柯西不等式及其推廣與應用

(1) 柯西不等式(Cauchy)的應用
柯西不等式:設 , ( 1, 2, )
i i
a b R i n e = ,則
2
2 2
1 1 1
.
n n n
i i i i
i i i
a b a b
= = =
| || | | |
>
| | |
\ .\ . \ .
¯ ¯ ¯

等號成立若且惟若存在 R ìe ,使 , 1, 2, , .
i i
b a i n ì = =

1.設x、y、z 是非負數,且 3
2 2 2
= + + z y x ,求證:
3
2 2 2
s
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ + y x z
z
x z y
y
z y x
x

解:
2 2 2 2 2 2
) ( 3 ) ( z y x z y x z y x z y x + + s + + ¬ + + s + + 
由柯西不等式可得: z y x z y z y x + + > + + + + ) 1 )( (
2

故有:
z y x
z y x
z y x
x
+ +
+ +
s
+ +
1
2

同理
z y x
y x z
y x z
z
z y x
x z y
x z y
y
+ +
+ +
s
+ +
+ +
+ +
s
+ +
1 1
2 2


z y x
y x z x z y z y x
y x z
z
x z y
y
z y x
x
+ +
+ + + + + + + +
s
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
1 1 1
2 2 2

再用柯西不等式得:
| |
3
2 2 2
2
2
) (
) 2 2 2 )( ( ) ( 2 ) (
)
( ) 1 1 1 (
z y x
z y x zx yz xy z y x z y x zx yz xy z y x
zy zx z z
xy yz y y xz xy x x y x z x z y z y x
+ + =
+ + + + + + + s + + + + + + + s
+ + ·
+ + + · + + + · s + + + + + + + +
i.e., z y x
z y x
z y x
z y x
y x z x z y z y x
+ + =
+ +
+ +
s
+ +
+ + + + + + + +
2
3
) ( 1 1 1
3
2 2 2
= + + s z y x
故 3
2 2 2
s
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ + y x z
z
x z y
y
z y x
x
若且惟若 1 = = = z y x 時,不等式等號成立

2.設x、y、z 為正實數,且 4 = + + + z y x xyz ,求證:
) (
2
2
z y x
y x
z
x z
y
z y
x
+ + >
+
+
+
+
+

解:先證明: zx yz xy z y x + + > + +
用反證法,若 xyz z y x < + + ,則由Schur 不等式可得:
| |
3
) ( ) 4 )( (
) ( ) ( 4 ) ( ) ( 4
9
) ( ) ( ) ( 2 9
0 3 ) (
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
< + +
+ + = ÷ ÷ ÷ + + =
+ + ÷ + + > + + ÷ + + >
+ +
¬
+ + + + ÷ + + > ¬
> + + + + + + ÷ + +
z y x
z y x xyz z y x z y x
z y x z y x z y x zx yz xy
z y x
xyz
z y x z y x zx yz xy xyz
xyz yz z y xz z x xy y x z y x

再由均值不等式可得: 1 )
3
(
3
<
+ +
s
z y x
xyz
故: 4 < + + + z y x xyz ,矛盾!於是有 zx yz xy z y x + + > + + .
由柯西不等式可得:
y x z x z y z y x
z y x
y x
z
x z
y
z y
x
z y x y x z x z y z y x
y x
z
x z
y
z y
x
+ + + + +
+ +
>
+
+
+
+
+
¬
+ + > + + + + +
+
+
+
+
+
2
2
) (
) ( ) )( (

而 zy zx z yx yz y xz xy x y x z x z y z y x + · + + · + + · = + + + + +
) ( 2
) )( ( 2 ) )( (
z y x
zx yz xy z y x zy zx yx yz xz xy z y x
+ + s
+ + + + = + + + + + + + s

) (
2
2
) ( 2
) ( ) (
2 2
z y x
z y x
z y x
y x z x z y z y x
z y x
y x
z
x z
y
z y
x
+ + =
+ +
+ +
>
+ + + + +
+ +
>
+
+
+
+
+

故原不等式成立。若且惟若 1 = = = z y x ,不等式等號成立

3.設 , , , ,
3
1
0 = + + > ca bc ab c b a 求證: 3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2 2 2
s
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
+
+ ÷ ab c ca b bc a

證:令S=a+b+c,T=ab+bc+ca,則
3
1
= t

1
1
1
1
1
1
2 2 2
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
+
+ ÷ ab c ca b bc a
=
¯
+ + + + + + ÷ ) ( 2
1
2
ca bc ab ca bc ab bc a
¯
+
=
T aS 2
1


¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
+
=
+
=
+
÷ =
+
÷
T aS
aS
T aS
aS
T aS
T
T aS 2 2
3
) 2 ( 2
3
)
2
3
2
3
( )
2
1
2
3
(

¯ ¯
¯
¯
+ + +
=
+
>
+
=
+ T S c b a S
S
aST S a
aS
aST S a
aS
T aS
aS
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 ) (
) (
) 2 (
) (
2
) (
2

1
) (
2 2
4
2 2 2 2
4
=
·
=
+ + + + + S S
S
ca bc ab c b a S
S



¯ ¯ ¯
>
+
=
+
÷ ¬ >
+ 2
3
2 2
3
)
2
1
2
3
( 1
2 T aS
aS
T aS T aS
aS

從而 3
2
1
s
+
¯
T aS
,即 3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2 2 2
s
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
+
+ ÷ ab c ca b bc a
,故原不等式成立。

4.設正實數1,滿足 1
2 1
= + + +
n
a a a  ,求證:
1
) )( (
1
2
1 3
2
3
2
2
2
2
1
1 3 2 2 1
+
>
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ + +
n
n
a a
a
a a
a
a a
a
a a a a a a
n
n
 
證:由柯西不等式可得:
1 ) ( ) )( (
2
2 1
1 3
2
2
1
1 3 2 2 1
= + + + > + + + + + +
n
n
n
a a a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a a a a a a   
1 3
2
2
1
1 3 2 2 1
1
a
a
a
a
a
a
a a a a a a
n
n
+ + +
> + + +

 ①
1
2
1
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1 3
2
3
2
2
2
2
1
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a a
a
a a
a
a a
a
n
n
n
n
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
+ +
+
+
+
 
) ( ) (
1 3
2
2
1
2 1
2
1 3
2
2
1
a
a
a
a
a
a
a a a
a
a
a
a
a
a
n
n
n
+ + + + + + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
>
 


而 n
a
a
a
a
a
a
n
a
a
a
a
a
a
n
n n
= · · > + + +
1 3
2
2
1
1 3
2
2
1
 
①×②: ) )( (
1
2
1 3
2
3
2
2
2
2
1
1 3 2 2 1
a a
a
a a
a
a a
a
a a a a a a
n
n
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ + +  
n
n
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
n
n
+
>
+ + + +
+ + +
>
1
) ( 1
1 3
2
2
1
1 3
2
2
1



¬
1
) )( (
1
2
1 3
2
3
2
2
2
2
1
1 3 2 2 1
+
>
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ + +
n
n
a a
a
a a
a
a a
a
a a a a a a
n
n
  故原不等式成立。

5 設
n
x x x , , , 
2 1
是正數,且
¯
=
=
n
i
i
x
1
1,求證:
1 1
1
2
1 1 +
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
¯ ¯
= = n
n
x
x
n
i
i
n
i
i

證:令
i i
x y + = 1 ,則 1 ÷ =
i i
y x .
¯
=
+ =
n
i
i
n y
1
1.
故原不等式等價於:
1
1
1
2
1 1 +
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
¯ ¯
= = n
n
y
y
n
i
i
n
i
i
(1)
由柯西不等式可得:
¯
=
÷ · + + ÷ · + · ÷ = ÷
n
i
n i
y
n
y
n n
y y
n 1
2 1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1
1

2
1
2
1 3 2 1
1 2 ) 1 ( 2
) 1 ( ) (
1
)
1
1 (
n
n
y
n
n
y n y y y
n n
n
y
n
+
÷
+
+ ÷ =

÷ ÷ + + + +
÷
+ ÷ s 
1
2
1
1
1
1 2 ) 1 ( 2
1
y n
n
n
n
y n
y
y
n
i
i
+
÷
+
+ ÷ · =
÷

¯
=
○1
同理:
2
2
2
2
1
1 2 ) 1 ( 2
1
y n
n
n
n
y n
y
y
n
i
i
+
÷
+
+ ÷ · =
÷
¯
=
○2

n
n
n
n
i
i
y n
n
n
n
y n
y
y
2
1
1 2 ) 1 ( 2
1
+
÷
+
+ ÷ · =
÷
¯
=
○n
○1 +○2 +…+○n :
¯ ¯ ¯
= = =
+
÷
+
+ ÷ · s
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
n
i
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
y n
n
n
n
y n
y
y
1
2
1 1
1 2 ) 1 ( 2 1
1
¯ ¯ ¯
= = =
+
÷ + + ÷ =
+
÷
+
+ ÷ s
n
i
n
i i
i
n
i
i
i
y n
n
n y n
y n
n
n
n
y n
1 1
2
1
2
1 1 2
) 1 ( 2 )
1 2 ) 1 ( 2
(
¯
=
+
÷ + =
n
i i
y n
n
n n
1
2
1 1 2
1 (*)

¯
¯
=
=
+
= >
n
i
n
i
i
i
n
n
y
n
y
1
2
1
2
1
1

1
1
1 2
1
1 1 2
1
2
1
2
+
=
+
+
÷ + s
+
÷ +
¯
= n
n
n
n
n n
y n
n
n
n
i i
(2)
把(2)式代入(*)式知(1)式成立,故原不等式成立。等號成立·
n
x x x
n
1
2 1
= = = =  .

5.已知a、b、c 是正實數,求證:
) (
12
1
5 4 3 5 4 3 5 4 3
c b a
b a c
ca
a c b
bc
c b a
ab
+ + s
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +

證:由柯西不等式可得:
| | 36 ) 3 2 1 ( ) ( 3 ) ( 2 ) ( )
3 2 1
(
2
= + + > + + + + +
+
+
+
+
+
c b c a b a
c b c a b a

)
3 2 1
(
36
1
5 4 3
1
c b a c b a c b a +
+
+
+
+
s
+ +
¬
)
3 2
(
36
1
5 4 3 c b
ab
a c
ab
b a
ab
c b a
ab
+
+
+
+
+
s
+ +
¬ .同理可得:
)
3 2
(
36
1
5 4 3 a c
bc
b a
bc
c b
bc
a c b
bc
+
+
+
+
+
s
+ +
, )
3 2
(
36
1
5 4 3 b a
ca
c b
ca
a c
ca
b a c
ca
+
+
+
+
+
s
+ +

)
3 2 3 2 3 2
(
36
1
5 4 3 5 4 3 5 4 3 a c
bc ab ca
c b
ab ca bc
b a
ca bc ab
b a c
ca
a c b
bc
c b a
ab
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
s
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +

要證明原不等式,只需證明:
) ( 3
3 2 3 2 3 2
c b a
a c
bc ab ca
c b
ab ca bc
b a
ca bc ab
+ + s
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +

) ( 3
) (
2
) (
2
) (
2 c b a
c b
a c b
c
c a
b a c
b
b a
c b a
c + + s
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ ·
c b a
c b
a c b
c a
b a c
b a
c b a
+ + s
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
·
) ( ) ( ) (

0 )
) (
( )
) (
( )
) (
( >
+
+
÷ +
+
+
÷ +
+
+
÷ ·
c b
a c b
c
c a
b a c
b
b a
c b a
a
0 ) )( ( ) )( ( ) )( (
2 2 2 2 2 2
> ÷ + + ÷ + + ÷ + · a b a c b b c b a c c a c b a
) (
3 3 3
c b a abc ca bc ab + + > + + ·
c b a
b
a
a
c
c
b
+ + > + + ·
2 2 2

而由柯西不等式可得:
2
2 2 2
) ( ) )( ( c b a
b
a
a
c
c
b
b a c + + > + + + +
c b a
b
a
a
c
c
b
+ + > + + ¬
2 2 2
,故②式成立,即①式成立,從而原不等式成立。
·a=b=c 時,不等式的等號成立。

5.已知x、y、z 為正實數, 1
2 2 2
= + + z y x ,求代數式
xy y x
z
zx x z
y
yz z y
x
÷ +
+
÷ +
+
÷ +
2 2
5
2 2
5
2 2
5
的最小值
證:令
xy y x
z
zx x z
y
yz z y
x
z y x f
÷ +
+
÷ +
+
÷ +
=
2 2
5
2 2
5
2 2
5
) ( , ,

3
3
)
3
3
3
3
3
3
( = , , f
以下證明:
3
3
) ( > z y x f , ,

) ( ) ( ) (
) (
2 2
6
2 2
6
2 2
6
xy y x z
z
zx x z y
y
yz z y x
x
z y x f
÷ +
+
÷ +
+
÷ +
= , ,
xyz yz z y xz z x xy y x
z y x
3
) (
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3 3 3
÷ + + + + +
+ +
> ①
由Schur 不等式可得:
3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 z y x xyz yz z y xz z x xy y x + + s ÷ + + + + +
代入①可得:
3 3 3
3 3 3
2 3 3 3
) (
) ( z y x
z y x
z y x
z y x f + + =
+ +
+ +
> , ,
由平均不等式可得:
3 3
2 2 2
3
3 3 3
z y x z y x + +
>
+ +
3
3
3 3 3
> + + ¬ z y x
3
3
) (
3 3 3
> + + > z y x z y x f , ,
故 ) ( z y x f , , 的最小值為
3
3
,在
3
3
= = = z y x 時取最小值。

7.已知a、b、c 為正實數,求證:
3
3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2
) )( )( ( ) )( ( abc c abc b abc a abc ca bc ab a c c b b a + + + + > + + + +
證: ) )( (
2 2 2 2 2 2
ca bc ab a c c b b a + + + +
| || | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
ab c b ca b a bc a c ab c a ca b c bc a b + + + + + + + + + + >
| | ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
2 2 2
ab c ab ca b ca bc a bc + + + + + >
3
2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) (
2
3
ab c ab ca b ca bc a bc + + + >
3
3 3 3
) )( )( (
2
3
abc c abc b abc a + + + =
+ + + + =
3
3 3 3
) )( )( (
2
1
abc c abc b abc a
3
3 3 3
) )( )( ( abc c abc b abc a + + +
+ · · >
3 4 4 4
2 2 2
2
1
abc c ab bc a
3
3 3 3
) )( )( ( abc c abc b abc a + + +
3
3 3 3
) )( )( ( abc c abc b abc a abc + + + + =
故原不等式成立。·a=b=c 式,不等式的等號成立。

8.在 ABC A 中,求證: 3 s
÷ +
÷ +
+
÷ +
÷ +
+
÷ +
÷ +
b a c
b a c
a c b
a c b
c b a
c b a

證:令
2
c b a
x
÷ +
= ,
2
a c b
y
÷ +
= ,
2
b a c
z
÷ +
=
則 z y c y x b z x a + = + = + = , ,
故有 ) ( 2
2
yz xz xy x c b a ÷ + + = ÷ + , ) ( 2
2
zx yx yz y a c b ÷ + + = ÷ +
) ( 2
2
xy zy zx z b a c ÷ + + = ÷ +
則由柯西不等式可得:
2
) (
b a c
b a c
a c b
a c b
c b a
c b a
÷ +
÷ +
+
÷ +
÷ +
+
÷ +
÷ +

) 1 1 1 ( + + s )
) ( ) ( ) (
(
2 2 2
b a c
b a c
a c b
a c b
c b a
c b a
÷ +
÷ +
+
÷ +
÷ +
+
÷ +
÷ +

)
2 2 2
( 3
2
2
2
2
2
2
z
xy zy zx z
y
zx yx yz y
x
yz xz xy x ÷ + +
+
÷ + +
+
÷ + +
· =
| |
2 2 2
3 3 2 2 2 2 2
2
) ( ) ( 3
3
z y x
y x yz xy yz xy z y x
¯ ¯
÷ + +
· = ①
由Schur 不等式可得: | |
¯ ¯
> · · + + ÷ 0 3 ) ( ) (
2 2 3 3
zx yz xy xy yz yz xy y x
| |
¯ ¯
s ÷ + + ¬
2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2
6 ) ( ) ( 3 z y x y x yz xy yz xy z y x
把上式代入式①可得:
9
2
6
3 ) (
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
= · s
÷ +
÷ +
+
÷ +
÷ +
+
÷ +
÷ +
z y x
z y x
b a c
b a c
a c b
a c b
c b a
c b a

3 s
÷ +
÷ +
+
÷ +
÷ +
+
÷ +
÷ +

b a c
b a c
a c b
a c b
c b a
c b a

故原不等式成立.·a=b=c 時,原不等式的等號成立。

9.已知a、b、c 是正實數,且 1 = + + c b a ,求證:
ca bc ab a ca c b
a c
c bc b a
c b
b ab a c
b a
+ +
>
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
3
) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 3
2 2
2 2 3
2 2
2 2 3
2 2

證:原不等式等價於:
ca bc ab
c b a abc
a ca c b
a c
c bc b a
c b
b ab a c
b a
+ +
+ +
>
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
) ( 3
) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2
3 3
2 2 2
3 3
2 2 2
3 3

而 ca bc ab
ca bc ab
c b a abc
ca bc ab c b a abc + + s
+ +
+ +
¬ + + s + +
) ( 3
) ( ) ( 3
2

故只需證明 ca bc ab
a ca c b
a c
c bc b a
c b
b ab a c
b a
+ + >
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
+
+ ÷ ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2
3 3
2 2 2
3 3
2 2 2
3 3

b a c
a ca c b
a c
a c b
c bc b a
c b
c b a
b ab a c
b a
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
2 2 2
3 3
2 2 2
3 3
2 2 2
3 3
+ +
+ ÷
+ + +
+ ÷
+ + +
+ ÷
·
) ( 3 ca bc ab + + >
) ( 3 )
) (
1
) (
1
) (
1
)( (
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3
ca bc ab
a ca c b c bc b a b ab a c
a c c b b a + + >
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
+ + · 而由柯
西不等式可得:
| |
9 )
) (
1
) (
1
) (
1
( ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
>
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
+
+ ÷
+ ÷ + + ÷ + + ÷ ·
a ca c b
c bc b a b ab a c
a ca c b c bc b a b ab a c

故只需證明:
| |
ca bc ab
c b a abc a c c b b a
ca bc ab
+ + >
+ + ÷ + +
+ +
) ( ) ( 2
) ( ) ( ) ( 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3

令 ca z bc y ab x = = = , , ,故②式可化為:
z y x
zx yz xy z y x
z y x
+ + >
+ + ÷ + +
+ +
) ( ) ( 2
) ( 3
2 2 2
3 3 3

¯ ¯
> + + ÷ · 0 3 ) (
2 2 3
xyz xy y x x ③
③式即為Schur 不等式,故成立。從而原不等式成立。
·
3
1
= = = c b a 時,不等式的等號成立。

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