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LI NI U

Cc bn sinh vin thn mn! Trong th gii hin i, tt c chng ta u ang c gng bn hay mua mt th g trong nhiu tnh hung ca cuc sng. Khi cc bn mua mt cy vit hay bn mt ci in thoi c, khi i lm gia s hay khi quyn gp t thin v.v.., cc bn lm mt s hnh ng marketing. V th, tt c chng ta, nht l vi sinh vin ngnh qun tr kinh doanh ni chung v sinh vin kinh t ni ring, th vic nm bt v hiu bit v Marketing l v cng quan trng tr thnh nh qun tr tng lai. Do vy Marketing cn bn l mt mn hc bt buc v v cng quan trng trang b nhng kin thc cn thit cho cc nh qun tr trong tng lai. Tuy nhin, rt nhiu bn sinh vin than phin vi ti rng: cc bn mua sch tham kho mn Marketing cn bn v c, nhng phn ln cc khi nim v nh ngha cc em khng hiu ht do cch v d minh ha v gii thch trong sch rt m h, chung chung. Trn thc t, Marketing l mt phm tr rng ln m hiu ht v n cn rt nhiu t liu v thi gian tri nghim. Nhng ngi mi nghin cu v Marketing cn c mt t liu ni v cc khi nim c bn v nguyn l chung nht c th lnh hi c cc ni dung ca n. V vy, ti son bi ging ny khng ch nhm mc ch gip cc bn sinh vin, v c nhng ai yu thch mn hc Marketing c th hiu r hn v n qua nhng vn l thuyt, kt hp vi nhng v d thc t sinh ng. Bi ging c bin son da trn mt s gio trnh gio trnh Marketing cn bn v mt s bi ging ca cc tc gi, c cu to thnh 10 chng theo th t l gc ca mn hc. Ngoi nhng nguyn l Marketing cn bn, ti liu cn phn tch nhng tnh hung tip th c tht ca nhng cng ty ni ting trn th gii v ti Vit nam cc bn c th hnh dung r hn v mn hc. Cui mi chng, tc gi cung cp nhng cu hi n tp v tho lun, gip cho sinh vin nm chc bi hn. y l ln u tin ti liu c bin son, nn chc rng ti liu khng trnh khi nhng hn ch nht nh. Rt mong nhn c s ng gp kin ca qu thy c, ng nghip v cc em sinh vin cun sch tr nn ph hp v thit thc hn.

Tc gi ThS. L Dzu Nht

CHNG 1

BN CHT CA MARKETING
MC TIU Sau khi hc xong chng ny, sinh vin cn nm c cc vn sau:

Bn cht ca Marketing Hiu r cc khi nim c bn ca Marketing v trnh by v vai tr ca So snh, thy r cc u nhc im ca cc quan im qun tr Trnh by c cc mong i ca ngi mua - ngi bn vi

Marketing

Marketing

Marketing v gii thch c cc doanh nghip, t chc cn s dng Marketing ra sao. 1.1. VAI TR CA MARKETING 1.1.1. S ra i ca Marketing Trc ht, chng ta hy bn lun v cu chuyn di y: Mt nh ch to giy Hng Kng t hi liu c mt th trng tn ti cho nhng chic giy ca ng trn mt hn o Nam Thi Bnh Dng xa xi hay khng. ng gi mt ngi nhn lnh n hn o v, qua xem xt s b, ngi ny gi in v: y ngi ta khng mang giy. Khng c th trng. Khng tin chc, nh ch to Hng Kng gi mt nhn vin bn hng n o. Nhn vin bn hng ny gi in v: y ngi ta khng mang giy. C mt th trng rt ln. S ngi i din bn hng ny b cun ht bi thy c qu nhiu bn chn khng mang giy, nh ch to gi mt ngi th ba, mt Chuyn vin Marketing. Chuyn vin Marketing ny phng vn v t trng b lc v vi ngi dn bn x ri gi in v: Ngi dn y khng mang giy. Kt qu l chn ca h au nhc v thm tm. Ti trnh by cho v t trng bit giy s gip dn ca ng ta trnh c cc vn i vi bn chn nh th no. ng ta t ra say m. ng ta c tnh khong 70% dn lng ca ng ta s mua giy vi gi 10$/i. Chng ta t c th bn 5.000 i giy trong nm u tin. Chi ph mang giy n o v xc lp khu phn phi chung li l 6$/i. Ta s li 20.000$ trong nm u tin, m, cn c vo mc u t ca chng ta, s cho chng ta mt mc thu hi trn vn u t (ROI Return on Investment) l 20%, vt qu ROI bnh thng ca chng ta l 15%. l cha k gi tr cao ca cc khon li tng lai ca chng ta nh gia nhp th trng ny. Ti khuyn co chng ta nn tin ti. Cu chuyn trn ng g v Marketing v ngi lm Marketing? Chng ta thy ngi lm Marketing phi thc hin nhng cng vic nh sau: anh ta phi quan

st v tm hiu th trng, khm ph ra cc vn thc s ca cc khch hng tng lai, tho lun vi nhng ngi tin phong, c nh hng quyt nh (ng t trng), thy c cc nhu cu, mong mun v quan trng nht l nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton ca nhng khch hng . Anh ta phi c tnh c dung lng th trng, t c cc tng nh hng cho vic sn xut sn phm, nh gi v phn phi th no. Cha ht, anh ta phi chng minh c cc kh nng sinh li ca cc hot ng Marketing y, khng ch trong hin ti m c trong tng lai. Marketing ra i trong nn sn xut hng ho t bn ch ngha nhm gii quyt mu thun gia cung v cu. Xut pht t nc M, sau c truyn b dn dn sang cc nc khc. Vit Nam tip nhn v a vo ging dy mn hc Marketing ti cc trng hc vo cui nhng nm 80 u 90 khi nn kinh t ang chuyn sang c ch th trng. Hin nay, Marketing l mt mn hc bt buc trong cc chng trnh ngnh Qun tr kinh doanh. Marketing l qu trnh tng kt thc tin sn xut kinh doanh trong mi trng cnh tranh v dn dn c khi qut ho v nng ln thnh l lun khoa hc. Do qu trnh sn xut hng ho pht trin, t ch lao ng th cng n lao ng c gii ho, sn xut hng lot ln, lng hng ho cung cp ngy cng nhiu dn ti vt nhu cu ca th trng. Mt khc, mi quan h gia ngi sn xut v ngi tiu dng ngy cng xa do xut hin cc trung gian phn phi khi quy m sn xut ngy cng ln. Do vy, ngi sn xut ngy cng t c c hi hiu r c mong mun ca khch hng. y l nhng nguyn nhn cn bn dn ti hng ho sn xut ra khng bn c v khng p ng nhu cu ca khch hng. Hon cnh ny buc cc nh sn xut phi tm ti cc phng php khc nhau tiu th hng ho. Mi khi phng php c khng gii quyt c vn t ra th li xut hin phng php mi thay th. Do vy, ni dung, phng php v t duy kinh doanh cng bin i thch nghi vi mi trng kinh doanh mi. T t duy kinh doanh Bn nhng ci mnh c sn trong iu kin cung nh hn cu, cc doanh nghip phi chuyn dn sang t duy Bn ci m khch hng cn khi cung vt cu v cnh tranh gia tng. chnh l t duy kinh doanh Marketing. thc hin c t duy Bn ci m khch hng cn th nh sn xut phi hiu rt r khch hng ca mnh qua cng tc nghin cu th trng. Do vy, doanh

nghip phi tin hnh hot ng Marketing tt c cc giai on ca qu trnh sn xut, t khi nghin cu th trng nm bt nhu cu cho n c sau khi bn hng. Pht hin nhu cu Sn xut ra sn phm Bn Dch v hu mi

Marketing u tin c p dng trong cc doanh nghip sn xut hng ha tiu dng, ri sau chuyn sang cc doanh nghip sn xut hng cng nghip. V trong thp k gn y, Marketing xm nhp vo cc ngnh dch v v phi thng mi. T ch ch b hp trong lnh vc kinh doanh trong giai on u, sau Marketing cn xm nhp vo hu ht cc lnh vc khc nh chnh tr, o to, vn ho-x hi, th thao... Ngy nay, chng ta c th thy nhiu trng i hc quc t thc hin hng lot cc chng trnh truyn thng ti Vit Nam thu ht sinh vin Vit Nam theo hc. Thm ch, cc chng trnh Sinh c k hoch cng cn n s h tr ca Marketing nu mun thuyt phc c cng chng thc hin. Ngi ta phi tm hiu r cc nhm cng chng khc nhau nm c nhu cu mong mun ca h. Trn c s , cc chuyn gia vch ra ni dung ca chng trnh truyn thng sao cho thuyt phc c cng chng tin theo. 1.1.2. Cc khi nim c bn ca Marketing 1) Khi nim Marketing: a) Marketing theo ngha rng: Marketing l hot ng c phm vi rt rng, do vy cn mt nh ngha rng. Bn cht ca Marketing l giao dch, trao i nhm mc ch tho mn nhu cu v mong mun ca con ngi. Do , hot ng Marketing xut hin bt k ni no khi mt n v x hi (c nhn hay t chc) c gng trao i ci g c gi tr vi mt n v x hi khc. T , chng ta c th a ra cc nh ngha Marketing theo ngha rng sau y: Marketing l cc hot ng c thit k to ra v thc y bt k s trao i no nhm tho mn nhng nhu cu v mong mun ca con ngi. Ngi thc hin Marketing (Ch th) i tng c Marketing (Sn phm) i tng nhn sn phm (Khch hng)

Bt k khi no ngi ta mun thuyt phc ai lm mt iu g, th tc l cc ch th thc hin hot ng Marketing. c th l Chnh ph thuyt phc dn chng thc hin sinh c k hoch, mt ng chnh tr thuyt phc c tri b phiu cho ng c vin ca mnh vo gh Tng thng, mt doanh nghip thuyt phc khch hng mua sn phm, hay bn thn bn thuyt phc cc ng nghip, bn b thc hin

mt tng mi ca mnhNh vy, hot ng Marketing xy ra trong mi lnh vc i sng x hi, i vi cc doanh nghip, cc t chc phi li nhun cng nh c quan ng, Nh nc. Ch th Marketing c th l mt c nhn, mt doanh nghip, mt ng chnh tr, mt t chc phi li nhun, v c mt chnh ph. i tng c Marketing, c gi l sn phm c th l: 1. Mt hng ha: t Toyota Innova, s mi Vit Tin 2. Mt dch v: Mega Vnn, chuyn pht nhanh DHL, ngnh hc PR 3. Mt tng: phng chng HIV, sinh c k hoch 4. Mt con ngi: ng c vin tng thng, ng c vin quc hi 5. Mt a im: khu du lch Tun Chu, Sapa 6. V c mt t nc: Vietnam, Singapore... i tng tip nhn cc chng trnh Marketing c th l ngi mua, ngi s dng, ngi nh hng, ngi quyt nh... b) Marketing theo ngha hp: Marketing nh nh ngha trn y cp n vai tr ca n trong mt h thng kinh t - x hi rng ln. Tuy nhin, mc ch ca bi ging ny l nghin cu v vn Marketing cho mt t chc ring bit trong h thng . T chc ny c th l mt mt doanh nghip, hoc mt t chc phi li nhun. Nh vy, chng ta cn mt nh ngha Marketing theo ngha hp hn. Marketing l mt h thng tng th cc hot ng ca t chc c thit k nhm hoch nh, t gi, xc tin v phn phi cc sn phm, dch v, tng p ng nhu cu ca th trng mc tiu v t c cc mc tiu ca t chc (theo Hip hi Marketing M AMA). Ni ring, nu t chc thc hin Marketing l doanh nghip, chng ta c th tham kho mt s nh ngha Marketing tiu biu sau y: Marketing l mt dng hot ng ca con ngi (bao gm c t chc) tha mn nhu cu v mong mun ca h thng qua trao i (Philip Kotler). Marketing l qu trnh qun l ca doanh nghip nhm pht hin ra nhu cu ca khch hng v p ng cc nhu cu mt cch c hiu qu hn so vi cc i th cnh tranh (Chartered Institute of Marketing). Marketing theo nh ngha ny c cc hm quan trng sau y: - Marketing l mt trit l kinh doanh mi, trit l v khch hng. ng thi, m bo cc hot ng Marketing, trong t chc cn c mt chc nng qun tr mi - chc nng qun tr Marketing. - Chc nng qun tr Marketing ca doanh nghip, t chc nhm m bo cho ton b cc hot ng ca t chc phi hng ti khch hng. Mun vy, t chc phi xc nh ng c nhu cu v mong mun ca khch hng v tho mn cc nhu cu

mt cch hiu qu. - Doanh nghip thu c li nhun thng qua tho mn nhu cu ca khch hng. - Marketing nhm p ng cc mc tiu ca doanh nghip trong di hn. Cng c th ni, Marketing l qu trnh lm tho mn nhu cu ca khch hng, c thc hin bng cch: - Phi hp cc b phn chc nng khc nhau trong doanh nghip - Nhm trng tm vo Khch hng mc tiu - Thng qua vic s dng Cc mc tiu, chin lc v k hoch Marketing c thc hin bng Marketing hn hp 4P. Marketing hn hp l g? l bn cng c Marketing m mt doanh nghip c th s dng tc ng vo th trng mc tiu nhm t c mc tiu t ra. Marketing hn hp gm 4 thnh t: - Sn phm: Sn phm l phng tin m cng ty dng tho mn nhu cu ca khch hng. Sn phm c th l hng ho hu hnh, dch v v hnh, c th l mt a im... khch hng phn bit c, sn phm phi c nhn hiu v phi c ng gi. - Gi c: Gi c l s tin khch hng phi b ra c c sn phm. Khch hng mua nhiu c th c gim gi. Khch quen c th c gi u i. Phng thc thanh ton tin li, linh hot cng gip cho khch hng mua nhiu. - Phn phi: Phn phi l cc hot ng nhm chuyn sn phm n tay khch hng mc tiu. Nu doanh nghip t chc knh phn phi tt s tng kh nng tiu th, ng thi tit kim c chi ph, v nh vy tng c kh nng cnh tranh. - Xc tin: Xc tin, hay truyn thng Marketing, li l mt hn hp bao gm cc thnh t cu thnh l qung co, quan h vi cng chng, tuyn truyn, khuyn mi, Marketing trc tip v bn hng c nhn. Xc tin c vai tr cung cp thng tin, khuyn khch v thuyt phc cng chng tin tng vo cng ty, vo sn phm v tiu dng sn phm ca cng ty. Nu cng ty nghin cu k nhu cu ca th trng, sau sn xut ra cc sn phm ph hp vi nhu cu th trng v xc nh gi c ph hp vi gi tr sn phm, t chc h thng phn phi tt v truyn thng Marketing c hiu qu th chc chn s d dng tiu th sn phm ca mnh. Khi cng ty thc hin nghin cu th trng k thit k sn phm, th bn thn sn phm c kh nng t bn n rt tt. Do vy, mt chuyn gia v

Marketing, ng Peter Drukker kt lun nh sau: Mc ch ca Marketing l nhn bit v hiu r khch hng k n mc hng ho hay dch v em ra bn s p ng tt nhu cu ca khch hng n mc t n bn n!. 2) Nhu cu, mong mun, nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton: Chng ta thy Marketing hin i hng ti tho mn nhu cu ca th trng, v nhu cu chnh l ng lc thi thc con ngi hnh ng ni chung v mua hng ni ring. Vy nhu cu l g? Mun hiu r chng ta cn phn loi cc nhu cu: a) Nhu cu t nhin: Nhu cu l trng thi cm gic thiu ht mt ci g m con ngi cm nhn c v cn c tha mn. Nhu cu ca con ngi rt a dng v phc tp. Nh kinh t hc Maslow phn loi nhu cu t nhin ca con ngi thnh 5 bc khc nhau (xem s 1.1). N bao gm c nhng nhu cu sinh l nh n, ung, ngti nhng nhu cu v an ton tnh mng, nhng nhu cu v tinh thn v x hi, thm ch cao hn c l nhng nhu cu v tri thc v th hin mnh.

Nhu cu t khng nh mnh Nhu cu c tn trng

Nhu cu x hi (tnh cm, giao lu)

Nhu cu an ton (c bo v, yn n...)

Nhu cu t nhin (n, ung, th, duy tr ni ging)

S 1.1. Thp nhu cu ca Maslow V bn cht, nhu cu l nhng phn cu thnh nguyn thy ca bn tnh con ngi, c sn trong con ngi. Do vy, cc quan im cho rng cc nh lm Marketing to ra nhu cu hay thc p con ngi tha mn cc nhu cu khng cn thit l hon ton sai lm. Khi nhu cu khng c tha mn, ngi ta s thy kh chu, thm ch kh s v bt hnh. Ngi ta s thng c hai xu hng gii quyt cc nhu cu: hoc l tm cch, tm i tng c th tha mn nhu cu, hoc l km ch n. V d: bn Lan thy rt kht nc, bn s c nhu cu c gii kht. Bn s tm cch kim nc ung cho

kht, hoc trong mt s trng hp bt kh khng (nh b ri vo sa mc, khng th tm ra nc), bn s c gng kim ch n. b) Mong mun: Nhu cu ca con ngi l mt chuyn, mong mun li l mt chuyn khc. Mong mun l nhu cu t nhin c dng c th, c th. Mi c nhn c cch ring tho mn mong mun ca mnh tu theo nhn thc, tnh cch, vn ho ca h. V d: Bn Lan kht nc, v bn mong mun mnh s c mt ly tr , hay mt ly nc cam, hay mt lon Coca-Cola? iu ty thuc vo tnh cch v s thch, vn ha sng ca bn. Nu bn l ngi quan tm ti sc khe v v p th c l bn s mong mun mt ly nc cam, nu bn l ngi gin d v n gin th c l bn ch mong mt ly tr . y, ngi bn thng hay nhm ln gia mong mun v nhu cu. V d, khi bn Lan mua mt ly nc cam, ngi bn nc s ngh rng bn Lan ch cn ung nc, nhng tht s bn Lan cn mt thc ung b dng cho sc khe. p ng cc mong mun ca cc nhm khch hng khc nhau s gip cho doanh nghip tng c kh nng cnh tranh, ng thi mang li cho x hi nhiu loi sn phm, dch v khc nhau cng tho mn mt nhu cu t nhin ca con ngi. Tuy nhin, xc nh ng mong mun ca khch hng khng phi l cng vic d dng. Do vy, doanh nghip cng phi gi m mong mun ang tim n trong mi con ngi. Ai cng mun c tn trng, t tin. Nhng khng ai bit l mun t tin th phi dng kem nh rng Close up, hay phi nhai ko cao su tp th dc mt. Bng cc sn phm ny, cc cng ty sn xut kem nh rng v ko cao su gip khch hng tho mn nhu cu c tn trng, t tin. c) Nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton (yu cu): Chng ta bt u c rc ri khi tm hiu khi nim v yu cu, n khc g vi nhu cu? Th ra th ny: mong mun th c rt nhiu, nhng khng phi mong mun no cng c th tr thnh hin thc. Bn Lan c th mong mun nhiu loi thc ung, nhng trong ti ch cn 6.000 ng, m phi 3.000 ng i xe but, nh vy bn Lan s ung g? Chc chn bn ch c th vo qun v yu cu mt ly tr hay nc ma vi gi 3.000 ng. Nhng bn khng thch ung nc ma v s mp, v bn ch sn sng mua tr , bn Linh s ku mt ly tr . Bn la chn th hng ha c th tha mn tt nht mong mun ca bn trong khun kh ti chnh cho php. Nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton l nhu cu t nhin v mong mun ph hp vi kh nng ti chnh ca khch hng. Nu khng c g tr ngi i vi hnh vi mua, nh cha c sn bn, bn khng ng lc, ng ch th nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton s chuyn thnh quyt nh mua. Nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton cn c cc nh kinh t gi l cu ca th trng (Demand).

C th ni, nu doanh nghip chm sc khch hng tt th s loi b nhiu tr ngi, ro cn i vi hnh vi mua v gip khch hng chuyn t nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton thnh quyt nh mua. Nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton l nhu cu m doanh nghip cn quan tm trc ht, v y chnh l c hi kinh doanh cn phi nm bt v p ng kp thi. C hi kinh doanh khng dnh cho ring ai. Trong iu kin th trng ngy cng c t do ho, th nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton cha c tho mn s kch thch cc i th cnh tranh tham gia th trng. C th ni, trn th trng Vit Nam hin nay cn rt nhiu nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton nhng cha c tho mn. y chnh l c hi ln cho cc nh kinh doanh. i vi th trng Vit Nam th kh nng thanh ton l vn rt quan trng. Do vy, sn phm phi va ti tin ca ngi tiu dng. V d, mc du nhiu loi hng ho Trung Quc cht lng cha cao, nhng vn c khch hng Vit Nam mua dng. L do c bn l gi c cc hng ho va vi ti tin cu ng o khch hng Vit Nam, c bit l nng thn. d) Cc mc khc nhau ca cu v nhim v Marketing - Cu m: L cu th trng m phn ln khch hng khng thch sn phm. Nhim v ca Marketing l tm nguyn nhn v sao khch hng khng thch sn phm. Trn c s cn phi thit k li 4 thnh t Marketing Mix thu ht khch hng. - Khng c cu: L trng hp khi khch hng mc tiu th khng quan tm n sn phm c mi cho. Trong trng hp ny, nhim v ca Marketing l thng qua cc chng trnh xc tin lm cho khch hng thy c rng sn phm s p ng nhu cu no ca h. - Cu tim tng: L cu cha c tho mn. Trn th trng lun lun c cc mc cu cha c tho mn. Nhim v ca Marketing l pht hin v nh gi quy m ca th trng v to ra cc sn phm tho mn cc mc cu . - Cu suy gim: L cu ang gim dn. Nhim v ca Marketing l phi xc nh r nguyn nhn suy gim v ra cc chnh sch, chin lc m rng cu bng cch tm cc th trng mc tiu mi, hoc thay i cc ni dung ca chin lc Marketing - Mix. - Cu khng u theo thi gian:

l cu thay i theo thi gian (gi trong ngy, ngy trong tun, tun trong thng, thng trong nm...). Cu khng n nh lm cho t chc lc th d tha kh nng cung cp, lc th qu ti cng vic. Nhim v ca Marketing l tm cch dn u mc cu thng qua chin lc gi linh hot, chin lc xc tin v cc chnh sch khuyn khch khc. - Cu y : y l trng hp khi t chc hi lng vi lng cu ang c. Nhim v ca Marketing l duy tr mc cu hin c nhm phng trnh tnh hung cu st gim do cnh tranh tng ln cng nh s thay i s thch, th hiu ca khch hng. Doanh nghip cn phi thng xuyn o lng mc hi lng ca khch hng kp thi iu chnh cc chin lc Marketing - Mix. - Cu vt qu kh nng cung cp: y l trng hp khi t chc khng c kh nng p ng ht cu th trng. Nhim v ca Marketing l s dng cc chin lc gi c, xc tin gim bt cu tm thi hay vnh vin ca cc phn th trng c li nhun thp, hoc cu khng cp thit. Cu v in hin nay Vit Nam thuc loi ny. Nh nc tnh gi in theo kiu lu tin hn ch ngi dng nhiu. ng thi Nh nc tng cng vic tuyn truyn dn chng s dng in tit kim. - Cu khng lnh mnh: Nhim v ca Marketing l lm gim cu bng cc chin lc xc tin, gi c v hn ch ngun cung (thuc l, ri, bia, game, ma tu...). Qua xem xt 8 mc ca cu v nhim v ca Marketing trn y, chng ta thy Marketing c vai tr qun l cu bng cc chnh sch khc nhau. 3) Gi tr, chi ph v s tha mn a) Gi tr tiu dng: Ngi tiu dng khng mua mt sn phm. H mua li ch m sn phm mang li khi tiu dng. chnh l gi tr tiu dng ca mt sn phm. V l cn c ngi tiu dng la chn mua sn phm. Ta c th nh ngha nh sau: Gi tr tiu dng ca mt sn phm l s nh gi ca ngi tiu dng v kh nng tng th ca sn phm c th tha mn nhu cu ca h. Mt sn phm c ba gi tr: Gi tr ng nhin ca chnh bn thn sn phm, gi tr k vng/mong i do ngi tiu dng t ra v chp nhn v gi tr tim tng nm cc thnh phn tim tng ca sn phm. Khi Lan mua tr , hn nhin Lan hiu gi tr ca ly tr ch l 500 nu Lan t mua tr v nu v pha. Nhng Lan chp nhn tr 2.000 ng khi mua ti qun

v c k vng rng c s c phc v, khng phi tn cng sc. Tuy nhin, nu ngi bn bng ra mt ly nc lc th c s khng ng hay nu bng ra mt ly tr nng khng c , c cng t chi. Mt l n gin: Lan mua tr th ly phi c tr v c . Mt khc, Lan cng khng k vng rng qun phi c my lnh v ly ng tr phi l pha l. V pha ngi bn, nu Lan a 1.000 ng th b cng t chi v theo b, cng sc v chi ph ca b cho ly tr y xng ng 2.000 ng. Nhng nu Lan i n ph Ph 24 (chui nh hng nhng quyn) th mt ly tr gi 5.000 ng, v Lan s vui v thanh ton m khng thc mc g ht, v gi tr ca ly tr khng ch nm tr v . N cn nm khng gian sang trng, cung cch phc v v c gi tr thng hiu Ph 24 na. b) Chi ph: Chi ph i vi mt sn phm l ton b nhng hao tn m ngi tiu dng phi b ra c c gi tr tiu dng ca n. c) S tha mn: S tha mn ca ngi tiu dng l mc trng thi cm gic ca h khi so snh gia kt qu tiu dng sn phm vi nhng iu h mong i trc khi mua. 4) Th trng Theo quan im Marketing, th trng bao gm con ngi hay t chc c nhu cu hay mong mun c th, sn sng mua v c kh nng mua hng ho dch v tho mn cc nhu cu mong mun . Theo nh ngha ny, chng ta cn quan tm n con ngi v t chc c nhu cu, mong mun, kh nng mua ca h v hnh vi mua ca h. Cn phn bit khi nim th trng theo quan im Marketing, vi khi nim th trng truyn thng, l ni xy ra qu trnh mua bn, v khi nim th trng theo quan im kinh t hc, l h thng gm nhng ngi mua v ngi bn, v mi quan h cung cu gia h. 5) Sn phm Con ngi s dng hng ho, dch v tho mn nhu cu ca mnh. Marketing dng khi nim sn phm (product) ch chung cho hng ho, dch v. Sn phm l bt k ci g c th cho bn tha mn nhu cu, mong mun. Sn phm c th l hng ha, dch v, tng, a im, con ngiCn lu tng ngi tiu dng khng mua mt sn phm, m mua mt li ch, cng dng, mt s hi lng m sn phm mang li. 6) Trao i v giao dch a) Trao i:

Marketing xut hin khi con ngi quyt nh tha mn nhu cu mong mun thng qua trao i. Trao i l khi nim cn bn nht ca Marketing. Trao i l hnh ng tip nhn mt sn phm mong mun t mt ngi no bng cch a cho h nhng th khc. Qua trao i, mi bn u c ci mnh mun. Khi Lan mua ly tr , bn c th nc gii kht mnh cn, v ngi bn c 2.000 ng thm thu nhp. y l phng thc c u im nht trong 4 cch thc tha mn nhu cu (Cch th nht l t sn xut ra sn phm. Cch th 2 l ly ca ngi khc. Cch th ba l i xin. V cch th t l trao i). Mua l mt hnh thc trao i, n khng xm phm n quyn li ngi khc, khng phi l thuc v lng t thin ca ai khc, cng khng cn thit phi lm ra ci mnh cn cho d c bit lm hay khng. N gip chng ta tp trung vo lm ra nhng g mnh c th lm, v mang ra trao i vi nhng ngi khc, v gip cho tng sn phm x hi tng ln. thc hin c trao i t nguyn cn tun th 5 iu kin sau: 1. t nht phi c hai bn (Lan v b ch qun nc); 2. Mi bn phi c mt th g c gi tr vi bn kia (Lan c 2.000 ng, b ch c tr ); 3. Mi bn phi c kh nng t do giao dch v chuyn giao hng ha ca mnh (Lan kh nng tr tin, b ch c kh nng pha tr v bng ra); 4. Mi bn c quyn t do chp nhn hay t chi ngh ca bn kia (b ch c th khng bn v khng thch, Lan c quyn khng mua v thy qun khng sch s); 5. Mi bn u tin chc l mnh mun giao dch vi bn kia. Khi c nm iu kin ny th c tim nng cho s trao i, cn s trao i c din ra hay khng ty thuc vo s tha thun gia cc bn v cc gi tr h trao i. Thng th khi cc bn u thy c li th trao i s c thc hin. Ngha l, trao i phi l mt qu trnh to ra gi tr. b) Giao dch: Giao dch l mt cuc trao i mang tnh cht thng mi gia nhng vt c gi tr gia cc bn. Ngi nng dn c th mang con g i ly my k go, hay Lan c th i ci bnh ngt ly chai nc sui vi ngi bn cng lp. Trng hp ny cc bn ch c cc hng ha c gi tr c th giao dch vi nhau tha mn bn iu kin: t nht c hai hng ha c gi tr giao dch, c cc iu kin tha thun, ni chn tha thun, thi gian tha thun. y khng c s xut hin ca tin bc, nn gi l giao dch hng i hng, hay trong nhiu trng hp hng i dch v hay dch v i dch v

(v d, ngi nng dn ng dn vn ly khoai). Trng hp Lan mua tr v tr 2.000 ng gi l giao dch mua bn. Cc giao dch cng to ra gi tr. 1.1.3. Vai tr, chc nng ca Marketing trong doanh nghip a) Vai tr ca Marketing trong doanh nghip Marketing c vai tr l cu ni trung gian gia hot ng ca doanh nghip v th trng, m bo cho hot ng ca doanh nghip hng n th trng, ly th trng lm mc tiu kinh doanh. Ni cch khc, Marketing c nhim v to ra khch hng cho doanh nghip. S dng Marketing trong cng tc lp k hoch kinh doanh s gip cho doanh nghip thc hin phng chm k hoch phi xut pht t th trng. Trong iu kin cnh trnh trn th trng gay gt th ch c doanh nghip no bit hng n th trng th mi c kh nng tn ti. b) Chc nng ca Marketing trong doanh nghip Marketing cn phi tr li cc vn sau ca doanh nghip: - Ai l khch hng mc tiu ca doanh nghip? H c cc c im g? Nhu cu, mong mun ca h nh th no? (Hiu r khch hng) - Mi trng kinh doanh ca doanh nghip c tc ng tch cc, tiu cc nh th no n doanh nghip? (Hiu r mi trng kinh doanh). - Cc i th no ang cnh tranh vi doanh nghip? H mnh yu nh th no so vi doanh nghip? (Hiu r i th cnh tranh) - Doanh nghip s dng cc chin lc Marketing hn hp g tc ng ti khch hng? (Sn phm, gi c, knh phn phi, xc tin Marketing mix). y l v kh ch ng trong tay ca doanh nghip tn cng vo th trng mc tiu. Nh vy, c th ni mun kinh doanh thnh cng, doanh nghip phi hiu r mnh, hiu r i phng, hiu r khch hng, hiu thin r thin thi, a li (iu kin mi trng). T cng ty mi c th xy dng nn chin lc Marketing hng ti th trng. y l chc nng ring ca Qun tr Marketing m cc chc nng khc trong cng ty khng thc hin c. Do vy, n mang tnh c lp tng i vi cc chc nng khc. Tuy nhin, thc hin cc hot ng ca mnh, b phn Marketing cn c s h tr phi hp ca cc chc nng khc. c) Mi quan h ca Marketing vi cc chc nng khc Trong mt doanh nghip c nhiu chc nng. l: - Chc nng qun tr ti chnh- k ton; - Chc nng qun tr ngun nhn lc; - Chc nng qun tr sn xut; - Chc nng qun tr Marketing;

- Chc nng nghin cu-pht trin S 1.2 m t mi quan h gia chc nng Marketing v cc chc nng khc trong cng ty, trong chc nng Marketing l cu ni gia th trng v doanh nghip thng qua cc chc nng khc.
TI CHNH K TON

Marketing
NHN S TH TRNG

Marketing

Marketing

SN XUT

Marketing
NGHIN CU PHT TRIN

S 1.2. Mi quan h gia chc nng Marketing v cc chc nng khc Vy mi quan h gia cc chc nng ny nh th no? Marketing c th ng ring r to ra khch hng cho doanh nghip c khng? Cu tr li l mun thc hin c mc tiu ca mnh th Marketing phi bit phi hp vi cc chc nng khc to ra sc mnh tng hp. L do n gin l mun thc hin chin lc ca mnh th cc nh qun tr Marketing phi c cc ngun lc nh ti chnh, nhn lc, cng ngh, thit b sn xut, tc l phi bit phi hp vi cc chc nng khc trong doanh nghip to ra sc mnh tng hp hng ti th trng. Nh vy, Marketing va c cc chc nng c lp, va phi phi hp vi cc chc nng khc trong doanh nghip thc hin c mc tiu t ra. Chc nng Marketing c mi lin h thng nht hu c vi cc chc nng khc. C th ni Marketing va l mt t duy kinh doanh mi - t duy hng v khch hng, ng thi va l mt chc nng quan trng trong cng ty - chc nng kt ni th trng vi cng ty, m bo cho cng ty thc hin t duy hng v khch hng. Trong iu kin kinh t th trng c th ni Marketing l cha kho ca s thnh cng cho doanh nghip.

1.2. QUN TR MARKETING 1.2.1. Th no l qun tr Marketing? Cng nh cc hot ng khc trong doanh nghip, t c mc tiu t ra, hot ngMarketing cn phi c qun tr. Theo Philip. Kotler: Qun tr Marketing l qu trnh phn tch, lp k hoch, thc hin v kim tra vic thi hnh cc bin php nhm thit lp, cng c v duy tr nhng cuc trao i c li vi ngi mua c la chn t c mc tiu ca doanh nghip. Nh vy, qun tr Marketing c lin quan trc tip n cc vn sau y: - Nm bt nhng bin ng (tng, gim) ca nhu cu th trng; - Gi m, kch thch v iu ha nhu cu ca th trng; - ra cc bin php nhm tc ng n cu ca th trng sao cho doanh nghip c th t c cc mc tiu t ra; - Kim tra vic thc hin cc chin lc, k hoch v cc bin php Marketing. 1.2.2. Cc quan im qun tr Marketing Marketing hnh thnh v pht trin trong mt qu trnh hon thin khng ngng ca nhn thc v qun tr doanh nghip. Cho n nay, trn th gii ngi ta tng kt 5 quan im qun tr Marketing. C th tm tt nm quan im nh sau. a) Quan im hng v sn xut: Quan im hng v sn xut cho rng khch hng s a thch nhiu sn phm gi phi chng c bn rng ri. Do vy, doanh nghip cn phi m rng quy m sn xut v m rng phm vi phn phi. Theo quan im ny th yu t quyt nh thnh cng cho doanh nghip l gi bn h v c nhiu hng ho. Doanh nghip sn xut nhng hng ho m h c thun li. Trn thc t, cc doanh nghip theo ui quan im ny s thnh cng nu lng hng cung cp cn thp hn nhu cu v doanh nghip c li th theo quy m (tc l sn xut cng nhiu th gi thnh cng h), ng thi th trng mong mun h gi sn phm. Tuy nhin, trong iu kin sn xut c gii ho hng lot dn ti cung vt cu th quan im ny kh m bo cho doanh nghip thnh cng. Hng ho Trung Quc xm chim th trng Vit Nam v nhiu th trng khc trn th gii nh gi thp v cht lng tm tm. Chin lc ny thnh cng do th trng nng thn rng ln ca Vit Nam nhiu nhu cu tiu dng cha c p ng, v kh nng thanh ton cha cao.

Mt v d na thi bao cp l cc nh my sn xut theo k hoch v phn phi ng lat, bt k ngi ta c thch hay khng, v khi kh nng cung thua xa mc cu. Tuy nhin quan im ny b qua cc yu t cn thit c th pht trin su hn cc th trng mi cho sn phm, v nht l trong nhng nn kinh t pht trin, khi ngi tiu dng c nhiu la chn th quan im ny kh c th p dng. c bit khi mc cu c thay i, th vic sn xut i tr c th gy ra khng hong tha (nh tng xy ra trong lch s), hng ha sn xut ra khng th tiu th ht v phi bn r hay b. b) Quan im hon thin sn phm Quan nim hon thin sn phm cho rng ngi tiu dng a thch nhng sn phm c cht lng cao nht, c tnh nng s dng tt nht. T , doanh nghip cn phi n lc hon thin sn phm khng ngng. Quan im ny ng kha cnh ngi tiu dng lun c yu cu cao v cht lng v thch cc s ci tin, nhng n b qua yu t v cng quan trng l chnh ngi tiu dng phi c kin v cht lng hay thit k, ch khng phi l cc tng v cht lng hay thit k ca cc nh sn xut. Hu qu l, cc nh lm Marketing b o tng khi cho rng ngi ta s thch nhng g m cc doanh nghip thch. Quan im ny ch ch trng ti v b ngoi, thay v tm hiu cc nhu cu thc cht, cc nhu cu khng c ni ra ca khch hng. V d nh ngi ta mua v i tu khng phi v ngi ta cn tu ha m cn dch v vn chuyn, nu nhng nh Marketing ca hng tu ha ch ch trng vo vic t im cc con tu th s khng thy c p lc cnh tranh v tc v gi c ca my bay v xe cht lng cao.Hng sm lp xe t Mt-x-lanh ca Php tng ni ting v cht lng sm lp bn tt, theo ui quan im hon thin sn phm. Tuy nhin, sau h b tht bi khi xu hng ca th trng l thay i mt t nhanh chng. c) Quan im hng v bn hng: Quan im hng v bn hng cho rng khch hng hay ngn ngi, chn ch trong vic mua sm hng ho. Do vy, doanh nghip phi n lc thc y bn hng th mi thnh cng. Theo quan im ny doanh nghip sn xut ri mi lo thc y tiu th. thc hin theo quan im ny doanh nghip phi u t vo t chc cc ca hng hin i v ch trng tuyn chn hun luyn nhn vin bn hng c k nng thuyt phc gii, ch n cng c qung co, khuyn mi

Trong lch s, quan im ny cng mang li thnh cng cho nhiu doanh nghip. V cho ti ngy nay cc k thut bn hng, khuyn mi vn pht huy tc dng. Tuy nhin, n khng phi l yu t quyt nh. Ngy nay, nhiu ngi vn lm ln gia Marketing v bn hng. Tuy nhin, nu sn phm khng p ng c nhu cu cu khch hng th cc n lc nhm vo bn hng cng s l v ch. Bn s v ch khi thuyt phc mt thanh nin thi nay mua b o di the, khn xp mc d vi gi rt r. Quan im ny c th ng vi cc sn phm c nhu cu th ng hay nhu cu th ng, tc l nhng th m ngi mua khng ngh ti vic mua n, mc d h lun c nhu cu v n nh: bo him nhn th, v s, dch v chm sc sc khe v.v Cc cng ty bo him nhn th lun tp trung vo vic xy dng i ng t vn bn bo him. Quan im ny b qua cc yu t phc tp ca nhu cu v mong mun, n khng thy ht c cc yu t tm l bn trong v nh hng bn ngoi i vi quyt nh mua hng. V th, mi n lc bn hng, khuyn mi s lm cho ngi tiu dng nghi ng, xa lnh v ngn ngi khi mua hay la chn sn phm (Ngi bn bo him nhn th thng b khch hng t chi tip xc, cc sn phm thng xuyn khuyn mi s b nghi ng v cht lng) i vi cng ty hng v bn hng th nh qun tr bn hng tr thnh ngi quan trng nht trong cng ty, chc nng bn hng l chc nng quan trng nht trong cng ty. H l ngi mang li s thnh cng cho cng ty. Theo quan im ny, ngi bn hng gii c th bn c mi th hng ho, k c cc hng ho m khch hng khng a thch. d) Quan im nh hng Marketing Quan im hng Marketing khng nh rng thnh cng, doanh nghip phi xc nh chnh xc nhu cu v mong mun ca th trng mc tiu, ng thi c th tho mn cc nhu cu mong mun sao cho c hiu qu hn cc i th cnh tranh. Thi im xut hin ca quan im ny l vo cui nhng nm 1960. y chnh l trit l kinh doanh Marketing nh hng khch hng. So snh khi qut gia cc t tng nh hng bn hng v nh hng khch hng c m t trong hnh 1.3. phn bit r quan im nh hng khch hng chng ta vch r cc c trng c bn ca quan im ny nh sau: - Nhm vo th trng mc tiu nht nh - Hiu r nhu cu, mong mun ca khch hng mc tiu - S dng tng hp cc cng c khc nhau (Marketing hn hp) - Tng li nhun trn c s tho mn nhu cu ca khch hng C th ni, Marketing l mt t duy kinh doanh mi, t duy hng ti khch hng, ly khch hng lm mc tiu tn ti. thc hin t duy ny cn phi c mt t chc m nhim cc hot ng Marketing trong doanh nghip. Do vy, xut hin mt

chc nng mi l chc nng Qun tr Marketing nh cc chc nng khc: Qun tr nhn s, Qun tr ti chnh - k ton, Qun tr sn xut... Trong mt cng ty hng v khch hng, Ch tch Hi ng qun tr v Gim c iu hnh c kin thc c bn l Marketing ch khng phi l kin thc cng ngh. Quan im Ch tiu im xut pht Trung tm ch Cch lm

nh hng bn hng Nh my Sn phm lm ra Sn xut trc ri mi tm cch bn - Doanh s - K hoch ngn hn - Ch trng nhu cu ca ngi bn Kch thch mua nhiu nh cc n lc thng mi Tng li nhun nh tng doanh s bn

nh hng Marketing Th trng mc tiu Nhu cu v mong mun ca khch hng Tm hiu nhu cu ri mi sn xut v bn - Kh nng thu li - K hoch di hn - Ch trng nhu cu ca ngi mua S dng tng hp v phi hp cc cng c ca Marketing - Mix Tng li nhun nh p ng nhu cu th trng

nh hng n lc

Bin php Mc tiu

S 1.3. So snh gia quan im nh hng bn hng v nh hng Marketing Trong thi k kinh t k hoch ho tp trung Vit Nam, Marketing khng c ch ng. Kinh t quc doanh c v tr tuyt i c v quy m v v th. Nhng cc doanh nghip nh nc khng c ng lc p dng Marketing, v h khng cn khch hng. Cn cc thnh phn kinh t hp tc x v t nhn th nh b, manh mn. Do vy, h cng ch ch trng ti khu bn hng m thi. e) Quan im Marketing o c x hi y l quan im xut hin gn y nht. Quan im ny i hi phi kt hp hi ho gia li ch ca 3 ch th khc nhau l: li ch khch hng, li ch doanh nghip v li ch x hi. Sn phm ca cc doanh nghip phi gip cho cng ng ci thin cht lng cuc sng, ch khng ch n thun l i sng vt cht. Trn thc t, c nhiu doanh nghip tho mn c hai li ch u nhng lng qun li ch x hi nh: gy nhim, hu hoi mi trng, lm cn kit ti nguyn, gy bnh tt cho con ngi Kt qu l b x hi ln n, ty chay. Cc hng thuc l ngy cng b x hi ln n, v Chnh ph nhiu nc cm mi hnh thc

qung co thuc l. Hng CocaCola cng tng b t chc bo v ngi tiu dng buc ti v cc cht ho hc c hi cho sc kho con ngi. Cc loi bao b hng ho kh phn hu cng b ln n. 1.2.3. Qun tr qu trnh Marketing 1) Qu trnh cung ng gi tr cho khch hng Mc tiu ca bt k doanh nghip no l cung ng gi tr cho khch hng tha mn nhu cu ca h, v thu li nhun cho doanh nghip. C 2 quan im cung ng gi tr cho khch hng. Theo quan im truyn thng, cung ng gi tr cho khch hng, doanh nghip trc tin cn phi c sn phm. Sau , doanh nghip nh gi, thng tin cho khch hng, v tiu th sn phm. Quan im ny ch thnh cng trong iu kin th trng khan him. Theo quan im hin i, qu trnh cung ng gi tr cho khch hng bao gm 3 bc: - Bc 1: La chn gi tr. Trong bc ny, cn tin hnh phn on th trng, la chn th trng mc tiu thch hp, v nh v sn phm (tc l to ra s khc bit ca sn phm so vi cc sn phm cnh tranh). - Bc 2: To ra gi tr. Trong bc ny cng ty phi pht trin sn phm, dch v km theo, nh gi, t chc mng li phn phi. - Bc 3: Thng bo v cung ng gi tr. Trong bc ny, doanh nghip thc hin cc hot ng truyn thng nh qung co, khuyn mi v bn hng. 2) Qun tr qu trnh Marketing Qu trnh Marketing bao gm 5 bc sau y: - Phn tch c hi Marketing - Phn on v la chn th trng mc tiu - Thit k cc chin lc Marketing - Hoch nh cc chng trnh Marketing - T chc thc hin v kim tra cc n lc Marketing. a) Phn tch cc c hi th trng: Qu trnh phn tch cc c hi th trng bao gm hai bc l pht hin th trng mi v nh gi kh nng cu th trng. - Pht hin th trng mi Trc khi bc vo th trng mi, mt cng ty phi nghin cu th trng k cng pht hin ra nhng kh nng kinh doanh ph hp vi nng lc ca mnh. Nu cng ty c v tr trn th trng ri, h cng tm cc c hi kinh doanh mi

to ra mt v th an ton, v th trng lun lun bin i. C th ni, trn th trng lun lun c cc c hi kinh doanh. Vn l cho doanh nghip c kp thi pht hin ra hay khng, v c hi c ph hp vi nng lc ca doanh nghip hay khng? - nh gi kh nng p ng c hi th trng ca cng ty Trn th trng lun c cc c hi kinh doanh khc nhau. Vn l cc c hi c ph hp vi cng ty hay khng, tc l cng ty c kh nng tham gia th trng vi u th cao hn so vi cc i th cnh tranh hay khng Ni cch khc, cng ty phi xem xt n mc tiu v tim nng cu cng ty. b) Phn an th trng. La chn th trng mc tiu Sau khi phn tch c hi th trng, cng ty phi la chn th trng mc tiu, tc l cng ty c th nhm vo i tng khch hng no hp dn nht phc v th thun li nht cho cng ty: phc v tt c cc khch hng trn tt c cc a bn, hay chn mt nhm hoc mt s nhm khch hng no? Trc khi chn th trng mc tiu, cng ty cn phn on th trung, tc l chia khch hng thnh cc nhm khc bit v nhu cu, tnh cch hay hnh vi. Th trng mc tiu c th bao gm mt hoc mt vi on th trng. Sau cng ty phi nh v sn phm trn th trng mc tiu c chn, tc l m bo cho sn phm d kin tung ra th trng c cc c tnh g khc bit vi cc sn phm cnh tranh v ph hp vi mong mun ca khch hng mc tiu. Lm c nh vy cng ty s tng c kh nng cnh tranh cho sn phm. c) Xy dng chin lc Marketing Mi cng ty u phi hot ng c nh hng, c mc tiu r rng. Mun vy, cng ty phi t ra mc tiu v cch thc t c mc tiu . Cng c thc hin l k hoch chin lc v k hoch Marketing. Mi cng ty c th c mt vi lnh vc hot ng. Mi lnh vc hot ng c nhng mt hng khc nhau. Mc tiu ca k hoch chin lc l xc nh r cng ty ang tm c v pht trin cc lnh vc sn xut mnh v thu hp cc lnh vc sn xut yu km. Vic lp k hoch Marketing c nhim v son tho cc k hoch cho ring tng ngnh sn xut, tng mt hng ca cng ty sau khi cng ty thng qua cc quyt nh chin lc i vi tng ngnh sn xut ca mnh. K hoch Marketing bao gm cc k hoch di hn (trn 1 nm) v k hoch hng nm. K hoch di hn phn tch cc nhn t ch yu nh hng n th trng trong giai on k hoch, ra cc mc tiu cho giai on , nhng bin php chin lc c bn chim lnh th phn d kin cho sn phm, li nhun d kin, doanh thu v chi ph d kin. K hoch ny c xem xt v iu chnh cho ph hp vi cc

bin ng trong mi trng. K hoch nm l phng n chi tit ca cc d kin ra trong k hoch di hn i vi nm thc hin u tin. Trong k hoch nm trnh by cc tnh hung Marketing hin ti, vch ra nguy c v c hi, cc mc tiu t ra i vi mi sn phm, k hoch Marking cho nm k hoch. K hoch Marketing l c s phi hp tt c cc loi hnh hot ng: sn xut, Marketing, ti chnh d) Xy dng cc chng trnh Marketing hn hp (Marketing- mix) Marketing - Mix bao gm tt c nhng g m cng ty c th vn dng tc ng n th trng mc tiu nhm to ra cc p ng mong mun. Sau khi quyt nh v nh v sn phm, cng ty phi tin hnh lp k hoch Marketing hn hp nhm huy ng mi nng lc ca cng ty t c mc tiu. y l khc bit c bn cu Marketing hin i so vi quan im nh hng bn hng. Trong chng trnh Marketing hn hp, cng ty phi xc nh r cc c trng ca sn phm nh tn gi, bao b, cc thuc tnh, cc dch v km theo; gi bn ca sn phm bao gm bn l, bn bun, gi u i, chit khu, bn tr chm; phng thc phn phi sn phm n tay khch hng; v cui cng l chng trnh truyn thng Marketing nhm thng tin cho khch hng mc tiu v sn phm mi, thuyt phc h, nhc nh h, gy thin cm ca h i vi cng ty. e) T chc thc hin cc hot ng Marketing thc hin cc hot ng Marketing cng ty cn phi c b my tng ng. l h thng b my t chc Marketing. i vi cc cng ty nh, b my t chc Marketing c th ch do mt vi ngi m nhim tt c cc hot ng Marketing nh nghin cu Marketing, t chc tiu th, t chc truyn thng Marketing, cung cp cc dch v khch hng i vi cc cng ty ln, ngi ta phi xy dng mt b my t chc Marketing c quy c. B my Marketing c th c t chc theo sn phm; theo khch hng, theo a d; v t chc kiu hn hp kt hp 2 hoc 3 tiu chun (theo a d, theo sn phm, theo khch hng).

CU HI N TP V THO LUN
1) Trnh by t duy Ch bn nhng th m khch hng cn. Ly v d doanh nghip thc hin theo t duy ny. 2) Trnh by vai tr v chc nng Marketing trong doanh nghip. 3) Tm mt tnh hung chng t rng doanh nghip tht bi khi khng thc hin

t duy ch bn nhng th m khch hng cn. 4) Trnh by quan im hng v khch hng.? 5) Phn tch quan im cho rng Marketing va l mt t duy kinh doanh mi, va l mt chc nng trong cng ty. 6) Trnh by s khc nhau gia nh hng bn hng v nh hng Marketing. 7) Trnh by mi quan h ca chc nng Marketing vi cc chc nng khc trong doanh nghip. 8) Phn bit gia nhu cu v mong mun ca khch hng. 9) Bn ang c nh ti mt a im c nhiu trng i hc. Bn nh m ca hng photocopy. Bn s thc hin cc bc trong cng tc Marketing nh th no? Phng n kinh doanh ca bn c g khc nhau trong 2 trng hp cung ln hn cu, v cung nh hn cu? 10) Bn th tm kim cc c hi kinh doanh ti a phng bn. Bn th chn ly mt c hi kinh doanh ph hp vi kh nng ca bn? 11) Phn tch qu trnh qun tr Marketing.

CHNG 2

H THNG THNG TIN V NGHIN CU MARKETING


MC TIU
Sau khi hc xong chng ny, sinh vin cn nm c:
Khi nim nghin cu Marketing v h thng thng tin Marketing Ni dung 4 h thng con trong h thng thng tin Marketing

Cc giai on, cc ni dung nghin cu Marketing Cc phng php nghin cu Marketing Cc ngun thng tin khc nhau nghin cu Marketing.

2.1. H THNG THNG TIN MARKETING (MIS) 2.1.1. Khi nim H thng thng tin Marketing l mt tp hp gm con ngi, thit b v cc th tc dng thu thp, phn loi, phn tch, nh gi v phn phi thng tin cn thit
mt cch chnh xc, kp thi cho cc nh quyt nh Marketing.

Theo nh ngha ny, con ngi v thit b c vai tr thit yu trong h thng thng tin Marketing. Mt h thng thng tin Marketing l tng c kh nng: - To ra cc bo co thng xuyn v cc nghin cu c bit khi cn thit. - Kt hp cc s liu c v mi cung cp cc thng tin cp nht v xc nh cc xu hng th trng. - Phn tch s liu (dng cc m hnh ton hc). - Gip cho cc nh qun l tr li cc cu hi dng Nu th?. V d Nu cng ty gim gi 10% th doanh s tng bao nhiu? Do my tnh c nhn ngy cng c s dng rng ri v d dng vi chi ph thp v kh nng ni mng cc my tnh cc a im khc nhau, h thng thng tin Marketing mang li nhng tim nng to ln hn cho cc nh qun tr Marketing. Mt h thng thng tin Marketing trn c s ng dng mng my tnh c th cung cp nhanh chng cc thng tin Marketing cn thit vi chi ph thp. Gi tr v s thnh cng ca H thng thng tin Marketing ph thuc vo ba yu t: - Bn cht v cht lng ca cc s liu sn c. - chnh xc v tnh hin thc ca cc m hnh v k thut phn tch cc s liu. - Mi quan h cng tc gia nh khai thc H thng thng tin v cc nh qun l Marketing s dng thng tin. 2.1.2. S cn thit ca mt H thng thng tin Marketing Hot ng Marketing trong doanh nghip ngy cng phc tp v a dng, i hi phi c y v kp thi cc thng tin cn thit. Vic qun tr cc hot ng Marketing phi da trn cc thng tin v th trng, v mi trng bn trong, bn ngoi doanh nghip. Hu nh mi bc trong qu trnh qun tr Marketing nh phn tch, lp k hoch, thc hin v kim tra hiu qu ca cc hot ng Marketing th nh qun tr Marketing u cn thng tin. H cn thng tin v nhu cu, th hiu ca khch

hng, v hot ng ca cc i th cnh tranh, v cc yu t ca mt trng kinh doanh Cc thng tin ny cn c lu tr, cp nht thng xuyn, c chia s gia cc nh qun l, c truy nhp d dng. y cng l l do cn phi t chc thng tin Marketing thnh mt h thng. C th tm tt nhng yu t dn ti s cn thit c H thng thng tin Marketing i vi doanh nghip nh sau: - Cc nh qun l cp cao ca doanh nghip ngy cng c t thi gian ra cc quyt nh Marketing. L do l mi trng p buc doanh nghip thay i cc sn phm hin ti v a ra cc sn phm mi ngy cng nhanh hn. Do vy, h cn ly thng tin nhanh hn, nhiu hn. - Cc hot ng Marketing ngy cng phc tp hn, phm vi v a bn ngy cng rng hn do cnh tranh ngy cng mnh cng vi xu hng ton cu ho. Do vy, thng tin Marketing ngy cng a dng, i tng s dng ngy cng nhiu v a bn rng hn. - Mong i ca khch hng ngy cng cao, doanh nghip ngy cng phi quan tm nhiu n khch hng. Do vy, doanh nghip ngy cng cn nhiu cc nghin cu Marketing. - Xu hng hi t gia tin hc v vin thng to ra s d dng cho vic thit lp cc c s d liu ln c ni mng. Mt h thng thng tin c thit k v t chc tt c th cung cp cc ngun thng tin Marketing y , tin li vi chi ph thp cho cc nh qun tr Marketing ra quyt nh. Nng lc lu tr v truy cp thng tin ca h thng cho php x l v lu tr mt s lng ln cc thng tin. Trn c s , cc nh qun l c th kim tra thng xuyn kt qu tiu th sn phm, tnh hnh bin ng ca th trng 2.1.3. Cc b phn cu thnh H thng thng tin Marketing S 2.1 m t cu trc ca m hnh h thng thng tin Marketing ca Doanh nghip, gm 4 h thng con trong h thng thng tin Marketing. l: H thng bo co ni b (doanh thu, chi ph, sn lng, vt t, tin mt).

H thng thu thp thng tin Marketing bn ngoi (thng tin bn ngoi

doanh nghip, bao gm thng tin doanh nghip t thu thp hoc mua bn ngoi). H thng nghin cu Marketing (t chc nghin cu thu thp thng

tin cn thit). H thng phn tch thng tin Marketing (dng cc phng php thng k ton v my tnh phn tch thng tin thu c). MIS H thng bo co Marketing ni b Mi trng H thng thu thp thng tin Marketing thng xuyn bn ngoi H thng phn tch thng tin Marketing Marketing: - Mi trng vi m - Mi trng v m H thng nghin cu Marketing Nh qun tr Marketing: - Phn tch Lp k hoch - Thc hin - Kim tra qu trnh thc hin

Nhng quyt nh v truyn thng Marketing

1) H thng bo co ni b: Bt k cng ty no cng c h thng bo co ni b. Cc bo co i t cp di ln cp trn, phn nh cc ch tiu tiu th cc sn phm, dch v hng ngy, hng tun, hng thng, hng qu, hng nm (di dng gi tr v dng hin vt); chi ph, u t, cng n, vt t Nhiu cng ty xy dng H thng bo co ni b hon chnh trn c s tin hc ho, m bo kh nng lu tr mt khi lng thng tin ln, ng thi tin li cho vic tm kim v ly thng tin. 2) H thng thu thp thng tin Marketing bn ngoi: H thng thu thp thng tin thng ngy bn ngoi l tp hp cc ngun tin v cc phng php thu thp thng tin thng ngy v cc s kin t mi trng kinh doanh ca cng ty. Cc ngun tin thng ngy bn ngoi rt phong ph. l cc thng tin m cc chuyn vin Marketing c th thu c trn bo ch, tp ch, trn TV, trn cc trang Web. Cc chuyn vin Marketing chuyn trch v thng tin c th ng vai cc khch hng n mua ti cc quy hng ca cc i th, hoc d cc cuc hp c ng, cc cuc trin lm, ni chuyn vi cc nhn vin ca hCui cng, cng ty c th mua tin tc thng thng t cc nh cung cp thng tin chuyn nghip thng ngy bn ngoi.

i vi cc thng tin ny, vn quan trng l vn t chc thu thp thng tin thng xuyn. V d nh doanh nghip c th quy nh ch bo co nh k cho cc nhn vin thng xuyn tip xc vi khch hng, cc i l phn phiVi cc doanh nghip ln c i ng nhng ngi thng xuyn tip xc vi khch hng th y l ngun thng tin quan trng v chi ph thp. 3) H thng nghin cu Marketing: C th ni, nghin cu Marketing l cha kho cho s thnh cng ca doanh nghip. Bt k mt doanh nghip no theo ui nh hng khch hng cng cn n cc nghin cu Marketing thc phng chm bn nhng th m khch hng cn. Nghin cu Marketing nhm xc nh mt cch c h thng nhng t liu cn thit do tnh hung Marketing t ra cho cng ty, thu thp, phn tch chng v bo co kt qu. Nghin cu Marketing c th c thc hin bng hai cch l bn thn cng ty t lm ly hoc cng ty thu ngoi lm. Cc cng ty nh thng khng c nhn lc tin hnh cc nghin cu Marketing cho mnh. H c th thu sinh vin, gio vin cc trng i hc, hoc thu cc t chc chuyn nghin cu Marketing thc hin theo yu cu t ra ca cng ty. Cc cng ty ln thng c tim lc t chc mt b phn nghin cu Marketing chuyn nghip. Nh vy, cng ty s ch ng trong nghin cu Marketing. 4) H thng phn tch thng tin Marketing: H thng phn tch thng tin Marketing l tp cc phng php phn tch, x l thng tin Marketing thu thp c nhm hng m hnh.

a ra cc kt lun cn thit cho qu

trnh ra quyt nh Marketing. H thng ny bao gm ngn hng thng k v ngn Ngn hng thng k l tp hp cc phng php thng k hin i

x l cc thng tin Marketing thu c, cho php pht hin ra cc mi quan h ph thuc ln nhau gia cc bin s c nghin cu v xc nh tin cy thng k ca cc kt lun t c. l cc ngn hng d liu, phng php phn tch hi quy, phn tch tng quan, phn tch nhn tQua x l thng k c th thu c cc cu tr li, chng hn nh sau: - Cc bin s c bn no nh hng n mc tiu th ca sn phm ang xt? Tm quan trng ca mi bin s ? - Nu cng ty nng gi bn ln 10%, th doanh thu gim i bao nhiu? - D bo nhu cu tiu th trong nm sau l bao nhiu?

Ngn hng m hnh l tp hp cc m hnh ton hc gip cho cc nh

qun tr Marketing ra cc quyt nh Marketing ti u. l cc m hnh tnh ton

gi, m hnh chn a im ti u, m hnh xc nh ngn sch qung coM hnh gm mt tp hp cc bin s lin h qua li vi nhau, m phng mt h thng, mt qu trnh thc t no . 2.2. NGHIN CU MARKETING 2.2.1. Khi nim Theo hip hi Marketing M, Nghin cu Marketing l qu trnh thu thp v phn tch c h thng cc thng tin (d liu) v cc vn lin quan n cc hot ng Marketing hng ho v dch v. Bn cht ca nghin cu Marketing l xc nh mt cch c h thng cc t liu cn thit do tnh hung Marketing t ra cho cng ty, thu thp, x l, phn tch chng v bo co kt qu. iu quan trng y l thng tin phi c thu thp v phn tch mt cch c h thng, tc l phi theo mt trnh t logic nht nh, ng thi phi m bo tnh chnh xc, khoa hc, phn nh trung thc thc t. 2.2.2. Mc ch ca nghin cu Marketing T tng ch o ca Marketing l Mi quyt nh kinh doanh u phi xut pht t th trng. Mun thc hin c t tng ch o ny th phi c y thng tin v th trng, v mi trng kinh doanh, tc l phi nghin cu Marketing : - Hiu r khch hng. - Hiu r cc i th cnh tranh. - Hiu r tc ng ca mi trng n doanh nghip. - Hiu r cc im mnh, im yu ca ta. Cn c vo cc thng tin thu c qua nghin cu Marketing, cc nh qun l s vch ra chin lc, chnh sch kinh doanh ph hp nhm vo th trng mc tiu. Nghin cu Marketing khng ch h tr cho cc quyt nh Marketing c tnh chin thut v chin lc, m cn c dng xc nh, gii p mt vn c th nh: tm hiu phn ng ca ngi tiu dng v gi c mt loi sn phm, v mt loi bao b mi hay v hiu qu ca mt chng trnh qung co. Sau y l cc loi nghin cu Marketing thng c tin hnh: - Nghin cu th trng: Nhm tr li cc cu hi v tim nng thng mi ca th trng. - Nghin cu v sn phm: Nhm tr li cc cu hi v kh nng chp nhn sn phm ca cng ty, v cc sn phm cnh tranh, v phng hng pht trin sn phm ca cng ty. - Nghin cu phn phi: Nhm gii p cc vn v t chc, qun l knh phn phi.

- Nghin cu qung co: Nhm gii p cc vn v hiu qu qung co, v chn phng tin qung co, v ni dung qung co. - Nghin cu d bo: Nhm gii p cc vn v d bo nhu cu ngn hn (1 nm), d bo trung hn v di hn (t 2 nm tr ln). V d: Cc ni dung nghin cu v qung co c th l: + Nghin cu ng c mua ca ngi tiu dng + Nghin cu tm l : tm l gia nh ca ngi Vit Nam + Nghin cu la chn phng tin qung co + Nghin cu chn ni dung qung co + Nghin cu hiu qu ca qung co. V d: Nghin cu th trng in my Vit Nam nm 2006, th trng in my Vit Nam ang trong thi k tng trng vi tc cao v tim nng ln. Theo cng ty nghin cu th trng GfK, th trng in my Vit Nam c hai phn khc r rt, l dng tiu dng p ng nhu cu cn thit ca ngi c thu nhp di trung bnh, v dng tiu dng thay th vi nhu cu cao hn ca ngi c thu nhp t trung bnh cao tr ln. C hai dng ny, cng theo GfK, to nn sc tng trng cao ca th trng in my. S liu ca GfK cho bit, ch mi c 25-30% s h gia nh c t lnh v 10-15% c my git, con s qu thp so vi cc nc trong khu vc v c bit l vi dn s hn 80 triu ngi Vit Nam. Vi s liu ny, nh gi ca GfK cho rng nhu cu mua sm nhng mt hng in my ny rt ln vi phn khc mua sm thit yu. Trong khi , 75-80% s h gia nh Vit Nam u c tivi li to ra th trng thay th sn phm cng ngh cao hn c cho l c tc tng trng cao hn bn cnh th trng nhu cu thit yu ca 20-25% h gia nh cn li cha c my thu hnh. Chin dch gim gi m cc hng in t trc tip v gin tip ang thc hin khuyn khch c hai dng phn khc, to c hi cho ngi tiu dng ao c c mt Pht hin vn v m. chic t lnh hay my git c th thc hin chnh Cn nhng ngi c thu nhp cao thnh mc tiu nghin cu trang b thm sn phm in t, in lnh cng ngh mi. 2.2.3. Qu trnh nghin cu Marketing Qu trnh nghin cu Marketing bao gm cu on (5 bc) nh c m Xy dng k hoch nghin 5 giai t trn S 2.3. Chng ta s tm hiu ni dung cc bc trong qu trnh nghin cu Marketing . Thu thp thng tin

Phn tch thng tin thu thp

Bo co kt qu nghin cu

S 2.3. Qu trnh nghin cu Marketing 1) Pht hin vn v hnh thnh mc tiu cn nghin cu: Pht hin ng vn tc l gii quyt c mt na. Nu pht hin vn sai th cc phng php nghin cu cng lc hng, dn ti tn km v ch. Mt khc, nhiu khi cc vn ang n nu m ta c th cha bit, nu khng c pht hin s dn n cc hu qa ln. Chng hn trong nm 2001 doanh thu ca Tp on Bu chnh vin thng tng, t 120% k hoch. Tuy nhin nghin cu chi tit cho thy mc d doanh thu tng, nhng th phn gim, tc l Tp on b mt th phn v tay cc i th cnh tranh mi. Nh vy, mc tiu nghin cu l pht hin vn v gii quyt vn . Nu vn tn ti r rng, th mc tiu nghin cu l gii quyt vn . Trc khi a dch v DataPost ra th trng, cng ty VPS phi tin hnh nghin cu th trng. Vn chung cn phi tr li l cng ty c nn a vo khai thc dch v ny khng? y chnh l mc tiu nghin cu. C th chia nh mc tiu chung ny thnh cc mc tiu nh cc vn sau: - Nhu cu th trng i vi dch v ny l bao nhiu? - Khch hng mong mun cc c trng b sung thm g cho dch v ny? - S dng cc knh phn phi no cho dch v ny? - Cng ngh s thay i nh th no trong 5 nm ti? - Tnh hnh cnh tranh s ra sao trong 5 nm ti? Nh vy, t mc tiu nghin cu chung ta chia thnh cc mc tiu nh, c th hn. Ngi ta phn bit 3 loi nghin cu sau, mi loi nghin cu c mc tiu ca mnh: - Nghin cu khm ph (exploratory research): c mc tiu thu thp d liu ban u lm sng t bn cht thc ca vn v gi cc gi thit hay cc tng mi. Cn c cc nghin cu tip theo khng nh cc gi thit, tng. - Nghin cu m t (descriptive research): c mc tiu xc nh ln ca cc ch tiu no . V d nh bao nhiu ngi s s dng dch v DataPost vi mc

gi...Tng chi ph khuyn mi EMS ln 20% th doanh thu tng ln bao nhiu? - Nghin cu nhn qu (causal research): c mc tiu kim tra mi quan h nhn qu ca cc hin tng no . Thng th c mi lin h rng buc gia cc hin tng no m s thay i ca mt hin tng ny dn n s thay i cu hin tng kia. V d mi quan h gia thu nhp quc dn trn u ngi v mt in thoi trn 100 dn. 2) Xy dng k hoch nghin cu y l giai on th 2 ca qu trnh nghin cu Marketing. Trc khi quyt nh nghin cu cng cn phi bit r chi ph cn thit cho nghin cu. K hoch nghin cu Marketing bao gm nhng ni dung sau y: 1 2 3 Ngun d liu cn thit D liu s cp; d liu th cp Phng php nghin cu Quan st, iu tra, th nghim, nhm tp trung Cc phng tin nghin Bng cu hi; Cc dng c h tr

cu 4 K hoch chn mu n v mu, C mu, th tc chn mu 5 Phng php tip cn in thoi, th, tip xc trc tip vi ngi c hi 3) La chn ngun d liu cn thit Ta c th chia d liu nghin cu Marketing thnh hai ngun: a) Ngun d liu th c: D liu th cp (cp 2) l nhng d liu thu thp trc y v mc tiu khc, nhng hin nay ta vn c th s dng c. Ngun d liu ny bao gm: - Ngun d liu bn trong doanh nghip: Cc bo co ti chnh, bo co kt qu hot ng sn xut kinh doanh nh k (hng thng, hng qu, hng nm); thng k n th khiu ni ca khch hng; cc bo co nghin cu Marketing trc . - Ngun d liu bn ngoi doanh nghip: Ngun ny rt a dng, t cc n phm, cc nghin cu ca Nh nc, ca cc t chc quc t nh Ngn hng th gii (WorldBank), T chc thng mi th gii (WTO); Trung tm thng mi th gii; cc ngun thng tin i chng (nin gim thng k, bo, tp ch, Internet). Cc ngun d liu th cp sn c trong doanh nghip v phn nh nhiu mt qu trnh hot ng sn xut kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. Cc ngun thng tin bn ngoi cng rt phong ph. Ngun d liu th cp thng r tin, d thu thp v chp nhn c. Do vy, nn tn dng ngun d liu th cp. Khi no khng d liu th cp cn thit cho nghin cu th mi nn tm kim d liu s cp. Thng thng, d liu th cp chim n 80% nhu cu d liu cho mt nghin cu Marketing. Tuy nhin, cn lu tnh thi s v chnh xc ca d liu th cp. b) Ngun d liu s cp: D liu s cp (cp 1) l nhng d liu c thu thp ln u cho mt mc tiu nghin cu no ca Doanh nghip. Khi nghin cu cc vn mang tnh c

th ca doanh nghip th phi cn n cc thng tin s cp. 4) Thu thp d liu Thu thp d liu l giai on tn thi gian v kinh ph nht, ng thi cng d mc sai lm nht. Nhng kh khn thng gp trong qu trnh thu thp d liu l: - Kh nng tip cn trc tip vi nhng ngi cn thit thu thp d liu - Kh nng thuyt phc khch hng tham gia cung cp d liu - tin chn thc ca cc d liu m khch hng cung cp - chn thc khng thin v cu nhng ngi tham gia thc hin phng vn. 5) Phn tch thng tin thu thp c y l giai on x l cc d liu thu c c c cc kt qu no . x l d liu, ngi ta dng cc phn mm thng k, cc m hnh d bo khc nhau. 6) Trnh by kt qu thu c Cc kt qu thu c cn phi trnh by r rng, mch lc v theo cc yu cu t ra bo co cp trn. 2.2.4. Cc phng php thu thp d liu C nhiu phng php khc nhau thu thp d liu. Ngi ta c th chia thnh hai loi. l phng php bn giy v phng php hin trng. - Phng php thu thp d liu bn giy l phng php thu thp cc d liu sn c bn trong v bn ngoi cng ty, tc l d liu th cp. Tuy nhin, bng cc phng tin vin thng hin i nh web, e-mail, in thoi, my ghi hnh ni mng, ngi nghin cu c th tip cn gin tip vi i tng cn nghin cu thu thp c d liu s cp. Nh vy, ngi thu thp d liu c th ngi ti vn phng tm kim d liu th cp v s cp. Trong thi i Internet th phng php ny d thc hin. Tuy nhin, hin nay Vit Nam cc ngun d liu th cp cn nhiu hn ch. - Phng php hin trng bao gm nhiu hnh thc khc nhau thu thp d liu s cp. l cc phng php: 1) Phng php quan st Phng php quan st (Observational Method) l phng php thu thp d liu s cp v khch hng, v cc i th cnh tranh bng cch s dng ngi hoc my mc ghi li cc hin tng, hnh vi ca khch hng, ca nhn vin cng ty, v ca cc i th cnh tranh. Mc ch ca quan st l ghi li hnh vi, li ni ca nhn vin, ca khch hng khi h cc ni giao dch vi khch hng. Sau khi quan st thy mt hnh vi no ca khch hng, ta c th phng vn h bit thm thng tin v hnh vi . C th thc hin cc quan st bng mt, bng my ghi m, ghi hnhV

d nh quan st hnh vi ca khch hng khi h bc vo bu cc, ca hng, im phc v; khi h xem mt qung co; nghe h bnh lun v cht lng hng ho, dch v, thi phc v ca doanh nghip, ca cc i th cnh tranh. Ti cc siu th, cc my qut laze gip cho vic thng k cc loi hng ho c tiu th trong ngy nhanh chng. Ngi nghin cu c th ng vai mt khch hng b mt quan st hnh vi, phong cch cu ngi bn hng ca cng ty hoc ca cc i th cnh tranh. Phng php quan st cho ta kt qu khch quan. Tuy nhin, kh khn i vi phng php ny l khng thy c mi lin h gia hin tng v bn cht ca n. Mun vy ngi ta phi tin hnh quan st nhiu ln tm ra quy lut. Khi quan st cn gi b mt m bo tnh khch quan. Nu khch hng bit chng ta quan st th h s khng ng x hnh vi mt cch khch quan. 2) Phng php phng vn Phng php phng vn (Interview Method) l phng php thu thp d liu s cp bng cch phng vn cc i tng c chn. y l phng php duy nht bit c kin, d nh ca khch hng. Tuy nhin, phng php phng vn cng c cc nhc im nht nh. l chi ph cao, tn km thi gian v nhiu khi ngi c phng vn khng tr li hoc tr li khng trung thc (c bit i vi ngi chu ). Phng vn c th c tin hnh bng cch phng vn trc tip c nhn, phng vn ti ni cng cng, phng vn nhm tp trung, phng vn qua in thoi v phng vn qua th. Mi phng php ny cng c cc u nhc im ring. a) Phng vn trc tip c nhn Trong phng php phng vn c nhn (Personal Interviews), ngi phng vn v ngi c phng vn gp g trc tip. Phng php ny c tnh linh hot cao hn so vi cc loi phng vn kia, v ngi phng vn c th thay i cch hi hoc gii thch thm nu ngi c hi cha hiu r cu hi. Phng vn trc tip c kh nng thu c nhiu d liu hn ngoi bng cu hi m khch hng tr li, bi v ngi phng vn c th quan st thu c thm d liu v ngi c phng vn qua ngn ng khng li (nh ca, thi , hnh vi, trang phc). K nng phng vn, k nng giao tip, thuyt phc s quyt nh n cht lng v s lng thng tin thu c. b) Phng vn ti ni cng cng Phng vn ti nh ngi c phng vn dn n kh khn gp mt h, ng thi chi ph cao. Do vy, thng thng ngi ta tin hnh phng vn gp ngu nhin ti cc trung tm tp trung ng ngi nh cc trung tm thng mi, ti cc quy giao dch. Phng vn ti ni cng cng (Public Interviews) yu cu phi thc hin nhanh trnh lm phin khch hng. Do vy ni dung phng vn phi ngn gn. Ngi phng vn cng phi c k nng tip cn v thuyt phc khch hng cng tc.

Phng vn ti ni cng cng c th tin hnh nhanh, chi ph r, d kim tra. Nhc im ca phng php ny l kh khn trong vic tip cn, thuyt phc khch hng trong khi h ang i li hoc lm vic khc. Tnh ngu nhin ca mu cng c th khng c m bo. c) Phng vn nhm tp trung Trong phng php phng vn nhm tp trung (Focus-group Interviews), ngi phng vn s gp g vi mt nhm khch hng t 4 dn 10 ngi trong mt bu khng kh gn gi, thn thin. Cc cu hi m c s dng khuyn khch khch hng t do tho lun vn c t ra. Ngi phng vn c th t cc cu hi lin tip hiu su hn thi ca khch hng v mt vn . Mc ch ca phng php phng vn nhm tp trung l nhm a ra cc khi nim, gi thit m sau s c kim tra qua cc thm d trn phm vi ln hn. Phng php ny cng c dng tm hiu su hn v hnh vi ca ngi tiu dng. Nhn chung, phng php phng vn trc tip c nhc im l chi ph cao, thi gian ko di, ngi phng vn phi c kinh nghim dn dt, gi m cc vn khc nhau trong qu trnh tho lun. d) Phng vn qua in thoi Phng php phng vn qua in thoi (Telephone Interviews) tip cn vi khch hng bng phng tin in thoi. Vi s h tr ca cng ngh thng tin v my tnh, kh nng ca phng php ny c m rng. Nh s h tr ny, vic quay s in thoi c th c thc hin ngu nhin, cc cu tr li c th c lu tr vi dung lng ln. u im ca phng vn qua in thoi l kh nng tip cn nhanh khng ph thuc vo khong cch, chi ph thp, thi gian ngn, d qun l. Nhc im ca phng php ny l khng ph hp vi cc phng vn c ni dung di, khng quan st c hnh vi ca khch hng. Ngoi ra, cc s in thoi c in trong danh b c th lc hu vo thi im phng vn; mt s h gia nh khng c my in thoi hoc c in thoi nhng khng ng k vo danh b. e) Phng vn qua th Phng vn qua th (Mailing Interviews) c thc hin bng cch gi bng cu hi (Questionnaire) cho khch hng qua bu in. Ngi nhn ch cn nh du vo cc cu hi trong bng v cng s gi li qua bu in. Phng php phng vn ny c cc u im nh sau. Th nht, do khng tip xc mt i mt vi ngi phng vn nn ngi tr li (v danh) khng b lng tng, kt qu phng vn khng b thin lch. Th hai, chi ph phng vn thp hn nhiu so vi phng vn trc tip, do vy ph hp cho cc phng vn trn phm vi ton quc. Nhc im ca phng php ny l thi gian ko di (t 3 n 4 tun). Cng c th thc hin phng vn qua e-mail. Do mi phng php thu thp d liu c cc u im v nhc im ring.

Do vy, ngi ta thng kt hp cc phng php thu thp d liu khc nhau. 3) Phng php thc nghim Phng php thc nghim (Experimental Method) nhm to ra iu kin nhn to xc nh kt qu khi ta thay i mt bin s no trong khi gi nguyn cc bin s khc, tc l khm ph ra mi lin h nhn qu ca hai bin s no hoc kim chng cc gi thit t ra. Chng hn, khi ta thay i gi (tng, gim) v mun bit nh hng ca quyt nh n sc mua ca khch hng. Hoc khi ta mun th nghim mt sn phm mi, mt cch ng gi, bao b mi, mt qung co mi xc nh phn ng ca khch hng. Phng php thc nghim ph hp vi loi nghin cu nhn qu, tc l nghin cu tc ng ca mt bin s no n mt bin s khc, v d s thay i v gi, hay s thay i v bao b nh hng nh th no n sc mua ca khch hng. Sau y l tm tt mt s mc tiu ca phng php thc nghim - Khm ph mi lin h nhn qu gia 2 i lng - Kim chng mt gi thit no - Th nghim sn phm mi - Th nghim cc chin lc Marketing mi (bao b mi, gi mi, qung co mi). Kt qu thc nghim c quan st, hay ngi tham gia c phng vn ngi nghin cu bit c phn ng ca h, v d liu c ghi chp cn thn phn tch.Nhc im ca phng php thc nghim l chi ph cao, ng thi kh kim sot nh hng ca cc nhn t ngoi lai. 2.2.5. Phng php chn i tng iu tra Trong phng php nghin cu hin trng, chng ta phi quyt nh la chn i tng cn iu tra nh th no? Chng ta c th iu tra ton b i tng cn quan tm, hoc iu tra mt mu c chn ra t , tc l mt b phn no trong s cc i tng khch hng m chng ta quan tm. Chng ta s tm hiu hai cch iu tra ny. 1) iu tra ton b Nu s lng khch hng m chng ta quan tm khng ln th chng ta c th iu tra ton b. l trng hp nhng khch hng ln ti mt a phng. y l nhm khch hng quan trng ca cng ty nn cn tip xc trc tip, thng xuyn theo mt lch trnh nht nh. Nhng thng tin sau mi ln gp g vi cc khch hng ln cn c ghi chp y , h thng. Cng cn lp h s khch hng ln theo di. 2) iu tra chn mu iu tra chn mu c s dng khi lng khch hng quan tm c s lng ln. Trong trng hp ny nu iu tra ton b th chi ph s cao, thi gian s ko di

v cng khng cn thit. Phng php chn mu c c s khoa hc l phng php thng k ton hc. Theo l thuyt thng k, vic nghin cu thng tin thu c t mt mu ly ra t mt m ng cn nghin cu c th cho php ta suy ra cc kt lun tng i chnh xc v cc tnh cht no ca m ng. tin cy ca cc kt lun tu thuc vo tnh i din ca mu c chn, tc l ph thuc vo phng php chn mu v s lng cc phn t mu c chn. C th s dng cc phng php chn mu sau y: a) Chn mu ngu nhin Theo phng php ny th mi phn t ca m ng c chn ngu nhin vo mu. Nh vy bt k phn t no ca m ng cng c xc sut nh nhau c chn vo mu. Phng php ny cho chng ta kh nng tnh c tin cy ca cc kt lun cho m ng c rt ra t cc kt qu nghin cu trn tp hp mu. iu kin p dng phng php chn mu ngu nhin l m ng cn nghin cu phi c tnh ng u v cc c tnh cn nghin cu. V d l m ng cc doanh nghip nh, m ng l sinh vin cc trng i hc ti H ni. b) Chn mu ngu nhin phn tng Khi m ng khng c tnh ng u v c tnh cn nghin cu th trc ht ta cn chia m ng ra thnh cc nhm ng u theo cc c tnh cn nghin cu. Sau t mi nhm ng u ta li chn ra mt mu theo phng php chn ngu nhin. Vic chia m ng cn nghin cu thnh cc nhm ng u cng ging nh vic phn on th trng. Mt vn cn tr li l kch thc mu bao nhiu th va. R rng l kch thc mu cng ln th tin cy ca cc kt lun cng cao, nhng dn n chi ph cao. Do vy, cn phi tnh ton c mu sao cho m bo tin cy cho trc. Cch tnh ton ny c th tham kho cc gio trnh thng k. 2.2.5. Phiu iu tra Phiu iu tra (Bng cu hi - Questionnaire) l mt cng c thng c dng ghi chp cc kin ca khch hng trong phng php phng vn. Phiu iu tra l mt bng cc cu hi m ngi c phng vn cn tr li. Vic bin son mt bng cu hi ph hp l mt vn quan trng trong phng php ny. Cc cu hi phi c t r rng, trnh hiu nhm, trnh nhng cu hi t nh kh tr li. C hai loi cu hi l cu hi ng v cu hi m. Cc cu hi ng nu ra cc phng n tr li (v d ng, sai?), ngi c hi ch vic la chon mt trong cc phng n . Cu hi m cho php ngi c hi c th tr li theo ring cu mnh, khng b rng buc, do vy cu hi m ph hp vi giai on nghin cu thm d bit xem khch hng suy ngh g? tin cy ca cc cu tr li l vn m ngi phng vn khng kim tra

c. L do l ngi phng vn khng bit l cu hi c c hiu ng hay khng? Ngi tr li c phi l ch h hay khng? Mt nhc im na ca phng php ny l s cc th tr li thng khng cao, kh m bo tnh ngu nhin ca mu c chn. Do vy, ngi phng vn cn c cc bin php khuyn khch khch hng tr li. Nhng sai lm thng gp khi son tho Phiu iu tra l: - Cu hi m ngi c hi khng c kh nng tr li: V anh thch kem g? - Cu hi m ngi c hi khng mun tr li: C bao nhiu tui? - Cu hi m ngi c hi khng th nh: Nm qua anh vit bao nhiu l th? - Cu hi c cc t ng khng r : Anh c thng gi in thoi khng? Khi nim thng y khng xc nh (th no l thng?) - Cu hi t nh, kh tr li: Thu nhp ca anh bao nhiu mt thng?. Trong trng hp ny nn hi : khong t 1 triu n 2 triu hay t 2 triu n 3 triu V d 1:

V D: PHIU IU TRA KHCH HNG BU IN


a im phng vn : H tn ngi phng vn: Ngy phng vn: H tn ngi c phng vn: a ch : Nh ring: C quan: S T: S T: M s KV: Nam n

Bng cu hi ny dng nghin cu mc s dng v hiu bit ca ng/B v mt s dch v Vin thng. Chng ti nh gi rt cao nhng nhn xt v kin ng gp qu bu ca ng/B. Chng ti xin bo m rng cc thng tin tr li s c gi b mt. chng ti c th phc v khch hng tt hn, xin ng/B vui lng tr li mt s cu hi sau. Cu 1. Hin nay ng/B c s dng in thoi c nh ti nh khng? a). C /khng s dng: 1. C 2. Cha s dng b). L do cha s dng: 1. Cha c nhu cu 2. Gi lp t cao 3. Cc thu bao cao 4. Thu nhp cn hn ch

5. ngh nhng bu in cha lp

Cu 2. Trong tng lai ng/B c mun lp t in thoi ti nh khng? a) C: 1: Trong nm 2008 2: Nm 2009 3: Sau nm 2010 4: Cha ngh n

b). Mc ch lp t in thoi ca ng/B ch yu lm g? 1. Kinh doanh, bun bn 2. Lin lc gia nh, bn b

3. p ng yu cu khn cp khi c vic cn Cu 3. Hin nay ng/B c s dng in thoi di ng khng? a). C s dng: 1. Loi tr trc (Prepaid card): 2. Loi tr sau: b). Cha s dng v: 1. Cha c nhu cu 2. Cc ho mng cao 3. Cc thu bao cao 4. Thu nhp cn hn ch Cu 4. Trong tng lai ng/B c mun s dng in thoi di ng khng? 1. C nu gi thu bao v cc thng tin gim 2. C nu c nhu cu 3. Cha bit 4. Khng Cu 5. Xin ng/B cho bit ngh nghip no sau y gn vi ngh nghip ca ng (b) nht? 1. Nhn vin c quan HCSN 2. Nhn vin doanh nghip NN 3. Nhn vin doanh nghip khc 4. H kinh doanh 5. Sn xut nh 6. Bun bn nh 7. V hu, ni tr 8. Nng dn 9. Sinh vin, hc sinh 10. Khc (ghi r).... Cu 6. Xin ng/B cho bit ngun thu nhp chnh ca gia nh l t hot ng no? 1. Lng CNVC Nh nc

2. Lng nhn vin doanh nghip 3. Kinh doanh bun bn 4. Trng trt, chn nui 5. Ngh th cng 6. Sn xut nh 7. Ngun khc Cu 7. Xin ng/B cho bit thu nhp bnh qun hng thng ca gia nh? 1. t hn 500.000 2. T 500.000 n 1.000.000 3. Trn 1.000.000 n 2.000.000 4. Trn 2.000.000 - 3.000.000 5. Trn 3.000.000 - 5.000.000 6. Trn 5.000.000 Cu 8. Xin ng/B cho bit hin nay c s dng my tnh (PC) ti nh hay ti c quan khng? a). C/ nh b). C/ti c quan c). Khng s dng Cu 9. ng/B bao gi s dng dch v Internet/ email cha ? 1. s dng 2. Cha s dng Cu 10. Trong tng lai ng/B c mong mun s dng Ineternet/email khng? a). C b). Khng 1- V cha bit. 1- V cn cho cng vic 2- V khng c nhu cu 2- V mun hc/ tm hiu 3- V hn ch v kinh t 3- gii tr Cu 11. Theo ng/B hnh thc khuyn mi no l hp dn nht trong cc hnh thc sau? 1. Qu tng c gi tr 4. Tr gp 2. X s 5. Hnh thc khc 3. Gim gi lp t Cu 12. Xin ng/B cho bit nh gi ca ng/B v cht lng phc v ca bu in hin nay ? 1. Tt 2. Bnh thng 3. Cha tt Ti Sao?........... Cu 13. Xin ng/B ng gp kin bu in phc v khch hng tt hn? V d 2: Theo iu tra ca Taylor Nelson Sofres mt cng ty nghin cu th trng,

Vit Nam ang c mt lp ngi tiu dng c thu nhp cao nht trong x hi, ch yu sng cc thnh ph ln. H chim 37% dn s ti cc thnh ph, 3% trong s c thu nhp kh cao. Cng theo iu tra ca Cng ty, th lp ngi mi chim 5% dn s, vi thu nhp trung bnh 350USD/thng/h. V t l chi tiu cc khon khc nhau, h chi nhiu cho gii tr, du lch, th thao v u t cho gio dc con ci. Trong phong cch mua sm, h thch hng hiu hn l n chc mc bn. Cch nhn cuc sng ca nhng ngi ny l gn cht vi truyn thng, tn trng ngi gi. Sc kho quan trng hn tin bc. Ph n phi tham gia vo cc cng vic x hi. H mun lm vic chm ch v th h sau. H cho rng u t nc ngoi trong nhng nm qua gip tng cng cht lng cuc sng ca ngi Vit Nam. Mt iu tra khc c cng b cho thy hin 70% ln mua sm VN l do ph n quyt nh, trong khi 65% vic lt trn mng Internet l do nam gii thc hin. Ngi tiu dng VN vn c thi quen n trong cc qun cm bnh dn, lang thang ngoi ph mua sm, nhng dng xem nhiu hn mua. H coi th thao l hnh thc th dn ph bin. C 43% lp ngi tiu dng mun i du lch nc ngoi, 39% trong s nhng ngi ny mun c xe hi v 30% s nhng ngi tiu dng mi mun c my tnh c nhn loi hin i. Kt qu iu tra cng a ra mt li khuyn co cn thit cho cc cng ty khi tip th vi ngi tiu dng. Cn tng cng nng cao cht lng sn phm, v khi qung co, tip th hng ho, dch v n ngi tiu dng th hy th hin phong cch gin d, tinh t th s c hiu qu hn.

CU HI N TP V THO LUN
1) M t khi qut h thng thng tin Marketing v chc nng ca n. 2) Phn tch nhu cu cn thit mt h thng thng tin Marketing i vi doanh nghip. 3) Trnh by v phn tch cc thnh phn cu thnh m hnh h thng thng tin Marketing. 4) Mc ch ca nghin cu Marketing? Phn bit gia nghin cu th trng v nghin cu Marketing? 5) Trnh by cc phng php nghin cu Marketing? 6) Trnh by cc phng php chn i tng iu tra? 7) Cc giai on trong qu trnh nghin cu Marketing? 8) hiu r khch hng, cc doanh nghip c th thu thp cc ngun

thng tin v khch hng nh th no? 9) Cc ngun thng tin Marketing khc nhau v phng php thu thp thng tin . 10) Sau khi cng ty tin hnh mt chin dch qung co, cng ty c cn tin hnh nghin cu Marketing khng? Nu c th cng ty cn nghin cu vn g? 11) Trnh by v cc ngun thng tin nghin cu Marketing. Lin h vi cc doanh nghip ni bn ang lm vic hoc hiu bit. 12) Trnh by cc phng php thu thp thng tin Marketing. 13) tm hiu tnh hnh cnh tranh trn th trng my in thoi di ng, cng ty c th dng phng php g? Thng tin cn thit thu thp u? 14)Mt doanh nghip sn xut thit b tin hc Vit Nam c d kin m rng th trng sang cc nc khu vc ASEAN. Doanh nghip phi cn nhng thng tin Marketing g? V doanh nghip c th thu thp cc thng tin u? doanh nghip c s th s dng cc phng php nghin cu Marketing no?

Chng 3 MI TRNG MARKETING

MC TIU: Sau khi hc chng ny, sinh vin cn: - Tm quan trng ca h thng thng tin Marketing - Mi trng Marketing vi m - Mi trng Marketing v m. 3.1. KHI NIM V C IM CA MI TRNG MARKETING 3.1.1. Khi nim: Mi trng Marketing l tp hp cc lc lng bn trong v bn ngoi doanh nghip v c nh hng ti kh nng ch o cc hot ng Marketing, nhm thit lp v duy tr cc mi quan h tt p vi cc khch hng mc tiu. Mi tng vn ha x hi Mi tng Cng ngh Trung gian Marketing Gi Nh cung cp Sn phm Th trng mc tiu Xc tin i th cnh tranh Mi tng Chnh tr - php lut Mi tng Dn s Cng chng Mi tng Kinh t Phn phi Khch hng Mi tng T nhin

S 3.1. Mi trng Marketing ca doanh nghip 3.1.2. c trng c trng ca mi trng Marketing l lun bin ng, kh khng ch v hon ton bt nh, nhng li c nh hng su sc ti s sng cn ca doanh nghip, bao gm c cc nh hng tt v nh hng xu. Nhng bin ng trong mi trng c th din ra t t, nhng cng c th xy ra t ngt. Cc yu t mi trng Marketing thng mang li cho doanh nghip cc nguy c, nhng ng thi cng mang li cc c hi cho doanh nghip. Nu doanh nghip c y cc thng tin , h s c k hoch, cc bin php ch ng vt qua cc nguy c v nm ly cc c hi thun li. Do vy doanh nghip cn hiu r cc yu t ca mi trng.

Ta c th phn chia thnh 2 loi mi trng: mi trng v m v mi trng vi m. 3.2 MI TRNG MARKETING V M Mi trng v m gm cc yu t, cc lc lng x hi rng ln, c tc ng n ton b mi trng vi m v hot ng ca doanh nghip. Doanh nghip khng th kim sot, thay i c cc yu t ca mi trng v m. Cc yu t trong mi trng v m mang li nhng c hi mi cng nh cc thch thc i vi cc doanh nghip. V doanh nghip khng th thay i c mi trng v m, do vy phi tm cch thch ng vi n th mi c th tn ti v pht trin c. Sau y l cc yu t mi trng v m: Mi trng Marketing v m

Mi trng nhn khu

Mi trng kinh t

Mi trng t nhin

Mi trng cng ngh

Mi trng chnh tr - PL

Mi trng VH-XH

S 3.2. Cc yu t ca mi trng Marketing v m 3.2.1. Mi trng nhn khu hc Nhn khu hc l mt mn khoa hc nghin cu dn c v s phn b dn c. C th, n nghin cu cc vn nh quy m, mt , phn b dn c, ngh nghip, tui tc, gii tnh, tn gio, t l sinh, t l chtCc nh qun l Marketing rt quan tm n cc yu t ca mi trng nhn khu, v con ngi hp thnh th trng cho cc doanh nghip. Sau y chng ta s tm hiu xem cc yu t nhn khu nh hng nh th no n cc hot ng Marketing ca doanh nghip. 1) Quy m, c cu tui tc Quy m, c cu tui tc ca dn c l yu t quy nh c cu khch hng tim nng ca mt doanh nghip. Khi quy m, c cu tui tc dn c thay i th th trng tim nng ca doanh nghip cng thay i, ko theo s thay i v c cu tiu dng v nhu cu v cc hng ho, dch v. Do vy, cc doanh nghip cng phi thay i cc chin lc Marketing thch ng. Vo nhng nm gn y, ti nhiu nc pht trin t l nhng ngi sng c thn tng ln, t l sinh cng gim, t l ngi gi ngy cng tng v tr em ngy

cng gim. Cc cng ty sn xut thc n v dng tr em c nguy c mt dn khch hng. H buc phi chuyn dn sang phc v cc khch hng ln tui bng cch a ra cc sn phm, dch v mi nh sa chng long xng cho ph n c tui, shampo cho tc trn 40, kem dng da cho ph n trn 50, bo him cho ngi gi. Cc qung co Tr em l mi quan tm ca chng ta c thay bng cc qung co Chm sc ngi gi nh b m. Cc cng ty du lch, khch sn cng c th thu ht thm cc khch hng c thn, nhn ri. Nhiu cng ty cung cp thc n tr em m th trng mi ti cc nc ang pht trin, ni c t l tr em cao. 2) Quy m v tc tng dn s Quy m v tc tng dn s l hai ch tiu dn s hc quan trng. Quy m dn s ln v tng cao to ra mt th trng tim nng rng ln cho nhiu doanh nghip. Vit Nam vi quy m dn s gn 80 triu ngi vi tc tng cao l th trng hp dn ca cc cng ty trong nc v nc ngoi. 3) C cu, quy m gia nh, k hoch ho gia nh, gii phng ph n y l cc yu t nh hng mnh n nhu cu th trng nhiu hng ho, dch v khc nhau. Thc hin chnh sch k hoch ho gia nh, tc tng dn c Vit Nam ang gim. Quy m gia nh 2 con Vit Nam, 1 con Trung Quc dn n gim mc tiu dng thc phm, chi, qun o tr em gim, nhng li yu cu cht lng cao hn. Ph n c gii phng v tham gia vo mi hot ng x hi l nhn t thc y tiu dng nhiu loi hng ho, dch v nh nh tr, hc sinh ni tr, my git, bp ga, thc phm ch bin sn, m phm, qun o thi trang, git l, gi u, giao hng ti nh, ngi gip vic 4) Qu trnh th ho, phn b li dn c Ti cc nc ang pht trin ni chung v ti Vit Nam ni ring, qu trnh th ho v phn b li dn c din ra mnh m. Cc th ngy cng m rng v ng c. Dng ngi t cc vng qu x ra thnh ph lm n. y l yu t lm tng nhu cu xy nh ca, sm c gia nh, nhu cu thu nh bnh dn, nhu cu cm bnh dn, nhu cu gi tin v qu, nhu cu gi in thoi cng cng, nhu cu vn chuyn hnh khch t ai cc khu ven cng dn dn t ln v tr thnh cc t im dn c mi, mang li nhiu tin cho cc gia nh nng dn ngoi thnh trc y vn thiu thn. iu ny to tin cho cc nhu cu xy nh ca, mua sm c. Qu trnh th ho v chuyn dch lao ng cng gip cho i sng nng thn

thay i. Nng thn tr thnh cc th trng quan trng cho nhiu doanh nghip. 5) Trnh vn ho gio dc ca dn c Hnh vi mua sm v tiu dng ca khch hng ph thuc vo trnh vn ho, gio dc ca h. l vn ho tiu dng nh vn ho m thc, vn ho thi trang, vn ho tr Nhng ngi c vn ho cao s c c hi kim c nhiu tin hn, h c nhu cu tiu dng nhng hng ho c cht lng cao hn. 3.2.2. Mi trng kinh t Mi trng kinh t bao gm tt c cc yu t nh: tc tng trng kinh t quc dn, l lm pht, tht nghip, li sut ngn hng thu nhp v phn b chi tiu... Cc yu t kinh t ny nh hng trc tip n sc mua ca ngi dn, ca Chnh ph v cu cc doanh nghip, v do vy cng nh hng trc tip n hot ng Marketing ca doanh nghip. Vo thi k tng trng kinh t, u t mua sm ca x hi khng nhng tng, m cn phn ho r rt. Nhu cu tiu dng cc sn phm, dch v cao cp tng. Ngi ta hng ti nhu cu n ngon, mc p, ngh ngi, vui chi gii tr, du lch. y l c hi vng cho cc nh sn xut, kinh doanh cung cp cc dch v du lch, ngh ngi, cc hng ho tiu dng t tin. Cc cng ty m rng cc hot ng Marketing, pht trin thm cc sn phm mi, xm nhp th trng mi. Ngc li, khi tc tng trng kinh t gim st, nn kinh t suy thoi, u t, mua sm ca Nh nc, dn chng v doanh nghip u gim st. iu ny nh hng ln n cc hot ng Marketing ca cc doanh nghip. T nhng n 2007 tr li y, kinh t ton cu v nhiu nn kinh t ln suy gim, nh hng ln n thng mi quc gia v quc t. Nhiu cng ty b ph sn. Cc cng ty gim bt vn u t, ct gim bin ch, tht nghip tng, sc mua ca x hi gim. Tuy nhin, iu ny cn ph thuc vo cc tng lp dn c. Nhng nhm ngi giu c vn tiu dng nhiu hng ho t tin ngay c vo thi k kinh t kh khn. Nhng tng lp ngho trong x hi buc phi thay i c cu chi tiu, tp trung vo nhng hng ho thit yu nht v s lng mua cng gim st. Trong iu kin , hot ng Marketing cng phi thay i thch ng. Cc sn phm va ti tin s bn chy hn l cc sn phm xa x. Khi lm pht tng, gi c tng nhanh hn thu nhp c nhn, nhu cu tiu dng ca dn chng cng thay i. Mt s tm gc li cc chi tiu ln. S nhng ngi nhiu tin li vi v u c vng, la hoc nh t gi ca.

Khi li sut tin gi cao s lm gim sc mua cc hng ho lu bn v thu ht dn chng gi tit kim hn l u t hoc tiu dng. Khi li sut gim, cc cng ty thng kch thch tiu th bng cch bn tr chm vi li sut thp hn th trng hoc khng li. 3.2.3. Mi trng t nhin Mi trng t nhin l h thng cc yu t t nhin c nh hng n cc ngun lc u vo cn thit cho hot ng ca cc doanh nghip, do vy cng nh hng n hot ng Marketing ca doanh nghip. l cc yu t nh kh hu, thi tit, v tr a l, ti nguyn thin nhin, nhim mi trng 1) nhim mi trng Vo nhng nm 60 d lun th gii cnh bo v vn nhim mi trng do hot ng sn xut v tiu dng ca con ngi gy ra. Nhiu t chc bo v mi trng ra i v hot ng tch nhm hn ch nhng nhim do cht thi ca cc ngnh cng nghip v cht thi tiu dng gy ra. Trc tnh th , cc ngnh sn xut hng ho cng bt u phi thay i cng ngh sn xut nhm gim nhim mi trng nh s dng bao b d ti ch, s dng xng khng ch, s dng h thng lc nc, kh thi. Cc sn phm thn thin vi mi trng nh xe p in, t in, t kh ga, xng khng chngy cng xut hin nhiu v ang chim c thin cm ca ngi tiu dng v x hi. 2) Tnh hnh khan him nguyn, nhin liu Cc nguyn, nhin liu truyn thng nh vng, bc, st, thp, ng, du m, than ngy cng cn kit. iu ny buc cc cng ty s dng cc nguyn, nhin liu phi chi ph nhiu hn do thu ti nguyn tng ln ng thi vi chi ph cho cc u t nghin cu tm cc nguyn liu mi thay th. Nng lng gi, mt tri, a nhit ngy cng c s dng nhiu hn. iu ny m ra c hi kinh doanh cho cc ngnh sn xut mi. Trong nhng nm gn y, gi du trn th gii tng nhanh chng. y l thch thc i vi cc doanh nghip Vit Nam s dng nhiu xng du, nhng cng l ng lc cc doanh nghip nghin cu a ra nhiu sn phm mi nh xe chy bng ga, in 3) S can thip ca lut php Nh nc ngy cng can thip bng php lut vo cng cuc bo v mi trng v m bo cho x hi s dng ngun ti nguyn thin nhin hp l. Cc b lut mi ra i nhm bo v ngun nc, khng kh, t ai, bin, rng, chim mung,

th qu him. Nhiu khu vn quc gia mi ra i to nn nhng mi trng bnh yn cho cc loi ng thc vt pht trin. Hot ng kinh doanh ca cc doanh nghip chu s iu tit nghim ngt ca cc c quan nh nc, ng thi chu s theo di, gim st cht ch ca d lun x hi v ca cc t chc bo v mi trng. iu ny buc cc doanh nghip cng phi tm kim cc gii php mi trnh vi phm lut l bo v ti nguyn, mi trng. 3.2.4. Mi trng cng ngh Cng ngh ngy cng thay i nhanh chng, mang li cho con ngi nhiu iu k diu, nhng cng t ra cc thch thc mi cho cc doanh nghip. 1) Cng ngh l mt v kh cnh tranh. Cng ngh mi s to ra cc sn phm mi cnh tranh vi sn phm hin ti. Do vy cng ngh to ra c hi cho cc doanh nghip mi gip cho cc doanh nghip mi cnh tranh vi cc doanh nghip c chm chp. Cc doanh nghip mi thng dng cng ngh mi cnh tranh vi doanh nghip c nh l mt chin lc thc sn. My ph to copy ra i lm thit hi cho ngnh sn xut giy than, my ch. ng h in t ca Nht mt thi tng lm iu ng ngnh sn xut ng h c hc ca Thu S. Trong lnh vc in t vin thng, cc con chp nh vi gi c ngy cng h, cc tuyn cp quang dung lng ngy cng ln vi gi ngy cng r to ra cuc cch mng trong tin hc v vin thng. iu ny dn n mt lot cc dch v mi ra i lm thay i b mt x hi. 2) Ngy nay cng ngh thay i nhanh chng. Cng ngh truyn thng s ho, tin hc ho, quang ho pht trin nhanh chng lm cho gi c gi c cc thit b vin thng gim nhanh, v cht lng lng c nng cao, c kh nng to ra cc dch v a dng. 3) Xu hng hi t gia cc cng ngh: Vin thng - Tin hc - Truyn thng v ang to ra nhiu dch v mi, nhiu i th cnh tranh mi, c bit l Internet mang li nhiu dch v vin thng mi cnh tranh vi cc dch v vin thng truyn thng. Tng t nh vy, xu hng hi t gia Bu chnh truyn thng, Tin hc v Vin thng cng mang li cho x hi cc dch v mi l bu chnh in t. 4) Cc cng ty v Nh nc ngy cng ch trng n u t nghin cu cng ngh mi, sn phm mi. iu ny gip tng kh nng cnh tranh cho cc doanh nghip, cho quc gia. M l nc u t ln nht cho nghin cu khoa hc v th nghim sn phm mi. y l mt trong cc nguyn nhn gip nn kinh t M tr thnh mt nn kinh t c kh nng cnh tranh mnh nht trn th gii.

nng cao kh nng cnh tranh, cc nh qun tr Marketing phi lun theo di s bin i ca cng ngh mi gi v tr tin phong trn th trng. 3.2.5. Mi trng chnh tr, lut php Mi trng chnh tr php lut c nh hng ln ti cc hot ng Marketing ca doanh nghip. Mi trng chnh tr php lut bao gm h thng lut v cc vn bn di lut, cc cng c, chnh sch nh nc, cc c quan php lut, cc c ch iu hnh ca Nh nc. Tc ng ca mi trng chnh tr php lut n doanh nghip th hin vai tr qun l nh nc i vi nn kinh t quc dn. 1) H thng php lut iu tit cc hot ng ca doanh nghip Vit Nam nh: Lut doanh nghip, Lut u t nc ngoi, Lut hi quan, Lut chng c quyn, Lut Doanh nghip nh nc. Cc vn bn php lut ny nu r lnh vc m doanh nghip c php kinh doanh v lnh vc cm khng c kinh doanh cng nh ngha v v quyn li i vi doanh nghip. Cc nh qun tr Marketing cn nm vng lut php trnh vi phm sai lm. Mt khc, kinh doanh trong mt mi trng php lut hon chnh gip cho doanh nghip hot ng an ton, bnh ng. Hi nhp quc t, tham gia kinh doanh trn th trng ton cu i hi cc doanh nghip Vit Nam phi hiu bit lut php quc t trnh xy ra nhng sai lm ng tic. 2) H thng cc cng c chnh sch Nh nc: c tc ng ln n cc hot ng kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. l: Chnh sch ti chnh, tin t, Chnh sch thu nhp, Chnh sch xut nhp khu, Chnh sch a dng ho s hu, Chnh sch khuyn khch u t nc ngoi, Chnh sch pht trin nng thn, min ni Ngh quyt Hi ngh 3, Ban Chp hnh TW kho IX v tng cng tnh t ch cho cc doanh nghip nh nc cng ang c th ch ho thnh cc chnh sch c th i vo cuc sng. ng v Nh nc ta ang thc hin ng li ch ng hi nhp khu vc v quc t theo tinh thn Hi nhp pht trin. Ch trng ng li ny cng ang c thc thi bng cc l trnh hi nhp ca cc ngnh kinh t Vit Nam n nm 2020. 3) C ch iu hnh ca Chnh ph: quyt nh trc tip n tnh hiu lc ca php lut v ng li, chnh sch kinh t ca Nh nc, v do vy n hot ng kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. Mt Chnh ph mnh, trong sch s khuyn khch thc y kinh doanh lnh mnh, khuyn khch kinh t pht trin. Vit Nam ang y mnh ci cch hnh chnh Nh nc, thng qua o lut chng tham nhng, thnh lp Cc chng tham nhng nhm nng cao hiu qu qun l nh nc, to iu kin thun

li cho cc doanh nghip pht trin, thu ht vn u t trong v ngoi nc. Ngc li, mt Chnh ph tham nhng s lm mo m cc chnh sch, lut php, lm gim hiu qu u t, lm thui cht cc n lc pht trin ca x hi. Chnh ph cng khng c can thip qu su vo hot ng sn xut kinh doanh ca cc doanh nghip, lm cho doanh nghip thiu quyn t ch sn xut kinh doanh. Cc nc thuc khi XHCN c sau khi chuyn i sang nn kinh t th trng u phi thc hin vic tch bch gia chc nng qun l nh nc v chc nng qun tr kinh doanh kinh doanh ti cc doanh nghip nhm khc phc hin tng va bng, va thi ci, ng thi to quyn t ch nng ng cho cc doanh nghip. 4) Chnh sch bo v ngi tiu dng Chnh ph lun c trch nhim bo v ngi tiu dng thng qua lut php, hoc cho php thnh lp cc t chc bo v ngi tiu dng. Trong diu kin , cc doanh nghip phi iu chnh cc hot ng Marketing sao cho p ng c quyn li ca ngi tiu dng. 5) Mi trng chnh tr n nh, khng c mu thun sc tc, tn gio, chin tranh l iu kin l tng cho vic thu ht u t trong v ngoi nc. Sau s kin khng b ti Trung tm thng mi M ngy 11/09/ 2001 v nhiu v khng b trn th gii, vn n nh chnh tr c cc nh u t nc ngoi c bit quan tm. Hin nay, Vit Nam c xem nh mt quc gia n nh chnh tr v an ton nht th gii thu ht cc nh u t nc ngoi. 3.2.6. Mi trng vn ho x hi Vn ho l mt h thng gi tr, quan nim, nim tin, truyn thng v cc chun mc hnh vi c mt tp th gi gn, c hnh thnh trong nhng iu kin nht nh v vt cht, mi trng t nhin, lch s ca cng ng v di tc ng ca cc nn vn ho khc. Hnh vi tiu dng ca khch hng chu nh hng su sc ca nn vn ho ca dn tc h. Ni cch khc, cc yu t vn ho c tc ng ln n hot ng kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. Do vy, doanh nghip cn hiu bit mi trng vn ho m h ang kinh doanh lm cho hot ng kinh doanh ca h ph hp vi mi trng vn ho . Nu bn mun m mt nh hng Nga ti Vit Nam, bn phi nghin cu rt k vn ho Nga th mi c th thnh cng. Thc khch n nh hng ca bn khng phi ch n cc mn n Nga, m cao hn l thng thc vn ho Nga. Sau y l cc biu hin ca mi trng vn ho:

1) Nhng gi tr vn ho truyn thng Gi tr vn ho truyn thng l cc chun mc v nim tin trong x hi, c truyn t i ny sang i khc, c duy tr v tha k trong mi trng gia nh, x hi. Gi tr vn ho truyn thng tc ng mnh n hnh vi ng x, tiu dng hng ngy ca con ngi. ng thi gi tr vn ho truyn thng c tnh bn vng, kh thay i. Cc nh qun tr Marketing khng th thay i c cc gi tr vn ho truyn thng m ch c th thay i cc gi tr vn ho th pht. Chng hn, nim tin ca ngi Vit Nam vo ch hn nhn mt v mt chng l gi tr vn ho truyn thng, kh thay i. Cn nim tin vo vic cn thit xy dng gia nh l nim tin th pht, c th thay i. 2) Nhng gi tr vn ho th pht y l nhng xu hng vn ho mi hnh thnh, tnh bn vng ca n khng cao, d thay i. Nu thay i cc gi tr vn ho th pht s to ra cc khuynh hng tiu dng mi, c hi kinh doanh mi c th khai thc. Thng thng, thnh vin ca cc nhnh vn ho th pht l thanh nin chu nh hng ca cc ngi sao ca nhc, th thao... H mun i lp vi vn ho truyn thng. H th hin quan im qua cch n mc, u tc, qua thi v quan h nam n. Hng Pepsi tng nm ly t tng tri dy ca gii tr, khuyn khch h qua khu hiu qung co: Pepsi, s la chn ca th h mi! 3) Cc nhnh vn ho Trong mt nn vn ho lun lun tn ti cc nhm dn c vi cc sc thi vn ho c trng ring ngoi cc c trng chung ca nn vn ho. Cc thnh vin trong nhm cng chia s cc h thng gi tr vn ho, o c no . l cc nhm tn gio, dn tc, thanh nin...Cc nh qun tr Marketing nn xem cc nhnh vn ho ny nh l cc on th trng c th khai thc nhm nng cao kh nng cnh tranh ca mnh. Xu hng ton cu ho, hi nhp quc t s dn ti s giao thoa gia cc nn vn ho khc nhau, nhng cng c th to ra cc xung t. Mun cho sn phm ca mnh c chp nhn ti Vit Nam v vn ra ton cu, cc doanh nghip phi hiu bit mi trng vn ho ni mnh ang kinh doanh la chn cc chin lc Marketing ph hp. Mt khc, khi i sng vt cht c nng cao, vn ho tiu dng cng thay i theo. T tm l n tiu tit kim, n chc mc bn chuyn sang tiu pha thoi mi v ch trng ti mu m v cht lng hn.

V d: - Thi quen tiu dng ca dn chng cc th trng nc ngoi cho doanh nghip xut khu bit sn phm g th c chp nhn ti mt a phng, mt quc gia? - Vn ho Vit Nam hng v tnh cm gia nh. Do vy, qung co thc phm, dng gia nh mang hnh nh gia nh m m th d gy n tng, d c chp nhn. Hng xe tc xi Thnh hng qung co: xe gia nh, xe ca chng mnh!. - Cc doanh nghip mun xut khu cng phi nghin cu cch t tn cho sn phm xut khu ca mnh nh th no khng gy ra cc n tng xu cho khch hng cc nc nhp khu? - Trong cc v nh cng ti cc doanh nghip c vn u t nc ngoi, t l nh cng xy ra ti cc doanh nghip Hn Quc v i Loan chim s ng. Mt trong cc l do xy ra nh cng l xung t v vn ho gia cng nhn Vit Nam v cc ng ch nc ngoi Hn Quc v i Loan. V d v nhn hiu sn phm nc ngoi gy kh chu do bt ng ngn ng: 1. Khi xm nhp vo th trng Trung Quc, nhn hiu Coca-Cola thot u c phin m thnh Kekou-Kela. T ny theo ngha ting Trung th ging nh : Cn con nng nc trn nhy. Sau Hng Coca buc phi tm mt t phin m mi l: Kokou-kole mang ngha l: Cm gic hnh phc ngon ming. Cch phin m ny gip cho sn phm cu hng tip cn c th trng khng l ny. 2. Sn phm nc khong ca Schweppes l Schweppes Tonic Water. Khi c nhp vo Ytalia th tn ny c dch l Schweppes Toilet Water vi ngha Nc ra WC hiu Schweppes. Tn ny chc chn khng ph hp vi sn phm nc khong. Do vy, sau cng ty phi i tn sn phm . Cc gi tr vn ho ch yu trong x hi c th hin qua thi , quan im ca mi con ngi v bn thn, v nhng ngi xung quanh, v cc th ch x hi, v x hi v thin nhin. Chng hn, mt thi ngi ta cao ci ti m b qua thc trch nhim vi cng ng. Thi c th hin qua cc hnh vi tiu dng c o lm ni bt ci ti ca h. Ngy nay, ngi ta li ang c xu th tr v vi cng ng, dung ho gia ci ti v x hi, chm sc n mi trng thin nhin, nng cao cht lng cuc sng ch khng phi cht lng sn phm. Xut hin ngy cng

nhiu cc t chc bo v thin nhin, mi trng. Do vy, Marketing cng phi chuyn sang hng ti x hi (Marketing o c x hi). Khch hng s c thin cm v la chn cc cng ty m bo hi ho c ba li ch: li ch ca doanh nghip, li ch ca khch hng v li ch ca x hi. Thi gn gi vi thin nhin pht sinh ra nhu cu du lch sinh thi nh ln bin, i cu, i thm cc khu bo tn thin nhin, i cm tri, i du lch ng sng, ng bin Thi ca con ngi i vi tn gio Vit Nam ngy nay ang thay i. Hnh nh cu Tng b th ng cng sn Mi i ving cha vo dp tt Nguyn n nm 1997 l s khng nh li quan im ca ng v t do tn ngng. Cc cha chin, nh th, miu mo, cung in, di tch lch s c tn to, cc l hi c phc hng thu ht nhiu khch thp phng n du ngon vn cnh. y l c hi kinh doanh cho nhiu cng ty. Quan im nam n bnh ng tr thnh hin thc ti nhiu quc gia cng nh hng n hot ng Marketing ca doanh nghip. S ph n i lm ngy cng tng dn n tng nhu cu v qun o, m phm, nh tr, thc n tr em. Bu chnh Bc Kinh thnh cng khi a ra dch v a n tr em i hc. Quan im v thm m ngy nay cng thay i. Ngi ta khng cn thch nghe li khen bo na. Cc phng tp th hnh thu ht nhiu ph n. Cc sn tenit cng vi cc dng c, qun o th thao cng ang c gi, thu ht nhiu nh kinh doanh. Cc nh hng n chay cng thu ht khch hng, mc d gi c ca cc thc n chay cn t hn c thc n bnh thng. 3.3. MI TRNG MARKETING VI M Mi trng vi m bao gm cc yu t c quan h trc tip n hot ng Marketing ca cng ty v nh hng n kh nng phc v khch hng. l cc nh cung cp ng, nhng ngi mi gii, cc khch hng, cc i th cnh tranh, cc cng chng trc tip. Khc vi mi trng v m, doanh nghip c th tc ng n mi trng vi m thng qua cc chnh sch, chin Cngkinh doanh ca mnh. lc chng Sau y l cc yu t thuc mi trng vi m (xem Hnh 3.2). Doanh nghip Khch Trung gian hng Marketing i th cnh tranh Cng chng

Cc nh cung cp

S 3.3. Cc yu t ca mi trng Marketing vi m 3.3.1. Cc yu t v lc lng bn trong doanh nghip Hot ng Marketing khng phi l mt hot ng ring r trong doanh ghip. Ngc li n b chi phi bi cc lc lng, cc yu t khc trong doanh nghip. Chin lc Marketing l mt b phn ca chin lc doanh nghip. Do vy hot ng Marketing chu s chi phi, iu hnh trc tip cu Ban gim c. - Chc nng Marketing phi kt ni cht ch vi cc chc nng khc trong doanh nghip nh Ti chnh, K ton, Nhn lc, R&D, Sn xut, Vt t, K hoch. Do vy,
ngi ph trch Marketing phi bit kt ni v nhn c s ng tnh, h tr ca cc

b phn lin quan. V d, nu nh qun tr Marketing d nh tung ra th trng mt sn phm mi, anh ta phi tho lun vi cc chc nng khc xem c ngun ti chnh,
cng ngh, thit b, nhn lc thc hin d nh khng? Ngoi ra, cn c nhng

cn tr do mu thun gia cc nh qun tr cc chc nng khc nhau trong cng ty. Nh qun tr sn xut th mun duy tr lu di cc sn phm tiu chun ho. Nh qun tr Marketing th thy cn thit phi a dng ho sn phm cho cc on th trng khc nhau. Nh qun tr ti chnh th khng mun chi ph nhiu cho chin dch qung co thc hin thnh cng chin lc Marketing, cn phi xy dng c s cam kt thc hin chng trnh Marketing i vi mi thnh vin trong cng ty. chnh l cng tc Marketing bn trong. 3.3.2. Cc nh cung ng Cc nh cung ng cung cp cc yu t u vo cho doanh nghip hot ng. l ti chnh, in, nc, vt t, my mc thit b Nu qu trnh cung cp cc u vo ny b trc trc th nh hng ln n qu trnh sn xut ca doanh nghip, nht l trong iu kin cnh tranh.

c bit, gi c v dch v ca nh cung cp c nh hng ln n hot ng ca doanh nghip. Do vy doanh nghip phi hiu bit, quan tm v xy dng mi quan h bn vng vi cc nh cung cp. i vi lnh vc ch bin thc phm, c c ngun nguyn liu n nh l yu t tin quyt cho s thnh cng ca cng ty. m bo cc ngun cung cp nguyn liu n nh, nhiu cng ty c cc chnh sch xy dng mi quan h n nh, h tr cho cc nh cung cp. Cng ty ma ng Ty Sn tnh Bnh nh xy dng c vng nguyn liu ma n nh thng qua cc chnh sch nh h tr nng dn vn, ging, phn bn, k thut, v cao hn na l cho php nng dn mua c phn ca nh my khi nh my tin hnh c phn ho. Nh vy, nng dn tr thnh ngi ng s hu nh my, quyn li ca h gn lin vi s pht trin ca nh my. Chnh h c trch nhim v c ng c mnh m phi m bo nguyn liu cho nh my hot ng. Mt cng ty xut khu nm t chc hun luyn k thut trng, cung cp ging v ch bin nm cho nng dn min ph, t chc thu mua nguyn liu vi gi n nh nng dn yn tm sn xut. Mt s cng ty nc ngoi trong ngnh ch bin thc phm cung cp ging, k thut, thc n chn nui cho nng dn v bao tiu sn phm vi gi n nh. cho nng dn sn xut nguyn liu gn b vi s thnh cng ca cng ty, mt s cng ty ch bin cho nng dn mua c phn ca cng ty. 3.3.3. Cc trung gian Marketing Ai l cc trung gian Marketing? Vai tr ca h nh th no? Trung gian Marketing l cc t chc kinh doanh c lp tham gia h tr cho doanh nghip trong cc khu khc nhau trong chui gi tr ca doanh nghip. Cc trung gian ny rt quan trng, nht l trong mi trng cnh tranh quc t, cc doanh nghip c xu hng thu ngoi mt s khu khc nhau trong chui gi tr ca doanh nghip. iu ny s gip cho doanh nghip tit kim chi ph v nng cao hiu qu kinh doanh. Do vy, doanh nghip phi bit la chn cc trung gian ph hp v xy dng mi quan h lu di vi cc trung gian. Sau y l cc loi trung gian: - Cc i l bn bun, bn l, cc i l phn phi c quyn, cc cng ty vn chuyn, kho vn. H gip cho doanh nghip trong khu phn phi hng ho, dch v n tay ngi tiu dng cui cng nhanh chng v hiu qu.

- Cc cng ty t vn, nghin cu th trng, cc cng ty qung co, cc i, bo ch, pht thanh, truyn hnh. H gip cho doanh nghip tuyn truyn, qung co sn phm, uy tn ca doanh nghip. Do vy vic la chn i tc ph hp l rt quan trng. - Cc t chc ti chnh trung gian nh Ngn hng, Cng ty ti chnh, Cng ty bo him, Cng ty kim ton. H h tr ti chnh, gip cho doanh nghip phng ri ro. C th c cc cng ty ln t t chc ly qu trnh phn phi, tc l thc hin knh phn phi trc tip m khng qua trung gian, hoc t t chc nghin cu th trng Tuy nhin, cnh tranh buc doanh nghip phi ngh ti vic chuyn mn ho mi hot ng ca mnh. Do vy, cc trung gian Marketing c vai tr rt quan trng. H gip cho cng ty tit kim c chi ph, nng cao cht lng sn phm dch v, trin khai nhanh chng hot ng kinh doanh, v m rng th trng. 3.3.4. Khch hng Khch hng l ngi quyt nh thnh bi i vi doanh nghip, l mc tiu kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. Mc tiu ca doanh nghip l p ng nhu cu ca khch hng mc tiu. Do vy doanh nghip cn hiu r khch hng. Khch hng to nn th trng ca doanh nghip. Thng ngi ta c th chia thnh 5 loi nh sau: Th trng ngi tiu dng
Th trng k ngh (th trng khch hang doanh nghip) Th trng mua bn trung gian

Th trng cc c quan t chc ng, Nh nc


Th trng quc t.

Nhu cu, mong mun, kh nng thanh ton, mc ch v ng c mua sm ca cc th trng ny l khc nhau. Do vy, doanh nghip cn nghin cu ring mt cch cn thn tng loi th trng ny. 3.3.5. i th cnh tranh Yu t cnh tranh tc ng ln n hot ng Marketing ca doanh nghip. Cc nh qun tr Marketing lun lun quan tm n hot ng ca cc i th cnh tranh, n cc chin lc sn phm, gi c, phn phi v xc tin ca cc i th. Mun xc nh r i th cnh tranh th phi nghin cu ngi ta quyt nh mua sn phm nh th no. V d, cc nh Marketing c th phng vn khch hang A v vic nu anh ta c 15 triu th anh ta s quyt nh mua sm th no. u tin, anh ta c vi nhu cu cn tha mn nh: cn c phng tin i hc, cn c phng

tin phc v hc tp, hay cn phng tin lin lc. l cc mong mun mang tnh cnh tranh m ngi tiu dng cn cn nhc tha mn. Sau khi suy ngh, c th anh ta quyt nh s u t 15 triu cho phng tin i hc. By gi anh ta cn la chn cc loi hng cnh tranh c th tha mn nhu cu y: xe p, xe p in hay xe my. Cn nhc k th anh ta thy xe my l ph hp v hp dn nht v tnh c ng v tc ca n so vi hai loi kia. Tip n, anh ta s phi la chn cc mt hng cnh tranh trong cng chng loi chn loi xe my no c th phc v tt nht trong ngn sch cho php: xe tay ga, xe s, xe nhp khu hay rp trong nc v.vKhi xc nh l s mua xe s, lp rp trong nc th anh ta s cn nhc ti cc thng hiu cnh tranh: Honda, Suzuki, Yamaha, SYM v.v T v d trn chng ta thy r c 4 loi cnh tranh c bn: l cc sn phm c th p ng cc mong mun mang tnh cnh tranh cho ngi tiu dng (cc sn phm thay th thay i nhu cu), cc sn phm khc chng loi m u c th tha mn mt nhu cu c th, cc sn phm cng chng loi cng p ng nhu cu , v cui cng l cc nhn hiu cnh tranh trong cng mt mt hng. Cng tc Marketing y cn nghin cu v lm r cc nhu cu v mong mun c th ca th trng, hiu c cc i th cnh tranh theo tng loi, thy r im mnh, im yu ca i th trong vic phc v cc nhu cu y t tm ra cc u th cnh tranh qung b v tuyn truyn cho u th y nhm thu ht s quan tm ca khch hng mc tiu. Trong nhiu trng hp, cng ty cn tm ra cc th trng ngch, cc trn a m i th b trng hay cha quan tm ti, tn cng. 3.3.6. Cng chng trc tip Trong phn ny, chng ta s tr li cc cu hi sau y: - Ai l cng chng trc tip ca doanh nghip? - Vai tr ca h i vi doanh nghip? Cng chng trc tip l bt l mt nhm, mt t chc no c mi quan tm, c nh hng n hot ng ca doanh nghip. Cng chng trc tip s ng h hoc chng li cc quyt nh kinh doanh ca doanh nghip, tc l to thun li hay gy kh khn cho doanh nghip. Doanh nghip cn phn loi cng chng v xy dng cc mi quan h ph hp vi tng loi. Theo cch ny c th chia cng chng thnh 3 loi: - Cng chng tch cc. y l nhm cng chng c thin ch i vi doanh nghip. - Cng chng tm kim. y l nhm cng chng m doanh nghip phi tm cch thu ht, li ko h ng h. - Cng chng phn ng l nhm ngi khng c thin ch vi doanh nghip,

cn phi phng phn ng ca h. C th hn, ta c th thy c cc nhm cng chng sau y (thuc v mt trong 3 loi trn): - Cc t chc ti chnh, ngn hng, tn dng, cc c ng. H m bo cho doanh nghip ngun vn kinh doanh. Nhm cng chng ny quan tm n s hot ng kinh doanh c hiu qu ca doanh nghip. Doanh nghip mun c c s thin cm ca h th phi kinh doanh pht t, ti chnh lnh mnh v thng tin thng xuyn vi h v tnh hnh ti chnh doanh nghip. - Cc c quan thng tin i chng nh bo ch, truyn hnh, truyn thanh. H a tin tuyn truyn cho doanh nghip, gip cho doanh nghip chim c thin cm ca x hi. - Cc c quan chnh quyn. Thng qua lut php, cc c quan chnh quyn thc hin chc nng qun l nh nc i vi doanh nghip. Doanh nghip phi chp hnh nghim chnh lut php, ch trng chnh sch ca Nh nc. - Cc T chc bo v ngi tiu dng, bo v mi trng ngy cng c ting ni trong d lun x hi. Cc cng ty phi trnh s ln ting phn i ca cc t chc ny, v nh vy s gy ting xu trong d lun x hi. - Cn b cng nhn vin trong cng ty. y l nhm khch hng hng bn trong doanh nghip. H l ngun lc quan trng ca doanh nghip. H cn c quan tm, ng vin, nh gi ng mc. H cng cn c thng tin thng xuyn v tnh hnh hot ng ca cng ty, c tham gia vo qu trnh xy dng k hoch, qu trnh qun l - Qun chng ng o. H c th tr thnh khch hng ca cng ty. Nu d lun ca qun chng i vi cng ty l xu th chc chn cng ty s gp kh khn trong kinh doanh. Do vy, cng ty phi theo di thng xuyn d lun cng chng v cng ty v sn phm ca cng ty. Cng ty cng cn phi tham gia vo cc hot ng ti tr gip a phng to ra hnh nh tt p v cng ty trong con mt cng chng. Cc doanh nghip phi quan tm n cng chng trc tip, c b phn chuyn ph trch lnh vc quan h vi cng chng (Public Relation).

CU HI N TP V THO LUN
1) Trong iu kin Vit Nam va tr thnh thnh vin ca WTO, hy phn tch nhng c hi v thch thc mang li cho cc doanh nghip Vit Nam? 2) Vn ho c nh hng g n giao tip, m phn kinh doanh quc t, qun

l doanh nghip lin doanh? 3) Nu bn c d nh m mt nh hng n Nga ti Vit Nam, bn hy hnh dung xem khch mc tiu ca nh hng l ai? H c nhu cu g khi n nh hng? V bn phi lm g p ng nhu cu ca khch hng? 4) Bn hy tm hiu xem cng ty Vinamilk, cng ty Honda c nhng hot ng g gy c thin cm vi cng chng? 8) Hy chn mt sn phm v phn tch cc cp cnh tranh i vi n. 5) Cc yu t thuc mi trng kinh t nh hng nh th no n hot ng Marketing ca doanh nghip? Ly v d? 6) Cc yu t thuc mi trng chnh tr - lut php nh hng nh th no n doanh nghip? Ly v d? 7) Cc yu t thuc mi trng cng ngh nh hng nh th no n hot ng Marketing ca doanh nghip? Ly v d? 8) Cc yu t thuc mi trng dn s hc nh hng nh th no n hot ng Marketing ca doanh nghip? Ly v d? 9) Cc yu t thuc mi trng vn ho-x hi nh hng nh th no n hot ng Marketing ca doanh nghip? Ly v d? 10) Nu bn l gim c mt doanh nghip sn xut sa cho tr em ti mt quc gia m t l tr em ngy cng gim, th bn d kin c chin lc g vt qua thch thc ?

Chng 4

HNH VI KHCH HNG

MC TIU: Sau khi hc xong chng ny, sinh vin cn nm c: - M hnh hnh vi Ngi tiu dng

- Nhng yu t nh hng ti hnh ca ngi tiu dung - Qu trnh thng qua quyt nh mua hng ca ni tiu dung - Th trng t chc v hnh vi mua ca th trng t chc.
4.1. TH TRNG NGI TIU DNG V HNH VI MUA CA NGI TIU DNG 4.1.1. Khi qut v th trng ngi tiu dng a) Khi nim Th trng ngi tiu dng (Consumer Market) bao gm nhng c nhn v h gia nh mua sn phm cho mc ch tiu dng c nhn, gia nh. Nh vy cc quyt nh mua ca h mang tnh c nhn, vi mc tiu phc v cho bn thn hoc cho gia nh. Cc sn phm cho tiu dng c nhn rt a dng nh qun o, thc n, dng gia nh, xe c, trang sc, cc dch v vui chi gii tr, giao lu tnh cm Nh tiu dng cc sn phm , con ngi p ng c cc nhu cu c nhn tn ti. Mt khc, cng qua tiu dng, con ngi c th th hin mnh trc con mt ca cng ng. l vn ho tiu dng. c gi c th rt d thy l cc dn tc, cc tn gio khc nhau th vn ho tiu dng khc nhau. Vn ha tiu dng to nn hnh vi tiu dng. Cho n nay, Vit Nam c ti trn 85 triu dn. y l mt th trng ngi tiu dng ln v rt a dng cho cc doanh nghip trong v ngoi nc. Theo xu hng giao lu, hi nhp quc t v i sng vt cht ngy cng c nng cao, nhu cu tiu dng ni chung, v nhu cu thng tin lin lc s tng ln. b) c trng c bn ca th trng ngi tiu dng Ngi tiu dng rt khc nhau v tui tc, mc thu nhp, trnh hc vn v nhu cu th trng hiu, tm l S khc nhau c th hin qua vn ho tiu dng ca h. Do vy, y chng ta s tm hiu cc c tnh chung nht ca ngi tiu dng. Mi doanh nghip c th chiangi tiu dng thnh cc on th trng nh phc v. V d, qun o cho nam, n, qun o bnh dn, qun o cao cp Nh vy, th trng ngi tiu dng c cc c im sau y: - Nhu cu tiu dng a dng v bin i theo thi gian. - Quy m th trng ln v ngy cng tng. - Khi lng mi ln giao dch t, nhng thng xuyn mua. - Quyt nh mua din ra nhanh v thng mang tnh cht c nhn.

- Cu th trng ngi tiu dung nhy cm i vi gi. 4.1.2. Hnh vi mua ca ngi tiu dung a) Khi nim hnh vi mua ca ngi tiu dung Hnh vi mua ca ngi tiu dng l ton b hnh ng m ngi tiu dng bc l ra trong qu trnh iu tra, mua sm, s dng nh gi cho hang ha v dch v nhm tha mn nhu cu ca h. Hoc cng c th hiu: hnh vi ngi tiu dng l cch thc m ngi tiu dng s thc hin a ra cc quyt nh s dng ti sn ca mnh (tin bc, thi gian, cng sc,) lin quan n vic mua sm v s dng hang ha v dch v nhm tha mn nhu cu c nhn. b) M hnh hnh vi mua ca ngi tiu dng Nghin cu hnh vi ca ngi tiu dng gip cho doanh nghip tm hiu xem khch hng mua v s dng hng ho nh th no. Trn c s nhn thc r c hnh vi ca ngi tiu dng, doanh nghip s c cn c chc chn tr li cc vn lin quan ti cc chin lc Marketing cn vch ra. l cc vn nh sau: - Ai l ngi mua hng? - H mua cc hng ho, dch v g? - Mc ch mua cc hng ho, dch v ? - H mua nh th no? Mua khi no? Mua u? - Khi lng mi ln mua l bao nhiu?
Cc nhn t kch thch Marketing Mi trng Kinh t Sn phm Gi c Phn phi Xc tin Vn hax hi Chnh tr php lut T nhin Cng ngh Cc c tnh ca dng Qu trnh thng qua mua La chn hang ha La chn nhn hiu La chn nh cung ng La chn thi gian v a im mua La chn khi lng Hp en thc ca ngi tiu dng Phn ng p li ca ngi mua

ngi tiu quyt nh

S 3.1. M hnh hnh vi mua ca ngi tiu dng * Cc nhn t kch thch: L tt c cc tc nhn, lc lng bn ngoi ngi tiu dng c th gy nh hng n hnh vi ca ngi tiu dng chng c chia lm

hai nhm chnh. Nhm 1: cc tc nhn kch thch ca Marketing: sn phm, gi c, cch thc phn phi v cc hot ng xc tin. Cc tc nhn ny nm trong kh nng kim sot ca cc doanh nghip. Nhm 2: cc tc nhn kch thch khng thuc quyn kim sot tuyt i ca cc doanh nghip, bao gm: mi trng kinh t, chnh tr -php lut, vn ha, x hi, t nhin, cng ngh * Hp en thc ca ngi tiu dng: l cch gi b no ca con ngi v c ch hot ng ca n trong vic tip nhn, x l cc kch thch v xut cc gii php p ng tr li cc kch thch. Hp en thc c chia l hai thnh phn. Phn th nht l c tnh ca ngi tiu dng. N c nh hng c bn n vic ngi tiu dng tip nhn cc kch thch v phn ng p li cc tc nhn nh th no? Phn th hai l qu trnh thng qua quyt nh mua ca ngi tiu dng, l ton b l trnh ngi tiu dng thc hin cc hot ng lin quan n s xut hin ca c mun, tm kim thng tin, mua sm, tiu dng v nhng cm nhn h c c khi tiu dng sn phm. * Nhng phn ng p li ca ngi tiu dng: l nhng phn ng ngi tiu dng bc l ra trong qu trnh trao i m ta c th quan st c. Chng hn, hnh vi tm kim thng tin v hang ha, la chn hng ha, nhn hiu, nh cung ng, khi lng, thi gian mua Trong m hnh hnh vi ngi tiu dng, vn thu ht s quan tm v cng l nhim v quan trng t ra cho ngi lm Marketing l: phi hiu c nhng g xy ra trong hp en thc khi tip nhn cc tc nhn kch thch, t bit l cc tc nhn bn trong doanh nghip. Mt khi gii p c nhng b mt din ra trong hp en thc th cng c ngha l Marketing th ch ng t c nhng phn ng p li mong mun th pha khch hng ca mnh. Vnc) Cc nhn t nh hng n hnh vi ca ngi tiu dng ha

s kim sot t cc nh lm marketing, nhng h nhtTm l thit phi quan tm ti chng. Chng bao gm:
Nn vn ha Giai tng XH Nhm Nhnh vn ha Gia nh S giao lu v bin i vn ha Vai tr v a v x hi Tui v chu k sng Ngh nghip Hon cnh kinh t Nhn cch Li sng C tnh v s nhn thc ng c mua S nhn thc S tip thu Nim tin v quan im

X hi Trc ht, hy nh rng cc yu tnhn C tc ng ti hnh vi ngi mua khng chu

Ngi tiu dng

S 4.2. Cc nhn t nh hng n hnh vi ca ngi tiu dng

Cc yu t v vn ha:

Cc yu t ny bao gm: nn vn ha, cc nhnh vn ha v s giao lu v bin i vn ha (tip bin vn ha). - Nn vn ha: l yu t quyt nh c bn nht nhng mong mun v hnh vi ca con ngi. Mt ngi ln ln trong mt nn vn ha s tch ly c cc gi tr, nhn thc, s thch v hnh vi thng qua gia nh v nhng nh ch then cht trong cng ng y. V d: mt ngi ln ln M s tip xc vi cc gi tr: thnh tu v thnh cng, ci ti c nhn, t do, tin nghi vt chtMt ngi ln ln Vit nam s tip xc vi cc gi tr: tnh cng ng, gia nh, s tit kim, s rng buc ca huyt thng v dng h Trong vi du cua chung ta, ban Lan la ngi Vit nam, hin nhin ban se co xu hng nghe li cha me, ngi thn hn la t quyt inh mua xe ma khng cn hoi y kin ai nh mt c giao My co th lam. Mt khac, ban Lan cung co th suy nghi v tinh tin dung, tit kim xng cua chic xe hn la s khoe me hay kiu dang cu ky cua no. - Nhnh vn ha: mi nn vn ha gc u sinh ra nhiu nhnh vn ha ph, l vn ha vng min, vn ha a phng, vn ha ngh nghip v.v Lan sinh ra trong gia nh c gc min Trung, nn c th b nh hng bi tnh n chc mc bn, chu kh v tit kim ca ngi min Trung. C th c s chn mt chic xe khng qu t tin, nhng phi chy bn, t hao xng v.v

Cc yu t v x hi:

- Giai tng x hi: Mi x hi loi ngi u c s phn tng x hi. S phn tng ny i khi ch mang tnh hnh thc, mt h thng ng cp theo nhng thnh vin thuc cc ng

cp khc nhau c nui nng v dy d m nhim nhng vai tr nht nh. Cc tng lp x hi l nhng b phn tng i ng nht v bn vng trong x hi c xp theo th bc t cao xung thp, bao gm nhng thnh vin c chung nhng gi tr, mi quan tm v hnh vi. Cc nh x hi hc thng chia x hi lm 7 tng lp, v chng ta hy xem xt cc tng lp ny ti Vit nam nh th no: Tng lp Thng lu lp trn c trng Hnh vi tiu dng C ti sn tha k ln, gia Mua sm xa x, sang trng. Tuy l s t nh ni ting hay quan nhng l nhm tham kho vi nhng ngi chc ln khc Nhng ngi c ti nng Mua sm sang trng v ng cp chng xut chng, cc nh qun t v cng c a v, cho tng lai (con l cp cao, cc doanh nhn ci), mun gy n tng vi tng lp thp thnh t, thng xut hn, mun c leo ln tng lp cao hn thn t trung lu Qun l cp trung, doanh H thch mua sm nng cao a v, nhm Trung lu lp trn nhn c lp, ngi c ti phc v con ng danh vng (hc tp), nng v chuyn mn mua nh, xe th hin mnh, u t cho con ci Tiu thng c lp, cac Mua sm ci thin cuc sng vt cht va Trung lu lp di Ha lu lp trn Ha lu lp di can b quan tri cp trung, tinh thn, u t cho vic thng tin, cung giao vin, vin chc c ia vi, mt phn danh cho con cai va u t. Can b cp thp, cng Phn ln chi tiu cho cac nhu cu c ban, it nhn vin, bun ban nho danh cho xa xi, giai tri. Ho cung co xu hng tit kim Ngi co vic lam khng Tiu dung bp bnh, khng co k hoach, thng xuyn, tht nghip thng theo hng hay theo c hi thu nhp, hay lam cac vic khng d bi thu hut bi s tiu dung cua cac tng c xa hi chp nhn lp trn

Thng lu lp di

Nhng ngi thuc cung mt tng lp xa hi co xu hng tiu dung ging nhau (tt nhin cung co nhng trng hp ngoai l khi co nhng ngi thuc tng lp thp lai tiu dung bt chc hay ua oi theo tng lp trn). iu tip theo la ngi ta thng nhin nhn mt ngi nao o thuc mt tng lp nao y da trn mt s tiu chi chung nh: ngh nghip, mc thu nhp, hoc vn v.v...ch khng phai chi mt tiu chi la cua cai hay thu nhp nn co nhiu khi cac hanh vi tiu dung pha trn va thay i tuy thuc vao rt nhiu bin s. Cui cung, mt ngi co th thay i i tng lp nay

sang tng lp khac, i ln hay i xung trong i minh, nn hanh vi tiu dung cua ho cung thay i theo. Lan thuc gia inh co th goi la thuc gia inh Trung lu lp trn (lu y vi nhng ngi cha t lam ra tin va con phu thuc nh sinh vin thi c xp vao cac tng lp ma cha me ho thuc v), do vy, c c cha me quan tm u t cho hoc tp, vi th c chon phng tin i lai la xe may, ch khng phai la xe ap hay i xe buyt. Thm na, c se mua xe co thng hiu ch khng mua xe Trung Quc hay xe san xut ni ia re tin. - Nhm tham kho: Nhom tham khao cua mt ngi bao gm nhng ngi co anh hng trc tip ( mt i mt) hay gian tip ti thi va hanh vi cua ngi mua hang. o la nhng nhom ma ngi mua hang nm trong o va chiu tac ng qua lai cua nhom. Bao gm: + Gia inh: Cac thanh vin trong gia inh anh co anh hng manh me ti quyt inh mua hang, tuy co s khac nhau do tinh cht vn hoa va quan h gia inh. Ngay ca khi ngi mua khng sng chung vi gian inh, hay co s c lp v kinh t thi s anh hng do cach giao duc , nui nng vn anh hng ro ti hanh vi mua hang. Trong gia inh, thng co s phn cng ro rt v mua sm. Vi du: cha me se mua sm cho con cai va quyt inh v n thc ung, dung cu hoc tp v.v.. con cai co th co chinh kin khi mua dung ca nhn nhng vn theo s hng dn cua ba me. V thng mua sm cac th lin quan ti sinh hoat thng nht, con chng thng mua sm cac th co gia tri cao hay lin quan ti ky thut. Con nhng th anh hng ti cuc sng gia inh thi ca hai v chng se cung quyt inh. Tuy nhin, ngay nay cac gia tri gia inh truyn thng Vit nam co thay i nhiu nn cac nha Marketing phai ht sc lu y khng vp phai cac sai lm duy y chi. Ban Lan cua chung ta hn nhin se phai nghe li ba me trong vic la chon loai xe nao, hiu gi vi chinh ba me la ngi bo tin. Co th truyn thng gia inh cua ngi min Trung la con cai phai tun thu y kin ngi ln. Nhng cung co th do ba me Lan la quan ly cp cao nn thoang hn trong vic cho con gai t quyt inh theo gi y cua minh. + Cac nhom xa hi: Lan co th chi thn vi mt nhom ban t thi ph thng, hay co mt nhm ban mi trong trng ai hoc. Cac c co th cung ban tan, trao i v d tinh mua xe cua Lan va chc chn se co nhng y kin tham khao cho Lan. + Vai tro va ia vi xa hi: Trong trng, co th Lan c xp vao nhom con nha giau hn so vi cac ban cung lp, do vy Lan cung mun th hin s mc nhin o bng cach mua loai xe co thng hiu ni ting hay model mi ra cua nhan hiu xe ni ting.

Cc yu t c nhn:

- Tui tac va giai oan cua chu trinh sng: Vao mi la tui, mi giai oan khac nhau cua i ngi, chung ta lai co nhng nhu cu va mong mun khac nhau, chung ta co th thay i ia vi xa hi, ngh nghipv.v... nn hanh vi tiu dung chc chn cung thay i theo:
GIAI ON C IM HNH VI MUA

1. Tui tr Sng c thn Kt hn cha c con V chng tr c con ci cn nh (di 10 tui) 2- Tui trung nin Sng c thn Kt hn cha c con Kt hn c con nh (di 10 tui) Con ci thnh nin Con ci ring 3- Tui gi Ngi gi cn i lm Ngi gi ngh hu Ngi gi go ba - Thu nhp cn cao. Tng nhu cu tiu dng hng lu bn. - Tng nhu cu thuc men cho sc kho. Tiu dng gim. Gim din tch nh v c lu bn. - Kh nng thanh ton cao. Quan tm nhiu n thi trang, cc tin nghi t tin, cc dch v gii tr - Nhu cu mua sm hng tiu dng tng. - Gim nhu cu th thao, du lch, nh hng. Tng nhu cu thc phm, qun o, thuc men tr em. - Tng kh nng ti chnh. Nhu cu hng tiu dng lu bn tng. Nhu cu tiu dng cho vn ho, du lch, giao lu tng. - Kh nng ti chnh di do. Thch tham gia cu lc b, n hng, du lch. - t chu gnh nng ti chnh. c bit quan tm n thi trang. Thng mua cc hng ho: dng c nhn, xe my, th thao, cu lc b. - Kh nng thanh ton gia tng. Quan tm n mua cc hng ho lu bn cho gia nh: ni tht, my git, l nng, bp ga C nhu cu v nh . - Nhu cu cao v nh . Mua sn nhiu: qun o, thc phm, thuc cha bnh. Cng thng v ti chnh.

Mt s cac yu t lun song hanh vi tui va chu ky sng va anh hng ti hanh vi mua hang la:

- Ngh nghip: vn hoa ngh nghip, cac yu cu cu th cua tng ngh nghip cung anh hng nhiu ti hanh vi mua sm. Vi du: giao vin thng mua hang ky hn, y ti cac chi tit thng tin trn san phm, va thng mua cac san phm co ngun gc ang tin, cac san phm phuc vu cho ngh nghip nh sach tham khao, qun ao ng n v.v..Con cac ba ni tr thng chi quan tm ti gai ca, cht lng ch it khi tm ti cac thng tin, va chi thng mua thc phm, dung gia inh, ch it mua sach hay vn hoa phm. - Tinh tranh kinh t: mc thu nhp ca nhn co nh hng ln ti hanh vi mua hang. Khi con ngheo, thu nhp thp thi co xu hng tit kim, la chon ky hn. Khi thu nhp cao thi mua sm thoai mai va theo s thoa man tm ly nhiu hn la theo nhu cu tht s. Chung ta hay xet hai loai thu nhp sau: + Disposable income: thu nhp co th chi tiu (thu nhp con lai sau thu va cac nghia vu). + Discrationary income: thu nhp con lai sau khi chi cho cac nhu cu c ban. Khi Discrationary Income con lai cang nhiu thi ngi ta cang co xu hng chi tiu xa xi, sanh iu va thoai mai hn. Vi du nh Lan co vic lam thm vi thu nhp 3 triu/thang thi Lan co th t do hn trong chi tiu cua minh cho cac nhu cu v my phm, thi trang hay giai tri ma khng ngai ngn vi xai tin cua ba me. Nh vy, khi co nhiu tin hn, hanh vi tiu dung cua Lan se thay i theo hng tich cc. - Li sng: li sng bi anh hng bi tng lp xa hi, cac nn vn hoa ma mt ca nhn thuc v. No la bc tranh chn dung toan din v ca nhn trong s tac ng qua lai vi mi trng xung quanh. Lan co th co li sng phong khoang, t do cua cac c gai tre thi ln, nh thut ng comsmopolitant tam dich la thi thanh thi c se la chon xe may kiu dang hin ai, tre trung va co mau sc, hay cung co th Lan co li sng bao thu va khep kin cua ngi Min Trung thi c se chon la nhng kiu xe may truyn thng, c in. iu o hoan toan phu thuc vao ca tinh cua Lan va cach giao duc cua gia inh. Ca tinh: tinh cach ring bit cua tng ngi co anh hng rt nhiu ti hanh vi mua hang. Vi du: nu Lan co ca tinh phong khoang, ci m hay hng ngoai thi c se chon loai xe may c quang cao la nng ng, tre trung va ca tinh vi mau sc bt mt va kiu dang hin ai. Ngc lai nu Lan la ngi hin lanh, trm t hay hng ni thi c se chon nhng mau sc diu nhe va kiu dang khng qua cu ky.

Cc yu t tm l:

Co bn yu t tm ly c ban: ng c, nhn thc, tri thc, nim tin va thai

- ng c: Chung ta bit la Lan cn mua xe may, nhng tai sao lai th? Thc t Lan cn gi? Lan ang mun thoa man nhu cu nao? Con ngi chung ta tai bt ky mt thi im nao cua cuc sng cung co nhng nhu cu cn c thoa man. Cac nhu cu rt phc tap va a dang. Co nhng nhu cu c ny sinh nhng lai khng u manh thi thuc chung ta hanh ng thoa man no. Vi du: chung ta mun ngu, nhng khng ti mc qua bun ngu phai ngu ngay thi co th chung ta vn tip tuc lam nhng vic khac, cho ti khi cn bun ngu tht s manh me va thi thuc buc chung ta phai dng moi th lai ngu mt chut. Khi y, nhu cu at ti mt cng u manh thanh ng c. Vy: ng c la nhu cu a tr thanh khn thit ti mc buc con ngi phai tim cach va phng thc thoa man no. Co nhiu ly thuyt v ng c cua cac nha tm ly hoc, trong o ni ting va ph bin nht la ly thuyt cua Zigmund Freud va Abraham Maslow. Chung ta se nghin cu ly thuyt cua Maslow vi no d hiu va gn gui vi chung ta hn. Theo Maslow, tai nhng thi im khac nhau, con ngi bi thi thuc bi cac nhu cu khac nhau. Co ngi ra sc tim kim s an toan trong khi nhiu ngi chi cn thoa man nhu cu sinh ly. Co ngi tn cng sc tim s kinh trong hay t khng inh minh trong khi co ngi sng binh than va gian di. Maslow a xp cac nhau cu theo nm bc t thp ti cao nh hinh ve va noi ro rng khi mt nhu cu bc thp hn c thoa man thi ngi ta mi nghi ti vic thoa man nhu cu bc cao hn (vi du nh khi ngheo oi, chung ta phai c n no, mc m thi mi nghi ti chuyn co nha ca tru thn). Mt khac, co nhng nhu cu se t bi trit tiu khi c thoa man (nhu cu bc thp nh nhu cu sinh ly, an toan), nhng co nhng nhu cu lun oi hoi c thoa man mc cao hn cho du no a c thoa man mt mc nao o (nhu cu xa hi, nhu cu c tn trong...). Trong vi du cua chung ta: Lan a khng phai lo lng nhiu v cac nhu cu cn bn, do c c b me chm lo y u, c thc s cn s an toan va bao am v gi gic hoc tp va gi gin sc khoe (nu c i xe buyt hay xe ap se mt nhiu thi gian va khng bao am gi hoc, c phai tn nhiu thi gian va cng sc hn cho vic i lai), do vy, nhu cu co xe may a tr nn cp thit va bin thanh ng c thi thuc c phai i mua no.

5 cp ca nhu cu
T HON THIN
TNG TRNG NHU CU THIU HT NHU CU

TN TRNG
(c knh trng, cng nhn)

TNH YU & X HI
(tnh bn, tnh yu, gia nh, cng ng)

AN TON (v nh , cng vic, thu nhp, sc khe, ngi thn, v.v..) SINH L (ht th, n ung, ng ngh,
tiu tiu, gi m, nhc dc v.v..)

- S nhn thc: Mt ngi a co nhu cu manh me thi thuc thanh ng c se lun sn sang hanh ng, nhng ho se hanh ng ra sao? iu o phu thuc vao nhn thc cua ho v tinh hung luc o. Tuy co cung ng c nhu nhau nhng nu nhn thc v tinh hung khac nhau thi hanh vi mua hang se khac. Vi du nh Lan va mt ban gai thn thit tn Hng cung co ng c ging nhau la tim mua mt cai xe may, nhng khi ti mt ca hang cu th thi Lan cam nhn ni o ban hang ang tin cy nn co th quyt inh mua, con Hng cho rng ngi ban co ve khng tht tha, ha thi nhiu ma thc hin chng c bao nhiu thi co th Hng se khng quyt inh mua va con gop y Lan suy nghi lai. o la vi nhng li noi va hanh ng cua ngi ban tac ng khac nhau ti Lan va Hng. Cac tac ng thng tin cua ngi ban ti Lan va Hng qua 5 giac quan: thinh giac, thi giac, khu giac, xuc giac va vi giac u mang lai cam nhn khac nhau do s tip nhn, giai ma va giai thich cac thng tin y se khac nhau gia hai ngi. Nh vy: Nhn thc la mt qua trinh ma thng qua o ca nhn tuyn chon, t chc va giai thich cac thng tin tao ra mt bc tranh co y nghia v th gii xung quanh. Nhn thc khng chi phuc thuc vao cac tac nhn kich thich vt ly, ma con phu thuc bi mi quan h cua tac nhn kich thich o vi mi trng xung quan va vi chinh ca th o. Do vy, con ngi co th co nhng nhn thc va phan ng khac nhau i vi cung mt tac nhn kich thich do ba qua trinh di y: nhn thc co chon loc, s bop meo co chon loc, s ghi nh co chon loc.

+ Nhn thc co chon loc: Mt ngay chung ta tip xuc vi v van kich thich, vi du nh trung binh mi ngay chung ta thy hn 2.000 mu quang cao khac nhau. Hin nhin chung ta khng th phan ng vi tt ca nhng tac nhn o. Quan trong la cac nha Marketing cn bit ngi ta se chon loc nh th nao chon nhng tac nhn ma con ngi se chon loc nhiu nht. Th nht, con ngi thng chu y ti cac tac nhn co lin quan ti nhu cu tai thi im o. Khi cn mua xe may, chc chn Lan va Hng se quan tm ti cac quang cao v xe may, ch khng quan tm ti cac thng tin v xe ap. Th hai, con ngi co xu hng chu y ti cac tac nhn kich thich ma ho mong i. Khi ti ca hang xe may, Lan va Hng se chu y ti cac xe may c trng bay hn la cac loai xe ap in cung trng tai ca hang. Th ba la con ngi co xu hng chu y ti cac tac nhn kich thich co y nghia c bit khac vi cac tac nhn thng thng. Chng han Lan va Hng se chu y ti nhng xe may ang giam gia hay khuyn mai ti 2 triu hn la nhng loai xe chi c tng cai non bao him. Vi vy, ngi lam Marketing cn cac n lc c bit thu hut ngi ta nhn thc c cac tac nhn kich thich va quan tm ti vic phan ng lai cac tac nhn y. + S bop meo co chon loc: do s khac nhau v tm sinh ly, ngay ca khi cac tac nhn c chu y thi cung cha chc c ngi tiu dung tip nhn ung nh y inh cua ngi a ra. Vi du nh Hng a tng bi sai lm khi mua xe co khuyn mai 2 triu ng thi co th cho rng o la mt chiu la mi cua ngi ban. Con Lan thi tin rng o la s khuyn mai co tht. + S ghi nh co chon loc: Ngi ta khng phai la cai computer nn phai qun i nhiu th ma ho tip nhn. Nh th, ho co khuynh hng chi nh nhng gi cung c thai va nim tin cua ho. Gia s Lan a tng thy gia inh minh s dung nhng chic xe hiu Honda rt tt va bn thi c se ghi nh nhng gi lin quan ti xe Honda, ch khng nh nhng gi ngi ban noi v xe Suzuki. Chinh vi nhng c tinh trn cua nhn thc ma cac nha lam Marketing phai lun sang tao va vn dung nhiu hinh thc khac nhau anhvao nhn thc ngi tiu dung. - Tri thc: con ngi linh hi c tri thc qua qua trinh hoat ng, o la s bin i nht inh din ra trong hanh vi cua con ngi di tac ng cua kinh nghim ma ho tich luy c. Lan co mt thi thuc cn tim kim phng tin i lai nhanh va an toan. C nhn thy iu o t kinh nghim i hoc bng xe buyt va xe ap va nhng ln i xe may do

ban ch. C ngm nhin nhng chic xe trn ng, c ba me va anh em ng vin, c ban be khich l, t o khat khao co chic xe cang manh lit. Gia s sau khi mua xe Honda va s dung mt thi gian, Lan rt hai long va thng xuyn i xe hn. Ri c co dip i th cac xe cua hang khac nh Sirius cua Yamaha, hay Suzuki, c nhn thy chung co nhng im khac bit so vi xe Honda cua c, ma theo c thi chung khng bng. Nh vy, c a hoc c cach nhn bit cac khac bit trong cac tac nhn kich thich. Nu nh sau nay co tin mua mt chic xe ep hn, mc tin hn, co le c vn chon hiu Honda. Tuy nhin, nu c thy co nhng im khac bit tt hn chic xe cua c, thi hn la sau nay c se co kha nng chon la nhng thng hiu y, tc la co nhng thay i trong hanh vi. - Nim tin va thai : Qua trai nghim va linh hi tri thc, ngi ta se co nim tin va thai . ng thi cac thai va nim tin c hinh thanh y lai anh hng ngay ti hanh vi mua hang. + Nim tin la s nhn inh trong thm tm v mt iu gi o. Lan lun tin chc la xe may cua Honda thi tt. Nim tin nay c xy dng trn c s nh tri thc thc t cua c khi s dung, hay do cac y kin cua moi ngi xung quanh, hay do long tin vao thng hiu co t lu va c kim chng v.v..Vi th, cho du kiu dang xe khng ep nh c mong mun thi no cung khng anh hng my ti vic Lan quyt inh mua no. Nim tin mang tinh bn vng va hinh thanh nn cac thai cua con ngi. Chinh vi th cac nha Marketing lun tim moi cach chim long tin, xy dng nim tin cho ngi tiu dung. + Thai la s anh gia tt hay xu cua con ngi c hinh thanh trn c s nhng tri thc hin co va bn vng v mt i tng hay y tng nao o, nhng cam giac do chung gy nn va phng hng hanh ng, phan ng co th co. Thai lam ta thich hay khng thich mt i tng hay y tng nao o. Lan co th hinh thanh thai Chi mua xe may Nht, vi Nht san xut xe may tt hn ai loan hay Han quc. Thai khin chung ta x s tng i n inh vi nhng i tng ging nhau, vi th rt kho thay i. Bi vi thai a inh hinh giup chung ta tit kim thi gian va cng sc, chung ta khng cn phai giai thich lai moi s t u hay thay i phan ng mi khi co i tng tng t xut hin. Chinh vi th, cac nha Marketing khng nn c gng thay i thai cua ngi tiu dung, ma phai tim cach lam cho san phm cua minh phu hp vi thi y. SYM khng th thay i suy nghi rng xe may cua Nht la khng tt, ma phai tim cach cho ngi tiu dung thy rng xe cua ho cung tt khng kem xe Nht. Ngoai tr cng ty co mt ngn sach ln va mt chin dich khn ngoan, sang tao thi mi co th thay i c thai cua ngi tiu dung.

d) Qu trnh thng qua quyt nh mua ca ngi tiu dng Chung ta hay th xem qui trinh dn dt ngi tiu dung, cu th la Lan, qua nhng trinh t nao ra quyt inh va thc hin vic mua hang.

Nhn thc nhu cu

Tm kim thng tin

nh gi cc P.n

Quyt nh mua

nh gi sau mua

S 4.3. Cc giai on thng qua quyt nh mua ca ngi tiu dng Thc t, khng phai luc nao ngi tiu dung cung trai qua ca 5 qua trinh nh hinh trn, ho co th bo qua hay gp mt vai bc lam mt (vi du: mt ban sinh vin i mua mi goi thi chay ngay ra tim tap hoa mua, bo qua giai oan tim hiu thng tin va anh gia cac la chon, ma co le qua trinh y a c thc hin t trc o ri, mt cach rt m thm). Nhng chung ta vn phai nghin cu y u cac qui trinh nay vi no phan anh y u cac cn nhc va suy nghi nay sinh t khi ngi tiu dung gp phai mt tinh hung va vn cn giai quyt. Nhn thc cac vn : Qui trinh mua hang lun bt u t khi ngi ta y thc c vn cn giai quyt hay nhu cu cn thoa man. Nhu cu co th xut phat t bn trong (vi du: ti ba n chung ta co nhu cu c n khi oi, ung khi khat...) hay co th do tac nhn kich thich bn ngoai (vi du: tuy cha ti gi n, nhng khi i ngang qua hang banh my, ngi mui thm va thy ngi ta n rt ngon, co th ta se co nhu cu n th mt cai banh my). Khi hoi Lan: tai sao lai mua xe, c co th tra li rng: t c thy ti luc cn mt phng tin i hoc. Cung co th c noi rng, minh mun co xe ging nh cac ban trong lp hay nhng ban gn nha minh. Vy thi, trong qua trinh nay cac nha Marketing phai tht tinh tao khi thu thp cac thng tin thi trng phat hin va hiu cac hoan canh y a ngi ta ti vic phat hin ra nhu cu va vn theo ba hng : 1) Nhng nhu cu hay vn nao thc s a phat sinh? 2) Nguyn nhn nao lam chung xut hin? 3) Chung hng ngi ta ti hang hoa cu th ra sao? Tim kim cac ngun thng tin: Khi bi kich thich bi cac tac nhn co lin quan ti nhu cu, ngi ta co th tim kim thng tin ngay hay khng, tuy thuc vao s thi thuc a u manh hay cha. Nu Lan vn c ba me thay nhau ch i hoc, thi co le c cung cha vi vang tim hiu v xe may, du vn co nhu cu va m c co mt chic. Nhng khi ba me khng th ch c i, va nguy c phai i xe ap hay xe buyt ti gn thi Lan se quan tm va tim kim

cac thng tin v xe may. Nh vy, ta co th phn ra hai mc tim kim thng tin: trang thai tim kim tng i va phai va trang thai tich cc tim kim. Ngi lam Marketing cn hiu cac ngun thng tin chu yu ma ngi mua hay tim ti va co anh hng tng i ti quyt inh mua sm. Bao gm cac ngun sau: - Ngun thng tin tham khao ca nhn: ban be, gia inh, ngi thn, hang xom...y la ngun hiu qua nht, ang tin cy va thng c ngi tiu dung tim ti u tin. No giup cho ho hinh thanh hay khng inh nim tin va thai i vi d inh chon la cua minh. Lan chc chn se hoi nhng ngi quen bit v vic s dung xe Honda th nao, cht lng ra sao, mua u... cung c nim tin rng la chon cua minh la ung n. - Ngun thng tin thng mai: t ngi ban hang, ai ly, qua quang cao, hi ch...ngun nay chi mang chc nng thng bao, cung cp thng tin chinh thc v san phm, nhng tin cy khng cao vi ngi mua lun cho rng nha san xut va ngi ban hay noi qua s tht v san phm, nhng ho vn lun tim hiu t ngun nay co thng tin chinh thc. Lan chc chn se ghe phong trng bay cua cng ty Honda va cac cng ty khac, se oc cac quang cao v xe may, se ti cac ca hang hoi thng tin.. - Ngun thng tin cng cng: cac phng tin ai chung nh bao chi, truyn hinh, phat thanh, cac t chc cua ngi tiu dung, hip hi...Ngun nay i khi co vai tro quan trong trong vic inh hng tiu dung hay thay i cac thai cua ngi tiu dung. Gia s co nhng bai bao noi khng tt v Honda, chc chn Lan se suy nghi lai vic chon la cua minh. - Ngun thng tin thc nghim: s ngm, nghin cu va s dung san phm. Ngun nay co chc nng khng inh va anh gia. Lan co th chay th xe cua ngi ban va anh gia cht lng, sau o khng inh la chon cua minh la ung. Ngi lam marketing cn hiu nhng chin thut va chin lc Marketing tao ra tac ng tich cc ti hanh vi tiu dung thng qua vic cung cp cac thng tin phu hp va ung n cho tng ngun. Cng ty Honda nu lam Marketing tt, co th tao ra nhng cu chuyn truyn khu gia nhng ngi a mua xe, hoc/va se hun luyn ky lng nhn vin ban hang, ai ly v cach thc gii thiu, thng tin v san phm, va tung ra cac chin dich quang cao n tng, hiu qua, cung cp cac thng tin cn thit cho bao chi, truyn hinh hay tao c hi cho ngi mua chay th xe v.v... anh gia cac phng an: Trn thc t, khng co mu s chung nao cho qua trinh nay. Ngi tiu dung anh gia cac phng an la chon rt khac nhau tuy theo ca tinh, tm ly, s thich, nhu cu va hoan canh mua hang. Thm chi mt ngi tiu dung cung co qua trinh anh gia khac nhau vi tng san phm ring bit.

Trc tin, v ban cht, vic mua hang la thoa man cac nhu cu va mong mun, va ngi tiu dung a ra mt s tiu chi v thuc tinh cua san phm ma co th thoa man nhng nhu cu y. Cac tiu chi nay hoan toan khac nhau vi nhng san phm khac nhau va ngay vi mt san phm thi cung khac nhau tuy theo ca nhn ngi mua. Vi du: Lan co th chon nhng thuc tinh cua xe may nh it hao xng, chay bn, it h hong lt vt. Nhng Hng lai chon nhng thuc tinh khac nh kiu dang ep, mau sc bt mt, thng hiu ni ting v.v...Hoc khi mua nhng mon hang khac thi Lan co th a ra cac tiu chi v thuc tinh khac nhau. Vi du mua kem anh rng thi c oi hoi v tinh sat khun, thm ming va gia re, mua qun ao thi c chon la tiu chi v mau sc nha nhn, cht liu vai mat, kiu dang hp thi trang v.v... Tip theo, ngi tiu dung se co khuynh hng a ra cac mc quan trong khac nhau cho nhng thuc tinh ma ho cho la quan trong vi minh. Nhng thuc tinh c trng la cai ma ngi mua noi ra u tin khi c hoi ti cht lng hang hoa. Tuy nhin, ngi lam Marketing ng lm tng rng o la thuc tinh quan trong nht. i khi o la do tac dung cua quang cao, hay do ngi tiu dung qun mt cai quan trong nht trong u ho ma noi ra mt cai ho co th nh ngay. K tip, ngi tiu dung se xy dng cho minh mt nim tin vao cac nhan hiu hang hoa, va anh gia chung theo cac thuc tinh nht inh cua tng nhan hiu o. Nim tin nay xut phat t cac nhn thc va tri thc linh hi c v nhan hiu o va la kt qua cua nhn thc co chon loc, s bop meo co chon loc va ghi nh co chon loc. Sau cung, ngi mua gan cho mi thuc tinh y mt chc nng hu ich va hinh thanh thai vi nhan hiu y sau khi a anh gia mt s thuc tinh. Chc nng hu ich m ta mc thoa man mong i cua tng thuc tinh. Tuy nhin thai cua ngi tiu dung vi nhan hiu con phu thuc vao mc gia ca va s hin din trn thi trng cua no. Ta hay xem Lan so sanh th nao gia cac thng hiu xe may: Yamaha, Suzuki, Honda, SYM. Nhan hiu xe may Honda Yamaha Suzuki SYM S ni ting 10 9 8 7 Cac thuc tinh so sanh bn Tiu hao nhin liu 8 8 9 7 8 8 7 8 Phu tung thay th 9 7 7 9

Gia s Lan quan tm 40% ti bn, 30% cho s tiu hao nhin liu, 20% cho thng hiu, 10% cho phu tung thay th. Kt qua nhn c se la: Honda = 0,4x8 + 0,3x8 + 0,2x10 + 0,1x9 = 8,5

Yamaha = 0,4x9 + 0,3x7 + 0,2x9 + 0,1x7 = 8,2 Suzuki = 0,4x8 + 0,3x8 + 0,2x8 + 0,1x7 = 7,9 SYM = 0,4x7 + 0,3x8 + 0,2x7 + 0,1x9 = 7,5 Ta oan rng Lan se thich va co th chon Honda. Tuy nhin, nu thi trng him xe Honda, hay gia xe Honda qua cao thi Lan rt co th se chon Yamaha. Nh vy chin thng trong cuc anh gia nay, nhng ngi lam Marketing co th lam cac chin lc sau y thay i s anh gia nay: - Cai tin san phm. Hang Yamaha co th vai cai tin va xoa tan n tng xe Yamaha chay hao xng va m thm nhiu im bao hanh xoa n tng rng phu tung thay th cua Yamaha rt kho kim. - Thay i nim tin v nhan hiu cua minh va cua i thu: vic nay tuy kho, nhng cac n lc tip thi co th lam c. Trng hp cua Nokia hay Sam sung la vi du in hinh khi thay th vi tri dn u cua Motorola va Sony trn thi trng. - Thay i tm quan trong cua cac trong s. Cac hang xe c anh gia cao v bn va thng hiu co th lam nhng ngi tiu dung nh Lan nghi rng cac tiu chi v bn va thng hiu mi quan trong. - Thu hut s chu y vao cac thuc tinh bi bo qua. SYM co th thu hut s chu y cua ngi mua v gia re, kiu dang va mau sc phong phu, dich vu bao hanh bao tri thun tin v.v... - Thay i quan nim v s ly tng cua ngi mua. Vi du SYM co th thuyt phuc cac c gai nh Lan rng xe Honda va Yamaha co nhiu net nam tinh, khng hp vi cac c gai nh cac kiu xe cua SYM. Ra quyt inh va mua hang: Sau khi anh gia cac la chon, ngi mua hinh thanh s thich va y inh mua hang. Tuy nhin, t nh mua cho ti quyt nh mua cn tri qua mt khong thi gian v chu s nh hng ca nhiu yu t gp phn km hm nh mua ca ngi tiu dng ,c th l: - Thai cua nhng ngi khac: Gia s Lan a quyt inh mua Honda, nhng Hng va mt s c ban thi khng thich va tim cach thuyt phuc Lan mua xe cua SYM cho ging ho. Ri ba me hay ngi yu, nhng ngi rt gn gui cung khuyn Linh nn chon SYM thi rt co th Lan se thay i y inh. iu nay phu thuc hai yu t 1) mc gay gt va manh lit cua nhng phan i o va 2) mc nghe theo va ng c mun lam theo cua ngi tiu dung. - Cac tinh hung bt ng: rt co th Lan a quyt tm mua xe, nhng t ngt me c bi bnh va cn tin, chc la c se phai tri hoan vic mua xe lai. Co th tai ca

hang luc o, co ngi khac ti phan nan v dich vu, va Lan thy mt long tin nn se khng mua na. Ngi lam Marketing cn y thc rt ro v cac tac ng nay han ch ti a cac anh hng xu ti quyt inh mua hang. Vic ra quyt inh mua hang va mua hang co th c tin hanh song song, cung mt luc, nhng cung co th khac thi im. Lan co th ra quyt inh va mua ngay tai ca hang. Nhng co th quyt inh, t coc mt it ri tun sau mi mua. Vi vy nhiu tai liu chia bc nay thanh 2 bc ring bit: ra quyt inh va mua hang. Tuy nhin, chung ta gp chung vao nghin cu cho a s trng hp. anh gia sau khi mua: Sau khi mua xe v va s dung, Lan se co th hai long hay tht vong v chic xe a mua. Cng vic cua ngi lam Marketing khng th kt thuc khi khach hang a mua, ma con phai keo dai sut thi gian ho s dung san phm y. S hai long sau khi mua: Cac nha lam Marketing cn tao ra cac gia tri nhn thc cao hn gia tri mong i cua ngi tiu dung. Hanh ng sau khi mua: nu ho hai long hay thoa man, ho se quay lai mua hay gii thiu cho ngi khac, a cac thng tin tt v san phm. Ngc lai nu ho khng hai long thi se ty chay, va noi xu cho rt nhiu ngi khac bit. S phn cua hang hoa sau khi mua: nu c yu thich va hai long, hang hoa se c s dung thng xuyn. Ngc lai, no se bi bo qun hay ngi ta tim cach thoat khoi no. Nu Lan hai long va thich chic xe a mua thi c se i no thng xuyn va hanh din khoe vi ban be. Nu c khng hai long thi se han ch i no vi ngai nhng iu bc minh no co th mang lai, va c tim cach ban lai no i xe khac, hoc c tim cach tra lai ni ban i cai mi. Trong sut qua trinh mua hang, qua trinh chp nhn san phm mi bao gm nm giai oan: 1) Bit: ngi tiu dung bit ti san phm mi nhng cha co y u thng tin v no. 2) Quan tm: ngi mua bi kich thich i tim kim thng tin v san phm mi 3)anh gia: ngi tiu dung quyt inh co nn xem, th san phm mi hay khng 4) Dung th: dung th qui m nho co khai nim cu th hn 5) Chp nhn: ngi tiu dung hai long va chp nhn s dung thng xuyn hn. Qua trinh nay cho chung ta thy ro con ngi rt khac nhau trong vic chp nhn san phm mi. S nhay cam vi cai mi tc mc i trc tng i cua ca

nhn so vi nhng ngi khac cua h thng xa hi trong vic chp nhn cac y tng mi. Chung ta co th phn loai khach hang theo thi gian chp nhn san phm mi nh sau:
Cch tn (khai ph 2.5%): mo him, dng th sn phm vi chp nhn

t nhiu may ri.


Tin phong (chn ngay 13.5%): l nhng ngi u tin v dn dt d

lun dng sn phm vi thi cn trng. Theo ui sm (34%): d dt, chp nhn ci mi ngay sau khi c ngi dng
a nghi ti mun (34%): c tnh hai nghi, ch dng khi thy c nhiu

ngi dng v c kt qu.


Lc hu (16%): hai nghi vi cc thay i, b tri buc bi thi qun,

truyn thng, bo th vi cc sn phm quen thuc Bn canh o, cac anh hng ca nhn cung la mt yu t quan trong. Li gii thiu v hang hoa cua ca nhn co tac ng ti thai va xac xut mua hang cua ngi khac. Chinh vi vy, nhng ngi tin phong, cach tn, cac nhom y kin lanh ao lun la cac yu t cn khai thac trong Marketing. Cui cung, chinh tinh cht cua hang hoa cung tac ng ti vic chp nhn no. Co 5 tinh cht cua san phm co anh hng c bit ti nhip va thi gian chp nhn no: - Mt la tinh u vit tng i, tc la s vt tri hn cai ang co trn thi trng. Gia s Linh chon mt model mi ra nht cua Honda, thi cac tinh nng u vit c truyn ba se khin c chp nhn no nhanh chong hn. - Hai la tinh tng hp, tc la mc phu hp vi cac gia tri c cng nhn trong kinh nghim cua ngi mua. Model xe mi o chc chn phai phu hp vi nhng gi Linh trai nghim vi cac model xe khac va ky vong vao cac gia tri nht inh. - Ba la tinh phc tap, mc tng i kho hiu va kho s dung. Tinh nay cang cao thi s chp nhn cang lu va chm. - Bn la: kha nng dung th lam quen. Nu Linh khng c chay th thi cha chc c a chp nhn mao him mua model mi o. Nhng nu c th thi se chp nhn nhanh va d dang hn. - Nm la mc th hin ro rang, thng tin trc quan. Linh co th thy model mi y qua quang cao, nhng chinh tai ca hang, s gii thiu cua ngi ban, cac thng tin trc quan se thuc y c chp nhn nhanh hn, d hn. 4.2. HNH VI MUA CA CC T CHC 4.2.1. Phn loi khch hng l cc t chc

iu khc bit c bn ca cc t chc so vi khch hng tiu dng c nhn l cc t chc mua hng ho v dch v phc v cho cc hot ng ca t chc . Chng hn, cc doanh nghip s dng thng tin lin lc, vt t, thit b (t liu sn xut) tin hnh hot ng sn xut kinh doanh. Cc c quan nh nc cng s dng cc yu t u vo khc nhau phc v cho cng vic ca h. Hng ho, dch v mua phc v cho sn xut c gi l t liu sn xut. Nh vy, cc t chc cn n cc t liu sn xut nh l cc yu t u vo cn thit cho qu trnh hot ng ca cc t chc . C th chia khch hng l cc t chc thnh bn loi: Cc doanh nghip sn xut Cc doanh nghip thng mi Cc t chc phi li nhun (c quan o to, nghin cu, cng ty phc v cng ch) Cc c quan ng, Nh nc. 4.2.2. Hnh vi mua ca cc khch hng t chc 1) Khi qut v th trng t chc iu khc bit c bn ca cc t chc so vi khch hng tiu dng c nhn l cc khch hng t chc mua hng ho v dch v phc v cho cc hot ng ca t chc , tc l hng ho dch v h mua l yu t u vo cho hot ng ca h. c im ny s chi phi cc c im khc (nhu cu, hnh vi mua, s lng mua, ngi tham gia mua) Chng hn, cc doanh nghip s dng thng tin lin lc, vt t, thit b tin hnh hot ng sn xut kinh doanh. Cc c quan nh nc cng s dng cc yu t u vo no phc v cho cng vic ca h. Hng ho, dch v mua phc v cho sn xut c gi l t liu sn xut. Nh vy, t liu sn xut l cc yu t u vo cn thit cho qu trnh hot ng ca cc doanh nghip sn xut. 2) c trng c bn ca th trng cc t chc
Quy m th trng, khi lng mua:

- S lng cc khch hng t chc th t hn nhiu so vi cc khch hng tiu dng c nhn. Nhng s lng mua th ln hn nhiu so vi nhu cu tiu dng c nhn. - Quan h gia khch hng v ngi cung cp dch v thn thin hn, gn gi hn. Cc nh cung cp cng mun c cc khch hng n nh v lu di. Cc khch hng cng mun c nh cung cp tin cy, n nh. iu ny c li cho c nh cung cp v cc DNSX.

- Th trng cc t chc thng tp trung theo vng a l (cc khu cng nghip, khu ch xut, cc thnh ph). - Nhu cu ca khch hng t chc l nhu cu th pht, th ng. Nhu cu v cc yu t u vo ca cc khch hng t chc ny sinh do nhu cu trn th trng u ra ca h l th trng cc khch hng tiu dng cui cng. - Cu co dn thp khi gi thay i, tc l gi c thay i nhiu nhng cu thay i t. L do l cu i vi cc yu t u vo sn xut ca t chc ch thay i khi sn lng u ra thay i. C th nu ra sau y mt s c im chung ca co dn cu theo gi i vi cc yu t u vo ca cc t chc: + Trong thi gian ngn hn th cu cc yu t u vo thng t co dn. L do l trong thi gian ngn khng th thay i c cng ngh sn xut. + i vi cc yu t t liu sn xut u vo thit yu s c co dn t hn cc yu t u vo khc. + Nhng yu t u vo c mt hng thay th, hay c nhiu nh cung cp s c co dn cao hn cc loi khc. Nhng ngi tham gia mua hng trong t chc: C nhiu ngi ca cng ty tham gia vo qu trnh quyt nh mua (Hi ng mua sm). S ngi tham gia tu thuc vo mc quan trng ca hng mua. Vai tr ca cc thnh vin trong Hi ng l khc nhau. Mua sm cc yu t u vo ca cc t chc mang tnh chuyn nghip. Cc nhn vin mua sm c o to, c kinh nghim mua sm. Do vy, doanh nghip bn bn cng phi thuyn chn i ng bn hng chuyn nghip, c tuyn chn k v o to c bi bn v nghip v, k thut.
Cc c tnh khc:

- Mua sm thng theo phng thc trc tip, khng thng qua trung gian. - La chn k ngi cung cp v xy dng quan h lu di, n nh. - Xu hng chuyn sang thu mua ti chnh hn l mua t bn on v gim c ri ro v nng cao hiu qu. Bng di y tng hp cc c trng ny. TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 Khc bit v nhu cu Nhu cu ca cc khch hng t chc l nhu cu th pht v t co dn Nhu cu ca cc khch hng t chc bin ng theo chu k S lng cc khch hng t chc t, nhng nhu cu mua nhiu Khch hng t chc tp trung v v tr a l Khch hng t chc mong mun c nh cung cp tin cy, n nh lu di Khch hng t chc yu cu gii php tng th, ch khng phi ch l mt sn

phm dch v n l. Khc bit v cch thc mua 7 8 9 10 Khch hng t chc thng mua trc tip, khng qua trung gian phn phi Nhiu ngi tham gia vo qu trnh mua vi cc vai tr khc nhau Qu trnh mua chuyn nghip vi nhiu th tc phc tp. Hnh thc u thu mua thng c s dng. Khch hng t chc c th t sn xut, hoc lin kt sn xut cc yu t u vo ch ng v nng cao hiu qu 3) Qu trnh thng qua quyt nh mua ca cc t chc a) Nhng dng mua hng ch yu C th nu ra mt s dng mua hng ch yu sau y ca cc t chc:

Mua lp i lp li, khng thay i v s lng, chng loi hng mua.

Cc nh cung cp c chn mua cn phi c gng gi mi quan h gn b, lu di vi khch hng bng cc chnh sch chm sc khch hng i vi khch hng ln. Cc nh cung cp khc cha c chn, nhng mun tham gia vo th trng ny th cn pht hin ra nhng iu m ngi mua khng bng lng vi cc nh cung cp hin ti a ra cc sn phm thay th. Mun vy th cng cn phi hiu r khch hng. Nhng yu t u vo c mua lp li thng l cc vn phng phm, nguyn liu, nhin liu, vt t cn thit cho cc t chc trong in kin quy m sn xut ca t chc khng thay i.
Mua lp li c s thay i v tnh nng, quy cch hng ho, cc iu

kin cung cp ng khc. y l c hi thun li cho doanh nghip mun chen chn vo th trng ny. Cc nh cung cp yu t u hin ti phi lun lun nm bt c nhng yu cu mi ca t chc tm cch p ng kp thi. Nu khng lm c nh vy th h ra nhng khong trng cho cc i th mi chen chn vo. Khi t chc phi i mi sn phm, gim gi bn, m rng th trng cnh tranh th h c nhu cu thay i cc yu t u vo.

Mua gii quyt cc nhim v mi.

y l trng hp t chc mua hng ln u. Chi ph mua sm, ri ro cng ln th cng nhiu ngi tham gia vo qu trnh mua. Mua ln u thng ngi mua cn c nhiu thng tin v sn phm, v cc nh cung ng. Cc nh tip th phi c gng cung cp nhiu thng tin theo yu cu bn mua, phi tip xc vi nhiu ngi tham gia mua thuyt phc.

Khi mua hng gii quyt nhim v mi, ngi mua thng quan tm n cc tiu thc sau: c tnh k thut; gii hn gi c; thi gian v iu kin giao hng; iu kin dch v k thut; iu kin thanh ton; khi lng t hng; nhng ngi cung cp c th; ngi cung cp c chn. b) Nhng ngi tham gia vo qu trnh mua Nh trn cp, vic mua sm cc yu t u cho t chc khng phi do mt ngi, m do mt tp th mt Hi ng mua m nhim. H cng nhau chia s trch nhim v vic mua hng. Tuy nhin, vai tr v nhim v ca cc thnh vin trong Hi ng mua khc nhau. C th chia ra cc i tng sau y: - Ngi s dng: y l nhng ngi s s dng yu t u sau khi mua. Trong nhiu trng hp h l ngi khi xng ngh mua sm . - Ngi nh hng: y l nhng ngi m kin ca h l cn c la chn cc quyt nh mua. H l cc chuyn gia k thut c giao nhim v nh gi v k thut cc ngh cho hng. Khi mua mt h thng my tnh, h thng thng tin lin lc ni b cho cng ty, cc chuyn gia tin hc, vin thng c ch nh nh gi cu hnh, cht lng, gi c ca h thng. - Ngi quyt nh: y l nhng ngi c thm quyn trong cng ty, c trch nhim ra cc quyt nh cui cng v hp ng mua: s lng, chng loi, gi c, nh cung cp - Ngi mua: y l nhng ngi trc tip lm nhim v giao dch, mua sm cc yu t u vo. Vai tr ca h l chn a im mua hng cng nh cc in kin lin quan n thi hn giao hng, phng thc thanh ton. Tuy nhin, i vi cc Hp ng mua quan trng, h phi xin kin cui cng ca cc cp c thm quyn. Nhim v ca nhng ngi lm Marketing l phi xc nh c ai l cc thnh vin trong Hi ng mua, vai tr ca cc thnh vin trong Hi ng v cc quyt nh mua, tiu chun m h dng nh gi trong qu trnh mua. c) Cc yu t nh hng n ngi mua Trong qu trnh thng qua cc quyt nh mua, nhng ngi tham gia trong Hi ng mua chu nh hng ca nhiu cc yu t khc nhau nh sau: - Nhng yu t mi trng: l tnh trng kinh t hin ti v tng lai ca t nc; nhp tin b khoa hc k thut; cc yu t chnh tr; cc chnh sch iu tit kinh t ca chnh ph; hot ng ca cc i th cnh tranh. Doanh nghip c th nm c cc thng tin ny qua cc phng tin thng tin i chng khc nhau. Cc yu t mi trng quan trng ny thc y hoc km hm cc hot ng mua sm ca cc t chc. Chnh sch ch ng

hi nhp kinh t quc t ca ng v Nh nc l ng lc buc cc doanh nghip phi i mi cng ngh nng cao kh nng cnh tranh. y l c hi tt cho cc nh kinh doanh thit b, cng ngh mi. - Cc yu t c im ca doanh nghip: Mi doanh nghip c cc mc tiu ring, vn ho ring, c cu t chc ring v mi quan h ni b ring. Cc yu t ny nh hng n thnh phn, vai tr, cch thc quyt nh ca Hi ng mua hng. Mt doanh nghip mang tnh cch c quyn th gim c thng thu tm quyn lc mua bn vo trong tay. Doanh nghip t nhn c cch mua TLSX khc hn vi cc doanh nghip quc doanh. - Cc yu t quan h c nhn: l mi quan h gia cc thnh vin trong nhm mua hng, t dn ti cch tha thun trong nhm i n quyt nh mua. - Cc yu t c im c nhn: Nhng ngi tham gia mua hng c cc ng c, c tnh, nhn thc khc nhau tu theo tui tc, trnh hc vn, v tr cng tc, nhn cchCc yu t ny nh hng n qu trnh quyt nh mua ca mi c nhn tham gia trong Hi ng mua hng. 4) Qu trnh thng qua quyt nh mua Qu trnh ny tng t nh qu trnh thng qua quyt nh mua ca ngi tiu dng. Tuy nhin, y ngi mua phi tri qua nhiu giai on hn (8 giai on): a) thc c vn cn phi mua sm: l khi t chc thc c vn cn phi mua sm. thc ny xut hin di s tc ng ca cc yu t bn trong doanh nghip (c nhu cu mua sm) v t cc yu t kch thch bn ngoi (qung co, cho hng). - Khi t chc bt u sn xut dch v, sn phm mi th h cn thit b, vt t mi cho sn xut. - Khi t chc cn thay th, nng cp cc thit b c, lc hu. Do vy h c nhu cu mua sm thit b, ph tng. - Khi nh cung cp c khng p ng nhu cu, i hi cao hn ca t chc. H bt u tm kim cc nh cung cp mi. - Khi xut hin cng ngh mi cht lng cao hn, tit kim chi ph, nng cao kh nng cnh tranh - Khi cc nh cung ng qung co, cho hng cc vt liu, cng ngh mi, dch v mi cu th hn so vi hin ti. Trong giai on ny, cc nh lm cng tc Marketing cn hiu c cc cng ngh, vt t hin ti ang c khch hng dng, cng nh cc chin lc sn phm

th trng ca h, v kp thi qung co, cho hng cc sn phm mi nhm mang li nhu cu, li ch cao hn cho h. b) M t khi qut nhu cu: - Xc nh cc c tnh ca cc mt hng cn mua. Cc chuyn gia v k thut c th c mi a ra cc yu cu chnh xc i vi cc yu t u vo cn mua. - Doanh nghip mua cn c thng tin kp thi. Ngi bn hng cn cung cp thng tin y , nhanh chng v cc loi yu t u vo khc nhau, t vn cho ngi mua. c) nh gi tnh nng ca hng ho: y l giai on m cc chuyn gia ca t chc thc hin vic nh gi u nhc im ca hng ho vt t thit b v k thut, kinh t trn c s phn tch hiu qu - chi ph. Trong giai on ny t chc cn tr li cc cu hi sau y: - Hng ho d kin mua mang li gi tr g cho cng ty? C tng xng vi chi ph b ra khng? - C cn tt c cc chc nng ca hng ho khng? - C loi hng ho thay th c tnh nng tng t vi gi r hn khng? - C cc nh cung cp cng loi khc vi gi r hn khng? - Cng ty c t sn xut c khng? d) Tm hiu ngi cung ng: Nhn vin mua hng tm kim, lp danh sch cc nh cung ng c th, loi b cc nh cung ng khng t cc yu cu ban u, xp loi cc nh cung ng theo cc tiu chun no . - Cc ngun thng tin khc nhau c s dng tm kim cc nh cung ng. l: Cc n phm thng mi; Qung co; Trin lm; Internet; Cc phng tin thng tin i chng - Nhim v ca cc nh cung cp TLSX l phi cung cp y , kp thi thng tin cn thit cho cc thnh vin ca Hi ng mua hng. e) Yu cu cho hng: - Cng ty ngh cc nh cung ng c kh nng c la chn thc hin vic cho hng chnh thc (cung cp cc ti liu, thng tin cn thit, c i din bn hng n gii thiu). i din bn hng phi gii p c cc vn do khch hng t ra. Qua cc cho hng m bn mua la chn, quyt nh. - Trong giai on ny, vai tr ca cc i din bn hng rt quan trng, gip cho nh cung ng lt vo tm ngm ca khch hng. f) La chn ngi cung cp:

- Trong giai on ny bn mua nghin cu k cc vn bn cho hng la chn nh cung ng. nh gi c c s, bn mua s lit k nhng c im yu cu cc nh cung ng. Cc c im ny c xp theo th t mc quan trng, hoc c gn cho cc trng s, sau ly trung bnh cng c gia quyn lm kt qu so snh gia cc nh cung ng khc nhau. - i vi hnh thc mua qua th tc u thu th y l giai on m thu. Cng ty tin hnh m thu, chm thu v cng b ngi trng thu. g) Lm cc th tc t hng: Giai on ny, ngi mua m phn cc chi tit, th tc t hng v k kt hp ng vi nh cung cp c la chn. l v cc c tnh k thut, s lng mua, thi gian giao hng, chnh sch bo hnh...Cng vic ny c cc nhn vin mua hng tho thun thc hin cng vi i din bn bn. hl) nh gi ngi cung ng: Trong giai on ny, ngi mua xem xt nh gi kt qu thc hin ca bn cung cp. Ngi mua c th nh gi cc nh cung cp bng cch s dng mt s cc tiu chun no (c th km theo trng s ng vi mi tiu chun). Trn c s nh gi m bn mua quyt nh tip tc mua, mua c thay i hay khng mua tip i vi cc nh cung cp chn. CU HI N TP V THO LUN 1) Phn tch khi qut m hnh hnh vi ngi tiu dng? 2) Cc yu t mi trng nh chnh tr, kinh t, vn ho, cng ngh, dn s nh hng nh th no n hnh vi tiu dng? Cho v d minh ho? 3) Phn tch khi qut nh hng ca cc yu t thuc v c tnh ca ngi mua n hnh vi mua ca ngi tiu dng. Cho v d minh ho? 4) Phn tch khi qut qu trnh thng qua quyt nh mua hng ca ngi tiu dng? 5) Phn tch khi qut nh hng ca cc yu t thuc v tm l n hnh vi mua ca ngi tiu dng. Cho v d minh ho? 6) Phn tch qu trnh mua ca cc t chc? 7) a v x hi ca ngi tiu dng nh hng nh th no n hnh vi mua ca khch hng in thoi di ng? 8) Nhm ngng m c nh g n quyt nh mua xe my? 9) Khi mt c quan quyt nh lp t mt mng my tnh, th ai tham gia vo quyt nh mua? Ai l ngi quyt nh? 10) Phn tch li sng nh hng n quyt nh mua hng ho, dch v ca

ngi tiu dng nh th no (*) 11) Hy tm mt trng hp mua hng ca mt doanh nghip, v phn tch cc vai tr khc nhau ca Hi ng mua hng?

Chng 5

PHN ON TH TRNG, LA CHN TH TRNG MC TIU V NH V SN PHM


MC TIU Sau khi hc chng ny, sinh vin cn nm c: - Khi nim phn on th trng, la chn th trng mc tiu, v nh v sn phm trn th trng.

- L do v li ch ca vic phn on th trng - Cc nguyn tc phn on th trng - Qu trnh la chn th trng mc tiu - Cc chin lc p ng th trng - Phng php nh v sn phm trn th trng 5.1. PHN ON TH TRNG 5.1.1. Khi nim Phn on th trng l qu trnh phn chia ngi tiu dng thnh cc nhm da trn cc khc bit v nhu cu, tnh cch, hnh vi. on th trng l mt nhm khch hng trong th trng tng th c phn ng (i hi) nh nhau i vi cng mt tp hp cc kch thch Marketing. Nh vy, trong cng mt on th trng, khch hng c tnh ng nht v nhu cu, s thch, kh nng thanh tonV doanh nghip c th p ng bng cng mt chng trnh Marketing hn hp 5.1.2. L do phi phn on th trng C nhiu l do v li ch buc cc doanh nghip phi thc hin phn on th trng. C th nu ra mt s l do v li ch c bn sau y: - Do khch hng a dng, trong khi doanh nghip khng th p ng tt c cc nhu cu. Mi doanh nghip ch c mt s th mnh nht nh m thi. - Phn on th trng gip cho doanh nghip phn b c hiu qu cc ngun lc, tp trung n lc vo ng ch. - Phn on th trng gip cho doanh nghip p ng cao nht nhu cu ca khch hng, do vy tng kh nng cnh tranh cho doanh nghip, ngay c vi cc doanh nghip nh. Cc cng ty nh dng chin lc phn on th trng chim c mt ch ng trn th trng c k chim gi nhng cha ch trng n ht cc phn on hoc ch thc hin Marketing i tr. Cc cng ty ln chim lnh th trng th phi phng k xm nhp bng cch p dng chin lc phn on th trng. C th ni, nguyn nhn c bn ca vic phi phn on th trng l do cnh tranh. V cnh tranh m doanh nghip buc phi thc hin phn on th trng nng cao kh nng cnh tranh ca mnh. Thot u, doanh nghip c th cha thc hin phn on th trng m phc v tt c cc khch hng vi cng mt chin lc Marketing hn hp. Tuy nhin, n mt lc no h s t nhn thy rng sn phm

ca mnh khng th tho mn c tt c mi khch hng vi nhu cu rt a dng. Do vy, doanh nghip buc phi la chn nhng nhm khch hng hp dn nht m h c kh nng cnh tranh cao so vi cc i th cnh tranh. Phn on th trng, dovy l mt v kh cnh tranh hu hiu. Phn on th trng chnh l thc hin t tng ch o ca Marketing: Ch bn nhng th m khch hng cn!. Nu doanh nghip bn mt loi sn phm cho tt c cc khch hng khc nhau, rt c th doanh nghip s khng p ng c nhu cu ca tt c cc khch hng c nhu cu khc nhau. S hnh thnh ca Marketing mc tiu Khng phi cc cng ty u thc hin phn on th trng ngay t ban u. H thng tri qua mt s giai on khc nhau tu vo iu kin th trng. Giai on 1: Marketing i tr Trong giai on ny doanh nghip khng phn on th trng m coi mi khch hng u c nhu cu ng nht. Theo quan im ny, cng ty sn xut mt loi sn phm, bn vi gi nh nhau cho tt c cc khch hng. Lm nh vy, cng ty s gim c chi ph sn xut, gim gi bn, m rng c th trng. Quan im ny ph hp vi iu kin th trng khng c s cnh tranh, khch hng khng c s la chn. Tuy nhin, khi c cc doanh nghip cnh tranh mi, h khm ph ra c nhng nhm khch hng khng c tho mn bi sn phm i tr ca cng ty hin hnh. y chnh l c hi h a ra nhng sn phm mi p ng nhu cu .
Giai on 2: Marketing a dng ha sn phm

Doanh nghip sn xut ra cc sn phm a dng v phong ph v cht lng, bao b, gi c hoc s khc bit mt vi c tnh no khch hng t chn. Do p ng tt nhu cu v c mun ca khch hng nn chin lc ny mang li kt qu kinh doanh cao hn so vi Marketing i tr. Chin lc ny vn coi mi khch hng l i tng kinh doanh, song tng phn on th trng cng bt u hnh thnh. Giai on 3: Marketing mc tiu Doanh nghip tin hnh phn on th trng v la chn mt hay vi on th trng (th trng mc tiu) phc v. Sau doanh nghip tin hnh sn xut sn phm sao cho p ng yu cu ca th trng mc tiu chn. y l phng php mang tnh ch ng theo quan im Marketing hin i. Trn c s , doanh nghip c th tp trung n lc Marketing vo th trng mc tiu chn nng cao

kh nng cnh tranh. Phn on th trng La chn th trng mc tiu

nh v sn phm trn th trng mc tiu

S 5.1. Cc bc trong Marketing mc tiu 5.1.3. Cc yu cu ca phn on th trng Phn on th trng nhm gip doanh nghip xc nh nhng on th trng mc tiu hay th trng trng im t hiu qu kinh doanh cao. on th trng c hiu qu c hiu l mt nhm cc khch hng m doanh nghip c kh nng p ng c nhu cu v c mun ca h, ng thi c s lng ln to ra dng tin thu ln hn dng tin chi cho nhng n lc kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. Khi phn on, th trng phi t cc yu cu sau:

Tnh o lng c: Phn on th trng phi m bo o Tnh tip cn c: Cc khc th trng phi vn ti v phc Tnh hp dn: Cc phn khc th trng phi c quy m ln Tnh kh thi: Cng ty phi c kh nng v nhn lc, ti chnh,

lng c quy m, sc mua v cc c im ca khch hng tng on.

v c bng h thng phn phi v cc hot ng truyn thng.

v sinh li c.

k thut, Marketing p ng c i hi ca cc khc th trng phn. 5.1.4. Cc c s phn on th trng Mt doanh nghip c th phn on th trng bng nhiu cch khc nhau. C s phn on th trng th tu thuc vo tng loi sn phm. Mt cch phn loi khi qut nht i vi cc loi sn phm l chia khch hng thnh hai nhm ln: khch hng tiu dng cui cng v cc khch hng l ngi s dng trung gian. - Khch hng tiu dng cui cng l nhng ngi mua sn phm cho tiu dng c nhn hoc cho gia nh. H lp thnh th trng tiu dng. - Khch hng s dng trung gian hay cn gi l cc khch hng cng nghip l cc doanh nghip, cc t chc, c quan nh nc, phi chnh ph. H dng sn phm ca cng ty phc v cho qu trnh hot ng ca mnh. Cu ca h i vi sn phm ca cng ty l cu th pht, ph thuc vo cu i vi cc sn phm u ra

ca h. H lp thnh th trng t liu sn xut. Vic phn on th trng thnh hai nhm ln nh vy l c bit c ngha theo quan im Marketing, v hnh vi mua ca hai nhm ny khc nhau v c bn. T , chin lc Marketing hn hp ca cng ty i vi hai on th trng cng phi xy dng khc nhau. a) Phn on th trng ngi tiu dng Sau khi chia th trng thnh 2 nhm ln nh trn, doanh nghip phi chia th trng ra tng nhm nh hn. Cc c s tip tc phn on nhm khch hng ngi tiu dng l cc nhm tiu thc sau y: Nhm cc tiu thc a d a l, nhm cc tiu thc nhn khu hc, nhm cc tiu thc tm l hc v nhm cc tiu thc hnh vi i vi sn phm. Cc tiu thc Cc tiu thc a l Khu vc Quy m thnh ph Nng thn- T.th Kh hu Cc tiu thc nhn khu hc Tui tc Gii tnh Chu k gia nh Gio dc Ngh nghip Khu vc Dn tc Thu nhp Cc tiu thc tm l Tng lp x hi C tnh Li sng Hnh vi tiu dng Li ch theo ui Tnh trng s dng V d v cc on th trng - H Ni; H Ch Minh; Nng; Bc- Trung - Nam. - Di 25.000; 25.000 100.000; 100.000 500.000; 500.000 1000.000; 1000.000 -2000.000; 2000.000 - 3000.000. - Thnh th; gip ranh; nng thn. - Nng; n ho; lnh,

- Di 6t; 6 12; 13 19; 20 34; 35 49; 50 64; trn 65. - Nam, N. - c thn tr, c gia nh tr cha con - Tiu hc; Trung hc; i hc; Trn i hc. - Cn b nh nc; Doanh nhn; Cc quan chc; Sinh vin.., - Bc; Trung; Nam - Dn tc Kinh; dn tc thiu s - Giu c; trung lu; sng; ngho kh. - Tng lp trn; Trn trung bnh; Trung bnh; Di trung bnh. - Si ni, dng cm; bo th, tit kim. - Hiu ng; thch ngi nh; ch doanh nghip; thnh t. - Li ch vt cht; li ch tinh thn. - Cha dng; dng ln u; dng nhiu ln. - Mua t, mua va, mua nhiu.

Mc mua

Phn on theo cc tiu thc a l Cc tiu thc a l thng dng l: khu vc, quc gia, quc t, nng thn thnh ph. Cng ty s quyt nh kinh doanh mt hoc nhiu khu vc. Mi khu vc th trng c s khc bit v kh hu, kinh t, vn hado nhu cu ca h cng khc nhau V d: S thch n mc, tiu dng ca ngi min Bc khc so vi ngi min Nam. Ngi H Ni ch trng hnh thc hn ngi Si gn. Cch ung c ph, ung ch, khu v n ca ngi Vit Nam cng khc vi ngi chu u. Mt s cng ty thc phm Thi Lan xut khu thc phm theo khu v ca ngi Vit Nam, vi bao b in bng ting Vit sang cc nc c ng Vit kiu sinh sng nh M, Php Ti Austalia, dn chng bang Queensland a thch mu m, sng. Trong khi dn cc bang pha Nam li thch mu xm v lnh. Phn on theo cc tiu thc nhn khu hc Cc tiu thc nhn khu hc c dng ph bin phn on th trng. L do l nhu cu, s thch cng nh cng tiu dng ca dn chng c lin quan cht ch vi cc c im nhn khu hc. Mt khc, cc c im v nhn khu hc cng d o lng. Cc s liu thng k v nhn khu hc cn thit cho vic phn on th trng l cc s liu th cp sn c t cc ngun thng tin chnh thng ca Nh nc. Theo cc tiu thc nhn khu hc ngi ta chia th trng thnh cc nhm cn c vo cc bin s nh: Tui tc, gii tnh, quy m gia nh, giai on ca chu k gia nh, thu nhp, ngh nghip, hc vn, hn nhn, giai tng x hi, tn ngng, chng tc Tu vo loi sn phm m doanh nghip chn cc bin s phn on. V d: - i vi sn phm qun o, ta c th s dng 2 bin s phn on. l phn on trc ht theo khu vc thnh th, nng thn. Sau li phn on tip theo gii tnh nam, n. - i vi thuc l ngi ta c th phn on theo ngh nghip (ngi lao ng chn tay thng ht thuc nng), theo gii tnh (ph n thch thuc nh, kiu dng iu thuc, bao b thanh nh). - i vi xe my ngi ta c th chia ra xe th thao cho thanh nin (xe Win), xe cho cng chc (xe Dream), xe sang trng (xe Spacy), xe th (xe Minsk).

- i vi chi, qun o th 2 bin s tui tc v gii tnh l c s quan trng phn on. - i vi t, do ngy cng c nhiu ph n i lm t li xe, cho nn cc nh sn xut t nc ngoi ch n vic thit k v sn xut loi t con cho ph n. Phn on theo nguyn tc tm l hc Khi phn on theo tm l hc, dn chng c chia thnh cc nhm theo cc c tnh nh: cc tng lp x hi, li sng, hoc c tnh... Cc bin s ny nh hng n nhu cu, hnh vi mua sm tiu dng ca dn chng. V d: - Tui tr thng mun c li sng khc vi th h gi. H mun vng ln. H phn khng li s c h, bo th. iu ny th hin qua hnh vi tiu dng ca h. Nm bt tm l ny, Hng nc ung c ga Pepsi nhm mc tiu vo th h tr, li ko h khi b nh hng c ca Coca- cola v n vi Pepsi bng qung co: Pepsi - s la chn ca th h tr. Pepsi cng chn mu xanh i lp vi mu ca Coca. Thanh nin cng l th trng mc tiu cho nhiu sn phm tiu dng khc vi cc sn phm sn c nh qun o, giy dp, trang sc - Cc hng nc hoa cng sn xut cc loi nc hoa cho cc khch hng c li sng khc nhau: cho nhng ngi c li sng phng khong, cho nhng ngi c li sng theo kiu truyn thng, cho cc tnh cch du dng. - Qun Jeans cng c thit k cho cc tnh cch, li sng khc nhau: nhng ngi c tnh cch hiu ng; nhng ngi thnh t; nhng ngi ch doanh nghip; nhng ngi thch ngi nh - Cc sn phm nh t, bia, ru, m phm, thuc l cng c sn xut ring cho cc kiu nhn cch khc nhau v c th hin qua qung co. Xe Ford dnh cho nhng ngi c tnh cch c lp, si ni, dng cm, t tin. Xe Chevrolete dnh cho nhng ngi bo th, tit kim, chm lo n uy tn, im m. Phn on theo hnh vi mua hng Nhm cc tiu thc theo hnh vi tiu dng bao gm: li ch theo ui, mc tiu th, tnh trng s dng, mc trung thnh, s lng v cng s dng, cng tiu th, tnh trng s dng. Cc chuyn gia Marketing nh gi rng, phn on th trng theo hnh vi l khi im tt nht hnh thnh cc on th trng, tm kim cc gii php gia tng doanh s.

V d: Cng l thuc nh rng, nhng c th bo v rng (thiu nin, c gi); gip cho thm ming, trng rng, t tin (thanh nin). Cng l ko cao su, nhng c th gip cho sng khoi; gip tp th dc mt; gip cho thm ming. Cng l in thoi, nhng mang li nhiu li ch khc nhau nh: mt phng tin cnh tranh hu hiu (cho cc doanh nhn); mt phng tin giao lu tnh cm 2 chiu nhanh chng (cho quan h gia nh, bn b); mt phng tin lm cho sang trng (i vi ngi c tin) b) Phn on th trng t liu sn xut Khch hng cng nghip bao gm cc doanh nghip, cc t chc, c quan chnh quyn, trng hc. H dng sn phm ca cng ty phc v cho hot ng ca h. V nguyn tc c th p dng cc tiu thc phn on th trng i vi khch hng tiu dng cui cng. Tuy nhin, v s khc bit v mc ch mua hng ca khch hng cng nghip, cho nn ngi ta thng tp trung vo cc tiu thc phn on c bn sau y: - Phn on theo quy m ca khch hng: Quy m ln; quy m va; quy m nh. Cch phn on ny gip cho ta ra cc chnh sch qun l khch hng ln ph hp. - Phn on theo loi hnh t chc: Cc c quan nh nc; cc c quan nghin cu, o to; cc doanh nghip lin doanh; cc doanh nghip t nhn; cc doanh nghip quc doanh. - Phn on theo lnh vc kinh doanh: thng mi; dch v; sn xut. 5.2. LA CHN TH TRG MC TIU Sau khi chic bnh th trng c chia thnh mt s ming khc nhau - cc on th trng, cng ty cn phi i n quyt nh s nhm vo cc on th trng no hp dn v ph hp vi kh nng cu mnh. Mun vy cng ty cn nh gi cc on th trng v hp dn v da vo chn th trng mc tiu. 5.2.1. nh gi cc on th trng nh gi cc on th trng l nhm xc nh c mc hp dn ca mi on th trng i vi vic thc hin mc tiu cu cng ty. nh gi cc on th trng ngi ta c th s dng ba tiu chun c bn sau y: a) Quy m v s tng trng (Th phn, mc tng trng) Mt on th trng c xem nh c hiu qu nu n tho mn iu kin sau y: C quy m hin ti v mc tng trng trong tng lai b p cc chi ph

Marketing hin ti v tng lai ca cng ty. Cc cng ty ln nhm vo cc on th trng ln. Cc cng ty nh nhm vo cc on th trng nh (th trng ngch) ang b b ng do n khng hp dn cc cng ty ln. V d: Khi cc cng ty sn xut t ca Nht Bn vn ra th trng th gii, h dng chin thut th trng ngch. L do l vo thi im trn th trng th gii c mt cc xe t to, sang trng ca cc cng ty t hng u ca Ty u nh Mercedec, Fiat, BMW Xe t ca Nht s kh lng cnh tranh c. Do vy, cc cng ty Nht sn xut cc xe nh, tit kim xng gi thp xut khu. Th trng ny b cc cng ty ln b ng do khng hp dn. Sau khi chim c lng tin ca khch hng, cc cng ty t Nht bt u m rng ra cc on th trng xe t sang trng. nh gi quy m v mc tng trng ca mt on th trng ang xem xt, cng ty cn thu thp thng tin v tt c cc on th trng c phn chia. l thng tin v doanh s bn, v nhp tng tiu th d kin, mc li d kin, mc cnh tranhon th trng c hp dn nht l on c mc tiu th hin ti cao, tc tng trng cao, mc li nhun cao, mc cnh tranh thp, cc knh phn phi khng yu cu cao. b) hp dn ca th trng:

nh gi hp dn ca mt th trng, cn phi nh gi v mc cnh tranh trn th trng . hp dn ca mt on th trng t l nghch vi mc cnh tranh trn on th trng . nh gi ton din v tnh hnh cnh tranh, ta c th dng m hnh 5 yu t cnh tranh Micheal Porter. Theo m hnh ny cn xem xt 5 yu t cnh tranh l cc i th tim tng, cc sn phm thay th, cc nh cung cp, Nguy c xut hin cc khch hng, cc i th hin ti. i th tim n

Quyn lc ca nh cung cp

Cc i th trong cng ngnh

Quyn lc ca khch hng

Nguy c xut hin sn phm thay th

S 5.2. M hnh 5 lc lng cnh tranh ca Micheal Porter Do vy, chng ta s tm hiu cc mi e do cnh tranh nh gi hp dn ca mt th trng. - Ro cn gia nhp th trng: Nu mt th trng c ro cn gia nhp thp, cc i th mi d dng xm nhp. Do vy th trng t hp dn. Ngc li, khi ro cn gia nhp cao, th cc i th kh gia nhp.Do vy hp dn cao. - e do ca cc sn phm thay th: Nu on th trng c nhiu sn phm thay th th mc cnh tranh gin tip s cao, do vy khng hp dn. Ngc li, nu t c sn phm thay th th sn phm t b cnh tranh, do vy hp dn cao. - e do ca cc sn phm cng loi: Nu trn mt on th trng c nhiu sn phm cng loi cnh tranh th on th trng c hp dn thp. Ngc li, nu c t sn phm cng loi th cnh tranh thp v hp dn cao. - e do do quyn lc m phn ca ngi mua: Nu trn mt on th trng ngi mua c quyn m phn cao, h c kh nng p gi, i hi cht lng sn phm cao, dch v chm sc khch hng tt. iu ny gy kh khn, chi ph tn km cho cng ty. Do vy, hp dn ca th trng km. Tnh hnh s ngc li nu ngi mua c quyn m phn thp. - e do do quyn lc ca ngi cung ng: Tng t nh khi xt quyn lc ca ngi mua, nu ngi cung ng c kh nng m phn cao th h s gy sc p cho cng ty, th on th trng c sc hp dn thp. Nu h c kh nng m phn thp th hp dn ca th trng cao. c) Cc mc tiu v kh nng ca cng ty Mc tiu v kh nng cu cng ty cng l cc yu t cn xem xt nh gi hp dn ca mt on th trng. Nu on th trng khng ph hp vi kh nng v mc tiu lu di ca cng ty th cng b loi. Nu mt on th trng d ph hp vi mc tiu cng ty nhng cng ty khng kh nng th cng b loi b. Do vy, cn

xem xt c nng lc qun l, ti chnh, nhn lc, cng ngh ca cng ty xem c ph hp vi th trng d kin hay khng.Nu cng ty tham gia nhiu th trng mt lc trong khi kh nng hn ch, h s phn tn nng lc v lm suy yu kh nng cnh tranh ca cng ty. 4.2.2. La chn th trng mc tiu 1) Khi nim Th trng mc tiu l th trng bao gm cc khch hng c cng nhu cu, mong mun m cng ty c th p ng v tha mn c li th hn so vi cc i th cnh tranh ng thi p ng c mc tiu Marketing m cng ty ra. 2) Chn th trng mc tiu C 5 phng n la chn th trng mc tiu nh sau:
Phng n 1: Tp trung vo mt on th trng

Phng n ny thng c chn khi cng ty mi bc vo th trng, cha kinh nghim v vn ling, nhn lc, uy tn, ting tm.
Phng n 2: Chuyn mn ho tuyn chn

Cng ty chn mt s on th trng ph hp vi kh nng cu cng ty kinh doanh v tng ng vi mi on l mt sn phm ring bit.
Phng n 3: Chuyn mn ho theo th trng

Cng ty chn mt th trng no v cung cp cc sn phm ca mnh. Ni cch khc, cng ty cung cp tt c cc sn phm cho mt th trng c la chn ph hp.
Phng n 4: Chuyn mn ho theo sn phm

Cng ty chn mt sn phm thun li v cung cp cho tt c cc on th trng.


Phng n 5: Bao ph ton b th trng

Cng ty sn xut nhiu sn phm khc nhau phc v cho ton b th trng. Trn s 5.3. m t cc phng n la chn th trng mc tiu khc nhau. M 1, M2, M3 l cc nhm khch hng khc nhau. P1, P2, P3 l cc sn phm khc nhau.
M1 M2 M3 P1 P2 P3 M1 M2 M3 P1 P2 P3 M1 M2 M3 P1 P2 P3 M1 M2 M3 P1 P2 P3 M1 M2 M3 P1 P2 P3

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

5)

S 5.3. Cc phng n la chn th trng mc tiu P : Sn phm i (i=1; 2; 3) . M : nhm khch hng i (i=1; 2; 3). (1) : Tp trung vo 1 on th trng (2) : Chuyn mn ho tuyn chn (3) : Chuyn mn ho theo th trng (4) : Chuyn mn ho theo sn phm (5) : Bao ph ton b th trng 3) Cc chin lc Marketing p ng th trng mc tiu chn
i i

p ng nhu cu ca th trng, cng ty c th chn cc chin lc khc nhau. Sau y l 3 chin lc Marketing p ng th trng: H thng Marketing - Mix Th trng tng th l th trng mc tiu

Marketing khng phn bit H thng Marketing - Mix 1 H thng Marketing - Mix 2 H thng Marketing - Mix 3 on th trng mc tiu 1 on th trng mc tiu 2 on th trng mc tiu 3 Marketing phn bit on th trng s 1 H thng Marketing - Mix on th trng 2 l th trng mc tiu

on th trng s 3 S 5.4. Ba chin lc p ng on th trng mc tiu Marketing tp trung a) Chin lc Marketing khng phn bit Chin lc Marketing khng phn bit l chin lc trong cng ty tp trung vo nhng ci ng nht trong nhu cu, b qua cc im khc bit nh ca cc phn th trng khc nhau. Do vy sn phm ca cng ty cng nh cc bin s Marketing- Mix nhm vo nhu cu ca ng o khch hng. u im quan trng ca Marketing khng phn bit l tit kim chi ph sn xut, chi ph Marketing do hiu qu tng theo quy m. iu ny gip cho cng ty t gi thp, v nh vy ph hp vi th trng nhy cm v gi.

Cc qun c ph thot u cng thc hin chin lc Marketing khng phn bit. cnh tranh ginh th phn, cc i th mi xut hin thc hin chin lc Marketing tp trung. H nhm vo cc s thch khc nhau ca khch ung c ph v m cc qun c ph khc nhau nh: C ph sinh vin; c ph bng ; c ph in nh; c ph vn; c ph m nhcBng cch , cc i th mi p ng tt cc nhu cu khc nhau ca th trng, do vy chia s th trng, ginh c mt phn th trng c cc nhu cu ring t tay cc cu chin binh trn th trng. Ngnh cng nghip t M v cc nc Ty u trong nhiu nm ch sn xut cc t ln, gi cao. Do vy, Nht Bn nm ly c hi ny v xm nhp th trng t ny bng chin lc sn xut cc t nh v r. Nhc im ca chin lc Marketing khng phn bit l: - Kh khn khi hon cnh kinh doanh thay i bi v quy m th trng cng ln th cng kh thay i. - Do nhu cu th trng a dng nn sn phm ca cng ty kh lng p ng nhu cu ca ng o khch hng. - Vic b qua th trng nh s dn ti nguy c tim n cho cc i th cnh tranh xm nhp vo th trng. Chin lc Marketing khng phn bit c th c p dng khi mc cnh tranh trn th trng cha gay gt v th trng vn cn tng trng. b) Chin lc Marketing phn bit Theo chin lc Marketing phn bit, cng ty tham gia nhiu on th trng khc nhau vi cc chng trnh Marketing phn bit cho tng on th trng. Nh vy, vi mi on th trng, cng ty xy dng mt chin lc Marketing hn hp ring.

u im: Chin lc Marketing phn bit c kh nng xm nhp su

vo cc on th trng nh p ng nhu cu ring bit ca khch hng trn mi on, do vy s gim bt nguy c b cc i th mi nhy vo cnh tranh. Th trng cng trnh tranh mnh th cc cng ty cng cn thit s dng chin lc ny. Hin nay, nhiu cng ty thc hin chin lc Marketing phn bit. Trong lnh vc n ung cng ty c th m cc ca hng cm bnh dn cho khch hng t tin; cc nh hng kh cho cc khch hng trung lu; v cc khch sn, nh hng sang trng cho cc khch hng lm tin. Lnh vc xe my, xe t, my tnh cng c tnh hnh tng t.

Nhc im: nhc im ca chin lc ny l chi ph s ln. l

cc chi ph sn xut, chi ph Marketing do phi sn xut v bn nhiu loi sn phm. iu m cc cng ty quan tm l cn phi cn i c s on th trng ph hp v

quy m ca tng on. Nu cng ty chn qu nhiu on th trng th s lm gim hiu qu kinh doanh. c) Chin lc Marketing tp trung Chin lc Marketing tp trung nhm vo mt on th trng no ph hp vi kh nng cu mnh. y l chin lc ph hp vi cc cng ty mi tham gia th trng, kh nng ti chnh, cng ngh, nhn lc cn hn ch. Theo chin lc ny, cng ty c th tp trung c tim lc vo on th trng c chn, tc l thc hin chuyn mn ho cao .

u im: Nh chuyn mn ha cn ty nng cao c cht lng, h Nhc im: Ri ro ln nu c bin ng v nhu cu th trng.

gi bn, p ng tt nhu cu ca th trng. Hng xe my Minsk xm nhp th trng xe my Vit Nam bng loi xe Minkh dng cho nng thn, min ni. y l chin lc Marketing tp trung. Tuy nhin, trc y ti qu hng Belaruss (Bch Nga), Hng Minsk li dng chin lc Marketing khng phn bit: cung cp cho mi khch hng cng mt loi xe my Minsk. iu kin p dng chin lc ny l th trng xe my Belaruss ti thi im hu nh khng c cnh tranh. Hng Canon Nht Bn bc vo th trng Australia vi loi my pht copy bn n gin, gi thp nhm vo th trng m cc sn xut ln nh Xerox b qua (h ch sn xut my ph t to, gi cao, trn sn nh). Cc cn c la chn chin lc Khi chn chin lc chim lnh th trng, cng ty phi cn nhc cc yu t sau y: - Kh nng ti chnh ca cng ty: Nu kh nng ti chnh c hn, th cng ty nn chn mt on th trng thun li nht, tc l chn chin lc Marketing tp trung. - Mc ng nht ca sn phm: i vi mt s mt hng c tnh ng nht cao nh thp, ho cht, xng du th ph hp vi chin lc Marketing khng phn bit. i vi cc mt hng tnh ng nht thp nh in thoi di ng, qun o, xe my th nn dng chin lc Marketing phn bit. - Giai on ca chu k sng: Khi cng ty mi a sn phm ra th trng th ch nn cho bn mt phng n sn phm mi. iu c ngha l cng ty s dng chin lc Marketing khng phn bit hay Marketing tp trung. - Mc ng nht ca th trng: - Nu th trng c tnh ng nht cao, tc l c th hiu tng t nhau th

cng ty nn dng chin lc Marketing khng phn bit. - Chin lc Marketing ca cc i th cnh tranh: Chin lc ca cng ty cn tu thuc vo chin lc ca cc i th cnh tranh. Nu cc i th p dng chin lc Marketing khng phn bit th s c c hi cho chng ta s dng chin lc Marketing phn bit hoc Marketing tp trung (th trng ngch). Nu cc i th p dng chin lc Marketing phn bit th chng ta cng buc phi p dng chin lc Marketing phn bit, nhng nhm vo cc on th trng m cng ty chng ta c th mnh hn. 5.3. NH V SN PHM 5.3.1. Khi nim nh v sn phm 1) nh ngha: nh v sn phm trn th trng l thit k mt sn phm c nhng c tnh khc bit so vi sn phm ca i th cnh tranh nhm to cho sn phm mt hnh nh ring trong con mt khch hng. Ni cch khc, nh v sn phm l xc nh v tr mt sn phm trn th trng sao cho khc bit so vi cc sn phm cnh tranh cng loi nhm ginh c nhng khch hng nht nh. nh v mt cch c hiu qu, cn xc nh c cc li th bn vng m cng ty c th pht huy. Cc li th cng ty c c nh cung cp cho khch hng gi tr ln hn so vi i th do gi thp, cht lng cao hn, chm sc khch hng tt hn, hnh nh ca cng ty c uy tn hn, tin cy hn, nhn vin ca cng ty c nng lc cng tc tt, giao tip ng x thn thin, t t vi khch hng. nh v cng c ngha l lm khc bit sn phm ca cng ty so vi i th cnh tranh. iu g lm cho sn phm ca cng ty khc bit v tt hn so vi i th cnh tranh? Mt cng ty c th khc bit bi sn phm, dch v, nhn vin hay hnh nh tin cy. Hy xc nh xem nhng yu t no trn y l quan trng i vi khch hng mc tiu? Cc yu t c phi l li th ca cng ty khng. T cng ty s c cn c xc ng nh v sn phm sao cho c c s khc bit vi sn phm ca i th. Nh vy mun nh v sn phm, cng ty phi hiu r ba vn sau y: Khch hng nh gi v sn phm nh th no? Cc c tnh no ca sn phm c khch hng a chung? Cng ty c li th g to ra c cc c tnh ? 2) Th no l v tr ca sn phm trn th trng?

Khi c nhiu sn phm cng loi trn th trng th trong qu trnh mua, khch hng s cn nhc, so snh gia cc sn phm , tc l xp loi chng theo cc tiu thc li ch quan trng m sn phm mang li cho khch hng. Nh vy khch hng nh v sn phm, hay t mt sn phm vo mt v tr nht nh. Qua iu tra khch hng, cng ty xy dng c mt bn nh v cc sn phm hin hnh. V tr sn phm c tc ng mnh n quyt nh mua hay khng ca khch hng. V d: Khch hng so snh, xp loi (nh v) nh th no i vi hai dch v ca Mai Linh v Thun tho. Khch hng nh v nh th no i vi hai dch v Vinaphone v Mobifone 3) Khch hng nh v sn phm nh th no? Khch hng c th t h nh v sn phm thng qua kinh nghim khi tiu dng sn phm hoc qua nh hng ca bn b, ng nghip s dng. Tuy nhin, ch ng, doanh nghip cn phi ch ng tc ng n khch hng, gip h nh v ng n sn phm. iu ny c th thc hin thng qua cc chin lc Marketing - Mix. 5.3.2. Cc loi nh v sn phm 1) nh v sn phm da vo cc c tnh ca sn phm i vi mt s cc sn phm, khch hng mc tiu c th quan tm ti cc c trng li ch no m h c p ng khi dng. Chng hn, l cc c tnh nh bn, tit kim xng, gi c phi chng i vi xe my; l trng rng, thm ming i vi kem nh rng; l vng ph sng in thoi di ng rng, dch v phong ph, ttMun nh v theo kiu ny, Cng ty phi hiu c nhng li ch m khch hng mong i khi dng sn phm, ng thi phi hiu c nhn thc ca khch hng v cc c tnh i vi cc sn phm cnh tranh hin c trn th trng. 2) nh v sn phm thng qua cc hnh nh v khch hng i vi mt s cc sn phm khng c s phn bit r rt bi cc c tnh ca n. Trong trng hp ny ngi ta gn cho sn phm mt li sng, mt hnh vi, phong cch cho ngi s dng n. Thng qua qung co, tuyn truyn cc nh tip th khc ho vo nhn thc ca khch hng mt nhn thc v sn phm. V d 1: Cc loi sn phm nh Bia, nc khong thng kh phn bit bi cc c tnh nh mu sc, mi v. Do vy, cng ty qung co bia thng qua vic xy dng mt hnh nh v khch hng mc tiu m h hng ti. Bia Tiger xy dng hnh nh khch hng l nhng ngi mnh m, dng cm (tt nhin cng ty c th kt hp vi vic nng cao cn ca bia). Nc gii kht Pepsi- Cola li cao khch hng

mc tiu l gii tr mun khm ph ci mi. 3) nh v theo i th cnh tranh Theo kiu nh v ny, v tr ca sn phm ca i th cnh tranh c ly so snh vi sn phm ca cng ty. Cng ty c th nh v v tr cao hn, hoc thp hn so vi i th cnh tranh. Khi nh v cao hn so vi i th cnh tranh, cng ty cn c cc nng lc vt tri v nhng mt no i u trc tip vi cc i th cnh tranh. 4) nh v theo cht lng/gi c Hai tiu thc quan trng l cht lng v gi c thng c ly lm cc tiu thc to ra mt v tr m khch hng mong i cho sn phm ca cng ty (xem s 5.5.).

Cao

Gi
Thp

1
Thp

4
Cao

Cht lng

S 5.5. Cc chin lc nh v theo gi v cht lng T 2 bin s cht lng v gi c, cng ty c th c cc chin lc nh vi nh sau: - Gi thp - Cht lng thp - Gi thp - Cht lng cao - Gi cao - Cht lng cao - Gi cao cht lng thp Thng thng, cht lng thp th gi thp, cht lng cao i km vi gi cao. Nhng nu cng ty c kh nng th c th chn chin lc gi thp cht lng cao. 5.3.3. Hai chin lc nh v sn phm Khi trn th trng c cc sn phm cng loi ca cc i th cnh tranh, cng ty phi nh v sn phm ca mnh trong mi tng quan vi cc sn phm cnh

tranh . 1) Cnh tranh trc din vi cc sn phm hin c trn th trng Khi chn chin lc ny, cng ty phi thuyt phc khch hng qua cc u th ca sn phm ca cng ty so vi cc sn phm cn tranh : r hn, bn hn, an ton hn, nhanh hnNh vy cng ty ang i u trc tip vi i th cnh tranh. Cng ty c th chn chin lc ny khi no? - Khi cng ty c kh nng to ra sn phm c u im hn hn sn phm ca cc i th cnh tranh. - Khi khch hng c th nhn bit c u th ca sn phm ca cng ty (cc c tnh u vit r nt). - Th trng vn rng c hai c ch ng. 2) Chim v tr mi trn th trng Trong trng hp ny cng ty phi tm c mt ch trng trn th trng a sn phm ca mnh vo , tc l pht hin ra nhu cu no ca th trng vn cha c p ng. C th nu ra y cc chin lc nh v sau: a) Chin lc nh v bng gi c v cht lng Chng hn, khi cn nhc mua mt sn phm, khch hng thng quan tm n hai c tnh l cht lng v gi c. C 4 kh nng sau y khi xem xt n 2 bin s ny: - Gi thp - Cht lng thp - Gi thp - Cht lng cao - Gi cao - Cht lng thp - Gi cao - Cht lng cao Thng thng cht lng thp th gi thp, cht lng cao i km vi gi cao, tc l chn s 1 hoc s 3. Nhng nu cng ty c kh nng chn s 4, tc l gi thp nhng cht lng cao th cng ty c th chn chin lc ny v tng kh nng cnh tranh ca mnh. b) Chin lc th trng ngch cng thuc loi ny, tc l cng ty tm mt ngch nh trn th trng trnh i u trc din vi i th mnh. V d 1: Cng ty n p LIOA Vit Nam s dng chin lc nh v gi thp-cht lng cao (gi ni cht lng ngoi!). Bng chin lc nh v , LIOA chim c mt v tr vng vng trn th trng Vit Nam v ang vn ra th trng th gii. cnh tranh vi hng ngoi cht lng cao-gi cao, cc cng ty Vit Nam phi chn chin lc cht lng cao-gi thp th mi c th c ch ng trn th

trng th gii. V d 2: Hng Trung Quc xm nhp t vo th trng Vit Nam vi chin lc nh v Cht lng thp - gi r. Chin lc ny cng c ng o khch hng Vit Nam chp nhn. c) Chin lc nh v lin quan n th trng mc tiu Cng ty c th nh v li thay i th trng mc tiu cho sn phm. Do t l sinh gim st, cng ty Johnson & Johnson nh v li Sampo tm nh cho tr em sang cc i tng khc cn tm nhiu. Mt s cng ty sa cng chuyn t th trng mc tiu l tr em sang khch hng ln tui. Do s ngi mun gim bo tng ln, mt s nh hng chuyn t th trng phc v n mn sang th trng n chay cha c ai phc v. 5.3.4. Cc bc ca tin hnh nh v sn phm Qu trnh nh v sn phm bao gm cc bc sau: 1) Xc nh v tr ca cc sn phm cnh tranh hin hnh theo cc tiu chun nh gi ca khch hng. Chng hn, ta xt n cc mng in thoi Vinaphone, Mobiphone, Viettel, S.phone. Theo nhu cu ca khch hng th 2 tiu chun quan trng l mc ph song v mc khuyn mi. Ta t cc mng ny ln th gm hai trc to l mc ph song v mc khuyn mi. 2) Cn c vo tim lc ca cng ty chn chin lc cnh tranh Ta thy Mobiphone v Viettel th mc ph sng v mc khuyn mi nhiu gn nh nhau, cn S.phone th mc ph sng v khuyn mi t hn. Vy ta nn chn chin lc no trong cc kh nng sau y: - Mc ph sng nhiu hn v khuyn mi nhiu hn - Mc ph sng it hn v khuyn mi cng it hn Vi nng lc hin c th Mobiphon, viettel nn chn chin lc th nht l ph hp. 3) Xy dng h thng Marketing - Mix ph hp vi chin lc c la chn Sau khi cng ty xc nh c chin lc nh v sn phm nh a ra th trng, h phi trin khai xy dng chin lc Marketing hn hp nhm vo th trng mc tiu. y l cng c Marketing m cng ty ch ng tc ng vo th trng mc tiu nhm hnh thnh trong nhn thc ca khch hng v hnh nh sn phm sp a ra th trng sao cho tng xng vi v tr m cng ty chn trn.

Mun vy cng ty phi phi hp hi ho cc bin s trong 4 thnh t ca MarketingMix nh cht lng; gi c; dch v; phn phi; bao b; tn gi; truyn thng

CU HI N TP V THO LUN
1) Phn on th trng mang li nhng li ch g cho doanh nghip? 2) Phn on th trng c thc hin theo cc nguyn tc no? 3) Lm th no la chn th trng mc tiu? C cc phng n no la chn th trng mc tiu? 4) Khi mt doanh nghip mi xm nhp th trng th h c th s dng chin lc g? Cho v d minh ho. 5) C s phn on th trng i vi hai loi th trng? 6) Trnh by v phn tch cc chin lc p ng th trng. 7) Trnh by 2 chin lc nh v sn phm. Cho v d minh ha? 8) C th da vo cc c tnh no nh v sn phm nc hoa? 9) Hy chn mt sn phm no m doanh nghip thc hin theo: a. Chin lc Marketing khng phn bit b. Chin lc Marketing tp trung c. Chin lc Marketing phn bit 10) Chn mt dch v hoc sn phm no v trnh by cch chn th trng mc tiu cho n. 11) Xe my Dylan c nh v nh th no? V nhm vo th trng mc tiu no? 12) Chn mt sn phm c p dng chin lc th trng ngch v nu l do ca s la chn ? 13) Xe my Dream ca Honda c nhc im g? Cc loi xe my mi ra i ca Yamaha, Suzuki nh v nh th no cnh tranh vi xe my Dream ca Honda? 14) Mt doanh nghip c th ng thi thc hin cc chin lc Marketing i tr; Marketing phn bit; v Marketing tp trung khng? V sao? 15) Cc doanh nghip nhiu nc trn th gii b hng ho gi r ca Trung Quc (qun o, dy dp, chi) xm chim. Vy cc doanh nghip ca cc nc nn s dng chin lc g?

Chng 6

CC QUYT NH V SN PHM
MC TIU: Sau khi hc xong chng ny sinh vin cn nm c cc vn sau: Sn phm theo quan im Marketing Cc quyt nh v nhn hiu sn phm Cc quyt nh v bao gi v dch v km theo
Cc quyt nh v danh mc v chng loi sn phm

Cc giai on hnh thnh sn phm mi Chu k sng ca sn phm 6.1. SN PHM THEO QUAN IM MARKETING 6.1.1. Khi nim sn phm Khi ni v sn phm, ngi ta thng quy n v mt hnh thc tn ti vt cht c th (nhng thnh phn hoc yu t c th quan st c). i vi cc chuyn gia Marketing, h hiu sn phm mt phm vi rng ln hn. Sn phm l tt c nhng ci, nhng yu t c th tha mn nhu cu hay c mun c a ra cho bn trn th trng vi mc ch thu ht s ch , mua sm, s dng hay tiu dng. Theo nh ngha ny ca sn phm, cc yu t mang li li ch cho khch hng c th l hu hnh v v hnh, vt cht v phi vt cht. V d: Khi mua mt chic xe Mercedec, khch hng va mua mt phng tin i li hin i, bn lu, an ton v va mua mt s sang trng, hnh din i vi ngi xung quanh. Mt sn phm thnh cng nu n gii quyt c mt vn cho khch hng, hay tho mn cc nhu cu ca h. Trong thc t, ngi ta thng xc nh sn phm thng qua n v sn phm. 6.1.2. Cc yu t cu thnh n v sn phm n v sn phm vn l mt chnh th hon chnh cha ng nhng yu t, c tnh khc nhau v sn phm, thng tin.

Vy, ti sao ngi ta li sp xp sn phm thnh nhng cp khc nhau? Bi v nhng yu t, c tnh, thng tin c th cha nhng chc nng Marketing khc nhau. V vy, khi to ra sn phm, ngi ta thng xp cc yu t, c tnh v thng tin theo 3 cp vi nhng chc nng Marketing khc nhau. a) Cp c bn sn phm ci li (cp 1) Cp ny s tr li cu hi: V thc cht sn phm ny s mang li nhng li ch ct li g cho khch hng hng? Cng mt sn phm c th mang li cc li ch c bn khc nhau cho cc khch hng khc nhau. Mun xc nh c cc li ch c bn no cn cho khch hng no, cng ty phi nghin cu th trng xc nh. Nhiu khi bn thn khch hng cng khng bit c mt sn phm mang li cc li ch c bn g cho mnh. Nhim v ca ngi tip th l phi pht hin ra cc nhu cu n giu ng sau mi th hng ho v bn nhng li ch m n em li cho khch hng. Mt cng ty m phm tuyn b: Ti nh my chng ti sn xut m phm. Ti ca hng chng ti bn nim hy vng. Hng ho, dch v c th Bn xe my l bn: Cc li ch - Mt phng tin giao thng c nhn - Mt phng tin lm n - Mt phng tin lm sang trng - Mt phng tin ct gi ti sn - Mt phng tin th hin tnh cm - Li nhc nh khch hng ti cc quy bn hoa: Hy dng hoa thay li! Mt bng hoa nh c th gip bn ni c nhng iu kh ni ! - Mt phng tin cung cp thng tin - Mt phng tin hc tp nng cao hiu bit - Mt phng tin gii tr - Mt phng tin lm sang trng - Mt phng tin m bo cho cuc sng vn minh, lch s. - Mt phng tin tit kim thi gian, tin bc, cng sc.

Bn hoa ti l bn:

Bn bo ch l bn:

Bn in thoi l bn:

b) Cp th 2: Sn phm hin thc. l nhng yu t phn nh s c mt trn thc t ca sn phm. Bao gm: Cht lng, bao b, nhn hiu, c tnh v b cc bn ngoi.

Trong thc t, khi mua nhng li ch c bn, khch hng da vo nhng yu t ny. V cng chnh nh n m doanh nghip khng nh s hin din ca mnh trn th trng, ngi mua tm n doanh nghip v phn bit sn phm ca doanh nghip mnh vi sn phm ca doanh nghip khc. V d: Cp th hai ca xe my Dylan: @ Sc mnh ca ng c. @ Mc tiu th nhin liu.
Dch v sau bn Cht lng Bao b c tnh

@ Tnh d iu khin. @ Mu sc ca xe.

Sn phm hon chnh

Bo hnh

Li ch ct li

Sn phm hin thc


Lp t

Nhn hiu

Sn phm theo tng


B cc bn ngoi Tn dng

Hnh 6.1: Ba cp cu thnh sn phm c) Cp th 3: Sn phm b sung. Cp ny bao gm cc yu t dch v khch hng (customer service), v cao hn na l chm sc khch hng (customer care) nhm gip cho khch hng tin li hn, hi lng hn. l cc dch v nh bo hnh, sa cha, hnh thc thanh ton, giao hng ti nh, lp t, hun luyn cng nh thi thn thin, ci m, nhit tnh. Cp ny chnh l v kh cnh tranh ca cng ty. Cc dch v ca lp ny s ngy cng phong ph cng vi mc cnh tranh trn th trng. Cnh tranh hin nay khng phi l cnh tranh v nhng ci m cng ty lm ra ti nh my ca mnh, m v nhng ci lm cho sn phm hon chnh nh bao gi, dch v khch hng (phng thc thanh ton, giao hng, t vn, bo hnh, sa cha). V d: Cc dch v km theo xe my: Cc dch v bo hnh, bo dng min ph trong vng 12 thng.

Tng 1 lon du nht 06 thng/ ln trong vng 5 nm. T vn, gii p thc mc min ph cho khch hng. 6.1.3.Phn loi sn phm

Phn loi theo thi gian v hnh thi tn ti:

- Hng bn: l nhng hng ha c th, thng c s dng rt nhiu ln. V d nh my mc, qun o, xe my - Hng khng bn: l nhng hng ha c th, thng ch qua mt vi ln s dng nh bia, nc ngt, x phng - Cc dch v: l nhng i tng c bn di dng hot ng, ch li hay s tha mnV d: sa cha, ht tc Phn loi hng tiu dng theo thi quen mua hng: - Hng ha s dng thng ngy: l hng ha m ngi tiu dng mua cho vic s dng thng xuyn trong sinh hot. V d: lng thc, thc phm - Hng ha mua ngu hng: l nhng hng ha c mua khng c k hoch trc v khch hng cng khng c ch tm mua. V d: thuc l, bo - Hng ha mua khn cp: l nhng hng ha c mua khi xut hin nhu cu cp bch v mt l do bt thng no . Vic mua nhng hng ha ny khng suy tnh nhiu. V d: bt la, o ma - Hng ha mua c la chn: l nhng hng ha m trong qu trnh la chn v mua sm ngi tiu dng thng so snh mc ph hp, cn nhc cc ch tiu, cng dng, cht lng, gi c, kiu dngV d: trang tr ni tht, xe my - Hng c bit: l hng ha c tnh c o hay nhn hiu c bit m ngi mua sn sng b cng sc tm kim n. V d: thit b ngh nh, c - Hng ha mua theo nhu cu th ng: l nhng th hng ha m ngi tiu dng khng bit ti hoc bit nhng khng ngh n vic mua. V d: bo him, t in bch khoa ton th Phn loi hng t liu sn xut: L nhng hng ha c mua bi cc doanh nghip hay cc t chc. C th phn loi theo s tham gia ca chng vo qu trnh sn xut v gi tr tng i ca chng. - Vt t v chi tit: l nhng hng ha tham gia ton b vo sn phm ca nh sn xut. - Ti sn c nh: l nhng hng ha tham gia ton b, nhiu ln vo qu trnh sn xut v gi tr ca chng c dch chuyn dn vo gi tr sn phm do doanh nghip s dng chng to ra. V d: thang my, my tnh, my mc

- Vt t ph v dch v: l nhng hng ha dng h tr cho qu trnh kinh doanh hay hot ng ca cc t chc v doanh nghip. V d: giy in, mc in 6.2. CC QUYT NH V NHN HIU SN PHM Ngi tiu dng cm nhn nhn hiu sn phm nh mt phn thc cht ca sn phm v vic t nhn hiu c th lm tng gi tr cho sn phm. V d: Hu ht khch hng u xem 1 l nc hoa Chanel No.5 nh 1 loi nc hoa t tin, cht lng cao. Nhng cng l loi nc hoa ng trong 1 l khng nhn s t ngi cho d mi hng vn y nh th quyt nh v nhn hiu l mt cng vic quan trng ca chin lc sn phm. 6.2.1.Nhn hiu v cc b phn cu thnh Nhn hiu l tn gi, thut ng, biu tng, hnh v hay mt s kt hp gia cc yu t ny, c dng xc nhn sn phm ca doanh nghip no v phn bit vi cc sn phm cnh tranh. Nh vy, nhn hiu sn phm c tc dng gip khch hng phn bit c sn phm ca doanh nghip vi cc sn phm cng loi. Cc yu t cu thnh ca nhn hiu l: a) Tn nhn hiu: Tn nhn hiu l mt b phn ca nhn hiu c th c ln c. Tn cn phi d c, d nh, to hm v cht lng, li ch ca sn phm v phn bit vi cc sn phm khc. V d : + Dng c cm tay Craftman (ngi kho tay) + Cam Sunkist (ci hn ca mt tri) + Nc khong La vie (cuc sng) + Kem nh rng Close-up (gn nhau li) + Xe my Dream (gic m) + Xe t Crown (vng min) b) Du hiu ca nhn hiu Du hiu ca nhn hiu l mt b phn ca nhn hiu m ta c th nhn bit nhng khng c ln c. Du hiu bao gm hnh v, biu tng, mu sc, kiu ch cch iu c) Nhn hiu c ng k bo h bn quyn: Nhn hiu c ng k bo h bn quyn l ton b nhn hiu hay mt phn ca nhn hiu c ng k bo h ti c quan qun l nhn hiu c bo v v php l. Tn nhn hiu c ng k bo h bn quyn thng c ch TM hoc bn cnh (R c ngha l c ng k- Registered). V d: VISA ,TIGER TM.

d) Quyn tc gi l quyn c chim tuyt i v sao chp, xut bn, bn ni dung v hnh thc ca mt tc phm vn hc, m nhc hay ngh thut. Nguyn T Qung: y l k hiu th hin bn quyn i vi phn mm dit Virus BKAV. 6.2.2. Cc quyt nh lin quan n nhn hiu sn phm Lin quan n chin lc sn phm, doanh nghip cn phi quyt nh mt s vn lin quan n nhn hiu hng ho. l cc vn sau y: 1/ Gn hay khng gn nhn hiu cho sn phm? Sn phm c gn nhn hiu s gy lng tin cho khch hng, gip khch hng phn bit, nhn ra c sn phm ca cng ty trong v s sn phm cng loi, gip cho cc c quan qun l chng hng gi. Tuy nhin, khi gn nhn hiu cng ty phi chi ph cho vic qung co v ng k bo h nhn hiu. Do vy s lm tng chi ph v tng gi bn hng. 2/ Ai l ch nhn hiu sn phm? C th c 3 la chn sau y. Mi loi cng c u nhc im nht nh: Sn phm c a ra th trng vi nhn hiu ca nh sn xut. Cc nh sn xut c uy tn th nhn hiu ca h c gi tr, do vy nhn hiu ca h tin cy. Sn phm c a ra th trng vi nhn hiu ca nh phn phi trung gian. y thng l cc nh phn phi ln, c uy tn. Sn phm c a ra th trng vi nhn hiu va ca nh sn xut, va ca nh trung gian. Trong trng hp ny sn phm mang uy tn ca c nh sn xut v nh phn phi. V d: Nm 1981, cng ty Piere Cardin thu c 50 triu $ tin bn quyn trn cc sn phm tr gi 1 t $ ca 540 hng trn th gii. Khi khch hng lng l gia hai sn phm tng t th hu nh s chn sn phm c nhn hiu quen thuc. 3/ t tn cho sn phm nh th no? C 4 cch t tn cho sn phm nh sau: + Tn nhn hiu ring bit c s dng cho tng mt hng nhng c c tnh khc nhau t nhiu. Cch t tn ny khng rng buc uy tn ca cng ty nhng s phi tn chi ph thm cho qung co cc sn phm mi vi tn mi. V d: Cng ty Unilever c cc nhn hiu: du gi u Clear, Sunsilk, Dove + Tn nhn hiu ng nht cho tt c cc sn phm c sn xut bi cng ty.

V d: Cng ty Electrolux: my git Electrolux, my ht bi Elextrolux, my iu ha Electrolux. u im: gim chi ph qung co, bao b. Cc sn phm sau s tha hng uy tn ca sn phm trc. Nhc im: nu tht bi s nh hng xu n sn phm khc cng mt tn chung, d gy nhm ln cho khch hng v cht lng. + Tn thng mi ca cng ty kt hp vi tn nhn hiu ring bit ca sn phm. V d: Xe t Nht: Toyota Crown, Toyota Carmry.Xe my: Honda Cub, Honda Dream, Honda Wave, Honda Lead Sn phm va mang uy tn ca cng ty, va trnh nh hng xu cho cc loi sn phm khc nu tht bi. + Tn nhn hiu tp th cho tng dng sn phm (tng chng loi hng) do cng ty sn xut. Vic t tn nhn hiu sn phm phi m bo 4 yu cu: - N phi hm v li ch ca sn phm. - N phi hm v cht lng ca sn phm. V d: Nc Samurai mnh m. Du gi u Clear sch s, tr gu. - Phi d c, d nhn bit, d nh. - N phi khc bit hn vi nhng tn khc. 4/ Tng ng vi nhn hiu chn, cht lng sn phm c nhng c trng g? Nhn hiu sn phm l phn nh s hin din ca sn phm trn th trng nhng mc cht lng i lin vi nhn hiu li quyt nh v tr v s bn vng ca nhn hiu. Cht lng sn phm l ch tiu khi qut. l kh nng p ng nhu cu ca khch hng mc tiu m 1 sn phm c th vi nhn hiu nht nh c th mang li. N c phn nh qua nhng tham s v c tnh khc nhau ty thuc vo tng loi hng nhng nht thit phi do ngi tiu dng quyt nh. V vy, trc khi quyt nh mc cht lng, nh sn xut cn hiu k khch hng quan nim nhng yu t no phn nh cht lng cho mt sn phm c th. 5/ C nn m rng gii hn s dng tn nhn hiu hay khng? M rng gii hn s dng tn nhn hiu l bt k mt n lc no hng vo vic s dng mt tn nhn hiu thnh cng tung ra nhng sn phm mi hay ci tin.

V d: Honda dng tn cng ty ca mnh khuch trng nhng sn phm khc nhau t t, xe gn my, my xn c, ng c tu thuyn v my bm nc. Gillete s dng tn nhn hiu ca mnh tung ra cc mt hng v sinh nam gii. + u: - Tit kim chi ph qung co cho mt nhn hiu mi. - Sn phm mi c th trng chp nhn nhanh chng do nhn hiu ca sn phm c bit n. + Nhc: Nu sn phm mi khng c a thch th s lm mt thin cm ca khch i vi tt c sn phm khc cng nhn hiu. 6/ S dng mt hay nhiu nhn hiu cho cc sn phm hoc chng loi sn phm c nhng c tnh khc nhau? + Cng mt mt hng cc sn phm c th khc nhau m cng mt nhn hiu th phn bit th ta phi da vo nhng thng tin khc nhau. + Mi sn phm c th c mt nhn hiu ring. V d: Cng ty P&G c cc loi x phng sau: Ivory, Lave, Camay, Zest, Safe Guard L do s dng chin lc ny: - Tung ra nhiu nhn hiu thu ht khch hng a thay i. - Nhiu nhn hiu s kch thch tnh sng to v nng cao hiu sut gia nhng ngi tham gia sn xut v phn phi. - Cng ty ch n nhng li ch khc nhau ca khch hng to kh nng hp dn ring ca tng sn phmmi nhn hiu c nhm khch hng mc tiu ring. 6.3. QUYT NH V BAO GI V DCH V SN PHM 6.3.1. Quyt nh v bao gi Khi nim bao gi v tm quan trng ca n Nu quan st trn th trng, c th thy rng hu ht cc sn phm (hng ha) cho bn u c bao gi. iu ny cho thy tm quan trng ca bao gi. Bao gi bao gm 4 yu t cu thnh in hnh: - Lp tip xc trc tip vi sn phm. V d: chai ng nc hoa. - Lp bo v lp tip xc. V d: hp giy ng l nc hoa. - Bao b vn chuyn. V d: Hp giy cha 6 l nc hoa. - Nhn hiu v cc thng tin m t hng ha. Ngy nay, bao gi tr thnh cng c khng th thiu v cc l do sau:

+ Cc siu th, ca hng t phc v cng nhiu, bao b c vai tr va bo v, va xc tin hng ha. + Kh nng mua sm ca ngi tiu dng ngy cng cao. + Bao gi gp phn to ra hnh nh v nhn hiu ca cng ty. + To s cm nhn tt v s i mi sn phm. Cc quyt nh v bao gi: bao gm 1/ Xy dng quan nim v bao gi: bao gi phi tun theo cc nguyn tc no? N ng vai tr g i vi mt mt hng c th? N phi cung cp nhng thng tin g v sn phm? 2/ Quyt nh v cc vn : kch thc, hnh dng, vt liu, mu sc, ni dung trnh by, c gn nhn hiu hay khng? V d: + Chai bia thng mu xanh, nu bo v bia khi nh sng mt tri. + Chai nc khong th phi th hin s tinh khit bng cch s dng v chai trong sut. V d: TIDE, OMO, MILO nhn hiu ngn; phng ch to, m; gam mu ni. 3/ Th nghim v bao gi: th nghim v k thut, hnh thc, kinh doanh, kh nng chp nhn ca ngi tiu dng 4/ Quyt nh v vic cung cp cc thng tin g trn bao b sn phm: loi sn phm, phm cht sn phm, ngy sn xut, ni sn xut, c tnh sn phm, cch s dng, thng tin v thng hiu phi tun theo quy nh ca php lut. 5/ Quyt nh cn nhc cc kha cnh li ch ca bao gi: li ch ca x hi, li ch ca ngi tiu dng v li ch ca doanh nghip. 6.3.2. Cc quyt nh v dch v khch hng Dch v l yu t cu thnh sn phm hon chnh , l cng c cnh tranh c lc. Ty vo tng loi hng m tm quan trng ca dch v khch hng s khc nhau. Cc quyt nh v dch v khch hng bao gm: Quyt nh v ni dung dch v. Quyt nh v cht lng dch v. Quyt nh v chi ph dch v. Hnh thc cung cp dch v. + Cng ty t t chc lc lng cung cp dch v. + Dch v c cung cp bi cc trung gian bun bn. + Dch v do cc t chc c lp bn ngoi cung cp.

Lu : Khi quyt nh v dch v, cng ty phi cn c vo: - Mc tiu nh v - Nhu cu khch hng (ni dung dch v, cht lng dch v). - Loi sn phm, gi tr sn phm, chu k sng ca sn phm - H thng dch v ca i th cnh tranh (cht lng dch v). - Kh nng ca cng ty (chi ph dch v, hnh thc cung cp dch v). - S chp nhn ca cc trung gian thng mi - Cc cn c khc: mi trng kinh doanh, 6.4. QUYT NH V CHNG LOI V DANH MC SN PHM. 6.4.1. Cc quyt nh v chng loi sn phm a) Khi nim chng loi: Chng loi sn phm l mt nhm sn phm c quan h mt thit vi nhau, hoc v chng thc hin mt chc nng tng t, c bn cho cng mt nhm khch hng, c a vo th trng theo cng nhng knh phn phi nh nhau hay c xp chung mt mc gi bn no . b) Cc quyt nh v chng loi sn phm Quyt nh v b rng ca chng loi sn phm B rng chng loi sn phm l s phn gii v s lng cc mt hng thnh phn theo mt tiu thc nht nh nh kch c, theo cng sut Trong kinh doanh, t c doanh nghip no ch c 1 sn phm duy nht m thng c c mt dng sn phm, nh gip phn b ri ro tt hn. gii quyt vn ny, cng ty thng c hai hng la chn: pht trin chng loi v b sung mt hng cho chng loi.

Pht trin chng loi: c th c thc hin bng cc cch sau:


Cao Cht lng Thp Thp Gi c Cao

Hnh 6.2: Cc chin lc pht trin chng loi sn phm - Pht trin ln trn. Khi cng ty ang kinh doanh cc sn phm th trng pha di: cht lng thp, gi thp, cng ty c th vn ln th trng pha trn vi

cht lng cao, gi cao nhm t mc sinh li cao, tc tng trng cao hn, hoc lm cho chng loi sn phm phong ph thm cho khch hng. Chin lc ny c mo him nht nh khi bc vo mt th trng mi. Cc cng ty t Nht sau khi c ch ng vng chc th trng pha di vn ln th trng pha trn bng dng xe cao cp Lexus. - Pht trin xung pha di. y l chin lc i theo hng ngc li so vi chin lc trn vi mc tiu l cn tr cc i phng hoc xm nhp vo th trng ang tng trng nhanh. Sai lm ca Cng ty General Motor l khng pht trin xung pha di. Kt qu l cc cng ty t ca Nht xm chim cc th trng t gi thp, xe nh gi khng cao. Nhiu cng ty Vit Nam sai lm khi ch ch trng n th trng xut khu, m qun mt th trng rng ln trong nc vi yu cu khng cao. V l thi c tt hng ho Trung Quc cht lng thp trn vo. - Pht trin theo hai pha, va ln va xung. Mc tiu ca chin lc ny l chim lnh ton b th trng. - Pht trin ln gc trn bn tri: Cht lng cao gi thp. cnh tranh, cc cng ty Vit Nam c th thc hin chin lc ny vi li th v chi ph cc u vo thp. Cng ty sn xut n p Lioa thc hin chin lc ny vi phng chm: Cht lng ngoi, gi ni. Rt nhiu loi hng ho Vit Nam c cht lng tng ng sn phm nc ngoi, nhng gi ch bng mt phn nh. Doanh nghip b sung mt hng cho chng loi sn phm. Xut pht t cc mc ch sau: + Mong mun c thm li nhun, + p ng nhu cu tng thm mt hng ca cc trung gian. + Tn dng nng lc sn xut. + C gng dn u v lp ch trng th trng. Lu : Khi b sung sn phm mi trong cng chng loi, cng ty phi tnh n kh nng gim mc tiu th ca sn phm khc. Cch khc phc: sn phm mi khc hn sn phm c. 6.4.2. Quyt nh v danh mc sn phm a) Khi nim danh mc: Danh mc sn phm l tp hp tt c nhng loi sn phm v mt hng ca mt ngi bn a ra bn cho ngi mua. Danh mc sn phm c th c m t bng chiu di, chiu rng, chiu su v tnh thng nht ca n. + Chiu rng danh mc sn phm: cho bit doanh nghip c bao nhiu loi sn phm.

V d: Cng ty P&G chiu rng danh mc sn phm c 5 loi: kem nh rng (3), x phng bnh (6), t lt bng giy(2), khn giy(5), cht ty ra(9). + Chiu di danh mc sn phm: l tng s mt hng ca tt c cc loi sn phm ca doanh nghip. V d: Tng 25 mt hng: y l chiu di danh mc sn phm. + Chiu su danh mc sn phm: l tng s cc n v sn phm c th c cho bn trong tng mt hng ring ca mt chng loi. V d: Kem nh rng Crest thuc chng loi thuc nh rng. Crest c 3 kch c: ln, nh, trung. Mi loi li c loi thng v bc h b su ca danh mc sn phm l 6. + Tnh ng nht: Th hin mi quan h mt thit n mc no gia cc loi sn phm c trong danh mc sn phm xt theo cch s dng cui cng, cc cng ngh sn xut, cc h thng phn phi, gi c hay cc mt lin quan khc. V d: Tnh ng nht ca danh mc sn phm ca P&G kh cao v chng u l hng tiu dng v c phn phi qua nhng knh nh nhau. b) Cc quyt dnh lin quan n danh mc sn phm.
Quyt nh m rng hoc thu hp b rng ca danh mc sn phm:

Quyt nh ny v b rng ca danh mc sn phm dn n vic tng hoc gim cc dng sn phm, tc l m rng hoc thu hp chng loi sn phm. C 2 trng hp sau : - Nu chng loi sn phm hin ti ca cng ty hp, th c th b sung thm cc chng sn phm mi tng li nhun, tng an ton, tn dng nng lc sn xut d tha, chim lnh th trng cn b trng. Cc chng loi sn phm mi c th lin quan hoc khng lin quan n cc chng loi sn phm hin ti. - Nu b rng ca danh mc sn phm rng th c th thu hp, gim bt, loi b mt s chng loi sn phm. Khi mt cng ty mun chim lnh nhiu th trng th h s p dng chin lc m rng danh mc sn phm. Ngc li, khi cng ty quan tm n t sut li nhun cao th thng thu hp b rng ca danh mc sn phm, bng cch b bt cc chng loi sn phm t sinh li, ch nhm vo cc chng loi sn phm sinh li cao.
Quyt nh tng hoc gim chiu su ca cc chng loi sn phm:

Cng tng t nh trn, cng ty c th thm hoc bt cc sn phm trong mi chng loi sn phm. Khi mt sn phm bc vo giai on bo ho, cng ty c th thc hin chin lc i mi sn phm bng cch ci tin sn phm hin hnh v loi

b sn phm . Cc cng ty xe my ca Nht Bn thng hay p dng chin lc ny. Nh th, cc i th cnh tranh cng kh m theo kp h. 6.5. THIT K V MARKETING SN PHM MI 6.5.1. Khi nim sn phm mi Nhng thay i nhanh chng v cng ngh, th hiu, cnh tranh gay gt nu mun tn ti v pht trin, uy tn ngy cng tng th cng ty phi quan tm n chng trnh pht trin sn phm mi. Sn phm mi l sn phm c mt s khch hng tim nng cm nhn nh mi bao gm sn phm mi hon ton, sn phm ci tin, sn phm hon chnh v sn phm c nhn hiu mi m doanh nghip pht trin. C hai cch c sn phm mi: - Mua li: mua li ton b cng ty; mua bng sng ch; giy php sn xut - T thnh lp b phn nghin cu Marketing v thit k sn phm mi. Du hiu quan trng nht nh gi sn phm mi hay khng l s tha nhn ca khch hng. trnh ri ro khi sn xut sn phm mi, doanh nghip phi tun th nghim ngt cc bc trong qu trnh to ra sn phm mi v a n vo th trng. Nhng nguyn nhn lm sn phm mi tht bi: - nh gi sai tim nng th trng. - Xc nh sai nhu cu v li ch m khch hng mong i. - Cc phn ng bt ng t i th cnh tranh. - iu kin cht lng khng ph hp. - nh v th trng sai. - Thng tin gii thiu sn phm km, phn phi sn phm khng tt. - Xc nh thi im sai lm: sn phm tung ra qu sm hay qu mun u c th tht bi. - S thc hin Marketing Mix khng tt. 6.5.2. Cc giai on pht trin sn phm mi 1/ Hnh thnh tng: + Mc ch ca giai on: tm ra nhng tng v sn phm mi, cc tng a ra cng nhiu cng tt. + tng c th xut pht t: Khch hng: thm d kin, t n khiu ni ca h.. Cc nh khoa hc.

Nghin cu sn phm thnh cng hoc tht bi ca i th cnh tranh. kin ca nhn vin. Ngi c bng sng ch, trng i hc, cc chuyn gia nghin cu Marketing Mi tng c kh nng, iu kin thc hin (ti chnh, cng ngh) v u th khc nhau chn lc tng tt nht. 2/ La chn tng: + Mc ch: pht hin, sng lc v loi b nhng tng khng ph hp, km cht lng nhm chn lc nhng tng tt nht. Trong giai on ny, doanh nghip cn trnh 2 loi sai lm: - Sai lm b st: gt b tng hay. - Sai lm lt li: xy ra khi chp nhn tng d v a n vo trin khai, tung ra th trng dn n hao ph v ch, li nhun km. Trong qu trnh chn lc v nh gi nhng tng mi cn phi m t sn phm mi, th trng mc tiu, sc cnh tranh. ng thi phi a ra c lng cht ch v quy m th trng, gi c sn phm, thi gian v chi ph dnh cho vic trin khai, chi ph sn xut v tc thu hi vn. 3/ Son tho v thm nh d n sn phm mi: Sau khi c nhng tng c la chn th nhng tng phi c xy dng thnh nhng d n sn phm mi. D n ny s m t sn phm vi cc tham s, c tnh ca sn phm (kiu dng, mu sc, kch c, mi v, cng dng, gi) hoc i tng s dng khc nhau ca chng. Sau khi c d n v sn phm,cng ty tin hnh thm nh: th nghim nhm khch hng thch hp m cng ty mun hng n bng cc cu hi nh d n sn phm r cha? Sn phm c p ng nhu cu hay khng? Theo bn, nn cn ci tin nhng c im g? T tin hnh la chn d n sn phm chnh thc. 4/ Hoch nh chin lc Marketing v phn tch v mt kinh doanh: * Bn chin lc Marketing sn phm mi gm 3 phn: Phn 1: M t quy m, cu trc th trng v thi ca khch hng trn th trng mc tiu, k hoch nh v v tiu th sn phm, th phn v li nhun trong nhng nm trc mt. Phn 2: D kin gi sn phm, chin lc phn phi v kinh ph Marketing cho nm u tin. Phn 3: Trnh by doanh s d tnh v lu di, mc tiu li nhun phi t v chin lc Marketing Mix theo thi gian.

* Phn tch kinh doanh: Sau khi quyt nh xong v d n sn phm v chin lc Marketing. Cng ty c th nh gi mc hp dn v mt kinh doanh ca sn phm mi ny bao gm: xem xt cc d on v doanh thu, li nhun, chi ph, xc nh c tha mn mc tiu ca doanh nghip hay khng? Nu tha mn th pht trin sn phm. 5/ Thit k sn phm mi: Sau khi xc nh sn phm mi tha mn cc mc tiu ca doanh nghip th d n v sn phm mi s c chuyn xung b phn R&D pht trin thnh sn phm vt cht. y, b phn R&D s pht trin thnh mt hay nhiu dng mu vt cht ca khi nim sn phm. Sau , mang cc mu vt ny i th nghim v tnh nng v th nghim khch hng xem xt mc t yu cu v mt k thut ca sn phm. 6/ Th nghim trn th trng: Nu sn phm mi qua c vic th nghim v tnh nng v khch hng sn phm s c sn xut mt lot nh th nghim trn th trng. bc ny ta va th nghim sn phm, va th nghim cc chng trnh Marketing. + i tng th nghim: khch hng, nh phn phi, chuyn gia + Mc tiu: thm d kh nng mua v d bo chung v mc tiu th. 7/ Trin khai sn xut hng lot v quyt nh tung sn phm ra th trng: Sau khi th nghim trn th trng, cng ty c cn c ra quyt nh c sn xut i tr sn phm mi hay khng? Nu doanh nghip tip tc thng mi ha sn phm th phi cn nhc 4 quyt nh quan trng: + Khi no tung sn phm mi chnh thc vo th trng? Ta c th phn chia thnh 3 thi im: Tung sn phm ra th trng trc tin. Tung sn phm ra ng thi vi cc i th cnh tranh. Tung sn phm ra th trng mun hn. + Sn phm mi s c tung ra u? mt a dim duy nht, mt vng, nhiu vng, ton quc, trn th trng quc t + Sn phm mi trc ht phi tp trung bn cho i tng khch hng no? Nhm hng hot ng phn phi, qung co n nhm khch hng tng lai tt nht. + Sn phm mi c tung ra bn nh th no? Vi nhng hot ng h tr no xc tin vic bn?

6.6. CHU K SNG CA SN PHM 6.6.1. Khi nim chu k sng6 Chu k sng (hay vng i) ca sn phm l thut ng m t s bin i ca doanh s bn sn phm t khi sn phm c tung ra th trng cho n khi n phi rt ra khi th trng (Product life cycle). Nh vy, mi sn phm cng c mt vng i nh mt sinh vt. Chu k sng c lp cho tng loi sn phm hoc nhm sn phm. Ngi ta thng dng th m t chu k sng ca sn phm.
Mc tiu th Giai on gii thiu Giai on tng trng

Giai on bo ha

Giai on suy thoi Doanh s Li nhun

Thi gian t

Hnh 6.3. th chu k sng ca sn phm 6.6.2. Cc giai on ca chu k sng cu sn phm C th chia chu k sng thnh 4 giai on nh sau: Giai on gii thiu sn phm ra th trng Giai on tng trng Giai on chn mui Giai on suy thoi Mi giai on ca chu k sng c cc c im ring, do vy cng ty phi c cc chnh sch ring ph hp cho mi giai on. a) Giai on trin khai sn phm mi: y l giai on m u ca chu k sn xut. c im ca giai on ny l doanh thu t v tng chm, li nhun thp hoc thm ch l vn. C cc l do chnh nh sau: - Khch hng cn cha tin vo sn phm mi, cn cha t b thi quen tiu dng c trc y.

- H thng phn phi ca cng ty cn cha hon chnh. - Sn phm cn c th cha hon chnh - Ngoi ra, cn c th c nguyn nhn do nng lc sn xut ca cng ty cn hn ch, dy chuyn sn xut mi cn c trc trc v k thut. Chin lc Marketing ca cng ty trong giai on ny l: - Tng cng qung co, gii thiu, khuyn mi sn phm, to iu kin thun li cho khch hng mua. - Khuyn khch cc trung gian Marketing. - Tp trung n lc bn hng vo nhm cc khch hng c iu kin mua nht (nhm nhng ngi a i mi). b) Giai on tng trng: y l giai on tiu th thun li. Khch hng bt u tn nhim sn phm. Do vy, snphm bt u bn chy. Doanh thu v li nhun tng nhanh, nhng cnh tranh cng xut hin. ko di giai on ny cng ty cn thc hin cc chin lc sau: - Ci tin, nng cao cht lng sn phm, i mi mu m sn phm - Xm nhp vo cc th trng mi - S dng nhng knh phn phi mi - Kp thi h gi thu ht thm khch hng - C th gim bt mc qung co c) Giai on chn mui: Nhp tng trng bt u chm li, li nhun tng t ti a v bt u gim. Nguyn nhn l do cnh tranh gay gt, do sn phm khng p ng c nhu cu ca khch hng. Chin lc tn ti trong giai on ny l: i mi cc chin lc Marketing mix nh ci bin tnh cht v hnh thc sn phm, gim gi, khuyn mi, tng thm dch v khch hng, thay i knh tiu th tm th trng mi cho sn phm, thay i mt s yu t, c tnh ca sn phm. d) Giai on suy thoi: Doanh thu, li nhun u gim mnh trong giai on ny. Nguyn nhn l do th hiu thay i, cng ngh thay i to ra cc sn phm cnh tranh thay th. Mt s i th rt lui khi th trng. S cn li thu hp chng loi sn phm, t b cc th trng nh, ct gim chi ph xc tin, h gi bn (bn nhanh thu hi vn) v chun b tung ra sn phm mi thay th.

CU HI N TP V THO LUN

1) Marketing quan nim nh th no v sn phm? Quan im sn phm theo Marketing c g khc so vi quan im thng thng khng? 2) Sn phm gm cc cp no? Phn bit cc cp ca sn phm c mc ch g? 3) Hy xc nh cc cp ca mt sn phm no tu chn? 4) Phn tch v nhn hiu sn phm v cc quyt nh v nhn hiu sn phm. 5) Phn tch cc c trng trong mi giai on ca chu k sng v cc chnh sch Marketing tng ng? 6) Phn tch cc giai on trong qu trnh pht trin sn phm mi? 7) Th no l danh mc v chng loi sn phm? Phn tch cc quyt nh v chin lc pht trin chng loi sn phm? 8) Hy chn mt sn phm no v nu cc tng sng to sn phm mi kiu ci tin? 9) Hy tm cc doanh nghip m bn bit v phn tch cch gn nhn hiu sn phm khc nhau v ngha ca cc quyt nh .? 10) Trnh by cc quyt nh v dch v khch hng. Cc doanh nghip ln nh ngn hng, bu in c cc phng thc cung cp dch v khch hng nh th no? 11) T duy ch bn nhng th m khch hng cn c th hin nh th no trong cc quyt nh v sn phm? 12) Nu hng ha, dch v ca mt cng ty c phn phi qua trung gian, th nn s dng kiu thng hiu no trong 3 kiu sau y: a. Ly thng hiu ca nh sn xut b. Ly thng hiu ca nh phn phi c. Ly thng hiu ca c hai.

Chng 7

CC QUYT NH V GI C
MC TIU: Sau khi hc xong chng ny, sinh vin cn nm c cc vn sau: Cc yu t nh hng n cc quyt nh v gi

Quy trnh xc nh gi ban u Cc chin lc gi ch yu 7.1. KHI QUT CHUNG V GI 7.1.1. Khi nim v gi v tm quan trng ca gi Trong kinh t, gi c l gi tr di dng bng tin ca hng ho, dch v. Theo ngha thc t, gi c l s tin tr cho mt s lng hng ho, dch v no . Gi c ca sn phm, c bit gi dch v c gi bng rt nhiu ci tn khc nhau tu thuc vo loi sn phm, dch v. Tuy cch gi khc nhau i vi cc sn phm /dch v khc nhau, nhng bn cht ca gi l thng nht. Ty vo i tng m gi c c ngha khc nhau. Tn gi khc nhau ca gi Gi c Cc Hc ph Li sut cng Hoa hng Tin thu Ph

Loi sn phm /dch v cung cp cho khch hn i vi hu ht cc hng ha/dch v Cc dch v BCVT, dch v vn chuyn Cc dch v o to, gio dc Cc dch v vay ngn hng cng cho lao ng thu khon,...) Cc dch v i l, mi gii Cc dch v cho thu nh, xe my, thit b, a im Cho cc dch v : ph cu ph, ph dch v bo him...

Tin lng, tin Tin tr cho hng ha sc lao ng (tin lng thng, tin

Vi hot ng trao i: Gi l mi tng quan trao i trn th trng.

L biu tng gi tr ca sn phm. Trao i qua gi l trao i da trn gi tr ca th em i trao i. V vy khng th thiu vng gi bt k hot ng trao i no.

Vi ngi mua: Gi ca mt sn phm hoc dch v l khon tin ngi Vi ngi bn: Gi c ca mt hng ha, dch v l khon thu nhp

mua phi tr cho ngi bn c quyn s hu, s dng sn phm hay dch v . ngi bn nhn c nh vic tiu th sn phm . Tm quan trng ca gi: Gi l yu t duy nht trong Marketing mix to ra doanh thu cho doanh nghip.

Bin s gi gy phn ng tc th hn nhng bin s khc trong Marketing Mix i vi ngi tiu dng cng nh vi i th cnh tranh. Gi nh hng n doanh thu, t nh hng n li nhun. i vi ngi tiu dng: Gi c tc ng mnh m n chi tiu l tiu chun quan trng ca vic mua v la chn ca h (nhng khng phi l tiu chun duy nht. 7.1.2. Chin lc gi Ngoi vic xc nh gi bn cn bn cho sn phm, cng ty cn phi xy dng cc chin lc gi c th thch ng vi nhng thay i ca th trng nhm nm bt, thch nghi vi cc thay i , ng thi nm bt c cc c hi thun li khai thc c li cho cng ty. Chin lc gi bao gm ton b cc quyt nh v gi m nh qun tr Marketing phi ra v t chc thc thi doanh nghip t c mc tiu t ra. Chin lc gi bao gm nhiu vn phc tp, ch khng phi ch l vic quyt nh cc mc gi. Chin lc gi bao gm bn vn c bn sau y: 1. Nm bt v d bo mt cch chnh xc mc nh hng ca cc nhn t tc ng n quyt nh v gi. 2. Xc nh mc gi (cho hng, gi bn, gi sn phm mi, khung gi, gi gii hn, thi hn thanh ton). Vn quan trng nht ca ni dung ny l tm kim cc phng php nh gi khoa hc. 3. Ra cc quyt nh v iu chnh v thay i gi. 4. La chn nhng ng x thch hp trc nhng hot ng cnh tranh qua gi c. 7.2. CC NHN T NH HNG N QUYT NH V GI Khi quyt nh mua hng khch hng thng cn nhc k v gi, c bit trong iu kin kinh t Vit Nam khi mc thu nhp ca ngi tiu dng cn thp. Mt khc, gi l mt chin lc Marketing mix c tc ng nhanh so vi cc chin lc khc, ng thi chu chi phi bi nhiu yu t. Do vy, hiu bit cc yu t nh hng n gi s gip cho doanh nghip c cc quyt nh ng n v gi. nghin cu nhng yu t tc ng n gi, ngi ta c th chia cc yu t thnh hai Cc nhnnhm cc nhm l t b/ngoi
1. c im ca yu t bn trongtiu 1. Cc mc doanh nghip v nhm ccCCt bn ngoi doanh nghip. yu Marketing 2. Marketing - mix 3. Chi ph sn xut 4. Cc yu t khc QUYT NH V GI th trng v cu 2. Cnh tranh 3. Cc yu t khc ca mi trng Marketing Cc nhn t b/trong

S 7.1: Cc nhn t nh hng n quyt nh v gi

7.2.1. Cc nhn t bn trong doanh nghip a) Cc mc tiu Marketing ca doanh nghip: Cc mc tiu Marketing ca doanh nghip ng vai tr nh hng cho vic t ra nhim v ca gi c. Mun tr thnh mt cng c Marketing hu hiu th gi phi phc v c lc cho chin lc Marketing v th trng mc tiu v nh v sn phm ca doanh nghip. Do vy, khi nh gi doanh nghip phi cn c vo mc tiu Marketing ca doanh nghip v chin lc nh v sn phm m doanh nghip chn. Thng thng, mt doanh nghip c th theo ui mt trong cc mc tiu c bn sau y: Ti a ho li nhun hin hnh Dn u v th phn Dn u v cht lng sn phm trn th trng m bo cho doanh nghip tn ti trn th trng Cc mc tiu khc thc hin mi mt mc tiu nu trn th doanh nghip phi a ra cc quyt nh gi khc nhau. - thc hin mc tiu ti a ho li nhun hin hnh ca mnh, doanh nghip s nh gi sao cho c li nht trc mt. Chng hn, khi cu v sn phm tng rt mnh th doanh nghip nh gi kiu ht vng, hay ht phn ngon, tc l bn vi gi cao nht c th. Trong trng hp ny, mc tiu ti chnh trc mt c xem l quan trng hn cc mc tiu lu di. - thc hin mc tiu dn u v th phn, doanh nghip cn phi t gi thp nht c th thu ht khch hng nhm t c quy m th trng ln nht c th (v do vy, s t c hiu qu theo quy m). Cn c vo mc tiu th phn tng ln bao nhiu phn trm cng ty nh gi tng ng. - thc hin mc tiu dn u v cht lng, doanh nghip thng nh ra mt mc gi cao trang tri chi ph u t cho nng cao cht lng sn phm v

to ra mt n tng v cht lng cao i vi khch hng. - thc hin mc tiu m bo tn ti trn th trng khi cnh tranh tr nn gay gt th doanh nghip cn t ra mc gi thp nht c th, min l gi c khch hng trong mt thi gian nht nh ch c hi mi. b) Gi v cc bin s Marketing - Mix khc: Gi thc cht l mt cng c trong Marketing mix doanh nghip tc ng vo th trng nhm t c mc tiu ra. Do vy, gi phi phc v cho mc tiu Marketing chung ca doanh nghip. Mun vy, chin lc gi cn phi ng b, nht qun vi cc chin lc Marketing - Mix khc nh chin lc sn phm, chin lc phn phi, chin lc xc tin. Chng hn, khi mc tiu ca doanh nghip l dn u v cht lng th gi phi t cao to uy tn v b p chi ph m bo cht lng cao. Gi bn cn ph thuc vo cc giai on khc nhau ca chu k sng ca sn phm m doanh nghip cung cp cho th trng. c) Ch ph sn xut: Khi t gi, doanh nghip phi quan tm n chi ph cho mt n v sn phm (hay gi thnh n v sn phm) v cc l do sau y: - Chi ph cho mt n v sn phm l mc gi thp nht c th t doanh nghip b p cc chi ph cn thit. - Khi qun l c chi ph, doanh nghip c th xc nh c mc l li ca cc loi sn phm khc nhau mang li. y l cn c doanh nghip a ra cc quyt nh kinh doanh khc nhau. d) Cc yu t bn trong khc: - c tnh ca sn phm: +i vi nhng sn phm d hng hoc mang tnh cht ma v th gi bn s khng ph thuc vo gi thnh. + Nhng sn phm d hng th doanh nghip phi gim gi tiu th nhanh khi cn. Nhng th hng ho dch v li thi th cng phi gim gi bn nhanh thu hi vn. + Nhng sn phm c cht lng v uy tn cao th c th t gi cao. - Thng qua cc hot ng xc tin vn ho quc gia lm cho sn phm c a chung, do vy doanh nghip c th t gi cao. V d nh nh cc phim Hn Quc c a chung Vit Nam, qun o thi trang Hn Quc c a chung c th bn vi gi cao. - M hnh qun l gi m doanh nghip la chn c nh hng rt ln n s linh hot ca vic xut mc gi v iu chnh gi.

7.2.2. Cc yu t bn ngoi doanh nghip a) Cu ca th trng trng i vi sn phm: Cu th trng quyt nh trn ca gi. nh hng ca th trng v cu n gi ch yu tp trung vo 3 vn ln: Mi quan h tng qut gia gi v cu: + i vi cc sn phm thng thng, nhu cu v gi c c mi quan h t l nghch. Trong nhng iu kin nht nh, doanh nghip s bn c t hn (nhu cu gim t Q2 n Q1) nu tng gi ( t P2 n P1) v ngc li. + i vi cc sn phm cao cp, sn phm ang c a chung c bit, sn phm c thv d: t, vng.. ng cu c h s gc dng c ngha l nh gi cao s hp dn nhiu ngi mua hn. Tuy nhin, y l vn nhy cm. Nu nh gi qu cao c th nhu cu li gim xung.
P P D P1 P2 D P2 P1

Q1

Q2

Q1

Q2

ng cu hng ha bnh thng

ng cu hng ha c bit

S 7.2: Mi quan h gia cu vi gi


S nhy cm v gi hay co gin ca cu theo gi (ED)

Khi nim ny dng phn nh s thay i ca nhu cu khi gi thay i. Nu bit c co gin ca cu vi gi, ngi lm gi s lng trc c nhng g s xy ra khi h thay i gi bn. co gin ca cu theo gi = % thay i ca cu % thay i ca gi

ED

Q/Q Q P = x Q P/P P

hiu r hn ta ly v d sau: - Khi gi tng 10% th cu gim tng ng 5% ED = -0,5 (du m th hin mi quan h nghch bin), cu co gin t.

Doanh nghip c th thc hin chnh sch tng gi tng tng doanh thu v tc tng gi nhanh hn tc gim ca ng cu. - Doanh nghip gim gi xung 10% m lng cu tng ln tng ng 20% ED = -2 Doanh nghip nn thc hin chnh sch gim gi tng tng doanh thu v tc tng gi chm hn tc gim ca lng cu. Nh vy ED l mt trong nhng cn c ra quyt nh tng hay gim gi.
P P2 P1 Q2 Q P D2 P2 P1 Q2 Q P2 P1 Q1=Q2 ng cu khng nhy cm vi gi Q P D3

D1

Q1

Q1

ng cu t nhy cm vi gi

ng cu nhy cm vi gi

S 7.3. co gin ca cu khi gi thay i Cc yu t tm l ca khch hng khi chp nhn mc gi: Nhn thc ca khch hng v mc gi trong nhiu trng hp chu nh hng ca yu t tm l c bit l i vi cc sn phm phi vt cht (dch v) hoc nhng sn phm m s hiu bit ca khch hng v sn phm, nhn hiu, v gi ca i th cnh tranh cn hn ch. V d: Mt s xu hng ph bin: - S hiu bit ca khch hng v sn phm b hn ch, khch hng hoi nghi v mc gi cho nn phi gii ta s hoi nghi ny th khch hng mi chp nhn mc gi. - Khch hng cho rng gi bn cao, sn phm c cht lng tt. - Khch hng c khuynh hng so snh mc gi sn phm vi gi tham kho nh gi ca i th cnh tranh. - Khch hng thch gi l b) Cnh tranh Cc c im khc nhau ca cc hnh thi th trng s nh hng nhng mc khc nhau n vic la chn phng php nh gi, kh nng iu chnh v thay i gi ca cc doanh nghip trong th trng . C 4 loi hnh thi th trng:

Hnh thi th trng cnh tranh hon ho: th trng bao gm nhiu

ngi bn cho nhiu ngi mua nhng sn phm ng nht. V d: la, go, bnh m - Gi hnh thnh ti mi thi im l do cnh tranh gia s ng ngi bn v ngi mua trn th trng, phi bn v mua ng theo gi th trng. - Ngi bn c vai tr l ngi chp nhn gi, h khng tn nhiu thi gian v tin bc cho cc chin lc Marketing.
Hnh thi th trng cnh tranh c c quyn: gm nhiu ngi bn

cho nhiu ngi mua nhng sn phm phn bit trong mt khong gi nht nh. Sn phm a dng ha v c s khc bit, cho nn ngi mua c kh nng la chn thch hp v sn sng tr gi cao hn (doanh nghip c th t mt gi bn ring bit nh s khc bit) v vy ngi bn c th thu li nhun trn mc bnh qun.
Hnh thi th trng c quyn nhm: bao gm mt s t ngi bn,

tng ngi trong s h c th mnh gy nh hng n gi tr trng. Nhng ngi bn ny rt nhy cm vi nhng chin lc Marketing v nh gi ca nhau. Sn phm c kh nng thay th nhau nhng s thay th ny c gii hn.
Hnh thi th trng c quyn hon ton: th trng ch c mt ngi

bn (doanh nghip c quyn nh nc, doanh nghip c quyn t nhn c iu tit, t chc c quyn t nhn khng c iu tit ca nh nc) cho nhiu ngi mua mt loi sn phm nht nh. - Ngi bn l c quyn nh nc: ty thuc vo mc tiu m nh gi. - Ngi bn l doanh nghip c quyn t nhn c iu tit ca nh nc: nh nc cho php doanh nghip nh gi to nn mt mc li cng bng ( duy tr v m rng quy m th trng). - Ngi bn l t chc c quyn t nhn khng c s iu tit ca nh nc: t do nh ra mc gi m th trng chp nhn. c) Cc yu t bn ngoi khc: Khi quyt nh mt mc gi, cc doanh nghip cn phi xem xt n nhng yu t thuc mi trng bn ngoi, bao gm. - Cc yu t thuc mi trng kinh t nh: lm pht, tng trng hay suy thoi, tht nghip, cng ngh mi... u nh hng n sc mua ca th trng, n chi ph sn xut. Nhng tin b nhanh chng trong cng ngh in t dn ti gim gi cc thit b in t. - Nh nc c vai tr iu tit, qun l gi. Mt mt, Nh nc mun bo v cho cc doanh nghip, mt khc Nh nc cng mun bo v cho ngi tiu dng.

Tu tng iu kin m Nh nc can thip trc tip hoc can thip gin tip iu tit gi. Khi can thip trc tip, Nh nc t ra mc gi trn (l mc gi cao nht m doanh nghip c bn) nhm bo v cho ngi mua; v gi sn (l mc gi thp nht doanh nghip c mua) nhm bo v cho ngi bn. Khi can thip gin tip, Nh nc thng tc ng n cung cu ca hng ho, qua s tc ng n gi. V d, Nh nc iu chnh mc thu ca cc mt hng xut nhp khu, v nh vy nh hng gin tip n gi c hng ho xut nhp khu.
7.3. XC NH MC GI BN

7.3.1. Cc bc xc nh gi bn ban u Khi doanh nghip a sn phm mi ra th trng, a mt sn phm hin hnh vo mt th trng mi, h phi xc nh gi bn ban u cho sn phm. C 6 bc trong qu trnh xc nh gi bn ban u:
Xc nh mc tiu nh gi Xc nh cu th trng mc tiu Phn tch gi v sp ca i th La chn phng php nh gi

Xc nh chi ph sn xut

La chn mc gi c th

S 7.4. Tin trnh xc nh mc gi ban u 7.3.2. Xc nh mc tiu nh gi Mc tiu nh gi phi xut pht t mc tiu chung ca doanh nghip v chin lc nh v sn phm ca n, ng thi phi phi hp vi cc chin lc Marketing Mix khc (chin lc sn phm, chin lc phn phi, chin lc xc tin). Mc tiu cng r rng th cng d xc nh gi ca phm. Sau y l su mc tiu ch yu m doanh nghip c th la chn khi nh gi sn phm: 1) Mc tiu nh hng li nhun: Vi mc tiu ny, cng ty c th quan tm n cc mc tiu sau: - t c mc li nhun mong mun - Ti a ho li nhun Gi bn ca sn phm s nh hng n li nhun ca cng ty. Cng ty d on nhu cu v chi ph ng vi cc mc gi khc nhau v chn mc gi sao cho c th t c t sut li nhun n nh no trn doanh s hoc trn vn u t. Cc nh sn xut, cc nh bn bun, bn l c th nh gi theo mc tiu ny. nh gi nhm mc tiu ti a ho li nhun cng l mc tiu rt ph bin.Tuy nhin, trong c ch th trng chng ai c th thu c li nhun cao trong mt thi gian di. Gi cao s kch cung, kt qu l gi li gim xung v ko theo li nhun

gim. i vi cc mt hng thit yu, Nh nc cng can thip bnh n gi. Nhn chung, ti a ho li nhun thng l mc tiu chung cho nhiu sn phm, ch khng ch cho mt loi sn phm. Nhng khi nhu cu v mt sn phm mi cao, cng ty c th dng kiu nh gi ht vng thu c li nhun cao trong thi gian ngn khi cc i thu cnh tranh cha xut hin. 2) Mc tiu nh hng bn hng: Vi mc tiu ny, cng ty quan tm n cc mc tiu sau: - Tng s lng hng bn ti a - Duy tr hoc tng th phn Cc cng ty cng c th t gi vi mc ch tng s lng hng bn ti a trong mt giai on ngn. H tin rng s lng sn phm bn tng s dn ti chi ph trn n v sn phm gim xung, v li nhun di hn tng ln. Vi mc tiu , cng ty t gi thp kch thch sc mua khi sn phm bc vo giai on suy thoi, khi mi trin khai sn phm mi, hay vo thi k m. Tng s lng hng bn cng gip cho cng ty t c hiu qu theo quy m, v gim c gi thnh, v do vy tng c li nhun trn mt n v sn phm. iu kin thc hin c mc tiu ny l: (1) th trng nhy cm v gi; (2) chi ph sn xut v phn phi trn n v sn phm gim khi quy m tng; (3) gi thp lm nn lng cc i th hin ti v tng lai. Vic gim gi bn cng gip cng ty duy tr hoc tng c th phn so vi cc i th, v dn dn gip cho cng ty vn n v tr ch o trn th trng. Tuy nhin, gim gi c th dn ti chin tranh v gi c. 3) Mc tiu tn ti: Cng ty chn mc tiu ny khi gp phi tnh trng cnh tranh gay gt, khch hng thay i nhu cu nhanh qu, cng ty khng xoay chuyn kp. Trong trng hp , cng ty phi gim gi thp nht c th cm c trn th trng. Cng ty ch cn t gi bn ln hn chi ph bin i l c. y ch l mc tiu ngn hn. 4) Mc tiu dn u v cht lng: Dn u v cht lng ng hnh vi gi bn cao. Gi cao va tng xng vi hnh nh cht lng cao, va gip cho cng ty trang tri c chi ph u t cho cht lng v c c t sut li nhun cao. 5) Mc tiu n nh: Vi mc tiu ny, cng ty quan tm n cc mc tiu sau: - n nh gi - p ng tnh hnh cnh tranh Mc tiu n nh gi l mc tiu nh gi ho bnh nht trong tt c cc mc tiu nh gi. Mc tiu ny c 2 mc tiu nh c lin quan cht ch vi nhau. Thc hin mc tiu ny, cng ty trnh c s cnh tranh v gi, vi mong mun mnh sng v cho ngi khc sng. n nh gi thng l mc tiu trong cc ngnh m

sn phm tiu chun ho cao (st thp, ng, nhm, ho cht), ng thi c mt doanh nghip ch o quy nh gi. Cc doanh nghip nh khc phi thc hin phng php nh gi theo gi ca doanh nghip ch o (p ng cnh tranh). nh gi nh vy s gip doanh nghip trnh c cnh tranh. Trong th trng c quyn nhm, mc tiu n nh gi cng thng c chn trnh xy ra chin tranh gi c. Mt cng ty c th theo ui ng thi mt s mc tiu nh gi. V d: tng doanh s 5-10% hng nm, t c mc li nhun 15% trn vn u t c bn, gi mc gi gn vi gi ca cc i th. Cng ty cng c th thit lp cc mc tiu ngn hn v di hn. V d, mc tiu ngn hn l ti a ho li nhun t sn phm mi. Mc tiu di hn l gim li nhun trnh kch thch cc i th cnh tranh tham gia th trng. 7.3.3. Xc nh (c lng) cu ca th trng mc tiu Mi mc gi m cng ty n nh cho sn phm s tng ng vi mt mc cu nht nh ca th trng mc tiu, v do vy s c nh hng khc nhau n cc mc tiu Marketing ca cng ty. ng cu th hin mi tng quan cht ch gia 2 bin s gi v cu. Thng th mi quan h gia cu v gi l quan h t l nghch. Nhng i vi cc hng ho c uy tn th gi tng li ko theo cu tng (xem s 7.2.). V d gi nc hoa tng li dn n sc mua tng. a) Phng php c lng tng cu th trng: Cu th trng m t mi quan h gia gi c v cc mc cu khc nhau ca th trng. c lng tng cu ca th trng mc tiu, cn c cc thng tin sau y: - S lng khch hng tim nng - Lng tiu th mong mun ca khch hng tim nng. Tng cu d bo s bng: Q = npq Trong : - n l s lng khch hng th trng mc tiu - q l s lng n v hng ho trung bnh m mt khch hng mua - p l mc gi bn d kin (cho 1 n v hng ho) b) Xc nh h s co dn ca cu: H s co dn ca cu ED th hin mc nhy cm ca khch hng i vi s bin thin ca gi. Vic c lng c h s co dn s gip cho cng ty c cn c quyt nh tng hay gim gi th c li cho cng ty. Trn thc t rt kh lng ho c h s ny. Ngi ta a ra 2 phng php sau y d on: - Da vo kinh nghim qu kh v mi quan h gia cu v gi cc th trng khc nhau.

- S dng phng php iu tra mu thc hin iu tra phng vn khch hng thuc th trng mc tiu nh gi mc phn ng cu khch hng vi s bin ng ca gi c. 7.3.4. Xc nh chi ph phc v cho vic nh gi: a) Xc nh cc ch tiu chi ph: gc xc nh gi, cc ch tiu chi ph c ngha quan trng nht l: + Tng chi ph c nh: L ton b chi ph cho cc u vo c nh, khng thay i theo mc sn xut v doanh s bn. V d: chi ph nh xng, my mc thit b, tin tr li i vay, tin lng cn b qun l + Tng chi ph bin i: L ton b chi ph cho cc u vo bin i. N thay i cng sn lng sn xut. V d: chi ph nguyn vt liu, tin lng cng nhn sn xut. + Tng chi ph = Tng chi ph c nh + Tng chi ph bin i T cc ch tiu trn, ta tnh c: Chi ph bin i trung bnh (AVC), chi ph c nh trung bnh (AFC), Chi ph bnh qun trn sn phm. ngha ca cc ch tiu trn: tm quan trng th hin phn tch ha vn, la chn mc gi thch hp trong mi tng quan gia gi, doanh thu v li nhun. b) Phn tch mi quan h gia gi thnh, sn lng v mc gi d kin Gi thnh n v sn phm = Tng chi ph / Tng sn lng Ban lnh o v ngi lm gi bit chnh xc gi thnh thay i nh th no khi sn lng sn phm tng t ginh th ch ng trong vic xut chin lc. V d: Chin lc gi tn cng, xm nhp th trng, ngi mua t gi thp hn gi cho hng, cng ty c c s quyt nh nn bn hay khng? c.Tm kim tim nng h thp gi thnh: Gi thnh gim xung theo: + S gia tng ca sn lng sn phm. + Kinh nghim sn xut c tch ly. + Gii php h thp chi ph. (tit kim vt t, tng nng sut lao ng). Khi chi ph gim, doanh nghip c th thu ht thm khch hng v loi b i th cnh tranh khi tin lng c hi th trng. 7.3.5. Phn tch sn phm v gi c ca i th cnh tranh: Chi ph n v l cn di ca gi bn. Cu ca th trng xc nh cn trn ca gi. By gi cng ty cn tm hiu gi ca cc sn phm cnh tranh lm cn c xc

nh gi bn cho sn phm ca mnh. Cng ty cng cn so snh cu trc chi ph ca mnh vi cu trc chi ph ca cc i th tm ra cc th mnh cng nh im yu ca mnh. Ngoi ra, cng ty cng cn tm hiu cht lng cu sn phm cnh tranh. lm c iu ny, cng ty c th s dng cc phng php sau - C nhn vin ca mnh ng vai khch hng b mt n mua sn phm ca cc i th cnh tranh tm hiu sn phm ca h. - Phng vn khch hng ca cc i th cnh tranh bit nh gi ca h v cht lng v gi c ca cc i th. - iu tra tm hiu cng ngh, b quyt ca cc i th. Khi cng ty c thng tin chi tit v sn phm, chi ph, gi c ca cc sn phm cnh tranh, cng ty c nh hng t gi cho sn phm ca mnh. S c th c 3 trng hp sau y: - Nu sn phm ca cng ty tng ng vi sn phm ca cc i th cnh tranh, cng ty phi nh gi tng ng vi gi ca h (c th thp hn mt cht). - Nu sn phm ca cng ty c cht lng cao hn so vi sn phm ca cc i th cnh tranh, cng ty c th t gi cao hn gi ca h. - Nu sn phm ca cng ty c cht lng thp hn so vi sn phm ca cc i th cnh tranh, cng ty c th t gi thp hn gi ca h. Tuy nhin, cng ty cng cn bit dc s phn ng ca cc i th trc cc mc gi ca cng ty. 7.3.6. La chn phng php nh gi Chi ph n v sn phm to nn mc gi sn, cn nhu cu v nhng cm nhn, nh gi ca ngi tiu dng v gi tr ca sn phm lp thnh mc gi trn ca gi c ca sn phm. Ngoi ra, doanh nghip cn phi xem xt gi c ca sn phm thay th v yu t lin quan khc tm ra mc gi ph hp nht gia hai thi cc . Phn ln cc doanh nghip gii quyt vic nh gi bng cch chn mt trong cc phng php nh gi thch hp nm trong khong gi sn n gi trn.

Gi thp (doanh nghip khng c li nhun)

Gi thnh sn xut (Costs)

Gi ca TCT v ca sn phm thay th (Competitors)

Cm nhn v nh gi ca khch hng v SP (Customers)

Gi cao (khng c ngi mua)

Khong nh gi S 7.7: M hnh ba nhm yu t nh hng n vic nh gi (m hnh 3C) a. nh gi da vo chi ph: Cn c chnh xc nh gi l chi ph b ra sn xut v tiu th sn phm. Phng php nh gi Cng li vo gi thnh Cng thc: Gi d kin = Gi thnh sn phm + li d kin + thu (nu c) V d: Gi s mt doanh nghip lp my vi tnh c nhn c cc mc chi ph v sn lng tiu th d kin nh sau: Chi ph bin i trung bnh (AVC) = 8 triu ng. Chi ph c nh (FC) Sn lng tiu th d kin (Q) ng + Nu doanh nghip mun c li d kin = 25% gi thnh th gi bn l: P = (1+ 0,25) x 12 = 15 triu ng. By gi cc nh bn s sau khi mua vi gi 15 triu ng, nu mun c t l sinh li l 20% gi mua vo th h s bn ra vi mc gi P = 15 x (1 + 0,2) = 18 triu ng. * u im: - n gin. - C kh nng gim thiu s cnh tranh v gi. Lm cho nhiu ngi cm nhn rng n m bo s cng bng cho c ngi mua ln ngi bn. * Nhc im: B qua yu t cu v tnh hnh cnh tranh trn th trng. Phng php nh gi theo li nhun mc tiu v phng php ha vn: - nh gi theo t sut li nhun mc tiu: doanh nghip xc nh gi trn c s m bo t sut li nhun mc tiu trn vn u t (ROI). Gi (m bo LN mc tiu) = Chi ph n v = + Li nhun mong mun tnh trn vn T Sn lng tiu th d kin x Vn u t = 4.000 triu ng. = 1000 sn phm

AC = AVC + FC/Q = 8 triu ng + 4000 triu ng/ 1000 sp = 12 triu

Li nhun mong mun tnh trn vn u t

T sut li nhun trn vn u t

P = AC +

ROI x I Q

V d: Cng ty lp rp my vi tnh c vn u t l 15.000 triu ng, v h mun nh gi sao cho c th thu c ROI l 20% tc l 3000 triu ng. Gi bn s l: P= 8 triu ng + (0,2 x 15000 triu ng)/ 1000 sn phm = 15 triu ng Cng thc tnh gi ni trn s m bo cho ngi sn xut t c ROI m h mong mun nu m bo mc gi thnh v mc tiu th c tnh l chnh xc. - Phng php ha vn: Nu mc tiu th khng t c nh d kin th doanh nghip phi tin hnh phn tch ha vn bit c tnh trng chi ph v li nhun ng vi cc mc tiu th khc nhau. th ha vn c xy dng bi ng tng doanh thu (TR) v ng tng chi ph (TC). Hai ng ny s giao nhau ti mc tiu th m ngi ta gi l im ha vn. Sn lng ha vn (Qo) = Tng chi ph c nh Gi - Chi ph bin i n v

Tr li v d trn: Qo = 4000 triu ng/ (15 triu ng 8 triu ng) = 571 (SP) Ti mc sn lng ha vn, ta c: TR = TC hay P = AC Khi lng tiu th t c li nhun mc tiu c xc nh theo cng thc: Tng chi ph c nh + Tng LN mc tiu Sn lng bn = t LN mc tiu Gi - Chi ph bin i n v Tng doanh thu TR, TC V d: Khi lng bn t LN mc tiu = (4000 triu ng + 3000 triu Tng chi ph 14 ng) / (15 triu ng 8 triu ng) = 1.000 (SP) 12 Li nhun mc tiu

FC
4 0 751 1000 Sn lng

S 7.8. th im ha vn

+ u im: - S dng rt c hiu qu khi doanh nghip d on chnh xc khi lng tiu th. - Cho php ngi lm gi c th xem xt ti cc mc gi khc nhau v c tnh c nhng nh hng c th c ca gi n khi lng tiu th v li nhun. - D bo c khong thi gian c th t c im ha vn. + Nhc im: - Xem nh nh hng ca gi ca sn phm cnh tranh. - Mo him v cha tnh n co gin ca cu i vi gi. b) nh gi theo gi tr cm nhn ca khch hng Gi c m khch hng chp nhn c ph thuc vo gi tr cm nhn c ca khch hng i vi sn phm, v s chp nhn ca ngi mua mi l quan trng ch khng phi chi ph ca ngi bn. Thc t cho thy vi cng mt loi sn phm nhng bn cc a im khc nhau th mc gi m khch hng c th chp nhn c l khc nhau. Do vy, theo phng php ny cng ty phi xy dng cc bin s phi gi c trong Marketing - Mix to nn gi tr cm nhn c trong nhn thc ca ngi mua. Mun vy, cng ty phi nghin cu th trng hiu c nhn thc cu khch hng v gi tr sn phm trong cc iu kin khc nhau. Trn c s , cng ty s dng cc bin s phi gi c (nh bao b sn phm, a im bn hng, trang tr ni tht ca hng, i ng nhn vin bn hng) to nn n tng, gi tr cm nhn v sn phm trong con mt khch hng. V d: Cng mt chai nc ngot ca Coca Cola, nhng gi bn ti cc a im khc nhau gi bn li khc nhau, c th 7.000 ng trn cc qun nc va h, 10.000 ng trong cc qun c ph bnh dn, 20.000 ng trong qun c ph san trong, v 30.000 ng khch sn san trong. c) nh gi theo gi cnh tranh hin hnh Theo phng php ny, cng ty ly gi hin hnh ca i th cnh tranh

lm c s m khng quan tm ti chi ph sn xut cng nh cu ca th trng. Tu theo loi th trng v c tnh sn phm ca cng ty m t gi bng, thp hn hoc cao hn gi ca i th cnh tranh. Tu theo loi th trng v c tnh sn phm ca cng ty m t gi bng, thp hn hoc cao hn gi ca i th cnh tranh. Phng php nh gi theo cc i th cnh tranh hay c s dng v cc l do sau y: - n gin, d thc hin, khng cn phi xc nh cu th trng, co dn ca cu theo gi, hay tnh chi ph cc loi. - Gi th trng hin hnh c xem nh l khch quan, cng bng i vi khch hng, vi cng ty. - Khng kch thch cc i th cnh tranh, khng dn ti s tr a. Nhc im ca phng php ny l, cc cng ty khc nhau c cc cu trc chi ph khc nhau, c cu th trng khc nhau. Ngi ta chia cc phng php nh gi theo i th thnh 3 loi sau y:
nh gi tng ng (ngang bng) vi gi ca cc i th cnh

tranh: Cng ty c th la chn cch nh gi ngang bng vi gi ca cc i th cnh tranh trong tnh hung sau y: - Th trng cnh tranh gay gt, trong khi sn phm ca cng ty khng c s khc bit so vi sn phm ca cc i th. Trng hp ny cng tng t nh iu kin ca th trng cnh tranh hon ho. Trong th trng cnh tranh hon ho, cc doanh nghip u phi chp nhn v bn theo gi th trng, v c th bn ht sn phm ca mnh vi mc gi th trng. Cc nh sn xut nng sn, cc cng ty nh cung cp cc sn phm tiu chun, ph bin thng s dng phng php nh gi ny. Tuy nhin, trong mt loi th trng khc - th trng c quyn nhm cng c th p dng kiu nh gi tng t gi ca cc i th. Trong th trng c quyn nhm cc sn phm cng loi, cc cng ty thng cho bn chung mt gi. Cc cng ty nh thng theo cc cng ty dn u nh gi (ch khng ph thuc vo bin ng cung cu hay chi ph). Nhng th trng sau y thuc loi c quyn nhm: cc kim loi ng, nhm, phn bn, nc ung khng cn, ng cc n sng, lp t, cc tim ct tc, cc ca hng tp phm ti cc khu vc cng ng dn c.
nh gi thp hn so vi gi ca cc i th cnh tranh:

Phng php nh gi ny c p dng nhm vo nhng khch hng nhy cm v gi. Tuy nhin, khng kch thch cc i th cnh tranh phn ng li bng

vic gim gi, cng ty c th gim bt cc dch v khch hng, hay di hnh thc t phc v, ng thi mc chnh lch gi khng ln so vi gi ca cc i th khc.
nh gi cao hn so vi vi gi ca cc i th cnh tranh:

Phng php nh gi ny c th dc p dng trong trng hp sn phm c cht lng kh hn, uy tn ca cng ty cao hn, dch v khch hng tt hn... Trong th trng cnh tranh c quyn, cc doanh nghip c quyn nh gi trong mt khung gi no gn vi gi ca cc i th cnh tranh tu theo s khc bit v cht lng, mu m, cc dch v khch hng, a im bn hng. Nu cng ty c cht lng, mu m, cc dch v khch hng cao hn so vi cc i th cnh tranh, hoc ca hng sang trng hn, h c th t gi cao so vi cc i th cnh tranh. Tuy nhin, cng khng nn t gi qu cao, v s b mt khch hng. Tt nhin, nu nh gi thp qu th doanh nghip s b thit hi. Phng php nh gi cao hn so vi gi th trng thng c cc cng ty c thng hiu uy tn p dng nh: Ferrari, Mercedes ( t); Rolex (ng h); Gucci, Fendi (hng da). Cc cng ty bn cc sn phm gi tr nh trong th trng cnh tranh c quyn cng p dng kiu nh gi ny. Trong cc trng hp trn, cn lu n mt hin tng l cng ty ch o v gi. l cng ty hay mt s cng ty c th phn ln, c v tr vng vng trn th trng. Nhng cng ty ny thng i tin phong trong vic thay i (tng, gim gi) thch nghi vi s thay i ca cc yu t mi trng kinh doanh. Cc cng ty nh khc thng theo ui gi ca cc cng ty ch o. d) nh gi u thu: y l kiu nh gi m doanh nghip da vo d on v gi ca i th cnh tranh quyt nh mc gi ca mnh sao cho thng thu. Cc c quan chnh ph, cc doanh nghip nh nc bt buc phi thc hin u thu cnh tranh khi mua sm cc hng ho c gi tr cao. u thu thnh cng, cng ty phi nm rt r cc i th v a ra mt mc gi ph hp nht. 7.3.7. Chn mc gi cui cng Cc phng php xc nh gi trn y thu hp phm vi ca mc gi cn la chn cui cng. Khi quyt nh mc gi cui cng, cng ty cn phi xem xt thm cc yu t b sung sau y: 1) Yu t tm l ca khch hng khi chp nhn gi: Ngoi cc yu t v kinh t nu trn, yu t tm l ca khch hng ln quan n gi c. Khch hng thng gn lin gi c v cht lng, uy tn ca sn phm , c bit trong trng hp khi thiu thng tin v cht lng. Nc hoa, t.. thuc loi sn

phm nh vy. c bit, khch hng Vit Nam thng nh gi qu cao cc thng hiu hng ho ngoi v sn sng tr gi cao. Cng ty cng c th s dng phng php so snh i chng khch hng lin tng mc gi ca sn phm cho bn. Khi trng by mt loi sn phm mi trong s cc sn phm sang trng c tha nhn, khch hng s lin tng rng sn phm mi cng l loi sang trng, t tin. Cui cng, cc mc gi l di cc con s chn lm cho khch hng c cm gic gi r. Do vy, ngi ta thng ghi mc gi $299 thay v $300, mc d ch r hn c $1. 2) nh hng cu cc bin s Marketing khc Khi chn mc gi cui cng, cng ty cn phi xem xt n uy tn ca thng hiu, v mc tiu ca qung co. Qua nghin cu ngi ta thy cc quy lut sau v mi quan h gia gi c, uy tn thng hiu v mc qung co: - Khch hng sn sng tr gi cao hn i vi cc sn phm c bit n nhiu so vi cc sn phm c bit n t. Nh vy, qung co nhiu hn s h tr tch cc cho cc sn phm c t gi cao hn. - Thng hiu c cht lng tt, c qung co mnh m s c th t gi cao nht. Ngc li, thng hiu c cht lng thp, v qung co t th nn t gi thp nht. 3) Chnh sch nh gi ca cng ty Gi c la chn phi tng thch vi chnh sch gi ca cng ty. Chnh sch nh gi ca cng ty m bo rng cc quyt nh v nh gi c phi hp vi cc quyt nh ca cng ty v th trng mc tiu, hnh nh v cc yu t Marketing hn hp khc. N cng kt hp cc mc tiu ngn hn v di hn trong nh gi. V d: gi cho sn phm nhm vo phn on th trng thu nhp cao bn cc ca hng sang trng s phi l gi cao. 4) nh hng ca gi n cc bn lin quan khc: Cng ty cn phi xem xt phn ng ca cc bn khc i vi mc gi d kin. l phn ng ca cc nh phn phi, thi ng h ca lc lng bn hng, s phn ng p li ca cc i th cnh tranh, ca cc nh cung cp cc yu t u vo, v cui cng l nhng iu khon lut l ca chnh ph lin quan n vn qun l gi. 7.4. CC KIU CHIN LC NH GI 7.4.1. Chin lc gi cho sn phm mi a) Chin lc gi ht vng: Ht vng, hay cn gi l ht phn ngon. Theo chin lc ny, cng ty t gi cao nht c th cho cc on th trng sn sng chp nhn sn phm mi. Khi mc tiu

th gim xung th cng ty li gim gi thu ht thm khch hng on th trng thp hn. iu kin nh gi ht vng l: - Mc cu v sn phm mi cao. - Gi cao lc u to nn hnh nh v sn phm cao cp. - Gi cao ban u khng thu ht cc i th cnh tranh b) Chin lc bnh trng th trng: Mc tiu ca cng ty l ginh cng nhiu th phn cng tt chim th p o i phng nh t c li th hiu qu theo quy m. Do , cng ty t gi thp thu ht khch hng. iu kin doanh nghip thc hin chin lc ny l: - Th trng nhy cm v gi. - Lnh vc sn xut ca cng ty c tnh cht hiu qu theo quy m. Nh vy, khi cng ty t gi thp th sn lng bn c tng ln, dn n tit kim chi ph, li nhun tng. Do vy s b li cho vic gim gi. - Cng ty c tim nng ti chnh t gi thp ban u. 7.4.2. Chin lc gi cho danh mc sn phm ca cng ty: Gi c xy dng cho ton b sn phm trong danh mc sn phm, li nhun tnh chung cho ton b danh mc ch khng phi cho ring tng loi sn phm. Bng cch ny, cng ty khuyn khch khch hng mua ton b danh mc sn phm. Cc truo7ng2 hp nh gi cho danh mc sn phm: 1) nh gi cho chng loi hng ha: nh gi khc nhau cho nhng sn phm cng loi nhng khc nhau v cht lng hoc kiu dng, mu m. Mc ch tng doanh htu v li nhun ca c chng loi. 2) nh gi cho nhng hng ha ph thm: l nhng sn phm i ph thm sn phm chnh thnh trn b, tuy nhin vic c hay khng c sn phm khng phi l yu t quan trong trong vic s dng sn phm chnh v sn phm chnh mang li doanh thu ch yu. Mc ch l tng doanh thu ng thi gia tng sc cnh tranh cho sn phm chnh. 3) nh gi cho sn phm km theo bt buc: l nhng sn phm bt buc phi i km vi sn phm chnh trong qu trnh s dng ca sn phm chnh. Mc ch tng mc tiu th v doanh s cho sn phm chnh. 4) nh gi cho sn phm ph ca qu trnh sn xut: l nhng sn phm ph pht sinh trong qu trnh sn xut sn phm chnh. Mc ch m bo c chi ph v c li cho c sn phm chnh v sn phm ph

7.4.3 Cc chin lc iu chnh gi:

Chin lc nh gi hai phn:

Gi c tnh gm 2 phn: Phn tr cho mc tiu dng ti thiu v phn tr cho mc tiu dng vt tri. Thng thng, mc gi cho dch v ti thiu nn t thp thu ht khch hng. Cc cng ty in thoi, cc khu vui chi gii tr thng t gi nh vy. V vo ca, cc thu bao l mc gi tiu dng ti thiu. Trong nhng nm qua VNPT cng gim cc thu bao ng k. Kt qu l nhu cu lp my tng cao v doanh thu cng tng ln ch khng gim nh ngi ta lo s ban u. Chin lc gi chit khu: Nhm khuyn khch khch hng, cng ty gim gi cho khch hng mua nhiu di dng chit khu: 1) Chit khu khi mua s lng ln nhm khuyn khch khch hng mua nhiu trong mt ln hoc trong mt thi k (thng, qu, nm). 2) Chit khu theo thi v, v d nh vo cc thi im vng khch (khch sn, hng khng, bu in). Vo ban m, ngy l gi cc vin thng thng c gim. Vo ma ng, cc khch sn cc vng bin Bc Vit Nam thng gim gi Bng cch , doanh nghip c th gim bt lng khch s dng vo cc gi, thi v cao im, trnh c tnh trng qu ti cng sut phc v, ng thi khai thc kh nng phc v d tha ca cc nh cung cp dch v vo cc thi im, thi k nhn ri. 3) Chit khu khuyn khch thanh ton nhanh, bng tin mt. Nh vy, doanh nghip s khuyn khch khch hng thanh ton ngay, trnh tnh trng chim dng vn lu, kh i.

Chin lc gi khuyn mi:

1)nh gi thp ban u li ko khch hng mua sn phm mi. 2) nh gi thp vo cc dp c bit nh ngy l, tt li ko khch hng. 3) Gi bn tr gp (cho khch hng vay vi li sut thp). iu ny c th gip cho doanh nghip vt qua ro cn v quy nh gi sn. 4) Gim gi theo phiu mua hng (i vi khch hng mua cc ln trc) khuyn khch khch hng mua thng xuyn.

Chin lc nh gi phn bit:

Chin lc nh gi phn bit l chin lc m cng ty bn cng mt loi sn phm vi cc mc gi khc nhau tu vo cc iu kin khc nhau. l: 1) Theo nhm khch hng. V d: cc i tng sinh vin, cc c gi, thng

binh, ngi tn tt c gim gi. Mc ch gi phn bit y l thc hin cc chnh sch x hi. 2) Theo a im: gi tu thuc vo ch ngi tt hay km trong nh ht, trn my bay, thu thuc tng khc nhau trong khch sn Mc ch nh gi phn bit y l khai thc co dn ca cc nhu cu khc nhau ca th trng. 3) Theo a d: n gi lp t my in thoi cc tnh khc nhau th khc nhau. Mc ch nh gi phn bit y l khai thc co dn ca cc nhu cu khc nhau ca th trng 4) Theo hnh nh, bao b: B tem c ba cng bn ti sn bay, khch sn sang c gi cao hn bn cc ni khc. Mc ch nh gi phn bit y l khai thc co dn ca c nhu cu khc nhau ca th trng. 5) nh gi theo gi cao im, thp im: (in nng, in thoi, Internet, sn c nhn to, cc ph qung co) nhm khuyn khch khch hng s dng ti cc thi im dn u ti trng, hn ch qu ti cc gi cao im v khai thc cng sut phc v ti cc thi im, thi k vng khch. 7.4.4. Chin lc thay i gi 1) Ch ng gim gi: Cng ty ch ng gim gi trong cc tnh hung nh sau: D tha nng lc sn xut; t phn th trng gim st; khng ch th trng bng vic bn h gi. 2) Ch ng tng gi: Nhiu khi cng ty phi ch ng tng gi. l khi: Do nn lm pht; do cu tng qu mc so vi cung. 3) i ph vi vic cc i th thay i gi: Trn th gii chuyn t cnh tranh bng gi sang cnh tranh bng cht lng. Nhng i vi Vit Nam cnh tranh bng gi c vn cn tn ti. i ph vi vic thay i gi ca i phng, trc ht cng ty cn phn tch k lng cc vn sau y: - Nguyn nhn dn n s thay i gi ca cc i th? - Loi th trng m cng ty ang tham gia? - y l s thay i gi tm thi hay lu di? - Nu cng ty khng i ph th hu qu ra sao i vi li nhun, th phn ca cng ty? - Cc phng php i ph khc nhau c th v phn ng ca i th? Sau khi phn tch k cc vn trn y, cng ty c th phn ng li bng cc phng n sau y:

- Gim gi bn thp hn gi bn ca cc i th cnh tranh khi cng ty c tim lc ti chnh v khng vi phm Lut chng bn ph gi. - Gi nguyn gi nhng cn thc y cc hot ng xc tin gi khch hng nh khuyn mi, qung co. - Nng gi cng vi ci tin cht lng, mu m sn phm (nh v li sn phm). Phng n ny c hiu qu trong trng hp khch hng t nhy cm v gi v a thch nhng sn phm cht lng cao.

CU HI N TP V THO LUN
1) Trnh by cc yu t bn trong doanh nghip chi phi quyt nh v gi? 2) Trnh by cc yu t bn ngoi doanh nghip chi phi quyt nh v gi. 3) Cc bc trong quy trnh nh gi ban u cho sn phm mi? 4) Trnh by cc phng php nh gi? 5) Trnh by cc kiu chin lc nh gi? 6 ) Tm mt v d v chnh sch gi ht vng v phn tch cc iu kin p dng n. 7) T duy Ch bn nhng th m khch hng cn c th hin nh th no trong chin lc gi.

Chng 8

CC QUYT NH V PHN PHI


MC TIU: Sau khi hc chng ny, sinh vin cn nm c: - Bn cht v tm quan trng ca phn phi - Cu trc v t chc knh phn phi - La chn v qun l knh phn phi - Quyt nh phn phi hng ha vt cht - Marketing ca t chc bn bun v bn l. 8.1. TNG QUAN V KNH PHN PHI 8.1.1. nh ngha knh phn phi Knh phn phi l mt nhm cc t chc, c nhn tham gia vo qu trnh a

sn phm t nh sn xut n ngi tiu dng. Cc knh phn phi to nn dng chy sn phm t ngi sn xut n ngi mua cui cng. Tt c nhng t chc, c nhn tham gia vo knh phn phi c gi l cc thnh vin ca knh. Nhng thnh vin nm gia nh sn xut v ngi tiu dng cui cng (nu c) c gi l cc trung gian phn phi. C th c cc loi trung gian phn phi sau y:
Nh bn bun: L cc trung gian phn phi mua sn phm ca nh sn

xut v bn cho cc trung gian khc hoc cho cc khch hng cng nghip.
Nh bn l: L cc trung gian phn phi mua sn phm t nh sn xut

hoc nh bn bun v bn sn phm trc tip cho ngi tiu dng cui cng.
i l v mi gii: L cc trung gian phn phi c quyn thay mt cho

nh sn xut bn sn phm. Cc i l v mi gii khng c quyn s hu sn phm.


Nh phn phi: L cc trung gian phn phi trn th trng cng nghip,

hoc cc nh bn bun. Cc trung gian nh nh bn bun, nh bn l b tin ra mua hng ho ri bn li kim li. H c gi l cc trung gian thng mi. H c t cch php nhn. Nhng trung gian khc nh nh mi gii, i din ca nh sn xut, cc i l bn hng th tm kim khch hng, thay mt nh sn xut m phn cc iu kin mua bn. l cc trung gian i l. H khng c t cch php nhn, v ch hng hoa hng mi gii bn hng. Cc cng ty vn chuyn, kho hng, ngn hng, qung co h tr cho nh sn xut trong qu trnh phn phi. H c gi l cc trung gian h tr. H c hng ph cung cp dch v h tr. 8.1.2. Vai tr ca trung gian trong knh phn phi Khng nh trc y, ngi ta quan nim l trung gian ch gy tn ph v mt thi gian, hc t cho thy cc trung gian trong knh phn phi c vai tr quan trng gip cho c bn bn v bn mua. Nh cc mi quan h tip xc, kinh nghim, chuyn mn ho, cc trung gian mang li cho nh sn xut nhiu li ch. l: 1) Gim chi ph phn phi cho nh sn xut - Nu cc nh sn xut t t chc ly mng li phn phi th h phi chu chi ph ln do khng chuyn mn ho, do quy m nh b. Vit Nam nu cc Nh xut bn bo ch t lo ly h thng knh phn phi trn khp c nc th chc chn h khng chu ni c chi ph phn phi. Do vy, h phi phn phi bo ch thng qua h thng bu cc tri rng khp c nc ca Bu in v nhiu i l t nhn khc trn c nc. Cc nh sn xut nc ngoi cng khng th chu c chi ph phn phi

nu h t t chc ly mng li phn phi ti Vit Nam. Hng General Motor ca M cng khng ngun ti chnh bn hng trc tip, m phi thng qua 18 .000 i l c lp a sn phm n tay ngi tiu dng. - Nh s dng trung gian phn phi, cc nh sn xut tp trung ngun lc vo cc khu chnh trong dy chuyn gi tr ca sn phm. 2) Tng phm vi tip cn vi khch hng cho nh sn xut trong khi gim u mi tip xc cho nh sn xut v cho khch hng. Nh c mng li phn phi m cc nh sn xut c th tip cn ti ng o khch hng khp ni. Khch hng cng ch cn tip xc vi mt nh phn phi l c th mua c nhiu loi sn phm ca cc nh sn xut khc nhau. Ngc li, cc nh sn xut cng ch cn tip xc vi mt nh phn phi l c th bn c sn phm cho nhiu khch hng. Nh sn xut A Khch hng 1

Nh sn xut A

Khch hng 2

Nh sn xut A Tt c 9 u mi tip xc

Khch hng 3

Nh sn xut A Trung gian thng mi

Khch hng 1

Nh sn xut A

Khch hng 2

Nh sn xut A

Khch hng 3 Tt c 6 u mi tip xc S 8.1. Trung gian lm gim u mi tip xc

3) Chia s ri ro vi nh sn xut Trong trng hp mua t bn on sn phm vi nh phn phi, cc trung

gian thng mi chia s ri ro do gi c bin ng vi nh sn xut. Do vy, nh sn xut c th thu hi vn nhanh ti u t vo chu k sn xut tip theo. 4) Gip cho cung cu gp nhau Nhiu khi bn bn khng bit bn mua u v ngc li. Khi nh phn phi trung gian l b mi gip cho cung cu gp nhau. 5) Tng kh nng cnh tranh cho cc nh sn xut Khi s dng trung gian trong knh phn phi, nh tit kim chi ph, tng kh nng tip cn khch hng, gim ri ro cho nn nh sn xut nng cao c kh nng cnh tranh ca mnh. Nu xem xt li ch m trung gian mang li cho c hai pha: nh sn xut v khch hng, c th thy nh trung gian ng vai chuyn gia bn hng cho nh sn xut v vai i l mua hng cho ngi tiu dng c th hin hnh sau: Chuyn gia bn hng cho Nh sn xut Cung cp thng tin th trng Nm bt mong mun ca KH Xc tin cho sn phm m phn vi KH Cung cp ngun ti chnh cho KH Chia s ri ro i l mua hng cho ngi tiu dng D on nhu cu ca KH Chia nh l hng theo yu cu KH Vn chuyn hng ho cho KH Cung cp ti chnh cho KH Bo hnh sn phm cho KH Chia s ri ro cho KH

S 8.2. Cc hot ng ca trung gian cho ngi bn v ngi mua 8.1.3. Chc nng ca cc thnh vin trong knh phn phi Cc thnh vin trong knh phn phi cn thc hin cc chc nng sau y: 1) Nghin cu th trng. Do tip xc trc tip vi khch hng, cc trung gian c th thu thp c nhiu thng tin quan trng v nhu cu, th hiu ca khch hng. Thng tin ny gip cho nh sn xut lp k hoch kinh doanh. 2) Xc tin: Cc trung gian thc hin mt phn chc nng ny thay cho nh sn xut. 3) Thng lng: V phn chia trch nhim v quyn li trong knh. 4) Phn phi sn phm: Vn chuyn, d tr, bo qun 5) Xy dng mi quan h vi khch hng. 6) Hon thin sn phm: Chia nh l hng, bao b, ng gi (p ng nhu cu ca khch hng). 7) Ti tr: Tr gip cho cc thnh vin trong knh v ti chnh (thanh ton).

8) Chia s ri ro vi nh sn xut. Nu khng c cc trung gian trong knh phn phi th nh sn xut phi thc hin cc chc nng ny. iu ny s dn n chi ph ln. Do vy nu phn chia theo nguyn tc chuyn mn ho m nhn cc chc nng ny cho cc thnh vin trong knh th s hiu qu hn. 8.2. CU TRC V T CHC CA KNH PHN PHI 8.2.1. Knh phn phi i vi sn phm cho tiu dng c nhn Cu trc knh phn phi c th hin thng qua chiu di v chiu rng ca knh. a) Chiu di knh phn phi: Chiu di ca knh c tnh bng s cc cp trung gian c mt trong knh. S cp trung gian c mt trong knh cng nhiu th knh cng di v ngc lai. i vi sn phm cho tiu dng c nhn, c 4 loi knh phn phi vi cc cu trc tng ng nh sau::

Nh bn l
NH SN XUT

NGI TIU DNG

Nh bn l

Nh bn l

i l

Nh bn bun

Nh bn l

S 8.3. Cu trc knh phn phi hng tiu dng 1. Knh th nht c gi l knh trc tip, hay l knh cp khng. y l knh ngn nht. Cc knh cn li u l gin tip. Trong knh cp khng, nh sn xut bn hng trc tip cho khch hng cui cng qua cc ca hng cu mnh, qua bu in, hoc bn hnh lu ng, bn hng ti a im khch hng, bn hng thng mi in t (e-commerce). 2. Knh th hai gi l knh 1 cp, bao gm 1 trung gian l nh bn l. Nhng ngi bn l mua sn phm trc tip t nh sn xut ri bn l cho khch hng. 3. Knh th ba gi l knh 2 cp, bao gm 2 trung gian l nh bn bun v nh bn l. 4. Knh th t gi l knh 3 cp, bao gm 3 trung gian, gm 2 nh bn bun

ln v nh v nh bn l, hoc mt i l, mt nh bn bun, mt nh bn l. C th c cc knh cp cao hn, nhng knh phn phi cng nhiu cp th cng kh qun l. b) Chiu rng knh phn phi: Chiu rng knh c xc nh bi s lng trung gian c mt trong mi cp ca knh. S trung gian c mt trong mi cp ca knh cng nhiu th knh cng rng v ngc li. lin quan ti chiu rng c ba hnh thc phn phi. 1) Phn phi rng ri Phng thc phn phi ny phc v mc tiu p ng nhu cu mua rng ri ca ngi tiu dng cui cng. Do vy, cn phi a sn phm n cng nhiu ngi bn l cng tt. Phng thc phn phi ny ph hp vi cc loi hng ho dch v thng dng nh ko cao su, thuc l, bo ch, v xe but, in thoi cng cng thc hin phng thc phn phi ny, cn s dng rng ri cc trung gian l cc nh bn l cc a bn khc nhau. 2) Phn phi c quyn y l phng thc phn phi i lp vi phng thc phn phi rng ri. Trong mt khu vc th trng nht nh, nh sn xut ch s dng mt trung gian duy nht. ng thi, nh sn xut yu cu nh phn phi trung gian ch bn mt hng ca cng ty mnh m khng c bn cho cc i th. Cch phn phi ny gip cc nh phn phi trung gian c quyn t chc bn hng c hiu qu, kim sot tt. N c s dng i vi cc hng ho t tin, cc hng ho cn lng d tr ln. 3) Phn phi c chn lc y l cch phn phi nm gia hai phng thc phn phi trn. Trong phng thc phn phi ny, nh sn xut la chn mt s cc nh bn l ti cc khu vc khc nhau. Cc sn phm ph hp vi kiu phn phi ny l loi m khch hng mua c suy ngh, cn nhc. u im ca phng thc phn phi ny l ph hp vi hnh vi mua ca khch hng i vi mt s loi sn phm, chn lc c nghip cng cc trung gian v tit kim chi ph phn phi do quy m trung gian ph hp. NGI
NH 8.2.2. Knh phndin nh phm cho khch hng cng nghip i phi sn sn xut S Nh phn phi

i vi khch hng cng nghip, cc knh thng ngn hn. L do l cc DNG i l


NGHIP Nh phn phi cng nghip

SN khch hng loi ny t hn, tp trung hn v mt a l v s lng mua thng ln. CNG XUT

i l

S 8.4. Cu trc knh phn phi hng cng nghip

V phn loi, y cng c hai loi knh l knh trc tip v knh gin tip. Knh trc tip thng p dng cho cc mt hng c gi tr cao cn s h tr ln v k thut, ngi mua l doanh nghip ln, qu trnh m phn phc tp. Cc trng hp khc c th bn qua knh gin tip. 8.2.3. i vi cc nh cung cp dch v Bn cht v hnh ca dch v t ra cc yu cu c bit i vi knh phn phi. Do vy, thng thng ch c 2 loi knh phn phi cho dch v: 1. Knh trc tip t nh cung cp dch v n ngi tiu dng. Do qu trnh sn xut v tiu th ca dch v khng tch ri, cho nn i vi nhiu loi dch v cn c s tip xc trc tip gia ngi bn hng v khch hng. Loi knh trc tip ny thng dng i vi cc dch v chuyn nghip nh k ton, dch v thm m, y t (cc dch v tip xc cao). 2. Knh gin tip qua mt i l c s dng khi khng cn tip xc trc tip gia ngi bn v khch hng. Loi knh ny c th s dng m rng phm vi tip cn ca dch v. Cc cng ty du lch, hng khng, bu chnh, vin thng c th s dng i l trong knh phn phi. 8.3. T chc v hot ng ca knh phn phi 8.3.1. Khi qut v t chc v hot ng ca knh Mt knh phn phi thng bao gm nhiu thnh vin vi cc ng c v quyn li ring, gn b vi nhau thc hin mc tiu phn phi chung. S thnh cng ca tng thnh vin ph thuc vo s thnh cng ca ton b knh. Do vy, li ch ca tng thnh vin s gn vi kt qu hot ng ca ton b knh. Tuy nhin, khng phi lc no cc thnh vin trong knh cng c th phi hp nhp nhng vi nhau thc hin mc tiu chung. iu ny cn ty thuc vo t chc ca knh. 8.3.2. Knh phn phi truyn thng Knh phn phi truyn thng thng l tp hp ngu nhin ca cc t chc,

c nhn c lp vi nhau. Cc thnh vin trong knh hot ng v mc tiu quyn li ring trc mt ca mnh. Do , khng c s phi hp thng nht gia cc thnh vin trong knh. iu ny tt yu dn n nhng xung t v quyn li gia cc thnh vin trong knh. Cc thnh vin trong h thng knh phn phi truyn thng c tnh c lp tng i vi nhau, mi thnh vin l mt doanh nghip c lp, c mc tiu cc i ha li nhun ca mnh, do vy c th gy tn hi cho c h thng. C th ni h thng phn phi truyn thng khng c ch khng thnh vin no trong knh kim sot c hot ng ca ton b knh. y l mt nhc im ca h thng knh phn phi truyn thng. Gia cc thnh vin trong knh phn phi v gia cc knh khc nhau c th xy ra xung t cng nh hp tc.Cnh tranh gia cc thnh vin, gia cc knh xy ra khi h cng nhm vo mt th trng mc tiu ginh c ti tin ca khch hng. Xung t c th xy ra gia cc trung gian cng cp knh c gi l xung t theo chiu ngang. V d, xung t gia nhng ngi bn l cng 1 mt hng. Xung t gia cc thnh vin cc cp knh khc nhau c gi l xung t theo chiu dc. V d, xung t gia ngi bn bun v bn l. Nguyn nhn ca cc xung t l do mi thnh vin trong knh thng quan tm nhiu n cc mc tiu ngn hn, iu ny c th vi phm n mc tiu di hn chung ca knh. S hp tc xy ra gia cc thnh vin trong mt knh nhm mc tiu t c li nhun cao hn so vi khi h hot ng ring r. trnh xung t, cnh tranh v tng cng hp tc, cc thnh vin trong knh phi phn nh r vai tr ca mi thnh vin, phi hp vi nhau phc v th trng tt nht, t c hiu qu chung cao nht. Mun vy, cn phi c s qun l knh phn chia nhim v hp l v gii quyt cc xung t. H thng Marketing theo chiu dc s gii quyt c vn ny. 8.3. 3. H thng knh phn phi lin kt dc (Marketing theo chiu dc) H thng Marketing theo chiu dc ra i s khc phc c cc nhc im ca h thng phn phi truyn thng. H thng ny gm nh sn xut, mt hay nhiu nh bn s v mt hay nhiu nh bn l hot ng nh l mt h thng thng nht. Trong h thng ny c mt thnh vin l ch ca knh, hoc c c ch ton b knh hot ng thng nht cho mt mc tiu chung. H thng ny cng c kh nng ngn chn c cc mu thun gi cc thnh vin trong knh. Trong sut ba thp k qua, h thng Marketing dc gi vai tr ch o trn th trng. C ba kiu h thng Marketing theo chiu dc c bn nh sau: a) H thng Marketing dc ca cng ty

Trong h thng ny, cc giai on sn xut v phn phi thuc v mt ch s hu duy nht. H thng kiu ny c hnh thnh do qu trnh m rng v pha trc hoc v pha sau trong dy chuyn gi tr ca mt sn phm. Nh sn xut c th mua cc nh phn phi, hoc nh phn phi c th mua nh sn xut kim sot t khu sn xut n lu thng. Tng cng ty BCVT Vit Nam (VNPT) cng c th c coi l h thng Marketing dc, v VNPT s hu ton b hn 4 ngn bu cc trn c nc. H thng cc ngn hng thng mi Vit Nam cng l mt h thng Marketing dc, v cc ngn hng l ch s hu cc chi nhnh ca n trong c nc n tn cc huyn, th. b) H thng Marketing dc theo hp ng y l mt h thng gm cc cng ty c lp, gn b vi nhau thng qua quan h hp ng phi hp hot ng. Mc tiu ca h thng l t c hiu qu cao hn so vi khi h hot ng ring r. cnh tranh, cc nh sn xut v cc nh bn l t t chc lin kt li vi nhau di cc hnh thc khc nhau nh: lin kt t nguyn ca nhng ngi bn l do ngi bn s ti tr; hp tc x nhng ngi bn l V d: Cng ty Coca cola cp giy php bun bn cho cc th trng khc nhau cho cc nh bn s. Theo giy php ny, cng ty cho php h mua nc ct coca ca cng ty, em v np ga, ng chai v phn phi cho nhng ngi bn l a phng. c) H thng Marketing dc c qun l H thng Marketing dc c qun l phi hp cc thnh vin trong knh nh quy m v sc mnh ca mt thnh vin trong knh. Thnh vin c th l nh sn xut hoc nh phn phi c uy tn. V d nh cng ty General Electric, P&G c uy tn v tim lc phi hp hot ng ca nhng nh bun bn trung gian mt hng do cng ty sn xut. l cc hot ng nh t chc trng by, khuyn mi, qung co, gi c 8.3.4. H thng Marketing theo chiu ngang Khi cc cng ty khc nhau khng c kh nng t chc cc h thng Marketing theo chiu dc do khng nng lc (vn, k thut, nng lc sn xut), hoc s ri ro, th c th lin kt, hp tc vi nhau t chc knh phn phi. l h thng Marketing theo chiu ngang. C th gi y l hnh thc Marketing cng sinh. Vi nhng cam kt kh mnh m v m ca h thng bn l, cc tp on, siu th ln th gii s ln lt c mt ti Vit Nam. y l mt thch thc cho h thng phn phi, bn l cn non tr trong nc. Vi tim lc mnh v ti chnh, kinh nghim, phng tin qun l hin i, ton b th trng bn l trong nc c th s b h thu tm, chi phi bi chnh sch kinh doanh ca h; h c th p dng bin php

khng lnh mnh loi b i th cnh tranh. Do vy, cc doanh nghip Vit Nam cn phi lin kt vi nhau xy dng h thng knh phn phi d mnh. 8.4. Cc quyt nh v la chn v qun tr knh phn phi Cc quyt nh v la chn v qun tr knh phn phi l cc quyt nh v thit k knh v la chn cc thnh vin trong knh, v khuyn khch cc thnh vin v nh gi hot ng ca cc thnh vin trong knh. 8.4.1. Cc cn c la chn knh phn phi Cng ty cn phi la chn c cc loi knh phn phi ph hp cho sn phm ca cng ty. la chn knh, cng ty cn xc nh cc cn c chn knh phn phi ph hp. Theo t duy hng v khch hng, vic chn knh phn phi trc ht phi cn c vo th trng. Ngoi ra, cn xem xt n sn phm, n cng ty v n cc trung gian 1) Cn c vo c im ca th trng Loi th trng l yu t u tin cn xem xt. Nu th trng l khch hng cng nghip th r rng l khng cn n ngi bn l trong knh. Trong cc trng hp khc, chng ta cn phi xem xt thm cc bin s th trng di y: - S lng cc khch hng tim nng. Nu s lng khch hng tim nng t th nh sn xut c th s dng lc lng bn hng ca h bn hng trc tip cho c khch hng cng nghip v ngi tiu dng cui cng. Khi lng khch hng tim nng ln th cn phi s dng n cc trung gian. - Mc tp trung v mt a l ca th trng. Nh sn xut c th s dng cc chi nhnh ca mnh bn cho cc th trng tp trung. Nhng h phi s dng cc trung gian trong trng hp khch hng phn b phn tn. Khch hng cng phn b cng rng th knh cng di. - Quy m ca cc n t hng. Khi quy m ca n hng ln th nh sn xut c th bn trc tip. Ngc li, khi quy m nh th bn gin tip qua trung gian. S lng mua trong mi ln cng t th knh cng di. 2) Cn c vo mi trng - l mi trng kinh t, lut phpKhi kinh t quc gia suy thoi th nn gim bt trung gian v cc dch v khng quan trng gim chi ph. Lut php cc nc cng quy nh v vic c s dng cc trung gian hay khng i vi cc hng ho, dch v no . 3) Cn c vo c im ca sn phm - Gi tr ca mi n v sn phm. Cc sn phm c gi tr cng cao th cn knh phn phi cng ngn. Cc sn phm c gi tr cng thp th knh cng di. Tuy nhin, nu sn phm gi tr thp nhng gi tr l hng ln th cn knh ngn hn. - c im ca hng ho. Cc sn phm chng h hng th cng cn cc knh

ngn. Cc sn phm cng knh, nng n cng cn cc knh ngn gim chi ph bc d, vn chuyn. - c tnh k thut ca hng ho. Cc sn phm c gi tr cao, i hi mc chm sc khch hng cao, cc hng ho khng tiu chun cng cn bn trc tip. 4) Cn c vo trung gian - Cc dch v m trung gian c th cung cp. Nh sn xut s la chn cc trung gian c kh nng cung cp cc dch v khch hng m nh sn xut khng cung cp c hoc cung cp vi chi ph cao. - S sn c cc trung gian m nh sn xut cn. C th khng c sn cc trung gian m nh sn xut mong mun. - Thi ca cc trung gian i vi chnh sch ca nh sn xut. S la chn ca nh sn xut nhiu khi b hn ch, v cc trung gian khng chp nhn cc chnh sch ca nh sn xut. 5) Cn c vo nng lc ca nh sn xut - Ngun ti chnh. Cc nh sn xut c t ngun ti chnh th khng c kh nng t t chc knh phn phi m phi s dng trung gian. - Kh nng qun l. Cc nh sn xut t c kinh nghim qun l phn phi thng mun s dng trung gian. - Mong mun qun l knh. Mt s nh sn xut mong mun qun l knh phn phi kim sot gi c v hot ng xc tin Marketing. 6) Cn c vo h thng knh phn phi ca cc i th cnh tranh. Qua tm hiu knh ca cc i th, nh sn xut c th pht hin ra cc im mnh, im yu trong h thng phn phi ca i th thit k knh cu mnh. 7) Cn c vo mc tiu phn phi: Xem xt v mc tiu phn phi ca knh. Mc tiu ny phi xut pht t chin lc Marketing hn hp ca nh sn xut. V d nh i vi cc dch v BCVT, mc tiu l mi ngi dn u c th tip cn n cc dch v c bn. thc hin mc tiu phn phi ny cn s dng rng ri cc knh phn phi khc nhau nh cc i l cc a bn khc nhau, cc im bu in vn ho x, cc bu cc, cc ki t, cc ca bin t ng. 8.4.2. Qun tr knh phn phi Sau khi la chn knh phn phi, vn quan trng tip theo l phi qun tr hot ng ca knh. Qun tr knh phn phi bao gm cc vn sau y: 1) La chn cc thnh vin knh la chn cc thnh vin trong knh, nh sn xut phi t ra h thng cc tiu chun la chn v cc mt sau: a im ph hp vi th trng mc tiu

C mt bng giao dch C uy tn, c kh nng tip cn vi th trng mc tiu C k nng bn hng, k nng cung cp dch v khch hng C vn ling thc hin cc u t ban u cn thit Cc tiu chun ny phi nhm p ng c mc tiu ca chin lc phn phi ca cng ty. 2) Khuyn khch cc thnh vin trong knh thc y bn hng, cng ty thng p dng cc chnh sch khc nhau khuyn khch cc thnh vin trong knh. Mun pht huy cao tc dng ca cc chnh sch khuyn khch, cng ty cn tm hiu nhu cu, mong mun ca tng thnh vin lm cn c cho cc chnh sch. Chnh sch c tc ng mnh nht l chit khu bn l cao, cc iu kin u i trong hp ng, phn thng vt cht v tinh thn cho cc thnh vin bn hng gii. Cc bin php pht cng c thc hin i vi cc thnh vin hot ng km. Chnh sch khn kho hn l chnh sch thit lp mi quan h cng tc lu di n nh vi cc thnh vin trong knh. Hai bn cng bn bc dn n mt tho thun p ng mong i ca hai bn. Cc mc thng khc nhau tng ng vi cc kt qu hot ng khc nhau theo tho thun i vi mi thnh vin trong knh. Phng php th ba l k hoch ho vic phn phi trong knh. Cng ty thnh lp b phn chuyn trch v phn phi. B phn ny vch ra mc tiu, k hoch, bin php xc tin h tr tiu th. Cng ty h tr c lc cho cc thnh vin v qung co, khuyn mi, trng by hng ho, hun luyn k nng bn hng chm sc khch hng cho cc thnh vin. Cc hot ng h tr lm cho cc thnh vin cm thy yn tm v gn b vi cng ty nh l mt thnh vin trong h thng Marketing ca cng ty. 3) nh gi hot ng ca cc thnh vin trong knh nh gi cng bng hot ng ca cc thnh vin trong knh l vic lm cn thit. lm iu , trc mi k k hoch (thng, qu, nm) cng ty giao nh mc bn hng cho mi trung gian trong knh phn phi. Cui k, cng ty gi Bn nh gi kt qu kinh doanh ca mi thnh vin cho h h thy c cc thnh tch cng nh yu km cu mnh trong k. y hn, Cng ty phi nh k nh gi cng tc ca cc thnh vin theo mt s cc ch tiu tho thun trc trong hp ng nh doanh s t c, cc dch v cung cp, mc hng d tr trung bnh, thi gian giao hng trung bnh 8.5. QUYT NH PHN PHI VT CHT

8.5.1. Bn cht ca phn phi vt cht Phn phi vt cht l qu trnh bao gm lp k hoch, thc hin v kim tra vic vn ti v lu kho hng ho t ni sn xut n ni tiu dng p ng nhu cu ca khch hng v mang li li nhun cho nh phn phi. Nh vy, yu cu c bn l cc quyt nh v phn phi vt cht phi m bo p ng nhu cu ca khch hng vi mc chi ph hp l. Mun vy, cn phi qun l, phi hp cht ch hot ng ca tt c cc thnh vin trong knh phn phi. Cng c quan trng h tr c lc cho cng tc qun l l cng ngh thng tin. l mng my tnh, thit b u cui ti im bn hng, m vch, trao i d liu in t (EDI), chuyn vn in t (EFT). Trong cc loi chi ph, th chi ph phn phi vt cht chin t trng ln trong tng chi ph phn phi. Do vy, vn kim sot, qun l v tit kim chi ph phn phi c vai tr quan trng. V thnh phn, cc chi ph phn phi vt cht chnh bao gm: chi ph vn ti, lu kho, bo qun, bc xp hng ho, giao nhn, phn l ng gi hng ho, x l n hng v cc chi ph hnh chnh. tit kim chi ph, cc vn cn gii quyt l: chn a im kho hng hp l, chn tuyn vn ti ti u, qun l i xe vn chuyn. Phn phi vt l c vai tr quan trng i vi vic m bo cht lng phc v khch hng. T chc phn phi vt cht tt s p ng nhu cu ca khch hng, tit kim c chi ph. 8.5.2. Mc tiu ca phn phi vt cht Mc tiu ca phn phi vt cht l cung cp ng chng loi mt hng, ng s lng, ng cht lng, ng a im, ng lc vi chi ph thp nht. y l bi ton ti u a mc tiu, v gia mc dch v cung cp v chi ph phn phi c mi quan h ngc chiu. Khng h thng phn phi vt cht no c th ng thi ti a ho dch v v ti thiu ho chi ph. Dch v tt nht ko theo mc d tr hng tn kho ln, vn chuyn nhanh nht, t chc nhiu kho hng. V nh vy chi ph phn phi tng cao. Ngc li, nu gim chi ph phn phi th ko theo vn chuyn km, d tr hng thp, t kho hng. Do vy, ch c th tm c phng n tho hip m thi. quyt nh mc dch v, cn phi nghin cu nhu cu ca khch hng mc tiu, nghin cu mc cung cp dch v ca cc i th cnh tranh. Tu vo mc tiu chin lc ca cng ty, h c th quyt nh mc dch v thp hn, ngang bng, hoc cao hn so vi cc i th.

8.5.3. Cc quyt nh v phn phi vt cht Sau khi xc nh c mc tiu phn phi vt cht, cng ty phi quyt nh cc vn c bn sau y v phn phi vt cht: X l n t hng nh th no? B tr cc kho bi u? Cn d tr bao nhiu hng tn kho? Vn chuyn hng ho nh th no? 1) X l n t hng X l n t hng ca khch hng l khu u tin ca qu trnh phn phi vt cht. Mc tiu l phi kim tra v x l n hng nhanh nht c th, sau n hng c nhanh chng c chuyn qua cc b phn tip theo khc hon thin cc th tc giao hng nhanh chng cho khch hng. Quyt nh n vn x l n hng nhanh chng, cng ty phi trang b h thng mng my tnh ni b kt ni vi bn ngoi giao tip vi khch hng. 2) Quyt nh v kho bi d tr hng Gia sn xut v tiu dng hng ho thng c s khng ng b v a im, khng gian v thi gian. D tr hng ho l vic cn thit p ng nhanh nht nhu cu ca khch hng. N gip cho vic cn bng gia cung v cu v s lng, thi gian v khng gian. Mun d tr hng cn phi c kho bi. Lin quan n kho bi, cng ty cn phi tr li nhng vn sau y: - S lng kho, a im kho, quy m kho? Nu cng ty c nhiu kho phn b gn khch hng th s phc v khch hng nhanh hn, nhng chi ph ca nh phn phi s ln hn. Do vy, cng ty cn cn i gia mc dch v khch hng yu cu v chi ph. - Cng ty nn xy kho hng ring hay thu? Nu xy dng h thng kho bi ring, cng ty ch ng s dng, nhng chi ph s cao v kh thay i a im khi cn. Thu kho bi cng cng hoc ca cc nh cung cp dch v khc th khng ch ng, nhng d la chn a im. Ni chung, khi cng ty c quy m rt ln th c th t xy dng kho hng v s dng ht cng sut, ng thi c th u t chuyn su. Khi cng ty b th nn i thu kho ca cc cng ty khc. 3) Quyt nh v khi lng hng d tr Mc lu kho l mt quyt nh c nh hng ln n mc tho mn nhu cu ca khch hng, ng thi n chi ph lu kho, v do vy nh hng n li nhun ca nh phn phi. y l mt bi ton qun l d tr hng tn kho. gii quyt vn ny, chng ta c th p dng m hnh qun l d tr c nghin cu trong mn

hc Ton kinh t. quyt nh v mc tn kho, cn phi bit khi no th phi t hng b sung, v t bao nhiu. Khi mc hng tn kho gim, nh qun l cng cn bit khi hng tn kho gim n mc no th t hng b xung. Quyt nh t hng tr li cu hi s lng t hng l bao nhiu. Cng ty cn cn bng gia chi ph x l n hng v chi ph d tr hng tn kho. 4) Quyt nh v vn ti vn chuyn hng ho phi c phng tin vn ti. Mc tiu ca vic la chn phng tin vn ti l lm sao p ng c yu cu ca khch hng v thi gian v cht lng hng ho, ng thi vi mc chi ph ti thiu. C nhiu phng tin vn ti khc nhau nh: ng st, ng thu, ng b, ng hng khng, ng ng. Mi phng tin vn chuyn c u nhc im ring, ph hp vi cc loi hng ho ring, yu cu ring ca khch hng. cng ty cng c th xy dng i vn ti ring, hoc thu cc cng ty vn ti cung cp dch v vn ti. Khi la chn cc phng tin vn ti, cng ty cn quan tm n 6 yu t sau y: tc ca phng tin, tn sut giao hng, tin cy, kh nng vn chuyn cc loi hng ho, kh nng vn chuyn n a im cn thit, yu cu v thi gian ca khch hng, v chi ph vn chuyn. 8.6. MARKETING CA CC T CHC BN BUN V BN L 8.6.1. Marketing ca cc t chc bn l 1) Khi nim Bn l l cc hot ng lin quan n vic bn hng ha, dch v trc tip cho ngi tiu dng cui cng. 2) Cc loi hnh bn l C rt nhiu loi hnh bn l khc nhau. Do vy cng c nhiu tiu thc phn loi bn l. Sau y l cc tiu thc phn loi bn l thng dng: a) Theo tiu thc mt hng bn l, ngi ta chia ra ca hng bn l chuyn doanh, ca hng bch ho, siu th, ca hng tin dng, ca hng cao cp. - Ca hng chuyn doanh chuyn bn cc dng sn phm hp, chuyn su nh ca hng chuyn bn vng bi, c hng qun o ngoi c, ca hng chi tr em, qun o lt ph n i vi lnh vc bu chnh vin thng, l cc im cung cp dch v Internet bn l, cc ca hng chuyn bn tem - Ca hng bch ho bn nhiu loi hng ho khc nhau, chia ra thnh nhiu chng loi: qun o nam, qun o n, thc phm, in t - Siu th, cng nh bch ho, bn nhiu loi hng ho, nhng khch hng t

phc v cho nn gi h hn. Trong nhng nm gn y, siu th pht trin nhanh cc th ln Vit Nam v tr thnh hnh thc mua sm vn minh, lch s vi gi c chp nhn c. - Ca hng tin dng l cc ca hng nh phn tn cc khu dn c, bn cc mt hng phc v nhu cu thng xuyn ca ngi tiu dng, m ca vo tt c cc ngy trong tun t sng sm n ti. Gi bn c th cao hn mt t. - Ca hng cao cp l mt s t ca hng bn cc hng ho cht lng cao phc v cc khch hng nhiu tin v yu cu cao. Ca hng cao cp thng c t cc khu ph sang trng, trung tm. V d nh hng Bga cnh h Hon kim H Ni. b) Theo mc dch v khch hng cung cp cho ngi mua, c ba loi ca hng bn l: ca hng t phc v; ca hng bn l cung cp dch v hn ch v cc ca hng bn l cung cp y cc dch v. - Ca hng bn l t phc v cung cp rt t dch v khch hng, do vy hng ho c bn vi mc gi thp. nc ngoi, cc nh n t phc v thng t ti cc trng i hc, cc c quan ln ng cn b cng nhn vin. Khch hng t ly mm bt, thc n theo cc mn ch bin sn vi nh lng nht nh. Loi ca hng nh th ny cng bt u xut hin ti Vit Nam. - Cc ca hng bn l cung cp y dch v thm thng bn vi gi cao, nhm phc v cho khch hng yu cu cao. Cc Restorant trong cc khch sn cao cp thuc loi ny. Khch hng xem thc n v t mn ch bin theo yu cu ring. c) Theo hnh thc bn, c th chia thnh 2 loi l bn l qua ca hng v bn l khng qua ca hng. Bn l khng qua ca hng c nhiu hnh thc nh t hng qua th, mua hng qua my bn hng t ng, mua hng qua in thoi, mua hng qua mng (e-commerce), bn l ti nh, Marketing trc tip. Cc my bn hng t ng cung cp nhiu loi hng ho thng thng nh tem th, thuc l, nc ngt, bo, ko, v tu in, kem nh giy Hnh thc bn l ti nh rt pht trin ti Vit Nam do chi ph lao ng thp bn hng thp. Bn hng qua mng Internet hin nay ang dn tr nn ph bin ti Vit Nam. l cc ca hng gm s Bt Trng, ca hng bn my tnh Blue Sky, dch v in hoa, bn sch qua mng Cm hp cng l hnh thc bn hng qua in thoi ph bin ti Vit Nam. Hnh thc bn hng ca Bu in c th bao gm: Bn bun cho cc nh bn li (Reseller), bn l ti cc bu cc cc cp, qua cc i l v im bu in vn ho x, bn qua mng (in hoa), bn ti nh Bn hng ti nh l hnh thc bn hng

cn p dng i vi cc khch hng ln ca Bu in, c bit l trong iu kin cnh tranh ngy cng gia tng trn th trng. d) Theo hnh thc s hu, bao gm cc loi ca hng bn l c lp, cc chui ca hng ca mt cng ty, cc hp tc x bn l, cc i l c quyn. - Cc ca hng c lp rt ph bin Vit Nam, do mt ch t nhn s hu v quan l, s dng nh ca mnh hoc thu ca hng kinh doanh. - Chui ca hng gm nhiu ca hng do mt cng ty s hu, bn cc mt hng tng t nhau. Chui ca hng chu s iu hnh tp trung t cng ty. Ti Vit Nam, mt s ca hng kinh doanh dch v c khch hng tn nhim, bt u m thm mt s cc ca hng tng t ti cc v tr khc nhau trong thnh ph, hoc vn ra cc thnh ph khc trong v ngoi nc. l cc chui khch sn ca mt cng ty c mt ti cc thnh ph trong v ngoi nc; cc siu th ca cng mt cng ty nh chui siu th Corp.Mark ti Thnh ph H Ch Minh; cc nh hng D lan 1, D lan 2, D lan 3 ca cng ty thng mi ti Thanh Ho; cc ca hng c ph Trung nguyn c mt khp cc tnh trong c nc v c nc ngoi. Ti Cng ho lin bang c, cng ty kinh doanh qun o Made in Vietnam Saigonmex ca cc Vit kiu t chc n trn 30 ca hng bn l qun o trn t c (n thi im 6/2006). H cng ang d kin m thm cc ca hng tng t ti cc nc khc chu u. - Hp tc x bn l bao gm cc nh bn l c lp t nguyn lin kt li thnh mt t chc nhm iu hnh thng nht cng vic kinh doanh nng cao kh nng cnh tranh. - Cc i l c quyn l s lin kt theo hp ng gia nh sn xut, bn bun (bn ch quyn) v cc nh bn l (bn nhn quyn). Bn ch quyn cho php bn nhn quyn c c quyn kinh doanh di thng hiu bn ch quyn trong mt khu vc. Bn nhn quyn phi tun theo cc quy trnh qun l ca bn ch quyn m bo cht lng. Thu nhp ca bn nhn quyn c hai bn tho thun v ghi r trong hp ng. Hnh thc ny cn c gi l nhng quyn thng mi. 3) Cc quyt nh Marketing ca cc doanh nghip bn l a) Quyt nh v th trng trng im Nh bn l cn c y thng tin v th trng trng im. T xc nh c hot ng ca mnh phi c nh v nh th no trn th trng . Quyt nh v nh v s chi phi mi quyt nh khc. V mi hot ng Marketing khc c tc dng cng c s nh v ca nh bn l trn th trng. b) Quyt nh v danh mc sn phm

Nh bn l phi quyt nh danh mc sn phm m h bn, cht lng sn phm, cc dch v khch hng km theo mi loi sn phm, v mi trng ca hng ni bn hng, cung cp dch v cho khch hng. c) Quyt nh v gi bn Gi bn l thng gn lin vi gi mua vo, v cc dch v b sung km theo. Gi bn l thng c tnh theo gi mua vo cng li nhun %. i vi cc nhm khch hng khc nhau, nh bn l cn nh gi khc nhau. Cng cn phi iu chnh gi khi c cc bin ng trn th trng. d) Quyt nh v xc tin hn hp Nh bn l cng phi quyt nh v cc thnh t ca xc tin hn hp truyn thng cho khch hng bit. Nhn vin bn hng, ni bn hng cng l mt knh xc tin tt. e) Quyt nh v a im ca hng a im bn hng c vai tr quan trng i vi s thu ht khch hng ca nh bn l. Do vy, nh bn l cn phi xc nh c cc tiu chun ng n chn a im bn hng. 8.6.2. Marketing ca cc t chc bn bun 1) Khi nim bn bun Bn bun l tt c cc hot ng lin quan n bn hng ha, dch v cho nhng khch hng l doanh nghip, t chc kinh doanh, hoc phc v cho hat ng ca h. Cc nh bn bun c nhng c im khc bit so vi cc nh bn l. - Th nht, h thng giao dch trc tip vi cc khch hng bun bn, do vy h t quan tm n qung co, a im bn hng. - Th hai, nh bn bun c phm vi hot ng rng, khi lng hng ho giao dch ln. - Th ba, h chu cc quy nh v php lut, thu m cht ch hn cc nh bn l. 2) Phn loi bn bun C th phn loi cc nh bn bun thnh 3 nhm nh sau: a) Nh bn bun hng ho thc s y l cc doanh nghip c lp, mua bun hng ho bn li. H c quyn quyt nh i vi hng ho. b) Cc nh mi gii v i l Cc nh mi gii c chc nng gip cho bn mua v bn bn gp nhau. H khng mua bn hng ha. H hng hoa hng t cc hp ng mi gii.

Cc i l i din cho bn mua, bn bn cung cp hng ho theo gi ca bn bn, v hng hoa hng i l theo tho thun. c) Chi nhnh vn phng i din ca nh sn xut H l i din cho nh sn xut tip xc vi khch hng thc hin mt s chc nng thng mi c nh sn xut giao ph. 3) Cc quyt nh Marketing ca nh bn bun Nh bn bun cng phi ra cc quyt nh Marketing tng t nh nh bn l. l quyt nh v th trng trng im; quyt nh v danh mc sn phm cung cp v cc dch v km theo; quyt nh v gi c v cc chng trnh xc tin.

CU HI N TP V THO LUN
1) Phn tch cc loi trung gian trong knh phn phi? 2) Phn tch vai tr ca trung gian trong knh phn phi? 3) Phn tch chc nng ca knh phn phi? 4) Phn tch cu trc knh phn phi? 5) Phn tch cc cn c thit k knh phn phi? 6) Phn tch cc quyt nh v qun tr knh phn phi? 7) Phn tch cc dng bn l hng ho? 8) Trong 2 loi knh phn phi trc tip v gin tip, knh no tt hn? 9) Thng mi in t nh hng nh th no n knh phn phi ca cc doanh nghip? 10) Hy ly mt v d v knh phn phi ca cc cng ty m anh ch cho l c hiu qu. 11) T duy Ch bn nhng th m khch hng cn c th hin nh th no trong cc quyt nh v knh phn phi? 12) Sau khi Vit Nam tr thnh thnh vin ca WTO, h thng bn l ca Vit Nam c nhng yu im g v phi chun b nh th no? C nhng h thng phn phi mi no xut hin chun b nng cao sc cnh tranh ca Vit Nam?

Chng 9

CC QUYT NH V XC TIN HN HP
MC TIU: Sau khi nghin cu chng ny, hc vin cn nm c cc vn sau: Bn cht, vai tr ca xc tin Ni dung cc thnh t ca chin lc xc tin M hnh truyn thng Marketing Lin h vi cc chin lc xc tin ang c thc hin trn th trng 9.1. KHI QUT V XC TIN HN HP 9.1.1. Bn cht ca xc tin hn hp: Xc tin (promotion) l cc hot ng truyn tin v sn phm v bn thn doanh nghip ti khch hng nhm thuyt phc h tin tng v mua sn phm. Do vy, ngi ta cn gi y l cc hot ng truyn thng Marketing (Marketing communication). Xc tin c cc mc ch c bn l thng bo, thuyt phc v nhc nh i tng nhn tin. Qua cc ni dung thng ip, doanh nghip thng bo cho khch hng v s c mt ca sn phm trn th trng, thuyt phc h v cc u vit ca sn phm so vi cc sn phm cnh tranh, v nhc nh h nh n sn phm khi c nhu cu. Xc tin l mt thnh t quan trng h tr c lc cho cc chin lc Marketing - Mix khc. Cc chin lc v chin thut Marketing khc c xy dng

hon ho s gip cho vic gim bt hot ng xc tin. Tuy nhin, c rt t cc dch v, ch yu l cc dch v c cung cp trong mi trng cnh tranh li c th b qua c vai tr ca xc tin, ym tr. Thng qua chin lc xc tin, doanh nghip thng tin cho khch hng tim nng bit c nhng li th ca sn phm. Do vy, chin lc xc tin gip doanh nghip tng doanh s ca cc sn phm hin ti, to ra s nhn bit v a thch ca khch hng i vi sn phm mi, v xy dng mt hnh nh tt p v doanh nghip. Tuy nhin, doanh nghip cn phi kt hp chin lc xc tin vi cc thnh t khc ca Marketing hn hp to ra hiu qu tng hp. Xc tin cng gip cho doanh nghip qung b thng hiu. Xc tin l mt thnh t trong Marketing - Mix nhm tc ng vo th trng mc tiu. Nhng bn thn chin lc xc tin li l mt hn hp gm cc thnh t sau y:

Qung co (Advertisement): y l cc hot ng gii thiu gin tip

v cao sn phm nhm thuyt phc khch hng mua. Qung co c thc hin theo yu cu ca doanh nghip v h phi tr cc khon ph tn qung co cho cc t chc thc hin cc khu khc nhau trong qu trnh thc hin qung co nh t vn, thit k, t chc thc hin cc chng trnh qung co...doanh nghip c th qung co thng qua cc phng tin nh : pht thanh, truyn hnh, bo ch, qung co ngoi tri

Quan h vi cng chng (Public Relation) l cc hot ng truyn

thng gin tip ca doanh nghip nhm gy thin cm ca cng chng vi doanh nghip v sn phm ca n. Quan h vi cng chng c thc hin di nhiu hnh thc nh bn tin, bo co hng nm ca cng ty, cc hot ng ti tr, t thin, vn ng hnh lang, t chc s kin

Tuyn truyn (Publicity): y l cc hot ng truyn thng nhm tng

uy tn, tng thin cm ca cng chng i vi doanh nghip, kch thch gin tip nhu cu tiu dng sn phm cu h. Doanh nghip khng phi tr tin cho cc phng tin truyn thng nh qung co. Tuyn truyn c th c coi l mt dng c bit ca Quan h vi cng chng.

Khuyn mi (Sale promotion) l cc bin php ngn hn, h tr cho

qung co v bn hng nhm khuyn khch, kch thch khch hng cui cng mua sn phm ca doanh nghip, ng thi khuyn mi cng kch thch cc nhn vin hng v thnh vin khc trong knh phn phi ca doanh nghip tch cc bn hng (khuyn mi nhm vo cc

trung gian phn phi c gi l Trade promotion).

Bn hng trc tip (Personal selling): l qu trnh tip xc trc

tip gia khch hng v nhn vin bn hng nhm t vn, gii thiu, thuyt phc khch hng la chn v mua sn phm. Bn hng trc tip phi tun theo mt quy trnh nht nh. Tuy nhin, n thin v mt ngh thut hn l mt khoa hc, v n i hi ngi bn hng phi sng to, linh hot ng x vi v vn tnh hung bn khc nhau, i tng khch hng khc nhau. Trong mi thnh t nu trn ca xc tin, ngi ta li s dng nhiu cng c khc nhau truyn thng, tc ng n cc i tng khch hng khc nhau. Chng ta s tm hiu chi tit vn ny cc phn sau ca chng ny. m bo hiu qu ca truyn thng, cc cng ty thng thu cc cng ty qung co son tho cc thng ip truyn thng, thu cc chuyn gia khuyn mi xy dng cc chng trnh khuyn mi, thu cc chuyn gia v quan h cng chng xy dng hnh nh tt p v cng ty trong con mt cng chng. Cng ty cn cn phi hun luyn i ng bn hng v k nng giao tip, bn hng v chm sc khch hng. Ngoi ra, m bo tnh khch quan, cc cng ty cn thu cc cng ty chuyn nh gi cng tc chm sc khch hng ti cc im bn hng ca i ng nhn vin bn hng ca mnh di hnh thc khch hng b mt. T , cng ty bit c thc trng tnh trng chm sc khch hng cc ca hng ca cng ty. y l cn c quan trng cng ty ra cc quyt nh v chm sc khch hng. 9.1.2.Cc yu t nh hng n chin lc xc tin hn hp C bn yu t cn phi xem xt khi thit k chin lc xc tin hn hp. l: Th trng mc tiu; Bn cht ca sn phm; Giai on ca chu k sng ca sn phm; S lng kinh ph chi tiu cho xc tin. 1) Th trng mc tiu: Th trng mc tiu chnh l khch hng ca cc chng trnh xc tin. Vic la chn phng php xc tin ph thuc vo 4 bin s sau y ca th trng mc tiu:

S sn sng mua: Th trng mc tiu c th mt trong su giai on

sn sng mua. l: nhn bit, hiu bit, c thin cm, a chung, tin tng, hnh ng mua. V d nh giai on nhn bit, ngi bn cn thng tin cho khch hng bit v sn phm qua mt chin dch qung co. to ra s a thch cn phi so snh vi cc sn phm cnh tranh khch hng thy s u vit ca sn phm ca mnh so vi sn phm cnh tranh.

Phm vi a l ca th trng: Bn hng trc tip ph hp vi mt th

trng c a bn nh. Cn i vi cc a bn rng th qung co l ph hp.

Loi khch hng: Cc loi khch hng khc nhau th cn s dng cc

cng c truyn thng khch nhau, ni dung v hnh thc truyn thng khc nhau. V d nh i vi khch hng cng nghip, th bn hng c nhn c hiu qu hn.

Mc tp trung ca khch hng. Nu khch hng cng ng th

qung co c tc dng hn. Nu t khch hng, th bn hng c nhn l ph hp. 2) Bn cht ca sn phm:

Gi tr n v. Cc sn phm gi tr thp s dng qung co l thch Tnh c bit ca sn phm. Qung co ph hp vi cc sn phm tiu Cc dch v trc v sau bn hng. Cc dch v ny cng nhiu th

hp. Sn phm c gi tr cao ph hp vi bn hng trc tip.

chun ho. Bn hng trc tip ph hp vi sn phm c nhn ho.

cng ph hp vi bn hng trc tip, v ch bn hng trc tip mi c th cung cp c cc dch v khch hng y . 3) Cc giai on ca chu k sng sn phm: Tu thuc vo giai on ca chu k sng m la chn cc thnh t ca xc tin hn hp khc nhau: Cc giai on ca chu k sng Chin lc xc tin Cung cp thng tin cho khch hng tim nng. Cho h bit li ch ca sn phm. Ngi bn cn kch thch nhu cu s cp nhu cu i vi 1 loi sn phm, cha phi nhu cu la chon 1 nhn hiu c th. Nhn mnh n bn hng trc tip, trng by sn phm. Kch thch nhu cu la chn nhn hiu. Nhn mnh n qung co. Cc trung gian chia s nhim v xc tin. Dng qung co thuyt phc nhiu hn l thng tin. Chm dt cc n lc xc tin tr khi mun lm sng li sn phm.

Giai on a sn phm mi ra th trng

Giai on tng trng Giai on bo ho Giai on suy thoi

4) S sn c ngun vn Vn l iu kin tin quyt thc hin cc chng trnh xc tin. Cc cng ty d gi vn thng tng cng qung co. Cc cng ty t vn ch yu da vo bn

hng trc tip hay lin kt qung co. - Khi ngun ti chnh di do [[[ - Khi th trng tri rng vi nhiu khch hng. [ - Khi sn phm l tiu chun ho. - Sn phm c gi tr n v thp. - Sn phm khng thuc loi k thut. - D dng - Khi ngun ti chnh hn hp. - Khi th trng tp trung v a d vi s lng nh khch hng. - Khi sn phm mang tnh c bit. - Sn phm c gi tr cao - Sn phm thuc loi k thut - Phc tp khi dng

Qung cao

Bn hng

S 9.1. nh hng ca cc yu t ti chnh, sn phm, th trng n chin lc xc tin hn hp 5) Chin lc y hay ko c la chn Chin lc xc tin nhm vo cc trung gian c gi l chin lc y. Chin lc xc tin nhm vo ngi tiu dng cui cng c gi l chin lc ko. - Trong chin lc y, cc chin lc xc tin hay c dng l bn hng trc tip v khuyn mi cc trung gian nhm y sn phm chuyn qua cc trung gian trong knh phn phi n khch hng cui cng. Loi chin lc ny ph hp vi cc sn phm phc v cc nh kinh doanh cng nh cc hng tiu dng khc nhau. - Chin lc ko s dng nhiu qung co, khuyn mi nhm trc tip vo ngi tiu dng cui cng to ra nhu cu ko hng ho dc theo knh phn phi qua cc trung gian trong knh. 9.2. CC BC TIN HNH 9.2.1. M hnh truyn thng Marketing Qu trnh truyn thng Marketing tuy rt a dng, tuy nhin c nhng c im chung. M hnh sau y s khi qut ho qu trnh truyn thng Marketing: Ch th (ngi gi tin) M ha Thng ip Phng tin truyn thng Nhi u Thng tin phn hi Phn ng p li Gii m Ngi nhn tin

S 9.2. M hnh truyn thng Marketing Gii thch cc yu t trong m hnh: - Ngi gi: l ch th ca qu trnh truyn thng. l doanh nghip thc hin cc hot ng truyn thng. - M ho: l vic dng cc ngn ng truyn thng chuyn cc tng truyn thng thnh cc hnh thc c tnh biu tng sao cho thun tin cho ngi nhn tin lnh hi c tng . V d: qung co du n Neptuyn, ngi ta a ra hnh nh c gia nh ngi cng n cm vui v ni ln s m cng gia nh nh s dng du n Neptuyn. - Gii m: l qu trnh ngi nhn tin x l thng ip truyn thng Marketing ca ch th truyn tin hiu tng cu ch th mun truyn t. - Ngi nhn tin: l khch hng mc tiu m ch th truyn tin (doanh nghip) ang mun thuyt phc. - Phn ng p li: L nhng phn ng ca ngi nhn tin sau khi lnh hi thng ip. - Thng tin phn hi: Thng ip t ngi nhn tc ng tr li ngi gi tin. Qua thng tin phn hi, ngi gi tin bit c hiu qu ca chng trnh truyn thng. - Nhiu: l cc tc ng n thng ip lm cho n sai lch so vi trng thi ban u. Nhiu c th l do mi trng vt l gy ra (ting n), c th l do ngi gi tin khng hiu c quan im, nn tng vn ho ca ngi nhn tin. Tm hiu m hnh ny cho chng ta nh hng ng n trong qu trnh truyn tin. l xc nh r i tng nhn tin, xc nh cc phn ng ca ngi nhn tin, xc nh thng ip gi i, la chn knh truyn tin, thu nhn thng tin phn hi. 9.2.2. Cc bc trong qu trnh truyn thng 1/ Xc nh ngi nhn tin Ngi nhn tin chnh l th trng mc tiu ca cng ty. c th l khch hng hin ti, khch hng tim n ca cng ty, nhng ngi tham gia vo quyt nh mua (ngi s dng, ngi quyt nh, ngi nh hng). Ngi nhn tin cng c th l cng chng m cng ty ang mun gy nh hng, gy thin cm. Bit r i tng nhn tin gip cho chng ta chn ph hp ch truyn thng, ni dung thng ip, phng tin truyn tin, i tng nhn tin, tc l tr li c cc cu hi sau: what, how, when, where, whom to communicate? i tng nhn tin c th l cc c nhn, cc nhm ngi hay cng chng no . 2/ Xc nh phn ng ca ngi nhn tin Hiu qu ca qu trnh truyn thng chnh l thi tch cc ca i tng

nhn tin sau khi lnh hi thng tin. Do vy, doanh nghip cn xc nh trng thi hin ti v trng thi sau khi truyn thng ca i tng nhn tin. Cn c vo quyt nh hot ng truyn thng tip theo. Hnh vi mua hng l kt qu ca mt qu trnh thng qua quyt nh di. Do vy, khi tin hnh truyn thng Marketing doanh nghip cn phi bit ti thi im nht nh no khch hng mc tiu ang trng thi nhn thc no v cn phi a h sang trng thi no? Chng ta cn hiu su trng thi khc nhau ca khch hng mc tiu lin quan n qu trnh truyn thng. l: nhn bit, hiu bit, c thin cm, a chung, tin tng, hnh ng mua. Nhn bit Ch th truyn tin cn bit khch hng mc tiu ca mnh nhn bit n mc no v sn phm cho bn v v cng ty? Nu qua iu tra cho thy khch hng t nhn thc v sn phm, hay v cng ty, th nhim v ca chng trnh truyn thng phi l tng thm s nhn bit ca khch hng v sn phm, v cng ty. R rng l khi khch hng khng bit th h khng mua. Hiu bit Nhn bit mi ch l bc u. C th khch hng nhn bit dch v Internet nhng khng hiu r li ch, gi c, cht lng khi dng Internet mang li cho h th h cng khng thit tha mua. Do vy, cn phi lm cho khch hng hiu v sn phm v v cng ty. Thin cm Khch hng c th hiu bit v sn phm dch v, v cng ty, nhng h khng c thin cm th kh lng m h mua hng ho dch v cu cng ty. nh gi thin cm ca khch hng, cng ty c th tin hnh nghin cu th trng. Cu hi phng vn v thin cm cn chia thnh cc nc thang khc nhau hiu r mc thin cm ca khch hng (Rt khng a, khng a, th , a thch, rt a thch). a thch Tuy khch hng c th c thin cm vi sn phm, nhng h khng a thch bng cc sn phm cnh tranh. thay i tnh cm ca khch hng, cn phi xy dng mt chin dch truyn thng. to ra s a thch cn phi so snh vi cc sn phm cnh tranh khch hng thy s u vit ca sn phm ca mnh. Tin tng Khch hng a thch mt sn phm, tuy nhin cng c th h cha tin tng l cn phi mua n. Lc mc tiu ca chng trnh truyn thng l lm cho khch hng tin l cn phi mua sn phm. Hnh ng mua Khch hng c th tri qua tt c nm bc trn, nhng h vn c th lng chng cha quyt. Khi mc tiu ca chng trnh truyn thng Marketing l thuyt phc h mua ngay. Cc th thut c dng y c th l cho hng gi thp, mua

hng c thng, cho dng th, thng tin rng thi gian khuyn mi c hn, s lng khuyn mi c hn C th rt gn 6 bc trn thnh ba mc sau: - Nhn thc (bit, hiu), - Cm th (c thin cm, a chung, tin tng), v - Hnh ng mua.

+ Attention : Gy s ch + Interest : Gy s thch + Desire : Gy c mun mua + Action : Dn n hnh ng mua S 9.3. M hnh AIDA 3. Chn phng tin truyn thng Cn c chn knh truyn thng l: - c im ca i tng nhn tin - c im ca knh truyn thng Nh vy, mun chn knh truyn thng ph hp, chng ta phi hiu r i tng nhn tin v nhng knh thng tin m h a thch s dng. Chng hn, i tng hc sinh, sinh vin thnh ph quen thuc vi Internet th y l mt knh truyn thng nhanh chng v hiu qu. C 2 loi knh truyn thng l knh gin tip v knh trc tip. Knh trc tip: l knh c s tip xc, c mi quan h trc tip gia ngi truyn tin vi i tng nhn tin sao cho ngi truyn tin c th thu nhn ngay c thng tin phn hi. y l loi knh truyn thng c hiu qu v ngi pht tin c th nhn c thng tin phn hi t pha khch hng. V d: Hi ngh khch hng, giao tip gia khch hng v giao dch vin, in thoi vin, bu tTh qung co (Direct Mail), giao tip qua in thoi cng l knh trc tip. Truyn tin ming t cc khch hng quen cng l mt loi knh trc tip hiu qu. Do vy, cng ty c th chn phc v chu o mt s khch hng c uy tn nh cc ngi sao th thao, cc ca s, cc nh chnh trCc khch hng ny hi lng sau khi s dng s l ngi tuyn truyn tch cc v hiu qu cho cng ty. i vi cc ngnh dch v, do tnh v hnh ca dch v, th loi tin truyn ming c tc dng mnh. Knh gin tip: L cc knh khng c s tip xc c nhn gia ngi truyn tin v ngi nhn tin, do vy khng c mi lin h ngc t ngi nhn tin vi ngi truyn tin.

V d: Cc knh thng tin i chng: Bo ch, Truyn hnh, Ra-di-, Web, Tp ch, Pan p phch, Bng hiuNgoi ra, thng qua cc hot ng vn ho - x hi, th thao, ti tr, hp bo cng ty cng thc hin truyn thng v gy c thin cm vi khch hng. 4. Chn v thit k thng ip Thng ip l thng tin cn truyn i c m ho di dng ngn ng no nh: hi ho, iu khc, li vn, thi ca, nhc iu, nh sng, biu tng(hi ho, m nhc, vn hc ngh thut). Phi tu theo i tng nhn tin, phng tin truyn thng m la chn ngn ng ph hp. Ni dung thng ip phi tun theo quy tc AIDA nu trn. Yu cu i vi ni dung thng ip l phi ngn gn, lng thng tin cao, mang tnh ngh thut, ph hp vi i tng nhn tin v tm l, th hiu, vn ho, v thi gian v khng gian nhn tin. Nhng yu cu ny s m bo tnh hiu qu ca chng trnh truyn thng. Vic son tho ni dung thng ip cn phi quyt nh 3 vn : chn ni dung g? b cc thng ip nh th no, v th hin bng hnh thc g? Ni dung thng ip: C ba loi ti m ngi truyn tin c th la chn cho ni dung thng ip: - Cc ti hp l. l li ch kinh t khi khch hng mua v s dng sn phm. V d: Vietel qung co dch v VoIP kt thc bng cu 178 m s tit kim ca bn. Daco qung co kem nh rng :Trng rng, thm ming. - Cc ti v cm xc. l cc cm xc s hi, lo lng, vui bun, hi hc gy hiu qu. Hnh nh v mt c gi lo s khi xe t cht my gia ng ni vng v thi thc cc bc ph huynh mua dch v in thoi di ng cho con. Qung co bt ngt Vedan a ra hnh nh c nh quy qun n cm vui v vi cc mn n c nm bt ngt. - Cc ti v o c. Cnh mt con chim ang bay chp chi khng ch dng chn trn cnh rng b n tr tri nhm ku gi lng tri bo v rng. B cc thng tin B cc thng tin phi hp l, logc nng cao tnh thuyt phc. C th c 3 quyt nh nh sau cn thc hin: - Kt lun dt khot v vn hay dnh cho khch hng t kt lun? - Nn a ra lun c thuyt phc ngay t u hay sau ? - Ch nu mt mt nn hay c hai nn v khng nn? Hnh thc thng tin Hnh thc trnh by thng tin tt s nng cao hiu qu truyn thng. Do vy, cn p dng ngh thut hi ho, m nhc, kt hp mu sc v hnh nh nng cao tnh hp dn ca thng tin. V d, cc hnh nh sng ng mu sc c tc dng thu ht

ch hn l hnh nh tnh. 5. Thu nhn thng tin phn hi Sau khi thng ip c pht i, ch th truyn thng phi tin hnh nghin cu tc ng ca n n th trng mc tiu nh nhn thc, thi , tnh cm, hnh ng ca h v sn phm, v cng ty. Tc ng ny c nh gi qua cc con s c th nh sau: - S phn trm khch hng mc tiu nhn bit v nhn hiu sn phm c qung co; - S phn trm khch hng dng th trong s nhng ngi nhn bit; - S phn trm khch hng hi lng trong s nhng ngi dng th. Qua chng ta nh gi c hiu qu ca truyn thng. y cng chnh l mt ni dung nghin cu th trng gn lin vi hot ng truyn thng marketing. 9.3. H THNG XC TIN HN HP Trong phn ny chng ta tm hiu chi tit cc thnh t cu thnh ca chin lc xc tin. l qung co, tuyn truyn, khuyn mi, bn hng trc tip v Marketing trc tip. 9.3.1. Qung co 1) Khi nim: Qung co l cc hnh thc truyn thng gin tip, phi c nhn, c thc hin qua cc phng tin truyn tin phi tr tin gii thiu v sn phm, thuyt phc khch hng. Ch th qung co phi chu chi ph. Qung co l mt v kh cnh tranh, v khch hng c bit, c tin tng vo sn phm th mi mua. 2) Mc tiu ca qung co : - Qung co thng nhm cc mc tiu sau y: - Tng lng tiu th trn th trng hin ti - Xm nhp th trng mi - Gii thiu sn phm mi - Xy dng v cng c uy tn ca cng ty cng nh cc nhn hiu sn phm. C th phn loi qung co nh sau:

Qung co thng tin: c thc hin trong giai on u ca chu k

sng, khi mi tung sn phm ra th trng. Mc tiu l cung cp thng tin cho khch hng tim nng.

Qung co thuyt phc: ph hp trong giai on pht trin ca sn Qung co nhc nh cn thit trong giai on chn mui ca sn

phm. Mc tiu l thuyt phc khch hng mua.

phm. Mc tiu l nhc nh khch hng nh ti sn phm.

Loi qung co Thng tin

Thuyt phc Nhc nh

Nhim v ca qung co Thng bo cho th trng v sn phm mi Thng bo v thay i gi M t dch v Gii thch nguyn tc hot ng Hnh thnh hnh nh v cng ty Thuyt phc khch hng mua sn phm mi Thuyt phc khch hng thay i nhn thc c v sn phm. Nhc nh khch hng v sn phm

3) Cc phng tin qung co: - Bo ch: C u im l phm vi tip cn rng, chi ph thp, thi gian tip cn nhanh. Nhc im ca bo ch l tui th ngn, cht lng in n khng tt. - Tp ch: C u im l chuyn mn ho cao. Do vy chn lc c gi cao, tui th di hn bo; cht lng in n tt hn, c trang dnh ring cho qung co. Nhc im l lng pht hnh t, thi gian n tay c gi lu. - Truyn hnh: C u im l kt hp c hnh nh, m thanh, mu sc, ngn ng; i tng khn gi rng ri, phm vi ph sng ngy cng rng. Nhc im l thi gian lu hnh ngn, chi ph cao, t chn lc khn gi. - Radio: C u im l phm vi ph sng rng, thnh gi rng ln v tip nhn c thng tin bt k lc no, chi ph thp. Hn ch ch ch tc ng bng m thanh n khch hng nn t hp dn, t gy ch , thi gian lu tin rt ngn. - Internet: C u im l phm vi tip cn ton cu, tui th cao (c th xem i xem li), chi ph thp, kt hp c hnh nh, m thanh, ngn ng. Nhc im ca Internet Vit Nam l s ngi s dng cn t, chi ph s dng cn cao. Do vy phm vi tip nhn thng tin cn hn ch. - Bin qung co: Chi ph thp, tui th cao, s dng c mu sc, tip cn c nhiu khch hng. Nhng do khch hng va xem va di chuyn, cho nn bin qung co ch ph hp vi cc qung co ngn v mc tiu qung co nhc nh v cc sn phm ph thng. Qung co bng bin qung co thng chu s chi phi mnh ca Lut v qung co trn phng din thm m x hi, mi trng. - Th qung co: (Direct mail) c u im l tnh chn lc i tng cao, tnh thuyt phc cao, tnh cc nhn ho cao, chi ph thp (tnh theo hiu qu). Nhc im ca n l t l hi m thp. - Bao b qung cort cn thit nng gi tr ca sn phm.

Mi loi c u im v nhc im ring. Thng thng cng ty nn kt hp cc hnh thc qung co khc nhau tng hiu qu. 4) T chc qung co: i vi mt cng ty, vic qung co c th c thc hin bng 3 phng thc: T chc phng qung co bn trong ring ca cng ty; S dng cc t chc qung co bn ngoi; Kt hp c hai phng thc trn. Khi qung co l phn quan trng trong chin lc Marketing - Mix th cng ty thng t chc Phng qung co ring cu h. Cc nh bn l ln thng c Phng qung co ring v t thc hin cc hot ng qung co. Nhiu cng ty, thng l cng ty sn xut s dng cc T chc qung co c lp thc hin cc hot ng qung co ca cng ty (trn c s hp ng). Mt s cc cng ty c Phng qung co ring, c chc nng kt ni gia cng ty v cc nh qung co bn ngoi. 9.3.2. Quan h vi cng chng v tuyn truyn 1) Khi nim: Quan h vi cng chng l cc hot ng truyn thng gin tip ca doanh nghip nhm gy thin cm ca cng chng vi doanh nghip v sn phm ca n. Quan h vi cng chng gip cho cng ty xy dng mi quan h tt p vi cng chng, nh tch cc n thi ca cc nhm cng chng khc nhau i vi cng ty. Cc nhm cng chng khc nhau c th l: Khch hng hin ti, khch hng tng lai, cc c ng, cn b cng nhn vin, t chc cng on, cng ng a phng, chnh quyn, cc nh cung cp (ngn hng, cc nh u t...), cc phng tin thng tin i chng bo ch, i pht thanh, truyn hnh), nhng ngi hng dn d lun (cc nhm p lc, cc chnh khch). Tuyn truyn l cc hot ng s dng cc phng tin truyn thng i chng truyn tin khng mt tin v cng ty v sn phm nhm mc ch gy thin cm vi khch hng, thuyt phc h mua. Tuyn truyn l mt dng c bit ca quan h cng chng. u im ni bt ca quan h vi cng chng v tuyn truyn l: - Mang tnh khch quan hn qung co nn d di vo lng ngi. - Lng thng tin cao hn, chi tit hn - Chi ph cho tuyn truyn cng thp hn qung co v khuyn mi. Tuy nhin, nhc im ca tuyn truyn l cng ty kh kim sot. 2) Cc hot ng quan h vi cng chng v tuyn truyn:

- Cc hot ng ti tr cho cc s kin vn ho, th thao, ngh thut quan trng nh cc cuc thi ng ln nh Olimpia, Chic nn k diu, ti tr cho Seagame, cuc thi hoa hu - Cc hot ng t thin nh xy nh tnh ngha, trung hc, h tr cc b m Vit Nam anh hng, xo i gim ngho, cha bnh nhn o - Ngy m ca cho cng chng n thm cng ty, trng hc tng cng s hiu bit, gy thin cm. - Cng b bo co ti chnh hng nm cho cng chng bit v kt qu hot ng ca cng ty. - Tham gia vo cc hot ng cng cng ca a phng. - Quan h thn thin vi gii bo ch. - Mi cc phng vin bo ch, truyn hnh v cng ty tm hiu v vit bi v cng ty cng nh cc sn phm ca cng ty nhn cc s kin quan trng ca cng ty nh ngy khai trng, ngy k nim - T chc cc hot ng vn ngh, th thao v a tin ln bo ch. T chc cc s kin. - Gii thiu cc sn phm mi trn TV di dng ph bin kin thc khoa hc, kin thc thng thc cho cuc sng. - Lm cc bi ht, cc bng hnh, cc b phim trong c lng cc tng tuyn truyn cho sn phm v bn thn cng ty. - Hp bo cng b v mt s kin quan trng no ca cng ty nh c s sn xut mi; trin khai h thng nhn din thng hiu mi - Thng xuyn a tin ln cc bo v hot ng ca cng ty (News release). - Vn ng hnh lang (lobbying) cc chnh khch nhn c s ng h c li i vi cng ty. - X l cc s c khng mong mun xy ra, gy d lun xu cho cng ty 9.3.3. Khuyn mi (sale promotion) 1) Khi nim: Khuyn mi (hay xc tin bn) l cc hot ng kch thch, khuyn khch khch hng mua trong mt giai on ngn bng cch cung cp cho h cc li ch tng thm nhm tng doanh thu (Chin lc ko). Khuyn mi cng nhm vo cc trung gian trong knh phn phi nhm kch thch h bn nhiu hng ho cho doanh nghip (Chin lc y). Tc dng ca khuyn mi ch duy tr trong mt thi gian ngn. Nu qu lm t c 2 triu thu bao sau 2 nm hot ng; trin khai mt dch v mi; khnh thnh 1

dng khuyn mi th dn ti ch phn tc dng. 2)Mc tiu: Khuyn mi nhm vo hai i tng. l ngi tiu dng cui cng v cc trung gian trong knh phn phi. i vi ngi tiu dng cui cng th khuyn mi khuyn khch h mua nhiu. i vi cc trung gian trong knh phn phi th khuyn mi kch thch h tch cc m rng knh phn phi, bn nhiu sn phm. 3) Cc phng tin khuyn mi: a) i vi ngi tiu dng: C th s dng cc phng tin mang li li ch kinh t trc tip i vi ngi tiu dng. l: hng mu, phiu thng, gi hng chung, qu tng, quay s trng thng khi mua - Hng mu cho dng th hoc bn gi h khuyn khch dng th khi a sn phm mi ra th trng. Hng mu c th pht ti nh khch hng. V d hng Unilever tng 1000 ti du gi u Clear ti min Bc v t chc gi u min ph cho 500 ngi ti thnh ph H Ch Minh. - Phiu thng: Khi khch hng mua hng ca cng ty th c tng mt t phiu mua hng gim gi. Mua nhiu th c tng nhiu. y cng l mt dng gim gi cho khch hng khi mua sn phm mi. - Gi hng chung: Gi 3 n v hng nhng ch ly gi bng hai n v. Hoc tng mt bn mt, khm bnh min ph v bn thuc. V d : Khi bt u xut hin cnh tranh t pha cng ty Vinaphone mi trin khai mng li, cng ty VMS thc hin chnh sch bn mt tng mt my di ng vi gi 7 triu, tc l mt my ch mt 3,5 triu. - Qu tng: khi mua hng ca cng ty khch hng c tng mt mn qu nh khuyn khch mua. Mua xe my c tng TV! 9.3.4. Bn hng trc tip (c nhn) Bn hng trc tip l qu trnh giao tip trc tip gia ngi bn hng v khch hng, qua ngi bn tm hiu nhu cu, t vn, gii thiu, thuyt phc khch hng la chn v mua sn phm. Trong bn hng trc tip, ngi bn thc hin cc chc nng sau y: - Gii thiu li ch, cng dng ca sn phm cho khch hng - Trnh din sn phm - Gii thiu, gio dc khch hng v sn phm mi - Tr li cc cu hi, thc mc, nhng li t chi mua ca khch hng

- T chc v thc hin cc hot ng xc tin ti cc im bn hng - m phn, k kt hp ng vi khch hng - Theo di sau bn hng chm sc khch hng - Duy tr, pht trin mi quan h lu di vi khch hng - Thu thp thng tin Marketing Nh c s giao tip trc tip gia bn bn v bn mua, ngi bn hng c nhiu c hi nm bt nhu cu ca khch hng, phn ng linh hot vi cc loi khch hng khc nhau, xy dng mi quan h thn thin gia hai bn. Do vy, bn hng trc tip c kh nng thnh cng cao. Bn hng trc tip phi tun theo mt quy trnh bao gm cc bc. V pha bn bn cng nh bn mua c th c mt hoc nhiu ngi tham gia tu vo loi sn phm. Bn hng c nhn gm cc bc sau: 1. Thm d v nh gi cc khch hng tim nng 2. Tin tip xc: cc tip xc tm hiu khch hng tim nng trc khi bn 3. Tip xc vi khch hng tim nng 4. Gii thiu sn phm, li ch khi dng sn phm cho khch hng 5. Thng lng cc tnh hung khi khch hng t chi 6. Kt thc bn khi c cc du hiu mua nhn thy khch hng 7. Theo di, nh gi mc hi lng ca khch hng. qu trnh bn hng c thc hin tt, cn c chc nng qun tr bn hng. l qu trnh phn tch, lp k hoch, t chc, lnh o v kim sot cc hot ng bn hng. C th hn, qun tr bn hng bao gm xy dng mc tiu cho nhn vin bn hng, thit k chin lc cho lc lng bn hng, tuyn dng, hun luyn, phn cng, gim st, nh gi v tr lng, thng cho lc lng bn hng. 9.4. XC NH NGN SCH CHO HOT NG TRUYN THNG Mun thc hin c hot ng truyn thng Marketing, cng ty cn phi cung cp mt ngn sch nht nh. Thng thng c 4 phng php xc nh ngn sch cho hot ng truyn thng ca cng ty: 9.4.1. Phng php xc nh ngn sch theo t l % ca doanh s bn Theo phng php ny, cng ty xy dng ngn sch truyn thng bng mt t l phn trm no ca doanh s bn d kin. Phng php ny c nhng u im v khuyt im. * V u im c th k ra cc u im nh sau: - Th nht, phng php ny d tnh ton - Th hai, phng php ny d c chp nhn

* V nhc im c th k nhc im c bn nh sau: Phng php ny khng c cn c vng chc, v chnh nh cc chng trnh truyn thng m doanh nghip c th tng doanh s, ch khng phi doanh s l ci c trc lm cn c tnh ngn sch truyn thng. 9.4.2. Phng php cn bng cnh tranh Theo phng php ny, cng ty xy dng ngn sch truyn thng bng ngn sch truyn thng ca cc i th cnh tranh trn cng a bn v chu k kinh doanh. Phng php ny c u im l s trnh kh nng xy ra chin tranh v truyn thng gia cc cng ty cnh tranh. Kh khn trong vic thc hin phng php ny l kh xc nh c ngn sch truyn thng ca cc cng ty cnh tranh. Mt khc, do mc tiu truyn thng ca cc cng ty khc nhau, cho nn cn c nh trn cng khng hon ton hp l. 9.4.3. Phng php cn c vo mc tiu v nhim v Theo phng php ny, cc cng ty xy dng ngn sch truyn thng trn c s nhng mc tiu v nhim v cn phi gii quyt v phng din truyn thng. Phng php ny c xem l c cn c khoa hc. iu quan trng cn lu l mc tiu, nhim v truyn thng phi t trong mc tiu v nhim v ca chin lc Marketing. 9.4.4. Phng php chi theo kh nng Theo phng php ny, cng ty xy dng ngn sch truyn thng theo kh nng ti chnh ca h. Phng php ny c nhc im l cng ty khng th ch ng s dng cc hot ng truyn thng theo mc cn thit tc ng ti th trng.

CU HI N TP CHNG IX
1) Khi qut v xc tin? 2) Cc yu t no nh hng n chin lc xc tin hn hp? 3) Phn tch cc yu t trong m hnh truyn thng? 4) Knh truyn thng gm cc loi no ? u nhc im ca mi loi? 5) Phn tch cc thnh t trong h thng xc tin hn hp? 6) Phn tch u nhc im ca cc phng tin qung co? 7) Cc phng php xc nh ngn sch cho hot ng truyn thng? 8) Hy chn mt chng trnh khuyn mi v phn tch cc u nhc im ca n? 9) Hy chn mt qung co v phn tch cc u nhc im ca n 10) T tng ch bn nhng th m khch hng cn c th hin nh th no

trong chin lc xc tin ? 12) Hin nay mt s cng ty sn xut nc tng ang b ty chay v c cha cht gy ung th. iu ny rt bt li cho h trong iu kin cnh tranh trn th trng ang gia tng. Bn hy xy dng mt chng trnh truyn thng khc phc vn , ci thin hnh nh ca cc cng ty trong con mt khch hng. 13) Trong thi gian va qua c c mt s xe my Air Blade ca hng Honda b bc chy khi ang i trn ng. iu lm gim uy tn ca nhm hiu Air Blade ni ring v hng Honda ni chung. Bn hy xy dng mt chng trnh truyn thng khc phc vn , ci thin hnh nh ca Honda trong con mt khch hng.

Chng 10
K HOCH HO MARKETING
MC TIU:

Sau khi hc xong chng ny, sinh vin cn nm c cc vn c bn sau: Bn cht, phm vi v tm quan trng ca lp k hoch
S khc bit c bn gia lp k hoch chin lc ca cng ty v k

hoch Marketing Qu trnh lp k hoch chin lc ca cng ty Cc bc lp k hoch Marketing chin lc Mt s la chn chin lc khc nhau ca cng ty
K hoch Marketing hng nm.

10.1. BN CHT V PHM VI LP K HOCH K hoch Marketing l mt b phn ca k hoch tng th ca cng ty. Do vy, xy dng mt k hoch Marketing c hiu qu, trc ht cc nh qun l phi xy dng k hoch chin lc cho ton b cc n lc chung ca cng ty. Tip n l xy dng k hoch chin lc cho cc lnh vc chc nng khc nhau trong cng ty, trong c chc nng Marketing. Trc ht chng ta tm hiu khi nim lp k hoch. 10.1.1. Th no l lp k hoch? Ni mt cch n gin, lp k hoch l quyt nh thi im hin ti nhng g cn phi lm trong tng lai, bao gm c vn lm khi no v lm nh th no? Khng c k hoch chng ta khng lm c g, v chng ta khng bit cn phi lm g v lm nh th no? 1) Lp k hoch chin lc (Strategic planning): Lp k hoch (hoch nh) chin lc l qu trnh qun l lm cho ngun lc ca cng ty thch ng vi cc c hi th trng v lu di. Ni cch khc, lp k hoch chin lc i hi cng ty phi tm hiu v xc nh cc yu t thuc mi trng bn ngoi, nh gi cc iu kin v kh nng bn trong ca cng ty xy dng chin lc nhm t c cc mc tiu nht nh. 2) S cn thit phi lp k hoch: duy tr s pht trin ca mnh, mi doanh nghip u phi nhn v pha trc nhm t c cc mc tiu no v ra cc phng thc nhm t c cc mc tiu . Do iu kin mi trng ang thay i rt nhanh trong vi thp k gn y, cc cng ty ngy cng quan tm n cng tc k hoch nhm nm bt c cc c hi mi v ng thi trnh c cc thch thc e do. Ngy nay, vic qun l cng ty da trn kinh nghim, trc gic v s khn ngoan khng th m bo cho s thnh cng ca cng ty. Do vy, vic lp k hoch chin lc c xem nh l mt cng c qun l hu hiu nht gim ri ro cho cng ty.

10.1.2. Phm vi ca hot ng lp k hoch Lp k hoch c th thc hin cho mt khong thi gian ngn hoc di. Lp k hoch chin lc thng l cho giai on 3, 5, 10 nm v c khi ti 25 nm. Tham gia vo lp k hoch chin lc l cc nh qun l cao cp ca cng ty v b phn lm k hoch. Lp k hoch ngn hn thng cho giai on mt nm hay t hn v l trch nhim ca cc nh qun l cp trung v cp thp trong cng ty. Cc k hoch ngn hn phi phc v cho k hoch di hn ca cng ty. C th chia lp k hoch thnh 3 cp nh sau: - Lp k hoch chin lc ca cng ty (Strategic Company Planning). cp k hoch ny, cc nh qun l cp cao ca cng ty cn xc nh s mnh ca cng ty (companys mission), xy dng mc tiu di hn v chin lc chung t c mc tiu . Chin lc v mc tiu tng th ny ca cng ty l ci khung xy dng cc k hoch cho cc lnh vc chc nng khc nhau nh Marketing, Ti chnh, Nhn s, Cng ngh... - Lp k hoch cc lnh vc chc nng, trong c lp k hoch Marketing chin lc (Strategic Marketing Planning). cp k hoch ny, cc nh qun l Marketing cp cng ty xy dng mc tiu v chin lc cho cc hot ng Marketing ca cng ty. K hoch Marketing chin lc ny bao gm vic la chn th trng mc tiu v xy dng chng trnh di hn cho cc thnh t ca chin lc Marketing - Mix. - Lp k hoch Marketing hng nm (Annual Marketing Planning). Cc k hoch hng nm ny phi c xy dng cho tng th trng, tng sn phm. 10.2. LP K HOCH CHIN LC CNG TY Lp k hoch chin lc ca cng ty bao gm bn bc chnh sau y: - Xc nh s mnh ca cng ty - Phn tch mi trng v ngun lc (Phn tch SWOT) - Thit lp mc tiu cho cng ty - La chn chin lc t c cc mc tiu . Khi nim S mnh Phn tch SWOT Mc tiu Chin lc Cu hi m cng ty cn tr li trong qu trnh lp k hoch Cng ty ang kinh doanh g? Cng ty c cc im mnh, yu g? Cng ty c cc c hi v thch thc g? Cng ty mun t c ci g? Lm th no t c mc tiu?

Bc 1: Xc nh s mnh ca cng ty. Nu cng ty hot ng th cn xem xt li s mnh cng ty cng b xem c cn ph hp khng. Nu cng ty mi thnh

lp th cn xy dng s mnh cho n t u (chi tit hn xin xem ph lc 6 cui chng ). S mnh ca cng ty

Mc tiu ca cng ty

Hnh thnh v la chn chin lc


Cc chin lc

khc nhau

C hi v thch thc

Phn tch SWOT

im mnh v im yu

S 10.1. Cc yu t ca lp k hoch chin lc ca cng ty Bc 2: Phn tch mi trng v ngun lc. Cng ty cn phn tch r nh hng ca cc yu t mi trng (bao gm mi trng bn ngoi v mi trng ni b) n hot ng ca n. y l qu trnh phn tch nguy c, c hi, im mnh v 3. Thit lp mc tiu cn im yu ca cng 1. Xc nh s mnh ty, hay phn tch SWOT. Bc ny cho bit cng ty ang u? Lp k hoch chin lc ca cng ty t c cho cng ty. ca lp mc Bc 3: Thit cng ty tiu cho cng ty. Cc nh qun l cng ty cn thit lp 4. La chn chin lc 2. ty hng cc mc tiu cng Phn tchtimi nhm thc hin c s mnh t ra. Mc tiu t c cac mc tiu cng l tiu chuntrng vgi kt qu hot ng ca cng ty. Ni cch khc, cng ty nh ngun lc phi ch r h cn phi i ti u? Bc 4: La chn chin lc cng ty t c mc tiu , tc l cho bit cng ty t cc mc tiuk hoch Marketing chin lc Lp t ra nh th no? 1. Phn tch 3. Thc hin 2. Lp k hoch 4. Kim tra
K HOCH MARKETING HNG NM

Xy dng k hoch marketing hng nm cho mi dng sn phm, mi sn phm chnh, mi th trng. THC HIN V NH GI K HOCH

S 10.2. Ba cp lp k hoch ca cng ty 10.3. LP K HOCH MARKETING CHIN LC 10.3.1. Khi nim Mt cch khi qut, lp k hoch Marketing chin lc l qu trnh phn tch, lp k hoch, t chc thc hin v kim tra cc chng trnh Marketing i vi tng nhm khch hng mc tiu. y cng chnh l qu trnh qun tr Marketing chin lc. K hoch Marketing c thit lp cho tng th trng ring, tng sn phm ring. Cc giai on ca qu trnh lp k hoch Marketing c m t trn s 10.3 Phn tch th trng v chin lc di y: Marketing hin ti Phn tch (Where are we now?)
Phn tch SWOT

Xc nh cc mc tiu marketing Lp k hoch (We are want to be?)

La chn th trng mc tiu

Xy dng cc chin lc marketing-mix Thc hin (How can we get there?)

ra chng trnh hnh ng

Kim tra (Did we get there?)

Kim tra vic thc hin k hoch

S 10.3. Qu trnh lp k hoch Marketing 10.3.2. Qui trnh lp k hoch Marketing chin lc 1. Phn tch th trng v chin lc Marketing hin ti Mc ch ca phn tch ny l: - nh gi nhng c im ch yu ca th trng nh quy m, c cu, xu hng bin ng, tc ng ca mi trng Marketing n nhu cu mua sm ca khch hng. Vic phn tch ny c tin hnh i vi mi mt sn phm. - Phn tch cnh tranh: u nhc im cu cc i th cnh tranh, th phn v chin lc ca h. - Phn tch chin lc Marketing hin hnh: Trong iu kin mi trng mi cc chin lc Marketing - mix c cn ph hp na khng? 2. Phn tch SWOT ( Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) Phn tch SWOT l phn tch c hi v mi e do (do mi trng mang li), im mnh v im yu ca bn thn cng ty. Trong iu kin mi trng mi s xut hin nhng c hi kinh doanh mi, ng thi cc nguy c e do mi. Khi cng ty nhn thc c v cc c hi v mi e do, h s ch ng xy dng k hoch nm bt, khai thc cc c hi, ng thi vt qua cc nguy c e do. Tuy nhin, iu ny cn tu thuc vo cc im mnh v im yu ca cng ty. Do vy, cn xem xt cc vn c bn sau y: - Xc nh cc c hi v nguy c do mi trng mang li cho cng ty - Xc nh cc im mnh v im yu ca cng ty - Xc nh v th th trng hin ti ca cng ty 3. Xc nh cc mc tiu Marketing Khi t ra cc mc tiu Marketing cn phi tun theo cc yu cu sau: - Mc tiu Marketing phi chu s chi phi ca cc mc tiu ca k hoch chin lc ca cng ty (phc v cho mc tiu k hoch chin lc). - Mc tiu Marketing phi c th, r rng v o lng c. - Mc tiu phi gn vi thi gian c th (V d : Ho vn sau 2 nm hot ng). - Cc mc tiu phi ng b nhau v c sp xp theo th t v tm quan

trng. Thng thng mc tiu Marketing l doanh s bn, li nhun v th phn chim c, v th ca cng ty, v th ca sn phm, mc tiu tng trng. V d: M rng ti a th phn, dn u th trng, dn u v cht lng, dn u v dch v khch hng, t li nhun ti a sau mt thi gian no . 4. La chn th trng mc tiu La chn th trng mc tiu l la chn cc nhm khch hng tim nng i vi cc sn phm mi ca cng ty. Nu trong th trng mc tiu m cng ty chn c cc sn phm cnh tranh th vn tip theo l phi nh v sn phm ca cng ty nh trin khai so vi cc sn phm cnh tranh . 5. Xy dng cc chin lc Marketing hn hp Marketing hn hp l tp hp cc bin s cc chin lc Marketing b phn m cng ty c th ch ng kim sot tc ng vo th trng mc tiu nhm thc hin cc mc tiu Marketing. a) Chin lc sn phm: Bao gm vic xc nh danh mc sn phm, chng loi sn phm, tn gi, nhn hiu, bao b, cc c tnh, cc dch v khch hng. b) Chin lc gi c: Bao gm vic xc nh mc tiu ca chin lc gi, xc nh phng php nh gi, xc nh chin lc gi. c) Chin lc phn phi: Bao gm vic thit lp cc knh phn phi, la chn cc trung gian trong knh, la chn phng thc vn chuyn d) Chin lc xc tin (hay truyn thng Marketing): Xc nh mc tiu ca chin lc truyn thng, la chn cc phng tin truyn thng. Cng vi cc chin lc trn l h thng cc bin php c th thc hin mc tiu ca doanh nghip. 6. Xy dng chng trnh hnh ng v d bo ngn sch Chng trnh hnh ng c vai tr m bo cho k hoch Marketing ca cng ty c thc hin. Xy dng chng trnh hnh ng l bin cc chin lc Marketing thnh cc chng trnh hnh ng c th. Chng trnh hnh ng tr li cc cu hi sau: - Ci g s c thc hin? - Khi no thc hin? - Ai chu trch nhim thc hin g? - Tng kinh ph thc hin? thc hin cc chin lc Marketing cn phi c ngn sch. D on ngn

sch - kt qu ti chnh d kin ca k hoch Marketing c thc hin da trn s lng bn d kin: Doanh s d kin = Gi bn bnh qun x S lng bn d kin Li nhun d kin = Doanh s d kin - Tng chi ph d kin Ch : Qa trnh qun tr Marketing l mt b phn cu thnh ca qu trnh qun tr chung ca cng ty. Qun tr chin lc trong mt cng ty nh hng th trng bao gm 3 cp: - Qun tr chin lc cp Tng cng ty: lin quan n vic phn b cc ngun lc cho cc n v kinh doanh (Business Units) ca Tng cng ty. - Qun tr chin lc kinh doanh: thc hin tng n v kinh doanh trong Tng cng ty. - Qun tr chin lc cho cc chc nng (Marketing, nhn s): Lin quan n chin lc cho tng chc nng ring trong Tng cng ty. 10.3. MT S KIU CHIN LC MARKETING 10.3.1. Cc kiu chin lc Marketing theo v th cnh tranh Cn c vo v th cnh tranh ca cng ty so vi cc cng ty cnh tranh trn th trng, cc cng ty c th xp vo mt trong 4 loi sau y:
- Cc cng ty dn u th trng - Cc cng ty thch thc th trng - Cc cng ty i theo - Cc cng ty np gc

Mi loi cng ty ny s chn cc chin lc khc nhau: 1) Chin lc ca cc cng ty dn u th trng Cc cng ty dn u th trng c th b e do bi cc cng ty thch thc th trng. Do vy, h mun gi v th ng u trn th trung. Mun vy, h phi tp trung vo 3 hng sau y: M rng nhu cu trn th trng Bo v th phn hin ti Chim lnh thm th phn a) M rng nhu cu trn ton th trng M rng nhu cu trn ton th trng c li cho cng ty dn u, v th phn ca h ln nht. m rng nhu cu, h cn phi tm thm cc khch hng mi, khuyn khch khch hng hin ti dng nhiu hn, kch thch cc cch dng mi i vi sn phm. b) Bo v th phn bo v th phn, cng ty dn u c th s dng 6 chin lc sau y:

- Chin lc phng th v th: y l chin lc thng dng nhm duy tr khch hng hin c ca cng ty bng cc n lc Marketing nh: a dng ho sn phm, duy tr cht lng, knh phn phi tin li, gi c phi chng, khuyn mi, chm sc khch hng - Chin lc phng th mn sn: Chin lc ny c mc tiu bo v nhng im yu ca cng ty, v y l ch m cc i th c th tn cng ginh u th. - Chin lc tn cng ch ng trc: y l chin lc ch ng tn cng i phng trc do th mnh ca cng ty dn u. Cng ty c th gim gi, nng cao cht lng vi mc gi c. - Chin lc phn cng: y l chin lc phn cng li khi b tn cng trc. Chin lc ny mang tnh b ng. - Chin lc co cm: Vi chin lc ny, cng ty c th phi rt lui khi mt s th trng c v th yu hn cc i th tp trung vo cc th trng c u th. y khng phi l vic rt lui b ng, m l rt lui ch ng. c) M rng th phn Cng ty dn u c th s dng cc thnh t trong Marketing hn hp m rng th phn. Tuy nhin, cn ch n cc quy nh ca Lut cnh tranh ca Nh nc v khng ch th phn i vi cng ty dn u th trng. 2) Chin lc ca cc cng ty thch thc trn th trng y l chin lc ca cc cng ty c u th nht nh v cng ngh, k thut, ti chnh so vi cng ty dn u. Do vy h c th tn cng cng ty dn u bng cc chin lc sau y: - Chin lc tn cng trc din Theo chin lc ny, cng ty son tho mt chin lc Marketing- mix i chi trc tip vi chin lc Marketing- mix ca i th: Sn phm cht lng lng cao hn, gi thp hn, phn phi rng ri hn, truyn thng mnh m hn. Chin lc cnh tranh ny nhm vo nhng ch mnh ca i phng, do vy i hi chi ph tn km. - Chin lc tn cng mn sn Chin lc ny nhm tn cng vo cc im yu ca i th (cng ty ch o). Mc tiu ca chin lc tn cng mn sn l tp trung sc mnh nhm vo nhng ch yu ca cng ty dn u. Mun vy, cng ty thch thc chn tn cng vo cc khu vc a l hay cc phn onth trng yu ca i phng. Cng ty thch thc cng c th pht hin cc nhu cu cha c p ng trn th trng v a ra sn phm

ph hp. - Chin lc tn cng ng vng Chin lc ny trnh i u trc tip vi i th mnh. N nhm vo vic a dng ho sn phm, chn th trng c th, 3)bChin lc ca cc cng ty i theo Cc cng ty i theo thng l cc cng ty khng mnh, cho nn chin lc ca h cng trnh i u vi cc i th mnh. H c th p dng cc chin lc sau: - Chin lc theo st: Cc cng ty i theo c gng theo st cc cng ty dn u (v cc chin lc Marketing- mix), nhng trnh gy s ch ca cc cng ty dn u. - Chin lc theo sau c khong cch: theo sau nhng c s khc bit trong cc chnh sch Marketing -mix. - Chin lc theo sau c chn lc: tp trung vo mt s on th trng c kh nng thu li nhun cao, trnh cnh tranh trc tip. 4) Chin lc ca cc cng ty np gc Mt chin lc cho cc cng ty theo sau trong mt th trng ln l tr thnh ngi dn u trong mt th trng nh. Cc cng ty np gc l cc cng ty nh b trn th trng. H mun tm mt ch ng trn th trng m cc cng ty ln b qua, nh vy h trnh i u vi cc cng ty ln. H thc hin chin lc Lp ch trng trn th trng, chuyn mn ho theo sn phm, theo khch hng. H cn phi xc nh c cc ch cn b trng trn th trng vi cc iu kin sau y: - C quy m ln v c th mang li li nhun, d t - C tim nng tng trng - Cc i th cnh tranh ln b ri - Ph hp vi nng lc v s trng ca cng ty - C kh nng bo v c khi b tn cng Chin lc ny cn c gi l chin lc th trng ngch. V d: Cc cng ty sn xut t ca Nht Bn l cc cng ty nh b khi bc ra th trng t th gii. Do vy, h thc hin chin lc th trng ngch vi mc tiu cung cp chic xe nh v r, l chic xe th hai trong gia nh. Vi mc tiu h lin tc gim gi m rng th phn, tng hiu qu. y li l tin gim gi tip (Ly th trng trong nc b l cho th trng nc ngoi). Khi c ch ng vng chc trn th trng ri th m rng sang cc on th trng khc. Hin nay xe t ca Nht vt ln hng trn trong lng xe t th gii. Cng ty xe my Minsk cng nhm vo th trng ngch l xe my chuyn ch hng, ch khch cho min ni, nng thn. Chin lc ny trnh i u vi cc hng xe my Nht (dn u th trng).

CU HI N TP V THO LUN
1) Bn cht, phm vi, tm quan trng ca lp k hoch? 2) Phn bit s khc nhau gia lp k hoch chin lc ca cng ty v k hoch Marketing? Mi quan h gia chng? 3) Cc bc lp k hoch chin lc cng ty? 4) Qu trnh lp k hoch Marketing chin lc? 5) Cc kiu chin lc ca cng ty dn u th trng? 6) Cc kiu chin lc ca cng ty thch thc trn th trng? 7) Cc kiu chin lc ca cng ty i theo, v ca cng ty np gc?