or in a big city a) in America? b) in your own country? Give reasons. 3." 2. Increasing prosperity has led to less child poverty. In spite of the recent economic growth. According to Senator Moynihan 50 percent of the babies born in 1980 will depend on welfare before they reach the age of 18.THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 95 racial problems in inner city neighborhoods 3. What are the Youngers' reactions to Lindner's remarks in the different stages of the conversation? Why does the conversation inevitably lead to a crisis? 5. Comprehension Check Children of Poverty Determine whether the statements are true or false according to the information given in the text. Show how Karl Lindner and the Youngers are characterized through conversation and gestures. 4. Where would you prefer to live. 2. How does he try to achieve his aim? Point out the elements of the plan he has obviously worked out before. What is the purpose of Karl Lindner's visit? 3.000 children were abused and neglected in foster care. What central issue about life in an urban community in the United States does the author want to illustrate in this scene? frequent misconceptions of city life attractiveness of city life the original neighborhood 60 or 70 years ago change of the social structure of the community 5. deterioration of the neighborhood recent renewal of neighborhoods the diversity of neighborhoods 3. List and discuss the arguments for and against small town or city life mentioned in the texts "Small-Town Life" and "Revival of a City's Virtues. Is there a similar difference between small town life and city life in your country? . 6. 7. 5. 12. Many of the infants who die before their first birthday are not even properly buried. The crisis of New York's poor children is as urgent as the financial crisis of the city ten years ago. Summarize the contents of this scene in no more than three sentences. 2. Discussion 1. city budgets have decreased. 4. 4. 1. 6.

seven major buildings were constructed downtown. The metropolis of blast •ft and belching ■& is dead. In its place has risen a new city. Between 1975 and 1985 the number of teenage pregnancies has decreased. Guided Letter Writing Write a letter to the editor of Fortune magazine in which you: • give a positive evaluation of the renaissance of Pittsburgh as described in the article • ask whether the text and the photo show the whole truth about Pittsburgh • state that the gap between the rich and the poor has widened in recent years • demand that the mayor and the city council take stern measures against the growth of poverty among children • warn them not to underestimate the problem. transformed the city's downtown. tV in its architecture and confident in its future—in effect a prototype of the *fc metropolis. Then try to remember those words which describe the old and the new city. 10. Pittsburgh is not waiting for the resurrection of Smokestack America. which could lead to serious social unrest and irreparable harm to the whole community. While the steel industry was losing a great deal of money. 12. Cloze Comprehension Test Pittsburgh—A New City Test your memory. First read the text thoroughly.96 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 8. Still synonymous in many minds with ■&■ . Universities and hospitals attracted companies in ^ "fc . Neither through more joint efforts nor through improved coordination of both the public and the private sector can the problem be tackled. Interpretation of Photos Describe and interpret the pictures on this page and page 91 under the heading "A Tale of Two Cities. The transition from a manufacturing to a "& "ьГ began way back during World War II. 11. -£r . ~fe and other advanced technologies. 9. 6. There were 30 percent more female-headed families in 1980 than in 1970. the elderly are struck hardest nowadays. 7." . Of all age groups in urban areas in the United States. "& . when 100 prominent citizens joined to spearhead an w "fr boom in the 1950s and 1960s that 8. including a $35-million "fr tV and noted architect Philip Johnson's spectacular ■& for PPG Industries. There are four times as many children growing up in female-headed households as in traditional two-parent families.

Citizens have the right to be judged in a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury. framed in 1787 by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and put into effect in 1789. there are also county and city courts. area alone almost equals the 40. . States have the power to establish their own systems of criminal and civil laws. Crime. Within each state. there is one lawyer for every 440 Americans.S. The minimum age for marriage and the sentences for murder vary from state to state. At the head of the judicial branch is the Supreme Court. Local. Within the judicial branch. prisons. Among the guarantees are freedom of religion. D.000 people. The number of lawyers practicing in the Washington. Supreme Court: the highest federal court in the United States consisting of nine justices and having jurisdiction over all other courts in the nation. freedom of the press. the final interpreter of the Constitution. and state court. but in some areas there is great diversity. state laws are quite similar. and Justice PART A Background Information CRIME AND JUSTICE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS JUDICIAL BRANCH STATE COURTS Issues of crime and justice have always held Americans' attention. state. and federal courts handle approximately 12 million cases a year. The Constitution. written in 1787. The minimum legal age for the purchase of alcohol is 21 in most states. Generally. whereas in Japan there is one lawyer for every 10. The Constitution recognizes that the states have certain rights and authorities beyond the power of the federal government. Most of the rights and freedoms that Americans enjoy are guaranteed in the first ten amendments or "Bill of Rights" of the Constitution. Americans are accustomed to bringing their claims for justice to the courts. authority is divided between state and federal (national) courts. and freedom to assemble in public.C. Americans' claims for justice rest on the provisions of the United States Constitution.. The sheer number of Americans employed in the legal profession is overwhelming. police force.000 lawyers in all of West Germany. established a separate judicial branch of government which operates independently alongside the executive and legislative branches. If someone feels that these or other legal rights have been violated. with the result that each state has its own laws. There are few countries where so many people treat the law as part of their everyday lives.б Law. he or she may bring the case to court. Constitution of the United States: fundamental law of the U.

Restricted to mopeds. Guardian or parental consent required. c 16" 16Уг"с 16Ьс 16е 14 16" 15 15е c 16е 15е 15"° 151/2d 14 14Ь 16d 16 149 15 15" d 16bd 16" 16"° 14 ьс 15Угс 16"e 14' 15 d 15 & 8 m os M d 15h d 15d 15 d 15d 14 16" 16е 15 14 15 15е 16"С 16 15" 15s d de 16е 16" 16й а 14 " e. Learner's Permit required. a. Must be enrolled in Driver Ed. h. bd 151/2d 15 yrs. b. f. g. . of Col. с Must have completed approved Driver Ed Training course. d. A license restricted or qualified in some manner may be obtained at age set forth in "Restricted" column. Driver with Learner's Permit must be accompanied by locally licensed operator 21 years or older. Driver with Learner's Permit must be accompanied by locally licensed operator 18 years or older. Full driving privileges at age set forth in "Regular" column. c lorida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Mebraska Nevada Mew Hampshire Mew Jersey Mew Mexico Mew York Morth Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vemont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming 16 16 18 16 18 21 18 18 18 16 18 18 16 18 18 18 16 18 17 17 18 18 18 19 15 16 18 16 16 16C 17 16 17е 18 16 18 16 16 18 18 16 16 16 16е 16е 18 18 18 18 18 16 Age for driver's license2 Learner's 15 14 d 15 ce Restrictive d 15 & 7 mos.c d 15d 15 d d d 159 14 d d d d d 15"9 d d 15d 14' 14' 16" 14" 16е 16е 16е 16 bc 16" 15" 16b 15" 14е 16"° 16 & 1 mo.98 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1987 License Laws for Passenger Cars AMERICAN AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION State Regular Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. & 10 mo.

Its decisions are final and become legally binding. . executive. chief justice since 1986. The U. politics play a role in a president's selection of a Supreme Court justice. over 12 million crimes were committed. 45 percent of Americans surveyed admitted they were afraid to go out alone at Rehnquist. The Supreme Court has nullified certain laws of Congress and has even declared actions of American presidents unconstitutional. robberies. government is so designed that. possibly. In the past. CRIME. the crime rate rose 5 percent in 1985. President Reagan's appointments to the Supreme Court were judges with a decidedly conservative view of constitutional law. After three years of decline. Their sole obligation is to uphold the laws of the Constitution. social. Nevertheless. headed by Chief Justice William Rehnquist. American jurist. On average. Auto theft. handles cases which arise under the U. a president can expect to appoint two new Supreme Court justices during one term of office. The Supreme Court hears cases in which someone claims that a lower court ruling is unjust or in which someone claims that Constitutional law has been violated.S.S. to the highest court in the land: the U. in the last resort. The Supreme Court justices have no obligation to follow the political policies of the president or Congress. In 1983. muggings. William: born 1925. which operates alongside the state courts. and administrative institutions of the government and decide whether they are constitutional. Although the Supreme Court does not have the power to make laws. or that it will vote for limiting the rights of criminal suspects and defendants. An appeal may be made to the Circuit Court of Appeals. The United States is notorious for its high crime rates. Constitution or under any law or treaty. it does have the power to examine actions of the legislative. with the hope that they can extend some of their power through the judicial branch. Burger.S. Supreme Court. All federal judges are appointed for life. as well as any controversy to which the federal government is itself a party. and burglaries occur so frequently. that many people live in constant. American jurist. In urban ghettos. AND JUSTICE 99 FEDERAL COURTS SUPREME COURT EXTENT OF CRIME The separate system of federal courts. a justice remains on the Supreme Court for life. A case which falls within federal jurisdiction is heard first before a federal district judge. Warren Earl: born 1907. Once approved. the authority of the judicial branch is independent from the other branches of government. Each of the nine Supreme Court justices (judges) is appointed by the president and examined by the Senate to determine whether he or she is qualified. and. Supreme Court rulings have given new protection and freedom to blacks and other minorities. It is in this function that the Supreme Court has the potential to influence decisively the political. especially in cities. Federal courts also hear disputes involving governments or citizens of different states. and economic life of the country. chief justice of the Supreme Court 1969-86. Presidents are likely to appoint justices whose views are similar to their own.fear of crime. will override precedents such as the Burger Court's 1973 decision legalizing abortion.LAW. In that year. ideally. Conservatives in America hope that the present Supreme Court. violence is so widespread that homicide is the leading cause of death among black males between the ages of 25 and 45.

Opponents of capital puni shment hope to see it declared unconstitutional. Supporters of the death penalty argue that it is the only appropriate punishment for sadistic murderers. was unconstitutional because it was applied disproportionately to blacks and other minorities. Others. In the 1966 case.100 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP RIGHTS OF CRIMINAL SUSPECTS THE DEATH PENALTY PROBLEMS FOR LAW ENFORCERS night in their own neighborhoods. 47 prisoners were executed. States have since revised their death penalty laws. the right to counsel. and unstable families—are likely to persist. Among these guarantees are the protection from unreasonable search and seizure. Conservatives view these protections as serious obstacles to effective law enforcement. the Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty. Statistics indicate that only 20 percent of the people involved in illegal activity are apprehended. In addition to the overcrowding in prisons. . Sometimes the exclusion of evidence from a trial means that some persons who are clearly guilty go free because of a technicality. many states have been applying the death penalty as a deterrent to murder. the accessibility of handguns is a major problem which further complicates the task of securing publi c safety. many people hope that a more conservative court will weaken these protections. In 1972. unemployment. Between 1970 and 1980. The Supreme Court has devised several rules to ensure the protection of these rights. the Court ruled that suspects must be read their legal rights before being questioned by police. any evidence gained from questioning cannot be used in court. establishing new Court -approved procedures. Courts have the difficult task of striking a balance between the needs of society on the one hand and the rights of the individual on the other. and street gangs. hold that the weakening of the rights of criminal suspects endangers the rights of all innocent people and gives too much power to the police. Responding to public pressure to get tough with criminals. which excludes from the trial any evidence gained by unlawful search and seizure. The Constitution's guarantee of equal justice under the law for all citizens not only guarantees the individual's right to freedom and security. The Miranda rule is another controversial Supreme Court decision which extends the rights of criminal suspects. drug smuggling rings. Crime-stopping and crime prevention are formidable tasks for law enforce ment officials. Many of these criminals belong to organized crime networks. which sometimes result in a guilty suspect being relea sed from charges. Although few criminals were sentenced to death between 1965 and 1983. since the social problems which aggravate violence—poverty. One of these rules is the controversial exclusionary rule. there has been a surge in recent years in the number of executions. They must be told of their right to remain silent and to have an attorney present during questioning. They claim that there is not enough evidence to prove that murderers are deterred by the threat of execution. If the police do not inform the criminal suspect of his or her rights. but also includes the protection of the rights of criminal suspects. among them. three prisoners were executed under the death penalty. and between 1980 and 1985. as well as protection from excessive bail and from cruel and unusual punishment. many of which derive from precedents created by the liberal Supreme Court of the 1960s. Looking for ways to secure community safety amidst rampant crime. as carried out in most states. however. the Mafia. the suspect's right to decline to testify against himself/herself.

which allows some states to proceed with executions of condemned prisoners. Voted to restore death penalty after June 29.S. The first execution in this country since 1967 was in Utah on Jan. the U. OVERCROWDED PRISONS The nation's prisons.)* American Samoa Guam Puerto Rico Virgin Islands 2 Method Lethal injection Hanging Lethal injection Lethal injection No death penalty Lethal gas or injection No death penalty Electrocution Lethal injection Lethal injection Electrocution 3 No death penalty( ) Electrocution Lethal injection Electrocution Lethal injection Firing squad or lethal injection Electrocution Electrocution Hanging or lethal injection No death penalty No death penalty Lethal injection 4 () No death penalty No death penalty No death penalty No death penalty 1. have changed their laws. many of which are old and rundown. but not been used. 3. Death penalty has been passed. CRIME. 4.C. some states have imposed longer sentences for serious crimes and have restricted parole. Person shall be executed by gas if he commits murder while serving a prison term. 17. federal judge shall prescribe method for carrying out sentence. the Court refused to reconsider its July ruling. the Court. in another ruling the same day. Govt. On Oct. One way to relieve overcrowding is parole. Source: Information Please questionnaires to the states. responding to public pressure to get tough with criminals. 2.S. NOTE: An asterisk after the name of the state indicates non-reply. 1977. Supreme Court upheld the death penalty as not being "cruel or unusual. Defendant may choose between hanging and a lethal injection. Method shall be that used by state in which sentence is imposed. Gary Mark Gilmore was executed by shooting. 4. If state does not have death penalty. Supreme Court decision ruling capital punishment unconstitutional. many states. must operate above capacity to accommodate the number of inmates. 1972. Nevertheless." However. 1976. stated that states may not impose "mandatory" capital punishment on every person convicted of murder. The result of heavier prison sentences is that prisons are filling up before state and federal authorities can find the money to build new facilities. (Fed. Florida 2 Georgia Hawaii 2 Idaho Illinois 2 Indiana Iowa Kansas 2 Kentucky 2 Louisiana Maine 2 Maryland 5 Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota 2 Mississippi Missouri 2 Montana 2 Nebraska 2 Method Electrocution No death penalty Lethal gas Lethal injection Lethal gas Lethal gas Electrocution Hanging No death penalty Electrocution Electrocution No death penalty Firing squad or lethal injection Lethal injection Electrocution No death penalty No death penalty Electrocution Electrocution No death penalty Lethal gas No death penalty No death penalty No death penalty Lethal injection Lethal gas 6 hanging or lethal injection Electrocution State Nevada 2 New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico* New York 2 North Carolina North Dakota 2 Ohio Oklahoma 5 Oregon 2 Pennsylvania Rhode Island 2 South Carolina South Dakota 2 Tennessee 2 Texas 2 Utah Vermont Virginia 2 Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U. the conditional release of a pr isoner before the term of his or her sentence has expired. AND JUSTICE 101 Methods of Execution1 State Alabama Alaska 2 Arizona 2 Arkansas California* 2 Colorado 2 Connecticut Delaware D. by a 7-2 decision. by a 5-4 vote.S. .LAW. 5. 6. On July 1. For example. These decisions left uncertain the fate of condemned persons throughout the U.

Many Americans fear that gun control laws will prevent law-abiding citizens from being able to protect their homes. An FBI report revealed that firearms were involved i n more than half of the murders in the United States in 1984. a man with no criminal record who had already been mugged and severely beaten several months earlier. many Americans look for ways to protect themselves from attacks and burglaries. some people are willing to break the law in order to defend themselves.102 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP GUN CONTROL SELF-DEFENSE Many lawmakers favor stric ter gun control laws as a method of curbing crime. When New York subway passenger Bernhard Goetz took the law into his own hands to avoid being the victim of another crime. two handguns for every three households. All the same. Americans now own 65 million pistols and revolvers. Until measures are taken to address the soda] factors which cause violence. Refusing to be victimized. he was hailed as a hero by most New Yorkers. and legislators to deal swiftly with the problem of crime. Congress passed a bill in 1985 to loosen restrictions on firearms. only 4 percent favored having a law to ban sale and possession. the lobbies against gun control are very influential. Proponents of gun control are pressing the government to at least require registration of all handguns and to require background checks on all potential handgun buyers to ensure that they do not have a criminal record. Some opponents of handguns favor a complete ban on their sale and possession. The public's support for Goetz indicates Americans' frustration with the criminal justice system's inadequacy in protecting individual rights. reacted by pulling out a gun and shooting the four youths. Goetz. the police. Even sophisticated rapid -fire combat weapons are available. . The incident occurr ed in 1984 on a subway train when four youths demanded five dollars from him. despite protest from law enforcers. including convictions for armed robbery and burglary. While 70 percent of all Americans surveyed in 1985 favored registration of handguns. Lacking confidence in the ability of the courts. all of who m had criminal records. In a three-month trial in 1987 Goetz was finally acquitted of all but the relatively minor charge of illegally possessing a gun. crime wi \\ continue to aftect a \axge segment d the population.

6ne from the Army — arguing fiercely. with an argument over a girlfriend — escalated from posturing. In the story. a noncommissioned officer — a sergeant. His brother. In fact. then fled. I recall not long before I left for college. to violence. Though a decade apart. severely beaten. These two items — the veterans arguing and the sergeant's words — still characterize for me the circumstances under which black men in their teens and 20's kill one another with such frequency. I was introduced to mortality. another teenage neighbor. The most killing.44 Magnum. they are . suburban-born recruits to get hard-core soldiers from the inner city. house in a fight over a pool game. The two had once been inseparable friends. The young man who killed him was only 24. we both were raised in Chester. Milton. an angry. I think. It went on. my teenage cousin. fired six times at close range with a massive . As I wept for Blake I felt wrenched backward into events and circumstances that had seemed light-years gone. I believe — said he would pass up any number of affluent. The summers blur. was shot dead.103 PART в О About Men BY BRENT STAPLES Texts A BROTHER'S MURDER I T HAS BEEN MORE than two years since my telephone rang with the news that my younger brother Blake . but by beautiful young men who lay wrecked after sudden explosions of violence. Wearing a ski mask. A senseless rivalry — beginning. not by the old and failing." I believe he said. wounding him badly. Pa. Leonard. nearly at blows about which outfit had done the most in the war. Wesley. heavily black. The next year. They jumped into the rice paddies with "their manhood on their sleeves. took a shotgun blast to the shoulder in some urban drama and displayed his bandages proudly.. With a touchy paranoia born of living battered lives. to threats. to murder. the assailant had already survived multiple gunshot wounds from an incident much like the one in which my brother lost his life.just 22 years old — had been murdered. Not much later. industrial city southwest of Philadelphia. lost an eye and donned a black patch. two local Vietnam veterans — one from the Marines. whom I loved very much. an angry young neighbor. he emerged from a car. shot a crosstown rival. brash lover of fast cars. I read a magazine article that set that dispute in a context. I remember from my 14th year — Johnny. heavily poor. death could have come to either of them from anywhere. in the 1960's. The first. The way the two were living. stabbed to death two doors from my. There. they meant. William.

hearing of my brother's forays into crime. Killing is only machismo taken to the extreme. My brother grew up to wear his manhood on his sleeve. unsteady on foreign terrain. It was a place where once I would have been comfortable. As I fled the past. literally. take a bus trip. This place and the way you are living smells of death to me. As I stood in my apartment in Chicago holding the receiver that evening in February 1984. spent the mid. crossing territorial lines in a gang dispute. Take some time away. as though reading it would protect him from what had happened in waking life. I fought the urge to lift him bodily and shake him. The telephone. imprisoning and misfortune. The desolate public housing projects. kept me connected to the old world with news of deaths. I added a psychological dimension to the physical distance I had already achieved. like some grim umbilical. Kickback from a shotgun. I left the East Coast after college. male and in its teens and early 2()'s — that is far and away the most likely to murder or be murdered. continued desperate to be real men. A line of stitches lay between the thumb and index fmger. then became a journalist. I was scared." ensconced on a quiet. When I reached for him. his scrapes with police and street thugs. We embraced as though through glass. I told him I feared for his life. His eyes shining like black diamonds. One evening that late December. I traveled from Chicago to a black section of Roanoke. .. or at least sure of myself.and late-1970s in Chicago as a graduate student. Gunplay had become part of his life. Let's go downtown tomorrow and buy a plane ticket anywhere. He took my alarm casually. I was overeducated and "upwardly mobile. hair-trigger losers. But behind the dark glasses and the swagger. and they remain so: they include stepping on the wrong toe. and a dangerous light shone in his eyes as he spoke laughingly of making fools of the policemen who had raided his apartment looking for drugs. I said. I felt as though part of my soul had been cut away. I shut it out. I drove away. Va. he explained. and I still do. simply saying "I dare you" to someone holding a gun. nothing serious. where he then lived. I glimpsed the baby-faced toddler I'd once watched over. I felt emotionally beaten up.104 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1. He had affected the image of the tough he wanted to be. taught for a time. Now. I caught only the space where he had been. I said. I nearly wept. On Christmas of 1983. I lacked the language simply to say: Thousands have lived this for you and died. He cried out as I took his right hand. I saw that Blake's romance with the street life and the hustler image had flowered dangerously. cheating in a drug deal. Incursions to be punished by death were many and minor. We arranged to meet the following night — an appointment he would not keep. he was in that group — black. I rarely visited my hometown. standing in some Roanoke dive among drug dealers and grim. tree-lined street where voices raised in anger were scarcely ever heard. so Blake embraced it. Within 10 years of leaving my hometown. idle young men crashing against one another — these reminded me of the embittered town we'd grown up in. Perhaps to protect myself. the hopeless. I questioned myself then. The young think themselves immortal. urgently trying to get him to read a document I had. he smiled and danced just beyond my grasp. I wanted desperately for him to live. And when he died. Did I not reach back soon or earnestly enough for him? For weeks I awoke crying from a recurrent dream in which I chased him. anything to get away and-cool things off.

"We will not tolerate crime. N. the mayor rekindled memories of his 1980 proclamation with another profound statement immediately following the Goetz shooting of four alleged muggers. 'Don't you dare have a gun. When an astute politician like Koch.has brought to light is a person's right to defend himself. guns should be kept out of the hands of people. he informed the Mr.New York's "subway vigilante" .'" Those words. It has also shown itself to be not only ineffective. New Yorkers viewed their mayor on a television commercial proudly proclaiming the passage of what was hailed рч "the toughest gun law in America. In 1980. though illegally armed. aided and abetted. rather than the decent. This train of thought has dominated the New York area and similar crime-plagued areas throughout the country. has not even remotely provided adequate protection for its citizens. janitor who works the midnight shift to support his family and feels it necessary to carry a weapon to ensure that he can arrive at his destination safely? More recently. spoken by Bernhard Goetz. wouldn't his constituents feel more secure if Koch assured. fails to see these misconceptions. who offered to defend Bernhard Goetz for nothing even before he surrendered." Koch said as he opened a cell door. in fact." Roy Innis: "With the armed criminal and the restrictive laws disarming the citizen.LAW." Koch warned the potential copycat shooters. Y. "They don't protect you in New York. Innis. anti-crime mayor. but then they tell you. really. but wouldn't the subway riders prefer the "space" be reserved for the armed mugger. "If you've got the gun. hit the nail precisely on the head and reveal certain inconsistencies in the gun control question." As Ed Koch strode through a city prison. and its gun law insures this toleration. public of the consequences of being caught possessing an illegal handgun. to reason because the fault of the question of keeping guns out of the hands of people. chairman of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). New York. guns should be restricted. more self-evident than any law chiseled in stone by some legislature. but naive and dangerous. . it is time to reveal to the public the truth behind the entire gun issue. despite the tightest gun control law in the nation. Civil rights leader Roy Innis.the criminal by making his work less difficult. once again focusing the public opinion spotlight on gun control. we've got the space. Innis blasts those who offer what he terms "liberal knee-jerk" arguments: The conventional wisdom around the gun question in the society we live in is that guns are dangerous." O NE of the basic issues the case of Bernhard Goetz ."? The sad truth is that New York does tolerate crime. Again. in fact. normally a tough. is the only prominent black leader to back Goetz. The knee-jerk reaction of many dealing with the gun control question is simple: guns are evil and therefore must be banned. has studied the gun question for many years. AND JUSTICE 105 О LAW & JUSTICE r to Fight Crime by Frank Borzellieri ARMING CITIZENS "The right to defend oneself is the highest natural law. is the mistaken assumption that you can. we have. it doesn't stand up. "We will not tolerate vigilantism in New York. CRIME. Borzellieri is a free-lance journalist from Glendale. Koch's intentions were noble. But when you look at this conventional wisdom. keep guns out of the hands of people.

Carrying a gun. . 1982. Today. the death row population exceeds 1. since the appeals process for many of these condemned persons has been virtually exhausted. not what simply seems the best. ". Mississippi. Jr. 17. that restrictive gun laws have demonstrated: New York. In short. . It has effectively disarmed the citizen. we have. USATODAY/JULY 1985 Congress of Racial Equality: (CORE).106 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. marked the end of a 10-year moratorium on the use of capital punishment in the U. by Donald B. the issue today takes on a greater sense of urgency. A well-thinking criminal will have to be a strong advocate of tight gun control.. a black nationalist organization founded in 1942.. with the armed criminal and the restrictive laws disarming the citizens. What is the problem is that. at the time of the Furman v. the debate . As a consequence of these eight executions and the impending death of numerous other death row inmates. Virginia. . seven more executions have taken place — one each in Alabama. is just another felony in a series of felonies that that person has dedicated Koch. The latest innovation in the manner of killing was revealed in Texas on Dec. 629 persons were housed on death rows throughout the U. Nevada. the right of the people to keep and bear arms. the debate takes on a heightened sense of immediacy. 14. the tangible effects. was put to death by lethal injection. : see page 19.500 condemned persons more than at the time of Furman! While the debate over capital punishment has continued sporadically.S. under the present conditions. allowing decent citizens to carry weapons. Roy Innis has done more than reveal the tragic results of this gun law situation. Georgia decision. He has proposed a plan that will loosen the gun laws. The Innis plan is a manifold. Illinois. In addition. being necessary to the security of a free State.": 2nd Amendment: A well- regulated militia. .. aided and abetted the criminal by making his work less difficult. Since that time. and Texas. has not done very much to disarm the criminal.. О Parting Thoughts The Death Penalty: Legal Cruelty? T HE execution of Gary Mark Gilmore by a Utah firing squad on Jan. So the fact that criminals are armed should not be strange to us. Florida. The sheer size of the death row population creates a significant moral dilemma for our society. his life to. 1977. and for the most part academically. high-result program. with the toughest gun law in the country. It has effectively made the citizen prey to the armed criminal. to a lifelong criminal. when Charlie Brooks. over the past 20 years. Walker In 1972.S. just over 10 years later. the issue of capital punishment is once again in the public forum. shall not be infringed. What he is trying to do is give the public back what is rightfully theirs according to the Constitution and to do so in the perspective of what is pragmatically best for society. Edward I .100 . in fact. continued Innis speaks wisely of the pragmatic effects. This new method of execution raises additional ethical issues in the debate over the death penalty.what is rightfully theirs according to the Constitution.

why is it necessary to make it "palatable"? Despite the legal interpretation of the concept "cruel. Jr. the first person killed by lethal injection.S. A moral and humane society constantly seeks to bring the law into closer harmony with the widest interpretation of justice in that society at any given time. must fit that definition. was answered by the Supreme Court in the Furman and Gregg decisions. AND JUSTICE 107 is far less an academic exercise over the significant levels of deterrence data than it is a significant public issue related to the concept of justice in our society. The uneasiness which we. it has ignored the moral and ethical implications of the "cruel and unusual" clause. The fundamental question which must be addressed with respect to the death penalty is under what circumstance does the state have the right to take the life of one of its citizens? That question. Law is the derivation of a society's interpretation of justice which is relative both to time and place. On the other hand. nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. has now taken his place in history along with other objects of experimentation in this quest to kill people painlessly. While the Su- preme Court has upheld the legality of capital punishment under the Eighth Amendment. did not rule that the death penalty violated the 8th Amendment. with respect to the use of capital punishment for first-degree murder convictions. is an excellent example of this process. The Gregg decision further clarified the procedure which the sentencing court must use in determining the fate of the guilty defendant. 8th Amendment: "Excessive bail shall not be required. Even though Texas District Judge Doug Shaver feels that death by lethal injection "will make it more palatable..S. The civil rights movement in the U." it surely can not make it more ethical. in the U. the creation of law is more frequently the result of the interpretation of justice by the powerful in the society which is then applied at the expense of the powerless. however. if we remain convinced that capital punishment is both a necessary and just means of ensuring social defense." then capital punishment. Georgia decision: In Furman v. Dr. constitutes a flagrant example of the continuing gap between law and justice in our society. In those cases. Gregg v. One hard lesson which the world should have learned as a consequence of the Holocaust is that law and justice are independent concepts. What has been overlooked in these decisions is that the Supreme Court has answered the question only in a legal and not in any moral or ethical sense. Both the actual manner of execution and the long period of confinement in death row preceding its application cause acute pain and mental suffering to the condemned person." .S. Georgia decision: the Court ruled that the death penalty was not unconstitutional as such under the 8th and 14th Amendments. regardless of its legal interpretation. Georgia the Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty in Georgia was unconstitutional because it was applied inconsistently as far more blacks than whites were executed for similar crimes. If one considers the deliberate infliction of pain and suffering on others to be "cruel. Furthermore. feel towards the infliction of pain on the condemned prisoner has led to a continuous search for more refined and "humane" means of carrying out the execution order. nor excessive fines imposed. Kent (Ohio) State University USATODAY/NOVEMBER 1983 Furman v.." the moral interpretation of that concept and its relationship to justice in our society remains unsettling. the use of otherwise life-saving medical techniques and drugs to carry out executions raises serious ethical questions for the society as a whole and the medical profession in particular. Charlie Brooks. However. the Court held that the death penalty itself does not contravene the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment as long as it is applied in a fair and impartial manner.LAW. CRIME. The contention here is that the continued use of the death penalty in the U. The court. Walker is assistant professor of criminal justice studies.

I rather think that the pinch was what caused it. The late Justice Clark spent more than 50 years as a lawyer and judge. proposals. or what the executive proposes.** In this one we ruled that everyone accused of a crime was entitled to a lawyer. or whether the lawyer looking out saw the pinch and tried to minimize it. and claims by comparing them with the law as laid down by the Constitution. How much do you think the needs of the times affect the decisions of the Court? How is public opinion brought into the process of taking cases and making decisions? Justice Clark: Well. The Watergate case was a good example of the Supreme Court's responsibility to decide whether or not the Congress or the president had exercised authority in a constitutional way. weren't those brought before? Possibly they were. After your many years of service on the Court. If the decisions of the other two branches are in keeping with constitutional doctrine. It considers what the Congress proposes. in Justice Clark's chambers in the Supreme Court. Wainwrighl (1963) the Court ruled that all defendants are entitled to a lawyer appointed by the court if they are unable to pay for one themselves. what do you have? You have an umpire." I rather think that the Court is somewhat of an umpire." In an old case before I became a justice. the Court had ruled that only in felony cases should a lawyer be appointed. Exceptions were made to this case over the years as additional cases came before the Court. "If you want to play a baseball game. Taft once said that courts are composed of people." I don't know whether you'd say that the individual citizen who felt the pinch knocked on the door. He then served on the Court until 1967. Without a transcript." and finally we extended the ruling to misdemeanors as well. and I ought to be entitled to read the transcript of what went on in the courtroom. was named attorney general. And if a citizen doesn't voluntarily follow the rules laid down by the Congress or by the president or by other courts. Then other questions came up. •Editor's Note: In the case of Griffin v. otherwise the game is going to end up in a riot before the nine innings are played. That's because of the necessities that were brought to our attention.108 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Thoughts on the Supreme Court An Interview with Tom Clark (excerpts) This interview was conducted on August 23. Yet we are influenced by the necessities of the time. but not with the impact that they were brought to us. We ruled that this was unconstitutional and later there came the case of Brown v. •••Editor's Note: In Brown v. We had one case which had to do with segregation in the field of graduate education. What happened was. Ramsey Clark. and rules upon these laws." So when this came to us (the Supreme Court) on appeal. "I'm being charged with murder. I myself doubt if any public clamor or any political manipulation on the Court can be effective. . until we had the Gideon case. Board of Education (1954) the Court ruled segregation in public schools to be unconstitutional.. See the "How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court" diagram for more details on the Gideon case. 1976. why then it's our job to enforce those rules so that that individual will be punished or reprimanded. I served 18 years on the bench and frankly. But once they got the transcript they couldn't tell much about it without a lawyer and they commenced again to "knockin' on our door. I'm just a layman and couldn't remember everything. Every year there are new cases. and one would be foolish to deny that courts are not affected by the time in which the justices live. QUESTION: Justice William H. Illinois (1956) the Supreme Court ruled that a defendant who is appealing a court decision should not be denied a copy of the transcript of his trial because of inability to pay for it. Now you say. QUESTION: Woodrow Wilson once called the Supreme Court "the balance wheel" in our system. I wouldn't be able to appeal to a higher court. when President Truman appointed him an associate justice of the Supreme Court. What about public accommodations? What about swimming pools and things like that? And the first thing you know they're "knockin' on the door. well. we use our authority to uphold these decisions. but I don't think any of those things influenced my thinking on the legal matters which were involved. Take for example the criminal field. when he resigned because of a potential conflict of interest that arose when his son.*** which was on the grade school level. I did get quite a few letters from all over the country about various things.and then calls the strikes and the balls. new people who come "knockin' on our door" with constitutional questions which need to be resolved. I think that Chief Justice (Warren) Burger put it pretty well when he said. We started out with the case of Griffin v. You also should remember that we on the Court serve another role. Jackson said that the Court's function was nothing less than to be an arbiter among rival forces in our society. So you had it going full sway. The same was true in segregation. Illinois* in which Griffin said.. how do you see its role in our political system? Justice Clark: Well. He served as attorney general of the United States from 1945 to 1949. Justice Robert H. which is a felony. ••Editor's Note: In Gideon v. we ruled that defendants are entitled to a transcript. Board of Education. they kept "knockin' on our door. or what some individual claims.

An appeal is not a new trial. procedures and legal or constitutional principles on which the decision was based in the previous trial. arguments were again heard for both sides. From Federal District Court Brown v. It stated that segregated schools were unconstitutional because segregation "deprives children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities. 4> Trial in Federal District Court February 1951 — Her father.Arguments were heard from lawyers for both sides. Kansas. AND JUSTICE 109 How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court While there are certain cases that can be brought directly to the Supreme Court. 4> The Supreme Court Decides May 1954 . it has the right to appeal that decision to a higher court. Kansas. but rather a reexamination of the evidence.LAW. Board of Education "My Rights Have Been Violated" September 1950 . the majority of cases are brought on appeal. June 1952 — The Supreme Court agreed to hear the Brown case.By a 9 to 0 vote the Supreme Court overruled the district court's decision. and 12 other black parents sued the city's Board of Education in the United States District Court. Oliver Brown. a significant change had occurred on the Court. Only a very small percentage of cases appealed are considered by the Supreme Court.An eight-year-old black student named Linda Brown was denied admission to an all-white elementary school in Topeka. December 1952 . CRIME. The case was officially titled Brown v. the Court will be inclined to hear a case if it involves a basic constitutional principle. However. the Court was divided and unable to arrive at a decision. this case was appealed directly to the Supreme Court. If either party in a case is unhappy with the decision of a lower court. the Court received petitions for 4.731 cases. Ferguson case. December 1953 — A year later. During its 1976—77 term. . Appeals are brought to the U. Chief Justice Fred Vinson had died in September and President Eisenhower had appointed Earl Warren to replace him. yet agreed to hear oral arguments for only 176. an important question of federal law or a conflict between state and federal law." It nullified the "separate but equal" principle of the 1896 Plessy v. Generally speaking. Appeal to the United States Supreme Court While many cases must be appealed from district court to the court of appeals.S. During that time. Board of Education of Topeka. Supreme Court from the highest courts in each state or from lower federal courts.

How does its style differ from the style you normally find in magazine reports? 2. 3. b) have at least made the janitors feel safer at work. c) opposes the idea of gun control. Do you think guns should be banned in the U. How strict are the gun control laws in your country? 4. crime and aggression with his own much more secure and peaceful way of living. c) to back his own viewpoint. 5. The author compares Blake Staple's world of violence. 2. HANDGUN CONTROL Should laws covering the sale of handguns be made more strict. 4. Find the words and expressions he uses to indicate this contrast. Would you favor or oppose having such a law in your community? (Gallup) I---------------------------------------------. Discuss whether you think the author succeeds in getting his message across to the reader.S. Give reasons for your decisions. New York's gun laws a) have improved the protection of citizens. Roy Innis. Analyze the following opinion poll and compare the figures with the point Frank Borzellieri wants to make in his article. The author quotes Bernhard Goetz a) in order to reveal the inconsistency of Goetz's defense. In this text the author a) presents an objective discussion of the question of gun control. 3. List the arguments Frank Borzellieri uses for and against gun control. Text Analysis A Brother's Murder 1. Discussion 1. Describe how the author conveys to the reader that his brother's tragic end was almost inevitable. less strict or kept as they are now? (Gallup) More strict 60% Less strict Kept same 1975 69% 3 24 1980 59% 6 29 1981 65% 3 30 1983 59% 4 31 1986 8 30 Some communities have passed laws banning the sale and possession of handguns. What may have been Brent Staple's motives for writing this article? 3. According to Frank Borzellieri. Global Comprehension Arming Citizens to Fight Crime Which of the following statements about the text is correct? In some cases more than one answer is possible. chairman of CORE. a) is one of the many black leaders who oppose stronger gun control laws. Show how the author's biography is woven into the account of his brother's life and death.110 PART C Exercises 1. b) argues in favor of gun control. b) favors less strict gun laws. b) to point out the inconsistencies in Mayor Koch's statements. 2. c) believes that stricter gun laws help criminals more than ordinary citizens.? When discussing this question. This text comes from a special section of the New York Times Magazine.4/86-1 Favor Oppose All 47% 47 Men 39% 57 Women 55% 38 Whites 45% 49 Blacks 59% 34 3. 2. c) have made criminal activities less difficult. take into consideration: . 1. Show how he tries to put greater emphasis on his argument by • choosing examples that support his viewpoint • quoting people who share his view • using rhetorical devices to depreciate opposing views. 4.

Debate Have a debate on the motion: "Capital punishment is unethical and should be banned. Why was the discussion about the death penalty more urgent at the time the article appeared than ten years before? 2." . being necessary to the security of a free State. According to Donald B. Modified Cloze Test Thoughts on the Supreme Court The Supreme Court considers laws passed by the fa. How do the concepts of law and justice relate to each other? 5. The Supreme Court fa that a fa is entitled to a transcript.S. In the case of Griffin v. Griffin was fa with murder. which aspect of the issue did the Supreme Court deal with and which aspect did it ignore? 4. 5. How does he support his view? 7. He admits. H e believed that he ought to be entitled to read the fa of what was said in the courtroom in order to be able to fa to a higher court. her personal experiences in the years 1950-54 and the effects the Court's final decision has had on her life. • the 2nd Amendment to the U. which is a fa . Prepare the questions for the interview. In the Gideon case the court ruled that every citizen fa of a crime was entitled to a lawyer provided by the court if he was unable to pay for one himself. CRIME. AND JUSTICE 111 • the situation of young urban blacks as described by Brent Staples in the text A Brother's Murder. to recall the different stages of the case." • a statement by Neal Knox of the National Rifle Association: "The right of self-defense is a fundamental one. whose business is it to say that I shouldn't own one?" • the statement of a police sergeant in Houston. A citizen who does not obey such rules will be fa . proposals or actions made by the and claims made by fa. the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed." 6. And the way to do that is with guns. Preparing an Interview How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court Thirty-five years after the Supreme Court decided on the case of Brown v. In its Furman and Gregg decisions how did the Supreme Court rule on the question of the circumstances under which the state has the right to take the life of one of its citizens? 3. In the Watergate fa the Supreme Court had to decide whether the president had exercised authority in a fa way. What is the author's opinion on carrying out executions by lethal injection? 7.LAW. and if I know how to use a gun and feel I need one for self-defense. Illinois. that the justices have to consider the necessities of the time when dealing with constitutional questions which have not arisen before. Reading the transcript without a fa advice was too difficult for a layman. now 47. Comprehension The Death Penalty: Legal Cruelty? 1. Justice Clark does not believe that political manipulation can influence the justices' thinking on fa matters. a city with a high crime rate: "It's getting to the point where it's up to the citizens to protect themselves. however. Board of Education. As a reporter whose job it is to cover the Brown case you would like to interview Linda Brown. they are fa by the Supreme Court. It decides whether they are in keeping with the fa . Constitution: "A well-regulated militia. If decisions of legislative and executive powers are constitutional. an educational radio station is preparing a documentry series on the history of desegregation. Walker. What is the author's view on capital punishment? 6. 4.

The 1960s was a decade of turbulence and social change. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. and Founding Father: see page 25.7 Minorities PART A DISCRIMINATION AGAINST MINORITIES Background Information Americans cherish the picture of their country as a land of wealth and opportunity. despite the existence of laws that prohibit housing discrimination. Yet many groups wanting to share in the nation's overall prosperity have experienced how scarce opportunities can be in the competition for income and status. Attitudes change slowly. In response to minority demands. laws alone cannot eliminate discrimination. culture. women and blacks were excluded. many new laws were passed to outlaw and compensate for inequalities. or any place subject to their jurisdiction. are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. for example. or property." THE BLACKS . and society will have to make adjustments to these changing demographics. the Fourteenth Amendment gave blacks the rights of citizenship. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Civil War: see page 44. Declaration of Independence: see page 31. For America's blacks. Not until after the Civil War ended in 1865 did blacks begin to share in the most basic rights of citizenship. and age. Three Constitutional amendments were passed and ratified between 1865 and 1870. the struggle for equal rights has been long and often bitterly opposed. shall exist within the United States. without due process of law. When the Founding Fathers asserted in the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal" and possess inalienable rights to life. For example. Blacks and other minorities became politically active." Fourteenth Amendment: "All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof. Discrimination because of color. Hispanics and the elderly will account for an increasingly larger share of the population. many people still refuse to rent to blacks and Hispanics. liberty. bringing their protests to the streets and courts all over the country. Constitution of the United States: see page 97. nor shall any State deprive any person of life. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery. has kept many Americans from sharing equal protections and prospects in American society. Minority demands are sure to continue. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. and new solutions will be essential as the composition of American society continues to change rapidly. However. Thirteenth Amendment: "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude.

equal employment opportunities. In 1957 Congress passed the first civil rights legislation in eighty years. King. Black political power has also grown: more and more blacks are being elected to public office. There were separate facilities marked "colored only" for blacks. blacks and other Fifteenth Amendment: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race. theaters. provided leadership and strategy for the mass movement. The civil rights movement was a success in the areas of voting rights and public accommodations and facilities. the Board of Education decision: Supreme Court decision of 1954 ruling that public schools could not be separated by race. blacks were denied access to public places such as restaurants. This act was significant in other ways. which began in the 1950s. but additional legislation was found to be necessary. The legislation focused on protecting the voting rights of blacks. awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. and this practice of racial segregation was sanctioned by the courts. which had been used to deny blacks the right to vote. Dr Martin Luther King. The 1965 Voting Rights Act abolished literacy tests. federal examiners are still appointed in many communities to ensure that proper voter registration and election procedures are followed. The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that maintaining separate but equal schools for blacks and whites was unconstitutional because separate schools can never provide the same educational opportunities. Many of these laws were controversial and have been difficult to enforce. It prohibited discrimination in public accommodations such as restaurants and hotels and also outlawed job discrimination by employers and unions. the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s had the momentum of a social revolution. voter registration among blacks has increased. fair housing. Martin Luther Jr. and fair voting laws. Congress passed a constitutional amendment prohibiting the use of a poll tax in federal elections. assassinated. or previous condition of servitude.MINORITIES 113 CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION the Fifteenth Amendment gave them the right to vote. although the percentage is still well below the comparable figure for whites. In accordance with this legislation. the Board of Education in 1954 was the first successful challenge to legalized segregation of blacks and whites. Civil rights legislation was again passed in 1964." Supreme Court: see page 97. The landmark case Brown v. With goals which included desegregation. Despite fair housing laws. Until the modern civil rights movement. Jr. color. Despite these Constitutional provisions. Some radical black leaders later advocated violent revolution as the way blacks could finally take control of the economic and political aspects of their lives. Southern whites found ways to circumvent the intention of the amendments. and schools. He supported nonviolent tactics such as "sit-ins" at restaurants which segregated the races.: (1929-68) American Baptist minister and civil rights leader. Brown v. In 1963. As a result of these new laws. In areas such as housing and employment. making it illegal to administer voting laws in a discriminatory manner. Racial prejudice was rationalized and institutionalized in the South. In 1896 the Supreme Court had ruled that racial segregation was legal as long as "separate but equal" facilities were provided. Until his assassination in 1968. hotels. new legislation was passed in the 1960s to prohibit discrimination. .

the Native Americans were embittered by the United States government's long history of confusing policies. While black Americans. Mexican Americans now make up one-fifth of California's population and the same proportion of the population of Texas. particularly in the South and Southwest where the greatest settlement has occurred. Many people wish to restrict immigration quotas in order to preserve the cultural dominance of nonHispanic whites. the estimated 14 to 20 million Hispanics represent not only the second largest but also the fastest growing ethnic minority in the nation. questions are raised about how successfully they will assimilate into American culture. The cultural infusion is resented by some Americans who fear that the country's ethnic identity is at stake. While black men make up only 6 percent of the population. In the area of employment. The unemployment rate for black teens is more than 40 percent. but 1985 Census Bureau statistics show that wide disparities remain in income and employment. Changes have occurred. and most of the rest are from Cuba or Puerto Rico.000. The goal of affirmative action is to match the racial and sexual composition of the working place with the composition of society. The poverty rate for blacks is alarmingly high —31 percent compared with 11 percent for whites. Native Americans also adopted the techniques of protest. Related to the problem of poverty is the breakdown of the urban black family. Supporters of the policy insist that some form of preferential treatment must be used to break down the long-standing patterns of discrimination against minorities and women in the job market. they account for half of the male prison population.114 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP PROBLEMS OF URBAN BLACKS HISPANICS THE NATIVE AMERICANS minorities are often refused leases and contracts. 60 percent are of Mexican origin. Violence is another part of the poverty cycle. numbering about 28 million. After the Native . According to Census Bureau statistics. and others who had been denied opportunities. The issues are of increasing importance as the Hispanic population may soon become the nation's largest ethnic minority if present birth rates continue. to institute bilingual education in schools. make up the largest ethnic minority. Hispanics number more than 50. Among the legal Hispanic residents. organized themselves to improve wages and working conditions. Toward the end of the 1960s. Critics charge that it results in reverse discrimination against qualified white males. and some cities are officially bilingual. two-thirds of all black children are born to unmarried mothers. women. In 25 major cities. The inequality gap between blacks and whites has been closing. inspired by the black civil rights movement. In the 1960s. but much remains to be done. Hispanics have faced a tradition of job discrimination and poverty in the United States. and to improve public services in Hispanic neighborhoods. Because many Hispanics hold onto their language and customs. Besides the problems of discrimination which they have shared with other minorities. Spanish has become a major language in many areas. Employers are encouraged to hire and promote blacks. A 1980 Public Health Reports study reveals that the leading cause of death among young black men is murder. Hispanic groups. but the stream of illegal immigration across the Mexican border continues. one way the government has tried to correct job discrimination is through affirmative action laws that require most employers to take positive steps to remedy the effect of past discrimination against minorities. The poverty and unemployment among America's urban blacks are reminders that inequalities have not been eliminated. The increase of Hispanic immigration has had a dramatic impact on American society.

Many of the Court's decisions were considered controversial because they disrupted traditional social patterns.S. senile. Besides ethnic minorities. applauded the 1986 Supreme Court decision that upheld the states' authority to make laws against homosexual acts. For years. liberal reformers. Conservatives. . These efforts have brought a greater degree of sovereignty and increasingly favorable interpretation of Native American rights by the federal courts. The political setting for the civil rights movements of minorities was on e of liberalism. By this time the Native American population was becoming increasingly urban. Conservatives have been gaining influence in the 1980s. Activists have addressed the issues of job discrimination. and health care. other fringe groups have voiced deman ds for recognition and equal rights. army. With the number of older Americans on the rise. In the 1960s the federal government encouraged the retention of tribal governments and cultural identity. Although many states have passed laws banning discrimination against homosexuals." This so -called "Silent Majority" of the middle class demonstrated its presence at the polls. The Court. and have sought to dispel distorted perceptions of the elderly as weak. disabled people were institu tionalized or segregated and considered incapable of working and living as productive members of society. Between 1960 and 1982. Equal rights for homosexuals has been a more controversial issue. In 1967. the Age Discrimination Act was passed to prohibit discrimination against people between the ages of 40 and 65. and student activists became targets of many middle-class Americans who resented what they regarded as the federal government's excessive protection of the "undeserving. the demands of the elderly are becoming harder to ignore. During the 1960s and early 1970s. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 required employers who receive federal aid or work on government contracts to hire qualified disabled persons. tolerance of homosexuality undermines the nation's morality.MINORITIES 115 THE ELDERLY THE DISABLED HOMOSEXUALS Americans were subdued by the U. The American Indian Movement (AIM) demanded reforms that would give political autonomy to Native American groups an d recognize their special cultural needs. President Reagan was elected to two terms by a conservative majority. the number of people over age 65 grew twice as fast as the rest of the population. Consequently. Many urban Native Amer icans reacted against these conditions and began to take pride in their heritage. 24 states have laws prohibiting certain kinds of sexual activity. the act required that public schools admit disabled children and that colleges make their buildings acces sible to the blind and those confi ned to wheelchairs. the government policy toward them wavered inconsistently between encouraging assimilation and promoting tribal autonomy. minorities are experiencing a less favorable political climate. The various groups which make up the conservative movement are united in their desire to conserve traditional values and social patterns. The elderly. City life weakened tribal cus toms and bonds. a nd helpless. fearing thaft. the handicapped. voting against homosexual rights and many federal programs that benefited minorities. The courts and legislators responded to their demands by outlawing barriers to equal education and employment. making Native American rights their prime political focus. Amer ica's d isab led are d etermi ned to cast o ff their i mage as seco nd class citizens. the Supreme Court frequently made decisions which favored minorities. retirement. and homosexuals are minorities that suffer from discrimination. In addition.

mountain and 1аке What use have I of the asphalt What use have I of the brick and concrete What use have I of the automobile Think you these gifts divine That I should be humbly grateful. . I am the Redman I look at you White Brother And I ask you Save not me from sin and evil Save yourself. Strong were the herbs that sustained me Great was my mother. Duke: American Indian poet. Wild was the meat that fed me Sweet was the sugar maple. Redbird. water and sky What use have I of silk and velvet What use have I of nylon and plastic What use have I of your religion Think you these be holy and sacred That I should kneel in awe. I am the Redman Son of the tree. Hopi elder at work in his fields I am the Redman Son of the earth. Duke Redbird My Lodge Simple was my lodge of birch Pure was the water that I drank Swift was the canoe that carried me Straight was the arrow that protected me. hill and stream What use have I of china and crystal What use have I of diamonds and gold What use have I of money Think you these from heaven sent That I should be eager to accept. Duke Redbird.116 PART в Texts I Am The Redman / am The Redman Son of the forest. the Earth.

The dream gave me hope. we still had dreams.MINORITIES 117 SPECIAL REPORT By Sylvester Monroe T hey say you can't go home again. R. So when I returned to the Chicago housing projects where I grew up. Having to leave the safety and familiarity of home to get it was as difficult a decision as I've ever made. I was journeying back to my past. it was with ambivalence. Not only would I be away from my family and friends. when I arrived at the front steps of St. And at the wide-eyed age of 14 and 15. I even started signing my name S. It . I was happy at Wendell Phillips High. I read F. In fact. George's at all. If it had been entirely up to me. and I didn't know what I would find. Scott Fitzgerald and dreamed of authoring my own novel. We finish last in practically every socioeconomic measure from infant mortality to life expectancy. much better. Pee Wee and Billy. there wouldn't be any girls and barely any other blacks. But this time I was returning as a reporter. and what did it say about growing up black? Black men are six times as likely as white men to be murder victims. a bit miffed that my mother had not given me a middle name. And my mother convinced me that without an education the dream was impossible. Vest Monroe. It wasn't that I was afraid. No middle name: When I left Chicago for St. through an outreach program called A Better Chance. George's School in the fall of 1966. to retrace my life and those of my friends. to Half Man and Honk. all 11 of us were still in school. making straight A's. George's on a damp September night in 1966. Through portraits of our lives together and apart. What had happened to us. hanging out with a gang called Satan's Saints and discovering the wonders of women. It might as well have been the other side of the universe. I wanted to be a writer. We are two and a half times as likely to be unemployed. I might never have gone to St.I. running on the track team. I'd been back to the Robert Taylor Homes and Prairie Courts many times in the 20 years since I left in 1966. I was one of only five blacks enrolled at the 200-student Episcopal school. but it meant leaving home to attend an all-boys boarding school in Newport. Now I was being told that I could do better. I thought. we might find some answers as to why black men in America seem almost an endangered species.

It was perfect. two pairs of gray flannel slacks and a plain pair of black tie shoes. Ma. Ma. OK?" "Sure. scanning my wide-brimmed Dunlop hat. "Oh. . long enough to make a show of it. Sick call: After roughly two weeks. and catch the first ride home. or so I thought. "Hey. Wonderful. She said to me at the outset that I would never forgive myself if I didn't at least go and see what it was like. was to please my mother and Leroy Lovelace. George's exactly two weeks. continued was culture shock on a mammoth scale. in fact. There's no way Mom won't let me come home now. the food is terrible. Mass." I began. I think you're suffering from a really bad case of nostalgia. already planning my return. "Hey. I hadn't the foggiest notion what that meant. He was nice enough. "Just like this. what've I got. dark glasses. "Hey. but it sounded pretty serious to me. reversible-pleated baggy pants and brown and white StacyAdams wing tips. I had what I thought was a stroke of luck: I got sick — so sick. Secretly. and now I'm in the infirmary. how you doin'?" "Not so good. I think I ought to come home. the schoolteacher largely responsible for getting me the scholarship." she said. This place is always cold. And my mother had given me an out. The main reason I was there. that I was admitted to the school infirmary." The next day he took me in his Land-Rover to the AndersonLittle knitting mills in Fall River. Doc. I was thankful for the new duds. bought me a blue blazer. I could always come home. Italian knit shirt. I thought. my first faculty adviser. The first person I met was Gil Burnett. I resolved to stay at St. I reminded myself. I went to the phone." she said. I'm sick as a dog. I'd call my mother.." I said. "Yeah. but something seemed to bother him. They gave me the look of a preppy. "The doctor says I've got a bad case of nostalgia." I said. I decided to find out exactly what was wrong with me.118 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Sylvester Monroe 2. But I still found myself wondering why I agreed to leave 39 th Street. tell her what a godawful place boarding school was. you can come home but under one condition. To make my pitch even stronger. anyway?" I asked. "Do you have other clothes?" he asked. then head for Chicago." "What's the matter with you?" "I can't keep anything down.

And as my mother proved. race relations is old news. I was on an equal footing with my wealthier classmates. . I'd caught the break I needed to get out of the ghetto. F. Yet. I'm not different. inferior ones. Tender Is the Night. To be sized up. attending St. who tempered no-nonsense classes with a touch of compassion. far away from a place like the Robert Taylors. It was three months before I got home again. there's an artificial ceiling on your ambition. I had that love and support. less productive and generally more violent than the rest of society."~~a well-meaning faculty member once told me. Sometimes I get the feeling people are thinking. In some ways. through my 14-year career as a journalist — I have found myself looking over my shoulder on occasion. I didn't have to go back to the Robert Taylor Homes to understand that. it could happen whether there was one parent or two. Fitzgerald. "We're colorblind here. we just see students. she confided years later. when a white couple spots us and suddenly decides to cross the street. and it's not just cabdrivers.MINORITIES 119 "What's that?" I asked. That's why you got out. I'm just lucky enough to have been in the right place at the right time. Harvard: prestigious private university in Cambridge. "Why are there still Negroes?" . it's demeaning and damaging to the psyche of an entire people. Though economic-class divi- sions are rapidly producing a nation of haves and have-nots. I wanted to "say it loud: I'm black and I'm proud!" One of the greatest frustrations of my three years at St. and somehow I managed to survive. male companion. poor man. I was pleased to show what black boys were capable of. as less intelligent. How could I be. It's the same in other cities. Even among people of good will. while those left in Robert Taylor were bad Negroes or. "The only way you're coming home before you're supposed to is in a box. outreach program "A Better Chance": a program providing disadvantaged students with better educational chances. he continued. race still tends to overshadow all else. were still there? But you're different. to make straight A's: always get the best marks (A's) at school. in their eyes. George's. But the men of my family were right. in fact. for Christmas vacation. I snapped back.g. As in the old James Brown song of the '60s. What the teacher failed to understand was that my background was not something to be ashamed of." It was one of the hardest things she'd ever done. Stacy-Adams wing tips: shoes with perforated parts covering the toes and sides. "We don't see black students or white students. Faint disquiet: Looking back on it. Prairie Courts: public housing projects in Chicago. an American church. . George's made me a good Negro. categorized and dismissed all within the space of a nervous glance solely on the basis of race is more than annoying. More than a dozen cabbies had passed me by for a "safer" white fare. I waited 45 minutes one evening on Sixth Avenue in midtown Manhattan before a cab finally stopped for me. But she also knew she had to." Somehow. that can only come from the family. George's . I even found myself actually beginning to like the place and its teachers. my family. Episcopal school: school run by the Protestant Episcopal Church. that sense of self-worth. I insisted. Ever since — through Harvard. Many people still perceive blacks. it seems — unless somebody gets killed. My own capacity for learning hadn't been stunted by life in the Taylor Homes. if you are black. What bothered me was thatseai£_p£cjple ГпппН jf pasier tn prefenr] J ц/я^ something_else. was that people were always trying I to separate me from other black [people in a manner strangely reminiscent of a time when slave owners divided blacks into "good Negroes" and "bad Negroes. when my friends. too: race is an inescapable burden for every black man. I've stepped into an elevator and noticed a woman clutch her purse a little tighter under her arm. a few kids or a houseful. founded in 1636 by John Harvard (1607-38)." But black was what I was. which before 1789 was associated with the Church of England. for blacks. More than a few times. Recently. My mother had been right: having worked hard. Massachusetts. or I've been walking on a deserted sidewalk with a black. Another St. I wasn't sure he saw me at all. beggar or thief. an English Puritan clergyman in America. everyone that I cared most about. The Great Gatsby. . George's teacher was surprised at my reaction when he implied that I should be grateful for the opportunity to attend St. there was a faint disquiet. It doesn't matter whether you are rich man. Robert Taylor Homes. at the very least. especially black men. This Side of Paradise) and short stories. Scott (1896-1940): American author of novels (e.

My father went back to Mexico. She is active in National Land for People. All the teachers were Anglos. we used to live in tents. Before that. teachers told me the same thing. She is fifty-nine. taking care of my younger brother and sister. patched tents.120 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Jessie de la Cruz Л one-family dwelling in Fresno. everything. about forty-five schools. we were living with my grandparents. When my parents or my brothers didn't find any work. you're Mexican. A small. He'd come up with oranges and apples and good things to cat.. There was only one bed. . the houses were just clapboard. flowers. A cot. Maybe one or two of the oldest would stay away from school during cotton-picking time around December. who we were. (Laughs. . They would have us say our name and where we lived. ' We couldn't as migrant workers. In labor camps. about twelve by fifteen. One room. while he went out to the store. American. The houses had two little windows and a front door. But we always wanted them to get an education. So I missed a lot of school. so we could earn a little more money to buy food or buy them a pair of shoes or a coat that they needed. In between. and put us around this big woodburning stove. They would help me fill up the cans and put 'em in a box while the rest of the family was picking the whole row. Before we had a tent. Eight or nine of us. This is one thing I . was a living room. He would pick us up. We had blankets that we rolled up during the day to give us a little place to walk around doing the housework. I was on the end of the row of prunes. something we did not very often have. we would move from place to place. My happiest memories was when my grandfather had Sunday off. we wouldn't attend school because we weren't sure of staying there. My children were picking crops. Every winter. Now all of a sudden they want me to say I'm an American." She has six grown children. I'd see homes with beautiful gardens. . everything you see is green.) I learned how to speak English and how to fight back. There were just nails with two-by-fours around it. . . but we saw to it that they went to school. we used to live under a tree. as you walk onto my porch. well-kept garden is out front. (Laughs) I have a garden now. I and my mother. wrap us in blankets. I musta been almost eight when I started following the crops. I think. That was very hard. The rest of us slept on the floor. I-said: 'Jessie Lopez. Now. That was home to us. . "When I was a child growing up as a migrant worker." Throughout the years. which was my grandmother's. . the youngest is twenty-one. I think the longest time I went to school was two months in one place. . I always looked at those flowers and said: 'If I could only have my own house and have a garden. dining room." She said: "No. I attended. up north.

Your clothes were never dry. Twelve hours for a dollar twenty. there's a saying: La esperanza muere al ultimo. No houses. they're always talking: "If I had my own place. vegetables. We're in very marginal land. and I was the first woman organizer. . doing a man's work. we knew that we could make it.. thirteen-year-old kids. We followed the crops till around 1966. the country will never do anything for us. We had a big truck. But I'm not satisfied. It wasn't a hardship any more. where it's very hot. There's acres and acres of land that if you go out there you can see green from one end to the other.in a long. Is America progressing toward the better? No. I could hardly stand it. We wanted our children to pick in the shade. 1 met him in 1933. . successful strike against vineyard owners.. bell peppers. within ten years. It's not happening. We're out of the Wcstland district. not until I see a lot of farm workers settle on their own farms. Chavez. We worked the land all our lives. We survive by hard work and sacrifices. like a green ocean. Trees or just cotton and alfalfa. so if we ever owned a piece of land. where the government supplies the water. These growers that have been using this water signed a contract that they would sell. He came with his parents when he was two and a half years old. and we were able to take our refrigerator and my washing machine and beds and kitchen pots and pans and our clothing. corn.. That's what my grandfather kept talkin' about. Mexicans have this thing about a close family. I feel there's going to be a change. Anglo: Anglo-American descended from an English family. under a tree. very best land. We're the ones that are gonna do it. During the winter.MINORITIES 121 hope nobody has to live through. but his dream was never realized. It's hard work. in small parcels. I'd know how to run it. If the law had been enforced. . . I'd be there all the time. Ten cents an hour. All farm workers I know. born 1927. I worked it there. nothing. We went up north around the Sacramento area to pick prunes. we could be out there right now. cantaloupes. who organized the migrant farm workers in California into a union and led them. We became members." We stopped migrating when Cesar Chavez formed a union." This is one thing that all Chicano families talked about. When my husband and I started working under a signed contract. there was no need to migrate after that. instead of picking out in the vines. Cesar. You can't lose hope. He was irrigating when he was twelve years old. It's the very. the water was just seeping under the ground. I organized people everywhere I went. Our first year we stayed in the labor camps. My husband was born in Mexico. If you lose hope. My kids would help me. I'm making it. When I picked grapes. Then I'll say it's happening. I felt sorry for twelve-. With us. so they wanted to buy some land where they could raise a family. prominent Mexican-American.. Hope dies last. that's losing everything. . My husband said: "Let's go up north and pick prunes. You could grow anything: tomatoes. . It's land that is irrigated with taxpayers' money. We have to keep on struggling.

. or painting still life. luxurious toy versions of the hard necessity of less than a century ago. to the Bell Recreation Centre. Arizona. weaving rugs and baskets. Residents undertake not to have children of school age living at home. the ingenious hotel tycoon Del Webb created the first retirement resort town in the world out of 9. PETER BLACK paid a visit ONE of the irritating things about growing old is that numerous pleasant physical activities. it's not good for them to be always with older people. . She'd feel too much out of it. carving wood. But this is only when the young are around. a gorilla on a bicycle. When phase one of the even larger Sun City West is complete. I asked my guide.. We must assume that either many comfortably off Americans over 50 go barmy. Any of those would be equally improbable in this place. and grandeur. Thinking less crudely along these lines. They would not fit Del Webb's central idea. At ground level the streets run between bungalows of varying size. doing the same things and showing up the old by looking beautiful. are deemed unsuitable. tanned and bust- ling Mildred Toldrin: 'Suppose a 50year-old man brought a 20-year-old wife here?' 'He wouldn't. One spouse in each couple must be at least 50. These two regulations are enough to produce the uniformity of age. tennis courts and bowling greens.122 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP • LUCKY OL' SUN DOWNERS In Sun City. as regular as thumbprints.' 'What if she came anyway. Similar devel-. We've had five births in 18 years. reporting to the county sheriff's office any unusual sight such as a loose dog. some 80. and had a baby?' 'She'd think twice about that too. she added that there were no schools in the city and no maternity wards in the Walter O. opments exist. Ten buildings covered 27 acres. Young people can't live there. . or a group of young people. From a helicopter one would look down on a vast expanse of streets and houses forming concentric circles. It isn't a suitable place for children to live in. with its huge swimming pool. interspersed by big splashes of green (golf courses) and little ones of turquoise (pools). the sun beat down on the sun court. where you begin to see the point of Sun City. Arizona. the hospital has no maternity ward and nobody laughs at a real tryer. whorls. are being built or planned right across the winter sunshine belt of the US. because they'd have to leave. One of them could contain a posse of the volunteer sheriff force — on routine patrol. Hence the rules against the young.) Mrs Toldrin was an old hand.000 elderly people will have chosen this way of life. a resident since 1960. a children's nurse wheeling a pram. or exchanging books (40. Outside. . an alien from space. They should be with their own age groups. There is something to be said for being able to take off your clothes on the beach without being obliged to make painful comparisons between yourself and the brown-skinned. Inside them. (The Boswell family owned the land. or up to their armpits in the therapeutic pool.' As a clincher. unarmed but uniformed. firing pottery. turning metal. all of them confidently predicted to earn high profits for their developers.. they do not grow old as we who are here grow old. even for the vigorous. such as sunbathing.. overtaking what look like covered wagons without horses. Cars move along the streets. eight shuffleboards. flatstomached young insolently kicking beach balls about with their hard bare feet. all to visitors passing through.000 on the shelves) in the library. 16 lanes of ten-pin bowling. It is felt that the old cut unseemly figures at such pastimes. if competitive and potentially irritating age groups were kept way from them. or that these cities offer something older people need and enjoy. wearing bright clothes and sexual collisions. . that retired folk who wished to enjoy themselves actively would be more contented especially as they grew older. crescents. She drove me round in one of those comfortable American cars. These things make up a lot of the traffic. If she wanted a family. . well-matured men and women were at play on 19 pool tables.. fashioning silver ornaments and sculptures. she wouldn't want to live in Sun City. and the covered wagons become golf buggies.000 acres of cotton land 12 miles outside Phoenix. widowed five years ago and energetically involved in promoting the place. Boswell Memorial Hospital.

reminded me so much of a prison movie that I had to concentrate on asking: 'How long have you been here?' and not: 'How long are you in for?') There is no corner shop or local bar. . Anyway. Sun City is a great place to visit but I'd sure hate to live there. It is slightly against the social ethos of the place to have a private swimming pool. why don't they go for a walk.' In the real world the old folks who live with their children's families get on everybody's nerves because they keep falling about. A keen gardener who wants to raise vegetables rents a plot in the agricultural section. It must be a bit like living on campus. . as though they were being conducted round a kind of Forest Lawn cemetery for the living. and I think these must be part of the first impressions of every visiting European. their presence among the family emphasising how life is a continuing procession. there is argument about which TV channel to watch. There must be a lot to be said for a community where people are sympathetic because they face the same problems of coping with the separations and ailments of age and have a good many interests and challenges in common. . They don't lock us in here. as Americans joke about New York. Even then the old will irritate the young. The only way to avoid this fate is to be rich enough to live in a huge house where there is one lavatory for every two residents. fussed and petted by their grandchildren in whom they see reminders of their own golden time. In this the old live as part of the family unit. A loner would have a bad time. except that a then uncertain future has been accomplished. to combat at all times those lurking enemies of age. you know. . there's nothing to stop me going to stay with them if I want to. (The metal-working shop.MINORITIES 123 Sun City. 'My grandchildren come to see me four times a year. boredom and solitude. who gets the newspaper first.. The objective is to keep out untidiness and the unexpected. Some over-50s who go to look the place over recoil from the tightly structured life.' . respected for their wisdom and experience. and I'm delighted when they go. it was because the realism of the policy of separation contradicts so bluntly the sentimental picture of ideal old age most of us carry about.' said Mrs Toldrin. handing out opinions nobody wants to hear. . . and must the children play that infernal gramophone. 'We enjoy having them as visitors. but a loner wouldn't consider going there. But of course this is all rot. belonging to TV serials like 'The Waltons. Arizona If it seemed sad and bizarre to me at first. I'm delighted when they come. stepping on their teeth and glasses. .. And nobody laughs at anybody. filled with burly old fellows in blue overalls.. Deed restrictions bar putting up tacky outbuildings. . Yet. It is one of the pleasant American virtues to admire anyone who has a go. .

but at the State Department. as the crusade against public puffing heats up AT THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. the legislative director of Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights. Although each agency head is authorized to designate certain areas for smoking — hence the confusion — new rules from the General Services Administration now restrict all smoking by the 890. and adds. a 29-year-old mother of two. particularly smoking in public.124 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP United States Where There's Smoke There's fire these days. director of the Institute for the Study of Smoking Behavior and Policy at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. In 1973 she spear-headed a movement that prodded the Arizona legislature to pass the first state law limiting smoking in public places. "I even regret the name of my own organization. "People w. "Tobacco is a dangerous substance.800 federal buildings. At the Department of Transportation. smokers now r etreat to the photocopy ing rooms in order to relax with a soothing cigarette. and an employer who doesn't do anything is likely to be sued. . And how does that affect working conditions? "We don't do any work here anyway. Says an IRS watcher: "They always smoked compulsively over there. . 87% want to quit." Still." Leaders of the crusade argue that government involvement is legitimate because the health of nonsmokers is at stake. sale. Courtesy of the American Lung Association Prohibition: the period (1920-33) during which a law was enforced in the U. who in 1984 called for a smoke-free society. an ornithologist. Everett Koop. Indeed.S. .. Her last request to Carnes was to "try to make people aware of the dangers of smoking. What accounts for such a fast-rising crusade against an activity that was once considered sophisticated and until recently had at least been politely tolerated? One thing that happened was that Betty Carnes. And at the Internal Revenue Service they are still trying to figure out what to do about both W-4 forms and cigarettes. and cited studies indicating that "sidestream" smoke can be harmful to others." Says Koop: "We're sort of on a roll. nobody is quite sure where you can do it." Carnes helped persuade the commercial air carriers to begin segregating smokers in the early '70s. and of those. "The air hasn't circulated in here in 20 years. The GSA joined what has become a nationwide crusade against smoking. C." Today the leading antismoking crusader is Dr.000 federal employees in 6." Thus the entire U. smokers can puff away in half the rest rooms and corridors." she says now. which has a keen sense of law-and-order.9% smoke. the bearded U. "The time was right. Chicano: used of a Mexican American person. and possession of alcoholic beverages." he said. "It's misguided to think that this is about rights at all.' says John Pinney. . Surgeon General. which has never been known for -hasty decision making." says Mark Pertschuk. returned home from a 1969 expedition and found that her best friend. seen such a widespread attempt to change people's personal habits by regulation. When we first started talking about a smoke-free society. was dying of lung cancer.S. Government last week lurched into the era of the no-smoking sign." cracks one bureaucrat. Last December he proclaimed that smokers were hurting not just themselves but their nonsmoking neighbors.S. . "The Koop report added enormous impact because it establishes the rationale for corporate liability. not since Prohibition has the U. The evidence "clearly documents that nonsmokers are placed at increased risk for developing disease as the result of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. which forbade the manufacture. half the country smoked. . smokers are beginning to feel that they are a persecuted minority. Only thing was the majority of the nonsmokers were afraid to speak out: they thought they were in the minority." sighs an inhabitant of Foggy Bottom who has not stopped lighting up. transportation.S. Today only 29.ere becoming health conscious.. where things are supposed to move.

Characterize this sort of text. What tense is the poem "My Lodge" written in and how do you account for the choice of this tense? 5. . Previewing Brothers 1. Subdivide the text into different sections and find a headline for each section. What did he find disquieting and frustrating about the way the whites treated him at St. It is one of the characteristics of oral history that events are not always reported in chronological order. Why did Sylvester Monroe return to the Chicago housing projects with a feeling of ambivalence? 4. What other problems do you know that black Americans have to deal with? 4. that confirm Sylvester Monroe's views? 2. How does the structure of the poem "I Am The Redman" contribute to the poet's aim? 3. Text Analysis 1. How do the last four paragraphs differ from the rest? 2. What kind of problems do you expect him to talk about in the following report? 5. 4. Explain how this was facilitated by certain conditions and persons. George's School? What importance was attached to those new clothes by his former faculty advisor and the other students? 5. Whom does the Indian poet address in his poem "I Am The Redman" and what is the message he wants to convey? 2. Comprehension Jessie de la Cruz 1.L25 PART C Exercises 1. Jessie de la Cruz describes different stages in the living conditions of migrant workers. maiden name present place of residence age education period of time spent as a migrant worker year of marriage children affiliation to a union. Interpreting Poems "I Am The Redman"/"My Lodge" 1. What do you think is the difference between this report and other reports Sylvester Monroe has written during his career as a journalist? 3. What do you think the American Indian can teach the white man? 3. Which characteristics of Indian culture can be found in the poems? 4. George's School? What were his objections? 7.S. What stages does she mention and how does she characterize each of them? Describe Jessie de la Cruz's attitude towards America and the American government. what aim did Sylvester Monroe have in mind when writing the report? 2. Scan through the text to find the basic autobiographical data concerning Jessie's family name. Can you account for Mrs Monroe's reaction when her son wanted to leave St. Have you heard of any examples of racial discrimination in the U. 3. 1987. George's School? How must Vest Monroe have felt after his mother's remark? 6. What kind of racial discrimination does Sylvester Monroe mention? 8. According to the introduction to the "Special Report" of Newsweek. March 23. What is the exact socioeconomic data which he quotes about the situation of blacks today? He obviously would not have cited those statistics in the introduction if they had not been relevant. Why do you think he recalls the fact that he got new clothes at St. Sylvester Monroe is one of the relatively few blacks who managed to get out of the black urban ghetto.

3. Which arguments for and against separate cities does Peter Black mention in his article? 2. led by the U. Only 13 percent of all Americans who smoke do not think of giving it up. Simulate such a phone call in which Brian Johnson. New restrictive regulations by the General Service Administration drastically reduce smoking in federal buildings. employees can be sued if they do not follow the regulations. 8. Comprehension Where There's Smoke Which of the following statements are true and which are false? Correct the false ones. Surgeon General. are asking for information. a Chicago businessman. The campaign against smoking was started in the 1970s by Betty Carnes. an ornithologist. woodwork and metalwork. . 1. 3. 4. Employees at the Department of Justice hardly do any work at all. 2. Dialogue Practice Mildred Toldrin. tennis. frequently has to answer phone calls from people who have heard of Sun City and are looking for a place to settle down when they have retired. who works for Sun City Information Agency. gardening • Jill's hobbies: swimming. pottery • school for granddaughter Julia (her parents are planning to go to East Asia on business for half a year and have asked the grandparents to look after Julia during that time). According to the Koop report. I thought I'd pop over to Vegas and grab a smoke.126 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 5. 6." Compare the use of the term "minority" here with that of the other texts of this unit. ^_ THANKYOU FOR NOT SMOKING 7. They have made some notes beforehand in order not to forget the following important points: • climate • houses for sale • sites available for a fairly luxurious bungalow plus swimming pool • medical and therapeutical care • opportunities to take part in social life • Brian's hobbies: golf. The present crusade. Point out where Peter Black leaves the position of objective reporting and expresses his personal view. who later died of lung cancer. Interpreting a Cartoon Interpret the following cartoon. 10. Discussion Lucky 01' Sundowners 1. Discussion • The American campaign against smoking makes smokers feel like a "persecuted minority. places special emphasis on the effect that smoking has on non-smokers. Employees at the State Department are not allowed to smoke at work. What do you think about the concept of building separate cities for the elderly? 6. aged 55. • Do you think smoking should be restricted in your country? 9. and his wife Jill. 7. Not even during prohibition did regulations try to interfere so much with people's personal habits.S. 8. "This weekend. aged 60. Fifty percent of all restrooms and corridors at the Department of Transportation are free from smoke. 5. 9. Betty Carnes was one of the first to successfully persuade the airlines to restrict smoking to special sections of the aircraft.

and it reached 45 percent by 1980. the proportion of single (never-married) women between those ages was 26. In 1960.8 The Changing Bole of Women PART A Background Information STATISTICS REVEAL Comparable statistics over the past years indicate important changes that have CHANGES FOR occurred in the emplo yment rates. The median age of females at first marriage rose from 20. in 1985. By 1985. education levels. • Couples want to have fewer children. when men and women were asked what the y co n sid ered the id eal numb er o f child ren to have in a family.8 in 1986. 39 percent were women. housekeeping. • More women are entering the labor force. Marriage and motherhood are no . These statistics o n demo graphics and attitudes indic ate that the role of wo men in American society is changing. 57 percent of women were convinced that a better marriage is one in which the husband and wife share responsibilities of careers. the proportion of women from 25 to 29 who had never married was 10. and child rearing. Opinion polls reveal that women's attitudes toward family roles and child rearing are changing: • The majority of women no longer favor traditional marriages.7. the proportion had grown to 41 percent. Projections indicate that by 1990 women will constitute more than half of the American labor force. That number dropped to 2. • Women are marrying at a later age. and family roles and WOMEN expectations of American women. the median ideal number was 3. the average mother had 3 or 4 children. • More women have been attaining higher education levels.5 percent.7 percent. In 1974. • More young women are single. however. 49 percent of American wo men said they favored traditional marriages in which the husband is the money-earner and the wife the homemaker and child rearer. In the 1950s.5 in 1983.6 and by 1986. In 1940 only 27.4 percent of all American women worked outside the home. In the 1980s.6 in 1970 to 22.4 percent. 54. • Women are having fewer children. the average mother has 1 or 2 children. of all persons aged 25 and older who had been in college four or more years. In 1941. In 1970. By 1975. By 1970 the figure had risen to 42.

A 1978 amendment to the Civil Rights Act protects pregnant women from job discrimination. file lawsuits on their own behalf.2 percent of the accountants. women have secured many rights as a result of the modern feminist movement. Feminists have drawn attention to inequalities between the sexes and have succeeded in breaking down many of the barriers that kept women from professional and economic advancement.4 percent of the physicians were women. More and more women are training to become accountants. Women now compete with men for professional training. hold certain jobs. discriminatory laws and practices barred women from entering male-dominated spheres. and political power. equal pay for equal work. With this book. In 1972. Women are securing more leadership positions in business and industry. . By 1980 the proportion of women in these high-paid professions had risen considerably: 36. Feminists demanded greater access to jobs and political power. In 1980 over 8 percent of the graduates of military academies for the Army.3 percent of the lawyers and judges. For many years. These laws were seen as necessary on the basis of "romantic paternalism. giving women the right to vote. Although the women's suffrage movement began in the 1830s. leadership positions. employment. and 13. This attitude persisted despite the women suffragists' campaign for the vote and other freedoms. 3. They were not allowed to vote." a concept held by men in power that it was their duty to protect women. Legislation prohibiting sex discrimination has benefited many women. Women have entered many male-dominated professions. In more recent decades. doctors. In 1960 women made up only 16. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 guarantees that men and women filling the same jobs will receive the same pay. and an end to the condescending way in which men often treated women. American women have many more rights than they did a hundred years ago. Job discrimination on the basis of sex was prohibited by the Equal Rights Act of 1964. Friedan became the standard bearer of the modern feminist movement. The women's movement has helped bring about legislation that ensures greater equality of the sexes. which gained momentum in the 1960s.8 percent of the doctors. Although inequalities still exist. or retain custody of their children after a divorce. buy liquor.8 percent of the lawyers and judges. During the nineteenth century. or lawyers and are filling other high-salaried positions. In 1966 she founded the National Organization for Women (NOW). it was not until 1920 that a constitutional amendment was ratified. and 6. When Betty Friedan (born 1921) wrote The Feminine Mystique in 1963. especially those in professional or technical fields. she articulated a discontent that many women of her generation were feeling.4 percent of the nation's accountants. Air Force. women did not have many of the legal rights they take for granted today. The same Congress passed a law making it easier for women to qualify for loans and mortgages. 12. Navy.128 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP SEX DISCRIMINATION THE MODERN FEMINIST MOVEMENT LEGISLATION FOR EQUALITY PROFESSIONAL WOMEN longer perceived as a woman's only areas of responsibility. and Coast Guard were women. declaring that motherhood and housekeeping do not provide the fulfillment women want. Congress barred gender-based discrimination in all federally supported education programs.

783 a 14. secretaries. governing trustees of foundations. Congress В Percentage of women state legislators 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 .8 1. senior White House advisors.8 1.2 7.6 9. WOMEN IN POLITICS Although woman's share of political representation is still small.7 4. universities. Sandra Day O'Connor (born 1930) became the first female Supreme Court justice in 1981.499 1.1 0.0 7. 25 т Recent Increases in Women Elected Officials: Congress and State Legislatures Ш Women in the U. and civic and cultural organizations.1 1.259 550 235 402 481 536 258 17 7.2 0. 1970 and 1980 TOTAL NUMBER 3 OF POSITIONS Industry Banking Utilities Insurance Law Investments Mass media Foundations Universities Civic and Cultural Government Military Total 1970 1.9 Presidents.076 417 213 121 656 438 227 24 6.7 0 4.S.2 0 0. senior partners in law and investment firms.1 1980 1.543 1.8 0.4 2.095 668 783 1980 36 25 29 9 23 5 16 59 51 1980 2.9 6.733 1.3 1.0 2.3 4. congressional leaders. undersecretaries and assistant secretaries of federal executive branch.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 129 Women in Institutional Leadership Positions.4 2. Geraldine Ferraro (born 1935) made history when she ran on the Democratic ticket as the vice-presidential candidate.5 0 1. four-star generals and admirals on active duty.1 45 20 0 318 16. all corporate directors including officer-directors. and Supreme Court justices. the election or appointment of a woman to political office is becoming more common.189 476 362 NUMBER OF WOMEN 1970 3 2 0 3 12 3 9 9 11 70 10 0 132 PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN 1970 0. and in 1984.7 10.

female college graduates continue to earn less than male high school dropouts.9 59. encountered strong opposition from both men and women who vehemently disagreed with the goals and .8 60.8 60. While professional women have benefited from the new legislation regarding hiring and promotion practices. the gap in earnings is wide.7 64. and new conflicts have surfaced. Feminists argued that the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) would simplify the legal enforcement of equal rights and would provide more uniform legal protection for women. For example. the difference in earnings between men and women has not changed in more than forty years. Federal agencies and other institutions have officially adopted non-sexist language. On average. working women still earn only two thirds of the average male salary. Discrimination and inequalities still persist.7 60. they represent a minority: most women are still paid less for equal work.0 60.2 59. scholars are reexamining the events of America's political and social history from a feminist perspective. however. although 81 percent of all elementary school teachers are women. Even after the adoption of legislation such as the Equal Pay Act.7 EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT Even when men and women are doing similar work.2 61.2 58. of Full-Time Women Workers as Median Annual Earnings Percentage of Men's Earnings (selected years 1955-1985) Annual 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 63.9 60. The women's movement suffered a major setback when the states failed to ratify a constitutional amendment to guarantee equal rights to all." In the area of education and scholarship.7 63. For example.0 59. the median teacher's salary is higher for males than for females. the word "chairperson" replaces "chairman. women's history has emerged as a new field of study. Within this discipline.6 63." and "mail carrier" is used instead of "mailman. Corporations have redressed past sex discrimination by providing compensatory back pay to female employees. This amendment. On average. the heightened aware ness of women's rights has brought progress in other areas. Despite the progress the women's movement has achieved in many areas.4 58.130 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP PROGRESS FOR WOMEN PERSISTENT DISPARITIES EARNINGS GAP In addition to these professional and political gains. regardless of sex. many goals have not been reached.

THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 131 ANTI-FEMINISTS PREDICAMENT OF WORKING WOMEN assumptions of the women's movement. Arranging and affording child care is another burden on working p arents. Many people feel t hat solutions such as these need to be more broadly instituted to relieve pressure on women and families. and lunch hours according to individual and family needs. many companies and federal agencies have established a new system of working hours called "flex time. Well-known anti-feminists Phyllis Schlafly (born 1924) and Midge Decter (born 1927) argued that the ERA would disrupt family life. These anti-feminists defended traditional role divisions and asserted that taking care of children. In addition. the insistence on fulfillment through work and on equality with men in all spheres has placed a strain on the family. Some feminists. Women who choose a successful career instead of a family sometimes wish they could have both. Some factories and companies now run child-care nurseries on their premises. Some corporations are responding to women's needs by adapting the workplace to meet the demands of working mothers. encourage homosexual marriages. and house hold was rewarding. including Betty Friedan. Many women who do manage both careers and families complain they are overworked. But statistics continue to show that most working women still do a greater share of the housework than their husbands." which allows workers to arrange starting. work ing husbands and wives share the housekeeping and child -rearing duties. have acknowledged the predica ment of working women. and take away women's exemption from the draft. it has left women with the double burden of family and career. quitting. It is difficult for a professional woman to become highly successful if she must divide her energies between duties at home and those at work. In some families. . Day care centers for pre-school-age children are often expensive. Furthermore. According to anti-feminists. husband.

" she remembers. who'd been away from me the whole day. I want to be there in a second. . but once the day starts winding down. "I don't have enough tim e for my child. I don't want to leave my child in the mornings . a construction supervisor in Florida. I can't wait. I'm aware that I'm looking at an evening that's not going to be relaxing. "coming from a job that doesn't give me all that much pleasure.000 is more than four times the salary earned last year by Robert's father. "I have never. crowded. At the same time. now 42 ." she says. I'm fine once I get to work. Rebecca has been married to the same man Robert. Freelance writing brings in another $5. I don't have enough time for myself. and sometimes the subway is interminable.and their marriage remains strong. "There's such a thing as quality of life. Their five-year-old daughter is pretty and bright. "I was standing on this miserable.500 a year it costs to send their daughter to a private day-care center where the ratio of children to teachers is four to one." she says. they pay just $450 a month for a rent-stabilized apartment on a pretty street on the Upper West Side. The Murrays' combined income of nearly $90. and although his advances have been small so far." That night. hot train. .000 a year as the business manager for a publishing house." . to go home to an apartment so small that my husband and I sleep in the living room on a futon mattress. But none of this compensates for what Rebecca feels is missing in her life." she told her husband. "and this isn't it. colleagues approached 38-year-old Rebecca Murray and volunteered identical assessments of her life: "You are the woman who has everything. that could change with a single success.with plenty of potential to move up. to pick up my child. I get very anxious to rush to my kid. For the past eighteen years. and I never have enough time for my husband. The notion staggered Rebecca.and she doesn't want me to go. Rebecca made a decision." Rebecca reached her breaking point on a subway during rush hour last summer. ever thought of myself that way. Among other things. and a lot of money by nearly any standard. Robert makes $43. He is a novelist. But it's not hard to see what her co-workers had in mind. I'm facing three more hours of work — the child care — and I've already put in a full day at the office. He gets whatever I have left at the end of each day. Realistically. Rebecca works as a records manager for a large financial institution and earns $40.132 PART в Texts SECOND THOUGHTS ON HAVING IT ALL by TONY SCHWARTZ WICE during the past month.000 a year . "Time. and usually that's nothing." they told her.. they can afford the $8. What's more.000 a year.

and sustain long-term relationships with men our own age. create. and impulse to yield. I don't think there's a man left out there for me. my ear tuned in to a conversation about a different sort of modern female dilemma." We baby boomers were unique in that we were the first generation of American women to accept. They are successful. a woman with the important but unenviable task of running for Congress in the State of Utah. nurturance. INC. achievement-oriented women.cooperation. Men.. and the will to win — values that fit neatly into our struggle for "meaningful work". "I wouldn't mind. . It was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 and called itself the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints." This woman is a successful television reporter for a primetime news show. women's new marketplace values are antithetical to building the solid. As it turns out. was to have a career. interpersonal relationships between women and men we took for granted. As one woman put it. to be specific. . Men. . where the Mormon Church is predominant. bom in the 1940s and early 1950s. . My group. respected in her field. I call it feminist determinism. These are the same values traditionally used by women to attract.emotionally or economically.. and she has that same bitter tinge in her voice I've heard so often among a certain group of women.. "But I'm about to give up. She is attractive. on a mass scale. assumed for all women.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 133 ©The Choices That Brought Me Here by Amanda Spake M A MONEY TO SECUR YOUR FU How Much Do You Make Other Nosy PLUSOur Guide SPECIAL ISSUE: SMART MONEY OPRAH.. having a husband and family was absolutely irrefutable. well educated. The 'extra' that we would try for." my friend responded sarcastically. . 35 years old. Mormon state: here: Utah. society. the awful truth that the traditional female roles we had been raised to emulate.changed very little." . whose own interpersonal values — and their resulting expectations about women . would not be enough to sustain our lives . wife and mother. As Frances impressed the crowd with her tales of fighting a pro-ERA campaign in a Mormon state. assertiveness. still expect women to embody primarily "feminine" values . Most of us came to adulthood in the 1960s and discovered the key to a "meaningful life" was not necessarily marriage. So we have developed a new set of nontraditional female values — ambition. that is. and often women themselves. and highly paid. I went to an all-female dinner party in Washington on the occasion of a visit to town by Frances Farley. Mogul with A Mission Recently. competitiveness. "But do you really want to get married?" one woman asked a friend of mine. "When I was growing up.

. for fear they will be hurt again. "What right do you Baptists have to promote your ideas about the family being the acceptable style for all of humanity?" I replied that it was not Baptists who started the family. A commentator from a major network once asked me. She does not consider her lifework of making my life happy and of loving and shaping the lives of our precious children inconsequential or demeaning. A woman's call to be a wife and mother is the highest calling in the world. They mean everything to us. hard day. Families educating their children in moral principles have carried on the traditions of this free republic. for it is God who gave them to us. Sexual promiscuity has become the lifestyle of America. but should be some kind of "cool. civil or otherwise. homosexuality. Many such children harden themselves to the possibility of real love. . Home is a haven to which I run from the troubles of this world. men (they say) do not have to be committed to their wives and children. soulwinning local church. we are on the precipice of real peril. "Why should I be taken advantage of by chauvinists? I will get out and do my own thing. . and boring". the more we want to invest in them. it is great to walk into my home and know that there I will find my wife and children. when that basic Christian unit is destroyed. Each family is a battleground for the conflict going on today. There has been and continues to be a vicious assault upon the American family. free swingers". Our nation is in serious danger when motherhood is considered a task that is "unrewarding.. and communications. No wonder we are raising up a generation of children with no respect for authority. More than half the women in this country are currently employed. The longer we live. Historically the greatness of America can be measured in the greatness of her families. My wife is proud to be called a housewife. Apart from our devotion to Christ. the counterreaction to the cult of the playboy.. . Nearly every major family-theme TV program openly justifies divorce. with increased insecurity in children who are the victims. Our first obligation is to rear godly children. unfulfilling. my wife. discipline. . Men satisfy their lustful desires at the expense of their families.. and without ever having been brought into and trained by a good. and parental example. I am for the family. but should know they are fulfilling God's command for the home. Another weapon against the family is the feminist revolution. When I have had a long. More television programs depict homes of divorced or single parents than depict the traditional family. In the war against the family today. and adultery. the first weapon is the cult of the playboy.134 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP °How to have a successful Christian Family by Jerry Falwell The greatest heritage Christian parents leave their children is the love and training they receive in a Christian home. unity. The greatest desire of our hearts for our children is that they each find God's will and live in it all their days. Bible-believing. Macel. often in a hostile environment. I will stand up for my rights. and He is not a Baptist.. The happiest people on earth are those who are part of homes and families where they are loved and shielded. Many women who lead in the feminist movement promote an immoral lifestyle.. But in the past 20 years a tremendous change has taken place. it was God Almighty. When they grow up without ever learning what the Bible has to say. without ever learning what prayer is. The consequences of defeat are tragic. they become weak people who in turn reproduce weak homes.to control and contain the earth. Increased divorce has broken family loyalty. who love me. They have been reared in homes where there is no authority and in which there is no guidance or leadership. Families in search of religious freedom. and I love and live for our children. not only to populate but also . tamed this wild continent and built the highest living standard in the world. Everything we talk about and plan around is for their benefit and welfare. The family is that basic unit that God established. No nation has ever been stronger than the families within her. Women who choose to remain in the home should never feel inferior to those working outside. Children need love. When the family begins to falter. Women say. I am committed to helping families win the undeclared war that is ravaging American homes. determined to work and enjoy the fruits of their labor." Feminists say that self-satisfaction is more important than the family.

more than half of all women 20 to 24 years old had never been married. 25 In 1982. And people are marrying later. That same year. The reason: more people are living alone — and in smaller family units.. 23 percent of women aged 25 to 29 had never been married — up from just 11 percent in 1970. Number of Households. .S.69 in 1985.75 in 1980 . but Smaller The U. 75 50 25 Three or more children One child Living with two parents Living in female-headed household Households: More . The average number of people per household has dropped from 3. But the number of households grew more than twice as fast — increasing 37 percent over the 15year period. 1970-1985 1970 63. 1970 . the percentage of children under 18 living in families with three or more children has dropped by more than half.to 2. the percentage of children living in female-headed households has almost doubled.4 Million 1985 86. At the same time. population increased by 17 percent between 1970 and 1985. Over the past 15 years.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 135 Families Changing Faces Of Families The profile of American families is rapidly changing. the Census Bureau reports. .11 in 1970 to 2. 75 and Longer o l d Percent Never Married.8 Million Other households (includes people living alone) Singles: More . 1970 1982 25-29 Males 30-34 2 0 2 4 y e a r s 20-24 25-29 Females A major reason why we have more and smaller households is 50 that there are more unmarried — and more divorced — adults.

30-34 1982 .

Gleason. "I kept thinking nothing was going to change. He was dead wrong. not suddenly. trying to accommodate to a wife's new career can be a confusing. one-homemaker effort." For middle-aged men like Mr. Quite unexpectedly. At age 39. . From a comfortable life in which Mr. Nancy Gleason resumed her career as a psychiatric counselor. after a 10-year hiatus. "I thought she'd always be there just like before — supportive. These men are of a generation in which marriage was typically a one-provider." the Boston attorney recalls. the Gleason family abruptly changed course. adjusting to my needs." Herb Gleason says of his wife's return to her career eight years ago. And although the problems of younger two-career couples have been well-chronicled. these men of a different generation are left to flounder on their own. A Wife's New Career Upsets Old Balances Her Outside Preoccupation Can Leave Him Isolated At Time of More Leisure 'Might as Well be Roommate' BY MARY BRALOVE 11/9/81 H erbert Gleason's wife tried to warn him. Gleason's career success was balanced neatly by his wife's full-time support as homemaker. not a professional joint venture. the emotional sands beneath the marriage shifted.136 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP HUSBAND'S HAZARD For Middle-Aged Man. bruising experience. They are of an age when change tends to come gradually and predictably. "I really didn't anticipate how it would affect our attitudes toward each other. but he was too busy to pay much mind.

" Expressing Pain Just how successfully an older man adjusts to his wife's pursuit of a career depends on such variables as the underlying strength of the marriage." says Elizabeth Douvan. yet they resent their newfound independence. who has conducted national surveys on Americans' attitudes and concerns. or roughly 50% of the nation's married women. are working or looking for work. this would be a difficult transition to make. each spouse's personality and the nature of the two careers. an increasing number of men are attempting to negotiate such transitions. "The wife. and then all of a sudden she could take care of herself." Mrs Douvan. however. continued "Difficult Transition" "People talk about women's problems all the time. emotion and vulnerability. "I felt deflated." he says. Today 24." Although it may be cold comfort." . Yet the metamorphosis of homemaker into breadwinner sends tremors through every relationship. But in a way it was a relief.2 million of them are between 35 and 44 years old. They are grateful that their wives are financially self-sufficient. "The marriage for the man provided his one big outlet for expressing dependency. their husbands are left behind to struggle with a welter of conflicting emotions. but the adaptive stress men undergo when their wives take on a career has been virtually lost sight of. "She could get along without me.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 137 5. whose wife embarked on an airline career at age 46. After all." recalls Al Graubard. and a large portion of these are housewives who have only recently started new careers or revived old ones. yet are impatient with the demands of their wives' new jobs. "I was the sole breadwinner. I had been the only one bringing in the outside world. Some 6. the director of the University of Michigan's Family and Sex Roles Program." says Preston Munter. adds: "What we're seeing is men expressing a lot more unhappiness and pain. They are proud of their wives' work accomplishments. isn't as available for him. a psychiatric consultant to Itek Corp. "Even if you could postulate an ideal man and an ideal marriage. As these homemakers seek out their professional fortunes.5 million wives.

"They live lives of quiet desperation and isolation. they are far more reticent when pressed to explain the sources of their discontent. Asked about the adjustment he underwent when his wife returned to work. the co-director of the Institute for Family and Work Relationships in La Jolla." says Marjorie Shaevitz. Pm home!" "Honey. he says quietly: "Look. continued While men may vent their feelings to a pollster. Calif. still moment. after a long.. Most agree it has little to do with sharing household chores. Pm home!" ." Indeed. I'll be honest with you. home and children. a New York oil executive begs off with the excuse of a heavy workload. their silence on the subject is sometimes heartbreakingly eloquent. they speak instead of a newfound sense of isolation: of an emotional separation from a preoccupied wife who now seems to be more involved with the world than with husband." "Honey. Tentatively. Many men are ill-equipped to grapple with the emotional ambiguities of an evolving relationship.138 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 5. Finally. . It's just too painful for me to talk about it.. "Men find it incredibly difficult to talk about feelings.

3. 2. b) would like to get married.139 PART C 1. c) society still does not accept women as equal partners of men. c) were determined to be mothers and wives." on the one hand. c) had a hard time fighting for equal rights for women in Utah. a woman running for Congress in the state of Utah. Scanning Exercises 5. Comprehension How to Have a Successful Christian Family Number the paragraphs following Falwell's assumption that "the greatest heritage Christian parents leave their children is the love and training they receive in a Christian home" and match each statement below with the paragraph it summarizes. c) is somewhat frustrated because she has not yet managed to find a man she could marry. b) God made the family the basic unit of society. j) The greatest concern for the author and his wife is the love of their children. h) Conflict and undeclared war destroy the traditional family. 2. Find arguments in the text which support the notion of "Having it all. e) Love and shelter in families produce happy people. i) The importance of the family has been undermined in recent years. . b) gave an all-female dinner-party in Washington. and successful career women. c) Great families have traditionally been the source of American greatness. c) also in a career. b) men still seem to prefer the traditional "feminine" values in women. this group of feminists a) considered the traditional female roles of wife and mother to be too emotional. a) impressed the Mormons. b) fought for new female values that were traditionally associated with men. which regards selffulfillment higher than a family. on the other. g) The feminist movement. Second Thoughts on Having It All Other people's assessments of Rebecca Murray's life are obviously not identical with her own. Quite a number of women born in the 1940s and early 1950s discovered that they could find a meaningful life a) only outside marriage. 4. a) Anti-authoritarian education leads to the decay of the American family. Today this group of women finds that a) they can build up more solid relationships between men and women. Comprehension The Choices That Brought Me Here Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the original text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. 1. destroys the traditional family. and "What is missing." on the other. A 35-year-old successful female television reporter a) does not think of getting married. d) The high percentage of working mothers leads to a perverted image of motherhood. Frances Farley. f) The playboy cult destroys the American family. 3. According to Amanda Spake. b) only in marriage. on the one hand.

Functional Analysis It is the author's aim to convince the reader of the importance of his initial assumption. 8. In 1982 fewer women than men were married between the age of 20 and 24. i Л li ii W-Xyesrs 27-36years 3 7. 6. 1. 2. In 1985 almost twice as many children lived in female-headed households as in 1970. Reading Statistics Families Which of the following statements are true and which are false? Correct the false ones. 6. Between 1970 and 1985 the number of children living with two parents decreased. The increase of households other than families is at least partly due to the fact that men and women marry later. Within those 15 years the number of American households grew in proportion to the increase in population.Ky m s 47-56years 57 years arm over j!g| It is more important for a wife to help her ' husband's career than to have one herself It is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever '""' outside the home and the woman takes care of home and family Ш A working mother can establish just as warm and secure a relationship with her children as a mother who does not work Source: Surveys by NORC-GSS. 4. Determine which paragraph serves which function. Discussion I I 5. 5. 3. Another reason for more households lies in the tendency of people to marry at a later age. There were about twice as many American families with three or more children in 1985 as there had been in 1970. 1985 and 1986 combined Reprinted with permission of American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research • How do you account for the divergent answers to the opinion polls among different age groups? • How does the role of women in your country relate to the roles described in the texts of this unit? • How do you think the role of women should be defined? . The paragraphs of the text either • support the assumption • indicate how the assumption has been endangered lately • give reasons for that danger. 7.140 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 4. One reason for more households is the decrease in family size.

Comprehension For Middle-Aged Man. A Wife's New Career Upsets Old Balances 1.THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 141 7. a wife's new career also include positive aspects? 5. Does. Why is it particularly difficult for a middleaged husband to cope with the changing role of his wife? . from a husband's point of view. What is the impact of a wife's new career on her husband's life? 4. To what extent does the situation in 1981 correspond with these traditional role patterns? 3. How are the traditional roles of husband and wife described in the text? 2.

Under federalism. who direct policies by voting for government representatives. called concurrent powers. many Americans feared that government power could become concentrated in the hands of a few. Congress is comprised of two groups. executive. each state establishes its own criminal justice system. it has the power to control communications among states. The nation's constitution defines the powers of national and state governments. and judicial. the principle of limited go vernment was achieved by dividing authority between the central government and the individual states. Examples include the power to tax. the functions and framework of each branch of go vernment. which was created to protect the democratic interests of the people and government. power is also limited by the separation of power among three branches — legislative. and marriage and divorce laws. provide for the national defense. In the United States. The federal (national) government has powers over areas of wide concern. When the Constitution was first written about two hundred years ago. The function of the legislative branch is to make laws. For example. borrow money. each branch has a separate function. which both the federal and state government share. All government power rests ultimately with the people. Besides the division of power between state and national governments. and the rights of individual citizens. La wma k er s fr o m al l o f t he s ta te s ar e e lec ted to s erv e i n t he Ho u se o f LIMITED GOVERNMENT FEDERALISM SEPARATION OF POWERS LEGISLATIVE BRANCH . The principle of limited government is basic to the Constitution. public schools. 2) the separation of powers among different branches of government. set up courts. The legislative branch is made up of representatives elected to Congress. The states possess those powers which are not given to the national govern ment. and declare war. For example. There are certain powers. and 3) a system of checks and balances to restrict the powers of each branch. and charter banks. All public officials of the national as well as state governments must swear to abide by the Constitution. called houses: the House of Representatives (the House) and the Senate.9 The Political System PART A FORM OF GOVERNMENT Background Information The United States is a representative democracy. Several features were created to guard again st this possibility: 1) the federal organization of government.

such as foreign affairs. The most heavily populated states have more districts and. . Each house of Congress is engaged in making laws. one third of the Senate stands for election. The Senate is the smaller of the two bodies. defense.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 143 DIVISION OF POWERS POWERS OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT To regulate foreign trade and commerce between states To borrow and coin money To conduct foreign relations with other nations To establish post offices and roads To raise and support armed forces To declare war and make peace To govern territories and admit new states To pass naturalization laws and regulate immigration To make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its powers POWERS DENIED TO THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT To tax exports To suspend writ of habeas corpus To change state boundaries without consent of states involved To abridge the Bill of Rights CONCURRENT POWERS To collect taxes To borrow money To establish and maintain courts To make and enforce laws To provide for the health and welfare of the people POWERS RESERVED TO STATE GOVERNMENTS To regulate trade within the state To establish local governments To conduct elections To determine voter qualifications To establish and support public schools To incorporate business firms To license professional workers To ratify amendments To keep all the "reserved powers" not granted to the national government nor prohibited to the states POWERS DENIED TO BOTH NATIONAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS To pass ex post facto laws To pass bills of attainder To deny due process of law To grant titles of nobility POWERS DENIED TO STATE GOVERNMENTS To coin money To enter into treaties To tax agencies of the federal government To tax imports or exports HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW Representatives. regardless of population. has two senators. more representatives than the sparsely populated states. The number of representatives each state sends to the House depends upon the number of districts in each state. There are currently 435 representatives in the House. Each representative is elected to a two-year term. Each state. The senatorial term is six years. it is sent to the appropriate committee. Each district chooses one representative. The number of districts in each state is determined by population. Every two years." Once a bill is introduced. Each house of Congress has committees which specialize in a particular area of legislation. A law first begins as a "bill. and each may initiate legislation. therefore.

The second duty is to assume the presidency if the president dies. Congress may check the president by overriding his veto with a two -thirds vote. Energy. there are many state and federal courts. the bill is voted on. When a bill is in committee. Health and Human Services. and they operate separately. If both sides agr ee on the new version. members study it and then send it to the Senate or House chamber where it was first introduced. The division of government power among three separate but equal branches provides for a system of checks and balances. The president of the United States presides over the executive branch. or is removed from office. Housing and Urban Development. and addresses the public. or prime minister. which is headed by the Supreme Court. An important function of the judicial branch is to determine whether laws of Congress or actions of the president violate the Consti tution. The vice-president. In the parliamentary systems that operate in most western democracies. the president can veto them. Treasury. although Congress makes laws. The Senate may reject a bill proposed in the House of Representatives or add amendments. However. After a debate. For example. Agriculture. and Education. housed separately. entertains foreign leaders. If it passes. is assigned only two constitutional duties. As chief executive. a "conference committee" made up of members from both houses tries to work out a compromise. Interior. he appoints foreign ambassadors and makes treaties with other nations. The president also serves as commander -in-chief of the armed forces and as head of his political party. Each branch checks or limits the power of the other branches. and agriculture. The selection of federal and Supreme Court judges is made by the other two branches. becomes disabled. The president appoi nts judges. The first is to preside over the Senate. Under the Supreme Court. Defense. no branch of government has superior power. the bill is sent to the president for his signature. the president represents the country abr oad. Commerce. If that happens. As chief executive. The Supreme Court can overturn laws passed by Congress and signed by the president. As director of foreign policy. The Constitution gives the president many important powers. Today there are 13 major departments in the executive branch: the Departments of State.144 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP EXECUTIVE BRANCH POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT JUDICIAL BRANCH CHECKS AND BALANCES banking. the bill becomes a law. the president appoints secretaries of the major departments that make up the president's cabinet. Even if the president vetoes a law. the vice-president may vote only in the event of a tie. With this system of checks and balances. Transportation. Labor. The executive branch of government is responsible for administering the laws passed by Congress. is chosen by the parliament. it is sent to the other house where it goes through a similar process. As head of state. who is elected with the president. . He is elected to a four-year term and can be re-elected to a second term. In the United States. the president also appoints senior officials of the many agencies in the expan sive bureaucracy. The structure and functions of the judicial system are discussed more thoroughly in Unit 6. the national leader. The third branch of government is the judicial branch. but the Senate reviews his candidates and has the power to reject his choices. At this point. This division is a unique feature of the American system. the president and legislature are elected separately. Justice.

However. People sometimes circulate petitions or write letters to editors of newspapers and magazines to try to influence politicians. the Constitution effectively ensures that government power will not be usurped by a small powerful group or a few leaders. there are other features of the political system. Groups and individuals have a variety of ways they can exert pressure and try to influence government policy. can generally exert influence much more effectively than can isolated individuals. executive and cabinet departments. The basic framework of American government is described in the Constitution. expand or contract times and places that federal courts sit The Senate must confirm the president's judicial appointments. however. not mentioned in the Constitution. which directly and indirectly influence American politics. . independent government agencies EXECUTIVE Congress can change laws. Many people write letters to elected officials expressing their approval or disapproval of a political decision. Organized interest groups.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 145 Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances The President Executive office of the president. initiate a constitutional amendment. Congress can impeach and remove judges from office The Court can declare laws unconstitutional The Congress House—Senate May reject each other's bills The Supreme Court of the United States Circuit Court of Appeals of the United States District Court LEGISLATIVE JUDICIAL POLITICAL PARTICIPATION By dividing power among the three branches of government. create whole new court systems or abolish existing ones. restrict jurisdiction of courts to hear certain types of cases.

Members of interest groups also write letters to government officials. organized interest groups and their lobbyists play a significant role in American democracy. The United States has had only two major parties throughout its history. the majority party in Congress has not always been the same as the party of the president. has ever completely dominated American politics. the other party retained much support at state or local levels. Neither party. Lobbyists work for interest groups by keeping them informed about proposed legislation and by talking to decision-makers about their group's concerns. America's two-party system has been dominated by the Democratic and Republican Parties. While minor parties. such as the United States Chamber of Commerce. two political groupings emerged-the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. lobbyists are invited to appear before congressional committees to provide advice and information. and sponsor newspaper advertisements. What all the various interest groups have in common is the desire to sway public opinion and political policy. but also possesses an insider's view of the lawmaking process. such as the AFL-CIO. There are many different types of interest groups in the United States. albeit one-sided. hold public meetings. Occasionally. During the committee stage in the legislative process. business groups. While they are not mentioned in the Constitution. Some interest groups focus on narrow issues such as the preservation of historic buildings or the control of neighborhood crime. also called "third parties. A lobbyist. The term lobbyist often has a negative connotation. Even in years when one party dominated national politics. Since then. and continue to appear. for instance. civil rights. For over one hundred years. and television are the most obvious media through which interest groups may influence voters and politicians. generally a lawyer or former legislator. such as the American Medical Association. a third . radio. a major interest group may employ a professional lobbyist. the balance between the Democrats and Republicans has shifted back and forth. Historically. 2) lack of ideology." have appeared from time to time. and 3) lack of unity and party discipline. The largest organizations are labor unions. Besides voicing the concerns of a special group in society. however. Legislators and their staff frequently turn to lobbyists for valuable data they would otherwise have to gather themselves. Yet lobbyists fulfill vital functions. To exert direct pressure on legislators in Washington or in state capitals. Thus. When the nation was founded. make telephone calls. The political party system is another important part of the political scene which is not described in the Constitution. three features have characterized the party system in the United States: 1) two major parties alternating in power. and peace. and professional groups. such as the National Farmers' Union. On the national level. they have been conspicuous in their inability to attract enough voters to enable them to assume power. Public officials and others sometimes resent lobbyists' interference. two major parties have alternated in power. farm groups.146 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP INTEREST GROUPS LOBBYISTS POLITICAL PARTY SYSTEM TWO-PARTY SYSTEM MINOR PARTIES Interest groups are organized by people who want to influence public policy decisions on special issues. they fulfill important needs of decision-makers. There are many issue-oriented groups with broad concerns such as the environment. which will help the committee make a decision. The press. is someone who not only specializes in the interest he or she represents.

Reprinted by permission of the publisher (updated) . 1861-1983 Years House R R R R R R R D D D R D D D R D D R R R R R R R R D D D D R R R R Senate President R R R R R R R R R D R R R R R R D R R R R R R R R R D D D R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R D D R R D D R R R R R R R R D D D D R R R 1861-1863 1863-1865 1865-1867 1867-1869 1869-1871 1871-1873 1873-1875 1875-1877 1877-1879 1879-1881 1881-1883 1883-1885 1885-1887 1887-1889 1889-1891 1891-1893 1893-1895 1895-1897 1897-1899 1899-1901 1901-1903 1903-1905 1905-1907 1907-1909 1909-1911 1911-1913 1913-1915 1915-1917 1917-1919 1919-1921 1921-1923 1923-1925 1925-1927 Years 1927-1929 1929-1931 1931-1933 1933-1935 1935-1937 1937-1939 1939-1941 1941-1943 1943-1945 1945-1947 1947-1949 1949-1951 1951-1953 1953-1955 1955-1957 1957-1959 1959-1961 1961-1963 1963-1965 1965-1967 1967-1969 1969-1971 1971-1973 1973-1975 1975-1977 1977-1979 1979-1981 1981-1983 1983-1985 1985-1987 1987-1989 1989-1991 House R R D D D D D D D D R D D R D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Senate President R R R D D D D D D D R D D R D D D D D D D D D D D D D R R R D D R R R D D D D D D D D D D R R R R D D D D R R R R D D R R R R R R D Republican Democrat © American Government: Principals & Practices. 1983.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 147 MAJORITY PARTIES IN CONGRESS AND PARTY OF THE PRESIDENT. Merrill Publishing Company.

148 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP ELECTION SYSTEM DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS party candidate will win a seat in Congress or in a state legislature.000-499. The Democratic and Republican Parties have supporters among a wide variety of Americans and embrace a wide range of political views. only one candidate —the one with the most votes—is elected to a given office from any one district. as of today Democrat. POLITICAL AFFILIATION Question: "In politics.000-$19. the Libertarian Party. minor parties have been assimilated by the larger two or have just faded away.000 & over 500.000 & over $20. they feel they are throwing away a vote since only one person wins.December 1980 Source: The Gallup Opinion Index D-Democrat l-lndependent © American Government: Principals & Practices.000.000-$24.000-999. the American Independent Party. Many people will not vote for a minor party candidate. Elections are held according to the single-member district system.999 21 24 24 31 38 3fl 43 47 41 40 33 22 33 27 34 41 33 32 ?n 28 31 R-Republican m 41 30 Survey taken October.999 $10. D 43 % 40 46 38 43 36 80 82 I 31% 33 29 34 29 35 13 13 R $15.rural Central city Suburb Labor Union Labor union families Non-labor union families 33 23 20 23 17 40 29 22 26 22 19 ЗП D 42 44 50 56 42 48 54 I 36 30 28 25 28 32 34 Male Female Race White Southern Non-southern Non-white Non-southern Education College High school Grade school Region East Midwest South West Age 27 25 28 28 29 7 5 ?n 12 31 24 22 34 45 55 35 31 23 34 44 46 40 51 32 48 33 33 34 37 32 28 23 24 26 25 30 44 37 49 41 32 37 26 29 21 23 25 30 30 19 21 51 42 43 40 39 51 39 28 35 32 30 31 30 34 18-24 years 25-29 30-49 50 and older Income $25.500-49. and the Peace and Freedom Party.500. Seldom. have minor parties been successful for more than a short period of time.999 Under 2.000-$9." Under this system.999 50. however. Reprinted by permission of the publisher . Merrill Publishing Company. The way candidates are elected explains why two major parties have come to dominate the American political scene. In most cases. based on the principle of "winner take all. or an Independent?" R 26% National Sex .999 $5.000-$14.999 Under $5. 1983.000 Religion Protestant Catholic Jewish Occupation Professional & business Clerical & sales Manual worker Skilled Unskilled Farmer Non-labor force City Size 1.999 2. Some current third parties in the United States are the Socialist Labor Party. do you consider yourself a Republican.

While Republicans do not necessarily oppose social programs. Democrats generally believe that the federal government and state governments should provide social and economic programs for those who need them. Americans tend to think of the Democratic Party as liberal and the Republican Party as conservative. Democrats and Republicans support the same overall political and economic goals.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 149 KEY ISSUES The parties tend to be similar. Democrats and Republicans. Neither party seeks to shake the foundation of America's economy or social structure. American party politics has been largely devoid of ideology. . Yet the election resulted in a landslide victory for Democratic candidate Lyndon Johnson. These examples suggest that Americans tend to prefer somewhat vague party programs to the rigors of political ideology. often propose different means of achieving their similar goals. tried to imbue his party with the spirit and force of a conservative ideology. Several attempts at developing an ideological party were unsuccessful. The Populist Party of the 1890s and the Progressive Party of the early twentieth century gained only temporary support. Senator Barry Goldwater. the Republican candidate in the 1964 election. They tend to favor big business and private enterprise and want to limit the role of government. A poll taken in 1986 by Louis Harris and Associates reveals how Americans perceive the stance of each party on certain key issues: Builds up defenses Cuts federal spending Keeps economy prosperous Handles federal deficit Controls arms race Cuts unemployment Works for peace Controls defense budget Gives women a break Protects environment Helps elderly and poor к» WHICH PARTY FARES BETTER ON THE i46% ISSUES? HI Republican "1 Democrat 99% LACK OF IDEOLOGY Because of these differences. however. they believe that many social programs are too costly for taxpayers.

and have no obligation to attend meetings or even vote for the party. Many Americans. Local party committees. which are numerous. Voter turnout for presidential elections is usually under 60 percent. Furthermore. The loose organization of America's political parties helps explain this lack of unity within American parties. Even at national party conventions. Party membership is equally undemanding. parties are decentralized. There are conservative Democrats who agree with Republican ideas and liberal Republicans who agree with Democratic ideas. the percentage of the voting age population that participates in elections is quite low. In the United States. which. Party leadership. however. Republicans and Democrats undergo no official initiation. Parties are organized as loose confederations of state parties. Disagreement among members of the same party is common. Only during national elections do party committees join together to clarify issues.j. The voting records of Congressmen and Senators demonstrate a baffling lack of party unity. is in the hands of a few officials and other notables. ideologically-oriented western European parties. pay no membership dues. Percent who reported that they VOted 1978 1980* •Presidential Election Year . which sometimes confounds foreign observers. which contrasts sharply with more tightlyorganized. in turn. with relatively few members. no formally binding party platform is drawn up. Political Participation in National Elections Ill® Ф. insofar as it can be located. Personal views and the views of constituents often have priority over party views. are politically uninvolved. and elections are opportunities for citizens to participate in the democratic process. is the lack of unity and discipline within each party. Political parties. Although every citizen has the right to vote. and the percentage is even lower for state and local elections. It is not uncommon for either a Democrat or a Republican to vote against the party line. The absence of an organized party structure and established hierarchy of leaders contributes to party disunity.150 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP LACK OF PARTY UNITY PARTY ORGANIZATION PARTY MEMBERSHIP LOW VOTER TURNOUT A third characteristic of the American party system. are relatively independent of each other. interest groups. candidates and elected officials are not held accountable for following the party line.Риге f? 1964* 1966 1968* Percent who reported that they registered to vote 1970 1972* 1974 1976* „_ . are decentralized down to the local level. Identification with a particular political party has less significance in the United States than in most other western democracies.

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 151

Voter turnout in other democratic nations is much higher:
_L Percent of Voting Age Population
90 -

80

з

у

70

60 50

и з 5

115

T

1965

1970

1975

1980

Several factors may contribute to these differences in voter participation: — Unlike most of the nations shown on the graph, the United States requires early voter registration. —Election campaigns tend to be much longer in the United States than in many other nations. After following campaigns that sometimes begin a year or more before the election, many Americans lose interest and do not vote. — American elections are always held on Tuesdays, a normal working day, whereas elections in many other nations are held on weekends. —The American two-party system may contribute to low voter turnout because voters' choice is limited. —The other democratic nations shown on the graph have parliamentary systems, in which the outcome of the election determines both the executive and legislative branches of government. Voters in these countries may feel that their vote carries more weight. The United States Constitution established a system in which the people have the right, whether they exercise it or not, to influence the direction of government.

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Texts

Perspective of a Public Man
An Interview with Hubert Humphrey
The late Senator Hubert Humphrey was a leading figure in American government for more than 30 years. He served as mayor of Minneapolis, United States senator, vice president and was the Democratic party's candidate for president in 1968. He was an outspoken champion of civil rights, a strong advocate of nuclear disarmament and the author of much legislation on both domestic and foreign policy issues. In this interview with CLOSE UP, conducted in 1977, Senator Humphrey discusses his long experience in public life and the importance of inspiration and motivation in effecting change.

QUESTION All of the problems and policies that you have been discussing emphasize the need for leadership of the highest caliber in the halls of government. What are the qualities which make someone an effective leader of the people? Senator Humphrey: Motivation. The difference between a great president and just a president is whether or not he can motivate people to greater achievements. As Teddy Roosevelt said, "You have to make the White House a bully pulpit." You have to be a combination of educator and evangelist. You have to move people. What we need in our society today is a kind of clarion call. People also need to learn to have priorities, because you can't do everything. That's where leadership comes in. As a senator, I've always felt that my job is more than passing legislation. I see my role in politics as being the cutting edge of progress. I've spent most of my time out with the people, planting ideas by talking with hundreds of audiences. I've taken a lot of razzing for it, but I have my own methodology. I've tried to be a teacher as well as a senator. To do this you have to take your message out to the people. To be a teacher, you have to have more than a classroom, you've got to have students. You've got to have more than a rostrum, you've got to have people who will listen and you have to make your message sufficiently simple and yet profound. The good teacher is the one who knows how to simplify great, difficult problems and, at the same time, make them interesting so that he holds his audience. You have to recognize that it requires repetition. You must keep in mind that people can only absorb so much at any one session. You repeat, repeat, repeat with adaptation so that you make it interesting. It's like a song: Even the most beautiful classical music maybe has just two or three themes in it, repeated time after time in different variations. That is what a leader, what a teacher, has to do.

Hubert Humphrey

Another part of being a leader is being willing to run the risk of unpopularity. I don't like people in public life, particularly as presidents, mayors and governors, who can't make decisions. You have to make decisions. Sometimes people come to me and say, "Well, the reason I have to vote like this is that the Gallup poll showed this or that." The Gallup poll is a momentary, current, unscientific survey of what is called public opinion. The important question is, "What do you think is right?" Now you don't ignore public opinion, but if you have a strong conviction, you do it. I, for example, had a strong conviction about civil rights legislation. There wasn't much public opinion on my side— I'll guarantee you that—and surely not among the political powerhouses. I ran right smack bang into all of them. But I felt I was right. And, if you feel you're right, you stay with it. Yet you also recognize that you can't get everything you want on day one. It may be a long, arduous process.

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1. continued
QUESTION: What advice would you give to young people who mught be contemplating careers in politics, about the pitfalls and the rewards of public service? Senator Humphrey: When you are involved in anything, you have to expect criticism. You have to constantly ask yourself, am I prepared to do that? You can always run away from problems and hide out; many people do. If you are going to be involved, you must be willing to be criticized for your inadequacies and your limitations. This is especially true in public life, where you are constantly under examination. Some young people today feel that it isn't worth it. Why go through all the sweat? Why put up with it? Let somebody else do it. But they forget that politics is another word for people. Politics is the people's business, particularly in a democracy. If the people don't take care of their business by participating, by getting involved, then they will "get the business." While you may not think that your individual effort amounts to much, remember that every person sitting on the sidelines gives those that are involved that much more power. I always try to point out that while great decisions may carry the name tag of one or two leaders, in fact many more people are involved. Great decisions are the products of a kind of digestive process that takes place in the whole society, in which all individuals can express their feelings on new ideas and plans. In this process, we look to the younger generation, to those who are filled with the love of life and with bright ideals. They've got to contribute. If they are involved, then politics will really be the people's business.

Gallup poll: a special count of opinions done by questioning a representative section of the population. George Horace Gallup, born 1901, statistician, founded the American Institute of Public Opinion. Teddy Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) U.S. President 1901-1909.

Q A President's Mission
George Bush's Nomination Acceptance Speech (excerpt)
is to me the presidency provides an incomparable opportunity for "gentle persuasion." I hope to stand for a new harmony, a greater tolerance. We've come far, but I think we need a new harmony among the races in our country. We're on a journey to a new century, and we've got to leave the tired old baggage of bigotry behind. Some people who are enjoying our prosperity have forgotten what it's for. But they diminish our triumph when they act as if wealth is an end in itself. There are those who have dropped their standards along the way, as if ethics were too heavy and slowed their rise to the top. There's graft in city hall, the greed on Wall Street; there's influence peddling in Washington, and the small corruptions of everyday ambition. But you see, I believe public service is honorable. And every time I hear that someone has breached the public trust it breaks my heart. I wonder sometimes if we have forgotten who we are. But we're the people who sundered a nation rather than allow a sin called slavery - we're the people who rose from the ghettoes and the deserts. We weren't saints - but we lived by standards. We celebrated the individual - but we weren't selfcentered. We were practical - but we didn't live only for material things. We believed in getting ahead - but blind ambition wasn't our way. The fact is, prosperity has a purpose. It is to allow us to pursue "the better angels" to give us time to think and grow. Prosperity with a purpose means taking your idealism and making it concrete by certain acts of goodness. It means helping a child from an unhappy home learn how to read and I thank my wife Barbara for all her work in literacy. It means teaching troubled children through your presence that there's such a thing as reliable love. Some would say it's soft and insufficiently tough to care about these things. But where is it written that we must act as if we do not care, as if we are not moved? Well I am moved. I want a kinder, gentler nation. Two men this year ask for your support. And

154 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

2. continued
you must know us. As for me, I have held high office and done the work of democracy day by day. My parents were prosperous; their children were lucky. But there were lessons we had to learn about life. John Kennedy discovered poverty when he campaigned in West Virginia; there were children there who had no milk. Young Teddy Roosevelt met the new America when he roamed the immigrant streets of New York. And I learned a few things about life in a place called Texas. We moved to west Texas 40 years ago. The war was over, and we wanted to get out and make it on our own. Those were exciting days, lived in a little shotgun house, one room for the three of us. Worked in the oil business, started my own. In time we had six children. Moved from the shotgun to a duplex apartment to a house. Lived the dream - high school football on Friday night, Little League, neighborhood barbecue. People don't see their experience as symbolic of an era — but of course we were. So was everyone else who was taking a chance and pushing into unknown territory with kids and a dog and a car. But the big thing I learned is the satisfaction of creating jobs, which meant creating opportunity, which meant happy families, who in turn could do more to help others and enhance their own lives. I learned that the good done by a single good job can be felt in ways you can't imagine. I may not be the most eloquent, but I learned early that eloquence won't draw oil from the ground. I may sometimes be a little awkward, but there's nothing self-conscious in my love of country. I am a quiet man - but I hear the quiet people others don't. The ones who raise the family, pay the taxes, meet the mortgage. I hear them and I am moved, and their concerns are mine.

George Bush

A president must be many things. He must be a shrewd protector of America's interests; and he must be an idealist who leads those who move for a freer and more democratic planet. He must see to it that government intrudes as little as possible in the lives of the people; and yet remember that it is right and proper that a nation's leader takes an interest in the nation's character. And he must be able to define - and' lead — a mission. New Orleans, August 18, 1988

The Human Side of Congress
Representative Jim Wright
Representative Jim Wright (D-Tex.), a member of the House of Representatives since 1954, describes the "nuts and bolts" of congressional decision making—people and personalities. As majority leader, a post he has held since 1977, he works with the speaker and with committee chairmen to oversee party strategy and control the flow of legislation. After thirty years as a member of Congress, I am not an objective observer. I believe Congress is the most fascinating human institution in the world. It is bevond question the most criticized legislative assembly on earth, and yet it is the most honored. It can rise to heights of sparkling statesmanship, and it can sink to

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3. continued
levels of crass mediocrity. In both postures, it is supremely interesting—because it is human. The story of Congress is the story of people. Congress is a microcosm of the nation. It is a distillate of our strengths and weaknesses, our virtues and our faults. It is a heterogeneous collection of opinionated human beings. On the whole, members are slightly better educated and considerably more ambitious than the average American citizen. But members of Congress reflect the same human frailties and possess the same range of human emotions as their constituents. Senators and representatives are individualists, not easily stereotyped or categorized. If there is a single thread of similarity that unites most, it is that they are driven in their work. The average member of Congress works longer and harder than do members of any other professional or business group I have ever observed. The average one of my colleagues probably spends from twelve to fourteen hours on work in an average day. If a member of Congress were to expend the same amount of energy and time in furthering any soundly conceived business venture, I have no doubt that he or she would become rich. A member of Congress is not some inanimate cog in a self-propelling legislative wheel. He or she is a turner of the wheel, a decider—along with others—of the direction the vehicle will take. True, there is a mechanical process that makes the car function. It needs gasoline. It needs a battery, a working engine, tires, and a universal joint. But knowing the mechanics of a motor—important as that knowledge is—does not tell us where the car is going. Its direction and ultimate destination depend upon who is behind the wheel. That is why careful students of Congress will do well to pay attention to the personalities of decision makers. They will reflect on backgrounds, personal philosophies, religious persuasions, and economic and educational experiences of members of Congress. These elements determine how well legislators interact with their colleagues and how much they comprehend and even care about different issues. Constituency pressures and interests, political party affiliation, and results of public opinion polls are important factors, but not infallible prognosticators when it comes to understanding how the Congress operates. It is instructive to ponder how the typical member of Congress sees the job. It includes more than just passing laws. I would suggest that a U.S. representative is a tripartite personality. In the first place, members of Congress are required to be ombudsmen for their constituents. A less dignified term might be errand boy. A widow does not receive her survivor benefit check in the mail. A college

wants to apply for a federal grant. A student cannot find a bank for a student loan. One person wants out of the military service; another wants an emergency leave. The average representative may receive two hundred letters a day. Forty percent of them will deal with the individual problems of citizens enmeshed in the coils of government and looking to their representative as their intercessor. The ombudsman role should not be despised. If it takes a disproportionate share of representatives' time, it keeps them close to real people with real needs. If citizens are entitled to go through doors that they simply cannot find in the bureaucratic maze, by leading citizens to those doors, representatives perform necessary functions. Were government ever to become so remote and aloof that the average citizen had no intercessor it would be a sad thing indeed. In a second role, members of Congress serve as traveling salesmen for their districts. Each tries to see that his or her slice of America gets its share of the action. Members try to direct federal projects into their cities, contracts to their factories, and grants to their local institutions of learning. Anything that promotes business or employment opportunities in a member's district is fair game to be pursued with vigor.

Jim Wright

the United States agreed to hand over the canal to the Republic of Panama on December 31. ratified under President Carter.): Democrat/Texas. In 1956. then Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson was in a fight for his political life on the Texas home front.). House of Representatives. Building coalitions in Congress is like being a peacemaker within a family. a tool of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). As House Majority Leader.. He was persuasive with his colleagues because he understood them.) (D-Tex. But occasions arise in the life of each when by reason of conviction deeply held or information not widely known. This is when the mettle of the person is tested.S.156 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. He knew what made them tick. Jim Wright was Speaker of the House of Representatives. One must know the concerns and needs of the members and must be sensitive to their opinions and the uniqueness of their individual personalities. It is often frustrating but always fascinating. a law maker is impelled to vote in ways that are at least temporarily unpopular. and public buildings for Oklahoma. He has since resigned in disgrace. This interview was given when he was House Majority Leader. I am a senator from and for the state of Oklahoma. Bible Belt: those sections of the U. highways.). the presiding officer of the U. did not usually vote as most of their constituents found acceptable. representatives are often statesmen. Powerful epithets two years after Brown v. speaker. chiefly in the South and the Midwest. the Congress synthesizes an amalgam that serves the nation as a whole. . a traitor to the southern cause." said Kerr. continued The late Senator Robert Kerr (D-Okla. There is conviction among members. It is inherent in human nature. but it is fun trying. then I will just not win. Gore gently upbraided Kerr for using his powerful posts to promote dams. House of Representatives. If the law makers. I am constantly trying to meld together a majority out of an assortment of minorities. once was being chided by Senator Albert Gore (D-Tenn. and part-time prophet. evangelist. noted for religious fundamentalism. and to make the canal a neutral waterway open to all shipping after 1999. Board of Education: see pages 109 and 113. they probably would not be very good representatives for their districts." Scorn the "pork barrel" function as they may." I want him to know that they are fully intended benefits. Kerr replied that he wanted to offer only "one slight correction in the otherwise excellent recitation" of his colleague. Lyndon Johnson was a master of that process not because he knew the procedures better than others. ranking Democrat on both Public Works and Finance Committees. someone from the Bi- ble Belt resisting constituent pressures to breach the wall between church and state—these are examples of personal principle under pressure. founded in 1909. but because he had an instinctive "feel" for people." he once said to me. Sometimes you cannot find it at all. From the clash of conflicting parochial and economic interests. I am proud of that. 1999. Board of Education! Johnson never waivered. NAACP: civil rights organization. pork barrel: refers to the practice of using political office to further the interests of one's supporters. collectively and individually. Panama Canal Treaty: in the Panama Canal Treaties.S. on the average. servility and courage—combine to make up the human mosaic of the congressional decision-making process. "I am not going to demagogue on that issue. Antagonists portrayed him as a turncoat. "at which my friend refers to these as "unintended benefits." It was a matter of conscience. (From 1987 to 1989. and courage. While I am a senator of the United States. Brown v. I am not ashamed of that. A southerner voting for civil rights two decades ago. purists in political science cannot wish it away. a midwesterner supporting the Panama Canal Treaty. "If I have to try to prove that I hate Negroes in order to win. "That is the point. They might not be representatives at all for very long.S. In the third role. while writing tax laws with "unintended benefits" for Oklahomans. All of the above—a mixture of servitude and conviction. Harmony among this mixture of strong-willed individualists is an elusive grail. Sometimes I see my role as a combination parish priest. majority leader: party member directing the activities of the majority party on the floor of the U.

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Lobbyists and Their Issues
American Israel Public Affairs Committee
Thomas Dine, executive director The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) is the only American Jewish organization registered to lobby Congress on legislation affecting Israel. Headquartered in Washington, AIPAC is the nationwide American organization that has worked to strengthen U.S.-Israeli relations for more than 25 years. AIPAC has spearheaded efforts to defeat the sale of sophisticated American weaponry to hostile Arab regimes, and has helped to protect and defend foreign aid requests to Israel of more than $2.2 billion annually. On a daily basis, AIPAC lobbyists meet with representatives, senators and their staffs to provide useful material, monitor all relevant legislation and anticipate legislative issues affecting Israel. In this way AIAPC lobbyists serve an invaluable function in the American political process. They are a vital informational and creative resource for members of Congress, helping them to deal with the multitude of issues that confront them every day. In addition, AIPAC is active on university campuses, educating and involving pro-Israel students in the American political process and sensitizing America's future policymakers to Israel's strengths and needs. Once a year all 34,000 members of AIPAC, including students, are invited to Washington to meet with their U.S. representatives and to formally approve AIPAC's policy statement, which serves as the organization's guide throughout the year. of all federal lands—national forests, national parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas and the lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Although the Wilderness Society is a non-profit organization and not a lobby in the traditional sense, it is active in the arenas where public debate shapes federal policy. Primarily the Wilderness Society seeks to educate and influence decision-makers in a variety of ways. Sometimes it lobbies directly on specific legislation, talking with members of Congress or their staffs to persuade them to support a particular bill. The Society also seeks to educate the public about important public land issues by maintaining close contact with the news media. The Society recognizes that reporters and editorial writers who are well-educated about important issues are very likely to turn around and inform their readers about these same issues. In addition, the Society's staff discusses proper regulation and management of public lands with key government officials; sponsors workshops to teach citizens how to become involved in the policymaking process; analyzes and comments on new preservation and management proposals; testifies at congressional hearings in support of or in opposition to public land measures; and establishes cooperative programs with other conservation organizations. Occasionally the Society's staff has conducted original research. When the administration wanted to search for oil and gas deposits in wilderness areas, the Society, using federal data, found that despite claims by the administration, only a negligible amount of oil and gas exists in wilderness areas. The fairest public policy is developed when a variety of viewpoints are considered. The Wilderness Society considers that its role is to bring to the process of public policy formation a well researched and clearly articulated point of view that reflects the interests of the public—those concerned and those unaware—who depend on the federally-owned lands to provide recreation, to protect the air and water supplies, to protect wildlife and fragile ecological areas and to ensure a sustained yield of renewable resources like trees and grasslands.

The Wilderness Society
Rebecca K. Leet, director of education The Wilderness Society is a 65,000-member conservation organization founded in 1935 to ensure the preservation of wilderness and the proper management of all federally-owned lands. It is the only national conservation organization whose sole focus is the protection

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Q Lobbyists and Their Issues
American Israel Public Affairs Committee
Thomas Dine, executive director The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) is the only American Jewish organization registered to lobby Congress on legislation affecting Israel. Headquartered in Washington, AIPAC is the nationwide American organization that has worked to strengthen U.S.-Israeli relations for more than 25 years. AIPAC has spearheaded efforts to defeat the sale of sophisticated American weaponry to hostile Arab regimes, and has helped to protect and defend foreign aid requests to Israel of more than $2.2 billion annually. On a daily basis, AIPAC lobbyists meet with representatives, senators and their staffs to provide useful material, monitor all relevant legislation and anticipate legislative issues affecting Israel. In this way AIAPC lobbyists serve an invaluable function in the American political process. They are a vital informational and creative resource for members of Congress, helping them to deal with the multitude of issues that confront them every day. In addition, AIPAC is active on university campuses, educating and involving pro-Israel students in the American political process and sensitizing America's future policymakers to Israel's strengths and needs. Once a year all 34,000 members of AIPAC, including students, are invited to Washington to meet with their U.S. representatives and to formally approve AIPAC's policy statement, which serves as the organization's guide throughout the year. of all federal lands—national forests, national parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas and the lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Although the Wilderness Society is a non-profit organization and not a lobby in the traditional sense, it is active in the arenas where public debate shapes federal policy. Primarily the Wilderness Society seeks to educate and influence decision-makers in a variety of ways. Sometimes it lobbies directly on specific legislation, talking with members of Congress or their staffs to persuade them to support a particular bill. The Society also seeks to educate the public about important public land issues by maintaining close contact with the news media. The Society recognizes that reporters and editorial writers who are well-educated about important issues are very likely to turn around and inform their readers about these same issues. In addition, the Society's staff discusses proper regulation and management of public lands with key government officials; sponsors workshops to teach citizens how to become involved in the policymaking process; analyzes and comments on new preservation and management proposals; testifies at congressional hearings in support of or in opposition to public land measures; and establishes cooperative programs with other conservation organizations. Occasionally the Society's staff has conducted original research. When the administration wanted to search for oil and gas deposits in wilderness areas, the Society, using federal data, found that despite claims by the administration, only a negligible amount of oil and gas exists in wilderness areas. The fairest public policy is developed when a variety of viewpoints are considered. The Wilderness Society considers that its role is to bring to the process of public policy formation a well researched and clearly articulated point of view that reflects the interests of the public—those concerned and those unaware—who depend on the federally-owned lands to provide recreation, to protect the air and water supplies, to protect wildlife and fragile ecological areas and to ensure a sustained yield of renewable resources like trees and grasslands.

The Wilderness Society
Rebecca K. Leet, director of education The Wilderness Society is a 65,000-member conservation organization founded in 1935 to ensure the preservation of wilderness and the proper management of all federally-owned lands. It is the only national conservation organization whose sole focus is the protection

158 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

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THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

159

9

"If Conservatives Cannot Do It Now. . . "
Interview with Irving Kristol Authority on Political Trends
At the beginning of the Reagan administration, Irving Kristol, a noted political expert, said that with the rise of conservatism, Republicans had their best chance in fifty years to become the country's "natural majority party" again. О Professor Kristol, what are the chances that President Reagan can mobilize conservative resources to forge an enduring coalition for governing the nation? A I think his chances are very good. And if he can establish that coalition, there is no reason why the Republican Party cannot again be the natural majority party in the country. This is the best chance conservatives have had in 50 years to create such a coalition. If they cannot do it now, one has to assume that they cannot do it at all. О Would conservatism then come to dominate politics as liberalism did after the 1930s? A I think so. People will have confidence in their government and its programs as long as they perceive that it's working in a vigorous way toward the solution of their problems. If President Reagan can generate the kind of economic growth that his policy forecasts, the American people will be perfectly satisfied. О Which elements in the conservative movement will President Reagan have to bring together into his governing coalition? A I'd say there are perhaps four main elements: One certainly is the Moral Majority — that is, the basically Christian-oriented, patriotic Americans who feel that the government has become too intrusive and the United States has been too weak in its foreign relations. Then you have what you might call the Establishment conservatives — namely, the governmental types who have been serving in various Republican administrations and who are cautious, prudent men of the middle. You also have the neoconservatives — with whom I am usually classified — who are really the people within academe, the media and the intellectual community generally who have become conservative over the past 15 years. The fourth component, I suppose, would be the traditional right-wing organizations, like the American Conservative Union, that are close to the Moral Majority but are also interested in such issues as right-to-work legislation. ... Q Can the Moral Majority element — emphasizing religious intervention in controversial issues — fit into a stable coalition? A Sure. Look, if Franklin D. Roosevelt could fuse the Southern-conservative vote and the Northernliberal-union vote into a single coalition, then Reagan should have no trouble fusing the existing conservative groups into a coalition. They're far less disparate in their interests than the coalition established by FDR. True, moral issues such as abortion can be very disruptive because it's hard to compromise on them. It's too bad that the Supreme Court made the abortion issue a national issue instead of leaving it to the states. There doesn't seem to be much possibility at the moment that it will revert to the states, so we'll just have to negotiate it as best we can. ... О What role will people like you play in the coalition-building process? A A crucial role, in my opinion. Every political movement needs its intellectual wing these days. It's the age of higher education and the media, and a movement can succeed only temporarily unless it has an intellectual segment to go along with its popular appeal and an interest group to articulate what the movement is up to. . . . Q What will be Reagan's most difficult challenge in translating conservatives ideas into government policy?

160 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

5. continued
A Foreign affairs, by far. He came into office with a very coherent and fully articulated economic policy, and he's going to get it through with the coalition entirely behind him. But he also took office with a set of attitudes on foreign policy, not a coherent, well-worked-out set of policies. Witness the controversy over the grain embargo within the administration. This lack of coherence is going to be a very serious problem for the administration. Let me put it this way: We have no conservative counterpart in foreign policy to "supply side" economics in economic policy — something which is identifiably ours. ... A To some degree, yes. Mainly, however, I think it results from the fact that a ruling party eventually hits a crisis which it cannot cope with, as happened to the Republicans with the Great Depression. Then people will turn to the other party almost regardless of what it has to offer.

О Now that liberalism seems to be declining, can it avoid the stagnation that typified conservatism for so long after 1932?

О As a student of politics and ideas, do you see the dramatic rise of conservatism as part of a cyclical pattern in the ascendancy of rival political philosophies?

A There is a cyclical pattern — yes — which to some degree is simply natural. Namely, a party becomes powerful, holds office until it makes mistakes, exhausts its agenda, then another party takes its place. But this, in a way, is simply a function of retrospection. There is a natural cycle in the sense no one ever expects any party to dominate forever in a democracy. I don't know that there's more of a cycle than that. О Does the

cycle shorten or lengthen according to how well the party out of power sees new situations emerging and develops new and persuasive ideas for meeting them?

A Well, what liberals have to do is to come up with an agenda. That is not going to be easy, because, to begin with, they enacted most of their agenda. Parts of it will be repealed or cut back, but most of their agenda will remain the law of land. No one's going to repeal medicare or medicaid. Certainly no one's going to repeal Social Security or unemployment insurance. That being the case, it's hard to see what the Democratic agenda can be. My own guess is that the Democratic Party will find its agenda on the left, because unless this administration behaves in a very stupid and inept manner, there will be no room on the right for liberals. Therefore, they will probably have to go into the wilderness for a few years before coming out with an agenda — perhaps something that sets the goal of total equality, with more state intervention and an emphasis not on job creation, which is Reagan's program, but on job retention — that sort of thing.

Kristol, Irving: professor of social thought at New York University, co-editor of Public Interest and senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute. Great Depression: see page 73. Social Security: government measures providing economic assistance to persons faced with unemployment, disability, or old age.

industrial production and workers' earnings were down. and that America's new strength and sense of purpose will carry hope and opportunity far from our shores. In this situation neither diplomatic efforts nor economic pressure accomplished anything. Iranian revolutionaries invaded the American embassy in Teheran. secure and at peace for the '80s: 1. Or we can move for-1 ward together with President ji. 1979. Inflation rose to over 12 percent in 1980. Build a meaningful peace: President Reagan has proposed substantial reductions in nuclear weapons through genuine arms control. Economic recovery to 1961. "We know the tide of the future is a freedom tide. Consumer spending is rising. and it has worked. 2. federal spending increased even more." Years of government overspending and overtaxing had left our economy in ruins." The unfinished work d us to move forward again. Interest rates | have been cut in half. "America is back. We have come a long way. Our nation's defenses were dangerously weak. The only things going up were prices. ГеЙ^Апвд?^ services those V^^^roffnowtatbeywertfour years ago. in our institutions and in ourselves. As President Reagan has said.*^^ I Reagan s leadership to build a fuu in pace. attributing our problems to a national "malaise. 4. Wn-ttteadersliip _ America is hack Americans were ready to make a new beginning.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 161 Inflation Where we were Four years ago. to unite behind four great goals to America free. not only for all Ameri b f ll l ~e future in which peace. unempbyment. Productivity. and it was not until more than a year later that the hostages were returned to the U. We had suffered humiliation in Iran. fre dom and prosperity abound. Develop space. In the last half of the '70s. ll Americans. Ensure steady economic growth: President Reagan will continue his program of tax relief and steady economic growth. Our elected officials failed to trust in the courage and character of Americans. We can I return to the failed policies of I the past. America faced the greatest challenge in our post-war history. The diplomats and their staffs were taken hostage.S. and we had lost the respect of other nations. taxes and the size of government. Real after-tax income is up. President Reagan offered a plan for economic recovery. yet. America's next frontier: Presi dent Reagan has proposed the construction of a per manent manned space station. So we elected President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George Bush to lead us into a more promising future. freeperity a b u . Our nation lacked leadership. 3S t h u traditio _ our traditional values: President Reagan wffl continue to promote a renaissance in the traditional values of faith. but "—Я fa all peoples. work and neighborhood. New homes are being built and sold. family. Over four million Americans found jobs last humiliation in Iran: on November 4. Interest rates were over 21 percent. taxes doubled. We have new confidence in our leaders. . President Carter's attempt in April 1980 to free the hostages through a surprise midnight raid failed. As President Reagan has said. leading advocate of peace and freedom in the world." Leadership The choice is clear.

And we speak for reasonable people who are fighting to preserve our very existence from a macho intransigence that refuses to make intelligent attempts to discuss the possibility of nuclear holocaust with our enemy. is called upon to do it again — this time to save the nation from confusion and division. the middle class. not to human rights. We must make the American people hear our "tale of two cities. not to Bishop Tutu and the others struggling for freedom in South Africa. our purposes were clear. July 16. That's not going to be easy. here we are at this convention to remind ourselves where we come from and to claim the future for ourselves and for our children. We speak for ethnics who want to add their culture to the magnificent mosaic that is America. every economic class. Today. not because some psychiatrists told them it was a convenient way to fill the interval between birth and eternity. We must get the American public to look past the glitter. 1984 . Now our allies are as confused as our enemies. And this is our answer to the question — this is our credo: we believe in only the government we need. the people not rich enough to be worry-free but not poor enough to be on welfare. Not so much with speeches that will bring people to their feet as with speeches that will bring people to their senses. We speak for millions of reasoning people fighting to preserve our environment from greed and from stupidity. . . Of course. Young professionals. We speak for women who are indignant that this nation refuses to etch into its governmental commandments the simple rule "thou shalt not sin against equality". And in between is the heart of our constituency. their Social Security. not to Sakharov." We must convince them that we don't have to settle for two cities. We Democrats still have a dream. every creed. White collar and blue collar. And we will do that not so much with speeches that sound good as with speeches that are good and sound. Now we have no real commitment to our friends or to our ideals. from the threat of eventual fiscal disaster and most of all from a fear of a nuclear holocaust. from racism. it won't be easy. We still believe in this nation's future. . which has saved this nation from depression. We speak for senior citizens who are terrorized by the idea that their only security. that we can have one city. but we insist on all the government we need.162 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Keynote Address by Governor Cuomo to the Democratic National Convention (Excerpts) San Francisco. They refuse because they believe we can pile missiles so high that they will pierce the clouds and the sight of them will frighten our enemies into submission. You're exactly right.. is being threatened. . But always. We speak for the minorities who have not yet entered the mainstream.. those people who work for a living because they have to.! We speak for young people demanding an education and a future. beyond the showmanship — to the reality. Democrats believe that there are times when we must stand and fight. not to the refuseniks.. And we have. from corruption. In our family are gathered everyone from the abject poor of Essex County in New York. our great Democratic Party.r.. indivigible.. the hard substance of things. shining for all of its people.a. Remember that unlike any other party. Of course. We believe in a government that is characterized by fairness and . . . And in order to succeed. we embrace men and women of every color.. we must have a strong defense! Of course. . . from fascism. Democrats are for a strong defense. every orientation. We must win this case on the merits. Thousands of us have paid for freedom with our lives. So. we must answer our opponent's polished and appealing rhetoric with a more telling reasonableness and rationality. a rule so simple — I was going to say — and I perhaps dare not but I will — it's a commandment so simple it can be spelled in three letters: e. to the enlightened affluent of the gold coasts of both ends of the nation. Men and women in small business desperate for the capital and contracts that they need to prove their worth. Now they're not. The middle class. when this country has been at its best.

for the love of God. fairly.. We will have America's first woman VicePresident. and hope for the destitute. And we proclaim as loudly as we can the utter insanity of nuclear proliferation and the need for a nuclear freeze. We believe in a government strong enough to use words like "love" and "compassion" and smart enough to convert our noblest aspirations into practical realities. Thank you and God bless you. Reasonably. . The idea of family. national convention: formal meeting of party delegates to adopt platforms and party rules and select presidential and vice-presidential candidates. Remember this that 50 years of progress under our principles never cost us what the last four years of stagnation have.. a new President of the United States: reference to Walter Mondale. and she will open with one magnificent stroke a whole new frontier for the United States. adapting to new realities. It will happen. if only to affirm the simple truth that peace is better than war because life is better than death. care for the elderly and infirm. Feeling one another's pain. We know we can. Please make this nation remember how futures are built. without respect to race. Mutuality. that doesn't distort or promise to do things that we know we can't do. And we can do it again. a government of humans should elevate itself to a higher order. . refusenik: a citizen of the Soviet Union who has been refused permission to emigrate from his/her country. We believe in firm but fair law and order. on Jan. 20. honestly. or geography or political affiliation. the child of immigrants. one that can spend trillions on instruments of destruction. it will happen again. We believe in a single fundamental idea that describes better than most textbooks and any speech that I would write what a proper government should be. Democrats did it — and Democrats can do it again. but we believe that while survival of the fittest may be a good working description of the process of evolution. We can have a future that provides for all the young of the present by marrying common sense and compassion. but constantly innovating. building partnerships with the private sector. room at the table. if you and I make it happen. Sharing one another's blessings. ladies and gentlemen. For 50 years we Democrats created a better future for our children. as Democrats. We believe in encouraging the talented. Democratic presidential candidate in 1984.. providing a sound defense without depriving ourselves of what we need to feed our children and care for our people. We believe. ought to be able to help the middle class in its struggle. America's first woman Vice-President: reference to Geraldine Ferraro.. a Democrat born not to the blood of kings but to the blood of pioneers and immigrants. Cuomo.. we believe in privacy for people. because we did it for nearly 50 years before 1980. And I ask you now.. giving us direction and purpose.. openness by government. the most affluent democracy in the world's history. Bishop Tutu: Anglican bishop in South Africa opposing apartheid. we believe in civil rights. shelter for the homeless. much grander scale. using traditional democratic principles as a fixed beacon. . for the family of America. we believe proudly in the union movement. Mario: Governor of New York State since 1982. brothers and sisters — for the good of all of us. that a society as blessed as ours.. . a reasonableness that goes beyond labels. ought to be able to find work for all who can do it. . Sakharov. ladies and gentlemen. by shared sacrifice. And we can deal with that deficit intelligently. for the love of this great nation. Democratic vicepresidential candidate in 1984. We — our government — should be able to rise to the level where it can fill the gaps that are left by chance or a wisdom we don't fully understand. We will have a new President of the United States. won the Nobel Peace Prize 1975. 1985. Only on a much. with all parts of the nation's family contributing. We can build a future that deals with our deficit. and we believe in human rights. The sharing of benefits and burdens for the good of all. or sex. Andrei: (1921—1989) Russian physicist and dissident. And.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 163 reasonableness.

had sold arms to Iran and illegally diverted the profits to the contra rebels fighting the Sandinista government of Nicaragua. The mental forces behind Bush's victory. they will probably get someClarkston. out.. the voters felt licans manage the economy. In the end. so did support for his loyal dates sidestepped on the stump. "It's not Iran-Contra: SENATE a reference to a scandal of the Reagan presidency when it was discovered that the U. for control of the policy agenda and boosted President Reagan's popboth parties will search for answers ularity back up from its Iran-Contra to vexing problems . . and pro-Bush Demwhere with it. the present any impressions created by the trumped the future. vice president.. dethe tension between general satis1/8 257 fense and foreign policy from the faction with the present and vague White House — may have had as 175. and the state capitols while RepubHOUSE said. one in which the White proving relations between the House and Congress will wrestle United States and the Soviet Union. An REPUBLICANS That left the question of mandate NBC News-Wall Street Journal poll open to interpretation. a Chicago office worker. 35. Ken basis of their projected Senate Adams. Broder good to have one party in control. Paul Weyjust before the election found voters rich. And as Reagan's standing budget deficit .164 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP °The Washington Post Americans Vote For Divided Government By David S. и . . 54." ." of ten-venomous campaign. a tire-store owner in gains.which the candirose. coupled with imwarfare. the evidence suggests that BEFORE AND AFTER THE William Galston. spoke for many when he were deliberately tying Bush's said Tuesday. argued that "if the Democrats for different parties to control the DEMOCRATS take the policy initiative on the White House and Congress. ." THE AMERICAN voters gave Scholars of presidential elections George Bush and the Republican said they were sure that in-depth Party a pattern-breaking presiden46 analysis of the unprecedented mass tial victory Tuesday but blurred the S4 : of polling data this election genimport of their decision by cautierated will demonstrate that peace ously opting once again for divided ilili! and prosperity were the fundagovernment in Washington. but pervasive anxiety about the much to do with the outcome as future. a professor of the preference for divided govern1988 ELECTION public affairs at the University of ment — with Democrats looking Maryland and adviser to past Demafter domestic needs in Congress ocratic presidential candidates. a leading conservative stratby a 5-to-3 margin thought it better egist. "All year long.S." Echoed Karen Ekegren. outcome of the long and expensive Six years of sustained economic struggle signaled little more than growth. low inflation and declining the start of a new round of political unemployment. "I'd rather have a hands because they were worried little argument going to work things what he might do. They could say voters ocrat. . Ga.like the lows.

c) value their personal conviction higher than public opinion. 5. AUTH COPYRIGHT 1988 Philadelphia Inquirer. Describe this cartoon and explain the point the cartoonist wants to make. c) must be simplified but nevertheless interesting. of caring only for the rich and neglecting the poor and of letting officials violate people's trust in public service. A cartoon is a satirical drawing commenting on current events or politics. Reprinted with permission of Universal Press Syndicate. c) must make sure that he attaches equal importance to all fields of politics. In a democratic society decisions ought to be made a) by a few leading personalities. b) must be both a teacher and a preacher. In this excerpt from the nomination acceptance speech. a great president a) must be able to spur people on to act to the best of their abilities. c) by young people with bright ideas. delivered at the Republican National Convention. Which aspects of his mission does he mention? 2.165 PART C Exercises 1. 3. 2. b) took up a second job as a teacher. How does he react to these attacks in this speech? . c) to be prepared to put up with criticism. b) base their decisions on opinion polls. How does George Bush deal with these accusations? 3. b) to expect unfair personal criticism. 6. b) is necessarily repetitive and boring. c) believed that explaining politics to the people was more important than passing laws. more than one statement applies. Hubert Humphrey likes political leaders who a) are prepared to make unpopular decisions. 2. George Bush defines a president's mission. 1. 4» During the campaign George Bush was frequently reproached for his prosperous social background and for his lack of eloquence. 4. All rights reserved. During this campaign the Democrats accused the Republicans and the Reagan administration of showing little regard for ethnic minorities. The message that politicians convey to the public a) must be simplistic. Hubert Humphrey advises prospective young politicians a) to avoid becoming involved in problems that invite criticism. This speech must be seen in the context of the 1988 election campaign. b) after a long discussion process that •involves as many people as possible. According to Hubert Humphrey. Analysis of a Speech A President's Mission 1. As a senator Hubert Humphrey a) found that working as a legislator kept him away from the people. Comprehension Perspective of a Public Man Which of the following statements about Hubert Humphrey's ideas is correct? In some cases.

such as chromium and cobalt. roughly one-seventh of the nation's land area. 35 percent of its uranium. otherwise. How does a member of Congress compare with the average American citizen? 3. Scanning Lobbyists and Their Issues Quickly read through the presentations of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee and The Wilderness Society and find out about • • • • the type and size of the organizations the basic issues their activities on Capitol Hill other activities. Use of Federally Owned Land—The Department of the Interior controls 510 million acres of federal land. such as the grizzly bear. many people began to feel that the government should open up federal land for private development. Other critics of developing federally owned resources argue that those resources should be saved for future crises.. Underneath that land is estimated to be 80 percent of the nation's oil shale deposits. they contend. which could have been taken from federal lands. however. particularly since the country's energy needs had become more urgent. the nation cannot afford to ignore resources in its own backyard. Furthermore.166 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. when an emergency arises. environmentalists of the Wilderness Society and representatives of the coal industry and oil companies defend their viewpoints. their parties. and their own convictions. The class has prepared the following questionnaire for this interview. Questionnaire The Human Side of Congress High school students in Ohio have been discussing the structure of Congress and the legislative process. say development supporters. Those who support development point out that the country has had to import large amounts of oil and strategic minerals. where they will be given the chance to interview a member of Congress. How can they possibly represent such conflicting interests? 5.. Two of the students have received a grant for an educational trip to Washington. During the 1980s. and 60 percent of its low-sulfur coal. there will not be time to extract them. such as war or a minerals embargo. Moreover. What can a member of Congress in Washington do for his/her home district? 7. Simulation of a Debate Considering what you know about the Wilderness Society and with reference to the information about the "Use of Federally Owned Land" carry out a debate on the following issue: Federal Lands should be Opened to Energy Developers In this debate. How much time does a member of Congress devote to the actual needs of his/her constituents? 6. Considering the costs of energy dependence and our large trade deficit.. Environmentalists urge caution in the government's granting of development rights to any federal lands or waters. Either would have a severe impact on fish. live in these lands. . For years many people have looked upon resources located on protected federal lands as reserves for the long-term future. what can he/she do? 8. the search and development of these resources must begin now. How would Jim Wright answer these questions? 1 Does Congress really represent a cross-section of the American people? 2. What is the function of a majority leader? 5. Many endangered animals.. and the building of roads and the clearing of forests would disrupt their habitats. the opinion polls. 4. Is a member of Congress an active factor in the decision-making process or is he/she only part of a machine? 4. Members of Congress are subject to all kinds of pressure from their constituencies. development can damage water quality and increase soil erosion. If a representative is strongly convinced that he/she ought to vote against the wishes of constituents.

the British government agreed in principle to the establishment of a Jewish homeland. areas that were supposed to form a separate Palestinian Arab state were instead absorbed by Egypt and Israel and annexed by Jordan. Imagine that the Minnesota Daily. The United States was one of the first nations to recognize the state of Israel. U. The United States has refused to recognize the PLO until it renounces its charter. the Jewish state of Israel declared its independence. The PLO says it will not recognize Israel until the Palestinians have a state of their own. Israel—Israel was formed from part of the Palestinian Mandate—the territory of Palestine that had been taken from the Turkish Ottoman Empire after its defeat in World War I and mandated to Great Britain by the League of Nations. Use the information boxes below for reference. Its methods have included both terrorism and diplomacy. Solving economic problems will lead to little/nwre/complete acceptance of the whole government. They are now scattered throughout the region. has asked people to write articles covering the different viewpoints of the issue under the heading "Should the U.S. In 1974 the United Nations granted the PLO observer status. Writing Newspaper Articles Since PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat addressed the United Nations on the subject of Palestinian rights. Arab king. should recognize the PLO as the official representative of Palestinian refugees. Others fled to Europe or North America. Modern Israel grew out of Zionism. Roosevelt established. The military power of the PLO has greatly diminished since the Israelis pushed them out of southern Lebanon and pro-Syrian elements of the PLO overran the forces of PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat in 1983. When the western third of Palestine was partitioned after World War II. Israel. In 1921 the British gave twothirds of Palestine to a non-Palestinian. In 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan proposed that two states—one Arab and one Jewish—be established on the section of Palestine west of the Jordan River. the feeling of a moral obligation to help the Jews establish a homeland after the Holocaust. Global Comprehension "I f Conservati ves Cann ot D o it No w . the question has been discussed wheth er the U. and the Israeli-occupied West Bank. While the Balfour Declaration was a significant step. Israel has the strongest military force in the region and is also the only working democracy there. 3. Despite its having only four million citizens. On May 14. 7. Arafat's PLO forces are being rearmed by Iraq and are training in Jordan and Iraq. a newspaper published by and for students at the University of Minnesota.2 million Palestinians who still live in the Israeli-occupied West Bank or Gaza Strip. and the belief that the new Israeli government would likely be democratic. " Decide which of the three answers best applies to Irving Kristol's views: 1. Twenty years later in the Balfour Declaration. Israel itself is only about the size of Massachusetts. . Tens of thousands of Jews immigrated to Palestine. The Palestine Liberation Organization was founded in 1964 to lead the struggle for a Palestinian state. Lebanon. That left the Palestinians without a country. Today»the United States continues to look to Israel as its most reliable ally in the Middle East. This land is now the kingdom of Jordan. Arafat's strongest support is among the 1. a political movement founded in 1897 to establish a Jewish national homeland free from anti-Jewish persecution.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 167 6. From these bases Arafat is struggling to keep the PLO the sole representative of the Palestinian people. Syria. the major drive to establish a Jewish state grew out of the Holocaust—the attempted extermination of theJewish people by the Nazis. The Republican Party's chances of keeping power in conservative hands over a long period are: poor/fairly good/better than ever before. many living in refugee camps in Jordan. . joining Jews who had lived there for centuries. support for Israel was an outgrowth of American cultural and religious ties to Jews. which allows it to participate in the United Nations General Assembly. Approximately four million Palestinians have been affected by the conflicts in the Middle East. 2.S. Palestine then included areas now comprising Jordan. . although it may not vote.S. negotiate with the PLO?" Write such an article from the point of view of either an active AIPAC member or a proPalestinian. Thousands of homeless Holocaust survivors headed to Palestine in the postwar years. The Palestinians—The Palestinians are a people without a homeland. However. The different groups making up the conservative coalition are less divergent than/as divergent as/more divergent than those that Franklin D. which calls for the destruction of Israel. and Israeli-occupied territories on the west bank of the Jordan River (the West Bank). 1948.

which policies of the Reagan administration were particularly successful? А&е&сА&ь tcr the. oowwtuHt: . Of course.tmcau/MJje.clau. /сил. According to the pamphlet. 6.dcr)L . 8.JU€aJt. Are there any problems not explicity mentioned here that have not been satisfactorily tackled and solved by the Reagan administration? If so. . are they identical with the future tasks envisaged in the pamphlet? 9. a.сотиилле/t A art cutthl* ocwuvmtnb nudjtd*. oovttof (dl. ikt/cudo-" d Вт/ллайс owdfona.thiA bmt /лат. cam. iruuw bemevu&A римЖпЬ and t/u. лнмфи* апсС билами. (un-)employment. гшшлиМл* and caning. Describe the layout of this pamphlet and explain the purpose of • the structure • the headlines • the photos • the diagrams • the quotation with Reagan's signature. 3. 10. arj.tlwu-wdl it. After taking a first glance at this pamphlet explain why you think it was issued. p>\. 9. government spending. in. The role intellectuals play in the conservative movement is negligible/of some importance/very important. eccrumtlo " e&mic mi/iou&u-. Jvut urnnarv via. сст£иш>п. 4иипап АК^Х^. eMvdf cmcL -nucC fob tiuduvu fitt^Cs. . ike. "Ji . 5.iv$<wMtM of АДА*.. In a severe crisis the dominant party will lose/keep/gain members. 8. what changes were brought about in the following fields of politics between 1980 and 1984? • self-confidence of the people and confidence in government defense nuclear arms control foreign affairs social policy economy: taxes. •utmaudtu.fitmovuxtic Padu AaotdL ■nattim. ълтшъ. the. The Democratic Party will have a chance to regain power by becoming right-wing/ moderate/left-wing. Writing a Newspaper Article Keynote Address by Governor Cuomo to the Democratic National Convention Imagine you are a reporter for a small daily paper and you have been sent to San Frandscc to cover the Democratic National Convention. . ^UakU-. 5. The conservatives are going to improve/retain/do away with most of the social achievements made under Democratic Party rule. 1АлиЖ rf p..J*om. The moral issues in this coalition are the easiest/fairly easy/the most difficult to solve.4TuJi/jaMu Лпалипа. In the left hand margin you have indicated the main ideas for the different paragraphs of your article. лиЛьбапса of thOngi*. o&b " thoi& amor але.168 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 4. diptt&um. interest rates. 4.. ifw гишпл.. о. -рал.. production. durtAitm. Reagan's ideas about foreign policy are not very clear/fairly well-structured/profound. 2. Text Analysis Reagan-Bush '84—Leadership You Can Trust 1. АЛМ-. inflation.Attp tA^muUU. There is a natural cyclical pattern according to which a governing political party loses/ maintains/increases its impact on the people after some years. of h . Now write such an article. You have listened to Governor Cuomo's speech and taken the following notes. 7. According to the pamphlet. one would not expect such a pamphlet to admit any failures or shortcomings. Find a suitable headline and begin with a paragraph that not only presents the keynote of Governor Cuomo's speech but also arouses the interest of the reader. .. thtitduitut but JUftct AWWWt/..

nouns faith/belief majority/minority reference/preference politics/policy reputation/isolation opinion/reason community/cabinet adjectives essential/mysterious continuous/conscious separate/combined domestic/static absent/certain superficial/critical identical/different increasing/decreasing competent/composed verbs prevented/avoided struggle/compromise raised/dropped preferred/related 11. In light of the 1984 and 1988 elections. Between the Irving Kristol interview and the Washington Post article there is a time span of about eight years. According to an О poll just before the election. The White House and Congress will О for control of the О agenda and both parties will search for answers to О problems—like the budget deficit—which the candidates О discussing during the campaign. to what extent did the new conservatism envisaged by Kristol in 1981 as part of a cyclical pattern of political philosophies become the dominant factor in American politics? 4. The О for divided government is due to the voters' О that Democrats should look after <C> needs while a Republican president and his О would be more О at dealing with the economy. C" President Reagan's popularity after its Iran-Contra lows. О with improving relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. so did support for his loyal vice-president.THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 169 10. Six years of О economic growth. defense and foreign policy. Comprehension Americans Vote for Divided Government Find the missing words by choosing from the pairs in the list below. they again О divided government in Washington. the address by Governor Cuomo. And as Reagan's O> rose." 2. neutral) in the Irving Kristol interview. How do the political philosophies of the two major parties compare with those of the main parties in your country? . Comparative Study 1. Assess the degree of bias (Republican. Although the American voters gave Bush and the Republican Party a presidential victory. and the article from the Washington Post—"Americans Vote for Divided Government. Scholars of presidential elections said they were О that peace and prosperity were the О forces behind Bush's victory. the О of voters found it better for О parties to control the White House and Congress. Judging from these four texts where do you see the basic differences in the political agendas of the two main parties? 3. the Reagan-Bush pamphlet. Democrat. low inflation and О unemployment.

... Often excluded from superpower arms talks........ number . on American foreign policy.. 538 61 Aircraft................................. number 2 . 8................... Strategic...............002 5. Southeast Asia.....023 124 21 124 21 5 98 5 98 10..............297 10...... Rotary-wing squadrons ... Excludes foreign government-owned aircraft...... 2 31 28 35 33 5.... the United States has acted as Western Europe's military leader... America's political and military alliances are backed by its formidable military and nuclear forces.. Selected aircraft squadrons .......861 1..427 1 Does not include patrol squadrons........039 1......... when the alliance was created.. including Africa...... and economic influence............................... military.. and Australia.. it has also made them dependent.......... 30] 1985 17 159 127 4 9.... Aircraft.................. Airdefense... however.........031 1..................... Marine aircraft combat squadrons: Fixed-wing squadrons ..ю America's Global Role PART A Background Information SUPERPOWER INFLUENCE MILITARY STRENGTH As a global superpower. Tactical (excluding air-lift) ......................... which includes the United States........................... number ............................... the Middle East.. Canada... Aircraft....926 639 63 24 3 [As of Sept.......... Since 1949....... This military alliance. Greece............. Marine divisions..................... As the leading power of the western hemisphere.. While American military involvement has given European nations security against Soviet attack..... guarantees the defense of member nations against Soviet attack.. 22 3 Navy: Ship operating force .......025 669 63 24 3 DESCRIPTION 1980 1984 30 24 4. About one fourth of the United States military personnel serve overseas...116 1985 Army: Divisions................. Antisubmarine air squadrons '........... in many respects.731 Special forces groups . NATO Over 2 million men and women are members of the armed forces............... Turkey.......... Tactical air squadrons....... 154 3 Air defense battalions/batteries ....... Navy:-Con... Western ........ SUMMARY OF MAJO MILITARY FORCES: 1980 то 1985 R DESCRIPTION 1980 1984 16 155 135 4 8.... 16 168 Maneuver battalions . the United States plays an active role in Latin America. are concentrated in Western Europe under provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).. The United States operates military bases in strategic areas throughout the world...... Most of its overseas forces.....054 125 26 6 93 10........ Air Force: ICBM launchers . It has strong political and military ties to democratic governments in Western Europe and in other areas of the world... and most Western European nations....... the United States exerts wide-reaching political............................ Central America.......

9.1650 Gross industrial production U.A.C. and six times West Germany's.A.51 1.S. A World Power.S. CANADA 1Ю50 ER. /'.—ч Н 50 __ 2250 U.800 500 ------FR. of GERMANY ^. although it is neither first in size nor in population: World Position Land area (million km2) 1. E. measured by gross national product (GNP). Population (million) 750 [275 ~[273 ~|237 ------- 1 ER.$ (billion) U.E.R. E. ------- ER.E. A U.S.S.C.S.A.S. o" E.ca.36 S. 1235 О JAPAN / ^-v 620 о U. FOREIGN TRAPE BY REGIONS 1982 South Asia Southeast Asia East Asia (except Japan) Exports in billions of US $ Imports in billions oT US $ .98 3.C. ca. 4 2. Although it is neither the world's largest nor most populous nat ion.S.S.C.S. $ (billion) x-------. economy surpasses all other economies in overall production.ofCHINR U. in turn.S.E.S.R. 9..R. by a powerful economy.S. 22. JAPAN FOREIGN TRADE The United States is not only the world's leading producer.66 П U. is twice the Soviet Union's.\363 0 U. The U.S.E. Other nations rely heavily on trade with the United States.A. three times Japan's. of GERMANY U.74 4. but also the world's greatest importer and exporter of goods.S.S.S. of CHINA INDIA Gross national product U. BRAZIL E. decision to withdraw troops or missiles from Europe puts pressure on European leaders to strengthen their nations' defense. О U.S. U.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 171 ECONOMIC STRENGTH leaders must rely on the United States to negotiate settlements that serve Europe's security interests. 9. All figures 1983/1984 16 8..R. its economic output. America's political and military strength is generated.

172 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP FOREIGN INVESTMENT America's economic influence is also extended through foreign investment.S. traders. The dollar is used for most inter national trading.S. the United States contributes to worldwide economic growth. trading. It exports more computer systems and electric machinery and invests more money in technological research than any other country. Foreign investors.A. The pre-eminence of American currency is observed in Latin American and Eastern European countries. the American economy is bound to have a global economic influence. 0 THE ROLE OF THE DOLLAR TECHNOLOGY Also contributing to America's economic power is the status of the dollar as the world's chief international currency.s Investment Abroad / > If 2 » 1 250 200 150 124 1) 11 f 68 / s 150 100 50 75 / 100 Asia 7% (except Japan) 50 3 i. the value of the dollar. and lenders closely watch conditions in the American economy such as the balance of trade.A. 37 Great other 11 Britain 10 West Germany 17 Japan 25 GLOBAL ECONOMIC INFLUENCE Given the huge volume of production. interest rate levels. American investment boosts the economies of these nations by providing employment.\ ----------\ Y Foreign Investments in the U. American Firms in Foreign Countries U. and for practically all lending and borrowing transactio ns.SJnvestment Abroad 1982 according to economic other 34% sectors industry 141% petroleum 25% according to regions and countries 3% other 11% Japan Western Europe 45% 250 in billions U. technology and new products. American businesses and industries operate all over the world. As a leading producer and exporter of technology. and American investment policies. and investment. Still Leading in High Technology Percentage of world exports of high technology U. .S. $ 21 £ 200 | u. Latin America 14% Canada 20% \ 28 : --------. where the dollar has become accepted as a second currency.

dependent on export sales to the United States. While the U. In the years between the First World War and the Second World War American foreign policy developed from isolationism to interventionism. American foreign policy serves a moral aim in promoting and protecting democratic systems and democratic values such as individual freedom and human rights. and these sales have provided them with export surpluses. These principles have guided U. American foreign policy is directed toward maintaining the balance of international power. where economic conditions are backward. it has created severe economic distress for the American economy. the United States has experienced massive trade deficits. On the other hand. Many American business and labor groups have called for the United States to adopt a protectionist trade policy. interest rates and dollar values are of particular concern to foreign debtor nations.S. trade deficit has benefited foreign economies. In developing countries. Understanding the power and influence of the American economy is crucial to understanding America's role in global affairs. Firms can use their economic power to influence foreign governments into adopting policies that serve American political and economic interests rather than local interests. This ideal is often referred to as "making the world safe for democracy.S. Because dollars are used for borrowing and lending. Before its involvement in the First World War.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 173 THE BALANCE OF TRADE PROTECTIONISM MARKET INSTABILITY INTEREST RATES INFLUENCE ON THE THIRD WORLD ECONOMICS AND POLITICS U. however." Second. Many developing countries could not afford to pay the interest on their loans. Third World countries were severely affected by high interest rates charged in the early 1980s. The markets of American manufacturers have been diminished both at home and abroad owing to increased foreign competition. It had concentrated . the United States had remained aloof from the political conflicts of European powers. American firms play a dominant role. This trade imbalance has promoted growth in the rest of the world: other countries have been able to sell more of their products to the United States. the United States has often used its economic power to achieve its political aims. FOREIGN POLICY FROM ISOLATIONISM TO INTERVENTIONISM In the past years. The high volatility of the American dollar in recent years has created instabilities on worldwide trade markets. policies since the early part of the century when the nation began playing an increasingly important role in international affairs. Economic aid and economic sanctions are frequently used to implement foreign policy goals. Third. U. In industrial countries as well. America's economic power is what ultimately underlies its political power and gives substance to foreign policy. foreign economies. or the set of goals that determines America's relations with other governments and its stance on international issues. First. These countries' economic gains.S. Third World countries rely heavily on American investment to stimulate employment and industrial growth. Fluctuations in foreign currency rates and the prices of stocks and precious metals are due in part to the dollar's instability. American foreign policy.S. would suffer. Import restrictions would boost the sale of American goods and reduce the trade imbalance. has been guided by several principles. are accompanied by the loss of economic power and independence. American foreign policy is committed to the practical principle of protecting America's political and economic interests. which meant it was importing more goods than it was exporting.

To consolidate power and discourage encroachment. The United States and the western democracies. America entered the war as an Allied power. armed conflict resulted. thereby establishing its own spheres of influence. committing its entire military and economic resources to defeating Germany and Japan. the United States helped restore democracy in Western Europe and Japan. both the United States and the Soviet Union established military alliances. communist and democratic. The Japanese invasion of Pearl Harbor settled the issue. the United States declared its neutrality. and the Chinese later began to spread communist influence throughout Asia. the global balance of power became per manently altered and the role of the United States in world affairs changed dramatically. the United States implemente d this policy by supplying both military and economic aid to war-devastated countries that were susceptible to communist takeover. and billions of dollars went into technological research for advanced weaponry. At the same time. Only two great powers remained in the world — the United States and the Soviet Union. Pearl Harbor: in a surprise attack on December 7. Immediately after the Second World War. The years following the Second World War. Mean while. The Soviet Union and its eastern satellite nations formed the Warsaw Pact. known as the "cold war" period.174 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP WORLD WAR II COMPETING SPHERES OF INFLUENCE THE COLD WAR CONTAINING THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM instead on expanding territories and influence in the western hemisphere. the United States entered the war as an ally of France and Great Britain. Competing spheres of influence. The United States spent $2 billion on the development and testing of the atomic bomb. In some instances. During the cold war. As the conflicts in Europe escalated and entry in war seemed inevitable. When war broke out again in Europe in 1939. Navy in Pearl Harbor. 1941. With the defeat of Germany and Japan. The Second World War brought the American economy to unprecedented levels of industrial production. After the war ended. soon emerged. The Soviet Union set up communist regimes in Eastern Europe. a "power vacuum" was left in Europe and another in Asia. each side tried to establish political strongholds in Europe and Asia. During this period. both powers built up vast military defense ar senals which relied heavily on nuclear weapons. . Large-scale factories were constructed to produce war materials. Hawaii causing the greatest disaster in American military history. coordinated defense in the NATO alliance. Americans were divided on the issue of isolationism versus interventionism. most Americans clung to this old idea of staying out of Europe's quarrels. American foreign policy. Yet by this time. known as containment. When the First World War broke out. focused on protecting democracy and containing the spread of communism. breaking the long tradition of neutrality and diplomatic independence. the United States had become the leading industrialized nation and could scarcely remain unaffected by world events. and later Greece and Turkey. Japanese warplanes destroyed American airfields and aircraft and dropped bombs on the ships of the U. After the Second World War. were characterized by mounting tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. the United States tried to return to its policy of isolationism. In 1917.S.

intervention in Guatemala in 1954. America became even more involved. the United States sent troops to defend South Korea. in Lebanon in 1958. to respond to a direct Soviet threat to American security. Similar perceptions of a communist threat led to U. Both economic programs achieved the American foreign policy objectives of restoring democracy and containing the spread of communism. Soviet Premier Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in return for an American promise not to invade Cuba. the United States frequently used military force to support pro-western governments which were being threatened by communist invasion. first secretary of the Communist Party (1953-64). During the cold war decades of the 1950s and 60s. economic activity was well above prewar levels. Gradually. fears of nuclear confrontation reached a climax. During this period. and in Grenada in 1983. the United States tried to curb Soviet influence by channeling economic aid to unstable governments in impoverished regions of the world such as Africa. The Cuban missile crisis proved that the United States was prepared to use nuclear force. the United States began a massive four-year program of economic reconstruction known as the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan was signed into law by President Truman in 1948. To ensure the stability of western European democracies. policy which began as an economic and military aid program gradually escalated into full-scale war. President Kennedy imposed a blockade on Cuba and prepared for nuclear retaliation if the Soviets refused to dismantle the site. however. and communist strength among voters was dwindling. In 1962. premier of the Soviet Union (1958-64). In Vietnam. Each country used new developments in nuclear and space technology to produce weapons of devastating destructive capabilities. Nikita Sergeevich (1894-1971): Soviet statesman. President Johnson favored direct intervention. if necessary. One such use of force was in Korea. and Asia. By the end of 1950. Under Presidents Truman and Eisenhower. and bombs were being dropped on North Vietnamese Marshall Plan: Secretary of State George С Marshall (1880-1959) proposed a plan in 1947 to help Europe overcome the economic. Between 1961 and 1963 President Kennedy sent thousands of military advisers. Aid was increased to contain the spreading communist influence in the region. cold war tensions were increased because of the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Latin America.000 American troops were fighting.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 175 ECONOMIC AID MILITARY FORCE THE NUCLEAR THREAT THE VIETNAM WAR In 1947 the United States responded to communist pressures in Greece and Turkey by sending millions of dollars in military aid. . in the Dominican Republic in 1965.S. 500. Europe's industrial production was up 64 percent. The United States discovered that the Soviets were beginning to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. a U. social and political deterioration after the Second World War through substantial financial aid. Throughout the 1950s and 60s. By 1968.S. the United States sent aid to establish and maintain a pro-western democratic influence in Vietnam. The United States introduced a similar economic recovery plan in Japan. where they would be able to reach American cities within minutes. in Cuba in 1961. Altogether the United States spent over $12 billion in economic aid. Khrushchev. The plan brought remarkable recovery. When the communist-backed North Korean army invaded South Korea in 1950.

Secretary of State from 1973 to 1977. Nobel Peace Prize 1973. but also against the Soviet Union. When martial law was declared in Poland in 1981. He also strengthened the military by reimposing draft registration and increasing defense spending. President Reagan also used economic measures to express disapproval of Soviet policies.S.S. signed in 1972. In 1983. who increased bombing raids and sent American soldiers into Cambodia. President Reagan advocated military involvement to stop the spread of communism. America's use of force to achieve foreign policy goals was neither popular nor successful. President Reagan asked Congress to provide aid to the Salvadoran government to stop communist forces from taking over. By the early 1970s cold war tensions had eased and the United States began to pursue a policy of detente ("relaxation of tensions") with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. President Johnson's policy was continued by President Nixon. he believed that the most effective way of dealing with the Soviet Union and other communist governments was through the projection of military force. . and Soviet leaders signed eleven separate agreements to enhance cooperation in space exploration. the United States invaded Grenada to prevent a left-wing government from coming to power. President Reagan considered the left-wing Sandinista government of Nicaragua a threat to U. the U. In the case of Vietnam. In the early 1980s.176 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP DETENTE ARMS CONTROL TALKS RENEWED HOSTILITY CENTRAL AMERICA targets. In Central America. Faced with a slim prospect of immediate victory and increasing public opposition to American involvement in the war. Leonid Ilyich (1906—82): Soviet statesman. President Nixon ended up withdrawing American troops in 1973. Relations between the two nations became hostile again in 1979 when Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan. Through Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities and military Kissinger. Although President Reagan sometimes used economic measures to achieve foreign policy goals. Between 1972 and 1974 U. Henry: born 1923. agriculture. environmental protection. However. professor in government at Harvard University. He imposed a grain embargo and called for the American boycott of the Moscow Olympics. placed restrictions on longrange bombers and missiles. named after Cesar Augusto Sandino. Brezhnev. President Carter responded with harsh economic measures. the Soviet Union and the United States began a series of negotiations to limit strategic weapons. The 1979 SALT II treaty. limited each country's defensive weapons and put a five-year restriction on the making of several types of offensive weapons. President Reagan imposed economic sanctions not only against Poland. Senate failed to ratify the treaty because many senators believed the treaty made too many concessions to the Soviets. national security. South Vietnam's resistance broke. general secretary of the Communist Party (1966-82). one of the leaders of the rebellion against the United States Marines from 1927 to 1933. During the period of detente. and other fields. Two major agreements were reached. Sandinistas: a leftist political force. President Nixon and Secretary of State Kissinger met frequently with Soviet and Chinese leaders to make agreements that would minimize conflict and encourage trade. National Security Adviser to the President from 1969 to 1975. The first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I). signed by President Carter and Premier Brezhnev. In 1975.S.

however.have increased by $89 billion. argue that the plan can never be completely effective and fear that development of space-based missiles will only escalate the arms race. Between 1981 and 1986. Many Congressional leaders. fearing that increased involvement might lead to war. fiscal years DEFENSE BUILDUP Fiscal years Surface ships 1981:201 1987:222 Submarines 1981:128 1987:139 ICBM's 1981:1. including the Soviets. or nearly 45% 'includes expenses for joint services and for the office of secretary of defense SPACE-BASED MISSILES RENEWED ARMS TALKS As part of his plan to increase U. . DEFENSE SPENDING In billions of 1982 dollars. In order to project a stronger military presence. Progress. known as the Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars").S. the United States supported anti-Sandinista rebels in their fight to overthrow the communist government in Nicaragua.054 1987:1. Critics. Despite sharp differences on arms control.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 177 INCREASED DEFENSE SPENDING aid. The Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) were begun in 1982 but ended when the Soviets walked out a year and a half later in response to the NAT O deployment of Pershing missiles in West Germany. opposed President Reagan's policies in Central America. military strength. including the secretary's office.000 Bombers 1981:376 1987:315 Tanks 1981:12.296 7980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 ARMY OTHER* NAVY Ш Ш AIR FORCE И Defense outlays for all services. President Reagan increased defense spending to an unprecedented level. the two nations reopened arms talks under the Reagan administration. President Reagan also proposed the development of a new space-based defense. the defense budget rose 45 percent. was slow. This system would be able to shoot down Soviet missiles before they could reach the United States. however.821 1987: 14.

American leaders have tried to gain favor with Saudi Arabia and Jordan. . the United States has attempted to represent its interests by negotiating peace settlements. the United States may anger Arab oil-producing states. Soviet statesman. the United States and the Soviet Union resumed arms control talks in Geneva. Because of its military and economic power. and troops were withdrawn in 1984. the actions of the two superpowers can help decide whether peace or conflict reigns. Second. long-range. Even in the Middle East. In 1982. Global affairs continue to be dominated by the United States and the Soviet Union. By seeking good relations with Arab states. global power has become somewhat less polarized as other nations and regions have gained power and influence. Third. it wants to maintain a friendly relationship with Israel. Nevertheless. the United States wants to protect the world's oil supply. the United States tried to control fighting in Lebanon by sending military troops to keep peace and distance between feuding factions. when President Reagan and Premier Gorbachev signed a tentative agreement to limit intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) in Europe. The United States bears an important global responsibility as it balances its national security interests with the need for international stability and peace. conflicts arising out of rivalry between the two superpowers have dominated world affairs. Both the Soviet Union and the United States acknowledge a degree of dependence on the Middle East. Gorbachev. In 1987. supplying arms. and sending military forces. it compromises its support for Israel.178 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP THE MIDDLE EAST U. Mikhail: born 1931.S. These interests are difficult to secure. By supporting Israel. The delicate conflicts of this region have become an important focus of American foreign policy. by selling advanced military weapons. The sale of arms to Arab nations was controversial because it meant that the United States was helping sustain Arab-Israeli conflict by appearing to support both sides. the United States wants to limit the influence of the Soviet Union in the area. general secretary of the Communist Party since 1985. which supplies most of the world's oil. Switzerland to discuss medium-range. its most reliable ally in the region. America increased its involvement in the Iran-Iraq War when it sent warships to escort oil tankers through the besieged Persian Gulf. Progress toward arms reduction was finally reached in 1987. Yet global interdependence and the threat of nuclear confrontation increase the importance of diplomacy to American foreign policy. where conflicts have little to do with democracy versus communism. RESPONSIBILITY In 1985. This military effort was unsuccessful. the United States has the potential to impose solutions by the use of force. In recent decades. As a negotiator. the United States helped Israel and Egypt reach an historic peace agreement in 1979. two moderate nations in the region. however. Since 1947. and spacebased missiles. The United States has become involved in Middle East conflicts for several reasons: First.

enlarging opportunity and freedom rather than coercing a uniform standard of conduct. a nation of practical energy. undogmatic and undoctrinaire. How does our foreign policy serve moral ends? How can America serve as a humane example and champion of justice in a world in which power is still often the final arbiter? How do we reconcile ends and means. Each of these challenges has both a moral and a practical dimension. we face the real moral dilemma of foreign policy: the need to choose between valid ends and to relate our ends to means. Small wonder. nothing else we do or seek can ultimately have meaning. that Santayana concluded: "To be an American is of itself almost a moral condition. . power politics. it has been frequently observed that we are a pragmatic people — commonsensical. • We must create a cooperative and beneficial international order.and the community of nations today faces inescapable tasks: • We must maintain a secure and just peace. equality and progress — in open and libertarian terms. Americans have believed this country had a moral significance that transcended its military or economic power. . Averting the danger of nuclear war and limiting and ultimately reducing destructive nuclear arsenals is a moral as well as a political act. but ends that are sometimes in conflict. When that is the case. liberty. In the nuclear age. then. the struggle Henry Kissinger AMERICA has perennially engaged in a search of its conscience. America has been most effective internationally when we have combined our idealistic and our pragmatic traditions. America .179 PART в Texts America & the World: Principles & Pragmatism HENRY KISSINGER Unique among the nations of the world. • We must defend the rights and the dignity of man." But this idealism has also been in constant tension with another deep-seated strain in our historical experience. Peace is a fundamental moral imperative. Each involves important ends. Since Toqueville.. ingenuity and spirit.. From its beginning. America was created as a conscious act by men dedicated to a set of political and ethical principles they believed to be of universal applicability. We have made tolerance and compromise the basis of our domestic political life. Without it. We have defined our fundamental goals — justice. principle and survival? Today the challenge of American foreign policy is to avoid the illusion of false choices: we must live up to this nation's moral promise while fulfilling the practical needs of world order.

Our third moral imperative is the nurturing of human values. investments and markets and reliable development of the resources of food.and a commitment to seek progress through cooperation. Those who consider themselves dispossessed will become the seedbed of upheaval. History teaches us that balances based on constant tests of strength have always erupted into war. suffering and fear. As the world's leading democracy. George (1863—1952): Spanish-bom American philosopher and poet. Santayana. than "make a desert [and] call it peace. Hence. but a recognition of common interests. between partial and total settlements. a role in international decisions that affect them. Clearly. But responsibility compels also a recognition of our limits. But peace cannot be our only goal.now. national unity without freedom is a hollow triumph.now. It is a tragedy that the very tools of technology that have made ours the most productive century in history have also served to subject millions to a new dimension of intimidation. On the part of the industrial nations. Technological progress without justice mocks humanity.180 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP for marginal advantages. Individual freedom of conscience and expression is the proudest heritage of our civilization. will conclude with President Eisenhower that "there is no alternative to peace". The growing interdependence of states in the face of the polarizing tendencies of nationalism and ideologies makes imperative the building of world community. an open world system of trade. Clearly. Our alliances. We live in a world of more than 150 countries. between the need to defend our values and interests and the need to consider the views of others. If those relationships are to be equitable and lasting. All we do in the search for peace. each asserting sovereignty and claiming the right to realize its national aspirations. sooner or later. a fair share of global economic benefits. serve peace by strengthening regional and world security. The goals of the industrial nations are equally clear: widening prosperity. they are not favors to others. America's second moral imperative is the growing need for global cooperation. a world in which a few nations constitute islands of wealth in a sea of despair is fundamentally insecure and morally intolerable. before the world is irrevocably split into contending camps . . they should not. His Democracy in America is one of the most important books about America. If well conceived. We can spare no effort to bequeath to future generations a peace more hopeful than an equilibrium of terror. Every President. But neither will there be security in a world in which mock tough rhetoric and the accumulation of arms are the sole measure of competition. energy and raw materials. be used as levers. there must be a moral commitment . as Tacitus said. Common sense tells us that in the nuclear age history must not be repeated. the drive for prestige and unilateral gains must yield to an unprecedented sense of responsibility. On the part of the developing nations. .to make the sacrifices necessary to build a sense of community. continued The objectives of the developing nations are clear: economic development. there must be an end to blackmail and extortion . They should be withdrawn when those interests change. 1. Tocqueville. Nationalism without a consciousness of human community and human rights is likely to become an instrument of oppression and a force for evil. But the tactics of confrontation with which some of the developing nations have pursued their goals are as unacceptable as they are unproductive. In the search for peace we are continually called upon to strike balances — between strength and conciliation. while there is still time for conciliation . compromise and common endeavors are inescapable." There will be no security in a world whose obsession with peace leads to appeasement. Mankind must do more. no nation can fulfill all its goals without infringing on the rights of others. the political relationships built up with other nations. To seek it at any price would render us morally defenseless and place the world at the mercy of the most ruthless. as a general rule. it is our obligation to dedicate ourselves to assuring freedom for the human spirit. Alexis de (1805-59): French statesman and historian who traveled through the United States for eight months in 1831. for greater political cooperation and for a fair and flourishing international economy is rooted in our belief that only liberty permits the fullest expression of mankind's creativity. . negotiations and mutual regard among diverse and contending interests will clearly be required. We live in an age of division — between East and West and between the advanced industrial nations and the developing nations. The process of building a new era of international economic relationships will continue through the rest of this century. Henry: see page 176. Kissinger. .

April 7.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 181 9 American Policy in Vietnam: Peace Without Conquest Lyndon B. which has attacked India and has been condemned by the United Nations for aggression in Korea. It is a principle for which our sons fight tonight in the jungles of Vietnam. and only in such a world will our own freedom be finally secure. Tonight Americans and Asians are dying for a world where each people may choose its own path to change. The world as it is in Asia is not a serene or peaceful place. Why are these realities our concern? Why are we in South Vietnam? We are there because we have a promise to keep. And I intend to keep that promise. nor do we seek any. This kind of world will never be built by bombs or bullets. The contest in Vietnam is part of a wider pattern of aggressive purposes. over many years. have ended their lives on Vietnam's steaming soil. This is a regime which has destroyed freedom in Tibet. we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence. and terror strikes in the heart of cities. Over this war — and all Asia — is another The misery of Vietnam reality: the deepening shadow of Communist China. We are also there to strengthen world order. Its object is total conquest. and its power for the sake of a people so far away? We fight because we must fight if we are to live in a world where every country can shape its own destiny. Women and children are strangled in the night because their men are loyal to their government. This is the principle for which our ancestors fought in the valleys of Pennsylvania. The first reality' is that North Vietnam has attacked the independent nation of South Vietnam. 1965 I have come here to review once again with my own people the views of the American government. Large-scale raids are conducted on towns. Vietnam is far away from this quiet campus. We have helped to build. Why must we take this painful road? Why must this nation hazard its ease. It is a nation which is helping the forces of violence in almost every continent. And some four hundred young men. Thus. Around the globe from Berlin to Thailand are . And it is a war of unparalleled brutality'. Johnson Excerpt from a speech delivered at John Hopkins University. And helpless villages are ravaged by sneak attacks. The war is dirty and brutal and difficult. born into an America that is bursting with opportunity and promise. Simple farmers are the targets of assassination and kidnapping. Since 1945 ever} American President has offered support to the people of South Vietnam. and its interest. The rulers in Hanoi are urged on by Peking. We have no territory there. and we have helped to defend.

Vietnam: see page 15. They are frightened by some of the ways in which we have used our power. even against their better judgment. and even wider war. It is a change in what we believe that purpose requires. Top Dogs and Underdogs J. most people around the world are convinced that there is no such thing. we are perceived as voracious. . although we may be convinced that we are good top dogs. I think. . because we are strong. and no amount of good will on our part can ever wholly dispel the anxiety bred by the feeling of helplessness. so to speak. failures and transgressions. we are perceived as overbearing. The result would be increased unrest and instability. To leave Vietnam to its fate would shake the confidence of all these people in the value of an American commitment and in the value of America's world. This is not a change of purpose. they are frightened by the knowledge of their own inability to withstand our power. . We want nothing for ourselves — only that the people of South Vietnam be allowed to guide their own country in their own way. tenants in the world at our sufferance. we are perceived as arrogant. VVhat do these feelings about American power have to do with the war in Vietnam? They go far. And we do this to convince the leaders of North Vietnam — and all who seek to share their conquest — of a very simple fact: We will not be defeated. but they are not entirely false. Much to our puzzlement. should it ever be turned upon them. they are frightened by the ways in which we might use it. because we are successful. continued people whose well-being rests in part on the belief that they can count on us if they are attacked. valleys of Pennsylvania: allusion to the War of Independence. But we will use it. They are.182 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. I suspect. to take satisfaction in our frustrations and . And we will do only what is absolutely necessary. Because we are rich. Anxiety about America's great power predisposes people. either openly or under the cloak of a meaningless agreement. Thus it became necessary for us to increase our response and to make attacks by air. These perceptions may be distorted and exaggerated. They do this not because we are Americans but because we are top dogs and they fear our power. We will not withdraw. In recent months attacks on South Vietnam were stepped up. We will do everything necessary to reach that objective. We will use our power with restraint and with all the wisdom that we can command. We do this in order to slow down aggression. and most of all. to explain why our war policy commands so little support in the world. people all over the world seem to discount our good intentions and to seize upon our hypocrisies. Our objective is the independence of South Vietnam and its freedom from attack. Power does breed arrogance and it has bred enough in us to give some substance to the natural prejudices against us. William Fulbright AMERICA is top dog in the world and. We will not grow tired. We do this to increase the confidence of the brave people of South Vietnam who have bravely borne this brutal battle for so many years with so many casualties.

AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 183 3. and so. Such attitudes. For all their worldwide influence. That brings me to one of the most important of the many flaws in our war policy in Vietnam — its failure to take account of people's feelings and instincts. salve for the pride that was lost in the days of the Marshall Plan. the ideas about man and man's relations with other men that took root and flowered in the American soil. they ought to be cool and rational and detached. We are. should be rational and should act on their interests. as I believe they do. . our major impact on the world is not in what we do but in what we are. in large measure. our aid and our diplomacy are only the shadow of America. to the hundreds of millions of Asians. our products and preferences. So it is with men. but it is not nearly great enough to dispel the human legacy of instinct and emotion. may even remind them of the ragtag American revolutionaries who humbled the mighty British Empire almost 200 years ago. because nobody would want to believe it. restrain and make allowance for the feelings and instincts that shape so much of our lives. for example. ragtag: badly-behaved. page 15. unrelated even to national interests. to be sure. nevertheless seem to derive some satisfaction from seeing more than half a million Americans fought to a stalemate — or worse — by a ragtag army of Asian guerrillas. who well understand the importance to themselves of America's weight in the world balance of power. People. think what they must mean to the real underdogs of the world. but it would not be rewarding. the way we treat one another. ]. an enemy who. Marshall Plan: see page 175. are irrational and unfair. they should. . William: born 1905. Seeing the Americans cut down to size like that is balm for the wounds of Dien Bien Phu. It is the way our people live. Vietnam War. it will be argued. continued our setbacks. elephants cannot fly and there is nothing to be done about it. in a curious and purely emotional way. American educator and political leader. But they don't. chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1959-74). and so. . the way we govern ourselves. Africans and Latin Americans who can easily identify themselves with the Viet Cong guerillas but could never see themselves in the role of the lordly Americans. indeed. The most we can hope to do with our fragile tool of reason is to identify. The French. Fulbright. Inevitably and demonstrably. endowed with a certain capacity for reason. it will be said. Even if that were true — and on occasion it probably has been true — nobody would believe it. the real America — and the real American influence — is something else. our tastes and games. Rich and powerful though our country is. Viet Cong: cf. especially those pertaining to top dogs and underdogs. it is not rich or powerful enough to shape the course of world history in a constructive or desired direction solely by the impact of its power and policy. but they are not. I might be able to think up some good reasons why elephants should fly. they are. It asks them to believe that the world's most powerful nation is not only strong but motivated by deeply benevolent and altruistic instincts. There may even be people in our own country who feel some sneaking respect for a resourceful enemy. when France survived on American generosity. If our military failures in Vietnam have this effect on the French. not their emotions. American policy asks people to believe things that they are deeply reluctant to believe. .

Movies. У r Яр ~ Exporting American Culture Our Music. page 30 .184 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Published by American Enterprise Institute Feb/March 1986 ^ 4 ^ _ _ _ ____ 11 a I \C X. Our Values plus more in Opinion Roundup. Campaign Techniques.

Alexis: character in the TV series "Dynasty. Bruce: see page 242." Surprising as such a performance was to German diplomats. their citizens adore Coca-Cola itself—and its major competitor. American journalist and diplomat. our young-at-heart ambassador to West Germany. if it's a leisurely continental breakfast they want in. even as they deride them. PUBLIC OPINION. More on the American cultural roadshow appears in Opinion Roundup. FEBRUARY/MARCH 1986 VAS and KHK Burt. they can hole up in any of fifteen Dunkin' Donuts shops with a cup of coffee and a good book— What They Don't Teach You at Harvard Business School. Or. line up for American movies. and the foreign exchange students. Clint Eastwood packs them in in France. government scholarship sponsored by Senator J. or between miniseries." Nike: tradename of sport shoes. Pepsi. American movie star. These expressions of America are explored by Richard Grenier. and you have a collection of some of the best traveling salesmen around.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 185 Exporting American Culture Richard Burt. may be an emissary as important as Ambassador Burt himself— or any ambassador for that matter. perhaps. And after the movies. pages 30-35. ambassador to West Germany from 1985 to 1989. say. Carrington. and demand American television programs. and Jack Valenti in the pages that follow. Tim Page. in fact. John Russonello. it actually played to an American strength. Much as some nations deplore what has been called the "Coca-colonization" of their cultures. "Teenager in Love" and "Tell Me"—both sung in a West Berlin recording studio to the accompaniment of a local group called the "Subtones. Eastwood. He became known through the CBS Western series Rawhide and gained international recognition in Sergio Leone's trio of Italian-made Westerns. people hum American tunes. and Bruce Springsteen brings them to their feet in Germany. For those who demand a little culture from American culture.W. . there are Artistic Ambassadors—young American pianists who play newly commissioned pieces of American music. Springsteen.S. Around the world. the political consultants. citizens abroad can lace up their Nikes and jog off to the local McDonald's or Burger King for a hamburguesa and a shake. Clint: born 1930. Thailand. American popular culture. Fulbright scholar: recipient of a U. Fulbright for graduate study abroad. recently startled the diplomatic community there with his rendition of two rock and roll classics. the best seller in Bangkok. Richard: born 1947. Add to these the Fulbright scholars. Alexis Carrington is loved and loathed from London to Monaco.

In his essay. we find metaphors. delivered this speech. At the end of the third paragraph. Show how he uses rhetorical devices like comparison. Text Analysis American Policy in Vietnam: Peace Without Conquest 1. Make a list of all the words and phrases used in order to describe violence and aggression in Asia in the fourth and fifth paragraphs. who suffered a similar defeat in Dien Bien Phu. It is the anxiety of the less powerful rather than rational consideration that makes people derive satisfaction from the plight of the Americans in Vietnam. Comprehension Top Dogs and Underdogs Determine which of the following statements agree with the text. he speaks about American air raids. at Johns Hopkins University on April 7. Lyndon B. Among the stylistic and rhetorical figures used by the author. Johnson was obviously aware of the fact that his military policies did not meet with approval from all Americans. and with peace. The Viet Cong guerillas arouse more sympathies among the underdogs of the world than the American soldiers. when U. How does he justify those attacks? Do you find his way of arguing convincing? 3. President of the U. Johnson points out that a free and secure world "will never be built by bombs and bullets. Read through the text again and find out all the reasons he gives for America's commitment in Vietnam. parallelism and accumulation. Johnson. 6. 7. Text Analysis America & the World: Principle & Pragmatism 1. The fight of the American soldiers in Vietnam is sometimes even compared with that of the American revolutionaries 200 years ago. do not show some kind of malicious joy when half a million American soldiers do not stand a chance of winning the war against the Asian guerillas. do you think. antitheses. The underdogs' fear of the top dogs' power makes many people dwell on the negative sides of Americans.186 PART C Exercises 1. 1965. 2. This was a few months after American military involvement had increased dramatically. 1. The distortions and exaggerations which can often be found in the perceptions of Americans by people all over the world cannot be substantiated at all. however. bombers had raided North Vietnam. 2. How are these reasons related to each other? 3. disorder and conflict on the one hand. What is the effect the speaker wants to achieve by this enumeration of expressions of violence? 5. was the main purpose of the President's speech in this situation? 2. Find the various words and expressions which are characteristic of these polarizing fields. images and parallelism to convince the audience that his policy is right." Later on. Kissinger discusses idealism and pragmatism. 3.S. 5. . 4. What. Define these terms according to the information given in the text. from 1963 to 1968. Correct the false statements. What is the function of these devices? Make a list of examples. 4.S. In his address. 2. Only the French. The way Americans see themselves is markedly different from the way they are seen by others. which was broadcast nationwide. 3. Johnson defines America's role in Southeast Asia. order and appeasement on the other. Kissinger deals with war.

" Have a look at the collage shown on the front page and identify as many facets of American culture as possible. Ask him/her about the aspect of American culture that he/she found and still finds most striking. Senator Fulbright argues that Americans should exert an influence on others not by displaying their power abroad but by setting a positive example through their way of life at home.S. rational thinking will get the upper hand. the American magazine Public Opinion dealt with "Exporting American Culture. 6. hosted 4.500 American high school students abroad in 1986/7. founded in 1951. Among the numerous exchange programs for young people. Visual Comprehension Exporting American Culture In its February/March 1986 issue. Although at present the attitude towards Americans is largely emotional and irrational. Interviewing Many of the cultural influences mentioned in the introduction to Public Opinion are rather accidental. 5.AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 187 8. American Field Service International (AFS) and Youth for Understanding (YFU) are especially 4. If American politicians had considered the psychological implications of the relationship between top dogs and underdogs. Try and find somebody who has taken part in a student exchange with the United States or has lived there for some time. Discussion Which aspects of American culture can you find in your own city or country? What do your friends think about the American cultural influence in your country? How do you personally feel about it? . they would have understood the criticism America's involvement in Vietnam aroused outside the U. well known. A more comprehensive impression of American culture is left on foreigners who have actually been to the United States. in the long run.A. YFU.000 student exchanges among 70 countries in 1985. 10. 9.000 foreign high school students in America and sent 2. AFS was founded in 1947 and organized 10.

B.A. no tuition is required.) Undergraduate Studies High School Diploma SECONDAR Y EDUCATION 4-year High School Senior High School Junior High School ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Elementary School Kindergarten Nursery School Grade (= School Year) Age .) Technical Institute Private Career School Junior College Master's Degree (e...D.S. Public education from kindergarten through grade 12 is tax-supported. HIGHER EDUCATION Postgraduate Studies Graduate Studies "Doctor's Degree (e.g.S. five days a week for nine months each year. School attendance is compulsory for all children.A. Ph. M. The System of Education in the U. M.g.) """Bachelor's Degree (e. Students attend school five to seven hours a day. B.и Education PART A Background Information SCHOOL ATTENDANCE Every American is entitled to an education.g. from Sep tember to June.A.S.

College-bound students may be enrolled in college-preparatory courses such as chemistry. Besides colleges and universities which offer degrees in traditional fields of scholarship.3 percent of East Germans. Most pri vate schools are run by religious organizations and generally include religious instruction. political science. Which courses a student takes depends on his or her abilities and future goals. In 1985. Courses in scuba diving or Russian are available at some high schools. 15. and English. there are also small arts colleges which grant degrees to students who concentrate in specialized fields such as ballet. 17.EDUCATION 189 About 85 percent of American children attend public schools. Percent of High School Graduates (18-24 years old) Enrolled in College I Hispanics 1984 Blacks Whites 1980 1974 20% VARIED OPPORTUNITIES 30% 40% Educational opportunities in the United States are highly varied. The standards students must meet to attain a high school diploma are rigorous in some schools and lax in others. Since 1940. social studies. typing. This contrasts with 17. A 1981 survey showed that almost 32 percent of Americans 25 years or older had at least some college education.2 percent of Canadians. The other 15 percent choose to pay tuition to attend private schools. and 14. Students who do not plan to go to college may be enrolled in classes such as basic accounting. science. but also on the particular course offerings of the school. Besides the diversified course offerings at all levels. or advanced writing.5 percent of Japanese. film-making. and even circus performing. the education system in the United States has made significant advances in educating an ever greater proportion of the population. Some elementary schools offer computer and foreign language courses. A 1985 Census Bureau study reported that in 1940 only 38 percent of those between the ages of 25 and 29 had received a high school diploma and only 6 percent had college degrees. In higher education. the wide variety of degree programs is remarkable. 86 percent of those surveyed said they had high school diplomas and 22 percent said they had college degrees. High school students at the same grade level do not take the same courses. variety also exists in schools' academic standards and reputations. or agricultural science. Highly reputable . The same is true for college admission standards. along with "core" curriculum courses such as mathematics.5 percent of Swedes.

history. Rural farming communities and poor innercity districts have less money available for school buildings. The national average. spending per pupil varies considerably.300 a year in Mississippi to $2. Although there is no national curriculum. Some school systems require that a high school student complete three years of mathematics before graduation. education standards and requirements differ from state to state. His new federal programs. One plan that was established in the spirit of equality was the Economic Opportunity Act. and student achievement standards are made by boards of education at the state and/or district level. art.400 a year in Massachusetts. New York administers standardized competency tests to students. .190 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP DECENTRALIZED FUNDING AND ADMINISTRATION CURRICULUM DEMOCRATIC IDEAL INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATION PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S GREAT SOCIETY colleges such as Harvard and Yale accept only students of exceptional ability. science. The main reason for such diversity in course offerings and standards is that there is no national education system in the United States. language arts (which includes reading. and social studies (which includes geography. Traditionally. and grammar). The fact that public schools receive the bulk of their funds from local property taxes creates inequalities. mathematics. At the other end of the spectrum are less desirable institutions. Another was the Higher Education Act. certain subjects are generally taught in all public school systems across the country. students choose "elective" courses in their areas of interest. writing. and citizenship). Accordingly. which provides money for adult literacy programs and pre-school education for poor children. Johnson proposed new programs as his instrument for realizing his liberal hope for a "Great Society" of greater equality and less poverty. and teacher salaries. Most secondary schools require students to take English. is lower. More money is spent for the education of a child living in a wealthy district than a child living in a poor community. teacher certification. The education system can boast that now more than 95 percent of all fourteen. mathematics. In some states. To eliminate inequalities. decisions about school curriculum. were initiated to provide remedial schooling for children from poor families. In public schools. Despite this injection of federal money. and physical education. the federal government has increased its share of school financing and now contributes between 10 and 15 percent. which offers government scholarships to needy college students. whereas in other states. In addition to this "core" curriculum." which accept practically any high school graduate. the selection of textbooks is decided by local officials.to seventeen-year-olds attend high school compared with only 50 percent in 1930.3 billion dollars. Yet the education that each student receives is by no means equal. Spending for public education is also determined by state and local education leaders. music. social studies. backed by 1. however. learning materials. For example. physical education. science. The first major contribution of federal aid for education was in 1965 when President Lyndon B. from $1. Almost every elementary school instructs children in penmanship. the American educational ideal has been to offer equal opportunity for education to all citizens. The democratic ideal of providing equal education for all citizens has been hard to satis fy. sometimes negatively referred to as "degree factories. and that America produces proportionately more college graduates than any industrial nation. textbook selection is made by state education officials.

The attempts of the last 30 years to achieve fully integrated schools have resulted in successes and failures. The dropout rate among black high school students has declined significantly. the Board of Education: see page 113. Although progress has been slow. Three times as much money was spent per pupil in white schools as in black schools. whites began sending their children to private schools or moved to the suburbs. Brown v. Census Bureau statistics show that the dropout rate among blacks declined from over 22 percent in 1970 to 16 percent in 1980 and to 12. Before the Brown case. integration has succeeded in narrowing the education gap between blacks and whites. Subsequent court decisions ordered schools to begin desegregation immediately. Brown v. compulsory bussing has worked. DESEGREGATION The discrimination against blacks which prohibited black children from attending white schools was finally declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the 1954 landmark case. When bussing was first introduced as a way to achieve integrated schools. Opposition in the local white community was so strong that police were brought in from other states. Congress passed laws denying federal aid to school districts that failed to comply with the ruling. In the deep South.S. bussing: carrying students by bus to a school in a different area where the pupils are of a different race. In some cities. U. people reacted strongly against it. . especially as a compulsory integration measure. schools for blacks were not only separate but unequal. During the 1960s.EDUCATION 191 Children being "bussed" to school in Boston.6 percent in 1985. it was five times as much. Yet in many areas. the Board of Education of Topeka. Another measure introduced to speed up integration was the compulsory "bussing" of black children to schools in white areas and white children to schools in black neighborhoods.

A Nation at Risk. 2. America has succeeded in educating the many and has made gains in evening out inequalities." The following statistics of the report bear out this claim: • 13 percent of all seventeen-year-olds in the United States are functionally illiterate. • among minority teenagers. including a heavier homework load and higher grading standards. federal courts ruled that public schools should take measures to accommodate handicapped children. the figure may be as high as 40 percent. Aside from the schools' task of socializing and equalizing youngsters of different social. measures to protect minorities from discrimination were extended to handicapped children. Because public schools were ill-equipped to handle their special needs. math. include the following points: 1. widely supported by the public. 3. cultural. stronger academic curricula. In 1971. schools have the obvious task of providing quality instruction. The commission's recommendations for improving student achievement. higher salaries to attract and keep talented. writing. writing. • reading. and math skills are so poor among young people that employers have spent millions of dollars on remedial education and training programs for their employees. stricter standards for students. The public's concern for better schools and more learning is increasing as results of standardized tests show a continual decline in students' academic achievement.192 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP PROTECTING THE HANDICAPPED NEED FOR QUALITY EDUCATION A NATION AT RISK In the 1970s. The challenge for American education today is to improve the quality of learning without sacrificing these gains. with a back-to-basics emphasis on reading. • average achievement of high school students on most standardized tests is lower than in the mid-1950s. handicapped children used to have to attend expensive private schools. by the National Commission on Excellence in Education asserted: "The education foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity. By its democratic standard. . and science. well-qualified teachers. The 1983 report. and economic backgrounds.

A series of cataclysmic events shook national selfconfidence: violence against blacks and civil rights workers in the South. The Russian's feat served as evidence for . . The drive for excellence was in high gear during the early 1960s. As the Cold War appeared to fade. foreign languages.. Programs were developed to identify talented youth at an early age and to speed their way through rigorous courses in high school and college. Under the rubric of life adjustment education.. The political climate. By 1965. . American involvement in Vietnam. the nation's competition with the Soviets for world supremacy had lost its motivating power. The sudden and remarkably quiet disappearance of the "pursuit of excellence" in the mid-1960s showed how dependent it was on the sociopolitical climate. students in elite universities — the After the Russians orbited Sputnik in 1957. During the late 1950s and early 1960s. SINCE THE MIDDLE 1940S. in which students could examine their personal and social problems. . and by others because it aimed to teach group conformity. the national press was filled with indictments of American schools for ignoring science and mathematics. . mathematics. Life adjustment education was condemned by some because it was anti-intellectual.. typified by the brief presidency of John F. intelligence. and education could right society's problems. and consumer arithmetic for algebra. science. schools were encouraged to merge traditional subjects like English and history with health and guidance to create "common learning" courses. .. the rediscovery of poverty.. Progressivism in the late 1940s was called "life adjustment education" by friend and foe alike. and enrollment in advanced courses and foreign languages rose steadily... and literature. Part of Kennedy's image was the idea that youth. critics complained that "how-to" courses and socio-personal adjustment had been substituted for history. With striking regularity. talent. . many of the critic's worst complaints about the softness of American education. Kennedy. also stimulated the popular belief that the identification of talent and the pursuit of excellence were appropriate educational goals. Beginning in 1949. Kennedy's assassination. AMERICAN schools have been at the center of a tug of war between competing educational philosophies.193 PART в Texts 0 American Educational Philosophies by Diane Ravitch. business English for the classics. educational policy has swung from domination by "progressives" to domination by "traditionalists" in roughly ten-year periods. It judged every subject by its everyday utility. . along with standardized test scores. educators shifted their focus from "meeting the needs of the whole child" to "excellence".. substituting radio repair for physics.

open education was ideal. and working mothers. Watergate. The swing away from open education was hastened by the public reaction to the news in 1975 that score on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) had dropped steadily since 1963. against the middle-class values of their parents.. . it stimulated participatory democracy. By the mid-1970s. sent their veteran teachers to workshops to be retrained. standardized admission test for college. parents complained bitterly that their children couldn't read. it justified the equal sharing of power between the authority figure (the teacher) and the students. the open philosophy led to dropping of requirements. children wandered about aimlessly.. Regardless of explanations blaming such factors as Vietnam. The innovation that had the most influence in the public schools was the open education movement. a substantial part of the public believed that the decline of standards in the school was primarily responsible for lower test scores. it made a positive virtue of nonassertive leadership. absenteeism. the effect of television. and provisioned classrooms with the obligatory gerbils and sensory. and against the meritocratic pressures of an achievement-oriented society. drugs.. At the high-school level. continued presumed beneficiaries of the postSputnik years — protested against technology. educators sought to adapt the schools to the new conditions and to placate their numerous critics.194 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1. Once it was put into practice. Columbia University. Scholastic Aptitude Test: (SAT). adoption of mini-courses. got into fights. and alternative schools.. grade inflation. Responding to changes in the social and cultural milieu. Watergate: see page 29. Diane: associate professor of History and Education at Teachers College. On paper. . that the classroom was chaotic. tactile materials. and the widespread decline of critical reading and careful writing. some teachers couldn't handle the open-ended situation. In some districts. Ravitch. and it insisted that children should study only what they wanted. The College Board's 1977 report on the score drop confirmed that part of the drop was in fact due to lowered standards. The open education philosophy answered perfectly the need for a set of educational values to fit the countercultural mood of the late 1960s. and that there was no homework. Despite their training. hired open educators. demanded that the teacher tell them what to do. Many schools removed classroom walls. the problems appeared. schools-without-walls. the open education movement had gone into decline. .

he found a graffiti-marred campus that openly showed its latest scars: The blackened hulls of three administrative offices gutted by fire. who heads the tardiness program." he says. and a new $85. serious academic problems remain. Promptly at 8." Principal Nakano has brought order to Jefferson High School." says Barbara Shealy. Honors programs were started last year at each of the three grade levels in English." With physical changes has come a renewed attention to learning. Getting students to school on time is only one of the disciplinary measures adopted by the 46-year-old Nakano that have changed the fortunes of a troubled campus. Still. he says. Unlike before. observes Eric Parker.049 — more than half of the school — to 430 in May.000 full fire-and-security alarm system was installed." says Alberta Moss. the monthly number of late students dropped from 1. Nakano is trying to make school a good place. Students who are late three times in one month are assigned to 20 minutes of work cleaning up the campus. came to Jefferson High two years ago. Standardized test scores remain low. Dr.000 predominantly Hispanic and black students as they arrive. at the inner-city campus of Thomas Jefferson High School. Students felt proud of their school again." Nakano immediately masterminded an overhaul of the buildings. "When people feel safe. From February. "Now. . There have been no gang fights on campus for 18 months. Principal Francis Nakano is standing by to greet the school's nearly 2. When Nakano. The burned-out area was sealed from view. Students freely roamed halls that crackled with an ever present threat of gang violence about to explode. "But we're getting kids who care more about school and are willing to work. you have a climate for learning. although the percentage of students scoring in the bottom quarter has steadily declined. who becomes studentbody president this fall. bringing back green grass and fresh plants to the campus. "I'm not afraid any day I go to school. Tardy students are screened by security personnel and sent to a holding room to wait for one period so that they won't disrupt classes for others. "Climate for learning. An aging sprinkler system was repaired.EDUCATION 195 What Makes Great Schools Great A Tough School Pays Off ^^^■^^^нн LOS ANGELES By 8:01 a. "Sixty percent of our 10th graders read at fifth-grade level от below. Nakano locks the gates to keep out unwanted visitors. Top scholars are recognized at an annual academic banquet where they receive Olympic-style medals for their efforts.m. we have students running to classes. students already have learned the first lesson about attending classes here: Be on time. Starting at 7:30. head of the English department. a third-generation Japanese American.

More parents are coming to once sparsely attended school meetings." says Harry Gottlieb. "We put as much emphasis on the lower-level student as on the gifted student." says English teacher Tom Valentin." The district has spared little expense in making learning attractive. Innovations at Glenbrook South make classes stimulating. "it's that putting money into education is worthwhile. The sleek two-story structure offers an indoor swimming pool and a greenhouse for its 2." By LUCIA SOLORZANO witr JUANITA R HOGUE. As a result.. Last spring. with the financial wherewithal to support it.S. students and the community again believe that anything is possible. One morning when school officials needed paint to cover graffiti." says senior Stephanie Cotell. .100 students.000 — about twice the state and national average.000. a minicomputer with 24 terminals and one of the few advanced-placement computer-science courses in the nation. The curriculum guide. with a population of about 31. Glenbrook South is geared toward success. "Things are constantly changing around here. the school since 1973 has offered a peer-group counseling program in which upperclassmen help freshmen deal with personal and academic adjustments. per pupil spending at Glenbrook South is nearly $6. "There is something here for every student. Students also appreciate the individual attention many teachers give. provides on-site internships to students and donates dairy products for school fund-raising events. SARAH PETERSON. Participants sign learning contracts in which they accept responsibility for their own progress in exchange for special individual instruction. Large corporations based here. the school has a microcomputer lab with 22 computers. continued About 225 sophomores with low scores will enter the 8-month-old School Within a School program this fall. which exceeds 100 pages." Because of the bounteous working environment and an attractive to/> salary of about $42. The Knudsen Corporation. Glenbrook South High School is a microcosm of the successful suburban Chicago community that surrounds it. I like that. The first computer was installed at Glenbrook South in 1968. According to 1980 Census Bureau figures." says Associate Principal David Smith. Aug. Ready funding also has enabled the school to be at the forefront of educational innovations. further boost the local tax base. A full time studentactivities co-ordinator surveys students annually to see which extracurricular clubs should be expanded or dropped. Glenview. boasted the ninthhighest median income of all cities in the country. student-council president: "A teacher I had for freshman history still keeps in touch with me and asks how I'm doing. offers more than 200 courses. 27. and local business is actively lending its support. More than two thirds of the freshmen participate. NEWS & WORLD REPORT. a new program. the dairy delivered it within an hour. keeps staff stability from turning stale. teachers. pushing for improvement. More than 80 percent of last year's graduates went on to two and four-year colleges. such as Zenith and publisher Scott Foresman. In a school once plagued by fear and hopelessness. DOUGLAS С LYONS and MICHAEL BOSC mm -. Like the community in which it is located. Says Lisa Kivirist. U. a large dairy 3 miles from campus. Students can even use computers to compose music or simulate scientific experiments. Today. 1984 honors program: special program for more academically-minded students. a 1983 graduate now attending Brown University. ranging from automotive repair to a special program of advanced study in English.—«-^ ^». "Everybody is really motivated.196 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. social studies and foreign languages. "If there's a lesson to be learned here.. "There's always a new approach." The emphasis on achievement at home and school presents problems for many students in their first year. "The kids are achievers because their parents are all achievers." Success-oriented. We're always aiming a little higher. But an emphasis on innovation. Going First Class iGLENVIEW. Hughes Aircraft Company provided a "quality circles" training program to help teachers identify and propose solutions to school problems. To help young people cope. the staff turnover rate is low.000 for teachers.

three and a half in P. And then usually we write a large paper twice a year called the term paper and that also adds mto the grade.. Q: What about homework? A: It's different with every teacher. 0: What are the subjects required in your four years of high school? A: Well. three in history. The other eight were optional and I could take more of any one subject such as math.900 is the only public senior high school in the town and it also draws students from the surrounding region. in my four years of high school I have to complete twenty credits. And that adds up to twelve credits. Some teachers like to give lots of homework and others don't give that much. Louis. Usually we have essay tests. But I run track after school and so therefore I take a study hall instead of P. And between each class I've five-minute breaks. is a typical midwestern town of about 50. three in English. computers. drama club. and I'm in the twelfth grade. Q: Alan.20 every day and in that time period I have" six hour-classes and a thirty-minute break for lunch. a half in health and one year of science. I've been there for four years. multiple choice tests. or so on.situated 120 miles north of St. one in math.EDUCATION 197 An American Senior High School An American student talks about his high school Quincy Senior High School. .E. !t just depends upon their teaching style. theater. usually a teacher evaluates^the performance by written tests equalling fifty per cent of the grade. Besides sports there are also several other activities after school such as band. we have many different kinds of tests. the nearest big city. oral tests and quizzes as forty per cent and homework as ten per cent. I attend school between Y^O and 2. Illinois. Q: How do teachers evaluate the performance of students? A: Well. Illinois.E. Quincy.E. German. Illinois Quincy. Q: Can you tell me anything about the tests and examinations at your school? A: Well. English.000 inhabitants. which high school do you attend? A: I attend Quincy Senior High School m Quincy. many other clubs such as German club and Spanish club and so forth. history or I could take other subjects such as psychology or computers. Q: And what are your subjects now? A: My present subjects now are math. Quincy Senior High with a student population of 1. Then there are other tests such as quizzes and oral examinations such as book reports and speeches and such. It is. Q: What does your schedule look like? A: Well. chess club. business law and one study hour which normally would be P.

To change this "incomplete" to a credit-bearing grade will require much responsibility on the student's part to change the attendance pattern and meet other obligations set by the school. 1.8 days in 1984 [. there will be some special circumstances where exceptions will need to be made in the interest of fairness. This means that credit is suspended until certain requirements are met. gives school officials the right to excuse a student temporarily. but we know we can do better. And the atmosphere isn't as bad as it sounds. it will be counted as a one-day absence. but for the most part they're common sense. Skipping classes or being unexcused is a more serious type of absence. I think they are too short. It is not a prison. his or her grade will become "incomplete". Illness of the student.what may and may not be brought to school. When a student reaches 12 class absences in a semester at Quincy Senior High. our attendance policy in 1984-85 insists that students attend class a given number of days before credit in the course is allowed. Even our current improved record wouldn't be acceptable to employers. The Illinois School Code. Of course. Attendance Policy & Procedures Quincy Senior High Attendance Policy for 1984—85 Improved attendance is a major goal for Quincy Senior High School because it means students should learn more and get better grades. They're good teachers and they're easy to get along with. 5. this policy will be implemented fairly for students who have medical excuses from a doctor and other extenuating circumstances which contribute to absences which can't be avoided. continued 0: Is there a strict code of conduct at your school? 0: A: Each student receives a detailed student handbook which therein has the rights and responsibilities A: governing smoking. There are also rules concerning absenteeism Q: and tardiness to class and the penalties such as A: detention. Approved emergency needs at home. Our faculty feels strongly that students who miss class excessively miss so much content that it is very difficult to make up outside class. it would probably be the breaks between class. When a student has 12 absences or more. . Each class absence for skipping or an unexcused reason counts the same as 3 days excused absence toward the limit of 12. What part of the school life at Quincy would you be critical of? Well. Absences which have been arranged by parents prior to the student's absence.. I know these rules sound really strict. 3.198 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. It's actually quite relaxed and quite friendly. . I like the teachers the best. When a student is tardy three times. I like Quincy High a lot. and they are a bit. The efforts of the past school year on the part of students. Within the guidelines of the school code.. we believe that too much class time has been missed to justify granting credit for the course. Poor attendance affects learning and earned grades the most for those students who miss 20 days or more during the school year.3 days in 1983 and 12. in Section 122:26-1. Death in family. 2. Tardiness. students and parents. parents and school staff yielded a decrease in absences from 9. language obscene or vulgar ..3% in 1983 to 7. Serious illness in the family. . .3% in 1984.] We are very happy about this trend. Most students should miss less than 6 days a year for these reasons. These absences count more heavily toward the 12-day limit. such as radios or weapons or drugs. is also a bad habit for students to develop. lavatory use.. What do you like best about your school? Well. Five minutes isn't enough time to get from one class to the other. In actual days this means that the average student missed 16. . 4. or being late to class. in-school suspension. With this in mind. I also like the fact that Quincy is a bigger school because that gives me more opportunities in sports and in the variety of classes that I can take. as a whole I like Quincy High a lot and if I could change one thing. These are classified as excused absences as far as makeup work is concerned. out-of-school suspension and expulsion. The following reasons for absences are included in the 12 absence limit.

..........................6% Other .1% В (good).............. 4......... 2......... 26..1% They do not challenge students to work harder in class ... 13.......7% Other .... 0...... 10.0% Extend the school day.........1% B(good) ..........................................2% D(fair) ......3% С (average) ...............................................................................................1% Q More money could be spent best in my school by: Buying better textbooks and instructional materials.. 57................................................................................ 12....3% Raising all teachers' salaries ....2% Raising the salaries of a few superior teachers .........1% F(poor) ...............47.....6% They do not have a good grasp of their subject matter .2% They cannot maintain discipline in the classroom .3% щщ What letter grade would you give to ^J the overall quality of your teachers? A (excellent) ....9% Note: Percentage totals may exceed 100 because some students gave more than one response to certain questions...... .......... 55....................... 2......0% Make classwork more challenging ............... 22.................. 50......................... 26...............2% my school could take to improve my education is: Raise the quality of teachers ............ 0............4% D(fair) ........................... 8........... 13..................... 56..........................................EDUCATION 199 In a 1984 opinion poll student leaders were asked to qualify the public schools in the U. 28......................3% Q The biggest problem with the quality of teachers today is: They fail to make subject matter interesting ....3% Other .......... 14..... What letter grade would you give to The single most important action the overall quality of education you are receiving at your school? A (excellent)........... 14.............................................. 18..A.....S..................2% F(poor) ........1% Extending the school day ... 1..........................................2% С (average).......................... The statistics show their answers to five key questions.....3% Improve discipline ............... 12..................23..

There were. or could safely borrow enough to send their children even to the most expensive private college. the private colleges.S. . baffles many Americans as well. at last official count. . as our culture becomes "democratized".. the former teachers' colleges and regional state universities. could save enough. the idea of attending a private school has come to . Although the explosive activism on university campuses during the 1960s gave that decade the greatest press coverage. so baffling to foreigners. it is not simply tuition that has taken private schools out of the market. He sees the reasons for this in the large-scale tuition subsidies granted by Congress in 1972 and the active recruitment of blacks and other minorities which have brought eleven million students of all races and social backgrounds into U.5 million college and university students in the United States were educated in private institutions. Not to mention women's schools and Catholic schools. . and schools affiliated with dozens of other religious denominations. 3. At the end of World War II.. Professor Riesman claims that the 1970s have brought about a more significant change in higher education. for inflation spreads its penalties — and windfalls — all too evenly. the other half in state or locally supported schools. universities.200 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP UNIVERSITIES IN TRANSITION By David Riesman The following text is taken from an essay in the Wilson Quarterly which deals with some fundamental changes at American universities during the 1970s. Today. At the heart of the problem is the fact that. T Students at Bostcm University he sheer diversity of American higher education. approximately half of the 1. the land-grant schools and other state universities. the predominantly black schools. Many of them have their own separate lobbies in Washington: the community colleges. . private colleges educate barely one-fifth of the 11 million American students. .075 accredited colleges and universities in the United States.. . There are still millions of Americans who have enough.

and they use these private models as spurs to their legislative supporters and beneficent graduates. Private colleges have also in fact (though by no means universally) possessed a somewhat greater degree of academic freedom and autonomy than public ones. And while small size is not necessarily a virtue. . in the absence of the private model. more prestigious parent campuses. Among one group of victims of this egalitarianism .. state colleges and universities would never have sought to create enclaves of smallness.. private schools were the first actively to seek re-cruitment of minority students. Riesman. with its eight campuses. particularly insofar as it continually reminds the sprawling public campuses that "giantism" may itself be a deformity. Yet an important difference remains: Private colleges. and (with such exceptions as Northeastern and New York University) most private universities as well. . they set a standard for academic freedom and non-inter- ference that the public institutions can — and do — use in defending themselves. Washington. is more avowedly experimental than most private colleges. shunting those students with less demonstrable ability to the growing regional branches of central state universities. . . Sheltered from the whims of angry governors and legislators. Chicago and Yale.. One element of American diversity is thus being lost as is an opportunity for some young people who would benefit. It has become an increasingly idiosyncratic choice to attend the few single-sex schools that remain. State pride is a factor here. Advocates of public higher education claim that there is virtually no innovation to be found in the private sector that cannot also be duplicated in the public sector. begun 10 years ago in Olympia. the most celebrated and widely translated study of American character in the twentieth century. And indeed. .. These regional state colleges and universities are now large and well established. And Evergreen State College. offers students everything from smallcollege clusters in rural settings of great natural beauty (Santa Cruz) to large urban universities (Los Angeles). from not having to compete /ith or for the opposite sex. Given the general egalitarian temper of the times. of Illinois and Indiana. . Washington and California all want to be world-class institutions on a level with private universities like Stanford. these schools have no qualms about competing for state money with the older. Yet opportunity to choose is supposed to be one of the very essentials of democratization. the public schools are often less monolithic than is often thought. . it often is. consequence is that of "leveling". They have even been able to maintain some selectivity. . The University of California..EDUCATION 201 6.the exclusively private single-sex colleges — panic has been spreading since the late 1950s. . Virginia and North Carolina. The state universities of Michigan and Texas. continued seem unnatural and anachronistic to many people. The ineluctable. . David: born 1909. State university officials recognize the importance of maintaining a private sector. if not immediately perceptible. I am inclined to believe that. for a time. . are on average far smaller than public ones. professor of social sciences at Harvard University and author of The Lonesome Crowd.

The controversy between progressives and traditionalists is basically about the question of whether education should be more childcentered. corresponding educational movements. What kind of criticism did each movement evoke? 3. 2. Text Analysis 1. centered around the indivi dual's capacities. If you compare both schools. i. Describe the characteristics of each educational movement. Which period(s) does she regard as progressive and which as traditional? Find names for each of the three 2. it is obvious that they are very different in type. which factors do you think mainly determine the character of a school? 2.e. Diane Ravitch distinguishes between three clearly identifiable periods in American educational policy: -the late 1940s to 1957. Global Comprehension American Educational Philosophies 1. Discussion and Comment 1. geared to the special needs and requirements of society. b) ethnic and social background of students. Taking into account the information about the 1983 report "A Nation at Risk" do you think that it is still true that policies swing from progressivism to traditionalism? 2. Comprehension What Makes Great Schools Great When you have read the two texts. 2. Judging from the descriptions of these two schools. compare the situation at Thomas Jefferson and that at Glenbrook South High School. 5.202 PART C Exercises 4. Interpretation and Discussion 1. Show how American educational philosophies respond to changes in the social and political climate. c) forces and efforts that make the school outstanding.e. 1957 to the mid 1960s. Diane Ravitch's analysis of educational history finishes in 1977. d) problem areas and how they are tackled. i. . e) parent support. Besides the forces that constitute the "greatness" of both schools. -the mid 1960s to the mid 1970s. f) community support. 1. interests and habits or more society-oriented. are there any other aspects of school-life not mentioned in the text that you would regard as important? How would you characterize your own school? 3. Make two columns and look at each of the following aspects: a) size of school. Find arguments for both sides and discuss them in class.

In pairs. Text Production What Students Think About Their Schools Write a newspaper commentary in which you interpret the findings. your school is going to be featured. Read the attendance regulations carefully and consider the following case: Stephen Brown has been in grade eleven of Quincy Senior High for two months. Text Production An American Senior High School Write a short newspaper article about Quincy Senior High School based on the information provided by the interview. What are Stephen's prospects for the rest of the school year? 3. He has been late five times because he overslept. Comment and Discussion Find out about the attendance policy of your school and compare it with the Quincy Senior High regulations. teacher. So far he has missed three days because his mother was taken to hospital and he had to stay at home to take care of his little sister. How often and for what reasons have you missed classes at your school? How often have you been late? What would your record mean at Quincy Senior High School? 7. Comprehension Attendance Policy and Procedures 1. 10. . What are the reasons for the Quincy Senior High attendance policy? 2. and he has skipped his math class once because he had arranged to meet his girlfriend at that time. Imagine NBC wants to produce a radio program featuring different types of outstanding American schools. 9. 2. and then carry out the interview with one of you as the interviewer and the other the interviewee. or parent involved in the life of one of the two schools. Dialogue Writing and Interview Practice 1. Now imagine that NBC has planned to broadcast another program on schools in other countries. On the basis of the information given in the preceding articles. Which regulations do you consider appropriate? 8. Discussion and Comment Would you like to participate in a student exchange program and attend an American senior high school? Discuss the various aspects of such a venture. 11. write an interview between the NBC-reporter and a student.EDUCATION 203 6. and a student has been selected to answer the reporter's questions. Among others. work out the structure of the interview. formulate the questions the reporter wants to ask.

13. Comprehension Universities in Transition To make sure that you have understood the main points of this article find out whether the following statements are true or false. State universities are often proud to be able to compete with famous private univer sities. 12. 6. 7.204 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 12. Do you think private schools and universities should have a place in a democratic society? . 1. The total number of 3. Regional branches of state universities attract equally qualified students.075 accredited colleges does not include church affiliated colleges. The idea of private education is not in accordance with a democratic society which guarantees equal rights to everybody. 8. 11. Riesman believes that the decrease in the number of single-sex schools is a step towards equality of educational opportunities for young people. The academic freedom and independence of private colleges served as a model for public colleges. The tuition fees are the main reason for the relative decline in the number of students undergoing private education. Regional state colleges and universities cannot compete with their parent campuses because they get less financial support. What advantages and disadvantages of private universities does he mention? 14. What can you deduce from this text about David Riesman's personal attitude towards private colleges and universities? 2. 10. 9. 3. There are as many innovations and experiments to be found in public schools as in the private sector. Can you think of any other points for or against private schools and universities which Riesman does not mention? 2. 4. 2. Panic which has broken out in some exclusive single-sex schools has led to a number of victims. Private colleges are much smaller than public colleges and universities can ever be. 5. Text Analysis 1. Discussion 1. There are now about three times as many students attending private colleges and universities as at the end of the Second World War.

Japan. "Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God. Billboards. Sweden. presidents take their oath of office on the Bible. and West Germany. religion has always pervaded American political life." There are even a few Disneyland-type tourist parks. A Gallup poll indicates that young Americans are far more religious than their counterparts in most other countries.12 Religion PART A Background Information HIGH DEGREE OF RELIGIOUS PARTICIPATION In most western societies.S. America. . and bumper stickers bear messages such as "Jesus Saves. Bibles continue to be the nation's best-selling books. Although the Constitution declares the separation of Church and State. Sunday morning traffic is typically congested as people drive to Sunday School and church." devoted entirely to religious themes. Church buildings representing an astonishing variety of faiths line residential streets." When the pledge of allegiance to the American flag is recited." Almost all American presidents have claimed affiliation with an established church. whose religious activity has typically been less regular than that of their parents and grand parents. Religiousness is conspicuous. T-shirts. the two words "under God" receive emphasis. modernization has been accompanied by a marked decline in religious observance. Politicians frequently make reference to God and the Bible in their speeches. U. These visible reminders of America's religious activity are accompanied by impressive statistics: • • • • More than nine out of ten Americans say they believe in God One third claim they are born-again Christians More than four out of ten attend church or synagogue at least once a week Two thirds are members of a local church or synagogue RELIGION AND POLITICS Interest in religion is high even among young people. Britain. Most bookstores have an entire section of religious books and report a tremendous volume of sales of books about Christianity and Christian living. During inaugural ceremonies. The motto of the seal of the United States carries the biblical words. such as South Carolina's "Heritage USA. About 7 41 percent of America's young people feel that religion should be "very important" in life. a percentage far greater than in Australia. outnumbering even the gas stations. Religion is bound to have an influence on politics in a society where s o many people value religion. American currency bears the inscription "In God We Trust. has remained unusually religious. Gallup poll: see page 153. Every session of Congress opens with a prayer. in contrast. France.

... America (535).......830 546 651................. 5............. Amer... Amer...............722 16.....477.. Primitive Advent Christian Ch........624 (800) .........593 (135)......... of America (80) ........000 "86...... (Ashland...............814) .. River: Brethren in Christ Ch................... of Antioch (Archdiocese of the U. Latter-day Saints: Ch....916 2.. Christadelphians (850) ... Comparisons of membership statistics from group to group are not necessarily meaningful.............250 "100........ Episcopate of America (34) ............................... American Carpatho-Russian Orth Greek Catholic Ch.000.............654 3.................. Friends General Conference (505) .720 Group Eastern Orthodox churches.............. (5..... Primitive Baptist Convention (606) . Christian Congregation (la Follette..000) Church of God by Faith (105) ..............000 2.... Baptist churches: Amer..009) ...... Col......... Source: 1987 Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches The 1987 Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches reported a total of 142.........922 226 6000 1...000 97. Natl.000 (1.....S.396) ......... Friends: Evangelical Friends Alliance (217) ...220) .....254 16................. of Baptists 225................................. Fellowship of Grace Brethren (301) ...000) __ Natl..................700 6...700) .......... Christian Nation Church U........................... Coptic Orthodox Ch...206 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Religious Information Census of Religious Groups in the U..989) .. Ohio) (122) .......... Friends United Meeting (536) ............. (78) .....830 "4.......... of America (66) .. IN) (107) ..........A. The number of churches appear in parenthess.........291) ......... United Synagogue of America (Conservative) 85.000 1...........340) .......870 185..................863 5.......500 (5... Ch.. Reorganized Ch. American Rescue Workers (20) ......... (1..... Baptist Convention of America (11...... Ch................. Christian Congregation (1.. Natl..................... 1..............250......... (13) ..............000 25.....000 1.......... Ind............. not all groups report annually.799 "5........000 192.......364 14.S....... No........ Free Will Baptists (2....................... Ch..000 280..............082 28..... (26...................... Serbian Eastern Orth.. Diocese of the Armenian Ch..... Baptist Chs........................... some groups compile data carefully..........101) ...000 "15.... Ch.. of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (1. General Conference (353) ... Apostolic Christian Ch.............000 1..............000 11..............S.604............. Romanian Orth............................ Syrian Orth. and Canada) (22) ... Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the U................441) ........... Conservative Baptist Assn.683 132................. Asterisk (*) indicates church declines to publish membership figures..422 American Ethical Union (Ethical Culture Movement) (23) .... Evangelical Church of North America (138) __ Evangelical Congregational Church of America (1... of Regular Baptist Chs........000 225...........000 "250.... Diocese of America (10) . : ....441 1... Conservative Congregational Christian Conference (163) ................ Ch...............A. membership fell half a percent from the previous year....926..446 730.......632 217........3 percent of the population.....990 41...000 115...600 57............... (38) ...... (1............. Archdiocese of N..... Albanian Orth.. of God (Anderson.950....571) ...........A............... in the U.... Independent Fundamental Churches of America (1................... Southern Baptist Convention (36.................................... Brethren (German Baptists): Brethren Ch.000 "450................S.051..... Greek Orth...229 (85) ............860................... but others estimate... Baptist Missionary Assn. Duck River (and Kindred) Assn.......... Jehovah's Witnesses (8..... Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (1...........A..............780 60..... Roman Catholics count members from infancy.548) ... of God.... (7.............739.......469 718.A.... and S......S.500 522.441) ....... (**) indicates figures date from 1977 or earlier.......954 2....... (120) .. Baha'l Faith (1650) ... Antiochian Orth Christian Archdiocese of No.... (185) ...546 227. Evangelical associations: Apostolic Christian Chs..300.. Patriarchal Parishes of the Russian Orth. Amer..........000 9...S............ Group Adventist Christian Ch..............S......000 **8.000 100................... in U.....799 103...........400 34..........487) ......000...............898) ............ Brethren... Churches of Christ (13.... of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) (28) . of America Members 28................ Seventh Day Baptist General Conference (60) ............ but some Protestant groups count only "adult" members.000 42.. Churches of Christ in Christian Union (260) __ Churches of God: Chs..... Denver....... (70) ....641) ....................... 1..... (Nazarean) (48) .............................S............... of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) (8........500.................400 120........668....—59......150) .. Church of the Nazarene (4.. Christian Catholic Church (4) . Members 5....S..g...... Baptist Convention... Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (2................ usually 13 years or older.733 5.019) .... (368) ....................... Assn...........274) __ 2.......443 4..........367) ..846 2.......... Jewish organizations: Union of Amer Hebrew Congregations (Reform) (804) ...........................................591 (566)....500 12.783 100. Christian Churches and Churches of Christ 227......... 838 300............ Church of Christ.............. Gen... Baptist Conference (258) ...... of Jesus Christ (Bickertonites) (53) ....... "87......... Ukrainian Orth.. Ch. Baptist Assn...... in America (440) .A.............. Ch.363 members of religious groups in the U...745 The Episcopal Church in the U.............. Buddhist Churches of America (100) .........................008 14...........082 ............. Ch.........................398) ... The Christian and Missionary Alliance 103................000 1.) (2...... (10) ............A.....559......000 (1.......................... (28) .839 "2.... (5) ................ Baptist General Conference (753) .......646) ..... of America (1........ Evangelical Free Church of America (880) ...... Grace Gospel Fellowship (52) .....................095 31..800 3... Scientist (3.......150 95. Christian Union (114) .......... Seventh-day Adventists (4...... Anglican Orthodox Church (40) ..... Membership definitions vary e. U..........123 30. Bulgarian Eastern Orth.990 24.............. Orthodox Ch........ Old German Baptist Brethren (52) ..140) ............ of God (Seventh Day).

.. 700 Primitive Methodist Ch.... Congregational Holiness Ch.185) .....................A.................. (174) .......................048) ....908 427...... of No..... (598) ............................ Intl...... Old Order Amish Ch.....082............. Mennonite Ch. of Evangelical Lutheran Chs. Presbyterian churches: Associate Reformed Presbyterian Ch...057) . United Brethren: Ch.... (87) ........210.. in America (31) __ Protestant Reformed Chs.... (Gen Synod) (172) ...... Lutheran Ch.374 8.. Lutheran Ch... 3. of the United Brethren in Christ (256) .....092..... (128) ......838 26.....................942 3...................000.......................... Natl.S...........411 36.......................................006 Moslems ....000 10......... (6.........) (54) ........500 89......... Council.... United Church of Christ (6...) (11...231 United Methodist Ch............ of the Foursquare Gospel (1... (3............. Reformed Presbyterian Ch......... (171) ...683........ United Pentecostal Ch....000 1........ Old Catholic churches: Christ Catholic Ch......... General Conference of Mennonite Brethren Chs..040 Free Methodist Ch.... Pentecostal Free Will Baptist Ch......167 34......... Southern Province (56) .731 2..800 (18) ..558 (6...........380 1............................000 9........ (37. The Schwenkfelder Church (5) .978 Reformed Methodist Union Episcopal Ch.....927 62............... The Salvation Army (1....576 2...................269 357....229 Evangelical Methodist Ch..761) ..A.... of Churches (142) ...037 27.. The Swedenborgian Church 13.... of No.. Presbyterian Ch.... Gen..917 3.......... U....... (100) ......S............146 219........787 46.... The Roman Catholic Church (24............... Social Brethren (40) ....000 505.. Reformed Ch....164 959 415................. Evangelical Presbyterian Ch..... (34) ..543 98............ 2...... Members 2..544 342.. (130) Plymouth Brethren (1............506 500.. Tenn. (230) ..... Pentecostal Assemblies of the World (560) .351 "4...... (989) ..... Volunteers of America (607) .. 72... (14) ... Reformed churches: Christian Reformed Ch.... in America (21) ....714) . (6) ................ 3.817) .......638... of the Lutheran Brethren of America (108) ..........347 (104) . Ch............ in the U... Protestant Conference (Lutheran) (9).... 62.408) .. (4......346) ..... .......... 9......202 2............... Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Chs... 9..934 19...... Presbyterian Ch.... United Christian Ch.... Northern Province (fOO) ...... (25) .. Ch. Church of God (Cleveland. Assemblies of God (10.....572) ...... Pentecostal Church of God (1.........988 11.. Unitarian Universalist Assn............................ Mennonite churches: Beachy Amish Mennonite Chs...... Orthodox Presbyterian Ch.............. 9..................... in America (926)...878 4...862 3813 16..............000 4.................. Province of North America (166) ..... (150) ....251) .634 109............ Methodist churches: African Methodist Episcopal Ch...................700 98..............266.......988 91......... Spiritualist Assn.. Bible Way Church of our Lord Jesus Christ World Wide (350) ............RELIGION 207 Group Lutheran churches: American Lutheran Ch.......................... (11) ..........784 5.................. 7. (Unitas Fratrum)........ of North America (1..380 .......... (272) __ Evangelical Lutheran Synod (116) ................... Ch. Catholic Church of America (162) ..........................................051) . (948) ......... (818) .. 33........853 Moravian churches: Moravian Ch.142) ..........940) ................502 177.......... America (650) ___ Hungarian Reformed Ch.......223 Fundamental Methodist Ch.332..... Convention......869 421 1..898.... Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church of America (59) ...........................275 3.. (126) . (U..... Evangelical Mennonite Ch............. Members 4..... Bible Church of Christ (6) ... Intl.850 18.......500 177.-Missouri Synod (5.........068 North American Old Roman Catholic Church (49) .............778 52............. Christian Ch..........541 (130) ..... in America (878) . 1.205 13..088) ......000 18.......... African Methodist Episcopal Zion Ch......... Ch.......990) ..................................... Vedanta Society (13) .. The Wesleyan Church (1....... 2...881 "1. Ore...... Amer (71) ....S. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (1......654......952 8....500 36...000 Group Pentecostal churches: Apostolic Faith (Portland..... Gen......389 5.245 171. Old Roman Cath..... No...........714 Unity of the Brethren (27) .....151 5...............316 11... Reformed Ch.................000 "282........... Open Bible Standard Chs (290) ... of the Lutheran Confession (67) ....... 32.................................408) ............ in America (5............... Old Order (Wister) Mennonite Ch (38) ...) (5......................876)..................... Ch.................. Assn...........202.....................200) ..........................910 110..179) . Amer.. Southern Methodist Ch........ ..350 "30.............................150) .. Hutterian Brethren (77) . (83) ..... of Free Lutheran Congregations (156) ............777 34..........415 Moravian Ch........ in N......... (Schweikert) (130) ..... Polish Natl..... in America (Unitas Fratrum).......................................... Amer..........000 + New Apostollic Church of North America (457) .................................100 2................ 21.825 2.... Assn............ Mariavite Old Cath. Cumberland Presbyterian Ch......... Church of God of Prophecy (2...............775 73....

within Church of England. bread and wine symbolize Christ's spiritual presence. Lord's Supper. Seven sacraments: baptism. 1517. Scripture. Synods of bishops in autonomous. we speak: where the Scriptures are silent. United Church of Christ By ecumenical union. marriage. laying on of hands (which confers the gift of the Holy Spirit). are elected by diocesan representatives: part of Anglican Communion.Rev. (1809). Orthodox Original Christian proselytizing in 1st century. . Bishops in apostolic succession. 1638. priests. ordination. Christ's true body and blood present "in. in distress over Protestant factionalism and decline of fervor. contrition and penance. Scripture as interpreted by tradition. Germany. and the first 7 church councils up to Nicaea II in 787. esp. confirmation. I. 1738. as a group. "Where the Scriptures speak. marriage for eternity. symbolically headed by Archbishop of Canterbury. Roger Williams. Spirit baptism. 2 counselors). Kansas (1901). PresIn Calvinist Reformation in 1500s. 39 Articles (1563). Adult baptism. and tradition. byter. Tri-annual convention of bishops. penance. objected to Catholic doctrine of salvation by merit and sale of indulgences.. generally speaking. Book of Mormon and other revelations to Smith. Lord's Supper. Lord's Supper.208 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Major Christian Denominations: How Do They Differ? Italics indicate that area which. only an office — who are elected for life. Eucharist. and certain pronouncements of the 1st Presidency. break complete by 1519. in early Christian proselytizing and the conversion of imperial Rome in the 4th century. broke with Rome.differed with Lutherans over ians sacraments. Hierarchy with supreme power vested in Pope elected by cardinals. These confessions of faith are binding although interpretations vary. R. for political reasons.Henry VIII separated English copal. each local church is autonomous. archbishop or metropolitan. Authority Scripture. Scripture as interpreted by tradition. First U. after about age 12. Bishops in council have authority in doctrine and policy. others. Pentecostalism now has a variety of organized forms and continues also as a movement. and Los Angeles (1906) in reaction to loss of evangelical fervor among Methodists and other denominations. Highly structured representational system of ministers and laypersons (presbyters) in local. Lutherans Martin Luther in Wittenberg. individual charismatic leaders. Scripture The Pope when speaking for the whole church in matters of faith and morals. representative of all congregations. John Knox founded Scotch Presbyterian church about 1560. some Baptists. Sacrament is symbolic. marriage. by total immersion. which is partly recorded in scripture and expressed in church councils. founded 1789. Church of Christ (Disciples) Congregational. lies historically. Other rites. usually national.named St. Lord's Supper. solemnize personal commitments Metho. interpret the Bible literally. inc. 1784. of Congregationalists and Evangelical & Reformed representing both Calvinist and Lutheran traditions. with. demands for church-state separation. denomination Baltimore. a General Synod. ordination.e. English Separatist in 1609. most distinguishes that denomination from any other. Providence. and laymen. Eucharist (both bread and wine). Originally a movement. are the heads of the church. reason.S. 1957. regional and national bodies (synods). Denomination Baptists Origins In radical Reformation objections to infant baptism. Organized 1832. the teachings of the Holy Spirit. ordination. Conference and superintendent system. Scripture and tradition as spelled out in Augsburg Confession (1530) and other creeds. Holy Communion. but has real spiritual effect. (1804) and Penn. John Smyth. by Jesus who Catho. Lord's Supper commanded. 1054. in New York. Lord's Supper (weekly) Epis. Lord's Supper. and experience. Councils of Bishops advise on matters of doctrine and policy. esp. general superintendents are bishops—not a priestly order. Infant baptism.S.S. Theocratic. sets general policy. Temple rites. and under the bread and wine. marriage." Baptism of infants or adults. Scripture. Lord's Supper. These men. John Wesley began dists movement. In United Methodist Church. all male adults are in priesthood which culminates in Council of 12 Apostles and 1st Presidency (1st President. after centuries of doctrinal disputes and diverging traditions. I Among evangelical Presbyterians in Ky. and anointing of the sick (unction). particularly in South. not dogmatic. Infant baptism. Special rites Baptism. Infant baptism. anointing of the sick. Roman Traditionally. a combination of regional synods and congregational polities is most common. МогIn visions of the Angel Moroni by mons Joseph Smith 1827. others. ians 1534. Seven sacraments: infant baptisrrand anointing. Infant baptism. Organization Congregational. churches elect a patriarch. Scripture tradition. Peter the 1st Vicar. we are silent" Adult baptism. Congregational. baptism for the dead. as shown in "speaking in tongues": healing and sometimes exorcism: adult baptism. church government. Pentecostal In Topeka. Varies from congregational to episcopal: in U. Protestant Episcopal Church in U. not a formal organization.Catholic Church from Rome. in which he received a new revelation on golden tablets: The Book of Mormon The Bible.

Tolerant. some social action programs. emphasis on perfectionism with varying degrees of tolerance. Orthodox Church in America. Roman Catholics Usually simple services with emphasis on the sermon. Statement of Faith (1959) is not binding. Tolerant: very little social action. strict tithing. Most other beliefs are traditionally Christian. Apostles Creed is basic. Priests need not be celibate. The liturgy is the essence of Orthodoxy. Theoretically very strict. Pres byterians Relatively elaborate ritual. Traditionally. always strong social activist elements.RELIGION 209 Practice Worship style varies from staid to evangelistic. Tries to avoid any rite or doctrine not explicitly part of the 1st century church. Secret temple ceremonies may be more elaborate. Simple New Testament faith. increasing action programs. Church o Christ (Disciples) Episcopalians Formal. local church. conservative in personal and social ethics. Doctrine Wo creed. he created the universe out of preexisting matter. processions. geography. culminating in spirit baptism. Methodists Staid service with hymns.and German-speaking groups. Loosely structured service with rousing hymns and sermons. 25 Articles abriged from Church of England's 39 not binding. remarriage permitted in some cases. While traces of belief in predestination (that God had foreordained salvation for the "elect") remain. Strongly ecumenical. Some tendency toward perfectonism. UMs leaders in ecumenical movement. e. services range from austerely simple to highly elaborate. United Church of Christ . sermon. all persons can be saved and many will become divine. sometimes permissive. rather than crucifixion. a tendency toward strictness with firm church. wide variety of public and private rites. Unusual development of doctrines surrounding Mary. Combine a strong work ethic with communal self-reliance. who are all equal." Pentecostalism now costal appears in mainline churches and has established middle-class congregations. novenas. Originally pietist and perfectionist. A simple. sober service in which the sermon is central. Dogmatic. strongly f supportive of scholarly education. main divisions are between fundamentalists and liberals. Though still somewhat divided along ethnic lines (German. was granted autonomy in 1970. No distinctive theological development. Some congregations may reject instrumental music. etc. Veneration of icons. Mormons regard mainline churches as apostate. the Holy Spirit proceeds from God the Father only. Strong missionary activity. Mormons Elaborate liturgy. corrupt. divorce. rosary recitation.. orginally under Patriarch of Moscow. Tolerant: some social action emphasis. the Baptists are strong supporters of churchstate separation. Greek Orthodox do not recognize this autonomy. Celibate clergy. holding talks with all other branches of Christendom.g. Reorganized Church (founded 1860) rejects most Mormon doctrine and practice except Book of Mormon. avoids any elaboration not firmly based on Scripture. otherwise. Other Denomination Since no authority can stand Baptists between the believer and God. though extremely traditional. with emphasis on the immediate presence of God in the Holy Spirit Emphasizes the sovereignty and justice of God. sometimes tends towards a perfectionist ethical standard. The 2 main churches in the 1957 union represented earlier unions with small groups of almost every Protestant denomination. Lutheranism has made major contributions to Protestant theology. usually Protestant. doctrine of "2 kingdoms" (worldly and holy) supports conservatism in secular affairs. Divorce and remarriage not accepted. this idea is no longer a central element in Presbyterianism. Once confined to lower-class Pente"holy rollers. usually in the vernacular. tolerant in practice on most issues.and self-discipline. based on Book ol Common Prayer (1549). considerable variation ranges rom rationalist and liberal to acceptance of most Roman Catholic dogma. bishops are. no longer doctrinaire. Orthodox Usually. Relatively simple formal liturgy . Emphasis on Christ's resurrection.vith emphasis on the sermon. Salvation by merit gained through faith. Extensive missionary activity. In 1968. Highly elaborated. true church is of believers only. Temperance. Simple traditional beliefs. God is a material being. Generally. Lutherans Worship style varies widely by denomination. Roman Catholicism is presently in a period of relatively rapid change as a result of Vatican Councils I and II. otherwise tolerant. Salvation by faith alone through grace. Ethics Usually opposed to alcohol and tobacco. Standard Protestant. United Methodist Church joined pioneer English.). except in Eastern rite. Swede. Highly tolerant in doctrinal and religious matters.

Among Protestants alone. and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Orthodox Other None Denomination undeslgnated Lutheran Presbyterian Episcopalian Mormon Other Protestant denominations Based on national surveys and approximately 29. Canada's three largest denominations. RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE Major Faiths and Denominations 1981 Baptist Catholic Methodist Jewish E. there are 186 different organizations. Catholicism. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. and Judaism. Mexico's population is 96 percent Catholic. which is a snake-handling cult. The First Amendment to the Constitution prohibits an established national religion and protects the individual's right to practice the religion of his or her choice. there are about 1. or the right of the people peaceably to assemble.210 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP THREE MAJOR FAITHS RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY Religion in America today is built primarily on the structure of Protestantism. or of the press. The degree of religious diversity in America becomes evident when one compares the religious composition of American society with that of its neighbors. has until recent decades occupied a dominant position in American society.000 interviews PROTESTANTS The immigrants who first came to America from countries all over the world brought a variety of religions. Although the official separation of Church and State provided a climate for these diverse religious practices to flourish. Among these sects are established groups such as the Quakers and Mormons.500 major and minor sectarian churches. account for 86 percent of total membership. because of numbers and influence. Within each of these groups there is great diversity. it is necessary to add together 19 separate denominations. Roman Catholic. Catholics. and the United Church of Canada. Besides the three major groupings of Protestants. There are also bizarre groups such as the Holiness Church. Protestantism. Many came with the express purpose of establishing communities where they could practice their own form of worship without interference or fear of persecution. or abridging the freedom of speech. and Jews." . First Amendment: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. To account for 86 percent of America's total church membership. Anglican.

and France. was predominantly white Protestant. Worship services of radical churches are less formal and liturgical than services of mainstream Protestants. and Southern Baptists. In 1985. They have suffered sizable membership losses.RELIGION 211 PURITANS MAINSTREAM PROTESTANTISM CATHOLICS JEWS CHANGES IN THE RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE The first settlers of Massachusetts were members of a radical Protestant group called Puritans. California. Pentecostals. Since the 1960s. are now usually considered part of mainstream Protestantism as well. while radical churches usually consist of lower-income groups. Along with the Congregationalist Church. are sometimes referred to as "radical" Protestants. Many radical churches encourage "speaking in tongues. In the sixteenth century they set up churches in what is now Texas. Many people trace the American drive for success through hard work to this Puritan. Jews constitute 2 percent of the population. Episcopal. White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) set the basic character of national life and were often intolerant of Catholics. such as Mennonites. and "born-again" conversion experiences. Mainstream churches tend to be middle or upper class. Baptists and Methodists. Puritan: see page 13. the Presbyterian. which is the denomination established by the early Puritans. including Presbyterians from Northern Ireland. 28 percent of Americans surveyed identified themselves as Catholic. The first Catholics in America were missionaries from Spain. WASP: see page 13. Catholics constitute the second largest religious group." faith healing. New Mexico. such that the Protestant majority in America decreased from 67 percent of the population to 57 percent in 1985. Jews frequently encountered hostility and resentment. however. Portugal. Devoting themselves to work as a way of pleasing God. During the nineteenth and into the twentieth century. Germany. Speaking in tongues: prayer characterized chiefly by incomprehensible speech practiced in ecstatic forms of worship. America's religious landscape has undergone major transformations. They believed that God had elected." only certain persons to be saved. Episcopals from England. . and France between 1830 and 1880 and from eastern and southern Europe during the 1880s. In the seventeenth century Catholics from England settled the colony of Maryland. and Florida. Catholics emigrated to the United States from Ireland. Puritans thought of themselves as God's chosen people. But the greatest influx of Catholics to America occurred in the nineteenth century. work ethic. Among the immigrants to America were Protestants of many denominations from all over Europe. Lutherans from Scandinavia and Germany. 57 percent of the population named Protestantism as their religious preference. or "predestined. American society. Like the Catholics. they viewed their prosperity as an outward sign that God counted them among the saved. once peripheral sects. Lutheran. In 1985. Many Jews came to America during the nineteenth century to escape persecution in Europe. Other Protestant denominations. or Protestant. and Reformed churches constitute what is referred to as "mainstream Protestantism" in America. and members of various European Reformed Churches. the most significant being the declining influence of the mainline Protestant churches.

returning to traditional values. mainline Protestant churches have been shifting away from their relaxed. . these churches seemed to fill the needs of many Americans who were frustrated by the lack of direction in modern life. By drawing rigid behavioral boundaries. In the late 1960s and 70s. celibacy for priests. While liberal Protestant churches have lost members.212 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP PROTESTANT DECLINE LIBERAL VS. many mainstream members abandoned churchgoing altogether. Intermarriage between Jews and Christians has also helped to create an atmosphere of tolerance towards Jews. In contrast to more radical churches. The trend towards pluralism has not only meant that Catholics and Ku Klux Klan: a secret society organized in the South after the Civil War to re-establish white supremacy with methods of terrorism. Their acceptance has been facilitated by many immigrant Jews' willingness to discard those practices that made Judaism seem exotic. whose conservative stance on issues such as birth control. CONSERVATIVE CHURCHES TRENDS IN THE CATHOLIC COMMUNITY INCREASING PLURALISM Many observers link the decline of the major Protestant churches in America to the permissiveness of the 1960s. the percentage of Catholics attending weekly mass declined sharply from 74 percent to 51 percent. are now more readily accepted. evangelical and fundamentalist bodies such as the Seventh-Day Adventists. To attract members. and offering absolutist moral teachings. mainstream Protestant churches have not insisted on strict obedience to a particular code of behavior. The American Catholic Church has also had to cope with widening differences with Pope John Paul II. Catholics made spectacular gains in education and income. once treated like outsiders. Today. American bishops have been outspoken on political issues. In the past decades. Assemblies of God. do not participate as actively in church activities as they once did. there seems to be a growing desire for spiritual direction. Between 1958 and 1982. John Birch Society: an ultraconservative anti-Communist organization founded by Robert Welch in 1958. American Catholics. Coexistence among America's diverse religious groups and sects is stressed. conservative fundamentalist Protestant churches have been steadily attracting members. such that their overall status levels now equal those of Protestants. the Church of the Nazarene. The decline of mainstream Protestant influence has been accompanied by the rise in status of Catholics and Jews. Mainline churches have tended to be liberal in social outlook and theology. Catholics. A significant trend in American religious life is one towards increasing pluralism. During the liberal social climate of the 1960s. however. though increasing in population. In the years after the Second World War. liberal stance towards a more conservative theology. Anti-Catholicism and antiSemitism are now mainly confined to radical right-wing groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and the John Birch Society. The Catholic community has experienced conflicts and developments of its own. challenging nuclear strategy and criticizing the presuppositions and policies of economic and political leaders. and Southern Baptists grew at phenomenal rates. American Jews. and Jews have become less divided. and women in the priesthood provoke dissidence and disobedience. Between 40 and 50 percent of all Jews marry non-Jews. America's Protestants. An important pattern has emerged. as well as a similar shift to conservatism. strict. Membership has begun to stabilize.

Evangelicals also share a desire to convert others to their way of believing. One event which intensified the controversy over cults was the 1978 mass suicide that occurred at a commune in Jonestown. evangelicals attacked "secular humanism" and crusaded for moral issues. or fundamentalist. By persuasion and at gunpoint American cult leader Jim Jones led more than 900 members of his Peoples' Temple commune to commit suicide by drinking a mixture of fruit juice and cyanide. and the teaching of evolution in schools. and its offspring. In the 1980 presidential elections. evangelist leaders successfully extended their spheres of influence far beyond the church. Representing the right-wing of the political spectrum. they gained immediate attention by their involvement in politics and their media skills. In 1986. have crossed the boundar y between religion and politics altogether. Religious fanaticism exists. In the 1960s. opposes homo sexuality. there has been another recent development in American religious life: the rise of the evangelical. tolerance is extended to an even broader range of religious groups. conservative countercurrents that were flowing in the 1960s. Despite the constitutional separation of religious and secular life. but events such as these are not characteristic of all cults. focusing attention on the family and schools. the Hare Krishnas. Americans show little tolerance towards some cults. and the followers of Bhagwan Rajneesh are commonly regarded as bizarre and potentially dangerous. who was a candidate for the 1988 presidential election. evangelist Pat Robertson. pornography. abortion. .RELIGION 213 SECTS AND CULTS RISE OF THE EVANGELICAL MOVEMENT POLITICAL ACTIVISM Jews are gaining acceptance in American society. While open religious prejudice is not as pronounced as it used to be. V. conservative fundamentalists actively lobbied for anti -abortion legislation and for a constitutional amendment permitting prayer in schools. and that a personal relationship with Jesus is at the center of every Chri stian's life. including Eastern religions such as B uddhism and Hinduism. the electronic church. that the Bible is the authoritative word of God. based on moral absolutism. The term evangelical is applied across all Christian denominations to religious alliances that share the belief that a true Christian must have a born -again experience. Falwell merged his Moral Majority with the Liberty Alliance. which has quietly existed for a long time. to form Liberty Federation. the evangelical right gave Ronald Reagan and many conservative senators strong support. The Moonies. a religious -political lobby with an even broader appeal. derived new momentum from the anti-modern. This movement has arisen so quickly and has acquired so much influence that it has drawn much national attention. a conserva tive lobby group. Some. while most churches were experiencing declining memberships. movement. The evangelical movement. In addition. Besides the increasing visibility of cults and sects. Their methods of attracting and holding members are controversial. Fundamentalist minister Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority has been the most influential political lobby of the new Religious Right since the late 1970s. Guyana. In the 1980s. The Moral Majority's political agenda. like T. Critics accuse the cults of manipulating and brain washing their members. Many observers argue that not all sects should be condemned for the abuses of some. These conservative Christian leaders did not limit their crusades to the pulpit. evangelical churches were gaining members and in fluence.

.. $301 to over $1. ....... Religious broadcasting has exploded into a multi-million dollar business...6 40.....9 17.. Denomination: Southern Baptist ....2 22..9 33........... $25.....1 25. Female..... Important ..........5 46.... Over $35....5 34......3 9...............3 16. Not important at all ....5 44........ these preachers resemble commercial television show hosts more than ministers.......3 42...2 18..... With their show-biz flair.0 1 Includes other denominations..0 43.. and Pat Robertson.......................... Local annual contributions: None ....4 29.....8 44.. Age 18-29 years old........... Race White ...214 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP THE ELECTRONIC CHURCH What has enabled the evangelical movement to take off with such speed and gain a powerful sphere of influence in American society is its skillful use of television.9 8.4 50.............4 13...3 25....................8 51..5 21.300 radio and television stations devote all their time to religion.. this is the message many people desire..7 14..6 36.4 45. Methodist... Gospel programs that buy time are proliferating....3 39.........6 Household income: Under $15.........1 42..7 37.000 to $24..8 16..... Robert Schuller.........0 36.... 42......7 42..0 54..7 49....3 27..6 16.....1 85.1 19.... Every Sunday morning....0 39..8 28.......2 42.........200 .. Southeast .........0 9.... Sex Male ..... Importance of religion: Very important .......4 11...4 50.....9 45......4 39.7 45.....6 43...2 25....... Presbyterian . Non-White .4 15......... $15..1 39........1 49........8 53..................7 46.9 27. Catholic .... Lutheran .....8 43.... millions of Americans tune in to elaborate television broadcasts of popular preachers such as Jerry Falwell.... when connections between life and faith seem vague..0 41... and sermons designed to tug at viewers' emotions...2 9......9 29.....000 .. High school graduate.2 43.... Under$120 ..6 43........999 ...5 81...... More than 1.2 17....... In a sophisticated modern world.......3 16....000 to $35.0 25...........3 Nonviewers GROUP VIEWERS Confirmed frequent Nonviewers Other «her Total: .. 50-65 years old.....4 47......6 37..000 .2 42..6 39.....1 48. 25..0 48...2 16...........9 34.3 42.................3 60. Region Northeast ..... gospel entertainment....5 12....... Jimmy Swaggart...8 64..........................4 22..9 20. Less than once a week..3 26.6 43.8 21...3 1.... Education Less than high school .7 32....9 23........5 28.. Over 65 years old ................. The appeal of the so-called electronic church and its evangelical preachers to so many Americans is not just a matter of technique. Church attendance: Once a week or more .....9 31........................1 19........3 28...4 2...... They provide moral anchorage to many Americans by emphasizing the individual's personal responsibility and unswerving commitment.. $120 to $300 ........ RELIGIOUS TELEVISION PROGRAM VIEWING BY SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS: 1983 VIEWERS GROUP Confirmed frequent 18.9 11.....000 ...6 21....... Some college and more 11...6 60..........2 30-49 years old ...2 29........... Not very important ...6 50............ Other Baptist ...8 12....3 55... not shown separately.....0 48..0 5...

no pantsuits. wore a dark suit. on the second Sunday of my stay. I saw Hulan White. It was entitled "The Sanctity of Life. and there was a large choir. a churchgoing town. There were no turtlenecks. services usually begin with Sunday School (classes for both adults and children). It is. a youthful-looking man with an expressive face. "Something for Thee. Stiltner waited in the vestibule to greet the departing congregation. 'Thou shalt not kill. Most of the worshippers were families with one or more (well-behaved) children.' " He said that the Old Testament accepts the right of a soldier to take a human life in war." and dealt with the Sixth Commandment. I chose. white or black — attends at least one of these services. and for all but its two hundred-odd Roman Catholics.215 PART в Texts Sunday in Hope S UNDAY in Hope is a day very largely shaped by Christian faith and social convention." and received the Benediction. and a dozen other familiar faces. followed by an afternoon Church Training Program. at nine-thirty. we sang "O Worship the King. We sang a final hymn. An organ and a piano flanked the pulpit." and after the Invocation and another prayer we sang "Rock of Ages." Dr. and there is room for over two hundred more in a balcony. When I arrived and was shown to a place. in Christian churches the Sunday. "This commandment is commonly taken to read. I recognized several of my fellow worshippers. And half an hour later. by Evening Worship. Richard Stiltner. "A more careful rendering of the Hebrew is 'Thou shalt not murder. at ten forty-five.'" he said. Dr. Stiltner's sermon was one of a series on the Ten Commandments. immaculate in a tan summer suit. to attend Morning Worship at the First Baptist Church. as the day of rest. the pastor. however. the nave looked almost full. Sabbaterian: strictly observing the Sabbath. and it accepts the right of society to inflict the death penalty. Most of my fellow diners began their meal with the usual aperitif of the region — a cup of coffee. . followed. and all the women wore dresses. as far as I could tell. at seven o'clock. and there are some who attend them all. It was a congregation of Sunday suits and Sunday bests. any sports jackets: all the men wore business suits. Almost everybody in Hope — old or young. and there were also people in the balcony. at the ritual Sunday dinner in the restaurant at the Quality Inn. After the opening prayer. Hope is not a Sabbatarian town. followed by Morning Worship. Dr. The nave of the First Baptist Church seats six hundred and fifty people in comfortably cushioned pews. Cleft for Me. not even.

Halfway through his speech. the black people were far from being free but found themselves segregated.000 people in front of the Lincoln Memorial. drawing on his experience as a minister. 1963. discriminated against and impoverished within American society. This part of his speech is covered by the following text. Commemorating the Emancipation Proclamation. On August 28. King reminded his audience in a carefully prepared speech that even 100 years after Abraham Lincoln had declared the slaves free. he was carried away by the enthusiastic reaction of the crowd and. began to improvise. was the outstanding leader of the nonviolent Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s. ■ Martin Luther King at the Lincoln Memorial .216 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP e I Have a Dream Martin Luther King (1929—1968). he led the "March on Washington". a Baptist minister. which culminated in the meeting of 200.

and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed." And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. every hill and mountain shall be made low. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. we are free at last!" . to go to jail together. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. I still have a dream. and all flesh shall see it together. with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification. that all men are created equal. one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. to pray together. of thee I sing. to struggle together. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania! Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom ring from the curvacious slopes of California! But not only that. Jews and Gentiles. "My country 'tis of thee. the rough places will be made plains. Protestants and Catholics. I have a dream that one day down in Alabama with its vicious racists. let freedom ring. will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted.RELIGION 217 I say to you today. let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. a state sweltering with the heat of injustice. With this faith we will be able to work together. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident. When we let freedom ring. From every mountainside. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. to stand up for freedom together. Let freedom ring from every hill and mole hill of Mississippi. black men and white men. from every mountainside. I have a dream today. sweltering with the heat of oppression. This is our hope. even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow." I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi. and the crooked places will be made straight. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God almighty. from every state and every city. Land where my fathers died. we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. my friends. sweet land of liberty. let freedom ring. knowing that we will be free one day. when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet. land of pilgrims' pride. I have a dream today. This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning. will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual. and when this happens. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.

Clark sent a seven-page letter to the bishops. it must do more good than harm. Something is happening when the government seeks to defend its morality to church leaders. is associate professor of religion. they adopted the final draft of the "Pastoral Letter on War. that a "first-strike" policy must be challenged.D. the theory is now being used to challenge military policies. The bishops drew heavily on the principles of discrimination and proportionality — nuclear war would not discriminate between military and civilian personnel. Neb ed. Armaments and Peace.." The second draft discussed by the bishops in November. the National Conference of Catholic Bishops met in Chicago and. and it certainly would not do more good than harm. that a limited nuclear war is not likely to stay limit- Dr. 1982. It states that massive retaliation on populated areas should never be allowed. that there should be a halt in the testing. Bock Associate Religion Editor of USA Today. that vigorous steps should be taken toward multilateral disarmament. Although often used in the past to justify particular wars. the bishops worked extensively with the "just war" theory which has been the prevailing view in Catholic thought on war since Augustine developed it around 400 A. there must be a just cause such as defense against aggression. First of all. Doane College. and that serious questions must be raised about the morality of deterrence. the final document still breaks new ground. and many people waited with eagerness to see what the final draft would say. saying that. after making some revisions. in its second draft. Although some of the forthright statements of the second draft were toned down. it is amazing to see how much public attention it received." by Paul Bock Cardinal Bernardin: "If you take a strong stand against abortion as the unjust taking of human life..218 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP RELIGION BREAKING NEW GROUND ON WAR AND PEACE "The American Catholic Church has made a striking change in its historic attitude toward war. in Washington. There are several very remarkable things about the pastoral letter and the procedure followed in developing it. then you cannot remain indifferent to nuclear warfare. .C. thereby departing from the pacifist view which was dominant during the first three centuries of the church's history. Crete. it must be carried on with discrimination — aiming at military and not civilian targets. the pastoral letter reflected a misunderstanding of government policy in regard to the bombing of populated areas. production. The just war theory states that a war may be justified only if it meets certain conditions: it must be a last resort. aroused an incredible amount of public attention. and deployment of new nuclear weapons systems. Consistent with their heritage. and it must follow the principle of proportionality that is. National Security Advisor William P. 1983. especially from the government. as reflected in the cover-page story in Time magazine. It is hard to remember an occasion when a church document aroused such interest. Nor can one remember an occasion when the government felt so challenged by a church document as to cause it to intervene in the development of the statement. it must be fought with the right attitude (no revenge). it must be declared by a proper governmental authority. D." I N May. taking positions that are quite different from earlier American Catholic statements on war.

RELIGION 219 3. "Come let us reason together. "My country. it is apparent that the American Catholic Church has made a striking change in its historic attitude toward war. It is only since Vatican II that the Roman Catholic Church has regarded conscientious objection as a valid position. but rather invites the faithful to think with the bishops on the issues raised. and the procedure followed may set a pattern for the future. These included top government officials as well as theologians.of which there were many — as well as those made at meetings and hearings. It should be pointed out that the letter has two audiences . It does not command obedience or dictate what is right.. Extensive hearings were held and experts were invited to testify. they felt a need to prove how loyal they were. In American history. right or wrong. as late immigrants suspected of having beliefs incompatible with democracy. However. there is something quite unusual about the procedure used in drafting the document — namely.American Roman Catholics and the public. Saint (354—430): early Christian Church father and author. . Essentially. Before that. An example of superpatriotism is Francis Cardinal Spellman being photographed behind a machine gun in Vietnam and being quoted as saying. and among them is a Mennonite. it does not command. Mennonite: member of an Evangelical Protestant Christian sect opposed to taking oaths. and the theologians included Protestants as well as Catholics. The Catholic bishops have never engaged in so much consultation before. . Footnotes to the letter include Protestant authorities on war and peace. Third. or performing military service. . only the just war view was recognized. Augustine. Catholics have often been superpatriotic in wartime. Each draft took into account suggestions received through the mail . even in addressing the Roman Catholics." A very specific example of the changed outlook is seen in the attention given in this document to the pacifist position. the wide consultation. holding public office. there is something special about the style of the letter. One reason for this approach is that there is no authoritative teaching on some aspects of nuclear deterrence. the bishops are saying. This is partly because. whereas there is on subjects such as abortion. Are not the current government policies in violation of the Catholic teaching on the just war?" Fourth. continued Second.

part trade show — and all barn burner. Jerry Falwell argued that "theologically. Dozens of Senators and Congressmen made it their business to turn out for the cameras and lights." And at one session after another.are the televangelists. has been transmitting signals that he might join the race . Glory — And Politics Right-wing preachers dominate the dial I T WAS PART POLITICAL caucus. part camp meeting. head of the Christian Broadcasting Network and a fixture on CBN's four-times-aday The 700 Club." Even White House Communications Director Patrick Buchanan drew audience cries of "Amen!" and "Praise the Lord!" when he exhorted Republicans to "tap into the spiritual revival that is going in the country.000 milled through the Sheraton Washington Hotel in the nation's capital last week. these powerhouse preachers strutted their stuff. cheered on by such honored elders of the field as Billy Graham and Oral Roberts. and media consultants prowled the meeting rooms for new talent. Robertson. any Christian has to support Israel. one evangelist in particular sounded mighty like a politician.and recognizable faces . a Southern Baptist. sent a message on videotape. He was Marion Gordon ("Pat") Robertson. video-equipment salesmen hawked their wares. the pastors of "Pray TV. This is a group whose most resonant names . cementing alliances and buffing up images. Jeane Kirkpatrick and Jesse Jackson were there." Pat Robertson If Buchanan sounded downright evangelical for a politician. Gospel singers crooned.220 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP RELIGION Power. 55. simply because Jesus said to. Jimmy Swaggart roared that the Supreme Court is "an institution damned by God Almighty" for allowing abortions. As the crowds of 4. appropriately. the stars of the electronic church. President Reagan. The occasion was the convention of the National Religious Broadcasters.

"and you are going to be a part of it. His 24-hour CBN network reaches 30 million subscribers. upon candidates who win their favor.RELIGION 221 4.. .B. but they are convinced that he could energize the Christian right and siphon votes from other candidates..3 9. The fact that a Robertson is even a potential candidate confirms the extraordinary power and influence amassed in the past decade by the shrewd. all to be overcome by a flood tide of moral regeneration. continued for the Republican nomination to succeed Reagan. During the programs. with special emphasis on right-wing issues .. viewers of The 700 Club log 4 million prayer calls to 4.. . Robertson pioneered the first religious TV station.6 5. Robertson's following provides much of CBN's $233 million annual income.. platform to denounce the evils of abortion. the first religious network and the first Christian programming to use a talk-show format. Dynamic and high-profile achievers." Perhaps they are already. Such motivated constituencies can . every one.and do ." he promised his listeners. old movies and game shows. a regular evening newscast produced in Washington. at least several potent and readily mobilized minorities. a development that appears to be the trend of the 1980s. Father Knows Best). yet none of these preachers can compare to Robertson as a TV entrepreneur. Their past struggles in low-paid Gospel circuits bespeak a deep commitment. RATING THE REVERENDS TV households reached per month. in millions Frequency of TV show Pat Robertson daily 16. Preachers like Robertson command audiences that form. . comments.R. As ROBERTSON IN 1988 buttons blossomed. In a year. . encouraging viewers to phone in their requests. Political pros are uncertain how big a factor he could be in the primaries. when Robertson switched from an all-religion schedule to a family entertainment approach. True believers are tingling at the prospect. the amiable Virginian took the N. "We are going to see a change in this nation. . prayers or pledges . making it not only the largest Christian cable operation but the fifth largest of any kind . homosexuality and school violence. colorful headliners of Gospel TV.bestow blessings aplenty. combining Christian shows with wholesome reruns {Flipper. if not a true Moral Majority. westerns. While impressing some as shallow and vulgar popularizers.500 volunteers manning telephone banks in 60 counseling centers.8 5.8 5. He was also the first Christian broadcaster to sign up commercial sponsors. 800 numbers continually flash onscreen.6 Jimmy Swaggart weekly Robert Schuller Jim Bakker Oral Roberts Jerry Falwell weekly daily weekly weekly CBN's viewership has tripled since 1981. as well as a number of now widely imitated viewer-response and fund-raising techniques. Two weeks ago the network premiered CBN News Tonight. in the form of money and votes. they bring real inspiration and solace to others. They have changed the face of television. whatever skepticism might be aroused by their present enjoyment of stardom's rewards. let alone the convention. they may be gradually altering the very nature of American Christianity.3 7.

1983 . it ruled wrong. for such is the kingdom of God. . they created something new in all the history of mankind — a country where man is not beholden to government. January 31. And we failed. I happen to believe that one way to promote. until — [applause] — . No one must be forced or pressured to take part in any religious exercise. . When the Supreme Court ruled that school prayer was unconstitutional almost 21 years ago. through prayer. government is beholden to man. The public expression of our faith in God. "Suffer the little children to come unto me." Well. . indeed. and forbid them not. And we know Jesus said. Our only hope for tomorrow is in the faces of our children. And when a lower court recently stopped Lubbock.222 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP SCHOOL PRAYER National Religious Broadcasters President Reagan's remarks at the Association's Annual Convention. is funda mental — as a part of our American heritage and a privilege which should not be excluded from our schools. that some divine plan placed this great continent here between the two oceans to be found by people from every corner of the Earth — people who had a special love for freedom and the courage to uproot themselves. leave their homeland and friends to come to a strange land. last year we tried to pass an amendment that would allow communities to determine for themselves whether voluntary prayer should be permitted in their public schools. Texas. . I've always believed that this blessed land was set apart in a special way. to preserve those traditional values we share is by permitting our children to begin their days the same way the Members of the United States Congress do — with prayer. But neither should the freest country on Earth ever have permitted God to be expelled from the classroom. I believe it ruled wrong. . But I want you to know something: I'm determined to bring that amendment back again and again and again and again. when coming here. too. high school students from even holding voluntary prayer meetings on the campus before or after class. And.

Western Latin Afric Far Europe i Americ a East a "Do you believe in God?" 94% 78% 96% 95% 89% Yes 3% 16% 3% 2% 6% No 3% 6% 1% 3% 5% Don't know "How important to are your religious beliefs?" you 56% 27% 62% 73% 76% Very important 30% 32% 18% 13% 13% Fairly important 8% 26% 11% 7% 9% Not too important 5% 13% 7% 4% 2% Not important 1% 2% 1% 3% --Don't know 1. Find more examples. Quoting from the Bible (Isaiah 40. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS U. he uses the device of antithesis. Give examples and explain the effect on the audience. . Listen to the speech and have a closer look at the rhetorical devices which King uses. Martin Luther King says that his dream "is deeply rooted in the American dream.S. 2. Comprehension Sunday in Hope Explain how the author tries to show the close link between Christian faith and social conventions by referring to: • • • • the number of church activities on a Sunday church attendance clothes the contents of the pastor's sermon. This speech has been called a masterpiece of rhetoric.223 PART C Exercises 2. What strikes you most when you compare religious beliefs in the different parts of the world? Carry out an opinion poll in your class and compare the results with the figures in the chart." What does the American dream mean to him? 2. How does he combine this religious conviction with his political hopes? 3. Analysis of a Speech I Have a Dream Attend religious services Have something you call a 41% religious experience 34% Participate in a church social activity 37% i 38% Encourage others to turn to religion 43% Frequently Occasionally Listen to religious broadcast 1. How does the church attendance in Hope compare with the figures in the chart above? 3. b) When he contrasts injustice and oppression with justice and freedom. How do religious activities and experiences in your country differ from those in the Connecticut Mutual Life Report on American Values in the 1980s? Religious Activities and Experiences How frequently do you do each of the following? Feel that God loves you Number of Respondents Engage in prayer 3. King proclaims that his dream will come true as a result of the revelation of God's glory. Interpret the statistics on religious beliefs. a) The most striking device is repetition. Discussion 1.4).

Congress and the court decision at Lubbock. 5. Text Analysis School Prayer 1. A changed attitude towards war. Scanning Power. You want to include the following ideas: • amazement at the President's support of school prayer • the President's attempt to override the First Amendment prohibition against government advancement of religion. in your opinion. Discussion According to the First Amendment to the Constitution. Letter Writing You have read the remarks the President made at the Annual Convention of National Religious Broadcasters. the attempt to secure the support of the right-wing evangelical movement. 5. church and state are strictly separate. 6. The "just war" theory 4.S. • fear that even voluntary school prayer would foster certain—but not all—religious practices . Armaments and Peace" 2. Take notes under each of the following headings: 1. and beliefs • suspicion that the argument of traditional values is only used to hide the true motives. 3. Now write a letter to an American penfriend expressing your amazement about a constitutional amendment to allow voluntary prayer in public schools and ask your friend about his/her opinion. What exactly did the President do to reintroduce school prayer? 4. 7. New Catholic positions 3. the Catholic bishops should comment on political issues. 8. Glory—and Politics Go quickly through the text to extract information on the following questions: 1. 4. What is the occasion covered by this story? Why did politicians take part in the event? Who are the stars of the electronic church? Which of the political issues that Pat Robertson stands for are mentioned in the text? What is his power and influence based on? Why can Robertson rightly be called a TV entrepreneur? What has he done to attract larger audiences? How does Robertson manage to get the viewers involved in his programs? . Why does he mention the Members of the U. Why does President Ronald Reagan disagree with this decision and why would he like to permit school prayer again? 3. Public reactions 5. The style of the letter 7. Note Taking Breaking New Ground on War and Peace The article is clearly subdivided into seven paragraphs. Adoption of the Catholic bishops' "Pastoral Letter on War. Discuss whether. 2. 8. How did the Supreme Court rule on school prayer? 2. for example.224 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP c) Show how he draws his images from nature and religion. Texas? 5. 6. d) Describe the interaction between the speaker and his audience. The procedure of drafting 6. Would you agree that the speech leads to a kind of hymnal climax? 7. Whom is he addressing and how does he try to gear his speech to his audience? 4.

but almost as many people go to art museums as to pop concerts. the architectural trend towards expansive. and all regions of the country. • participation in ballet and modern dance increased significantly from 9 percent to 21 percent. The media. sports and other forms of popular entertainment overshadow the arts. During this period. imposing new designs for museums and theaters suggests the elevated status of the arts in America today. The reach of the arts extends in sizable numbers to people of all ages. INCREASING ATTENDANCE AT CULTURAL EVENTS MORE PARTICIPANTS IN THE ARTS MORE FACILITIES MASS APPEAL . • the number of adults who play musical instrume nts went up from 18 percent to 31 percent. going from 13 percent to 25 percent. • participation in local theater groups increased from 3 percent to 7 percent. In fact. particularly television. Americans are deeply committed to the arts. almost all economic groups. attendance at live performances of operas or musicals rose from 25 percent to 30 percent. have generated a broad base of interest and enthusiasm for the arts through regular promotion and coverage of cultural events. or the graphic arts rose from 22 percent to 29 percent. drawing. many new cultural facilities are being built. the number of people involved in painting. Not only do more people today attend arts events than sports events. • the number of people who write stories and poems almost doubled. attendance at arts events increased: • the number of people who attended movies r ose from 70 percent to 78 percent • attendance at theatrical performances rose from 53 percent to 67 percent • the number of people attending dance performances rose from 23 percent to 34 percent • attendance at live performances of classical or symphonic music went up from 25 percent to 34 percent • between 1980 and 1984. Louis Harris's Americans and the Arts poll reveals a surge of artistic activity in America from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s. To accommodate the public's increasing demand for the arts.13 The Arts PART A Background Information COMMITMENT TO THE ARTS One stereotype of the United States is that of a culture where television. The same poll also reveals that more people are participating as amateurs or professionals in the arts: • from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s.

New York MINIMAL GOVERNMENT SUPPORT MIXTURE OF STYLES The cultural explosion is all the more remarkable when one considers the relative lack of government support of the arts. Promotion of the arts through private and commerical funding rather than government funding is a firmly established tradition in the United States. all government arts spending remains small compared with private arts contributions. there is also no single American style. As American culture evolved. The National Endowment for the Arts. Moreover. the arts still receive proportionately less government funding in the United States than in any other major Western nation. the annual spending of state governments reached $160 million. the arts in America have flourished. Recently. . which exceeded $4 thousand million in 1985. Just as there is no single ethnic group. a government agency created in 1965. has been contributing to the advancement of the arts. and innovators in other fields have won fame both at home and abroad. B} 1985. however. the government's role in supporting the arts has increased. sculptors.226 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP The Guggenheim Museum. including folk primitivism and European sophistication. Still. American artists began to create their own art forms. Painters. The styles of American art are as diverse as the people. the federal government was spending $163 million a year on this endowment. American artists have been inspired by a variety of influences. Even without the security of government subsidies that the arts in other countries traditionally enjoy. musicians.

as artists imitated the established styles of the European masters.THE ARTS 227 THE VISUAL ARTS Until the 1940s. The most significant developments in American art emerged in the years following the Second World War. f if* Flowers. America's visual arts—painting and sculpture—were primarily influenced by European trends. Mary's Table (1971) Willem de Kooning Mobiles by Alexander Calder . American art developed mainly through subject matter and skills.

Willem: born 1904. Sung by soloists or featuring solo instruments. . Alexander Calder (1898-1976) designed the mobile. such as the human body. recognized for his mimicry of well -known comic strips. The black American music tradition has produced and influenced a variety of genres. During this period. Important in the pop-art movement were Andy Warhol (1930—87). famous for his multiple rows of soup cans and multiple portraits of Marilyn Monroe. Ragtime. Ragtime was the first black American music to gain wide popularity. rock 'n' roll. The international influence of America's abstract expressionists was so great that the painting center of the world shifted from Paris to New York. In the late 1950s and early 1960s. Movements of the 1970s and 80s include performance art. became the first American art movement to command the attention of artists abroad. Composer Scott Joplin (1868—1917) helped develop ragtime from simple parlor piano music into a serious genre. graffiti art. conceptual art. The music was inspired by African culture but evolved directly from spirituals. they focused on such things as the utilization of space. and other trends in American popular culture. young artists reacted to abstract expressionism to produce works of "mixed" media. originated around the turn of the century among black musicians in the American South. now recognized as a world-wide art form. America's most original music form. The blues evolved from African folk songs and church music. and the interrelationship of colors. and Roy Lichtenstein. Abstract expres sionists rejected traditional subject matter. country-western. Instead. Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns integrated everyday objects such as photographs and newspaper clippings into their paintings. jazz. still life. mass media. and Mark Rothko. Revolting against traditional graphic styles.and figural-expressionism. based on the principle of optical illusion. neo. ragtime. Dutch-American painter. who is known for the bold blocks of color that dominate his huge canvases. Recent trends in art emphasize variety and innovation. blues. The reaction to abstract expressionism continued with a movement called "pop art" ("pop" is short for "popular"). who used savage brush strokes and intense colors. Jazz. earth art. Rothko. which was begun by a group of New York artists in the 1940s. American sculptors developed new styles of their own. and the musical are all American born. David Smith (1906-65) was the first sculptor to work with welded metals. "Pop" was followed by "Op" art.228 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM SCULPTURE MIXED MEDIA POP ART OP ART RECENT TRENDS AMERICAN MUSIC RAGTIME BLUES JAZZ Abstract expressionism. which then inspired jazz. Mark (1903—70): Russian-born American painter. who is famous for his turbulent paint-splattered canvases. Unique forms and styles of music have developed in America. the artists of this movement sought to remake the goals and methods of art. and surface texture. blues music often expresses disap pointment or regret. Willem de Kooning. Ragtime is most important for its association with the blues. The members of this movement attempted to produce works of art that would reflect the pervasive influence of mass marketing. and neo-geo art. and blues. dimension. or rural scenes. Jazz is characterized by improvisation and a lively attention to rhythm. Among the movement's leaders were Jackson Pollack (1912-54). de Kooning.

The influence of jazz is found in many types of American music. Later musicals.THE ARTS 229 COUNTRY-WESTERN MUSIC THE MUSICAL ROCK MUSIC something famous jazz musician Duke Ellington (1899—1974) called "swing. The musical was a new form of entertainment which combined acting. one of America's most popular song writers and composers. and in the 1930s. Bernstein." Today. "A Chorus Line. Other early jazz leaders were Duke Ellington. was strongly influenced by jazz. Basically entertaining in character. the central European operetta. Another popular type of music which came out of the American South is country-western. "Dizzy" Gillespie and Charlie Parker. Hammerstein. Eeonard: born 1918. jazz had spread from the South. most early screen musicals were lavish and glamorous escapist fantasies. with some spectacular singing and dancing along the way. Edward Kennedy ("Duke") 1899-1974: American jazz composer. jazz musicians began combining the rhythms of rock 'n' roll and electronic instruments with traditional elements of jazz to form a blend of music called "fusion. However. Oscar. and ballet. is still one of the most popular musicals today. In the 1940s. and the American vaudeville minstrel show. Weekly music ratings indicate the continuing popularity of this type of music. jazz is extremely popular in America and abroad. The musical was inspired by the Anglo-Irish musical theater." By 1920. the appeal of country music extended beyond the rural South. In the 1960s and 70s. The style of country western music has its roots in the folk songs and ballads of the early Scottish and English settlers in the southern colonies. Rodgers. Sondheim. The concerto "Rhapsody in Blue" and the opera "Porgy and Bess" were two of his works which incorporated jazz. Louis Armstrong." first performed in 1975. jazz has moved on to new frontiers. Richard (1902-79): American composer. Jazz concerts draw thousands of listeners every year. The music of George Gershwin (1898-37). ." included serious themes and social criticism. its cultural origin and musical sounds are totally different from jazz. Dreams of success came true for characters who overcame hardships by faith and hard work. such as Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Oklahoma" and Sondheim and Bernstein's "West Side Story. II (1895-1960): American librettist and songwriter. Rock music has dominated the popular music scene ever since America was inundated with the new sound in the 1950s. Stephen: born 1930 American composer and lyricist. (1900-71) a trumpeter and soloist. was one of the first well-known jazz singers. it reached its heyday of mass popularity as big band music. In the 1930s another native American-born art form emerged. The distinctive sound of country music depends on the guitar. Lyrics generally focus on the sorrows of love or the economic hardships of poor whites. Although the improvisational style of early jazz still survives today. pianist and bandleader. Rock 'n' roll developed as a Ellington. banjo and fiddle. pianist and composer. and the music began to attract nationwide attention. American conductor. The music developed over a long period with melodies and lyrics reflecting rural life in the Southeast and Southwest. music.

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Martha Graham's New York-based group became the best known modern dance company. both ballet and modern.THE ARTS 231 MODERN DANCE mixture of black blues and white country-western. The music quickly won intense and sustained appeal with young people not only in America. they sought to convey the innermost feelings of the human mind and body in simple. rock 'n' roll became heavily commercialized. In the past three decades. Modern Dance: The American Ballet Theater . The first and most influential leader of the movement was Isadora Duncan (1878-1927). flowing dance movements. Some rock musicians. which emerged in America as a new art form early in the century. New York City has become the dance center of the world. have emerged from the studio with unique sounds and messages in their music. and Twyla Tharp. Instead. In the 1970s and 80s. Early rock musicians such as Elvis Presley and Bob Dylan were idolized by millions of teenagers. Hundreds of bands copied the formula of success and went into recording studios to make money rather than innovative music. Among these artists are guitarist-songwriter Bruce Springsteen and singer Stevie Wonder. dance. who experiments with new areas for dance such as video and films. America's newest generation of modern dance choreo graphers includes Alvin Ailey whose style features African dance elements and black music. has been the most rapidly developing performing art in the nation. but all over the world. The creators of modern dance rejected the artificial formality of classical ballet. however. Closely tied to developments in American music was modern dance.

Film attendance declined sharply. and forging a nation. mythical themes of taming the frontier. movie stars.232 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP HOLLYWOOD FILMS INFLUENCE OF TELEVISION Born in Hollywood after the turn of the century. In film director Frank Capra's (born 1897) It Happened One Night (1934). they repeated it in film after film. . Although the golden age is past. Entertaining comedies and musicals carried messages of aspiration and optimism. The western fused violence and rugged individualism into larger. conglomerates bought up studios. Innovations in these varied artistic fields have enriched America's cultural life and have made an impact on the rest of the world. targeting films to the younger audience. films remain a popular and profitable form of entertainment in America. Their parents prefer television entertainment. Today's moviegoers are mostly teenagers. Class divisions were healed and everyone lived happily ever after. the motion picture became the monumental popular art form of the century. and musicals were some of the popular films that emerged as distinct genres. curbing lawlessness. the poor boy who fell in love with a rich girl managed to win her heart. Like most businessmen. Studios have recaptured television audiences by renting their feature films to television networks and by producing low-budget made-for-TV movies and television series. Video cassettes have also created new markets for film studios. and Hollywood's old monopoly on stardom and American style was lost. gangster films. and even the architec ture of the theaters were glittering and glorious. the major studios were turning out over 400 movies each year. Audiences were charmed. and beliefs. films. and creating new markets. Hollywood films were tailored to an American audience and appealed to its tastes by reinforcing traditional myths. comedies. During these decades of Hollywood's golden age. Once they found a successful formula. The major film studios have adapted to the new viewing patterns by cutting back on production. values. The movies have changed since television intervened. Westerns. In Hollywood's golden age during the 1940s. motion picture executives and entrepreneurs wanted to develop products that had mass appeal. The flourishing of the arts in America today signals a continued momentum for new developments in American art in the future.

American theater now includes around 400 professional not-for-profit companies in cities across the country. such as Edward Albee. a society that continues to be a melting pot full of energy and variety. poetic imagination and vitality have sparked the American theater in a host of institutions across the country. Sam Shepard and Neil Simon. it is a loose network of theaters presenting material that both reflects and illuminates American society. the encouragement of writers throughout the nation to develop plays rather than to write scripts which are then presented to a Broadway producer for final judgment. Therefore. more frequently with a second company. opened in Manhattan. Broadway produced show business. not-for-profit theaters known as "off-В road way. In the past quarter century the focus has increasingly shifted away from Broadway to distant regions of the country. Washington or New Haven). Broadway producers tested their wares out-of-town in one of the major northeastern cities (Boston.233 PART в Texts a radical shift in the kinds of plays produced and the kinds of writers nurtured. New York City. although it is not the kind of national theater one associates with the National Theatre of England or the Moscow Art Theater or the Comedie Frangaise. In fact. which has resulted in a nation of theaters rather than a nation whose theater is housed in the few square blocks in Manhattan. America finally has a national theater. from 1940 to I960 Tennessee Williams. No longer dominated by the tyranny of Broadway moguls. the theater world is divided between the commercial producers of Broadway and the scattered. depending upon a play's success or failure as determined by the New York newspaper critics. since the establishment of the National Endowment for the Arts. and second. Originating its own shows. toured the country. That patAlthough Broadway did not produce only one kind of play for all Toward a National Theater By Howard Stein Today no major playwrights dominate the Broadway stage in the way the giants of past decades once did: from 1920 to 1940 Eugene O'Neill and Clifford Odets. smaller." Although For more than a century Broadway was a stable and profitable community. Instead. for example. the decentralization of theatrical activity. and then. Philadelphia. These two changes in the pattern of playmaking in the United States have caused . known as Broadway. sometimes with the original cast. Two significant changes have taken place: first. American theater is now made up of both commercial and nonprofit interests. Most of these have evolved over the last 20 years. and energy. In New York City itself. Since I960 there have been no playwrights quite on the level of these. which some would describe as manufacturing its own products. Arthur Miller and William Inge. although many talented writers have emerged.

Neil: born 1927. Those plays. Clifford (1906—63): actor and playwright who became famous by the production of his one-act play Waiting for Lefty. Eugene (1888-1953): His plays won him the Pulitzer Prize several times and earned him the Nobel Prize in 1936. The theater of the last 25 years has succeeded in reflecting that diversity and that energy. this nation of theaters offers the entire world a much more realistic image of America than the old Broadway ever did. business and personal integrity. heritage. Wilderness*. author of highly successful comedies like Barefoot in the Park. Star Spangled Girl. the New England folk comedy Ah. National Endowment for the Arts: part of the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. continued those years. dealing with a taxi strike. True West and Fool for Love. Death of a Salesman (Pulitzer Prize) and The Crucible. Miller. Sam: born 1943. language. Among his plays are the trilogy Mourning Becomes Electra. certainly in the theater of Manhattan. to the family. extramarital affairs.234 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1. founded by Congress in 1965. The strength and identity of the nation is in its diversity and boundless energy. Albee. raising children. a nation of significant variety and geography whose character is perhaps too vast to capture in the theater. America is a nation of no single background. divorce. American playwright and television writer.S. and The Prisoner of Second Avenue. William (1913-73): wrote plays about seemingly ordinary Midwestern people. Stein. interest or set of values. O'Neill. Howard: professor and chairman of Columbia University's Hammerstein Center for Theatre Studies. Simon. author of The Zoo Story. author of All My Sons. The fact remains that a more authentic picture of the country would be one of a nation comprised of far more than middle-class families. an independent agency of the U. Arthur: born 1915. author of Buried Child (Pulitzer Prize). culture. government. for the most part. to middle-class people talking in middle-class language about middle-class problems— problems that centered around marriage. there was a significant similarity in Broadway playwrights' work. The American Dream and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Shepard. It was established to foster the growth and development of the arts in the United States . Edward: born 1928. which reflect his ability to see the comic incongruities of everyday life. and the autobiographical tragedy Long Day's Journey into Night. Picnic earned him the Pulitzer Prize. Inge. were devoted to social realism. Odets.

.THE ARTS 235 A Dozen Outstanding Plays of the Past Quarter Century WIto's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Streamers Indians Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962) by Edward Albee—With this searing portrait of a marriage seemingly based on fantasies." House of Blue Leaves (1971) by John Guare—Produced off-Broadway. and black culture might be explored. Two of these plays were nurtured at Joseph Papp's influential Public Theater in New York. who challenged early 20th-century racial attitudes. At a time when civil rights was a major issue in national politics." writes critic Stuart Little. achieved instant fame. The Old Glory." Guare maintains that the theater is "the last refuge for poetry. Sometimes criticized for failing to restrain what critic Ross Wetzsteon called "the wild inventions and weird mutations of his imagination. where we were forced to reexamine some of our value judgments through a crack in our beloved national epic of the West. "has two meanings: it refers both to the flag and also to the glory with which the Republic of America was started. but out in the auditorium." said Lowell in 1976. "The quality and the character of his writing alerted the theater. infidelities and alcohol. He had opened a new vein of dramatic writing. then 33. acclimatizing the public to racial drama in which rage would be explained rather than exploited. The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel and Sticks and Bones. "reached its climax and fulfillment not in the events onstage." Indians (1969) by Arthur Kopit—A fantastical representation of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show." wrote critic Otis Guernsey. The Great White Hope. according to critic Ethan Mordden." said David Richards in The Washington Star. one of the first to transfer directly from a regional theater to Broadway. the third in 1968) by Robert Lowell— Commissioned by an off-Broadway theater dedicated to new works. this play is also a reconsideration of the treatment of American Indians during the settling of the West. and two earlier plays. "Indians. eminent poet Robert Lowell is based on three stories by 19th-century writers—two by Nathaniel Hawthorne and one by Herman Melville. Edward Albee." Streamers (1976) by David Rabe—With this study of violence set in a military training camp." The Old Glory (two parts of this trilogy first produced in 1964. "The title." The Great White Hope (1968) by Howard Sackler—This drama.. "and excited and challenged his contemporaries. this play by the late. is based on the life of black prizefighter Jack Johnson. Rabe became "the first American playwright to write unflinchingly about Vietnam. this black comedy about a middleaged zookeeper who longs to write songs for the movies is the work of one of America's most idiosyncratic playwrights. "made a breakthrough for black theater. Photographs by Martha Swope .

"the excitement comes not from tracking down the criminal. who continues to work off-Broadway." Fifth of July (1978) by Lanford Wilson—An oddly assorted group of survivors from the turbulent 1960s try to build new lives in their old Missouri hometown. allows Fuller to explore the uneasy contradictions of racism. continued House of Blue Leaves Uncommon Women and Others (1977) by Wendy Wasserstein—First staged when its author was a student in Yale University's prestigious playwriling program. as critic Ronald Bryden has written. "In the Pulitzer-prizewinning Buried Child.236 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 2. former students confront the righteous nun who taught them. as Walter Kerr wrote in The New York Times." Sister Mary Ignatius Explains It All for You (1979) by Christopher Durang—In this satiric comedy about parochial education and authority figures. John Beaufort said in The Christian Science Monitor: "Children is not merely about the plight of physical impairment. "Anyone can write an angry play. "but only a writer of real talent can write an angry play that remains funny and controlled even in its most savage moments. concerns itself with "the choices facing contemporary women— and the additional pressures created by feminist ideals. Children of a Lesser God (1979) by Mark Medoff—Centering on a voice teacher and the strongminded deaf student he loves and marries." Buried Child (1978) by Sam ShepardShepard writes plays that take place. It is about the human condition and the struggle to communicate across daunting barriers. the play was revived on Broadway in 1980. this Pulitzer prizewinner is a murder mystery in which. this effervescent comedy focuses on a group of graduates from an elite women's college. but instead from tracking down the identity of the victim.. where New York Times theater critic Frank Rich praised it as "Wilson's own morning-after-Independence-Day dream of a democratic America—an enlightened place where the best ideals can bloom. a vicious black sergeant on a southern military base in 1944. both black and white. wrote Michiko Kakutani in The New York Ti mes." wrote Frank Rich in praise of Durang. First produced at the Circle Repertory Company in New York." ASoldier's Play (1981) by Charles Fuller—Developed at the Negro Ensemble Company. first staged at San Francisco's Magic Theatre. this play was developed at the Mark Taper Forum in Los Angeles and later triumphed on Broadway. "in an eternal present haunted fry an unknown past." Investigating the character of the victim. Wasserstein's work. . a young man returns to his family's midwestern farm to find that no one recognizes him.

THE ARTS 237 DIALOGUE JACK NICHOLSON From FILM COMMENT After a decade of low-budget films..A. literature. write one poem all your life. yet he won all major movie awards for supporting actor. Up until then I hadn't cared about much but sports and girls and looking at movies—stuff vou do when you're 17 or 18. They weren't. As the producer of his recent film. I say this by way of underlining that it was then and is still the art of acting that is the wellspring for me. P. let nobody read it. If you're going to write. in my opinion. It was then I started thinking that. From there I went to the Players Ring Theatre. I came to California where my only other relatives were. the influence of Duchamp and others. Tell me about your beginnings. Is that true? No. In fact. It's been said that you gave yourself 10 years to become a star. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and The Shining. one of the li tt le theaters in Los Angeles at the time. in Terms of Endearment (1983) he played a seedy. I met loads of people I s t i l l work with.. Nicholson talks unth journalist and screenwriter Beverly Walker about the challenges inherent in Hollywood filmmaking. I knew film deteriorated. not the stage. as an office boy in [he cartoon program. The quality of acting in 1. I got out of school [in New Jersey] a year early. theater then was very high because of the tremendous number of actors who were flying back and forth between the East Coast and Hollywood. I decided I didn't want to do that. that nothing not written in your blood is worth reading. This was in the spirit of the '50s where a very antiliterary literature was emerging. i t's not a big mystical thing to me.rizzi's Honor. This was the collage period in painting. Acting is lifestudy. This risk-taking independence is evident throughout Nicholson л long movie career. "He is prepared to do whatever the part requires.. a fine way to live your life. And I've always understood money. and Corey's classes got me into looking at life as—I'm still hesitant to say—an artist.. From that point on. out-of-shape astronaut. but it is the seminal part of my life. film was the artful medium for the actor. I have mainly been interested in acting. They opened up people.. Jack Nicholson achieved movie stardom in 1969 with the unheralded hit Easy Rider. I kind of believed what Nietzsche said. in his directing and screenwriting as well as his acting.. I came to believe that the film actor was the great "litterateur" of his time. I went to one acting class before I was taken to Jeff Corey's class. Since then. I think it's a great job. I got a job at MGM. But Jeff Corey's method of working opened me up to a whole area of Study. Unlike many stars. Or you don't stick because there's no money in it. For a couple of years I saw movie stars. I think I know what I meant. and then burn it. . At the beginning. contrary to conventional wisdom. and then I was nudged into a talent program. it's just more pollution of the airwaves. That was as important as gettingjobs.. and that's what I was trying to do. This is very young thinking. you're very idealistically inclined toward the art of the thing. The idea of not building monuments was very strong among idealistic people. he has created a variety of menacing yet oddly sympathetic characters in such movies as Chinatown. In that theoretical period of my life I began to think that the finest modern writer was the screen actor. "Here. and though I could've worked my way through college. You could see anybody—anybody who wasn't a star—in theaters with 80 seats. Through all these permutations and youthful poetry. But it always bothered me when people came off stage and were told how great they were. really. and since I wanted to see movie stars. This was the era of the Beat Generation and West Coast jazz and staying up all night on Venice Beach. and anything he does becomes in itself interesting. Corey taught that good actors were meant to absorb life. Nicholson has never sought a glamorous screen image or insisted on leading roles. I confess. says. or so it seemed at the time.

This was one of a dozen theoretical discussions I'd have every day because this was a very vital time for me and my contemporaries. Roman is top five. I'd just as soon be in the different medium. Did you think it would make you a star? I look for a director with a script he likes a lot. I knew that my last motorcycle movie had done $6 to $8 million from a budget of less than half a million. Because of my background with Roger Gorman. continued The stage has a certain discipline. The imagery of a movie is where it's at. Because of the way the business is structured today. and I had a commitment to do one of several things I was interested in.movement. Why? When I saw Easy Rider.". by what criteria do you select projects? Yes.. and I understood the audience and its relative amplitudes. She asks everyone to make a drawing with two elements of her choosing: a heart and a house.. I thought.. and that is based upon the director's vision. There are many directors in the middle range who've made mostly successful pictures. I did not want to be coming off the stage at the mercy of what somebody else told me I did. I wasn't mad about Roman's Pirates script. so I understood what the release of hybrid communications energy might mean.. let it be a play. You've taken more risks with subject matter. Scenes are different when the camera sits still or if it's running on a train. I thought it was very good. especially if the genre was moved one step away from exploitation toward some kind of literary quality. up to that moment 1 had been thinking more about directing. There's someone I know who keeps a book of drawings made by guests to her home. but I'm probably after the directors more than anything.explosion are all there in that one little Rorschach of a draw- . All these things are indigenous to the form. But the ultimate standard is more exacting in film. I suppose my life would be smoother if I wasn't almost totally enam ored of the latter category __ Do you enjoy directing? I love it. cinema is that "other thing". the same for Stanley [Kubrick] as well as John Huston. I believe I was one of the few people sitting in that audience who understood what was happening. and the director has got to know when he wants one or the other.. The quality of a scene is different if it's set in a phone booth or in an ice house. supporting roles or directors than any American star of recent memory. through which was coming a car pulling a trailer home behind it. I'm a movie star. Is the director central in your taking risk? Yes. what I look for in a director and a movie is vision.. Which I did. Motion. and then there are a few great directors who've had some successes and some failures. I have sometimes turned down scripts that I might otherwise have accepted had I known who was directing them.. I ' d been Jack Nicholson in Easy Rider Let me put it this way: both as an actor and a viewer. In actuality. I was writing a script [Head] based on the theories of Marshall McLuhan. But at Cannes my thinking changed. This is what he drew: a big paper heart as if it were a hoop. You obviously saw Easy Rider [1969] before knowing the critical and public response. The wildest one in the book was made by Steven Spielberg. In fact. I'm back into acting now. I thought the moment for the biker film had come. but it wasn't until the screening at the Cannes Film Festival that I had an inkling of its powerful superstructural effect upon the public. and it shows exactly why he's a great movie director. because you have to see yourself— and you are your own toughest critic. After all. Immediately after Easy Rider. I directed Drive He Said. busted open. but because it's Roman [Polanski] I know it's going to be a great movie.238 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 3. a clue.. "This is it. Did you have any clue it would become such a hit? there before. If it's going to be about script. Since Easy Rider. and unless you're after that. Everybody's always talking about script.

Nietzsche. I wonder why others aren't. That's why they talk so long about a given scene. motion picture producer. First time. I did not pander to them. had lost faith in Western cultural traditions and rejected conventional norms of dress and behavior.. the time—but when that rolls. poet. the day. But I feel it's myjob to attempt to influence their thinking. I love writing. Beat Generation: young people who.this time. invented a psychological test of personality. here: film director who is regarded as the true author of a film. . I ' m very proud of my two movies. I have nothing to offer. I'd stop right there and say. they'll get it. Hermann (1884—1922): Swiss psychiatrist.. I want it to be my own. Marcel (1887-1968): French painter.never again to be that way again. Since that's what I'm looking for when I'm in the other seat. what's more. at which time I became someone who could add fuel to a project as an actor. such as Goin' South [1978] and the scene on the bluff with my father in Five Easy Pieces.. he is primary. whether to do another take. The director says when to turn on the camera. and he selects which of the moments he thinks is worthwhile. "This boy here is a movie director. that I can make movies that are different and informed by my taste. He Said [1971].. but I stopped because I felt I was more effective approaching filmmaking from a different vantage point. Bring something they didn't write. they don't know." So why do I want to direct? Well. I wrote right up to Easy Rider. Prom a collage point of view. But the creative moment is happening when the camera is turned on and stops when it's turned off. Everybody in town's in that book.. I don't want to direct a movie as good as Antonioni. But it cost me because it was very critical of youth. Looking over all of it. in all we read and all we write about films. the single most obvious thing to me. in the real action of it. is this: people fear the creative moment. and I think they have something special.. I think I have special vision. Rorschach. obviously be cause I make 'em a lot of money as an actor ___ Have you been doing any other writing in recent years? The last credit I see on your filmography is for Head [1968]. They want you to deliver "it. I suppose I can do more for a script as an actor than as a writer—in the film sense. MGM: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. I always try to get into whatever mold a director has in mind. you can't separate out the ac tor.. Duchamp. If you ask anybody who was in college during the period ot Drive. Hollywood movie studio. they'll tell you it was the peer-group picture of the time. director and distributor. Roger: born 1926.only now.. after the Second World War. auteur: (French = author). Marshall (1911—80): Canadian cultural historian and mass-communication theorist. But some movies can't get made without someone like me in them.. or Kubrick. If I were the head of a studio and I looked through the book. but you have to work your own field. I've always approached film as a unit. Corman. they're totally at the mercy of the actor. I've contributed to other things. or Polanski or who ever.. The people I work with are auteurs in the sense that if they want something a certain way. the director makes the movie." They hire someone like myself because they hope I 'l l do something beyond whatever they have in mind. They've created everything up to that moment when they turn on the camera—the clothes. Friedrich Wilhelm (1844-1900): German philosopher.. I don't argue with them past a certain point.Well. At this moment. and critic. But in that sense.. I think I've got the seed of it and. Do you feel the more auteur-oriented directors are generally smart enough to incorporate a star into their own vision? Yes. One person cannot be in charge of all that.THE ARTS 239 ing. OK. McLuhan. Otherwise. but in all honesty. That's it.

addresses letters to God. then takes the babies away. most of them written in so-called black English that in itself evokes pathos. He apparently operates on the assumption that if he wants to see it. Spielberg makes us feel that. Walker's novel is often affecting. but in this case there's an extra dimension. Specifically. with taciturn courage. Her husband tyrannizes her and taunts her with his passion for a band vocalist. a film of Alice Walker's novel The Color Purple. then an immense public is ready for a black film that offers some unpleasant views of black American life. Allen Daviau has photographed the film in colors that are the visual equivalent of Quincy Jones's lush music: Spielberg apparently feels that the flooding music and color transcend artifice because of the authenticity they Stanley Kauffmann is film critic for The New Republic Reprinted by permission of The New Republic. perhaps especially. the heroine. I . (Later there are more literate and much less moving letters from her sister who escapes from rural Georgia to become a missionary in Africa. those crossedout words. it is about the mistreatment. thus wanted to make. of black women by black men." Then come two crossed-out words. The landmark juncture of Steven Spielberg and a black subject in The Color Purple reflects current American society.) "Dear God. © 1986." That salutation. She doesn't know where they are. Spielberg has become a golden eminence not just through talent. The story follows this Georgia farm girl from 1909 to 1931. Maybe you can give me a sign letting me know what is happening to me. Her stepfather twice gets Celie pregnant. Then: "1 have always been a good girl. The book might have been written for Spielberg. the past is strewn with failed film transcriptions of best sellers. He is open and self-gratifying. (This is no guarantee of film success. The Color Purple is not about black-white relations: it is about blacks. he makes films that he himself wants to see. is first told otherwise by the singer. So it's significant that he wanted to see. God gives Celie plenty of signs of what is happening to her. the international film public will also want it. Walker's novel won a Pulitzer Prize and an American Book Award in 1983 and has been read by millions. which he certainly has. If Spielberg is a congenital vicar for an immense public.) Except for one salient episode. an assumption that is now pretty well validated. as producer or producer-director." begins the book. the abuse. the bewildered appeal launch the book at once on its accessible way.240 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP FILM Literary Hollywood By Stanley Kauffmann From THE NEW REPUBLIC The most commercially successful director-producer in the world history of film has directed and produced a virtually all-black film. who also brings Celie's children home. "I am fourteen years old. Celie matures. He and Walker are both genuine. temporarily anyway. but Celie endures. continually jeered at as ugly. Celie. from space sagas and kid stories. most of them oppressive. The New Republic. It seems inevitable that this should be the book to switch him. which he seems to be. Celie. The book is composed of letters. both skilled practitioners of popular art. but at a somewhat elemental level. Then he hands her over for marriage to a widower who had come to ask for Celie's sister. but also. achieves independence and at last is reunited with her missionary sister. Inc. because he is not the least bit shrewd.

sustain The Color Purple. Up to now. whether or not we've read the book. Goldberg is perfect. often near floor-level. of instance and of principle. The film travels a bit errantly and sluggishly toward the happy ending we know it must have. looking upward as if to assert that he feels the story is epic. Danny Glover and Whoopi Goldberg in The Color Purple 1985 Warner Brothers Company . he has played sympathetic roles — notably. the singer who bewitches Celie's husband but whose love turns out to be the liberation of Celie's spirit. yet warm and lovely. Avery is worldly wise. that they are what film is for. Spielberg keeps the camera below eye-level a good deal of the time. Here he plays a brute who mellows with the years. a plump proud woman who pays grievously for her pride. Danny Glover. Glover makes the younger man both terrifying and understandable. and makes the mellowing as credible as anyone could do.THE ARTS 241 4. continued adorn. Spielberg. chose comedian Whoopi Goldberg. as the widower who weds Celie reluctantly. These two convictions. For Celie. Oprah Winfrey is Sophie. the field hand Moses in Places in the Heart. She is a solo performer of sketches she herself creates. Two women are outstanding. As Celie. Margaret Avery is Shug (short for Sugar). but Spielberg's convictions carry it through: his conviction that this is now the moment for a mass-appeal film on these aspects of black life and his conviction about happy endings. Her Broadway appearance last year demonstrated that her performing talent is better than her writing. Moreover. goes from strength to strength as an actor. with his usual good instincts. Clearly he believes that happy endings are integral to film.

Jukebox visionaries. where Sinatra spent 18 months in the late '30s. Frank Sinatra and Bruce Springsteen have a lot more in common than their native state of New Jersey. That is obvious. with his unforced. dashed dreams and rave-ups that sound like last stands. Sinatra has been happy to oblige.242 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP The Chairman and the Boss The first great American superstar singer. an outspoken populist. is a renewal of old ties and a reconfirmation of old values. and they both got their moves down in the same neighborhood. — By Jay Cocks Frank Sinatra the Chairman. slightly ironic ease. Musicians who can sculpt in song an entire interior landscape of American dreams played out in latenight bars or on empty midnight highways. former guitarist in Springsteen's band. The Chairman of the Board. Hollywood movie studio. N. Just in fact as they have done us. They dwell in the same kind of spiritual territory: a world of loneliness. whose music usually avoided political matters. is the primacy of the music. Springsteen's sense of himself and of the redemptive power of the songs Bruce Springsteen he sings has translated into political statement (as in his participation in Steve Van Zandt's antiapartheid Sun City project) and political action (as with his quiet contributions.SA. who has the stage force of some as yet unclassified natural phenomenon. The Sinatra bloodlines have been evokecl to place him squarely within such varying Mediterranean traditions as bel canto and the Mafia. . and the latest Voices for whole generations. Their music moves to different beats. Alpine. Not many kids Born in the U. Each concert becomes a ritual celebration. the Boss: nicknames of Frank Sinatra and Bruce Springsteen. in each of his U. they both sound like they are singing about lives in the balance. Paramount Theatre. There would be a pleasing symbolism in the fulfillment of one Springsteen friend's longcherished dream of having Sinatra record the Boss's grand melodrama Meeting Across the River. as it has with Sinatra. It would do both Springsteen and Sinatra proud. appeared at plenty of civil rights benefits and was one of the first movie figures to try formally to break the I lollywood blacklist with his hiring clout. Even their most sweeping upbeat numbers have an undertow from the outer darkness. Springsteen's effect on an audience can be just as devastating. and the Boss. concert venues. Americans like their superstars with an edge of danger and a whiff of sulfur. even today. hard pride and tenuous triumph where a song can be a testament or a talisman. But whether Sinatra swings or Springsteen rocks. Despite Springsteen's Dutch surname. Sinatra's greatest record — and his self-acknowledged favorite — is the 1958 album Only the Lonely. but a great part of his appeal is the impression of a private man going public.J. They share the same solitary spirit. in which the haunted force of his singing transforms romantic abandonment into an elegant paradigm of spiritual despair straight up. Springsteen plays his private life close. and desolation is what is left after the thrill is gone. They are both like separate swift currents in the American musical mainstream that has flowed around the world. The rock clubs all around the Jersey shore are not so very different now from jazz joints like the Rustic Cabin (Route 9W. Springsteen has never been better than on 1980's The River. The protagonists of Springsteen's songs all stand and fall by themselves. American actor. to local charities like food banks). no chaser. Dean and Brando. in his time.S. The singer who now entertains at the White House — and at Sun City — also staged John Kennedy's inaugural. a tworecord set full of blind alleys. the singer makes a compact between the will and the heart. his lineage is halfItalian. Dean. that the Mob mythology surrounding Sinatra is simply part of the public projection of his nightshade personality. Springsteen's own changes may be different. It may be. That has changed now. Brando. Steve van Zandt. Could Sinatra cover Cover Me} Could Springsteen get behind Spring Is Here} No matter. and those who have hoisted One for My Baby may not feel they are Born to Run. Their audiences do not overlap. just as a Sinatra performance. want to have it My Way. They share some of the same background too. And something more. In Sinatra's most indelible performances. However it turned out such a recording would be an irresistible confluence of myths. World-class artists. but Sinatra's has been up for grabs since he wowed the bobby-soxers at the Paramount Theatre in 1944. romantic retribution. was also. based on the same kind of willed misperception that twisted Springsteen into a Fenderbender Rambo. learning his craft and occasionally waiting tables. The same perceived darkness is present in Presley and Dylan.). Sinatra. however. but what will likely remain constant with him. Marlon: born 1924. James (1931-55): American actor. are both peerless showmen.

Howard Stein says. and show how. for the most part.243 PART C Exercises 3. 1. Scanning A Dozen Outstanding Plays of the Past Quarter Century Describing American drama before the 1960s. b) went to California to become a movie star. extra-marital affairs. Comprehension An Interview with Jack Nicholson Which ways of completing the following sentences are correct? There may be more than one possibility. were devoted to social realism. c) learned that acting requires an intensive insight into life. b) he strongly believed in acting as a literary art form. 5. Before the 1960s Since the 1960s domination of the stage by few major playwrights decentralization and regionalization of theatrical activities toward a national theater censorship in playwriting by Broadway producers expansion of the theatrical scene by around 400 non-profit theaters similarity of Broadway plays through middleclass orientation 2. b) believed that screen-acting was the higher art form. these plays differ from the traditional pattern. 3. in the choice of themes and main characters. business and personal integrity. After leaving school Jack Nicholson a) went straight to college. divorce. b) after a theater performance was not always fair. Already at the beginning of his career as an actor a) money played such a crucial role that he almost gave up acting. Jack Nicholson is of the opinion that criticism a) from the theater audience helped him a lot. c) of acting is done best by the actor himself. girls and seeing films. raising children. Jack Nicholson a) became interested in sports. to the family. Jack Nicholson a) regarded the stage as the true medium for an actor. b) tried to live an intensive life. . Structural Outline Toward a National Theater Provide the missing information about the change undergone by the American theater. to middle-class people talking in middle-class language about middle-class problems—problems that centered around marriage. c) he considered scriptwriters to be the greatest literary artists of the time. c) thought that second-rate actors were to be found on the stage. "Those plays. c) became an office boy in a California film company." Scan the survey of recent plays. 4. Due to Jeff Corey's influence. 2. 1. Comparing film-acting and acting on the stage.

b) there are always excellent scripts to rely on. prepare questions which both interest the listeners and can be answered informatively by Stanley Kauffmann. Imagine he is going to be interviewed on a live radio morning show. 10. and Bruce Springsteen. 7. based on an analysis of the review. 2. 5. Jack Nicholson anticipated that Easy Rider was not going to be a failure because a) the motorcycle film he had done before had been a success. Pick a few songs from both superstars. c) he has the special vision that is needed to produce the right images. c) he was familiar with the basic ideas of this film. 9. . Jack Nicholson gave up writing because he a) never really liked it. Where does the author see parallels and where does he see differences? 3. Nicholson believes that a) the script is the most important criterion. Pay particular attention to • the impact of their music on American people and culture the spiritual character of their music their audiences their best albums the protagonists of their songs their (ethnic) backgrounds their personalities their performing powers their political commitments. the Chairman of the Board. 4. Categorize them and say whether you agree with the description the author gives of their songs.244 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 6. the Boss. b) showed Nicholson that he was at his best as an actor. c) caused him to give up all plans of directing films. Comparative Study The Chairman and the Boss 1. c) only great directors guarantee the financial success of a film. Put yourself into the position of the interviewer and. The success of Easy Rider at the Cannes Film Festival a) made Nicholson think of directing films himself for the first time. b) he had given up trying to reach a kind of literary quality with this film. Kubrick or Polanski. Then conduct the interview in pairs. The interviewer at the radio station has read the review in The New Republic and. List what the author of this article says about Frank Sinatra. the interviewee relying on a few notes which he or she has made to each of the questions before. 8. When choosing a new project. b) the director is more important than the script. is basing his five-minute interview almost entirely on the review. as he has neither seen the film nor read the novel. Interview Practice Literary Hollywood Journalists such as Stanley Kauffmann often work in different media. Jack Nicholson enjoys directing because he thinks a) he can do it as well as Antonioni. b) felt that he was not effective enough as a writer. c) thought he could contribute to a film more through acting than through writing.

For those who cannot afford tickets or travel to expensive play-offs like baseball's World Series or football's final Superbowl. ESPN. Television has made sports available to all. runs sports shows at least 22 hours a day and is now received by 37 million American homes. . There is more to being a baseball fan than buying season tickets to the home team's games. monitoring. the major networks average about 500 hours each of sports programming a year. perhaps because it is the cheapest and most accessible sport. A real fan not only can recite each player's batting average. Superbowl: the championship game of the National Football League. Although estimates vary. whose territory is exclusively sports. measuring.14 SportS PART A Background Information A SPORTS-LOVING NATION MEDIA COVERAGE PRIVATE AND INSTITUTIONALIZED ACTIVITIES Whether they are fans or players. Dedication short of madness is also what inspired hundreds of thousands of football fans to fill Denver's stadium in dangerously freezing temperatures. The immense popularity of sports in America is indicated by the number of pages and headlines the average daily newspaper devotes to local and national sports. That's dedication. or nearly half of the 86 million homes with television sets. not to watch an exciting game but just to demonstrate team support in a pre-Superbowl pep rally. The emphasis on sports is evident in local evening news telecasts. Jogging is extremely popular. Books. the emergence of several cable channels that specialize in sports gives viewers even more options. regional. and computer printouts. fat cell per muscle cell ratios. too. the station's sports analyst. graph charting. fitness has become a science of quantification involving weighing. videos. Aerobic exercise and training with weight-lifting machines are two activities which more and more men and women are pursuing. Opportunities for keeping fit and playing sports are numerous. days before the actual contest. and almost anything else that shows the results of a workout. Every evening for five to seven minutes of the half-hour local news show. For anyone who claims a real desire to stay healthy. a flick of the television dial provides close-up viewing that beats front row seats. The foremost of these channels. Recently. the millions of Americans who participate in sports are usually passionate about their games. pep rally: an assembly intended to inspire enthusiasm. These are the tools for knowing all about pulse and heart rates. calorie intake. And it is with passion that Americans pursue the latest fitness fad. convinced that staying fit requires much more than regular exercise and balanced meals. reports on local. and national sports events. but also competes with other fans to prove who knows the answers to the most obscure and trivial questions about the sport.

the health and fitness center. These parks generally charge no fees for the use of these facilities. golf. and outdoor grills for picnics. there is the exclusive country club and its more modern version. Most communities have recreational parks with tennis and basketball courts. For those who can afford membership fees. . and basketball. and churches have indoor gymnasiums and organize informal team sports. a football or soccer field. healthy body as the American beauty ideal. Most clubs also offer instruction in various sports and exercise methods. handball.246 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP American football and fitness-conscious movie stars that play up the glamour of fitness have heightened enthusiasm for these exercises and have promoted the muscular. tennis. racquetball. Some large corporations. Members of these clubs have access to all kinds of indoor and outdoor sports: swimming. volleyball. hospitals.

are aggressive and sometimes bloody. one of the NFL teams. car racing. an indoor winter sport. cars. horse racing. gymnastics. Any business operator hopes to get a good deal. More often in the past than now.1 million. Coveted baseball player Kirk Gibson recently signed a three-year contract with the Detroit Tigers for $4. The major television networks contract with professional sports leagues for the rights to broadcast their games. Teams and competitions are highly organized and competitive and generally receive substantial local publicity. the slump in business is occurring at a time when sports shows are drawing larger audiences than in recent years. National Football League (NFL) teams. and tennis have been popular for decades and attract large audiences. Star quarterback Joe Namath was invited to play for the New York Jets. For many people. Although many spectator sports. common elsewhere. Advertisers for beer. and the major sports leagues enjoy the millions of dollars the networks pay for the broad -casting rights contracts. Football. Ironically. and student athletes receive strong community support. Many sports get half of their revenues from the networks. volleyball. The football season starts in early autumn and is followed by basketball. are not the rule among American fans. ice hockey. Commercial businesses enjoy the publicity which brings in sales. American spectators are notably less violent than are sports crowds in other countries. swimming. boxing. basketball. Just as in any business. and sometimes for soccer. and golf. tennis. The guaranteed mass viewing of major sports events means advertisers will pay networks a lot of money to sponsor the program with announcements for their products. and then baseball. ice hockey. and boxing. Besides these top three sports. Practices and games are generally held on t he school premises after classes are over. The networks are glad to fill up program hours and attract audiences who might perhaps become regular viewers of other programs produced by those networks. particularly pro football. played in spring and summer.SPORTS 247 AMERICAN SPORTS VIOLENCE AND SPORTS COMMERCIAL ASPECTS Schools and colleges have institutionalized team sports for young people. baseball. Base ball and football games are famil y affairs. and cheerleaders command the remarkably non-violent crowd to root in chorus for their teams. baseball. The networks' 1986 contract with the NFL provided each of the 28 teams in the league with an average of $14 million a year. Fighting. hockey. However. the most pop ular sports in America. They have experienced financial setbacks mainly caused by the oversaturation of sports programming on networks and competing cable channels. Networks claim they are now losing money on once-lucrative telecasts. fencing. investments are made and assets are exchange d. the network sports industries have not been faring well lately. team owners traded players back and forth as items for barter. Part of the problem is that advertising costs got too high. sports are big business. bottle throwing. get about 65 percent of their revenues from television. and scholarships. golf. Team owners usually sign up individual players for lucrative long -term contracts. and track. and men's products are glad of the opportunity to push their goods to the predominantly male audience of the big professional sports. originated in the United States and are largely unknown or only minor pastimes outside North America. High schools and colleges commonly have a school team for each of these sports: football. wrestling. awards. High schools and colleges recognize outstanding athletic achievement with trophies. for $425. for example. and the .000 in 1965. and rioting. and basketball.

such as the University of Michigan. This is true from the professional level all the way down to the level of children's Little League sports teams. who are caught between educational ideals and commercial realities. an aspiring young tennis star must not only possess a winning serve and backhand. Sports bring in money to colleges from ticket sales and television rights. is not only a matter of game skill. Without agents who line up sponsors and publicity. talented athletes make it to the top because they are exceptionally talented. top college teams get a lot of attention. many colleges are willing to go to great lengths. but to play sports and perhaps use intercollegiate sports as a springboard for a professional career. some universities.248 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP PROFESSIONAL SPORTS COLLEGE SPORTS STUDENT ATHLETES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE WINNING industries that traditionally buy ads—beer and car companies —are not paying the high prices. Networks. To get the endorsement of corporate advertising sponsors. a talented young tennis player has a much better chance for success if she is also attractive. but not in every case because they are the best. To recruit student athletes for a winning team." The obsession with winning causes some people to wonder whether sports in America should be such serious business. providing full academic scholarships to athletes. have initiated support pro grams to improve academic performance and graduation rates of athletes. The better the team. Teams and events are institutionalized and contribute to college publicity and revenue. Competition and success in sports. so colleges like having winning teams. Football and basketball are the most lucrative college sports because they attract the most fans. Other college sports. the Division 1 college football programs had a budget of nearly $1 billion. . In women's tennis. are often neglected and ignored by spectators. the greater the ticket sales and television coverage. a player has a very difficult time moving from amateur to professional sports. Increasing commercialization of college sports is part of a larger trend. particularly women's sports. dependent on advertising for revenue. Many top players earn more money a year in productendorsement fees than in prize money. The tacit understanding shared by college admissions directors as well as the potential sports stars they admit is that athletes do not enroll in college to learn. where young players are encouraged by such slogans as "A quitter never wins. On the other hand. then. and athletic directors who often disregard women's sports budgets and funnel money for equipment and facilities into the sports that pay. American sports are becoming more competitive and more profit-oriented. for example. and the more money the college can channel back into athletics and other programs. but marketability as well." and "never be willing to be second best. Young. who resent the preferential treatment given to athletes. The situation often embarrasses college administrators. a winner never quits. As a result. playing to win is emphasized more than playing for fun. she must also get corporate agents on her side. the news media. In 1986. and infuriates other students. are hoping that the market will change before they have to make drastic reductions i r sports programming. College sports lost its amateurism years ago. The commercial aspects of American professional sports can make or break an athlete's career. while entertaining millions of spectators and television viewers. Of late. and sometimes putting the college's academic reputation at risk. Sales-conscious tennis sportswear companies pay large sums of money to tennis pros who promote their products.

What role does it play in the curriculum? A: Well. with his back to the crowd. and.E. On top of that there's a band to add to the pre-game and intermission carnival atmosphere. with the student section generating the loudest screams.E. a large difference. He walks out with a flaming pitchfork. course. the students would be released from school early so that they would have the opportunity to travel with the team. the girls' volleyball team has had some success. who perform various chants and acrobatics to hype up the crowd. the school sports program has a double role. All of a sudden. And we can't forget the financial implications: the games generate revenue for the school. What were the most popular teams at your school. of course.A.E. as it is commonly called. throwing open his cape. with the P. Q: What other things beside the actual competition on the field add to the atmosphere of the game? A: At the very beginning of the game. which exist only in small numbers in the U. if the basketball team were to go to the state tournament. Q: So.249 PART в Texts ° Interview: High School Sports Q: Steve. although the basketball team has always had a cult following. the home games of the top teams are the important events in the life of the school. through thick and thin. Q: To what extent does the community become . and everybody in that section stands up and cheers as loud as they can. and afterwards went to school in Germany for almost a year. actually. diverse audience. obviously.S.E. they are. and how important were they for the school? A: The biggest team at QHS is by far the boy's basketball team. the students get to choose between various team and individual sports ranging from basketball. They wear very provocative outfits. and the courses meet five times a week for one hour a day. it's a requirement. after that. when the players are introduced. and. In Germany. weight lifting and aerobics. Q: Do they wear special clothes? A: It's the lack of clothes more than the clothes. which is divided into sections. whereas in the U. and it's always packed to capacity. They're played at the senior high gym. The basketball games attract a large.? A: Yes. II.S. and there's the omnipresent cheerleaders for the same purpose. program on one side and organized competitive sports on the other. organized into squads. and then the other teams are heavily dependent on success. and he goes around the gym.S. the function of the competitive sports is taken over by non-school sport clubs.. Another thing. in the last couple of years. and. Q: What kinds of sports are offered? A: There's usually a period right at the beginning of each semester where a general physical fitness program is done. do you think there is a great difference between Germany and the U. In Germany. he turns around.. which means that every student must be enrolled in a P. the mascot from Quincy comes out dressed as a blue devil. Q: Let's first talk about physical education or P. school sports mean P. aren't they? A: Yes. you graduated from high school in Quincy. he covers himself in his cape. Q: Let's turn to competitive sports now. For instance. that means a more popular following for the team. As far as school sports are concerned. The high school team is called the Blue Devils. football and baseball to tennis. Q: What do you understand by cheerleaders? A: These are girls.

but it's pretty well all decided by the time the people are playing at the junior high. And when a coach's luck runs out. tourney. a major portion of time is devoted to callisthenics. The other teams are more open to entrance later on. and. the games are always broadcast on the radio. and. the basketball team in Quincy is very selective. and then many Quincians went to the tournament to support the team. Q: Imagine a student wants to join the basketball team. continued involved and interested in those games? Do you remember incidents that would illustrate this interest? A: The community has always been very much behind the basketball program at QHS. teamwork and basic skills. when a team returns from state tourney. when we went to the state tournament in 1981. he's gone as a coach. like I said before. just for being a good coach. so there is a very big grass roots support. just general physical fitness. for instance. tournament. The girls find the guys to be quite sexy. as long as they don't get too arrogant. Q: How would you describe the role of the coach? A: The coach is of major importance for the team. For example. and there's quite a competition for membership. gets on board an old fire truck and parades around town before going to the gym for a victory rally. the gymnasium is always filled to capacity.250 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 1. one fan in Quincy gave a basketball coach a brand new Corvette. they're highly regarded by the major portion of the high school population. a local printing company distributed posters. And during the regular season. Coaches are hired by the school board as coaches first and as teachers second. . For example. The community at large stands behind the coaches when they have a winning record. and. as he determines their success to a large extent. but he's retained as a teacher. and that multiplies when the team is successful. they're the stars of the high school community. Q: I guess the members of the top basketball team are very popular with the other students and with the girls. but the guys at the high school tend to lean toward the cheerleaders rather than the basketball players. which is like a large party for the players and fans. it goes to the mall. Q: What do they do to train? High-school basketball game A: As with any sport. A: Yeah. you could see these posters with this huge blue devil staring out at you on just about every house. How does he go about it? A: Well. and the rest of the time is spent on tactics. driving around town.

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e

SPORTS IN AMERICA:
COLLEGES & UNIVERSITIES
by James A. Michener
The athletic programs of American colleges and universities have come in for a great deal of criticism but there does not seem to be a chance to alter the system. James A. Michener gives background information and comments on the problems. First, the United States is the only nation in the world, so far as I know, which demands that its schools like Harvard, Ohio State and Claremont assume responsibility for providing the public with sports entertainment. Ours is a unique system which has no historical sanction or application elsewhere. It would be unthinkable for the University of Bologna, a most ancient and honorable school, to provide scholarships to illiterate soccer players so that they could entertain the other cities of northern Italy, and it would be equally preposterous for either the Sorbonne or Oxford to do so in their countries. Our system is an American phenomenon, a historical accident which developed from the exciting football games played by Yale and Harvard and to a lesser extent Princeton and certain other schools during the closing years of

College football

252 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

2. continued
the nineteenth century. If we had had at that time professional teams which provided public football entertainment, we might not have placed the burden on our schools. But we had no professional teams, so our schools were handed the job. Second, if an ideal American educational system were being launched afresh, few would want to saddle it with the responsibility for public sports entertainment. I certainly would not. But since, by a quirk of history, it is so saddled, the tradition has become ingrained and I see not the remotest chance of altering it. I therefore approve of continuing it, so long as certain safeguards are installed. Categorically, I believe that our schools must continue to offer sports entertainment, even though comparable institutions throughout the rest of the world are excused from doing so. Third, I see nothing wrong in having a college or a university provide training for the young man or woman who wants to devote his adult life to sports. My reasoning is twofold: 1) American society has ordained that sports shall be a major aspect of our national life, with major attention, major financial support and major coverage in the media. How possibly can a major aspect of life be ignored by our schools? 2) If it is permissible to train young musicians and actors in our universities, and endow munificent departments to do so, why is it not equally legitimate to train young athletes, and endow them with a stadium? Fourth, because our schools have volunteered to serve as unpaid training grounds for future professionals, and because some of the lucky schools with good sports reputations can earn a good deal of money from the semi-professional football and basketball teams they operate, the temptation to recruit young men skilled at games but totally unfitted for academic work is overpowering. We must seriously ask if such behavior is legitimate for an academic institution. There are honorable answers, and ! know some of them, but if we do not face this matter forthrightly, we are going to run into trouble.

BASEBALL
B
aseball is a nine-a-side game played with bat, ball, and glove, mainly in the U.S.A. Teams consist of a pitcher and catcher, called the battery, first, second, and third basemen, and shortstop, called the infield, and right, centre, and left fielders, called the outfield. Substitute players may enter the game at any time, but once a player is removed he cannot return. The standard ball has a cork-and-rubber centre wound with woollen yam and covered with horsehide. It weighs from 5 to 5 1/4 oz. (148 g.) and is from 9 to 9 1/2 in. (approx. 23 cm.) in circumference. .. . The bat is a smooth, round, tapered piece of hard wood not more than 2 3/4 in. (approx. 7 cm.) in diameter at its thickest part and no more than 42 in. (1.07 m.) long. Originally, fielders played barehanded, but gloves have been developed over the years. First basemen wear a special large mitt, and catchers use a large, heavily-padded mitt as well as a chest protector, shin guards, and a metal mask. Catchers were at first unprotected. Consequently, they stood back at a distance from home plate and caught pitched balls on the bounce, but the introduction of the large, round, well-padded mitt or "pillow glove" and the face mask enabled them to move up close behind the plate and catch pitched balls on the fly. Players wear shoes with steel cleats and, while batting and running the bases, they use protective plastic helmets. The game is played on a field containing four bases placed at the angles of a 90-ft. (27.4 m.) square (often called a diamond): home plate and, in counter-clockwise order, first, second, and third base. Two foul lines form the boundaries of fair territory. Starting at home, these lines extend past first and third base the entire length of the field, which is often enclosed by a fence at its farthest limits. The object of each team is to score more runs than the other. A run is scored whenever a player circles all the bases and reaches home without being put out. The game is divided into innings, in

SPORTS 253

3. continued

each of which the teams alternate at bat and in the field. A team is allowed three outs in each halfinning at bat, and must then take up defensive positions in the field while the other team has its turn to try to score. Ordinarily, a game consists of nine innings; in the event of a tie, extra innings are played until one team outscores the other in the same number of innings. The players take turns batting from home plate in regular rotation. The opposing pitcher throws the ball to his catcher from a slab (called the "rubber") on the pitcher's mound, a slightly raised area of the field directly between home and second base. ... Bases are canvas bags fastened to metal pegs set in the ground. The batter tries to reach base safely after hitting the pitched ball into fair territory. A hit that enables him to reach first base is called a "single," a twobase hit is a "double," a three-base hit a "triple," and a four-base hit a "home-run." A fair ball hit over an outfield fence is automatically a home run. A batter is also awarded his base if the pitcher delivers four pitches which, in the umpire's judgement, do not pass through the "strike zone" — that is, over home plate between the batter's armpits and knees; or if he is hit by a pitched ball; or if the opposing catcher interferes when he swings the bat. To prevent the batter from hitting safely, baseball pitchers deliver the ball with great speed and accuracy and vary its speed and trajectory. Success in batting, therefore, requires courage and a high degree of skill.

After a player reaches base safely, his progress towards home depends largely on his team mates' hitting the ball in such a way that he can advance. ... Players may be put out in various ways. A batter is out when the pitcher gets three 'strikes' on him. A strike is a pitch that crosses the plate in the strike zone, or any pitch that is struck at and missed or is hit into foul territory. After two strikes, however, foul balls do not count except when a batter 'bunts' — lets the ball meet the bat instead of swinging at it — and the ball rolls foul. A batter is also out if he hits the ball in the air anywhere in fair or foul territory and it is caught by an opponent before it touches the ground. He is out if he hits the ball on the ground and a fielder catches and throws it to a player at first base, or catches it and touches that base, before the batter (now become a base runner) gets there. A base nnner may be put out if, while off base, he is tagged by an opposing player with the hand or glove holding the ball, or if he is forced to leave his base to make room for another runner and fails to reach the next base before an opposing player tags him or the base; or if he is hit by a team mate's batted ball before it has touched or passed a fielder. An umpire-in-chief "calls" balls and strikes from his position directly behind the catcher at home plate, and one or more base umpires determine whether runners are safe or out at the other three bases.

254 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

HEALTH

Running for your Life
A Harvard study links exercise with longevity

T

HE hordes of Americans who roll out of bed, slip into their Reeboks and run for an hour in the face of snarling dogs, potential muggers and hordes of Americans heading in the opposite direction on their Schwinn 10-speeds must wonder sometimes whether it's worth the aggravation. After all, if a rash of recent books and articles like "The Exercise Myth" can be believed, the evidence that physical activity leads to a longer and healthier life is based on a flawed interpretation of cause and effect. It isn't that exercise prolongs life, the argument goes, it's just that people who engage in sports and active occupations are healthier in the first place. But the fitness buffs should not put their rowing machines in dry dock just yet. According to a long-term study involving nearly 17,000 loyal sons of Harvard, it now seems that athletic effort is far from a waste of time. Moderate exercise, said a report in last week's New England Journal of Medicine, can add up to two years to a person's life. In the mid-1960s Dr. Ralph S. Paffenbarger Jr. and his colleagues at the Stanford University School of Medicine recruited the Harvard graduates, 35 to 74, and asked them to answer detailed questionnaires about their general health and living habits. Followups carried out until 1978 showed that men who expended at least 2,000 calories per week through exercise had mortality rates one-quarter to one-third lower than those burning up fewer calories. The lifeprolonging level of activity cited in the report is the equivalent of five hours of brisk walking, about four hours of jogging or a shade more than three hours of squash. More exercise meant a better chance at a long life - up to a point. A regimen that burned more than 3,500 calories tended to cause injuries that negated most of the benefits derived from exercise. Countering disease: During the survey, 1,413 of the men died: 45 percent from heart disease, 32 percent from cancer, 13 percent from other "natural causes" and 10 percent

Jogging for health

from trauma. While previous studies indicated that exercise protects against heart disease, Harvard's is the first to show a favorable effect of exercise on mortality from all diseases. As would be expected, smoking, high blood pressure and a familial history of death at an early age were associated with an increased mortality risk. But, according to the study, exercise played a significant part in countering even these major factors. For example, hypertensive men who exercised had half the mortality rate of their counterparts who remained sedentary. Among smokers, exercise reduced deaths by about 30 percent. Harvard men who were varsity athletes while in college — and were thus presumed by the researchers to have been starting out life with basically strong bodies - had no advantage over their classmates in terms of survival rates. Indeed, lettermen who subsequently turned soft and sedentary increased their mortality risk. "It's not the kind of activity that you did in college . . . but the amount of contemporary activity that's associated with the long survival," says Paffenbarger.
MATT CI.ARK with KAREN SPRING^N

Reeboks: trademark of jogging shoes. Schwinn 10-speed: trademark of racing bicycles.

lettermen: people who have been awarded a letter, the initial of their school, for outstanding performance especially in sports.

SPORTS 255

Anything wrong?"

Could it be that. One day. I had been a newscaster and announcer at a San Francisco radio station. and some in-between love affairs. "Please . "It's a sports quiz. particularly back then. and I was saved. reads the sports section? I approach this subject with a light touch. I still feel. It was a girl. where I would lob softballs his way. He was lousy at sports. I auditioned for everything. three children. anxious and in need of work. demanding that he hit them back to me. from time to time.) When I married and my wife became pregnant. So what we want is for Dempsey to sit at your side to give the program authenticity. when I began to face the awful truth that I simply had no taste for the world of athletics either as participant or observer. "I can certainly handle a sports quiz. But only for a while. I took a breath. I was hungry. take him to Yankee Stadium and engage in the sports rituals so necessary for healthy male bonding. at an early age. Do you think you can handle it?" I agonized. Even after three marriages. Jonathan was born. We've lined up the best sportswriters in the country to be on the panel." I looked the executive right in the eye. I kept it very quiet. indeed. I'VE DECIDED TO COME OUT OF THE closet. It is not an easy decision to admit openly that I really don't like sports. too. "We were hoping to make Jack Dempsey the host. "What sort of game?" I asked politely." the executive explained. although I knew that whatever it was. There — I've said it. When I first came to New York in the 1940s. I was called in by radio station WOR and told there was an opportunity to audition for the job of host of a panel game. "bui when we put a microphone in front of Jack's face." I said. I kept my fingers crossed. I saw the $150 fee (huge money back then) fade into the distance. As a matter of fact. I saw. I felt the blood leave my face. When he was 8 years old. Do you know what it's like to be a man who is not a sports fan? Who not only doesn't care who wins the World Series but who is never exactly sure which teams are playing? Who never. but in truth it has been a problem that has plagued me for most of my life. Three and a half years later." he went on.256 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP LOUSY AT SPORTS don't make it a boy. but you'll be the real moderator. that Jonathan had inherited my disease." He'll insist that I play ball with him. he froze. particularly when I was a young boy. I would grab it if I could. almost at once. somehow. I forced the poor kid to go to a park in New York. that. plus the sure knowledge that I adore women. Gotham was tough for a newcomer. I was a "fairy" or reasonable facsimile thereof? (The euphemism "gay" came into the language later. "Absolutely. For to be a boy not interested in sports was. but never. I must be lacking in the right male genes. to run the risk of being thought a homosexual.

" he asked. I got away with the bluff. "You've done a good job. "What do you think I do?" He looked at me thoughtfully. I would bravely pitch sports questions at the experts arrayed at the panel desk in front of me. The proof came a few weeks after the demise of that quiz when I was once again called by WOR. "We will give you an on-the-air test in about two weeks. What do you do for a living?" Because "What's My Line?" was my show at that time. minus zero. continued Before the audition. I was invited by my banker to have dinner on the company yacht while cruising around Manhattan Island. I stood on the deck in a group that included Gene Tunney. There. Then I tried out and — mirabile dictul — got the job. because not one of the sports mavens ever seemed to doubt that I knew whereof I spoke. Twenty years later.000 a year. . I began on page 1." I blushed. "This is a big deal." But I did bow out. For 26 weeks. It made me remember boyhood nightmares in which I would be in a strange classroom about to take a final exam in a course I had never heard of. and the talk centered on business and." If it wasn't 100 pages thick. I took care to find out that Jack Dempsey was a former heavyweight boxing champion. I knew nothing. about baseball. I collapsed. gazed down at me suspiciously from his enormous height. Much as I needed the money." I said — and dashed to the nearest bookstore. but certainly it wasn't anything as shameful as "I've really never seen a baseball game. an infield fly and on and on through the fine print." "Terrific. a foul. where the precise measurements of the "diamond" were diagramed. I knew there was no way that I could manage this bluff! I can't remember the alibi I gave the executive. "I'll do it. sports. He responded to my hesitation. "Goodson. Mark Goodson is president of Goodson-Todman TV Productions. We are looking for someone to help describe the Dodger ball games from Ebbets Field. it seemed to be. long after I had given up performing and was running a television production company specializing in "game" shows (quite an irony for a non-sports-fan to earn a living at "games"). I had never been to a major-league ball game. turned. Goodson. "Goodson. How does that strike you?" I paused. My employer smiled benevolently. every Monday night. I knew what he meant. After dinner. of course. Now I have a real opportunity for you.SPORTS 257 5. it seemed natural for me to respond. when Tunney suddenly broke off from the conversation." "Good. It was an excruciating experience. looking at his calendar." he replied. I bought "Baseball: The Official Rules." I swallowed. "tell me about you. the definition of a strike. It was a "men only" party. Apparently. I thought I was doing an acceptable job of being responsive to the sports chatter. As I got to the 10th page. another former heavyweight champion and by then a successful Wall Street investor. guaranteed $25. I'd say you are a poet. then went on to the functions and duties of each player in the infield and outfield. He'd found me out.

P. b) can choose between team and individual sports. b) has recently been matched by the girls' volleyball team. b) attending the home games. At QHS 'Blue Devils' is the name of a) the school's teams. c) frequently accompanying the team to tournaments outside of Quincy. c) cannot be fired as a coach. students a) do individual sports only. b) are almost entirely organized by sports clubs. 7. b) as popular with the girls as the cheerleaders are with the boys. In P. c) the basketball team's following. 6. 10. c) it first goes to the gym to celebrate its success. c) unpopular because they are too arrogant. The cheerleaders' function is a) to stimulate the players during the games. b) it parades along the mall on an old fire truck. The community supports the basketball team by a) having large posters printed for every game. b) to create a stimulating atmosphere in order to support their team.E. c) consist of competitive sports and. winter. Give examples and show what function they serve. that he . school sports in the U. What role do sports play in American society? 4. . equally important. c) improve the school's finances. fall. 8. celebrity as long as the team is successful.. b) attract new students. a) it is enthusiastically welcomed by the community. The author uses the rhetorical device of comparison.258 PART C Exercises 1. . When a successful team returns from a tournament. When compared with Germany.S. 9. spring and summer. b) will lose his coaching job if he is not successful. Text Analysis and Comment Sports in America: Colleges and universities 1. " . c) have to go through a general fitness program. I sort of get sick to my stomach when some faculty committee issues a statement that my boys should be scholars first and athletes second.E. The basketball games are important for the school because they a) attract large audiences. 2. 3. 2. The coach of the basketball team a) is a local. c) to please the audience through their appearance and performance. b) the mascots. 4. 5. The popularity of the basketball team at QHS a) has traditionally been strong. a) put much more emphasis on competitive sports. Why does Michener consider the American college and university sports system unique? 2. Where is Michener critical of the system? 3. The members of the basketball team are a) popular unless they get too arrogant. Comprehension Interview: High School Sports Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the information given in the interview? 1. Any self-respectin' man with his head screwed on right must realize that football consumes so much of a boy's time. c) is strongly dependent on its success. 5.

which are false? Correct the false ones. and it's only after their eligibility is used up that they got time to be scholars. and point out concrete examples which either support or refute the findings of the Harvard study. We hire them to play football. 9. The study covered 35-year-old and 74-yearold Harvard graduates. Comprehension Baseball Decide whether the following statements are true or false and correct the false statements. University athletes are likely to live longer than their less athletic classmates. 3. Comprehension Running for Your Life Which of the following statements are true. p. the game continues until one player scores a home run. 2. 5.000 calories per week had a lower mortality rate. 1. The batter can go to first base if he is hit by the pitched ball. the more exercises people do. 4. The catcher wears a face mask because the bouncing ball kicks up a lot of dust. and we pay them well to do it. 9. There is more than one umpire. Sports in America. 10. The team which fields is called the battery. 1. 3. 12. The batter is out if he hits the ball into the crowd. A player is out if he hits the ball into foul territory and a fielder catches it before it touches the ground. Sports activities in later years affect longevity much more than activities during the college years. After three players are out. A player does not score a run unless he runs round all the bases before the next ball is pitched. 10. Quite a number of recent books and articles refute the notion that physical exercise prolongs life. 8. but now they catch the ball in their bare hands.228) In the light of this quotation. 5. If we didn't have a supply of snap courses. Fielders used to wear gloves.SPORTS 259 simply ain't got time to be a scholar too. 6. 11. A long-term Harvard study does not confirm that view." (A university football coach. the greater their life expectancy becomes. The study shows that people who jog four hours per week have a good chance of prolonging their lives. 6. the teams change positions and the batters become the fielders. 30 per cent of the smokers who did regular exercises died during the survey. If both teams have scored the same number of runs at the end of nine innings. There are eleven players in a baseball team. 7. and cooperatin' professors who know the score. what would you suggest to solve the problem? 4. 3. 4. 8. quoted from Michener. The ball used in the game of baseball is covered with leather. Letter Writing Write a letter to the editor in which you express your personal opinion about physical exercise. . 5. Another result of the study is that regular exercise not only protects against heart disease but against other diseases as well. According to the study. Men who did not burn more than 2. 7. ain't no way my boys could stay in school. 2.

Preparing an Interview Lousy at Sports Imagine that this revelation of a prominent TV producer in The New York Times magazine has aroused the interest of a popular talk show host. . if you want to be accepted in American society • remind the audience of the large number of well-known athletes who have been invited to the show • introduce your guest and explain why he has been invited. Then prepare questions concerning • Mark Goodson's reasons for publicly confessing his absolute dislike of sports • the attitude of many Americans toward men who are uninterested in sports • Mark Goodson's anxieties as the father of a boy • his job as a moderator of a sports quiz • the offer to become a baseball reporter • his experience of being eventually found out at a dinner party. Put yourself into the position of the interviewer and prepare an introduction.260 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP 6. in which you • point out the importance of being a sportsman/sportswoman or at least a sports fan. who now uses the magazine article as the basis for his interview.

are not as high as they once were. Most newspapers. Newspapers and magazines have long been major lines of communication and have always reached large audiences.144 newspapers were published in the United States. however. a total of 9. Readership levels. In the United States. Some established metropolitan newspaper s are no w p ublished in "zoned" editions for different regio nal COMMERCIAL CONTROL OF THE MEDIA NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES NEW PRESS DEVELOPMENTS . capable of mass -producing messages and images instantaneously. magazines. more than 11. with access to virtually every American household. radio and television networks in the United States are private commercial enterprises and must be responsive to their audience's dema nds. sports. who use the media to influence voters. The broadcast media. crime reports. the power of the media is important to politicians. Accordingly. understood broadly. They have suffered a decline in circulation from the peak years around the turn of the century largely because of the trend of urban populations moving to the suburbs. a society in which access to power is through the media. Television. Today. The term media. Studies sho w that most suburban readers prefer to get "serious" news from television and tend to read newspapers primarily for comics.15 The Media PART A U. have been largely responsible for homogenizing cultural and regional diversities across the country. but also influence public opinion. which typically tunes in about six hours a day. who use the media to encourage consumption of their products. The audience's opinions influence the media industry. bimonthly. if they are to stay in business. it has given rise to what social observers sometimes call a media state. Nowadays. especially for entertainment. monthly. The print and broadcasting media not only convey information to the public. fashions. Beyond this cultural significance.S.000 different periodicals are published as either weekly. Newspapers have had to cope with competition from radio and television. Since a democracy largely depends on publ ic opinion. newspapers have made changes to increase their readership levels. and to businessmen and women. and local news. More than 62 million copies of daily newspapers are printed every day and over 58 million copies of Sunday papers are published every week. all those involved in communicating information inevitably have an important role to play.A. is a powerful influence. quarterly. Am ericans consider television their most important source of news.-A MEDIA STATE? Background Information Mass communication has revolutionized the modern world. or semiannual editions. includes any channel of information through which infor mation can pass. and a majority ranks television as the most believable news source. The relationship works in the other direction as well. In 1986.

........450 3. . Money . Circulation .. 1..... New Woman .. To meet the public demand for more feature material....... the percentages of cities with competing newspapers have decreased dramatically as publishers are driven out of business by larger competitors. ...................067 1............... .... Boys' Life .816 1...930 1....... The Family Handyman .090. People .......... Smithsonian..842 5.......121 1... National Enquirer ....748 2.........047 ............697 4................ the Times and the News.......... Field & Stream........ Popular Mechanics ......201.. .....324 Penthouse .......261...263.706.............648. Teen .501 1.. Woman's World .................. 1...... The U... Chain publishers own newspapers all over the country...091.............348.. Popular Science ...........609...314 1..... 1..... Reader's Digest.....201... Guideposts ...800..... exclusive of groups and comics....... VFW .. Circulation of Leading U...... Home & Away ...186. Newsweek ..... .... which gather wire copy: send in a news report (by telegram in former times)... 1986.038........281......... Home Mechanics .963 1.016 2... Travel & Leisure .... Variety at local and national levels has been reduced as media operations have become concentrated in the hands of just a few publishers and corporations.S....781 ................. With a total circulation of over 22 million.....152 3... 1... Parents...........221....119 ........534 . more and more of the remaining newspapers are under chain or group control........862 .. 1................ 1.287.....333 2. Sports Illustrated ......751 6.. has never had a national press or newspaper with a mass national circulation like The Times and The Daily Telegraph in Britain or the leading papers in other countries..................431......... .... Star ..........584 ................ Redbook ..... chains comprise more than one third of the total daily newspaper circulation in the United States.........156.847 14.....................009........551 4.... ........242 4....... .................581 .... Magazines General magazines.. Changing Times ..... plus one afternoon daily.297. 1....... 1...428 1..........393 5.......442.. Mademoiselle ..045 .................721. At this point.. has increased so that these papers come close to constituting a national press...... National Geographic..S.........098 ..... Rolling Stone ....... In the 1920s people in Manhattan could choose from fourteen different morning and evening dailies... 1.... . most notably the New York Times and the Washington Post......302 1..262 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP audiences... Vogue ...597 ........ In some cases....379. 1....... Elks .812 .764. . Golf Digest ...................627 2......... 1..........915 1. 1.328....... .............. Cosmopolitan..........004 1.........726 .... Thirty years later.....379........ Outdoor Life .. they have lost their readership to new weekly suburban newspapers that resemble magazines in format...............007..569..853.... 1........ Country Living . Modern Maturity ......... Prevention .447.........................577.. 97 percent of the cities carrying daily papers have but a single publisher...132 .....479 1.......412..744..726 1......... ..020..306.131 3.. They are called "one-owner-towns..... Self ...............723 ........027 TV Guide ..........718...... 1... McCall's......... 1.150 2............. Adventure Road ...... 1........ .... Today there are under 40 and the number is falling.... 31.............. Playboy .....619........ 3...118......... Woman's Day ............703............ In other areas around the country....019 1....... Glamour .... However..." Moreover. In 1926 there were more than 500 cities with competing newspapers....... Ebony .. Magazine Circulation Magazine 16..519 5.... . Globe ... The Workbasket ...310. ......019 10......843......973...970 2..520.441 16. .. News & World Report ........ ..159 4... ...... Based on total average paid circulation during the 6 months prior to Dec.779.......101... 1.446 CONGLOMERATION LARGE NATIONAL PAPERS AND NEWS SERVICES Another trend which has accompanied the decline in readership and number of publications is the dramatic decline in competition.................. 1.....446.151 ....... Both papers syndicate their staff-written stories to regional newspapers all over the country.922 2...363 2. New York City is a good example................234........ U..862....... Discovery .................720....239.. Most newspapers rely heavily on wire copy from the two major news services. ...381...... Sesame Street .....463 1.............. True Story..405... some publishers have started adding "lifestyle" and "home living" sections to their papers to make them more like magazines.... Better Homes & Gardens............083 1. Family Circle .........749...600......998 8. The American Rifleman ........225 ....001 Home Ideas .... the Associated Press (AP) and United Press International (UPI).... Circulation Magazine Sunset ........... .................109. Discover .... the influence of a few large metropolitan newspapers... Ladies' Home Journal ..... . and today New York has only two morning papers.... . . Bon Appetit.634........951.. Time . ................................ 1....873.. The American Hunter... Seventeen .......106 1.. American Legion .. Southern Living .... 1.................. Life ......S...............820......... Good Housekeeping ...362.. 1...951 1...172 .386... ...181.................692............... Rodale's Organic Gardening ..938 ..............575 5.........540.... the choice was reduced by half.. ....895... Motorland ....478 ........212..260.... 1.131 2.........071 2...087 .

" Government and media often engage in confrontations when reporters disclose classified information or pursue investigative reporting to uncover injustices and corruption within American institutions. abridging the freedom. for example. Opinion is excluded from news columns and is presented on separate editorial pages. But conglomeration raises questions among some social commentators about objectivity. area. The First Amendment to the Constitution states: "Congress shall make no law. television news programs take a lead from the Times in deciding what is and is not a big story. which in 1976 had a monopoly in the morning market in the Washington. has insisted on objectivity and detachment in news reports. usually imposing a more rigorous separation of fact from opinion than do newspapers in other countries. covered that year's presidential election by giving equal space to candidates Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter.of the press. which feature unsigned editorials and include opinions signed by readers. significantly. especially in recent decades. .. Would marketplace diversity not ensure that error and bias would be counterbalanced. The Washington Post. . This adversary stance toward government which many news executives and reporters advocate has led government officials and other critics to accuse the . The trend toward concentration of ownership is defended on the ground that large-scale organizations can provide the funds.C. Careful effort to preserve objectivity is made even among monopoly newspapers. Newspapers around the country and. The stories reported in major papers often influence other news media. . and management to keep a newspaper profitable and competitive.THE MEDIA 263 A wide variety of publications is available OBJECTIVITY FREEDOM OF THE PRESS national and international news stories and sell them to subscribing news papers. know-how. contributors. When the Times ceased publication for several weeks in 1978. there was clear evidence of television news programs' lack of direction. and does monopoly not increase the chance that the public may be misinformed? The American press. . D. and syndicated columnists. Even the photographs of the candidates were scrupulously equal in size and placement. The mass media in the United States claim explicit recognition of their right to be free from government control and censorship.

Evening news programs and other news shows are often criticized for concerning themselves with entertainment. Defense document about the origins of the U. ABC: American Broadcasting Company. and NBC. Most commercial television stations are affiliated with one of the three major networks. Ссдцmercial broadcasting is a huge industry bringing in profits of about 1. The controversy over the role of the media has led to many stormy court battles. in 1971. A network buys programs from independent television production companies. The story started a sequence of events that led to the resignation of President Nixon. and contributions from viewers. When. they compete with each other for viewers and are intent on choosing programs that will win high audience ratings. 30. . Other stations feature news. Critics charge that networks often emphasize the personalities of newscasters at the expense of issues of public importance. The Washington Post's role in uncovering the Watergate scandal is another example of the media's involvement in national events. and jazz. or 60second commercial announcements before. CBS: Columbia Broadcasting Service. including country-western. and after programs. Networks are essentially program distribution companies. often educational or cultural. Programs that aim at mass entertainment are preferred over educational and news programs. involvement in the Vietnam conflict.000 commercial AM and FM radio stations and over 850 commercial television stations. there were over 8." a classified U. The network is paid by advertisers to insert commercial announcements on the programs the network buys. and religious programs exclusively. Watergate: see page 29. Because networks are commercial systems dependent on advertising. and distributes these programs across the country to television stations that are affiliated with the network. the Supreme Court ruled that the newspapers were within their rights to publish the material.S. classical music. grants from foundations. most of which are located in Hollywood. For the most part.S.264 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP RADIO AND TELEVISION NETWORKS PROGRAMMING news media of transgressing the bounds of journalism and influencing events they once merely described. Supreme Court: see page 97. The funding for public broadcasting comes primarily from congressional appropriations. pop music. the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). ABC. talk interviews and discussions. CBS. appeal to a highly selective audience. but to become a radio or television broadcaster one must be granted a portion of the limited radio-television spectrum by the government's licensing board. the American broadcasting system has always been a commercial system. As of 1984. Attracting a smaller audience. It is supported by money from businesses that pay to advertise goods or services to the audience. anyone in the United States can start a newspaper or magazine. Advertising messages are usually presented as 15. Most radio stations offer listeners a variety of music programs.8 billion dollars annually. Vietnam: see page 15. The number of radio and television broadcasting stations provides for wide diversification in programming. during. NBC: National Broadcasting Company. there is also noncommercial public broadcasting for radio and television. Theoretically. the Washington Post and New York Times published the "Pentagon Papers. The programs.

However. It now provides anybody who is ready to have a satellite dish installed in his or her backyard with the same programming as cable TV. About 35 million Americans pay a monthly fee of approximately $17. satellite TV or renting video cassettes. There is a considerable amount of citizen involv ement on other issues as well.00 for greater selection. For example. Conventional television has had to struggle to retain its audience as people switch over to cable viewing. many critics complain that producers and network executives should be more sensitive to the effects of television violence on children and adults. . There has bee n a controversy recently as to the viewer's right to freely receive signals that are beamed down onto his or her property. adult programs containing violence and sexual suggestiveness are kept to a minimum. As responsive as television is to audience ratings. and recent film releases. Cable companies can program 40 different channels. utilize the power of both cable and satellite to program nationwide. Cable television companies receive signals from television stations through a larger master antenna or dish and relay the signal into the homes of subscribers by wires att ached to home receivers. Satellite TV was originally designed to offer a gr eater selection of programs to people in rural areas that could not easily be connected to the cable system. which are in fact small independent stations. there are groups that lobby for a better standard of children's television. The so -called superstateons. providing viewers with many specialized programs such as Hollywood musicals.THE MEDIA 265 CABLE TELEVISION SATELLITE TELEVISION ISSUES Viewers whose tastes are not satisfied by the many offerings of network and local programs are now increasing their options by subscribing to cable television. local theater productions. p rotest did lead to the introduction of "family viewing time" from seven to nine o'clock in the evening. The debate over the possible link between the amount of violence on television and the amount of violence in society has not yet been resolved. During these hours. and other groups associated with the religious right which object to explicit language and immorality on the television screen.

but there is more highbrow offered than highbrows will admit or even seek to know about. as an outbreak of a big war. He can do little about tlrs. so far as that is possible. He can glance over it and decide what to read. his fellow journalists bestowed on him tributes befitting a statesman. he left television after 38 years a staunch defender of the medium." and the Christian Science Monitor called him TV's answer to antiquity's oracle at Delphi. including most of those who pretend they don't. Though he was originally an essayist and became a broadcaster at 26 with reluctance. Innumerable newspaper critics seem to insist that broadcast journalism be like their journalism and measured by their standards.266 PART в Texts THE CASE FOR TELEVISION JOURNALISM by ERIC SEVAREID Courtesy of Saturday Review When Eric Sevareid retired from CBS News in November 1977. Newsweek dubbed Sevareid "without doubt the most imposing of all broadcast commentators. Television is a combination mostly of lowbrow and middlebrow. While it is being shown. a universal medium. In his two-minute commentaries on CBS's nightly news broadcast. what to pass by. Broadcast news operates in linear time. has serious built-in limitations as well as advantages. always leaving a twinge of optimism in the air. Everyone in America watches television to some degree. They will kind Qf adversary relationship between print journalism and electronic journalism exists and has existed for many years in the United States. It cannot be. Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter was right. It is a mass medium. The journalism of sight and sound is the only truly new form of journalism to come along. he said there is no highbrow in any lowbrow. The two are more complementary than competitive. but there is a fair amount of lowbrow in every highbrow. It . blending fact and opinion. This means that a newspaper or magazine reader can be his own editor in a vital sense. little about the viewer's unconscious resentments. obliged to sit through what does not interest him to get to what may interest him. seems as important. The TV viewer is a restless prisoner. he perfected his own literary form. a local bus accident has as much impact. as the American public-education system is the world's first effort to teach everyone. but they are different. newspapers in lateral space. compared with print.

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1. continued
make plans, go to trouble and expense, when they buy a book or reserve a seat in the theater. They will noi study the week's offerings of music or drama or serious documentaries in the radio and TV program pages of their newspaper and then schedule themselves to be present. They want to come home, eat dinner, twist the dial and find something agreeable ready, accommodating to their schedule. TV programming in America consumes 18 to 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year. No other medium of information or entertainment ever tried anything like that. How many good new plays appear in U.S. theaters each year? How many fine new motion pictures? Add it all together and perhaps you could fill 20 evenings out of the 365. Every new development in mass communications has been opposed by intellectuals of a certain stripe. I am sure that Gutenberg was denounced by the elite of his time—his device would spread dangerous ideas among the God-fearing, obedient masses. The typewriter was denounced by intellectuals of the more elfin variety—its clacking would drive away the muses. The first motion pictures were denounced—they would destroy the legitimate theater. Then the sound motion picture was denounced—it would destroy the true art of the film, which was pantomime. To such critics, of course, television is destroying everything. It is destroying conversation, they tell us. Nonsense. Nonconversing families were always that way. TV has, in fact, stimulated thousands of millions of conversations that otherwise would not have occurred. It is destroying the habit of reading, they say. This is nonsense. Book sales in the United States during the lifetime of general television have greatly increased and well beyond the increase in population. At the end of a program with Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, we at the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) announced on the air that if viewers wanted one of those little copies of the Constitution such as he had held in his hand, they had only to write to us. We received about 150,000 requests at CBS—mostly, I suspect, from people who didn't know the Constitution was actually down on paper, who thought it was written in the skies or on a bronze tablet somewhere. After my first TV conversation with Eric Hoffer, a longshoreman and author, his books sold out in nearly every bookstore in America—the next day. TV is debasing the use of the English language, they tell us. Nonsense. Until radio and

Eric Severeid

then TV, tens of millions of people living in sharecropper cabins, in small villages on the plains and in the mountains, in the great city slums, had never heard good English diction in their lives. If anything, this medium has improved the general level of diction. The print-electronic adversary relationship is a one-way street. Print scrutinizes, analyzes, criticizes us on TV every day; we do not return the favor. We have tried now and then, particularly in radio days with "CBS Views the Press," but not enough. On a nationwide network basis, it's almost impossible because we have no real national newspapers—papers read everywhere— to criticize for the benefit of the national audience. Our greatest failure is in not criticizing ourselves, at least through the mechanism of viewers' rebuttals. Here and there, now and then, we have done it. It should have been a regular part of TV from the beginning. The Achilles heel of TV is that people can't talk back to that little box. If they had been able to, over the years, perhaps the gas of resentment could have escaped from the boiler in There is the myth that since the pioneering, groundbreaking TV programs of Edward R. Murrow and Fred Friendly in the 1950s, CBS News has been less daring, done fewer programs of a hard-hitting kind. The Murrow programs are immortal in this business because they were the first. Since then we have dealt, forthrightly, with every conceivable controversial issue one can think of—drugs, homosexuality, government corruption, business corruption, TV commercials, gun control, pesticides, tax frauds, military waste,

268 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

1. continued
abortion, the Vietnam War—everything. What shortage has occurred has been on the side of the materials, not on the side of TV's willingness to tackle them. I have recently inquired of other CBS News veterans if they can recall a single case of a proposed news story or a documentary that was killed by executives of the parent organization. Not one comes to anyone's mind. Some programs have been anathema to the top executive level, but they were not stopped. Some have caused severe heartburn at that level when they went on the air. Never has there been a case of people at that level saying to the News Division, "Don't ever do anything like that again." For more than 13 years, I have done commentary—personal opinion inescapably involved— most nights of the week on the evening news. In that time exactly three scripts of mine were killed because of their substance by CBS News executives. Each one by a different executive, and none of them ever did it again. Three—out of more than 2,000 scripts. How many newspaper editorialists or columnists, how many magazine writers, have 9 had their copy so respected by their editors There is the perennial myth that sponsors [advertisers] influence, positively or negatively, what we put on the air. They play no role whatever. No public affairs program has ever been canceled because of sponsor objection. Years ago, they played indirect roles. When I started doing a 6 p.m. radio program, nearly 30 years ago, Ed Murrow, then a vice-president, felt it necessary to take me to lunch with executives of the insurance company sponsoring the program. About 14 years ago, when I was doing the Sunday night TV news, a representative of the advertising agency handling the commercials would appear in the studio, though he never tried to change anything. Today one never sees a sponsor or an agency man, on the premises or off. After all, in the United States TV network broadcasting might at its inception have become an appendage and apparatus of government; it might have gone completely Hollywood. It did neither. It grimly held to every freedom the law allows, and it fights for more. We are not the worst people in the land, we who work as journalists. Our product in print or on the air is a lot better, more educated and more responsible than it was when I began, some 45 years ago, as a cub reporter. This has been the best generation of all in which to have lived as a journalist in America. We are no longer starvelings, and we sit above the salt. We have affected our times. It has been a particular stroke of fortune to have been a journalist in Washington these years. There has not been a center of world news to compare with it since ancient Rome. We have donethe job better, I think, than our predecessors— and our successors will do it better than we. ■
Copyright s 1976 by SATURDAY REVIEW/WORLD, INC

Saturday Review: a bi-monthly general arts review. Christian Science Monitor: daily evening paper; general political tendency: independent; Christian moral attitude. Gutenberg, Johann: (circa 1400—1468), German inventor of movable type. Vietnam War: see page 15.

THE MEDIA 269

The Nature of TV in America
Richard Burke
Richard Burke is Professor of Telecommunications at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. PART I: In the programming strategy, particularly of the networks, what has always been the case is this. Within the prime time, i.e. from 8 in the evening until 11 — that's what we Consider our prime time of the day — the networks traditionally were fairly successful at sharing the mass audience that was out there. That is to say, NBC would have roughly 30 percent, and CBS would have had 30 percent and ABC would have had 30 percent. This is in the prime time. Those numbers would be slightly lower if you took them over a day's time, but I'm concerned only with the evening viewing time. And that other 10 percent of the audience traditionally would have watched public broadcasting or they would have watched independent stations or they might have, in the very early days of cable, been watching one of the superstations. But by and large the networks were reasonably satisfied to have 30 percent, 30 percent, 30 percent. Over the last 5 or 6 or 8 years that number has started to drop, and they are obviously very concerned about that. That number went down as low as 75 percent in the last 2 or 3 years. In a commercially based system every viewer that you lose and every rating point that you lose can be converted into dollars. And the advertisers are saying, "Well, now look. You used to be able to deliver to us, as they say, so many hundreds of thousands of viewers. You don't seem to be able to do it any more. Why should we pay the same advertising rate?" In trying to get this 30 percent the networks have been accused frequently of producing what some critics have called the least objectionable programming. And by least objectionable' what people mean is, it doesn't have to be good. You don't have to take any risks with it. You don't have to put a lot of time into it. It just has to be less objectionable than what the other network is looking at. Because the theory is that large numbers of people don't watch programs anyway. They watch television. They go over to the television and say, "What's on?" and keep turning through or pressing the buttons, and somebody says, "Oh, that's okay. Stop there. That's fine." Well, in this theory that I am explaining very superficially here, what you finally stop at is what's least objectionable, at least for you. So the networks will take and have taken this position that you don't have to win, you just don't fail. You see if you take big risks, you are likely to fail. So don't fail. That would be a primary rule. Don't lose your one third, and try to produce the least objectionable programming possible. PART II: Now, if you subscribe to this analysis of television programming, particularly by networks, what you find out is that there isn't really as much diversity as there appears to be. I look at the schedule sometimes and in my best efforts to find something least objectionable what I have to conclude is that it's all objectionable and I'll be better off to go for a walk or listen to music or do anything but watch the television. And I think if you looked at this and if you look at a weekly television guide, you'd say, "Yes, yes fine, I see 15 or 20 or 25 opportunities here, but I don't have any real choice at all. It's all

pretty much the same stuff." Then, of course, the networks of those programs would say, "You're being much too demanding." This is after all a mass medium and you may have highly advanced tastes." I don't really. I like police dramas a lot, but I can't always find them when I want them. So the argument here is that this compulsion to do the least objectionable, the least risk in fact leads to a rather mediocre, rather bland diet of the kinds of programs that you would see listed here. In attempting to stay with programming that has the broadest mass appeal they obviously will take programs which are pretty safe. [And they will take programs which aren't very controversial, and they will do programs which have obvious large audience appeaLJ Now in programming I think it is reasonable to say that the great bulk of it is designed for mass entertainment, as opposed to news, information, education, instruction. I think if you counted up the hours here and you looked at a week's worth you'd say, "This is clearly an entertainment-oriented medium." Now, what is the nature of this entertainment, of all the possible formats that we produce, of the western, the action drama and the variety show and this kind of thing. This so-called situation comedy is by far the most popular format that you would see here and also over a long period of time. When people are asked in various kinds of surveys what have been their favorite programs from 1950 on invariably 50 percent, 60 percent, 70 percent of that would identify the so-called situation comedy, that is to say a situation which is artificially contrived and created each week with a cast of characters that essentially remains the same. People come in and out. And that's really, not only this season, but over a long period of time probably the predominant format in this entertainment programming. From: A talk by Richard Burke, delivered at Bloomington, IN, April 24, 1986

270 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

The Herald-Telephone, Thursday, April 24,

All

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THURSDAY EVENING
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NBC News Company Business

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Fortune

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Happy Days

8:00
All In Family

8:30

9:00
Cheers

9:30
Night Court

10:00 I 10:30
Hill Street Blues

11:00
News

11:30
Tonight News

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Movie

C 1 D © © — © ©

WTW O

wn v wn u WRTV
WTV W

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News Ditf Strokes Quilting News Benson News Good Times News A. Griffith

Cosby Show Family Ties

Little House On The Prairie MacNeil / Lehrer Newshour ABC News Ent. Tonight Ent. Tonight Chance B. Newhart Price Sanlord 700 Club Jeopardy Monkees Too Close Fortune

Baseball: Cincinnati Reds at Houston Astros Mysteryl Capitol Jrnl. 20/ 20 20/ 20 Bridges To Cross News Bridges To Cross I.U. Journal Business News News News WKRP News

Heart Of The Dragon Movie: "Invitation To Hell" Movie: "Invitation To Hell" Simon & Simon Movie: "The Chosen" Simon & Simon Movie: "Psycho" L. Sumrall Life

Gourmet Benson B. Miller H's Heroes Nightline WKRP Night Heat

ABC News

News CBS News

Jeftersons CBS News Gunsmoke

B. Miller Nevrtyweds

Trapper John, M.D. Night Heat

и ©

8 (9 8 1 a

Baseball: Atlanta Braves at Los Angeles Dodgers Lesea Alive Cheers Night Court In Touch Hill Street Blues Praise The Lord News Tonight Praise Lord

Jim And Tammy WTHR

И WX ) M m WBAK
MTV
ESPN

(В —

News

NBC News

Cosby Show Family Ties

VJ: Martha Quinn Star Trek Make A Deal Horse Racing ABC News

VJ: Martha Quinn Taxi Company SpeedWeek

VJ: Mark Goodman

Rock Influences B. Newhart 20/ 20 ML Zone Benny Hill Nightline SpoCtr.

VJ
H'mooners Sanford ! Outdoor Lite

Movie: "Right Of The Phoenix" Movie: "Invitation To Hell" Fashion Stanley Cup Playoffs: Division Final

Ent. Tonight SpoCtr.

— Radio 1990 Animals Motorcycle Racing: Daytona 200 Classic Petrocetli Alfred Hitchcock Hour EdgeNt. — Cartoons NASH Country Rock Be A Star Fandango Nashville Now Country Rock Videocount. Be A Star Fandango Nashville — Moneyline Crossfire Primenews Larry King Live News Moneyline Sports NewsNkjht CNN — Newswatch Showbiz о CSPN Viewer Call-In i National Press Club Congressional Hearing Viewer Call-In Today In Washington © — It Figures Family Cassie S Co. Regis Philbin's Lifestyles Dr. Ruth Show Movie: "September Storm" UFE — Simmons ARTS "Dinner At Ritz" Cont'd Shortstories Music Of Man Montserrat Caballe: The Woman, The Diva At The Met Madrigal Music — Alias Smith And Jones Wackiest Ship In The Army 700 Club Don't Die Girl From U.N.C.LE. Groucho CBN — Green Acres Rifleman PAY TV CHANNELS Movie: "Cat's Eye" Movie: "Code Of Silence" Movie: "Act Of Vengeance" (B HBO — Movie: "Between Friends" Cont'd Disney Ozzie Movie: "Treasure Island" Island Movie: "Country" "Darby O'Gill And The Little People" a ns — Movie Showtime Tom Petty & Heartbreakers Movie: "D.C. Cab" SHO Honeymooners "Ten From Your Show Of Shows" W @ MAX — Crazy About The Movies Movie: "Supergirl" Movie: "Body Heat" Comedy Movie: "Fanny Hill" — e
USA

THE MEDIA 271

The Herald-Telephone, Thursday, April 24,

All

Television
Movies
EVENING 8:00 Q SD ** "Invitation To Hell" (1984, Drama) Robert Urich, Susan Lucci. A devilish woman serves as the director of a country club where she seduces men physically and women materially. (R) g (2 hrs.) ® **H "The Chosen"(1961, Drama) Maximilian Schell, Rod Steiger. Based on Chaim Potok's novel. A friendship slowly develops between a worldly, assimilated Jew and the son of a Hassidic rabbi. (2 hrs.) (5) S3 * * * "Flight Of The Phoenix" (1966, Adventure) James Stewart, Peter Finch. When contact with rescuers becomes impossible, crash survivors begin repairing an old airplane forced down in the desert. (3 hrs.) Ш +* "D.C. Cab"(1983, Comedy) Mr. T, Adam Baldwin. Drivers of a nearly bankrupt Washington taxicab operation become heroes when they rescue two kidnapped children. 'R' g 8:05 QD **+Ъ "Psycho" (1960, Suspense) Anthony Perkins, Janet Leigh. A young woman encounters a psychotic killer at a secluded motel after stealing a large sum of money from her employer. (2 hrs., 25 min.) 9:00® **% "CodeOf Silence"{1984, Adventure) Chuck Norris, Henry Silva. A maverick Chicago cop wages a solitary war against rival drug-running gangs. 'R'g(l hr., 41 min.) @ *** "Country" (198i, Drama) Jessica Lange, Sam Shepard. Threatened with foreclosure of her farm, an Iowa woman struggles to hold on to her land and keep her family together. 'PG'(1 hr., 49 min.) (29 *+*H "Body Heat"(№1, Suspense) William Hurt, Kathleen Turner. A smalltime Florida lawyer is persuaded by his lover to murder her husband. 'R' (1 hr., 53 min.) 11:000) ** "SeptemberStorm"(1960, Adventure) Joanne Dru, Mark Stevens. An international group attempts to recover a large Spanish treasure from a sunken ship. (2 hrs.) (7) "Act Of Vengeance"(1986, Drama) Charles Bronson, Ellen Burstyn. Based on the true story of Joseph "Jock" Ya-blonski, whose crusade to rid the United Mine Workers union of corruption led to violence and ultimately to murder in December 1969. □ @9 *+* "Darby O'Gill And The Little People" (1959, Fantasy) Albert Sharpe, Sean Connery. An old Irish caretaker who is about to lose his job to a younger man captures the king of the leprechauns and forces him to grant three wishes. 'G' (1 hr., 35 min.) (57) +*H "Ten From Your Show Of Shows"(1973, Comedy) Sid Caesar, Imogene Coca. Ten classic skits from the original telecasts of "Your Show Of Shows," with personal anecdotes by Sid Caesar. 'G' (1 hr., 32 min.) 11:30® * "Fanny Hill"(1983, Drama) Lisa Raines, Oliver Reed. A woman of pleasure hopes to gain fortune in 18thcentury London. 'R' (1 hr., 30 min.) 12:000 **H "The Barbarian And The Geisba"(1958, Drama) John Wayne, Sam Jaffe. The first American ambassador to Japan receives cold rebuffs from the emperor and devotion from a geisha. (2 hrs.)

There is supposed to be action and excitement. a child has only one parent at home. but it will all work out in the end. and ubiquitous. I have been studying the other end of the funnel: the effect of mass culture. a large middle-class school with students of every ethnic description located in suburban Van Nuys. so thoroughly unchecked in its ability to instruct and command. In a nutshell. The conclusion. and particularly upon young people. upon the viewing public. specifically television.272 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP ° This Is Not Your Life: Television as the Third Parent Benjamin Stein EN YEARS AGO. California. television is a source of values. Force and strength generally can be expected to solve problems. The Way the World Really Works Over and over in the past five years. intrusive. but a resolution leading to calm. To that end. I have questioned groups of students at ten high schools in the Los Angeles area. now not seriously questioned. particularly the mass culture purveyed by television. These are the values of television. For the past five years." . a narcotic. I have also just spent eight months sitting in on classes at Birmingham High School. "Because that's the way it happens on 'Remington Steele'. was that a politically and socially homogeneous clique makes television in the image of its own world view. The children can barely recall even talking with their parents about any subject beyond home life. One basic hypothesis seems to me almost unassailable: American mass culture. that it is virtually a "third parent" in the lives of American children. attractive. I spent one year studying the handful of powerful people here in Hollywood who govern the general themes and specific social and political messages of prime time commercial television. an encourager for the future. is so powerful. For the child of 1986. who is often absent. often at war with observable reality. Yet they have an extremely well-developed idea of how the world is supposed to work. There is supposed to be trouble and danger. in fact. a blanket of security and inadequacy — in short. If you ask a child who has seen nothing but chaos and disappointment in his or her own life just why he or she believes that things will turn out all right in the end — and if you push and don't take silence for an answer — you almost always hear a variant of. a parent. That world view has little in common with the views of the larger society and is. Frequently. The people who trust in goodness and act honestly will triumph. I have talked to boys and girls who receive almost no clear messages about what the world is supposed to be from parents or friends. I have been trying to discover more about the intersections of youth culture and mass culture. a confidant.

too. Television appeals to young people as a friend and a source of values. Their parents are far more likely to be working two jobs each than to be inking million dollar deals at Paramount. these children talk about things that happen to them every day — fights with parents. meaningful communication between parents and children. It is all one large sphere of experience — with television comprising by far the more compelling. "If I can live even half as well as the people on 'Dallas' by the time I'm their age.. I get crazy thinking about my own life. . that they are both uplifted and saddened by TV shows. Is it any wonder that such an attractive. when discussing life. That lesson is definitely not going to help them or us. they will — and do — accept television's messages as part of the general wealth of experience offered by the world. and no one's parents ever neglect them. but TV's way of life is also maddeningly unavailable. "Sometimes when I see how easy it is for Bill Cosby's kids. handsome men. and about us. If children see the world of TV shows as part of their world. and great cars to make it more tempting — all at the touch of a button. no one is ever lonely. the real parents. and no one is ever bored.." If mass culture on TV offers a coherent world view. and no one ever gets left out. TV offers a better way of life. if it offers moral solace and moral structure." he said. none of them is part of the gilded world of television or movie production. TV rushes into the void with a world view packaged in living color. "Even 'Falcon Crest' would be all right. At the least. and the children are so unable to tell that TV is a fantasy. more glamorous world awaits them somewhere beyond Ventura Boulevard. the promised land sounds surprisingly like the countries of "Dynasty" or "Dallas" or "Family Ties. many of them believe that the world of "Diff'rent Strokes" or "Miami Vice" is the real world. continued Although the children I talked to live in Los Angeles." Another. the clearer it became that for many of them. \T\ Benjamin Stein. in the society: If we have allowed a third parent to become part of our American family. TV shows are so much more attractive as a way of life than the lives of the children I talked to. and also implicitly holds up standards for personal accomplishment to children. it looks — at least to me — very much like a parent. Days of Their Lives The more time I spent with these children. who appears in the movie Ferris Bueller's Day Off.THE MEDIA 273 4. comforting parent is so appealing? All of this offers an important. That is. That is. Yet these young people are convinced that a larger. In a word. in the absence of clear family structure. there is no longer any line between what is real and what is on TV. and a well-ordered educational system. not as a fantasy separate from it. attractive portion. so to speak.student in Encino told me matter-offactly that he measures his goals against the way people live on television. accessible. every bit as authentic and available as Van Nuys Boulevard or their own kitchens. but it also tends to confuse them about what their rational expectations should be. whose stepfather routinely beat her when drunk." said the daughter of a broken home. More bizarre still. we had better pay close attention to what the new parent is teaching our young about the world. Again. is perceived as at least as "real" as reality. and is indeed considered part of reality. When you probe for details about that world. were part of daily life — as in a sense they have become. coherent. many of the children I talked to are morally certain that the "real" world is much more like the world they have seen on TV than the one they can smell and touch. problems with school — and then they talk about events on "The Cosby Show" or "Webster" as if they. that'll be doing really well." In fact. car crashes. is a long-time observer of youth and mass culture. teaching. That's the way life should be. . even crucial challenge to us. moralizing. "On television. with pretty girls. it looks as if that new parent has already taught our children that there is no difference between reality and fantasy. which encourages kids to believe life can be better than it is.

The new strategy was simple: depict the Nice Man as incompetent. George Bush was seen as awkward. that a man can end with diamonds here on the basis of being liked!" — Death of a Salesman W illy Loman knew how important it was to be well liked. is uncomfortable with self-disclosure. a TIME poll revealed voters thinking that Dukakis had won." Maybe all this touchy-feely stuff is not so important after all. The Dukakis camp came late to the likability. says Dukakis media chief David D'Alessandro. The Governor began to act more like Mike Douglas than Mike Dukakis. the President became the nation's surrogate grandfather. but that Bush (by 44% to 38%) was more likable. After slipping up in the first debate. and Dukakis' competence as soulless. Competence was what counted. The idea was to portray Bush's occasional goofiness as engaging." . In one he recalls what it was like to be a young father. less Zeno. As Bush's negatives receded. and the Competent Man as nice. as last week's debate showed." Americans seem to require a pleasing affability from their Commander in Chief. Vince Breglio. In another he sketches his hopes for the future.274 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP о The Likability Sweepstakes "." says Bush's director of polling. Under Ronald Reagan. Since last winter. He must project a comfortable image. But likability goes deeper than gestures. "It is the ability to disclose a sense of the private self in public." But Dukakis.. The ads." Dukakis talks directly to the camera.. however. they wanted more Zorba. Mike Douglas: American actor. a scholar of the presidency. "In the television age. So Bush's handlers engineered a make-over. gentler. wars. maladroit. Bush strategists had known they had to spruce up the Vice President's image. Dukakis aides began pushing for a "kinder." warmer Dukakis. Since Eisenhower won with the primitivist slogan "I Like Ike. It's tough for Dukakis to retrace his steps now and make himself nice. No more clenched fists. And that's the wonder. They had him utter self-deprecating cracks about his lack of charisma. . so you never make a mistake?" His aides later christened the contest the Nice Man vs. A President has to be open and caring. Noted campaign manager Susan Estrich after the debate: "I think we shouldn't make too much of likability. Likability is one component of that impression. wimpish. Says D'Alessandro: "Dukakis has a limit as to how much he can do as far as changing his persona. They arranged for him to be photographed amid his photogenic grandchildren. as well as tough and hard. His manner suggests it's none of your business. Bush smiled and said. it becomes even more significant. In short. "Competent people are sometimes seen as arrogant. "show who he really is. But competence is only a part of image. the wonder of this country. But do not expect Phil Donahue. candidates have to be comfortable with public intimacy and selfdisclosure." says Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Dukakis began showing open palms. the Ice Man." This week the Dukakis campaign unveils com mercials that attempt to thaw out the Ice Man. polls showed this to be costly.By Richard Stengel Willy Loman: character in the play Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. So what if he sometimes seemed to be running for Accountant in Chief? After the first debate. "Wouldn't it be nice to be the Ice Man. geniality was raised to an art form. In North Dakota he pecked two George Bush and Michael Dukakis cheerleaders o n the cheek and led a cro wd in a spirited rendition of Happy Birthday. Pollsters say that the advent of television campaign coverage made "image impressions" more important than issues. "He's made competence his emblem. In a campaign where no single issue commands attention. he sought to raise those of Dukakis.

Your deadline is approaching. One of your photographers takes her picture. 54% 36% A reporter discovers that someone who holds public office is a homosexual.S. 6% 26% 68% You have a poll that says who will win the election. the U. 23% 41% 36% A reporter has learned that a government official has broken the law. 13% 27% 60% "Reprinted with permission of American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research" A woman is in despair because her son has just been killed in a car accident. the source of that information can't be revealed. depending on particular circumstances Almost never A CIA spy's life may be in danger if his name is made public. The spy has played a key role in a major news event. and one of your photographers takes a picture of her. but there are still four hours left to vote. 4% 18% 78% A woman who has been held hostage escapes and runs half naked into the street. 20% 41% 39% A major fire has occurred in your area. but you 10% aren't certain that all the facts in the story are completely accurate. However. please say whether that story should almost always be reported. 5% 48% 46% A reporter has sent back a story from an area where American troops are fighting-even though the president has declared the area "off limits" to the press. especially in secret.. Story should be reported . government department that collects information about other countries. 34% 48% 18% CIA: Central Intelligence Agency. whether it should sometimes be reported depending on the particular circumstances. 3% 21% 76% You have obtained some secret government documents dealing with an important national security issue. or whether it should almost never be reported..THE MEDIA 275 О Dilemmas Question: (Respondents were asked to pretend they were editors) For each of the following stories. . i Almost always Sometimes.

Remember to offer at least three alternative answers to each question.S. Opinion Poll Following the text by Eric Sevareid. Develop a questionnaire including questions about • the attractiveness of print or electronic journalism • the standard of print and electronic journalism . 1. Which format of TV entertainment is the most popular? 2. are the determining factors for TV programming? 7. How has this pattern changed over the last years? 3. b) mainly TV. What consequences does this change have on the programming? Part II: 5. Eric Sevareid cites criticism normally put forward by newspaper journalists and intellectuals in order to refute it afterwards. Looking at the design of American TV programming in general. How does Richard Burke feel about the choice of programs offered by American TV? 6. Comprehension The Case for Television Journalism Pleading for television journalism. Global Comprehension The Nature of TV in America Parti: 1. Find the missing criticism or rebuttal. What was the traditional pattern in the distribution of prime time ratings among the networks? 2. Sponsors influence public affairs programs.276 PART c Exercises • the average time spent reading papers and watching TV • the dangers of TV as pointed out by some intellectuals • the criticism of TV by print journalists • the future development of print and electronic media. Example: Which medium do you resort to when you want to be informed about current political affairs? a) mainly newspapers and magazines. c) both newspapers/magazines and TV equally. criticism rebuttal Broadcast journalism is a new and distinctive form of journalism. TV debases the use of the English language. make up your mind about the relationship between print journalism and TV journalism by preparing and carrying out an opinion poll to be published in a student magazine. TV destroys conversation TV has increased book sales in the U. What are the financial implications of this change? 4. according to Richard Burke. CBS has dealt with every conceivable controversial issue one can think of. 3. what is its predominant feature? 8. What.

how would you react in each of the situations described? 3. Bush was seen as awkward. 7. goofy and lacking charisma.. Comment Dilemmas 1. the images of candidates are more important than issues. Compare Eric Sevareid's and Richard Burke's views on television.THE MEDIA 277 4. Letter Writing Write a letter to the editor of PUBLIC OPINION and comment on the hypothesis and the findings of Benjamin Stein. How did the image-makers remodel their candidates to make them appear more likeable and appealing to a vast TV audience? 2. soulless. To what extent do you think the likability ■ factor decides elections in your country? 5.A. To what extent do parents and TV form a child's view of the world? 6. any other country or your own country? . Which cases mentioned in the opinion poll did the respondents find the most objectionable and which the least objectionable? How do you account for the results of this opinion poll? 2. 8. whereas Dukakis was characterized as competent. How useful then are televised presidential debates? 3. How does the present object of research relate to the previous one? 3. At the beginning of the 1988 presidential campaign. What kind of values are propagated by TV? 8. In the age of television. Comparative Study 1. Choosing a TV Program Television—Thursday Evening Does American TV cater for a great variety of tastes? Make suggestions for an evening's viewing for people who are interested in situational comedy enjoy watching TV series are fond of police dramas are interested in politics like music videos are very religious are sports fans enjoy watching movie films. If you were an editor. What hypothesis is his research based on? 4. How does the average child's real life experience compare with television reality? 7. Do you know any similar cases that actually happened in the U.S. Analysis and Discussion The Likability Sweepstakes 1. Where did he try to find proof for this hypothesis? 5. Do you share this view? 4. What was the object and the result of the research which the author pursued earlier? 2. 2. tough and hard. wimpish. reserved. Which findings verify Stem's hypothesis and how does he support his arguments? 9. maladroit. Text Analysis This is Not Your Life: Television as the Third Parent 1. The quotation from Arthur Miller's Death of Salesman underlines the American belief that being well-liked is an important key to success. How does TV programming in your country compare with that in the United States? 6.

027 39.000 11.000 881.257 10.693 84.955 145.264 24.665 77.860.000 670.177.421 209 76 132 Population (1982 est.817 54.408.000 801.328 40.049 9.000 7.203.667.817 49.417 569.576 52.000 3.261.333 7.000 1.659.435 Land area 1.862 7.554.104 58.920 68.000 631.265.000 1.395 42.244 41.651.905.400 51.214 9.425 61 3.000 5.438.000 965.836 58.471.000 516.000 1.914 84.138 68.109.560 267.361 79.000 5.000 24.577 97.338 56.016 943 531 447 772 1 — 1 Juneau Honolulu Washington San Juan Agana Fagotogo Charlotte Amalie 2 1 4 1 1 1 5 — — 'Density: persons per square mile of land area .290 56.000 3.781.000 4.184 81.966 7.009 8.649.019.450 67 3.000 4.000 3.000 3.045.000 3.464 156.995 51.073 4.000 3.000 2.000 4.304 40.070 109.483 103.540 77.280.551.133.096 68.586 1.831 48.000 2.826 9.677 97.154 158.981 82.865.523 36.521 58.000 691.000 5.278 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP Some Facts about the States State 1 Delaware 2 Pennsylvania 3 New Jersey 4 Georgia 5 Connecticut 6 Massachusetts 7 Maryland 8 South Carolina 9 New Hampshire 10 Virginia 11 New York 12 North Carolina 13 Rhode Island 14 Vermont 15 Kentucky 16 Tennessee 17 Ohio 18 Louisiana 19 Indiana 20 Mississippi 21 Illinois 22 Alabama 23 Maine 24 Missouri 25 Arkansas 26 Michigan 27 Florida 28 Texas 29 Iowa 30 Wisconsin 31 California 32 Minnesota 33 Oregon 34 Kansas 35 West Virginia 36 Nevada 37 Nebraska 38 Colorado 39 North Dakota 40 South Dakota 41 Montana 42 Washington 43 Idaho 44 Wyoming 45 Utah 46 Oklahoma 47 New Mexico 48 Arizona 49 Alaska 50 Hawaii Dist.891 30.765.296 55.291.000 111.909 589.448.000 438.000 5.000 11.798 1.055 9.587 66.291 47.000 4.686 53.000 1.) 602.000 4.570 82.782 121.057 45.766 69.000+ ____ 4 4 4 5 3 1 — — 10 6 5 1 — 2 4 7 4 5 1 3 4 — 4 1 8 8 15 3 2 26 2 2 3 — 2 2 5 — _ — 3 88 158 52 28 29 81 8 21 29 10 9 6 64 12 5 19 46 11 25 1 155 10.600 6.000 17.000 2.090 262.153.889 76.975 44.951.247 70.919 121.000 994.491.216 58.133.267 39.000 4.203 82.780 47.577 31.245.) 2.609 33.000 15.412 113.000 2.948.000 502.585.134 55.255 9.757 6.916 69.416.787 24.876 5.000 Density1 312 264 996 97 647 739 434 106 106 138 373 123 908 56 92 113 263 98 152 54 206 78 37 72 59 160 192 58 52 Cities 100.639.000 9.273 75.181 110.650 41.289 96.000 958.708 30.222 48.666 113.609 40.359.000 10.000 2.000 10.716 56.000 951.000 1.000 34.945 56.941 54.215 69.000 102. Paul Salem Topeka Charleston Carson City Lincoln Denver Bismarck Pierre Helena Olympia Boise Cheyenne Salt Lake City Oklahoma City Santa Fe Phoenix Area (sq.097 47.068 96.000 4. of Columbia Puerto Rico Guam American Samoa Virgin Islands Date of admission 1787 1787 1787 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1796 1803 1812 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1836 1837 1845 1845 1846 1848 1850 1858 1859 1861 1863 1864 1867 1876 1889 1889 1889 1889 1890 1890 1896 1907 1912 1912 1959 1959 Capital Dover Harrisburg Trenton Atlanta Hartford Boston Annapolis Columbia Concord Richmond Albany Raleigh Providence Montpelier Frankfort Nashville Columbus Baton Rouge Indianapolis Jackson Springfield Montgomery Augusta Jefferson City Little Rock Lansing Tallahassee Austin Des Moines Madison Sacramento St.000 6.791.982 44.047 147.192 83.227 104. mi.748 50.930 36.724.943.000 2.362.000 3.

Democratic Democratic Whig Whig Democratic Whig Whig Democratic Democratic Republican Republican Republican Republican Republican Republican Democratic Republican Democratic Republican Republican Republican Democratic Republican Republican Republican Democratic Party Born 1732 1735 1743 1751 1758 1767 1767 1782 1773 1790 1795 1784 1800 1804 1791 1809 1808 1822 1822 1831 1830 1837 1833 1837 1843 1858 1857 1856 1865 1872 1874 1882 Died 1799 1826 1826 1836 1831 1848 1845 1862 1841 1862 1849 1850 1874 1869 1868 1865 1875 1885 1893 1881 1886 1908 1901 1908 1901' 1919 1930 1924 1923 1933 1964 1945 State Born/Home Virginia Massachusetts Virginia Virginia Virginia Massachusetts S.Y. Marshall Calvin Coolidge Charles G.PRESIDENTS AND VICE-PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 279 Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the United States President 1 George Washington 2 John Adams 3 Thomas Jefferson 4 James Madison 5 James Monroe 6 John Quincy Adams 7 Andrew Jackson 8 Martin Van Buren 9 William Henry Harrison 10 John Tyler 11 James K.J. /Mich. Johnson John Tyler George M. Arthur Thomas A. N./NJ. Tompkins John C. Calhoun John C. 1841 1841-1845 1845-1849 1849-1850 1850-1853 1853-1857 1857-1861 1861-1865 1865-1869 1869-1877 1877-1881 1881 1881-1885 1885-1889 1889-1893 1893-1897 1897-1901 1901-1909 1909-1913 1913-1921 1921-1923 1923-1929 1929-1933 1933-1945 Federalist Republican Republican Republican Nat./Tenn. Barkley Richard M. Arthur 22 Grover Cleveland 23 Benjamin Harrison 24 Grover Cleveland 25 William McKinley 26 Theodore Roosevelt 27 William Howard Taft 28 Woodrow Wilson 29 Warren G. Fairbanks James S. Morton Adlai E. Calhoun Martin Van Buren Richard M./N. Ohio/Ill. King John C.. Kennedy Lyndon B. Dallas Millard Fillmore William R. Ohio Vt. N. Ohio New York Ohio Vice-President John Adams Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr George Clinton George Clinton Elbridge Gerry Daniel D. Hendricks Levi P. Johnson Richard M./Cal.C.C. Stevenson Garret A. Nixon Gerald R. Eisenhower John F. Va. New York Va.D. Sherman Thomas R. Agnew Gerald R. Pa. Ohio Ohio Vt.J. New York 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Harry S./NY. Harding 30 Calvin Coolidge 31 Herbert С Hoover 32 Franklin D. Roosevelt Years in office 1789-1797 1797-1801 1801-1809 1809-1817 1817-1825 1825-1829 1829-1837 1837-1841 Mar. Garner Henry A. Mass.C.Y.. Breckinridge Hannibal Hamlin Andrew Johnson Schuyler Colfax Henry Wilson William A. lowa/Cal. Massachusetts Texas Ca. Rockefeller Walter F./N./Ill. Grant 19 Rutherford B. Polk 12 Zachary Taylor 13 Millard Fillmore 14 Franklin Pierce 15 James Buchanan 16 Abraham Lincoln 17 Andrew Johnson 18 Ulysses S./Texas ./Ohio Virginia N. Ford Nelson A. Dawes Charles Curtis John N. Mondale George Bush James Danforth Quayle Va. Truman Alben W./Tenn.Y. Hayes 20 James A./Tenn. Hobart Theodore Roosevelt Charles W. Humphrey Spiro T. Georgia Ill./N./Mass. Nixon Lyndon B. New York New Hampshire Pennsylvania Ky. Cal. Garfield 21 Chester A./N. Wheeler Chester A. Ford Jimmy (James Earl) Carter Ronald Reagan George Bush 1945-1953 1953-1961 1961-1963 1963-1969 1969-1974 1974-1977 1977-1981 1981-1989 1989- Democratic Republican Democratic Democratic Republican Republican Democratic Republican Republican 1884 1890 1917 1908 1913 1913 1924 1911 1924 1972 1969 1963 1973 Missouri Tex. Truman Dwight D. Ohio/Ind./La. N. Wallace Harry S.Y. Rep. Neb. Johnson Hubert H.

the 7 75. 146. 247. 64. 31. Michael 274 Duncan.Index abortion issue 759. 762.T. 15. 249 Chicago 25. 185 American Medical Association 746 A Nation at Risk 192 antebellum South 57 anti-Communism 774. 272. 133 ethnic minorities 112 ethnicity 14. 251 educational ideal 290 educational philosophies 793 egalitarianism 207 Eisenhower. 292. 226 Civil War 25. 200.CIO 65. 99 prevention 200 rate 99 criminal 200 Crocket. 298. 160. 299 discrimination 15. 73 Ailey. Sir Thomas 27 death penalty 200. Board of Education 108. 160 desegregation 223. 279 Equal Pay Act 728 equal rights 722 Equal Rights Act 128 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) 52. 274 electronic church 274 Ellington. 35. 55 Capra. 87. 264 entrepreneur 64. 88. 115 do-it-yourselfer 27 dollar. 229 bilingualism 774 Bill of Rights 25. 146 bussing 797 cabinet 244 cable television 265 Calder. 236 Carnegie. 29 aerobics 245 affirmative action 723 affluence 59 Afghanistan 776 AFL . 776. 262. 262 computer 67. 200. 85 boxing 247 Brezhnev. 191 Buddhism 206. 734. Cesar 222 checks and balances 244 cheerleaders 247. Louis 229 arts 225 assimilation 75. Duke 229 Emerson. 66 Episcopal church 22 2 equality 228. 181 anti-feminism 737 architecture 50. 764 congressional committee 743. Dwight D. Warren Earl 99 burglary 99 Bush. 81. Midge 132 defense 262. 264. 212 church buildings 205 city 75. 276 Armstrong. 722 election campaign 48. Great 73. 46. 85 Dewey. 83 Detroit 82. 59. Ralph Waldo 26 entertainment 55. 45. 705 planning 83. 48. 213 budget deficit 62 Burger. 228 California 45. 274 elderly. 44. 159 Constitution 25. 764 editorials 263 education 2 27. Daniel 26 Boston 48. Andrew 64 car racing 247 Carter. 70. 162 Cleveland 85 climate 43. Jerry 223. 113. Southern 45 disabled. 263 Catholic bishops 218 Catholic Church 272. 709. 264 communication 67. 157 economic aid 273. 775. 133. 757 conservatism 29. 146 Age Discrimination Act 115 agribusiness 63 agriculture 50. 79. 47 coaches 250 cold war 274 college 43. 151. 142. 220 family 232. 99 crime 28. 754. 73. 130. 18. 275 church attendance 205. Isadora 232 Dylan. Davy 26 Cuban missile crisis 275 cultural diversity 25 cultural identity 2 24 culture 225 curriculum 290 Dale. 220 examinations 294. 7 7 2 Associated Press 262 Atlanta 48. 272 Central America 276 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 276 chamber of commerce 246 Chavez. 257 college sports 248. 274 business 84. 297 excellence 293 executive branch 244 Falwell. 162. 112. 32. 7 7 2 blues 45. 82 Chicanos 727 child care 732. 82 crime 203. 97. 93 civil rights legislation 7 73 civil rights movement 7 73. 112 class 46. 145. 148. 97. 734. 49. 29. William 45. 228 boarding school 7 7 7 boards of education 790 Boone. 251 colonialism 30 colonies 23 commercial broadcasting 262. 272. 206. 278 Catholicism 22 2. 87. 19. 733. 247. 249. 277 de Kooning. 109. the 2 25 discipline 295. 263 containment 174 convention 262 corporation 47.competition 59. 247. Leonard 18. 264 democratic values 273 departments 244 Depression. Willem 227. 97. 143 blacks 77. 161. 50 federalism 242 . 81 European Economic Community 64 evangelical movement 223 evangelism 223. 774 balance of trade 273 ballet 232 Baltimore 48 baseball 245. role of 272 downtown 84 Dixie 49. 252 Beacon Hill 83 Bellow. 65. 196 Confederacy 49 congregation 275 Congregationalist church 277 Congress 242. Frank 232 career 233 career woman 233. 112 Decter. 262. 232 children 227. 737 church 206. 227 detente 276 deterioration 82. J. 189. 248. Alvin 231 air-conditioning 49 amendment to the Constitution 222 amendment I 220 amendment II 106 amendment VIII 107 amendment XIII 112 American culture 184 American dream 18. 93 counseling 296 country club 246 country music 45 country-western 229 courts 97. 206 Declaration of Independence 26. Saul 81 Bernstein. 262 communism 274. 84 automation 65 balance of power 173. 275 economic interests 273 Economic Opportunity Act 290 economic strength 272 economy 59. 788. 217 American Independent Party 148 American Indian Movement 7 75 Americanization 46. 83. Jimmy 262. Bob 232 ecology 75. 63. George 253. 62. 84. 275 community 89 commuting 83 . 25. 67. John 26 dialect. 252 basketball 246. 735 farmer 73 farmland 46 fast food 70 Faulkner. 220 abundance 27 abstract expressionism 228 achievement 292 Adams. 228 Democratic Party 45. 148. Alexander 227. 225. 93 Arizona 46 arms control 762. 50 Dukakis. Leonid Ilyrich 776 Broadway 233 Brown v.

Joe 247 National Commission on Excellence in Education 792 National Endowment for the Arts 226 National Farmers Union 246 National Football League (NFL) 244 national identity 77. 278. 87. 787 military strength 770 Middle East 778 Midwest. 762 Graham. 59. 261. 179. 81 independence 26 Independence Day 28 Indians 74. 208. 27 illegal immigration 76. 720 Mid-Atlantic states 43 migrant worker 720 migration 47 military aid 775. 88. registration of 702 handicapped. Nikita Sergeevich 775 King. 173. 7 2 7 Houston 82 human rights 273 Humphrey. 274 megalopolis 82 melting-pot 77. 205 Korea 775 Ku Klux Klan 222 labor unions 47. 240 film director 237 film making 237. 754 liberalism 759 liberals 59 Libertarian Party 748 liberty 779 Liberty Federation 273 Lichtenstein. 112 free enterprise 59. 82 New York Times 262 Nicaragua 776 Nixon. 783 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 43 materialism 54 McCullers. 89 neoconservatives 759 networks 264. 264 homicide 99 homosexuals 775. 100. 776 negro spiritual 45 neighborhood 79. 775. 59 industrialization 75. 228 Jefferson. 162 mainstream Protestant churches 277 majority leader 754 manager 732 manifest destiny 55 market instability 773 marriage 727. 134 fencing 247 Ferraro. 208. 787. Charlie 229 parties 746. 82 Lutheran church 207. Kirk 247 Gillespie. Lyndon B. 210 motherhood 232. Marilyn 228 Montana 46 Moral Majority 759. 133. 787. 28 nationalism 28. 220 James. 278.INDEX 281 Federal-Communications Commission 264 federal land 757 femaleheaded household 735 feminism 728. 266. 742. Martin Luther Jr. Hubert 752 ice hockey 247 ideals 25 ideology 749 illegal aliens 76. 232. 228 Parker. 251 health 724. 64 freedom 25. 200. 38. Roy 228 literature 43. 50. 82 integration 797 interest groups 746 interest rates 773 intermediate-range nuclear force (INF) 778 international affairs 270 international relations 279. 264 nonviolence 723 nuclear war 779. 179 Oregon 45 painting 227. 160 Great Lakes 43. 240 movie actor 237 mugging 99 murder 99. Richard 29. 20. 226 individualism 26. 45 living standard 59. 53 New Mexico 46 newspapers 267. 278 O'Connor. 217 Kennedy. 44. Barry 249 golf 247 Gorbachev. 27 7 judge 99 judicial branch 97 jury 97 justice 97. 120. 49. Martha 237 graphic arts 227. Bernhard 702. 757 Los Angeles 48. Geraldine 129 film 232. 797 high technology 45. 237. 181. 229 Namath. 774 illiteracy 792 immigration 73. 173. 267 New England 43. John F. 22 2 job discrimination 728 jogging 245. 124. 30. 253 gentrification S3 Georgetown 83 Gershwin. F. 748. 25. 735. 705 gymnastics 247 Hammerstein. 242. 178 military intervention 775. 795. 211 magazines 267. 703 museums 225 music 228 musical 78. 782 interventionism 7 73 inventiveness 27 investment policies 272 Iran 767 Iran-Iraq War 278 isolationism 46. 77. 66. Betty 228 frontier 26 Frostbelt 47 fruit picking 720 Fuller. 200 Miranda rule 700 Mitchell. 162. 46. 279 Koch. 237. 67. 262 news services 262 New York 79. 179 foreign trade 272 Founding Fathers 25. 705 Gold water. the 46 minorities 78. 224. 752. 75. the 792 Harvard 43. 262 mainstream culture 47. 790 Joplin. 143 lawyer 96 Lebanon 2 78 legislation 742. 81 metropolitan area 82 Mexican-American 76. William 26 jazz 45. "Dizzy" 229 Goetz. 30 Jews 220. 180 National Organization for Women (NOW) 728 NATO 770 nature 75. 773. 176. 146 law 97. 237. 164. Margaret 52 mixed media 228 mobility 28. 273 fund-raising 220 Gallup poll 252. 777. 173 Israel 257. 146. 226 Kissinger. 774. 254 John Birch Society 272 Johns Jaspar 228 Johnson. 59. 793 Khrushchev. George 229 Gibson. 179. Thomas 26. 278 nuclear weapons 775. 47 modern dance 237 Monroe. 232 horse racing 247 House of Representatives 742 housing projects 704. Mikhail 178 government 37. Henry 776. 222 moral principles 234 Mormons 45. Sandra Day 729 "Op"-art 228 opera 229 optimism 27 opportunity 29. 112. 65. 240. 254 Higher Education Act 790 high school 789. Carson 45 mechanization (of farming) 63 media 38. 93 Hinduism 273 Hispanics 7 7 4 hockey 247 Holiness Church 270 Hollywood 232. 240 film producer 237 fitness 245. 119 folk music 45 football 245. 59. 228 Great Depression 73. 273. 756. 776. 76. 732. 767. 38 . 252. 92. 733. 46 growth 47 gun control 702. Scott 228 Judaism 270. 749. 74. 775. 79. 132 lobby 746. Oscar 229 handguns. 736 Marshall Plan 775. Margaret 26 fundamentalism 734. 234 movie 232. Henry 64 foreign affairs 160 foreign investment 772 foreign policy 161. 251 Ford. Scott 117. 21. 216 freedom of the press 263 Friedan. 27. 254 Fitzgerald. Ed 29. 119. Gerald 263 Ford. 750 patriotism 28.

Elvis 232 press 86. 297 textbooks 290 Thanksgiving 28 theater 225. 20 regional identity 43 regions of the U. Walt 26 wildlife 257 winning 36. 157 restoration 83. the 27. 249 volunteerism 27 voter registration 252 war 228 war technology 277 Warhol. Oral 220 Robertson. 53 yuppies 36. 107. 28. 222 public opinion 246. Jackson 228 pollution 75 pop art 228 pop concerts 225 Populist Party 249 post-industrial age 48. 62. 44. 270. 191. 149 private schools 289 productivity 59. 59. 62. 279 prison 202. 93 Utah 45 values 25. 294. 259 Roosevelt. 176. 63 professional sports 248 programming 264. 85. 272 television 224. 172 trade deficit 173 transcendentalists 26 transportation 83 Truman. 262 public schools 189. 235 playwrights 233 pluralism 222 police 300. 175. 295. 73. 211 president 99.S. moral 234. 84. 29. 256 spectator 245. 87 retirement resort 222 rights of man 280 robbery 99 Roberts. 45 White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) 23. 195. 264 suspect. Robert 228. 179. 134. 205 and politics 259. 213. 233. 65 . Pat 223. 224 private enterprise 26. D. 161. 232. 256 and violence 247 college 248. 113 Presbyterian church 207. 60. 264 Whitman. Robert Penn 45 water 46 Watergate 29. 269 Rauschenberg. 161 vice president 244. 51 plays 233. 48. 215 Smith. 204 student athletes 248. 200. 297. 220 swimming 246 teachers 292. 159. the 49 United Press International (UPI) 262 universities 43. 247 Springsteen. 222 religious cults 223 religious diversity 222 religiousness 205 religious sects 223 representative 254 representative democracy 242 Republican Party 44. 54. 99. 182. 248 tests 292. 148. William 99 religion 43. Phyllis 232 Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) 294 school 288. 144. 108. 248 and the media 247. 222 sports 247. 133 Sunbelt 47 Sun City 322 Superbowl 245 superstations 265 Supreme Court 97. 108. 38. 43. 112 slaves 44 slums 82. 250.282 INDEX peace 161. 222. 164 presidential elections 244. 299 technology 45.175 Union. 153. Stephen 28. 208. 223. 218 Peace and Freedom Party 248 Peachtree Center 84 Pearl Harbor 174 Pentagon Papers 264 Philadelphia 84 pioneers 26 Pittsburgh 48. Franklin D. 264 War of Independence 31 Warsaw Pact 274 Washington. 62 poverty 57. 230 Reagan. 60. 220. 161 Society Hill 84 Sondheim. 269. 264. Jimmy 224. 103. 228 Warren. Robert 224 screen writer 237 sculpture 228 segregation 223 selfdefense 202. 116. 205 Vietnam War 25. 274 recreational parks 246 Reformed churches 222 refugees 26. 248 Wolfe. 252 suburbs 82 suburbanization 82 success 64. Thomas 45 women 227 Women's Liberation 52 Wonder. 81. 220. 295. 210. 259. 262 principles. rights of criminal 200 Swaggart. Richard 229 roles 233 Roosevelt. Ronald 38. 53. 114 power politics 282 pragmatism 26. 211 Quakers 220 quality of life 232 race relations 222. 190 public service 252 Puritans 23. 163. 44. 261. 222 White House 252. 49. 83. 253. 109. 83 slum clearance 83 small town 85. 161. 51 Southern belle 52 Spanish language 224 speaker 254 sports 245 and society 256 and sponsors 247. 87. Henry David 26 Tharp. 179 Progressive Party 249 prosperity 59. 193. Stevie 232 worker participation 65 World War I 273 World War II 274 wrestling 247 Yankee 50. 46. Bruce 232 Stanford University 48 Statue of Liberty 30 stock market 62 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty 276 Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) 277 Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) 277 street gang 227. 235 theft 99 Third World countries 273 Thoreau. 64. 220 religious books 205 religious broadcasting 214. Mark 228 ruralization 85 rural life 85 Sandinistas 2 76 San Francisco 85 Santa Fe 48 satellite TV 265 schedule 297 Schlafly. 113. 133. 193. 81 urban renewal 83. 85. 36. 86. 83 Washington Post 264 welfare 262 West. 227 racial prejudices 223 racism 227 radical churches 222 radio 264 ragtime 228 rape 88 ratings 264. 264. 264 video 265 viewing time 269 violence 45. 43 Rehabilitation Act 225 Rehnquist. 146. 179 prejudice 18. 93 plantation 44. 55. 181. 220 rock' n roll 229 Rodgers. 128 Silent Majority 225 singers 242 skyscrapers 82 slavery 25. 249 Schuller. 199 administration 290 attendance 288 prayer 213. 132. 251 University of North Carolina 48 University of Texas 48 urbanization 50. 262 social services 82. 262 protectionism 273 Protestants 23. 274 Presley. Adam 59 Smith. the 44. 249 professional 248. 144. 251 high school 297. 115. 263 vigilantism 202. 164. 202 political participation 245 politician 252 politics 252. Theodore 252 Rothko. David 228 smoking 224 soccer 247 social problems 200 social programs 249 Socialist Labor Party 248 Social Security 260. 220. Harry S. 223. 113. 264 senator 255 service 225 service industries 62 sex discrimination 224. 229 South. Andy 227. 91. Twyla 232 tournaments 249 track 247 trade 60. 264 resources 46. 205 selfreliance 65 Senate 242.C. 50. 220 Pollack. 265 volleyball 247. 272 progress 29. 266 and society 272 and moral standards 275 and politics 274 journalism 266 stations 266 tennis 246. 222.

86). copyright The Observer 1981. Copyright © 1980 by Studs Terkel. 30. an extract from the article "How A Case Reaches the Supreme Court".2.86) & "About Men: Lousy at Sports" by Mark Goodson (magazine.Acknowledgments We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research for an extract from an article by V A Sackett & К Н Keene in Public Opinion (Feb/March 1986) & an extract from an article by В Stein in Public Opinion (Nov/Dec 1986). Copyright (c) 1957 (renewed) Leonard Bernstein & Stephen Sondheim.84). Harold Ober Associates. National Endowment for the Humanities for an article by Diane Ravitch in Humanities Vol 3 No5 (Nov 1982). Simon & Schuster. "About Men: A Brother's Murder" by Brent Staples (magazine. US & Canadian Publisher С Cohimor. Glory. Copyright © 1986 by the New York Times Company. The Progressive. © 1986. 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