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DynCtrl12 Heffron Phillips 2012

DynCtrl12 Heffron Phillips 2012

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04/16/2013

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Small-Signal Stability and Power System Stabilizer

Dynamics and Control of Electric Power Systems

Contents
    Review: Closed-Loop Stability Third-Order Model of the Synchronous Machine Heffron-Phillips Model Dynamic Analysis of the Heffron-Phillips Model
    Split between damping and synchronizing torque SMIB with classical generator model SMIB including field circuit dynamics SMIB including excitation system

 Power System Stabilizer
 Block diagram  Effect on system dynamics

EEH – Power Systems Laboratory

2

x(= 0) x0 x t =  Rate of change of each state is a linear combination of all states:   x1   a11 a12   x1   x  = a 2   21 a22   x2      = a11 x1 + a12 x2 x1  = a21 x1 + a22 x2 x2  Transformation to diagonal form in order to derive solution easily:  z1 = λ1 z1 = z1 (0) ⋅ eλ1t z1 EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 3 .Review: Closed-Loop Stability State space formulation of dynamical system  Autonomous dynamical linear system with initial condition:  = Ax.

λ2 ........right eigenvectors EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 4 .φn ] Λ =diag (λ1 ....... λn ) φi ⋅ λi = A ⋅ φi ⇒ ( A − λi I ) ⋅ φi = 0 det( A − λi I ) = 0 λi ........eigenvalues φi ....Review: Closed-Loop Stability State space formulation of dynamical system  Our aim is to transform the equation to the “easy“ form:   z1  λ1 0   z1   z  =  0 λ  ⋅ z  ⇔ z = Λ ⋅ z  2   2  2 Linear coordinate transformation:  x = Φ⋅z   x = Φ⋅z  This is equivalent to:  Φ ⋅ z= A ⋅ Φ ⋅ z −   1 Φ z = Φ⋅ A ⋅ ⋅ z Λ  z = Λ⋅z Φ =[φ1 . φ2 ..

stability.2 < 0 : The corresponding mode is stable (decaying oscillation). λ1 = 0 : The corresponding mode has integrating characteristics.2 σ ± jω be a complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues of A . Re λ1. λ1 > 0 : The corresponding mode is unstable (growing exponential). oscillation frequency and damping ratio  Let λ1 be a real eigenvalue of matrix A . Then: Re λ1. =  Let λ1.2 > 0 : The corresponding mode is unstable (growing oscillation).Review: Closed-Loop Stability Eigenvalues.2 = 0 : The corresponding mode is critically stable (undamped osc. Then holds: λ1 < 0 : The corresponding mode is stable (decaying exponential). Re λ1.). The following dynamic properties can be established:  Oscillation frequency: f =  Damping ratio: ω 2π ζ = −σ 5 σ 2 + ω2 EEH – Power Systems Laboratory .

Third-Order Model of the Synchronous Machine  Voltage deviation in d.and q-axis: with  Linearized swing equation: = ∆ω 1 (∆Tm − ∆Te ) 2 Hs + K D 2π f 0 ∆δ = ∆ω s EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 6 .

suitable for stability studies: “Small Signal Stability”  linearized model Basis: Electrical torque change  Third-order Model of synchronous machine Starting point for derivation:  Single-Machine Infinite-Bus (SMIB) System  Linearized generator swing equation: 1 (∆Tm − ∆Te ) = ∆ω 2 Hs + K D 2π f 0 ∆δ = ∆ω s EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 7 .Heffron-Phillips Model Purpose:  Simplified representation of synchronous machine.

Singel Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) Generator terminals Power line Generator ∆eF AVR set t ut Infinite bus (Voltage magnitude and phase constant) u EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 8 .

suitable for stability studies: “Small Signal Stability”  linearized model Basis: Electrical torque change  Third-order Model of synchronous machine Starting point for derivation:  Single-Machine Infinite-Bus (SMIB) System  Linearized generator swing equation: 1 (∆Tm − ∆Te ) = ∆ω 2 Hs + K D 2π f 0 ∆δ = ∆ω s EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 9 .Heffron-Phillips Model Purpose:  Simplified representation of synchronous machine.

Heffron-Phillips Model Electrical torque change EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 10 .

Heffron-Phillips Model … including the composition of the electric torque: Approximation of torque with power: After linearization and some substitutions: EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 11 .

Heffron-Phillips Model … including the effect of the field voltage equation: Influence of torque angle on internal voltage Field voltage equation: After linearization and some substitutions: with: EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 12 .

Heffron-Phillips Model … including the model of the terminal voltage magnitude: ∆eF + K 4 ∆δ Influence of torque angle on internal voltage −∆eF −∆eF Terminal voltage: Linearization and substitution: with EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 13 .

Heffron-Phillips Model Full model: Influence of torque angle on internal voltage EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 14 .

Heffron-Phillips Model Simulink implementation EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 15 .

Dynamic Analysis of the Heffron-Phillips Model Splitting between synchronizing and damping torque ∆ω K Damp ∆Te Exercise 3! K Sync ∆δ ∆Te K Sync ⋅ ∆δ + K Damp ⋅ ∆ω = EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 16 .

757 17 .2 Ksync 0.385 Kdamp 0 EEH – Power Systems Laboratory Synchronizing and damping torque coefficients λ1.016 ± 6.2 s Real 0 Imaginary Damping Ratio - f [Hz] 1.Dynamic Analysis of the Heffron-Phillips Model SMIB with classical generator model (mechanical damping torque KD = 0) Eigenvalues on imaginary axis  system is critically stable Eigenvalues λ1.

020 Kdamp 1.5333 0 18 ± 6.204 Imaginary Damping Ratio 0.109 – 0.2 λ3 Real – 0.2 λ3 EEH – Power Systems Laboratory .0008 – 0.0170 1.7651 f [Hz] 1.Dynamic Analysis of the Heffron-Phillips Model SMIB including field circuit dynamics Eigenvalues moved to the left because field circuit adds damping torque Eigenvalues λ1.411 0 Synchronizing and damping torque coefficients due to field circuit λ1.0 s Ksync – 0.

2 λ3 λ4 Ksync 0.7167 0 0 λ1.0126 Kdamp -10.Dynamic Analysis of the Heffron-Phillips Model SMIB including excitation system Eigenvalues Real 0.8837 – 33.4567 Imaginary Damping Ratio – 0.7864 0 0 Synchronizing and damping torque coefficients due to exciter s λ1.8342 –18.8103 – 7.0 f [Hz] 1.0 1.0816 1.6038 0 0 EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 19 .2 λ3 λ4 ± 10.2731 – 19.

Dynamic Analysis of the Heffron-Phillips Model SMIB including excitation system  Generator tripping  might eventually result in Blackout! Eigenvalues moved to the right by the excitation system  System is unstable! EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 20 .

torque EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 21 .Power System Stabilizer  Purpose: provide additional damping torque component in order to prevent the system from becoming unstable  Approach: insert feedback between angular frequency and voltage setpoint  Block diagram: Gain: Tuning parameter for damping torque increase Washout filter: Suppress effect of low-frequency speed changes Phase compensation: Provide phase-lead characteristic to compensate for lag between exciter input and el.

Power System Stabilizer Block diagram EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 22 .

Power System Stabilizer Effect on the system dynamics EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 23 .

Power System Stabilizer Effect on the system dynamics Eigenvalues Real – 1.21 – 1.8213 0 0 Synchronizing and damping torque coefficients due to exciter Synchronizing and damping torque coefficients due to PSS s λ1.2 λ3.16 0.4 λ5 λ6 ± 6.838 – 30.6071 ±12.4 λ5 λ6 Ksync 0.761 290.145 10.69 – 13.2 λ3.0516 2.30 Kdamp – 8.7388 Imaginary Damping Ratio 0.072 Kdamp 22.163 0 0 24 EEH – Power Systems Laboratory .27 1.0406 - λ1.00 0 0 s λ1.2 λ3.0969 – 0.306 –1.7970 – 39.4 λ5 λ6 Ksync – 0.0052 – 19.8394 - f [Hz] 1.1504 0.

PSS design and testing  Date and time: Tuesday. EEH – Power Systems Laboratory 25 . Please prepare the exercise at home.Coming up … Exercise 3: Power System Stabilizer  Contents: Stability analysis of Heffron-Phillips Model. timing is tight!  Attendance is compulsory for the “Testat“. 29 May 2012  Handouts will be sent around one week in advance. Please notify us in case you cannot attend  substitute task.

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