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e Townhall 1108 Mait

e Townhall 1108 Mait

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STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

i

BL-016-12

California Highway Patrol San Gorgonio Pass Area

MAIT SUPPLEMENTAL
This investigation was conducted by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) Border Division Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Team (MAIT).

MAIT PERSONNEL Sergeant C. Larkin, ID 14517, Border Division MAIT Team Leader Officer J. Snider, ID 15406, Border Division MAIT Investigator Officer S. Parent, ID 16159, Border Division MAIT Investigator* Motor Carrier Specialist-I T. Carlson, ID A10178, Border Division MAIT
*Primary investigator

SUBPOENAS FOR MAIT PERSONNEL SHOULD BE DIRECTED TO: California Highway Patrol Border Division Special Services Command 9330 Farnham Street San Diego, California 92123-1216 Attention: Sergeant C. Larkin

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE AUTHOR(S) FACTS INTRODUCTION MAIT NOTIFICATION ..................................................................1........... PARENT ISSUES .........................................................................................1........... PARENT INVESTIGATION OVERVIEW .........................................................2........... PARENT PHYSICAL EVIDENCE LOG .............................................................3........... PARENT MECHANICAL INSPECTION VEHICLE #1 – 1994 FORD RANGER .............................................4........... CARLSON DIGITAL IMAGE LOG ......................................................................16......... PARENT ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS MECHANICAL INSPECTION VEHICLE #1 – 1994 FORD RANGER .............................................17......... CARLSON CALCULATIONS SYMBOLS.....................................................................................19......... PARENT EQUATIONS AND FORMULAS .......................................................19......... PARENT INTRODUCTION ............................................................................21......... PARENT VIDEO ANALYSIS.........................................................................21......... PARENT CALCULATIONS ...........................................................................24......... PARENT CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................32......... PARENT CONCLUSIONS HUMAN FACTORS ...........................................................................34......... PARENT VEHICLE FACTORS .........................................................................34......... PARENT RECOMMENDATIONS .....................................................................35......... PARENT REFERENCES ....................................................................................36......... PARENT ANNEX A

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

1

FACTS – INTRODUCTION MAIT Notification On Tuesday, July 17, 2012, at approximately 1420 hours, CHP San Gorgonio Pass Area Lieutenant A. Proctor, ID 13544, contacted Border Division Assistant Chief A. Sechrist, ID 13314, and requested MAIT assistance with the investigation of a collision involving a Ford Ranger pickup and eight pedestrians. The collision occurred at the intersection of Stetson Avenue and Bulldog Way, in an unincorporated area of Riverside County known as Hemet. Issues This Border Division MAIT investigation was limited to answering the following questions: • What was the pre-, at-, and post-impact velocity of the Ford Ranger? • Was there an identifiable pre-existing mechanical condition that may have caused or contributed to this collision? In order to answer these questions, Border Division MAIT performed the following tasks: • Video analysis • Mechanical inspection of the brake master cylinder of the Ford Ranger • Velocity calculations

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

2

FACTS – INTRODUCTION Investigation Overview On Thursday, July 26, 2012, Investigator Snider and MCS-I Carlson traveled to the impound lot of Statewide Towing. MCS-I Carlson conducted a limited mechanical examination of the Ford Ranger while Investigator Snider assisted by taking digital images. The brake master cylinder installed in the Ford Ranger was removed, entered into evidence at the San Gorgonio Pass Area, and taken to the CHP Border Division Office by Investigator Snider for further analysis. On Friday, July 27, 2012, MCS-I Carlson conducted an examination of the brake master cylinder removed from the Ford Ranger. On Tuesday, August 7, 2012, Investigator Parent visited the scene of the collision to obtain measurements of various landmarks along Stetson Avenue. On Thursday, August 23, 2012 and Friday, August 24, 2012, Sergeant Larkin and MCS-I Carlson conducted additional examination of the brake master cylinder removed from the Ford Ranger. Throughout this report, unless otherwise indicated, all times and measurements are approximate. Unless otherwise indicated, all inspected vehicle components were properly secured and generally unremarkable. All vehicle component references were oriented from the driver’s seat looking forward.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

3

FACTS – PHYSICAL EVIDENCE LOG As part of this investigation, MAIT investigators collected a total of three items of physical evidence from the Ford. All items of physical evidence were booked as evidence at the CHP San Gorgonio Pass Area. Requests regarding the physical evidence listed below should be made directly to: California Highway Patrol 195 Highland Springs Avenue Beaumont, California 92223 (951) 769-2000 Table 1 Items Booked as Evidence at the CHP San Gorgonio Pass Area Office Item 1 2 Taken By Carlson Carlson Date 7/26/12 7/26/12 Time 1200 1205 Description Plastic jar containing fluid contents from the brake master cylinder reservoir Plastic jar containing a sample of fluid contained in a 1-quart bottle of “AAMCO Transmissions®”, “Dexron®-III”, “Mercon®” Automatic Transmission Fluid – located in the engine compartment of the Ford Ranger Brake master cylinder and reservoir

3

Carlson

7/26/12

1215

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

4

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger On Thursday, July 26, 2012, MCS-I Carlson traveled to the impound facility of Statewide Towing to conduct a mechanical inspection of the brake master cylinder of the 1994 Ford Ranger. The master cylinder was removed from the Ford Ranger and transported to the CHP Border Division Officer where the inspection continued. Date of inspection: Inspection location: Model year: Manufacturer: Make: Model: License: Vehicle Identification Number: Odometer: Engine Transmission Color: Type of vehicle: Extent of Inspection On Wednesday, May 30, 2012, personnel for the San Gorgonio Pass Area conducted a limited mechanical inspection of the Ford Ranger. The mechanical inspection was limited to the steering, throttle operation, service brakes, and drive test. The mechanical inspection conducted by Border Division MAIT was limited to the brake master cylinder. The purpose of this inspection was to collect data necessary to document the post-collision condition of the brake master cylinder and to identify any factor(s) that could have contributed to or may have caused this collision. The following components of the brake system were inspected on this vehicle: • Brake fluid reservoir assembly • Brake master cylinder Between July 26, 2012 and August 24, 2012 Statewide Towing 275 East Lincoln Street Banning, California 92220 1994 Ford Motor Company Ford Ranger 19488G1 – California 1FTCR14A1RPA52852 55889 4 Cylinder 2.3 Liter 5-Speed Manual White Pick-Up

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

5

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Pre-Inspection Condition The pre-inspection condition of the Ford Ranger is depicted in the following images:

Figure 1. Front of the Ford Ranger.

Figure 2. The left side of the Ford Ranger.

Figure 3. The left side of the Ford Ranger.

Figure 4. The engine compartment of the Ford Ranger.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

6

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Brake System Overview This vehicle was equipped with a dual hydraulic circuit, front wheel disc, rear wheel drum, vacuum assisted, power brake system. The pedal-actuated, split brake system actuated the front disc brakes on one hydraulic circuit, and the rear drum brakes on the other circuit. A dualfunction brake warning lamp was used to report a low brake fluid level and/or parking brake application. The alloy dual circuit master cylinder, manufactured by Bendix, was mounted to the front shell of the vacuum power brake booster. The power brake booster was connected directly to the brake pedal by a push rod with a self-locking pin. The power brake booster was self-contained and utilized engine-produced vacuum and atmospheric pressure for its power. A translucent dualchamber brake reservoir supplied both circuits of the master cylinder with fluid from the reservoir. Both chambers of the reservoir contained an adequate amount of fluid (fluid level was near the “MAX” level). A three-wire harness was intact and connected to the fluid level warning sensor. Two rigid brake lines exited the master cylinder. The brake line exiting the secondary circuit entered a Rear Anti-Lock Brake System (RABS) electro-hydraulic valve. The RABS electro-hydraulic valve was securely mounted rearward of the No. 1 crossmember on the inboard side of the left frame rail, with no indication of fluid loss. A multi-wire electrical connector was intact and connected to the RABS electro-hydraulic valve. To check the functionality of the RABS, the ignition was turned on and ABS warning light illuminated and turned off a short time later, indicating the RABS was operational.
Dual chamber reservoir

Power brake booster

Master cylinder Primary brake circuit

Secondary brake circuit

Figure 5. Brake master cylinder assembly and power brake booster.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

7

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Hydraulic Pressure Test The brake assemblies on the Ford Ranger had been previously disassembled by personnel from the San Gorgonio Pass Area; therefore, to check the hydraulic pressure in the brake lines of the Ford Ranger, MCS-I Carlson utilized modified locking pliers on the flexible brake lines to isolate the wheel mounted brake components from the system. With the wheel mounted brake components isolated, MCS-I Carlson applied pressure to the brake pedal. The brake pedal had no resistance and moved to the extent of its available travel. The lack of hydraulic pressure was indicative of a discrepancy within the brake master cylinder. Brake Fluid Reservoir Assembly The reservoir cap was removed and its rubber diaphragm examined. The diaphragm was torn, distorted, and swollen (Figure 6 and Figure 9). The swollen diaphragm did not fit properly in the cap or the filler port of the reservoir. When viewed through the filler neck, the fluid in the reservoir had a red tint (Figure 7). Generally, brake fluid is a translucent amber color (clean brake system) to an opaque black color (dirty brake system).

Figure 6. Torn, distorted, and swollen diaphragm.

Figure 7. Red tinted fluid in the reservoir.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

8

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Brake Fluid Reservoir Assembly While at the impound facility of Statewide Towing, a reservoir cap of the same size and design was removed from a 2003 Ford Explorer (Figure 8) to use as a comparison to the Ford Ranger reservoir cap (Figure 9). The diaphragm from the 2003 Ford Explorer was manufactured by Bendix and was embossed with a part number of 2232652. The diaphragm from the Ford Ranger was manufactured by Bendix and was embossed with a part number of 2232652. The diameter of the diaphragm for the reservoir on the Ford Ranger was a half-inch greater than the diameter of the diaphragm for the reservoir of the Ford Explorer.

Figure 8. Cap and diaphragm removed from the reservoir of a 2003 Ford Explorer.

Figure 9. Cap and diaphragm removed from the reservoir of the Ford Ranger, depicting a substantial tear in the diaphragm and its swollen condition.

The majority of the fluid contained within the reservoir was poured into an evidence jar for examination and retention. Once the fluid was poured into the jar, it was immediately apparent that there had been two different types of fluid in the reservoir. The fluids immediately separated with a red fluid floating on top of a dark brown fluid (Figure 10). The separation of the fluids into two layers coupled with the swollen condition of the filler cap diaphragm was indicative of petroleum contamination of the brake fluid. A blue container of AAMCO Transmissions®”, “Dexron®-III”, Mercon® automatic transmission fluid was located within the engine compartment, between the storage battery and left headlamp assembly. A sample of the automatic transmission fluid was poured into an evidence container for evaluation and visual comparison to the fluid removed from the reservoir (Figure 11).

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

9

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Brake Fluid Reservoir Assembly

Figure 10. Fluid from the brake master cylinder reservoir.

Figure 11. Fluid from the AAMCO automatic transmission fluid container.

The fluid removed from the automatic transmission fluid container had similar transparency and color as the red fluid removed from the reservoir. Although analysis of the chemical makeup of the fluid would be required to determine absolutely that the red fluid removed from the reservoir was automatic transmission fluid, there is a high probability that it was automatic transmission fluid, given the discovery of the automatic transmission fluid container in the engine compartment. The master cylinder, brake fluid reservoir, and fluid samples were taken to the San Gorgonio Pass Area where they were booked into evidence. Investigator Snider took custody of the master cylinder and brake fluid reservoir, and transported the items to the CHP Border Division office on Friday, July 27, 2012. At that time, custody of the master cylinder and brake fluid reservoir was transferred to MCS-I Carlson and he continued his inspection.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

10

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Brake Fluid Reservoir Assembly There were two seals installed between the reservoir and the primary and secondary circuit fluid intake/return and compensating ports. The primary circuit intake/return and compensating port serviced the front brake, while the secondary port serviced the rear brake. Both seals had a degree of swelling (Figure 12).

Seal

Seal

Primary circuit fluid intake/return and compensating port

Secondary circuit fluid intake/return and compensating port

Figure 12. Brake master cylinder reservoir seals.

The seal on the secondary intake/return and compensating port had a substantial penetrating tear and was much larger than the other seal (Figure 13). The secondary seal was torn during removal of the seal from the master cylinder casting, due to the softened condition (Figure 14).

Figure 13. Seals on the primary and secondary circuit fluid intake/return and compensating ports.

Figure 14. Close-up of the seals depicting the substantial penetrating tear in the seal for the secondary circuit port.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

11

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Master Cylinder According to an article written by K. Sullivan [1], the master cylinder has a single bore separated into two separate chambers by primary and secondary pistons. During normal operation, when brakes are not applied, rubber piston cups on the primary and secondary pistons are positioned between the inlet and compensating ports, allowing passage of fluid between the cylinder and the reservoir. The secondary piston is pushed rearward by the force of the secondary return spring, but prevented from going any further by the resistance provided by the tension of the primary return spring. When the brake pedal is depressed, the primary piston moves forward. The primary piston cup seals the compensating port blocking the passage between the primary pressure chamber and reservoir. As the piston is pushed farther, it builds hydraulic pressure inside the primary brake circuit in the master cylinder. The same hydraulic pressure in the primary circuit is also applied to the secondary piston, causing it to move forward. Once the secondary piston cup seals the secondary compensating port, hydraulic pressure builds and is transmitted to the secondary brake circuit. When the brake pedal is released, the pistons are returned to their original position by hydraulic pressure and the force applied by the return springs. However, because the brake fluid does not return to the master cylinder immediately, the hydraulic pressure inside the master cylinder drops momentarily. As a result, the brake fluid inside the reservoir flows into the cylinder via the intake/return port, preventing vacuum from developing or air introduced into the brake circuits. Once the pistons have returned to their original positions, fluid returns from the brake circuits to the reservoir through the compensating ports.

Figure 15. Cut away diagram depicting the major components of a master cylinder [1].

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

12

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Master Cylinder – Pistons To access the pistons of the master cylinder, MCS-I Carlson removed the rear snap ring. Due to the rusted condition of the snap ring it was damaged during its removal. Once the rear snap ring was removed, MCS-I Carlson removed the primary and secondary pistons for closer inspection. Each piston was equipped with two rubber cup seals and a return spring (Figure 16). Both piston assemblies were coated in a translucent fluid.

Secondary piston

Primary piston

Return spring

Primary cup seal

Secondary cup seal

Return spring

Primary cup seal

Bore end seal

Figure 16. Primary and secondary pistons coated with a translucent fluid.

Master Cylinder – Primary Piston The primary piston was disassembled for examination of the piston, seals, and return spring. During the disassembly of the primary piston the screw broke near the end of the piston, leaving the threaded portion inside the piston.

A

B

Figure 17. Disassembled primary piston assembly: [A] primary cup seal; [B] bore end seal.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

13

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Master Cylinder – Primary Piston The primary piston return spring was generally unremarkable and there was adequate tension. The bore end seal and primary cup seal had a high degree of softening and were swollen. The primary cup seal had localized distortion about its circumference. The primary cup seal from the Ford Ranger and the exemplar were embossed with “Bendix 2228254.” The bore end seal from the Ford Ranger and the exemplar were embossed with “Bendix 2228256.” Utilizing a caliper, the bore end seal, primary cup seal, and primary piston were measured. In addition to measurements of the primary piston removed from the master cylinder installed in the Ford Ranger, measurements were obtained of the seals and primary piston from an exemplar master cylinder (Table 2). Table 2 Measurements of the Primary Piston, its Bore End Seal and Primary Cup Seal of the Master Cylinder Installed in the Ford Ranger and an Exemplar Master Cylinder Diameter [inches] Item Change [%] Ford Ranger Exemplar Piston (at bore end) 0.594 0.594 0 Piston (at primary cup seal) 0.440 0.440 0 Bore end seal (base) 1.061 0.996 6.3 Bore end seal (flare) 1.104 1.015 8.4 Bore end seal (inside) 0.586 0.554 5.6 Primary cup seal (base) 1.205 0.976 21.0 Primary cup seal (flare) 1.250 1.013 20.9 Primary cup seal (inside) 0.558 0.445 22.5
0.5(Ford Ranger+Exemplar) |Ford Ranger−Exemplar|

Note. % =

(100)

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

14

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Master Cylinder – Secondary Piston The secondary piston was disassembled for examination of the piston, seals, and return spring.

C

D

Figure 18. Disassembled secondary piston assembly: [C] primary cup seal; [D] secondary cup seal.

The secondary piston return spring was generally unremarkable and there was adequate tension. The primary and secondary cup seals had a high degree of softening and were swollen. Both cup seals had localized distortion about their circumferences. The primary cup seal from the Ford Ranger and the exemplar were embossed with “Bendix 2228254.” The secondary cup seal from the Ford Ranger and the exemplar were embossed with “Bendix 2228264.” Utilizing a caliper, the primary cup seal, secondary cup seal, and secondary piston were measured. In addition to measurements of the secondary piston removed from the master cylinder installed in the Ford Ranger, measurements were obtained of the seals and secondary piston from an exemplar master cylinder (Table 3). Table 3 Measurements of the Secondary Piston, its Primary Cup Seal and Secondary Cup Seal of the Master Cylinder Installed in the Ford Ranger and an Exemplar Master Cylinder Diameter [inches] Item Change [%] Ford Ranger Exemplar Piston (at secondary cup seal) 0.596 0.596 0 Piston (at primary cup seal) 0.436 0.436 0 Secondary cup seal (base) 1.129 0.979 14.2 Secondary cup seal (flare) 1.194 1.034 14.4 Secondary cup seal (inside) 0.694 0.574 18.9 Primary cup seal (base) 1.280 0.982 26.3 Primary cup seal (flare) 1.325 1.021 25.9 Primary cup seal (inside) 0.594 0.426 32.9
Note. % =
0.5(Ford Ranger+Exemplar) |Ford Ranger−Exemplar|

(100)

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

15

FACTS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger Additional Information On Monday, August 20, 2012, MCS-I Carlson searched the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) database for recall campaigns. The purpose of the search was to inquire if there were, or had been, any NHTSA recall campaigns for the 1994 Ford Ranger [2]. The inquiry revealed eleven recall campaigns that pertained to the Ford Ranger. One recall campaign was pertinent to this inspected system. Campaign 96V024001 was specific to the mounting studs of the brake master cylinder. The brake master cylinder of the Ford Ranger was securely mounted to the vacuum booster assembly and the studs did not have stress corrosion cracking (Figure 19).

Figure 19. Brake master cylinder mounting studs.

The vehicle information obtained through NHTSA did not necessarily reflect the total number of problems or issues identified by the vehicle manufacturer, automotive service professionals, and/or vehicle owners with respect to the items included in the search. On Friday, August 10, 2012, MCS-I Carlson contacted a Ford Motor Company representative and inquired about the data campaign history for this specific 1994 Ford Ranger. The inquiry was performed using the vehicle identification number and no open recall campaigns or outstanding field service actions were found. No extended service coverage information was available.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

16

FACTS – DIGITAL IMAGE LOG As part of this investigation, MAIT investigators took a total of 263 digital images (Table 4). All digital images were saved to recordable digital optical discs and booked as evidence at the CHP San Gorgonio Pass Area office. Requests regarding the digital image files listed below should be made directly to: California Highway Patrol 195 Highland Springs Avenue Beaumont, California 92223 (951) 769-2000 Table 4 Digital Images Taken by MAIT Personnel During the Course of the Investigation and Booked as Evidence at the CHP San Gorgonio Pass Area Office Number Disc Taken By Date Location of Images 1 2 3 4 4 69 20 32 36 106 Carlson Snider Carlson Carlson Carlson 7/26/2012 7/26/2012 7/27/2012 8/23/2012 8/24/2012 Statewide Towing Statewide Towing CHP Border Division CHP Border Division CHP Border Division

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

17

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger To determine if conditions identified during the mechanical inspection of the Ford Ranger could have caused or contributed to this collision, the following analysis was conducted. The brake fluid in the brake system of the Ford Ranger was contaminated with automatic transmission fluid, a petroleum distillate. Petroleum distillates deteriorate rubber parts of the brake system [3]. Petroleum products are rapidly and selectively absorbed by brake system rubber parts, resulting in a high degree of softening, dimensional swelling, and general deterioration of the functional properties of these rubber parts [4]. Herguth Laboratories, Inc. conducted an experiment to determine the length of time it took to swell rubber that had been subjected to contact with a petroleum distillate. During the experiment, portions of rubber material were soaked in solutions of: (a) 100% power steering fluid; (b) 5% power steering fluid and 95% brake fluid; and (c) 10% power steering fluid and 90% brake fluid. After 4, 24, and 30 hours of exposure, the rubber was removed and dimensions measured with a calibrated caliper [4]. The dimensions were compared to a control sample that was exposed to 100% brake fluid (Table 5). Table 5 Results of an Experiment by Herguth Laboratories, Inc. to Determine the Amount of Time it Took Rubber to Absorb Power Steering Fluid Brake Fluid Control 100% Oil 5% Oil 95% Brake 10% Oil 90% Brake Time Size % Change Size % Change Size % Change Size % Change Initial 0.502 0.499 0.503 0.497 4 hours 0.500 -0.4 0.510 2.16 0.505 0.4 0.505 1.6 24 hours 0.501 -0.2 0.518 3.66 0.510 1.4 0.514 3.3 30 hours 0.501 -0.2 0.521 4.22 0.516 2.5 0.518 4.05 After 48 hours, the rubber was so soft that the calipers simply smashed into the rubber and accurate measurements could not be obtained. The brake fluid reservoir installed in the Ford Ranger contained a mixture of half brake fluid and half automatic transmission fluid. It was clearly evident that the automatic transmission fluid had entered the master cylinder as evidenced by the high degree of swelling and softening of the rubber cup seals of the primary and secondary pistons. The degree of swelling and softening was so severe that the primary and secondary piston cup seals failed to properly function, allowing hydraulic fluid to pass. When the brake pedal of the Ford Ranger was depressed, the primary piston moved forward; however, due to the swollen and softened condition of the primary cup seal on the primary piston, a reduced amount of hydraulic pressure was produced resulting in a less than optimum hydraulic pressure in the primary circuit.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

18

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – MECHANICAL INSPECTION Vehicle #1 – 1994 Ford Ranger With a combination of limited hydraulic pressure and direct contact between the primary piston and secondary piston, the secondary piston began to move forward. The cup seals on the secondary piston had such a high degree of softening and swelling that the hydraulic fluid passed though the cups resulting in no hydraulic pressure being produced in the secondary circuit. The front brakes of the Ford Ranger would have functioned; however, pressure supplied to the pistons of the front brake calipers would have been reduced due to the less than optimum hydraulic pressure in the primary circuit. The efficiency of the front brakes would have been reduced. Due to the absence of hydraulic pressure in the secondary circuit, no pressure would have been supplied to the pistons on the rear brakes, making the rear brakes completely ineffective in stopping the Ford Ranger.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

19

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Symbols fps mph 𝑓 ̅ Fr 𝑔 𝑆 𝑡 𝑣 𝑣̅ 𝜇 𝑎 � 𝑑 Feet per second Miles per hour Average acceleration [fps2] Distance [feet] Average drag factor [dimensionless] Frames [dimensionless] Acceleration of gravity [fps2] Pedestrian throw distance [feet] Time [seconds] Velocity [mph or fps] Average velocity [mph or fps] Coefficient of friction [dimensionless] 𝑓𝑝𝑠 1.467

Equations and Formulas 1. The following equation was used to convert feet per second to miles per hour: 𝑚𝑝ℎ =

2. The following equation was used to calculate the elapsed time given the number of frames and frame rate on video: ∆𝑡 = (∆Fr) � 𝑣̅ = ∆𝑑 ∆𝑡 ∆𝑣̅ ∆𝑡̅ 1 sec � # Fr

3. The following equation was used to calculate the average velocity given a change in time and distance:

4. The following equation was used to calculate the average acceleration given the change in velocity and time: 𝑎 = �

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

20

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Equations and Formulas 5. The following equation was used to convert acceleration to average drag factor: 𝑓 ̅ = 𝑎 � 𝑔

6. The following equation was used to calculate the minimum velocity to project an object (pedestrian) an overall distance when the total trajectory distance is known, utilizing the recommended µ value of 0.66: 2𝜇𝑔𝑆 𝑣min = � 1 + 𝜇2 𝑣max = �2𝜇𝑔𝑆

7. The following equation was used to calculate the maximum velocity to project an object (pedestrian) an overall distance when the total trajectory distance is known, utilizing the recommended µ value of 0.66:

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

21

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Introduction The following calculations were performed to determine the approximate average speed of the Ford Ranger between various points along its path as it traveled west on Stetson Avenue between Stanford Street and South Dartmouth Street. Methodology Video recorded by four cameras mounted to the Hemet High School sports stadium was analyzed to determine the average speed of the Ford Ranger. Utilizing VirtualDub video editing software [5], a frame by frame analysis of the video was conducted to determine the time it took the Ford Ranger to travel known distances between various landmarks depicted in the video. Investigator Parent visited the scene of the collision on Tuesday, August 7, 2012, to determine the distances between the various landmarks utilized during this analysis. A station line was established along the north curb of Stetson Avenue with station 0+00 located at the prolongation of the west curb edge of Stanford Street. The stations increased in value in a westerly direction and all measurements taken left or right of the station line were taken perpendicular to the station line utilizing a fiberglass tape or rolatape. Based upon these measurements, a diagram was generated utilizing AutoCAD® software. Refer to Annex A for a complete list of measurements obtained by Investigator Parent. Video Analysis Video Camera Identification Video was analyzed by Investigator Parent from the following four cameras: • Camera 44 was mounted to the south side of the sports stadium, at its east edge, 139.3 feet right of Station 3+57.5. The field of view of this camera was directed towards the southeast. The video captured by Camera 44 was recorded at 10.0 frames per second. • Camera 46 was mounted to the metal post supporting the stadium lights, near the middle of the south side of the stadium, 132.2 feet right of Station 4+98.4, and 140.9 feet west of Camera 44. The field of view of this camera was directed towards the southeast. The video captured by Camera 46 was recorded at 8.0 frames per second. • Camera 47 was mounted to the south side of the sports stadium, near its west edge, 139.3 feet right of Station 5+72.7, and 74.3 feet west of Camera 46. The field of view of this camera was directed towards the south. The video captured by Camera 47 was recorded at 8.0 frames per second. • Camera 48 was mounted to the south side of the sports stadium, at its west edge, 139.3 feet right of Station 6+40.0, and 67.3 feet west of Camera 47. The field of view of this camera was directed towards the southwest. The video captured by Camera 48 was recorded at 10.0 frames per second.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

22

INSERT VIDEO ANALYSIS DIAGRAM

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

23

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Video Analysis Camera 44 The Ford Ranger was estimated to have been perpendicular to the beginning of the metal fence (Station 0+25.6) atop the island separating the eastbound and westbound lanes of Stetson Avenue at frame number 480 (Figure 20 and Figure 21). The front of the Ford Ranger was estimated to have reached the beginning of the painted white line that separated the right turn lane from the #2 lane of Stetson Avenue (Station 1+76.7) at frame number 509 (Figure 22 and Figure 23). The distance traveled by the Ford Ranger during the 29 frames was rounded to 151 feet.

Beginning of Metal Fence

Ford Ranger

Figure 20. Frame number 480 depicting the front of the Ford Ranger perpendicular to the beginning of the metal fence atop the island on Stetson Avenue.

Figure 21. Close-up of Figure 20.

Ford Ranger

Beginning of solid white line

Figure 22. Frame number 509 depicting the front of the Ford Ranger at the beginning of the painted white line separating the right turn lane from the #2 lane of Stetson Avenue.

Figure 23. Close-up of Figure 22.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

24

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Calculations Camera 44 ∆𝑡 = (∆Fr) � 𝑣̅ = The elapsed time between frames was calculated as follows: 1 sec 1 sec � = (29) � � = 2.90 sec 10.0 Fr 10.0

Utilizing a distance of 151 feet and elapsed time of 2.9 seconds, the average velocity of the Ford Ranger was calculated as follows: ∆𝑑 151 = = 52.1 fps or 35.5 mph ∆𝑡 2.90

The Ford Ranger was estimated to have been perpendicular to the end of a dashed white line that separated the #1 lane from the #2 lane of Stetson Avenue (Station 2+19.6) at frame number 518 (Figure 24 and Figure 25). The distance traveled by the Ford Ranger during the 9 frames between frames 509 and 518 was rounded to 43 feet.
Ford Ranger

End of dashed white line

Figure 24. Frame number 518 depicting the front of the Ford Ranger at the end of a painted white line separating the #1 lane from the #2 lane of Stetson Avenue.

Figure 25. Close-up of Figure 24.

The elapsed time between frames was calculated as follows: ∆𝑡 = (∆Fr) � 𝑣̅ =

Utilizing a distance of 43 feet and elapsed time of 0.90 second, the average velocity of the Ford Ranger was calculated as follows: ∆𝑑 43 = = 47.8 fps or 32.6 mph ∆𝑡 0.90

1 sec 1 � = (9) � � = 0.90 sec 10.0 Fr 10.0

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

25

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Calculations Camera 46 The Ford Ranger was estimated to have been perpendicular to the beginning of a dashed white line that separated the #1 lane from the #2 lane of Stetson Avenue (Station 3+02.5) at frame number 22 (Figure 26 and Figure 27). The front of the Ford Ranger was estimated to have been perpendicular to the beginning of a painted white right turn arrow in the right turn lane of Stetson Avenue (Station 3+57.0) at frame number 32 (Figure 22 and Figure 23). The distance traveled by the Ford Ranger during the 10 frames was rounded to 55 feet.

Ford Ranger

Beginning of dashed white line

Figure 26. Frame number 22 depicting the front of the Ford Ranger at the beginning of a dashed white line separating the #1 lane from the #2 lane of Stetson Avenue.

Figure 27. Close-up of Figure 26.

Ford Ranger

Painted white arrow Figure 28. Frame number 32 depicting the front of the Ford Ranger adjacent to a painted white arrow located in the right turn lane of Stetson Avenue. Figure 29. Close-up of Figure 28.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

26

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Calculations Camera 46 ∆𝑡 = (∆Fr) � 𝑣̅ = The elapsed time between frames was calculated as follows: 1 sec 1 � = (10) � � = 1.250 sec 8.00 Fr 8.00

Utilizing a distance of 55 feet and elapsed time of 1.250 seconds, the average velocity of the Ford Ranger was calculated as follows: ∆𝑑 55 = = 44.0 fps or 30.0 mph ∆𝑡 1.250

The Ford Ranger was estimated to have been perpendicular to the end of a dashed white line that separated the #1 lane from the #2 lane of Stetson Avenue (Station 4+11.2) at frame number 43 (Figure 30 and Figure 31). The distance traveled by the Ford Ranger during the 11 frames between frames 32 and 43 was rounded to 54 feet.

Ford Ranger

End of dashed white line

Figure 30. Frame number 43 depicting the front of the Ford Ranger at the end of a dashed white line separating the #1 lane from the #2 lane of Stetson Avenue.

Figure 31. Close-up of Figure 30.

The elapsed time between frames was calculated as follows: ∆𝑡 = (∆Fr) � 𝑣̅ =

Utilizing a distance of 54 feet and elapsed time of 1.375 seconds, the average velocity of the Ford Ranger was calculated as follows: ∆𝑑 54 = = 39.3 fps or 26.8 mph ∆𝑡 1.375

1 sec 1 � = (11) � � = 1.375 sec 8.00 Fr 8.00

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

27

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Calculations Camera 46 The average acceleration rate and drag factor of the Ford Ranger between frames 22 and 43 was calculated as follows: 𝑎 = � 𝑎 −3.58 � = = −0.11 32.2 𝑔 (39.3 − 44.0) 𝑣̅𝑓 − 𝑣̅𝑖 ∆𝑣̅ = = = −3.58 fps𝟐 ∆𝑡̅ (0.5)�𝑡𝑓 + 𝑡𝑖 � (0.5)(1.375 + 1.250)

The Ford Ranger was estimated to have been perpendicular to the beginning of a dashed white line that separated the #1 lane from the #2 lane of Stetson Avenue (Station 4+45.2) at frame number 51 (Figure 32 and Figure 33). The distance traveled by the Ford Ranger during the 8 frames between frames 43 and 51 was 34 feet. 𝑓

̅ =

Ford Ranger

Beginning of dashed white line Figure 32. Frame number 51 depicting the front of the Ford Ranger at the beginning of a dashed white line separating the #1 lane from the #2 lane of Stetson Avenue. Figure 33. Close-up of Figure 32.

The elapsed time between frames was calculated as follows: ∆𝑡 = (∆Fr) � 𝑣̅ =

Utilizing a distance of 34 feet and elapsed time of 1.00 second, the average velocity of the Ford Ranger was calculated as follows: ∆𝑑 34 = = 34.0 fps or 23.2 mph ∆𝑡 1.00

1 sec 1 � = (8) � � = 1.00 sec 8.00 Fr 8.00

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

28

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Calculations Camera 46 The average acceleration rate and drag factor of the Ford Ranger between frames 43 and 51 was calculated as follows: 𝑎 = � 𝑎 −4.46 � = = −0.14 32.2 𝑔 (34.0 − 39.3) 𝑣̅𝑓 − 𝑣̅𝑖 ∆𝑣̅ = = = −4.46 fps𝟐 ∆𝑡̅ (0.5)�𝑡𝑓 + 𝑡𝑖 � (0.5)(1.00 + 1.375)

Camera 47 𝑓

̅ =

The Ford Ranger was estimated to have been perpendicular to the west edge of an electrical cabinet installed in the grass area north of the sidewalk bordering the westbound lane of Stetson Avenue (Station 5+04.6) at frame number 22 (Figure 34 and Figure 35).

Ford Ranger

Electrical cabinet Figure 34. Frame number 22 depicting the front of the Ford Ranger perpendicular to an electrical cabinet located in the grass area north of Stetson Avenue. Figure 35. Close-up of Figure 34.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

29

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Calculations Camera 47 The Ford Ranger was estimated to have reached the east crosswalk line at Bulldog Way (Station 5+46.9) at frame number 33 (Figure 36 and Figure 37). The distance traveled by the Ford Ranger during the 11 frames between frames 22 and 33 was rounded to 42 feet.

Ford Ranger

Crosswalk line

Figure 36. Frame number 33 depicting the front of the Ford Ranger at the west crosswalk line.

Figure 37. Close-up of Figure 36.

The elapsed time between frames was calculated as follows: ∆𝑡 = (∆Fr) �

Utilizing a distance of 42 feet and elapsed time of 1.375 seconds, the average velocity of the Ford Ranger was calculated as follows: 𝑣̅ = 42 feet ∆𝑑 = = 30.5 fps or 20.8 mph ∆𝑡 1.375 sec

1 sec 1 � = (11) � � = 1.375 sec 8.00 Fr 8.00

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

30

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Calculations Camera 47 The Ford Ranger was estimated to have been perpendicular to the painted white line separating the two southbound lanes of Bulldog Way (Station 5+78.3) at frame number 42 (Figure 38 and Figure 39). The distance traveled by the Ford Ranger during the 9 frames between frames 33 and 42 was rounded to 31 feet.
Ford Ranger

Painted white line Figure 38. Frame number 42 depicting the front of the Ford Ranger perpendicular to the painted white line of Bulldog Way. Figure 39. Close-up of Figure 38.

The elapsed time between frames was calculated as follows: ∆𝑡 = (∆Fr) � 𝑣̅ =

Utilizing a distance of 31 feet and elapsed time of 1.125 seconds, the average velocity of the Ford Ranger was calculated as follows: ∆𝑑 31 feet = = 27.6 fps or 18.8 mph ∆𝑡 1.125 sec

1 sec 1 � = (9) � � = 1.125 sec 8.00 Fr 8.00

The average acceleration rate and drag factor of the Ford Ranger between frames 33 and 42 was calculated as follows: 𝑎 = � 𝑎 −2.32 � = = −0.07 𝑔 32.2 (27.6 − 30.5) 𝑣̅𝑓 − 𝑣̅𝑖 ∆𝑣̅ = = = −2.32 fps𝟐 ∆𝑡̅ (0.5)�𝑡𝑓 + 𝑡𝑖 � (0.5)(1.125 + 1.375) 𝑓

̅ =

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

31

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Calculations Pedestrian Projection Velocity Analysis In addition to the video analysis, the velocity of the Ford Ranger at the time of impact was calculated utilizing equations developed by J. Searle [6]. To determine vehicle speed in a vehicle versus pedestrian collision, it is imperative to understand the post-impact kinematics of the pedestrian during the collision. Analysis of the video recorded by Camera 47, suggest the postimpact kinematics of at least one of the pedestrians that was struck by the front of the Ford Ranger fell into the category of a wrap trajectory. After the initial contact during a wrap trajectory, the pedestrian experiences acceleration as a result of the force from the impacting vehicle [7]. As the vehicle continues forward, the pedestrian shifts rearward with respect to the vehicle and continues to accelerate forward with respect to the ground [8]. As the vehicle decelerates, the pedestrian will start to separate from the vehicle due to the pedestrian’s speed surpassing the decelerating vehicle’s speed [8]. Upon separating from the vehicle, the pedestrian is vaulted at some angle with respect to the horizontal plane, impacts the ground, and tumbles/slides to rest [8]. The formula derived by Searle utilizes a total trajectory distance (throw distance), which includes both the fall distance as well as the distance the object (pedestrian) bounces, tumbles, and slides after impacting the ground [6]. In order to determine the projection velocity of the pedestrians, it was necessary to determine: (a) the throw distance; and (b) the angle of projection. Throw Distance Several of the pedestrians that were struck, were subsequently dragged under the Ford Ranger; however, one of the pedestrians that was struck fell into the category of a wrap trajectory. After separating from the Ford Ranger, the pedestrian impacted the asphalt concrete and slid/tumbled to stop. Just as the pedestrian came to a stop, he stood up and stumbled in a northerly direction toward the parking lot. Since this pedestrian was not dragged by the Ford Ranger, his throw distance was utilized. The pedestrian was struck within the crosswalk, two feet east of the west crosswalk line and came to rest perpendicular to the painted white line separating the two southbound lanes of Bulldog Way (Station 5+78.3). The throw distance was measured to be 33 feet. Angle of Projection The angle at which the pedestrian was projected from the Ford Ranger could not be determined with any amount of certainty. Therefore, it was necessary to calculate a range of projection velocities using Searle’s maximum and minimum equations. Searle’s maximum and minimum equations use projection angles that will maximize and minimize the resulting velocity.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

32

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Calculations Pedestrian Projection Velocity Analysis Calculation Utilizing a throw distance of 33 feet, the recommended value for µ of 0.66, and Searle’s equation for minimum velocity, the minimum projection velocity of the pedestrian was calculated as follows: 2𝜇𝑔𝑆 (2)(0.66)(32.2)(33) =� = 31.3 fps or 21.3 mph 𝑣min = � 1 + 𝜇2 1 + 0.662 𝑣max = �2𝜇𝑔𝑆 = �(2)(0.66)(32.2)(33) = 37.5 fps or 25.6 mph

Utilizing a throw distance of 33 feet, the recommended value for µ of 0.66, and Searle’s equation for maximum velocity, the maximum projection velocity of the pedestrian was calculated as follows:

Conclusions

The following conclusions were based upon an analysis of video, recorded by four cameras mounted on or near the sports stadium at Hemet High School, that captured the pre-, at-, and post-impact motion of the Ford Ranger: • Between 361 and 513 feet east of the area of impact, the Ford Ranger was being driven west on Stetson Avenue at an average velocity of 36 miles per hour. During this segment, the Ford Ranger was being steered to the right from the #1 to the #2 lane. • Between 318 and 362 feet east of the area of impact, the Ford Ranger was being driven west on Stetson Avenue at an average velocity of 33 miles per hour. During this segment, the Ford Ranger was positioned in the #2 lane. • Between 181 and 236 feet east of the area of impact, the Ford Ranger was being driven west on Stetson Avenue at an average velocity of 30 miles per hour. During this segment, the Ford Ranger was positioned in the #2 lane. • Between 127 and 182 feet east of the area of impact, the Ford Ranger was being driven west on Stetson Avenue at an average velocity of 27 miles per hour. During this segment, the Ford Ranger was being steered to the right from the #2 lane toward the right turn lane. • Between 93 and 128 feet east of the area of impact, the Ford Ranger was being driven west on Stetson Avenue at an average velocity of 23 miles per hour. During this segment, the right side tires of the Ford Ranger entered the right turn lane.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

33

ANALYSIS AND OPINIONS – CALCULATIONS Conclusions • The Ford Ranger was being driven at a velocity between 21 and 26 miles per hour when the front of the Ford Ranger impacted the pedestrians, who were walking north within the marked crosswalk at Bulldog Way. At the time of impact, the Ford Ranger was straddling the painted white line separating the right turn lane from the #2 lane, with the majority of the vehicle in the right turn lane. • After the impact, between 8 and 41 feet west of the area of impact, the Ford Ranger was being driven at an average velocity of 19.0 miles per hour. • Throughout the pre- and post-impact travel of the Ford Ranger, the vehicle was decelerating at a rate between 2.32 and 4.46 feet per second per second.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

34

CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions were based on the totality of this MAIT investigation. The investigation included such elements as: (a) an examination of video recorded by four cameras that captured the pre-, at-, and post-impact motion of the Ford Ranger; (b) a mechanical inspection of the master cylinder installed on the Ford Ranger; (c) a review of the traffic collision report prepared by personnel from the CHP San Gorgonio Pass Area; and (d) a velocity reconstruction. Human Factors • Mr. Carillo was driving the Ford Ranger at an average speed between 21 and 36 miles per hour as he traveled west on Stetson Avenue between Stanford Street and the area of impact. At the time of impact, Mr. Carrillo was driving the Ford Ranger at a speed between 21 and 26 miles per hour when the front of the Ford Ranger impacted several pedestrians within the east crosswalk of Stetson Avenue at Bulldog Way. The Ford Ranger was decelerating during its entire travel between Stanford Street and its position of rest at a rate consistent with that of a vehicle experiencing rolling resistance. In other words, the Ford Ranger coasted to a stop.

Vehicle Factors • A mechanical inspection of the brake master cylinder installed in the Ford Ranger revealed a pre-existing condition that would have caused or contributed to the occurrence of this collision. • The brake fluid reservoir contained a mixture of brake fluid and automatic transmission fluid. At some point during vehicle maintenance, the automatic transmission fluid was introduced into the brake master cylinder reservoir. Once in the master cylinder, the rubber piston seals rapidly absorbed the petroleum distillate contained within the automatic transmission fluid. Once the petroleum distillate was absorbed (experimental testing has shown that absorption occurs within 4 hours), the rubber piston seals swelled and softened, and began to allow hydraulic fluid to pass. • The bypassing of hydraulic fluid within the master cylinder was a chronic condition that worsened over time. As the condition worsened, the braking efficiency of the Ford Ranger decreased, such that the rear brakes were completely ineffective and the front brakes were minimally effective. • The introduction of automatic transmission fluid into the brake fluid reservoir was not a manufacturer defect. It was the act of an individual performing maintenance on the vehicle.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

35

RECOMMENDATIONS It is recommended that this supplemental report and supporting evidence be forwarded to the CHP San Gorgonio Pass Area for retention and distribution. Once received by the CHP San Gorgonio Pass Area, a copy of this supplemental report should be made available to the Riverside County District Attorney's Office for review as soon as is practicable.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

5/30/2012

TIME (2400)

1442

NCIC

9655

OFFICER I.D.

12776

NUMBER

2012050129

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-016-12

PAGE

36

REFERENCES 1. Sullivan, Kevin. Toyota Automotive Technical Training Series - Section 2 Master Cylinder. Autoshop101. [Online] [Cited: August 23, 2012.] http://www.autoshop101.com/. 2. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Defects and Recalls. ODI - Office of Defects Investigation. [Online] [Cited: August 20, 2012.] http://wwwodi.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/recalls/. 3. Stauffer, Eric and Lentini, John J. Contamination of Brake Fluid by Power Steering Fluid. Journal of Forensic Sciences. July 2003, Vol. 48, 4. 4. Herguth Laboratories, Inc. Herguth Laboratories, Inc. Brake Fluid. [Online] August 18, 2012. [Cited: August 18, 2012.] https://www.herguth.com/?page_id=1993. 5. Avery Lee. VirtualDub (Version 1.9.11) [Computer Software]. s.l., Northern Taiwan : Avery Lee, 2010. 6. The Trajectories of Pedestrians, Motorcycles, Motorcyclists, etc., Following a Road Accident. Searle, John A. and Searle, Angela. SAE Technical Paper 831622, 1983, Society of Automotive Engineers. 7. Becker, Tony L. Vehicler-Pedestrian-Bicycle Collision Investigation Manual. Jacksonville : Institute of Police Technology and Management, 2003. 8. Comprehensive Analysis Method for Vehicle/Pedestrian Collisions. Happer, Andrew, et al. SAE Technical Paper Series 2000-01-0846, 2000, Society of Automotive Engineers.

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

4/4/2012

TIME (2400)

2344

NCIC

9645

OFFICER I.D.

19582

NUMBER

12 04 046

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-005-12

PAGE

A1

ANNEX A Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Distance [feet] 0.0 0.0 40.1 40.1 24.6 38.6 39.2 7.0 14.5 24.6 24.6 10.3 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 11.8 10.3 2.3 13.2 10.3 4.2 24.6 24.6 7.0 14.5 0.7 2.0 27.7 Direction At Left Left Left Left Left Left Right Right Left Left Right Left Left Left Left Right Right Right Left Left Left Left Left Right Right Left Left Right Station 0+0.0 0+5.3 0+16.3 0+19.0 0+25.6 0+29.5 0+29.5 0+29.5 0+29.5 0+29.5 0+63.3 0+76.7 0+66.3 1+11.3 1+24.0 1+59.3 1+71.6 1+51.4 1+66.6 1+74.6 1+76.7 1+77.5 1+82.7 2+06.0 2+19.6 2+19.6 2+19.6 2+19.6 2+19.6 2+39.5 Description Origin East crosswalk at Stanford West crosswalk at Stanford Begin curb island Begin metal fence End solid white line (begins at crosswalk) Face of curb (median island) Back of curb on island (typical) Back of sidewalk/begin vegetation area Edge of vegetation area Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Tree Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Lighting standard (parking lot) Tree Lighting standard (#4525580E) Begin solid white line (right turn lane) Right turn arrow (begin) Right turn arrow (tip) Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Back of sidewalk/begin vegetation area Edge of vegetation area Back of curb (typical) Edge of concrete gutter (typical) East gate of driveway (continued)

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

4/4/2012

TIME (2400)

2344

NCIC

9645

OFFICER I.D.

19582

NUMBER

12 04 046

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-005-12

PAGE

A2

ANNEX A Point 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Distance [feet] 28.5 12.0 24.6 24.6 28.5 12.0 27.7 24.6 24.6 7.0 14.5 7.0 10.3 10.3 24.6 24.6 10.3 4.2 2.3 10.3 24.6 24.6 11.8 24.6 24.6 24.6 10.3 24.6 24.6 14.5 Direction Right Right Left Left Right Right Right Left Left Right Right Right Right Right Left Left Left Left Right Right Left Left Right Left Left Left Right Left Left Right Station 2+40.8 2+40.8 2+54.7 2+67.2 2+71.3 2+71.3 2+72.7 3+02.5 3+16.4 3+16.4 3+16.4 3+03.7 3+09.4 3+49.0 3+49.7 3+63.5 3+57.0 3+62.3 3+72.3 3+87.5 3+97.8 4+11.2 4+01.2 4+37.0 4+45.2 4+58.5 4+47.7 4+93.5 5+06.3 5+06.3 Description Prolongation of curb (driveway) Driveway apron Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Prolongation of curb (driveway) Driveway apron West gate of driveway Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Back of sidewalk/begin grass area Edge of grass area Hydrant Tree Tree Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Right turn arrow (begin) Right turn arrow (tip) Lighting standard (#4525581E) Tree Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Lighting standard (parking lot) Manhole cover (2' Diameter) Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Tree Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Edge of grass area (continued)

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

4/4/2012

TIME (2400)

2344

NCIC

9645

OFFICER I.D.

19582

NUMBER

12 04 046

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-005-12

PAGE

A3

ANNEX A Point 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 Distance 10.3 7.0 7.0 9.5 7.0 7.0 7.0 11.8 38.6 40.1 40.1 0.0 4.3 0.0 28.5 9.3 9.9 40.1 40.1 38.6 28.5 4.3 24.6 24.6 2.0 11.2 7.5 13.1 13.0 10.5 9.5 Direction Right Right Right Right Right Right Right Right Left Left Left Left Right Left Right Right Right Left Left Left Right Right Left Left Left Left Right Right Left Right Right Station 4+94.8 5+02.6 5+04.6 5+10.1 5+20.2 5+24.6 5+26.0 5+27.3 5+20.0 5+21.7 5+29.7 5+30.7 5+30.7 5+46.9 5+50.7 5+67.0 5+78.3 5+90.5 5+95.6 5+96.0 5+92.0 6+11.0 6+06.0 6+20.0 6+04.3 6+20.0 6+20.0 6+20.0 6+35.0 6+27.0 6+33.6 Description Tree Corner of electrical cabinet (#41622) 1.5' deep Corner of electrical cabinet (#41622) 1.5' deep Sign ("No Stopping") Corner of electrical cabinet (2.4' deep) Corner of electrical cabinet (2.4' deep) Back of sidewalk Lighting standard (parking lot) Face of curb (median island) End metal fence End curb island East crosswalk at Bulldog Way 10' Signal West crosswalk at Bulldog Way Prolongation of curb (Bulldog Way) Double yellow line at Bulldog Way Solid white line at Bulldog Way Begin curb island Begin metal fence Face of curb (median island) Prolongation of curb (Bulldog Way) Signal with mast Begin dash (4" wide) End dash (4"wide) Begin white edgeline Point on white edgeline Back of sidewalk/begin edge of grass area Edge of grass area point on white edgeline (at tangent) Tree Sign ("Right Lane Turns Right") (continued)

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

4/4/2012

TIME (2400)

2344

NCIC

9645

OFFICER I.D.

19582

NUMBER

12 04 046

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-005-12

PAGE

A4

ANNEX A Point 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 Distance 24.6 24.6 10.9 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 10.5 24.6 24.6 -7.0 24.6 24.6 10.5 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 10.9 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 10.5 24.6 24.6 2.3 Direction Left Left Right Left Left Left Left Left Left Left Left Right Left Left Right Left Left Right Left Left Left Left Right Left Left Left Left Right Left Left Right Station 6+35.0 6+38.3 6+41.4 6+50.0 6+53.3 6+65.1 6+68.3 6+79.3 6+83.2 6+95.0 6+99.0 6+91.6 7+10.6 7+14.0 7+23.2 7+25.5 7+28.8 7+40.2 7+41.2 7+44.4 7+55.8 7+59.2 7+61.0 7+71.2 7+74.7 7+86.0 7+89.8 7+89.2 8+02.0 8+05.0 8+10.1 Description Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Lighting standard (parking lot) Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Tree Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Hydrant Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Tree Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Lighting standard (parking lot) Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Tree Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Lighting standard (#4525582E) (continued)

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL

MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION TEAM NARRATIVE/DIAGRAM
CHP 558D (Rev. 9-08) OPI 065 (MAIT use only)
DATE OF COLLISION (MONTH-DAY-YEAR)

4/4/2012

TIME (2400)

2344

NCIC

9645

OFFICER I.D.

19582

NUMBER

12 04 046

MAIT CASE NUMBER

BL-005-12

PAGE

A5

ANNEX A Point 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 Distance 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 2.0 7.5 13.1 38.6 40.1 0.0 0.6 139.3 139.3 132.3 139.3 139.3 Direction Left Left Left Left Left Right Right Left Left Left Right Right Right Right Right Right Station 8+16.9 8+20.0 8+31.5 8+35.3 8+39.0 8+39.0 8+39.0 8+39.0 8+39.0 7+68.2 7+74.4 6+40.0 5+72.7 4+98.4 4+29.0 3+57.5 Description Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) Begin small dash (8" wide) End Small dash (8" wide) End of white edgeline Back of sidewalk/begin edge of grass area Edge of grass area Face of curb (median island) Point on metal fence Begin TFM on curb End TFM on curb Video camera 48 (mounted on stadium) Video camera 47 (mounted on stadium) Video camera 46 (mounted on stadium light pole) Video camera 45 (mounted on stadium) Video camera 44 (mounted on stadium)

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