So I want to start by offering you a freeno-tech life hack,and all it requires of you is this:that you

change your posture for two minutes.But before I give it away, I want to ask you to right nowdo a little audit of your body and what you're doing with your body.So how many of you are sort of making yourselves smaller?Maybe you're hunching, crossing your legs,maybe wrapping your ankles.Sometimes we hold onto our arms like this.Sometimes we spread out. (Laughter)I see you. (Laughter)So I want you to pay attention to what you're doing right now.We're going to come back to that in a few minutes,and I'm hoping that if you learn to tweak this a little bit,it could significantly change the way your life unfolds. So, we're really fascinated with body language,and we're particularly interestedin other people's body language.You know, we're interested in, like, you know — (Laughter) —an awkward interaction, or a smile,or a contemptuous glance, or maybe a very awkward wink,or maybe even something like a handshake. Narrator: Here they are arriving at Number 10, and look at thislucky policeman gets to shake hands with the Presidentof the United States. Oh, and here comesthe Prime Minister of the — ? No. (Laughter) (Applause)(Laughter) (Applause) Amy Cuddy: So a handshake, or the lack of a handshake,can have us talking for weeks and weeks and weeks.Even the BBC and The New York Times.So obviously when we think about nonverbal behavior,or body language -- but we call it nonverbals as social scientists --it's language, so we think about communication.When we think about communication, we think about interactions.So what is your body language communicating to me?What's mine communicating to you? And there's a lot of reason to believe that this is a validway to look at this. So social scientists have spent a lotof time looking at the effects of our body language,or other people's body language, on judgments.And we make sweeping judgments and inferences from body language.And those judgments can predict really meaningful life outcomeslike who we hire or promote, who we ask out on a date.For example, Nalini Ambady, a researcher at Tufts University,shows that when people watch 30-second soundless clipsof real physician-patient interactions,their judgments of the physician's nicenesspredict whether or not that physician will be sued.So it doesn't have to do so much with whether or notthat physician was incompetent, but do we like that personand how they interacted?Even more dramatic, Alex Todorov at Princeton has shownus that judgments of political candidates' facesin just one second predict 70 percent of U.S. Senateand gubernatorial race outcomes,and even, let's go digital,emoticons used well in online negotiationscan lead to you claim more value from that negotiation.If you use them poorly, bad idea. Right?So when we think of nonverbals, we think of how we judgeothers, how they judge us and what the outcomes are.We tend to forget, though, the other audiencethat's influenced by our nonverbals, and that's ourselves. We are also influenced by our nonverbals, our thoughtsand our feelings and our physiology.So what nonverbals am I talking about?I'm a social psychologist. I study prejudice,and I teach at a competitive business school,so it was inevitable that I would become interested in power dynamics.I became especially interested in nonverbal expressionsof power and dominance.

When .So again.because participation counts for half the grade. (Laughter)So they do this both when they have power sort of chronically. they're sort of spread out. they get right into the middle of the roombefore class even starts. We don't want to bump into the person next to us.It seems to be related to gender.And what are nonverbal expressions of power and dominance?Well. She shows thatpeople who are born with sightand people who are congenitally blind do thiswhen they win at a physical competition.So you have people who are like caricatures of alphas. and they'reparticipating. So I'm watching this behavior in the classroom.and it seems to be partly attributable to participation.we tend to make ourselves smaller.They do this. you see it.and they go like this when they raise their hand.And humans do the same thing.and what do I notice? I notice that MBA studentsreally exhibit the full range of power nonverbals.So you make yourself big. it makes us feel happy. this is what they are. can you fake it till you make it?Like. you stretch out.And this is what happens when you put together highand low power.really coming into the room. we smile when we feel happy.And this is really important in the MBA you have these people coming in like this.Women feel chronically less powerful than men.It's about opening up. which is known as pride.You get these equally qualified women and men coming inand then you get these differences in grades. who's at Berkeley. you're not going to be surprised. the chin is slightly lifted.One.I notice a couple of things about this.So the arms up in the V.but also.When they sit down.We make ourselves small.What do we do when we feel powerless? We do exactlythe doesn't matter if they've never seen anyone do it.So if someone is being really powerful with us.This expression. can you do this just for a little while and actuallyexperience a behavioral outcome that makes you seem more powerful?So we know that our nonverbals govern how other peoplethink and feel about this is not take up space. So business schools have been struggling with this gender grade gap. It's not just limited to primates.So it goes both ways.And this one is especially interesting because it really shows ushow universal and old these expressions of power are. Is it possible that we could get people to fake itand would it lead them to participate more? So my main collaborator Dana Carney. We wrap ourselves up. both animals and humans do the same thing. But the other thing I noticed is thatit also seemed to be related to the extent to whichthe students were participating. do our nonverbalsgovern how we think and feel about ourselves? There's some evidence that they do.You have other people who are virtually collapsingwhen they come in. when we're forced to smileby holding a pen in our teeth like this.You see it on their faces and their bodies. So what we tend to dowhen it comes to power is that we complement the other's nonverbals.So.But our question really was. We close up. you know.They raise their hands like this.So I started to wonder.So women are much more likely to do this kind of thing than men. and they sitin their chair and they make themselves tiny.Jessica Tracy has studied.and I really wanted to know. you're basically opening up. There's a lot of evidence.We do the opposite of them. for example. like they really want to occupy space. okay.So in the animal kingdom. they are about expanding.So when they cross the finish line and they've won. We don't mirror them. As soon they come in.and also when they're feeling powerful in the moment. and how well they were participating. And this is trueacross the animal kingdom.

not surprisingly. and that's a pretty whopping significant difference.Here's what we find on .but not very stress reactive.That's it.So what does that mean? When you think about power. which is the stress also goes both ways.So there are a lot of differences. So we know that in primate hierarchies.When you're touching your neck.So here's one. We don't want to prime themwith a concept of power.they spit into a vial.right? So two minutes they do this. at least at the facial're really protecting yourself. for two minutes. there also are differences on twokey hormones: testosterone. if an individual needs to take overan alpha role sort of suddenly. but it's also possible thatwhen you pretend to be powerful." So this is what we did.They actually feel that they're going to win even at games of chance.only 60 percent. and these peopleadopted.Physiologically.and then we take another saliva sample. "You need to do this or this.because that was about dominance.So what happens.people tended to think only about testosterone.and in my case. They come comes to power.Here are a couple this tiny manipulation. power is also about how you react to stress.high on testosterone. either high-power posesor low-power poses. "I want you to stand like this.So what we find is thathigh-power alpha males in primate hierarchieshave high testosterone and low cortisol. that individual's testosterone has gone upsignificantly and his cortisol has dropped significantly.and it's going to make you feel more powerful.what we find is that when you're in the high-powerpose condition. the person who's laid back.and also that role changes can shape the mind. They take more risks.And here are the low-power poses. you're making yourself small. both that the body can shapethe mind.When you're in the low-power pose condition. We want them to be feeling power. this tiny intervention?"For two minutes.what am I talking about?So I'm talking about thoughts and feelingsand the sort of physiological things that make up our thoughts and feelings. 86 percent of you will're more likely to do this. That's the whole experiment. you are more likelyto actually feel powerful. and I'm just going to show youfive of the poses. So the second question really was. okay.So this is what happens.and powerful and effective leaders also havehigh testosterone and low cortisol. I look at hormones.This one has been dubbed the "Wonder Woman"by the media. that's hormones.but is it also true that our bodies change our minds?And when I say minds.we for two minutes say.what happens if you do that at a really minimal level. So when you feel powerful.and then we give them an opportunity to gamble. Risk tolerance. which is the gambling.We then ask them. right? You want the personwho's powerful and assertive and dominant.So we have this evidence. more optimistic."They don't look at pictures of the poses. although they took on only two. We decided to bring peopleinto the lab and run a little experiment.There are a lot of differences between powerful and powerless people. in the case of the powerful.more assertive and more confident.So you're folding up. but really stress reactive?Probably not. which is the dominance hormone.So do you want the high-power leader that's dominant. if an alphaneeds to take over." you say.This one is very low-power.and cortisol.within a few days. "How powerful do you feel?" on a series of we know that our minds change our bodies.A couple more.So you can be standing or you can be sitting.They also tend to be able to think more abstractly.So what do the minds of the powerful versus the powerlesslook like?So powerful people tend to be.But really. So this is what we find. you take a role change. you know.

no. "Oh. no. so this is what you dowhen you go in for the job interview. you know.So this is the job interview we put them through.or low-power poses again. Okay. right? (Laughter)You know. nothing.From their baseline when they come in.People hate this.they go through a very stressful job interview. and the judgesare trained to give no nonverbal feedback.basically.We decided that the one that most people could relate tobecause most people had been throughwas the job interview. residue over them. and you get these changes. of course. Where can you actuallyapply this? Which we cared about. like. andthe low-power people experience about a 15-percent increase. But the next question. Where are you being evaluated.or really stress-reactive.and they end up looking at these sets of tapes. so we were of course horrified. four of them. of course. that's not what we meant at all. because we rate them on all these variablesrelated to competence.They bring their ideas. not trying to leave anyone out.So that's what we want to test. we want to hire these people. no.We also evaluate these people much more positively overall. right?So it seems that our nonverbals do governhow we think and feel about ourselves. and the mediaare all over it. right? Do This is what's affected. don't do that. You're looking at your iPhone --or your Android.It's you talking to yourself.testosterone. you know."we don't want to hire these people. you know."But what's driving it? It's not about the content of the speech.with no. They are being recorded. iscan power posing for a few minutesreally change your life in meaningful ways?So this is in the lab.It's five minutes're hunching up. but it's also ourselves.Right? You're sitting down. So we published these findings.because we really wanted to see what happened. Okay?So we bring people into a lab." --all the high-power posers -. how well-structuredis the speech? How good is it? What are their qualifications?No effect on those things.It's about the presence that they're bringing to the speech. what matters.They're blind to the hypothesis. It might be giving a pitchor giving a talk like thisor doing a job interview.You are. no. making yourself small.Again.These kinds of things.So again.It could be.For numerous reasons.They're being judged also. no.So this is what's driving the effect. this is not about you talking to other people. but as themselves. feelingsort of shut down. andthey do either's just a couple of minutes. our bodies change our minds.Oh my God. imaginethis is the person interviewing you. in the bathroom. They're blind to the conditions. It's what Marianne LaFrance calls"standing in social quicksand. confident and comfortable. you know. It's this little task. for some people it's speakingat a school board it's not just others. They're bringing themselves. or mediating the effect. you know. I mean. and.either by your friends? Like for teenagers it's at the lunchroom table.And so we think it's really. Like.where you want to use this is evaluative situationslike social threat situations. you're looking at your they look like this. and said. .We also.So for five minutes. And we've all had the feeling. no.and they say.and low-power people experience about a 10-percent decrease.They have no idea who's been posing in what pose. high-power peopleexperience about a 20-percent increase. and this is worse than being heckled.Also.when really what you should be doing maybe is this. People are bringing their true selves. High-power peopleexperience about a 25-percent decrease.Here's what you get on cortisol."So this really spikes your cortisol. two minutes. What do you dobefore you go into a job interview? You do this. and they say.So two minutes lead to these hormonal changesthat configure your brain to basically be eitherassertive.We then have these coders look at these tapes. Find two minutes.

I really didn't know her at all. you know? (Laughter) .and our behavior can change our outcomes. you've gotta participate or else you're going to fail.having your identity taken from you. That's it.So I felt entirely powerless. rolled several times. I'm at Northwestern.It took me four years longer than my peers.because I want to tell you a little story aboutbeing an impostor and feeling like I'm not supposed to be here. When I was 19.and I was're gonna — " (Applause)(Applause)"And you're going to go into the classroom. Eventually I graduated from college. and I had been withdrawn from college.a student who had not talked in class the entire semester. Susan Fiske. Five years in grad school." So at the end of my first year at Harvard.Like.I moved to Harvard.I was thrown out of a car. she can become it.So I'm taken out of college.So when I tell people about this. your core identity." Right?So I said. you are! You are supposed to be here!And tomorrow you're going to fake it."I don't -.and I had been called gifted as a child.and the first-year talk at Princeton is a 20-minute talkto 20 people.who I had said."And that was the moment for me.which was very traumatic. "Look. and worked. had dropped by two standard deviations. I am actually doing this. I'm doing it. And I woke up in a head injuryrehab ward. "You're not going to finish college.One was that I realized. I don't feel like that anymore.I was so afraid of being found out the next daythat I called her and said. I keep trying to go back. my angel advisor.and for me it was being smart."I'm not supposed to be here.I am an impostor. you know.You're just going to do it and do it and do it."So I really struggled with this.I don't want to feel like an impostor.and people turned around and they were like.I don't want to get there and then still feel like a fraud. I was in a really bad car accident.You're going to stay. and I have to say. until you havethis moment where you say.It's not me. I don't -.I don't feel that anymore. "I'm quitting.And that really resonated with me."She was like.oh my gosh.Just.and I convinced someone. I am not supposed to be here.because I took a gamble on you. Because two things happened. "Yes.And the night before my first-year talk. You know. fake it till you make it.Q. I have become this.So I was like.'"So that's what I did.a few years. I'm at Harvard. Not supposed to be here.Q."You know? And she gave the best comment ever. and. but for a long time I had been thinking. they say to me. she is supposed to be here!Like. I didn't even notice her sitting there. and so I ended up at Princeton."Not supposed to be here.even if you're terrified and just paralyzedand having an out-of-body experience. she came in totally defeated. but she does. 'Oh my gosh.It feels fake.And she said. and I get that feeling. and this is what you're going to do. "You are not quitting. you know.And the second was.I don't want to get there only to feel like I'm not supposed to be here. and you're staying. I'm not reallythinking about it anymore.but that's not going to work out for you. and got lucky.and you are going to give the best comment ever. because I had identified with being smart.and I learned that my I. and she said. she can fake take me on. there are other things for you to do. there's nothing that leaves you feeling more powerless than that. and worked.and I got lucky."came into my office.I was thrown from the car. you know.You are going to fake it.I knew my I.having that taken from you.that our bodies change our minds and our minds can change our behavior.They're going to make yourself powerful.You're going to do every talk that you ever get asked to do. I worked and worked and worked.oh my God.

And so I want to say to you. The last thing I'm going to leave you with is this. because this is simple. Configure your brainto cope the best in that situation.and also I want to ask youto share the science. in the elevator.She comes back to me months later. Get your cortisol down.she had actually faked it till she became it. you know.for two minutes.I don't have ego involved in this.They need their bodies. I really feel likeI got to say who I am and show who I am.Tiny tweaks can lead to big changes.Fake it till you become it. I didn't show them who I am. don't fake it till you make it.and it can significantly change the outcomes of their life.So she had changed. Share it with people. (Laughter)Give it away. at your desk behind closed doors. try doing this.Before you go into the next stressful evaluative situation. oh.because the people who can use it the most are the oneswith no resources and no technologyand no status and no power. oh.Two minutes.Get your testosterone up. two a bathroom stall. and I realizedthat she had not just faked it till she made it. (Applause)(Applause) . two minutes.Thank you. Give it to thembecause they can do it in private.Don't leave that situation feeling like. So I want to ask you first. You know? It's not —Do it enough until you actually become it and internalize.Leave that situation feeling like. privacy and two minutes.So this is two minutes.That's what you want to do.both to try power posing.

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