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Ottoman Turkish c 00 Ha Go Goog

Ottoman Turkish c 00 Ha Go Goog

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Sections

  • v Pronunciation of Lettera. 7
  • el. Other Orthographic Signs
  • The Substantive Verb
  • The Substantive Verb. (Continued.)
  • Introductory Remarks
  • The Persian Derivative Nouns
  • The Persian Verb
  • Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs
  • The Participles of Derivative Infinitives
  • ~ e. Broken or Irregular Plurals
  • Arabic and Persian Pronouns
  • The Ministry of Public Instruction
  • The Ministry of Justice and Public Worship
  • The Administration of Posts and Telegraphs
  • Orders of the Ottoman Empire
  • Of Functionaries of Civil and Military Grades
  • Of Moslem Clergy
  • Non-Moslem Clergy

OTTOMAN-TURKISH

by V. H. HAGOPIAN



Classic Literature Collection
World Public Library.org
CONVERSATION-GRAMMAR


Title: OTTOMAN-TURKISH CONVERSATION-GRAMMAR
Author: V. H. HAGOPIAN
Language: English
Subject: Fiction, Literature
Publisher: World Public Library Association

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Copyright © 20 , All Rights Reserved Worldwide by World Public Library, www.WorldLibrary.net
METHOD GASPEY-OTTO-SAUER.
OTTOMAN -TURKISH
CONVERSA TION -GRAMMAR
A PRACTICATJ METHOD OF LEARNING
THE OTTOMAN-TURKIRH LANGUAGE.
RY
v. H. HAGOPIAN, M. A.
PROFESSOR OF THE TURTaSII, ARABIC AND PERSIAN J.lANGUAGES
IN ANATOLIA COLLEGE, lIERZIFOUN, TURKEY;
AUTHOR OF ENGLISH -ARMENIAN DICTIONARY etc.
LONDON.
DAVID NUTT, 57-59 Long Acre. DULAU " CO., 37 Soho Squa.re.
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON " CO., 100 Southwark Street.
NEW YORE: BRENTANO'S, 5-9 Union Square.
DYRSEN 8& PFEIFFER (F. W. Christem) 16 West 33
rd
Street. G. E. STECHERT
& Co., 129-138 West 2(\th Street. E. STEIGER & CO., 25 Park Place.
BOSTON: C. A. K<EHLER & CO., 149a, Tremont Street.
HEIDELBEKG.
JULIUS GROOS.
\,,907 ....
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HARVARO
UNIVERSITY
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ti ..;A t!'.J' .b.Jw el.;:.
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ft;
IJ'.JJ; : .J
The 9aapey-Otto-8.Der Jlethod has become my sole property by
right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All rights,
cspeeially those of adaptation and tranalatlon into any language, are
reservad. Imitatlons and copies are forbidden by law. Suitable
communicationa always thankfully received.
Heidelberg. JuZius &"001l •

IN
~ J . L O
Preface.
III
The Turkish language is of Tartar origin, as the
Turks came froIn Central Asia, and is consequently
quite distinct from Arabie and Persian, although it is
true that in modern times the Arabic characters have
been adopted for all three languages, and that the
Turkish language is now half filled with Arabic and
Persian words. Yet these words have heen ineorporated
,,·ithollt affecting the nature or framework of the Turkish,
,,·hich is as different from Arabic and Persian as Anglo-
Saxon dialects are from Hebrew or Hungarian. In faet
pure Turkish is Turanian, while Arabic is Semitic and
Persian Aryan, and the resulting modern Ottoman-Tur-
kish is compounded not only of three languages but
of representatives of the three great farnilies of lan-
guages. The originaI 'l'urkish tongue, whieh is called
Chaghata (Jagatai), was sonlewhat barbarons, but extreme-
ly forcible and concise when spoken. The adoption of
Arabie and Persian words is arbitrary. To master the
language it is lleeessary to have at least an elementary
kno,,"ledge of the Arabic and Persian languages.
It is an extraordinary and lamentable faet that
the language of the Turks has hitherto received little or
no attention in England, although it is spoken by mil-
lions of people belonging to a vast empire ,vith whieh
we are elosely connected by Inutual vital interests, and
i ~ lnore or less u8ed, in official cireles, from Tunis in
Afriea to the walls of China. It is the court language
of I>eraja, and in many provinees of that eountry, of
South Russia and Afghanistan is spokell as muell
1*
IV Preface ~ ~ llfouqaddeme.
as Persian. It is diffieult to aecount for the absolute
negleet of the study of sueh an iruportant language, eOl1-
sidering that it is used by a people who onee influeneed
half the world, who overturned and established enlpires,
who have possessed the thrones of Persia, Greece, Egypt
and A.rabia; whose power was once dreaded by Italy,
Germany and France, and to whom our proud Queen
Elizabeth applied for aid against the Spanish Armada.
'l'he Turkish has always b·een of the greatest consequenee
to us, owing to the importanee of our political and conl-
mereial relations with tIIe Ottonlan Empire, and the
complete ignorance of it on the part of our country-
men has greatly impeded proper communication and
intereourse between the two nations and given rise to
most serious misunderstandings and diffieulties both
in the diplomatie and cornmereial world. [Dr. Ch. Wells.]
Besides, not a small body of earnest men from
the great Anglo-Saxon republic of the Trans-Atlantic
continent have long been estahlished in Constantinople
and in the provinees of Turkey, labouring to unfold
the treasures of modern seience, temporaI and spiritual,
to the people of Turkey; Iosing no opportunity to place
thernselves in friendly communication both with the
governing Ottoman element and with the numerous
races and religious denominations subject to the Im-
perial sway.
To m.eet the need of the representatives of these
two great nationaHties in Turkey, there arose the ne-
eessity for conversation-books, grammars and lencons.
There have appeared a number of Turkish grammars
and other books in the English language} but they seem
little fitted to acquaint the learner fully with Turkish,
chiefly because they are not sufficiently practieal in the
striet sense of the ,vord, or they are composed only of
rules. The appearanee of a new Ottoman-Turkish Gram-
Preface 4e..l..i.. Jlouqaddln.e.
mar which combines in itself tIIe theoretieal and the
practical elementa of the language, it is expected will
oo cheerfuIly welcomed.
The so-called Conversation-method, originated by
Drs. Gaspey and Otto, is Dowapplied for the first time
by the writer of this present book to the Ottoman-Tur-
kish language also. It is his mother tongue and besides
for more than 20 years he has practised this method
in teaehing the language in an American
institution to the natives of Turkey and to English-
speaking foreigners. Therefore his OWll experience enables
him to speak with some little authority on this subject.
He thinks he has introduced a ne\\T element too in the
Gaspey-Otto eonversation-method, by inserting the word
which appear on pp. 121-12õ, 215, 256 etc .
. The First Part of this is devoted to eonver-
sational language and in it all the peculiarities of the
language are given in a veryeasyand comprehensive
way. The study of the First Part being finished it will
soon be seen that Turkish is a very regular language,
and that it is far more easy than is generaUy thought.
In the Second Part the elelnents of the Persian
and Arabic languages are treated of as they are used in
Ottoman-Turkish, and all the diffieuIties of both lan-
guages are explained, in a concise \vay. This is the
Literary and Official langusge. There are then added
some very valuable matters and a vocabulary.
As to the Exercises and Readillg Lessons for
translatioD, . most of them are on subjects referring to
Turkey and rrurkish literature. Many characteristic speci-
mens of poetry and prose illustrative of the literature
and of the country, especially in llloderll pllraseology,
are gi ven, so that the learner will feel hitnself in Turkey,
and will have a glimpse into the geography, the hist-
ory and the lnanners and customs of the eountry.
Prefaee Mouqqaddln1t.
I recommend as a help to the st\ldent the excel-
lent Turkish-English Dictionary of Sir J. Redhouse and
the valuable Turkish Dietionary' of Samy which
latter is the most reliahle guide to the student after
finishing the First Part of this Grammar. And as a
purely Turkish Grammar I reeommend that of
Effendi Apigian (MilIri), to which I am much indehted.
I am much indebted also to Rev. Dr. 'V. St Clair-
Tisdall, the C. M. S. missionary at lspahan, Persia,
who has carefully revised the and has made valuable
suggestions. Himself being a ripe scholar in the lan-
gu age , these have been of great service to me.
I must also express my sineere thanks to Dr. J.
Wright, of Oxford, for the kindness and eare with which
he has looked over the proofs of this work.
V. H. Hagopian.
Anatolia College, lVlerzifoun (Marsovan), Turkey.
A List of Books indispensable to the Student
of the Tnrkish Langnage.
Redhouse's 'furkish-English LexicOD . . • . . . . .
w. w. Peet: Bible House, Constantinople.
Samy Bey's Tnrkish Dictionary (Qamousou Turki) .
Mihri' s Larger Torkiah Grammar Sarf) . .
Turkish Reader: 1, 2, 3 parts (Tali1ni Qra" at). . . .
rrurkish Reader: With Nesikh and Riqa (Rehberi Qra"at) .
Turkish Reader: With 6 diB'erent character8 (Qra"at Hojasi)
Penmanship Master (Yazi Hojasi) . . . . . . . . . . .
Blanks for Penmansbip (Rehberi Suman, by Mihri) 1,2,,3 parts
Library 36 Grand Rue de la Sublime Porte,
Constantinople.
-_e'ii<G • -
25/-
8'-
I
1/-
2/-
-/8
-/8
-:4
-j2
) VII
Contents.
IntroductloD. Page
A. Letters of the Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Pronunciation of Lettera . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
C. Other Orthographic Signs . . . . . . . . 20
D. Accent. . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
E. Euphony or Harmony of the V o,,·ela . . 24
F. Orthography. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 25
I. Lesson.
2. )
3. »
4. »
5. »
6.
7.
':"" 8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
»
»
»
Flrst Part. Torklsh Gr.mnlar.
The Definite and Indefinite Articlea . . . . 27
The Substantive Verb . . . . . . . . . 31
li) » » (continued) . . . . . 35
Declension of N ouna . . . . . . . . . . 39
The Pronouna . . . . . .. '" 4 7
1. Personal Pronouna . . . .. 47
2. POBsessive Pronouna.. ... 49
The Izafet. . . . . . . . 55
The Family . . . . . . . .. 58
The verb To HAVE. • . • •• •.• 61
The PronouDa (continued) .. .... 69
3. Adjectival PronouDs . . .. . 69
4. Demonstrative PronouDa . 70
5. Reftexi ve Pronouna . . . . 72
The Adjective . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Derivative Adjectives. . . .. . 75
» NOUDS... .... 77
The Pronouna (coDtinued) . . . . .. 82
6. Interrogative Pronouna. . 82
7. Indefinite Pronouns . . . . . . . 84:
Numeral Adjectivea . . . . 89
1. Cardinal Dum bers . . . . 89
Numeral Adjectives . . .. .... 94
2. Fractional numbera . . . . . . . 94
3. ürdinal numbera .. .... 95
4. Distributive numerals . . . . . . 96
The Ottoman-Turkiah Calendar . . 96
18.
14.
, 15.
»
»
»
»
Degrees of Comparison . . . . . 100
N ouna with Prepositions. . . . . . . . . 105
The Substantive Verb (continued) .. . 109
The Iniinitivea . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
i
J
18.
t Reading Exercise: The Story of the
eat and the Camel . . . . . . . 117


Vill Contents ~ - A Fihrist.
Pt
17. Lesson. Primitive and Derivative Verbs .. 1
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24:.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
)
»
1. Oqoutmaq, 2. Yazdirmaq, ~ . lchi1--
mek,4. Tarannlaq, 5. Yazilmaq, 6. Geo-
,,.{tshrnek . 121-1
r Reading Exercise: The Divisions of
Turkey .. ...
Compound Verbs . .
Potential Verbs . .
Aecelerative Verbs .
1
. 1
1
1
,. Reading Exereise; The Provinees . 1
The Derivative forms of the Infinitive . 1
The Continuative Tenses . .... 1
The Finite Verb. . . . 1
The Moods of the Verb and Imperative 142-1
,. Reading Exereise: Religions and De-
nominations . . ... . 1
The Present Tense .. ... .. 1
o Reading Exereise: The U se of Animals 1
The Aorist Tense. .. ,. . .. 1
, Reading Exereise: Voices of AnimaIs 1
The Past Tenses . . ... .. 1
The Categorieal Past . . 1
The Dubitative Past 1
The Future Tense . . . . 1
V Reading Exereise: A Sermon of N asr-
ed-din .. . .. . . 1
The Optative 'rense .. .... 1
The Suppositive 'fense (Subjunetive).. .]
it. Reading Exercise: A Sermon of N aar-
ed-din (Continued). .. . 1
The Necessitative Tense . .. ... ]
, Reading Exereise: The Marriage of the
Teaeher. . . . . ]
The Partieiples. .........]
I. Subjective Mood ... .]
Com parison. . . .. .. ..]
t. Reading Exercise: To hang fiour on
a line. . .. ...
The Participles (eontinued) .. ..
II. Objective Mood . . .. ..]
Com parisons .. . ... 1 9 5 - ~
t t Reading Exercise: Jackts House. . ~
Gerunds .. . . . .. . ~
'rhe Table of - .. .... ~
t r Reading Exercise: The Distinetion be-
tween Man and Beast. . . . . .
Contents .::.--"'; Fihrist. IX
Page
31. Lesson. Nouns and Adjeetives derived from Verbs
· 211
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
»
1. The Regular Verbai Adjeetive
2. l.'he Irregular:t »
8. The N oun of Exeess . . .
4.» • :t Loeation. . .
5. Instrumental Nouns. . . .
tr Reading Exereise: An Aneedote .
· 211
• 212
214
· 214
· 214
· 218
Prepositions v. Postpositions. . . . . . . 219
t ... Reading Exereise: The Village Room, 4. 228
Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 224
t 0 Reading Exereise : The Village Room, b. 229
Conjunetions . . . • . . . . . . . . 280
t' Reading Exereise : TheVillage Room, c. 286
The Interjeetions. . . . . . . . . . . 236
tv Reading Exercise: The Village Room, d,
e, f, 9 . . . • .. . 288
Appendiees. . . . . . .. ... 241
Salutatjons . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Congratulations . . . 24:2
Modes of Address 245
Bononfie TitIes .. ..... 247
Onomatopreia .. ... . 251
Ezan . . . . . . . . . 251
The Christian Serviees. .. .. 252
Second Part. The E1ements of Arablc aDd PersJaD.
Introduetory Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
37. Les8on. The Persian PluraI . . . . . . . . . . 255
t it. Reading Exercise: The Mateh Girl . 256
38. » The Persian Izafet . . . . . . . . . . 261
Persian N umerals ....... 264
t' Reading Exereise: Franklin' s Prin-
eiples, a. . . . . . . . . . . 266
39. Persian Componnd Adjeetives . . . . . . 267
40. »
41. »
r. Reading Exereise: Franklin's Prin-
ei pIes, b. . . . . . . . . . . 272
The Persian Derivative Nouns . . . . . . 274
r t Reading Exereise: The Story of the
Donkeyand Fox . . .. . 277
The Pereian Verb. . .. . . .. . 280
Objeetive and Subjeetive Partieiples. . 281
The verbaI Noun. . . . . . . . . 281
VerbaI Adjeetives . . . . . . . . 282
The Persian Roots . . . . . . . . 282
r r Reading Exercise: A Supplieation
and Praise. . . . . . . . . . 287
x Contents Fihrist.
Page
42. Lesson. The Persian Prepositions . . '.. 288
Substitution; Omission.. . . 289
,r Reading Exereise: The Hunter '. . 292
48. » The Gender of Arabie Nouns . 294
The Number of Arabic Nouns.. 296
Dual; Regular Maseulille; Fem. Plural . 296
,,. Reading Exereise: A Poem.. 302
44. » The Arabic Nisbe. . . . . . . . . . . 303
Abstraet Noun . ..... 305
,. Reading Exerciae: Columbus' Egg, a. 308
45. » The Arabie Infinitive .. .. 310
46.
47. »
48. »
49. »
50. »
51. »
I. The Primitive Triliterals . .. 313
II. The Primitiva Quadriliterals. 316
" Reading Exereise: Psalm 84
· 317
Nouns derived from Primitive Trilitera.ls . 318
I. Nouns with Mim . . . . . .
II. N oun of Loeation. .. ..
• 318
319
III. Noun of Instrument . . . 320
,v Reading Exereise: A Psalm of Life 322
Arabie Partieiples . .. . .
I. Subjective Partieiple (llayil)
II. Objeetive » (Mefoul)
III. Adjeetive of Quality (Mushebbihe).
IV. Adjective of Colour and Defeet
V. Noun of 8Qperiority (Ismi Tafzil).
VI. Noun of Exeess (MuTJalagha)
,it. Reading Exereise: A Litany of Praise
The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives .
324
324
325
326
327
327
328
331
332
II. Tef il = Tefqeel . . .
• 332
· 333
. . . 334
• . 335
III. Mufa'ale = Mufaqale
IV. lfal = Ifqa.l . .
'T. Tefa'oul = Tefaqoul. .
" Reading Exercise: p 338
The Derivative TriliteraI Infinitives (continued) 389
VI. Tefa'oul = Tefaq' qoul . . . . 339
VII. Infi'al = Int·iqal. ... 340
VIII. lfti'al = Iftiqal.. .•. 341
J.X. If'ilal = lfqilal . . . . . . 342
x. Istif' al = Istifqal .. .. 342
r. Reading Exereise: True Nobility . 345
The Participles of Derivative Infinitives . . 346
rt Reading Exereise: Administrative
CouneHa ... . . . 352
Broken or Irregular Plurals.. .... 353
r' Reading Exercise: Columbus' Egg, b. 360
Contents ..::-- Fihrist. XI
Page
52. Lesson. The Agreement of Adjeetives with N OUDS. • 361
53.
54.
55. »
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
,..,. Reading Exercise: The Inventions . 865
The Arabie Deflnite A rticle . . . . . . . 866
The Arabie Preposition . . . . . . 871
r;. Reading ExereiEle: An Aneedote. . 875
Arabie and Persian Pronouns . . . . . . 375
r 0 Reading Regulations etc.. 380
Arabie and Persian Adverbs. . . . . 382
r, Reading Exereise: Newton. . . • 385
Ara bie N umerals. . . . .. .•. 887
1. eardinaI numbers . .... 387
II. ürdinal num bers . . . 387
III. numbers .... 388
'fbe Dimjnutive Noun. . . . . . . 889
rY Reading Exercise: Home
Arabie Compound Words. .
I. Arabie system . . . .
II. Persian system . . . .
· 89B
· 895
· 395
· 896
rl. Reading Exereise: The Overthrow ...
(poem) . . . . . . . .. 398
I. Synonymous Words . . . . . . . . . 400
IT. Symphonious Terminations . 402
IIT. Antonyms ...... . 402
r, Reading Exereise: Tbrkibi BAnd,. . 405
The Euphonie Changes of the Letters . • . 407
I. The Assimilation of Letters . 407
II. The Modifleation of Weak Letters . 410
a. Modifleation of Vav . . . . . 411
b. Modifteation of YI. . . . . . 413
;.. Reading Exereise: The Ceremony of
the Coronation of the King of England 415
MiseelIaneous Idiomatic Phrases . . . . . 418
A ppeDdiees.
The Ottoman Li tera ture . . . . .
· •. 420
. • . . 423 SuItans of the House of üsman . . . . . .
Arabie Calendar . . . . . .. ...
Ottornan Finaneial Oalendar. . . . . . . . .
Parsing . . . . . . . . .
· . 424
. . . 425
,. t Reading Exereise: The Prophet' 8 Speech
Conjugation of Turkish Verbs . . . . . . . . .
The Offielal Part.
The Imperial Palaee. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bis Imperial ?tlajesty the Sultan. . . . .
· . 426
· 426
· . 481
484
· 484
XII Contents ~ - . . . ; ; Fih,·ist. '--'0
Page
The Sublime Porte . . . .. '" . 435
The Counei! of )Iinisters . . . . . . 435
The Grand V iziriate . .. ..• 486
The Couneil of State . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
The Foreign Offiee. . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
The Ministry of Internal Airairs.. .... 437
The Sheikh-ül Islamate. . . .. ....•.. 438
The Ministry of Finance . . . . . . . .. .. 438
The Imperial Mint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
The Customs Administration. . . . . . . . 439
The Ministry of Public Instrnetion ... 439
The Ministry of Justice and Public W orshi p . . 440
The Prefeeture of Poliee . . . . . . . .. .. 441
The Ministry of Commeree . . . . . . .. ., 442
The Counei! of International Sanitation . . . . • . . 442
The Ministry of Religious :Funds . . . . . . 442
The Administration of Posts and Telegraphs. . . . . . 443
The M inistry of War . .. ... 443
Military Grades . . . . . . . . . . 444
Arme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
The Admiralty; Naval Offieers . . . . . 446
The 1 m perial Arsenal . . . . . . . . . . 447
Different Kinds of Ships. . . .. .... 447
The Provinees . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Di plomatic terms. . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Festivals: Moslem Festivals . . • . .. .... 454
Christian FesUvals . . . . . 455
J ewish Festivals. . . ~ . . . . . . 456
Orders of the Ottoman Empire. . . . . 456
Medals . . . . . . . .. ...... 456
The Ranks in the Ottoman Empire . . . . . . . . . 457
Civil Grades of Nobility. . . . . .. .. 458
Military and Navsl Grades. .. ..... 458
Grades of the Religious Hierarchy . . . . . . . 458
Offieial Titles . . . . . • • . . . . . . . . . . 459
Of Funetionaries of Civil and Military Grades. . . 460
Of Moslem Clergy . . . . . . . . . 461
Of Non-Moslem Clergy . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Cornmercial Terms . . . . . . . . . .. .. 462
Vocabnlary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
G eneral-IDdex. . . . . . . 489
J > ~
Introduction .
.1. Letters of the Alphabet.
§ 1. The following table shows the shape of the
Ottoman-Turkish letters, "The n they are connected with
a preceding or a following letter, or with both, and when
isolated :
;1 I ,! I Proper
l
Kumer·
Xames i! Isolated Final 'Medial lnitial d I ical
I I I i
soun
8
1
values
Remarks
I I I
elie
be
pe
te
..
Jim
('him
ha
khi
oal
zal
Ze
zhe
;1
11
"
I; ~
il ~
! ..
:i ~
.
e
.
~
)
.
)
..
)
\
..
~
\
"" .
"" ..,.
..
""
A A
~ ""
I
~ l ~
I
~ l ~
~ ! ~
• I •
e.; 't:
..l !
. • I
-l ..l
J
.

.)
.J
.. I ,.
J )
Tartllh Conv.-Grammar.
,
..,.
..
I
A
,
.
:>-
.
,:)
)
.
)
A
)
b
P
t
s
.
J
Cll
d
z
r
z
1
2
2
40
See § 29.
Tur., Pers.
500 i Arabic.
3
3 Tur., Pers.
8 Arabic.
600
4
700
200
7
7
Arabic.
Persian.
1
2
I
Nanles I
Isolated
i
II
SIn
il
...r
II
shin
il
A
~ I
...r
sad
,I
II
~
dad il
.
I,
~
" Il
zi
I
aYll I
t.
I
ghayn il
.
t
I
fe
I
.
'-'
qaf
..
...,
kef
!!
!J
gef
L 5 ~
II J
lam
I:
,I
li
mlm
II
\
:i
noun
II
.
I
~
vav
I
J
I
I
he
r 0
I'
ye
II
(.$
.1
Letters of the Alphabet.
I 'Proper Numer-
Final I Medial Initiall d leal
I
I
I
~
I
-
I
!
l-
I
A
~ -
I
I
I
~
..a-
I . .
~
~
.6
Jä lä
t

I
I
,
·
t
l

...;1
·
OA
I
..
..
~
OA
t.l ~
~ f : : : f:::
J
1
r
..

·
CJ
""
-' -'
4
f t
~ I
""
..
I
soun
8 values
.-.I S 60
..
sh 300
.-.I
I
I
I I
i
90
,,:J
I
S
I
I
Id
.
z: 800 I
~
I '
I
I
t
I
!
~ I t, d I 9
l; I z i 900
I
,
~ I
·
~
·
t
..
,
·
,
J
,
..
I
I
I
, I 70 I
I I
gh : 1000 i
: I
f I 80 i
, !
q
100
k .20
g 20
I 30
I
m
I
40
I
I
11
I
50
v 6
h 5
Y
10
,
Remarks
Arabic.
Arabic.
» § 35.
Tur., Pers.
§ 2. The letters of the Ottoman-Turkish Alphabet
are 32 in 11umber, and cOllsist of 28 Arabic lettera,
together with some which tl1e Persians llave added
(6j r '-"'). The Turks, as most other Oriental nations,
~ ..
read and ,vrite from right to left, instead of from left
,.
Letters of the Alphabet. 3
to right as we do; and a book eonsequelltly begins
lrhere it would end in English. lettera are
unlrnown, and the punetuation marks llave been adopted
reeently. They are the same as in English.
§ 3. There are four kinds of writing:
I. Riqa, whieh is the ordinary eurrent handwriting
used in letters and in all kinds of civil and offieial
documents.
II. Nesikh, is the eornmon print of books, news-
papers etc.
III. Di'vanee, is a st yle of large hand,vriting used
in the Imperial Chaneery for engrossing letter8-patellt.
IV. TqJiq, is the Persian model of Arabic eharacters,
it is used by Persians, and also in doeulnents of the
Ottoman eanonieal eourt. Examples of these and otller
forms of rarer oecurence are given at tlle end of this work.
. § 4. There is always more or less diffieulty in
representing the 80unds of one language by those of
another. This is true also in the ease of the Ottoman-
Turkish language. It belongs to a family or group of
tongue8 different from the Englisll, possessing sounds
entirely foreign to English earA. To express these sounds,
we have. made some modiflcations of some of the Englisll
vowels and eonsonants. It is neeessary to master these
sounds before going on. They must be pronouneed
fully; all having onlyone regular sound. For insta.nee:
ahas onlyone sound, and not five or more as in Eng-
lish: e has onlyone, as in pet, tllOUgh the name itself
will cause some blunder. i, 0, U also have onlyone
sound eaeh.
There are eight vowel sounds in Turkish.
§ õ. The vast population of Turkey, espeeially the
Christians, do not all use the Ottoman eharaeters in
their writing. The Armenians and the Greeks have
adapted them to their eharaeters. There are books and
papers in Turkisll, in Arlnenian and Greek charaeters,
publlshed in Constantinople. of the Englishnlen
and Americans, resident in Turkey, find it easier to
begin Turkish with English or Armenian characters,
and after mastering the pronunciation and the elements
of the language, tlley turn to begin it with tlle Arabic
1*
7
,I
o
4 Letters of the Alphabet.
eharacters, "rhich they find veryeasy then. The method
adapted by us in this "Tork, will remove all these diffi-
eulties.
Single and Double Vowels.
§ 6. In reading the names in the above Table
and in pronouneing the proper sounds, written in the
English characters, the learner must always remember:
1. Not to prononnee a, as in fate, mo'rtal or all;
bllt as in far, art or ta.tller.
2. e is always as e in met or sendi Take eare not
to pronouIlee it as in 'Jnere, ve'rb or eane.
3. i is /i, as in pin or ship; never as I, or
as in tire.r.' " '( I
4. i must be pronounced as 0 in seldo1n and e in hea.ven.
Õ. 0 must not be pronouneed long as in oat, prose;
but very short as iIl no.
6. ou pronounee always as in YO'llth, bOltquet, root;
and not as in p01tr, eouple, about.
7. tU is not as that of p'llre, turn, t-u1e; it has no
equivalent in Englisll, but is the Freneh tu, SUf'.
8. eo has no equivalent in English, it is in French
feu, coeU1'; or Gernlan ö in Zöllner, völlig.
Compound Consonants.
§ 7. Turkish orthography does not employ eOlli-
binations of t\\l'O or three eonsonants and vowels to
represent a single sound; we are under the necessity,
ho,yever, of lnaking use in this work of SOlne combi-
nations to represent Turkish sounds, for which there is
110 equivalent in English. Tllese combinations are made
by the additioll of sonle vo\vels and eonsonants to h or y.
klt llas the SOUIld of ch, as in the Scotch 1och..
gh, as the Greek ,,(, ... 'L .
.J. zh must be pronounced as z in azure.
) § 8. Tlle cOlnbinations telt and dj, so often to be
seen in the transliteration of 1'urkish words, are but
French notations of the English ch and j in chu'rch
and joy.
§ 9. y must al\vays be considered a consoIlant,
and never allowed to degrade the sound of any vo\vel
that lllay preeede. it; particular care lnust be takeIl by

Letters of the Alphabet. 5
Englishmen in this mattere It is al,,"uys as In yrll,
yoke, buy.
§ 10. Y is eombined with otIler vo,ve)s to form
a diphthong as be seen in tIle next Table.
ay Ex.: qaynlaq j as in linle, high, I.
ey » deY11lek; » » fute, prey, lley.
iy » cltiy; elear.
iy » qiyma j »»
oy »- lloynlaq; » » boy, toy, gOillg.
oU/II» douYl1laq;»» eooing, doing.
uy » g(tya; »» Fr. Guyot.
€õy» roylin; »» Fr. deuil.
§ 11. In the transliteration of Ottonlan ,,,,ords, I,·
must be emphasized at the beginlling, nliddle and end
of ,vords; at tIle end of the syllables it is gellerally
accented; as: Al-lall,', qah' Vf, hekinl. 'fhis is a most
particular rule and requires a good deal of attention
and practice in Englislunen; as a pernicious lnode of
orthography prevails aUlong Englislunen, of in tro-
dueing h mute very frequently at the beginlling 01" end
of ","ords; as in Itonest, Jeho'l)alt etc. (§ 49 \T.)
R is used as in Englisll; execpt that it lllUSt
never be allowed to be uttered obscurely; it must be
pronouneed fully and strongly; it is generally aceented
at tlle end of syllables. (§ 17.) Take eare not to vitiate
the pure sound of any vowel tIIat may preeede it.
G is always haru; as in git·e, got, get.
Numerals and Numeration by Letters.
§ 12. The nUlllerical figures, ten in nUlnber, Ilave
been adapted by the Ottomans fronl tlle Arubs. They
are the same that ,vc make use of, ealling thelU .l\rabie,
beeRIIse we took them froIu the Arabs. Tllcir forn1s,
ho,vever, differ considerably frolll tIIases, ,,'hieh our digits
have assumed, aA tlle tablc ShO""H:
t , r ;. • , V Ä ,. ' ,. ' ,.. t ••
1 2 3 4 Õ 6 7 8 9 ; 1 0 , 20 , 30 ; 100
They are con1pounded in exactIy tlle sallle ,,,,ay as
our numeraIs. "., = 1902.
§ 13. The apparent strangencss of the fact that
those numbers seem to be ,vritten and read not from
6 Lettera of the Alphabet.
,
right to left, but from left to right is due to the circum-
stance that, in Arabic, the smaller numbers are read
as weIl as written first. Thus an Arab would read
t,. , etwo and nine hundred and a thousand'. This,
however, a Turk does not do. (§ 691.)
§ 14. If the Arabic alphabet is arranged according
to numerical values, there appeares the ancient order,
which is stiIl used for notation and numeration. In
this order, that of the old Phoenician, Hebrew, Syriac,
Greek and Latin alphabets: the first nine letters represent
tIle units; the second nine the tens; the third nine the
and the last one b.. one thousand; compare
the Table of the Alphabet. j.Y'
A •
F Ebjed, hb/vez, hout'ti, keMmen, safes,
qaresluJt, sakhez, dazighi. Therefore the numeration by
letters, is .called E bjed
§ 15. The method of numeration by the letters
of the alphabet was a great task; it is fast going, if not
entirely gone, out of practice, as puerile; but formerIy
great significance was attached to any combination of
letters that expresses in one or more words an event or
date. Thus kharab is 600 + 200 + 1 + 2 = 803,
the Hejira date when Timurleng laid Damascus in (ruins';
and beldeyi tay'yibe is 2 + 30 + 4 + 400 +
.- .
9 + 10 + 2 + 400 = 857, date of the year when
the eBeautiful Constalltinople, was taken by the
Ottomans.
Exercise 8.
W rite and give the names of the following letters;
tlley are arranged according to their numeraI value:
:..' i J 6' !l ,.s .k j JO#> E..c::.. O..;J I
· t j; .) t u':..) J! J t.'-"
DiTlsion of the Letters.
§ 16. The Ottomall alphabet is divided into four
classes: vowels; hard, soft, and neuter letterso
v Pronunciation of Lettera. 7
Vowel Ietters: 0 J " which are vowels generally,
when they are the second letter of the sylIable.
Hard letters: J t t. j; .k t C:
. 80ft letters: If, .:) !l ...r
N euter letters: r J J Jo j j J ; .) E.. O..;J ":"
and 4.s .J " when at the beginning of the syllables; as
is the ease with y and 'U) in the English language.
DJ. Pronnnciation of Letters.
§ 17. All the Ottoman letters in the AlphabetjcaI Table
are to be consonants, except 0 J " which
are often used as vo"\\yels, and calI for further elucidation.
(§ 29 ff.)
We now proeeed to the phonetie vaIue of the
consonants:
be has the value of English b, as:.lJ bed bad, ))'..1.
. ..
birader brother. But when ending a syIIabIe or word,
it sometimes, anomalously, takes the value of p, as:
'-:' 'r sltarap wine, iptida beginning. Especially is
this the case with the Gerunds In ....,JJ-, as:
. .
gidip, alzp. (§ 435.)
pe is the English p, as: peder father.
y •
te is the German t, as: ta.tar a Tartar; courier. j.
It is sometimes ehanged into d in derivation when it
- ;;:; . ;::::;
is originally final; as: git go, .) gider he goes.
M M
Also demir iron, depe a hill.
se is found in Arabie words only, and is pro-
nounced as 8; as: sabit firm, Jt.., emsal proverbs.
is pronouneed as j, as: jtIn souI.
8 Pronunciation of Letters.
ohim, has the value of the English ch, in ChU1·ch;
as: ,\:: cham the pine, chali bush. (§ 8.)
e ha has the harshly aspirated sound of English _
h, in horse. It is chiefly used in Arabic words; as:
b. haji pilgrim.
t kh,i has no equivalent in English. It is the
counterpart of the Scotch ch in loch alld German Rache.
It is generally transliterated kh. But there are a good
many words in which it is commonly pronounced as h,
as: 'Y- hoja teacher; 4i \;. hane house.
;) dal is German d, as: derd .
.) zaZ is found in Arabic words alone; its value
is as: oJ; zer' re atom. o' 0
J re is in all positions a distinetly articulated tingual,
r as in rain. There are two important remarks, however,
which is necessary for the Englisll student to bear in
mind with respeet to this, to him, peculiar lettere Firstly,
it must always be pronounced and accented (never
dropped or sIurred over, as in the pronunciation of
part, pa't); and secondly, the value of the vowel before
it in the same syllable must never be corrupted (as when
it is pronounced pot pat; for far; cu'r car), but always
kept pure, as with any other consonant; thus J; gor',
qir', J'j zar'; not go', qi', za'. (§ 49 V.)
j ze. is English z, as: gez.
j is only found in Persian and French words;
it is of the value of the English 8 in and is
transliterated as: tidings, azh'der
dragon, J zhour'nal journal. It is often pronounced
Pronunciation of Letters. 9
j, as: jenger verdigris, 0.i.) jiva quieksilver,
jandarrna a eounty polieeman .
...r ain is a soft s, al,,"ays follo,,"ed by a soft vowel
in all Ottoman words, as: j -'-' seos ",Tord.
shin is English sh, as: J:. , ish work.
sad is a hard 8, it designates a hard vowel,
as: Lk> sagn right, Jr' sol left.
dad is used in Arabie words only. It is geller-
ally pronouneed as a hard z, but sometimes as a hard
d; thus: razee content, .... zaptiye a gendarme,
gaeli judge, u-'\dt kitidir elyas St. Elias.
1, ti is pronouneed as t, thus: top ball. But
801netimes in Turkish words it is pronouneed as d.
tlb (t!,)) dagk illountain, J,)I (\,:))1) oda rOOill.
j; is used in Arabie words only, as a very llard %,
thus: t Il; zaUm cruel.
t ayn, t ghayn, J gaf, !l kel· See §§ 33-36.
le is the English f, in all cases, \;j {ena.
J lam is the Englisll l, in all cases.
\ mim is tlle Englisll '1Il, as: JL. 1nal.
nou"f, is !ike tlle English n, as: nan bread.
But before be '-'" it is pronouneed as 'In. TIlus
. . "..
pbnbe light rose rolour, J \:-" istaulbul Constantinople
(Stambul).
§ 18. Kote. TIle reason ,vhy so many .'1 and
sounds occur in Üttolllan is tIlat Arabie ,\Torus intro-
10 The Orthographic Signe.
t •
duced into the language have to be writteIl as in Arabic.
In the latter tongue the sounds of ...r ' ...p and
again those of 1; , , j are quite distinct froIu one
another, as are those of e and 1/1, of , and t But
these distinctions are not observed by tlle Ottoman.
e 1. The Orthographic Signs.
§ 19. There a.re five kinds of orthographic slgns
used in Ottoman -Turkish. 1:'he vowel signs, J eZlna,
Medda, Shedda and Nunation. These are put under
<>r over the letters.
The Vowel Slgus.
§ 20. There are three kinds of vowel signs: 'Ilstun,
eS'J"e, ootre. These are named hareke cmovements"; but
by the Europeans they are eOInmonly called vO'loel points.
§ 21. These three vowel signs have two values each.
I. With a soft or neuter consonant, ust'ltn has the
value of e; and with a hard consonant a.
II. With a soft or neuter eonsonant, esre has the
value of i; and witll a hard consonant i.
III. With a soft or neuter consonant, eotre has the
·value of U, eo; and with a hard one 0, ou.
a) Hard Vowels.
§ 22. Hard vowels are used with hard letterso
I. (rstun is adiagonaI stroke drawn right
to left, placed above the letter thus it indieates
that the hard letter over which it is placed, is to be
followed in pronunciation by a, as in English bar, star.
JtlJ; 1
Key. Ha ustun ha., khi ustun klta, ayn ustun a, etc.
II. This sign - is ealled es-re, under hard letters

it is pronounced i, as e in heavene

Key. Ha es-re hi, khi es-re kki, sad es-re sl, etc.
t t The Orthographic Sign8. 11
III. This sign is ootre, over tlle hard letters it
is pronouneed 0 or ou, as in cold, could.
,'," , , , , ,
J tt.j;.k UD UD te
.Key. Ha ootre ho, hou, kW ootre kho, kllou, dad
ootre do, dou, etc.
b) 80ft Vowels.
§ 23. Soft vowels are pronouneed ,vith soft or
neuter letterso
l. Usfun when put over a soft or neuter letter, is
prollouneed like e, as in rnet.


Key. Sin llstlln se, kef ustlln ke, gef llstun ge, etc.
II. Esre when put under a soft or neuter letter, IS
pronouneed i, as in pit, kiIn.

Key. Mim esre mi, lam esre li,- ze esre zi, etc .
........
III. Eotre when put over a 80ft or neuter letter,
is prollouneed U, OO, whieh have no equivalent iIl
English. (§ 6, 7. 8.)
, '. '. " 'L" le' ,
.) .) ...r :!J U* ;) -" .. ..
Key. Dal ootre dit, doo, pe ootre pil, 1)00, slun
ootre shu, shoo, etc.
Exerclse b.
,
"
,
, ,
, ,
.. .. ..
A

A
4.J 4.J
U* U* U* UD
...p

,
,
'.
, ,
1,
,
,

,
.k .k !l !J
. . .. .. ..
) ) )
\
\,
\

'A
,.
"
,
, le
,
1;
,

.
" le le

j; j;
. le le
) ) )


u
M
u
M

,
. , . .
,
. .
,
4s J
c-
'-'
t.
The Connectlon of the Letters.
§ 24. The letters of the Ottoman alphabet are divided
into two other divisions: connected and unconnected letterso
12 The Orthographic Signe.
I. The uncollnected letters are J) j) ; .) " which are
never joined to the following letter, and when they
occur the word is broken; tllat is, the pen is taken up,
and the second part of the word is resumed unconnected.
They may be joined only to the letter preceding them,
as thus exhibited 0)\')' idare (adlninistration) ,
bt"aqdtnt (I left).
II. The connected or joinable letters are those which
be joined to the letters which follow or precede
them; the remaining letters are connected letters; as:
nzunfas'll (unconnected).
Exerclse c.
,. ,.
• A
,.
Jj
,.
·
!J;
..
'-'J

JJ V")

• A
Jj
· !J,)
..J)

)J W) .J')
\: , ,.
-
,. , ,
,
, ,
Jj
, ,
,

• le
..
·
..J)

)J V")

Key. Dal kef ustun dek, dal kef esre dik, dal kef
ootre duk, deok.
§ 25. In dealing with the letters of the Ottoman
alphabet on the preceding pages, we have shown only the
shapes they take when standing alone; when they are
combüled with other letters, they are sometimes slightly
modified, according as they stand at the beginning, in
the middle, or at the end of the word. These various
changes will be seen from the Table of the Alphabet
(P. 1 and 2).
§ 26. There is also a compound character in use,
,vhich is always to be found inserted in alphabets, and
which, for that reason, cannot be passed over in silenee.
It is the character called larn elir, being, in fact,
nothing more than J laut joined calligraphically to a
following , elir, in a similar manner to that whereby
the English printers continue to join the f and l in fl,
or f and i in fi, etc. Whell this double character is
,,..
The Orthographic SignB. 13
connected with a preceding letter, it 11RS the sllape of
)\, as: bela (evil).

..
Exerclse d.
•. .; t. ,

l:oc ; ; .i
Key. ye illitial; noun initial, tl final; te initial, klli
medial; noun initial, te medial; noun initial, ye, fe,
lam, be, se, ye, noun, pe medial, elif fina!.
Exerclse (Connected l-Ionosyllables) e.
,. ,
! r=: (j r:: ! {' (r ! J ! i ! (.;
J
Y 'L t ",. ,., L t '
! J!. ( r") (,:!J) J-!. (:!J
\!:!'" (c:. c! ! ) (ü' J)
Key. Be shin ustun beslt; pe re ustun lJe-r; te lam
ootre tul, etc.
Vowel Letters.
§ 27. Besides the vowel signs, sOlnotiInes the vo\\"el
letters 45 0 J , are. used, to indicate sounds.
I. EliI indicates the hard t'O'lt'el 'itst1tn, provided
that it is the second letter of tlle syllable. Instead of
j; 1. e is written U; lk here elir is substituted
for usttl.n.
II. Ye, sOlnetimes ,,,,hen it is the second letter of
the syllable, indicates the vowel esre. Instead of c:. :
is written J, 45.5; here ye is substituted for esre.
ITI. Vav, generally "",,,hen it is the second letter
of the syllable, indicates the fOtre. Instead of :.; 'r
is written -,oP Jj .JA; here Ivav is substituted for eotre.
IV. He, ,vhen it is tlle second letter of tlle syllable,
generally indicates the ustun, eitIler hard or soft. Instead
,.
of ; is written 4J 0) 0.); here /te is substituted for
.,. .,.
ustun (pe, re,. de).
14 The Orthographic Signs.
§ 28. Note. The Arabic and Persian long vowe]s
are represented by the Letters ofProlongation 4$ J l. These
letters correspond respectively with the vowel points:
ustlln, esre, ootre (§§ 29 -31). But there are no letters
of prolongation in purely Turkish words; the use of
these letters is limited only to indicating the vowel signs,
as has been said above. Therefore they are called in
Tnrkish orthogralJhic letters also, as they serve only for
the correction of the orthography.
Exercise f.
Read and write the following exercises:
l.) r 4.-.u \..-1 .;, J 4i r 4A l. .i. I.
J J J \t ;, .,; J 4i \;' J.) 4$.) ,,;
Key. Be elif llstlln ba, be he (Istun be, be ye esre
bi, be vav eõtre bou, bo etc.
';, ,;
, u':\; = JJ JJ; = Jt ' = ;. , J\; = jt II.
,
, J:. 'J JJ ' ....;:t ' J J; = J-i ' J. =
0::- ' , i\::- ! i;" , rf ' rl;. ! J.1.
Key. Qaf lalu llstun qal, which is equivalent to
qaf elif lam ustun qal; qaf la.m esre qil, or with a vowel
letter qaf ye lam esre qU etc.
! J I.. J.1. ! ";" J::- ) J::- ! J.; J -,'" Short sen tences. III.
j). J J::- ! JJ! jI.) ! .::.,L,.:, ir ! .:..,,( ";" j ! )IJ JJ!
Key. Sad vav lam ootre sol, qaf vav lam ootre qol,
sol qol etc.
, J'J; , J'.).i. ' , , , , Jb ' IV.
.. .. .. .. . ...
, , , , , ' , Jb- '
' ,
Key. Chim elif llstlln cha, qaf ye esre q', cha-gl, etc.
! JJ; jy:-Jl jjJ' ! jrJ' J).J' jj' V.
:Jj)! :JJ..,... ! !;,.1. !
te Pronunciation of Letters. 15
Key. Te vav eõtre tu, te vav noun eõtre tu n,
fll-tun etc.
DI. Pronunciation of Letters (continued).
§ 29. 'Eli/. There are four kinds of elif in
Ottoman:
a) The initial or herilze elif, which is a consonant,
not a vowel. Like any of the initial consonants, it
,.,
takes the three vowel points and letters; as: et meat
t
-.::.-,1 it dog, ot grass (§ 38).
.. .
Note. Initial elif is not generally indicated in
transeription, it beillg understood that whenever all
Ottoman word begins with a vowel, in the original it
begins with aif.
b) Orthographic or vowel elif, which stands to show
only the hard ustun vowel: it is used exelusively for
Turkish and foreign words; as: bal honey,
paris Paris, \'.J);r a'l'ropa Europe. .
.,
e) Shortened elif, which is written generally in the
shape of ye, but pronouneed short; it is used only
in Arabic words; as: ':J JA or J JA 'Inevla God, L-e or
..
ee-sa J esus.
d) Elongated elif, which is found only in Arabic
and Persian words; it lengthens the hard ustun vowel; as:
p. pasha, a. ä'mcen, p. ä'bad.
§ 30. J Va". There are four kinds of 'vav in
Ottoman:
a) Consonantõ'l vav, it has the phonetie value of v; as:
,
ev house, ';';J vaqit time, JT alev flallle.
b) Ortltographic or vowel vav, ,,,hich stands for the
yowel ootre; it is used only in Turkisll and foreign
,,"orda; as: JJ! yol way, O).1J) londra London.
e) Elongaled vat', whicll lenglltens the vowel ootre,
16 Pronunciation of Letters.
"
.RIld is found only in Arabie and Persian words; as:
p. ":'.-.MJ;) do st friend, a. rnemnoon glad.
d) Silent vav, which is found only in so me Persian
1\"ords, bet,veen the letters t khi and \ elif, and is not
p.ronounced; as: khaje teaeher, khanende
sInger.
§ 31. 4.s Ye has three sounds:
a) Consonantal ye, whieh llas the value of the eon-
sonant y, wllether it be initial, medial or final, shnple
or reduplieated; as: J! yel ,,"ind, seyr looking,
'flley win e.
b) Orthogral)hic or vOlcel ye, ,," hieh stands to show
only the esre, it is used only in Turkish and
foreign words; as: Jo .. ; qish ,vinter, Du,blin.
e) Elongated ye, ,vhieh is used only in Arabie and
Persian words and lengthens the esre; as: p. J\J peer
-..
old lnan, a. J'J valee governor.
§ 32. He has three sounds:
a) Consonantallte, which is a guttural and aspirated
.as the It in !torse; as: p. jA lUlner skill, 0 Jf qahve coffee.
b) Orthogral)hic or kl;, which stands for
ustun; as: 4.;\ astna vine, p. 0 bende slaveo
The vo,,"el he, ,vhen in the middle or at the end
of ,vords, is never joined to the next letter in writing;
.as: gelf>jeyim, "':. 4...,;\ asmaya.
e) Substitutive he, ,,"hieh is ehanged fronl te, and
is found only at the end of .L\rabie ,,"ords; as:
ltikyazye for 4: hikyalyet story.
§ 33. J qa!, !l kel. Tlle Ottomall alphabet
<listinguishes sharply bet,,"een the hard letter qaf and
ProDunciation of Letters. 17
t
:: i thesoft letter kef. The transliteration of this present work
; in accordanee with the judgment of the ripest scholars,
il I represents the by q and !1 with k. The coromon
t! people prollounee the qaf as ghayn at the beginning
! and the middle of words, and as kiti at the end. The
kel also at the end of \\?ords is prollouneed kh by the
('ommon people. Ex.: qochaq com. ghochaklt (brave),
. y
I qan com. ghan (blood), li qayish com. ghaY1'slt (thong),
gidejek com. gedejekh (he will go).
. . .
I I § 34. !1 kej is appropriate only to. soft syllables
I or words; it is so pronouneed as to represent in Turkish
",I four different sounds; to distinguish these four sounds
the letter may ba slightly modified in form. But in
I
general, in Ottoman, the alone is used to express
all four sounds, and the student can learn how to pro.-
nounce it only by practice.
I. The first of these four forms is ealled kef or
km' (keti At'abi, Arabic kef, by the grammarians); it is
pronoUDced as k. Ex.: JJ keo1· blind, ,-,\:.s' kitab book,
Jr kui ashes. ·
ll. The second is ealled gef or gfaf (kefi
Persian kef, by the grammarians), and it is pronouneed
aH hard g; it is sometimes distinguished by a modi-
fication in shape, thus (: Ex. : Jr geor see, Jr geol
lake, gel come.
Note. When :!J represents the sound either of k or of
9 hard, and is followed by an elif, it takes before the
\'owel a short and ineipient sound of i, whieh we have
united thus 'la. Ex.: kfaghid papel', jA\(' kwntil per-
reet, 0 \(\ a-gwJ" aware: 110t ka-ghid, ka-mil, a-gah; be-
(lause !l being a soft letter cannot go \vith a hard
vowel a (§§ 22, 37).
Tnrkish Conv.-Grammar.
2
18
Prollunciation of Letters.
III. The third is ealled saghir kef, or nef (surd kef),
and is pronoulleed as ng in the words ring, sing etc.;
it is anasaI '11
'
, and is represented by n. It is some-
times writtell !J ,vith tllree dots over it. It is never
to be. found elsewhere than at the lniddle of Turkish
words; and eonsequently never eau be initial. Ex.
:r; defdz sea, yaliniz alone, ... senin your.
IV. The fourth is ealled yaf, and is pronouneed
like the English y consonant; it is found only in Turkish
words. Ex.: f.:> deyil it is not, 4.s J' eyri erooked,
bey prince.
Exercise g.
! 2
JF
, Jj ! , , JdT' Jll" JIi
/"." S. ,"" ljl ",:' S "" l
Ll
J.:» 0 0 .,: t.l1 \ ! !1 \ !J \ !)\s" J li
1 •• " , ,. / 1 4 1 .... J lJt(""'"" 8.
).iJ' ':>.JJ'! j '.1
, 2,4: :. (/ • , S. L ' 2. Ie:- l:'" 4: .. /,,' -;/,
• 4J J Y · Jr-' )y Y' . . .
a r"· , 2,4: • r.." r'-
.0 &Jb.
J'- ....
Key. Qaf elif vav ustün qav, gef elif vav ftstftn-.gtav;
aql'naq, ektJlck, eyrnrk, annlaq; qol, geol; qa,·, kM'· etc.
§ 35. t.'ayn. The ayn has no equivalent in
European languages; it eharaeterizes only Arabie ,vords.
Its phonetic valne in Arabie and in the mout1l of an
Arab, is a harsh guttural catch or hiatus. As pronouneed
by a Turkish sellolar the letter is either entirely
silent or only the slightest hiatus is perceptible. The
common people pronounee it like an elif, and there is
no harm in pronouneing so. In this work sometimes,
when neeessary, tlle vowel sound is aeeompanied by
the sign C' and it is generally marked by an apostrophe.
r)... ma'-lum or ma-e--lum, 'a'-lem or
§ 36. t ghayn is represented by gh; as a-glla
Pronunciation of Letters. 19
.-
or com. a-a' sir, hagh vineyard, ogh'lau COln.
t 0' la.,." , ou-Ian boy. After a vo,vel vav J, witll tlle sounds
0, OU, t has very mu ch the sound of IV; !ike the gh,
of througMut. Thus J' ov-laq or ogh-laq kid; 4i. ,;
qm'a not qogha (a pall); J SOt'ouq not sogltouq cold;
.;i; qovmaq to expel; ovalamaq to rub.
§ 37. Note. In the transliteration of tlle foreign
proper names or nouns, the hard U, ,vllen followed by
a hard vowel, is represented by t. and not Ex. :
Hugo hou-gko, Gladstone ghladiston, guar-
dian ghard'iyal1, gazetta ghazela newspaper,
gas ghaz.
§ 38. $ Hemze. The idifat the beginning of,vords
is a consonant (§ 29), wllich is called henlZe or henlZe
air, because naturally there is a sign of hettlze over tlle
elif, which is not generally written. JJ' ol is originally
JJ', ;t e-ser is ;t J\ is Jj, -.:", is -.:,,1.
.. ..
§ 39. The cOlnbination of hemze elif with a voweI
so
elir (, I) is expressed by 1nedda, ,vhich is the vowel elif
"
put over the consonant hemze tiir (§§ 29 d, 47) ,= 1;
.,
as: = jT alnzaq, et, = or
§ 40. But when nemze is found in the middle of
words, if it ends the syllable, it is like an accent or
.. ..
a hiatus. Ex.: te-I/-sir inflllence, )JAL. 1nc-e'·tnour
offieer.
§ 41. At the beginning of syllables it is pro-
nounced as y consonant; as: J\; qayil, )1.) dayir.
1./.1 Note. The pronunciation of hemze and the changes
2-
20 Other Orthographic Signs.
".
it undergoes, are in accordance with the rules of Arabic
Grammar.
el. Other Orthographic Signs.
a) Jezma
§ 42. The letters in a syllable are either vowelled
or quiescent; the first letter of any syllable is naturally
vowelled, the others quiescent. The 'Vowelled letters are
accompaIlied by a vowel sign, but those which are qui-
eseent, are marked with the sign (0), called Jezma. Ex.:
besh-lik: the letters '-' b and J l are vowelled,
. .
as th ey are the first letters of the two sy llables; SIlo
and !l k are quiescent; therefore marked with Jezma.
J. J. ber-ber (barber): the two '-:"' bes are vowelled .
and }Joth of the) 'res quiescent and therefore marked.
:....:s:::; mfk-ttb (school) i mim and .:." te are vowelled,
!J kef and bf: quiescent .
.
§ 43. The yowel letters cannot have the lnark of
quiescence, as they are substituted for the vowel signs,
and indicate their kind; as baliq (fish), where aif
stands for ustfin, and does not need the SIgne
Exercise Il.
Read and write the following exerCIses:
, • , 0' ,.. , 0 .. ' l t ,Q \. t , • ""
I.
I I I I I I ":;'.1;
... .. MY Y .. ., ., "" .. ...
, , ,
• M
Key. Sin elif ustun sa, ayn te ustun at, sa-at;
Lalll elif ustun la, ye qaf esre yiq, la-yiq; Ti elif ustftn
ta, vav qaf ootre vouq, ta-vouq: ye and vav are consonants,
because they begins the syllable. .
, • \ ; \' ., • \ ' .. \ A \ 'J\ ; \' \.: \' ,. 0 \' \ ,. • -, II
· u _l;, ..J J-,. 7'.,) .J'., 'J\-I.,. r\.-.> ·
,t Other Orthographic Sign8. 21
, , ' '
, ... .,
o.)t:; 4 , .)\!i .. !tT' tr
Key. Kef esre ki, te elif be ustun tab, ki-tab; kef
esre ki, te elif fJstun ta, ki-ta, be ye esre bi, ki-ta-bi;
kitaba etc.
...
, ,J>' ' oJ...J-tS' , •• IV.
.y • ....", '..
. ,. . .
, ,..-rt " ... ... ' )\, __ .... , "',. ·:Y , 1'"
\.A.U:2A -' -'J-- ., L. .-I
.. ."rl. ".
,
o .) ' 0.) L
. ... .,.
Key. Shin re ustün sher, be te ustun bet, sher-bet,
jim ye esre ji, sher-bet-ji; ki-ta-bi-nlii, ki-tab-ji-da etc.
§ 44. In most cases, indeed, the vowel points are
not inserted, exeept in quotations from the Qoran, or
in writing a foreign word or IIalile, and in so me poetical
works. This at first causes a little embarrasslnent to
the learner; he must aeeustom himself to pronouIlee
the word as if such vowels did not exist, unti! he ean
supply them by a knowledge of the word. Tlle diffi-
eulty will vanish by dint of a little practice.
b) Shedda
§ 4õ. A consonant whicll is to be doubled ,vithout
the interposition of a vowel, is written only once, but
marked with the sign --' , which is ealled shed'da or
tesh-deed (strengthening). This reduplieation is not a
mere matter of orthography as it is in the English
language; when a letter is doubled in writing, it must
be doubled in pronuneiation, as is done in English
with the letters d, l, in tlle words 1n1·d-day, dog,
lun lips, thin nose.
22 .Other Orthographic Signs. ."
§ 46. The sign shedda belongs only to Arabic
(700), in Turkish ·words the letter is simply written
twice, as: sal'-la-'1naq not as JA'J\.p. Ex.:
. ,. .
is changed into the form hid' det (anger),
= ::1.. mil-let nation.
ExercJse J.
W rite and read the follo,,"ing exercise:
I , I .... I I , I I ....
, , , 'jlJ ' , Cf..
I I ,
• , .it"" , , ,: " " , 'Lt\.t', \ ....
!Jr !J:I,:)
Key. Jitn re uStuIl jer, re elif ha llstun rah",
jer' -rah' etc.
0) lIedda
§ 47. This sign is called med' da -=-, whieh means
long; it is put over elif to show that it must be pro-
nouneed with hard ustun a, and not as e, i, o. In
Arabic and Persian words it serves to lengthen the
,
elif (§§ 39, 603, 701 d); as: t. j\ es (crush), but 5\ as
....
is few; ::" et (meat), at (horse).
(faithful), a. ä meen (amen) .
a. emeen
..
..
Read and write the following exereises:
ch welll jj el hand j esh companion
.J ah aIas JT al take ask food
ev house ey hallo 1 il ek sow
;r av hunting if ay mouth jr aq white
r..uT ! a. r;r ! p. "t;T! a ... :,JT! p.?
Key. Elif he ustun ell" elif he medda ustun ah etc.
d) Nunation
§ 48. The marks of vowels when doubled, are
pronouneed with the addition of the sound n·, e'n,
, ,.,.
Accent. 23
,0; _ in, ten. This is called ten.-veen i. e. egiving tlIe

sound of noun'; it oceurs only at the end of an Arabie
word. The vowels thus doubled are spoken of as ;iki
?Istun, iki eSI·e, iki eotre respeetiveIy (§§ 670, 681). Ex.:
,. t/$ t/$ t/$
te fistftn te: or Õ or 4 te iki fJstun teno
.) dal ftstftn d Il: .) dal iki ftstun den.
t/$
,. ,.}
fe eõtre {li.: -..,.; fe iki eõtre (lln.
" , ", t/$ ., t/$,.f' • ." tJI4I",.} 't/$ 0
w t 'L. -b- ' \Ä> ' J , \..Q .. , l. \1il
.. " .J,.
Key. NOUll esre ni, zi elif ustun Zll, ni-za, mün
elif iki fistun men, ni-za-rnen etc.
D. Accent.
§ 49. It is difficult and ,vearisome to give absolute
ruIes and their exceptions in regard to the accent in
Ottoman Turkish, as it varies much. Some general
rules are given in the follo,ving lines, while in all
cases which eannot be included un der these ruIes, the
accent will be indieated.
I. Usually every Turkish ,vord is aecented on the
last syIlable; as: J' ev' house, keo-1Jek', agh-
, .
la-maq.
II. Words with double consonants have the accent
on the first consonant; as: sal'-la-ntaq to shake,
-
a. J'J'" sar'-raf banker, is'-siz lonely, te-
qad' -diim progress.
Note. The shedda in Arabic words serves as an
accent (§ 45).
· III. In Persian and Arabie, the vowelletters or the
Letters of Prolongation are pronouneed long and are
accented (§ 28); a. jri'-hil ignorant, a. (-J ke-
- -
reem' mereiful, p. a -tesh fire, a. khou-soos'
a poin t, respeet.
24 Euphony or Harmony of the ''''owela.
I''''. In ease of emphasis among words the accent
is on that ,,"ord ,,"hieh recei,es prominenee. Ex.:
1. Sen dii,,' nUI geldiii? ""'as it yesterday that yon
eame? 2. Dflll sell' ,ni gBdi'-i? "Tas it you that came
yesterday? 3. Sen dtl" geldiii' mi? Did yon come
yesterda.y? (§ 66).
'1". The letters 1", r, ,,"hen they are in the middle
and at the end of words, are accented; as # a-lir',
JJ, al'lah', 0 qalt' re coffee (pp. 5, 8).
E. Euphony or Harmony of the Vowels.
§ 50. A very remarkable peculiarity of Ottoman is
the attention paid to euphony in pronunciation, and the
changes of the sounds of vowels and consonants which
take place in consequence. Thus the collision of hard
and soft -letters in the sarne ,,"ord is always avoided.
And "Tllen one decHnes a ,vord or adds a partiele or
letter to it, whatever be the leading letter the others
must be pronouneed 80 as to agree "ith it (§ 87).
§ 51. There are t"yo simple rules of euphony in
the language for the words of purely Turkish origin:
a) If the first syllable of the word contains a hard
vo,vel, all the vowels in that word shouId be hard.
ol-dou it beeame, J1T al-tl six, a-laja-
ghi-mi-z?' our credit; not ol-di, al-t'l·, a-lr-je-glti-mi-zi etc.
b) If the first vowel be soft, the n the others should
be soft also. seo-Ztt the ,vord, geor-du ha
saw, jJ\ el-ler hands, goos-te-re-je-yi-miz; not
so-zi, el-lar etc.
§ 52. Remark: 1. On the above prineiples, when
one deelines a word or adds a partiele to it, the
of the syllable added is generally so pronouneed that:
A
after
' ' ,\k dam, dami, dama;
't eomes a:
t
,
Jt ' J' ' Jt el, eli, e-le;
» »
e:
ou
)
»
0: Jj' JJ; , J; qol, qolou, qola.;
,.
Orthography. 25
11 comes after eo: JJ)J' Jf goolu, georill";
a » 0, OU: J';' J choula, qola;
..
e » » U, eo: JJ J' g1i1en, gooren.
2. On the same requirements of euphony, in words
of Turkish origin which end in !J, J, these letters
are changed into y, gh, d (§§ 88, 89).
§ 53. When a word ending in a vowel receives
a grammatical ending beginning with a vo,vel, a hiatus
results, which is practically a difliculty in pronunciation.
This is very common in Ottoman. To avoid this difli-
culty it is necessary to insert a consonant 45 Y (see
§§ 91, 284, 287, 528, 543 etc.):
tr ana: anaya, p. Il ara: a1
4
ayish.
§ 54". As a list of words supposed to be exceptions by
some grammarians, we note u.' elma, which was originally
alma (apple', and is still so pronounced in many places;
while • .,; qak' -ve coffee, J pi-lav, kim-yon,
li-mon (lernon) are not Turkish .
..
§ 54
b
• As real exceptions to these rules are the
ending of the Present tense J-,,--, which is always
pronounced -yor, and the particle S'-ki,
,,·hich is never changed (§§ 140, 319).
F. Orthography.
§ 55. As the orthography of every Arabic and
Persian Ottoman word is fixed and unchangeable, it is
only in pure Turkish and foreign Ottoman words that
the orthography varies. The V owel or Orthographic
letters (' , J , 0 , 45) as they are called in Ottoman without
any inflexible rule are added or left out arbitrarily; as:
J'. and bilt11n; 45d· .. l .. qiUndi, are
all admissible.
26 Orthography.
"
§ 56. The true nlle is: 1. Xeyer introduee a
yowel Ietter into a Turkish or foreign Ottoman word
,,"ithout removing a possible doubt as to pronunciation;
2. Xever Ieave out a yowel in such a word. if bv omission
a doubt is ereated as to the pronuneiation ...
§ 57. The following two points must be regarded
as exceptions to tllis rule:
a) In syllabIe whieh is eomposed of two
consonants, if the yo\vel is soft llSfiill, none of the
orthographie (vo\,yel) letters IS adde<l; but if it is
composed of one Ietter 0 he is added to indieste the
yo,,"el; as: gel-di, heS/I, is-f!-mek.
b) Xone of the grammatieal affixes take the ortho-
graphle or yo,velletters; as gel-ilim, baslz-lat',
llch-litk, JT al-'Inaq .
.,
Tlle use of the orthographie or vowel lettera
is fully diseu8sed and shown on pages 13-16.
§ 58. There are some words in Ottoman, the or-
tllography of "yhich is the same, but the pronunciation
and meanings are differellt; as:
on ten; oun flour; tln fanle.
sugar; a. tIIanks.
jJ<' geoz eye; g{iz autumn; kooz an ember.
JJ> choul sackcloth; cheol desert, ,vilderness .
.,
J.; qoul servant; qo7 arm; a. qatel ,vord.
t <" biseuit; ktlrk fur; latrek shoveI; keoruk
:JJ.i bello,,"s.
f ga cOlne; kfl seaidehead; p. glil rose; a. kull all.
) J' iõlil dead; oulou, big.
rv
27
First Part.
Turkish Grammar.
, Lesson 1.
The Definite and Indefinite Artjeles.
§ 59. There is no Definite Article in Turkish; all
nouns, when used alone in s sentenee, are nsuaIly
considered as definite. Ex.: bab!l the father, tr ana
the mother, v:".)} the brother.
§ 60. The Indefinite Article is .:. bir s, an. Ex. :
1. ln·r at a horse, t..l, f'.:. bir koopek a dog, b'ir
- .,
qiz a girl, r.)' y. bir adem s man.
§ 61. The Adjeetive always preeedes the noun. Ex.:
Jj} g{izel beautifuI, .J!. , f:y'i good, ; f' kooti;· bad,
gllzel qiz the beautiful girl, f:-yi adhn the good man,
bir krotu chojouq a bad boy.
§ 62. As in English, there is no unnstural dis-
tinction of Gender in Turkish, that is to say: the names
of males are masenline; those of females feminine, and
those of inanimate ohjeets, neutere Thus: baba is mas-
culine, ana feminine, fl qiz felninine, ogk-lan (the
..
boy' IDaseuIine. :;; de-niz the sea, p. she-Itir the eity,
keoy (the village', are neutere
§ 63.' The Pe·rsollal Pronouns are: ben I,
Sen thou, J' 0 he, she, it. ;. bis ,,'e, sis YOU,
onlar they.
28 t r..r.):l Lesson 1.
§ 64. The Demonstrative Pronouns are: y. bou this,
r shou that (near by), J' 0 that (distant).
§ 65. The Present Tellse of the Turkish Substantive
Verb is the following:
Affirmative Present
r!\ ben' im I am ..f..\ .f. biz' iz we are
j- sis' siniz you are. ü- sen' sin thou art
.):l J\ 0' dour he is. J.):l J;J\ onlar' d;,rlar they are •
Inter·rogatice Affirmative Present.
? {"!\ or ? r. ben' mi yim? (§ 5 S).
? Ü!- ü- » ? Ü!-:-- ü- sen' mi sin?
? .):l c.:f J \» ? .)J.:- J \ 0' 11l0U dout·?
? ..f.. \ c.!.f.» ? bis' mi yis?
? c..,A..".;- ».? sis' 'tni silliz?
? J.):l LA );J\ »? J;J\ onlar' 'tni dirlar?
AIn I? art thou? is he? etc.
§ 66. As will be seen, the question is expressed
by adding mi, '11lOU after the word emphasized by
the question (§ 49 IV). Ex.:
? r- &. ben' mi yitn? Am I? (§ 53).
? f gul beyaz' mi dir? Iö the rose white?
f yo J! bou bir gul' mil dur? Is this a rose?
yo f gul bou' mOlt OOur? Is this the rose?
§ 67. The third is the Copula; its
pronunciation, !ike that of 'tni is governed by the
preceding vowel, and is: di'r, dir, dour, dltr, as the
case may be (§ 52).
Loughetler, Words •
'Ce and
...
J\ ev the house
. \ ev' -vlt yes j f'.J \ lõ-kuz the ox
·The Definite and Indefinite ArticIes.
J-. j qousll, the bird
a. qaleln the pen
a. \J& hava air, weatber
qiz qardash a sister
.!l.J!y. beo-yuk great
.!ly;-.f' ku-chuk lit.tle
-
J\ aq 'white
o qara black
t5jA qirmizi red
a. faqir poor
zengin rich
genj young
29
t..\1, ( tol) dagh mountain
J\j.J\ ouzaq far
'!Iaqi", near
sijaq ,varm, hot
JJ;"'" so-vouq cold (§ 36)
p. 'Jol dere valley.
Note 1. These "'ords, as 'weIl as those contained in the
preceding rules, must be thoroughly committed to memory, herore
doing the exercise and translation.
Note 2. Those words without any mark are Turkish in
origin, those with an a Arabic, those "'ith a p Persian, and those
"ith an f foreign in origin.
, Taleem, Exerelse 1.
· j • • T • J.>&> ., ,
- • U.T \.,;.T. J .., J • .J., .-tI.
'. • J. • t.» J. 0 • 0)) J. • 0)) ;.. to
JI • )...\iljJI • .;? JljJI Y • J. • t\k.;:
.;: 1 :!JJ!,.1. t.\k :!JJlJ. t.\k .1. • & :!JJlJ. .1. A
J' · J!' J' .. · J.r.J::-.1..' \ · !J.J!.1.
· ),) .:J J. .1. • .:J I • .:.J • .:J J. • .:.J.1. ,. ').li J. J! I
• yo • yo J\jJ\ " • yo
',,- • J;) 'T •
, · jj J ·
! :!JJ!.1. \to .J)) J!I I;T J , v':..b}
Black) · 1 (Montenegro) el.:. o} · (eagle) J.; o} '0
· LIb ji · (vulture) JT · (Mediterranean) ji · (Sea
1 Observe that a parenthesis ( ... ) encloses a word to be
30 t r..rJ:l LesBon 1.
J Terjeme, TranslatloB 2.
1. The horse. A horse. A good horse. The good
horse. A horse and an ox. 2. A house. A large house.
The large house. The house is large. 3. A man. The
man. A white man. The white man. 4. The Black
Sea. The Black Mountaiu. The White Sea. The White
Mountain. 5. A white rose. The white rose. The red
rose. 6. A bad boy. This is a bad boy. This is the
bad boy. 7. The house is nearo The city is far.
8. A horse, a bird and an ox. The good horse and
the big ox. 9. This bird is white. Is this bird white?
It is black. 10. The brother is young. He is a goocl
lnan. 11. The eagle is a large bird. That bird is a,
beautiful eagle. 12. The Mediterranean is a great sea ..
Correct the following sentenees.
• JJ:> J\.jJ\ '" • r:::5 j-' r .!l (.:\ ,
J\jJ\ Y • J'jJ' .;f! J" .;.;J;) 0 • J!' JJ' to
1
):> !l)!.1. J-; ,. .):> J' \ .. '" A :1):>
..
.u Mitkialeme, Conversatlon.
J 'r Sival, Question
Sen zengin'mi sin?
Qardash faqir'mi dir?
Ogh'-lan e-yi'mi dir?
Sen e-yr nli sin, kentd' md sdn?
Qiz qardash e-yr mi?
Bou dagh ydksek'mi?
Onlar genf mi dir?
Siz faqir'mi siiiiz?
Aq-Deiiiz booydk' mil?
Aq baba booydk bir qOl1sh'mou
dour?
Jevab, Answer
Ev' vet, zengin'im.
Ev' vet, faqir' dir.
Ev'vet, oghlan e-yr dir.
Ben e-yr yim (§ 53).
Ev' vet, qiz qardash eyi'bir qtz dir.
Ev' vet., ydksek' dir.
Ev'vet, genf dirler.
Biz zengin'iz.
Qara- kdchdk ddr.
Ev'vet, booydk bir qoush'd0!lr.
translated, or an annotation, 'whereas brackets [. . .] signify
ve out".
1 In such answers the predicate cannot be omitted. Jt must
be evvet, sija, dir.
rt The Substantive Verb. Sl
r Lesson 2.
The Substantive Verb.
§ 68. The Turkish PluraI is formed by adding
the affix ) to the singular. This affix is prollouneed
lar, afterhard vowels, and ler nfter soft ones. Ex. :
deynek stiek: deynekUr sticks.
kedi eat: kediler ests.
bridge:
.JJ qapou door:
r--=;' khi-sim relati ve :
)!...JiJ<i' keopruler bridges.
J.JJ qapoula'l· doors .
) .... .-:;. khi-simlar reIa ti vesa
§ 69. Titles of respeet are given to persons
according to their dignity, offiee and oeeupation.
{ffen'di Sir, Mr., is peenIiar to elergynlen and edueated
people. or vulg. a-a', to tradesmen, laboure!'&-
and old 111en; it means Mr., Esq. bcy, prince, is
given to civil functionaries and popularly to any per-
son of supposed distinetion. Each of these titles is
put after the nanle of the person himself, not after his
family name, as in English (§ 495). Ex.:
J..>' , Ah'1nedeffencli,Ah'tnedagha,AJt'lnedbey ..
§ 70. When the subject is a pronoun it is often
omitted (§ 120) .• Ex.: (.I-tl ben eyi'yim or (.I-tl eyi'yim
I am weIl; J:.:3 siz tenbel' siüiz or
tenbei' siniz you are idle.
§ 71. In Turkisb, as in English, the adjeetive-
precedes the noun, and never varies, being the same-
whether it qualifies a singular or a pluraI substanti ve,.
a maseuIine or a feminine noun. Ex.: Jj)
gl;zel chichek beautiful Hower: JjJ<:' gitzel chichekler
.,. .. .,.
r 1J*.):l Lesson 2.
bea u tiful flowers; c::..\J !l Y,..1. beoyuk a· ghaj a big tree: !l J'J-
J=:- \il beoyuk aghajlar big trees.
§ 72. The Negativa of the Present Teose of the
Substaniive verb is as follows:
Negative Present.
r!\ y:; or (-'({:J deyirim, .f..\ y:; or deyil'ie.
y:; » Ü!-lSl deyil'sin, y:; , deyiZ'silliz .
.J:l y:; » deyil' dir, J.):l Y:;» xl deyiller'.
I am 11ot, thou art not, he is not, etc.
Inter1·ogative Negatit'e Present.
? r!\ y:; or ? deyil'mi yim?
? ? deyil'1ni siii?
? .J:l ,->A Y:;» deyir mi dir?
? deyil'mi yie?
?j.G r..fY:; » deyil'mi silliz?
? ).J:l '-' y:; » ? deyil'mi di,,.ler?
Am I not? art thou not? is he not? etc.
Note. It is very useful for the learner to conjugate the
:adjective with the verb and to write the latter in both its forms,
the full and the abbreviated ones; as:
i!\ or ';'JJ! 'J:l w';'JY. or
?,!\ c.:f 0JS:..)J! or? 0';'JJ! '
-etc.
.! J..b.. ! khayr' no!
t. I ev'vet yes!
J.!S} qon-sllou' neigh bour
p. dttsh-men' enemy
p. ":="'-.J:l dost friend
Words.
! r'x';\ khayr.' effendim! No,
• w Slrl [Sir!
! rJ..:J\ ev't;et effbndim! Yes,
J \.A. yapraq' leaf
p. bah,'-je
1
garden
aeda island
1 This is the COOlmon pronunciation, the correct pronun-
is: khas' -ta, ikh' -ti-yar, khosh' -nolCd, bagh' -ehe (p. 8).
The Substantive Verb. 38
8. asker soldier
• J'; qah've coffee
J.,...J -ver' gi ve
Ü!;j\ Arti" Pascal
, 4;; tepe, depe hill
80U water
a.
J:.!! yeshir green
tnek very
'f r •
W';'JY,. yorghoun' tired
:lJ y:- jeomerd' generous
8. p. Jts:" .... l=t tama'kiaravaricious
p. .jL; tase fresh
w \i aJ chali8hqan diligent
Jl:-;'\ ih'-ti-yar 1 old (age)
P
• &. hosh'-noud
1
content,
• happy
p. hasta'1 sick
y..\ pek egi very weIl I
Exerclse 8.
r;\ )':';'1 ! - '
. '.fo\L. Jj)Y .):>.Jit
r' .j tr yo t. I .J. J:-J:>.Jit ' Jr(,; j 'I'"
J.:"! 0 .jt" , J:> ojt" YD - 0""; J
, J:!! 1 - ,
, ul:S 1 - J.:!) ft.r.y: '
.!.I, ! r..l.:i1-1 y .j):>
L:1.1.' J' A J )L:;-'
• J. "
, J.:.5 - • J.::l \. ..3:.' ,
rw- • " •
\ T • r J.:!) ! ,-ci' \ \ · J.:!)
(Artin) ''I'" J '::'-'J:>
- \ t. .),) J rl}
- \ 0 .),) r' J 1 J....ci'
• S; ! r.cil
1 See the N ote page 32.
Turklah Conv.-Grammar. 8
r u-Jl LesBon 2.
t J Translatlon 4:.
1. Little hills. Red Howers. The green leaves and
the beautiful gardens. 2. Is not the house large? -
Yes, Sir, it is large. 3. The islands are small. That
island is not small. 4. The coffee is very. good. It is
not 3(a) 1 very 2good ,coffee. 5. The gardens and the trees
are very nice. 6. Is the coffee ready? - No, Sir! 7. Are
you ready? - Yes, gentlemen 1 I am ready. 8. Who
is Mr. Charles? - He is a good neighbour. 9. Is the
water fresh? - No, Sir, it is not fresh. - Gi\Te (a)
fresh water. 10. Is the garden very far? - No, Sir, it
is not very far, it is near. 11. Ahmed Bey is a good
soldier. 12. He iS,a generous man. 13. That gentleman .
is not 14. Master Georgie is very young.
To be corrected.
..1.>\ 1 - .;AY': S-ci\ \
)Jj) JiJ\ 'I"" .S;):> r;f.J. Jj)
0 t. .J);:,)..;\
1 J):> V ,
41 Conversatlon.
'-:""' '.r. Jevab A n s w e r
• rl.,.,...p."
• r.d\
• r.d\ .)l
.V"':'" ,,\ ""', °t •
• .).J.O l J!
.Jl Ja !JY:'.J !
• .)l !J .J!.,,! Ja !
, ."'-';.J!\! r.d\

• .)l ..:-;. ! r.d\
J'j-, Sival Question
? lJ ! ($..L:i\

?
\
Y. t-e.J
?.).J..:e t. J. .!l.J!y.
? , .).J..:e l Ja !J.J!Y. l
? J .,.,.;, • .,,-.i y.. \

)
. \- ..
• .)l
The Substantive Verb.
§ 73. The Preterite or Past Tense Oi
Verb is as follows:
\ j: biz' idik Wt..
-'-!' :r- siz' idilliz you ,
35
ben' idim I W8S
v- sen' idilf, thou WRst
J\ 0' idi he was );J\ onlar' idilertheywere.
- ..
The Negative Past Tense.
ü: ben d/yil' idi,n \ fi j. biz deyil' ülik
,:.,- sen degil' idin fi .;- siz degil' idiftiz
J\ 0 degil' idi ),-'-!' fi );J\ onlar d/yil' idiUr.
A: I W8S not, thou wast not, he was not, etc.
'rM Interrogative Forms of the Same.
Ben' tni idim? sln' mi idift? 0' tAOU idi?
Biz' mi itlik? siz' mi idiiliz? onlar' mi idiler?
Was it I? W8S it thou? etc.
Be" dlyil' mi idim? sen deyil' mi idifl? 0 d/gil' mi idi?
. Biz tUgil' mi idik? siz d/gil' mi idi11iz? onlar dlyil' nl ,i
idiUr? or d/gil' ler miyidi?
Wae it not I? was it not thou? etc.
". § 74. The Numerals are used just like all other
adjectives. Like them, they precede the nOUD. The
" noun qualified by cardinals al\vays remains in the
(§ 71). Ex.: i;iJ. bir adem a man,
111 chojouq two boys.
iki two jT alti six
1:' .J \ mk th ree
'-
dtort four
blsh five
yldi seven
sekiz eight
jp dOfJoUZ nine
36 ,., LeSSOll S. ,."
WJ\ on ten J. WJ\ on bir eleven
0.JI on ikl twelve, etc. .1
§ 75. The English word is expressed in two
ways, by r.Ayarim and by bouckouq (§ 207). Yarim
is used before a noun like an adjective: yarim
gun half a day, yarim sa'at half an hour,
\1.1 yarim elma half an apple.
Bouchouq is always used in connexion with a
number. Ex.: iki bouchouq two and a half,
JJ=:-J! e' uch bouchouq sa'at three hours and a half,
JlT alti bouckouq gun six days and a half.
§ 76. The English phrase is, there are" etc.
is express ed in Turkisb by 1 J'J var (there is, exists':
its negative being yoq is not' (§ 126 a).
. -
';\.J '';\.J var, var dir there is,
.;J.i y. ' Jy. yoq, yoq aour there is not.
<.S.l:, \ ';\.J var idi, varidi there was,
Jy. yoq idi there WRS not.
) ';\.J "7"l:.S"..,t. bir kitab var (dir) there is a hook,
<.SJ:\ ';\.J "7"l:s"..,t. bir kitab var telt there was a book.
J.i l:.S'" - l:.S" bir kitab yoq, bi,· kitab yoq dO'Uf' there
J :J! "7" ..,t. is not a book,
JJ! "7"l:.S"J. bir kitab yoq idi there W8S not a book.
§ 77. The Locative case is made by the addition
of 0.) de, da to the end of the word (§ 84). Ex.:
o.)J' evde in the house, oJ.J. tS' kitabda' in the hook,
1 The "Tord var is ealled the ,r erh of Existenee and Non-
existenee, or Verb of Presenee and Absenee by some European
Grammarians, but there are no such 'verbs in Turkish.
The Sabstantive Verb. 81
bah' -je-de in the garden. Evde bir adetn var,
., .
dir, there is a man in the house.
\) -..ul:!' \ 0 kitabda dir, there are
Jl J.J- .J pictures in that book.
. L Bah,' -jlde chichAk goq' dour, there are
J . no flowers in the garden. .
eS..u \ \ v"" . L Bah'· jldl bir ,ur Nr idi, tbere wall
- J.J ,J> Jo a rose in the garden .
.!l.1" \ \ .!l ... J' <'" Bir gUtll tJI bBJyuk' hdA idik, we were
- Ol., JJ" Jo in a nice [and] big house.
§ 78. In asking the hour, it is said:
sa-at qach'dir? What o'clock is it?
.,
sa-at iki'clir, it is two o'clock.
.. ..
L qach' sa-at dir? means: How many
But hours are there?
iki' sa-at dir, there are two hours.
Sa-at means a1so (a watch': .J. bir
sa-at an old watch, -:'.,,:JT .J. bir aZtoun' sa-at a
gold watch.
p. .t:- si-yah' black
eS J. , i-ri Jarge, big
ye-fli new
c..if;- choq much, many
c.SJt-, sari yellow
?[.li qach? how many?
l.J- 81la milk
.p. 0J:" meyve fruit
Prop. namu. a. ü-> Hasan
Words.
a. beyaz white
Jli.J\ oufaq small
es-gi old
jT az few, birazalittle
? rr kim? who?
[.li ....r. bir qach some
8. sharab wine .
8. school
8. r:..J kerim
o Exerelse Õ.
J:.; J Jj) o"*1i.T J *\J S.r..
1
\
• J'J J\;JI J S0. !.IJ!J! y .),);lJ
38 .. J,) LesBon 3.
t. • JJ:> o:>JI :.. ... ,
l' 0 0 • # J
o.)J' J o.\t'J ' ·l' 0);..!:J J
o:>JI • JJ:> o:>JI o...ul) J I r...l:tl •
- · J!' V
J , 0\:--' • .,.; A • !.Jf-
J.al:- I i..cil - 4SJS"
, \. .):>
\\
4S-,!1 -
1 L. J! \ t. • 1 JS':> .:., J:> ' 4s -'! 1 ..; J! .::.,):> I f..J'f- -
• J:> J. JjJ)" ... J! ! r<! jj'
" J Translation 6.
1. Was he siek? - No, Sir (Be-yirn), he was not
sick; the soIdier was very sick. 2. Is ... B·ey at
home? - No, Sir, he is in the" garden. 3. Who is
there at home? - Hassan Effendi is at home. 4. Seven
days and nine hours. Eight and [a] llalf days. 5. Was
the coffee hot? - Yes, Sir, the coffee and the milk
are llot; they are not cold. 6. 'Vho is this young
gentleman? - He is Kerinl Effendi. 7. Three and
seven are ten; five and six are eleven. 8. There are
twelve hours in a day. 9. Aq-Shehir, Esgi-Shehir and
yeni-Sh.ebir are Iarge [and] fine eities. 10. How mllny
islands are there in the Mediterrallean Sea? 11. How
many islands are there in the Black Sea? - There are
two [or] three bad isIands.
To be corrected.
J.! Y .JJJ )lj;') hJ! JIJ J.1. jT \
• JIJ - '1 JIJ • J:>
Declension of N ounl. 89
J.J! .» 0.) 0 J' J '-'-!' y. .» t. .) .li .1. -..:.. L..,
.J. 0t:..Iii.J.!J
r
.u CODTersaUon.
Selat)l, Salutation
Sabah'lar khayr' olsoun!
Akh'shamlar khayr' olsoun!
v' aqltIar khayr' 0180un!
N a' stl stDtz, eyi' mi siliiz?
Eyi'yim, teshek'kllr ederim.
Siz na' sll sUitz, eyi'mi siiiiz?
Choq' eyiyim effendim.
EI-ham'dlll-lah' eyi'yim.
Rija' ederim, otourounouz'.
Theshek'ktlr ederim.
Bouyou' rouli effendim,otou' rou li.
Baasan' Effendi, nererle siniz?
Bouyou'rouli effendim!
Gejeler khayr' olsoun!
Hoah' geldifiiz.
Good morning!
Good evening!
Good day!
How do yon do?
I am ",'ell, thank you!
Howare you? are YOll AI?
I am very weIl, Sir!
Thank God, I am very weIl.
Please take aseat.
'fhank yon!
Come in, Sir; take aseat.
Mr. Hassan, ,,-here are yon?
Yes, Sir.
Good night!
You are welcome.
t Lesson 4.
r-\ J \ r \ Declension of Nouns.
§ 79. There are two numbers in Turkish: Singular
and Plural; and six cases, expressing the different
relations ofwords to each other; namely: the Nominative,
Genitive, Dative, Aecusative, Locative and Ablative cases.
§ 80. The Nominative case (or the Subject) anS\\Ters
to the questions: u'ho? 01' what? f' kim? 4i ne? as the
subject of the verb; as: Who is learning? - The boy
ogk'lan.
§ 81. The Genitive (or Possessive) case answers
to the questions: tehose? or of 'U.'ln·c1t? kimin?
40 ... 'J'Jl Lesson 4.
....
nenin. Ex.: Whose book? - The boy's book
J \:s' ogklanin 1 kitabt
§ 82. The Dative answers to the questions: to whom?
townich? Wkime? ne-ye? Ex.: To whom shall I
.. ..
give it? - To the boy oghlana.
§ 83. The Aeeusative (or Objeetive ease) marks
the objeet of an action, and answers to the questioDs:
whom? or wkat? kimi? nCyi? Ex.:!Whom or
wh.do you see? - I see the boy, the house
ogk-lani 1, evi 1.
§ 84. The Locative answers to the questions: where?
wherein? 0;)0; nerede? Ex.: Where is the boy? - He
is in the school mektebde .
.
§ 85. The Ablative answers to the questions: from
fro1n wltat? kimden? neden? Ex.:
..
From whom did you take this book? - FrOln the boy
oghlandan.
§ 86. There is onlyone declension in Turkish, with
four variations:
First Form.
§ 87. The first form comprehends all nouns
ending in consonants (except !l k, and J q):
a) Nouns ending in soft syllables.
Singular ;,;... Mufred' PInraI e. Jem'
N. J.J..; pidlr' I i pederler' I ;
G. pUIT"'''': of pederleri,,, of
D. pedere' to 1i .JJ.J..; pederUre' to .s
1 The Geniti ve and the Accusative do not al ways take the
telminations -in, -i. These are required only when the DOUll in
.... DecleDsioD of N ounl. 4!
A. tS.)4 pederi' \
L. ..).)-'1 pldlr,u' in I
A. .JtUrtUn' from
IS pldir Uri , l S
_J '.;.1" pidirllrde' in
"r' ..
'.J " , ....
0J).)-'1 from !
N.
G.
D.
A.
b) Nouns ending In
J"u. tash'
tasheR' of
tasha' to
hard syllables.

,...
õ
-
ID

J! U. ttJIhlar'
.!l)! ttJIhlanÄ' of
-.F ut tashlara' to
tasliia"'

L. ..1!u.., tashila' in -Jj!u.., tashlarda' in
A. 0.1!U. tashdan' from wJ)!u.., tashlarda,,' frc!
e) Nouns ending in syllables wbich have the hard
vowels ou or 0 in them.
N.
rJ. moum'
G. moumou,i' of

-
D. 4.A.,. m01lma' to

e
aS
co;
A. ",oulnoa'
j...r mOllmla r'
.!JJ • .,. mourIllari,;' of
_j..,. moumlara' to
..sj...r moumlarf
..c
L. fJloumda' in .. _Jj...r nw",nlarda' in
A. w.J.A..r moullldan' from W Jj...r nloumlardan' from
d) Nouns ending in syllables whicll have the 80ft
vowels eo or 1t in. them.
N. Jr 81ld'
G. .!l Jr stldtl,i' of !l) Jr Slldierin' of
.
aD
-Jr Bude' to
.:1lII
-)Jr 81ldlire' to
JId
D. -
.-
-
,..
,..
8
-
A. tS J J- suda'

t.S JJ r sudUrl/
.c:
,...

-
L. -JJ J- s iul lIe' in -J) Jr 8'lidlerde' i n

A. WJJr Budden' {roIn wJ)Jr 8udlertlen' from
the Genitive or Accusath·e is definite. \\'·hen the -ifi or -i is omitted,
the Genitive or .. A.ccu8ativA i8 the same the NOlllinative in form
(§§ 109, 251). \Vhen the Indefinite form of these t,,·o C88e8 i8 to
be described, it is styled by some Orientalists the Nominatival
form of the Genitive or Accusatiye. But the indefinite form8 of
those two l"a8e8 are called by the native grammarians

42 'J'Jl Les80n 4.
Second Form.
§ 88. The second form of declension comprises
all consonants. ending in J q. The difference from
the first declension is this, that J q is changed into
t gh, whenever it is followed by a vowel (§ 52, 2). Ex.:
J. ba-liq: here J q is not followed by a vowel, because
it stands at the end of the svllable. ba-li-qa: here
u •
the third syllable begins with J q and is vowelled,
therAlre it changes into t gh, thus we have ba-
li-gha. This change takes place in the Genitive, Dative
and Accusative cases: in the Locativa and AbIative cases
and in the pluraI the J q remains unchanged, because
in those cases q is not followed by a vowel.
No ts. In Arabic and Persian ,,"orda and in all words borrowed
from foreign langusges, the J q remains nnaltered.
Singular jA M'tl.f'red' PluraI
l5
N.
G.
D.
A.
L.
A.
.
·
ba-ltq ).Äl ba-ltq-lar
·
ba-U-glf,ill of .!l).Äl ba-liq-la-rtn of
.' .
.
ba-l1,-glta to

..c:
.).Äl4 ba-liq-la-ra to oo
c=
·
ba-li-gltt
Q,)
ba-liq-la-ri
..c:
.

·
• ..Lil ba-liq-da i n .l).il4 ba-liq-lar-da in
• •
c:"J....iJ ba-liq-da'n from ba-ltq-lar-dan from
. The fire-place
" .

o-jaq-dan o-jaq-da o:;ja-ghi o-ja-glta o-ja-ghbl o-jaq.
The boy
c.:f;..Y:-Y:'
cho-jou-ghou
"

cho-jou-glf,a

. ..ü
CJ y:-.J":
cho-jo-uq-dan


cho-jou,-ghoutl
:
• ..u y:-Y:'
cl,o-jouq-da.
.,=;-
cho-jooq
li
..c
aa
c=
Q)
..Q
.a
at thb
Declension of Nouns. 48
Third Form.
contains all the soft syllabled
"' letter kef is changed into
is, when the syllable
1]e k is cbanged into
nong, for
therefore the k DJ ..
"lot vowelled, it is
,,\ ror-de-ke is
\\'ith !l k;
, ror-de-ye
. unciation,
Ja.f (§ 34).
(§ õ2, 2). This is
as tbere are no different .
I
In the pluraI and in the L,-
: k is unchangeable, 8S a vowel L
I follow the k (§ 88).
I . Singular Mu/red'
N.
G.
.!Jl.).J\ eor' -dlk the duck
eor' -dl-yin of the duck
'"
.J). eor' -dl-yl to the duck "
A. fi.).J\ {jjr' -de-yi the duck
L. eor' -dek-de in the duck
Lative cases
imnlediately
A. eor' -dlk-dln from the duck.
• Plural Jl'm,'
N. foJ.J\ {jjr' -d/k-ler the ducks
G. .!Jfo.).J\ lOr' -dek-llrill of the docks
D. {jjr' -dek-ll-rl to the ducks
A. {jjr' -dekelleri the ducks
L. • lfo.).J\ {jjr' -dek-llr-dl in the dncks
A. wolfo.).J\ eor' -dek-ll-r-dln from the ducks.
The bread
,-,:<.s1
Ik·mIk-de", Ik-nzlk-de Ik-tlll-yi Ik-ml-ye Ik-ml-yill lk-mlk.
44 ... u-Jl Leason 4.
l'lIe whistle

'"
J";l.Jl
dit-duyA
W.J..5:;'l .Jl
du-duk-den
au-au-lIu du-du-yuil
o.J:;lJl
du-auk-de.

du-duk
Note. JJ\ oq arrow, J)=t toq aatiated, JJ q',q forty, .!lY.
yuk load, !J.r kCok a root, are exceptions to the above rules, aa
they do not changa q into gh, and k into y.
Fourth Form.
§ 908.. The fourth form comprises all nouns
ending in the vowel Ietters 4.s 0 J ,. In the singular,
the Genitive is formed by adding tt -nin; in the Dative
-ye is added to the Nom., in the Aec. J. -yi (§ 63).
No change takes place in the remaining cases or in
the pluraI (§§ 88, 89).
§ 90
b
• When a word ending in a voweI receives
a gralnmatical ending beginning with a vowel, a hiatus
results, which is practicaIly a difficulty in proDuneiation.
This is very cornmon in Turkish (§ õ3). To. avoid this
difficulty it is usual to insert a consonant 4.s 'Y (and only
in the Genitive n. This is really the retention of
part of the original genitive termination -n-in).
Singular Murred'
N. t;\ a-na
G. lf\ a-na-Jl fR of
D. lf\ a-na-ya, to
A. l;\ a-na-yf,
L. ol t;\ a-na-da in
A. 0llf\ a-na-clan from
The cat
W .J..S"" o.J.J .J..S""
kA-di-aen kl-di-tle
PluraI c=- Jen{
Jlf\ a-na-lar .
.!lJt;\' a-na-la-,tn of
oJl:\' a-na-la-ra to
,.sJ lf\ a-na-la-ri
a-na-Zar-da in
a-na-lar-dan from
,.s .J..S""
ki-di-ye

..
ke-cli-nin
,.sJS"
kA-dl,.
\1
The weIl

qou-you-you
The hill
Declension of Nouns.
..

qou-
o ly,.}
qou-you-dan
-
qou-you-noun
..
.l..J!..J'
qou-you-da.
45
:
..
y,..J'
qou-you


.. t' t t
.. t' t'
de-pI-tU-n d/-pe-tU de-pe-yi de-pe-ye de-pe-nl,ii, de-peo
The water
.lJ"'l'


.. J"'I'
8ou-fla,., 8ou-da 8OU-Y0U sou-ya 80t1-'II0Uif, 8014.
Note 1. Singulars ending in the vowel • -e do not join
this letter to the sign of the pluraI or the endings of cases (§ 32 b).
Note 2. The word sou forms its Genitive irregularly.
v ExerelBe 'i.
Deeline the following words, writing them in Turkish
characters: and also indicate their pronunciation in Eng-
lish characters, with their meanings.
, '); , il!.;.! , .J§ , , c::..
1if
' , t\l, , ';b)l; ,
, , !ly'.1. ' 0"';' ' , lii'
jljft'anq a frane o}
• 4.s j keoy village
Translate into English.
T • JJT ' ;.;f
..s.1SJS" yo · 0.J§ y. ' 0..l..4\.!;.1
JT t. o}
· j. i · o§ · jj'; ! 0
· .:: I:S"" l:5'. o)i.f': A • 0 J.J§ • 0 .,.; IS. 0 V
4iJ' \ . •
... J-'-
46 ... lJ'.)l Lesson 4.
... ,
, fi'.t': ! , · 4>..[' \ \ · J,I

A J TranslatloB 8.
1. The mountains; of the mountains; to the mOUD-
tains; from the mountain. 2. Four [or] five trees; on
the three trees; of the good tree, of the good trees,
from the good trees. 3. Give the book (aec.) to the
big [one]. From the big [one]. 4. In the valley, to the
valleYR. The vallays are green. õ. 6 I saw 2 the green
hilIs, s the black mountains 4 and 5 the white flowers
1 from the village. 6. In the hot, to the hot; the hot
(ace.); the hot (nom.). 7. 21 saw 1 the gentlemen (aec.);
to the gentleman; of the gentIemen; on the gentleman.
8. The green leaf (ace.); on the green leaves; on many
green a.nd nice leavesa 9. Of the coffee; in the coffee;
from the coffee. To the coffee-houses (qah'velere). 9. From
the hot; from the cold; from the little and on the great.
10. To the great men. 11. To the white and the black
(aec:). 12. To five francs.
Correct the following words.
! ktt-chu-ku ! ! 4itl ! ttp:t \
, '" , .. , ' ..,,' \;. , , "" ,., .., "" ,. -"'i •
.J! · J. . . ;:'.J . '" " •
.üJ::-Y. t · 'the arrow ·
• , JO))
41 COBversatloD.
Hoshja qaliii effendim.
Hoeh geldiiiiz, sefa geldiiiiz.
Selsm seoyle.
Pedere choq selam seoyle.
Bash dstdne effendim.
Good bye, Sir!
You are weleome.
Give my salutations (to the home
eirele).
Give my salutatjoDe to your
father.
Very weIl, Sir.
The PronouDs.
o Lesson 5.
\:s The Pronouns •
..
4T
§ 91. Turkish Pronouns are divided into seven
elasses:
1. Personal, 2. possessive, 3. adjectival, 4. demon-
strative, õ. reflexive, 6. indefinite and 7. interrogative
pronouns.
1. Personal Pronouns.
§ 92. They are: j. ben, sen, J' 0, 4.S.;.:j
They are declined as follows:
First Person.
Singular ;) JA Ma(red'
N. ü: ben I
G. r. beni"t my
D. ba-na to me
A. bi-"i me
L. bende in me
Ä. benden from me.
PluraI e.
j. bis we
r): bisim our
0): bize to us
eS): bizi us
0.)): bizde in us
ü.)): bizden from us.
Second Person.
N. .:r sen thou
G. -!.l:...., se-nill thy
D. L<- sa-ft(I to thee
A. se-ni thee
j- s;,s you
.!l;- sizilJ yours
o j_ size to you
eS j- sizi you
L. 0'>':'- se",-de in thee o.)j_ sizde in you
A. Ü'>':'- sln-denfrom thee. 0.)";- liztlln from )'OU ..
Third, Person.
Singular JA Mufred'
N. .J\ 0 he sbe, it
G. cmouft, anift his, hers, its
48

r,J'Jl LesBon
5,
D. ts"T ' t<J \ o-na',
,
J to bim, him
a-na
l to her, to it
.-
e JJ \ o-nou', A.
11\
A'
a-tu. him, her
-
L. '\' '\ d' o..li . o.)..·J on- a,' an-de' in hiln
-
A. w.J.; \ ' on-dan', an-den' from hinl.
PluraI r:5 Jem
,
N.
G.
D.
A.

li\
.!l t\
..;
-
o..;t \
c.S)f\
' .,}.J\ onlar, anllr them
' .!lj;J\ onlarifl" amlrin of them
, 0...)l;.J\ onlara', am/rl' to them
, c.s J;.J \ onlarf, anleri' them
1.J • Ol.,}\ ' Ol.,}J\ onlarda', anllrdi' in them
.. .:\.. Wl..;t\ ' onlardan', amlrden from them.
Reflexive form of the TI&ird Person.
Singular JA Mtlf'red'
kendi
G . kendinifl of
D. kendine to
A. kendini
L. . 0J.j J.:.(" kend-inde in
A. kendinden from
c..:
..-
Q)
al
.-
= ....
,.
-
PluraI r:5 Jem'
kendili,.
kendilerill of
o J: kendilere to
c.s ...)t! kendilen
klndillrde in
from
§ 93. The English conversational form of address
is eyou'; in Turkish, ho"rever, there are two' form s : SCI
and Sen is employed in addressing parents, near
relatives, chiIdren, servants, pupils, and intimate friends,
such as "rouId be addressed by their Christian names
in England. Siz is used in addressing strangers, or
mere acquaintances (§ 494).
§ 94. Instead of ln'z and silt their double plural
Jy. 'Jr bizler, sizler are sometimes used in all the
cases. This cannot be expressed in English. They are
€ven used, out of politeness, instead of ben and sen.-
The PronouDs. 49
2. Possessive Pronouna. Jt.;,\
§ 9õ. The Possessive Pronouns of the Turkish
language do not really correspond to those of the
English, but are merely possessive affixes. Possessive
affixes are us ed instead of the English possessive pro-
nouns. They consist of syUables added at the end of
nouns. They have the value of pronouns, and cannot
stand alone. .
§ 96. The possessive affixes are the following:
r- Sing. I. person my jIt_ Plur. l. persoD our
..!J_ " II. » thy f- » II. » your

» III. » his. (.$)-
» III. » their.
Ex.: Sing.
r\ IUnl
ilill J\ e-li
my hand, thy hand, his hand;
Plur. j.\ e-limiz P\ I-liiiu (.$,}J\ el' -leri
our hands, your handa, their hands.
§ 97. The pronunciation of the Possessive Affixes
varies in the following \\yay (§ 52):
1. If the word to which they are added end In
a consonant, the affixes are pronounced: im, in, f,;
z, leri, as in the a bove.
2. If the preceding predominant vowel in the \\"ord
be ou or 0, although written in the same way, they
are pronounced: oum, oun, ou; oumou*,
laM.
Qoushoum, qo'Ushou,; qoush-
qoushlari. My bird etc .
. f. 3. If the word end in a vo\\"el, they have then
only the value of the letters m, n, si; miz, Iiri. Ex.:
rtT' YttT' Anam, ana'li, anasi;
a-naiiiz, a-nalari. My mother ete.
---
4. If the predolninant vowel in the word be eo, U,
the vowel of the affix is pronouneed U, to agree with
it;as:r
j
.,,<"' :!Jj)' Ytj)' jj)' S)j)Geo-mm,
Turkiah Conv.-Grammar. 4
50 • U'" Jl Lesson 5.
,.
geo-zun, geo-zu ; geo-zU-iiu?J, geos-le-'rl.
My eye etc.
§ 98. In the third person singular, when the word
ends in a vo,vel, a U" s is inserted for euphony, as:
, , ba-ha-st not ha-ha-t). The only
exception to this rule is the word -"'" SOU; as: (.J""
4J'" ' 4$..-"'" Sou-you'1n, sou-youn., sou-you; sou-you .. mouz.,
sou-you-nouz, soulat:i.. My water etc.
§ 99. If the word ends in one of the connected
letters (§ 24) the suffix 4.s is not written when declined
in Singular cases, but the sound i is retained; as:
\:5' & \:5' .w \:5 ' ., \:5'" o-.W l:.S' \:5
• • (.$. • •
-hi-nifi, -lJi-na, -ui-nt, -bindan, -hinda. .
§ 100. If it ends in one of the unconnected letters
, , ,
(J j ) the i is retained; as: 4.SJ\ ' •
.. ..
,
, N J \ ' J' ' J' e-vi, e-vl:-nirl, e-vi-ne,· e-vi-ni etc.
.. ..
§ 101. If the final vowel of the substantive is
" e, it is never joined on to the possessive in writing
(§ 32); as: , de-dem, de-dl/n, de.-desi
not (':l:l '!.tl):l:l My grandfather etc.
§ 102. The genitives of the Personal pronoun are
used, when requil'ed, to en1phasize and corroborate the
possessive affixes of the same number and person. They
are never used a1one, without their equivalent possessiva
affixes to corroborate them; thus \; qa'rdasll1,1n my
brother (not my sister etc.), rl:lj \; r. bffnim qardashtn.
my brotber (not your brother or his brother) (§ 120)-
§ 103. A final J q, in a polysyllable, as in
declension, cllanges into t gh before the
r
,
• t The PrononDs . 51
affixes, singular or plural, excepting tllat of the third
person so also !l k changes into y in like cases
(§ 53). Ex.: Jt}' rSt; , , ,.jt; ! ,
Qo-naq, qo-na-ghiu, qo-na-ght; qo-na-ghi-
mtz, qo-na-ghf,-ftiz. My mansion etc. '
' A' I-nek, i-ne-yint,
i-ne-yi; i-ne-yi-miz, i-ne-yi-niz. cowetc.
With Singular N oun8.
(! blni,n a-tim my horse
senin a-titl thy horse
JT onouil aeti his horse
fo r j: bizi,n a-ti-miz our horse
.!l..;- stzi1i a- ti- iii: your horse
(.)fi .!l J;J\ onlartil at-la-r' their horse.
With PluraI Nouns.
rft (! blnim atlarim my horses
.!l fi senüi atlarin thy horses
ft onoull his horsee
je ft r j: bizinl atlarimiz our horsee
jO' .!lj- sizifl atlariiHz your horses
(.)..Jlf\ .!l..;LJ\ onlariii atlari their hOfses.
. § 104. In some words the vowel of the last sylIahle
eliminated when the possessive affix is added, except
In the third person pl uraI.
f.i geo-il-lil.m heart, Iny -.
flI '.!l.J a-ghiz agh-zifi mouth, thy -.
. ,
U &J &J '.;", bo-youn boy-nou neck, his -.
J.J. ,
JC..J\ o-ghoul, ogh-lou-moltz our -.
w.JJ.J! bou-roun, bour-nou-fiouz nose, your -.
4*
52 • U"'.)l Les80n 5.
a. JÄ':- a-qtl,
aq-ltm mind, sense, my -.
.
'..!.l:j.J va-tflt, vaq-tin time, th y -:-. R • .:-J.J
.
qi-sim, qis-mi part, his -.
·a. r-'
8. r-";""-'\ i-sim, is-mi-miz name, our -.
p. she-hir', shih'-n-tiiz city, your -.
But in the third person gtõ-Jl'UI-leri, a-ghlz-lari, bo-1J
lari, og'houl'lari, bourounlari, aqil'lari etc.
§ 105. As it has been seen, the possessivee
affixed to the substantives they qualify, and form
word with them. That compowld word is then dee]
like a simple substantive; as:
1. .A ffixes of the Jl·irse Person.
Bingular :>;.. Mi't{red' PluraI t5 Jim'
N.
G. of kitalAmtzt1i of

D.
A.
to

o
o
. .a
hitabi·m1za to
l:5 kitabimizi
L. in o l:)'"' kitabtmizda in
Wl.,r.l:)'"' kitabimtzdan {ror
.
A. from
2. Affixes of the Second Person.
N. kitabift. .,;S::; kitabi'iliz
eT. ki-ta-bi-yUl of .!l...r< kitabiiiizilf of

D. kitabifta to g 0 kitabiftiza to
,.t:J
A.
..0
L. in in
A. frot
N.
G.
D.
3. Affixes of the Third Person.
kitabt 11 J! kitOOlan
of ..- of
..:.. kitabina to J :.El kitablarina to
I
f
I
I"
The PronoUDs. 58
A. I:S"'" kitahin' t ..toi I:S"'" kitablarini 1
1
L. ,,;.;., I:S"'" kitaMtlda in f.8 l:S"kitablar, .. da in -:
A. I:S"'" kitaMMan from:E l:S" kitablarindan from
Vaqtim, vaqtimiA, r.aqtima, vaqtimi, -timdo, -dan My time ...
Emil, e-fJi-yitl, I-mM, emAi, e-"iRdl, kitlIUn 'fhy house .•.
QapoUBou, qapOtISouftOUtl, -80una, -80"'taoo, -soundan, eda His door ...
Ba-lt-ghi-miz, -mizttl, -miza, -",izt, ",'zeia, ·""tdata Our fish •.•
Ek-me-yi-lliz, -niziA, -Ilu/, -nizi, -tlizde, -tlizdin Your bread .. .
Onnamar., -lariniA, -larina, -larifli, -larinda, -da" Their forest .. .
§ 106. The Aecusative Singular of a noun agrees
in form and in pronuneiation with the third person
singular possessive affix added. The noun with this
affix, however, is always the subjeet in a sentenee, while
the other similar form is always objeet. Ex. :
Jl \ . õ l:S" Alinin kitabi bourada dir The book of
'olU.}'!. _ Ali [Eli] is here.
ISJ.! \ .ll:S"'" Alinin kitabi ghayb oldou The hook of
J _ Ali [Eli] hss heen lost.
($.JJ.}'! Kitabi Ali bo-uldou Ali hss found the book.
In the first and second examples the word
book' (Nom. third person), and is the sub-
Ject of the sentenee: in the third example the word is
the objeetive case of the ,vord •
.J:,J Words •
.... ehiz' me (out of door) boot
f. (otin boots
f. qoundoura ahoe
p. pabo·uj slipper
f. J., ) li qalosh over-ahoe, galoche
\!f a-yaq foot
dey-nek stick
.
ehariq sandal
,-:",\J"'=;- ehorab stockings
. . , ,{ s little
0.J..,r:- Jezve coffee -pot
{injan
ehoban shepherd
f. ehay tea (ehinese)
ehay brook.
I
" .. Excrcisc 9.
: I' • , • 'L t • ' ,. \ ' • )., .' •
\) J.. r ..fl J . ..:. . . \ J. \
, ,
j 'JJ \.... } · '''' I· \ ' • • .• .,."., . • .,."., • • , T
:J l •• • .
54 • tJ'J;) Lesson 5.
•• \:) to • .),) !l;- 0,) jA 0 Jf; i.1. J!,),-!l j) I 4S') r
,. ,., ,
, ' (-I::- 0 • 4SJI ' ondan evindht
, 0;- J 0.1.' • (aec.) I::- I::- ' J!}..I::- ' 4s 11::- 4S}..
, v • J ' J
• o..w.1!i fo A • h *0 JjjJ 4SJ:.I o,).? J
, fY ,. · OJi )il!i ' , o,)js::11!i !lj ...
!lj-' · ).) 4S!' JJ::- lJ,D ,Y. \ \ · , I
doordumuz jA,)),) J ';'::-JI ,,. '),) jT) jj .
jA)iJ=!"J::- • J),) o,)JI ;., ,,... · JJ,) JJI 'lI .:.,Ii.!
J!)I::- H · J),) evimizde 0"1)1
" o\:-J J."Y.! '0
\ V • · • !l}J'
' \A
.. . ."""""-
· .• ·
,. J Translation 10.
1. Me, he, they, you, thou, my, her, his, thy, Our8,
yours, their. 2. To Ine; to thee; to you; on thee; in
you; on Ine; from Ule. 3. RiIn, himself; to him; in
him; from hinl. 4. The eat (aec.), the cat (nom.); his
cat (nom.), his eat (aec.); his cats (nom.), his cats (aec.);
their cats, their cat (nom.). 5. His daughter (nom.);
his daughter (ace.), the daughter (aec.), your daughter
(aec.). 6. In their valley, in our house, to your garden,
to your horse. 7. My to lllY son, to his son; his
children (pl. nonl.). 8. In your time; from your time;
to his tillle. 9. His nose, of his 110se; to your nOBe,
their noses. ] o. In the city, in your city, to your city,
frOlll our city. 11. On my head, on his head, my head
(non1.), my head (acc.). 12. The tea (aec. and nom.),
II The Izafet. 5S"
his tea (aec. and nom.); in our brook. 13. The shepherd,
their shepherd, their shepherds (nom. and aec.). 14. My
over-shoes, thy shoes; his sandals; her stockings and
boots; our coffee-cup, your coffee-poti
To be corrected.
, · ogkOf41ounous ' ogkoulou J ,
t • o.,.;s:::;\!f ' · (third pers.)
0
Conversatlon.
· &!. 'JJ::-
8. Haftaniii gOnlerini seoyle!
J. Pazar, Pazar' -ertesi , Sali,
Char'shamba, Per'shembe,
Jooma-a', J ouma-a ertesi.
8. 8eneniii deort mevsimlerini
sB>yle I
J. Bahar, Yaz, Gdz, Qtsh.
8. Gdndfi taqsimlerini seoyle!
J. Sbafaq, Sabah', Qoushlouq,
Eoylen, Ikindi, Akhsham,
Geje, Y at' st, Geje yar!st or
Yarl geje.
Q. TeIl me the days of the week.
.A. Sunday, Monday, Tuesday,
Wednesday, Thursday,Friday,
Saturday.
Q. TeIl me the four seasons of
the year.
A. Spring, Autumn,
Winter.
Q. TeIl me the divisions of the
day.
A. The Dawn, Morning, }c"'ore-
noon (9 a. m.), Noon, After-
nOOD, Evening, Night, Bed-
tiole (t""o hours after sunset),
!\Iid-night.
Lesson 6.
The Izafet.
§ 107. The possession or connexion of one thing
or person with another is called in Turkish, Izafef,
which means or annexation'.
One subst.antive is governed by another in three
differellt ways:
. § 108. l. By juxtaposition, ,,"ithout change. This
lS used to shew the relation bet,veen a material and
the thing eomposed of it. The name of the material
56 , IJ'.):JI Lesson 6.
.,
is simply put, !ike an adjective, before the other sub-
stan tive. Ex. :
;,,; up\' altoun qoutou a golden box.
i-pek mendil a aHk han d kerchief.
";'.JA §' gU-mush sa' at a silver watch.
01' the noun expressing the material is put in the
ablstive case; as:
§' pT altoundan koostlk achain of gold.
0.J-,.U.l elmasdan bilezik a bracelet of diamond.
l> YOttftdan chorab woolIen stockings.
§ 109. II. By placing the first substantive in the
flominative or unaItered form, and adding to the second
the pronominal affix of the third person or -1, or -si).
This is used to indicate not only possessiQn but &l80
genus and species, the name of the species coming first
(§ 81, Note). Ex.:
,
J\ ev qapousou a house-door (indefinite).
y.} qouyou sou-you weIl water.
').JA
JI
armoud a-gha-ji pear tree.
Amasiya ilmast Amassia apple.
§ 110. The names of countries, rivers, mountains,
cities etc. are formed in this way, the first of the two
nouns remaining unchanged; as:
,jJ') J Osmanli d/vl/t·i The Ottoman government.
In-gi-liz qralichast The queen of England.
(.$Jr. u-\..r.- Sivas shlh'ri The city of Sivas.
J. Erm/ni mirleti The Armenian nation.
J.u, Er-ji-yas da-ght :r.lount Argeas.
(.$..A ..;;, Touna nlh'ri The J"iver Danube.
u-! le Mayis a-yi. The month of May.
§ 111. III. By placing the first in the Genitive,
and adding to the second the pronolninal aflix of the
The Izafet. 57
third person (S or -i or This indicates the relation
ofpossession and is essentialIy definite, and is generally
used when the article would be put before the first
noun in English.
The name of the possessor is placed first, as when
the possessive case is used in English. Ex. :
,
.!JJ \ I-vill qapousou The door of th e house (definite).
Ilman'il a-ghaji The tree of the apple.
qou-younOUII 80UYOU The wster of the ,,·ell.
§ 112. When the two nouns come together in
English, with the word of between them, the first ex-
pressing the quantity of the second, the phrase is
lated into Turkish by simply putting the name of the
quantity before the other noun and omitting as
in German they say Eine FIasehe Wein, bottle
of wine'.
CÜ .J'. bir qadJh chay a cup of tea.
ft .,jJ \ [.,,\ ueh oq'qa shl-kir three okeeof sugar.
-
j. WJ\ on arshin blz ten yards of eloth.
j.J! yuz iõlchlk boughday' a hundred bushels of ,,-heat.
(.JJ!) JJ.,,- .J'. bir .mm qoyoun a fiock of sheep.
§ 113. The following construction is frequent be-
tween a noun and a cardinal number.
or WlJ!l:S'" kitabill diõrdu or kitablardan
drorau four of the books, or four books.
or .!lJ ... !'.,,\ or o-da-nUt
ikisi or odalar11l ikisi or o-dalardan ikisi two of the rOODlS, or
rooms.
§ 114. These constructions are declined:
Evi" qapoUBou, -noun, -tta, -nou, -sounda, -soundan.
§ 110. There are two words • .)- (-de, -dr,.) in
Turkish; one is us ed with the nouns to form the Locative
case, and is always accented (§ 84): o.)J' ev-de',
baghda' in the house, in the vineyard.
!jS
, IJ'jl Le!son 6.

§ 116. The other -de 1S a conjunction, meanir
and': it is never connected with the noun, nor
it accented; . that is, the accent is at the end of tl
preceding word; . as: 0 J' ev' de ' • .) Ö bagh' da
.0:;) r) pederim' de ' 1).) r. bfmim' de; meaning (Tl
house also, the vineyard too, my father 8180, mine sIse
j\.J 0,) , j\.J 0,) o.l:.... blnde' dl var, slnde dl' t7ar (The
is in Dle and in yon', i. e. (1 have and yon have' (§ 477).
§ 117. Da-khl d- is also used with the san
meaning Calso, too'); as: , d-') • ...\.:.-, benci
(lakhi, sende' dakhi (in me 8180, in thee too' (§ 477).
,;:;J Woru.
Familya LL.\; The Family .
.. ..
li\' a-na baba \
. . { parents
a. valideyn ,
l, baba \
. . father
p. peder J
lf\ a-na }
mother
a. oJJI,., valide
4 an' -ne maInma
4 -!lJ!..f. beoyitk baba } grand
0,):»,) , 0,),) dede father
l nenl I
\
' b' grand
e- e I Dlother
l; T .!l..f..y. beoyitk ana
toroun grand child
J,\')jli qardash I
qa-rtndash brother
p. j')\.,.r. birader
J,\')jli qiz qardash l .
slster
p. hbnshire J
oghoul 80n
oghlatl boy
y:- chojouq child
qiz girl, daughter
a. daughter
c,SjG qari wife, woman
8. .r ern' mi t unele
(father's
/ a-mou-ja 1 brother)
o.fi; tel}' ze \ aunt
(mother's
b.. khala f sister)
4Ä'" , { aunt
a. e-me (father' 8 sistE
A { unele (mo-
da·y1, tber's brothe
U:. li qa-yin } bro·
the]
.),) \.,.r. li qa-yin biratJer in-la·
,
• a. The Izafet .
.--\ li A {Cather-in-
\.I qaytn afM la w
t;T . li A { mother-
\J.. qaytn ana in-la".
el' {the bride;" the
.. 9 ", dsughter-in-Ia,,·
<" A {the bride-
(,j I'Y groom
.)l.\.) aamad the 8On·in-1aw
.. ".\ ' . ht' {sisterts hus-
'*-: enu e band
baldtz wife's sister
. ,\ 'lt'{ husbandts bro-
tS e, ther' s wife
<" A " {hUSbandts
gwrumJe sister
. dA _... { relative (by
.) Y J.) unur in termarrjage)
/" e e ,,{ a neplle,,·;
11 Y n, yegen niece
p. 0.)\; amja zadel
p.o.)\'; Jt:;. khalazade cousin
p. o.)U OOyi zade
I brother-in-Iaw
bajanaq \ (wife's sisterts
husband)
4.':-'; qoja husband
ab'la elder sister
cheche eldest sister
to
a. p . .) t<':..;;' khizmetkwr}
sel"vant
a.t. khizmetji
ri b.. hanfm I..,ady, Miss, Mrs .
sa-yi number
' ...r.J\ obir, olbir the other
a. ,JS khala-yiq } maid
8. ja-ri-ye seryant
efflndi, gentIeman, Sir
s . .)L.. mu.a/ir guest
cage.
Exerclse 11.
, i0..ulj J : J;) J!I \
,.!bJ\;!lJ:, el ..!.L.JJ;)I..t. ' el
..t. ) ,j)).;. , el .))1 i}:<! , jp
..!.L.o-lHJ T • J!I J J-! wJ'
)'J J.'; JjJJ !JY..J! o.ll.J.!lj-Äi.1. )\J
1oS..t. .);)}.1. : )1)
!l}.\:.S" t · !J.;..rs) ·
jiJ' ..!.L.Jb.- r 0 0.) :
JJ>
. .
• J;) 0;' J J;) f.5"'!) I; !lXJ! v
60 , lJ'.)l Les80n 6.
,.
J \iT W:,\; J .. ':!il A
4:1;/ \. • "
oy§ J (derler is called) )..1.." JJ'
: \ \ • JJ'..;)
'T · )7!)\i :
UI 'c.s!.r' ,,.., ·
· u,
J TraDslatioD 12.
1. Coffee-pot, coffee-cup; an oke of coffee of Yemen
2. Cow's milk; tlle lnilk of the cow; in cow's
milk, in the milk of the cow. 3. Three of them; two
of the oxen; the ten (of the) gold watches. 4. Two
bottles of wine; a glass of water. õ. Three pounds
(okes) of tea; three and a half yards of eloth. 6. The
children of the village; the village children. 7. Both of
them; my father and my grand father. 8. The English
government; the English nation. The city of Paris.
9. The door of the garden; agarden door. 10. Two
of those children; two of your children. 11. Four of
my cousins. 12. The number of the books of my
brother's son is great. 13 .. A.ll1 I not your son, and are
you not my parents? - Yes, my son! thou art my son,
I am your father and she is your mother. 14. Nejibe
Hanim is my sister and Miss l\lary is her sister-in-Iaw.
15. A city-door; the door of the city; the door of a
city; a door of a city; a door of the city.
To be corrected.
yo ! t.b..li .r' Yo" • ",:,I:5'JI \
!l) J' ....s:::; , t · d:.s::::. ..: < ,. - ,.., · \-.:i
'->.. .. • .T.I r- -;. \ ·
, .
JI • t.SYo 0
't
The verb To HA VEo 61
..t Conversation.
· )Y...) Ü')\.J l;\ ? )Y...) ......r
?.).) r j\
?.)) ('t'.f'
.)l c.r!.)G

. .).)
• oO·
• ).)o.).J\ \ ' ool.J\
. .).) (! li r;';";\
• .).)
! r;';";\
• ! r;';";\
?.).)
? (.;,A o.).J\ .!l4
?.).) c..f ($.ci\ A
? .).) • .) • .; .!l .. ;j
?.)J..A • .!JO).)
..
($;';";\
.!l )i .!l J': f'
• )Y-.)
? )Y...) ......r>'w.T :,
v Lesson 7.
The verb (To HAVE'.
§ 118. The English verb HAVE' is expressed in
Turkish in two ways, according to the objeet of the verb.
If the object is indefinite the adjeetives )'J var
tpresent: existent' and yoq non-existent) are
..
used to express that sense. These may be followed by
the verb al particle of affirmative J;) dir, which in this
case, as in many other cases may be omitted in eon-
versation (§ 76).
. Ir the object is definite the Substantive verb
lS employed (§ 127).
1. The verb To HATE with an Indeflnite Object.
§ 119. In such phrases as: I have a book, he
has a dog, it iR expressed in two ways.
I. By putting the subject in the Genitive, follo,ved
62 V Les80n 7.
"
by the object with the possessive affix and the verb
'
" d
A
" , .. d
..) J ..);)..) J var tr; yoq, yoq our; as:
.. ..
\., r. benim bir kitabtm vardir Iha vea b 0 0 k.
babamin bi·r kUabt yoqdour My father bas
.) :Jo! • • • not a b 0 0 k.
Literally: of me there is a book, of my father there
is no book.
§ 120. Sometimes the subje.ct, when a pronoun,
is omitted, especially when the subject is not accented
or emphasized: then the affix of the object indicates
the subject (§§ 70, 102); as:
.)\.J bir kitabim var dir I have a book.
The affix shows the person of the subject.
§ 121. When the subject is a noun it is always
considered as in the third person, therefore the object
must end with the pronominal affix of the third person,
(,$ or (i or sile
\
\ ,.:\ Effendini11 bir evi va"dir The gentIeman bas
uJ a house.
\ lt\ Chojoughoufl bir ilmasi var 1.'he boy has
.) J '.J':'-"'=:- an apple.
The ,vords J.r.J::-' (,$.cil being substantives, are of
course in the third person.
§ 122. II. The verb To HA VE with an indeiinite
object is rendered in Turkish in another way also. In
the first way the subject was in the case; in
the second, the subject must be put in the Loeative; as:
.)\.J bende bir kitab var dir I have a hook .
.)\J rli pederitnde bir qalem var dir My father has a pen.
§ 123. Although it is not very correct grammati-
cally, there is a custom among the common people not
to append to the noun the possessive affixes of the iirst
and second persons pluraI. Instead of saying correetly
Sizifi atifUz, b'l'zim evimiz, they say Sizin at, b'l·zim ev
just as in English. Bizim cvifi penjeresi the window of
our house, for B1'zim ev'imiziu Bizi'ln peder
our father, for pederhniz, or merely pl:der; as:
, .)4. rY. ' ";-.)4. ' ; • .)-'1 r j.
I
l
,,.
The verb To HAVE. 63
§ 124. The PluraI Locative forJus of the Personal
Pronouns sometimes give the sense of home' ..
bir i-nek var means both C:We have a cow' and
cThere is a cow in our house'. Lit.: us'.
§ 12õ. But the rendering for nounR is different:
cat my father's' or (in my father's house', people
of my father' s house', are expressed by adding J( gil; as:
L babam gil The of D1Y father' s house, my
r·· father' s family .
• .11(' bajanaghi·m gildl at my brother-in-law's house.
himshirem gill to my sisterts.
J:J • .). J!"" \ dayim gil bi
7
de dir 'fhe family of D1Y unele is
../. - In our house.
§ 126. (There is, there are' is rendered by the Loea-
tive with).) )'J ' ).) var yoq dour (§ 76). But onda .
..
val·, bende var, denote possession; as: Evde bir at var
There is a llorse in the house. But Bende' bir at var'
I have a horse. In the first sentenee it expresses loeation
and in the second possession.
§ 1268. HaJ Jb- Present..
e Jl J\" r. ' ..;.) .J\" benim var dir, blnde var dir,
'J.) J\J , J.) ..;\., 1'>":- senifi vaT dir, slnde var
'J.) J\J '..;.) ..;\., onoun var dir, onda var dt.r,
'Jl J\" r.f. ' J.) .J\.J I.)./. biziln var dir, bizde var dir,
e J.) J\J .!l r '.J.) ";\.J I.)j_ sizin var dir, sizde var dir,
.J.) J\J .!JJ;.J\ '.J.) ..;\." 1.).);"\ onlarHi ·var dir, onlarda var dir ..
I have, thou hast, he has a - ete.
The N egative Form .
..;..J.J! (! 'JJ.;y" benim YOqdOUT, blndl yoqdour.
I have not a - etc.
§ 126b.
]}Iazi Past (Preterite).
J\J r. .J\" b;nirn var idi, bl)zdl var
J\" c ..;\., 0'>":- slnin var idi, sendi var idi,
e J\J c J\" onou1i var idi, onda var idi,
V 7.
, \ .;\., rY.' \ ';\.J Y. bizim va·r idi, bizde var idi,
, ($ \ .; \.".!l.;- '($ \ .J \., 0 j- t;ar iai, sisae var IlU,
.. ';\.J .!lj;.,,\ ' .)\., onlarill var idi, onlarda "ar itJ1
1 had,. thou hadst, he had a - etc.
The Negative Form.
, <.s \ J Y.. r. or <.s J..j;-Y.. r. binim yoq' idi or -yo' ghoudou,
.. \ Jy. or ($Jwf y.. bende yoq' idi or -yo' ghoudou.
I bad not a - etc.
The Interrogative Forms.
? ';J..:e .; \.J r. y. r. beninl var' midir? benim yoq' moudour
'1 ($J..:e .;\., 0'>":- or ? ';\.J sende var' miyidi? or var' mi idi
Have I a -? Have I not a -? hadst thou not a -1 etc
2. The verb To HA.VE with & Deflnite Object.
§ 127. When the object of the verb. To HAVE i
-definite, it is rendered in Turkish by the substantiv
verb dir (§ 118).
§ 128. The order of the construction is this: fire
eomes the objeet, t.hen the subject, and the verb il
the third place.
§ 129. This is a general rule in the OttomaI
Turkish language. In every case when the objec
js indefinite, the subject comes first; and whe:
the object is definite the object comes first; Ex .
.;\., \:.s" J'. r. benim bir kitabinl' var dir I have· a book .
kitab binde' dir I have the book.
In the first instance the object (a book) IS
therefore the subject comes first; in the second th
-object (the book) is definite, therefore the object come
first and the subject follows it.
§ 130. Re1narks: The English Conjunction but i
€xpressed either by putting the Arabic words \;";;::J
. ..kd eln' -ma or am' ma, lakin, (aqat or the Turkish 0)
·i-sc de, all meaning (but' (§ 239, 476); as:
The verb To HAVE. 65
! J;) jT Jaij JU J;) JT ,fJ JU J;) jT l..\ J\.J
param var am'ma az dir; param var lakin j;);r 0;) .)\.J
DZ dir; param "ar faqat az dir; param var i-sl dl az dir I have
but a little money.
§ 131. f:(Any" is expressed in Turkish in two ways:
one by p. l!;A kick, and the other without using that word,
but by simply using the object of the verb (§ 188); 8S:
Have YOll any bread? ? .)\.J 0.1:- ? JJ...::- JU 0.1:-
He has not any money.)>> y.. • • J-ü y..
§ 132. Cf:Not any, not at all" is expressed by k-ick .
..);) J..:.- ... \ n..A : .)-ü... hicA parasi 'Yoq-
J y J. \!... J.
dour; hich I-yi degil choq hasta dir. Htl bns not auy money; He
is not at all ,,·ell: he is very sick.
§ 133. t(How many?" is expressed by Ei qach?
(§ 174). Ex.:
How many piastres have yoo?
How many books has he?
? .);) J \.J [.li
? .);) .)\.J [.\i
§ 134. ((How mueh?" is expressed by )-lAj ,
qadar? (§ 179); 88:
How much sugar have you?
How much bread have we?
§ 135. ((Some" is expressed by sr.1. bir ae (a little,
a small pieee of anything', in referenee to iuanimate
objeets (§ 182); as:
j\ J'. bir az lkmek some bread.
But in referenee to animate objeets ba'ei,
bir qack is used (§ 181); as:
°ba'zi adAmIlr some people.
J!;';";\ ;::\iJ'. bir qach' lfflndillr 80me gentIemen.
'-
j;\,r.> ba'zi hayvanlar some anirnals.
§ 136. (tBoth" is rendered by p. J1I ltem -ltent
(§ 469); 8S: r \
I have both bread and saIt. .)\.J j..,k r .J r
My aunt has both paper and pen. Jl JU r.J r .!.l.J
Turklsh Conv.-Grammar. 5
66
V Lesson 7.'
"
§ 137. CCEither ... or ... " is rendered by p. ga -ya- ;'
., ....
CCNeither ... nor ... '" is rendered by' (§472); as:
I have neither bread nor saIt. J\.J
You have either pen or paper. . JlJ f
. § 1378 . HaZ Present .
.)l blnde dir, Jl" ol): biedl dir,
Jl 0'>':- senal dir, Jl olf siedl dir,
.)l onda dir. ..)l di,.
I have the -, thou hast the -. ' he has the - etc4
Negative Form.
blnde d/yil dir, sindi iUyil
dir, onda dlgil dir etc. I have not the - etc.
§ 137b. Masi Past (Preterite).
c.s .1!, \ 0 l): biede idi,
\ e'>':- sendi idi, . \ Ol";- sieM idi,
oJ.j.J\ anda id-i. c.S"J.!\ Ol...);.J\ onlarda idi.
I had the -, thou badst the -, he had the - etc.
Negative Form.
blndl dlg" idi,
slndA deY'il idi, onda degil .idi etc. I had not the - etc.
Examples.
J
. \ \:S""" \:S""" J.:., \:S""'I havethebook
.)l el • Jl 0 • Jl 0 . etc ..
? . \ \:s""' 'l · \:s""' ? . \:s""' H a v e I t ILe
. oJ:lJ 0.1.:.- • b 0 0 k ? etc.
? Olj- sizde deyil miyidi? Did yon not ha va
the hook? etc.
lt\ Il,na apple
lY}' armoud pear
I-rik plum
Words.
li qa-yi-si a pricot
p. J l:.i! she(-tci-li peaeh
r .Jj) \ n-zum gra pes
The verb To HA VEo 67
kirtlz cherries J tJishnl (commonly
f. ,!ishHI) the morells
w.J!} qoyoun sheep cherry (Slavonjc)
c1wban shepherd f. JG..,;.;y. 'portouqal orangcs
,J,;..r y. youmourta egg f. 0r-J Umon lemon
.s' sirU vinegar f. patates
. ply-nir cheese f. tomatls tomato
f .• j l:..S"'" kAstani chestn ats [Gr.] , Jo '..i tlrl yaghi batter.. r
. W
,'<" 1 Eurelse IS.
'.)y.l'UI \ 1.
jT .)rl · JIJ )U.! Jj) UI • JI:;!. :;
Il }J I,. • J..li.t I.S"'0 r.- \J \i Y:::J , J.) J IJ .) r}
§.J. J .)rl JJI , i Jj) 1 0.) }JI - JI) 4i
4·'\:...('. J'J .J)J'J
: JIJ j JJ!J' to .IJ .) J'J \:...('
! r..cil - i
Jj
) 1 0 JI) :;::::")j-
· JIJ :; J\ijJJ! ' Jl-;! Y:::J ! iJj)1
JI) .J. o...l.:JI :!lJ::- J<' · J.) JI) .J.
;Jj ':"J' ! - J'J V II.
:. A • J..li.t :;s:::J ' JI)
• , o.)---!.t • .,q - 1 )1) • .) !Jj- ! ü.,,:fi
, ' -
· - 1 J",,:- ;I J J: I:..<' J::- '\ • J.) J I) f 1 .J. J\j)
!l.S'h 1 J",,:- JI) \. .).)
"
Jir- \ \ 0.) , 0): - J'J O)!
---
• 1 Student must practice using both the Locative and Geni-
h\'e forms (§§ 119, 122).

68 V !,J'.):l Lesson 7 .
• j1. f <Ii )1) <Ii t
j:J.J!; .)r; \,.. \y )1, f r)1, t
\ 0 \t. •
.; ! ."1. ! - ·"r
• o.).J:
't J lTranslatlon 14:.
I. 1. I have an apple; thou bast some cherrias;
hc hns the oranges. 2. My brother has the dog; your
auut has a eat; they have three horses. 3. How much
money have you? - I have seventeen piasters. 4. Hav&
you any sugar? - No, Sir, I bave not any. õ. I bacl..
no pen. I had the pen. I bad not the pen. 6.
me some bread and grapes. - Have you any brea<L
and grapes? 7. How many ehildren has your gra.nd-
son? - Re bas two ellildren; one a boy, the other::-
a girl.
II. 8. Have ladog? - Yes, Sir, you have a dog,
and my brotber has a horse. 9. Ras he the pen? -
No, Sir, he has no pen. 10. Where is your book? -
It is at my unele's. 11. Who hns lny Inoney? - I have
your Inoney. 12. Is there any servant in the kitchen?
Is the servant in the kitchen? 13. The servant is in.
the kitehen. There is a servant in the kitchen. 14. Who
has the pen and the paper? - Your father had the
pen and I have the papere lõ. Are there any eggs?
Yes, Sir, there are plenty of them .
..t Conversatlon.
Mat-bakhda ne vnr?
Siziii birader nasil dir?
Onoun aU kimde dir?
Gllzel qoush qardashiiida mi?
Qafesde ne var?
senue mi dir?
1 See the N ote page 67.
Dir az tomates ve patatea var.
Hich e-yi deyiI, choq huta dir.
Babam gilde dir.
Khayr, chojoughouii qafesinde
dir.
Bir yeshil, hir siyah ve bir beyaz
qoush vare
Khnyr, ekmek bende deyil dir.
r,
::.
The ProDooDs.
A Lesson 8 .
The Pronouns. (Continued.)
..
3. ProBonn. J"" J
69
§ 138. The Adjectival PronominaI affix is the word
J -ki, signifying (the - whicb, that which',
according as it is a noun or an adjective. It is attached
to nouns and pronouns in two \\'ays; by putting them
either in the Genitive or in the Locative case.
§ 139. In the first instance it is used always Iike
a substantive, and signifies which belongs to'.
In the second csse, it is sometimes userl substantively
and signifying (that which exists': when it is at-
tached to a substantive, it is an adjective, signifying
- which exists'. Ex.:
baba' father; babanill of the father;
babanill-kl that or the one which belongs to' the father .
• babada i n the fa th er; habadaki tha t or th e
one which exists in (the p08session of) the fa th ere
bendlk' that which I have, or'is in my p08session.
§ 140. The separate possessive prououns corres-
ponding to those of the English language are formed
ID the first way; as:
benimk', s/niflki, onoullkl nline, thine, his.
t-j, bizimkl, fr'..;- 8iziflkl, onlarinki {
a:i Both of these forrns, when us ed as substantives,
have plurals and declensions as usual·, but the last
5:1 is eliminated, retaining the sound i (§ 99).
i:.
Note. S'-ki never varies in pronunciation for the sake
of euphony (§ 54).
70 Ä. I...r.):l Leason 8.
Declension of -kl with the Genitive preceding.
N. blni",ki benimkiler
G. blnitnkiniii of blnillzkilerin of
D. blnimkine to Q) bl"imkilere to
e
A. benimkini
L. 0;':<:":' benimkindA in
. .
A. benimkindenfrom
's benimkileri
O:lJ:G. benimkilerdl in

....
o
Declension of -ki ,v i tll the Locative preceding.
N. bendeki'
.,j
blnd/kiler'
a,
v-
a.;
Tlj
-
G. btJndekinill' of
rl)
bl.ndlkilenlf of
.Q •
0 ....

81
bendikine' to

blndekilere' to D. b.Cl

.

bindekini'
-
blndekil'ri,'

A.
...s=
....
-.-=
ep
S.s::
..=
L. bendekindl' in
....
O:l.J(.".J:.J. bbullkillrdl' in
"ö.cl
0)
C)II=
bendl.kindlnfronl

from
!
A. -
S ::
Examples.
hojaniit' of t.he teacher. holaflinki tha.'"
of the teaeher. hojani1ikillr those of the teachar.
) ... \,;. hojalari1l1/inki those of my teachers. .
? JU rJ \.,,;. J! J\.} rJ r. .J.:- sIndi M"i".'
qalAmim tni var, yokh'sa hojalarinliiik·i Imi var? have you my peD
or that of my teaehers?
o:l J\.J ...: blnde nl slta'''''
qalemifl ·var, ne de hojanizinkiler I have neither your peD,
nor those of your teaeher. .
S;.J:- sendAki para the money you have.
Jo} (\,)Jr; qardashim gildlki qoush the bird whicb
is at lny brother's.
BahJAdiki aghajlar the trees whieh are in the garden.
E'vdekiler those at· the house. Shimdiki the present.
Sollraki the lattere Ev'vllki the former.
4. Demonstrative Pl·onouDs. r--"
§ 141. The Delll0nstrative Pronouns are:
yo bou used for things whieh are near the speaker, This.
Vt
The Pronouns.
Jr ' r SMU, shol used for tbings which are near the person
spoken to, This.
J.,\ 0, ol »,» » are some distance off,
Thät (yander).
r.\ ish'bou This presen t (person or thing) ..
§ 142. The Demonstratives when they' modify
a nOUD, are regarded as adjectives. JJ' ' Jr :sre
used only as adjectives, and they never undergo any
\ change.
Declension of Demonstrative Pronouns.
. ,
..

I
t
1
Singular .);;. Mttfrea
N.
b01l this
1
shou this
y.
J-
G .

bounoutl of this

J-
sMunoufl. of this
D. t{.1 boulla to this t<',.,.:. shouna oo this
.J •
A.
.
'J & Bhounou this

bo·unou this
. '.r
L.
0;';
bounila in this

shounda in this
A.
boundan fronl this.

shoundan from this.
.....
)iJ! '
.!J.} II 0);'" ($..;t
J
! Ol;; y.
Wl); J!
f
.J. .J •
=' );10
s'
);10
($):..,!
); &
Wl);"":'
1-
- 1-
• J.
Ol r

.J .J
bounlar, -hl, ea, ... skounlar, . iii, -a', ....
Note. The declension of 0 that, is the same as that of
the third person of the Personal Prononn, page 47.
§ 143. Other Demonstratives:
broy'le, such, such as this.
sh toy' le, shtoylesi' » » as this.
» » as that.
§ 144. Adverbial Demonstratives:
\; yo her e, th i s p I a e e (con tracted
'. \; r shoo.ra' her e, th i A 0 r th atp 1 a e e ( »
u.J\ ora' there, that place (»
• ..; nl're where? what place (»
from
»
»
»
-

-
.\.)''''':').

-
\.; .
72 Ä ....,-.)l Les80n 8. vr
Examples.
' wl\J.,! 'wlUy' from here, from there.
' OlUJ!' , Ol'J.>! h ere, j 11 th i s s pot; there.
..J'. blõyle bir gundl on such a day. .
..J'. broylesi bir atUmdln from such a man.
..J'. roglesi klõtu bir chojouq such a bad boy-
Jr slloZ IlfendiMiI, from that gentIeman.
,
ol zatifl, '"indl in th e house of that
gentIemane
õ. Reflexive Pronouns.
.. ..
§ 145. The English ,vords lnyself,
yourself etc. are ternled Reflexive ProllOUllS, when
they represent the same person as the subject or the
nominative. They are expressed in Turkisll by the
pronoun kendi:
I myself
l\lyself
'fhou thy self
Thyself
He himself
Himself
bln' klndim.
kindim'.
V- sen' kendi".
klndiii,'.
<..1'"'! \ 0' klndisi.
c.r! klndia;,'.
We oursel ves j. biz' klnd;'miz.
Ourselves kendimiz'.
You yourselves j- siz' klndiiliz.
Yourselves kendiniz'.
They theIDselves onlar kendileri.
Themselves kendillri'.
AIso : e.r! ($.J.:.5'" ($ J:.. I my 8 e I f ..•
($.}. ($.J.:.5'" W e 0 u r 8 e I v 8S • • •
§ 146. -The Englisll \\·ord «own" is also expressed
by as:
The PronouDs. 78
My own bOQk r!l:S" (! benitn kendi kitabim.
With his own hand 4,\ J\ kendi eli ile.
§ 147. Kendl is usuaUyelDployed after the sub-
ject to emphasize it, or to limit or specialize the
meaning; as:
Bldros kendi' basTIin' yiyqayor .)..:! U:"!
P e t e r i s w as h j.n g h Is 0 lV n hea d.
Bedro8 onoufl,' bashini yiyqayor
Peter is washing his head, denotes another personis head.
Effendikendi' odasinda dir Th Inaster is in his 0 wn room.
Effendi 0llOufl,' odasinda dir The master is in his room
(some one elsets).
PJ Words.
Ust bash Appare!.
a. eseab clothes
f. pantalan pants
gliJmlek shirt
\ ich' donou drawsers
lSJ.- setri frock-coat
yeUk waist.coat
astar lining
wy"..u\ eldivln gloves
f. rouba elothes [It.]
f. W fistan go,,·n [Gr.]
f . ..J-:' miso pettieoat [Gr.]
f. shapqa hat {Slav.]
f. 0.,,:-4 baston cane (It.}
.... (' kese parse
d'uyme hutton
chouqa broad cloth
a. mendil bandkerchief basma' print, cali('o
bichaq knife ikmekji baker.
Prop. Nouns yousouf Joseph. Ahmed.
'0 Exercise tõ.
,.
1ö o.)J\ !Jr l}, 'J' - 0.)0; .;s; 'J' \
- 4i AI,.
S-...L:-'" \SJ.-.J. ' ,
r. , So"..q -
74 Ä \J"')l Lesson 8.
.!.l!JCl.j"» ! J.M;i .:. .u-I t. • J
.!..li-.,'! 4i - 1 .ol!- .!..l.( 0 • l«J..\i.,'!
J ' • ! )'.)
• ! f'.j:J.1. -
· J!..l!A J),) .. !')J\j v
':'.J.:..s::::"<:i r .;!t.1.' • us::::".. I "
: <' ,.J""" a, " ... a, .. J ,. \ ·l"
\:.") • )) 'r ..),)
\,. · J.J.S"".r;} JaA; • )J4J!
• J'J \!, 1. o.)'JJ' J
,'\ Translatlon 16.
1. Of that; those of that; those of those [men].
2. That which is in' this; that which is there; that
which is here. 3. Have you our coats or those of our
neighbours? -. I have, not your costs; I lUlve those of
lUY father. 4. That of my sistel'; those of nlY mother;
from those of my unele. 5. The oxen which are here;
the cows which are toore. 6. These .houses are large;
that house is little; from that Ilouse. 7. Where are my
overshoes, and where are those of my aunt?, 8. Yours
are bere and those of your Runt are there. 9. To yourself;
from bimself; in ourselves. 10. Mv mother is in her
garden; my sister is in her house;"' my sister is in his
house. 11. My own eane; his own book; in his own room .
..t ts::: Conversatlon.
, • .)l Ol\.).J\
. ol\.)y. ! rJ.:J\ J!;'
(! rJ.:J\
• .)J...!,\l.)G
• .Jl el\.).)\ I rJ.:J\
----
? Jl ole'; r» r.
? Ol\.)Y.
? ....,...\
1 All sentences enclosed by q uotation marks are either
idiomatic sayings or proverbs.
v. The Adjecti vee 75
.Jl Jr

.Jl e.l:.-
• Jl
? Jl
? S;l\j";'
? Jl ele'; <SJ\..
? Jl ele'; (b.
Lesson 9.
4'" The Adjective.
§ 148. The Turkish adjective whether used as
a predicate or as an attribute, remains unchanged, 8S
in English (§ 79): " .
Jl .!J ft'.f'.J\ II) kuchuk dur the house is little.
rl[ ..J'. .!ly' yo blõyitk bir adlm a great lnaD.
J.) )\1.' Il»zalar tatli dir the apples are 8,,"eet.
j.;\ .!l.J!.J! blõyuk ademler the great lnen ..
The Derivative Adjective.
§ 149. The derivative adjeetive which is called
in Turkish ['I \ is made by the addition of the
following partieles to the nouns.
§ lõO. I. J, , i -li, -li, -lou indieates possession
of the thing designated by the noun; as:
JItIfI BOU water,
J. yer place,
J\ h house,
soulou ,,,atery, fiuirl.
JJ.. yerli fixed in a place; native.
J.J\ Ivli that has a house; married.
at horse, .J},jT' Jii atl'", atlou horBernaD.
iz'zet honour, py, iz'zltlou hODorable.
§ 151. With the proper 11arnes of men or places,
the same affix indicates a native 01" an inhabitant of
those places or connexion of those persons; as:
Anzlriqa, Ameriqali American.
----
1 h'mi MenBoub Noon (or adjective) of
76
0l...:" Osman .."tl..:,,' JL...,\c Osm.anli Ottoman.
Turk·iya Turkiyali an inhab. of Turkey,
Me.rzifou'l1, Merzifounlou, a native of Merzifou.
§ 152. The names of some European nations
forrned differently, as they were introdueed by the Vene
tians or Genoese; ns:
ingU·iz Engliflhnlan.
j-';\..;; fransiz Frenchman.
ne.mtse, nemclu
1
A ustrian.
't
jiniviz Genoese; Romau::=
iHpanyol Spaniard.
0\:lL; talyan Italian.
J ';_,JA mosgof' RUBsian; Museovite. filemlng' Dutch.
§ 153. II. -je added to the names of natiOD!!
forms the names of their languages; ns:
o U.T alman a German: 11.\ abnanja the German langusge .
.!Jj' .!JJ,J; turk Turk: turkji the Turkish langua.ge.
ermeni Armenian: ermlnije the Armenian language
§ 154. -je if added to nouns (except the namee
of nations), expresses relation; as:
'nzil'lltje national. lvje household.
tU:- ... kiliseje ecclesiastical. U lisanja linguistic.
§ 155. III. -je added to the adjectives and..
nouns forms the Diminutive, expressing rath·er, some-
w hat, s I i gIl t ly, -i sh; as :
hayvanja brutal. chojouqja cbildisb.
blyazja. whitish. qolayja rather easy.
§ 156. -jiq, .. j·lk; -jaq, -.jek, -jt;;k. This
is a modifieation of the above form, dietated by the
prineipal of euphony (§ 52). If the word ends in J
or these letters are olnitted; as:
qisajiq rather short . .!lJ:-j,J<:' guzeljik htaautifullittle thing.
azajiq just a little. birijik only (begotten) .
.JJ.J'! youmrou globular; tumour: y.. youtlzrolljaq the plsgue.
'IV
The Adjecti vee 77
!lJ!Y. b6JyUk: y.y. blõyUJlk rather Jarge .
kuchuk: kucnujlk, -juk smallilh, tiny.
§ 157. IV. 4.s: -jl, -ji, -jou added to a noun
indicates the individusI who exercises a trade or calling
connected with the first noun; as:
Ikmekji baker tufeflk'ji gun maker.
c?- soujou water seller a.- blkmezji treacle seller.
§ 1 õ8. 4.s: -ji is also used for lnaking adjectives
or nouns designating persons who practise something
expressed by the noun to whicll it is appended; as:
douvaji who prays. galanji, -ehi liar.
shaqaj;', latifeji joker, storyteller.
§ 1õ9. V. j' tlJ -liq, -lik added to a nOuD,
denotes a condition, nature or quality of the thing
denoted by the original noon; as:
gejelik (night) gown. ..!.l.t.r gUnluk daily (pay).
JliJ\ onlouq a coin of ten paras. yirliq yearly (pay).
yuzluk a eoin of 100 paras. (stufffor) pan-
.111/ taloDs.
beylik belonging to the state, government.
Yirmi adamliq yemek. Food suffieient for 20 persoDs.
§ 160. VI. r is a privative
adjectival suffix, meaning without, void of, lacking,
fr e e fr 0 m, -1 e s s ; as :
paras1z Dloneyless. j-:\ etsiz fieahless, thin.
8OUSOUZ 'waterless, thirst.,v. .' yuz'suz who has no faee;
OJ ....,-.J.J! sharrleless.
rlY.. yolsouzroadless; impolite. saghsizunbealthy;weakly.
Derivative Nouns.
§ 161. Derivative nouns are made by the addition
of the following particles to the nouns; as:
§ 162. I. j' tlJ -liq, -lik. Joined to nouns
it expresses a place pecuIiar to the thing named, or a
place where it abounds; as:
78 'u-Jl Lesson 9. VA
yo paboujlouq the place where the slippers or are left.
aghajliq, aghachliq a place ,,'here the trees abound.
J' klõnnlrlUk a place wbet:e eoal is deposited.
tashliq a place where stone abounds, stony; atone-pit ..
§ 163. This -lik, -liq added to aD adjective, forma
its abstraet noun; as:
qizil'liq rouge. Iyilik kindness .
.. \: chojnuqlouq childisbness, .a:. J". • r'L 0 e t
childhood. --':- ta; p V r y.
§ 164. Names of trades or professions are alsO
forrned by adding lik, liq to the words denoting the
persons who exercise them. Ex. :
.. (\ ikmlkjilik thp. occupation of a
ashjUfq the occupation of a cook, cooking.
§ 1.65. II. , -das1", -tash, a fellow, 8.
cOlnpanton.
Üoo\l')\ ad,' dash, adash naInesake. yashdash of the same age>_
, ' qf&rindash, qardalJ1l, (womb-fellow)a brother-
big' tash, the fel10w of a prince .
. .. -
Üoo\')""'.;\ arqadasl, cOinpanion, comrade.
J.\.l-J,) dersdash, st·nl,fdash a class-mate.
§ 166. III. , , -jiq, -Jik;
Diminutive nouns are made by the additior:-:
of these particles to the nouns.
' .,;4.J\ el'jik, evjiyez, ivjtghaz a little house.
booklet. odajtq a little room.
§ 167. Some Diminutives are terms of endear-
ment; as:
babajtq, babajtghaz papa.
- -,/-
l; \ ' \ ' \ anajlq, anajighaz, an' nljiylz mama.
qi.zjighaz poor little girl.
The Adjective.
M'I,1'letler fo Nations
8. a' rab Ara b.
kura Kurd.
cherkes Cireas'sian .
arnavoud Al banian.
8. ajem Persian.
r.J
J
roum Greek.
';W,J! boul' ghar Hulgarian.
Ü\. c1tin Chi na.
af'
Words.
Shehirler Jr Cities
\:-\ istambol .
venid'ik Venice ..
iskenderiyJ Alexandria.
mou·njousoun Pontusa ..
izmir Smyrna.
haleb Aleppo.
qoudoUB Jerusalem.
girid Crete.
majar Hungarian. v-iyana Vienna.
§ 168. Note. are forrned iIl Turkish by
adding oghlou to the name of the father,
and often to the name of the trade or occupation; as:.
JI Hasan oghlou, Ali, Ali the son of Hassan
t
J.io\ \j Qayzqji oghlou Ahm.ed. But for the dig-
nitaries p. 0.)\) zade is used; as: D.)\) Jlf' KeMal,
Paslta zade, son of KelTIal Pasha. (§ Note).
ehlUbi a non-Moslem gen-
. ' tleolan.
f. »nisu GentIeman (Mon-
J:-.J4 sieur) [Fr.].
8. eanaf artisan, trademan.
a. san' at vulg. zenahat art,
craft.
chezar Caesar.
;l;l,., satar he sells.
a. u tr; d-"uk'kian shop.
a. Ijnebi a foreigner .
a . .;L;c; tujjar merchant.
a. a.-qU sense, wisdom.
a. '-:""!):- gharib stranger, poor ..
a. sheytan Satan.
yapar he makes.
a. baq' qal groeer.
'V Eurelse 17.
. 1. , Jr)'. , , 2. A Constan-
hnopolitan, a native of Aluassis, of Smyrna, of Aleppo,.
80 , ...rJl Leason 9.
(lf Alexandria, of Japan, of China, of Montenegro, of
Pontusa, of Jerusalenl; a VienDese, a Cretan, a Hungarian,
.a Roman. 3. The Kurdish, German, CireRssian, Italian,
Arabian, Albanian, Persian, Greek, Bulgarian, Armeniau
languages; Chinese, Turkish. 4. 41-JJ ' ,
. . .. .
' , õ. Pertaining to the country, "trade,
. . . .
artisan, wisdonl; devilish. 6. Slightly sweet;
quite ,,?ell; coldish; rather warm; rather high; fieshy.
7. A stationer; a mender of old things; mule-driver,
(lonkey- driver, horse-rider. 8. One who sells oil; who
keeps a vineyard, a gardeD; one who sells bread, coffee,
sugar, tomatoes, potRtoes, milk, tobacco. 9. Stuff
for a eloak, shirt, girdle, shoe, handkerehief. 10. Ten
paras' worth; 1000 piastres' worth; 500 piastres' worth;
a piastres' worth; one para's worth; changes [small
pieces of lDoney] (smallness). 11. Without house, horse,
books, donkey, coffee, tea; coffee ,vithout nlilk, coffee
with Inilk. 12. Rather white, black, high, much, pretty,
,velI. 13. Humanity; height; blackness; the profession of
a teaeller, cooking; boatmanship. 14. Fellow-traveller;
co-religionist; sharer of the same room. 15. Beautiful
little hands; a little pen; my dear grandmother.
'A Exerelse 18.
- 4i • J;) J,\;!;r - 1 JJ....( r;r J\ \
J;) f }.Yo J!" • !.Sp, ;..-
-1 'l" • J;)
\::.' - 0;)0; ,.s J; L.J) t ,.sJ.,k .J. !l J:!
Ull$;. J \ J: JC 0 • !l Jj J)
0;) J !.S.6" •
• ,.sw\!\ .,.sJ4..\
• Jt\", V • J;) J.Jj jJ!
J 0:> !.bT • r.:' r;1;: '-;'!j J'.. !l"'; yo Jo.

At The Adjective.· 81
\. ..i
l
Job;! ! Jk 0,) r"l f!
\ \ • J'J 0,) 4-!'
'),) r"l JO): !).)# r;! rOJ: \T J
:!JJC!'')4i} \ t. .JJiJ!J"":.;.) rJ"" ! 4-!'.1...l
!"),) \ 0 1 ),),
" J Translatfon ID.
1. Do you know French? - No, Sir, I know a little
English, 2. I am a Constantinopolitan; I know Turkish
weIl. 3. What does that shopkeeper sell? - He
to the villagers and citizens grapes, sugar, coffee; there
are many such shops and shopkeepers in the villages
and cities. 4. 0 grocer! give me 20 paras' worth of
, bread, 10 paras' worth of cheese, 15 paras' worth of
grapes and 2 piastres' worth of sugare 5. Give me
piastres' worth of paper; this paper is rather yellow.
6. Where is the salt-cellar? - It is llere (bourada).
7. There is no eoal in the coal-seller's shop, the trade of
coaling is not a clean one. 8. CCArt thou moneyless?
thou art friendless". 9. Y ou are a very wise man; you
have sense, but your servant is a fool (without sense).
10. Who is this cheesemonger and who is that iron-
monger? - They are my friends ..
;CoDveruUoL
-Jl oll;
\ · J.::l. •
· r! U -r--
• j-i \.) [..J \
.J\.J Jo
• .. rf.\.f. !l)j_:\.)
Conv.-Grammar.
. ? Jl r r;[ Y.
? Jo'; .:.r-
? .)l J...J .i. r.\i
.., .
? J\.J
? f'
8
82 t. c..rJl Leeson 10.
,. Lesson 10.
The Pronouns. (Continued.)
..
6. Interrogative Pronouns.
,§ 169. The Interrogative Pronouns are the follo'
ingo [The Interrogative sign -mi is
with thern.]
§ 170. who? whoever?
This is applied to persons, and is declined alo]
and ,,?ith possessive affixes.
? 0-- r Ü"'" sen kim sin? who art thou?
? .J\ ? .J\ r? .J\ ';l r kinl dir o? ,kim o? 0 kim, o? who is j
§ 171. Sometimes when there is no question, k'l2
expresses the, meaning of (some'. .
·cSx.(' geldi, ,kimi gitdi, some C8Dle others' weJ
? ';\.J ';\.J J\.J kimim' vaT? kimift' t:ar? -kimi'-ta
whom have I? whom hsst thou? whom bas b
J.J! kimsesi YDq he has nobody.
? kimiiiki'? whose?
§ 172. ne? How? (with adjectives);' whs'
(with nouns).
It is applied to inanimate object and is decIin'
alone and with possessives.
? .J\ ..; ? .J\ Jl ..; ne' o? ne' dir o? What is it?
? ..; nl istersifliz? What do yon want.?
• 0' ,t '0 "l., · 0'. 0 o· , ./.,. ,. .i
= = = =..7- ...r = = \.il!
nem'? nen'? nesi'? nemiz'? neftiz'? ""bi?
Nem' 'Var? nAft'var? n esi' vaT? What have I? 1\
T
hat hast tho
What has 'he?
N emiz' dir? ne1iiz' dir? What thing, part or belonging to 1
to you, is it?
? 0 = 0';'; nede'? at or in w hat?
Tbe Pronouns. t 83
? &l..J ne'demek? What does it mean?
.
)4; =]i neUr' I What tbings! Wbat wonderful thillgS!
? = ""ichin? ni'choun? ni'chin? For what? Why?
Jf-. J,-.
§ 173.1 1 '"at1:ghi? Which?
It is applied to persons and to inanimate objects
without distinetions. It may be used either alone or
with possessives, and is decHned:
· ? 1Ian'gisi? 'Vhich?
? tA han' Wbich of us?
? ta han' gifiiz ? Wh ich of yoo?
? ($ ta han' gUari? Which of them?
? ?..!.l. f'il.? Which? of -? fl'onl -?
?.;.l::(' $1. ha".'gi kitab? Wbich book? ? 5'1. Which man?
§ 174. 1[..\i qach? How many?
It is applied to pronoulls and to inanimate objects,
and may be used eitller alone or with possessives, and
it is declined:
? \i ? \j ? \j qa' ehimiz? qa' ehftiiz? qa' ehi'? How many
· . . of us, of you, of tbem?
? [.\i qaeh,' gunde? In how many days?
· ? oJ.::..\i ayHl qachinaa'? On "'hat (day) of the moutb?
· '" ... .
§ 175. na'ail? What sort of a
tbing? What _kind?
.? j.-:i. n.a' sil sil1iz? Howare you?
· -'
? rl\ yo na'sil bi,- adem dir? What 80rt of a person is he?
4f.-!\ ...JA her na'sU ise In 'whatever ,,·ay it may be.
§ 176. 'liije? What kind? How?
. .. .
? JJ.A,)\ r;r bou iJdlm nijl ademdir? What kind of a man
_ _. is this (man)?
? yo What 80rt .of a tree. is this (tree)?
§ 177: It is' al80 US ed indefinitely: it then means
how much? how many?· .
------
1 Qanghi is the old form, now it is ob801ete.
6*
84 t. u-jl LesBon 10.
ni'che or ni'je def'alart How many times!
nijlye'alk? nichlyl'alkl Till how many timesi
, .,;.;f ni'jller? ni,'chlllr? nfchl aaemllr? How many
peoples?
7. Indeflnite PronOIlns. rr.A
The Indefinite Pronouns are:
§ 178. 4:'- ... $" klmesneanybody.
.. ..
These are applied to persons only, and are deeIined
al one and with possessives.
(.;!.)\.J J! Ol\j.J\ oraaa bir kimse varmi? Is there anybody
there?
JJ! Jy. kirn,' se yoq, kr mlsnl yoq. There is nobody .
kimslsiz' without anybody, without patron;
friendIes8.
§ 179. qadar.
Expresses quantity or number (§§ 199, 229).
? j» ne' qaaar ekmek? How much bread?
? w.J<:' JJ:, ? j» ne' qaaar? nl' qaaar gun? How many daye?
j» ;J.J\ ' j,.Ü .J\ ' j» r ' j.,Ü yo So much.
j-Ü 'j"ü 'jii .'! yeter' qaaar, yetljek' qadar. yl-
tishljl k' qaaar So much as will suffice, enougb.
JJ..; 'j» J..T esAlk' qaaar, ayf qaaar As (big) as an a88 as a bear.
jJ.i parmaq' qadar As· (small as a little) finger.
§ 180. p. JA her each, every, -soever.
Her is always an adjective and is nsed with all
other indefinite pronouna. .
r;\ ... i" f ...;A hlr' kls, hlr' ki""l, Mr' adlm everybody.
..;A hlr nl' whateoever.
Sft...;A her ha' ngt whichever
J! her' bir each, every .
..r..fo hlr' birimiz everyone of us.
ol...f.. hlr' ylrae every where.
r her' kim whoever, whosoever.
The Pronouns.
...;A hb' kimtiiu whoever of you.
..;A AIr' biri one of them.
her' ikisi both, each, eit.her.
85
§ 181. JT j. , a. Ja-! bir some (§ 13õ).
means a eertain number of persons or things.
J..;r ba' zi ademler' ha' zi kimseler Some people.
'of ha'si dAra, bazi ker're sometimes.
eS ba' zimiz, ba' ziifiz, ba' zilari some of us,
of you, 'of them.
ba' sisi some people, some of them.
§ 182. Bir expresses a small quantity,
a few (§ 135).
JoA:I ;r Jo ' Sf..;! bir' al IkmAk, bir' al sou a little bread, water.
sf some money; bir' asi some of it.
§ 183. [..\;.J. W/I· qaclt a few, several (§ 135).
,J...J';:' [,G.,J! bir qQch' ghouroush a few piaetres.
rl\ Jo bir qQch' adAm a few persons.
J.J\ [.G J. hir qach' gun iv' vel severaI days ago.
§ 184. or , a . .rT' p. baIJhqa',
a-kher', digbr' other, another; as:
r.,l.1. , r;r.1..rT' r;\.1.;::;:" another
bashqa' hashqa' separately. .. somewhat apart.
, u)A ' t.S •• bashqalari, akhlrlerl, tligA{Uri others.
§ 185. jUan a certain (definite orindefinite
person or thing), so-and-so.
- . ,
rl\ iJ}Ü adem so-and-so, such a one.
c.;,! \,.)\; filan', shey Buch a sueb a thing .
• (ilan' at 8uch 8uch a time.
§ 186 •. &. 8. Jumle, hep alI:
. .,.. .
I • kfaf'feyi alem, jum'le alem all the world. -
86 t •. f..rJl Lesson 10.
)A;\ hlp ademler, juni'le ooernler all men.
, jA..l,! ' kiaf'(emiz, jlun'lelniz,- he'pimiz all of us.
, (esi, jum'lesi, he'p'isi all of it.
§ 187. cr Ola'l1ja, butun whole.,
0.J 0yy' bulun' gtln the 'whole day.
l 0; J! butun' dunya the ,,'hole world.
d: paranHI olan'jasi all the mo'ney.
Jl yo olan'jam bou dour this is all I have.
all my money. the whole loaf (aec.)
§ 188. h,ioh l1othing, [never] (§§
<5 hich' biri nune. hich' bir 'kimse nobody.
Jo hich' bir vaqU, not at any' time, never.
. Muta-la-at Remarks.
§ 189. a) The English pronüun one [pl. ones]
after an adjective is not Turkish; as:
Have you the fresh loaf? - No! I have the old one.
Taze somoun sende' 1ni? ,- Khayr! bayati' bende d'ir.
Two old Hons and two young ones. 'fhe little ones.
Iki ikhtiyar ve iki genj arslanlar. KuchukUr. '
The great ones -of the world. Dunyantn, btõyuklerj.
§ 190. b)' is by t.SJ.,'
biri, birisi.
Somebody is asking for you. Biri seni chagbtriyor. ,
Somebody is knocking at the door. Qal>OUYOU vOttrouyorl,,'.
§ 191.' e) Eaeh other, one are expressed
by p. , t.S.:.Y. ' t.SJ.1.y. yekdigeri, birbjrun.
1"hey love each other. severler. "
We will help ot.her. Birbirlerim'l:ze yardtm'ldejeyis.
You see one another. YekaigeriRizi gtõrUr'mflus.
. Misal'ler Exam
Ohiftjinifl beyaz qoyounlart Has the' farmer the white aheep?
var'mi? _'
Khayr', siyahlar' ond'(J atr. No! he bas the- black -onea.
Hojantn btõyuk oghlou Is teaeher' s elder
'
0'
AV The Pronouns. 87
Khayr' efendim! ol biri' boo-
rada dir.
Bou qale,nlerili her han' gt.st
Han' gt.sini istersilliz?
Han'g1,s1, oloursa olsoun.
Dostlari'min hich,'biriBi eva,e d/gil
idi.
N e onou' isterim, fte 01' birini.
Ne'var? aerdin ne'?
\ ishji workman.
'J..,b dolou full.
a. jins kinde
a .. qiymet value.
a. \JJ:.1.. ma' da except ..
p. fl!. shayird pupil.
N 0, Sir, that one (= the other)
is here.
Either of these pens.
'Vhich "'ill you have? .
Either, \\'hichever it may be.
N either of my friends was at
home.
I will have neither.
What is the matter?
Words.
yetgi'n ripe.
p. r b.. kham unri peo
poulJar fountain.
UT ara relation.
chift pair.

khirsiz thief._
. ..
" Eurelse 20.
S:'>\)r - ).J.(' '
I.>..(! - 'I • ).>
.J,:)J!I ..),:))(0,:).;- ..),:)).1i S:..q ,. ·
- )1) J..Ii4i 'l" .),:) J!\ 0'> J:<s'"
- •
t. - IS'
JU' ' J - J;) J
.
' §1} 0 .JJ,:) i\;. J
, .
0,:))1' • )J.l).> iJ rt:!' : J,:) J!I .;,;) .;" jAljf -
J.»\! .c:-;. V • JI) J. -1 JI)
• JJJ.ts"',:) J! \ '(k:!' I 0,:) \ J! I - 1 JJ,:)
88 t. u- Lesson 10.
u; J Translatton 21.
1. How many lessons have the boys? They have
five lessons every day. 2. There are many thieves in
these mountains. 3. God is the father of all men.
4. What kind of a young man is he? - He is a man
sometimes good, sometimes bad. 5. has its
time". h8S its place". 6. Who were with
Mr. Joseph? - His wife and some of his grandchildren.
7. There were two thieves: one on one side, the other
on the other side. 8. Are Maryand Ann here to-day
(this day)? _. Neither of them is here. Have yon
any friend in this village? - Yes, severaI of the rich
families iIl this village are my friends. 10. Ras Nejibe
a white rose? - No, but she has a red one. 11. Are
there many mosques and churches in this country? -
Yes, Sir, every cityand village h88 some churchea or
mosques.
.u Conversation.
.Jl y.r Y.,\ J:,4.! J
..-
? JJ.:- .J!' r.)'
J\"
,. · J» Y. ft:A r-
eJ» «.Jy.J! y.\
• JJ.\(.) 4.-.-(' J.
.J»Y.
ei Ji;. .,) lS..;! '(t..A
.,)
• .; l IS .!li. IS.; to
• .),)
? JJ..::- JU
CQui vive?) ?.J\ r.J\
? J\" r .
? \:Jf' (.;/' <s.) \.. Jl J '-'
?
? j,)
? J,) .l.'; !I • .JJu .!J.J:!
\
Numeral Adjectives. 89
\ \ Lesson 11.
Numeral Adjectives.
§ 192. The numerals are of four kinds: Cardina],.
Fractiollal, Ordinaland Distributive numbers ",'.k.'
i:-jj ' / ' -
...., .. , ..,
1. eardinaI numbers. Adadi asZige.
1 YoI mT t 30 I .>.;.,,1 otOU8 I r.
2 i-kt , 40 qtt·q 'L,.
3 [.-' \ uch r- 50 JH el' li ••
4 60 ,. deõrt ...
alhnilJh
5
6
7
8
9
"

'j\



10 0-'\
11
12 0J\
be.oth
alti
yedi
seki.
doqouz
on
on bir
on i-ki

,
v
Jt.
'\
, .
t ,
tr
70
80
90
100
200
300
1000
10000
.
lIetmish


Bekse"
doqla"
t ••
.
....
.J--,!
'gUS

..) .- .
iki guz
, ..

uchyuz
r-. •
.. biA
, ...
-
. .J\ _ u on biA t ••••
13
20
cJ.J\

21. J.
on üch ,r-
1 00000 j y.. yuz bili t •••••
yinni , • million milyon
gir",i bir I " ,milIinrd .;1:1- ",ilglll'
JJ! jfo .!L r!J- J!
Bou slne Erist080Utl biA doqouz 'gu, tk' slneBi tiir
This is the year 1902 (of Christ). A, D.
Hijretin bill uch ,ue yirmi slnesinde -!.l.; flA
In the 1320
t
h year of the Hejira.
§ 1938. A hundred, one hundred; a thousand, one
J thousand are in simply jJ! I 1I
us
,
90 t t c..r Jl Lesson 11.
. It is not COlnmon in Turkish to say twelve hundred,
t"renty five but sirnply bifi iki yiiz, iki hi1i hes/I, '!JUB •
. § 193b. For the sum of 100,000 piastres in fiDan-
cial circles· the word yit.k load, burden is used,
..
'in' the olden tiInes the SUln of 500 pj.astres was
called kese bag, purse .
..
.!lY.. w.J\ on yuk one million. besh kese para 2500 piaetres.
§ 1.94, The hours of the day and nigbt are ex·
pressed as follo,\\Ts (§ 78):
Sa' at qach dir? What 0' clock it is? - Sa' at yarim dir. It
is 12.30 o'elock.
Sa' at dtõrt dur. It is 40·clock. - Sa'at yedi bouchouq dour.
It is 7.30 o'elock.
§ 195.' Minutes are reckoned as follows:
Beske on' var J\.J wJ\ Ten minutea to five.
.. Ikiyi besh' glchnzish "';...::;-,j ,.,;! Fi ve minutes paat two.
§ 196. A person's age is expressed thus:
? Ü'\..., ".\i qach yashinda HO"F old are you?
.. ..
r! \ o J..:.! Jj qtrq yashindayim. I am 40 years old.
§ 197. Numeral Adverbs are forrned by joining
4.;,) , 0'[ der' a, ker' re to the cardinals; 8S: .
Bü· def'a onee; iki def'a twice; ker're thrice.
def'a besh yirmi eder four tilnes fivc makes twenty.
§ 'fhe Variative numeraIs are formed by
dd
t • • , • ,. ,. , ,. •• •• d' _1..1,.1.';'
a lng .,l .. J1,·ns, J'tns en; (;Tf(;Ijf.fu,
chesltid'den.
Bir jimden of one kind; iki cTteshid' den of two kinde; ue.
jins, uch jinsden three 8orts.
§ 199. Some thirty, some is expresead
by ;...\i qadar; . as (§§ 179, 229):
Otou,z qadar, qirq qadar. Some fifty perSODS Erli adlM qatJar.
§ 200. The word or between two numbe;rs in
English is oinitted in Turkish. .
lki üch g'Il'n some t"'Q or three· days. Besh Oti adi. qatltJr.
SO me five or ten men .. DlJJrt besh ghouro".,8h some four or fi ve"piastrel:
"
.Nunleral Adjectives. 91
§ 201. The Mnltiplieative numbers are generally'
formed by the 3:ddition of \; qat fo I d to tlle as:
tik single.
only, single.
. birijik. (begotten).
iki qat twice.
,,=J\ 'I.tch qat triple.
'.
doort qat quadruple.
. .
hundrede of.
bifflerjl thousands of.
,nilyonlarja millions of.
4!.;" doort kroshe \
J
square.
ehanl eha"shi
li JJ! yuz a hundreu fold.
§ 202. The Collective nunlbers are:
p. ehift a pair of (hoota) .
.. .,.
p. "-i.:;- ehifte paired, double.
f. douzi1la adozen [It.].
tu, taqim aset, lot.
double-barrelled gun.
f. "-'J';' grosa a gross [It.].
'J.\ tsh, tJk mate; one of the pair. J.JJ- suru a fioek ..
§ 203. When using a numeral with a noun, the
Turks frequently introduce a second noun between the
two, which quite superfluous in European langusges,
but occasionaIly employed in English, as (ten head of
cattle, six saH of ships' etc. This noun varies according
to the nature of the things defined by the numeraI.
. . .
For men it is ) nefir individuat; for beasts it is
res head"; for bulbs it is bash; for ships, gardens,
field's, letters, maps it is qit' a piece; for cannons,
. .
ships and villages, it is 0) pare, para; for things usually
..
,I.) dane,- tane, aded; as:
iki nefer asker t,,"O soIdiers; drort rl.8 barg'ir
four pack-borses; ueh qit' a mektoub letters; alt' qit' a tarla six
pieces of ground ;" 'yedi bash soghan seven buIbs of oniolls; on pare
vilJages; adld tufeng eight guns; bir bah maghaza
El magazine· bir qtta arzouhal a petition: '
. The·commori people uses the word it'.) for all these
words; iki dane asger, deort dane bargir etc.
. .
92 t t U".)l LeSSOll 11.
dogkdou was born.
plnjlre window.
yazdim I wrote.
f .... ;..;c. gazeta new'spa pere
W.J.) (oUToun oven.
8. r li- kamam bath.
';/..)L; tarla Held.
.).,;.\ akhor stable.
Words.
a. \.."J. \ el-hamra Alhambra.
p. seray castle, palace.
R. aw century.
. a. r.)l dirkem dram.
p. khan inD •.
p. w\..fi deyirnlan mill.
J.. \:;- ch ay tr pasture .
a . ailir zero.
Y Y r:\,.'i Exerelse 22.
S·d' )')'.J. - • jjJ' - :;:::- e...
1i
\
• a.,,:-i · )) jjJ' - •
, .:J U-
i
) 0.lÄlY,. \::- • )'J U-
i
) J} .)A);.I y '4$'»J.
)..\i j.1.. .:.,),) J c,c!' U-iJ JI · i.J.1..; jJ!
\\Y\ o.li
r
0...l.:-4!- \\. Y ..,;,' "" • )1; J.J.:f'
" 4i I) ,\. ' '0 ' '-0. '
\\TA'
... .. · ) ö·
,
JI ""y \ · Jls)! \ \ t. n ' t.o
• ...l.:-ot:- \ \ • Y ..,;,' 1:J.,k1iT t. • s-'-!' J\' 0 J
· Sol!' )1) S,))\!...i§ JJ \,. J rt..
.:.,)), • :;
• .li1".J. • i.J J'" "'" 0 0,) 4!- yo • 4'_ ).1.. .,) .J. y',.» JIJ
· )) )I
J
\J ,. o)W) " J W) ,. ' T"
.. .. J... .
" • 0 .,' • J--,-!' JJ! .)) J \j \!tijt: j.J! A
,.
. N umera! Adjecti ves. 98
yw J Translatlon 23.
1. An oke is 400 drams; a batman is six okes.
2. My father is 70 years old, my mother 62, my brother
40 years old. 3. Take 200 (units) eggs, 500 walnuts,
50 pounds of apples and three batmans of pears.
4. What is the -name of that book? - It is the Thou-
ssnd and One Nights. õ. The palaee of Alhambra has
999 windows. 6. Here are two sets of eloths. 7. There
were two kinds of handkerchiefs, a blue one and a black
one. 8. This eloth has three folds. 9. There are 40
loads of money in the bank. 10. I have three dozen
peneilse Twelve dozens make agross. 11. The shoe-
maker has three pairs of shoes. 12. How many paras
make a piastre? _
.u Convenatlon •
• J' 0.Jl tSlJl
• JU u.f' JH jJ!
.• J\.J j..lf .J Jj.>!
-JU P.i .-i? Jo I ":".1'
• tSJ.i\
.J-,!\
• • c,l.-lJJ,j,i'; S;lUr
• \
J • .J •.• J. ..
.Jl
• ,\ ./I\,' J-ü
.. :.J! ..
.Jl cf..}L:-
• Jl \l cJ.J\
-. .Ju jJ!
.•

. ·JU • JJ! J. !
.• Jl JU li j\
? li --:,..c L.
't

? JU r')\ J..n-
?..L,.. ..
. J .. Ju '..JA
? tS -'! \ [li L. • cJ.J l
? \ J-.JJ:. [.li cJ.J\
? Jl 'l'.) $';
? JJ...(' tS J.:J \ "'-"-J!
? J,) f' PI . .J.: J!.11 yo
? J\.J f' 'l4.J\

? Jl rli .;,jJl "
\!.. .. ...,.
? J\.J Eli .l4.-.J..} Jo
? Jl c..1" .. .. S; lA ,
?
? J'J ...Jai rf,G .!.l;1fl.-<:"
? Jl J\.J y'l,.,
94 t, Les80n 12.
,r Lesson 12.
Numeral Adjectives. (Continued.)
2. Fractional nnmbers. Adadi kesriye.
. § 204. The Fractiollal numbers are derived from
the the denominator is put in the
and the numerator in the nominative, and the la\ter
the formere .
Jo onda bir one tenth, beshdJ iki two fi fth s,
'i,. = 1/10, rio =. 2/6.
Yuzde iki, 2 % = ,./. · .-
binde yirnli 20%0 = , •. / •. ·
JT o.).J.J! yuzde alti 6 °/0 := '·/11 .'
§ 205. Sometimes one of the words p. pa"
"
8. f; jus, a. his' se, a. qisim, all meaning .'a portion''',
is introduced: . ..
Deo'rt payda bin, diart juzde· biri, deort hissede biri, 1/4 - 1/ t. •
Yirmi parchada on drordu, 14/
20
= 't../
r

\ ,
§ 206. Other fraetional numbers are as follows:
tS.; , ' J .. >- &J ,'a. p. yari, yarim, bouchouq, "Isi(, .,.
.. \"".. -J'tJ. ,.. ha.lf.
a. ry , tu,n whole (number).
p . cheyrek a quarter.
R. c:! roub, ottroub one fourth ..
Mii.ta-la-at Remarks.
§ 207. There are three Turkish, one ,Arabic and
one Persian word used .for half (§ 75). Yarim is usad
hefore a nOUD, like an ndjeeti ve: yariflt sa'at, gan".
elnl,a. B01tcltOltq is used in conjunction. with
a cardinal number: iki bouchouq gun ... Yari, R'BiI
li re used like a 'nou 11 : el1Han i n yarisf" k/itabifl.' riisfi the
,.
,N uaneraI Adjectives.

half of the apple, the hali of -the, hook. The use of
n'lm is very rare in Osmanli-'furkish: nim resmi, half
official (sources, papers). ' ,
§ 208. The Persian fractional number char"yek
_. .. .,
a quarter, comnlonly spelt !JJ\> cheyrek is used for
, .. ., ,',
a quarter of an hour or of a :mejidiye: f.
is used also for aquarter of a mejidiye: 8.. t;) rOftb,
ouroob is used to express' one fourth .of an (yard)
and sometimes of a piastre.
Sa'at bire elflyrek var.' It is quarter to one.
Bir arshin ueh ouroub. One and tbree quarter yards ..
Elmanin oqqasi d(õrtden roub eksige d..ir }OneokeofapPlesis wortQ
• c:! W';';jl 3
8
/
4
piastres. .
D'ch mijidiye qartt Three quarters of a
Besh mejidiye cMyreyi. Five quarters of a mejidiye •
. 3. Ordinal numbers. Adadi 1Jasft'lJe.
§ 209. These are forrned from the cardinals
adding the termination j- -inji, -inji, -ounjou, -uniu.
The first has, however, an irregular form' also;
is ilk, which is from ev' velki tfiret'
1st birinji. 8th ,
2nd Ä\ ikinji. 9
th

3rd uchunju.
4th drordunju.
5th beshinji.
6th altinjt.
10
th
Oll Ounjou. ,
20
th
yirminji.
'100
th
yuzunju.
1 OOOth billinji.
7th yedinji. the last 8011. . ,':
lngiliz . Qirali yldinji Edward. Edward VII, king of Rngland. .
Muta-la-at IternaTks.
§ 210. In compound numbers, only last
unit assurnes the ordinal form; all the others
cardinalR, as: ;
_ .. :. • J
\ ü.J\ jy,. Bill doqouz Yliz on, _ .
96 t, LeSBon 12.
§ 211. The da te is expressed as follows:
· Bou, yUn ayill" qaehinji gU'ltU dur? Bau gu,n ayill qach' dir?
Ay tn qachi' dir? What day of the month it is to-day? .
Bou yUn ayin sekizi dir. To-day is the 8th of the mGnth.
Mayisifi lIirmi deor'dunju gu,nu dur. It is the 24th of May.
§ 212.· Distinetives. There is no special form for
the distinetive adverbs, the ordinaIs are used direetly
without any alteration:
Firstly Birinji; Secondly Iki'flji; TenthJy Onounjou.
4. Distriblltive numerals. Adadi tevriyi,ye.
§ 213. Distributive numeraIs are forrned by the
addition of ) -er, -ar to the cardina1 numbera ending
in consonant, and r- -shete, -sha,. to those ending
in (.$ .ye.
J...J! birer' one each; JJ! JJ. birer' birer one by one.
ikisher' two each; iki,shJr' ikisher two by two.
· uehlr' three each; ueher' ueher three by three.
· deorder' four each; deorder' dfiJrtUr four by foor,
.r::'\ altts1.ar' six each ;.r::JT..r.:=JT altishar' altiBhar six at a time.
· jj y.. 'liaer' 100 each. >.:. biner' a thousand eacb.
§ 214. When there are hunqreds or thousands
in the number, the a1
4
or shar comes after the numeral
expressing the number of hundreds, or thousands, and
nothing is put after 'gUS or bin.
..r:u'.)Y. '!J·us erUsher bifi 150000 each.
JJ! . ../!:<,. ikisker yUz 200 each.
ueher bifi 3000 each.
§ 216. The Ottoman-Turkish Calendare There
are three prineipal calendars or reekonings of time in
Turkey. The Christians usuaUy ohserve the Ohristian
calendal', whieh is ealled either tarikhi meelad
the date of the Birth (of Christ) [meelad Ineaning birtb·
day, Christmas-day], or Kristosoun the date of
Christ. In this Are used the Latiu months: January,
Februaryetc. (Hounvar, pedirvar).
TabJe of' the MonthH. <
I
I'
S ac r e d nl 0 n th 8. ei viI mon th s. Popular names. ! English.
I,
II
tr
"
I il

'I
!I
es
MOllhar'rem ":"'Jl. Mart Mard II March
:t:

:1
Q
...
Sefer
0Li
Nisan Abril April
sl
..,;&t"
Ei
Ei
'I
CD
J.,':J \ t=';
Rebil ev'vel
U-!l.
Mayis
i
Mayis May
:-t
Z
c=
j-':J\ t=J
Rebil akhir
0\J.:r
Haziran Oraq ay! June 8
CD
...
J.,':J\ J emazil ev' vel
. .
Tem'mouz Temiz July
gl)
.Jy. -
'I
>-

j-':J\
-
II
0..
.lemazil akhtr

Avosdos I! Avosdos August

<'D


Rejeb
.!l.A\
Gftz ayt
II September
.....

<
.. t'D

'W
<.J.
Sha'ban J.J\' 0\-
U';,.,..rJ
Ttshrini ev'vel Orta gdz ay! .
I October
wWa..,; Ramazan
0\-
'.rtshrini sani Son gftz ayt
I
U'......;-'
I November
J\y

J.J\ 0"';("
Kianounou ev' vel Qara qtsh ! December
-t I
• Zil qade Jt! 0jt( Kianounou eani Zam'harir
li January
.bL!
i
j;
Zil hij'je. Shoubat. I Gdjdk.
li February.
\I
.
!I
cg
I
-.l
98 t, r...r.):l loJes8on 12.
§ 216. Among the Ottoman Turks there are two
ealendars, the Sacred anu the Civil. The lunar year
is adopted for the sacred and the solar for the civil.
The Sacred year is dated from the Hejira or Flight, the
first year of which Era hegAn with the new moon of
the 15
th
of July A. D. 622. The IUllar year is 10 days
shorter than the· solar year, it is used in religious
chronology and religious Law (sher'i). The months
are reckoned differently froln ours; they run thus: Mu·
har'rem, Sefer etc.; and sherif (s8cred' is always added
to their names; as: Shabani sherif.
§ 217. The other is the Civil or the Finaneial
calendar: the first day of which coincides with the first
day of March O. S., and is now two years behind the
Sacred. It is eommonly used in all matters except those
pertaining to religion. The ruonths are: March, Nisan
etc. -, the old Arabic and Syrian ealendart with slight
chauges. The year 1902 corresponus to the year 1320
of the Hejira and t318 of the Finaneial or Civil year.
§ 218. The comlnon· people have a different
reckoning of the lnonths, running thus: Zamharir etc.
(See the Table.)
§ 219. There is another popular division of the
year into two parts: the summer llnd the winter divisions:
r-'\i Qaszm, St. Demetrius' Day, the 26
th
Oct. O. S., is
popularly reckoned as the beginning of the winter sesson.
this has 180 days. ~ U J . ; a ; . khidir-el'les, St. George's
..
Day, the 23
rd
April O. S., is celebrated as the beginning
of the summer season, ,vhich lasts for 185 or 186 days.
§ 220. The New St yle caIendar is called in Turkish
alafranqa and the Old St yle roumi (Greek).
§ 221. The Ottolnan Turks commence their
reekoning of time from sunset. This is with them the
twelfth hour, an hour Iater it is one o'clock, and so
on till the twelfth hour in the lnorning (6 a. m.), when
they begin again. This is called alatourqa (Turkish), to
distinguish it from European time, which is called
alafranqa (French, European).
I
V
(.,
N umeral Adjecti ves. 99
j:;J Words.
a. tarikh date. a. \ li.J 'Vefat Itdi died.
a. cS.JL. musavi equal. c.SJ:.l\ alinai ,,·a8 taken.
,,)\, aaa island. ...;li' 0.) qara land.
mlitesadif corresponding. p. bakh'shish present.
"t Eurelse 24.
J.- '\.0'-' JJ1\:-" ,
1S"'4!- j-AOV P. C:!)t' .1. • s..clT JJ re..
T • J:>
'\ .• -
• LA 0.)).) : J · 0) l; .).)
• J - t.
0:> 0: - j-: rJ:>\;: 0
1 J:> 0)- oj-' • (.1
· JIJ J.1. JJ\; J .,lj .:. -
• J.,lj:> l..:a:.. 4!f! f' J.-.f. t.lJ J I 0"';lr' 4!- .1. \.Q.. J V
,.
f."J' 0.pY!"J':' \ • J..b,;:- ! J:> §\SC! A
• oJ 0:> IS. !.J.J YD E!I o-'J:> \. '.J'..J J.:!$: JoJ)
0 J Translatlon 2õ.
1. April is the fourth month of the year, October
the tenth and December the twelfth. 2. He is in his
sixtieth year; and my father is in his 68
th
year. 3. Give
them ench 10 piastres. Give those children a present of
five piastres each. 4. A pars is one fortieth of the
pinstre. A IDonth is one twelfth of the year. 5. Com e
su by six. In the middle of the year. 6. Six per cent,
7*
100 tr- r..,r.J:l LeeBon 13.
t. •
50 per tllousand. 7. We are in the third year of the
twentieth century. 8. Is Ali a good ln8n? - No, Sir I
he is in prison four fifths of the time. 9. At twelve
o'eloek, or a quarter to twelve, I shall be here (I am).
10. (Leon VI., the 2last sking of 1 Cilieia, died at Paris
in 1393, Nov. 19
th
, in the 60
th
year of his age .
.u Conversatlon •
• J\.J J» J...J..;'- .. u=...:J\
Jt;
co ••
.
• J:l .;.»
. J:l ';\.J JJ.i ... jJ!
eJ:l ($JL.. ojJ! j \

. rl::-
· .;J.!.J';' Jy;- \ 3("
· r
JJT
Ü.J\ jJ!
... w.lp'
"l J\.J t.:t"' • .!l
"l J:l';.J.L; .!lOj L
.,
'? j\.J ... 0.,1, ol:....
\!.. . J. .J
'? JH jy' ...il
,.;
? t.:: J \.J rl \ J.J=t 0 l .Jj.J \
'! J:l 0.Jj.J\ j.J.ä..:
'! J;';.J '- ,- &.\

'!.!lJJT
"! jJ!
'1' Lesson 13.
Degrees of Comparison •

§ 222. In Turkish, as in English, there are three
degrees of conlparison, the Positive, the Comparative
and the Superlative.
§ 223. The Comparative degree is generally ex-
pressed by putting the word with whieh the comparison
is maue in the abIative ease, and leaving the adjective
unaItered. The word \A.) daha (!more' is Bornetimes
put hefore the adjective, for the sake of emphasis, or
to prevent amhiguity; as:
Degrees of Comparison. 101
yo 0'>':- bln Benden btoyug"um (beoyu' yum) } I am older
lA.)·...l7.-· bAn slndln daha' btoyug unt than you.
lJ
la') \.JA 0J<:" yo 04.J') \.JA 0.J yo
Boo gun hava aunkindln sovouq dour, Bou gun hava aunkinden
daha' sovouq dour. To-day the weather is colder than yesterday.
§ 224. The Superlative degree is in general ex-
pressed by the word !,j, en, prefixed to the adjeetive; as:
tu, .!l\ ell' y{ikslk dagh the highest nlountain.
IJA .!l\ en' sovouq hava the coldest w.eather.
§ 225. The word en is sometimes omitted:
.!l..J1.;\ adanllarift qabasi' the rudest of men.
5;!y' Rayvanlartll bliJyuyu (irdir. The largest of [allJ
the animaIs is the elephant.
Elmalar'" Iyisini' sich Choose the best of the apples.
§ 226. The words pek very, a. 0.)\') sigade,
. -
a'shi,rl, (exceedingly' are used to signify an ex-
cess of any quality above what is requisite, as it is done
in English by prefixing the adverbs (too' or (very' to
adjectives ; as :
JJ.,; plk' yorghoundour he is very tired.
z;,yade' bahaUdiT it is too expensive.
);.,; ($ a' shiri sovouqaour It is too cold.
§ 227. Other superlatives are formed in a way
peculiar to Turkish, by prefixing to eertain adjeetives
a syllable somewhat similar in sound, commencing with
the same vowel and consonunt, or the some vowel, and
pnding with " . as ·
ra...r, ·
bem' beyaz very white, exceedingly white.
ap' very open. qap' qara quit.e black.
gam yasri very flat. sip' sivri very sharp.
saghlam very healthy, sound. .ftim' siyah very black.
tas ,tamam very complete. dop' dolou quite full. [right.
biJs b8Jyftk very big, great. dos' doghrou, quite straight, ql1ite
.Jfttlaltazat Ühservations.
§ 228. Spoken Turkish has the singular usage
102 tr- Lesson 13.
t·,
of repeating nouns, adjeetives and verbs, substituting
in the repetition an m for the first letter of the word,
if it begins with a consonant, and prefixing an m if it
begins with a vowel, for the purpose of generalizing
the idea contained in the word so repeated [compare the
English shilly-shally, the French etc.]; as:
Kitab mitab boul'madim. I sought for booke or aoything of
the kind, but found nothing.
Duk'kUin mukiän ev mev bi".' shly qal' madi. Not 8 shop or
anything like one remained.
Eoiftizift qouyousou mouyousO'U yoq' mou? Has your house a
weIl, a eistern, a fountain? etc.
Ekmeyi getir, qourou ,nou'rou ne' oloursa olsoun. Bring the
bread, no rnatter if it be somewhat dry or erurnbled.
Bachi machi yoq' dour. He has not a hair nor anything
like one.
Further: Oufaq tefeq. Little trifiing lnattere.
Eyri Myru. Zigzag, serpentine.
§ 229. Certain idiomatic English phrases used in
expressing comparison are expressed in the following
way (§ 179).
as ... as ... is expressed hy .;» qadar, which is not repeated
as in English .
as mucb 88 -
..
- qadar choq
Jft .;» --
as little as -
:J.JO::- -
- qadar ktlchuk
as few as - jT .;J.i - - qada',. az
as far as - J\j.,,\ .;» - - qada,' ouzafJ
as near as J» - - qadar yaqin
as long ss cJJj.,,\ .;» - - qadar ouzoun
as sbort as - .;» -- - qadar qis'sa
Bhekeri,n qadar qah' vem vare I have 8S much coffee aa sug&r.
Bheker bal qadar tatU dir. Sugar is as sweet 8S honey.
Ol qadinin qizlart qadar [choq] oghlanlart var tär. That
lady ha.s as many boys 8S girls.
Attmiz bou at qadar eyi deyil dir. Our horse is not good &8 this.
Ingilterra qadar ouzaq bir mahall gitdi. He "'ent to & place
as far as England.
GUnler shimdi qishdaki qadar qis' sa dir. The daya are now
as sbort as in the winter.
Eshik qadar iri idi. It was 8S big as an aS8.
Ol vaz Beoyuk Perhiz qadar ouzoun oudou. That sermon w88
8S long as Lent.
Degrees of Con) parison. •
103
)::J Words.
a. J.)l,c, sadtq loyal, true. 8. o.Jjt; ray'de use, advantage.
aghtr heavy. ..(""' siItkI vinegar.
3. 4 ha{i{ light (in weight). a. a'la best, excellent.
a. w.J...e ma' den metal. keyrlt gay.
f. platin platinuln. a.J..t<' klamil sober, grave.
a. r li:, zalim eruel. qouv' vetU strong.. .
[r180n WIth.
a. o..>t; (are mouseo
\.Jr..>) qourshoun lead.
kl skin sharp.
J..>";\! baqaraq looking, in cOlnpa-
8. d \ elbet' te of course.
t..S .y. boy stature.
Proper Names w.J..>k Haroon Aaron. t..S.;k Hanri Henry.
Noori Luke, Lucas. ,,!..>y Noorlye I .. ucy.
" '\ Exerelse 26 •
. !JI - ,
..
t,)"-!I1. }.J..A .0 !.lI T
S:f r" · !.lI • !.lI
')').,l;\b ! - .1,.1 .(" JI\'"
! i..l:
tl
- )IJ o!j ....
-I .. J;.)kl !.lI t JY:'
- 0,) r 0 1oS.ciIIoSJ \/I> !.lJ!J! !.lI
• !J\ J !Jt
• .,rl.J'JJI J-li V .J.) 4i)L} Y::J
· ).,LjJ)JI )..Ii (-.1. r! A
\, • J'J .. ::\ J\ \. · JIJ j.
Jjr" .k;; , JJ)' JjJ'; !.lI
104

tr- LesBon 18.
"(V J Translatlon 27.
1. Mr. Luke is taller than I am, but ha is not the best
in the class. 2. To-day is hotter than yesterday. 3. Iron
is heavier than stone. Gold is more precious than silver,
but iron is the most useful metal in the world. 4. Which
is lighter: a pound of "Tool or a pound of lead? - Of
course a pouud of wool is as light as a pound of lead.
õ. Your knife is as sharp as mine: but it is not as long
as mine. 6. This young gentleman is·much gayer than
his friend. 7. The last week has been the worst of the
year; it was very cold. 8 .. What kind of a man is
Mr. Joseph? - He is a very good 'and useful man.
9. That mountain is higher than the other mountains
of the country. 10. Henry is rich, Hassan is richer,
and Ali is the richest of all.
.u Conversatlon.
· 4s;.. ..r.-,'
.J\J Jo
..hd!
e J» J! & Jo OJt.
eJ..üY., CJ- Jo
eJl tSJ.J-::-'
.Jl J."lt
• JL.;
'l" .. T 'l"
• U"."k I
.Jl vol; !
... -
e JJ.i.J! cJ....;! \ \.. \
· r
JJ
\» JliJ\
? jJJ..;
? yo f !I.J!Y. .!I \
? t..I J'.:;'\
? t.:I J\.J • ..c...
? J.J-.
. .
ürJ';
? (./ JU t;.
'l J;f tS''';
? tS";'."k j
?
? c.:f J\-' wJ.f\
'l !J JJ, ..: j\.
-
• 0 onn "'ith Prepositions . 105
't Lesson 14.
oll
r-' '..f."" .j..r Noun with Prepositions.
§ 230. In the Turkish language there are no
repositions, properly so called, but their place is
lpplied hy words or syllables, eaIled post-positions,
after the \vords whieh they govern.
§ 231. Post-positions, as weIl as prepositions, are
lrticles which serve to show the relation whieh exists
two words. These relations being of different
luds, the post-positions indicating them are used with
lfferent cases, nalnely the Genitive, Dative or Ablative,
ld also with the uninflected form of the noun.
§ 232. 1. Post-positions appended to the un-
lfteeted form or stern.
4,. , e -e, -a to. (Sign of Dati ve ease.) (§ 82.)
.. L \ e J -ile, -le w i th, by. (Sign of Instrulnental cS8e.) (§ 82.)
U.fl!\ ichin, ichoun for, in order to, for the 8ake of.
(, ef' gibi I i k e, 80 th a t.
(.$ -i, -i. (Sign oC Acc. case.) (§ 83.)
e.) -dl i n, on. (Sign of Locative case.) (§ 84.)
w.) -den fro m. of Ablative case.) (§ 85.)
0;':'; za, ftnda d uri ng, i n the s pae e 0 f.
§ 233. But \vhen the ohjeet, whieh the post-positioDS
>vern is a Pronoull (personal 01' delnonstrative), it
ust be in the genitive except }J' olllar.
M'isal'lpr EX8ll1ples.
r. beninl' ichin for Ine.
l! \ para' ile with llloney.
\ .!Jj- or ..(; ... sizifl'le with yon.
Wfl.! \ ..,t.J \ oma)" ichi n for thern.
si"ik' gibi like a fly.
qouv'1:etdein the strength.
106 t'L. I.,J'J:l Lesson 14.
t·-a
§ 234. 2. Post-positions with the Dativa case.
w!l:l dik } until, till, as
ur; deyin far as.
($.}-J1, doghrou towards, straight.
dayir concerning.
yaqin near. J» qadar until, as much as.
(,)!jt; qarshi against. Oj.r goore according to, after.
Misal'ler Examples.
j..k;_ ' ' w!l.) .. Istambola' dek,lstambola' dllIin,-'qadar
- · up to Uonstantinople, as far as Const.
Oj.J' aqUnza' glOre according to my judgement.
Bize qarsht against us. Shehre' doghrou toward8 the city.
"Senden oltzaq' Al'laha yaqtn'" far from you, near to God.
Kitaba' dayir concerning the book.
§ 235. 3. Post-positions with the A.blative usa.
J\jJ\ ouzaq far. dishart out of.
a. ma'da \ . JJ\ ev'vel before.
I
exeept, beSldes.
ü!. bashqa 0 h tlfl soIJra after.
Jj';J' lOturu t regarding,
, J J'. berou, beri sinee.
dolayi f about.
\ i-se instead of, rather
than.
4..\.J \ lOte on the other side of, beyonrl.
Misal'le1· Examples.
Shehirden' ouzaq far from the city.
irmaqdan {õte heyond the river.
Sizden' ma' da, onlardan bashqa except yOll, them.
Yirnti selleden berou for the last 25 years (25 years ago).
Bou itshdin' dolayi, -' {õtuni concerning this busines8.
Renden' eo' veZ before me. Benden soflra after me.
Gelmesinden' i-se germemesi eyi dir his not eoming is better
than his comingo
§ 236. 4. Declinable Post-positions requirlng
the Genitive.
Ojj.J\ Uzrc on, upon.
dT alt undere
arqa behind.
lOll belore.
($jl!!:l • dishari out of.
($ \ . ichen inside.
TE' ich in
ga", by, near.
Noun with Prep08itions. 107
' .õ"Jj.J\ ' .... uzeri",l, tUmm l on Ine,
- thee, him
,jjjjJ\ ' .-'Jj.J\ ' • .l,.J.J.J\ Uzenrllde, mirt'uU J or it.
·h\' ichimize, ichitlizl, l in us, in you, in
. . . ichUritle them.
';';h\' ' ... ichimizdl! ichitliZde'l among us, you,
tehlerinde thern.
yatti.da at, by my side. yanima to my side.
§ 237. These eigbt post-positions, wben in the
locative case, indicate a state of loention or rest., and
answer to the question 0;)0; ne,"ede? where! They
require the dati ve after the question whither! or where
tol nkreye? with a verb denoting direction or
..
motion from one place to another.
Examples with the Locative [rest] .
1o".,Jl:.)"' Kitab sofranttl werinde dir.
. The book is on the tahle.
1.
2. )l Qoushoun yavrousou youvanin
ichincU dir. 'fhe birdling is
3.
in the neste
Shth'ritl disharisinda otourdou-
lar. They dwelt [oo] [the] out-
• _ _ Ride [of] the city.
4. Ohojouq aghajtn saq-
landi. 1'he boy hld hlmselC
5.
6.
1.
behind the tree.
Pede.,itl eoltundtI dourdoufll.
I stoorl in front of my father.
.!JJ.r Baliq geoluff, ichinde dir. 1.'he
. .. ... fish is in the lake.
Examples with the Dative [motion].
\ d l:.)"' Kitab' sofranin atdtt'll.
.. . I threw the book on the table.
2. ... =...,:..\ d;\.Jy. Qoush yavrousounou 1/ouvanitl
'" - - - ichine qodou. The bird put

4.
5.
its young into the neste
.!lK Sheh'rifi disharisina ch'qdtlar.
.... 'l'hey went [to the] out{side] oC
the city. .
\i t3 y:- Chojouq aghajiff, ardina qachdi.
y.. • • t' The boy ran behind the tree.

t.S ...:.S:J\ !l.J.1.t Pederiff, lOliune doghrou, gitdim.
. I went towards the Cathere
108 ''L. (J'.J:l I.lesson 14.
6. \ .!jJ.J J:l B,!liq ichine atUdi. The fieh
Jumped loto the lake.
Motion, ,,-here to? \\7hither? nereye? J,.r.ä\:""\'
:. ,. , &
, .,,>', " .". I ,. \ '0 \ ,I " •• l .. l. I':.
O.J '-'!,J'"A ;;J.J '-'!n"

Loeation, where'l ne1
o
ede?' oJ.i:.4 ' ' \:5" •
, ,
, O:l')l.Jl'i ' d!,J'"A , ' ' • , .:l.J'
• ..1.1 \:5" • .,b.
• 0
'< A herelse 28 •
.• •• cl4kJ' .:.,-,41,J' \
"
· J\ · 0)\ • T • '
_ _ _ 1 _
· 41:.' ' = J' ·
= rjf' j)'" ·
, cli \..))\ · \..J)\ ' o "":=:=! \ cli \..))\ t. • =
1 _ _ _
= ' 0 • ' .L.JJ'
\:s' '\ · 1 .t:=:. \:s = -* \ J: \:5'. -* I fo \:5'
r! v • t.SJ)) ... yo • J') Jj)
..;':.); • o..l::-IJ J.; A r! 1 "sj
1
· \ .. )-' ,,-,yD · 4S
J
i •
J Translation 29.
. 1. To\vards the mountains: on the mountains; by
the mountains (rest), by the mountains (motion). 2. From
the door: by the door; with the door; for the door.
3. For me, for him; like you, like them; with me, with
him. 4. As far as Sivas; as far as London; until
1 If are added to nouns to which the pronominai
affixes of the 3rd .person Sing. and Pl. are attached, the il
omitted, but the sound i is retained.
The Substantive \" erh. 109
to-day. 5. There is nobody except us. 6. What have
in your purse? - There is nothing in my purse
except ten paras. 7. After to-morrow come at half past
eleven. 8. He went ten days earlier than my father.
9. There is a thief among you. 10. Come among us
(motion).
Con'fersatlon.
. ';\J ? .; \.J); • l:!'"'
? J' .«\. if .!l\ • d\ j, L!. ($\ .!l \
. ... -
."
• J\j.J\ J» I r.J.:,j\
• )\.J c.SJli J'.
-J» y. ! c.S.J.:,j\
d!
J., f r-
• ..k' Jft ! r""'
-
.. - .
'! J \j.J \ Jy;-
? ';\.J r
'! ";\.J • .r.-
'0 Lesson 15.
The Substantive Verb. (Continued.)
§ 238. We have already treated of the Present
and Paat (Preterite) tenses of the substantive verb.
(§§ 65, 73.) The Perfect and Conditional tenses of the
verb remain to be spoken of.
\!' = isem
= isen
= ise
The Conditianal.
= isek
\ = \ islfl,iz
== iselir.
If (or though or perhaps) I 81n, if thou art, if he is -. etc.
The Negative Conditianal.
r--\(.l = deyilsem = tUgilsek
= .!l .. -! \ dJyilzen = \ dJyilse1liz
110
t. Lesson 15.
t t •
= \ deyilse
= tUgilsll".
If I am not, iC thou art not, if he is not -, etc.
Perfect (Dubitative).
\ imishilll,
.. .. (They say that)
imish-sift i1nish-si1f.iz I was or I have been,
imishiz I
o \ etc.
\ imish A' imishler
This tense, which is also called in Turkish Dubi-
tative, denotes mere hearsay or report, founded on the
authority of others (§ 312). The Negative is r!:'
deyil imishim (They say that) I have not been.
Remarks.
§ 239. a. When • ., -de is added to the Conditional
tense of the substantive verb, it expresses the maaning
of ee but" or ee
yet
,,:
r-!\ ' ' "-!\ ' j.('-!\ ' e.)
isem de, isefl de, ise de; isek de, isefliz de, islUr tU
If (0 r though) I am -, yet -; thou art -, yet -; he
is -, yet -.
§ 240. b. By the addition of the 3
rd
person sing.,
to the Past tense (§ 73), the Past Condit.ional is obtained:
.. ' ' ! ' ' • .)
idimise de, idinse dl, idiyse de; idikise de, idi1f.izise de, idiUriBI tU
Though I was -, yet -; thou wast -, yet -; he was-, yet-.
Examples.
Pederifl, evde' -ise, gilB1
0
ft.
PedeTim evdl isede gllemlz.
Biraderifl, nl,.1 dl imish?
Evde' imilih.
Chojouqlar hasta'mi imishllr.
Ev'vlt, hasta' dirlar.
Qonshoumouz zlnqin' ise dl, eyi
bir adem dlyil' imish.
Bln genj' im, sln ise ikhtiyar' stll.
If your father is at home, let
bim come.
My fatber is at home, but he
cannot come.
Where is your brotber?
(I beard that, they say that) he
is at home.
Were the children iIl? (Did you
hear anything?)
Yes, they are iil (I know).
Our Dpighhour is rich, but they
say that he is not a good man.
I am young, but thon art old.
'tt
The Sabstantive Verb.
The Conditiooal and Dubitative tenses
of the verb To HiVE.
111
§ 241. The Conditional and Dubitative tenses of
the verb To HAVE are ohtained by the addition of
..
ise and imish to J'J 'Var.
§ 242. The Conditional of To HiVE [with an
indefinite ohjeet] 1.
JU J\.J blnde ·var benim. var
J\.J oJ.:- J\" sendi var seniII var isa

I
J\.J \ J\.J onda var onoun var =
bizim var
sizin va,. isa
J\" .,)./.
'-! \ J\" .,) j-
J\" 0'));.J\
\ J\.J r./.
';\.J .!lj-
.;\; .!l J;.J\
bizde va,.
sizde va,. isa
onlarda t:at·isa onlarffi varisa
4-:f.J!
oJ.:-
'--!--"- 0.J.: .J \
4-:f.J! .,)./.
The Negative.
y- r. bende yogho'Usa
y.. d:.- sende yoghousa
y- d;.J\ onda yoghousa
r./. bizde 'goghousa
benim yogho'usa
s/nin yoghou,sa
onoull yoghousa
bizim yoghousa
0,) j- J! .!l j- sizde yoghousa sizin yoghousa
....
I
..

o
r:l

'-f J! .').}.J\ .!l);.J\ onlarda yo.qhousa onlarifi yoghousa ct-4

§ 243. No te. a. The ahridged form of 4.-,' JJ!. yoq ise
.. ..
IS J!. yoghousa whieh is much used.
.. ..
b. 4-J' JJ!. yoq ise, 4-,.,.&, J!. yoghousa or 4-,;' J!. yokhsa,
when used without object" 0; subject, is considered as
a conjunction: meaning or, otherwise; as:
?J.J..:t ' 0.1.:- Kitab sende' mi, 'gokhsa
qardashillda' midir"? Who has the hook, you or your brother?
§ 244.. The Conditional with a deflnite object.
0.1.:- ' 4.-!\ 0.,1j.J\ o')./. ' g')j_ ' 0'));"\
btnde ise, send'; i"e, onda ise; bizde ise, sizde ise, onlarda ise
Ir I have the -, iC thou hast the -, etc.
1 Vide §§ 119, 122, 127.
112 ,. Lesson 15.
4.-!\ f! , r.f. .!lj- .!l)i.J\
beni1n ise, seniii ise, onoull ise; bizitn ise, sizill ise, otllarfll ise
If the (hook) is Illine, tbine, etc.
The Negative.
• • ..l:-' •
bendl deyilse, Rende -, onda -; bizde deyilse, sizde-, onla,.da -
, - benim deyilse, seni", degilse, etc.
IC I have not the -, etc. IC the - is not mine, etc.
§ 24õ. Remark. -de is added to the
conditional of the verb To HAVE, it expresses the sense
of bu t.
I have a -- but- ,
4-}-y.. bende yoghousada, I have not a -, but -
o \ seni", ise de,
:» .. senifl deyilse de,
o..liJ\ onda ise de,
• o..liJ\ onda deyilsede,
It is yours, but -
It is not youre, but
He has the -, but -
Ha hae not the -, but -.
§ 246. The Dubitative tense of To H.lVB [with
a definite object].
, oJ..:- ' , e.)j_' e.));.J\
bende imish, sen de -, onda· -; bizde t'mish, sizde -, onlardtJ-.
. ':'t. \ . I e . ':'t. \ t \ \ .':'t. \ ".':'t. \ .!l . _ ' . \ .!l \. \
v-:; ('. v-; u-.. .J v-:; r ...r. v-:; :..) v-; 'J4'.J
beninl imish, senifl -, onoun -; biziJIl ünish, sizifl. -, onlarill -.
I have the -, thou haHt the -; (That) was mine, tbine, his -.
§ 247. The Dubitative teose of To H.lVE [with
an indefinite objeet].
";\.J , .J\.J o..l.:'-' .J\.J be",a,e 'lJar i",isA etc.
.J\" f! ' .J\.J , .J\J benim Mr imis" etc.
(They say that) I have a -; thou ha8t a -, etc .
.JU\!,. Exam ples.
Benit;. parall varisa.
lneyiiliz t:artsa.
Paraft varisa, bafla besh !lhOll-
,,.011811, vere
Parwm var' isa da l.'ermem.
If thou hast money.
If you have a cow.
If you have money, gi,"e me flve
piustere.
I have money, but I wi1l not give.
'fhe Subatantive ,. erb. 118
yoghousa aliA.
.l{itablar' yoghousada -
Qa/Im bb1tU is/de "ermem.
A ti "ar' idi isi -
If you ha ve not bread, take .
'fhey have not hooks, but -
I ha ve the pen, but I will not give it.
Ir he had a home -
gogh' Otltiou isAde - he had not a donkey, yet -.
!
)::J Words.
':r-:f.J'! .,r..J\,J yoghoufftOtU' aH that we have.
r U.T almam' I do not take. a. 0 LJ lisan language.
klskin sharp (knife). ;r tu les8.
agM1' bashlt sedate (man). 8. kt=;'miI8ober, wise.
Proper 0:>\-;\ Arsian Leon. a. J,)l,. Sadiq Justin,
Justus. 8. Nooriye Lucy.
"" • Exereise 80.
;;-:. 4,-;'J! ,
! Ji:? 45..6" - JA(
;..f.J! 1
J1J
T • J..IS'" ;;..:.
!.II SO;)O; · J..\i.J! ;"J!.f. , )J.!Jj
AI j:t ;.!i i Y. to • JoU It tl:. ' I
, \II;) 0 .j.1iJI ! 0;) "-! I
J..\i -
! JT "-f.J! • J.: 1 JJj J ! JJj
)IJ Y • i
llT
0;)"-f.J! ! i)J.J..1 j:!:; -
'«J;) &.!;) ./" "--f.J! ! &-J;) f .J>
.)-' .-' &-J-' ' "::'--"'J.) J...v
J
-' &-J.)) A
}. , • «).) ...vj.) &.!.) J ).)
• )-' • ., Y. ).Ji • .) y. }. \:s'" - r
Turkl8h Conv.-Grammar. 8
t' ,

, J 81.
"I. The' are sweet; the pears, are
the"grapes ,are the sweetest. 2. Your' maid servant is
diligent, but [I heard that] my lleighbour (womsn) is
more diligent than she. ,3. Though Mr. Justus is a rich
mall, yet [they say that] he llas not a good name.
4. Miss Lucy is the llandsomest girl in tOWll, is
1 ,The strength of the strongest man is far lee8
than that' of all elephallt. 6. I am as tall, as you, but
my brother Leon is not so tall 8S you. 7. Is your
fruit as fresb as ours? - .Yes, ,Sir, it is. as good yours,
but it is too . little [in quantity].. 8. Your knife is as
large' as mine, but it· is not as sharp as mine.
4L Conversatlon.
· r ..;!J!.J .t.-! \ .;\., rJ.:.i\ J».,!
• )J.!,.Jj; .r-:f.J! j:.J\.J

. u?Sj. Jy;- J.J\ 0.J\

• o').J\
. · oJ-.ii rJ..:j\
·
! rJ..:i\ c..t \
1 J'...J )"' Jo .J\.J • .l:-
? .J .. i- [.li A--.J! .;s:;JI.J
? • .; <Sri\
,? aa· )l.., T
_.J t' .V '.J
! Y.,.J .J.S:)j.J\
O').J\ .••
'? fi ..;.;
,
1 JT
" Lesson 16.
The Infinitive of Verbs.
§ 248. 'fhe Infinitive (or the Masdar) is. the ,hosis
?f the Turkish verb
1
• It ellds either in JA -maq or
1 The TurkiRh verb is the 1l10Rt highly organiaed part of
the language, heing most minute]y subdiYided, m08t extensively
, t.
The J nfiniti ve Verbs. 115
-maq is peculiar. ip roots with and -rnek
to roots with soft vowels. When we remove the ending
'maq or mek we get the steIn or the' root of the verb,
which is also the 2
nd
person, Sing. of the Imperative;
JU altnaq' to take:, JT al' take thou.
4..,J...J to gfve: J;..J vAr' give thou.
§ '249. Thtl Negative form of the verb is obtained
, . .
by adding 4.A ' r -me- to the, root when it has a 80ft
. ' , • j
vowel and \A when it has a hard vowel; as:
. J..-u.T al'mamaq not to take: J.T or 'U.T al'ma do not take .
,or ver'mimek to give: do not give.
DUferent Idnds of verbs.
§ 250. There are six of verbs in Turkish:
Causa}, Passive, Reciprocal and
..
• 1\,
§. 251. I. Tl-ansitive (or Active), verbs. such
an as cannot be completed without something else
becoming directly affected thereby. They always require
object .taki,ng the nominütival form of the
if lhe objeet is indefinite and the full aCCu88tive form
if . tl1e object is definite (§§ 83 Dote, 291). .
, .
, ". sou ichmek to drink 80me' water
c..t.J-' souyou ichrnek to drink the water (definite).
yaz",aq istemek to wish to write (indefinite) .
. , " § 252. II. An Intransitive (or Neuter) verb indjcates
an action of the agent as. is, complete in itself
'wftiiout directly affecting anything else. ·When an action
implied, an Iutransitive verb 'requires an indirect
object in the dative case, if motion is implled: if rest
is denoted, it requires its indirect object to be in the
locative (§ 237); as:
f " • .
_. -- -----
I i . . ,
and at the aarne time most simple and regular in its
forrnstjon and in the modifiration of the signification of its various
branf'hea. It is ,a perfectly syn)metrical system, through aH the
ramHications of which the eye or nlind can run with ease.
8*
116 t, ....,.-Jl Lesson 16.
,,-
O.}\ e-'De gitmAk to go home (motion).
ool.} \ eode otourlnaq to sit in the house (reat).
.... yazmagha bashlamaq to begin to write (motion).
§ 253. III. Causal or Causative verbs. This foru)
of the verb is not much used in English, but it is very
common in Turkish. It implies an order or commalld
from the speaker to a second or third person. The
aetion is performed not by the agent or speaker but
by the person to whom the order is given. These verbs
are translated into English by adding to caUS6, to
make, to have, to get, to allow and to let, to the
simple verb acco!ding to the sense 1; as:
,...0.. f....1a J \ J'. 4J...tJ li Qalfaya bir ev yapdirajagh'm. I ahall
\. oo - cause the architeet to build • house.
Mektoubou,Oh,aI,,'neseyazd'rajagh'm.
_ I shall get John, to wt:ite the letter.
L oJ'}..l.i} J'. Y;J' Artin.1 bir chift qotmdoura yapt.ftrdl.
oo to oo oo.. HegotPascal to makea pairolshoas.
OZ tasvirli kitabt chojouqlara bou' gun oqoudajag"'m. I sh.)]
aHow the boys to read that hook full of pictnres to-day.
Benim irhin bir setri yapdirab·ilir' misifl,? - Yartft bir
aan6Hini getirdebilirim. Can you get (or have) a coat for
me? - I shall have one brought to-morrow.
§ 254. IV. Passive verbs. The English and Turkish
languages have this peculiarity, that they can form
passive verbs from Intransitive, as "\\"ell as from Transitive
verhs; as:
baqmaq to look at (intrans.:: baqil'lnaq to be looked at.
# a'lmaq to take (trans.): J..::JT altnmaq to be taken.
§ 2Õõ. V. Reciprocal verbs express an action
performed together with or agaiust each other. They
are translated by adding to the infinit.ive the words one
another, each other, together; as:
sevishmek to love each other.
1 The meaning and use of the Causal verb are seen by
cODlparing the verb raiRe with the verb rise, of which the
forrner is the Causa), in English. SO 8]SO we mayeall to set
('lIufIlal of to s it, the formel' to ca u 8 e to .. it·.
SillliJar]y to 1 ay is the causa} of to 1 i e, the former (to la1)
meaning to caU8e to lie.
, tv
'l'be lnftnitive Verhs.
}.r-!.J!.'; qoshollMMounltJr' let them rUll together .
.fo.-";'.JJ.J.J fJourollshajaqlar' they will beat each other.
117
§ 2õ6. VI. Reflexive verbs. When the action of
a verb returDS to the subject froul which it proceedes,
the verb is called Reflexive. These verbs are translated
into English by the reflexive pronouns (§ 145); 8S:
.J;.).J\ to ('over himseJf .
.J!..1.i .J! 80 you·"dotUar' they undreaNed themael ves.
yiyqaftfJja'ghim I shaIl w8sh myself .
..:J \j Readlng Exerelse.

The Story of the eat and the eamel.
;);.!.( .J. oJ:) ;.;j.J.

'1 4J..o J J. Jl!').J\i oJ;) ! .:.,.,.-JJ' ).JJ'-J' -
? .!.l!1,,)\; cl:.... ! JJI .;..;\..1 oJ"
, ..:l ·
. y t.J. .:)0
· ... ;.:. ! ).li.J:. \))1 - sJ$'"
\) it \; :!J J!.r.J \ )-li
I J; 0" ).li ! - oJ;)
).li JJ..,..J!. ;.. ! jr jJ'. ! Sl) -
clJ ' -!Jjy- , )'J
.? !lX)! .!l: ... !ly'. J'. ! J!.I - ·0):> ·
!. J;" ! Jjr -
J ! f SJ. jJ. :.... ItJ;) .
. . " .
, '! '1. ..
....
118
I' . Lesson 16.
'lA
! 1oS1) ! f!' ! ! I
! ! .
! Jr !J.J!.1. !J..u.1. C!' - oJ;)
\ . . ..
.. .
jr !J
XJ
! :!ly...1.'-
TaUmi QCra' at.
. ..-..
KM:i ile detJe Hiklayesi.
. .
Bit· gun Deve s·trtinda 1 aghir bir üe geder"ken 2,
Kediye rast geldi
s
. Kedi qambourladaraq'
dedi
5
: .
Kl:di ()ughou-rl ar olS01tn (;, dkve qardashliq 7! ne'reyf
beoyle?
Atlaltlt etnanef Ol8! c"n'tna ben na'sü seniii·
qardashin -i'mishim? sen' nerede? ben' nb-ede?
Krdi ()na lloqdour
9

'
Elbet'te 10 blm 'senifi
qardasltin lrn. Baq heleli! senifi,ki qadar iri
. ve beoJlf!k qatnbourourn 12 yoq' mou dour?
Devp Bf:lki 18 ! lakin ajeba 14 qadar' da qouv'-
tl
" .

Ke(li' - Vay! 1tP' bosh seoz 15! sltou s·trtinda youmrouq 16
qadar ki;chuk bir shfy' ra1· isa, ajaba sliJz·un
onoitti' ichoun tllOU riOUt·?
- eyi haq.' bou yiik ichin pek beiJgUk
de:ljil' mi?
Kfdi - Eos'" soozlet· seoyle1nr! Sllourlou bana ver! tem.bfl
Itrrif17.'
Pf?k a'la.' bit· llZ 18 gel! ltop'bala 19 ! -
dp.mish 20, yuk{;Il'f krdinin slrtl,na yukletmish 11.
Ki!di anta·ll! anian 22! n{/ imish! ishim
bitdi "Ja! vay.' vay! vay 24 !
Words. 1. on back. 2. while gOillg. 3. be met. 4. arching
(lnaking hUllch-back). 5. said. 6 .. goodspeed 1 .7. half brother, good
brother. 8. thank you 1 (I comlnit YOll to the charge of God).
9. there is no douut about it. 10. of course. 11 look herel 12. hODCh.
13. perhaps. 14. I ,vonder. 15. what a useles8 word. 16. as
Jarge as a fist. 17. villager, rude man (lazy fellow !).' 18. DP8rer.
19. Heydayl (hoop po loo!) 20. he sRid. 21. he hordened, ha
placed (Itaaded). 0 dear! 0 dear! 23. my work ia finishad,
i. e. I am lost, it all up with me. 24. Oh! Ajas 1
, ,,,
Primitive and Derivative Verbs. "119
IJeve - Ishte brian" bouldoufi 25.' git', hooy,!k sroz
. lenleyi .. .
Qis'seden his'Se
27
- BIOgifk lOfjlua'JSye,
sooz seoyl e-me .' .
25. you have got (found) your punisholent. 26. go and' learn
the [calamity speaking (haughty) words. 27. moral
from the story. 28. morsel (of food) .
.u Con'fersatfon.
, • J:l .,! J;.,<:' Jo
• .J:l d:!..15 • .1:l»
• lS..>.\S" - \.; <.s JS'"
• .J\.J .!lY.. ...t.
• .):l J \,J:> .!l J! Jo <.SJ.. \ • .J
• "!!J:l t,S.)5
• c.jl!.\:l.J
G
0J-1.1\ ).Jj:-.1\»
! r.ci\ JJ..:l .». Y.
• O:l\J.ä!
• ! r.ci\
• J'...J r
! r J.:j \ )t" \
-..:.J\.} .
? yo
'! •
? \ J \.1 ..; • .J.:..i • .J:l
?
? .!lY.. yo • .1:l ?.!l J!.J! C.I t,S JS'"
'? ..; • .J:l <.SM
? ) J..:l ·H JJ';'.1\'
? U=-:\ J! • .; • .1l
? lS \ C.I c.r \ :lj li • .1:l t,S JS'"
! t,S "! • .1:l o..;r;,iI <.s JS'"
! j-Ü Y.
. \
'V LeSSOll 17.
Primitive and' Derivative Verbs.
.
J
§ 257. Simple or Prhnitive Verbs are· those which
llRve no letters or sylJables inserted after the root:
for instanee yazma,q to write, sevmek to love.
JA;J' oqouffzaq to read, are simple verbs, there
,I Mujer' red t·e Mlzeedttn {eehi 'IltasdarlaT.
120 t V 1J',):l Lesson 17.'
t,.
are no letters auded to the roots yas, V r sev,
V ;)1 oqou.
§ 258. But if I say , ya·z-
dirmaq, sevishmek, oqoun1naq: these are derivative verbs,
the new or secondary roots are , J-!r ' w}J' gastlii,.,
sevish, oqOlt'n. These are formed by inserting certain
letters between the simple roots and the infinitive
termination, and thus changing the meaning of the verb,
more or les8.
slvmek; V; sev to lovc:
se-visltrllek; V selJisl" to love each other.
yaz1naq: yaz to write:
yazdir·tnaq; yazdir to causa to write.
,-
J.e j.J\ oqoumaq; V j.J\ oqou to read:
Ji jJ\ oqounrnaq; V 0jJ\ oqo'Un to be read.
§ 2õ9. The so-called servile letters are those letters,
which, when added to the roots, change, more or less,
the meaning of the verb. They are: t, )) 111,,-, ) -r,
n, J l, sh.
§ 260. These letters or syllables have each their
own special signification when inserted to forln a new
root. Each alters the meaning of the verb in a regular
mannere 1, 2, 3. t, j.:J di1·,) r have the power of
making verbs Transitive, ifthe original root is Intransitive;
and Causal, if the original verb is TrSllsitive. 4, 5. A verb
is lnade either Reflexive or Passive by adding J Z or
n to the root of a primitive verb. 6. Reciprocal verbs
are formed by adding J:- ."lll. to the root of primitive verbs.
S 261. There are six Ineasures bab, vem],
. .
aH tbey' are called in Turkish, ,,·hich serve as formulas
r. "t
Primitive and Derivath'e Verbs. 121
to enable the student always to relnember the addition
and the chaDges of meaning caused by the insertion
of the servile letters.
1. Oqoutmaq :;'}J' [TraDsitive and Causal].
I
§ 262. This form is obtained by adding t, (it,
lU, out) to the stern (§§ 52, 56).
The effect of the insertion of this letter is twofold:
1. If the original primitive form is i ntran sitive, it
]s made transitive; as:
otourmaq to sit: .j..; otourtnlaq to make to sit, sest.
baqfllaq to look: baqitmaq to make to look, to
show.
2. If the original simple forIll be transitive, it
changes to causa]; as:
;J\ oqoumaq to read: JS. }.J\ oqoutmaq to cause to read.
yiy'qamaq to w8sh: yiy'qatf"aq to csuse to ,,-.sh.
Note. This t is added, generally, when the root of the
verb enda in a vowel, or in one of the J I, .; r, CJ n.
Exerelse 82.
Change the following verbs into the first measure
and give their meaninga.
Transitive verbs. 1. to speak.
dooshemek to Boor, to carpet. 2. chaghir-
: . - .
Inaq to caU. bashla1naq to begin. 3. qazi-
maq to dig, to engrave. JA'} aramaq to seek. 4. J.iT
aqmaq toflow. (aknife). õ.
Y11kle-mek to load. diiilpfnek to listen.
..
Illtt"allsitive verbs. ·6. sichral1laq to
Jump. erirnr/.; to be melted. 7. uskumek to
feel cold, shiver. JA.f.r:' sovou1naq to beconle cold,
cool. fJoqnlaq to srnell, to have a smel!. 8. JAJ!J'
122 t V ,.J. j:J Leeson 17.
'"
to sleep. J.tl!'!. to live. ai/l,·
lamaq to cry, to weep.
2. and Causal] .
. ',' § 263. This measure is formed by (dir,
dir, du'r, dour) to the root (§§ õ2, õ6).
:, The: effect of this sylIable on the root is, just the
,same 8S that of the first messure: .
. 1. lf the primitive verb is .intransitive, 'it . is" made
as: , :
{õlmek to die (intrans.): dAj.JJ\ {Oldltrmek to kill, (trans.).
'I, ouyanmaq to awake (intrana.):
- ,
ouyandtrmaq to (trans.).
2. If the primitive verb be t.ransitiye, it i,s changed
into a causal; as: ,
-, -'
J.-=:-' achmaq to open J-e...J!J.::- t achdirmaq to cause to open.
yazmaq to' ,vrite ( » ): J-e..;! yazdi.,·maq to causa to write.
Note. This j:J ai,· adderl generally to those verbe whose
stern ends in a consonant other than those mentjoned abovee
There are SOlne exceptions:
io 'see: geostermek, giordurmek
to make to see,
.qelmek to come: getir1nek to bring. [to-show.
gitmek to go: d..
jYJ
<;' geoturTIlm to carry. ,
li qa.[qnlaq to rise: J-e..;! JJ li qaldirmaq to raise, to lift up.
'f''f' Exerelse 33.
Cba,nge the following verbs to this measure and
give the lDeanings.
Intransitive verbs. gezmek to walk.
.qiihnek to laugh. 2. osallmaq to
tired of.' outan1Jlaq to be ashamed. e.n-
'1nek to come down .. b1:nrnek to ride on. 4. ruJ\
to lnarry. J..!J cnallsJl1naq to ,york.
.. "
",.
Primitive and })erivative Verbe. 128
Transitive verbs. õ. j..J'. boulmaq to finel.
bilmek to know. 6.' fo almaq to take. a.""'..J l:nek'to
give. 7. a. r' setJmek to love kesmek to eut.
/J. Ichirmek and Causal].
. .. .....
§ 264. This is' fonned by adding ) (-ir-,
-i1'-, -OU'r-, -ur-) to the stern (§§ 52, 56).
It changes the Intransitive into TraDsitiye and the
Transitive into Causal; as: .
dogh'maq to be born (intrans.): doghourJflaq togive
birth.
pishmek to be cooked (intraos-): .. ; pishirrnek to cook.
ichnIlk to drink (trans.): ichirmek to give to
.. ..\".. drink.
Note. This form is a modifteatjon of the second form, losing
the.) d; thererore its derivatives are very limited,- and almost all
are here gh·en.
y" t Exerelse 34:.
the following verbs into the third lneasure
and give the meanings.
Intransitive 1. J.>J' ouch,naq to Ry .
.,
yatrnaq to lie down. 2. artrnaq to be increased-.
batmaq to sink. 3. d/'u;h1uek to fall.
to llliss olle's way. 4. a=:! bitmek to be finished:
';"':'\1, tasltmaq to overBo,v. 5. J:J.) douyniafj to hear
)f. doyrnaq to becolue satiated. 6. \; qacltt)laq
'0 tlee. .qpchmek to pass. a=.., to be
., MM
4. Tara1ltuaq J"J\1, [Reflexiva, Passive].
§ 26õ. ThiR 1l1eaSUre -is forrned by adding ;,.; 1"
tln, tln, oun) to the root of the verb (§§ 52, 56).
It changes the TranRitive into the lteftexive and
?assi ve ;
124 tV IJ'Jl LeSBon 11.
taramaq to comu: Ji\.;l1, taranmaqtobecombed,tocolDb
bimseJf.
IiJrtmek to cover: yJJ\ IiJrt,lnmek to be covered, to
oneself.
oqoumaq'to read: Ji..,iJ\ oqounmaq to be read.
J1. yo to find: Ji. ) yo boulounmaq to be found.
§ 266. In spelling there iR. no differenee between
the reHexive and the passive, as both are formed by
adding ;,.; n. The difference is in the meaning. If the
verb deals ,vith the subject, it is reHexive; if the verb
refers to the logical ohjeet, it is passive, because
passive verbs have no grammatical objeet; as:·
Efflndi ylyqandl The Master washed himself (refiexive).
Qadlhler yigqandt The CUpR have been (paasive).
"" 0 Eurelse aõ.
Change the following verbs into the fourth measure.
1. jb- cltal'l1iaq to steal; to kriock at (the door); to
play (a tu;e). dtfõkmek to pour. diiJymek to
heat. 3. J:.".., SOY'1naq to undress, strip. 4. qU"'f-9
to do, to perform. tzqantaq to plug, stop.
to walk about. yiyqamaq to wash. 6.
haqmaq to look. sf'vmek. 7. or dar-
ftmaq to prop up. sooyle1ruJk to, speak.
:j. }r
aZ
illll,aq [Passive]. . .. '
9 267. The measure is forrned by . the aqditioD
of J I, (il, ul, oul) to the root (§§ 02, (6) .. ,
It ehanges the primitive verbs into passives; 88:
!Jlt.zmaq to \\'rite: J...l!jl! yazUmaq to be writteD.
kesmek to eut: !" kestImek· to be ent.. .:
Note. 8. The paHsive of thQse verbs which end in
or liquid letter, is never foruled according to thil'l measure, but
ac·corclillg' to the fonrth. . . . "0 .'. I
Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 125
b. The passive form of the verbs tItma, eyl-
€ to do, perform is Idilmek.
't '\ herelse 86.
Change the following verb s into this meaaure and
ive the moonings. . .
1. ' 2. JA)))'
· ' chaghirmaq call. JAJ):.) , '
6. to plant. JAJJ!.f.
6. GeorUshmek [Reciprocal].
§ 268. This measure is formed by adding ,j sh,
oush, 1#Jh) to the root of the verb (§§ 52, 56).
It changes the meaning 'of the verb into a reci-
rocal one; as:
gror/llek to see: .!l..!.J.J.Jg6JrfUJhnlek to oneanother.
J.-)J\ vourmaq to beat: vourousl,maq to fight with one
. another.
'tV Eurelse 87.
Change the following verbs into the sixth form.
aghlamaq to cry, weep. .:!JJ.j g{ilmek to laugh.
to poke. oynamaq to play.
v1nek. j.1.. JAj.J. bozmaq to ruin, to disconeert.
Milta-lu-at Remarks.
§ 269. a. The meaning of the Negative forDl is, of
lurse, in general perfectly clear; but the negHtive fonn
I the causa I verbs, besides its ordinary signification,
Imetimes expresses a prohibition or prevention of the
being done. Thus oqout'rnamaq means (not. to
,USe to read', but also (to prevent SOlna one from reading';
!zdir'manwq r not to cause to write', and also (to prevent
Dm writing'.
126 tv u-Ji. LeSBon '17:,
'"
,,:," § 270.' verb" 9r', a bas
heen converted into one, to. the
abo\ye, may become doubly, an'd even trlply, transltive,
causative, or passive; as:
J.e }.J\ oqou,nzaq to }'ead: , oqoun' maq to be read.
Ji.}.J' oqout'maq to cause 'tO read! tO'beread.
OI ... .,. ....
j.", oqoutdour'n.'aq to cause to cause to
, Jo jj\ oqoutdourt' 1naq to cause' to cause to cause to' read.
, ,
..::JI). Readlng Eurelse.:
, ..
The of Turkey. u \A\!, 4,..,
J
.r \.
, "
•• co
Jt;\fL A-JJ.r.
... t ... t .• }\;:
, .j,;.a=.. 'JI
J
.:,,1) :,,\1.,1
J;-. ;pJ .... J J
. J
. ..
0.)}.1. • J?JI r--Z r\' 4-J.r
J-:.) J · I
'/ • 0' •
• 1 •
..
Memflliki Mallro'lt,fleyl Shah(J,'1teni'l'i toqWtmUt ..
2 Mbna,11:ki' lMahrouseyi aShahane 1 Vilayetlere, Vila
ye.tler
2
Liva 3 yakltod
4
Sanjaqlar
S
Qazu,lara
(Jazalar
3
& Nalt(llelere,. Nflhiyeler
5
dukh,i Qa'l·yelere
5a
taqsiJJ
. (Jtounour 6. -- en'fne' soul
7
ola-n zat s. vali
9
, Sa'1ljtJqda;
tnc'soul olau Mitt(jsur'ril
10
, Qazadan ntf/soul oJa",
#laqam 11, Nahiyeden ?ne' :lOU{ olan lJtludir 12 t'c
IIlesoul olanl ar 13 Ikll tnejlisler-i 14 dj,
Words. 1. The Protectpd Countries of His 'Royal
2. province.' 3. a ('ounty, 3
a
• a
4.or. 5. a suh-district(parish orenmlnnne). 5a. village.
7. rtJspo'nsihle. 8. who he (who govprns). 8a. person. 9: gOVtarn(
geupral. 10. J,!overnor. 11. 12. a governilr\9f .-sul
mftdir. 13. ,vho are. 14. bailiff courts. 15. baili1fa.
'rv
. .. 127
Metnaliki Mak,'rouseyi 2!) vilayete ,taqsirn
olounour. Bounlardan yirmi biri .Asiyada,
!Jiri ve' d-ige'r Aq' .qenizde, ....
• r, • I . • • "., • ;
: .. .. ;.' .
·);lJI oJ:..'lJ ..,J,;jP ?,),}:J,} 1 ";"'1:.;
.,):J jT ?,):J .!JÄ'1)f.j!
')l] . ..Jl .. ,J..; . ..r. . ?.Jl ..,J,; , ül:J,J!
Jr ? ,):J":JJo'; A\;Y:;.)
.) ,. _ i:- 0'1.)\ J.l:,\ . ,'. '? \}
·)J.;\l 0'J.J\ Jj..A 4:-0,)\:J\ '!.):4 J\.,
.),)JJj..A , '? r
ü'lJ\ Jj-- d;\.,Qi yo ?
')l __ J';.J.A' ,tr 4:-0')\:J,'
,')Ä:J
. ,
.j;.uj-.. r
.):J t t, !l) \J\ ! r \ ),Js. !.l) \J S; :J ,
.):J ...lai ••• 1 rJ.:.i\
.!l) ..
.,):J ,.,..v
.J.):J o:J
. \
.? ,)J.:.. \i

'? .!l)
'? ) y':J \.ta:J \)
'? Jy':J
'A IJesson 18.'
; CJ CJ ., ... ,
J"f Compound Verbs .
.
S 271. Compound verbs formed by enJploying
Arabic, Persian and Turkish words with the Turkish
auxiliary verbs, or by affixing certaiu particles to nouns
and adjectives in order to turn them into verbs.
128 t Ä U".)l LeMso n 18.
1. Compound verbs, formed by nsing nouns
with anxiliary verbs.
§ 272. I. Compound TranRitive verbs ara con-
structed by uniting with nouns and adjectives (genaraUy
of Arabic and Persian origin) one of the four purely
Turkish synonymous auxiliary verbs ' or
'J.l:i' et-nlek, eylernek, qilmaq, bouyourmaq, all
meaning to do, to perform; but the first is most
frequently used.
a. J\,.,- sivaZ question: Jt,-' J\,.,-' J..l:i J\.,,- ,
J\,.,- to question.
p. l\j\ azadfree: l\Sf'
to free.
t. '-'" soos siIent: \ u" to stiil, to hush.
t. yash moisture; wet: to moisten; to wet.
Note. The original meaning of bouyourmaq is to
to deign, to be kind enough, but as an auxiliary
it is uaed when the agent is a person of rank or is politely
treated as such.
§ 273. II. Conlpound Intransitive verbs are fonned
by uniting Arabic or Persian adjectives and active
and passive participles (isrnl fayil, 'Inefuul) to the in-
transitive verb jJ\ ol1Jtaq c:eto be, to become"; as:
p. kasta sick: Jl.,,\ hailita olmaq to be sick.
&. 0.):.. .. me'mnoun glad: 0.):"'" ,ne11l.no'Un ol.,naq to be glad.
t. sous silent: Jt" \ u" 80US olmaq to be silent.
§ 274. III. Compound Passive verbs are CODstruCted
with the same kind of words and with the passive form
of the auxiliaries , jJJ-j edl1mek, qilinmaq,
bouyroul1naq, or more frequently with the passive forma
of the verb JJ' olmaq; viz. olounmaq to become,
to \vhich there is nothing to correspond in English; 88:
3. J\r sival: J\..,.. ... J\r' J\,.,.-' JlJJ:! J\r
to be uked.
,r ..
Compound Verbs. 129
p . .)\jT azad: .)\j\' -.;j.J\ .)\.1' - .\: .)u\' -'J lÜ\

to ba free.
§ 27õ. IV. Compound Causal verbs are constructed
with the same kind of words and with the causal forms
of the auxiliaries ' jJJ-; etd·ir1nek, bO'ttyourtmaq,
to cause to do.
p. {iroukhte sale:
a. J.:i qatl slaugb ter:
a. ihsan grant:
• ..>.x:! \ j firoukht' etdirmek to
cause to sell.
\ Jj qatl etdirmek to cause
to kill.
:;. J W \ ihsan bougourtmaq to
help to ba granted.
y" A Eurelse 38.
Form verbs from the following words:
1. a. i) kerem kindness. a. rija request.
2. 8. ijacl invention. 8. tesh'rif honour,
visiting. 3. p. .) shaz glad. a. J.. tebdil ehange.
4. a. azimet departure. 8. r avdet return.
5. a. tali1n instruetion. a. 42;; terje1ne translation.
6. 8. J zouhour appearance. a. bina building.
7. a. Jz.J vaz sermon. p. JJ koor blind. 8. a.
keeping. ghayret labourl a. hediye
)resent, gift.
2. ''" erbs derived from Nouns and Adjectives.
§ 276. J. 'fransitive verbs are forllled from
luuns and adjeetives by the addition of lamaq
) those containing hard vowels, and lemek to
'Jose containing 80ft vowels. When this terrnination
; added to a nOUD, it has the meaning of to provide
,i th, and ,vhell added to an adjective signifies to
Il der; as:
Turkish Conv.-Grammar.
9
130 t Aa U",):l Lee80n 18. tr·
jr geoz eye:
basn head:
• .} qara black:
tem.iz elean:
geozlemek to watch.
bashlamaq to begin.
'J • .} qaralamaq to blacken .
temizZemek to elean.
§ 277. II. Intransitive and Passive are formed
by the addition of W ' clC)t Zenmek, lanmaq to
nouns or adjectives; as:
-!l.;JJ\ evZenmek to marry. guzel'Unnlek to grow pretty.
khirslan7naq to be angry. Ji.'Jj.;,t:.. hazirlanmaq to be ready.
§ 278. III. By adding simply JA -amaq, tl,.
-emek, Jl' -almaq, -elmek, to the adjectives or
nouns, another kind of Intransitive or Passive verbs is
obtained; as: .
«Jli qan blood: qanamaq to bleed.
qoja old:
J. yash age:
Jy;- choq mueh:
.JT az little:
qojamaq to beeome old.
J-\!, yashamaq to live.
J1. choghalmaq to inerease.
J1. \5\ azalnlaq to diminieh •
§ 279. IV. Some Intransitive verbs are formed
from adjectives by the addition of , :;..!)t -Us1lln'l8,.
-lashmaq, meaning to grow, to become, to get.
(grad ually).
8. l:,.; (ena bad: fenalasnmaq} To become worae
-i.r k{õtu bad: r k{iJtuleshmek (gradoally) •
.J! \ eyi good: yo. \ eyileshmek To grow better (grad.)..
§ 280. The same termination, however, added to-
nOUDS produces re ei proeal verbs; as:
8. mektoub letter: mektoublashmaq to corre-
spond •
.,Jb. khaber information: khaberZeshmek to COJDIIllt"
· · nicate (intelligence}
,.. 'rw, Compound Verbs. 131
§ 281. \1. Causa 1 compound verbs are obtained
by inserting t in the first and 3
rd
forIus and dir
in the 2
nd
and 4
th
forrns.
1. bashlatmaq to let oo begun.
2. ct...;.J..:.l,J\ Ivlendirmek to make marry.
3. J...:1l'- choghalemaq to make abound.
4. \ lyillshdirmek to make grow gradually bettere
r
:': 28
d
2. VII. There are aome exceptions to the above-
men lone ru es; as :
yan side: yanashmaq to approach.
sari yellow: sararmaq to grow yello'w.
J-eu.J\ ouzamaq to elongate. sousamaq to thirst.
parlamaq to shine. ajiqmaq to be hungry.
"'1\ Exerelse 39.
Form verbs from the following words.
1.,11., V.l. jr av game. 2. p. 1uoohllr a seal. 3. a.
hazir ready. 4. qat fold, p. , pare, para,
.. .. ...
lJarcha piece. õ. t..::' t_ tOl) ball, qi,sh, winter, j\, yaz
u _ ..
summer, jJ(' gtiz auturnn. 6. J.il:. tash stone, yagh
oil, bagh bind, tie. 7. j ja touz salt, ..li \(' JJ! poul
postagestamp. III. u,':::' .. J' JJ; qourou dry, J..J'. bosh empty,
be,iz countenance, u.!S1 f:kshi sour, genj young.
IV. pay portion, qoujaq bosorn, Jj rJ'" gllj
hard, iri big. VI. !Iy:J' red' J:!!.
The Potential Verb.
§ 283. To be able to do an action is expressed
by the verb bilmek '"to know, to be able' put after
. ...
9*
132 t Aa ...r.):J Lesson 18.
. ,..,
the root of any verb, with 0 /te joined to it. This is
called in Turkish the Potential verb. It somewbat
resembles the Potential mood of the English verb. But
this is a eIass of verbs in the Turkish languaga, which
has all the moods, tenses and modifieations which the
regular verbs have; as:
yazmaq' yazabilntek to be able to i. e.
to know how to wnte.
sevmek' 0 r: 0.r sevebilrnek to be able to love, i. e.
to know how to love.
bilmek' bilebil1uek to be able to lmow, i.e.
- - •. to know how to know.
§ 284. If the root of the verb end in a vowel,
a ye is inserted between the stem and ke (§ 53); as:
sroyllmek V .!.LI: seoyllyebilmek to oo able
. to speak.
§ 285. The negative which expresses inability
or impossibility, is made by adding JAL. -mamaq or
-memek to the stem of the verb instead of
bilrnek ; as :
yaza'mamaq not to be able to write (not
!pn"
J. .. oqouya'marnaq not to be able to read •
or gidememek not to be able to go.
Aeealaratiye Verbs.
§ 286. By adding the verb vermek to the
root of any verb, another verb is formed whieh
doing the same action, but in a very oir-hand way.
This verb is called hy native grammarians J.i
..
Fee-li Tajil Accelerative verb or Verh of Faeility.
§ 287. If the root of the originaI verb end in a
consonant it takes a vowel ye after it; and if it end
in a vowel the syllabIe -yi must be added to it
..
(§ 53); as:
Compound '''erbs. 133
Vj : -!.l...)!.J yazi fJlrmek to ""rite qaickly.
J-j.J\: V j.J\ : ..)!J oqouyou vermek to read quickly.
t.. Enreise 46.
Changa the following verbs into the affirmative and
negative forms of the Potential and Accelerative verbs.
1. d.Jf ' , JAJJ' 2. , '
deokmek deoymek' 4 .
eorUi,nmek 5. '
6. 7. JA\tl' ' 8. d.J..d.;tA ,
'!A l.),\!, 9 . .. ;. ),\!, •
v . ...r ....,.. .
41 ConversatloD.
oJ·"i' ruJ' j. ! ,...ci' - ,
y • d.;..clJI t
fl
· p
'I'" • 0:> J-:' ! i.cil .:...,1 - llf

J -'::':f - Y. t
- 42:; yo 0 • (. oJ.::!;
1. niylt, meram intention. 2. tehlikl. danger.
Readlng Exereise.
The Provinces.

..
134 t Ä lJ'.)l Lesson 18.
'",J-'r' , , : A)JJ
, ')ls"',.Ii)I..b-. '':''J-!!! '''!h ....
, .i;-1I .:.,).,.- , ' , , ...,..IJ:"" 'J.J' b...; , dJ
· ,
:i> jr \. \Aa,.'
.. J. J ..
: J.) ).i;' 45J;('.;A
JC'l1;-J1 ':")J-. ' ' 4....J.f. .. ' rt!.
.);) s)..\:'" J ' ':"yf
Vilayetler.
MC'lJtaliki lJfaltrouseyi Avropa q/it'asinda
1
boulounan shounla'r tlh·: Ed-i'l-ne
l
, Selaniks,
Qosova, l"'an'ya, ishqod'l-a, Monastir.
Asiya qit' asznda boulou,nan vilayetler: Hijas, Yemen,
Bas'l·a, Baghdad, Mousoul, Haleb
4
, Suriga
Õ
, Beyrout,
Qonya. H, Anqare (Engur'll) 7, Ayam,
Adana 8, Qastanl-ouni, Slivas, Diyarbekir, Bitlis, Erzroum,
Ma·nlOu,retttl-Aziz, Va.n, Trabzou'U.
Afriqa . qit' astnda: l"arablous 9; A q -Dcniede: lJesagin
aball1·1 2sefid 1
0

Bounlartfi. 111crkezlcri 11 shounlar dir: Hijaeinki Jiri de;
Sharn 12, Khtt-daVlHJldikiariüki Brousa, Aydi-
'niftki IZ1ni1·
13
, llla-nz.ourctill-Aziziftki Kharpout, 'De digh--
le1i,ik'l' henUlal1l1a1-i
14
olan
15
sllehirlc'l- dir.
Words. 1. part, segment. 2. Adrianople. 3. Thessalonica.
4 .• t\.leppo. 5. Syria. 6. Iconium. 7. Galatia. 8. Cilieia. 9. 'tripoli.
10. (the islands of the White Sea) Archipelago, Rhodes. 11. centre,
central city of the provinee. 12. Damascus. 13. Smyrna. 14. having
the same name, homonymous. 15. whieh are.
,
)
,,.,
The Derivative forms of the Infinitive. 135
,\ Lesson 19.
The Derivative forms of the Infinitive.
§ 288. There are three formations of verbal
Substantives derived from the Infinitive: By append-
ing to the Infinitiva the syIlables j' -liq, -llk,
and by affixing to the root of the verb the terminatioDS
4t -ma, -me; j:. , J. -ish, -ish, the three
forms of the Inflnitive are obtained; 8S:
slvmek to love: 1. shmekUk Loving, the action of
loving.
yazmaq to write: 1. yaz'maqliq Writing, the
_ of wrItlng.
2. V r sev: 44 r seume Loving, the action of loving.
3. V.J- sh: slDis'" Loving, the mood of loving.
§ 289. Turkish Infinitives and verbols are fre-
quently nsed substantively, and when so used they
can be declined !ike substantives, with or without the
pronominaI affixes.
Declension of the Infinitive.
N. slvmek' loving
G. wanting
D. & r {
A. r: l
L. oJ...G.,_ aetJmekdl ID f .t:
A. r sev'1nekcUn from
Declension of the first Derivative form.
N. r seemeklik loving
G. slvm.ekliyin of loving
D. sevmekliye to loving
A. r slvmekliyi loving
L. sevmeklikdl in loving
A. r sevfneklikdln from loving.
136
N.
G.
D.
A.
L.
A.
" Le8S0n 19.
Declensioll of the second and third
Derivative forrns.
6,. .. __ seeme'
J:., .-
-J
4e..- setmenüi,' of .. L:!r of
.J
4e.J- sevmeye' to slvishe
sevmeyi'
" , . l .
<.>-! r selns u
seemede' in in
o "d' , f
uJ..!, a- sloiskdl.n from .. .J- ·en rom

Note. The Plurals are not in COlnnlOll Uf;e.
, ,..,
=c....
.9 0

CJ"C
= 0 •
G)otc
..c: S.5

_ Q) 0

...
.- ...
0
-
§ 290. The first, second and third forms of these
Verbal Derivative nouns are often used '\\Tith the prono-
minal affixes; as :
1., my l.s ;.öli.A yazmaqltghil/liz' our I
yazIJlaqhghu1 tby f'"§ yazmaqlfghifUz' your
• yazmaqlilJht' his ., Not tlRed
2. r6,. .. yazmal1l nlY
yazmali thy
yazmast

:::
3. yaz!sMm my 1
yazishUI J
yazisht hIS
yazmaJntz our
yazlllaftiz your
yazmala1°' their
:,...!.,jL yaz1shimtz our
-' --
yazishilUz your
yazishlari their

Ji
II
J1
§ 291. rrurkish Infinitives govern nouns and
pronouns, which are always put before them; the object
is to be put in the nominatival form, if indefinite; and
in the accusative if definite. This is the case also for
Verb al nouns and Participles (§§ 83, Note, 251); as:
l:.S"" kitaln ackmaq to open the hook.
j., \ l:.S"" kitab oqaumaq liq reading a book.
sau ickme. drinking 80me water.
§ 292. The logical subject of the Infinitive is to
be put in the Genitive case: or to use another expression,
, ..
'fhe Derivative forma of the Infinitive. 187
the infinitive or verbal noun, if considered as a sub-
stantive, requires a noun or pronoun before it in the
genitive. In the case of Pronouns this is not al\\yays
Decessary, as the affixed pronoun represents the logical
subject; 8S:
r4.tS (: , r4.6' blnim gelmlm, gelmlm my comingo
seniti gelmekliyiti your cODling.
I.>if .!l...f.ri\ efeu(limiziii gelishi' the coming of our Lord.
§ 293. lf the Infinitive is to be ueed as the object,
it lllay be put in three different cases: With neuter
verbs following it is alv;ays in the dative; with active
veres, if the object is definite, in the accusative; if
indefinite, it assumes a llominatival form (§ 83, Note); as:
.,;." oqounlaglta bashlamaq to begin to read.
A yazma bilmez' he does not kno,,· how to write.
jJ: yazmaql1ghi biitllez he does not kno,,· the writing.
§ 294. The first Derivative forrned fronl the lnti.-
nitives denotes the act, the actioll. The negative of
this form is composed in two ways:
yaz' t"amaqliq and j gaz' mamazliq
Mekto·ubon yazmamazliq etme Don't fail to the letter.
§ 29õ. But the negative, dative and ablati\?e forme
when used "yith some verbs mean to beha ve as if:
GlOr' mlmezlikden geldi, gror' 1nemezliyl t·oUJ·dOlt He pretended
not to see.
Taninta111azliq eltnek To hehave as if not acqaainted.
§ 296. The second Derivative of the lnfinitive is
4A
r
sevm{/, yaztna' the mode of writing, the
manner of loving; loving, writing. Always accent the
last sy 11a ble.
§ 297. The pronunciation and the spelling of this
second form is jllst the salne as that of the second person
Imperative negative singular; but the accent is decisive.
The second Derivative has the accent on the last syUahle,
while in the Imperative the penultimate (the syUable
before the negative suffix) is accented:
138 , .. Lesson 19.
.... yazma' writing, to "'rite: yaz'ma don't write (thou).
4..A r sevme' loving, to love: sev'me don't love (thou).
§ 298. TIie English Impersonal verbs and those
verbs whose objeets are not mentioned, but understood,
are rendered in Turkish as follo,vs. The subjeet of the
ImpersonaI verb and the oldeet must be meiltimed; as:
yazt 1/a·zntaq to write. yaghmour yaghmaq to rain.
geok gurlemek to thunder. qar » to snow.
dikislt dikmek to sew. dolou » to haile
tuhin ichmek to smoke. shinzshek chaqmaq to lighten.
'!lemek ylmek to eat (food). is1& ishlemek to ,,·ork.
The Infinitive used as a Substantive.
§ 299. It has been severaI times mentioned that
the Infinitive is regarded as a nOUD, and that, like a
nOUD, it is Iiable to every kind of change whieh the
nüun undergoes (§ 289). The student wiIl understand
these pecllliarities from the study of the following
examples.
o.;j.J\ , yazmaq i cltil" , yazmaq (J,zre the
purpose of wnüng.
:-i.j'.1 ' yazmaqs'iztn, yazlnaqsCz without or be-
-' oo _.. fore writing.
yazmaq'la, almaq'la by writing, by taking.
JY.. yazmaya niyeti yoq he .has no intention
to wrlte.
yazmaqdan' 1naqsedi,,!,. my intention in
wrltIng.
\ yctzmaqdan' ise }
- - / instead of writing.
A-!, \ 0 yazulJadan' ise
dushmeni sev1nekdt!' in loving the enemy.
gel' mede1l, yaz"madan without, before com-
.. ing, writting.
..... :f" 0 .... \(' I). bize gel' meden git' me do not go before you
come to see us.
o \ douva et' 1niden berore prayer [praying].
yazma.qda' iken while I WRS "priting.
A::J.J.J\ gelme' si' lizerine on his comingo
.... :f' ..l.:-...... \(' gelnzesiy'le gitmesi his coming and loing.
siõyleyishi his manner of speech.
The Derivative form. of the Infinitive. 189
§ 300. The Continuative tenses are forllled from
the Infinitive as in the following examples:
r! • , , •
lIasmaqda'yim, -'sin. -'dir, -'yiz, -'siniz, ·'dirlar.
I am writing ...
yaghmafJda' idi it was ralDlog.
!lemek yemekde' imillh (I heard that) be W88
.
.. -!, A.) dikish dik,lleI-de i .. if he is sewiog.
Jij qar'!lagmaqda it 800\\"8.
§ 301. SOlne of the derivatives of the second and
third forms are used as common nouns (§ 443); as:
OUCMll,-ma akite.
.... - ,,,e\ 1sitma nlslaria.
basma print, calico.
blõlme partition.
... ; 1
0
.1') d J illumination.
_\OI onanma, fl t
a ee.
sllikerlime sUjlar-plums.
.:. .:. IT vlr-ish business
u-!..J!J U-: transaction, trade.
.... qavourma fried meat.
!lafHi.-;h a mistake.
dogllousk hirth .
!Iapma Inade up .
dondolinna iee-Crealll.
.. .• qazma a pickaxe.
.. .. ya1"'ma crushed ,,·heat .
qizartma roasted meat.
asrna (hanging) a ville .
Words.
p.JtGJJ rUzgiar wind.
8. kiatib clerk.
, ..!Ja & .i! yetÜlhmek to reaell.
. a. J,)lj qadir able.
to wait.
l;....,:- posta-hafle post offiee.
a. '-"""""" sebeb reaso n.
eSHlek to blo,,- 0
!/lljbela hardly.
at. khayrlt better.
a. tlkUf propositioll.
-
anjaq only.
a. ,) \f mitrad intention.
8. tahsil learning.
Proper Names: Shahin. 0L:...\ lhsan Grant.
140 t .. 1.J'):l Lesson 19.
fo' Exereis8 41.
• y§,I'Jf\ ' f! \
'I'" • -,!I cl:- r- ,.
!1.;r;)'.f-
0.)').J. t. .)) J'J \A)
0)')6) ;.:. ! 0 • )..ljJ=-='\ . itT
J. • \ '..T 'V'.. J '-". .T.. J
' • Jj] '
0)\' ;, -:1)) 4, ...
v . 'v' -' ,.. \ • J .. .._.
! 4 v • 4i Ijl; .;'..J ;.:Ij\; !
c!: c.lfl J:. 1 - ! "!§'
, - 4i LS)..\.!;.I " .).1l)$
Jy:"J' ;.:;; , o...L.<..s::::!,) (""...ul"
.)) JJ y. \ .))
'v'
.),))IJ
t ; Translatfon 42.
1. Giving is better than taking. 2. Every ascent
has its descent and every going has its comingo 3. I have
HO intention of [to] writing a letter to the father; have
yon? 4. To mount a donkey is a shame, to dismount
another (t'vo). õ. Nobility is [gained] by giving, bravery
by kiHing. 6. The ,vind is blowing very hard. 7. Whicb
is better, smoking tobacco or drinking coffee? - Neither
of them is [not] useful for healtll. 8. Are those sugar-
plums nice? - Yes, Sir! 9. This ice-cream is made of
milk, ice and lemon. 10. This cup is made (yapnta)
in Germany. 11. Seal the letters and send them to
the post-oflice; don't forget to seal them, seal and tie.
12. Why are these children crying? - I don't know
the reason. 13. Don't go to see the teacher without
, .... ,
The Finite \r erb. 141
taking me. 14. To begin to read his lesson. 15. The
oays began to grow shortere
41 CO,n versatloll.
? [,\i Wfl.:\ j (u-
Wfl.!\ • .J\ j yo I r.ci\ (e

• <-r '-:"" Jj oJ.::!.J jJ'.).) .J! (jJ'
• .).) .J! \ «(.
! 4; t< .J! ' .. -!\ .!1.)",.,...f\ (u-
• .).)l; j.J\ • d- Jo .).Jj yo (e
? .)..ll,4; ..:- .J! (u-
• .).) (e
? \ (\....--"
· <SJ:\ «(.
• <SJj \ J oJ.i...il:...
.
'? \ O.)0..J; ..:..:, ).J\ j- (u-
• J..ll.,\ .).)li ".'! 0"\ .!1J:' «(.
r· Lesson 20.
The Finite Verb.
§ 302. Turkisll verbs, !ike nouns, have two numbers:
the singuIar and the plura!. They have three persons,
which do not vary for gender as they do in Arabic.
§ 303. The )Ioods of the Verb. In Turkish the
verbs have six moodsl: the Infinitive
2
, the Imperative,
the Indicative, the Assertive, the Narrative and the Con-
ditional. The Infinitive, the Imperative and the Indica-
tive are common to aImost alIlanguages; but the Asser-
tive, Narrative and Conclitional are peculiar to the Turkish.
1 souret. - 2 111asdar, emriye, ikhbar;,ye,
hikiave, rirayet, shartiye.
142 ,. Lesson 20.
§ 304. The Con.jugation of Verbs. All the Turkisb
verbs are conjugated in the same way, these being no
irregular Verbs, except the Substantive defectiva verb
(to be'; bllt there are certain modifieations required by
the law of euphony ,vhich hold good in the inflections
of the verbs as in those of other parts of speecho We
employ as exalnples in each mood and tense the verbs
a
r
and verbs are generally used 8S
models for the conjugation of all verbs, soft or hard.
§ 305. The Indicative mood has eight tenses and
the three other moods seven each: they are as follows.
1. Present 1 4. Dubitative 7. Necessitative
2. Aorist 5. Futul'e J:-i=-.. 2 8. Suppositive
3. Past <.s.) Jt! 6. Optative \.;\1\
§ 306. Of the six moods of the verb, the In-
finitive has been fully described in the previous chapters.
§ 307. The Indicative nlood is the simple
conjugated form of tIIe verb and is the basis of the
other tllree compound moous. It llas eigIlt tenses.
§ 308. The C0111pound nloods, the Assertive,
Narrative and Conditional are formed by the aid of the
three tenses of the substantive verb, which latter is called
in Turkish the Auxiliary verb 3.
§ 309. The Substantive verb in general
corresponds to tIie English verb ':to be" but it is
defective. It has been lnentioned several times in
the previous chapters 4:; but it is useful to bring it in
again here (§§ 65, 72, 73, 238).
1 Hal; Muzari, 1'f[az·iyi shouhoudi; Maziyi naqli; MUstaqbll;
Iltizami, Viijoubi; Farziye. - 2 The Imperative, Optative and Ne-
cessitative are really moods according to the European Gram-
mariaDe. But they are not considered as moode according to
the Turkish idea; they are variations of the Future tmse. The
Turkish language acknowledges only four moods as has been
mentioned. - 8 J.i Fiy'li-Ia' nl. - 4 vide §§ 65, 73, 288.
t'L.'"
The }'inite Verh. 148
Present Past Dubitative Conditiotlal
r -im = r,)
0\ \


ID

.!J..lJ \ = !J,)
• 0\ \
=
e

0
.-
(J,) ) -dir = <.S,)

= 4_

aS
e
.-
j -iz .!l..1l \ = .!l,)
• 0\ \
\ =
E
s..

j5:'-!---!, \
G)
-siniz js'" -= f 4- E-4
JJ,) -dirler j,.J:\ = j,,)
ft..!\ J6._!\ =)4-
§ 310. The Asserti ve mood, is used ,vhell the
fact mentioned is asserted by the knowledge of the
speaker; or it is stated Oll the authority of the speaker;
he knows it of his own experience or knowledge, ""ith-
out depending upon hearing it from others; as:
Jj.,\ \t\') • dayima oqour idi",
In my childhood I wae al ways reading.
§ 311. This mood is obtained by adding to the
third person singular of the tenses of the Indicative
mood the past tense of the substantive verb. It has
all the tenses of Indicative.
§ 312. The Narrative Mood is employed when
a fact is stated, but not on the authority of the speakere
It is a hearsay or report founded on the statement
of others (§ 238); as:
r.!..!\ kltchukluyumde choq oynar
imishim. (It is said that) I was playing much in n1Y childhood.
w.,.l ])Un mektoubou yazmaU imishsiniz
You ought to have written the letter yesterday (it is said).
§ 313. This mood is obtained by adding to the
third person singular of the tenses of the Indicative
mood the Dubitative or Perfect tense of the Substantive
verb. It has all the tenses of Indicative save the Past.
§ 314. The Conditional Mood. This states the
condition on which another action takes place, has
taken place, or will take place. It cOITesponds to what
is called in European languages the Subjunctive; as:
r.J)J\ w.,,:....' gelsl, me1l1nOUn olOUrOllf1& If he comes
I shall be glad.
144 ,. I.J' .) .) LeSBon 200
rJ.!'..T..J..J r • paran& oloursagUl' sana
bir li ,oa veriridin, ] f I had l110ney I would gi ve you a pound.
§ 315. This mood is formed by adding to the
third person singular of the tenses of the Indicative,
the Conditional tense of the substantive verb.
It llas all the tenses of the Indicative, except the
Imperative.
§ 316. The Imperative Mood.
Pere 1. wanting .,
2.
r
slv' love thou
3.
urJ-
' Ü-:--J- sevsin' let him love
1.
r
OJ
-
sevelün let U8 love
2.

' .!.l. !ove YOll
.r sevul,
3. J; r J- r slvsinler let them love!
Pere 1. wanting
2.

,
write yaz
3.

, ü:.-jl! yazsii"" let him write
1. r,j\!
yazal-im let us write
2.

' .. !.1.jL write YOll
.. .. yazl/n
3. J; yazsi'lzlar 1et them writel
§ 317. The Negative. f\
Pere 1. \vanting
2. r sev'me don't love
3. wr4Ar r sev' mesin let him not love
1. r sev'meyelim let us not love
2.
{
r sev'meyifl, }
sev'meyi'Jiiz
don't love
3 . .) J-IA..A r ' .... r sev' mes·inler let them not love!
§ 317 a. The first person Singular is wanting. The
root of the verb is the second persoll Imperative
Singular, the pluraI of whicll is formed in two ways:
se?:1·fi, yazin is very eommon in speech; sevifiiz, ya,rini.
is used in literature and anlong literary people.
''Le
The J.4"inite \"erb. lü
):;J Words.
f. 4J-:J; gazeta newspaper at. ! Jl\.Jj zlval'li! poor!
a.! rfkerem et! plesse! ! haydl! Now then!
! .!l \.. haydeti! (used as pl.) Let us go! Come along!
t "" Exerelae 43.
fiY':'Y: T • J! 4..,... \
·4
4A
J.,k JoJ! S:;}-J;} yo .)jr=(
0 • op ! }..ril e""!tA fo
Jl
r
' .:. r, · :;::!Jo.iJ) r"\ J. •
.t.J..:.f ,
· ).j r::(' o;} sl
, A • hJJJ! JJ. '));}IJ. y

t t J Translatlon «.
1. Where are you going? - I am going to the
doctor. - Why are you going to the doctor? - I have
malaria. I am 'going to show myself to the doctor.
2. What is the price of this calico? - It is four piastres
a yard. 3. It is raining: let us go home and read the
day's newspapers. 4. The Hesb of those cattle is not
good for the health: let nobody eat it. 5. What are
the children doing? - They are reading their books.
6. Please calI the maid -servant. 7. Bring me a little
fried meat and a piece of roast meat. 8. There is a
knife on the table.
41 CODTersatlon.
• ? !
• ';'JY., .kÄi ! ? • c:,J.i.}.J\
Turklsh Conv.-Grammar. 10
148 ,t LeSBon 21.
§ 320. Note. This tense is often ealled by English
Grammarians the Present Progressive or Second
Present Tense. It indieates that the action is going
on at the present m01nent, while one is speaking;
whereas the Aorist of the Indicative indjeates that the
action is going on but is not over, and is habitual.
Hellce the Aorist of the Indieative has often been
regarded as the Present Tense of that mood; but it is not
really so, as it expresses the action in an indeiinite way,
referring both to the present and the future (§ 328). Thus
yazzyorou1n Dleans ('I write at the present moment, I am
writing', just like the Oontinuative Present (§ 300)
yazmaqda'yzln; whereas yazarzm means <I write in general
as a habit', or it·eonveys a promise, and then corresponds
to <:I will wri te' .
§ 321. 1. Indieative Present. 4tJL;J Jl>.
.. .
r).r.-!.J- I am loving,
seviyorsoun, thou art loving,
.)r.!..r seviyor, he is loving,
jJ..r.:!r se-viyorouz, we are loving,
sevillDrSOUltOUZ, you are loving,
JJ.J:-!..r sevi.l/orlar. They are loving.
Potential Present. Jb.
r.JJ __ oJ- sevebili' yorou111,
0 r sevebili' yorsoun,
.J.r.:1= 0 r sevebili' yor,
j.J 0 r se1Jebili' ,1orotU,
0 r sevebili' 1!tWsouIlOtAl,
JJ J 0 r sevebili yorla,.
I am able to love etc. (l i t. I know how to love).
The Negative Present. Jb.
r).J!4..e r sev'meyoroum I am not loving, etc.
seve'meyorourn I am not able to love, etc.
... v The Present Tense . 14:7
amlar dtfõrt mezMbe 1 ayrUmishlar dir 8: Haneli
9
, Hanbali 10,
Shafiyi 11 ve Maliki 11. IsZamlarin btfõyuk qismi 1 S Haneli
mezhebinden dir: Turkler ve Ka,·dlerden bazllari Haneli
dirler. Ajemler
14
, Qizil-bashlar
15
ve Kuralerden bazllari
Shafiyi dirle,.. Arablardan bazi qabileter 16 Hallbali ve
bazüar Maliki dirler. Her ktfõyde ve skekirlerde jam-iler 11
ve imamlar 18 var dir.
Memaliki Mahrousede bouZounan Khristiyanlar daklti
bashlija dtfõrt btfõY'ltk mezhebZere ay,.ilmishlar dir: Protestan,
Qatolik, Ermmi ve Roum. Her Khristiyan ktfõyZerde ve
kiliseZer ve papas 19 ve vayizler
lo
var dir.
Yekoudiler pek az Anjaq Istanbolda ve Memaliki
bazt shehirlerinde boulounourlar.
7. denomination, sect; religious opinion; one of the lour
.rthodox schools oi opinions in Islam. 8. are divided. 9. the
ianeli sect or school of Sunni Moslems, founded by Imam Ebou
:lanife. 10. 'fhe Hanbali sect, lounded by Imam Ahmed ib ni (son
.f) Hanbal. Il. The Shafiyi Bchool or sect, lounded by the great
awyer Muhammed son of Idris, called Imam Shafiyi. 12. The
Ichool founded by lmam Malik. 13. part. 14. Perajan8. 15. Red-
leads: the non-Sunnite Turks (said in contempt as though wor-
ihipping the round red 8tone in Kerbela, on which were beheaded
fIassan and Ht1seyin, the two son8 of Caliph Ali; they are also
i. e. followers of Ali, ,,-hile the Hanelees are called
Sunnites). 16. tribes. 17. 18. a leader in public wor-
,hip of Islam. 19. priest. 20. preacher.
r, Lesson 21.
wl.j The Present Tense.
§ 318. In the formation of the tenses, the third
person singular is first made by the addition of some
3uffix to the root of the verb. The other persons are
nade by the addition of the present tense of the Sub-
verb. Every tense has its characteristic suffixes.
§ 319. The characteristic sign of the Present is
he syUable JJ! -yor or Jr.:. -iyor, which, added to
he root of the verb, makes the third person singular
this tense (§ 54). The otller persons are obtained
)y simply adding the present tense of the Substantive
rerb to the stern thus formed (§§ 309, 522).
10*
148 r t Lesson 21.
§ 320. Note. This tense is often called by English
Grammarians the Pres en t Progressive or Second
Presen t Tense. It indjeates that the action is going
on at the present 'Jno1nent, while one is speaking;
whereas the Aorist of the Indicative indicates that the
action is going on but is not over, and is habitual.
Hellce the Aorist of the Indicative has often heen
regarded as the Present Tense of that mood; but it is not
really so, as it expresses the action in an indefinite way,
referring both to the present and the future (§ 328). Thus
yaziyorou1n Dleans ('I write at the present moment, I am
writing', just !ike the Continuative Present (§ 300)
whereas yazarim means <I write in general
as a or it·conveys a promise, and then corresponds
to el will write'.
§ 321. 1. Indieative Present. 4tJL;J Jl>.
r ).r.-!.J-
seviyorsoun,
..)..r.:!..r se viyor,
.. .
I am loving,
thou art loving,
he is loving,
seviyorouz, we are loving,
seviyorsouiiouz, YOll are loving,
)J..r.:!r sevi.l/orlar. They are loving.
Potential Present. Jb.
r .J." • J- sevebili' yorou111,
0 r sevebili' yorsoun,
..) J J ! Ir sevebili' yor,
jj 0 r se1Jebili' ,orous,
js:.. J 0 r sevebili' yorsoullouz,
0 r sevebil, gorlar .
I am able to love etc. (l i t. I know how to love).
The Negative Present. Jb.
r sev'meyoroum I am not loving, etc.
seve'meyorourn I am not ahle to love, etc.
1
\
The Presen t Tense. 149
Interrogative Present. Jb.
• .J a.....J ..- ' a.....J..- se"i' gormoz'youm ? -moUBoun? Am
, .. J.-."; .... J ... J I loving?
r--.JY.. ..... r slv' mlyormouyoum? Am I not loving?
r--.J.J'!4"e0r slvl'meyormou,y.ou,m? Am I not able to love?
§ 322.
2. Assertive Present (Imperfect). J\,..
The Assertive Present, which corresponds to the
OOperfeet tense of the English, indieates that an action
had begun, but was not finished at the time spoken
of; as:
.J.r.:!r slvi'yor idim, .).r.!r sfvi'yor idik,
\ .)r.!r se,,;,' yor idifl., \ .)r.!r dvi' gor idilliz,
.)r.!r slvi'yor idi, .Jr.!..,,- slvi'yor idiZJr.
I was loving, thou wast loving, etc.
r sev'meyor idim, or -oudou,n ... I W8e not loving.
§ 323. 3. Narrative Present. -.::." 'JJ Jb.
..
\ .).r.:!r sevi' yor imish.im, \ .)r.!r sloi' gor i1nishiz,
\ .).J":!r sevi' yor sin, 0\ .).r.!r sevi' yorimishsifl.iz,
\ .)..r.-!r sevi' gM imish, \ J.r.:!r sevi' 'gor imishler.
It said that I was loving (I may have heen loving).
§ 324.
4. Conditional (Subjunetive) Present. ;'r Jb.
sevi'yorsam,
slvi' yorsa11,
r se vi' yorsa,
Ir I am loving, etc.
§ 325. Further:
slvi' yorsak,
sevi' yorsafHz,
8evi' yorsalar.
yaz;,' yorsarnda I am writing, but -
yaz'mayor isemde I am not writing, but -.
150 Lesson 21.
t.·
;:;J Words.
p. ! aferin! weIl done! p. rJl::- ' c.;.!.;l:;- char.sM market
qarin abdomen, stomach il qarnim ai I am hongry
toq satisfied r sousouz thirsty
at. shid,'detli violent a .• ajele haety, preasing
a. r.li qalem a (govemment) at.j-..Uä: nizamsiz irregnlar
office [(money)
yo bozmaq to change a. shemsiyl umbrella.
t 0 Eurelse 45.
r)E ..:.. 0:>0; \
0:> - j- ' i..ci
l
0"):> - 4i 0.)1))1 ! jty::-y:; !J)::) y
o:? )-);) fI - · j)J! 1..)):.)1 Jo.1. I r..ci
l
'
- '1 4{ '"" • 0 r I.J..ji , j.<'
4i o...GJ:> ..:. " L t. • i )Y.,I} lS!J.":"..b. I J...\i) \::
· 2' -
! ':? J.i.,4A..\(' fI ' 0
J- - i 'J..l.\S'$
-.?\('V 'Ji) f JJ!\::- •
A • JJ" It .. t\=: o-4.,l; - 1 J) 0.).;
J-'! ! r..cil ' J",t 4!- .1.)1;)1
) /' • I j-\1;; J)::- ) lY' • i) '-!;s::.. ./A
.)l; J.:l /' ·
The Present TenS8. 151
t, J Traulation ".
1. I am eating bread and drinking water; what
art thou doing? - I am preparing myself to go to
leonium. 2. Thou art reading thy lesson: but thy
elassmates are not studying (working); they are lazy'.
3. No, Sir, why do you say so? How hard they are working!
But it is very diffieult, they eannot do bettere 4. Are
they eoming to our house to-morrow? - If they are
coming teIl them to bring my umbreIla. 5. He was
tbirsty; you are hungry. - No, Sir, I am satisBed.
6. I wish to go to Snlyrna, do you wish to see that
city? 7. Can you ehange a mejidiye for me? - I eannot
ehange it; but if you ean give me ten paras, I ean
give you four quarters. 8. The bread is very eheap DOW;
they are giving an oke of it for 23 paras .
.u. Convenatton.
J.J1, ! r;.:j\
&.
./ - -
rol \ ..,J.)
• rJ.r.:1-!\ J
y
y w..,....t..,
o.J:J.J<:'
• .).J! .... <
• \ J.. yo
'J.J-::i\

!
, J\.J Jo
• Jo..tli 'JJ!\i.t-,
? . ..;
v"\}
? Jy:-
wyy
? ... '.J1i.:- [.Ii
? 0";- c,S;.:j\
? OolO';
? O:J\ .;» yo
0.),,;.J O.J\ c,S)ll. yo

? J.J'dt..,
.,:; \) Reading Exercise.
o.f. The Use of AnimaIs •
• )!) )'J JJ=: 0';'
152 r r 'J' I.Jes8on 22. t .,
• :!l)..G i.1. j-J';./. 0".1..
, JJ\k:; , I
4.);1 jT • jJ)!,,! J!);' :!l)!; :!l"J,' I j\;
· j.\.b
J"r ,
j.1.k ..i!.iI Jj.1.) ' lOS'=: J"r 'oJf
· J" 0..\ i...l:! :; j- 0; 4." r :!l Jj.1. .... !! -':. ':;!
JJ::- }...:-.;. 0" J!"r
Hayva'Jllarin olan faydeUri.
bize pek choq {aydesit var dir.
Ilk yerde hayvanlarin bir choghou bizi'ln yeyejeklerimizi
J
tedarik s ed·iyorlar. Sighir
4
, dana 5, qoyoun, kecki, qouzou,
t'e ovlaq 6 ve tavouq, qaz 7, eordek
8
gibi
qoushlarin etlerini yeyorouz, av etleriyle balfqlar dakhi ba'st
leziz
9
ta' arnla.r 10 yapmagha qoul'lanUiyor.
Inek, kechi, qoyoun ve gibi kayvanlarifi
SUdtlnden sudlu qah've, sUdlu chay, sUdlajl!, yogkourt
1S
ve bounlar ,qibi ba' z·l leziz ta' amlar yapilf,yor. Bounl,a,.dan
bashqa bounlatrlfi sttduyle tere 14 ve plfuttir yapUmaqda
Dishi
15
eshek sudunu de hekimler hastala,. ickin plk
choq qoullaniyorlar. .
Words. 1. use, benefit. 2. food. 3. to prepare, pracare.
4. cattle. 5. calf. 6. kid (§ 36). 7. 8. duck. 9. delicious.
10. foode, qoul'lanmaq to Dse. 11. buffalo. 12. rice-milk. 13. tbick
curds of milk, madzoun. 14. buttere 15. female.
The AORIST.
§ 326. The characteristic sign of the Aorist of the
Indicative is the letter ) re added to the root of the
verb, which forms the third person singular. The otber
to ... The AORIST. 158
persons are forrned by simply adding the abbreviated
present of the Substantive Verb (§§ 52!, 309).
§ 327. The vowel sound between the re and the-
root of the verb varies, being either -ar, -er; -i'r, -i'r;
-our, -u'r, and can only be learnt by practice or from
a good dictionary. Ex.:
yemek to eat.:
demek to eRV:
.. ..
lõtmek to sing (the bird):
J..i baqmaq to look:
gelmek to CODle:
# alnlaq to take:
JA';..,k.J' otourmaq to sit:
\ lõlmek to die:
.f.. ylr he eats
J...) der he eaye
.}".J\ iõter he eings
baqar he looks
geUr he comes
aUr he takee
J.J';..,k.1\ otourour he sita
';.,,\.J\ lõlur ha cHes.
§ 328. 1. Indicative Aorist.
r.;or seVe'riln, I love (habitl1ally) I shall Jove
sever' Silt, thou lovest »
sever', 'he loves »
:';';0 r slve' riz, we love »
sl'Cer' siniz, you love »
).;r severle,,-', they love »
thou wilt love
he will love
we shall love
you t
f
\\"ill love.
they
The Potential Aorist.
0.1- sevebili' rim,
0 r seveb,,"li·r' sin,
0 J.... sevebil ir,
se'cebi'liriz,
0 r sevebiUr' sifliz,
J 0 r se'Cebilirler'.
I am abJe to love, I can love . .. I know how to love.
The Negative Aorist. t}\.,ä,.
rA.1- s/vmem', SeVnle' ytz,
se-cmpz'sin, sevmez'sitJiz,
.,;. r sevmez', JjAJ- sevmezler'.
I do not love 0 r I shall not love . . .
154 rr tJ'.J:l Lesson 22.
r-
0r
seve'mlm, seve'meyü,
seve'mezsin, jLjAor seve'mezrillil,
jAor seve'mez, )';'0,r seve'mesllr.
I am not ahle to love, I cannot loV'e .•.
Interrogative Aorist.
? r-';' r sevmlz'lniyim? ? sevmes'miyis9
? ,;. r sevmez' "nisin ? ? slvmJz' miliilil?
? c..f r sevmez' nli? ? (.>4 sevmesllr' ,ni?
Do I not love? dost thou not love? etc.
? r;-.J,r ? sever'miyim? -'misiII? Do Ilove?
? r-0J
Mt
? ;raoJMt ? r..:f } Am I not able to
seve'mem "ni? sevemezmisin? sev!'lIzez mi? ]ove?
Muta-la-at Remarks.
§ 329. l. The formation of the Negative Aorist is
irregnlar, as is seen above.
§ 330. II. The use of the Aorist among the com·
mon people varies; as:
severim, seven, sever; severik, set'ersilliz, setJe,"ler.
sevmeln, sevmen, sivmez; sevmezik, sevmezsiniz, seDmI.llr.
§ 331. The First Gerund. When jhJtln,6
.
is added to the third person singular it gives the mean-
ing eas if, in tending to do'.
J.!):;.f' ouyour'jasina gl1Jzlerini qapadl.
He shut his eyes pretending that he ,,-as sleeping.
(,;._ sesi alir'jasina bagkirat. He shouted
out aR loud as he could (take his voiee).
§ 332. This jesine is sometbnes added to nouns,
and signifies eafter the lnanner of, as, like'.
.J.J:;\.J-'u, 'nzerd'jesine davraniyor ouaou. He w&s
hehaving himself in a manJy way.
Esh,ek'jesine baghirai. He crieu out like an ass.
§ 333. The Second Gerund. Such English phrases
8S ebefore coming, before going' etc. consisting of (be-
11. The AORIST. 155
fore' with a gerund, are rendered in Turkish in two
ways: one by the use of the second derivative from the
Infinitive, as has been mentioned above (§ 299). The
other by appending -den or JJ\ -den evvel to the
third person singular of the Aorist, negati ve form; as:
ben gelmeden gitme t Don't go before my
4-:$" . .). be'n gelmezden gitme J comingo
_ U'..,r-
J.J\ tS- be'n seni chaghirmazdan ev'vel gelme.
Don't come before (my calling you) = I call you.
§ 334. The Third Gerund. When the third
person affirmative and negative come together a gerund
results:
j\..jl! yazar yazmae. As soon as I (you, he) wrote.
gelir gelmez chaghirdt He called me as soon as he came.
2. The Assertive Aorist (Conjundive). t3\"Q..
§ 335. The Assertive Aorist, which is called by
English scholars Past Rabitual (corresponding to the
Imparfait and Conditionnel tenses of French) indicates
that one was forrnerly, in the habit of doing an action
or that one would do it on condition of something
else happeninge Thus .r..\r gelir idim signifies either
(I used to corne or I ,vould come (if something else
ha ppened)' .
Bafla bir lira veri,·sen choq memnoun olour idim. If you
would gi ve me a pound, I should be very glad.
..>\jl! yazar idim
yazar idifi
UJ.l\ yazar idi
,;\j\! yazaJ· idik
yazar idiftiz
\ yazar idi1er
I used to write, I ahould
I should have written, etc .
Negative and Interrogative.
\,;-J- or r.)';-J- sevmez' idim, sev111ez' dim; se,'mez' i ditl • ·
I u8ed not to love or would not love or would not have loved, etc.
156 rr Lesson 22.
t."
? r..l.:-.)r SetOer'miyidim? ? r..l.:-;. r sevmez'miyidim?
U sed I not to love? etc. Did I not use to love? ·etc.
§ 336.
3. The Narrative Aorist.
\ J.J- sever' imishim, \ Jr sever' imishiz,
\ Jr sever' imishsi11, J.J- SeDer' imishsiiiiz
t
Jr sever' imish, Jr sevbr' imishler.
(They say that) I used to (Percbauce) I love ...
§ 337.
4. The Conditional Aorist. r
r6.-
J
r sever' sem,
.!.i6.-Jr sever' sffl,
sever' se,
If I love, If thou lovest, etc.
sever' sek,
r stver' slftiz,
severUr'se.
r sevmez'sem, ·'sen. If I do not love · • ·
§ 338. Note. The Conditional Aorist is abbrevia-
ted sometimes by omitting the characteristic re, and
then resembles greatly the Suppositive tense § 378; as:.
sf:vsem, sevse.
§ 339. Further:
oJ..A6.-.)r sever' semde Though I love, yet -
oJ.5 6.-';' r sevmez'8eftde thou dost love, but -
r het' kim' gelirse w hoever comes.
6,j her nt oloursa whatever it may be.
0 gelir' sede gelmlz' side w hether he comes or not.
§ 340. When two or more verbs follow one ano-
ther in the same tense, number and person, the personal
ending is generally ornitted in all but the last:
r.;o..?:; fl.!\ ' J. yer, ichlr ve gezet'inl, for yerim, iehel·im vi
gezerim. I eat, drink and promenada.
10V The AORIST. 157
Peder her akh' sha1n sise gidiyor '1:1 yari gejeyedek otourou-
1/01·oudou, for gidiyoroudou. My father used to go every night
to your house and stay there till midnight.
p. ki that
a . .)L... musalir guest
p . ..)(\ eyeT if
a . .;\..fi ükraT again
a. J taraf place, side
! eoyle ya! certainIy I
Words.
a. sunbul hyacinth
J...::- sachmaq to spread
a. r-"". mevsim season
sUrmek to plough
ekmek to sow
yazin in the summer.
t V Exerclse 4:7.
;.;)./' - J..l!1 -.;:.G \
.jh : CM' ,,-!I .::,&L.. iR:Jlj':l\
JJI ;S jI T • J.:I JIJ jL. yo
'4....j..t('jI t,;1 '.J'..J jj' ":";J
! - 'J.tJJ
t (' j. 'I"" • jy")It.tJJItj- • iY...J'..J
t)J' .... .,.p t • JJ!\:;
\
j. t Jj)
J. Jj) r 0 • '»)\ii jL.)}t
:; A:- '}IS' *0 ' JJ ./' !
0:,)\r. '\ • Jj; JjJ J.. ./' 'J-!0
J '--JJlJ)y.J,-jl. 0:,)))
• « ';'XoJ JL. 4.-..( v ·
158 rr LeaBon 22. tlA
t A J TranslatloD 48.
1. I know Armenian. Thou knowest German. Does
he know Greek? 2. Before you rame here, yon did
not know us (assertive). 3. Before seeing the property
(rnal) , I cannot give the money, but if I see and
approve, I will give the money. - WeIl, Sir, if I can
make you like it, then I hope you will pay. - 4. At
what o'clock do you go to bed? - I eat at 12 o'eIock
Turkish time, and lie down at 3 o'clock, in summer,
but in winter I eat at one 0' clock and go to bed at
five. Sometimes, if I have guests, I sit up until six
o'clock. o. I do not do sol leat early and I retire
early. I rise early in the morning. While otbers are
sleeping, I read and write my lesson. Sornetimes in
the fresh morning air I take a walk in the fieId.
6. Well done I my boy; you do weIl. 7. Can yon ride
on horseback? - Yes, I can (ride), but yon cannot
ride. 8. What do they e all this boy? - They eall
him Nejib. .
4t ts::: Conversation •
. ? ?
. \ j\lG J(' W.J\
· )Jr.!l ..;..l.S'"' ? JJ\ w,;:,f' iJ.J\
• );'0../'...1 0J\ ? Jr y-
• )Y-./...J r..r.)l 'J.)}.,,\ ?
• ! ,.1:;\ f'
?
• 0,).1\ G l. .. !..)b r .lo'; 0l .;$ '.1\ yo j-
.;J\) Reading Eurelse.
<.SJ--, !l)j Voices of Animals •
..
JJI J';:>;lJ 15J.-
. - :;:> ;IJ )J. 0:> ';n.
1

The Past Tenses. 159
, );Jr) ':')Lji 'JJJh. .)'/1 '4 :J
41_ yo p.' J.h
l
:>J}' ):>Jr";' ;J
';JI JJj- J ... J ':'J!} 'J:.S
, };')j- ..w. J\;JI J
JIJ !1:>JJI ' , r:> 4S:>Jj'l
• ).lJ' J'J
..
Hayvanla'Mn sealeri.
Butun kayvanlarlii kendilerine makk' sous 1 sesleri
var dIr, ve ol sesi ichill de birer ta'bl°rleri t
var dir; Mesela. s -
At Kisll'ner", esMk antrtr
5
, inek hoogurur 6, arsla»
geomurder 7, ayi khotnaurdar
8
, qourd oulou'I·
9
, keopek hav-
lar
10
, tilki htOr sesle siniler
11
, qoyoun ve kechi meler
11
,
leedi IS, khoros ooter 14, tavouq gtdaqlar 15, pilijler
ve oufaq qoushlar jiv1·lder 16, hind tavou,qhou 17 goulou goulou
eder 18, papaghan 19 laqird';' eder
2
0, gooyerjin 21 dem.
balbul
2s
oordek vaq va.q eder
2
f) 0
Words. 1. Espeeial. 2. term. 3. for instanee. 4. Ki,/J-
nin,lk to w hinny. 50 aitirmaq to bray. 6. blOyurmik to moo.
7. gromuraJmik to roar. 8. KhomurdanJaq to grow 1. 9. ouloumaq
to howl. 10. havlamaq to bark. 11. siililemek to squeak. 12. me-
lemek to bleat. 13. ,niyavlamaq to mew. 14. lõtmek to erowo
15. giaaqlatnaq to eaekle. 16. jivildlmek to chirp. 17. turkey
(Indian) hen. 18. to gobble. 19. parrot. 20. to chatter. 21. pigeon.
22. to cOOo 230 nightingale. shaqimaq to ,,"arble. 25. to quaek.
The Past Tenses.
§ 341. There are two tenses denoting the Past.
§ 342. One is the Oategorical Preterite called by
the natives Maziyi shouhoudi eeye-witness past', which
depicts the speaker as having been present or as having
witnessed something with his own eyes, so as to know
it for certain without any doubt. Hence it corresponds
160 ,,.. Lesson 23.

with the compound tense forrned with the Past Parti-
ciple and the auxiliary verb eTo have'. For in s tan ee
yazdi, not only means he wrote (in the presenee of the
speaker), but also he kas written.
It may also be transIated by the English Paat,
forrned with did; as: yazdi 'Jni? Did he write? - ga-zd"
he did write.
§ 343. The other is the Dubitative Past. Maziyi naqli
ilnplying or expressing doubt. The speaker is not sure
about the matter, he may have heard it from others. This
tense ean be correetly used only when the truth of an
assertion is not guaranteed, and when the speaker maans
to state that he believes what he says, but cannot
vouch for it; as: yazmisk the wrote (as others say) he
has written (I believe), I am not sure about it'. This
tense is used in telling stories of the past or aneedotes
,\?hich the speaker has heard from others or read in
books.
1. Indicative Past. <5.)"';
§ 344. The characteristic sign or suffix of the
Past tense is -di, -di in the third person. For the
first person pluraI it is !l!) -dik for the soft vowels and
J:l -diq for the hard ones.
yazdfm',
yazcZfn',
tS ,).) yazdl',
r,) r se'vdi-m',
.!l '),r sevdin',
tS ,) r sevdi' ,
I wrote, I did write,
I have written ...
yazdtq', .!l,) r sevdik',
I loved, etc.
yazdlniz', jS;,),r sevdiniz',
J! ,)j yazdtla'l·'. .). ,).J- sevdiler'.
Potential Past. <5)1-6'
sevebildim',
sevebildiii',
<.s 0 r se·vebildi',
0 J- sevebildik', l
./ I waa able
sevebild-irtiz', f 1
to ove •••
.). 0 J- sevebildiltr'.
,." 161
Negative and Interrogative.
rl4e r s"'"medim I did not love. rl .... Oy- se.ve'medi,nI waR notable
. to love.
? yazdim' mi? Did I write? ? r.)y- sevdim' ntt? Did Ilove?
yaz'madim mt? Did I not write? yaza'·,nadtm mi? Was I not able
to write?
§ 345. The Fourth Gerund. A very common
expression is forrned by adding 0.) -da, -de to the first
person plural of the Past, thus indicating when an action
is performed.
yazdiqda when he wrote. 0r..>."kJ\ rh o..ü..\.:Jl::-
chan chalindiqda MT kes otours&Un w hen the bell is rung every
body must ait down.
§ 346. The Fifth Gerund. By adding -je,
to the same person, another kind of gerund is made,
which corresponda to in proportion as, the more - the
rnore:
r">J:"!.J- jJ\ kitabi oqoudouq'ja seviyoroum. The
more I read the book the more I like it. .
... esvabUii geydikje hoshlanajaqsin.
The more you weare your dres8 the more you will like it.
§ 347. After with a Participle, is rendered in Tur-
kish by the addition of o).r:' sonra to the same
person as:
0.JS'.l.l.,,\ tJ. ben {õldukden sollra after my death.
tJ. ben yazdiqdan sOflra after I wrote.
Mektoubou yazdt, ve yazdtqdan soffra meohurledi. He 'wrote
the letter, and after ,vriting he sealed it.
§ Further:
Eoyrenemedik gitdi. At last we were not able to learn.
Beoylldim gitdi. At last I have spoken.
2. Assertive Past.
§ 349. The Assertive Past, which is called in
English the Pluperfect, is made in two ways, one by
adding the Paat tense of the Substantive Verb to the
Turk18h Conv.-Grammar. 11
162 ,,.. Lesson 23.
third person of the Past tense and the second by adding
the third person of the Past of the Substantive Verb
to the Past tenseo
sevdim, -idi, seodi idim,
sevdin, idi, se.,di idiA,
sevdi idi, sevai idi,
<s \ .!l sevdik idi, \ <s r sevdi idik,
sevdifiiz idi, sevd, id,lIU,
se'vd-iler idi, seveli idüere
I had loved (I am sure), Thou hadst loved.
Note. The Narrative l\Iood is wanting.
§ 350.
3. Conditional Past.
It is made in two ways, as in the Assertive Mood.
\ r ise,
\ .!Jol,) yazdifi ise,
yazdt ise,
\ J yasaiq ise,
yasdMi. iB/,
yasallar ise.
Il I have written, If thou bast ,vritten ...
Furtller:
rol.,r sevdim iside I loved, but -.
alanladin! iseae I ,vas not abla to take, but -.
r kim yazdi ise whoever may hava written.
The Dubitative Past.
§ 351. The characteristic sign or suffix of this
tense is -mÜJh, -mÜJh, -mush, -mO'Ullh·, accor-
ding to the dominant vowel. The formation of the
persons is regularo
§ 352. 1.lndicati,·e Dubitative.
r sevnli' shim,
sevmish' ain,
J:!. r shm,,"'" il,
r ,mniB"'" sUl;"
The Past Tenses. 168
):J ,;... r sevmish' (dir),
I loved, I have loved (it is said) ...
Potential Dubitative.
yaza bilnlil:h' im, '!laIa bilmish'is,
yasa bilmish'sin, yala bilmish'siltis,
J.l!..l: yaza bilmish'(dir) , J.lJ!-...l: '!Jaza bilmishler'(clir}.
(They say that) I WRS ahle to write . . .
Negative and Interrogative Forms.
yaz'mam1.s11inl, sevmemishim I did not write, \
... love tlJ
yaz' amamtshtm I was not able to write = S
r. yasmtshmtyim? ·'mtsin? .. Did I write? , ! f
'!IQza'man1ishmiyim? Was I not ahle to write? ·i S
§ 353. 2. Assertive Dubitative.
r sevmish idim, r sevmish
\ r sevmisn idin, \ r sevmish idiliil,
r sevmish idi, r sevmish idiler.
I had loved (I am sure), Thou hadst loved.
§ 354. 3. Narrative Dubitative. JA.;
r!:\ r sevmish' im ishim , r sevmish' imishil,
r sevmish' i1nishsin, sevmish,' imishsill.iz,
seomish' imish, r sevmis"" imishler.
(They say that) I have loved, etc.
§ 355. 4. Conditional Dubitative.
r sevmish' ·isenl, r sevmisn' isek,
r Bevmish' isen, r sevmish' iseniI,
sevmish' ise, sevmisn' i,ellr.
If I loved (as they say), (as others s ay).
Yaz'ma.mish is/m, -isell If I bad not written (as others say).
11*
164 ,,.. 'J'.)l LeaBon 28.
" ...
§ 3õ6. Further:
rW.J\ yazmish olsan, If I bad ,,'ritten.
Jw.J\ Ji\ almish olsalar If they bad taken.
):;J Words.
a. t.J" ll..... sa' adetly happy sUpUrmek to sweep
a. &\ ilaj medicine
lõksUnltek to cough
I to start,
J.Ä .. =:- yola chiqmaq \to eet ?ut
to satI.
f. \P telegraf a telegram
p. l.)l derd afHiction,
sickness
c.S..J geri back
:r fi deyirmen mill , ..t'! l deyi sa ying
J.'..,k .... oo.. td!\ isitma or sttma toutuzaq to suffer from malaria.
fo' Eurelse 4:9.
o I.S..I.Ä;:- J -'! .:" \ J \:..... \ .:,,) y. 1.S..ci I ,
J:> J..::( ':"J:> - , .;"iJ 4i 1.S..ci1)l! ,.
.:> i..l::!!1 Jj) ;"'J:> "(' • r.1·.'"!I-'!:>
- !I:»:> )J.i 4i y. t. 0 r..JJ1 ;l!
4. 0 0 4. "M",,!I JY. ;,.,,t,)
.. I;i ')!.::( , i.)j,t,) - !I..JI
.. .)J'.r r.:<' y.' 15) J.y. ')!...le,uy' ')! ..
O).4!..Y·)J!r 'G:!' f - .(')1)"_
- o':"r)J!r )Ir:.; :; 4.J1 -
' ;"'J.A • ..JIJ V 0 r.cil c..JI
·4 ..r.. le - J-=:t(' "!.; rl;. • ..JIJ - 0
0 J; 0 Jjl) " .,.s.J..!..:.(
! ,
t'.
The Past TeDses. 165
O· J TraDslatlon 60.
1. What has he planted in the garden? - He
has planted there some lilies, potatoes and tomatoes.
2. Whose brotber has two small knives? 3. It is re·
ported [they say] that a mall was killed yesterday in
the town. 4. [Th ey s ay] some one has heen killed
this week at the mill. 5. When did the ship sail 'I -
She sailed on the first day of the month. 6. The mail
from Samsoun arrived this morning. 7. Did you see
my father? No, Sir, I waited for him in the market
but I could not see him. My brother James saw him
yesterday. 8. The more you learn the happier you
are. 9. The more you advise him the angrier he gets.
10. When your brother comes from the town, please
let me know.
4l. Conversatlon.
3
ti
j c.Sx (u-
?
./. .!JJ;.} [..J\ JH w\hL 4 t'L.''''
(6J \.J.,) J."..! • o .. 5
• r,) }.J\ 7
? J,) \ o? bt.. 0 ,) L; $i .J W,) [.\,; tol. l!." J:l; t..:c. (tJ"'

j y li c.s J. \ 0 4.';,) 5! \ r,).J Jt(" \.j' J
10. /'... , .•• 1-, 9 l. .. 8 .. \, ,. " ,
..I...JJ 0,) t J' "-4,;
t,A,.. oJ.::lT 0)
0,)"';"'\
• lSJ:\ J'-.J\ J. 12
Words. 1. u. tarikh date, history. 2. u. vasita hand, means.
3. fet-h etmek to conquer. 4. fatih eonqneror (§ 601). 5. mou-
hasere siege (§ 618). 6. zeval fall. 7. p. nam name. 8. Qanouni
Soultan Suleyman Sultan Suleyman, the Lawgiver (1520-66). 9. qo-
mancla commalldership. 10. vezir vizier. 11. moumayileh His Ex-
('elleney (the person refered to, Le. the latter]. 12. ekali inhabitantB.
166 r'l. '..tr Jl Lesson 24.

JJ.J' J\J J-ü ....; <J\lal... (CJ"

, . '" J \ \ \ / \ 13 \ • \-. • " , (
I.}. J.J r.. <.JUlIA.-
• '..tr ).JJ'.; tS-!)
.).lJ!.J J\} <Jl:=-..f-
16 .J, " '" .... '" . · \ 1 \ ,...,'" 15 • ,. \ _ •. \
e:..- J eleJ .J .wl (u-
? J.1!i. J.J\
Js:- eJJ.r.;\:-\ «(
20_1 _'" "'- L""""" ,/.\ 1 ... "'\ •
1J.lIA el 'A'" .J
...
• J.1!i. JJ\ ei"
13. hazretleri His Majesty. 14. huku·maar rolere 15. Injili
Sherif the Holy GospeI. 16. tab printing. 17. towards the end of
the 17th century. 18. a pervert to Islam. 19. Ingiliz KittJM
Mouqaa' des sh1:rketi B. & F. B. Society. 20. him' metiyle tbrough the
assistanee, by.
Proper Names: Jibon Ed. Gibbon. Qarolos Charles V.
y i Lesson 24.
l 4" A The Future Tense.
u.
§ 357. The Future tense in Turkish corresponda
to that of the English language; with this difference,
that it simply asserts what will happen, without making
a promise, which is always rendered by the Aorist.
§ 358. The Oategorieal Future is made by adding
o '4 -e-, -a- to the verbal root, if it ends in a conso-
nant; and ... , -ye-, -ya- if it ends in a vowel; and after-
"
wards -jek is added if the verbal root is Boft and
.
-jaq if it is hard (53):
' V J.J};,.J\ ' eJ."k.J\ ' ototwtJjaq
' V .. ' ' isUyljik
, e.;.S'" gitUjek.
..
The }4"uture Tense. 167
§ 359. Note. The radical endings -t, J -q,
!I -k, are changed into ;) -d-, t -gh-, -y-, when followed
by 8 vowel: § 52
2
, 88.
§ 360. 1. Indicative Future.
yazaja:-ghf,m, iBtelleje'-yim,
yazajaq'-stn, isteyejek'·sin,
Jl yazajaq' (dir), Jl isteyejlk' (dir),
yazaja'-gh/iz, istlyeje'-yiz,
'!Iazejaq'-sin/iz, isteyejek'-silliz,
Jl yazajaq-lar' (dtr) . isteyejek-ler' (dir).
I shall write, thou ,,-ill -. I shall ask, thou ""iIl ask ...
Negative and Interrogative.
yaz'mayajaghim,-stn ... I sball not write ...
yaza'mayajaghum. .. I shall not be ahle to write ...
? yazajaq'mtyim? Shall I ,,"rite?
? yaz'mayajaqm1ytm? Shall I not write?
? yaza''1nayajaqmtyim? Sball I not be ahle to write?
§ 361. 2. Assertive Future. J.;" 4
Assertive Future or Imperfect Future signifies that
an action was going to take place in the past, Present,
or future.
yazajaq idi'ln,


»
»
idiiI,
idi,
yazajaq idik,
)} idiiliz,
J...J.:\ » idillr.
I was about to write, (yesterday, to-oay or to-morrow).
Note. This tense is often ",ritten and pronouneed in the
following manner:
, yazaja'ghtdim, sevlje'yidift. · .
168 f'l. u-.).) Lesson 24.
§ 362. 3. Narrative Future. 'JJ \; ... 4
..
r-!!\ sevejek im ish im , P.\ slDljBc imis"is,
» imish'sin, »imis1uiAiI,
:t ilnish, A\ "imuhUr.
[They say that] I was about to love ...
§ 363. Conditional Future. f..11b r J .• "*' .4
» ise11, » isllli.,
»ise, J4.-!\ » isBlr.
o r sevejeyise1n, sevejeyisen; yazajaghisaq, yazajaghisa";" . . .
If I shall love, If I am to love . . .
§ 364. Furtber:
O..M6..-!,\ yazajaq isbnde I shall write, but -.
g{õremeyejek isekde We shall not be able
to see, but -.
yooruyemeyejek iseniztU You wiU not be able
to walk, but -.
):;J Words.
keyflenmek to be de-
oo lighted
J-.J ytl basht New-Year's-
oo. Day
a. \" vayiz preacher
biii
-
tS\) mirala,y colonel
yayla summer-residence
. s1q tbick
? haniya? where is U?
s. yani that is to say
J. yald*zli gilt
.!l seyrek sparae
c.s ..J'-:..r koopn;' bridge
.!J.";'.J.J.;<i gBJrUshmek to visit
J=-LL..ti familyajaq with the
• • oo whole family.
0' Exerelse õl.
• __ =: . ..I} ,
''\. "" ' J"! ' y •
..
...
• 0 •
t
r
The Future Tense. 189
J.1. (.).1:;' -):l (.).1. ..
r ' 0)' • J:l
0'::'.J. 4:-.1..J: t. -l
r ol CJ.::f Ö). -
o:l)'J)' ·lo.1-!"!, (.)j}a ofitL.J)1 J o.folk )J.1.J,J\i
"
)!.ci\ J j; · J.) JJ\
-
oJI i.J: V • ..r-Y..J jr 4<::.f • .::, oA&!-!
;s:::::!..l--:!!\ A • J J=!-411i • , ;5
":oY" ?\;§ J.)\.J. i.1. • ,j JT WJ.)
l r';"JI ! 2'\ ·
o J Translatlon Zi2.
1. Who wiII com e to visit us to morrow? - I be-
Iieve that my sister Eliza wiIl pay us s visit. 2. In
the PsaIms (}Jr..;. 'tnezlnourlar) David says: Thou will
show me the path of life. 3. Mrs. Mary loved her
cbildren and is loved by them. 4. As soon ss I hear,
I shalI let you know. 5. You shall not go to the gar-
dens. I will not allow it. 6. I shall write s few lines
before I go to suppere 7. Sball I give him so much?
No, Sir, he is asking too much. 8. WouId Anns read
such s dirty paper? - She could read others more
dirty than that. 9. If I could (give), I would give you
five pounds, but I cannot give [it]. 10. Where will
he go? -- If he finds a horse, Ile will go to the sum-
mer-residence.
.u ts::: Conversatlon.
w.J yo (u-
. Jo rJoJ.!\ .. t.:.-.t.:-.ft J.,r.i\:-\ «(.
170
f'l. ...r Jl Lesson 24.
? 0.,,\ (r;
• .J-..)J:J f" r.)o.)y. I r.l:.i\ {(
? Ä!o'; w.)uy. (IJ'
.. r:-..... j ... ! r; .......... J.(' • ..J':. yo 'et (t
? t:I (IJ'
• 0» y;- .)J.i Ä!($..1.! ! r.l:.i\ «(
<.if rl!;.\ y. (IJ'
• ...;j,.J1:, 0J.i y:- Jlo \.JA «(
Readfng Exerclse.
jZ.J.J. A Sermon of Nasr-ed-di,n.
• 1(.)..ci'
Jo.J! 4 ... b J. rr.!' S • ..\i./ .. 4i ..t.=: IJ yo
.üA1:!1 ! J. J" .. yo
• , 7:J"4...M}(;} r(.).l..!,·6
J
;)}
' J-Ä:=:- 9 , J-::.( !.Sxii ;;} J-
I !.Sl» : 4!r J
«1 , .j- , .LI_.J! ' ;;}.J! ! ;tW--!.S1
W;}.):;} ! (.).ci\ J -

: !.S ... dl
• !:.t;} « ! 1
u .. .. .. -
Words. 1. Nasred'difl Hoja Effendi the reverend teaeher
asreddin. 2. emsalsiz unique. 3. eomnlnde in his life. 4. hichrbi,
defa not at nlI. 5. laqirdi a ,vord. 6. ishtahla gulunmek to ba laugh-
ed at heartiIy. 7. diiilemek to listen. 8. haqq 'Vermek to appro\"e.
9. kursu a pulpit. 10. jbna' at congregation, people. 11. chm,..
mek to turn (his face). 12. te-aj'jub et. to ,,·onder. 18. jlt1abha
in ans'wer. 14. seoyllylyim I may speak.
tVt The Optative Tense. 171
:; 16
J
'JC (.).ci' Jj 15
· J'r
...
J. «! ! '(.).ci\ : ..
18' A ., • • .-,


1 \A. , 21,b'r
b
l..» J
• 2lI).)'..J .AI «! Wr
4A
))r
jj
15. ertesi the following. 16. tekrar again, repeating. 16
a
• aqil'li
wise. 17. davranmaq to bebave. 18. to sbout, to call
out together. 19. terbiyesizlik rudenes8. 20. gujenrrlek to be angry.
21. madam ki sinee. 22. yeoruyu ver·mek (to depart and) go quiekly.
YO Lesson 25.
,-,'.;}\ The Optative Tense.
§ 365. The Optative tense expresses a desire or
,,"ish that some action may be performed. Its charac-
teristic sign is .,. -e, -a (or .., -ye, -ya, when the root
..
ends in a vowel) added to the root of the verb. This
form s the third person singular. The first person
pluraI is forrned by adding t -lim, -lim to this.
§ 366. 1. Indicative Optative.
i!"r se,,;eyim', r"r sevel'lm',
seve'sfn, ;,<_o.J- seve'siniz,
r ' (.;J-r "r seve', sevsi11,', J" r sfveler'.
That I may love, that thou mayest lo\·e, etc.
Negative. J:t
r sev'rlleyeyirll, sf·v'meyim, J- sev'rneyeUnl,
172 r • ....,-.;l LeaSOD 25.
IV'
U!_4.! .... J- se,,'tneyesin, r ShmelleaillV,
' wJ--r ' '-! .... .,- sev' meye, sev' mesin, .... r Sto' meyeUr.
That I may not love, etc.
..
Interrogatiye.
§ 367. The interrogative forms are generally in
use only for first and third person s, they are used to
ask permission for something, and are rendered by shaa
or 'Inay:
Person 1: r! "j '!Iazay;"n'
» 3: 1ni?
t..:: r. j yazaZi.' mi?
..fo r
j
yassinla,.' mI?
lIay I write, may he, ,ve, they write
Person 1: aZ'mayayim mi? al'mallaltll" _I'
» 3: 0,J-tU al'nlasln 1nt? armasifaZar mi?
Shall I not take?
JJlttta-la-at Remarks.
§ 368. The third person of the Optative is used
to form some important gerunds:
§ 369. The Sixth Gerund. By adding J, -li, -li
or -liden be/rou, a gerund is obtained, ca1led
the Primitive, meaning esince'; 8S:
' bouraya geMliden be,.ou, boM,.tJYG
geleli. Since he came here .
.)l JJ:--.,,=:-J! bou chojouq doghali, (or dogNiledtJfI
berou) hasta dir. This boy is sick ever, since his birth.
§ 370. The Seventh Gerund. By repeating the
third person singular another gerund is formed which
denotes repeated action:
6.!'; 6.! .; qosha qosha geldi. He came running continnally.
§ 371. The Eighth Gerund. Another Gerund is
produced by adding J) !JJ -1-aq, -'l'le"" to the part
of the verb; it expresses the 'Jnanner of a subordinate
,
· The Optative Tense. 173
action which takes place at the aame time as that
stated by the verb it accompanies:
J.r.!J.(' BeIJinerek tnektebe gidiyor. He is going
to sehool joyousIy.
cS.J6' qosharaq geldie He came running.
§ 372. The Ninth Gerund. This is obtained by
the addition of -ai, or -Sijll. to the third
person, and is used for cursing and blessing:
ojaght yanasi or yanasija! May bis hearth be
aJight 1 (i. e. D1SY he be prosperous!)
ojaghi batastia! l\Iay his fireplaee be Bunkl
(i. e. may his otfspring "be annihiIated I)
.;.1' koor olastja! l\lay he be blinded!
2. The Assertive Optative. 4J • A'
.. J
§ 373. The Assertive Optative either express es a
'wish that some action may take place, although one
scarcely expects it, or indieates regret that some action
has not taken place in the pa st :
yazay'tabll,
yazay'idiii,
yazay'idi,
yazay'idiq,
ojl! yazay'idi'iHz,
yazay'idilar.
That I might write! or That I had \vritten!
§ 374. The Dubitative Past third person singular
of any verb is eompounded with the Assertive Optative
of the verb ol'ntaq j)' eto become', to express just
the same meaning:
yazmish olayidim, yazmish olay,dtq,
yaztuisk olaytdill, yaz'nlisholayidhliz,
.. yazmish olayidt, yazl1.ish olayidilar.
That I might ",rite! That I had "'ritten!
M'llta-la-at Remarks.
§ 37õ. a. Words which express a ,vish require
the verb ,,·hich follows to be iIl the Optative: such
,,·ords are:
174
I:
r. '..tr Jl Lesson 25.·
) no'layidi! Would that I
p. S!'6 ktas'h,'ki valge kesh'ge! Would that it were so!
I i.JrJ'...J f ol O./.-.J Arlah' versi" ki! .Al'1tJh fJeri dir
God grant that!
,
} ol Atla" vere'yidi de! Would to God that}
)\!-. JJlisal'ler Exam ples.
KGBk'ki hourad'a oZayidi! Would that he had been bera!
Kiash'ki, or, no'layidi vere'yidint! Would that I had givenf
.A.Z'Zah versin'ki or .A.l'lah 'Vereyidi de, or Äl'Z,," "eritJd Ayi
bir yaghrllour geleyidi! W ould that God would grant a good. rainl
§ 376. b. Sometimes the meaning approachet
mueh eloser to that of the Suppositive Past (§ 379): ;-'..r..J
(--,!IJJI ' vermisk olayleÜm or vennish OI-
saytdf,1n are the same.
1:;1 Words.

# sattn almaq to buy Ji.l.., satmaq to eeU
J.Jt'..r geoil,itl heart a;..r ,lieTUk post, beam
Ji.l.., sanntaq to suppose, take a. i.Jl\ vm permiaaion
a. sadaqa alms p. J.\J. beraher together.
! JJ\ _! w.,,-lJ\ a(iyet' olsoun, or olaf May that ba health
to you I [§ 490].
o "" Exerelse õS.
!lo--,! lA ,. ! i--'! 'li wj\.o jt} r ' 0,) i OJ! ,
JJI J!I ' tilo);I.:.I.J. 1.S1)-J,) 0,) I.SJl;,) I J!1",ü}
• (-4\)" 0,) (-'li .:,,;1 I J.)JI Jj) ,..
':"JI Jo! r(-blJ t.
I ):l · o.JJ e.\i1. '
1 .ii-: 1 4A .t.J (even) .:" .,-I J 1 oJ! [..\i.f. jt,) .Jo •
-:.
' ..
-
.ii
-...
-
-
...
.
-
t
t
The Optative Tense. 175
J...l:! jI, · Jy' • ..JI )'J • ..J))
.kA; • .J! Jy:")..1i !
;,;[ J. V • Jt 4-)) , \..D cl;.;4 4-)J)) JI ' '" r
r' A • \,DJ'
\ · r.ci' !.1/ - ! w.,-JJ\
·S..JJJy. i
j
) ,. · rJJ'::!.4"
e t J Tr&ll8latlon õt.
l. Shall I read it? what shall I say? 2. How shall
I have patienee? 3. May his hand be broken! 4. Since
I hegan my lessons I have not missed a day. õ. 0
that I knew a little French! 6. Oh! that he might
come. 7. It is well that I did not offer it to you, for if
I had given it you would not have taken it. 8. Would
that he had heen here! 9. Shall we go to see the
lion? - It is hot now, I cannot go. 10. May God
keep yon in good healthl 11. What sh all I do now?
- You eannot do anything nowa Go to your room
until I call you. 12. You must not go to your uneles'
house, unIess you are invited. 13. By asking contin-
ually yon can find [the way to] Bagdad. 14. By
stndying continually you will leam fast.
Conversatlon.
• I f\ ? (u-
s - 2
I 0.".J,J\ U'"'..1i. I 0'J,J\ • .J..:\,JL..- «(.
\ J...) 0.J.i.).J.J\ ..J'.. 5 c.(' c.i-!J.JJ\ 4: .)\.)\ !
0) 0.) • <.S-!.)>> y. c ••• 6
0
..,-iJ.J\

? <.SJJJ\ (u-
Words. 1. Bah'hani douva Lord's Prayer. 2. semavat hea-
veDS. S. mouqaa des holy. 4. iradet will. 5. olaoughou gibi as
it (was). 6. ijra olounmaq to ba done.
176
" '..trjl Lesson 26.
• j-ü;! P.J eS..uJ\ <.Jr [..J\ (e.
· .:, • .).J\
• 8 ....ä-I JJ':" ! 7...;.1..Y. ei" J. lAI o;QI.)JG r '"" (1.1"
. .! 0r J..,1
! 0.J"'J':.., )../ 0.,.).,1 , ..!.U.J\ · ft (t
! 9 oJ.;- r..i.
? (V"
• Jl!' J":-!l 4";r' o)'J\ «(.
? <.SJJJ\ [.G r (u-
• <.SJJJ\ 0.,,\ yo r.l:.i\ «(.
? eS.JJJ\ ?: li .!l • .).) (rJ
\" ..
"-
10 .w.. .!l. \ · ., _':L /" ..... , (
• r fo· jj. .J eS .(.
7. emri haqq f:OUqOU boulmaq the decree of the True one
happened, he died. 8. esef et. to be Borry. 9. baghi,hlaflltJq to
grant. 10. aqlinz yetmez I cannot comprehend (my reason do not
reach [so far] i. e. I ,yas a child).
y, Lesson 26.
The Suppositive Tense [Subjunctive].
§ 377. The Conditional Optative, which is called
by many Grammarians simply the Suppositive tense,
is forrned by adding the Conditional terminations to the
he " of the third person Singular of the Optative.
§ 378. 1. Suppositil"e Present. ,i
.. J
yaz'
yaz' sari,
yalsa,
If I write, If I ,vere to write, etc.
yas' saq,

yas' salar.
Negati,·e. Jb-.
or , 1 If I do not write •.
yaz' '1nasam, yaz' masalJ, yaz' tlla.sa, etc. 1 If 1 were not to wnte.
,
1
6'
-
:

: )
!
:
The Suppositive Tenae. 171
§ 379. 2. Soppositive Past.
The Suppositive Past states the condition on which,
if something bad happened, some other action would
bave taken place, or would still take place. It casta
doubt on the performance of some condition.
, \ ..... gaz' 8ayidim, yaz" sayidiq,
, gaz' sagidift, gaz' sayidi1Hz,
, yaz' sayidi, gaz' 8l1l1idUar.
If I bad written, etc.
§ 380. 3. Narrative Soppositive.
yaz'sa imishim,
yaz'sa imishsin,
yaz'sa imish,
\ j l. yaz' sa imishiz,
.. oo ..
yaz'sa imishsiniz,
gaz'sa imi8hler.
If I bad written (as others 88Y) •••
Muta-Ia-at: Remarks.
§ 381. a. The Conjunction p. sl eyer' (if', is, so
J
to speak, included in the Suppositive Tense, as the
oeharacteristic sign of this tense 4....., -se has the meaning
if, but it can be and often is nsed together with it,
especially for the sake of emphasis; as:
.. -.....!:l J1 eyer chalishmasaft, or chalish·masaft If you do not try.
§ 382. b. If the Suppositive tenses are nsed with
kfaski, they are regarded as Optative. If they
.are used with J1 eyer', they become Suppositive; as:
Ktashki on ghouroushoum' olBa! 0 tbat I bad ten piastres!
E'!ler' on ghouroushoum ol' sa. If I bad ten piastres.
Ki4shki erken' gelseyidin.! 0 that I bad come earlier 1
Eyer erken gelse' yidinl. If I had cotne earlier.
:§ 383. c. The Optative of the auxiliary verb jj'
()lrJlfilq (to become, to ha ve' is used with t.he third per-
son Dubitative and Future of any verb, to express the
Suppositive; as:
"Tm:kish Qmv .. -Grammar. 12
178
" lJ'.)l Lesson 26.
r".J.,\ u=. .. , .!lw." , w.J\ t'
yazrnish ol' 8am, - ol' Rail, - ol' sa, etc. If I had
..1-1.,\ , .!lw.J\ 0\ .\ f written.
r. u-- ... ..... u--.
yazmish olsa' yidim, - olla' yitlifl" - olsa' ytdi, etc.
r .... t,\ , !1w.J\
yazajaq ol' sam, yazajaq ol' sall
,
yazajaq olsa' yidim, yazajaq olsa' yidill
If I am about to read ..
Misalter Examples.
Dun bize gelmish amo·ujami geororUdtill",.
If yon had come to us yesterday, you would have seen my uncla.
Ma' ashinizi alajaq olaaAfz, borjoullouzou veriAis.
II you receive your saJary, pay your debts.
8. r)lw selatn sslutation
8 ... i;il daqiqa minute
U, dar·tlmaq to be oirended
Words.
..:!..-!.J! l tlivit inkstand
bile even, though
ne demek! certainly! •
e e Eurelse öö.
A - '
1 , \
i4-))JI :!Jj- y
°i)o--'!,I j; -
Yo'" 0 :!JuJI J-J I i\!;'1 ;;j yo
o fo ;;;t,.:, 4!- LJf' Jt;,
0
LY. ! 4-JJI 1.S..ci1 .:,\..IJ ' • .n-I +-jJ'
4lS"".);-. , I.S",,:-b
l
WJjJI pJ 0.1..J r.:0-'!JIi.t
A 0 :!J--'!,I J J4-)).JI .ix
"-AjJI» \ ol.S-,!1 4l,y.i \:-1 J.IJ.
The Suppositive Tense. 179
JIJ- :!1 uS; \ • S.til :!14.-iS;,
i-!\ jI , J\ \ •

o '\ J TranslatlOB õ6.
1. Where will he go? - If he finds a horse he will
go to the forests. 2. Had we been walking in the street,
we shouId have heen seen. 3. May I bring my ink-
stand here'! 4. If you write to your mother, give her
(say to her) my compIiments (salutations). õ. Had we
stayed there for a minute, we sbould have seen the
Govemor-general and the goverooro 6. Although you
bring the grapes, I may not est them. 7. Should you
want money, take them to the cityand sell them.
8. Were the merchant to send the goods now, I should
Use them to-d ay. 9. I believe that, if they were here
llOW, wecould sell them here. 10. If I take your pen
for a moment, will you be offended? - No, Sir, you
may use it as long as you wish. 11. May he bring
his younger hrotber with him? - Certainly; if he
brings him, my children will be very glad .
.u ts::: COBTersatfoB.
• c$J.:-l.,\ ? # $!.\ .J!.
· r;)"\ ol.,\ c$l.)l ? <Sj ....
• y..\ ?C.J'
· .J.J.),;..r .. -=r r.l:-...1...J
· f,-"-! .... 1" ? JJJ'; ..r

Readlng Exerelse.
A &rmof" OI Nas'r-ed-din .•
!lJ!i. ' (.)..ci'
Words. 1. &. ma'bad continued.
180 rv IJ'Jl Lesson 27.
!.JJ' ;"J:' y..;} JjJ' 1.
Jl
r
J "! <5"') \,.;)..1. jI : ({'8)J'..Y..J
.; r.J'..J .J!.;) «i*-
Sl» J J)4lJl sj.;
.J!;) « 4i yo ! iJ!I;))\;
« ..1. lOS M .... • )I).r'
· .1...)
).J-,:1; eib\.. ! Jj)"';» : S.cil
w.J.;.-) J « I ).ir");1
• J.J.!..::(' J-i'1. '
2. meraq curiosity. 3. qarar 'Vermek to decide. 4. billflUritu
those who know among you (§ 407). .
yy Lesson 27.
The Necessitative Tense.
§ 384. The Necessitative Tense indicates necessity,
obligation and duty, that an action must or ought to
take place.
The characteristic sign of this tense is , J.u
-meli with the soft and j\ .. -mali with ihe h8rd
verbs. This terrnination is added to the root.
r ' V r sevmeli' He must love (if is
, yazmalf He mURt write (that is his
§ 385.
1. Indicative Necessitati\ye.
.
I
,
The Necessitative Tenee. 181
r 8ttm"eJ,i' sin,
)l r ""meli' dir,
r
r sl-vmelt'dirler.
I must love, or, ought to love, or, am to love, etc.
Negative and Interrogative.
r ' r ' } I must or ought not
slv' memeliyim, slo' memelisin, se1/ memelidir to love.
r- r sevmeli' miyim? Ought I to love? Must I love?
sev'me1nelimiyim? Ougbt I not to love? Mu.st I not
\- love?
§ 386. Note. In some regions of Turkey the
people make a wrong use of the third person pluraI
as sevmeliler, instead of the regular sevma,i dirler.
2. A.ssertive Necessitative.
§ 387. The Assertive Neeessitative (which is eaII-
ed by some grammarians Past Necessitative) expresses
that it was necessary or right that an action should
have taken place, or that one was forced to perform
some aet; as:
.!1.u...t(' i.J.Jl dun' gelmeli"idiA You ougbt to have come
.. yesterday.
gitmeli'gidilliz 1. You ought to have
gone to the scbool. 2. Yon were obliged to go to the scbool.
3. Yon ,,'ere to go to the school. 4. You sbould have gone to
the sebool.
§ 388. It is the Paat tense of must, which is
in English, and eorresponds to the German
m lIsste.
yazmali' yidhn,
yaemalt ytdi4,
yaemali'yidi,
.!l.JJL.jL yazmtJli'ytdiq,
.. ..
yaemalfyidilltZ,
yazman'ytdUar.
I ought to have written. It WRS necesssry that I should write.
yaz'tnamaltyidiJn I ought not to bave written.
§ 389.
3. Narrative Necessitative.
gazmalt' yimisht"" ya.mali imisllie,
.. . .
182
rv t.J'Jl Lesson 27.
tAr I
yazman' itnishsin, yumall' ,.vhsi.",
yasmali' imish, gamal.' 'fJI"hllr.
(They 88Y that) I ought to have written.
§ 390.
..
4. Conditional Necessitative.
\! \ yazmalt' isem,
\ J lej yazlllalt' iseil"
yazmau,' ise,
.!l,,-,\ Jl..jL yasmalt isik,
- -
Jl..j'! gazmall' iaMiu,
yazmalr iseUr.
Il it is necessary for me to write, etc .
..:..,Wlb. Mu,ta-la-at: Remarks.
§ 391. a. Instead of using this Necessitative form,
some words may be n8ed to denote obligation and necessity
together with the Substantive verb, such words are:
a. r j',J lazim' necesssry.
a. mejbour' obliged.
.!l f gerek' necessary. requisite.
s. Wa:i\ iqtiza' requisite.
a. \.J vajib' necesssry. s. (.>4 -i.. mouqtazi' necessary.
Yazmali'dir, is expressed by yaz1l1asi laztm', ,btk', tHJjib',
mouqtazi' dir; or, yazma.gha mejbou',-' dour; yazmasi iqtiza' Iller.
§ 392. b. When one verb follows another on
which it depends and with which it is connected by
tha t, expressed or understood, the use of the conjuDction
e ki between them is frequently avoided by employing
the word , de·yi (soying'.
It is used a180 after all kinds of quotations.
iJ.J..:6 or ...,.\ .J-!l emr etdi ii gelft'll,
or, gelsin deyi emr etdi. He ordered him to COlne.
-"- or J:.. --,!l iJ.,t-J.,J..J\ 'glr
gliJsterdi ki otoursaun, or, otoursoun dlyi yer gliJsterdi. He showed
him a place to sit .
--,!l ((5" babafi seni gel dlyi c'haghiriyor.
Your father is calling you to come (i. e. saying Come I).
§ 393. c. The English verb (To Have' when followed
by an infinitive, expresses an obligation or necessity:
The N ecessitative Tenee. 183
therefore the two verbs together are translated into
Turkish by the Neeessitative tense or by the obligatory
words (§ 391).
I have to write a lettere 1. Bin bir mektoob' yazmaltyim.
2. Bir mektoub' yazmagha mejbOUrOUlIl. 3. Bir mektoub' yazlIlaq-
lightm iqtiza eder.
I have to learn my lesson. 1. Dersimi royrenmeli' yim .
.2. Ders' ro]/Tenmekliyim lazitn dir, gerek' dir, vajib' dir, iqtiza' edlr,
mouqtazi' dir etc.
§ 394. d. When the objeet of the finite verb in
sueh sentenees eomes before the infinitive, the sentenee
does not denote obligation, but possession. It mllst
therefore 'be rendered in Turkish either by the Future
Participle (§ 408) or by the Infinitive Dative or Nomi-
nati val with w.:It:J' ichin efor'; as:
Jy ..
He has a book to read. 1. Oqouyajaq bir kitabi' vare
2. Oqoumagha bir kitabi' vare 3. Oqoumaq iehin bir kitabi' vare
geymek to put on
p. diste quire (of pa per)
."k} qoutou hox
yamalamaq to mend
tezkire a note
Words.
yo J. y. bosh boshouna in vain
besllmek to feed
a. 1I1out'laqa absolutely
yama patch
8. t\.. mani obstacle.
cV Exereise 67.
y":l .;. ,
y..:> J:> :>)\! yo ,Jj)L." • JlI.JI I... yo lÄ.lb..
Jy:" 0:> t '" .J.lI.JI 1...1
i;f 0 • JJI ..::..r.L.. yo .? 4i to • j):>
)A '\ • ..; wY:!' J4U
J
\
! JJ! 4i y..:> r4-'?1 ytl
JJ! sGJ..lij - 4i y 1
184 rv lJ'.Jl LesBon 27. tA\'
.:. J ' 'A
4.jI!!1 yo • ).""'!I J\lT (i ;;.,!J} ;,;
• )1) fi yo \. .):> )IJ J'. -
· (§§ ' t· A) J'J J:
o A J Translatlon 68.
1 .. You must have eome to us as soon as you bad
heard this news. 2. What sh all I do? - If you bave
not learnt your lesson, you should learn it DOW. 3. What
had your wife to do? - She bad to write aDote. 4. Have
they to go this way? - No, Sir, they are to go the
other way. 5. Who has to work all the day? - The
poor man has to work all the day. 6. Who had to give
all his money. - The baker had to give all his money.
7. What have you to do to-day? - I have to write a
lettere 8. What has the shoemaker to do? - The
shoemaker bas to mend my shoes. 9. Am I obliged
to com e here? - Yes, you must come, your coming
is necessary. 10. The teaeher ealled the pupils, saying,
Come.
Conversatlon.
(u-
, Jl.>\k.J.r Y.. y. ' J!J'-'.J! J!';
.J.Jl :J J ....
(u-
• .J!l «(
? (oti' :J ? r
? Jl s:, \ -4 :..s' r-1: 1.\ ü: (t
?
.J\.J .Jj; J. (IJ'
! 0.J\ ._a!\ (, Jo I rJ.:j\ (E.
• (§ ... ) J!l,;.ÜJ! r..Li.t(
I
J
tAa. The Participles. 185
, ..:J I) Readlng Exereise.
The Jlarriage of the Teacher.
J).]J\ .,.j.) \;lJj.1.
%)1 ' ox:-I} )..)LI · 4!:-Jjji
, 4.-!'J)J)} A)\; • J!J;.1.. !l}.)\;
• 5);)JI J!);.J!
• Jj)
! 8t.l!.) ..; e 7J:;-J)J'
0;' 4-!' 10J..l:P.:'" ! Jr).J. 9\i';,k I

,
«12(..r.J)) 4('1 11(.4. J») ....rl
! 0.1.» - · J!,-- lSl.)\.J. .1..::'
«! WJ)) J)) 0.)· 4tJ)) U::::; , 15 r
• 16,. tr .. . (""'" ...
).J' '-?.. ..:J J
Words. 1. bash' bouzouZI1laq (to be put out of order) = to
be a widower. 2. to be anxious. S. aditde" al." to be usual.
4. yabanji stranger. 5. to veit 6. to cause to 8wallow, to decei ve.
7. rortu veH. 8. 'ne dlfi! (what do yon say) = what wonder I 9. aaeta
simply; really. 10. his soul was oppressed = ha was angry.
11. to unveil (her face). 12. to veH. IS. eaa arrogance. 14. 1n,1
qari DOW then, woman! 15. dinilU .Iverslil if yon love your sonl
= please I 16. he could scarcely get rid of her.
y A Lesson 28.
J.i rj The Participles.
§ 39õ. There is no Relative Pronoun in Turkish
corresponding to the English who, which, or that.
186 r It. !J' Jl Lesson 28.
These are always aceompanied by a verb in English.
In Turkish the Suhjective and Objective Partieiples of
the verb take the place of both the Relative aild
the verb.
§ 396. Note. This peculiarity is the most eharae-
teristic, and at the same time the lDost beantifnl fea-
tu re in Turkish language, though foreigners
and eve n natives of Turkey, whose mother-tongue is
not Turkish, are often guilty of infringing it, and are
frequelltly in ntter ignoranee of its value and meaning.
For i nstanee, bhti seven adem Ctlle me -loving man'; ot
yeyen at Cthe grass -eating llorse': are equivalent to Cthe
man who loves me' and 'the horse which eats grass'.
The great number of Participles derived from the Tur-
kish verb enables a very great degree of to
be given to this construction.
§ 397. The only R.elative Pronoun in Turkish k'i,
ewho, which, that, what' is not Turkish
in origin, it is Persian. This word, kl, is never us ed in
correet Turkish, though employed in translated Persian
and Arabic sentenees. It is also used by foreigners.
§ 398. The Participles may be divided into two
elasses or moods: Subjective and Objective.
1. SUbjective Mood.
§ 399. The Subjective Partieiples are those which
are composed of the subject, (the nominative case of
who, which, that, and the verb. They are derivad
both frOln active and from neuter or passive verbs.
In the first eas e they are called Active Partieiple (Ismi
Fayil) and in the second Passive Participle (Ismi Mefoul).
'rhe Active Participle corresponds to the Present Participle
and the Passive Participle to the Past Participle of the
English Grammar.
§ 400. The Subjective Active and the S11bjootive
Passive Participles have seven tenses each:
§ 401. Subjective Active Participle.
PreAent: yazan who 'writes, writer, writing (adjectival).
Äorist: gasa,. one who writes, writing ,
Past: yasdiq one who wrote.
-.....UIIIII
'AV
The Participles. 187
Dnbitative: yazm/;,sh one ,,·ho has written.
Pluperfect: ü'J.J\ yazmisl" olan one who had written.
Future: one who will write.
Past Future: ü'J.J\ yazajaq oZan one who is (about) to
write.
§ 402. Subjective Passive Participle. rl
Present: yazilan is being
Aorist: yazUir may be
Past: yazildf,q ] is

Dubitative: yazilm€sh has been
-
Pluperfect: 0'J.J\ yazilmf,sh olan] had been
-
Future: yazilojaq will be
Past Future: c:.N.J\ yaziloJaq olan. (is (about) to ba
The Negatives are: yazmayan, sevn"eyen,
yazUmayan, sevil1neyen, etc.
Muta-la-at: Remarks.
§ 403. I. The Present Active Participle is appli-
cable either to the present or to the past; as:
- .
rl \ yazafl ade'ln, means either Cthe writing man, the
man who writes, the man who is writing', and Cthe man who wrote'.
§ 404. II. The Aorist Participle means cwhose
nature or business is to write' or cwho is willing to
write'; as:
r;\ yo Jj.J\ oqour yazar bir adem Ca man who can read
and write, a literary man'.
» Y.JJ.J JY.JJ.J gtorunuT gtoranmls .hlyllr Cthings which
can he seen and cannot be seen, i. e. visible and invisible things'.
§ 405. III. The Negative of the Past Participle
is more used than the Affirmative:
J».J! r rl \ J. x\ j- siz ly,;' mr atUm
Billiz, siz·i sevmedik kimse yoq claUT. You are a good man, there
is nobody who does not love you.
188 r It. t.J' J,) Lesson 28.
§ 406. IV. Only the Present, the Pluperfect 'and
the Past Future tenses are used either as the subject or
as the adjective qualifying the subjeet of a sentence.·
The remaining four tenses are always used as adjec-
tives qualifying the subject (§§ 71, 417, 423).
? Jl r ":"'\l 0'i.J\ , 0'J.J\ , yo oo.
1nektottbou '!Jazan, yazajaq olan, yazmish olan zat kim' dis? Wbo is
the person who wrote this letter? or ' ,
bou mektoubo'U yaean, yazajaq olan, ytUfftf,M
olan' kim dir? 'Vho is the writer of this letter?
§ 407. V. Therefore, these three tenses, when
used as subjects, are declined like substantives, either
alone or with pronominal affixes.
N. yazan A.. yaean'
G. yazaniA of - L. gaeanda in -
D. yazana to - A. gazandan from -
The person writing, the writer .
.'\]80: , , \ The writer among us,
!/azanin1€z, yazaniniz, yazanlari f you, them.
§ 408. VI. In English, ,,?hen the object of the
verb falls between the verb tto have' and the Infini-
tive, it may be rendered into Turkish by the Future
Participle (§ 393) .
.J,.Ü J! S..s\ yeyejek ekmeyi yoq dour. He hu no bread
to eat.
§ 409. VII. The Aorist, Past, Dubitative and
Future Participles are the sarne in spelling and pro-
nunciation with those of the Indicative Mood. It is
veryeasy to distinguish them, and thera is one absolute
rule: If it is .. Indicative Mood, it must al ways stand at
the end of the sentenee, beeause verbs are always put
at the end of the sentenee. If it is a Participle, 8S a
subject or a lDodifier of the subjeet, i t ID us t precede
the verb in any case:
? • .J)...J\- r .l.J\ yo bou bJd8 kim' ototwtl4G9.' Who 1riII
dwell in this house?
._.:o...J
The Participles. 189
? Jl r .lJ\ yo bou hdl otouraJaq ki'm,e
kim dir? Who is the man, ,,-ho ,,"iII dwell in this house?
Ta.tbt,qat: Comparison •
...
§ 410. The order of construetion in Turkish is
just the opposite of English. In English the Antece-
dent (subject) begius the sentenee, then comeR the Relative
Clause and thirdly the Verb (or predicate); or the Verb,
Anteeedent and Relative CIsuse. But in Turkish the
order is always the same: first Relative Clause, then
the Antecedent, and third the Verh.
antecedent relative clause verb
,.. --
I. The lnan who came now is blind.
relati ve dause antecedent verb
...--'--.. --'-
Shimdi gelffi adem kror' dfl,·.
verb antec. relative elause
....-.'-. -'--- -----....-.------
2. These are the boys who did not learn their leasons.
relative clause ante verb
Derslerini royrenmeyen ckojouqlar dir.
3. There is nobody (who does not love you).
(S'izi sevmedik) kimse yoq' dour.
4. (Those who have gone to and eo me) from India.
Hind'istana (gitmisk ve gelmish. olama,.).
5. I saw the nlan (whose house is big).
(Evi beõyUk olan) ademi geordum.
6. A woman (whose eyes are blind).
(Goozleri koor olan) bir qari.
7 .. A horse (that runs fast).
(Ckapouq sey'irdir) bir at.
8. A man (who is not fit for anything).
(Bir ishe yararnaz) bir adem.
9. A letter (the address of which is not written).
(ustu yazilmamisk [or yazilmadiqJ) b/ir mektoub.
10. Tbere was a In an there (whose hand was
withered).
Orada (eli qoul·oumousk olan) bir adc1n var idt
11. The merchant (who has to eome [or will come]
to-morrow).
(garin gelejek [or gelejek olan]) tuj'jar.
190 rA l,J'.)l LesBon 28.
12. [Those who know among us], will teach (those
who do not know among you).
[Bilenlerimis J (bilmeyenlerinize) tfõyredeje1der.
13. Who is the man (who wiII eall the servant?)
(Khismetkwri olan) adem kim dir?
14. I have (nothing to be afraid of).
(Qorqajaq bir' sheyim) yoq dour.
)::J Words.
balta an axe R. )\, bela evi!
.
../ kes/-r adze Jl! ber li known, perceptible
gechilejek passable, fordabla
wJ.:J\ elindengelmektobeabletodo
, depe hill, top
8. mukiafat prize
olajaq hopeful
yenfllfk to be eaten
.) li qaynar boiling
Jl.J\ obnaq to become
yetmek to ripen
Ut(' \ ish guj occupation .
o 1\ Exereise i9.
4!!\ · i J • .,- IS)..;! • \
j" J:$ .::..iJ./' ' &!!',. · r\t)l!.;'
1 f' .f'
Jr ./' 1S).i':JJ\ J-J. t
• .) J=-::L. , rl!.,- ! • .)
.:.J • 0 • j\t)C.;'
.,.;... :;::"'.x:f' 4:. ...
A;.,.. .,.;... 1./':<' - 1
• )..,Ij -'! i.r.. .1. ,.j-::J <4!-.1. J r.x:f'
'\. Eurelse 80.
(.;) - f .;... \
The Participles. 191
T • <5..l;.' J-..'U
"" r! ..b;; i;')) c:..1ii.f.
· ' , e JJ=:
jJ))) 0 • ,,-;. Y.. 4-! I J.!1.f. t.
'\ J\,.; jJ))J
/.f. / - /
.? w)1 y .);, )1,
G.4-J , .A )'J A ... ))J'
..... '-!' J..... \
üJ-lJ' ':;'2-) .; J..:J JTJ.
!I)j 1" Jo.!. ! -;l);, .f. ..,l..:zi \ \
• )-1..-,4ÄJ \i
..
'\, J Translatfon 61.
1. The man who died yesterday morning, was your
.eighbour. 2. \Vhat have you? - I have a book, on
he cover of which there is a beautifuI yellow picture .
. What do you see? - 4. I see the baker who bakes
,read. õ. If you have seen the borse one of whose
yes is blind, it is llot ours. 6. The adze cuts the
Tood. 7. Boys 1 do not be afraid, tbere is nothing to
e feared. 8. It is a statement which cannot be believed.
- No, Sir, it is a credible st.atement. 9. Have you 8ny-
ning to say to me? - I have Dothing to say to you.
O. Whoever knows himself, knows 8 great deal (many
bings). 11. Is this the Iady whose sister is sick? -
lo, she is the lady whose father is sick. 12. This
illager is not a man who does not know
.e is a man who reads and writes.
4l. ts:::: Conversatlon •
• •
Jo
192 rA IJ'jl Lesson 28.
· r J'.J'...J o J:, .r [..J\
0,.,.J.J\),J(! I 0 \
0.) j-Ü ol j-Ü

...
$\l cSJ\
? Jl olo;
0'1\ "':-'.,f.
('
[.G r,")(" c:,>\i\.. r
?
(' r5'
? L"roC .).)
..
? O...f...J d.. 0.) .fo
? ):(\ y. 1 l:('
1..,; ReadiDg Exereise.
WJ' 4;!' To hang Bour on a line.
y. ! lb , jA)'..)
SP.r..t:' rY. ! 15.ci1 :
r r-!!!L.I:; • ;;)1.
- • -'!:;, «! 7J)J' 4i .?4,.,.J:.J 8J:;!.'
.....;-'! )! .. r 0:;' 4(' 9
f
4.lf'
18\.t\ 12 <"" .. ,,. , « 11"""", ., 10.. t-, <"\
\> j>: .0 ) J .., U.
« 1 4;-!' tt:'" 4i»
Words. 1. Who does not pay his debt. Who doea not
know his limits i. e. conceited. 2. mUI·aja-at et." to appeal. S. our
children, the woman of the household (these names are applied
to the women in the H are m). 4. charnashlr household UneD.
5. sermek to hang up in full length and breadth on a line.
6. clothes-line. 7. n8 olour? a common term for cIf you pleaee'.
8. to implore. 9. let us cOlne that = unfortunately. 10 qaCId1-:
may your misfortllne befall on it! = nothing at alli 11. ttI
olour ki! not worth mentioning. 12. the other one. 18. yet.
14. the case. 15. tle dlyo"? for degorsoun. What are you saying'
The Partici ples. 198
! lG
J
,-,,,,,,
«i)0.r" , J"; 4;!.1 ! ,,-UJI fl
• )..l!..:'! I J-!.ii
16. istaJ· et." to insist. 17. atllasQ ii' 'ne? why do you not
understand? 18. dir et." to repel, expel.
y \ Lesson 29.
The Participles. (Continued.)
2 •. Objeetive Mood. Siygheyi Sile •
..
§ 411. The Objective Participles are those
combine the meanings of the oblique cases of the
Relative Pronouns (i. e. ewhom, which, that, what', governed
by the words of, to, OD, in, out of, from, by, with)
ind where with that of the verb. They are derived .
from every kind of verbs, wbether Active, Neuter or
Passiveo
§ 412. The Objective Participles are formed·by the
lfldition of p08sessive suffixes to the Past, Pluperfect,
and Past Future tenses of the Subjective Parti-
(§§ 401-402). These are used as ohjeets or as
tdjectives qnalifying the ohjects.
Subjective Participle ..
Past: J yazdiq
PI u perfect: 0'J.J\ yazmish olan
Future: yazajaq
Past Future: 0'J.J\ yazajaq olan
The person who wrote; who bad written ...
Objeetive Participle.
Past: yazdighim
Pluperfeet: (!.l.l.J\ yazmish oldoughouII'
Future; r:- yazajagl&im
TIJJkish Conv.-Grammar. 18
194: rl\ l,J'.)l LesBon 29.
Paat Future: r-..1.l.J\ yaeajaq oldotlghoMm
The thlug which I wrote, which I shall write eo ••
§ 413. Objective Past Tense.
Pere 1. yaedighim', r !lastlitla,I.',
2. yaedighi'f", gaediqZarit',
s. yaelligkl' , ($)i lj yaztAqZarl',
1. yaedighimie', gaedlqlariflfiz',
2. yaedighil1ie', yaedlqZantlu',
3. yazdiqlarr, yaedtqlart'.
That which I, he, we, you, they wrote. 'fhose which I, JOu ••• "Tote.
§ 414. Pluperfeet.
r-..1.l.J\ yaemis"',' Oldoughoum.} That which I, >:OD,
($;;.11.J\ yazfnisk' oldotlqlart they ••• have wrltten.
§ 415. Future. \ i" 4
y.
Pere 1. yaeajaghim',
2. yazajagkf.ii',
s. yaeajaghf,
1. yazajaghimie',
2. yaeajaghi-iUz',
s. yaeajaqlari',
That which I 8hall write •..
r gasajGtl'ari",',
yaeajaqlaril',
lIfUajall
'OAi
',
gasajGtl'ariltfl,
yazajaqlariill',
yazajaqltJfi'.
Those w hich I shall write ..•
§ 416. Past Future.
r-.11.J\ yazajaq' oldoughounl. l That which I, we sball
yaeajaq' oldoughoumoue.J have written • • ·
Muta-la-at Remal'ks.
§ 417. I. The plural forms (yazdiqlarim', lIu ajaq-
klrim') are 11ever used as adjectives in the plural to
D
The Participles. 195
alify pluraI nouns, sinee adjeetives when they qualify
uns do not take the pluraI termination (§§ 71, 423).
§ 418. II. The Objeetive Future Participle first
Lson and the Indieative Future first person are the Barne
spelling, but in pronuneiation and use are different.
the word is a partieiple, it is never found at the
d of the sentenee, and it is aeeented on the last syI-
>le, but if it be the Indieative, it must be put at the
d of the sentenee" and is accented on the penuItimate.
Bir mektoub yazoja' ghtm. I shall write a letter.
Yazojaghf,m' mektoub. The letter which I shall write.
Comparison.
...
1. This is (the book wbieh I read).
(Oqoudoughoum kitab) bou dour.
Note. The verb is first person, the Past Part. is first person.
2. The eook will bake (the food whieh you like).
Ashji (sevdiyin yemeyi) pishirejek.
3. Where is (the letter which I have written) yes-
terday.
Du·nki (yazmfslt oldoughoum 'rnektoub) nerede dir?
4. 'fhis is (the word whieh tbey spoke).
(Seoyledikleri seoz) bou dour.
5. (The money whieh he gained) is ten piastres ..
(Qazandighi para) on ghouroush dour.
6. The medieine [aec.] (whieh the sick persoll drank).
Ol kastanin (ichdiyi ilaji [aec.]).
7. The house (in whieh you are dwelling) now (loe.).
Shimdi (otourdoughounouz) ev.
8. Tbe man (wbose house [ace.] we rented), is deu(l
(E'vini kiraladigltfmfz) adem eolmusl" dur.
9. Thelesson (which I shall [or IlRve to] learn].
(eoy-renf!jeyim' for eoyrenejek' oldoughoumJ ders.
10. Do you know (the road [acc.] which we shalI
go) to-morrow?
Yarin (gidejeJJimiz for gidejek oldoughoumouz.7)
yolou bilir' ,nisifiiz?
11. (The water with whieh [Inst.]) the master washed
himself.
Effendin'in sou.
196
" lJ"Jl Lesson 29.
, .. ,
12. The Teaeher eut (the braneh on which [loe.] he
W8S sitting).
Hoia (otourdoughou daZl) leesdie
The Declinable Objective Partieiples.
§ 419. If the Substantive whieh is the object in
the sentenee is omitted and the partieiple is used alone
as an objeet, then the four tenses of the Objeetive Par ..
tieiple are deelined aeeording to the ease and person
of the object and the person of the verb in the Relative
elause (§ 410).
§ 420. For instanee J.J.) J.,.;G benim
yazdighi1n' '1nektoubou geondetr, C:send the letter which I
wrote', here the object (mektoubou) is in the Accusative,
the subjeet first person (benim) and the tense paat (yas-
digMm). But if I say J.J.) r. benim yasdtghttni'
geonde'l4, C:send what I wrote', the meaning is the same,
but the Partieiple takes the aecusative termination,
beeause the noun is omitted.
§ 421. The case is just the sam e witl1 the adjec-
tives also; I ean say iJo.,.... I.Sr;r egi adbnlbi' seo
lIike the good people: It is possible again to saJ'
,)Or Eyileri' severlm I !ike the good (ones), omit·
ting the Substantiveo
§ 422. The addition of the possessive endings
implies a possessor. The possessor is put in the Geni-
tive case and forms the Subjeet in the English sentenee.
It is not always inserted, the terminations of the Ob-
jeetive participle being substitutes for it. f.
benint is equal to yazdigkf,m'; the ell-
ding showing the person and the l1umher (§ 102).
§ 423. The singular nomiuative is used both 8S an
object and as an adjeetive qualifying the object, but tbo
other cases, as weIl as tlle pluraI nominative of Past
and Future Objectives, are never to be used as adjootives,
but as Substantive objeet: it is not permitted to say
The Participles. 197
r. Mnim yazdigMmi mektoubou or f!
benim yazd'lqla'l'im but
!S'.;.>:... 01' ,.s }.;..<,. and benim
yazd1.ghtmi, or (. benim yazdiqlarimi (§§ 406,417) .
..
Past Tense. do'A SUe.
First Person Singular. Mutekel'lim.
N · r-.).; yazdtghh'll,'
G. yazdighimi"" of -
D. yazdighinla' to -
. A. yazdightmt'
L. .)j\! yazdtghtmda' in
A. .).; yazdfghimdan' from -
'I'hat which I wrote, what
I wrote, my writing .
First Person PluraI.
N . .)j yazdtghimiz'
G. yazdighimizin' of -
D. yazdightmtza' to -
.A. .)j yazdtghtnatzi'
That ,vhich we wrote,
what we wrote,
our writing
1.1. yazdightmtzda' in -
A. CJ.) yazdighitntzdan' from -
Second Person.
N. r seediyil!
G. r sevdiyiyi1l of -
D. seDdiyifte to -
Moukhatab.
.;«" .).r se'Ddiyifiiz
.!l.;sC<.) J- sevdiyiflizin of -
o .) r se'Ddiyi1liet! to -
That ,,'hich thou lovedst, you loved; their, your loving ...
Third Person. GJtayib.
oqoudoll,ghou'
198
G. oqouaoughounouft' of - of-
D. oqoudoughouna' to - oqoudouqZartf'UJ'to-,etc.
'fhat which ha read. What they read, their reading ...
Future Tense. J1=-A Mustagbell Sile •
.
First Person.
N. yazajaghim' yazajaghimiz'
G. .!1, yasajag1timifl.' of - yaeajaghimisiA' of -
D. yasajaghima' to -
A. yazajaghim;,'
yasajaghimiza' to -
lIazajaghimizf'
L. yazajaghilnda' in - • in -
A. yazajaghimaan' from - yazajaghimtedaft' from-
That 'which I shall write, what I shall write; My writing .•.
Second Person.
K. bilejeyi,l'
G. bilejlyiyiri' of -
I).
&;...1: biUjeyifj,e' to -
A.
bilejeyifti'
L. billjlyitlde' in -
A. billjeyinaln' from-
What thou, YOll will know.
.
billjeyitlis'
.!l biUjlyilJizi4' of -
• ft;..1: biUjlyiflize' to -
billjlyiflizi'
bilejlyiflizde' in -
0l billjlgilJutUn from -
Thy, your knowledge •.•
Third Person.
N. yasajaghi'
G. yazajaghinin' of -
D. yasajaghtna' to -
A. yasajaghini'
yazajaqlarf
yazajaqlarinf4i' of -
yazajaqlart'M' to -
yasajaqlari,,;
Jol. yasajaghinda' in - yazajaqlariftcZa' in -
A. yazajaghindan' frOlll- yazajaqlartnd.tm' from-
'Vhat he, they will write. His, their writing .••
The Partici ples. 199
§ 424. Four important gerunds are obtained from
the Declinable Objective Participles.
§ 425. The Tenth Gerund. The Dative esse of
the Objective Future Participle is used as a gerund:
it then corresponds to the phrases einstead of, rather
than'; as:
.;\ ben ata binejeyime Isheye binenm.
I would rather ride a donkey than a horse.
§ 426. The Fourth Gerund. The Locative case
of the Objective Past Participles, whell used as a gerund,
indieates the time of an action, when an action is per-
formed .
),}L. musa!irler geldiyindl ylmlgi-
mizi yedik. When the guests arrived we dined; Of, the guests
ha ving arrived 'we dined; Of, the guests arriving we dined; or,
()n the arrival of the guests we dined.
§ 427. The Twelfth Gerund. The Ablative esse
of Past and Future Participles is used 8S a gerund, and
indieates the reas on why some other action iB performed?
The doer of the first is indieated by the possessive
affixes; as:
eS')4l(' pederim mektoub yaeajaghtndan
gelmedi. My father did not come, because he was about to write
a letter.
eS')"'..)'...J .J\ 0 ishitmediyindenjevabvlrmltli.
Owing to his not having heard he did not answer.
§ 428. The Third Gerund. If 4$!t( gUJi is added
to the nominative of the Objective Participle, another
gerund is obtained, whieh means C: aS soon as'.
ef' qaraasht.fI, gel'diyi gibi blni chagh"'.
Call me as soo·n as your brother conles (§§ 334, 431).
§ 429. As we have already seen, the Dative, Ab-
lative and Locative cases of the Objective Participles
have two meanings: one as a participle, the other as a
gerund. This identity mtlst not eBcape the student.
But it iB very easy to distingujsh them, aB the subject
()f the gerund is always in the nom1·native, while that
200
, ..
of the participle is in the genitive. Therefore
is scarcely possible when the words are used in a sen-
tence. (See the examples 5-8.)
Comparison.
...
1. Give me the 8cconnt (of whatever you
bought).
satin aldighiniztii) hisabinf, bana 'VeriniB.r
2. The guest does not eat (what he expects), but
ests (what he finds).
Musafor (ou·mdoughounou) gerltez, (bouldoug1wu-
nou) gere
3. Put in the bag (whatever you [will] find).
(Boulajaghinizi) to,·baya qoyoufi.
4. Have you anything to say ([of] what the boy
wrote)?
Okojougkoun (gazdightna) mr deyejeylfi,iz' 'Var mi?
5a. I have no doubt (that you will do) this nicely.
Seniii bounou guzelje (yapajagkl,ff,a) sJtub'lthn gOf).
5b. (Instead of doing) the wrong, do the best.
sen kootttgu (yapajaghina), eyigi 11 ap.
6a. There is no deficiency (in what I sold).
Benim € bir' qousour Y0lJ. dotw.
6b. (Whenever I sell) your property, I will give YOll
your ·money.
Ben malini (satd·tghtrllda) para.1ii, 'Vmn ...
78. I had no news (of his being iIl [that he was ill])r
Onoun kasta (oldoughoundan) haberim 1Iog'h0Nd0tl.
7b. My mother could not come here (Pecause she
was iIl).
Yalidem hasta (oldougho'Uudan) houraga gelemeili.
8a. My father did not know (that you were abou\
to come) here.
bouraya (gilejeyinisden) habami" halJIri
yoghoudou.
Sh. We could not go there (because we had to come
here).
booraga (gelejeyimisden) oraga gitUtJt«lii.
,.,
The Partici ples.
j:.j Words.
j":J\ iiyzltmek to grind o. C.JJ rooh Spirit
teaj'jf!,b et" tomarvel R. aZamet sign
R. malumat knowledge 1 chorba,ji Mr.
201
a. .,.,bL;. khatir memory t. p. blyzaae
1 A conventional title applied to Christian notables, bankera,
merchants, etc.
'\ Exerelse 62.
J1§J1 .. ..:,."L ,
,. .. 0';; Sfi...uJ' !JJiii. (!.lJJI
JlT · ,\;.
IS...uJI jS"'J.I S--'!I J!...uJI
, !Jjr t. 1

.. ·
X -lA -1 J.':'':; I("".l.t -1' · .:, k-"'" -lA • ., J' . .u l <iN
J .. ..)"'U • .. J.-.... JU .. J.. .. ••
Y • J:....G.h
l
S.".ts'S .... .:..J ..
.»\i ·
· (§ ,. A ,) <<.!..J SJ. !.\,J ... A • ....
'\ Exerelse 88 •
.. Ii s;1)5 .. i""'O)) J>:;..LlS'" ,
..... r. Lr '(" · J.:I .. T
• cl;1 - t.
, 0
202
" l.J'.):l LeSBon 29.
,.,
jj y • •
· .;;; jS" <s! , ' 4'
• .fo\l., us' /' A
,. · J)IJ); J.x!
" • \.SJ.?
• .1..-' • .1..-' \G
"t J Translatlon 64.
1. I received the Ietter which you sent me, dated
7
th
July 1902. 2. The house to which I am now going is
my father-in-Iaw's. 3. I wrote all the words you spoke
to me. 4. The greatest of the cities which Alexander
the Great built [made], was Alexandria. õ. The physi-
cian of whom you speak is in Europe. 6. Mr. Jacob
is the man of whom we have read in the newspapers.
7. Do you know what I want? - I don't know what
you want, if you do not teIl me. 8. Let no one changa
that which I have written. 9. Do you know that I l08t
my purse fuII of money? 10. When I WRS in OODstanti-
nople I saw the goods in the shops changed every day.
11. Learn this from what you see. 12. I did not know
that he went to Trebizond.
"e ; Translatlon 8õ.
1. He that hath an ear, let hiln hear what the
Spirit saith unto the churehes. 2. For he knew what
was in man. 3. They marvelled that he talked with
the woman. 4. "That shall be the sign of thy coming?
õ. Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand
doeth. 6. Have you not read what DaYid did, when -he
was hungered, and they that were with him? 7. We heard
of their having become soIdiers. 8. I do not object to
your going there. 9. The baker is not an boneat
(doghrou) man: he writes what is due to him [bis
credits] and does not write his debits (what be owes) .
......
.,.
The Participles. 203
Reading Exereise.
and teIl the following story in Turkish fully.
1. This is the house that Jack built.
2. This is the malt, That lay in the house that
Jack huilt.
3. This is the rat, That ate the malt, That lay iIl
the house that Jack built.
4. This is the eat, That killed the rat, That ate
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack huilt.
5. This is the dog, That worried the cat, That
killed the rat, That ate the malt, That lay in
the house that Jack built.
6. This is the cow with the crumpled horn, That
tossed the c1og, That worried tlle cat, That kiIled
the rat, That ate the malt, That lay in the
house that Jack huilt.
7. This is the maiden all for10m, That milked the cow
with the crumpled horn, That toss ed the dog, That
worried the cat, That killed the rat, That ate
the lDalt, That lay in the house that Jack built.
8. This is the man all tatter'd and torn, That kissed
the maiden all forlorn, That milked the cow
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat, That killed the rat, That
ate the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built.
9. This is the priest all shaven and shorn, That
married the man all tatter'd and torn, That
kissed the maiden all forlorn, That milk'd the
cow with the erumpled born, That tossed the
dog, That worried the cat, That killed the rat,
That ate the malt, That lay in the house that
Jack huilt.
10. This is the eock that crowed in the morn, That
waked the priest all shaven and shorn, That
married the man all tatter' d and torn, That kissed
the maiden all forlorn, That milked the cow
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog,
That worried the eat, That killed the rat, That
ate the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built.
204 ,.. r..;-Jl Les80n 30.
11. 'rhis is the farnler sowing his COrD, That kept
the cock that crowed in the morn, That waked
the priest all shaven and sbom, That married
tlle man all tatter' d and torn, That kissed the
maiden all forlorn, That milk' d the cow with
the crumpled horn, That tossed the d og, That
worried the cat, That killed the rat, That ate
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack
TraDslatlon.
11. Jackiu evde saqlanan, .Arpay' '!legen, For.
eõld'zlren, Kediyi {irkftden, KtfOpegi boullnoue"layan,
Ey'ri b01tynouzlou iney1,: sagkan, Bichare qui tNJpdn,
Esgi b{isku roubali ademi nikiaklallan, Das qafal'
(shaven), tuysuz (slto'rn) papasi ouyandiran, SabaA··
laYln eõten korosou saqlayan, Boughdayt €ken
ehirt'ji [isllte] bou d01t1·.
4t ConversaUon.
u!-A>U\":' '.).1\ (V"
S{.lI..
eJ\i
'l J.4:«' JJ, (V" .
• IS"",! \ Jo y::. Y. S:I Ü' • .JI jAl J."I «(.
? ISl>'.>\(" P.I Jr jAl J.JI (U"
j-!j; Jlili j\l U.J\

? JJ....(' e.:r-.JJ- W'J.J\ Jlili (V"
· Jl \ö.\ .J)!.. ISJ.Jl 1S.ftll. 0'1.,1 u!1..iJ.J1 JA'.!!.,!
r· Lesson 30.
46, t, Gerunds.
.. .
§ 430a. 'fbe number ofpurely Turkish ConjunctioDs
is very limited, only six in number: and tllese too are
, ..
Gerunds. 205
derived fron1 Verbs or Adverbs (§ 475). The place of
Conjunctions is supplied by Gerunds, whieh are called
Conjunctive Moods or Words, Bahita Sigglleler. They
are mere eombinations of Conjunetions with the verbs,
appended at the end of sentenees (§ 230). The Gerunds,
like the Conjunetions, serve the purpose of eonnecting
sentenees and parts of sentenees. Th ey' have the saIIle
power of government as their verbs, but they are never
used alone as governing \\Tords.
§ 430 b. 'fhere are thirteen gerunds in Turkish,
SOllle of which we have already met with in the course
of the previoos lessons. Here we shall give them in
order. (See the Table.)
§ 431. The 'l'hird Gerund. This is forIlled by ad-
ding the termillation -inje, -inja to the root,
. . ..
(and -yi'llJe, -yillja, -younja if the root ends in
a vowel). It Inenns eas soon as' or ex.:
t.S.x:.[' yazinja gitdi 8S soon as he wrote, he ,,,ent out.
J.,h.J\ ... oqouyounja otou,r on your reading sit down.
The meaning is expressed in two other "'ays (§§ 334, 428).
§ 432. But the Negative forIn has a ,Yholly dif-
fere11t meaning.
4 yaz'fllaytnja git'me. Don't go unIess you ,,-rit<.'.
§ 433. The Eleventh Gerund. The third form of
the Gerund when annexed to
-ye dek, -ye deyin, -ye qltda'l', means unti!.
.J.Jk.J\ ... ben gelinjeyedek otOltr. Sit until I eOUle.
§ 434. The }"ourteenth Gerund. By adding or
:..rt(' -ike'l1., -ken to the Aorist, Present, Dubitative.
Future and Necessitative third persons, snother gerund-
like expression is ohtained, which is rendered by while.
Gitmish ik.e.n. Now that the aet. of going has occured.
Yazayaq iken. While just about to ,,-rite.
t'I:)
I Section
0
Derived =
No. Gerullds Meaning
from
I
§
I
I
i
1 yazar'jasina Aa if -, intending to - Aorist
I
331
I
I
2a yaz'matlan
! 1 Anteriorly to -
lnfinitive 299
b J.J\ yaz' maaan »
,
,

e yaz' mazdan
I Hefore-
Aorist 383

'"
u J.J\ yaz'tnazdan ev-vel

) » »
rm
Sa yarin'ja
: 1 As soon as he -
481
rm
Root
0
. . .

b yazar' yazmaz Aorist 884


e
J.'
yas' aigh' gibi
I J
Obj. Participle 428
••
gastliq' tla
I } Wht"n the-OCCllrred, whenever,!
Past 845
b

ya,tltghtMa'
I on the -, when the - I
Obj. Participle 426
. .
I
..
ga.iUtJJa The more - the more -
I
Root 8'6
1
i

...
6a
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
b
e







. - .


. .

.. .

- .


ü<:'l>L>t.
. .
yazali'
yazalidan'berou
yazdi' yazal i
yaza' yaea
,
yaza raq
yazasi'
___ 'ja
gazajaghi' fia
Since the act of - occurred,
since he -,
ever since he -
- on steadUy, keeping on -
continuing to -
May he -I
J
Instead of -, Rather than -
'\ yazin'ja
ya qadar · f Until he -
yazdighin' dan
yazajaghin' elan
yazip'
gazar'ke",
}
Because he -
by the aet of -
Having -
While, during
Optative
»
Opt., Past
Optative
»
»
»
Obj. Participle
Root
:0
»
Obj. Partieiple
Root
I Present, Aorist, }
\
Dubit., Future,
N ecessitati veo
369
»
»
370
871
372
»
425
433
»
427
»
435
484
1

-<
Q
(D

=
=
Q.
III

-.J
208 r. IJ" .J,) Lesson SO.
§ 435. The Thirteenth Gerund is a conjuDctive in-
flexion of the verb equivalent to a verb (generally of the
sanle tense and frequent.ly with the sam e objeet) found
at the end of the phrase, followed by the conjunction cand'.
'fhe sense lnay be such 8S to require the words ca180'
and afterwards to be suppliea, according 8S the alle-
cession of the two actioDs is hltended. It is character-
ized by the terrninatioD -oup, ip, (or -YO'Itp
if the root ends in n vo,vel [53]). § 17; as:
.
yaz'i,p having written. J!}J\ oqo'UlIoup having read.
)!,)J;J\ otouroup oqoudoular. They aat and carter-
'wards) read, 0 r having S8t do\\'n they read: equivalent to otour-
doular oqoudoular.
r4(j)§' gedip georljeyim, equiyalent to getUjeyim.:1
georejeyi111. I shall go and see [him 8]SOJ (having gone I8ha11 see).
)::J Words.
f. abaniz Ebony a. mahjoub humble
, J.->\..\,) danllctmaq to drop 8. JJJa- t"aghroor proad
sormaq to ask 8 • .J\ \.J razi 01" to be content
qou,rbagha frog genish wide
gechinmek to SUbfdst a. jahil young people
(j.;;x pire flea . (,$ fl:; , ($..f; taflr' God
bit louse
u,!;; (jJ,) deve qoushou oRtrich
urumtk to bark
patlamaq to burat.
'\ '\ Exereise 66.
Dowroubou emaal. Proverbs.
J.Jb1o)). o)).o)JIJl!,J\ \
• J.,:!.1. oJr' .J)J' Jj T •
4fJo l
• 4Sj}
Gerunds. 209
.;1...:-';" .fJ)J l5.h1 A .. y
J-:?' SJ) b e b • ..u::::;J J.:?" .. 1
\\ o)! !),,:J.1. o..ql \ ..
j-- I,. • j\lJl
Y.,) o.c.s:::;:..l\(" .:.';"; .);) lY" •
\ 0 .. .:r.,! :.h)))))I .::..!1 It .. («(.o);))
JjJ; \ v · J'J J'}Ji !JJ'Y..:) \, • J:.J1J ! JJ!
.. );) Jo);)
"V 4.::-; Translation 67.
1. When the teaeher began speaking, every one
stopped his talk. 2. Until the teaeher entered the school-
room, all the pupils were talking. together. 3. Since
I came to Merzifoun I have three times visited Mounjou-
SOUll. 4. As soon as Eli goes, I wiJI eall you. o. I
read and write. He came and went afterwards. 6. He
mounted his horse and went into the eountry. 7. The
teaeher Nasred-din, taking an axe, .mounted the tree
and hegan to eut the branch on whieh he sat. 8. A man
him and said that he would faIl down from the
tree. As soon as the man spoke the teaeher fell down.
'9. He ran after the man and eaught him by his collar
and said: As you knew that I would fall down from
the tree, of course YOll must also know the time when
I will die. 10. The man said: When your 8SS brays
three times, you will die. 11. Do not go until leome.
4t Conversatlon.
?.);) r;r Jo (t.r
• o;)..-.!' «(.
? .)..L!..j [.li.)>> <.SJ.....:! ,;SJ;) \ Jo (t.r
.. J • .1f' c5.x.r J,r.i\:..\ c5.cil Jl\J. «(.
Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 14
210 r. u-Jl Les80n SO.
? .)..u,., t (
• ..,r...
$(.lJ'-.J «(
..:-.\I) Readmg Exercllle.
Jj
..
The Distinetion between Man and Heast •
• J jr Jj
'J:> 3:r: o,)).i .jUI
&,fJJ'..} "-;I.Y!r' f.'
oU:>! yo r<!.JJ:: jr' j, - 5
w
)\/l,.,
10 9...t • I:, 8 "\ '" I 7 \ t .. ·, './1'
rJ.r u...u.= J 0) .J:24t •
• );"o..l.!1 12o.)l;1 f.' f'. ,
J" · iJJ)J!. 1S .. J!..uJI (-.Jt j,
;L ;;<J · .. eJ 14f.' f..1l:, .. Y,.J'!;
;L J JI ' a.J) .. J.iWI •
J1J JA)\;J; , 16
J
..c\k ' .;ijj:,
Words. l. creation. 2. high, noble. 8. hiss' instinct (o!
animaI8). 4. for instanee 5. to wag. 6. hal condition, case, sim-
ation. 7. poor. 8.8. sayir other. 9. a. noutq speecho 10 8. maArone
destitute. 11. oldouqlari. ,jihetle = oldouqlartndan. 12. ifatU IL"
to expJain, to state. 13. beillg (being in the state 01). 14. siDce I
can turn. 15. aza melubers. 16. tat'lnaq, datmaq to taste .
..Lu l- 11100' ad Continuation.
w, ).j \.s> · .. :L; .J!
r.p'lJi' j, . .Jj! j;
jj (!).Jt .u!1 (-ii
. , s, ., .. A , • ,. • I I e , .... 1 _
J. .)W! u ..., ·
Words. 1. h,at'ta even. 2. anjaq only, but. S. ijrtJ II.
N
to
ei 0, to perform.
,t,
Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs.
211
·
7,)\) ' o-*! 'J!\i .1.

0;) 13
0
)J\=:: • (.))ii
J.t
\ .. .... J .. J ....
, yt\ YJC'
r>
4. idrak intelleet. 5. = malik oldougkoumdan: malik 01." to
possess. 6. ojaq a hearth. 7. necessary. 8. jam glass. 9. daq-
'1naq to put, affix. 10. qab vesse!. 11. qoulp handle. 12. chizml
out of door shoes. 13. pachavra a clout, rag. 14. mlshin leather.
15. farq et." to distinguish. 16. hbves a mania, wrong desire.
17. ita-at' et." to obey. 18. Mou-al'lim Naji. Professor Naji
(a distingui8hed Turk author 1850-94).
r, Lesson 31.
Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs.
Verbal Adjective. "-f •••
§ 436. The regular form of the Verb al Adjectives
(S'tfeti Mushel/bihe) ends in -iJi, -iji, -oujO'U and
it is derived from every kind of verbs, except Passive
and Reciprocal verbs; as (§ 53):
yazmaq to write: V yazfjt one whose business
- oo ..oO is to write, a clerk.
satmaq to sell: V sat(j' one whose business
is to sell, a seller, a dealer.
jJ\ oqoumaq to read; V jJ\ oqouyoujou one who
to invite: habitually reads, areader; inviter.
dJ:- silmek to wi pe, to rubout: V J:.-. siliJi a profes-
sional scru b ber of Hoors.
§ 437. This form resembles the Subjective Present
Participle in meaning (§401). The difference is that, while
14:*
212 .... t LeSBOn Sl.
.. "
yazan, satan, oqouyan, pishiren mean (one who ocCIJSion-
ally writes, selIs, reads, or cooks', the Verbal Adjectives
gazlj", satij", oqou,youjou, pishiriji respectively mean t oDe
who habitually does so, whose occupation is to write, to
read, to cook', that is to say (clerk', ereader' and ccook'.
§ 438. There are other forms of verbal nouns and
adjectives which do not always occur, not being formed
from all roots, but can be divided into elasses
as: -
§ 439. I. If the verbal root enda in a vowel,
a verbal nOlln or adjective is obtained by omitting the
'Inim of the lnfinitive terrnination.
ch'ltMtmek to rot: ,!}.J.)ft'" ckt"'tk rotten .
.:,.. j; sovoutnaq to be cold : so'Vouq cold (§ S6).
ishlemck to work: isl"Zektbatworkswell,smoothJy.
§ 440. II. If the verbal ends in a consonant, the
1ru·m of the lnfillitive is changed into vav, or ye:
-
\ achmaq to open: J:if achtq open.
bozmaq to spoil: J.Jj yo bozouq spoiIt.
§ 441. ITI. By removing the Infinitive anding
, ct. and , -qoun, -qin, -ghmtn
or -gun, -g,ln to the root, another class of
verbals is forrned; as:
su.rmek to baniah: 0fJr surgUn an enle.
0\.; p-ishmek to become cooked: 'Pishgin weIl baked.
joshrnaq } 0j'A! y:- joshqoun} ove. r-
. to overflow: il
tashmaq tasllqin owmg.
yanmaq to be burut: ganghi" fire, confta·
• • gration.
§ 442. IV. Sometimes J, -li, } -lou, or -1, -i,
-Oll" -'Il is added to the root:
qaplunaq to shut:
gizlemek to hide:
qapaZi' shut.
Jfl gieli' hidden.
.
rt ....
NOUDS and Adjeetives derived from Verbs. 218
So aOO: Jil.. saqZr hidden; asUf hu ng.
J."J. !lolou full; ).J\ tõid dead.
§ 443. V. The second and third forms of Den-
vative Infinitives are regarded as regular verbal nouns,
as we have seen (§ 301):
d6Jkme east. baSrlia printed.
-
J!! ...r..)\ el'Dlrishli 8uffieient.
\ tJSmG 8uspended.
§ 444. VI. Some of the verbal nouns are fonned
by the addition of , ' (. -im, -im, -Q'U·m to the root:
yemek to eat: r! yem food.
ru.J\ lOlmek to die: r ).J\ eol'um death.
\ ichmek to drink: \ ichim a draugbt.
§ 44õ. VII. Others are made by the addition of
\.s ' J ' J -i, -i, -O'U., -gi to the stern:
yazmaq to write:
J..;.) j qorq'·maq to fear:
\ ichmek to drink:
\'-
,;j yazi writing.
j.)j qorqou fear.
\ ichgi intoxicating liquid.
§ 446. Vill. Another class of verbals is ohtained
from the passive verbs, by adding c:..
J
to the stern (§ 26õ):
sevinmek to be joyful: sevinj joy.
rodenmek to be paid: rodunj vulgarron' du.; alosn.
SimiIarly: gulunj laugbahle; osanj' tiresome.
qazanj profit; qisqanj' jealous.
§ 447. IX. By adding c5...(, , J ' 4.5;) ·'indi, -t'l, -dti,
another class of verbals is obtained:
bouyro'Ulnlaq to be ordered: jJJ: bouyroultou an order.

J..' \ aqmaq to flow: 1.54 \ aqinti a eurrent.
yiqmaq to pull down: tS ·l _ ; _! yiqinti debris.
supurmek to sweep: sUpruntu sweepings.
214 ..... U"'J:l LesBon 31. , I4&.
, , , ' patirti, jagirti,
chatirti, iiiilti, !]Uraltu all mean a continuous or repeated claUerinl,
noise, roar, hissing, creaking, eraekIing, rending and tearing of
the sea, ,vind, lion etc.
§ 448. X. The Noun of Excess is forrned by the
additioll of , r!::f -qan, -ghan, -gh/V to the stern:
chaUshmaq to ,,·ork: w\i chaltshqan assidaous.
ishitmek to hear: ishitgen quick to hear.
Similarly: .wli.; j.J\ ' wt...
7
Y
.J\ ounolltqan', ounoutghan' forgetfal.
w\ jj 0\ yapishqan sticky. <[Jr suzglj a etrainer.
yuzgej a Akilful swimmer. dalghij diver.
w \..j; J .solougha" shortness of hreath, roaring.
§ 449. XI. The Noun of Location derived from
the verb is ohtained by adding J -q to the root, if it
ends in f:lif, and JI -04. if it does not end in that letter:
yatmaq: v , yataq bad.
J"')\;.J \ otlamaq: V )\;.J\' , J;A;.J\ otlaq a pasture.
J.l! yayil1naq to pasture: J , yay'laq, yayla a SUID-
mer-residenee, or pasturage.
qishla winter quarters, military headquarters, barrack.
§ 450. XII. Instrumental Nouns obtained from
the verb, are forrned irregularly:
elemek to sift: elek asieve.
daratnaq to comb: J\';" Juu, daraq a comb.
sUrgu sliding bar of a door. J\J.J\ oraq a aicklt'.
So also:
bichaq a knife.
yastiq a pillo\v.
bichqi gardener's knife.
sarghi bandage.
basqi press. 0.-1 \.:;- chalghi musical instrumen'.
sUpUrgl broom. (..)&,;f asqi braees.
S"'.l: bill.yi a whetstone, from billmek to sharpen.
" ..
Nouns and Adjectives derived from '" erbs. 215
'" Exerei8e 88. .
Change the follo'\\"ing verbs into verbal nouns or
adjecti ves:
I. isla1naq to wet; to desire, to wish;
d.4':) dilemek to ask, to make a request; bouda-
,na.q to lop; {trkmek to
II. j.} artmaq to remain over; oyan1naq to
awaken; ilntek to tie with in a loop; barishmaq
to make peaee; sarl1taq to wrap round; yanmaq
to be burnt; silmek to wipe; J.:l!1 ilimaq to grow luke-
warm; :;';)J; qorqmaq to fear; qachmaq to flee;
.,
a;)JI eortmek to shut; kesntek to eut; ..r'; qir-
,naq to break.
III. JA) yormaq to weary; JlJ,:) dol1naq to be filled;
Jl dalrnaq to beeome plunged in thought; JlJ' olnlaq
to be ripe; J..!\! shashmaq to be stupid; kes-
-mek to eut; y-ilrnaq to be frightened.
VI. JtT alntaq to take, buy; satnzaq to sell;
atrnaq to throw; JA.) J! youdtnaq to s\vallow;
lJichmek to eut, to shape; di11nek to eut into sliees;
LL.
r
sev'Inek to love; ouchourmaq to cause to
..
flee, to let fall from a hight; yUd,trmaq to flash.
VII. yaptnaq to build; eolmek to die;
.. - v
eiJlcll/Jnek to measure; bilmek to know; cl.}.." VCl'-
'fJu!k to give, to pay tribute; to cover; \;
..
216
,t'
qaJ)a'lnaq to shut; cl..r.:- ehismek to ecratch, to draw' a.
line; .j.S-j:, doghmaq to rise (the eun); batmaq to
set (the sun).
XI. yalamaq to lick; J! younmaq to wasb
one'sself; batJnaq to sink down; JAJj:,J' ' otour ..
'1naq, qonmaq to halt, to rest.
'\, Eurelse 69.
J jj,:;j 4i;' .i-!.JS,j:, \
S"41:: yo II)':' fI - 11.5' T •
11.5'JIJ ;5;J} 'I'" ,
- 1 J-!!I to • alJI
• /" • JY., 1.iL; , Jy" r-I
T
0 Y.,I rt:!
! ;>:-)y.JJ)) JJ=; .Jh 0 o)y"\..\lT
0 i..JT yo yo #r - JI) 4,j
JY., r;::!- · S '\ 0 JJ':
, •• Y It .... <' It t(", It •
. uJ.) · r..'" J".::';
.:.t;; A • y"
J.j-r' Yo! .. 0Y,.J
J=!i ' ... r-*
r..-:r yo ,. 0 0 LS..ül
• Jy" JJI jT;: ! .rG .JLA.; ;JI JJ': - "" J"
v • 4.::-; TranslatioD 70.
1. My beloved son, I have read your letter with great
JOY- NO\\T I shall give yOU SOIDe (an) advice. Don't bor-
,tV N ouns and Adjecti ves derived from Verbs. 217
row money from others: if your profit (income) is less,
your expenses must be less. 2. Death is such a black
camel, that it kneels before every door. 3. The divers
plunge in the depth of the sea: they are a1so good SWilD-
mers. 4. That old man is not deaf, Ile is quick to
hear. 5. Your uncle's horse is short in breath (broken-
winded). 6. You are very forgetful; you forget every-
thing. 7. He was sunk in the marsh, and was obliged
to make a halt there. 8. The children are very fond
of kites. 9. I ordered from the market three sieves,
two combs, four suspenders, five musieal instruments,
ten iron bolts and one filtere 10. The soldiers were in
the winter-quarters. 11. We shall go this summer to
the pasturage of Telli-Oghlou.
CODversation.
l J Y:" l.,.:, • .Jo! \
-
. .)J.'.J!
.);.J.J! yo \
. .).ü y:-
J. 0yJ.J\ .J yo
· r .)4! ' U\
· .);) .!lY.).J \ ' li
• \1\;) !
• Joo 0\ ___ :.:.
:, I
.
($.J....:! r..ci\
• .);)
. .) iil" j&.\!,
- 'c'
J.) 4...l.J \
• .)\.J 0Pr
o..l.J';;';\ s 0'J.J\ .. _ r- _ .
• .):l .) \.J
• ..JS1.).J\
? 0Y.i Jl:;-G
? .):l.)\.J
'? J,r.i
218
· t,SJ-4\ !
· J.,s, !
w.LÄ:-;-T ..rA ! rJ....:J\ ? J. Ji\..
.
-or
! t,S..1J\ oJ.:.!,L ? t,S..1J\ \ -t Ö
- . (.;. _ I.Y yo J

! wl.\ <<1..>\;
. rj.J<i' r.
.,:JI) Reading Eurelse.
Lateele An Aneedote •
..
..:.!I ir» : "':"'rlS' i"\ Jo :"'JJo
« ",:",J4'" 1'<';04" 1 J,(oJJ! O;).Y.,J I
, )..ll(;) cl!.1 1..' ' j'-J' ' :;; - •
.J;).5! \;....;.)'" • y..;) :"'J.)J'
0.')));.\ cl!.I - Ut
A
J;)
· « I
I \ <'" . -, . . I. - 6 • \.; • 1) ...
,.')\ ...J\.> 4.J -
JT' 0;)

Words. 1. Urlyil qarylsi the village Uregil (at Cle8area).
2. nothing at all, you are welcome. 3. al1irmaq to bray. 4. kiti·
di811zi hich' bozulayaraq indifferently. 5. hid-det anger. 6. touha(
queer, funny, strange.
Prepositions. 219
rY IJesson 32.
Prepositions. (Continued.)
1
4. The Declinable Postpositions.
§ 451. Postpositions of this claes are generally used
as nouns in connection with other nouns and pronouDs
to supply the place of prepositions. Their use will be
best understood from examples. These prepositions
take possessive affixes and are used with the genitive
case. Thus ,jT ara IDeallS (the midst'. ara'lnizda
..
(in our midst' i. e. (between us'.
§ 452. The ,vords thus employed and the English
prepositions the place of which they supply are as
follo\\?s (§ 236):
,)..J\ ard
..j.;\ arqa
dT alt
'-"",) d ib
. -
\jI a-ra
.!}.J\ roll
} The back, the space behind.
The space under.
'rhe bottonl of anything.
The midst.
The front.
to.!.,-.J\ ust } The space over,
oJj.J\ uzre the upper part.
d·iskari The outer part of anything.
\ icheri } The inside, interior,
\ ich the inner part..
\ ileri 'fhe front part.
<.SJG y. yoqari The top or upper part of anything.
ashagk' 'l'he lower part.
yan
./.. ylr
The side.
Place.
1 See LesBon 14, page 106, §§ 230-237.
Behind .
Undere
Undere
Between, among .
Before, in Cront of.
1 Over, upon, on.
Out of, outside.
} Iu, inside.
Iforward.
Above.
Below, undere
By, near, by the side ol
Instead of ...
220 .... , 1J'..):l Laason 32.
geri The hinderpart.
a. etraf Surroundings.
"';.J\ (Ote The further tdde.
p. J.\';' beraber Even with, breast to breast ,,·ith.
yaqin The spaee near.
a. J:.. haqq A respeet, regard, relation.
J\j.J\ ouzaq The spaee far away.
qarshi The space opposite.
vastta AIneans, a go-between.
".
Back
Round, around.
Heyond.
Together with.
Near, by .
• -\ bout, concerning.
Far.
Against.
By means of.
lJfisal'ler Exam ples.
arqasindan get
f ardimdan geZ
Go after him.
Come after me.
\
o.J; qahve alti, qahyalti
\ ttlt qat
After tbe eoffeei. e. breaktill
Lower story (oCthe hOUll
.;..i.:... chlqm.aq
\",of - .. ..
'fo go to the tOI).
sand·tuhUi dibinde .A.t the bottom of the bo:
'..1..::Ä> ' 'o.4Ä> haq' qhnda, haq' q-liida, haq' qinda .A.bout me, thee, him.
yaqinl,1lltzda, yaqtnlarinda Near us, theol.
f 'j,) yan1mizda d-tr, yanhlli·za geZ It is nearus, come Dearl
..l:-..k-\.J onoun vasUastyila By Dleans of him.
uzer·inle, -z'izerine On me, on thee.
5. Turkish equivalents for sOlne English PrepositioDs.
§ 453. All the English Prepositions, which indi-
cate a st.ate of location or rest must ba translated
by the locative: all others which indicate a direction
or motion from one place to another are to ba rendered
by the dative case (§ 237).
We entered the city before five o'elock and remained there flve
days. Sa' at ueshdelt ev'vel shehre giriu orada blsh gü" dourdouq.
§ 454. Study and compare the following sentenees:
'fhe fight lasted above five hours. Ghavgha (or (jatl'gIJ)
11lwll, sa'-atdan ziyade sitrdu.
rrt Prepositions. 221
A.bove the knee DizUrifltUn yoqari.
Those who were about bim EtrajiRda olanlar.
I ha ve no change about me (J,zeri'IfUU oufaqliq yoq dOllf·.
I am about to go Gitmek (J,zre yim.
A.bout noon Eoylenl doghrou.
laughed at him ltzbrine gtlldu.
I wonder at what you have said DldiyiAize te-aj'-jub ediyoroum.
We were at your aunt's HalaA giltU idik.
Mrs. Mania is loved by every body. Manya Hanfm her
kestien sl"iUr or Her kes Manya Hanim! sevlr.
Cresarea was taken by the Persians. Farisiler Kayslriyeyi
zabt etililer 0 r KayseriyA Farisillrdhl, alindi.
Translated by a priest Bir papas marifetiy'le tArjlfn1
Ee sent it by him
He came by
Sit by me
olounmoush.
Onoufl 'l'asttastyla gliJHtUrdi.
Qaradan geldi.
Yar .. tmda otour.
Atter the Turkish fashion T'iirk ousoulot#, ftzre, alatourqa.
):.J Words.
a. u-.JLk ta-vous peacoek dolanmaq to go round about
yuzmek to swim wJ!:lj merdiven stairs
a. Zeyneb Zenobia a. J:la.'i ta'til vaeation
(j. t!J; qou.tlhatmaq to encircle a • hisar ,vall.
v , Exerelse 71.
oy' ,-:,j\.:. JJ' \
• J-Liy" Jj) oJ-:_J)\ ;L!j J! T •
" -
· ).,.Jli J-'T jJl o.dJ
1
J ;'1:-1 J!.
JIJ Jy:.t. 0 • o.ci} t
J.u..t. ",:,JJ\ tu..t. J-: "
J JJI)-' !.I; y •
• iJy"
I
)\ ]_<:... A • o..L:::-4i)\ !.IJly""
\
222
• JJ:> ":";J JII .,uJI ' .J5.h
l
J="".".. • .l :.;.. \.
\ T • "
JJ' \ r- · Jy;
rk:!' ;b \ t.
4l!\ !JJ\';" \ 0 • 1.
cl::-) cl.H.;' .. lA \, .)..\i y.. .j j rt::!' o.l..:;:-';i
1 1. ;b
J TranslatloD 72.
1. package is for me: how much did YOll pay
for it? 2. I huve a great deal (ckoq sll,eyler) to teIl yon
concerning this boy. 3. I have fallen (lIouvarZand'fII)
down the stairs. 4. I shall read that hook during the
vacation. õ. The child threw the ring into the weIl: all
the servunts gathered aroulld the weIl to take up the ring
frOlD the weIl. 6. \Vithin a year. All the houses within
the wall were burnt. Within some days. 7. Can you
swim round the sbip? 8. He must ,vait till five otelocke
9. He spoke about his mother. 10. One sat above, the
other below me. 11. The inn is without the town, but
the hospital is within the walls of the town. 12. No-
body came yesterday to our house exeept Haji Hassan
Effendi. 13. Your house is arnollg the trees, my house
is in frout of the church.
J Translation 'Z8.
1. My father ,vas not above t,venty years old when
bc was married. 2. l\fy unele's house is very handsome,
but it eost hirn ('JJlal oldou) above 500 pounds. 3. It is above
a year since lny friend started for America. 4. Yozgad
\vas built by Chapan Oghlou. 5. Tbe poor man was
driven out of his house by his ereditore. 6. I shall
get up to-morrow at six o'cloek. 7. Were you at
Dr. Tracy's last night? 8. He had no money about
fr .... Prepositions. 228
him (yaninda). 9. At noon. In the summer: at night.
10. The dog sprung out from under the table. 11. Now
we tum towards the East .
.u CODvenatlon.
• ! <.SJ.:j\ J:c"-\ '!o";
· .J: I.t. ! ? .,; o.)u.,,1
· roif rJ.:j\ <--t\ .? J.\Jo ool
..;.. yo ' (..J ':»1 I .,; r • .,,;
• lA Y. ? (.>AJ\.J
• r)'J\::- j\..., ? Jll::-
• ? (.!.A .!1')\')J! .J!
.;ol (!\ r. ? J,) CS!\
• j..Jol).;\ (.>:;e:i
li
' '-.:.:--JJ.J\ ' '? JJ,) ).;\ ..;
· .j \.)-,1 '!
\) Reading Exercise.
.sj Keoy Odasi The Village Room.
.JA J.!
: i l!.;.11' ! u.;"::> o,J.· -4l.} 2 rf r .:, l:J.J! , 11S; «
JAJ' 3J-lj'j
4tb 7cti\:rS" ,
J4l.
UC
.> • 9JJ!J=:::' .:,;; '0)1; · J))).,.1J!
'cl;; :1°J.,:i4\('1 'J)!r
Word8. 1. as it is [costom] (429). 2. Mounjousoun a village
near Caesarea, the ancient Pontusa. 3. qa'ranl'q darkness. 4. uas-
to eet in, to prevail (darkness) [334]. 5. duman smoke. 6. as
soon as they see [428J. 7. keh'ya the bailiff of a village (p. 126).
8. nargile a hookah. 9. choubouq tobacco-pipe. 10. eylenmek to
amuse one' s self. 11. ortaUq the space, the whole rOOffi.
224 ,.,. LeBson 33.

4=-!.!' 1'4 J.Jb' lSj-AJ} jj'

....
15.;X;f
' :!JJ?' y-
• jj-yP • .J.JI
.J. .,:.iJ JJI • 19 L,;l..ot./' J;-.
)..\i • JJ'..:l «):l JIJ !
• JJ.,b1 21J-l:S"' )..IiJI 1I:l J),f' 4..-.))J\
· -1 &..,0)\ '23. .l> & o..l:..-,4..b..,' J .,
.. ..;. .. .
25 . 24});1 J-:<':"'" '
., ,. ..,. · •. • . /'26 A. • • ,_ • \ ' J ,
uy ltJy • 4..MJjJJ
· o;\; J 17.:,)
< J\.J le )
12. qaplamaq to cover, to till. 13. unable to see (404).
14. a. keyf pleasure, merriment. 15. kutuk root of the treel.
16. irdl inil with a elashing or crashing sound [447, 502]. 17. IR-
qlrdi talk, chattering. 18. to warm. 19. fl.tJ8i'iB" in
some way or other. 20. shid-detli severe. 21. keyfl,i merry, jolly
(150). 22. sijajiq rather warnl, snug (156). 23. 8. jama", buffulo.
24. eoymek to praise. 25. R. musa-a-deli favourable. 26. shBIir
(shell,' re) the city i. e. Coosares. 27. a. q1.b-le south. 28. f. port 1IlIZ,
poy'·raz north. 29. a. havadis intelligence, news (651).
rr Lesson 33.
Jb...) J j: Adverbs.
§ 455. Adverbs are words modifying verbs, adjee-
tives 01" other adverbs. They therefore denote mannel,
place, time, quantity, affirmation, doubt, negation, inter-
rogation and order.
"r.
Adverbs. 225
§ 456. Almost all Turkish adjectives may 81so be
med as qualifying adverbs, with all the changes whieh
the adjeetives undergo. Ex.:
e hoq sliJy'lemek. To talk too much or intrusively •
('. Bhaim mektouboum senSIlkindin
19;' yazilmi.sk di.r. My letter is bettel. written than yours.
1. Adverbs of Manner.
§ 4õ7. The Adverbs of Manner answer to the
question , ni'je'l na'sil? How? The adverb of
manner is generally obtained by the addition of some
partiele or word to the adjective, and is expressed in
English by the eorresponding adjeetives with the addi-
tion of the termination -ly.
§ 458. The adverb of manner is obtained in three
ways: by repeating the adjeetive, by the addition of
-je, or of o-i:).rD .fjou".ettU, to the adjeetive:
- - -
agk-tr agkir, agkirja, agkw
,ouretde. Heavily. J.ilb' ' Sweetly.
§ 459. This 4> or is also added to nouns
. ...
Lnd. pronouns, and thus we obtain an adverbial ex-
)ression (§§ löö, 331):
, benje, kendisinje according to me, to him.
adamja, adamjasina in a manly ,way;
alao: r;\ adamjilaytn, adam aq1.11i.
§ 460. The 4th and 8th Gerunds are also used as
Ldverbs of nlanner (pp. 206, 207):
JJJJ\ hediye olaraq as a gift.
c.SJ.:.(' istemeyerek gitdi he went unwillingly .
seoylediyinde when he spoke.
§ 461. 1. Adverbs of Banner.
yeniden newly, anew.
Turkish Conv.-Grammar.
J J!J. biryol, biyo l once.
15
226 rrr '-"'.),) Lesson 33.
",
yine, yene)
l ngain,
gine, gene J never-
/. theless.
u . tekrar
ylgin', yeg;,,,' 8troogly.
beoyleje thus, in this way.
yo boshouna in vain, idly ..
§ 462.
2. Adverbs of Time.
w.f" bou giin to-day.
yar'tn to-morro\y.
w.J,) dun yesterday ..
w.f" ertesi gun the fol-
lowing day.
the
wr .-.j.J\ tõfe gun t day be-
I
fore
w.f" SJ.J\ ev' velki gun yester-
day.
shim' d-i now.
0l.j 4l.i ne zeman J
-. .. when
4l.J ne (§§ 345,426).
W li ha' chan
\'
U\..,) denlin' } a few
minutes
bayaqdan' ago.
..H Cha'POUjaq} .
qUlcklv.
0' sa-at OI
§ 463.
o./. W,)./. birdln''4
ire
}
_ _ 8uddenly ..
j-i \ \ ap' ansiz
-
w,)j\./. bir asdan' soon, after
a while.
OJ\ '.)\ er, er'km early.
?.r gej late.
,.
\j\ ara' s'ra \nowand
o,)./. ikide' birlle f then.
glchen sini \ Jast
.Y...l1: bildir' I year ..
a. J.J\ ev'vel before.
soli' ra afterwards ..
R. \'- \') da' yi'llIG al ways.
u. niha' yet atlast.
gechhalle' } .
_ lately.
gechen
3. Adverbs of Aftlrmation, Doubt and Negatfon.
I .:...,,\ ev' vet, I-vet I
! uhe, hi-i! f yes!
p. J. be'li
hich'\
never.
8. as' la /
a. l.i\.J vaqa' a truly, in facto
gerchekdln truly, really.
! nt demek! 1 of conrae,.
• no donbt!
shttb'l"sis J certainlyt'
JJ-! yoq' } J
no
kha'yir
4L bilt even.
-
R. aje'ba l I wond8rt
! J.J\ '':/.J\ ola' J Is it IO?
rrv Adverbs. 227
§ 464. 4-. A.dverbs of Interrogation.
o ni' ehita ?
nt dlyi?
nlye'? .
0..1.::-- nt sebebtUn?
§ 465 .
'why'?
where-
fore?
na'sil? t how? by whst
• ., ·.t2 { manner?
,u,Jt:. ,
ntqadaf'? how much?
.j Ile? ,,-hat?
. õ. Adverbs of Quantity and Comparison.
nitekim ss, in the
manner ss.
.!l.; tek' tilk here and
there.
hlch' OltllaZsa}
at
ba'Ti least.
...JJ \ orsaolsaatthe
OldoUq'ja}
pretty ·we]].
ep'-eyi
ef gereyi' gibi properly,
. _ doly.
an'jaq only.
.J'. OOs'lnUlln \
./ "" J entirely.
kia'milen
tJ
a. jid,' dh& seriously.
s. qas' den intentionally.
p. \." .. .) ba' dihaVa} gratis,
a. mJj'janen freely.
W ..1:-!,:J.,,1. oo' layUl,an indireetl y .
say'ki" san'ki almost,
• nearly (1478).
salt' only.
Note. There are also a great many more adverbs which can
easily be learnt by practice and reading (§ 212).
§ 466. 6. AdverbiaI Expressions of Time.
In adverbial expressions denoting time of day the
word in is expressed by the addition of ' -leyi'll"
-layin, and for the seasons by adding -in, -un (p. 55):
baha'rin in springo
Ü'..j.f" gU' z'un in autumn.
Ü'..)\il!,"'; qoushlo'Uq'layin at 9
0' clock A. M.
a. t. me' zoun graduate.
geje'leyin at night.
akhshaf,,'laytta in the
evening.
ikintJ;,'llyin in the
afternoon.
Words.
0">\;\ avara uaelass.
15*
228 ,.,. '-'" Jl SS.
R. Js,.J vad promise.
8. \i!. shaqa joking
p. -l bihoutU in vain
yatBi bad-time, curfew.
V fo Eurelse 74:.
- 11S-,!\ :!JJjJ;t. .JIA::- .J4-; ,
• (.-.JJ\ D,)l;; .JJ 1,$"4:.J'..\ <-;Jr:';! ,
• . ':..>&J o')4.-J' ju ... !'" .. tt} .J. ,-
\",7- • ..1., ., .. ., ........,-
.J-> 0 :1 , • .)1. l
• J,) DJ\} 0,) .;J' , J...Liy" J.lS r;i
IS;';;J ° .r<-JY..JJ.,.bJI 4". ':0Yo J.Yo
.JJ/, AO ·IS-,!\ J.oJ 1S..ci\ ()(' v •

ciJ ;rJ,) w
ISJ1
' J.!.; ciJ w!Jl
• JJ'..,) ciJ tJ !if J
°1 J)41J\ u! , ·
• « • s:::; )' J • s::::; l,-» ", T • JJ I JJ \,
.J .... ..r... J';' .. '-1 , .r_
! - ! jC
.JJ I
v e J Translation 'lõ.
1. Whell will you set out, to-morrow or the day
after to-morro"r? 2. He has been bere at least tbree
tinles. 3. That is beautiful indeed 1 4. How much do
you charge for it? - It will eost you 20 majidiyes at
nlost (rn choghou). 5. At present (shirndilik) I want no-
thing else. 6. If we bave given a promise, let us keep
it; else we shall certainly lose our good name. 'le I
eould find him nowbere. 8. The preacher's house is
rr\
Adverba.
very far off. 9. The one came hither, the other went
thither. 10. I could open the door neither from within
nor from without. 11. Act as if you were (oI .. ousla-
jasina) at your home. 12. Did you know him formerly?
13. Yes, I have long known him. 14. She is better
to-day than yesterday. 15. The nen time I shall oo
here betimes.
41 CoDTersatloD •
. : \.\ ? .:f' e.J\ r j.
4 eJ- \.Jly. \.Jl.;,.
?

"IA.J.) y:* J. \ r..u li .:.- J-
. r
X
('
J-
.
· r Jr
• J.. .J J J-! (.; lJ J. J-! r,?_.!

· d ./ • ..)\.1 • .)
...r"! •. u J.
! rJ • ..l:\
? tS.J.:.i\
? J.J!.JJ.J .
..:J ') Reading Exereise.
I..SJ The Village Room. (Continued.)
• il!.;.1 JJI
lii1fT \SJ I :; :!J I
/ jÄ.j 0.) J'
·
· ;';.JJ..J ;.;"JhJ 0!j:J)
.J. 0,) ISA" J 14"
Words. 1. kropuklu foamy, creamy. 2. ikram et". to serve.
3. therefore. 4. rozenmek to do carefuUy (§ 870). 5. naql et". to
relate. 6. one day. 7. on this side.
280 r«L LesBon 34.

• J).) 0..lZ IjJ I .:.,» 0.) J
10 ." I , ju\ JÕ\. 9a)' <" A \!;.'
.. _ .. \
4kJ I • A.))..u.,k J-4kJ I
8. Talas, the elsssical Mutalsssi. 9. dibek s wooden mortar,
in whieh coffee is pounded. 10. Gh,ji a very common proper
name, Stieky. Il. khlnja khinj dolou vermek to beeome brim-foll
quiekly (§ 286).
rt Lesson 34.
Conjunetions.
§ 467. Conjunctions are partieles whieh serve to
connect words and sentenees, bringing them into a
certain relation with one another.
§ 468. There are very few conjunctions of Turkisb
origin, the nature of the language being sueh that it
scarcely requires them (§ 430). Many Persian and Arabic
conjunctions, however, are used in the language.
§ 469. 1. Copulative Con,junctions •
H. p . .J ve l
and.
, \ ile, le J
p. -t -r he.m- he'ln- both, a]so.
o:l ' t.:i-:l de, da.khi a]so, and
(§§ 116, 117).
...
R. hat'ta}
even.
bilA
p. r hlm and, 8180.
p. t. him dl and moreover.
§ 470. J ',,'e is l\.rabic or Persian originally. The
COllllnon people never use it in speeeh; its use iB proper
to books and educated people.
a) 41" J ile, le takes the place of J 'fJB for nouns
..
and prollouns, as 4.' ben 1·16 s{JIfI,' J'-J' 4'
l Jf:df,r ile oghlou, i. e. ben ve sen, peder ve oghlouj also:
Anatn babam = ananl, ile babaIn = anafn ve babam (§ 282).
" ,,.,t Conj unctions. 231
,I
b) But in place of cand' between verbs the gerunds are
used, as: 4.S:>J..J "":"-'fi alip = J (§§ 371, 435).
§ 471. Il,at'ta introduces a phrase wbich cor-
roborates what precedes it, it is generally accompanied
by de or 4L bile:
MO
.!l.).)\./. ha.t'ta biraderiii btle' or de geleJnedio
Even your brother could not come.
§ 472. 2. Disjunctive COlljunctions.
p. , ya, 'Vc ya 1
or
p . .) yakhod
a. \j'\ il'la very rather
_.!lJ -.!l..;" gerek - gerek - J 1
J-c ..
- \ - ' • <1)1
- J"-' _..,.I'\-I 'tster - 1,Ster - -5 J-c
- - 0
- - ha - ha - . i
p. _ _ ya - ya - either - or - p. nl - ne - neither - nor-
6.-;' y- ' J! ' "-! \ JJ! yokhsa, yoghousa, yoqise or, otherwise.

§ 473. Gh"ek, ha are put before two opposite
\vords or phrases to state an alternative:
Istlr gelsin ister gelmesin. Whether he choose to come or not;
let him come or not. (I do not carel)
Ge1'ek beoyuk ge1·ek kuchitk. Whether great or small.
Ha almish ha almamish. Whether he has taken it or not.
§ 474. Il'la cOlltradicts some words of the pre-
vious elause; it can be used only, if the antecedent
clause contajns a negation: it means but on the cont1
4
ary,
nay rather.
Ren deyil, il'la pederint' hasta di,·. I anl not iIl but my father.
Qizini deyil, il'la yegenini' sevlrim. I do not love his daughter,
but his niece.
§ 475. 3. Contracting Conjunctions.
- - '-' rJ'- u "et.
6.-J\ ' ' .hä,; a. ',.:(J, 8. ' ./J 3. ' l:\ a. } b t
i-se; isede,. faqat; 'eel akin; lakin; am' ma, em' rIIa ' .
p. " p. ' .;» 6,,; p. t althouah.
Ig-, eyerchi; her ne qadar I 0
§ 476. Amma, lakin, velakin, faqat are put
at the beginning of the sentences, while ise, ise de
COInes at the end (§§ 130, 239-240, 241, 245, 325, 339).
232
§ 477. Ge'rehi, evereht, her ne qadar are
followed by· Ülede (yet'.
gerchi faqir ise dl. Although he iB poort
.. • Y yet ...
4-. MiscelIaneons Conjnnctions.
§ 478. The remaining conjllDctioDS are as undel:
p • .J\ eyer, egh il (§§ 288, 381-882).
l.., san'ki, say'ki I
o,)).}*, srozdl as if, as though(ss was promised).
p. g'liga
a. yani that is to say, i. e.
p. \ ... J'.) zira }
because.
p. chunki
a. p . ....s:::\,)\.. madam ki since.
a. r.;o-'-!I rl .tl zann' ülerim, al'lahaUm vulg. aflilal", I thint.
8. t..;.) faraza }
,., 8uppoHing that .
.u rL; toutalt'ln ki
i1ncli 1
"' / therefore.
on ou II ich in
ol sebebden tberefore. p. meyer 1 unIeM, and
8. o..Lu bade1zou than, after- p. t. meyirse I still, but.
:., wurds.
a'1ljaq however, only.
4!,) , deyi in order that (I 892).
p. ki that, for. p. l! s1&a' yed \
"/ , 1 perbapa.
p. L; ta until; so that. p. bel'ki
li qaldi ki there remains (to us) that.
p. L; ta ki in order to; (before negatives) leat.
õ. Tnrkish eqnivalents for some English Conjonetlons.
§ 479. Some English idiomatic conjunctional
phrases are given below, with tlleir Turkish equivalents.
As - 80. .AR is the mother, so is the daughter J..t u-t\
J,) 0,) Anasi naril isa, qaz' da e"U tiir.
ConjunctioDs. 233
ÄS - so. AA the stars in multitude, so shall thy seed be
.;,.ü Nesliii qadar chogha-
lajaq
As - as. I am as tall as yon .;» Ben sen,1i qadar
ouzounOU1n (§ 229).
Botlt - and. Both good and bad were left to his choice. E'yi lOe
keotu ikise de emoun kendi keyfine (ikhtiyar*na
1
braqild'.
Either - or. he or I do it Ya
0' ya ben bounou
Neither - nor. N either you nor I can go. Ne sen', ne bln' gide-
bili1·iz or Sen' de ben' de gidemeyi2.
Whether - 0... I care not whether you go or stay. Gitslft de git-
mesen de oumouroumda deyil dir.
Ir - then. If you will take this, then I will take that. Sen bounou
aUrsan ben de al birini
So - that. It was so late that I could not come. Ol qadar gej
idi ki gelemedim.
:Not only - but a180. She was not only poor, but also very sick.
Hem {aqir ve hem or hem de kasta idi (§ 474).
Thongb - yet. Though he live many years, yet his life is a
failure. Choq' seneler ise ae, eomru boshouna'
gitdi.
Theretore - because. Therefore doth my father love me, because
I lay down my life. Ben eomromu (eda etdiyim ichin
01' etdiyimden pederim de beni 8evi-r.
j:.j Words.
chalmaq to play
a. san' at profession
dikilmek to stand up directly
--
a . .1i.; naqid money
8. arv' pardon
f kel bald·head
re ed
eyilmek to bend,
- to cnrve.
a. mlrkeb donkey; murekkeb made, composed of; ink.
V"\ Exerelse 'i6.
4i T J .:;f. r1i J
LG ! i..cil - ! 15 1 4i
r IJ}JI r )!.c)t)"T
234: ...... J"esson 34.
J> J;) to • f ,"JJ-
- 0 • ).!iy"
· r.:e;);i (.l:-" f rl!;}
v ';.s:::,
j-iT ..;' 41; 4!.J! J-> J .. Cs"",::,\>
ieJ! ' JI., r=:-JJ! J..\i WJI oj- A.
• J".. J J. J..\!J! :!loJb .õC.bl.", • f-o.J'..J ... Ji
.. I
vv Exerelse 77.
JJ4!.,1 e,) ' i-1:-ts' )II ..s..cil J;)IJ. \
e): W.,;) • j-<!;),"Y..J t.4-e...';.J ,-:,'r:..(' J.
·LS.x:[' jJ. 'LS.l\('
t • (4-.)G) 15,)41("
0'. 0 • iJJ..\! .. e,) j- r
tf5
J!\ )..\!
41; :r j<J J ·
• 6- , .. G);) 0) .... ,w • ..,40 J. ' · (bilmeti) ruJ
.) U U J.,.. • J
A • jl..\:i)U"; 0;) UT J..I! Jj e;)ejls('j\ LSI.: V '
• LG Wn.
1

_S::::;, l" ! . ,. • " lC"'".
'->.. .. u '-' u U ,.. J • U" j JI.
\ \ . el);) J. e;)
· Jfl ' .,;...1:. 4-.[ dJ! \ T • .:,j J.
v " J Translation 78.
1. Your sister and 111)" niece. 2. We have written
a long exercisc, but ,ve hayc not learnt it. 3. You
111USt -go h01110 directly, or you ,vill get wet; for it
,,..
ConjonctioDS. 285
will SOOD rain. 4. «The rood hends, but does not
break.:t 5. Y ou ought to speak to your children, for
they are very naughty. 6. Do not waste your time,
for life is made up of it. 7. «Time is 8. The
horse may be very strong, nevertheless (yine) it does
not please me. 9. He was very tired, nevertheless he
continued working. 10. I feared lest (degl) he should
die. 11. As [sinee] he does not ,vork, I shall give hillI
nothing. 12. I \vish y'ou to \vait till I have done Iny
exercise. 13. After I had breakfasted, I took a walk,
although it was raining a little.
VC\ J Translatlon 79.
1. Give me YOllr letter that I may send it to the
post-offiee. 2. He says he will not marry until he has
a profession. 3. R·ead it twice, lest (yokiisa) you forget
it (Aor.). 4. The lady must be careful, lest she fall (Fut.).
5. The more frequently you practice (what you learn
in) your music lesson, the better you will pla)T it.
6. Uniess the Lord build the house, their labour is in
vain, who build it. 7. Ask him when he will eome.
8. Wh)T did you sleep so long? - I slept so long, because
I was very tired. 9. The more I study Turkish, the
more I like the language. 10. I do not know whetller
he is rich or poor .
..t Conversatlon.
· r j.Jj.i.Jt(' r 6..-JJ.(' \ 0,) 0,) J.:.?' J l:..-\
?
• rjy"}';} .J!,) r.)6.!.J') ? 4
..;. , ..;L j.r-: J: \ ..r \ r \ ,) le r)\-- J.J \ W \j <.s j: \..!.

• y.. y:'
· JJ! r.>.:S:;

· , r -,,:1\

? ;<,)U.T J!
'I rJ w,)ft.;...:'<
?
WJ\ f..;l; .J-
k

236 ,... Lesson 35.
Beadlng Exerc118.
The Room. (Continued.)
6.-,)\j' :; 1I..ci t.. a J' Il Jo J 1 ;.;4"
..' , . t_, l_ J .t I·, ,5 , 4.. ,8 ... -"
""'r.:- . o..l:J.r ).1..1'
J-II;; f./" · 15'"'!,'
':t<' .J.:,.J' • 1I;;..:i ..\,jJ;\::- 6 J-! ..p(' I
! !l..Ltt(' ..fJ;" ! - : -1:..". J. .,\JI Jj
• JJ! 4; JIJ 4i II.) !
';J\::- dj' --5:U) 4i li· ..
. 7,-,UD. 4Ilif
... ..
8 'I r-'J} 4i II,) r ;';J,) 1 \f J!-!- (4-»-
• 15'"'!,')
0/ 15j-SC...- ! llJ\!J' 4i
<lsJJ41JI J\I jj} fJ'
() <.s ) •
Words. 1. Keones prop. name, Star (Slavonic). 2.
a sergeant in the urrny. 3. Qoubour prop. name, a boIster. 4:. '*'"'
a captain (of J anissaIojes). 5. ise while. 6. klyf chatfllaq to be in
complete merriment. 7. khitab et". to addreS8. 8. never, abeo-
Jutely. 9. See § 405. 10. khayr ola what is the Good
news, let us hope. 11. oushaq! children I boys I 12. tUgi I 892.
13. geoz qoulaq ol". to be all eyes an(l ears, to pay fnlI attention.
1 0 Lesson 35.
CI ...
\..,\.; .j.r The Interjections.
§ 480. Interjections are words which are used to
express asudden or violent emotion of the mind.
The InterjectiODS. 287
Sometimes they are used alone, and sometimes
aeeompanied by the word to which they refer, which
in Turkish is generally put in the dative:
! af erin, aferim! Bra vo ! Well dona I I ts(. Ü'J\ aferim
sana! Good for you! I 0 J- tSu "ay sid! W oe unto you I
I I ey! hey!
! u;. Ad skish!
! oulan!
! ya'hou!
OI eht
hallool
! ! o./. birl, bre; be! 1
.. . Fellow I
I be hlrif! J
! ,:.. \.J "akh! \
\..... \ AIas!
I \ eyvah'! J
! janim! My dear!
! yaziq! What a pity I
-
! aferim! Bravol Capital!
! 0 L.T an&an! 0 dear! Oh I Pity!
I baqsa'na! Look! I sayI I ajayib! Wonderful!
! oJ,., hayde! Come I Hie thee! ! yiflii! }
• - -- Begone!
! c.>\.J 'Vay! Woe! ! J.J'e,) def'ol!
! CJf' sous! Hush! a.1 c.>\ ey'vallah! Thank you!
a. ! r)\': .. H.J ves'Selanl! All right! All correet, O. K.
8. I \ l!. L. ma' ahaliah! Beautiful f How strange!
a. ! \ \.!; \ in' sh allah ! If God willi Please God f I hope so!
R. ! ma'zallah! God forbid! Shocking!
a. ! (...J \ Al' lak kerim! God is gracioos! Let us hope!
a. ! J..J,.\ elhamdu-lil'Zahi com. elhamdul'lah! Thank God I
A. Exerelse 80.
0";-- , jI ,
! ,,:,..u.J! ! I T ! oj- 4$IJ
I bJIJ t. !Jr-;) "" .JJ"!;
JJ...[ 4$JI; J! • J "!oIJJ! ! &-> ,,:,\lJI 0
O;)J!J\::- ,,:,.6:;I J..IiJ! !"';'.J'o,;:' 'J;) J,JJc cliA) r-
! y '4$J.!J;) 15 -.'J,:" 4>::;'j) J..\i
288 ,... Lesson 35.
! ' t';";';f' ;"'J:> A
0:> ! \ .JJ'y':!4" JJ':'
· JJ 4" lA:> .11,,;) I • t..uJ'.Jr
.. b\ r;r 7k!' ! ' t"t;)J) 0;) fir.J':' J-. I ·
to..ul) , J ! ;"'W \ \ oJ..\i.1.
• :!JJ4::-!:> ;,., LJ ;,., LJ \ JJ! *- \ 'I J;)"; JJ":-;" ! \,.
! t..cil \ 0 j)l; I J.J.f;.),!i' \ t-
, .:>jIJY. lA;) Y. ! " '?
1 .! L:_.
J ..
Readlng herelse.
1.5) The Village Room. (Continued.)
ut:> ':;J;) , ... b
or I.5j;:' 4!!):iJ j.!; WJ;)) -
· 5 Jt! \r.;'; y. 4!.' yo
• r..uli 7
r
..l!.\! · JJ! 6J.,"'-.!' .:>b-,' t"
: t" }.""!:> • J!:> , r.l!.»
·
;,.,- I 1 (,:'oJ)"; , t" r.x:.f' 8
JJJJ\ ll:!JJJf ' 10 t::::':::: Jy' o..li)l\ 9#-\1\; , )f\jl;
IS);; Jj;
lVords. 1. {Oksitrmek to cough. 2. aqsirmaq to aDeeze.
S. tara pan. 4. tenjiri cauldron, saueepan. 5. QasanjUar Char-
81l181, (The market of) Hoiler - Makers. 6. s"'amata an uproar.
7. to be 8. qop11laq to run. 9. qalayjt an artisan wbo
tins copper vesseIs. 10. hammer. 11. k8Jnlk a pair of
bellows. 12. qoja! qoja! tremendous. 13. taqourtouqour arepeated
tapping and knocking noise.
The InterjeetioDs. 289
J f .;A , JlT U .jJ 4:)J 1
()U .)! .. )} .!tlj\;
14. ortal'q the whole (iield). 15. tiqamaq to pInge 16. aghzitatJ
to the brim. (They have placed a. big ladder on the onteide of
the cauldron from the bottom to the brim.)
..l.u L. Continued.
2 4A).1. ! 14 4i ' '" I b. I j li ' i,i .;A»
-' t • t .. It I '" .. co It <" '" I -,
:JJ:! ' Y. tU.,") Y. J' .J. )\J r,)
'5.):L<' .tS' o..ä l_.J. 0,)
..... .r.).. .
• • sJ§ \ff Sl 4:), I •
• 4i./
dJ": ....Ä!./I..:.!Y
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• J
• o..l; Ij \j .J.
- .. .,
, • Jljl; ! J.J.»
· 4i 4i O.M /' • i..Lls"" i-iiI.;:
()\.J - «Jy..
t4
.:.( Ji clilj\i
Words. 1. ne defl,! what do you say f what a "Tonuerl 2. keome
group. 3. ghalabaliq erowd. 4. chekijlemek to hornmer (§ 276).
5. kinetlemek to elamp 6. lehimlemek to solder. 7. qalay-
lalnaq to tin. 8. a day when father and mother both are at hOlne;
henee, a state of noise and confusion. 9. qiyamet qopouyor a
commotioD i8 ocenring: lito the Day of Judgement is breaking.
10. Soultan Mourad Amurath I\T. 11. Baghdad seferi the Baghdnd
campaign (A. D. 1638). 12. te-aj·jub et". to be astoIliMlled. 13. See
§ 447.
..l.u L. Continued.
· '";""1::-- 2JI.;A
Words. 1. naqliyet story. 2. meraqjelb et". to arouee the interest.
240 ,... U",);, Leason 35.
, ....
, \ <' · t l· ,. , .' . .,., •. ... \-
u-!,) :r · .. ..
8
i
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fo .j: • ' •
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9J).Jy. J.;_! "':"-JI )y.; !
i?W "":; ":'-liljJI t" ! i""!' )x:;f'lO.,:,.J..:_ .JJI ...,..)\;
• 15-,!\ ..:.:. ! 11;.<"' <l-Jjl..l • c.J...1.
13, 12. <",. "",. .... / ,<,
.J. .c r,)Jy
l.)
3. merho·um deceased, blessed. 4. Skak' na1l1e cThe Book
of Kings', the celebrated work of the Persian author Firdousi.
b. gharib wonderful. 6. Qavas prop. name. 7. el ent your speech
with hODey' Ca polite expression used 'when one is obliged to
interrupt the taIk of another). 8. emr et. allow, permit (hirn).
9. biYl,ghtn' bourmaq to twist his mustaehe. 10. ot'a fieId. 11. g8w-
seniz if you had seen. 12. See § 404. 13. i-ri large. 14. ltIMM
cabbage.
Continuet}.
"": , 2.;.4); J.))JI lJl<=;' • .dT t.td.-»
Jfi ",,:;SS .:))\ .& • ..>IJ
"-!' • .dT •
lVords. 1. p. htin-kiar the Fortunate One, a title of the Ottoman
sovereigns (§§ 535, 556). 2. to form a eam p, to encamp. 8. teot.
4. jirid is a certain game played on horseback, in which • atiet
is used as a dart. 5. innumerabIe (§ 404).
,\.,
AppeDdix. 24:1
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- 16 A ",
( • \ • \ • .J) •
6 . .4jem sethi the Peraian expedition. Baghdad was then
in the handa of the Perajans. 7. muba-laghal' exaggerated.
8. ouymaq to fit, to match. 9. bürmk to grow (plant). 10. qop-
maq to pluck out. 11. qOB qojaman very big, gigantic. 12. khalq
people. 18. bayilmaq to faint. 14. See § 447. 15. siviBhi 'Vermek
to slip away quietly (§ 286).
r \.:..,;. Khita'ln End.
r" Lesson 36.
Appendix.
§ 481. The method in which to address and salute
people always requires considerable attention. The
Ottomans theruselves are very careful about such mat-
especially in writing. Every class of people has its
especial title by which its members must be addressed.
Turkish Conv.·Grammar. 16
242 ... , rJ' Jl Leeson 86. , ... r
I. Salutation. 8elamlamaq.
§ 482. The Moslems salute one another with the
address Selam'un aZeykum C:peace ba unto yon', the an-
swer is Ve alCgk'ltm selam C:unto yon be peaee'. And
when necessary to return the salutation, the one saluted
says Merhaba C:you are welcome!', to whieh is answered
Ey' vallali-' C:Thank you'.
§ 483. Christian s salute Christians and non-
Christians, and Moslems Christians in the morning by
saying Sabah'lar khayr olsoun! C:May the mornings ba
good' = C:Good morningl' At noon-time or in the
middle of the day, Vaqitlar khayr olsoun! (Good day'.
In the evening they say: Akkshamlar khayr olsoun!
rGood eveningl' When it is neeessary to return the
salute, the person saluted says: Khosll, geldiftis f yon are
weleome'; or, Sabah'lar olsoun, VaqUlar kh,ayr 01-
soon, Akhsltarnlar kha,yr olso,un, aeeording to the time
of day.
§ 484. At parting, Moslems and Christians BSY
Qal sagh-ltqla, Khoshja' gaZ; Qa'lin saghliqla, Khoshja' qalill,
all meaning C:Good -bye': the reply to which is Kkosh,r
geldiniz, sera' geldiniz C: you are weleome'.
§ 485. But at night when taking leave they 8ay
Gejeler khayr' olsoun C:Good night': to which tlle &nswar
is Khayra qarshf, C:Toward the good one (morning)' which
extends the idea of the salutation to the morning light.
II. Congratulations. Telwikiii:t.
.. .
§ 486. Returning after an absenee, one is greeted with
Khosh' geldiniz C:Welcomel': to which he replies KAoli/{
goord11k! which may be rendered C:I am happy to see you'.
§ 487. If the new comer has entered the room
in the absenee of the person whom he comes to visit,
the latter, on eoming in, makes use of the same salu-
tation, only substituting the Dubitative for the Paat
tense ge'lrn,ishsiniz.
§ 488. In the East it is considered polite, in meeting
a person, to ask after the health of absent pa11mu or
Appendix. 248
It
friends. In answering such questions, it is necessary
to consider the age of the person who aeks:
a) If he is junior, the answer given is Ohoq saam-
lar eder cHe offers you many salutationa'. Then t·ha
younger man replies El'lerini laperim, makhsous selam
seoyle el kiss his hands, give (him) my compliments'.
If the person regarding whom he bas asked is of high
rank, much superior to his own, he saya, Eteklerini
eoperi,ttt, makhsous selatn seoyle el kiss his skirts, many
compliments' .
b) If the person who enquires about the health of
the absent person is aged and of good position, ft is
customary to answer Ellerinizi ooper (He kisses your
hands', or with more formality E'teklerinizi ooperler ('fhey
(he) kiss your skirts'. .
§ 489. The person who is to convey these greet-
ings Assurnes the responsibility by saying Bash' ustune
con my head' = (with pleasureI' and acquits himself
of it when he meets the person to whom the greetings
are sent by saying Filan effendi choq' choq' selamlar
seoyledi, ellerifiiei eOper eMr. S. offers yon many salu-
tations and kisses your hands'. To whicll the other
replies a) Teshek-kur' ederim cThanka 1'; b) Sagh' olsoun
CMay he be welll'; c) Getiren geonderen' sagh olsoun
CMay he who brings and he who sends the selam be
weIl I' ; d) El eopen' sagh olsoun (May he who kisses
hands be welll' As we say, el am much obliged both
to you and to him' (§§ 365, 375).
§ 490. Wben somebody drinks something, or
washes his hands or comes from the hath or shaves
himself or is shaved by a barber, it is usual to say
Afi.l/et' olsoun! cHealth be to you!': to which the other
replies Eornrufi choq' olsoun! CMay your life be long 1'.-
\Vhich may be rendered (Thank youl' (§ 36õ.)
§ 491. At the beginning of the new year they say
J:"'eni seneniz mubarek' olsoun! Bali jedidifiie mubarek'
olsoun! cA happy new year to you!': the answer ta
,,"hich is Choq' senelere (For many years I' (§ 365.)
§ 492. Among the Moslems on both their festi-
vals (Ramazan and Qourban) the form of congratulation
16*
244 ... , Lesson 86.
is BaytraJJlifUz '1nubarek' olsoun, or eedifiis sagid' olsoun
your festival be blessed'.
§ 493. Besides the above, which are for eet times,
there is a great variety of occRsional salutations and
congratulations, sueh as (§ 365):
1. Geozufiuz aydin' olso'ttn! or more learnedly, OMaA-
miftiz roosken' olsoun! your eye be bright', addressed
to one whose daughter or son have just married, to
parents on the birth of achiId, or to those who have
just weleomed a new reIative or dear friend from
abroad, or even received a letter from la distant friend.
The reply to this is: Aydinliq' ichinae OZ! you
enjoy the light' or Da'l40sou {]Vinize' olsoun! (The sama
(nlillet) to your house!' or if addressed to a bachelor.
Darosou baskiniza' olsoun! your turn come nen!'
2. To one who enters a dwelling the salutation
is Saghlijaq' ile otou'l4asin! t'May you dwell in it in good
health! '
3. To one who puts on a new garment Säghlijaq'
ile geyinesifi! yon wear it with healthl'
4. To one who is eommeneing an enterprise Allah
ish' achiql1,gh1, ve'l·sin! God give you success I'
õ. To one who is convaleseent after an illness
Gechmish,' ola! C:May it be past and forgotOOnl' (§ 866).
6. To one who has lost a friend, or to imply the
death of a friend enquired after Bash.ints sagn' olsoutl.!
(Life to you 1': the answer is Allah size ousoun «)murle,.'
C:God grant many years of life to you!'
7. 'Vhen somebody receives any sum of money,
he usuaIly says, Bereket versin! C:May God give you a
blessing (blessed increaseY = t'Thank youl': the reply
to which is Be1reketini' geo1
4
es1:n! you experience its
increase !'
8. Teshekku·r' ederim, Memnoun' oum, are expressions
in imitation of the European phrase, t'Thank youl' and
their usage is confined to educated cireles. The common
people express the sarne meaning by such terms as:
Sauit' ol! Eline saghliq'. When addressed to a child
or an inferior you!' is expressed by Ohoq' ,asba,
A'ferl:m ogll,lolun! CVery good!, Weil done my boy I')
Appendix. 245
9. When speaking of a disease from which the
speaker has suffered in the past, he must add the ex-
pression Sheytan' qo·ulagklna qourshoun! (Lead into Satan's
ear) = (May Satan's ears be stopped that be shall not
hear what is now spoken I'
10. One who is obliged to use an impolite ex-
pression, or to name an unelean animaI (as for instanee
the dog, donkey or pig which are considered unclean
among the Moslems), he must add Seozum oii,a'! Seazum
yabana'! Ha'sha houzourdan! (My word to himl My
word to the desert I Be it warded off from your hOIlQur'
= Tardon the expression' or cExcuse me for saying sol'
11. Inayet' o-la! Al'lah versin! (May God's favour
ba upon youl' (Let God give yon': to the beggars, by
way of refusing them alms (§ 365).
12. When somebody is going on a journey, in
bidding farewell he says Kkoslzja qalln!, AUaha sf,mar-
ladlq!, Bizi douvada ounoutmaylfi!, (Good byel Remember
us in your prayers!': to whieh the answer is Allaha
emanet oloun!, Rab'bim bilenisje oZsoun! (We command
you to Godl', (The Lord be with you'; or Oughourlar
olsou,n! tGod speed 1', Good byel, tGood luck attend youl'
13. Ziyade olsoun! (May it be too much' = (No,
thank you l' Formula nsed in declining an invitation
to partake of food.
14. (Pardon the omission', (Don't pay attention to
my shortcomings l' and (I beg your pardon I' are rendered
in Turkish by Qousoura qal'lnayiii!, Arv edersifiiz!
III. Modes of Address.
§ 494. The word ~ sen (thou' is not used exeept
with reference to a ehild, an intimate friend, a servant
or a pupil: at other times ..i-' sis (you' is used to one's'
equals, unIess for politeness' sake one of the words now
to be explained takes its place (§ 93).
§ 49õ. In addressing superiors, the words r-.ci' '
.reI" , ;s:qk ~ ' ) Efflmdim, zatinfz, or za'ti altiiis are
used meanh;g (Sir', (Your RODonr" or (Your Lordship'.
'246 ... , rJ'Jl Les80n 86.
, ... ,
Other such terros are , klI a'k ipayiail,
(the dust of your feet': that is, the speaker
addresses the d ust of the foot of the other, ou, of
humility (§ 69).
§ 496. }tote. The \vord Effendi1nis has two different
If it us ed .the Christiane,. it
means Our Lord' (the Saviour). If It 18 connected With
the word .f/hevketlne-ab' (Imperiai', as Shkketm6ab Effe.
dinu'e, it means (R. I. our Sultan).
Among the innumerable titles of H. I. M. the Sultan,
the following: Eal?' shaJlane, saei hazreti padishahi (His
majesty the Emperor' are very eOlnmOll.
§ 497. The words Mzretleri, jenableri ehis (lit.
their) majesty, excellency, highness' are titles equivalent
to (his lnajesty, his lordship, his excellency', but they
are plaeed after titles and names and not ba fore. them,
as in most European languages:
InIJperator haeretlp'ri H. I. Majesty.
Ingilter' ra qralichast haz1'ctleri H. :rt!. the Queen ofEngland.
Vali paslta Itazretleri H. E. the Governor.
QaY'lnaqa1n biy hae1
4
ctleri H. Honour the Qaymaqam.
Hoja effendi jenable'ri The respeeted teacher.
§ 498. It is considered more polite to address
superiors in the third person plural: Za'tf aZizerine 1ihiI,g'li
zahm,et verdirn (I have given your Excellency much
trouble' .
§ 499. In high and polite circles the speaker cannot
speak of himself as (I' , or others as (he, we, they'.
He luust say:
Bendefiiz, fJoulouuouz, ajizleri I (your servant).
Bend"leri, qoul'lari I or (your servant or servants).
Dayileri I, he, '\ve (who pray for you) used by and
of clergYlnen. .
Jariyrniz, jariyeleri I, we (your maid servant) used
by and of ladies.
§ 500. Generally the word !taSt·et before a single
name indieates one of the prophets, saints or patriarchs
of old; as: I-la z rl/ Ib'l·altirn (the patriarch Abraham'.
llazr{/ti Davoud prophet David'. Haerett Souley'ftlIJta
Appendix. 247
prophet (King) Hazreti Isa (ee-sa) Effen-
dimiz tOur Lord Jesus'. Halreti Meryem, Meryem Ana
Mary' (the virgin Mother). Hazre'ti Meseeh' (the
Holy Anointed One' (Christ).
IV. Honorifle Titles. Elqabi Besm'lye.
.. .
§ 501. Titles of Honour also are of great im-
as every person of position must be addressed
by his own proper title .
sheha'metlou (valorons and successful', is ueed
for the Shah of Peraia.
hash''1netlou imperial' for Christian
.
soverelgns.
esa'letlou (noble'. for the ambassadors and
eonsuls.
):;J r'ltt'betlou chonorable, venerable' (His Grace)
for clergymen of high rank, patriarchs, archbishops,
bishops nnd missionaries.
(azi'letlolt for judges, priests, pastore
.and preachers.
;:J ;:,. \;J (ekha' metlou dev'letlou (illustrjous and
magnificient' for the I{hidive of Egypt and Presidents of
Republics.
):;.,1" devletlou a.toufetlou and muni-
ficient' for Grand Viziers.
J\:lJ:> devletlou for (Governors-General).
sa-a'-detlo'lt for t.he Mllteear'rifs.
);.r iz'zetlou for the Qaymaqams.
):.JJ rif' atlou teminent' for other offieiaIs.
);J JA ' P.r m'ltruv' t'etlou,- ltur' metlou fgenerons,
respected' to Dlerchants, teachera, etc.

248 ... , Lesson 86.
is' metlou C:virtuous' for married ladies.
il' (etlmt tehaste' for unmarried ladies.
Mis a l'let- Exnmples.
Dtt", devletkhaneye 1 geldim, em' ma la' ti alt"izi gljjrlmhliM.
I came to your house yesterday, but you were not at home.
Faqirkhanlye' ne vaqit tesl,rif edejeksilliz? When you "iU
honour (visit) my house?
Hemskire haninl nasil dir? - Hemshirem jangelBri c1aoq
kasta dir. How is your sister? - My sister is very sick.
Bcndeleri pek faqirim, zati aU"iz ise pek sengi", Billv. I am
very poor, but you are very rieh.
Anleriqa jumhouriyeti reyisi fekhametlou dhlitlou Me Ki .. ",
hazretleri. His Honour Mr. Me Kinley, the President of the Republic
of AOlerjca.
Dayillri .Anatolia Collegi mudiri yim. ] am the President
of Anatolia College.
Jariyelcri Protestan mektebi mou-al'limlsi yim. I am the
teaeher of the Protestant School.
Words. 1. Dbvletkhane the abode of prosperity, i. e. your
house, used as a term of politeness. 2. Faqirkhane the house
of your poor servant, i. e. my house.
A' Exereise 81.
jI_ ,..:.,,1; ;;J.J'. \
)L T • ..li'!lj &) ! J.l(' J.l(' • ;. , I J ......
, r f'! t-r'J r
· !b.,kJI !l)J!y' i)L {::.Js.J - I
'-:IJSG (,).JSG. • iul \!il I
.J'. , J--5 &-4ijf J.1.
JJ! 4i )'-' 4i • }jj - '-:IyC..1.
J!I • 0;- ! JJI Jl:!-0 l -
JI 0 • -{JI ' J-=!I -j-
I õ ut' .? '-:I.;s:::. I
Words. 1. 8. sigaret to go on 8 visit. 2. a. tlfllidl to
condeseend. S. a. Mouratl prop. name. 4. 8. Ny your
son Master. •. 5. a. makhsous espeeial.
Appendix. 249
J!I 1:J::. l,ai j- ! i..cil -
.:Jj-r'.1. l:; • J.1. ! jli! ,
• (.1 ! ;;r); .:;.'J; 4;<J · r-!-lJ
· }:::-jL.)r' J!:l )..llS":l J.ai ).ll..:ü r-
J
:> y.. , jl.lji
; ;:>- ! 8 y ! t". :.,:,' I JJ; 0';'
,. • l!.... .. \ J ..
" • •
.J:...q' .1.'.1. -»'.1. :;J) ! ,..Li' -
J!)S(';I 1l(..lA.; A
... ., •• , 12 l' .. I , A., .. ,... , ... , •
4f.f> . ,..l:' ,-,)\a-, - \
!
f'! f'!
6. halUliz dirliyiltiz the cireumstaneee of your life. 7. uzerinize
Bbiralar olsottn! may it be health to you! 8. a. /stagh'(troul'lah
li t. el ask pardoll of God' = Not in the least, I have no such
pretensions. 9. loutrln be kind enough rIo. th' tiramat' rayiqa
(my) highest respeets. 11. taqdim It." to present. 12. a. se-a-dM
ile! Go in happines8 (said to a departing friend).
A '" Excrclsc 82.
J.Jj ;...cil \
5J)\'-').) .j tr.. , T • j!.AJJ!.1.
...
):,.L;J J!JJt'; t
).:}J.)
0 .8)!A)J'J.
W ordB. 1. a. roogara poor people. 2. 8. ih' 8an bouyourmaq
to grant, to beetow. 8. Der'sa-a-det Conatantinople (I 519).
4. qidemli senior. 5. Saltatla'ti seniyl The Ottoman Government.
6. Muneer prop. name, Lucian. 7. houzour presenee. 8. a. qaboul
bouyourmaq to accept.
250 ... , tJ.)l Le880D 86.
f'·
llij , 4.SP P ):tJ.)
f J p l!:."..s;
4!!I .1.;<;1;' 4SP.;-
V • ;s::::-.... .:,,1;' -
A
- 'I l°..:. .. .:,,1; '\ •
\. · r J J::! 1 .::. .. \jl 1l • ..l:.-4U P. r' 4S"'-;?-
, "
lii:";? J,)JIJ j.t .;.s:::;:l(1;.
.
..
9. a. devam to eontinue. 10. a. iqamet et." to dweIl. 11.8o(OfllM
fnaharlesi the street ealled Sofoular (in Merzifoun). 12. a. tlBhW'rif
to be honored (we 'could not see yon).
A y" J TranslatloB 88.
1. H. l. M. the German EOlperor, William II. 2. His
Grace the .Armenian Patriarch. 3. His Excellency the
Governor of Angora. 4. His Eminence, the Mlltesarrif
of Samsoun, Qadri Pasha. õ. H. E. tlle English Am-
bassador Sir Nicholas O'Connor. 6. H. E. the American
Ambassador at Constantinople, Dr.Angel. 7. Rev. Charles
Tracy, President of Anatolia ColIege. 8. Rev. Carabet
Küprielian; Rev. Kerope Yakoubian. 9. I request your
Excellency to give me permission to go to England.
10. Under the shadow of His Majesty (sageYi PaiÄ-
shaln·de) we are all safe. 11. H. H. Artin P8sha, the
AUlbassador of the Ottonlan Governmentin London. 12. I
have received your lettere 13. I was for two hours waiting
for you at my house, but you did not come: afterwards
I went to your house, but you were not at home.
14. Please give me to-day's newspapers. lõ. How is your
father's healthat 16. Thank you, Doctor" be is very well,
through your kind assistanee (saye' yi aZiiiiede). 1 'le My
sister is the wife of Kemal Bey. 18. When did yon
eonle bere? - I came three days ago with your 800.
y.. Appendix. 21)1
V. bnomatopoeia.
§ õ02. Is the term applied to words or phrases, the
sound of whieh conveys SOIDe idea of or resernhlanee to
the tbing signified.
It is eustomary in common language to use some
expressions. For instanee, they say in
Turkish:
Sou k1&aril "haril aqiyor. The ,,"ater flowa violently.
Taq taq qapouya vourdou. Tap tap he knocked at the door.
Jombadaq (or jomb deyf) souya attldf. Be threw himself
(with noise into) the water.
These words kharil kltartl, jomb are intended to
represent the sound of the water when flowing or
splashing, just as taq taq does that of knocking at
the door.
Sa-at tiq ttq tiq edi,yordou. The watcb ,,-as ticking, -
tick, tick'.
Kilisenil1 chatU elati doun IiJtuyordou. The church bell was
xinging, ding-dong.· .
Ellerini shapour shoupour birbirinlvourdoular. They Iondly
elapped their hands.
jivil jivi1 eõtuyor1ar. The birda are singing
tweet tweet.
VI. wl.,I
§ 503. Is the notification, announeement, eall to
divine worship, proclaimed from a minaret or any other
place, five times a day, by the rntl-cz'-zin (chanter). The
following is the formula:
L :First of all Al'lahou ekbere I:God is Most Great' four
times repeated, turning the face towards the four directioDs of
'the world.
2. J\ 0\ Esh'-hldu ell'",e la ila'" il14rlah. I bear
witness that (there is) not 8 god, save God [twice repeated].
3. JrJ 0\ Esh-he-du enne Mouhammlden re-
soul oullah. I bear witness that Moubammed is the apostle of
God [twice].
4. Hay'ye ales'se1at. Hasten to divine \\7orship
[twice].
5. c>'-'l\ Hay'ye alel felah. Hasten to permanent
blessedness [twice J.
252 ... , t..r.)l LeSSOD 86.
'Ir
6. Allahlllkbb. God ia «reat [twice &gain repeated).
7. J\ La ilahe illaZ'laA. [Once repeated.]
The eall ehanted at daybreak has this addition after
the fOtlrth elause:
r.,,:J\ Es'-seltJtu khay'"un mi" m' Mmt. Prayer
is better than sleep.
In great and imperial mosques, the mU-U' -Ii.
sometimes make optional additions to the fifth elausa; as:
I ! J...;'-.)Y l! I r:>LI\.J -J-J'
! Jr.) Es'selatu 11es'selamu aleyk, ya Habse balZah/ or Ya
noore arshillah! or Yasey' yidul el)' velem 'eel' a-kiirem! or Y li
resoul oul'lahl May blessing and peace be upon thee, 0 Beloved
one of Godf or 0 Light of the throne of God! or 0 Prince of
the former and later (prophets)! or 0 Prophet of Godl
Inside the place of worsbip also, this eall is uttered
when worship begins; but then .with this addition after
the fifth clause:
..ü Qad qametis'salat. Divine worship has alread1
been entered on (begun) [twice].
VII. The Christian Services. ; ..:.,,; \.
.....
§ 504. The Benedietion:
Hisous Kristosouii [or Isa-el-Mesihiil]
'tnageti, Peder Allahtmtzin mouhab'beti ve Rouhoul Qoudsou'
'fJu'lsnareketi jumleniz ile beraber Amin.
The Lesson:
Oqouyajaghim mahal Tekvee' nul Makhlouqat Kitabint'
birinji bi1"inji ayetinden 16
in
ji agitine qadar dir.
Mat-tcosoun tahreer eylediyi Injilift alttnjf, boo.,."
iptidastndan sonounadek oqouyajaghfm.
Pavlos Rcsoulouü R01nalilu
'
ra re.saleniii ott
ikinji babind an oqouyaja.ghirn.
Onounjou, :Jleentourou.
The Text:
Louqasiu tallreet· eylediyi I1ljilin sekisinji balnn"
y-irm'i birinji agetl: haq'qinda 'fJu1ta-la-a' edejegim.
Youhan' na Injilinin birinji bab yirmi doqousOU,ajOll
ayetinin ikinji qlslni uze·rine ·vaz edejeyim.
, ....
Appendix. 253
Esa'st Kelamimf,z Amalt Rousool Kitabinin d6Jrdunju
bab on ik/inji agetinde boulounour or '1nevjoud dour.
The Hymn:
Maqam Kitabinin altinji sahifesi'llde boulounan oni-
kinji ilahigi teren' -num edelim.
Yus otouz yedinji 't1ahiyi terhl,'-num edelim.
Tes!tek'kttr ilaktOsini terennum edeltOm.
The Baptismal fonnula:
Laura Eupheme, sini Pederin, Oghouloun ve Bouhoul
Qoudsoun namina [or bismil Eb vel Ibn vel Rouhoul
Qouds] vaftis edeMm.
The Ending of Prayers:
Rabb ve Kkelaskmnmzz Hisous Krisdosou'" ismi sheri-
linde dileriz, ih' san {:yle, Ameen!
"1. ..
Ju rt
~ ~ \ ~ ~ . . . . ) 0 U
.-
254
~ > - Jt lf J' ~ , ~ ~
Second Part.
The Elements of Arabic and Persian
Grammar
as
they are used in Ottoman-Turkish.
Introductory Remarks.
§ 505. The Arabic and Persian langnages and
literature have for many centuries exercised a very
extensive influence upon the Ottoman.. Therefore there
are very many Arabie and Persian words and phrases
used in Ottoman. In order to be able to understand
and use them correetly, it is necessary to have an
elementary knowledge of Arabic and Persian Grammar.
§ 506. The following points should be noted:
a. All sueh Arabie and Persian words taken singly
are declined according to the grammatical system of
the Turkish language.
b. All such Arabie words taken singly may ba-
nsed in accordanee witll the rules of Persian Grammar.
But genuine Turkish words cannot be treated in this way.
c. Only genuine Arabic words are used according
to the Arabic grammatieal system, Turkish and Persian
words cannot be so dealt with.
§ 507. There are, however, some very much used
Turkish and Persian words which are treated according
to the rules of Arabie Grammar, because they are
supposed to be Arabic. Sueh words are called . . : , , ~
O).,rA ghalata' ti 'Inesh' Itourc ebarbarisms' or tmanifest
errora' (§ 583).
r •• The Persian Plura!. 256
Note. There are some orthographic signe which are peenliar
to Arabic; but as mention has heen made of these in the In-
troduction, they do not require to be dealt with again here
(§§ 35-48).
rv Lesson 37.
e=:- The Persian Plural.
§ 508. In the Persian language there are only
two the and the PluraI.
§ 509. Persian pluraIs are formed in two ways:
a. If the nOUD he the name of an animate being, it
may form its pluraI by taking the terrnination -an; as:
:l...r tnerd a man
.).)\J. birader a brother
sheer a Hon
W\:lj ,n/raan men.
w\';:l\J. biraderan brothers.
sheeran Hons.
b. If the Persian noun be the name of an inanim a te
object, it becomes pluraI by the addition of \A -ha; as:
Jt- sal a year l;l L., saZ' ha years.
derya a sea deryaha seas.
§ 510. If the animate nouns end in a voweI he
(-a, -e), their pluraI is made by changing that letter
into giaf (-g-) and adding -alt; as:
bende a servant
\,J';' khaje, khoja a teacher
a. talebe student
o tS' bendegran servants.
o \.;.. khajegiJln teaehers.
o talebegfan students.
§ 511. The following nouns, though denoting
jnanimate ohjeets, lnay form their pluraIs in -an; 8S:
akh'ter a star
';\jA hlzar a thousand
akhteran stars.
0\';\";'" huaran thousands.
256 r-V 'J'.)l Lesson 87.
'"
So also: 0\.).1,) rouzan days, 0L! sheha"" nights, ehlB"-
.
man, eyes, 0 \.; l dirakhtan trees.
A t Exerelse 84:.
Change the following nouns into the Persian plural.
1 ., '2. \ .. , s. ,J . ' 4: .. #. • , 5 '6 l..' 7 ..,
W\oA y4).) O-U;
8 t \ ._ a '9 , '10 , 11 • \. '19.,· '18 ,#. , 14. ,#. , ,
JJ\) .'--" 0,"---,.)"
. .... .
15:,)\.! ' ' , 8. ' 19 J-!} a. ' l0.,a'';' ,
21.. • '22f' 28 \ '24 L"" 8 ' - It
J- • •
.... . .
Words. 1. vineyard. 2. qah' riman bero. 3. peh'lifJaft wrestler.
4. firishte angelo 5. murde a corpse. 6. mader mother. 7. sifldl
alive. 8. sabit offieer. 9. gavir attendant. 10. deev, dl" a demon;
a giant. 11. house. 12. inn, tavern. 18. shah' king. 14. ptltJUhaA
a great king. 15. shagird pupil. 16. astlzadi nobleman. 17. tlU1thter
daugbter. 18. ""utebir a notable (man). 19. feri,q a general of
Di vision (in the Army). 20. khahir a sistere 21. siek. 22. W.
person. 23. poor. 24. tuj'jar merchant [tlljJaraA, t4."jtJrIGr).
§ 512. Note. 1. a. m-uslinl Cone who submissive1y obeys
God = Moslem'. Persian pl. 0tJ-. cmoslems; an orthodox
believer', w hich is used ss singular in Ottoman and Persian; and
'-' \; tJ-. ' J; tJ-. mtlsU,,,anan, is considered as the
dou ble pl. of it.
2. So a1so 8. talebA, tuj'jar Cstudents, merchanta', which
are the Arabic of talib, tajir Cstudent, merchant',
but are used in double pl. in Ottoman and Persian:
talebegwn, taleblle,.. (See the Double PluraIe of Arabic, Lesaon 51.)
3. There is another word in use tnusUlman, mwelmtaft, "., ..
ma-n meaning ca moslem', which is of Byriac origin, but ne\"er
admitted into the correct language, it ia used in the Southem
regions of Turkey among tbe common and unedueatOO people.
\) Readlng Exerelse.
jj The :Match Girl.
I U"").; rY' I .,A.clI
D
· · · .;-s::::...1I i4!iT! ..
Words. 1. a. Kibrit! kibnt! MatchesI matehes! 9. L t. ....
'Aametli gracious. .
The Persian Plura1.
11 l"'" , .. ,. 1-
« • r '-"! . ,JJ'" u..1. ,»
! 'JJ' JI
! J ! JlT &'JjJ
.oJJ-ilj .:,;:=: y. 8J-
J
I
wn
l
104Äl Jo JI
J
) r
12
JJ
_ .,'} «! tlJl;.J"'" JIi"....
· J. 14, "13. L"" •
• O).J!. 0)" o)\) Jb-
.. ... ......-
.o)j.J!. o-il; «! Jj; r.»
!hl!.l:... 1 le- I -
: ' oJ! J.Jj ,
- « jj' J.J!
« • • .! (J. JJI , ":'JI ! J...Ii.J!. r.» -
15 JIJ)
«16 ! JJI f ,;"
18&.) J"';";'
.. ..
!
· J.J!.L.)JI !l).J!. y. rJ:.!'
1 4i : e
,
• e J.J!. Jj
.. . ..... ...
257
3. ya,,,roujouq that little ereature. 4. gGJr! see I 5. daghtniq
untidy. 6. mavi blue. 7. yantq burnt. 8. Ust elothese 9. qoja
big. 10. a. loqmfJ slice. 11. from street to street. 12. aolashmaq
to wander. 13. nieliB! how many! ehirki", dirty, ugly. 14. '!Iara-
para wounded. 15. ghaNb stranger. 16. pij bastardo 17. injitmik
to hurt. 18. a. w,joucl body. 19. qanad wing. 20. glrmtk to spread
the wings. 21. sapmaq to 8werve.
Turktsh Conv.-Orammar. 17
258 r-v 'J' J l LeaBon 87.
)1)
« I 1 JT» JC-f1 Jo .(')1)
, .J. 0.) c:.,-, J' ' 4.JJ'..J
.. - IS"-
• r) •..• l)i J::- 0' .... 1 Jll..r-'.J!.'
, ..
22. chabalamaq to struggle. 23. lIoqaoullotUl poverty. 24. MI-
himmed Erni"" aliving Turk poet (1860). .
Conversatlon.
,
• .1:--Jli
? Jl J\" • .".\j
,
'(!Y..) 1 y. : jl j\.J (t
• .J-:# (CJ\) , Jl .!1)....\ iJ'J.,\
• · , O. J-: :)\!.! J J.J\ 3 , -\. . ': ,.:.Jj
U U UU t' t' 'J v-! ••
0-"1'!\ 41.. tS)....\ (u-
? Jl"; .»G
ely' : .!l)....\ : y. (t
: )l.!. Jl • (tA) J.
• I;. , •
T'. t:
- 6 -: ,
( tA ) • ..c.:-\J \ l> .4:-"> t; W tl.J \ e" (cr
?
o
(tA) lOr .. , •.• n tSJ..-\ cJ'}.J\ :J \
11 j::':::": e..c.:-uT. 4 , el \ u!l.J\
• 'IJ\l' <J) J..-\ iJ'J.J\
? 1."\iU JJ! (V-
tS§'" »'-Y.. !Jl J\.J r.l:.i\ ":".J\ (E.
»Y.. JU :J :- :\J
o : • .=\.) • ($.1
r ... The Persian Plural. 259
? (S"J\i J...-\ .J S'..; (v-
.lad • .J S'j' r.J.:.i\
(0\) w'JJ'
, öL.!:... ' • \il c. e • • li. ai' • Lb,L;,' : 11\
.. uL.r'f' u. U. u .. ..r U. _._
, ,
• ('""'"" t 15 . \ , . Li, i, , • \ .lA e • · \'.J' ..
t.J: UJ U.,., UJ! U--;y-- U. V
17 I "_ \t"'""'" .• Y. /' · · ,
u-o tJJl I tS.J..:..i\ (u-

0 •

.1IfIII'" •• " .,,,e'
?.)l oll:.. ..; i;ll .Li.) J l.r (u-
,
, 0l:..J\.;. : 01f'..l.>j :, J.h!
o
... , .1. e.,. e.,. ..
• · "tS l:.-. tSri\ tS ·A.) • ,.J.:I\ (
co> U • J •• .. , u-
? u· W': J-
o ..> 2 S LS;':;' 0 l1., ).; y. 0..l.>'!!,:" li. \.,-0 0..l.> IJ,.,
• tS \ i;J.: \J:" tS 24 r j
.,..1.
? \!.l; (u-
::. :-.; 25..:,.;1:- •
..; (u-
'0 e.,. ,
.!l.,;if .. .!l!. «(.
· JJ.-!i.j.J\
• 0.,. • .,. .1. • .,. • ,
:.)l SOJp ol
.,. 0 • .,. " .,
• J L.L:..; \ ..; JJ v-:. \ \ t.."...-.. :
.,. /
• , " 0 ,
• !U tS..LJ,,\ L.).L...
r (U"
j;:'; 0\Y.,l 0t.";; Jo «(
. ..,. .
• .)l S2 • \:: .J
17*
260 r-v l.J"'Jl Lesson 87.
".
I r.l!i\ «
l,J$. ...... oJj.1\ J-l..1\ .J i.J'6
8'J.!-J.J!,?,
• .)J.!1.)y"y.
. , .
• rl}.1\ ol';";'- p c.lY.
. .,
? 34.).,;).1\ 0;'[" d\.".:c. JU ll.-' b;:-,liI\ (v'
• OP\l 0'1.1\ 17 0.J-..\f J\,.,:c «(
J:l::i ' j:l.1l ! J,;ll.-' :J :,\:1 • .41' ).;JJl ');l\'-' (V'
. ,.
? .) l S 6 f.Sji.) c:"J.: JJ.';'
Oll.:-J ;:,l.iI\ ).;')'.J\ \ () : !'..l Ol,",":' CS!' (E.
cj:lJl' • ( , .... v 87)J \L •.• - •
. , . , ..... ,
8S,",:-"y'U.1\ J .• -_ .• .c...\&.
«.)l j:l.Jl f.Sri\ J,; ll.... c:"lij
·(' ...... §)·r
? Jo f.SJ.:.i\ (..;
• (Mussulman) , 1.(. ..;'-.1l f.Sj.",.. '°eS.)",
'I.)l .)>> f.S.)\.1.i.. (v-
• f.S.)\.1.i.. «(
• ( ", ? )..[" (u-
· :J , ,
Note. 1. For the words included in the Conversation see
the Key.
2. For the sentenees indieated by a, b, e, see more in the
next Lesson; the letters show the order in the compositioo.
" t
The Persian !zalet. 261
The Persian Izafet.
§ 513. In books and in eonversation also, when ele-
is studied, instead of the Turkish way of eonneeting
(loun with noun and noun with adjeetive, tIIe Persian
nethod is used, espeeially when the words employed
are either Arabic or Persian.
l. The Construction, when two nouns are connected
with one another as possessor and possesslon.
§ 514. The Turkish way is, as we have seen (§ 109),
put the possessor first and the thing possesaed after-
wards, just like the English possessive followed by the
(loun which governs it; as: pederi;;'" kitabi
fue f8ther's hook. . ..
§ 51õ. The Persian method consists simply in
putting the thing possessed first and the name of the
:>ossessor after it, with an esre between the two, i f th e
rirst noun end!) in a consonant. This corresponds
to the ordinary English use of (of' bet.ween two nouns:
kita'bi pidir. The book of the father.
, "
J..-.; Jlr\ amal'i rousoul. The Acts of the A postIes.
,
II. The Construction, when a noun is qualified
by an adjective.
§ 516. The Turkish method is simply to put the
ldjective before the noun (§§ 107, 669);
"":'"" IJ'J.Ä.,. ·mouqad' dis' kitab CThe Holy Hook = The Bible'.
§ 517. The Persian method, when both words are
jither Arabic or Persian, is to put first the noun and
ifterwards the adjeetive, with an esre between them:
1J'..lÄ- mouqad' dls the Book the Holy = the Bible .
JL sari jedid Cthe new year'.
,
262 ,.1\ (,JA.),) Lesson 88.
"'0
§ 518. Rernarks: 1. If the first memOOr of the
construction, e. the noun, end in elir or vat) used 88
a vowel (-a, -ou), instead of the ordinary esre, a lIe (-y-)
is inserted for t.he sake of euphony (§ 53).
Instead of pasha-i-Baghdad, we must write
..... .
pasha'yi Bagkdad tthe Pasha of Baghdad'.
. .... .
bala'y;, khane. The upper (part) of the house.
,. .
cll,arsou,'yi kebir. The Grand Bazar.
,.
Note. The originaI Persian word r.)L;- char80u Ca square) is
commonIy speIt in Ottoman 8S charslar, cAarMou'.
§ 519. 2. If the first member of the construction,
i. e. the lloun, end in the vowels ye and lae (-4, -e), a
kemse (-y-) is placed over the finalletter for the me of
euphony (§ õ3):
Instead of \;. khane-i peder, it must ba)-lI .,\;.
..... .
khane'·yi peder ethe house of the father'.
qadi'yi Ama8sia the judge of Amasaia.
baglt-che'yi kebir the great garden.
JJ\!-. Misal'ler Examples.
4 hareket'i arz the movement of the earth, earth-
.... quake.
.),) Der'i Sa-a-det the door of ProsPerity} CoDBtan-
Der' i Aleeye, Deraliye the Iofty door tinople.
".
Jk Bab" Alee the Sublime Porte.
,.
tJ Y kure yi arz the sphere of the earth, the Eartb.
r : l:.,) pa disha' kl, alem the king of the world.
§ 520 .. In Turkish the pronomina! suffixes corres-
ponding to my, thy, his, etc., that ofmine, youre, etc.
are always put after the noun to which they refere In
Arabic and Persians constructions, if the noun ba
follo,ved by an adjective, simple or compound, or by
another noun \vith which it is conjoined, their suffixes
·The Persian !zafet. 268
are put at the end of the last word. This is the ease
with declensional endings 8lso:
\!..l...1i. kitab'i mouqad,' desi-ii of the Holy Book .
• tS.,jJl arzou'y;, shididimize to our strong desire •
• ..li..h khakipaylerinde at the dust of your teet, with you.
\ j ,i\ avaz' i bulena ile with a loud voice. .
A 0 Exerels8 8õ.
1. zemeen earth + J) rou face. 2. a . .r' akmer
+ a. fi bahr sea. 3. fi + sefid white. 4. 8 . .Jt;
+ sigah'. 5 . .1: + a. mouheet [Ocean]. 6. ft
+ + y:f'. 7. (a . ..y. ahd testament + a. jedeed
new.) 8. (a . ..y. + a . ateeq old.) 9. (! pa foot + d.
takkt throne) [= the capital]. 10. khak dust +
.
11. (a. J:f-' injeel Gospel + skerif holy.)
12. (..cl, bullmd loud + jtjf 13. (a. sMdeed
• M
strong + Jj) arzou desire.} 14. (a. -lal. .. , saltanat govem-
lllent + a. senee-ye sublime.) 15. (a. sat person
..
+ a-lee high.) 16. (o\! + ee-ran Persia.)
17. (n. hararet + a. sun.) 18. (s. JJ'" sarf
grammar + Osmanee Ottoman.) 19. (a .. lisan
language + 20. (a. many, great +
..
a . fevayid benefits.) 21. (, \;. + R. 22. (a. ,-:,,\:5'
23. + u-'..lÄA [= Palestine].)
+ 8. )).i. mezkitr mention-ed.) 25. Youltan'na John
-
264 ,. It. "'-'.J l Leason 38.

+ s. J vahee revelation.) 26. (a. J\!.' hnsal proverbs +
':""':L Soulegmat".) 27. Davoud David + R. me-
zatneer Psalms.) 28. (a. fsma names + a. "'.k.l ailad
numbers.)
Key. IoSj.t semeenii rouyi (yakhod)
yuzu; rou'yi zemeen the face of the earth; gU6
..
IS Turkish and JJ rou Persian, both maaning cface'.
The Perslan Numerals .
§ õ21. The Persian numeral adjectives are also .
sometimes used in written rrurkish, and in gambling.
They are the following:
4 yek 1 .) t:;. , .J tr:- ehihar, el.ar 4 hlft 7
.Jl dii 2 pht,j 5 hiiItt 8'
...... si il t.l-! shlsh 6 ..; nUA' 9
..I.,.t sad 100; .;\.)' hezar 1000; r. mem hall; ..
single; yegtän one hy one.
§ 522. The t.erms used in backgammon, domino8
and other games are as follows; (ou means Cand'):
du-shcsh 6 x 6, du-besh 5 x 5, deart-ehiha,. 4: x 4, tJ4-.1
3 x 8, d-u-barl 2 x 2, hep-yek 1 xl; shesh-besR 5 x 6, ,MaA-
ehihar 4 x 6, shesh ou-se 8 x 6, shish ou-du 2 x 6, sWs" ou-,.
1 x 6; besh-dOOrt 5 x 4, plnj ou-sl 5 x 8, fJJnj ou-dtl 5 x 2
t
plnj ou-yek 5 xl; ehihar ou-sl 4 x 3, ehthar ou-du 4 x
ehihar ou-yek 4 xl; seeba-du 3 >< 2, se-yek S x 1, iki-bir 2 x 1.
§ 523. Misal'ler Examples.
yekvijoud of one body.
yekpare of a single piece.
yek takhtadan at Ollce.
yekdil of one hean.
yekehlshm one-eyed.
eharpa a quadruped.
shesh-khane a (six"celled) riBe, an arquebuss.
yekdiger one another, each other.
oJ'...):- r. neem j/zeerl (half island) peninaul ••
",.
The Persian Izafet.
r. neem rlsmu semi-official (paper, etc.)
L I...... sepa, sipa a tri pod, a three-legged stoo1.
\"
A' herelse 88.
J.) T • 1 4.\ .rl rt; \
• J;) r.i 1I':'\.:}JI )!i
5,:;oM..,k \.t:..iL.;. s • J;) '('"
oJ.iJ) t
;)' • J;) w.l,j '" · •
\;,.!! v • ):1..J ):JJ;) .1.
jl} (I:.. A • rJJT
U-
J
;) loSul -. 7&. .1.
cl \ <' ! \. · 10 .. wlS(;' wlS(;' Ls::::lb
'::r ... r ., .. .. .. ;N.....
" .);) JIJ j!Lk ,-,",UI
il - ( .. ."""",
... .;A' J!.) hr •
A .. ,., , IS 11 t\ t 12 \ :
/' !JJ) T Jr
• J.J!JJ) Jo.! lOS;)..?\!. JllJj ,'('" • J
Words. 1. Misir Egypt. 2. nlshret." to publiah. 3. Esir-pazari
the street called Esir Pazart (the Market of Slaves). 4. lUmzi
Effimai khani the inn named Remzi Effendi. 5. taUbeyi ouloum
students (the seekers after science). 6. blni Adlm the children
of Adam, mankind (575). 7. heleegh eloquent. 8. fJ!a' at et." to read.
9. '111ou-al'lim teacher. 10. taree( et." to explain. 11. ayet verse.
12. mouha,r're,· written. 18. tali'yifi. your star, fortunee 14. zar
a die used in playing.
266 .. It. 'J'.J.) Lesson 88.
lleadtng Ixerclse.
il J., \..:J
",
1. list of Moral Maxirus (= Franklin's Prinefples).
9 !...'
.,(: J .,r--- -
: 11 • .1 ••• oi>
iL...r ' _:
I o,))..ü
18...\..U
.. .

J · 1. _: 19 \Jä:.jl
'->- - .. .J. J <.s-!.. .. J r
! 41,'
.. .. ..
14 a, t ,.. .. a 2311· . t , • 1 • 22 .. 11 .;.
)J,:f _. .,l,a·A .. tD:J-
! '.r' J
• , t ,30 .... 29 J 28 • -, 1 ., ."... .• ", • Il ... - ,
... ,J • .r _.
! 32 J.J'" 4'.J. ad
Words. 1. e-sa' nl ee names, lists. 2. (uayil virtues. 8. tlta-
beehat (commands), maxims. 4. hakeem a philosopher. 5. mbA'Aotw
celebrated. 6. Benjamin Franklin. 7. taftzeem to put in order.
8. harekiät acts, conducts. 9. et." reforming. 10. fII/I lifei
self, personality. 11. ztmninda for, regarding. 12. it't",,"" II.
N
to
adopt. 18. qayide arule. 14. rigazet Racetie diseipline. 1&. to
be heavy. 16. serslm stupified. 17. 81lkut silenee. 18. w4ftttJ
profitable. 19. intisam order, regularity. 20. tallem et." to lx,
appoint. 21. takksees to assign OT speeially appropnate. 22.
an aim, endeavor. 28. mejbour 01." to be obliged. to demde,
to settle. 25. hila ,,·ithout. 26. qousour defeet (= perfect, oompJete).
27. e,nri tesar' rouf fr ugality , economy (emr work). 28. akWr other
(people). 29. lousoum necessity. 30. haqiqi real. 81. tRa-a-tIG
except. 32. sarf It." to spend.
Persian Compound Adjectives. 267
J. ICb J t:l:D j:::JJ _: J
I· -.1 .. , 35J , J.#.
r--) . J '.J"_A
33. say ou amel labour and work. 34. zay' et." to w8ste.
S5. 'Ineshghoulol." to be busy.
Conversatlon.
Ders haqqinda sivallar •
• jJj rP. .fo - ? j:l r
• 0.1\ - ?j:l S::ta (u-
? ";\.J J.J ..; oJ.:..-uI .!l);.J: ..; (.<:'...> ..; ...j.r-P. (<.r
! 4-JY}.J\ hekim .h.ii. o.)t... Jo J.J-

.. . ...
Lesson 39.
-; Persian Compound Adjectives.
§ 524. The simple adjectives of the Persian language
are much used in Turkish; as: • s/iyah' black, JT al
..
red, .,l, "bed bad, sefid white.
. -
§ 525. The compound adjectives of the Persian
language are formed in two ways: either by the addition
of particIes, or by joining words together.
A. The Derivatlve Adjective, formed bJ" the addition
of particles to nouns.
§ 526. The most common derivative adjectives ns ed
in Tnrkish are made by the addition of the following
particles to Arabic or Persian nouns (§§ 149, 579):
§ 527. I. 'fhe letter 4s ye (-i), signifies relation. If
the word ends in tIIe vowels , ' 4s '. (-a; -i; -e, -a), they
are changed into J (-v-), and afterwards the ye is added:
Ä\ ingliz Englishman inglizi "English
268 .... Lesson 39.
efrenj oa European
aql mind
üb- ehin China
-.,.
a. dunya world
'(rbtj#, European.
Ji'- aqli mental •
. ;.... ehiM ehinaware.
\.jJ • .,
eS autlyavi world ly •
§ 528. II. il' -an.e eignifiee relation and reaem·
bIanee. If the word ende in the vowel ke (-el, this is
ehsnged into !l (-g-): and if it ends in J vowel (-ou) a ($
(-y-). is inserted between the word and partiela; as.:
• \!. shak' king \! royal •
• bende servant bblaegfaftlas a servant.
8. J.,J.t. aaou enemy aaouyane 88 an enam,..
-
§ 529. III. The terminations ' ' ;'6" ·baR, ef'(JJI,
.,.... .
-kiar, -g'iar form nouns denoting keeper', etc.
bagk-ban keeper of vineyard. khldmetkl4". a se"ant .
.)t<'..li.J\..b- kh"uaavendigiar the sovereign, the Sultan.
perverdigiär the Nourisher (God), Providenee.
\'
yadglar, yatligi;" a remembrance, memauto.
§ 530. I\T. The prefixes t na-, W- mean
and denote the absenee of something; Ra- is
used with adjectives, bi- with nouns:

t"ama'lum unknown. napak nnelean.
tlj biehare. unfortunate. J;"l; nakhoah unpleasant.
, bivefa ineonstant (friend), unreUable •
o\y.t; khah''1UJ,khah willingly or unwillingly.
§ 531. v. hem- prefixed to a noun expressea
companionship.
C.S P 'kentsht"" ri fellow-citizen. Aemjiftl' homogeneoUL
he'l"l'lJsheere who aueks the same milk, a siater.
§ õ32. VI. Adjectives are also formed by the
", ..
Persian Compound Adjectives. 269
addition of L\ ' ' , , !Jt ' JJ or )\J -aSQ, -vetlh,
-een, -nWnd, -nak, -ver or -vare
L\ L; nisa-asa womanlike. J...JfA meh' vAsk like thernoon :z: bright.
atesheen fiery. his'semend partaker.
a.p • .!ll:..f. ghamnak sorrowfu!. terah'nak cheerful .
..>\.J.l:-' umn."id·var hopeful. janver (wild) animaI.
.).Jfl hunerver, hunermend skilful.
§ 533. VII. By doubling some words alld inserting
an elif between them, fulness or multifariousness may
be expressed:
.f.\....f. beraber breast to breast; together; equal.
' Jl.'jl. lebaleb, 1nalamaZ (!ip to lip) brimful.
. .
, tJ.J\:,.J' tito. y ringlaring, gunagun, nevanlv varied
in hue, variegated ..
B. Componnd Adjectives composed of two words •
.
§ 534. The compound adjectives obtained by the
union of two words are generally forrned either: 1. of
a noun and a participle, or the root of a verb, 2. of
an adjective and a nOUD, or, 3. of two nouns.
They may consist of two Persian words,' or of an
Arabic and a Persian word, or of Arabic words.
§ 535. 8. Adjectives forloed of 8 nonn and 8
p8rticlple or the root of 8 verb.
J.) dil heart, ....f. ber take, captivate: aUber enchanting .
.).1. 1nedeahelp,u-..> res arrive: 'nlldedres helpere
J.!J.) dilshikeste broken hearted. See also: § 556.
§ 536. b. Adjectives formed of an adjective
and 8 nonD .
bo" odour r. J:" khosh'bou 8weet 8cented, odorou8.
c.si tlhi empty "'::"'-.J..i tehidlst empty-handed, depriyed.
§ 537. c. Adjectives tormed from two nouns .
.JAT altou gazeIle : ahoucAAshm gazeIle -eyed, attracth·e.
270 .... V-.Jl LesBon 89 .
.,J\! SMW lion: J l.,J\! .'Merllil lion-hearted.
. . .
a. + gUlasar rosy-cheeked; Rose (pr. name) •.
§ 538. Many sueh compound words 1088 their
meaning as an adjeetive and are considered as com-
pound nouns:
gultllste a bunch of flowers, a bouquet.
f-c..;- serasker head of the army, a commander-in-chief .
.... l:...Uä; , •• ,;l; nizam'name, qanoun' name a code of lawl.
The Degrees of Compaletson.
§ 539. The Comparative is obtained by the addition
of ; -ter to the simple form of the adjeetive, and the
Superlative by adding -tereen:
,.1, bea bad: ..iJ.J. bed'ter worse: Ü',.j.J.J. beaterUtl worat.
'J bala high: j'J balatlr higher: Ü',.j'J balatlrem higbest.
AV Exerolse 87.
Change the following nouns into adjectives:
527. } freng European. !J; tark. a. Jr sharq
the east . .).n-! yehoud (Judah) Jew. Edirtle Adrianople.
'} Fransa. yaban the wilderness. Ha1BJ
.
Aleppo. !Jb.- khak earth. 8. ,-""J", salib a croS8.
. ..
528. deev a demon. merd man.
dost. a. khalis sineere. a . ajis humble. p6d6r.
529. bagkche. 0\:.5 !}Unah. a. klIlaS
deliveranee. sakhte false. pas watch (at night) .

kt'ar profit. J!..l!,Q' JJ..l:..a sandouq, sandiq a coffer.
o ,. • ,. ...
jj) rous day. door. rli pen, gravere
rvt Persian Compound Adjectives. 271
,
530. 8. u-l.,\ foundation. t. E.J-'" souck sin, fault.
8. maqboul acceptable. 8. ":"').b qoudret power.
,:)y4 merd (brave) man. mizaj state of health.
8. llouzour a becoming in repose, ease. strength.
531. a. mil'let nation. a. mezheb religion .
.
a. J'y:- ji·var neighbourhood. olJ raJa way, road .
. ",
535. (0) rek way + J. • \t numa show), (.;l! skeer +
• M
J'';' khor eat), + sade born).
536. (,:,I) giran heavy + haha price), (o"L sade
simple + J,,), cheshm eye + 0':-), bread
+ Jj koor) + , +
538. (a. congratulation + letter), (jj) day
.. .
+ letter), C'; nev new + Jl., year) , (a. w;\ + letter).
,
539. J-i- khosk nice, 4A mik' great, bik good.
AA Exerelse 88.
!1JJl<At.5' 1.;':;1 1.JlS::::-,D)b.. ,
J T
J-f'; , oJjJ 1 S; .:., u t:s-:; ! 'I'" • r Jo r- J-,,:"
2<.S;;\:k J:;; t. • r J
• .r-s:::;:JJI : (-oYoJ J. 4..i \":-J" 0.r- 0 •
Jj I:-! V • J..\iJ! J" 41 4I
1
J!" ,
·h"4.r .".,.!J\:-
· J.!:I :!1l:i A
Words. 1. a. havee containing. 2. tabaq plate. S. a. vas'ta hand,
means. 4. a. nisf half, R. leyl night. 5. gaqalamaq to collar, seize.
272 ,., (,.JM)") Leeeon 89.
rYf
o,;-t .';''-'.,:sC.
b .,. .)jJ' ' r-..q' .)j "":,,t o,lj JJI L.Tw
.J-bt; JJ' I.;. \. • .Jn.
• J:lJ.!,;'
A' J Tran8lation 89.
1. Richard I., king of England, was called 1 lion-
hearted. 2. That ungrateful servant did not write 8
letter of congratulation on New Year's-Day. S. That
woman (dilbe'r) is very inconstant. 4. The
gardener is not a coward, but he is a simple-hearted
man. o. To eat with unclean hands is very unpleasante
6. Is your fellow-tra veller a skiIful man? 7. I was a
partaker of the supper
2
• 8. I did not lose hope (hopelese),
I am hopeful yet
s
. 9. He prayed to the Saviour sincerely
and humbly. 10. A forger is a great sinner. 11. He
is not an empty-handed person, he hss a costly· gold
watch in his hand. 12. The leader was a helper to me on
the way4. 13. That caravan, which comes from China and
India. was loaded with china-ware and odoroua spicee
5
.
lJTords. 1. tesnleey! oloundoll. 2. akhsha'1ll ta-a-ml. S. hala.
4. esnayi rahde. 5. p. behar, baharo (Ar. pl. beharat.) 6. qlymlt-
dar (§ 535).
\) Readlng Exerelse.
r \:;. J l. .) Jt!,4
.t \ 4:' 3 2· /" 1 ..
u::l J...b- J :
oo oo .. oo.
! f J
. .
8
0
...w,.)\;. :Jr..; 7
o
...\..:l;'I:l 6!l4Ä.J;J :JJ _ :
. .. ..
! 12
y
4L' I el 11 ,
oo )'f .. J J JU .. J Jr.;
Words. 1. 8. istiqam& honesty. 2. &. kizb falsehood. S. a.'IattU
cheating. 4. 8. hazer et." to beware. 5. a. haq'qa""1/et justice,
equity. 6. R. vazeefe duty. 7. a. dakhil the inside. 8. a. liha';"; thP.
outside. 9. R. oZ." to be obJiged, compelled. 10. a. MstIut
good works, pious deeds. 11. {ira,. to run Rway, to deaert, flee ..
12. a. izrar et." to injure.
yvr Persian Compound Adjeetives. 278
J 15 j \J\.>. , _":
! rl:! :;,.'l
.oIJii !JJ) _ : 19..:,.;Uäi
! 10 41!'
,.. I 23, l" ,. "' A 22 I·.. , • 21 le: e
J '-'''J _.
, . t ,27 L e __ 26., .. \. ,..... 25 .. k" · \. t , 24 l.
. 4.LJ . '-:' u j J '-' JfJ ""'-
29.:.-;: .. 1 J-,) !J..l:5 _
<Li."l; ro)
13. a. eetidal tnoderatioJl. 14. a ;,frat exeess. 15. a. ih'tiras
et." to guard one'a self. 16. a. laytq geormek to judge ,,·orthy.
17. 8. akhz tsking; sar vengeanee = to revenge one's self. 18. a. qi-
lIam et." to Bet sbout. 19. a. nezafet ·cleanIiness. 20. s .. ihtimam et."
to be careful. 21. a. houzour ease, quietness; qalb heart. 22. trifles.
23. 8. a' dee inferior, ordinary. 24. naqaOil imp08sible. 25.
at events. 26. s. sademat blows, misfor,tunes. 27. a. muztarib oZ."
to 8uffer. 28. s. if'fet chastity. 29. a. emneeyet ssfety. SO. 8. salah'
peace, virtue. 31. hal ou shan position and honour. 32. a.
danger. \
.u ConTersatlon.
? (L.r
Jo ' ..)\.J
• ..).J.J\ • .;\ .• ! .)J!6,..J'...J

);'1.JI • ..L:-.Jj;\ .J ",:",L:s\ (IJ"
?)..).)
.g-j; .J.:.;: 0.J.r.!) :.Jt , ... rJ.:i\ ((.
• wJ\ yo J ,
• c.).) ... ey .
'0 ?'.).) Io!-..\ä:-\ (",.r
c.>-t:.A «(.
? ..; (J'
Turklsb Conv.·Grammar. 18
274 ,.. LeSSOD 40.
t· Lesson '40.
The Persian Derivative Nouns.
§ 540. Persian derivative nouns are of four kinds:,
Nouns of Location, Nouns of Instrument, the Abstract
nOUD, and the Diminutive noun .
. . The Noun of Location.,·
,
. § 541. The noun of Location is made 'by the
addition of -istan, .'6"-giah (place" Jlj -Mar a plot.
or bed, oJ..«' -gede hut, ,\;. -khane house· (§ 1(2):
hindistan India. 0l:.-\(' gUlistan} rosary, agarden
chi1nenisfan' } J \.;$ gulzar of roses.
. meadow. /
chimenzar' meYgede} wineshop,
ordougtah' a camp. '1neykhane drinking-saloon.
6 j top-khane, top-hane arsenal of ordnance and artillery.
ktõ,,.ktäh vulg. kerget a ,,'ork-frame. (Jt(' work.)
.,
o L:_ j. bezistan yulg. bedesten a covered market-place. (j. eloth.)
..:..lT rl The Noun of Instrument.
§ 542. The noun of Instrument is made by th&.
addition of -dan (a holder, receptsele, case':
a. c:! sham candIe: 0\.J..!, shamaan' a C&ndlestick.
boukhourdan' a censer, incense-box.
p. t. yaghdan an oH can. p. t. tukUr.dafl a aplttoon ..
o reek' da" vulg. righaan a sand-holder; reek, tig. I&Ild
(to dry writinga).
rv. The Persian Derivative Nouns. 275
gulab rose-water (§ 588): gulabdan a flask for
sprinkling scented water.
The A.bstract Nouns. \:... r' Ismt Mana.
§ 543. Abstraet nouns are made by the addition
of -i at the end of adjectives. lfthe word end in
eli!, then the ye is doubled (-vt [§ 53]); if it end in a
vowel he (-e), it is ch8nged into !l (-g-), but the sound
e is retained (§§ 163, 581).
w L\ asan easy, faeile:
bindl elave:
\:'!'.J.J roushlna bright:
JU asani faeility.
hind/ui servitude.
\:!,.JJ Toushlnayi brightness.
Note. Yi added to a noun, ehanges it into an adjective (§526).
The Diminutive Nouns. r' Ismi Tasghir.
§ 544. Diminutives are made by the addition of
-je at the end of nouns. Some diminutives
.,
are terms of endearment, as in Turkish (§ 167) .
.JJA moor ant: maoreke a Jittle ante
pa foot: pacha trotters of sheep.
a . '''r'' anlm, am' mou unele: ",,:-.,r amja, amouja dear unele.
, • herelse 90.
Change following nouns into Derivative Nouns:
541. cl j freng European. a. yehoudi Jew .
a Tartar. !l; Turk. 8. ajem a Persian. a. '-:'''.;
Arab. 2. t. tu:' dagk, p. of" Mk' mountain. benef'ske
violet. 3. a. J.::w sunbul hyacinth. a. qabr, a. rnezar
grave. JfI atesk + hut. 4. t. j.,.sJI eõksuz, a. cy'tam
..
orphans + house. 8. deb'bagh vulg. tabakh tanner +
house. kf'ar manufaeturing + house. 5. a.
.
18*
276 '1.. r...r Lesson 40.
hook + house. 8. '..r.' ejza (vulg. esa) a drog + house.
jT aslz food + house. ) le shihar game, prey + place.
542. jame cloth + holder. khame, a. f
+ esse. .fi teer arrow. nhnek salt .
..
543. poor. .".,3 asoode quiet. \.!1 askina
intimate. azade free. khaste. 'r sesa worthy ..
teng n arro,,".
544. pare piece. bagh. tt. bogA a square
wrapper for a bundle. i)J) gtfiJrUm husband's sister.
t ..... cltek1nc a drawer. w'v:S" keman a violin. t. JT
..
herelse 9L
T cl\:""".m. ,u-..b \
.:,..ci). ./" .!.t j ).SC;} • .t.Jr- .:,)1 J
· \.. .. "'" • l I· I }' I. s
.u --'.1. uJ" · )...1 +v!iJ 0 .i.
IiL! I 4 s.i. .:., "';" .".b I s 4i "';" j. (:4'
• .t. IM ' • .L... to • 6 ik
l
JL..JI "! 4; ' JJ"! 5 ",:,,)-'!I
S • Sol. M A.. 0 • JJ!4L!!1 ",:")J.,,.kJI
.:,I-W; J • J" \ to· • \;.j".sJ1
oJ, i--,!I V • J"
J" CJ...(94J.; • Sy.J\; r A
o.u::::J..r. \. ,;.» SJIy. ,
.c.S--'!1 JI) S".,.J ."J'.../" .!b.J5 j
Words. 1. R. Qouclsou Shereet Jemsalem .. 2. Byria.
3. chouqa, choukha broad-clotb. 4. ameriqan bAzi unbIeached IineD.
5. u. ishtira et." to buy. 6. R. irsal to sendi 7. &. mm,jouciexistent.
8. f. masa table. 9. 8. turbA tomb. 10. a. shJykl{ & head of a nibe.
'VV
The Persian Derivativa NOUDS. 277
, J Translatlon 92.
1. The owner of that big tannery and the keeper
of the prison [-house] are the friends of the saloon-keeper.
2. «The beer-seller
1
is the witness
J
of saIoon-keeper.»
3. The orphans are in the orphanage. 4. That Tartar
has come from Tartary. o. There were 3000 soIdiers
in the camp. 6. The peopIe who dweII s in mountainous
regions are generaIIy brave. 7. Daghistan is a great
region in Russia. 8. Where is your donkey4? - He
is always in the meadow. 9. PIease stick
5
a candIe
into the candlestick. 10. There was a big rosary in the
garden of the manufactory of the attar of rose 6. 11. The
Parsees 7 and the ancient Persians were worshipping 8
the fire in the firepIaces.
Words. 1. bira.ii, bozaji (157). 2. a. shahid. 3. a. iqamet et.".
4. ehimenzarzade vulg. ehime.nderzade the 80n of the meadow =
donkey. 5. dikmek. 6. gul yaghi. 7. parsee, giat'our, gebr a Zoroas-
terian, a fire worshipper, a Guebre; (in Turkey) a non-Moslem
in eontempt]. 8. a. ibadet et."
Readlng Exerclse.
The Story of the Donkeyand Fox.
, 1)11- yo yo
, 4 A V S .L· 1 2 le;::
. ... '-.SJ .. - .... .0 y.. n ...r-

... d", 6J.;-=-- ,JJJ'
'sr
.J.. .. .1. .... ..
• .:,,; yo ':""0)1 Y:J
! r)L)I r. T IS jUJI i4.-\s"'» - :
Wo·rds. 1. a. htmar donkey. 2. a. naql to carry. 3. a. belde
4. rouyi nigwr a kind of light pink colored grapes. 5. dirke",
just then (while he was saying this). 6. a. kasret desire, affection.
7. baghrin' for baghrtni his heart, bosom. 8. ehirte atmaq to kiek with
the hind legs. 9. p. naz ou niyaz graceful disdain. 10. a. houzour
presenee.
278
",. Lesson 40.
! n.j:::.- ! t»
! 14
15
) ...;kl (I:J»
'17 .. 16 L t \' . t • '15 .. I
!JJ 0) JJ'.. »
jj)'..; JJ'
, 20 ,.,-. • , • \ .,
· 4"--! !:.J,3 4....v)\AJJJ AlA .}'J.1. . 1'»
J' 21Ji\i f A\»
J
. 24 •• '" .-, A'"
- «. Jr \A.U J
26J.:,ljl t.l!I
,
ojt dy.\; j-,!J\;
! 80,.1' J' - :A;
J\J L.' G ·
. .. r
4
.. '.J r
, sSJ;-\!
, I.
-
· A.)
\ 89 J .. " e,
.. r ... .J!J' J.
').) )\J Jj).f. 4°0 .),).1.» -
, J:> ) b \;
11. a. husn beauty. 12. R. hayran tm I am eonfounded. 18. eIa-
yirn olsoun! J.let it be long, eternal. 14. sayeyi lO'lltf ou klrlmi the
shadow or protection of his killdness and mercy. 15. bitWIik to
grow. 16. u. 11ltlbarek graeeful. 17. a. qadem foot. 18. a. (J-la
exeellent. 19. p. misk Inusk. 20. 8. fiske a fillip with the middle-
finger. 21. u. irfan 'wisdom. 22. 8. eenlG et." to express. 23. SUkWn-
gu eloquent (§§ 535, 556). 24. meosaun weIl proportioned. 25. a. tROII-
qaf'fa rhymed. 26. a. ifrat excess. 27. 8. nJshat mirth, joy.
28. a1'ltr1llaq to bray. 29. jantma ishledi getdi it pierced into my heart
(§ 348). 30. R. hava air, song. 31. a. s'iikut silenee. 32. &. aifo.
pleasure. 33. a. bulblll nightillgale. 34. 8. naghmJ 8ong. 85. L "r-
qat steaIing. 36. sings. 37. a. huzn ou keder sorrow. 88. 8. 6it1q
mockery; pleasure. 39. a. sevq driving. 40. here (in this wall);
'neyleyim for 'Yle eyleyey'i1n [,,-hat can I uo?] aIas!
The Persian D eri vati ve Nouns.
'oi! S8JJ ,)
, oi! JJ! f- '
, J' 4So.)):!!.) fL
«. 4.
5
4.lA»
.. . .
279
_. -
474J\ te, ,
. ..,. . ..
49:!lJoj-
W t
J
, 0:- JJ' !Jft\>)) - :
.. J.. .. ....
, J!;) « ! Y"
, \ __ 56 A \ A A \ 55., c_ · ..
. )\T -\,,,,, y---- '-'''J!J'
JJ)::"!"",!\ IS ;5J,))}» - :
, 6 0 .. I Y i 59 58 , .. \ • »
J. ""! '-S'Y.. ':'" .1-
, . \5. »
J' r ...... J J! ..
.-«d\!.J\ 61)tJ\k
! "!J!; 0).1..
< c.>-\:.!)
41. a. ghayri other, than. 42. p.jera trouble. 43. dishi female.
4:4. a. letafet Ioveliness. 45. hele! if you please! 46. a. Qshqa
dilsh1nek to fall in love. 47. p. ayineyi ab the mirror of the ,vatere
48. a. aksin' for aksini refiection (of image). 49. sezmek to see.
50. a. vaqa' a truIy, reaUy. 51. a. nazik delicate. 52. oynash
playmate, s\veet heart (§ 165). 53. p. feryad et." to seream, ean out.
54. tashmaq to exceed the bound of moderation in .ioy. 55. a.
sedasin' for - sedastnt reflection of sound, echo. 56. shash'lnaq
to be surprised. 57. a. davet et." to ealI, invite. 58. a. z'iyafet
feast. 59. a. a,jeb for ajeba I ,,·onder. 60. a. khtdmet service.
61. tavla oushaghi stable boy. 62. a. meeras yemek to inherit.
63. a. rahnzct oqoumaq to pray for the deeeased.
280 '- t Lesson 41.
LG ConTersation.
)HjoMl
• ..; .. !, Y.
4: \ • .t. ,. S. . \ . \ \: , .:._ ? -<' I'" .. \.
- '-"' .).Jt--" tS' r: 1S.)..,rc.e
• ($.ci\
t AY t rJ.:.i\ r ...r 4.--;' J! ($J.:.i\ u--'\:..;,
5
JjJJ\ 0 l·. !\! ?
• ($ i. rJ.JJ\ )ls.\ ? JSY. ..; -!..\!,\
• J'. 6';;. 0'JJ\ J.)\i ? ,(' Jy'
! 0.): :J ' Jl!\.).)\i $li
,
0J.A.J.JJ\ J.sJ" .s'
6! ..... c(!,\ .,.; Jft J.
• 9 :,'
Words. 1. sername a heading (§ 538). 2. R. mouhM'rir
a 'writer. 3. a. edib an author. 4. Shinasee Elfenai, (1830-71).
5. u,. 1nerhoom deeeased, dead. 6. a. khayin treacberou8. 7. to teIl.
8. heart, mind (sera' yi ease, peaee of mind). 9. &. afeega
et." to eat [he helped himself].
t' Lesson 41.
The Persian Verb.
§ 545. The Persian Infinitiva enda in -dM
or ;; -ten: w:l \!S"" to open, perestidht
.. .,
to worship.
§ 546. None of the of the Persian Verb
are us ed in Ottoman. The Roots of the verbs are very
frequentlyemployed in the formation of compound adjec-
tives (§ 535); 8S: perest, root of perestifien, ':;"'oMIj'
y ., •
pout perest idol-worshipper. .
§ 547. Onlyone Derivative of the Infinitive and
The Persian Verb. 281
three of the Verbal Roots are used in Ottoman, which
are the following.
I. The Objective Participle. J.,..... r-I
§ 548. The Objective or Past Participle is made
by changing the last letter of the infinitive into M
vowel (-e) (§§ 402, 604):
0.)\.) daden to give:
shikestm to break:
deeden to see:
. ol\') dade given.
shikeBte broken.
dee de seen; eye.
II. The Subjective Participle. r-'
§ 549. The Subjective or Present Participle is made
by the addition of -ende to the Root. If the Root
ends in an elif or vav vowel (-a, -ou), a ye (-y-) is
inserted (§ 53).
0\.);" khan read, sing:
';\.) dar hold:
nltma show:
jL saz lllake:
\J;" khanende singer.
darhtde bearer.
li. numayende who shows.
o,.ljjL sazeniM composere
III. The Verb al Noun. )..l.,aA r--"
§ 550. The Verbal Nouns are made by the addition
of -tsh to the Root. If the Root ends in elif or vav
vowel (-a, -ou), a 4s (-y-) is inserted for the sake of
euphony (§§ 53, 288).
.JJ rev go: J...JJ revish going .
0\.) dan know: danish knowledge.
So al so we ha ve : rl-! W asayish peace, numayish a
sho,v, stparish ordering, order.
§ ö51. There is another kind of verbal noun which
is obtained by the relnoval of -en from the end of
the Infinitive:
282
'" t r..,rJl Les80n 41. 'Af
<J ll.!.S" kttshaaen to open: .) l.!.S" kushall opening.
C.Jb.. \.l: \ Indakhten to throw: \ Indakht thro\\'ing, propelling.
Vb..J.) firoukhtin to sell: J.) liroukht selling.
§ 552. VerbaI nouns are 81so formed by adding
two shortened infinitives of different verbs or the abort-
ened infinitive and the root of the same verb together:
..l:' , amed shitd, gesht ou gUlar a coming and going.
fi ou gu taIk; chat; scandal.
.l.:,.., J .)\.) dad ou sited selling and buying, trade.
IV. A.djecti\"es. "-t.".
.
§ 553. The ,T erbaI Adjectives are formed by' the
addition of " -a, -an to the root of the verb; as:
0\.) dan kno,,':
tS.J':- jouy seek:
JJ rev go:
jj lerz trem ble :
dan(l· wise, savant (§§486, 606).
l!"'p'" ' jouya'J" that seeks.
\JJ ' 0\JJ reC(tt" that goes, finent.
0\j) lerz(t'l" trembling.
The Persian Roots.
§ 554. The following table contains most of the
Persian ,r erbal Roots, which are current in Ottomall.
They are used only in compoul1d ,,"orde, and never
used alone. Sliglltly challging their meaning in compo-
sition they help to form adjectives (§§ 53õ, 5õ6).
- -
\.;\ ara adorn
'.J' a.-la
defile, 80U
J\.J\ azar torment
. -
atneel mingle
t.S\ azma try, prove j\.l:\ Indal throw
r L:.\ asha'lll drink \ endous collect
-
engeez ashoub excite excite
j\..;i\ efraz
- -
raise J 1 ' .).J' a r:er, ar bring
jJ.) \ efrouz illuminate .;.;f aveel hang
afereen ereste
bar
rain
\.)\ efza increase
ba: play
'rhe Persian Verb.
..)'. blr earry
;. . bakhsh' gi ve

.J.:... bend tie
been see
JJ";; plrver feed, nourish
pezeer accept, receive
j\,)..;; plrdaz engage in
J.:-, pesend approve
t'
peera ornament
perhiz abstain
poosh put OD, ,year
peema measure
,-,L; tab . shine
jL; taz rush
trash shave
jouy seek
cheen
-':
gather
J-\...f- khirash scratch
J\J;" khor
0\";" khan
khah'
kheez
J\,) dar
0\') dan
eat
read, chant
"'ish
rise
hold, keep
know
.JJ,) dooz stiteh
0,) dih gi ve; grall t
0u ran urge, drive
u-J res arri ve
0LJ resan cause to reach
JJ rev go
j.J reez
4J nlba
\j za
0j zen
jL sa.
JL- sipar
'l'
l:- aita
jr sooz
'-' l:!. shitab
fi shiken
J le!. shumar
I.J' \.:.!, shinas
shouy
L...} fersa
L."'; fer1na
J. J firoush
fireeb
j \.J.5" gudaz
\\o:;:?
J guzar
guzeen
kesh
geer
l!.S"' ktlsha
,:) kun
.J gu
JL. mal
nisheen
\i. numa
j\y nuvaz
U'*'!..,I n U vees
283
shed
carryoft'; rob
bear
strike
make; com-
[pose
order
praise
burn
haste
break
count
recognize
wash
rub, corrode
command
sell
deeeive
melt
pass
choose
draw
seize, take
opell
do, perform
speak
rub
sit
show
caress
,,"rite
284 '- t· <.rJ.) Lesson 41.

o l3:".; nigidh look nih place; put
'-' yab find.
. .
§ 555. Persian Objeetive (past) Partietples.
-
araste adorned 0.)\'; sadA
-
0.) \,; \ azade free 0.)'; sede
-
0.) "'4j \ azmoude experienced sakhte
-
0.)L. \ amade ready c;..,,- souk1lte
-
shikeste o..l. \ amede come
-
0.).,,-.) (ersoude 0.) .,,- \ (tsotlde at rest, quiet
-
o .)JJ \ averde . brollgbt 0.) t:..,.) (iristalle
-
ci.) firifte avikhte hung
0.) l:; \ u(tnde fallen 0.) ..r.J fermoude
0.)..;";\ efsurde frozen cjS" guzeshte
istade standing, erect. o.)..} kerde
beste tied; tune ci..} girifte
perverde nourished
{fltzeede
.
khorde eaten 0.) t.!.5 kttshade o
0.)\.) dade given gli(te
o..la .) deede seen; eye 'mande
rinjide
illjured 0.) ...r 11Ul,rde
reseede arrived; ripe nihade
ci.J rette gone yafte, -ta
§ 556. Examples.
jiltangeer world conquering, conquerer.
nevreseede ne,,·ly arrived, young.
0.) f.Ä peznlll,rde vulg. pezvard(t faded; untidy.
jJ-J;"';: pertevsouz » pertafs,tz bnrning-glass.
born
{struck;
. 8uffered
made; false
burnt .
broken
worn
sent
deceived
commanded
{paati interest
on money
made, done
seized
{Chooseni
best
open
word
left
dead
put
Ionnd; label.
janbaz »jalnbaz rope-dancer; a horse dealer.
0.)J.) dourbeen » duldul far seeing; telescope.
The Persian Verb.
t.p. emekdar an old and faithfuI servant, veteran.
a. p. ';\..l:-- >'- silahdar vulg. zilifdar armour bearer.
a. p. 0.)\)..,\ asilzade of noble descent, a -noble.
R. p. ,;\.)lä; qafadar an intimate friend.
a. p. 0.) jü\ afetzede w ho has suffered misfortune ..
a. p. j'''üJb' tarafdar, tarafgeer a partisan.
, 'I'" herelse 9S.
285
Conneet the following words \vith eaeh other and
give the meanings:
535. 1. nam name + hold.) 2. hUkf'tm
authority + hoId.) 3. (a. khazine treasure + hold.)
4. (a. maqas a tailor's seissors + hoId.) 5.
zarair injury + seen.) 6. jihan world + seen.)
7. (a. :kr hariq fire + struck, suffered.) 8. (t. bey
prinee + born.) 9. (oL! + born.) 10. ()S::::-..!l lenger
anchor + thro\v.) 11. (t na un- + know.) 12. (a.
kltayr good + wish.) 13. hed evil + wish.) 14.
sack + sew.) 15. sukhen word + speak.)
16. (a. soulh + nourlah.) 17. (a. na'l horse-
shoe + tie.) 18. (a. tnaslaltat state affair +
pass, do.) 19. (t. work + pass, do.) 20. (f. J-:-r
rnousiqi musie -t- engaged in.) 21. khunk happiness,
prosperity + bring [khunkwr p. 240].) .
550. Translate the following Partieiples into Persian.
Increase, augn1entation; giving, present; a wishing,
a desire; caressing, petting; praising; an aet of opening,
cheerfuIness.
286 .... tJ" Jl LesBon 41.
'\ t herelse 94"
". J 4.40.).) t.. ');) \
[:'1 !lr j JI..J:.I J_ y • 404\\ C-
!lJr' ",,!.h
'
IJ'J;),M • ..;..eJr
J .:,\s)ljl", I JJ:.J. ·
0;)1..\ o.I;J;) y" .J-!AJ:.,l·
Ir. 1
j.!.} JJ!IJ t • jJ)JI O.!:-J o-,?,
,,:);.1. 0 .3'--",;0

'\ • ..;..eJ:.J J -r J.1.
' Jjr G.L... Y • jj
li .1. A 'J:..J .J.I.J. 41:-GjS'"
f I.! J-GS \ 1 1 ....ä:l · J;) \:- \!:
':'-liljb{ J ).,r.
)IJ );;1 o-lijJ! .:,\c-"':T ,. • )..l! .. Jl!]
• J;) !lI tl·;· '" \ \ · »
" 0 J Translatlon 96.
1. Mehemmed II. wss a great conqueror; he was
a180 a. brave ruler. 2. The horsedealer was very untidy.
3. I had a small telescope, but I sold it; DOW I have
a burning glass. 4. The number of the sufferers from
the fire was more than 300. o. The prinoes were among
the partisans of the king. 6. The steamer anchored
towards morning. 7. The tressurer distributed ;e 400
to those who have suffered from the fire. 8. That man
The Perstan Verb. 287
is a very famoas rope-dancer. 9. The armour·bearer of
the prinee was very ungratefuI. 10. Ali Effendi is my
intimate friend. 11. Who is Mr. Riddle? - He is the
Charge d' affairs of the American legation at Constan-
tinople.
Readlng Exeretse.
1 e":"\::-\:" A SuppIieatloo aod Praise.
! . ! 9;.;:.jf
! I '!J}\4l.!
! -..J) iJl ! 8j .,\l..l!
! (j\ r-':. .... :-
, ,. 1 D. A. t 14 , 18J' • /19 , ••
• f-oJ: ": f . 41 v-
I
, l. 18 • • I.. • , ta .1 __ .. 1 7 I. 16 .Jb' t·
,.; -- \"'--' r-" ,J \J:J
< 0\,}!ol)
Words. 1. a. Munajat ma et'temjeed. 2. jihan world, universe.
3. a. khali' qul- ale1neen creator of the universe. 4. a. ga Rebb'!
o Lord I 5. shoule efrouz; a. shoule fiame, light. 6. p. asuman,
asman heavens. 7. tomhe bakhsh; toushe provisions. 8. R. shatnil con-
taining. 9. ekrem,' ul ekremeen the most gracious of the gracious
ones. 10. fighan a moan, cry of distress. 11. 8. erhem ur rahi-
meen most merciful. 12. a. hajet need (what is the need ?).
13. a. arzihal petition. 14. seene heart. 15. dilnishin seated in 9ne's
heart. 16. a. zahir outside. 17. a. batin inside. 18. ghayib-been
who see the invisible. Divani FaziZ (from) The Divan of FazU
[t 1803].
Note. The N0S. 2, 5, 7', 15, 18 are Persian compound ad-
jectives (§ 535) and the Nos. 3, 9, 11 are Arabic compound adjec·
ti ves (§ 669).
..t Conversatlon •
• .)l ts.ci\ Wl\;.! ?.).J....f" .!I.;..!.
• ..)t-!, ?
- e "./ '
\ Af!\ ? r)'"
• ..)ol ..)ol
• 0':J.J\
288 ... , c..r.)l Lesson 42.

./ C ..... '
0:: ,
ri:" J).J,J-"'; t Ä t. V' • ' ,
)...t..l ? b l .. : .J.:-,)\,; J.,r' ü'J.J\
" ....
• ( § ) ,)l
....
Lesson 42.
The Prepositions.
§ 557. The Persian prepositions of frequent UBe
in OttomaD are the following (§§ 236, 4õl):
a) j\ cfrom': forms the Ablative case.
Jl j\ ez jan Oll dil Cfrom sool and heart' - heartily,
. devotedly.
ezher jihet in every respeet .
./.j\ ezber cfrom breast' = by heart, committed to memory.
j\ ez cfrom the number of' - as for exainple.
j\ ez qadeem from olden times.
b) be Cto, in': forms tlie Dative C8se .
.J J'..J.) 'I'OU be'l'ou faee to face.
\..b. r be.na' mt khuda in the name of God.
Jb. beheme hal cin every condition' = ab80lutely.
. "
":-...)f. beher seni every year. mah'blmah' month by
/' month.
t. w.,,<:" g"un begun day by day.
e) ba c"rith, by': forms the InstrumentaI" case .
.
.J rk ba ilm 0"1' khaber by a receipt.
'-:"" ba savab correct. lk ba tapou with a deed!,
..1.:...., ba sened \vith a llote.
ba khousous especially.
wL.,} ba ali by an (Imperial) exalted edict.
ba imtiyaz with a privilege, privilegad.
The Persian Prepositions.
d) ):l der tin, at': forms the Locative case.
.).) der dest at hand; arrested, seized .
der a"bar in the; store, stored.
.J.) , der hal, der aqab iUlmediateIy.
der khatir in the mind,_ in heart.
l:.....\ .J.) der .Asitane in Constsntinople.
e).1. be1
9
con'.
289
J. ber aks on the contrary. ber taraf aside.
rt}.) J. ' J. ber qarar, ber devam continually, firmly.
J. ' J\.,,:.. ..)! ' ..JA J. beI· vej'hi, ber naü:n:a'li,
accordlng as.
f) ta tuntil, as far as'.
l; ta daghi11 depesine qadar as far as the top of
the mountain.
L; ta besabah till the morning.
g) berayi (for, for the sake of'.
lS\J. bera'yi maslahat for a business.
06e:..\ lS\...;! » imtihan for the examination.
v ,) lS \...1. » ibaaet for worshi p.
"::-A..,r- lS\J. » hitrmet for the sake of respeet.
Examples.
der khattl· etmek to remember.
J. ber mouji'bi bala in the above-mentioned Jnanner.
--
CJ \ J. ber vej'hi atee in the following mannere
der d/st et." to arrest. ber taraf et." to set sside.
der anbar et." to store. ez sir ta pa from head to foot.
Substitution. Ibdal.
§ 558. Substitution of one letter for another rather
rareIy occurs in the Persian language. This ellange
of one Ietter into another does not produee any change
Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 19
290 ... , c..rJl Leason 42.
of meaning: For instance, b is changed into J'"
.
in some words; as: bala high = 'Vala high,
tabc frying pan = ta1Ja frying pan.
§ õ59. Substitution occurs often in the follo'\\ing
letters:
'-:"" to b = p
.;\.;4 bazar market:
kniIma •
jaIou,.
.)>> d = z a. khidmet service:
jadou ,vizard:
l\!, shad merry, joyful: l\! ahal.
» ,J: b
-
v
baghcheban gardener:
.J
»
J:r -
l perkiär compass: pergel.
kefehe skimmer: 4 kepje.
'-'
»
f =p
t'
gevher jewel: jevher .
mus",k musk: misk,
musk.
.!l
lP
r.,: 9
=j

c..r: sh
c..r
»
=s
t» L: kk = h .;\(:.;.. khunkwr king: huftkiti, ..
Omission.
§ 560. The Omission of letters is very frequent
in tlle Persian language, without changing the meaning
of the \vord:
The original word • \! skak' t:king' is written as 4!
shf:h' t:king'. efghan t:lamentation' is written also-
fighan. 4A 'Jne'" for .l. tnah emonth', and geh
for .\5 gluk place.
§ 561. The following is a list of such words fre-
quently used in Ottoman:
lOS l; pay foot:
J ehihar four:
J.J.J. bed' ter ,,·orse:
.)L:-\ oustad master:
a. e1neer prince:
pa.
.)6.. char.
"
beter or WIUr •.
L:.w,J \ ' "':-.J \ owlcl.
meer.
The Persian Prepositions. 291
\: blyaban desert: t! I yaban.
..,:.! J;" hoshnoud content:
t:;.. khane house:
.) L- sar head:
• \jT azade free:
R. faqeeh' student af Canon la,,':
ki;'·van caravan: (§ 529)
Eurelse 96,
hoshnoud.
.Jt:;.. khan .
..,)--' ser.
azad .
faqi, yulg. fakhi.
w\.JJ kervan.
1.S..ci1 r-)" ');) 15); ,
dtj-v
.::.-.:r 15
1
.1. 0;) i:J .1. 'I" 'I.S"'!;) l.Lji J;) J
J.b 1f."41; t I jqJ\;
J i lJ;) .1. .1. j I I.S:J::'-j;) 0
Jy.; y . JT 4Jy' ,
., .
..,.s ./' J.-eY:? J) 41J I o..dl
A • )!....::.' .J!..) J..? J ;\! j4)f J,J) JJ!
\ Y oJI
:;::::- jiJI
a.. o;)oJt' " 'i...uT y", rk "
• J.J!.};; Jj)
'\v Translation 97.
1. From olden times he has heen the friend of
our family. 2. He was satisfied with me in every
respeet. 3. This mother loves her ehildren devotedly.
4. He said this to me and immediately went out.
5. He sends me a present at the beginning of every
19*
292 'L r c..rJl Lesson 42.
, .. '
year: (for instance) this year I received a gold pen.
6. Day by day he was progressing in his lessons. 7. In
the name of God come quickly and help me! 8. He
is continually sick. 9. Kerim Effendi went to Salour
for business. 10. He cHmhed up to the top of the
mountain. 11. He cried incessantly until morning; be-
cause his body from head to foot was full of wounds.
12. Nejib Bey went to the mosque for worship. 13. He
spoke iIl the following manner. ] 4. The thief was arrested.
15. The wheat and the barley were stored. 16: The
caravall lost its way in the desert .
..:,JI} r:\,; Reading Exerelse.
( .. ) J; ;r The Hunter.
- t
? 3);\.J.:-J .... 0";_ ! 1):0
_ 0 '0 , _ ,
\ .J.J..r ;' 0\ 6.; y. ! lJr yo
"
.fo J-l:l4- ' ,J.) :rr-- wJI J""!J.
0,) foti: '';' j_e 0,) fi!. '
• wl.P 14 0l.j
I) 1.
7

.. r ..T
-r
,,' - \t"'"
· JJ! \.,) .-&!\
• 19J 1::i lS;-' J.J..i.J! 18 ')\J ?
Words. ( t ) 1. u. (et' tan nsughty (boy [§ 609]). 2. a. fltlgl
jocline. 3. s. vijdan heart; conscience. 4. jemeeytti sUroodtJktJM
an Rssembly full of chants (§ 536). 5. ju:nooshgthi BÜrOWakma:
ju,nbush,qeh a place ofpleasure (§§541,560), stlrourakeetljoyCul (§5S6).
6. R. munshlrih' cheerfuI; yeri dir it is lawfuI (just the place).
7. dili teng: tlng poor, miserable; chaliliq bush. 8. a. 8tJt1t chant.
9. p. full; aheng melody. 10. sadl simpIe. 11. a. 6tJree(
graceful; 8. 111aqatn singingo 12. S. latif niee, beautiful. 18. IttdiBAI
et! take care! 14. R. intizatn quietude, order. 15. BOUBouAoIII!
be silentl qoushjighazlarttn my dear birdies (§§ 166-87)..
(r) 16. 8. S'ltr' at speed; chanta bsg. 17. d.ek dotmnaq to keep
stiIl, quiet; chifte fowling piece. 18. a. rah. meny.
19. qiymaq to kill (he ,vill not spare you).
• J..l.-::ÄA « 0 j; lS..>;;: ..Jc\! .;-a.; (.)
-' .
The Persian Prepositions. 293
- r--

• '!3.;\.J ·.)J!r wf'J'.
? 250"":'; lS.))JrYJ\
. d!f r.J JA rJJJ\
• 29 Y. • .;l::- lSJJJ\ c.5..q\
• 31\ j7\ &J\ J\jJ\
, .7 , ).. ",.;,.7
. r
-'I.
! 34
0'; Y. 0y J! : 37
! u 40lS')'\ Jo ? ); yo
20. yoummaq to shut, eloseo 21. SMeni adhneeylt: sheen
shame; a. adkmeeyet humanity (§ 581). 22. slzayi la'net detestable:
seza subjeet; suitable, fitting; a. la'net eurseo
Cr-) 23. s. qarar et." to sit; qirlanghij swallow. 24. bakh-
tiyarane in a. happy way (§ 528). 25. p. tlesh've plessure; a.
arMval; s. tebrik et." to eongratolate. 26. a. zevqou shlvq pleasare
and lnirth (§ 696); a. sherik compsoion. 27. nagehan auddenJy.
28. a. sa.y' yad hunter (§ 610). 29. berbad rained, lost (§ 557 e).
30. 8. belaya etiJs, misfortunes. 31. R. it'tiqa et." (from viqaye) to
be eautious. 32. 8. beraya men.
('I.) 33. a. khasayil eharacter; a. efkidr opinion. 84. 8. delallil
tokens, proofs. 35. 8. zou-a-fa the poor (ones). 86. veseele-jouyi
siteez: vesilljouy who seeks for a pretext (to quarrel) (§ 535);
siteez quarrel. 37. a. aqveeya the rieh, the strong (ones). 88. khoonreez
hlood-shedder (§ 535). 39. zoulm abad a place of eruelty; hell. 40. alall
troop. 41. a. jel'lad exeeutioner (§ 609). 42. a. mouhibbi saaiq ou
khayr (§ 696): ,Ilouhibb' friend; a. sadiq just, trae; khayr good.
43. 8. rahee,n mereilul. 44. 8. qatil murderer; R. tallr bird. 45. a. vasf
praising, ealogy. 46. 8. haqayiq light, just.
294
'Lr c..r.J,) Lesson 43.
0-
• J. c.>..J.J.JJ wJ.i')lili • tf--'l
!\J..i\ 49 .. JT tSJJ\ '-:-Jr}
?,)L! r;f (.>/t.JJ.J\ Õ00J.A') I c.>\ ?.!l.u.r ? ,.:
• d .. ..lJ; J-iti yo
I 65..!, ....1,? oJ..i' =-- 54\,...J .c.\ .J,) 6,.j '63.!. 1.,) 0,)'" c.s .. J ,.A
. "C:.- '"1. . ...r J \ \
, .7 'J ..
. . r
-,
\ l:! ..i\ 6.i! c.S,).J J)' , .J.r.:! I 0,)';' ! r)!';
! .. ! I JY.. W.
, 59 .... ; .7.J .. \- - • .l..,.!
..,;-.J..T J. . .:..J-" r!J'..
! I '.J\..lÄ....;! c.S.)J;.J
\ 0: 0.) J \.J , .J-! J; 62 c::-l- fl1.l. JJ \ !,jJ
I
(0) 47. yaver helper; tetik trigger; keklik partridge. 48. a. kBb
dog. 49. vabeste appropriated; a. jelb bringing, fetching. 50. 'ef'·
ki de·m shedding of blood. 51. unjust, cru el (§ 529). 52. a.laM
et." to eurseo 53. a. sher·r eviJ. 54. a. eghreb wonderful. 55. a. tab
heart, nature; s,. beshe·r humanity.
(,) 56. p. 11luzhde! good news! a. tebayO,d, to disappear.
57. 8. mahelli hazer place (= need) of caution, fear. 58. a. mUil-
rebimje as I like, according to my taste. 59. f. qonslr concert.
60. mtthlet vermek to grant a delay. 61. a. zimane, zlman Time; bi,
'I1l'lqdar a little; 8. zalim ernel. 62. tama-perver avarimoua (§ 585).
t r Lesson 43.
d The Gender of Arabic Nouns.
.. ..
§ 562. There is no gender in Turkish or Persian,
but there is in Arabic. Witll respect to gender Arabic
nouns are divisible into two elasses: s) those which
are only masculine; b) those which are only feminine.
There is 110 neuter gender in the langusge.
The Gender of Arabic Nouns. 295
§ 563. That a noun is of feminine gender (key ..
fiyet) may be aseertained either from its signifieation
or from its terrnination.
a. The feminine nouns ,vhich are such because of
their signification, are all ,vords denoting females; as:
, Hadije, Zeyneb, Manya (fem. prop. names).
D..l11l.J valide a mother, r...r.J...;c. a'rous a bride, b'int a daughter.
b. The feminine nouns and adjectives which are
sueh by reas on of their termination, are all substan-
tives and adjeetives ending in ., or Õ ' " (-e, -et,
-(lt, -t, -a), when those terminations do not belong to
the root; as:
rllenlleket a country, jcn-net paradise,
1nah'keme a court, kubra greater (§§ 29 c, 32 c, 610).
But fo L. 1na water, .::..".,G siikiit silenee, .. imbeelt
...
warning, vaqlt tiule: are not feminine, because
their terminations are radical; i. e. , ' 0 (-a, -t, -h)
belong to the root (§ 587).
§ 564. Maseuline nouns and adjeetives are usually
rendered feminine by the mere addition of the letters
he, te (e, t), which are called feminine letters:
azeenl great:
jedd a grandfather:
e ekh, itkh a brother:
ben, bin a son:
azee'me great (fem.).
jedde a grandmotber.
;.. \ itkht a f3is ter .
hint a daugbter.
§ 565. Note. When the noun is feminiDe, the
adjective lIll1St agree with it, and be aIso of the ferni-
l1ine gender (§ 656).
Exerelse 98.
I. Change the following maseuIine nouns into
feminine ones:
296 'L" '-"'.) l LeS80 Il 43.
r .. ,
d' 1.J1) • '4JI;. , 7.:./),)
9 l _, '10 , 11 .... I! , lS1J' ..... , IS '14:,,. , 15 A Jt "
U.N .f f\.-AM
, , , 19)\ , -:--l.o ' , , r-J'o
Words. 1. valid, 8 father (genitor). 2. hafeed grandchild.
3. amm', vulg. em'tni father's brother, unele. 4. khal mother's
brother, unele. 5. mou-afUm teaeher. 6. mUttesaI" ,.ir owner;
governor. 7. vans heir. 8. nejib noble. 9. kamil bearer. 10 .• timin
believer. 11. fi,lan so and so (man). 12. ghas' sal gazeIle. 18. mer-
houm the deceased. 14. shayir poet. 15. saUa third. 16. ,anee
second. 17. zevj husband. 18. ilah' god. 19. baehelor. 20. King.
II. Aseertain whether the following words are
feluinine or maseuline:
.1' ·'1 .. r'2 ... '3 .. · '4 ... ,'5 .. '6 .. ·'7 .... "
......... '"- '-' r '-'"., '-"' r
, ' 10.:.-:! ' , 111.J." lS'tY" .....ÄÜ ' ::': •
1. soulmet darkness. 2. hab'be a grain. 3. mnt daughter.
4. slster. 5. mevt, 6. fevt death. 7. meser' ret joy. 8. maslahat
business. 9. hadeeqa 10. beyt a house; a stanZ8. 11. tllbat
pIant. 12. ebo" father. 13. kerem, Zoutr, nimet kindnes8.
The Number of Arabic Nouns. :.,,5'
..
§ 566. The ... t\rabic language has three nnmbers
(kerniyyet): Singular, Dual and PluraI, and three cases
(/tal) in each number: NOIll., Aec., and Genitive.
§ 567. Note. Of the three Arabic cases, only the
Nom. and Aec. of tlle Singular and the Aec. of the Dual
and PluraI are in use in Ottonlan, the Aec. of the Dual
and PluraI being used in place of the Nominative, and
that too in a form shortened by the omisaion of the
final short vowels. The Aec. Sing. is need only 8S an
adverb in Ottoman (§ 682). In the following Lessona the
short fina} vowels and everything else not used ill Ottoman
are omitted, but t.he student will find them in Arabic
phrases adopted into the language as single words
(§ 666-670).
DuaI. •
..
§ 568. The Dual indicates two things of the same
kind and is formed by adding -atl and ..
to the sillgular. [Compare ,vitIl the -(tn ofPersian (§ 609)] ; as:
The Gender and Number of Arabie Nouns. 297
L sah il sea -roast:
sahileyn,', sahilan two coasts.
sitls one thir(i:
, 0\.:U' sCtlseyn', siUsan two thirds .
........ qOlttb the Pole:
. ' 0 LW qou,tbeyn', qoutban the two Poles.
-. .
§ 569. If the word end in he (-e) feminine (hayi
teenis)., it is changed into te fetninine (-t-) (tayi teenis),
before the dual terrninatioll is added (§ 32 c, 564, 592):
nuskhe' a copy: nztskheteyn'.
0 ....
sefine' a sbip: sl.fi,neteyn'.
§ 570. The following duals are nluch in use,
although they do not indicate two things exactly
similar to one another: .
o , ..
' \ valiaeyn', ebll:eyn' the parents. (Sing .. .1l\.1
zevjeyn' husband and wife. (Sing. (..1.)).
qanlereyn the sun and mOOD. (Sing . .,.;.J).
haremeyn' the sacred eities of Meeca and Medina.
X ote that they do not mean (two fathers', (two husbands'
and moons'.
'\ '\ r:\; Exerelse 99.
Change the following nouns into the duaI:
] • , •• ..... '2 0" '3. -' L 4 -::.' L 5 ,oA '6 ' 0' '7 .',
I....,;'''L. 4..,a
:.. I ,; L 10 A \" 11 .. ' L 12°.1:! ' 13° ·'t' '·14. .,. L .......
:I r:. ... ) J \J' f ...J JI::' r. .J..
1r ords. 1. nzenzil a halting place; a house. 2. jihet a side;
a quarter. 8. saheere page. 4. zamme the vowel tõtre. 5. shart
l'ondition. 6. belde eountry. 7. siids one sixth. 8. fiqra a sentenee,
"aragraph. 9. sherik eOlupanion. 10. varis heir. 11. merqoum
the above said. 12. Juulle elause. 13. taral aside. 14. bahr a sea.
The Plurals in Arabic. Jem.
§ ij 71. There are two kinds of pluraIs in Arabic:
3. One of these has only t,vo fOrITIS, and is called
the regular or sound pluraI (pluralis sanus), because
298 ... ,. Les80n 4R,
all the vowels and eonsonants of the singular are retained
in it (Jcnli Muzekkc"ri Sali1n, ],[umne'si Salim); ex:
.. .
Jyl. 'ntc-mour an offieer: 'Jne-mou-reen' officers.
b, The other which has various forms is called
the broken or irregular pl ural (pluralis fractus),
because it is more or less altered from the singular
by the insert.ion or elision of consonants, or the change
of vowels; ex.: sefeene a ship: :;..: or ju..: sUfen
or sefayin cships'. Here the form of the noun is broken.
So also shey a thing: csh'ya tbings.
§ õ72. The different ways of forrning the irregular
Arabic pluraIs are so numerous and complex that a
separate chapter is requisite to explain theln, which will
be found further Oll (Lesson 51, § 637-662).
The ReguIar .aseuIine PIuraI. L. Jj,. r:.
§ 573. The pluralis sanus of maseuIine nouns is
formed by adding the terrnination :"J -oon and
-een; as : '1nfis11'11t a Moslem: 1114;8-
"
linteen', m.uslinloon' MosleITIs. y mumin a believer:
. ..
r ' w *.JA 1nU1ninOOtl.' believers.
§ 574, This way of fornling the pluraI is employed
only in the case of names of ra tional beings, therefore
-l-.\ esed ca lion', 'Jnektoub ca letter' cannot be
' esecleen, 'Jnektouboon: because they cannot
reason or speak (§ 578).
§ 575. But the plurals of , sene ·year"
a'lem cuniverse' are exceptions: they are sineen,
.. -'-'
seneen., k. alerneen. The pluraI of ben (son, ehiId'
..-
... , ,
is , but it becomes benee when in con ..
The Gender and Number of Arabic Nouns. 299
struction with a noun following; 8S: , i"\
benee ISlrayel, benee Adem Cthe ehildren of Iarael', Cthe
ehildren of Adam, mankind'; the full form, however,
does not occur in Ottoman.
, •• Exerelse 100.
Give, if possible, the regular pluraIs of the follo'\v-
.
lng nouns.
J; , 1",:",l:f" , s I5JI; q..;, ' 5 i.,Li;.; , 6 JJt.!'; ,
9
i
*' 1015JI;' llJJ\....'
Words. 1. Hook. 2. lIzuder' ris, mou-al-lim teacher. 3. qaree
reader. 4. tayr a bird. 5. tna.zlOUlIl poor, oppressed. 6. mesh-
kour remarkable (man). 7. riyazi astronomer. 8. sami hearer,
audience. 9. mujrim criminal, sinnere 10. havari apostle (of our
Lord). 11. sariq a thief. 12. 'resoul an apostle, prophet.
The ReguIar Feminine Plurat f \.... e.
§ 576. The reguIar way of forming the pluraI of
Arabic feminine nouns and adjectives (Jemi Muennesi
Salitn) is by dropping the finaI" he, te (-e, -t, -et) of
the singular (§§ 563-64) and adding -at to the word.
muslime a female Moslem: mftslinlat Moslem womeu.
0) sem-ere a fruit:
a-la·met a sign:
\) semerat frui ts.
alamat signe.
§ 577. If the word end in -at, the -t IS
dropped and is ehanged in to vav (-v-):
w \ zat person:
salat prayer:
...:,.; t.r. berat an edict:
zlt·at.
\.Jl:, salat,'at.
\.J..)'. berat,'at ediets, firmane .
§ 578. Some of the maseuIine nouns denoting
thiligs whieh have not reason or speech, form their
pluraIs by adding -at, as they cannot take the
regular maseuline pluraI (§ 574):
300 ... ,. Lesson 4S.
,., ..
tahreer a writing:
ghalat a mistake:
nebat a plant:
tahreerat writings •
ghalatat mistakes.
nebatat plants.
, ., Eurelse 10L
Give the feminine pluraI of each of the following words:
... 0'.. '
• -;. '1 ... ... \ , 2. \ • ... , 3::J - '4 ..... '5 ... - • '6.....'... , ,
yd le,) \ 0 .. "
... ...
8° ..... \ "', 9° ... \. ... '10" .... , rA '11 • t"\ .. , 12 L':, 18 .. ,
,-",> \.>- 0.) \....s .J J\-.,a.U '-"' u )
. . ..... ..... .. ...
....
14 • 0:, 15 J .... , 16 I 0;, 17° / ...... , 18 -.. , 19 • ..........
r
yM
y. p.
Words. 1. ghayet the end. 2. animaI. 3. instrument.
4. mUjize a miracle. 5. service (khtdemat). 6. a-tUt cuetom.
7. a. payment. 8. hajet a need, ","ant. 9. ibare sentenee. 10. shi-
kiayet a compIaint. 11. te-e-leet' composition of a hook; a book.
12. taqseer' <leHeieney. 13. zek(ät alms. 14. tareef explanation.
15. malenim kno\\'D; (knowledge). 16. tebreek' congratuIation. 17. hl-
1·eket blessing. IR. tamee'" repair. 19. sebze vegetahJe.
, • y Eurelse 102.
J , ... .J. \
(b- '1", .J.1.f. 4'
.:" ,rk ' w.cl l:i : ,rk to -
1..ci1 0 ,
e):> '\ -p C1 •
4:t
Jl
A -Jr[' 4.l;:r .. ':"..,.. .:.......lt V
.).jJ'
J \ \ 4.J'Y.- JJ. \.
J\.x.j. f-L: L<! \ T I.r.\ ':"1).--
, J=i'".;A \ 'I" - .ut!
.:;,3-
The Gender and Number of Arabic Nouns. SOl
, • J Translatlon lOS.
1. Miss Gulistan is the beiress of the governess
(teaeher). 2. The owner of this house is Jemile Hanim,
the teseher. 3. Give the bearer of tbis letter five
diyes. 4. You must obey your parents. 5. Dr. Ch. Traey
bas written a nice hook for parents and for husbands
and wives. 6. Paradise was in the land of Ararat.
7. The eriminals were carried before the court. 8. The
number of the bearers was 900, two tbirds of whom
were women. 9. Erase those two eotres. 10. The mother
of the sovereign of the martyrs, Hftseyin, is tbe Princess
of the of the universe Fatima-Zehra .
.u Conversatlon.
. :::: , /".::::,;'
• JA c.s f! c> Jo :.J.le-J; 5! \
. wl:lJ\ dS)\
. , ...
· .. w
tl
.,,\ J .le- ..
· L- ." 7 ' [J\
J\ : Jo Jo
.. : S!'\ !
lG\ : .. -Y...ii-.!' J

Jo J.r-:-J \ w'J J \
• JJ.,,\ "; Ü'..'
rL rL. rl.

Jo Jorl
• L 6..L-OJ)\c.
. .. ..
J)J-A L : JJ\ .. I:Ü'..JyL.'
I:Ü'..Jyl.' • J.) oJ.:-l:.u
...- , ,.
J.;yL.
• Jr
?).le-j?;'\i
'-- .-:,'
?).)
. :::-",
?).)..;
E\i
? c>)i.J
302 ... ,. U".)l Lesson 48.
... ,
Readlng Exerclse.
1. Poem. 0 PerkiJJt Bend.
2 o..l.i) j) ) \) \A.,Q 4i 1 :!1.Jb,)
• o..l.i }- !.S-!' 1
6 -' tAL: 1 ,Õ \i . -'
::J..n;-' r v-: · J )-A') y-
.i A.8 .\.' 7,t·
J J .
,
r' A JJ'
15 .. •
JJ' a..,L.!' J 'jJ' r
18 • /, -., \ • _' ...
• o.ij.J-.O oJ.:.r
, 15 Ja 0,)"-')1 l' )..l,Q )Il 4{)\
.
17 • .. .t, 16 \ • /f
• o.ijx J \Jr 4JJ .. ..;A
, 18 • t •. /("'"'"" ,-,. I'

20 • .""""". . .. ("'"'"" ." 1 9 I ••
- o.ij.J-L"-A.J jA).Jl
, \:t.) 21
J
':J .1..J:.J ep
,0.J...I. .. '. · J 22 '" -'I
• o-'U -w \:>oa )J'" J .JI)wI
. ..
, ' .J..l!!' -0
2.j. • 1., 9
3
l:e. .. .. -', • #.
• o...\JyJ )'y!.J.J>
Words. 1. dehr world. 2. seem silver, ser gold. 3.
braqir leaves. 4. sete,. journey; heen time. 5. rmg;, "eta permanent
colour. 6. p. sipihr the sky, the sphereo 7. leyl night. 8. ftiAar
day. 9. lteva Q.zre in the air. ['l'hey say that Solomon's throne .
was in the air (Mosleln tradition)J. 10. the tbrone of Solomon.
11. sa ltanat empire; magnifieence. 12. hilrr free. 18. g1KJm.
anxiety; keder grief. 14. sadr Grand Vizier, jihaft world. 15. bil-
rarz for instanee (§ 671). 16. khasaset baseness, viIeness. 17. Irq
Olt giker disposition and su bstanee = charae1;er (§ 696). 18.
'Ilej'jim astrologer. 19. ghaflet heedles8ness. 20. rah!J1U1r W&y (§585).
21. laf talk; word. 22. tesey' yub lack of prudence; irregnlaritiea.
23. rfttbe degree; aql wisdom, sense. 24. l.ser work, deed.
The in Arabic. 808
, 1.1:
. • I 27 1\ 26 - ""
: 0..).»))) .J. U
29 .< I. -, 28 .. , .l
0') J \.-J »
- ....
«3°.1 ;:"'fa>- ).l __
25. tnaza,.'rat injuries, harms (§ 576). 26. sabit qadlm firm
and steadfast in reeol ve (§ 636). 27. rey opinion; judgment.
28. sadaqat fidelity, bonesty. 29. ikrah disgust; enmity (§ 619).
30. .Allah. Ziya Pasha a distinguished Turkish author, poet,
historian and statesman (1809-79). Terkibi Bend. A poem in
8tanzas of aimilar metre but of different rhyme, the disticha of
each stanza rhYD1e excepting the last distich.
i i Lesson 44.
U\ The Nisbe.
§ 579. The Noun of Relationship (en Nisbe, as it
is called jn Arabic), is formed by adding the terrnination
...
4.s -ee' to the noun, frOln which it is derived. It denotes
that a person or tbing belongs to or is connected there-
,vitll (in respeet of orjgin, family, birth, sect, trade etc.)
((1ompare the Turkish and Persian Nisbes §§ 149, 526):
Ermen Arruen (a fahulous Armenian hero):
.. .)\ Ermenee' belonging to Armen, Armenian.
u-"'!' shems the sun:
0\ h' , I
c.>-"-' 8 e11lSee SO. ar.
J.!A') dimlshq Damascus: dimi.'lhqee' a native of Damaseua.
Mllta-la-at: Remarks.
§ 580. a. The feminine terrnination of nouns
o 01" is omitted before adding this termination; as:
fllek'ke. Mecca:
tabiya,t nature:
... fllek'kee' a native of Mecca.
... tabiyee' natural.
b. But if there is an elif preceding it is retained:
804 '" 'L u-.J.) Lesson 44.
\ zat person: "J\ zatee' personal.
hayat life: hayatee' vital. "
c. If at tIIe end of foreign (non-Arabic) proper
nanles there is a Ile (-a), it is cbanged into vav (-v-):
Fransa France:
... -
tS JA!J \ .Ame.riqa't'ee A Inerican :
..,-: t,;; Fransavee French.
'",.s Y.J.) \ NdiTnevee a nati ve of
Adrianople.
d. When any Arabic word enda in abort or long
el?·" it is changed into (§ 29 c, d):
( man' 0, meaning; spirit: 1lzanevee' spiritual.
dunya ,vorld: dU'nyatlee' worldly .
.. Beyza the town of Beyza: beyza't'ee' a nativa of Beyza.
o-!' Isa J esus : r-!' Isatlee' Christian.
e. The tens of the numerals are made in the way
wbich will soon be shown (§ 689).
f. There are other nouns of Relationship, the
formation of is irregular:
badiye a desert: bedevee' inhabiting the deseri, a
. . Bed nin; a savaga.
medine a city: medenee' d welling in the city J civilieed,
sene year: senevee' :rear1y.
[urban.
oukhouv'vet brotherhood: akhavvee' brotharly •
5ol. ma water:
... 50
J\.. 'fllayee' watery; fiuid; blue.
g. Some Ilouns take 8n addition of..jl before ($-ee:
l!.) rouh spirit: rouhanee' spiritual.
jism body: jismanee' corporal.
Otber exampIes are:
a Hebre,,': suryafla' a Syrian.
:l1.J.\S'" kildetn.ee' a Chaldaean: tlasranee' { :
h. A noun of Relationsbip is never formed from
the pluraI, even when the sense Inight seem to demand
it, but always from the singular: for instanee words
The Nisbe iD Arabic. 805
M .. OM .. •
like J-:.) rL. ' J \.J'..)? mel1l.ourinee, taltrlrCttee (relati ve to
officers or letters' are never used, but their singular is
_ 6 • M
used ' 1nentOU1"ee, taht·iree (relative to
an offieer or letter i. e. offieial, literary'.
i. Although this rule is very strietly observ'ed in
Arabic, yet in recent OttoInan literature there are süme
terms iu current use forIned fron1 plurals, but they are
regarded as barbarisms:
J:::-- .. 0'; qouvve 'yi jounoudeeye the mili tary forees.
nl0u-a-hida'tt duveleeye the Treaties of the Powers.

jenleeyye'ti 1'Ou,sou,neeye the Taxation Committee.
The words ,iounoud, dlivel, 'rousounl, are the pluraIs
of ji'ind army, devlet eelTIpire' and reSl1t tax.
The Abstraet Noun. Ismi Mana.
§ 581. Abstraet nouns are forrned by adding
'0 (-yet, -ye) to the end of Nouns of Relationship;
or (-iyet, -iye) to the end of nouns and ad-
jectives (§§ 163, 541):
j \ J.,a; nasranee aChristian:
j.,l.. mldenee civilised:
hurr free:
es- jenl colJ ecting :
AIso:
'1IaSrat1eeyet Christianity.
..
midineeyet ciYilisation.
hur' ri-yet freetlonl .
jim' iyet an assenl bly.
- '
mejidiye the coin struck by Sultan
belldiye the Dlunicipality, the city court,
y..) doukhouliye admission fee, entrance-money.
§ 582. If 4' 0 {-e, -ye, -(i) is added to the end
of Arabic Derivative Adjectives and Partieiples, and used
alone ,vithout any noun to lnodify. The {erninine
Adjectives and Partieiples thus forrned are regarded as
fenlinine substantives (§ 421): ..
Turkish CQDv.-Grammar.
20
306 'L'L Leason 44.
,...,
... f..>;';' khefee aecret: datecti veo
mljlnoll collected; mejIJwu-a collactioD.
m'u-es' ses established: institation.
t\.. 11lani hinder: \.. maniya obstacle.
§ 583. The following abstraet nouns are soleeisIns,
being formed in the Arabie manner from Turkish, Persian
or European ,vords and not fron1 Arabic "yords; (§ (07):
t. varillet ,,'ealth: p. gernlluet ardonr, !eal..
p. ... r'" slrbesiiyet freedoru: p. perishaniuet poverty.
f. qraliyet kingdom: p. (monthly) sslary ..
f. politiqille politics: t. pastore-tax.
, • t Eurelse lOt.
Form Nouns of Relationsbip and Abstract nouns
frolll the folloVtring ,,"ords:
1
0
'" ,'Jo "'0"" 3 0 "" 4- ::; '" 'õ "':, 6 ,., 'le , CO

.. . .. . . .
8 , 9 , 100 -::; '11 °'" " '" - , .... , '" , "''' , ",' ...
Vb.. 0';)' fo. j.
1 .) 0,., 1 3 l'" '" , • ............-:,' t., · ,."'"
J:J
" ".
.. RV 1" '" '2 .' 8' ,. it. , 4- 0.. .,. e" , 1). ;., 6·.. : L" ,
:J .. g. JJ' -.::,,.. ..J.J'.j>-e
:j81. 1 t+ ' \j:>} (at"d) , :.r....:: ' 8 .k :,;; • ..
"':. 0 ... , ... , "', '''''J.'
)J.r-
t
Jr\A
I', 'B. t t ' 3' L! ' , 4'::::; , , :; , 8 •
582. \. u,\J e
1. adlt custom. 2. beyza' egg. 3. beyt family, house ..
4. Jnad' de nlatter, subject. 5. plant. 6. ,vatere 7. tija.rl' trade ..
8. dakhil interior. 9. khariJ outaide, foreign. 10. mil'U, nation ..
11. Bosna Hosnia. 12. sevda the spleen. 18. haaven.
580 g. 1. rabb the Lord. 2. noor light. S. sOlllml' darkDest1 ..
4. 1:ah'.let uniqueness, 5. taht the lo,ver part. 6. flrJfJ. over.
581. Islam. 1. tab disposition. 2. room (in Custom-Houae.)
3. zaut control. 4. ehem,,, important.
582. 1. rabU binding. 2. nice, amuaing (story). S. tROIIWir
,,-110 reIninda. 4. mouqad' de1n preeeding, before. 5. tRtlUOUtR'
,,-ritten in rhYlne and metrc. 6. second (second).
,
The Nisbe in Arabic. 307
.):.j Words.
p. \.b-. khuda, khoda God
a. -ts..l tlebi prophet
u. \j tezayud et." to inereasa
a. 0 \.J qour' an Qoran
a. \ W \ iman It." to believe
a. nebeviyat propheeies
a. medresi seminary
...
8 • ..r-ä- mfl.fis' sir commentator
JlS1 ik-maZ et." to tinish a. hararet heat.
Prope,' Names: l:-!\ Ishaya, Eshaya Isaiah.
, • 0 Eurelse 10i).
· ..:,,;")t_1 ,
.... t-" le .., t, ... A ... A
r- · \ J. 4 ...... Nt' ... T
Jb J.;.. t yo .;!.ljiJ
0 .J);)
..:"iJ J.! 0.cf.1 r ,,-!I
4..AL. J)..])' 4l .. i)\;J' J Y .):l )1)
"" • M
..,.\.:l. JJ=;Yo j:j.,;.bJI A ·i).t.1..J o)! J.Jj

· ) IJ P?> JJ=; jt J) J , · J:. ..JJ 1
yo f'. J.1..J ' yo cliJ;1:7 ' •
JI:-J}» ,,. · )r:'\:: " · JT
J ",:i; !y41 0;)4::;' rt
..
· r:l
JiJ
' . .J'.)
..
, • '\ 4.:::-..1 Translatlou 106.
1. The Old Testament is written in the Hebrew
and Chaldrean languages and the New Testament in
20*
808
Greek. 2. Do you kno,," the Lord's Prayer by heart. 3. The
exchange of offices bet,\"een t\VO office-holders is done by
the consent of the parties eoncerned. 4. Christiane, Maho-
nIedans and Jews believe in the of God. õ. The
luilitary forees of the European powers are increasing every
year. 6. He lost his ,vealth and fell into poverty. 7. Free-
dom is the life of a nation. 8. rfhe Taxation Committee
has raised the rate on renL 9. I wrote a composition
about the Treaties of the Powers. 10. The shape of my 1
inkstnnd is ova!. 11. Let us sing bymn number õl.
Conversatfon.
• rJy..J;"'\ J;} yo s\ ..
?
.b JJ!.fo j\.)y ..;! ? Jij I
• J\.J] jJ\ ,.J-.AJJt("
.J jt,;;
r..l:.i\
· r;} J;.J\ l:-!\
,
• \

) ..
· ;} t. 'J J! )'\..;!

· J.J.i J! 0:" ..;!
tA'· ! r..ci\
• J\{\
lS.}S\
? )\.J]
(.;l"" ... 1..,,1 [.li .Jt.; ..f.
· \:l • ..c..t\ u.
_ -. .JA _
? lSJJ.,,\ jJ\
? J.l..<;;} J.\.)J\i"
. ,
?
\.) .J -':""\.:.)\.J>'

? (.:/ J\J yo
? h J-j.,,1
.!l:.. .... d
l
rk- Jf'j..
. ""
! rJ.:j\ [..J\ o.).).J\ ? J.) ;,.ü ..; U*' •
Reading Exercise.
Columbus' Egg.

lJ'" ords. 1. 'Inesh'llour weIl known: '11Zesh'hour dow l-i every
body -= it is -2.. küishif diseoverer. 2&. Christophorus.
The Nisbe in .Arabic. 309
t - , I"· • e) e ,... .... A
Y. . ,-c,.J\..Jj.,a:>- 4..T -, ..... 4f"::J u-y:,t., J' )_-.1 j ·
22 .... eA"" .. Al. -.\ t 21 .ett
".a.-.. .)
< yo \ ) • {{)..l\f::J
. 3. keshf et." to discoyer; iM for ·vl (§ 470 a) = keshf ldib.
4. En' d'lllits .Andalusja. 5. Elni Ahmer devleti the Moors (in Spain),
the dynasty of Beni [chiIdren of] Ahmer. 6. rllaghloub defeated
,§ 604). 7. khani ziyafet the banqueting tahle. 8. houz' zar those
who ,,-ere present (holtz'zardan ve ... prlnslerden biri). 9. ber'ri
jedid the New World = America. 10. mazhar ol." to be the object
of, to enjoy. 11. taltifat fa,·ours, honoura. 12. hasea et." to envy,
to be jealous. 13. ki since, as. 14. qtf a part,
(of the world). 15. mlvjoud oZ." to exist. 16. siz olmasa11izda
e\"en if you were not; da for dakhi (§ 117). 17. bir gun oloub
80lne day, one day. 18. qat,Z word. 19. him'mlt effort, action; maZam
20. istisgltar a nlaking little of, heIittHng. 21. sivri taraf
the sn1aller end (of the egg). 22. ,lluqtldir ahle. 23. Ebuz'ziya
a celebrated lh'ing Turkish allthor .
ConversaUon about the Lesson.
, ,
\ Ejl-ibe. 6.l:-\ Esile •
• \J>::' )lG- JJ\ ? ).J.) • .)\:... ..1!..\ :,
lJ' Jl} ? \ r CJ.
e (.) \
oJ.::!." J\..);
• J 1." \
j." \ Jo ! rri\
• .).,j.J! 6..-...f" .!l.) ...
'6'..> .. b.}JA.J! yo ill.,,:.-..);
? , .).) .)\.J
310
'1.. LeIBon 45. ,.t.
rj.J • Jo Ji) ? LS.J.I yo rj.J • .)a';
I
.($JJy'
w.ri). JI) U"''''''';' WJ!.J :.
, ,
0.).)\.,4.>0 0.)..\..1'1 .J -..ilaJ ?
6 ...... "' ....
L!; \ J..-.:. J'.

(f'\.lc-t.
... -;

($.)J-:- J'. ! r.1.:.!\
r;r 'J...)')..,k oJ.:.i
0L •. ..uJ\ ,).J.:i.
- . y::- tS"!

.• y.\
.J\.J t. ! r.l:i\
J.J=-}

? •
? ...z:-j r
? r\:;..
Lesson 45.
The Arabic Infinitive (Masdar).
§ 584. There is no limit to the number of words
,vhich the Ottoman lallguage borrows from the Arabic.
The nUlnber of Arabic words to be learnt would thus
involve a great des1 of study, if tbey were not derived
frOll1 certain roots ,vhich are, of course, very much lass
numerous. Ir the student call master the system by
\\1hich Arabic derivatives are derived from their roots
(nuurde, rnad'dcyi asliye) , his labour will be vastly
dirninished. After learning a certain number of roots,
he will at Ollce recognize and reulember a larga number
of words foruled from tllem. The Arabic system of
derivation is extrelnely regular, logical and beautirul;
although at first it appears somewhat complleated.
Almost every ,vord in Arabic may ba referred to
r' 1
The Arabic Infinitive.
a signifieant root, consisting of either three or four
letters, the triliterals being by far the lllore eomnlOU.
In European languages, significant roots are irregular
in form, and the gralnmar of those languages
only of prefixes and affixes, by which the Ineaning of
the is modified. 'rhus in English we add the
terlnination -cr to express the agent of a verb, and _1°ng
to express the Present Partieiple Aetive or the Gerund;
as: nlake, lnaker, lnak1°ngo In Arabie, however, such
1110difications are obtained not only by prefixing or affixing,
but by inserting letters between tllose of the root. The
root fat!.. signifying action, is taken as the typical
root for exhibiting these lllodificatiolls, and the forlnuIae
thus obtained nre ralled measures of ,vords'. For
instanee, tIle insertion of un elit bet\veen the first and
second radical, alld tlIe punetuation of the later with
an esre, $ive the sense of Agent or Aetive partieiple:
fat! becomes J:\; fa-t!.l 'one who does' and
this \vord is the 111 ea sure upon \vhich all other
of this kind are fornledo It is in faet, aInere formula,
like the Ietters used in Algehra; for as (a + b + e)
lnay represent (2 + 3 + 4), (5 + 6 + 7), or any
other number; so for the triliteral root J_i in J; \i, ,,"e
lllay substitllte any other triliteral root and obtain the
sanle modifieution of Ineaning; as:
J.:i qatl to kill: li qatil n. lnurderero
rk e
bn
"'jedon): le. e
1iln
"'ise;
where J71i !Ind nre said to be the of the
triliteraI roots to which they respectively belong.
The Arab gramnlarians use this ,vord J.i as n
paradigln, and every change in and audition to the root
is made on this InodeI. But as the utterance of the
second radieaI (t!. is very difficult for Europeans, therefore
"re adapt the \vord fo faql as its equivalent, sillce it
is easier to pronounee; using the of J-i also
necessary
'L 0 LeSBon 45.
J.r harf (letter' is of tlle measure faql, that
IS to sa): it is measured, weiglled or balaneed on the
,\"ord '-' faql, having the salDe quantity of letters and
the S81ne vo,vel.
§ 585a. The root in Arabic is pointed with three
;' ,
l(stilUS, as: faqala, ,vhich means (he fanned', this
""'"
heing the third person singular Post tense; but for
8hortness' sake ,ve al,vays render it into English by
the Infinitive or "\T erbal Noun 1 (§§ 272, 614).
§ 585 b. The Arabic Inflnitives (= l\{asdar) ore
divisible, in respect of tIleir origin, into two elasses:
Prilnitive or Shnple Olld Derivative or Augmented.
§ 586. i'he Prinlitive InHnitives are those which
hnve no servile letters in thenl, or even if they have the
servHes do not cb an ge the nl eaning of the word; as:
,
)il nazar to look; dakhl 'to enter' are simple
or primitive fornls, beeRlIse there is no augment or
servile letter in them. But 'lI(:za1"et to look,
doukh.oul or df:kl,alet eto enter' a180 are called
!)riu1itiyes; because although there are servile letters
(l' yct tlley elo not change the meaning:
they are only different forms of ]i and j!.;.
§ 587. 'rlle Servile Letters are J \ i),
are also ealleel t:changers OI' letters ofaugmentation',
hecause they change or add to the meaning of the word.
§ 588. Tlle InHnitives are those in·
tlniti\Tes ,,,hich have servile letters inserted in them,
1 The seeond yowcl of the third person Sing. Paat teDs8 ia
i = faqila, oz, = JÄi faqoula, instead
of being as here li = (afjala: but this does not concern the
of OttonU1J1.
The .A.rabic Infiniti veo 313
\vhich change the lneaning of the word lnore or
less. For instanee the word )\t:i \ look after,
., ,
to wait'; idkltal eto eause to enter, to insert', are
,
derivatives; because their ground forms nazar and
clakl mean look' and respeetively,
and the augmentative letters "" have ehanged
the lneaning (§§ 259, 613).
Ä. The Primithe Triliterals. f.- J.)t )..l,a.4
§ 589. There are a great number of Verbal Nouns
or Infinitives whieh are derived directly from the trili-
teral roots. Those that are most frequently used in
Turkish belollg to one of 23 umeasures". The root
Jd is taken as the or formula (= Ivezn),
and ''le shnll assume that all these 23 forms enn be
derived from it; although they are not all in use.
Every root is supposed to have the power of producing
all these derivatives, though, in faet, sometilnes only
a fe,v such are aetually forrned from a given root.
]t[{ita-la-at Renl ar ks.
§ 590. If the third radieal is J or '-.S, in the
measures lõ, 16 and 17 it is changed into (.) at the end,
", .... " ...
"" bich is often omitted (§ 705 d); as: , ,
I d . , , .... " \.! \:!', \. \""
are e lange Into • = ..r. .Ü = Ü =
• = the roots being , :;; , , :;;.
§ 591. Those letters which have the mark of
red u pIirati on , are \vritten twice in the root, without the
· V
/
"-", ,
11lark C); as: sh id-det severity, root shCdfde.
§ 592. The feminine letters and 4 ' 4 are suh ..
8tituted for each ot.her in the ter111ination of nouns:
N
1
h
o
§ 593. The Measnres of Prinlitive Triliteral Inftnitives.
'. M-
.,;w JJ r I e asu r
.
j..;J,
- '.,.
.-
, '
i,, : - •

- -I

- j;j
. ",..
l -
&,L-'
... ...
-l -i
• il -i!
1,,-Ill
leI. [fc nL}

".
Jj \:.t E 'x ,EL 111 OI,)
It

if
g

!IIi "..

...:.. ..

. ... . . ""
II
....

"flt
gl
tS
f
lettef.
n.
d

......

...


v
t""
('t)
fJl
m
o
t:S

?1
.,
-
...
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
...... ,
J:i;
......
0)li.;
..... ,
0)tÄJ
0ill
J
..........
w
Jti;
J
' ,
w
:. Jlij
:·..1w
, ....


.. .... , ...
..,..ÄJ
.. .... "
.,.ÄJ
(olf,qlft
fi,qlan
foltqlan
f (l.qeltt III,
(tUlttl
f'iqttl
(olf,qa.l
fftqalet [fem.]
fiq(tlet

faqou,l
f
O
l"qOl"l
(tt.qo ,det •
(oll.qmtlet •
. ,
..... "
<.S..;--!


. ,
0\P

. ..


-;: ,
J\.,.-


, '
Jr..i
, ,
J.".;.')
. , , ......

.. ..... "

btishra
hirmalt

heyej(f,'"
zeh(l.b
kU(I·b
sOltval
sttha·Mt
'ibadet
qabOlf,l
do·ltkhOl/,l
zarOl"ret
SOll,holf.lef
'1
---;;-::
, "
..r-!
VrJ:.
'\ /--:;:-;:-
Vp
Vr;;.

V:---:S"



Vp.



good tidi ngs.
dissppointment.
forgi veness.
excitement.
a going.
hook.
queRtion.
protection.
worship.
acceptation.
entrance.
poverty.
fseility.
-s



CD
>
"1
sl)
c'"


......
es
t:2)
es

c+


!D
CA:)
....

316 '1.. U"'.):l LesBon 45.
suell IS the ease in 11leasures 5-9, 18, 19, 22, 23.
'..... ..... 0 ,. ..... • ... , ."".
seniere for meaStIre =
J J- ""
..... 0...... • ,. • .... 1/...... """""" ....... .,:1.).,. , ,.
, .. , .. "". "".' ... -
measure . 4....:> J = _.
....,. ....
§ 59-1-. \Vhen the letter is prollouneed as I with
tlstiln, it is ealled Short Elif (§§ 2ge, 610); therefore in such
,:;;",,' ...
ea.ses , is substituted for sllkna for root
I 1/-
VJ:'': 'habitation', I}C::' sMha = S§:.5. root V}:'f.
'complainf; = S;'; s;5[measures 10-11].
§ ;)95. The Quadriliteral Inflnitives have onlyone
fOl'lllUla or 111eaSllre; \vIlich is :J (afjlele the root being
cOllsidered V ; as: :JJ:> zelzele 'earthquake', root
YJJJ ,
, .v Eurelse 107.
\Vith the assistanee of tl1e Table of Verbal Measures
given above find the 111eaSUre and the root of eae11 of
tlle follo,,"ing \vords.
\ , -....;. , A., , ' , Jt;s--' ,. :':'4 '
... .... '",
1/ ,.,. ..... ,. ..- ".... 0 ,. .,. ,. •
.. -:.. , ,j.'. U ,-.. ., ., .. , .,... , · \ ,
-.4> ..1\>- I.,) • 'r. J ) 4+.a.J 1&OJ
.. ." \....: .
", .",. -' 0 "".
• t ..... ("..:' J" ... ,. : \ ' \ ..... :' , .. \ · , · .' ,. ",,""
...J;, .....,J.J,. t r J t"...J .;>" t"...J -: •
o ' , J ' -> ' ;,.:. '
· · t...... .. -- F,.
... ..... , 0 .. ," .... , I';/} V ....... oa...., l·' . \ ; I ' • \' y': , '.tl
..u- .. l)._:. 4...,.,r
J
1.,)'-3,.. U'f-NI 41 .. •
, ....
Ifey. naql is measured on the root being
..... u
, becallse the first radical has an 'llst!ln, and the
......
second, tllird radieals are quiese€nt. haqi,qat is
..
rtv The .Arabic Infinitiye. 317
measured on {a'1ilet, the root being V j;:..; hecause
the first and third radicals have an ustiin and the second has
an esre; after the second radical there is a servile (.$ und
.,.
after the third a sefine = ::':w; faqilet,
-. -
" is substituted for':"'. • bUl.-iii = (§ 591)
VP. ' mM = J;; (aql , fiqm =
· .... V......... · " ... ' \/ ... ,... ...... ...' 1./'--;::
jj .:,..j = Jj = J\;.; V 0
'" ,"" ,.
... :. .. "., I. .. t .... , ., _" • o. tO, •
4S • .u = l_ 4.' li) = -.::,.., \..., '-'.J1.-. = ..:... "'" . 4J - w·
" .. " ., ...

... • .. J •
Q ...... 18
• j\l.,.
20 19 Jw:>
23 .. ( ., , 22 _ 21 \ ., ?'
• l.-.> '-' ""'" Jj)
.. . ...
Words. (t) 1. 'Ineskm houRe, court (§ 578). 2. 'nou·r light;
houbb' love. 3. diyar laud: it is the pl. of dar but used as
singular (Lesson 51). 4. latifpIeasant. 5. presence. 6. aera afHiction,
v;oe. 7. p.gf'tnah sini p. derya' sea. 8. bay-ghtn fainting. 9. mumin
belieyer (meroul of inlan [§ 619J); 'jllnIMUj' congregation. 10. nour-
bakh-sh qilnlaq to the 11. kerim gracious (a. q. of
kerem [§ 606J). 12. vejh face. 13. kithal glory.
e,) 14. melja 8sylum (§ 598). 15. mezbah altar (n. 1. of zeb-h
[§ f198J). 16. Bey' toul-lah the house of God. 17. havli court,
yard. 18. p. zimin earth. 19. t. salt only. 20. rij-at to turn back.
21. kesb et." to enjoy. 22. nejat salvation. 23. hayat life.
318
---
'1.' LesBon 46.
0'>':;; 8
0
4l ..

.J ..

· J:::.-,t
gl.
o.l:.wO).) ..
,
.. ,16 II) ,.
• ).J'J >\.-N
..
,
, . t ,17
o..u W"':l.r:'
I ,99J.' ... ,
• JY J .), ;.,.
, u 88 j::::JJ
4-tC; JJ' 81 I t
, ,. S9 ,."""'" J
• lJ!

,

(r) 24. bftkw weeping. 25. seg' gah pilgrim. 26. fUJghml
song. 27. neben et." flow, to rise (water). 28. me"" Qlanns.
29. nazil ol." to descend. 30. teqad-dum et." to progress, to grow
(in strength).
('I.) 31. hadi guide; mtlshkil hard, diflicult. 82. kesirabnndant;
p. ·roltshen. 33. IOlltf grace. 34. d{Õk showere 35. shems SDD.
1\"" ole. 1. This is a trauslation of the English hymn cPIeasant
are Thy courts above' by H .. F. Ly te. 2. Find the meaBure and the
root of each of tbe vowelled words contained in the above Reading
Exercise.
t' Lesson 46.
Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs.
§ 596. Certain nouns are derived from the Infini-
tives or from the roots of verbs, and may thererore
be dealt with in connexion with the latter. The
prineipal forms used in Ottoman are three; and the
COInmOller measures for these three are seven in number.
They all begin with a 'Inim pointed by Ust';n or dsre.
1. Nouns with Mlm.
§ 597. Besides the simple forme aIready deseribed
above, another verbal nOUll almost equivalent to them
in meaning is formed by adding a mim to the radicals.
It has four fornls:
Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs. 319
o "''' ,.
I. 'Jltefqal. By adding a 'Jni'J1t with ustun to
the first (me-), and pointing the second radical \\'ith
i'tst'll,n:
qa:sd purpose: 'lttaqsed purpose.
II. The feminine of this form is :':"1 me{qalet.
ral11l1et mercy: :. lnerhamet mercy.
1nilk country: V-W:! memleket country.
III., IV. Some verbs, especially those commencing
,,"ith J, take esre on the second radical. Tlleir measure is
· , mefqil, mefqilet (§ 593):
'-",. ,.
';;'J fJlte promise: VJi.
J
!

nWve
de
.
1uerhibe. vehnb gift: • .J •
"
rOlljOn
e
returning:
VCiJ!
meriit:
Exerclse 108.
(1hange tIIe following Infinitives into the form be-
ginning \vith mi11t:
2"" , 8· .. ' ,,. ,,,, li 0 .. ' o.! , 6 .. ,
l. '-OJ • II. • '-OJ j.')" .) L-, ·
7 8" , .. , 9 .. 0
III. IV. Jz.J.
Words. 1. a going; road, way (religion). 2. praise. S. happiness.
4. benetit. 5. strength. 6. serlition. 7. forgiveness. 8. birtb.
knowledge, skill.
2. Noun of Loeation. rl
§ 598. This is formed precisely in the same manner
as the Noun \\?ith MiJn; the Incasures being the same;
(§§ 162, 449, 541):
1. tctbkh to cook:
( J "'ii ei:) = matbakh a place ,vhere to eook, kitehen.
der", to bury:
o ,0 0 '0 ,
( j..i.i:) = ",,-edren grave.
320 ts.' u'" .).) Lesson 46.
II.
0,
e: tabt. to prillt: C7i:1 ·
( :. fi 'i:) = matb"et printing house.
III. ghou,rou.b to set: .
( Jia;) = 'Iltagllnb sunset, ,vest.
". . ,
Jj.. sllll,rq to rise:
( - JO;?::: 'Illeshrl.q sunrise, east.
, • '\ Exercise 109.
FrOlTI the follo,villg "Tords form Nouns of Location:
I
1 1/; ,21/ '/'" '3J ." ,,, '.', 5. V' II 6 1/.. l f.: , e"
. d')' J' '.J>;)' er' • V");).
7 , 8 II : , 9 "t• • ,1 0 , 11 ef' III 1 9 : ,18 ;U;' , ,
; . .JU' J · '>-. .!'-tQJ. $oo. •
.
14, 1 Õ J 1/ J '.!, .!', _,-'
JJ tJ'J
Words. I. 1. ray to pasture. 2. 3. entering. 4. going
out. 5. to dwell. II. 6. looking (Yiew). 7. saIt. 8. tomb. 9. to
keep. 10. nlanure. 11. judgment. III. 12. placing. 18. rising;
of SUlle 14. falling down. 15. ",·orship.
3. Noun of Instrument. ..:..fi rl
§ 599. The IDost common measures of the Noun
of Instrument are those which follow; (§§ 450, 642):
I. A m.if'lol:
sntr a line: 'I)l;ister} cOlnm. mastar an instru-
ment for dra,ying a line, a ruler.
snquo, tlf,q(lJO to pierce: V :.-.:J :;::.. 'nHsllah comm. mai-
. . ."
quo anything that pierces, augere
II. 1nifqul:

feth to open: Vr::.:J mirUth a key.
J; qa·rd to ent: 'I)l;·tqraacomm.tnaqral,
rnaqas a entting instl'llD1Ellt, seissors.
III. 'J'llef q(11 e :
II ,
r shO'ltro to llrink:
Nouns derived from Primitive TriliteraI Verbs.
..... ,
.u..;, shout,e flalne:
......... 0 ....
41....!.... masktala a torch.
, ,. Eurelse 110.
r Jt"T Ancestors' Sayings = Proverbs.
JLiI Jr jr J'1k \
,
e " , ", A e e 8 .. \ '\., \ ..
ü;) : 't: lJ
A
OJy T .•
t I. .. A' t · J ,6 Õ , ... ., • L" , ,..:-, ..... tT ,- le
• ).J'.JIJ u , o..l-J •
4; ).i!J.:.f" 0 • 1 6Jj ll:-
JSV 7.jolijf'J.
10 ..... , .$1 ... \ _. ..t::" .-,9 .. <" .. 8, '.\1 \
)Jr • Jr-' yy A • .J.-N)J.,.QJ )'! .. J J
;1 )\,f'jJ) .J. f:f JJ!.'
.
)1) oolijy" !Jj \. ·
dl.h' ! JI.. 4i JL 4i \,
A j .... J.r:ü \ T JLf'
Words. 1. in den, cave. 2. dinden, chtqnlaq to go out of
religion = to forget God, to ba angry. 3. bahaya chiqmaq to rise
in price, to become dear. 4. hich oumou,roumda deyil I do not
eare a bit. 5. fllih'nlt affiietion. 6. tejribe et." vulg. tijrUbe to test.
I. bouynouz horn. 8. YClr friend; sweetheart. 9. gechmez spurious.
10. maghrou1' prood. 11. moukhalif contrary. 12, savourmaq to
,,'innow; harman threshing floor. 18. duyun dernek wedding, feast .
.u Conversation.
,
Ejt'ibe.
d __ -,.}- .r.-yo
. .;.J.!l J.J \
.,
Esile.
?.;.J.!j. }.J\ lt S;'lA
• r.>.b '. i': .fo ? ..I! \ ..; -'!
• W.) 0.-'\ j.i.J\ ? \l".J\.r.
1 Bal Yemez Oghlou a celebrated drunkard.
Turklsh Conv.-Grammar. 21
322 '1.' U".)l Lesson 46.
• •
J
.' , . &'
J ./. J 0.J.J..,r-A
, ...

· rJy"\..;r ..t. :; ..t.
• 0 eS,.,<.).) \ i .=;-
. .)l "'- :; rlaä.-.
.Jl el\'; !
• .)l eS "'-'" :'J::.
• r!\
..t. J\ JJ! r-yta ! r.1:i\
• .)l
Reading Eurelse.
co •
.. A. Psalm of Life •
..
",r
J 1.(" 4,1..:,tJr ,
I · )..l.4J.laA C!)
&JI":;J.f. rk:"'Jt:i To
« ! J'{.,k J •
Ji}J'
,
• J:<!.1
0..li)\:5 o..l!,,\)j.))JI :.::J; J Ii • ) •
! JJ' ! .JJ' f Jbt
. .. "
9 • \ I'" ,8 \ . tl ...., • OA. ... ..
\A '-' J.. 4.- .. -;" 4J 0-' JJ., • .JIi "
! w':JJ' lOo.l)j 4r !
• o.>..::-.... JI '-!' J ll:1i ll:-
Words. 1. elhan numbers, 8onge; mah,oufItJtll moumful ..
2. rooga dream; vahee nonsensical. S. jid' di real. 4. khUab OloutaWltJq'
to be addressed. 5. harbgtah battle-field (§ 541). 8. p.
hero. 7. istiqbal future. 8. qaptlmaq to be deceived (to rely).
9. mazi past (§ 601). 10. p. sindi Iiving.
rrr Nouns derived from' Primitive Triliteral Verbs. 828
Ji :; -Uf.-:-'b
l
.;)!I;.J/ i.f. V
! .)jJI ·
!I;.; J!:J; , ICb ' ICb A
• \.t \ 18 e' e -:' Ji .tl. <!"'"". , .. t
l
• e", 19., •• \
0 ..J. t...A.J,j ..1....J.
• yo JlYo '
- .)1.i,ü) -
11. ihate edln 8urrounding (§ 620). 12. t. iz foot-print.
13. a. p. qazazede shipwrecked (§ 535). 14. istifade et." to ba
benefited (§ 631). Munif PasM a distinguished living Turkish
author, poet and statesman; now in oblivion.
J. \):.. o,j .;,.. J! CoDvenatloD •
/L; t?;:;:':' r ..s/r 3;'; S;l'Jb
."L:i p ."L:JJ.) fo :J J ?
• j.) l.!
e .. ' " •• ,
.J.)
r ..r.
c-.>.) , j.)
"
• jJ'!.)

• ,;..1.!l J J \
r ..fo \.r.> W )\.; J \ • .liJ l:5' eS 4-
· JtlJ\
I r.J.:j\
· J\i. j.J\ .J

, .
• fl\l .!1 'Jj.J\ Jl.J\
o

.!ta \-" 6. .. ,;u.(i\.!1 s
.J-:. ...
wt: J-!).JJY
I :::
? J.) ..; t-
. ,,,''oo
?
v1"L;
?
:r-'
? eS..L:l.J \ '-:'"' ua;.
- ?
y.. wL-;\
? C.I •
.. ,
J.}
,. "
)..k\
?
- "

21*
324 ""V Jl LesBon 47. ,." ...
t V Lesson 47.
J-! ti Arabic Participles.
§ 600. The Arabic Participles composed from the
Primitive Triliteral verbs are much used in Ottoman;
they are six in number (§§ 395,
Subjeetive Partieiple. Jc>\; rl
§ 601. The Subjective Participle of the Primitive
Triliteral Verbs, also called the Noun of Agency, is
formed of the Ineasure Ji\i faqil, i. e. by inserting an
elif (-a-) between the first and second radical, and
putting an esre (-'i-) under the second radical:
khalq creation: V JJ khaliq creator .
..-
V JJ\,; sariq thief.
o "" /J
j...r:. strqat theft:
:?'! kfätib clerk.
. .;
'-" kitab wri ting :
. --
V J,:J ! (atU agent, doer.
o
(eel work:
§ 602. a. If the second radical is or
J, it changes into (., -y-) (§ 591).
devr to turn:
J.J\.) === j\l dayir turning; about .
seyelan to flow: ' 'VJ-;'! J.,l .. = .Jl- sayU flowing.
§ 603. b. When the first radical is elif, one of the
elifs is omitted and a 'Jnedd is put on the second elir
(§§ 47, 701 d): __ _
JA\ l,nr to command: = amir a commander.
W ityan to follow: V "" <.>;\ J, \ \ = j\ ati following.
, " Exerelse tU.
Change the following Infinitives into Subjective
Partici ples :
rr.
.A.rabic Participles. 325
..... ..... , .... " ' ....
, , ' , ' ,
. ,
, ' 100f:' llrJj' 18.
l
j (I5J) ,
U::i9 · 16:Jj' 17"): VJ!
Words. 1. testimony, witnessing. 2. ignorance. 3. coldness.
4. direction (director). 5. protection. 6. flowing, being current.
7. arriva!. 8. desire (desirous). 9. safety (safe). 10. science,
kno,,·ledge. 11. necessity. 12. building. 13. religious warfare,
[against non-l\10s1ems] (a champion of Mahometan religion). 14. wor-
thiness. 15. inelination. 16. willingness. 17. elevation, grandeur
(high). 18. sermon (preacher). 19. crime (crinlinal).
Objeetive Partieiple. J."..;.. rl
§ 604. The Objective Participle of the Primitive
Triliteral verb is always of the measure mefqO'Ul.
It is formed by putting a mint with ustun (me-) before the
first radical and a J (-ou-) after the second (§§ 402, 548):
jj qatl to murder: '1Iwqtoul murdered, alain.
Jl:;" khalq to ereate: V:;1 makhlouq creature.
ketb to write: mektoub written, lettere
khidmet service: V
r
;,,;" makhdoum one who is
serv ed ; a son.
§ 605. When the second or third radical is
...s, the J and eotre of the measure J;;; (-ou-), are remQved
and esre (-i- -ee-) is retained:
;' " /-;;;: ,. 0 ,. • ""
bina building: V = tnebni built.
rivayet to narrate: = merDi told.
: l ej ziyadl an increase: V -:;. J ! ,);; = .:..;. mkeed increas-
.;, • • ...... ed.
, Exerelse 112.
Change the following infinitives into Objective
Participles:
826 'I. V IJ' Jl loJesson 4: 7.
...."
Ä ' , , , Bci ' ' ,
5))';' SJ)' 8Ä (i;> , 11
Words. 1. desire (desirable, nice). 2. wonnd (wounded).
3. to rejeet (rejeeted). 4. sending (delegate). 5. joy (joyfoI).
6. aceepting (aeeeptable). 7. forbid. 8. obligation (obliged, thank-
ful). 9. consent (pleased, satisfied). 10. to hide (secret). 11., seal.
A.djective of Quality. 4r. • 4 .
§ 606. This is called by the native grammariane
everbal adjective,' and implies the eDetanee of an in-
herent quality. It is forrned in accordanee with varions
measures, the most cornmon of which is faqeel,
feqeel (§§ 437, 553). ..
za' a( weakness: V ä .,;; ,ayee, weak .
. ""
:':;:l;f shlja' at bravery: V Cii-! cd- brave.
j/mai beauty: VJ,f! J:.:f jbmeel beautifm.
§ 607. There is another one in the measure J;;
fllqO"tl, the derivative of which are:
.;"" sabr patienee: V .J;; sabour patient.
;:....:. hased envy: ha,soud jealous.
" /-- t [nignant § 40.
re-e-fet kindness: V JJ:) ra'ouf kind, ba-
, Exerelse n3.
Change the following Infinitives into the Adjective
of Quality:
1 0", 2 0 "" '" 8 0.. "f.;" , .. l' ' IS 0 -;; " , 8 \ ,
R. J-4-' ........ - c. _-U ••
' 9'.;6' , ' ::i\W ' ::...;tc--'
• J- ..,. ,. J
...... b 11
0
"' ...... , 12
0
.. 1'\ ",,,,, 'lS
o
.. "," ,., 1'·. ", 11· .. '-:
. \-I) f!S' •
Words. 1. to anoint. 2. facility (easy). 3. greatness. 4. taste
(delieious, tasty). 5. youth (young). 6. nobility. 7. neameaa.
8. beauty. 9. greatness, pride (great). 10. trnth; bea1.th (troe).
11. burry, haste (basty). 12. mission, legation (apostla). 18. bra-
very_ 14. weakness (,veak). 15. diligenee (diligent).
Arabic Participles. 827
, ,
- Adjeetive of Colour and Defeet. ..,.JY.!' J
. - ,
§ 608. This is properly ranked with the Adjeetive
of Quality, and is regular in its forrnstjon on the
...... , ..... '
measure jÄJ \ efqal; the Fem. Measure being •
houmrlt redness: V/ /\ ahmer red.
t;' beyaz w hiteness :
t:;;. amya blindness:
.l\;'- s/vad, blackness:
hamaqat folly:
. .,
soufret yellowness:
ebyaz white.
.GI ae,ma blind.
Vl;_! esced, black .
ahmaq fooHsh.
esfe-r yellow.
sUmret brownness: V;...:_ .:;..:.\ esmer brown.
Noun of Superiority. J.:.'W r-' . "
§ 609. This is formed by the measure j;' efqal.
The difference between this and the above mentioned
measure of Colour and Defect is that, the lattel" is used
€specially to denote colour and defeet. But this is used
€ither for the superlative and for the comparative degrees
of adjectives (§§ 222, 539):
kebeer great: ek'ber greater, greatest.
sagheer little: esgher less, lesser .
..... ,
§ 610. The feminine of this form is )l;j or
..... ,
c,w fouqla:-
1/ .... ., .... 0 , ,
kebeer: Jäi\ = J..äi = kltb'ra greatere
J.) de.nee V ! J:i.;\ = li;, ed,'na lower, lowest .
.... 0 , ..... ,
)läj = dltn' y(t lower, lowest; the world.
. , ,t Exerelse lU.
t_ _ _ ()pange the following "Tords in accordanee ,vith the
above-m"entioned two measures:
328 'LV Leason 47.
, : , , s' j':I ' 8·1 .. " lI.)\.g! '8', ' , 'r....J;;: ,
_V"": \, ...r:. .. F-:;--
I. 9°t ,"''' I. 10 L:_= I. 11° .. '19. ,1 '18 '1.· ,
J-" .a.-.J v:;- J!w.
Words. 1. eminent; prond. 2. necessary. 8. ignorant.
4. merciful. 5. remarkable. 6. beantyo 7. great. 8. high.
9. middle. 10. poor. 11. priority. 12. safety. 13. true. 14. former.
The Noun of Excess.
§ 611. The most eommon form is J\li fhJ.'qaZ,
forllled by putting an 'ltstun on the first radical, by
doubling the second, and putting an elif after it: .
dfvr to turn: V dev'var one who turna rapidly,
incessantly.
ilm knowIedge: olDJli-
L. SCIent.
raqs to oscillate: V:":;J raq'qas pendulum.
§ 612. If nouns of this measure are formad from
words denoting materials, tbey form nouns which denote
persons habitually engaged in certain occupations:
khaff a sboe: Y:.:::;.. khaf'fa! a shoe-Beller.
D {variOus kinds :; "
baqla of grains: V ! baq'qal a grocer.
jj qazz silk: '\I)) qaz'zaz a sHk-merchant.
, '0 Eurelse 11õ. ....
Change the following words into Nouns of Excess:
, 2:..;)ti , 8 , '::'':\ ;.: ' , Sj, , \J:"; ·
8 .. il ' 9 II , 10 ° 11 , 12 ° I. 1So :: '1' ...
c....L4 c,u;) r-J •
Words. 1. burden. 2. husbandry (an [Egyptian] vü1ager).
3. forgiveness, pardon. 4. journey (traveller). 5. rose-geranium
(perfumer). 6. cloth (linen-draper). 7. changing money (money-
cbanger). 8. to create eereator). 9. foree, tyranny. 10. jokiDg.
11. shampooing the body in the bath (shampooer). IB. huntiDsr
(hunter). 13. favour, bounty (All-Bounteous). 14. to -serve (a
Christian deacon [Aramaie]). 15. picture (painter).
Arabic Particip] es. 329
, ,'\ Exerelse 116.
Ascertain tlle nature, meaning and the measure of
the following words:
, 9'-oJ =-G ' .. G ' .. G
• .. • .. • • 'J .)'- ... .r-
3J)L., , w})L JJr ' '..rJ ' '
' .)J.,.I! 6r1' ' iJl.. .. ' ' , , , '
• t '6 , J ' ',t '7 t'"" 8 , 9 ,

J
',t ' 10 , L ( · "" 11 .' i'
f.- O)P.'· ;";:'!\_JZ..
12' , , , '18" "''', ,
c::. c:l.
[JU ' ! , I;";'
, 'V J TranslatloR 11'1.
Give the Arabie equivalents of the following words.
1. One who cuts, cut; 2. hearer, hearers, heard, tbings
heard; 3. wounder, wonnders, two wounders, wounded,
,vounded ones; 4. wisdom, wise, two wise men, wise
peoples, kllown, knowledge, informations (Turkish pt),
\\1iser; 5. to 81t, counci!; 6. to judge, judge, judges,
court, condeIDned, condeID ned people; 7. greatness,
great, greater, greatest; 8. to ereate, the ereator; 9. to
cook, kitchen, cook; 10. ignoranee, ignorant, unknown
(doubtfnl), very ignorant, ignorant persons, unknown
things. 11. The Anointed One, Messiah (Christ).
, 'A Exerelse 118.
yo T '):l :; , r)1 S).;.Ja> JL..i".tu1 \
· ):l .:!.t'\; o:l J .!.li '=':l
! t '?)..1-4 )\) ?.;AI y. ;,.) ,-,;t(',-
eG J
• ..1"1.:-»"\ '):l - ).».,.:,t 0 •
880 'LV U" Jl Les80n 47.
,.,..
)ti v · «).2:;.i Jol!:. 41:.
1
, 4.
1
! fo
! J .• .('" JJI bl A •
• •
J cl..;lU' • «) ... ,;r .('" 4lJ'
. -
• J,) o...l!;' i \. • J\ ;;:- ':"'..li
r
4:-\..1 el.J
, ,'\ J Translation 119.
1. What are you doing? - I am writing a letter
to your son. 2. It was narrated by the ancients that
this bridge was built by the R.omans. Is that certain?
- 3. No, Sir! it is doubtful, it is not certain. 4. What-
ever you have told in secret, will be known to all the
world. 5. The Apostle says: eBe glad and joyful'. 6. The
delegates were not accepted by the King. 7. God is
benignant and patient towards all his creatures. 8. All
the creatures in tbe world were created by God. 9. The
blind man was very foolisb. 10. He is a brave man
but very jealous. 11. The pendulum of the is
broken.
Conversation.
Ejl'ibe. Esue •
• J,) 0 J.i...! y.,,; \ !l O..M la-
• JJ,) ,).,,\
o,)S:.J.:J\' J,)
• J-
? jlel.";
? u
le
'; y.
?... ..:.li .)..1.:11 :; r y
o rJ-:.j\ ? J\S'; c:.,lSl
• ..J! ? 4i 4!-J' Js:o
.)J.:- Jj\). ($"'\Jy. Jo y-
.J.),) oJ.:-... .;.,\ .!lJj\ji jJf,,;o .0_ Oo --.-. P
Jjea;. ! r.J.:i1 "'::"'.JI -:;;;.N"'; .. ,.
· .? 0 ...s..","
o _ 0 _ (. rt .. -=ir_i .
• ..J
.0_- j
Arabic Participles. 381
. .,.
• ,..ci\
. sr J. ' r\j.\ JJ!
? <.:I ? r-\
?.JJ.:- tR\ r
Reading Exerelse.
oJ· 1. LitallY of Praise to God.
... .
-r- - t -
- r-
, 811 - 81 '80 t.:..l.' 11 9
W' JA
• JJ' :.,;)-.;
Words. (t) 1. Tesbeehat' fem. pl. of tesbeeh' (§ 615), lito (to say
siibhan' allah', i. e. Praise ye the Lord. 2. kereem gracious. 3. rahi1/1
compassionate. 4. moujibi hayat who grants the life: moujib causing,
giver; hayat life; Al'lah Ta-a-la God the most High. 5. ihsan
kindness; lateef All-Gra"cious (a. q. of loutf grace). 6. 'a-la excellent.
7. yine, gine again. 8. terah'hum et." to be mercifuI. 9. great.
10. niymet kindness, mercy. 11. kiäfi suffieient. 12. jeleel All-
Glorious. 13. teshek'kur et." to thank. 14." ashq love, loving-
kindness. 15. qourban aaeritice.
er) 16. All-Graciou8. 17. abundant. 18. rahman All-Merciful,
Compassionate. 19. creatorI 20. dera aflliction; dlr,uan remedy.
21. teham-mul patience, forbearance. 22. holy. 23. light. 24. melik
king. 25. haddsf,z inHnite. 26. qoudret power. 27. malik possessor.
28. salik walking; te-e.n-nt et." to wait .... J.r (8 _ :. _
er) no ... 31. present. 32. heran
always (",er +. 'an time). 33. men ftan AJl-Bounteons.
332 '1.'\ r...r J.) Lessoll 48.
86.t("
. . 4f
88 .....
.T>
34. huk,n condelnnation. 35. mustahaqq' deserving of. 36. 'kitt
for iken while. 37. biljurllle all. 38. tehan' nun et." yearning fond-
ness; to loye, to pity.
Note. The nl.lm hera S, 19, 27-30 are Subj. Part.; No. 81
Obj. Part.; No. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 22 Adj. QuaJ.; No. 6 N. Excess.;
No. 33 N. Superiority; No. 8, 13, 21, 28, S8 of the measore (bab)
tefaq' qoul (§ 622).
iA Lesson 48.
The Derivative Triiiterai Infinitives of Arabic.

· ,.".
O..,\, J\.' )
" ,
§ 613. The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives (Masdari
Sulas'iyi Mf:zeedftn feelti) are those words which are
formed by the insertion or addition of servile lettera to
the root to fornl ne,v verbs with certain changes of
nIeaning. The meaning of the Simple or Primitive
Infinitives lI1ay be extended or lDodified in various waya
by the adaition of one or more letters to the root
(§ 288, 588).
§ 614. There are nine measures (Bab) of these
Derivatives much used in Ottoman, the first of which is
the second voice of Infinitives; the first voice being the
Root of the PrinIitive Infinitives (§§ 272, õ85 a).
II. = tefqeeZ.
..... '-' .. ",
§ 615. This measure is forrned by preflxing the
letter te to the radicaI and putting a long -66-
after the second lettere
It intensifies the meaning of the root and makes
the meaning, if intransitive, trallsitive:
_\ khavf'et.'fear(intr.): Y'J;;"! talM-N6ftoterrifY.
TC1I.eJalet ehame: ! tG1dt-je61 to make
lY: ",1 ,/",.' . ubamed.
shekl forIn, shape: V t&h-1uJel 'to form.
. ...:1
The TriliteraI Infinitives. 333
§ 616. If the last letter of the radieal be a J or
4.s it changes in to 0 ' 4 ' 4 .ye:
saf'vit purity: .. 7) - .. 7 tasfeeu.er to
" / V-, o· / 0, "'" purl
qouv'vet power: JJj - taqveeye to
"l j-- • , 0 , , 0... strengthen.
rizasatisfaetion: V - tarzeeye
, .,..... apology.
§ 617. Some other nOllns al80 are formed In
accordanee with tllis measure:
tljribe tem ptation : tefriqa a feoiIleton.
4 tehlike danger: taqdime otrering.
o ...)«'j; tlzkire memoranclum; a short letter; Dote; a paSspolt.
, ExeRI8e 120.
Change the following Primitive TriliteraIs into the
second voice of Derivative Infinitives:
• , l' ", 9
0
.: r '8
0
::: .. ,,, Ir:, , 50 ' ", 6· "7
0
..... y' ,
J.J ..:.-' \;,) .. u2> .:".)
s:.:,?";- , 9j-- , ' , , 18 ' JJ$' ,
.; J .. " ."," ....,-- ...
o "", .", "
14'" , / , lõ·' '16 '17" '18 / , 0 /. .... , 19° . /
41'-,> .... ) '-!)
Words. 1. reach (to communicate). 2. to aeeompany.
3. eeareity (to diminish). 4. fault (to eause to faH). 5. eoldness (to
make cold). 6. distanee. 7. tranquility (to calm). 8. Inotion (to
exeite). 9. honour (to honour; to visit). 10. bequeathing, advice
(to advise, recommend). 11. lightness (to lighten). 12. truthful
(to affirm). '13. white (to copy fairly). 14. to refer, to confide
(to ehange; a draft, a cheque). 15. orDalnent (to adorn) 16. to
nouriah (education). 17. condolenee. 18. new. 19. good news .
. , ....... , /, ... '
III. = 41) \;,. mu(aqale •
. § 618. This measure is formed by prefixing a
with eotre (mu-, mou-) to the first radicaI, by
inserting elif after the first (-a-) and a he (-e, -et) after
the third of the radicaI letterso The l10un thus formed
conveys the idea of reciprocity. For some changes
see §§ 705 c, 706 b.
,-:-".:r; darb to strike: V l1lftdarebe to fight.
384 '1.'\ '.J'Jl Leaaon 48.
II ,0 , ./" "" ,,,,,,
souhbet con verastion: V. ! motJ,sa1aalJet to
.• " .• "'''' "" convene.
J:j qatl to kill: V J.::j 4lili... to
kill each other, masaaere.
, Eurelse 12L
Change the following Primitive Triliteral Infinitives l
into the third voice:
, , 8::'; , , , 'lr:i? '
8 ," •• ' 9°t.. '10· "', 11",t·; (19·",', 18 \ __ '18 .", 1.·_
t t::. :JJ' ,"--> .) 'f: ,-:,.r f! · .
Words. 1. a measuring (to compare). 2. a covenant (treaty).
3. enmity (contentjon). 4. separation (to depart). 5. knowledge
(a being mutually acquainted). 6. more (an 8oction). 7. speech
(conversstion). 8. quarrelling (to q. ,vith each other). 9. to keep.
10. to boy. 11. to leave (armjatice). 12. decree. 18. war.
14. partnership.
IV. = ilgal.
'"
§ 619. This is forrned hy putting an , with esre
""
(i-) hefore the root, and another e1if (-a-) between the
second and third radicals. This gives a traDsitive sense
to intransitive verbs and a douhly transitive or causal
sense to those which are already transitiva (§§ 262-263):
doukhoul to enter (intr.): 1,d,khaJ, to cause
, , " I;:::: ". ' to 8nter, push.
J.Jy murour to pass »: V Jy J\,r\ '",rM to e.Deto
"
, , " / ,." , • pasl.
j-ulous to eit »: V to aeat.
§ 620. If the second radical be aJ or (-tJ-, -y-)
it is omitted and a 0 ' 4 ' 4 (-e) is added at the end:
! =) i,afIB to help.
" ""
. ,
wy avn help:
0\'';.1 tayran to By: Y',;1 =) -J11, to caUS8 to
. · ..- , 11,.
§ 621. If the first letter of radioal be J (-1, ... ), it
is changed into S (-y-):
"uBoul to arrive: =) .".lItoseDd,
"''-0
The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 885
, r::l: Exerelse 122.
Ohange the following Primitive TriliteraI Infinitives
into the fourth form of Derivative TriliteralInfinitives:
J; , , 8.k ) .. ': ' '::J)l.:; , II , 6.:,1;': , ,
Sj;;' DJI;:' , , , 19J}; , , '
,
16 '" , •• " 91 ., gg-
\f -" r::J.r
Words. 1. arrival (reaching, arriving). 2. to go forth (to
iasue). 3. to fall. 4. to astray (to lead astray). 5. business (to
oeeupy, to busy). 6. improvement (to improve). 7. to appear
(to show). 8. bounteous gift (to pour out, to produee). 9. dis-
appearanee (to remove). 10. inelination (ineline). 11. debt (to
lend money). 12. length (to lengthen). 18. to turn (to manage;
to eeonomize [money J). 14. distinetion (to explain). 15. existence
(to invent). 16. to arrive (to put forward, to adduee). 17. reso-
lution (to send). 18. annihUation (to murder, kill). 19. heart,
mind (to explain to). 20. eompJete. 21. fire. 22. return.
- ., - ....
V • jdj = JUj te(aq' qoul.
§ 622. A cIass ofverbs which are often Intransitive is
.,
forrned by prefixing a (te-) to the radical and doubling
the middle letter with an ootre:
SOZ4ret image:
taleem to teach: ! \:; tecanam to learn.
(.L: tesleem to hand over: VrL! /(; tesenam to accept.
§ 623. If the third radical be J or S ( ... v-, -i-) the
eotre of the measure is changed into esre (-i):
benou Bon: teben'ni to adopt a Bon.
:. aenayet meanness: J:J teden'ni retrogression.
- /
JJ raqi rising high: V 'JJ Jj thaq' progress.
..... ....
, 't Exerelse 123.
Ohange the following words into the fifth form:
836 '1.'\ r...r'; Lesson 48.
.' L...;i·' :.:'
JJ'.. LJ... .. ..
., , ,
8.j1;J , ' 1:.r..):i' 19:";':1 ' , uri?'
15' 'J' '16 "0 '17 0 '18· ,., 19'/-' 10"-Y.
-.::; , U
lA
, ) r-!- ·
Words. 1. to inerease (to be increased). 2. pride (to ba
S. to load (to support, to be patient). 4. to shape, to form (con·
formation). 5. to change (to be changed). 6. a giving posseasiOD
(to receive and take possession). 7. to render stationary; an offieial
report (to be stationary, established). 8. a Christian (to become
aChristian). 9. to chastise, punish (to be polite). 10. to marry
(to take a ,vife, marriage). 11. to teaeh (to learn). 12. sorrow
(to regret). 13. enemy (to persecute). 14. epeech (to
15. familiar intercourse (to unite in friendship; to complle). 16. com-
fort. 17. wife. 18. collection. 19. remembranee. 20. complaint.
)::J Words.
a. - \ j\J.\ ibraz et". to show. a. -\ te-e-iliye et."}
a. - \ • \ imza et". to seal. a. -I : I iyfa et." to pay.
a. - \ JL.;\ irsal et". to send. a. -\ ita It." to
mouqavelat mouhar'riri Notary public.
, t Exerelse 124:.
\l.. Jj)! J) li 1)1 \
\Jj ! , o.ispJJJ' 'J.3:..,.b 4'
",lY,. I J-ki ..t. i l!;'1 J"' S...ci I • J:."' I j I..t.l 4. 0: li ... r
, ,
J..:..ii
":,,./r y,.} s·dl '("
I. 't A ,. • ,
o-l)JJy4oL.y' -;? 4.5' s.A.) t.
!1):li 0 • (-.)41:.
1
\kl J..J ....1; ..t. o)jJI J ,,-!.)t
"-! 4i : va; JJ! Ij .:.,).), • I #"
, - ,
: !-J : 'j - 1 J.) .
. -
! i.ul - 4.5" JJ! V
The Derivative TriliteraI Infinitives. 337
4A41a"",,:, Sj.,-JI A • r

• -'! JJ.!; .. · .le jr-'.J. ___ ö .. -,:, J' "
\\ \.
, 0 Translation 125.
1. The education of children is a very important
mattere 2. I adorned my room with the pictures of
my friends. 3. We are all invited to be the children
of God. 4. He was not progressing but retrogressing.
5. I llave 110 complaint against hirn. 6. Many of the
people of China have become Christians. 7. Two more
pages were added to our lesson. 8. Be patient to all
complaints of the enerny. 9. I gave him possession of
the house and he possessed it. 10. I punished the boy
with great sorrow. 11. The pupil had no ability to
solve the question. 12. Nasreddin Effendi was teaehing
and the children were learning. 13. The birds are
flying in the air. 14. I have no money to help you with.
15. I am very sorry .to have kept you waiting so long .
.u Conversation.
, . ,
\
· r J'..J'...J dl? t<
I • .)..1, \ \::,
\" - r - ...
· :. l..u L · J.:A,JJJ\ J . &
u-- \"_ U _
• c.SJJ.J\ t. 'r.... (!.)

,

• )t.t('t r.l:.i\
Turkish Conv.-Grammar.
,
6.C-\ Esile.
22
338 '1.'\ Lesson 48.
;'ri\


J\J
Readlng Exerclse.
Frielldship •
..tü; ,
! JJ.iJ! J--),) .j; J') · J;).}'. sJ"';
r;r i.J;..-) J::- • )..l\)$ ":'-J!) .J'> I.r..j
)..liJ\ ' 4..-).h\ 5)..\i4i J-1:' .... •
, r;r i.J\I.1. .::.. .... J 1 J.,DI; • J.h' 8 J
o..l·j\..j CL::....J!) • )..L!l.1.
',. . /' ,
J.;r JJ)J-) c.S!)J.u
:.r.- cl.;r J-r'; .1.» 45.1. ,J\}' :!l;tJJ
!J.,....1. !lI
\
13 .... ; . .""". 12 L' t It"" Je\- •
vwJ,) •
, ,
· j'.1.' o..d.J! J
r1">
Words. 1. khazine treusure. 2. qiymetli precioua. 8. tlCldir
rare. 4. ahbab friends. 5. neqadar . .. olqadar the more ••• the
nlore . .. 6. paydar firm, euduring. 7. (asll VirtUOU8. 8 Ibliylt
corofort (§ 616). 9. taqlil, takhfif to diminish, to lighten. 10. tU-
yeed to increase. 11. aqval ,,'ords; mesh'hour remarkable, famoUl.
12. shortrout conditions; esasi fundamental. 18. ,,11m good; UDIJ"'ja
aympathy. 14. kerilal perfection; emniyet fidelity. 15. t1tOUlOUI
sineerity = a sineere heart. 16. sadaqat faithfuIness. 17.,....
time. llajet ,vant = in csse of necessity. 18. feda-ktarliq self-deuial.
The Derivative TriliteraI Infinitives. 339
J1:-.P r.J J.J':' :
• j\Jo\
J j,;,li ! r.J.:.i\
Jo r;\ 0'ly' Jo
• U!!J!

• \ \ .J-.J ...oo 0 ... , \
U fl! ... . ...l' c5"!.JJ .
. ,
. r\»\ J ua-
• \ J J:r. .!J J!J! .!l \
• J\}\ .!JfiJJ
...


.!IJ:--J:l J-:t..
J-!'J ? .
? r.,}:I..r 'JjJ\
Jo J.)L,., J...;li

. ; .. J:li;
.?
,
u-.J..:ü cJ..:l .J..:,;l.j JJJ..r-
?
:l r;r Jo J--.JA t
? ...t{' ..
? r JJ!
? r fiJJ
,rv 0..l.i y. ! rJ.,;j\ ? j.J.:-o • 20'1\ l ..
(':l t vv,\)
Words. 1. hakee' nli mf4mayileyh the above mentioned
philosopher, he. 2. el-an DOW, at present.
i' Lesson 49.
The Derivative Triiiterai Infinitives. (Continued.)


• ' ... '" 0' .......
VI. J'-\.ij = J; tjj te{aqoul.
§ 624. Reciprocal verbal nouns are also formed
by putting (te-) before the root and an elif (-a-)
after its first radical:
:.:..: sahabet protection: L:.:z; tesahoub to proteet.
. . .
340 ... , 49.
......
& qat to ent: V ! teqatofl,' to ent each other.
qou'oud to rest: V'i",j teq(l·'Qlf,a being pensioned.
§ 625. If J or 4.s be found at the end of the root,
it is changed into S and the ootre a180 into esre:
.. u.:c 'ata giving: tl'atl, delivering over toone
" ..." another, to interchange.
J:J 'telito be behind: V J:J J\.J.i tAvali succession.
...
derk to attain: to procare; prepare .
...
, '\ r-:\; Exercise 126.
Change the follo\ving words into the sixth measure:
'Sctt" 7JdZ.
Words. 1. aid, help (mutual help). 2. generation (genitary).
3. a servant (a becoming cODsecutive). 4. collision (colIision, shock).
5. distance (to be distant). 6. to change, transform (metempsychosis,
of sou1). 7. to destroy, violate (contradiction).
VII. = J\tj,
... ... ... '"
§ 626. This Dleasure is forrned by prefixing w\ (in-)
...
to the root and inserting an' (-a-) after the second radiooI.
It is necessarily Intransitive or Passive in signification:
& qat' to ent: \Ii.
h
;! i'llqeta: to be ent,
" j__ Interrupted .
... zamuz to add: V r \ iRzi1nam to be
" /__ "'... added, addition.
:- .... 0 qis.nlAt portion, part: V rl' ... I,nqCsam to ba. S8-
parated, separation.
r:\; Exercls6 127.
Change the foll0,ving Primitive Infinitives into the
seventh measure of Derivative Triliteral Infinitives:
, 24 ' '6J,:' 77 .; I
9 • A , 10· .. '" , 11 • ", 12° '" 'IS· <::"-:.' 1'· "',
ef'" ...lA" ... jA
The Derivative 'friliteraI Iniinitives. 841
Words. 1. change (changing, revolotion). 2. binding (to be
obedient). 3. to expel. 4. to grasp, hold (constipation). 5. a pouring
(a 8tream'8 flow·ing). 6. solution (to be untied). 7. to hreak (to
be broken). 8. attraction (to be attracted). 9. gladnes8 (to be
cheerfnl). 10. to tie (to be gatbered). 11. to pull down (demolition).
12. defest (to be cl"ushed). 13. refleetion. 14. restricting.
VIII. = iftiqa1.
". "" ". ""
§ 627. This measure is formed by prefixing an
(i-) to the first radical, and by inserting (-ti-) after
the first, and , (-a-) after the second radical. It is
necessarily Intransitive or Passive in signification:
jem' to colleet: ijt'ima
r
to be
L· \.... \....." \.... eollectIon.
fakhr pride: V:;;J ) iltikhar to be proud of,
,. to bo&st.
§ 628. According to the la,,·s of euphony some
changes take place when the is inserted.
8. If the first radical be , ...r ' the letter
IS changed into .1.
b. If the first radical be j or the additional
is changed in to .).
6
c. If the first radical be \ or J, it is changed into
.. .
\O..J •
=) .) istibar .
. "
sabr patienee:
zarb a blo\v: =) iztirab
, , " j-",,- ., • anxlety.
l:'Jh toulou' to a ppear : V c....L
1
; ! =) ittil(f, t.
:':':;J zahl1zet trouble: =) izdiha1n
• "j- , '" acrowd.
dav'a a la\v suit: V (.JL.;;\ =) so iddi'a to
'\ " ., :" maintain.
zakhire provision: V ! =) iddikhar
to store up.
VJ:;..\ ! =) ittikhaz
. ..
\ akhz taking:
'"
., 0., ,
vahdet unity:
__ to to adopt ..
VJ:>J! =) ittihacl
". " ". .
uDIon.
842 ... , Leaaon 49.
'"
, Exerclse 128.
Change the following Primitives into Derivatives:
'" , 0 '
o '''" 1 t· '2 \...... '8 Ä." ,'" '5 t:. ..... '6 fe', 7· '. '8·",,0.,
-.l.> r .)) r.J
. ... ." ,
9 " • , 1 o· .' '11 .. , ' 12' '. , 1 s' ... r, 14:' , , 15
0
" ("" .. ')
J9) 3 J1;. •
W01·elS. 1. to fa.sten, bind (connexion). 2. choice (to choose,
prefer). 3. to seatter, to publish (to be spread). 4. to refDse
(apostaey). 5. order (regularity). 6. to bind, tie (creed). 7. troohle
(trial, examination). 8. wife (marriage). 9. many, much (growth).
10. to suit, agree (concord, allianee). 11. a root (to be united).
12. trs\yelling (to travel; to 18. disorder. 14. honour. 15. need.
IX. J)W 1 = \ ifqilal •
." ". '" ,
§ 629. This measure of Derivative Infinitives is
used to express a colour or quality, as the adjective

:ft;\ efqal (§ 608). It is made from this form of adjective
by doubling the last radical and inserting an elif ba-
tween them .
• ...... " 0
r \ ahmeT red: ihmir(f.r to become inteDsely red.
I.sved black: ,. black.
- --
• , 0, , •
\ ahdeb hUlllp-backed: '-' L,h. \ ilzel·ibah to be hump-backed.
. . ., ,
X. = J\;;" .,t istifqal.
...... , ...
o
§ 630. By puttillg the syllable t (-lstl-) hefore
the root and an , (-a-) after the second radical, a verb al
noun is constructed which expresses asking for or
d e 111 a n d i ng sonlething designated by the primitive word:
noutq speaking: V J .... la; ! ist'intaq interrogating.
". ,
: .. rahmet mercy: VrJ: istirhamaskingformel"t'y .
..
§ 631. If the first radical be , or ), it changes into
(-y-); and if the second radical be), it changes into
o ' 4 (-e -llt) at the end of the word (§§ 620-621):
The Derivati\"e Triliteral Intinitives. 348
0l t im permission: (.:,,11 =) .:,,\\;' istiyzan
to ask for perolission.
( eS li =) 6lL:':" istil/fa
V
-- ....... '" · -..... "" toreceive.
( = ) istirahat
• iyfa to
rahat rest:
to take reste
vUzouh plain: ! ( L (,;. = ) L
toexpIatn.
, ... Exerclse 129.
ebange the following words into the tenth forn1:
1 • :, 2·.. ' ., ' S..." '4:. k '5 , "", '6 ,'" 7 '.', 8. "" .:
tr' r'" rE?
1. understanding (to ask, interrogation). 2. hire, rent (to
rent). 3. to returo, refuse (to ask, to be restored). 4. knowJedge
(asking for knowledge). 5. continuation (perseveranee). 6. aoswer
(to question). 7. going out (to extraet, to quote). 8. couneil.
Muta-Za-at Remarks.
§ 632. It mustbe borne in mind that all Arabic
roots of three letters cannot assume all the nine forms
given above. Many have only a few of them: for
instanee rk 'ilm tknowledge' can form the measures
., 0 .(, '" 0 ., ..... "" , ,
rW but not such as
o ,.,
JCJ.
r .; , r
, '(" • Exerclse 130.
! r..ci! - 'I S..uJ\ c!:> \
T • ).1!' )!:.)
cl ! - . .oA J.S::::;..l<> JJ>
... \ ..,
- S...clJ' , s) \,;.; I '"' .J-ll?:""
J:i ;;\1::-\ )i)L t. • 0)1) 1. J lii \ r..ci\
\ ,. .. , , .. , 1 •• ,;. .. , () I , ,. .. , , .. , 1. .. l
.J -""'!)'j - s---"0.)\A
Words. 1. mad' de esse. 2. iqrar et." to confess. (VI. of qarar.)
344 ... , r...r.)l Les80n 49.
4i 0 •
• jj o.u L:-.' \ AV T - tlj -'::;J
! i-lil - 'I JJI ,
.. .., ,
{ · SJ,"'! J!.)I1JI
6 • t_
.. ,,,,--- .... .. ..
. , ,
• 9 t J J!-,Q 8 J 7--:.! l
J
.) A • \
3. ijar beaeli rent. 4. originaI. 5. to compare. 6. per-
mission, pardou. 7. ability. 8. shrewdnes8. 9. endeavonr.
, , J Translatlon 131.
1. He quoted
l
manypassages
2
from theOld Testament.
2. Did any injury happen through the collision of the
two steamers? - Yes, Sir, one of those two steamers
sank in five minutes. 3. Is the war ended? - No,
Sir, there is only an armistice
S
of two months. 4. I have
the honour to present to you my brother .. in-Iaw Tahir
Bey. 5. The Alevi Mohamedans and the Yezidees believe
in transmigration of soul. 6. The treaty' was written,
signed and interehanged 5 between those two powers.
7. Although there were five witnesses, yet there wa8
contradiction in their testimony.
Words. 1. istikhraj, iyrad itmlk. 2. agetler, aYRtt ktsime.
3. l1lUtareke. 4. mou-a-hede. 5. ta-aeti, mubadell It."
Conversation.
.';l .;.;J l.,;\ t;.; l!.
l\.J:.;\ 0::; y:-
,.
rUä:;\ I rJ.:i\
• • ..ili.J.J\ • .al!.. Jj j
· J \ l.


?.)l Olo';
? -..&..t: Jh.' r.
The Derivative TriliteraI Infinitives. 345>
Wfl.:-L!;\
• J lJ;.r \
Jo '.)r wfY.
?.).) ..;
• .J.J! \ .) \ , .;.)
• .).) .l";- ! r.1:i\
? rj.
'l .j. .l
..:J I) r::\'; Reading Exerclse.
e
"'.; ;> True Nobility.
e e
t •• ':r. \ . \» , • le," 1. '" t"'''' '" ,<"
U -l J
'O.,w{ 'O}')) J:'o.J\lSCj1
! ./'

.. ... ..-.. -
• \. till.. "" 1 O"',·J' \ee 9 ., 8 t.. 7 e ,.t 'I ., .. "
... J .'J
J>::' ! t'll 4.
J
r;, ;!ljAJ»)
· 1.Y,..l!!) li '":"'f ':"n.'
J
'16 .. I· · ,15 l A" 14: \;... _ t
J:>
... ...
f;: .., 18 .. l J 't t:" · .. ., 1 7 • •
J 4J.J.J.
..,. ., 21 • . , .. t 20 .., \ 19 l t,. "
J. J:> o-l:-, .. r
2i 4>j.
ee •
Words. 1. mad' dee, manevee, adee physical; moral; ordinary
inferior (§ 579). 2. mahasal total, all (the world). 3. as-ha'bi.
nejabet the posseS8ors of nobility = nobles. 4. tlesl ancestera.
5. mebdayi khilqat beginning of creation. 6. iysal et." to carry,
to cause, to reach. 7. rivayat hadition, folk-Iore; esateer mythology.
8. qat'i nazar ]eave it out of consideration, except. 9. bizje among
us i. e. Ottomans. 10. tarikhen historicalIr. 11. sabit fixed, proved.
12. vaqayi events. 13. tatvil prolixity. 14. devleti Saffariye the
Saffari dynasty of Khorasan. 15. teshkil eden the founder. 16. hay-
doud a brigand. 17. derleti Ghaznevi the Ghaznevide dynasty of
Persia. 18. devleti Seljouqiye the dynasty of the Seljuqs (in Central
Asia and in Asia Minor). 19. azamet grandeur; ijlal magnificence.
20. ale1ni sigaset the world of diplomaey. 21. madoud enumerated.
22. asheeret a nomadie tribe, elan. qoja
•• U"Jl Leeson 50.
)\s, , 4!Ä..:2i JI ! 4i
J:C:i 115t:""'J!l1
.. .:,)tJ' .. A
G:'.. r.- . .r ,
c,L.;f.J. 30
, , .. .a <' <" SS..s::::Jlc:- J SI4..J 'J
.... .J. Y-"""" I .Y...
" "
1.5' .1. J M .r:-
. ... ..\. · \. t, \ 37 ., • \. 36 • • lA t l .
• ,-,-U '-' ,-,..l, ..JJ '<'- ,..:...
yo O""'! 'r I!. J.J {J' 39 Ö""".1. 38 S.) b 0) \j J..J •
'I .A"",!I 4°.j.)0.)lj j .JJ. '

23. nl hajAtl what need is there? 24. insaniyet humanity
(§ 581). 25. vasi vast. 26. Teyis ehief of a elan. 27. 1cUrM
abundance; (utouhat victories (pl. of (utuh). 28. misl equal.
'29. TimuTlAng 'famerlane. 30. Jengis; nesl children, progeny.
31. Atabege, 32. Eyoubiye, 33. Memalike the dynastiea of Atabeg,
and Memlooks in Peraia and Egypt. 34. baba yiyit a young
man of full growtb and strength. 35. eseer slave. 86. ".a'ra_'
reJDarkable. 37. khanAdan race, line; Jendereli Qara HaliI. S8. See
the first word. 39. f. softa student of Canon Law (Gr.
40. chiltjizade the son of a farmere
O· Lesson 50.
The Participles of Derivative Infinitives.
§ 633. We have seen how the Subjective and
Objective Participles are formed from the Primitive or
SiInple forms of the Infinitive (§§ 601, 604). We shi!l
DOW consider the formatioll of both these in
the above mentioned nine Derivative Infinitives.
§ 634. There are fo.ur rules which govern the
formation of all these Participles of the nine Derivative
Infinitives.
R. The Participles of the verbs of the measure
felqffl are formed in the following maoner: The
..
The Participles of Derivative Intinitiv8s.
servile letters are dropped; a rot,·e
.'
(A mtl-, 'l)I,Olt-) is prefixed to the remainder of the
word: the second radical must be doubled by a shedde
(w), and the last syllable must have an esre; this forms
the Subjective Participle.
To find the Objective Participle change the eS1"e
into 1tstun. (Vide No. II in the Table.)
b. The Participles of the derivatives of the measure
ili\u ntitfaqale are made as follows: Omit the last I,e
(-e) and put an esre on the last syllable; this forms the
Subjective Participle.
ehange the esre to 'ltstun and you will obtain the
Objective Participle. (Vide No. III in the Table.)
c. The Participles of the remaining two measures
beginning with (te-), are made in the following ,,·ay.
Prefix a 'I1u
O
m with rotre at the beginning and put an
esre on the last syllable; this is the Subjective Participle.
To find the Objeetive Participle change the last esre
into 'ilstun. (Vide Nos. V and 'lI in the Tableo)
d. In those Infinitives which have an elif in the
first and last syllables, the e/its must be dropped, a
'Jnint ,vitll rotre must be prefixed to the remainder of
the word and the last syllable must have an eSi"eo This
forms the Subjective Participle. of these derivatives. To
fOfln the Objective Participle change that esre into
?lstiln. (VtOde Nos. IV, VII-X in the Table.)
§ 635. The Partieiples of the Quadriliterals are
lnade simply by adding a mim with rotre to the beginning
and punetuating the last syllable with esre: t.his forJns
the Subjeetive Participle. Change that esi
4
e to ust'lln,
you ohtain the Objective Participle. (Vide No. Q in the
Table.)
N ote. N otice that MOlt -initial is the sign of the measnre
lJftlfaqale (§ 618) and the Participles of Der. Inf.; ,,-hile Me-, Mi-
is the sign of N. ,,·itb mim and (§§ 597, 604:).
''I''''\' r:\; Exerelse 182.
Form the Subjeetive and Objective Participles of
the following ,vords at the beginning of p. 350:
348 • • Lesson 50.
:.1 li
No. i }Ieasures
I I;
I The 23 mea- il
l. I sures in the I.
!pp.314-315·:1
" II
.. ).;li..
·"tiif aqltle
..
I
V'oice
il
li
ii
:1
il
I
Transitive I
I
I!
Reciprocal

i te{llq'qoltl I
I Intransitive
Passive
,
VI.
/ II \1
1
,
II IV. Ii
I' i'
I: ,I
JilL;
tef(tqoltl
·1
Reflexive I
Intransiti ve I
'i T 't'
I ranSI l\"e
I
il
,I
II
" ;1
,I VII. I" Jlü..:\ !I il,
I
ilt(iqal
! ! I ! !
Examples
J1;"
khalq
.1..b.:;
.. .
Ujleed

';.J .
t.ejavo-It,z
JL.;\
'lrsaI
L.i.;\
r
i'll,qisa",
to ereate
It,
I
to hind I
I
I
i
to figbt
to be
changed
I I
i to exceed I
I I
to lend
to be
divided
I
I
,i-- --J-\i;.;-"'-\
d ,I VIII. ::»:i to
:: i(tiqal;! :: ikti.sab gBlD I
\---! ----....:...:.--.;-\,..,.,...-\---=-to-b-e-co--m-e II
i IX. : Excess inteneely i
: ifqilal li ihmira". red I
I, li I
:-\ -!-,-----;i -----
;;1 x.I,1 J lA&:.. I ::, Desire
I'
'h.f-i{qal
..lW
((lg7ele
II
li

II
JUa::-\
istintaq

terjeme
to inter-
rogate
to
translate
The Participles of Derivath·e Inflnilives. 849
Remainder:/ Su bjecti ve Partici ple Objecth·e Participle
I

kha,liq
.... ,

I tnujel'lid
. "

I '111.,ouhaJ·w
I
I
.... ,
JJ-\....
I dil
I
· ,

I 'Inimjaviz I
a , • ,
I '1l'tftnqasim
'1uitktlsib
... ",
,
J/'
I tn(thrnerr'
I " 0 .... 0 ,
I -1.,.-
- 1, ..... I 1.,)- •
- - I
rl mfistantiq
lthocreates,
creatore
who
binder.
heIligerent.
changer.
that
exceeds.
sender,
addresser.
divider.

tll akhlo'ltq
:: ,

'1nftjel'led
a ",' ,

'11l·fihareb
a' ,
created,
creature.
bound
(volume).
engaged
in war.

i changed.
II m(ttebld' del I
i
!
I .,'
I J.:,r
'1H,'iirse.l
a ... ,.'
r
-.
. .
surpsssed.
I an envoy,
I messenger.
divided.
I '1'j"ltnqasem
I ( I
I

: ' ::C
who earns. Ii
t i 'IIl (t1cteseb
earned.
intenselv I
red. .,
interrogator
(judge).
translator.
o ......... 0 ,

in terrogated.
'1ulistantaq
. , .:'

translated.
'1I,tliterjem
850 •• .....r.)l LesBon 50.
,.1.
, ., ... , ,. ,. . ",
5s;..\U)\'
V- '"' .. c.:-;:- '--" J
", .," ,,.,.... .,
7)l:;\ ' .\.:l '9J?j , , , 11. :" .. :; ,
., ," r-- """ .. ,
· ... .'. ,', J.. . ...
13 .. , t... \' 14. ..., 15 ...., 16 • I .. '17 l' .. , ' 18. ...,
,-:,-: ... Y l!' -'
,. , , , " ., - ,
19 0 .. , 20 , 21 ly.., i2· , :" IS· , , 14t° t,:v ,
e:-.. fe -.; - 4-..l.:A ........ .Y' J -..4 __ ...-kt
, 26 , , wlA y. ' oA}': ' Jj .
.-
Words. 1. to pension off (pensioned oti). 2. to Oppoa8
(opposing, contrary). 3. to stop work, a vacatjon. 4. to arm
(arnled). 5. to become high. 6. sojourn (guest). 7. hODour
(honorable). 8. to quarrel (quarreling; disputed). 9. to apeak
(speaker, first person). 10. possession (p08sessor; governor;.
11. to multiply (numerous). 12. to search, examine
13. to question (a prisoner). 14:. to "Trita (writer; written). 15. to
arranga, to compose (compositor). 16. humility (humble). 17. to
hasten (pressing, important). 18. to ornament. 19. to correct
(proof-reader). 20. to teach (teacher). 21. to finish (camplete,
perfect). 22. geoDletry (ellgineer). 23. anxiety (naturally suspicioua).
24:. magnificence (pompous). 25. a jewel, a pearl (set with pearla).
26. 8uperscription (superscribed). 27. polish (polisbed).
''t't Exerelse 188.
S'.;:, jA]; 1 - J;:' j L.. ....li;:.;.".. \
J...I.l.d, :J.r.t".1. y • ..:- ;.s:::.WJI • ..ü,A'
! i..cil '::"'JI - 1 .;:,}:!)jJI :?)-'Y.-'" · J,:) .::..,1; J.
Y ."..... ::",'
- oy" y. t. • ..rL. • .)
.JjJI j:.,!,,1 :JJ.""'!I • I
JJ;'!" J •
- 'Iif JUJI y. 0 •
_ <" '0 , , .., l-
r::-:' -b,rA\"':' JJ!I
J
' j.J! e..:u y. \i..l.4
, ,
! - )l()J)4'- ·
Words. 1. 1nud' det the length (of time). 2. batUAotc after-
wards. 3. to procure, to find. 4. 11iadaq' qiq (Sub. Part. of tUtJ.if).
The Pal'ticiples of Derivative lnfinitives. 851
• JG..I 4-jUJ\ !1)lf'jJ>
. , '
,,!L! i..ci\' - 1if V
I:S .1. A • A .. lb
l
JoJ} jj;:!!
l,.. J\ 1f..J;
.;::.. .,t;.ll..- .. .1.' .).)
.J);) \!\ .
..
, y- t Translatlon 184:.
1. Who are your guests? - Mr. Gulian the Armenian
teaeher of the College, and Dr. Nahad t.he translator of
eRamlet'. 2. Who is the author of that remarkable
dictionaryl? - It is the Rev. M. Aucher. 3. Have the
inspeetors corne whom the governor ,vished to sen d ?
4. Though they have come, yet, having a very
engagement
S
, they have not been able to do anything.
5. Who bound the book you have in your hand? -
Mr. Arshng, who is avery' skilful hindere 6. Are you
able to speak good TuI'kish? - Yes, I have attained5-
tlle ability 6 to do so through your kindness 7. 7. What
kind of a work 8 is the book which the engineer has
written? - It is translated from tlle Armenian: it is
an excellent (complete) work, illustrated 9 with numerous
pictures. 8. Are the compositors, who are setting up lOo
this book in Mr. Groos' printing-house, Armenians? -
No, Sir, all the COlllpositors at Mr. Groos' are Germans.
1. loughet kitabi. 2. m'sta'jll. 3. ,"aslahat. 4. mahir, oustaa.
5. kesb et." 6. iqtidar. 7. sayeyi al iflizde. 8. eser. 9. muzly'yen,
,nousavver (from tezyin, tasveer). 10. tertib It.", dizmek .
..u Conversatlon.
,
\ Ejt'ibe.
r.f. · r.L:i\ ';:l
c.>JJjJ<i' l..:l

:;:...C ..L? J:-Y ...
• .;J...!.t
,
..l!-\ EIJ'iU.
.. ,
\:!""' eS;;:lJ Y...J! \la...

•• l,.)"Jl Lesson 50.
"I'
• \ J.L. l
.J: .. to
,
J.JL&.-
.. ?
/" " ./
'l c,)U cc • J\j\"
, .... , "" ...... ,........ .... ,
• .J c,)U ? }l.c\ w.J.:\-I • .)l:i l "
;' ... .:. ./ , ,
J
0
!. • J '''i_i:. .J j , .J r):. ...
.u.<-:.)I tt,;! .J r.-; · j.)i).) I .j\.)\ .J
• JY).JI ..stu ..l:-..J...!.) .!t.)\ · I,?-I
• c.Y. ....... , , ,
• t <..:t"'..l..Ä. ,!,\ J
I} ReadlDg Exerelse.
• 0)\.)1 y1lf Adnlinistrative •
• J;) JIJ oJbl l,ä; 'J .JA
........ ,'" , '
2 _ oy 1 ......... '0 1 t 1 ,
J
,
.. ,t .1\ 6 j\ .. "" , 5 \ ....... , 4... 'S ("'\ • ..,t, t
ii J "! ) .)J\-'') AA \> • o..q J · .. :k'
.);)
6 .. "5 ,. .... " .... 3.<\ It " J
J J J.U J r- l> 0.)''''
Jl.. .:,t).1. 0.)') 'p.;A
.. "'''
JL. J J O.)WJ •
lr ords. • lJlejalisi Idare (pl. of mejlis). 1. aza membera (pl.
of ouzv); tabillige natural (§§ 580, 656); muntakOOb cbosen, elected
{fayil of intikkab) 2. m(;rek'keb composed (fayil ofthkeeb). S.
jod!!e, u qadi (fayil of hfikm); nayib a judge-substitute (fayfl of
'liillabet). 4. m'i'ifti the offieer who answers questions in the CanoD
Lu,,, of Islam (fayil of ifta). 5. defterdar, mouhasebiji, mal •• din
the controllers of revenue and expenditure in Vilayet, Liva and
Qaza. 6. mel"toubjou, tahrirat 1lludiri, tahrirat imtibi the Chief
in ,ril ayet, and Qaza. 7. musli", Moalem (fayil
of islam\; g11ayri-m'llslim non-Moslem (§ 695 10). 8. rOMlB"G heade,
-ehiefs (pl. of regia). 9. roukanee spiritual (§ 580 g).
Broken or Irregutar Plarals. S58
7...L. Jl.. .:.h ..
.. "" .
• F d.. .. J-
.. t.,\.-L. ft J 7.-L. 11 :
r.----- -,. .. rr- - '-> •
",:, .. ,1,1 ... :r .Jj) I
e).)
10. ibaret composed. 11. nfsf halC. 12. i"tikOOb et." to choose;
election (VIII. of nukhbe). 13. ayid belonging (fayH oC avdet).
Note. Consult the Reading Exercise, page 126.
0' Lesson 51.
e. Broken or Irregular Plurals.
§ 636. The Regular or Sound PluraIs are made
(as we have seen) by the addition of -eeft, (m.) or
-at (f.) to the SinguIar, without any ehange in the
structure of the words. But in the ease of IrreguIar
Of Broken Plurals (Jem'i Mukes'ser) the structure or the
form of the Singular is broken, as has been stated in
a previous lesson (§ 571).
It is impossible to give all the measures of Broken
pluraJs here, because they are very numerous. But
those which are in common use in Ottoman, may be
formed into the following groups.
§ 637. Nouns of the measures 41d Jw form
their pluraI as folIows:
.... J "
§ 638. S. fo faql: PluraI = fouqoul: as:
harfIetter: haaa boundary:
, , ."" " e,.
houaoua! beyt house: bD,yout .l..i.; naqa cash:
" ON , ."" ,
nouqoud. a right = .1, r a condition = .1.Jr ·
Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 28
854 • t ....rJl Lesson 51.
§ 639. S. a. (aql b. (agaZ c. fIqJ!
. , ".'
d. fo fouql: Pl. = J\d\ e(qal: as:
..... .." ." . ,
a. tJaqt time: \ etJqat J.Jl dbw' 'GIr
century: ed'Dar ' 'asar ,hekl shape: J\3C!l
esh-kf:ijZ! w) colour: wl)i ! ,; : eyi ! Jt. (J;::) : J';i.
· ........ ..... , . , ....
b. sebeb reason: \ hbab 'khtJ,Wr news:
. . . . .
J(o.;.,\ akhbar :J:, 'Deled son: el'lad ;:.; number:
o ..... " •
c. Mf, rinif claBs: \ emaf tCfI chUd:
J\:' °b' etfal' , at'taZ poem : Jt.:!, A : JlG1 oplnion.
• , ,,0,
d. mltlk property: .!l)l. \ emlak hAlem deciaion:
I 'l ." ,. • , ·oo
r \ ahkwm : J)l;. \ moral OUI'D: l.-. \ 0,' MS 0
...... ' .",
§ 640. S. fO'Uqle, fouqMt: Pl. = fOuqoJ,: as:
...... , ..... , .,,'
",lt,TrAe copy: nltsakh souretmanner,waYi
..... , , . "" . , ..... ,
picture: J 8OutJe,. oj qouZ'le tower: Jli qouUl ! : •
....
§ 641.
. ....:..,. ..... . ".
S. fiqlet: PI. = JÄ!.' fl,qal: as:
: 0 '. °o; niyrtWt ra vour: ;.: ,i fliyam ! :
0
miflel nation:
. .... . ..... . ..... ,
milel 'ibret example: 'iber b8ltU: •
. ,
§ 642. S. feqal and JLd fiqal: PI. = :Jd\
efqiM: as: ""
(.
" " ." ,
w j zeman time: \ ezmilne times ! jetJab &Dswer:
..... ..... ........ ., 0, ,. ,.,
ejV'ibe ta-'am food: et-'I,'me! L\:...
§ 643. The plural of the Subjectiva Participles of
the Primitive Triliteral Infinitives are forrnad on the
following models; as: a. j() , b. , c. , d.
fbvaqil, fouq' qal, feqale, fou,qala:
· ....
&. sahilsea-coast: ,eva'h,'" sea-shores
jmn" mosque: janib side:
b . .,?-l;' ttUir merchant: Pl. = tiljjM! 1IcIMjudge:
houk'kt(Jm haztr present: Jt::-. hOt".'8Gr.
roo Broken or Irregular Plurals. 855
c. kititib clerk: Pl. = ketebe clerks ! (!. \..; tabit
follower, servant: subjects' varis heir:
d. 'aqil, wise: Pl. = 'ouqala wisemen! r'l&- 'aZi", '
,. ,
l; fazil learned ! , )l,4j oulema, (ouzala doctors of Canon
, ", ,
Law f\!, shayir poet: \"r! = =
The Subj. Participles which end in (.$ 4, form their
plurals as follows:
S. vali governor: Pl. = ftala' qadi judge:
", ,
qoudat eS-'\.; historian = arebei :=
",
§ 644. The plurals of the nouns derived from the
Subjective Participle by the addition of " or 4 (-e,
-et) [§ 582], are formed according to the first measure
fevaq1l: as:
a. lazime necessity: Pl. = r}\.,;J levazim nece88ities
: fayide benefit = fevayid qayiae a rule =
qa't'ayid ! 'atifet kindness = 'avatif.
,.
b .• maa' de subject = mevadd'! has'se 8en8e
= :.r\y.: havass' khas'se peculiarity = khavass'.
§ 64õ. The pluraI of the Adjective of Quality (§ 606,
model is formed on the model of R. b. ,
c. fl,qal, efqila:
,. ,. ,
a. faqir poor: Pl. = \P fouqara the poor ,f..YJ
;' ... , 2:
vezir a minister of state = \Jj J v(tzera viziers, viceroys! r-:::'

hakeem sage, philosopher = hO'ltkema J:iJ = lii J •
b. kebir great = kibar grande es ! kerlm
noble = r\,:,( ktram fekhim illustrious =
c. qarib relative = 4..;jl aqriba! hltbib friend
,,'" ."".'
= l7':.\ ahib'ba! tabib physician = atib'ba ... nebee
;' ,
,.0 ,,0' "",.' 0'
h t
' I f.. Ma, ' • I'! \,. I" .s. \
prop e · = "J......:, • el-- = ·
... , 28*
856 • t Les80n 51.
§ 646. The plural of the nouns formed from Adjectives
of Quality by the addition of 0 or 4 ' (-e, -et, -tJt)
[§ 582] is made on the model J ... (&javIJ,; 8S:
.Jj:- jezire island = )\..?- jezayir islande!
duty = vezayi{ narihat advice = fl&Gf/Ü' !
sefirte ehi p = r:J li-, sefayin khasinl treasure = .:)\.J-
kk i
'" .. ,\.. ...., -,":. S \ . · .. , ... "
a-zay n· .. e> = J-'\.b. . = l:-'. =
§ 647. The most important elasses of nouns that
fornl their pluraIs regularly are the Derivative Triliteral
Infinitives and the Participles forrned from those In-
finitives. All these measurea and their Participles take
the plural in -een (m.) and -at (f.) [§§ 673-78].
The General Measure.
§ 648. All originaI Quadriliterals and most words
in which the TriliteraI root is inereased by one or more
letters \ form their broken pluraIs on one and the same
model, and this eonsisting of three syllables. The
first of these syIIables has an ustun, the second takes
an eli( and the third has an esre for its vowel sound
(- -.. \ - -" = -e -a -i-). If there is an aif or vav in
the last syllable, it is ehanged into ye (-e -a -ee); as:
SinguIar .) Murred' PluraI J.'
merllleket country: memallk 1 iä
;' et •
..:.J..r. ma'rifet knowledge: "";;>1.: me":!! J
mekteb school: mekiaHb
. ..
rllektoob letter: mekimeelJ} Object.
.) aA:" rnezmoor psalm: ...ft. \ ..... mezameer Partic.
J.J ..... ..r
mifta.h key: merateeb' N.ofLoe.
...)\J tedabeer} The
..... measure
U(-qed.
fedbeer plan:
&.JL; tareekh date; history:
esgher lesser: esaghilr N. of Superloritr.
"-'---"--
1 i. e. the Nouns with Mim (§§ 597-99), the Primitiva Obj.
rov
Broken or Irregular Plurals.
wL6L soultan SuItan:
jumhoor republic: jemaheer
r?' a person (of Trinity): eqaneem
WJi\i qanoun law:
>-&. asker soldier:
\..,i qavaneen
'asakir
...
...; terjeme translation: terajim
Mula-lat!'t Remarks.
857
{
The measure
fm'qlan .
§ 649. There are some nouns which form double
plurals, these have often different meanings; the prin-
cipal are:
harf letter: J.J...r hooroof: ti.J..J- kouroofat.
deyn debt:
istu name:
Wy..) douyoon:
"\c-\ esma names:
t .J!.) douyoonat.
(,j''-' esami a list.
r-.J rls·m a due: r .J-J rousoom manners, custom:
r
J
rousoomat tolls, dues: ,\..)A merlUim ceremonies.
beyt verse; house: J: buyoot houses; ü l: \ ebyat verses.
& sheykh chief: slluyoukh old men.
el!.. meshayikh chiefs.
,-Jt)\,; rahib aChrist. monk: WLAJ rouh'ban: rehaheen'.
. .-.
§ 650. Other Arabic nouns which form their pluraIs
irregularly occur in Ottoman. The chief of these are:
r\· umm mother: um'mehat mothers.
wW\ insan man (homo): u--l; fias human beings.
"'!.) qarye village: \.} qoura villages .
.) .J-\ esved black:
...J \ ilah' god:
JA \ ehl people:
ermeni Armenian:
,J- say labour:
W\.)r soudan negroes; the Soudan.
aime dei ties .
J \ ehali inbabitants.
,.,;r aramine Armenians.
mesayi labours.
Participle (§ 604:), the N oun of Superiority (§ 609), the measures
tefqeel, fO'IMJ.lan, etc.
858 • t tJ'.Jl Lesson 51.
§ 651. There are some very common Arabic
pluraIs which are used in Ottoman ss singular nouns and
take a Turkish as weIl as an Arabic plural terminatioD
(§ 512); as:
);t.).. malumatlar knowledge. talwiratlar writings.
fiyatlar prices.
);lc}.J vouqo'U' atlar events.
)Jt..\ ehaliler inhabitants.
).J.r amelellr labonrers.
asalar members.
)l'J.J\ evladlar children.
)Jt;; tUJjarlar' merchante.
) l:! \ esh' 1/alar fnrnitures.
diyarlar conntries. unafl,ar bandieruts.
§ 652. Tbere are some Persian or Turkish nouns,
which have assumed Arabic pluraI terminatioDs. These
are mere barbarisms or soIecisms (§ 507):
t. chirtIikiat (Imperial) farms; (as wY.,l#

t. gelish coming: gelishat talent, success.
p. sebze yegetahle: sebzetJat vulg. Sar6tJfJal.
p. ol.}- khurdi small: khourdavat smallware.
p. W fer7nan firUlan: \.J (erameen ediets.
t. J.[" gidish going: J.[" gedishat conduct.
, y" 0 Eurelse 186.
State tbe measure, the number and the meaning of
the following words:
, ' -..J;-s::,. , ;:,....,r' -..J1:5' \
, e;'
, , J..}ij , Jj:' J)t 'JJ]
, o)ll..: ' Tlj , OJJ.!.... ' , JJ.L. .JjL;;
, J.}M;. ' , $\; , , J\; , jj 0 .,:;i ,
, ) &. L ' • J , · l :::; .... ", LJJ .. :''',
r.-: .. .. ..
, , f ' fi, ' , , , v •
, , • ' : • ..:-\ '.:";' A • ' p , ..L.7
.. '-' '-' r'" .. r-
Broken or Irregular Plurals. 859
, . , , ,. ,
..
, , , J;; I J..; , ' J\;';l \ ·
... • '" .'. .' • .' to , ., , ,
, \ \
• f_ :_ , ' , \. - ," • ,
• '--:-' t ,-:,J '-:') '-:' \ T •
, , , 6; 6:6; , \ t .:.,.;';' \ \"'
"" ,
• (orientalists) US;;::"": , J? \ 0 • ,
,yw, J Translatlon 186.
Form the derivatives of the following words:
1. The aet of looking ()ä1), who looks, looked at, to
wait (VIII), who waits, who is waited for. 2. Ignoranea
ignorant; ignorant people. 3. The
aet of sending who is sent (apostle), two apostles,
apostles; to send (IV) who sends! messanger. 4. To
burn (J;), fire (§ 606), to be burnt (VIII), burning, burnt.
5. To save to desire to save (X), saviour, saved.
6. To write book; clerk; written, letter; a place
w here to write, school; schoo]s, letters, two sehools,
two letters; to correspond (IV). 7. News to give
news, to inform (1\'), informer, informed; to eomrnunieate
(Iil), correspondent. 8. Cbange the word into fayil,
Inefoul; into noun with mim; to possess (I, X), to give
possession (II), to take possession (V), fayil of X, and PL
860 • t lJ'.)l Lesson 51.
j-:!) &..-t.).J t. .)J...!.JJ- Vt.·
.. :tib. .:,lt' 0 • ..:JJ)
J'\ 4.6.' )\.5'!l .. ,
r.-.,,-. ... r .". " .
....;..,.; A • j),) (! ,JJ..eI.( V • I.A:!)..I!I
d;.J! If :al
. ':'.)'JJ' • cl J \. ; · J;)
.. ., \.>t J., ., •
• 8)).,1..,1 ' rlh ' '
Words. 1. em lak fJergisi property tax. 2. mutlWj'ji1&hl
toward (fayil of tevej'j-uh to turn, V. of "eih'). S. harlieet II." to
start. 4. qavayid rules (pl. of qayid€). 5. silk career. 6. to enter.
, Y- A J Translatlon 188.
1. This hook contail1s
I
320 figures
J
• 2. The eastern
boundaries s of Turkey are Russia and Persia. 3. I have
a gospel printed 4 in very sn1all characters. 4. The
churches do not pay 5 property taxes. õ. The English
nation is one of the greatest nations of Europe
6
• 6. Are
those physicians among your relatives? 7. They made
a journey 7 towards the islands on board the ships. 8. It
is written in the Psalms ((Lead 8 me to the rock that
is higher than !". 9. 'Vhere is the list of expenses?
- Here it is, the clothes bought from the merchants
are inserted 9 in this list with their prices. 10. The
success of the vegetables and flowers is perfect 10 this year.
Words. 1. havi dir. 2. es hkra z (pl. of shikf). 3. 'houdood
(pl. of hadd). 4. ,natbou' (mefouI of tab'-). 5. tl-I-diye et." (II. of
Ida). 6 . .Avropa. 7. seyahat. 8. ihda eyle (IV. of 9. dakhil
(fayil of doukhouZ). 10. mukeTlnneZ (mefoul of Ukmil).
4l \):.. Converaatlon.
art); Columbus' Egg. (Continued.)
.
.. , ... , ..
s<.9-J\...r l:' 1.J w..
,,,, ,
• .J
Words. 1. hous'sar pl. of ha,ir (§ 64Sb). 2. hayrit wonder.
3. meraq curiosity; jelb ou ta·hreek et." to iDstigate and aronae.
The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns.
,. :" ... ..J! .5 ($.lJ.J\ .r ,-> ...
0
J
.l\) : '-:" y
0,)
46.A..).J,).).J,) J):t ($J.r..-
· J! J •
J..rA !
361
6.li. ($Jr-w ! rJ-:.j\ ? '-'.,,:...}
'" 0 ,
9.) p.. 6...Ä,. J.J.)J.J.) <-t U J."... .J-!
· ($.lJ.J\ ?
• J..f.:. oJ .J,)J.J,) /..;" 0 JJJ!.>!
!
• .),) 0 '-:" Y Y.J,)
0»- J..,)
...;A .:,4\ JJ'..
• 0,) f
0 J...!..\j J JJ!
.. f ...;A
"

4. netije the end, conclusion (§§ 582, 646). 5. mou't'a( (aq
successful (meroul of tev' (eeq). 6. fnunasebet connexion (III. of
nisbet); ne-I not at aIlI 7. izhar to show, confess (IV. of souhour).
8. ajz inability. 9. muqtedir able (VIII. of iqtidar). 10. marifet
skill, talent (n. with mim of fr/an); ilk evvel first of all, in the
first place. 11. iraye to show (IV. of rouyet). 12. relation,
connexion. 18. kema'U souhouletle with the greatest ease (§ 695, 11).
o r Lesson 52.
The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns.
§ 653. The union of two Arabic nouns, or of an
Arabic noun with an Arabic adjective (Izafet) according
to the Persian system has been already mentioned.
The examples given (§§ 517, 56õ) were all mascluine
and singular, both adjectives and nouns.
862 .t' U"Jl 52. ,."
§ 654. When an Arabie adjeetive is placed before
a noun, in Ottoman it generally remains invarlahle,
whether the nouns whieh it qualifies are masculine or
feminine, singular or pluraI; as:
khayr douva a blessing: ali hissiyat Doble
• • feelinga.
§ 655. But when the Arabic noun is feminine or
pluraI and the adjective follows the noun, then the ad-
jeetive Dlust agree with it in number and gend er.
§ 656. Read earefully the following rules:
1. maec. sing. nouns require the adjective to be masc. mngular.
2. fem. sing.» » » » »» fem. singular.
S. masc. duaI» » » » »» masc. dua.l.
» {regOIarmaac.Plural
4. masc. pluraI »» »» » or broken plural.
5. fem. plural» » » » »» fem. pIural 0 r sing.
6. hrokenplural» ') » » » »{fem.sing.orbroken
plural.
§ 657. All broken plurals, the nalnes of letters and
eities are regarded as felDinine.
§ 658. Examples.
1. kl douva' yi khayr a good prayer; blessing •
..;l'"\ bah'ri ahmer the Red Sea.
2. Ol.JJ....,.. eli'{i memdoude elongated Elif (§ 29 d).
qouvve'yi azime great power.
3. U;:';..r 0.;..)k tarafey' ni merqoumeyn those two parties.
harfey'ni m·uteja.niseyn two homogeneousletters.
,.
4. muve,·rikhee'ni meshhoureen' the celebrated
... " historianl.
me-e-mouree'ni (ikham illustrious omeera.
5. sifa'U ilaheeye the Dh-ine attributes .
...
maIouma'tt muhim·'me important knowledge.
",
l:1 k \.J zeva' ti aliyat great pereonages.
,.
6. J.r\ oumou'rou mouhim'me important aft'airs.
,.
r \ ejda' di izam venerable ancestor8 .
..J.. mekUi,ti'bi milli,!!e national BchooJe.
. "'.
,..",..,
The Agreement of Adjeetives with Nouns. S68
...
§ 659. Muten,ev'viyat MiscelIaneous .
..s:.f aye'ti keri1Jle the sacred verse, the golden text.

din'i 1nouqad' des the Holy Religion .
...
Devle'tiAliye the Sublime Government (Turkey) .
...
r\f sanliyou'nou kiram honorable hearers.
ezmine'yi qadime aneient times.
... tevarikh'i atiqa aneient histories.
teba-a' -yi sadiqa loyal subjeets .
.. sevahil'i bahriye marine coasts.
Jr lSW\ aqsa'yi sharq the Furthest East.
§ 660. ..... Galatati Mesh,'houre Barbarisms.
topkhane'yi amire Imperial Arsenal of Ordnanee.
... 'matba'kht amire » Kitchen.
oflc tersanlyi amire » Dock-yard.
qo'ttvve' yi elektriqiye eIeetricaI force.
lS l:-T Asiya' yi soughra Asia Minor.
Exerelse 139.
!.l)4;.-' \
3.:.NJI J,i\?
."
6o..1: .... .Q
__ .)--l!lJ\
t ')-')\J 4
lVords. 1. nlerhoUl1t deeeased (mefonl of rahmet). 2. zikr et."
to relDember, to mention. S. muh'tereq bnrnt (mefonI of VIII.).
4. miijed' deden ne,vly (mefonl of tejdid). 5. insha to build.
6. z1.mninda for. 7. ira de decree, command (VI. of rivad; seneeye
LIime, exalted). 8. sherifsadir whieh has issued in honour.
9. qita-at parts of the "'orld = eountries (pl. of qit-a); hayid
distant (from houd' § 606). 10. mustemIikUlt colonies (pl. of fayH
of X. of mulk); 1llutead' did numerous ({ayH of te-ad-dud, 'adld V).
864
." U"Jl Leaaon 52.
,
.,. , - ... ""
' 11 11 J
.,.
0 • j.!.lJ' 18y. J-.!X
0.)4l.
.. "" . -'
'
IC'" e .. L.. •• e .. ' 15 .. \.t.. 1'_.' ........ J'.t,'
,'J 0..1· ... ,0 J F .. li» J
)YA; y .);) • ..:h' fS:)' u..ci..,b
.
· J).,.
11. rivayet, naql et." to narrate, to recount, to teIL 12. "uare.
according (§ 682 b). 13. mahv ol." to disappear. 14. atfal children
(pl. of tifl). 15. souret manner; layi.q auitable.
, t· 4.:>-J Translation lro. .
.
1. Some of the illustrious offieers of the Turkish
government were present at the commeneement
1
exercises
of the College. 2. You will find here all important'
knowledge concerning the settIement
S
of the wretched
immigrants' in South Africa
5
• 3. Dr. Carrington is one
of the nlost eminent physieians. 4. Beeause of some
important business 6 he was unable 7 to come here.
0. One of the loyal subjeets began I; to speak
9
and said
(Honourable hearers'. 6. I bave Moses of Khorene's10
and Agathangelos' 11 ancient Armenian histories 12.
1. tevziyi mitkfäfat resmi or ye-rtni 'nlakhsous == day of prizes.
2. mouhimln'. 3. iskwn (l \7. of silkun). 4. mmihajirttl ni mag'A-
Mureen. 5. Afriqa' yi jlnoubi. 6. mUhimmA BlWbiyli.
7. muqted·ir olamamaq. R. ibtidar et." 9. kelam. 10. Mosu
Khorini. 11. Aqatanqelos. 12. mt4verrikhee' ni qadime' yi AramiteIt.UtL
Conversation.
· rl";!" rri\ ?
;:1: :'. c.sL:-T ?
- · J.!j..;\Y,..J ? .:.. ... I:--J.
.:; ? 4i
. .) .!lAJr c.:f"#J:...J
.1 ... ,
? Jl.J..).""" ele'; J!
.,.

\ r t"
,..". The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns. 865
,-;-,).J\ c.S..,r. ? j\'
• .).) • .J.:.-l:... e J.J J- J.J";'
Readlng Exerelse •

.. .....
Inventions Resulting from Observation.
.:..h ..... ./" •
• 7«'sJb. ü-'!.I 5':"\;i 'J M .;.""-
J;-i yo • yo 9-S;
....
. •• !, yo 16 j-r L:.... 15
11
,)1I./" u; 14 ü",,! I ._b I...:; 1 S ei
: • 1'1)..,1,'
..
tJ yo Yo1Yo .JJjJI yo ...L.:1r 'jo};
j2 J J. /' .. j1 .-, J I 20 ,...-, 19 .,
4J J .)\J
«.SJjJI yo
• )-'!.I S6 fo-- \:1!. !1 ji.1. ' ..q 1
Words and Notes. • diq' qat carefuI observation; munbayis
caused (fayil of inbiyas); keshfiyat discoveries. 1. history (II. of
erekh). 2. ikhtiraet (pl.; VIII. of t!). 8. lousoum necessity.
4. real. 5. isbat It." to prove (IV. of sebt). 6. emsal precedents,
examples (pl. of tne.,el). 7. havi containing (fayH). 8. eks/riBi the
majority. 9. zekee sagacious (§ 606). 10. amele labourers (used
as sing. § 651). 11. ya - ya either - or -. 12. mutlfen'nin
versed in science (fayil of teren' n.un § 622). 18. nazart dt.q' qat
consideration. 14. tesaduf et." to fall under (VI. of sadef). 15. souret
appearance; zahir external (fayi! of souhour). 16. nzana meaning
(n. with mim of manasie unimportant. 17. neshat et." to come
into existence, to originate. 18. misela for instance (§ 688).
19. yosoltn mOSB. 20. jis'In existenee. 21. an time. 22. namalum
unknown (§§ 580, 604). 23. toplamaq to gather (§ 276). 24. mou-
a-yene to examine (III. of 'ayn eye). 25. tedqiq et." to serutinise
(II. of diq' qat). 26. hukm et.';' to decide judiciaUy.
866 .,.., lJ'Jl Lesson 58.
.."
17 Jal t""z L;.) fi J
) .. .J. .. ..J!
.. .. ..
e 18;)J' Jr 0.)
Sl Y. J-J:..aT , 19!1J\..-,t:;
• M
:: ,
sSUb ' SlIo..ciJ .1. ' .1. ).,r. ·
I ! : jj)) ..x
_ , .. • ,. 37 ....... : ' S6.t .. S5 • .. .. .J 1
4.!-,4J \> ).JI.J!." .Il ! .....
4\:.$ ..... 7" 40t.L.:,\i) , :!.II .....
<r-i!;. ..... !.5
, ,
27. tekhay' yul et." to imagine (V. of khayal). 28. moutHJ/'faq
successful (mefoul of tevfeeq). 29. manasUr monastert. SO. qoub'N
dome. Sl. qa'ndeeZ a lamp. 32. ayni vaqitda at the very moment
(§ 695, 13). 3S. dayima continually (sdverh). 84. mout'tarid
isochronous. 35. tara-qeeb to follow. 36. qoyoulmaq to go on.
S7. m'lltehey' yij excitea (fayil oftehey'yUj, V. ofhlyejan). 88. ha.ln-
tabiyiyl natural philosophy. 39. mouhimm' important (f.)'il of
ihmam, III. of himtnet). 40. raq'qas pendulum (§ 611). 41. "araM
movement; vibration.
or Lesson 53.
Jr The Arabic Definite Article.
§ 661. In the Turkish and Persian languages there
is no article either definite or indefinite; but in Arabic
there are definite and indefinite articles (Harfl Ta""
Trnveen) which are used in Ottoman with Arabic terms.
The Ind. Article or Tenveen is of three kinds: -en, -iR, -oufl.,
applied to the end of the words (§ 48); and theyare used
in Ottoman as adverbs. The definite article is Jt el cthe':
,-,\:SCJI el-kitab the book, el-beyt (the house'.
e M·
§ 662. The Arabic Letters are 28 in number, ( ..... '

rL' j , 6' being peculiar to Turkish and Parsian): 14 of
these are called lunar and the other 14 solar letter&.
I
,
I
I
I
,
I
The Arabie Definite Artiele. 867
§ 663. The Solar Lettars . ...! JJ.r Houroufou
..
Shemseeye) are: ;) j U" J. .1 j;
The Lunar Letters JJ.?" Houroufou Qame-
reegel are: i c. t t..t J ..:; !J i J I> 4S'
§ 664. When the Arabic Article is added to a
word beginning with a solar letter, to avoid harshness
of sound, the lam is assimilated in pronunciation to the
following solar consonant for euphony, and 8 shedde (w) is
put over the latter: es'-sahr the patience;
ed/ -din the religion; es' -selam the salutation: and
not el-sahr, el-din, el-selam; also:
-.:......-1\ es-semt zenith: pl. es-sUmout azimoth.
§ 665. But the pronunciation of the latn is retained
when the Article is attached to 8 word beginning with
a lunar letter:
el-haqq the right.
el·kuhul aIcohol.
.fo. \ el-jebr Algebra.
'.
Jäl \ el-qali al kali.
el-kimya alchemy. el-inbiq alembie.
• .) WaJ \ el-idacU alidade. JyJ\ el-ghoul the thief(AIgol, the star) .
,,\..,..i\ el-hamra the Red (eastle), Alhambra.
el-munaqqah almanaeke
§ 666. Almost all Arabic words properly end in
a vowel: ustun (-e) is the sign of the Accusative, esre
(-i) is the sign of the Genitive, and eotre (-a) the sign
of the N ominative; also these are left in Ottoman, yet
they are retained in Arabic sentenees used in Ottoman.
When a word having the Article Jt is preceded
by a word, that word keeps the originaI final vowel
(- e, -tl, -ou); the elif of the Article is not pronounced
but slurred over, and lam is connected with the last
vowel of the preceding word; as:
868 .,.., LesBon 5S.
';j ;.:.u, :..,. \J res1i,'1 hikmeti mBrJlIJ,fetoN 'IW'
,. ,. '"
the beginning of knowledge is the fear of the Lord.
!i):. ",tllovW mt2loU6"
kelami the words of kinga are the kinga of words.
.,.
\ 'llahi the choeen friend of Good (Abraham).
Not el hikm.eti, mekkaretou al lahi, kelamt1 BmUloUi.
Note. 1.'he ,,,ord is contraeted from J\ Cthe', :J! ilala god,
1 :.H = Allah the GotI.
§ 667. When the el?'f of the Article is absorbed
by the final vowel of the preceding word, the elision is
marked by the SigIl written over the elit and called
4.l,oJ vasle because it unites the vowel with lam
\.#'
directly; as: !,I)11 i)t(" ..::.. ..... GI 1,)"1) '.\liI
The Arabic Izafet and Compound A.djectlve.
§ 668. The Arabic Definite Article is used for the
following purposes:
I. To form the Arabic Isafet: as when an Arabic
noun is united with a second no un ; the last letter of
the first vowel, being Nominstive, has generally eiJtre
(-011., -12) as its vowel (while it was esre [-i] in the
Persian system [§ 515]), and the second noun has the
article:
. ,
.,J. \ emirli·'l mumineen the commander of the beliavera.
• J ,
\ abd1i!l Mejid the eervant of the MOBt--GlorioUl .
. ,
o..,\.,.rl\ 0\.3:- miza'n,'tit'l harare the ba1anee of warmth, thermo-
, meter.
darll's'saedet the houee of prosperity, i e. the
Imperlal Harem.
II. To form the Arabic Compound Adjective, formed
of a Participle (io e. fayil, mefoul, adj. of Quality, N. of
Excess, [§§ 601-606]), and a Noun. The Participle
precedes the noun and ends with eõtre (-'U), while the
noun has the Articleo
U1 :J J '11 JJ khaliqli,'l arz ve'ssema the erestor of earth
:J .; •• t and of heaven.
r--:=J \ veleey{t'n' niam proteetor of benevolence,
,.; • , .,..' benefaetoro
\ 0 \hL .'lo·ultan1lB selateen the Sultan of Sultans.
The Arabie Definite Article. .869
, . ,.
\') '1\. mefrofUou'l eda the performance (lf whieh
• ,. ..... ,,,. _ is assigned, incumbent, (prayer).
yo \?"")'\ ekbera'l ektabir the great one of the greats.
,
. ,'. , . ,. ,,,
Nate. The word iJ UaL is the Adj: of Qoality of
selatat domination, rule.
III. To unite the nouns with the preposition. The
prepositions are voweled generally at the end With
ustun (-e, -al and esre (-i); (see more in the next section):
bi- Cby': ee-eat the person: bi'e-eat in person,
personally. "
."... . ...... "', ....
. beyne between: Jll,,\ el-milel the nations:Jll,\ beyne'l
milel between the nations, international. .
§ 669.
Notes. 1. All these examples end in Arabic with eare (--l),
bei ng in the Genitive esse and meaning of; as: Emirtd mumi-
mmi, AbdUl mijidi, DarUs sea-tUli, Veligllfl ftiyam' etc.
2. Surnames or patronymics in Arabic are
composed with the words y.' ebou father; r\ t2mm mother; ü:' '
ibn, ben, (pl. beni); .JJ.J ",elea son; bint daoghter (§ 168).
The Arabs have the custom of calling the parents by the name
of their firstborn children; 88: fiy. \ ebou-Bekir the father of
Bekir, the surname of the first Caliph. \ EbuZflraj the
father of :Faraj, Abulfaragius. rXr\ ·Qtnmtl Kti,lsoufll the mother
of Kdlsoum, Mouhammed's youngest daughter. .l::- ü:\ Ilmi Sina
the 80n of Sina, A vieienna.
3. If the name of the person precedes the surname, then
aif is left out and ü: ben, bin is ·nsed. .11.1 "eled is used for non-
Moslems; as: ü: Mouhammed ben A bdoullah' Monhammed
the son of Abdoullah. .11.1 yo. Yousouf veliai Zeklrya Jo-
seph the Bon of Zechariah. j\ Uni Ahme,. the ehildren of Ahmer.
Misal'ler Examples.
" '
.!l..,LJ \ melikti,l-mUlouk the King of Kings.
"'. ,. • .1 t
'J' rab'bti,l-erbab the Lord of Lords.
"_ • .1' '"
l, '1\ rA.) reyisUl-aba the chief of the fathers', patriareh.
. -.....
L:; ". j \ Eesa-el-meseeh' (among' Christians), Eesel- meseeA
-/ .,. (amongtheMoslems)Jesus the Anoh;lted ; theMessias.
Turkish Conv.-Grammar.
24
870 .... lJ'.Jl Leason 58. ""'-1
(."")1 ;Ül,H, ) bisfIIil-lahir' rtJla.Mir' ra"-in th,
Dame of God the All-Compassionate, the Moat-Mercifal.
§ 669a. The Declenslon of A.rabie Nouns.
Nom. küab4", a hook. the book.
GeD. '-' \:s' küaW", of a book. _l:SJ\ el-kitaW of the OOok.
,.
Aec. a book. el-kittJM the hook.
, t, Eurelse U,L
Form from the following words lzafets and Com-
pound Adjectives:
, , ,,. . .
I. 1. 'r.!)' , • J , Jj , .:J-) +
2. ata, feys gift; sa'd, felicity; +
seg( sword -t- 3. 'bad servants + [man]).
4. (u--.li qo'Uds holy + aqdas holies). õ. (r-r keleerA
interlocutor + [Moses]). 6. + berr6gn two
continenta, Asia and Europe). 7. (f. ..j\;\;. kAaqan emperor
[ehinese hu-hang] + bahrey", two seas, the Black
Sea and the Mediterranean). 8. (J'.) dar house + ':'.,:i
(unoun sciences; Jb.. khayr benevolenee; 4u.! she(afJa
..
charity; seadet proeparity; teba-at printing;
taksilIasmingi khilafet caliphate). 9.
.'
+ ineb grapes [wine]). 10. (i' + khabayis
11. rahtnan merciful, (.) kerim graclOUB;
, J..!- kamid, mejid, asis All-praise-worthy; Jt.,
,. .
settar forgiver; meseek Christ). 12. (Jj' J'.;'
,
, iss' gIory; ;i' nad,. help;
't The Arabie Definite Artiele. 871
. .:;'" ,
ool beauty; )lä.. rnousaffer sueeessfuI + deen.,
n religion).
Note. The nouns preceding v..,) end in Ustu,. (-e).
II. 13. azeem great, je'lil illustrious +
!). 14. salif above + 51 beyan mention) .
...
'. (»t fladir rare + JI.-=-I istimal usage). 16. (t..r
ree quiek + ::.,('.r hareket motion). 17. (<./'.;A meree
'served + ..,b\;.. khatir [ho norahl e]). 18.
,d + savt voice). 19. maqboul aeeeptable
sMhadet testimony). 20. erhem +
himeen [the most compassionate of the compassionate]).
§ 670. (j.' + -.l!,) , -.l!,J' rushd, erru-shd
verrhoes]). (j. I + Davoud David); (Jacob the son
Isasc); (Aliye the daughter of Nayima
.. ..
arabat the son of Artin); (the father of Ziya).
The Arabic Prepositions.
§ 671. The Arabic Prepositions are mueh used
Ottoman, but only in connexion with Arabic words.
lose most frequently met with are the following:
...
a. üa-, aeg- towards, as far as, until, to (§ 676 e) •
. ....... '"
..u \'\ J\ ileleebed to all eternity, eteroaBy.
. ,
-' ."' ... '"
, J\ ila akhirihi, ila nihaye to the end thereof;
-- et cretera, etc.
b. '-:-' bi- by, with, in (§ 676 8).

\ jj biz' zat in person. biljum'le all, everyone.
J li: bil-it' tifaq with agreement, ullanimou8)Y·
"' .... '"
e. ' ... baiU-, bad- after (§ 676 f).
24-
872 .,.., LeBlOn 58. rY,
r G:Wl badena-G'" after dinner.
,.,. . , , ". . " .
badema after which. ...La." batUAou afterwarda.
. .
d. b-Ua without (used with nouDs).
:.
J';' bila khavf without fear.
, .,.
e. "beyne-, beyn- between, among.
, .,
t..r \.:1 \ beynen-nas among the people, among meD.
f. ala-, aM-, aMy- UPOD (f 676 I).
r\:;JJ\ aled-devam perpetually.
J ala halihi in the state.
". ...
g. ::; an from. anoou from him.
. ".". .,. . .,. .
J.,.; \ r.:.r an asU originalIy. ÜD an gatlift. on purpose.

h. fevqe-, fbt'q- upon, over (§ 676 ').
w, (evqel ade extraordinarily.
. -
i. CJ ft- in, at; on (of dates); at, for (of price) 1'1. -.:"Li.
". .
fil-fJarp in effect, realIy. fÜMl iDs&antly.
';'.Jj:- el li or {iyati besh ghouroush per, at 5 piastera.
.
''''''A U".,,:..S.' ",.., CJ on the 23 August 1318 (1902) 0.8. [§ 217].
j. !J 100 like. kel ev' as it wae hafore.
k. J li-, le-, My- in favour of, to; for (f 676 ry.
,.
J limaslahat for the sake of business.
1. t 'Illa-e with (§ 676 9).
tma-el mlmnOtl'llUyl with pleasure.
t ma mafihi notwithstanding, yet.
m. 'In.ine-, 'Ini,,,- from.
tninel qadim from ancient times.
1IIin-hou, '1ninhi, 'Inin1,,' from him.
:;-:. ,;J, min ghay'ri haddin without a.ny right = I dare not.
n. , ,'mn'. Ilaq'qttltJa,
khousou8ounda, bablnda (partly Turkish) about, for.
The Arabic Deflnite Article. 878
Note. J\ I Js:. 'J connected with pronouns is pronounced
as iley-, aUy·, l'y; but with nOUDS 88 ila, ala, li (§ 676', 8, 1).
, t Y herclse 14:Z •
• ...,....Ql (p ..J.L :)))'J ia ,
,
!I).!Jl T
."
r .)) \.,...:JI J j\.;. J

...,....LAl1 (p to • .. r J 4111
- ,
!J.r:.cil 0 •
J 4!!" .).)
8..:,;1;1 7 ... ; j.D\A..l J V \Cb J-I:'
. ' ,
, ,..eit - 1 :
l00
8
\.?', · F.""!' .. A
J r
IJJ1
J:.; ,.
• rUJ1 1l.;WI § "
Words and Notes. 1. oulouheeyet Godhead. 2. Eqafteem' i
selese three persona, Trinity. S. vajiMI tYUjoud God (whose exis-
tence is necesssry, self-existent). 4. ibnul insan the Bon of Man.
5. qoulou'bou insaneelii human bearts. 6. tat-heer et." to porify.
7. merqoume 8he (§ 677); satul jenb vulg. satUjan pleurisy.
8. ifaqat boulmaq to rpcover (§ 619). 9. biznillahi by the permission
of God = if God wills. 10. kes'sabiq ss it was hefore (§ 671 j).
11. alel ade or custom § 671 f) usually. 12. tenelsU},,'
to take a walk CV. of ni4zhet).
, t 4.:::-; Translatlon lü.
One day Hoja ·Effendi, losing his donkey, enquires
of a man about him. The man answering said: ('cI saw
your donkey in the court of Iconium
i
; he was acting 8S
Words and Notes. 1. (Jonga mehklnlesinae ... qadiliq idigore
874 ... Le880D 5S.
judge there." Hoja Effendi said: ((Wellll I already knew
that he would be a Cadi s; booause when I W8S teaehing
(giving a lesson to) Khilez, my son, that donkey stieking
up his ears' was listening attentively." He immediate1y
started 7, and after some weeks resehed Iconium. He
wellt directly5 to the court. He S8W the Cadi from
afar. He took a bunch of grass from the bag of the
donkeyand showed it to him saying gWA! g(õA! gtaA!
gtO}I,!6 The Cadi laughed at what the Hoja was doing.
The Hoja said: eeWell, he recognizes me. In a few
moments he will com e cheerrully to eat the fresh gr88B.
I will wait for him." And he is stiIl waiting there.
. '"
2. pek ala. S. onoun qadi (fayil of • W) o'lajtJgh'. bIn ,tJthI
bilir ülim. 4. qoulaqlarini diklrek diq' qtJtla dinUr idi.. 5. tlOg1I-
roudan doghrouya mehkemeye gitdi. 6. means or atraw,' ueed
to esll the don keya and horsea ecome, come, come I' 7. fIlAtJI
Qonya ya mutevejjih.en hat·Jket Idib . e •
CODTersatlon •
.:. , .' , , \ • \.) J' •• \
'-" "r • J ...)'.
-: ",. , .
,,1. LS.cl\ J4al.!.
d;y.) Ö\:Jy'
• J'.
1 -::: J' '!·li LlJl
·
· •
..;->--. ,- .,
r I..,.. .;....ai-cJl ul..u'
• I
f.' tS .1:-. f\
.lad • J.J! 4:-! 1 )u:.\ '--! \
.c...!. \ • , e __ - .>;.c..
r -- C.J •.
cJp.-!\ -!l.4l('
* 't •
. .;? &, -(' JJ\
Words and Notes. 1. te{er'ruj diversioD. 2. MrHl 01." to
beeome un1awful; to be unhappy. 8. It." to reply iD the
aBirmative, accept (IV. of jevab § 620). 4. kashal Heaven lomDdl
5. mayet' te-es-sUfu asim with the greatestregret. 6.fow .. opport1lnitJ.
Arabic and Persian Pronouns.
BeadIDg Exerelse.
" ; bt An Aneedote •
..
__ 1 • ..L:äJ1 .J.
. ,
875
I; L. j f!..cl jl ;.t," t.l::t li J,)
ccseliey. 7J\:..),) rtT
• 4>1·
.T .J. J. .. .. .... 'JU ..r
: J!.,)),)
r '."WJI y. .... Jj; r .&':!.!IIJ-
llY,.ji.;. r , lO"L.b
1 ltr)LjIJ r,))4'J.}::);
Woras and Notes. 1. ·mejUsi wfet 80cial party. 2. mothers-
in-law. 3. munasibetsizlik absurdity. 4. baAs to speak about.
5. eziyete qalqt.shmaq to trouble, tease. 6. without hesitation.
7. immediately. 8. boghmaq to strangle, to kill; tUrdini yaflmaq
to confide hi8 woes to another. 9. brave man. 10. Bon-in-Iaw.
11. 3. khinztr pig; nasty. 12.
Arabic and Persian Pronouns.
§ 672. The Arabic Pronouns are occasionally
employed in Ottoman. They are used only in certain
Arabic expressions adapted by the Ottomans. They are
as follows.
§ 673. The Possessive Pronouns:
($ -i My. l; -na Our.
-100 Thy (masenline). -ki Thy (feminine). f -k4m Your&.
.. ' • .. "'li, -ki Him, it; his, its. l.. -ha, Her.
l..# -klima, -",ima Them [two] (dual).
r -k6nn, -"'im Them (masc.). UA l"lin'ne Them (fem.).
878 .... u-Jl Lellon M.
§ 674. The Demonstrattves:
\l' \..lA m, lI,OZa This. NlUrA, "'Dc That.
§ 67õ. The Relattve Prononn:
l. -ma, ma- Who, which.
§ 676. Misal'ze,. Examples.
1. rebb (among the raM (among the Christian8)
Lord. JJ ralbi, rab'bi My Lord, Lord, God. J.J ,s'rBillil
lIa'rabbil 0 my Lordf rel/benal Our Lord; Rabbonil
2. JJ. melJla (N. w. mim of J.J) Lord; sir.
haereti mevla God. mevlanal My sirl His grace.
8. bi- with loutf' mm" I baOtd'·
,.
fihi, bimln'nihi by His graee JL.; bimlft'tliA' by
the grace of God Most High. bihi', bih' by him, on it.
4. bade after: bade'1Iou alter it, after that.
5. ala-, aMy- on, against: aleyhi against or on him!
aleyke on or upon thee aUykUm on you r)l..
selamun aleykum I Peaee be on YOll I HaiJ I God bless you J
alehis' selam! U pon him be peaee! (said of any of the
allyhimde against me (partly Turkjah). ,sJJ. MUd' OO" the
aecuser: c..f.M mudda e alegh' com. mud' llalli aUyh the accueed.
binayln aleyh eODsequently.
6. J\ ila-, aey- to: ileyhi to him lr.I' iU,M to her
rt'\ ileyhim to them: c.$'..r'.Jt.!. mouma, musMr (the of
iyma and ishaTet) said, mentioned: I rt'ul!- tJIt2MtJ.
rileyh, moumayileyh, mmharileyhim (1'1.) to whom anomoD hu
been made, the said; he, they. l,:I\c.$'JA'
müshaTileyha sbe. J-..r mursel one which is Bent (or addrealed):
[the mefoul of iTsal]! J.....r murselun illgh one who is addreued.
7. J li-, le-, UN for, in favour of: J zaou, lai for him, in
favour of anybody! -4 Uhimde, leyhimlle in lavoor of me, for me.
f""VV Arabic and Persian Pronouns. 877
8 . .!l ke- like: IeIza I -lik !ike that; thus.
\ 'hak/ea so for thee this = 80 alao. \.la e ma 'hala in Ipite
of this, with this. L ma salike with this, notwithstanding this.
9. ma- mabaqi that which remaios, the remaioder. Jjl.
mafevq that which is above • .ci jl. mafhqindlabove him.
maheyn that which is between, between. ma'shallah what
has God willed; May God ble88 him I ül(' kimakiil,. as it wa.
before. L ma mafihi' with that which is in it (mas.), yet.
l. mabad that which is after, the remainder: J\" l. mahadl
"al· there is its remainder = to be contiooed. \.kl. ma' -a-tltJ
which is over; besides, except.
Muta-la-at: Remarks.
§ 677. In writing, the use of pronouns in the
third person is 8voided by repeating the noun for which
they stand accompanied by one of these words, which
all mean The same, the said, the above mentioned:
J."L- , r}..r mesoour,
mestour, merquum, moumalliUgh, mUshariligh or ,,,tlsharUn üegh.
§ 678. Mezk'llr, mezbour, merqoum are used when
speaking of persons of inferior position. Moumayileyk
to the people of the middle clsss. Musharilegh is
applied to persolls of high rank. When speaking of
inanimate objects mezbour and mestour are used.
§ 679. In case of a person first meotioned by
name, or by a common substantive, these words may
be used as substantivea, or, - we might say -, as a kind
of Personal or Deolonstrative PronouD, in all the cases
of declension. But, in case of a thing, they must oo
used as adjectives, each time.
§ 680. The Persian PronooDl are rarely need in
such expressions. They are: een this ! aA that
4> chi what ? chend some kJwd self, one' s self; as:
., ..
878 .... u-Jl Leaaon 54:.
ü1 ghafi'li em ou an ignorant of this and tbat, iDU-
perieneed •
• \i '-t ehi fayide! what is the U8e I AIas !
J";l chmd tUfalar several times.
li-- kood be kood personally, by himself.
, fo fo Exercl8e lÜ.
1.:.-"'; 0.J.i Jo;1 J ,j)=:-.1. yo ..:..c L.. J,l.: ,

· 5J-llJy..Y.Jt 'cir
4S)i:>JJ:: jlYoI OJ.A,(,If.-\s:.
el) o.)R .. T • 7
r
..u\; JI.l::.. Jj
! ,..ci' -
0.1 • ,;1&. 4s J$'.)J..-f' liA t: ! ;:
'I'" 12
4S
)S'$4A..Y,.J
-
l'wt)J' 18 • .)41 \...
J'"'.J... J'"'.J... · yo ! r..cil (.$'
0h t • .jJI
! -·f .ci' • ..1all' • .)\;
., , 'J.. ....... ..
').) 0.ci}L. $J..\i o.>).jh.. Jr. J!).-J.JI..1.
lVords and Notes. 1. To the ",illage Ybtije (near Merzifol1n).
2. ,,,,i,vaselet et." to arrive, reach (III. of 'VaBl). 8. ,,",laqaC iDterviaw
(VII. of .. \.iJ liqa an encounter). 4. shlre( honour. õ. tlaJil oJ."
"
to obtain, attain. 6. fevej'juh sympathy. 7. fIIin',,1CtltJr qaltJltJt
to be under obligation, grateful (§ 535). 8. vaqi oI." happening,
occurring (rayil of 9. mu.fteriyat calomnies (p). of iftAra
[§ 650]). 10. beyan It.' to express. 11. qat' ata absolotely, not at
all. 12. e'hlnz'miyet vermek to give importanee (I 582). 18 .• ou-
'"ake1ne a trihuna!'s henring a ease and giving a legal decieioD,
law"suit (III. of Iulkm). 14. (asl olounnlaq to be decided, jodged (a
caRe). 15. dava a caRe; id'da-a, id'di-a to claim (Vm. offlIJN[1828D.
16. MUqoltq rights, dues (pl. of haqq, used as aing.). 17.
to pay (II. of eda • \l\ [§ 616J).
Arabic and Persian PronooDs. 379
18 • . ___ 18 •
.. .. ..s- .r 0 • ,....
• \A.> t: · J;) 0,) o;)WI Jj
• J.)J'J • 19W..1t\,)b
18. mouzayaqa distress (§ 618 of zeeq); naqdeeye pecuniary
(§ 579). 19. matloubat does (mefoul of taleb [§ 578]). .
, t 0 4..>-J TranslaUon 1" •
.
'. 1. Jesus said unto her: Mary. She turned herself,
and said unto him, Rabboni. 2. Will you say anything
against or in favour of him? 3. I have nothing to Bay
against him, but I have mueh to say in favour of him.
4. The accuser and the aeeused were before the judge.
Õ. The said gentIeman al so was siek. 6. What is written
on the postal cards
l
? 7. Is this artiele
2
to be eontinued?
8. There was nobody in the schooI, exeept your son.
9. I eannot read those Arabie sentenees, it is above my
ability to read tllem. 10. Where is the residenee of
Habib Effendi? - It is that blue-coloured house.
1. achiq moukhabere varaqari = correspondence card. 2. blnd .
Conversatlon.
&,S..L.:j\ Hassan Effendi.
• lSri\ r:i'.J\
I I
rJ.!\ -; I rJ...:.i\
ry. , t.:\
Jol.J\

I u::r
lSJ:llc. •
? ./ OOL \ J ·
.r! -
.. :.-...JUa. &JL; I rri\
Jj
lSri\ HOlUleyA Effendi.
• lS.J:J\ ! r)\....
, '" ." tf#.." "'. '"
• >'-t-.J )\A \
r
?

."
jA\
...
li I ri\
r -. ;' r
'" .... ,
J.r!. ...Ju. )\
880 .... u-Jl Le8Bon M.
, • J.l
.
-,.li \ ,l\&.:!-\ \ ü,.J\
- "tJIIII' •
"
• Jl • ..c.:; jt.
)Wl r ! rri\
1
& \ • 6- •
rY • .) l...r • "'! '-'!JM'" c.>"'" l
'" ,,,., ..
.J .l
.s' • .)ll..J':-..r
jT ,;.t, .;..,X

· lSfo.lJY.Y.
..J'. • .,r.J.:i\ ' 4,."J).J\
• J\j-
.xli..J.?- lSJ4J.).J
? Jl ...; ü':lJ\
· .lf':" ! 4
Reading Exere1se.
Regulations and rules of
the road, for preventing
eollisions at sea.
-1-
When close-hauled on opposite
tacks, the ship on the port
tack is always to give way if
necessary, either by keeping
away or going about.
-I-
l ,
s!\
: • .11 \ Jll..: ':".J J. J.
' ü':l.1\
JJ! U\l
· (JJ'J}t !l;eJ..JIt
Arabic and Persian Pronouns. 381
-2-
With the wind free, give way
to those on the wind.
-3-
Two ships meeting under
(h a ving) full sail are to pass
on the port side of each other.
-4-
Under steam and nearly end-on
to each other, both C&st to
starboard and pass on the port
side of each other.
-5-
A steamer always gives way
to a sailing vesse}: and it must
be remembered that every vesse}
under sail, with steam ready,
though not using it, is con-
sidered a stearner, in the event
of collision.
-6-
Every vesse} underweigh iB to
carry a green light on th e star-
board and a red light on the
port aide.
-7
Stearners, in addition, carry a
white light at the fore-masthead
(prova). [Worda the broadside.]
-r-
I / cSJ'j.JJ
JJ! J'{J.JJ
-r'-
-j.J .!lJ-,-!\ J,)\.,.a;
! __ L
• ..J'...J'. U ...,-.- uf
J.J-r 0.l:.i).
- ... -
/ 0
li
}.J! • .J.:,J.).JI f.-!l
e
.,)

-e-
J \L. · /.L' · 6\&.... J \.J
rJ'J. eS'
! f.' ui! .JJ.J' .s:;. J'..J
A ' . .JJla. ci!.-\l.J\
,
: o,),--,)\..A. ... J-,) U\&....
:a. f' J.nlJ
. ,
• J.l.J l-W J.J J
-v-
O,).)Y.) J.,H\.J JJJ.J'
,. I.!



882 •• u-.)l Lesson 56.
-8-
Vessels towing, carry t,,·o white
masthead lights (Bili1lOft).
-9-
During fogs, vessels un der steam
are to sound a steam ,,'histle;
veMels under saH, to use a fog
horn; at anchor, to ring abelI.
- 10-
These signals to be sounded
onee, at le88t, every five minutes.
-Ä-
· - \- .• L..i- • /'
c.Jr.::- u' •
• J.fo:
-t\-
, .!l"l"l .)..HU
.l A
• ..ub. j\.1ilfi;
,
· '-t 3\r
- , .
• Ji' .l)j.1.

o 0 Lesson 55.
The Arabic and Persian Adverbs.
§ 681. The simple Arabic Adverbs are rarely used
in Ottoman, but the compound ones are very common.
These are made by the addition of a tenveen of dstdn
together with an Elif or te (-en, -ten § 48); as:
...
J..r 8harq east : li"; sharqh" eastward.

zat origin: zaten origiDaily, al ready.

oli! shifah lips: lAli!. shifahen ora11y.
§ 682. There are two rules which govern the
pointing of tenveen of ustun 1:
a. If the word ends in hetnee (§ 690), or abort ai(
(§594), or servile ke or te (§ 592), only a double u.sna. is put
at the end, provided that te and he , • ' 4) must change
into round te (4 'ö -ten) and sbort elir -al must

chal1ge into simple elif (t -en):
• \.?- jeza punishment:
'hldiye present:
tlJ:- jlta' gm al a puniahmeDt.

hedilll'te. &s a gift.
1 Which is the sign of the Accusative C8le (§ 670).
The Arabic and Persian Adverbs. ses

mlrhtJmetm kindly .

..::.,,1-j nlWhamlt mercy:
man' a meaning:
.. ,) l.. madde material:
l:.... ma'"en, in troth, virtual ly .

.,) t. maatUtera ma terially .
b. But if the final be radieal, or if the word
end with any other letter than those mentioned above,
.
aD elif with double astun (' -en) is added to the end;
this aif is never pronounced:
tf# oll
lIwuvaq'qat temporary: \.:..i.".. moufJaqqa'ten temporarily.
> tlazar a glance: \> M.lR'ren in respeet of.
-.:j\3 salis third: sali' sen, thirdly.·
bazen sometinles: mou-akhkha' ren subsequently.
Misal'ler Examples.
\,) mutlmad,,;' ym continnally.

'I1l(;jed' deden newly.

difa'ten repeatedly. fUj'j1tln suddenly.
(WJ qaza' yen by accident. qas' de" designedly.
1$
kkeli' yen secretly. tk all'taln openly.

l-..,..,. oumou' 1Il,en generally. taqri'bbn nearly.
ly' ber' ren by land.

bak'rm by sea.
jh,."an, jhn' en as a tota1. m/jjan' en freely, gratis.
\y-? tahri're" written. kul'liyen totally.
1$
jeb'ren by jurll'lteen whol1y.
§ 683. Sometimes the tenween is not pronouneed:
')1)\ ev'vela tiretly.
')Ib. hal'a yet, now.
l:.l te. gha'ltbamost probably.
a' dtta simply.
\t \') da' yima always.
li1la.. mout'laqa absoJutely.
l.i\.J 'Vaqa' -a in faet, surely. )\!.. ,nl' ,Ila for example.
a'jeba, aja'ba I wonderf strangef Really!
§ 684. The Persian Adverb. The Persian D eri-
vative Adjectives, which are made by the addition of
-ane (§ 528), are used as adverbs:
884 •• u-jl Le880D 55.
..il:....,.Jl dosta'ftI friendIy. ..i\.)l\J. biradlra'nI brotberlJ •
jaflBipara'ftI devotedly; bravely .
..il. maArlma'", intimateIy, c.onfidentially.
, t, herelBe 14M.
" ,
, w..ci jo i..r...J
"
T '.r' \Ali! lf.r-
\;;." i.x
t. • J..l!...J-,!.1.-,!.) "l.:,k
0.) 't'l.; ! JL-J\ •
oXiJJ.) 0 • WJI :
°A.1-!!!.' , · jJ-,!JJj,JI "I:;r • J.1lS'S i;' JI} .;.. .. \;I
- \tii
c;ltJ' J.1Äbl 6"t.1( .1;; • ).) .. , r.cil
"I../ I 6 471.)'<-': v • JJ!4t"
6J;.\J,.1 \.)\;,. jj r. · JJ""! I • ..J!
«\.Q; 0.) 1..1 WJ7-\J,.1 !lj- '\.iIJ A •
t'.) J.1!... UJ 1 ei: ..... .y.s:::..., · I .,.. , J.1.!.lJI \,j,
."..,.".- , . J
· rY'..J 4!.' ..r-=.)'JL \5l
Words lJtld Notes. 1. ilatl It." to annOUDce (IV. of a'.i).
2. hiye'ti Dlou-al'-limeen the Faculty. 8. qarar fJb." to decide.

4. hiijoum to nttnck; (uJ'jetln for Buddenly. 5. blrlJftha bodDy.
6. mtuJkirat, ichki any intoxicating liquid (pl. of mUskir, whtch il
the mefoul of IV. seker). 7. miibtela addicted to (mefouI ofibtiltJ).
8. igh(al It." to deceive. 9. iradet will (IV. of [I 820D.
rA. The Arabic and Persian' Ad verbs. 885
, t V J TraDslatloD 14:7.
1. ((I will give unto him that is athirst of tIIe
fountain of the water of life freely." 2. He has not
yet eome. 3. The school house was newly built. 4. Nearly
500 persons were present. 5. Ha took the money by
force. 6. They were treating 1 eaeh other lika brothers.
7. He was serving his Master devotedly. 8. I eannot
reveal
2
to you that matterl; it was told to me in
confidence. 9. He tol d me again and again (repeatedly).
10. It is most probable that he will never ba able to
COlne. 11. Really! That is my opinion' too.
Words and Notes. 1. mOU-a111eZe It." 2. blyan et." 3. macJ' de.
4. efkiar. (Bendenizin de efktäri heman hlman 0 m/rklzdl dirJ
..,:;\) Readlng Exerelse.
1. Newton.
o."us::::,1 )-,r.
,
.. L'o 1.. <t'" ' , t \ •• t 6 .. e 5 ... "e.. \. t ,
.u t..J.1..J. o->J \>0 0'" t....J 0..4.:-,
\ '0 •• J 10 ., .. " 9 • • '8 ... .., , ,
't' e o-l.,O JU=- J 0.) 4t
.. 12.. .. , .. • 11 .. .. •
.... CJ" ,
0)\.)\ ..J. J,)\;J ,l:i t..J .J. 0.) 1
e :o.i,J\(5))
r}::'" , 16&;::::' }L-J.,=:- ii
.1. jr.t.
Words and Notes. Ir al actions (pl. of (iyl); sigariye political
579). t. oulounlou tabiyiye natural sciences. 2. oul/ma scientists
(1'1. of alinl [§ 643 d]). 3. Nevton Newton. 4. parlamentI) parlia-
Inent. 5. meb' ous delegate, P. M. 6. sifattyla with the title.
7. Jze - ne - neither - nor -. 8. iyrad to deliver (§ 620); ftOUtq
speech. 9. tekleef proposition (§ 615). 10. itiraz opposition (VIII.
(.r arz). It. khariqUl ade olaraq extraordinarily (Turk. sdverb).
12. vaqarlt' bir souretle in a serious manner, seriously (§ 458).
13. irlareyi kllam et." to deliver a speech (§ 621). 14. te-a,j'jUb et."
to he setoniAbed. 15. mesayil questions (pl. of mesele [§ 597]), mou-
hinlm' important (fayil of ihmam [§ 619J). 16. ikhtiyar et." to prefer,
('hoose (§ 627); sukutle for sUkut ederek remaining 8iIent (= keeping
",ilence). 17. tekel'Zum et." to speak (§ 622).
Turkish Conv.-Grammar.
25
, )
886 •• u-Jl Lesson 55.
10 4:t,) 19!h",,!1 \

18 • , - It· ," I 15 , • I'., .. ,1_ J ,
• ..1 ..... (.,\..,.:1 - 4J u J
, r 17A)J-".J. e.a\!A
.. OI • " J, . • , _' 18 I • , • ,
.rJ .1. J ).J!.J'J '-'!7. '
4!!J:. cq : 19).J!)J'
.. .
Sl It . t_ , c( ,. • I -II
y.\). ).J..:::..A)'..J '-:'.J!.)
18. ilja compelling (§ 619). 19. hukm It." to jndge, thiok.
20. with great attention. 21. see § 678. 22. bahB tt." to disC1188.
23. istima et." to hear. 24. al'lame exceedingly learned (I 582 of
al'lam, this is exceptionally mascoline); tUtwata the century.
25. What do you think that he said? 26. jihlt side. 27. tJHW&a-
halle to see. 28. jlreyani hava corrent of air. 29. holMlou et."
to occor, happen; moujib causing (mefouI of ijab [I 619]); hagis
ol." to cause. 30. sih'hat health; ikhlal to spoil, break. Sl. "'MYhI
a1Jyh therefore (§ 676 teklif et." to propose, to move. S2. he lat
down quickly (§ 286). EbUz Ziya the father of Ziya (I 669
1
, p.
.u ts:::: Conversaüon.
To Thank. fo TesAek'k(tr
I thank you very lnuch for your Loutfoufiouea pik sigtuli UMtl-
kindness. kur ederim.
Pray don't mention it. Estagh'firoul-lahl
I feel very grateful to you. Zati aUiiize mita'taltdarirn.
I am very much 0 bliged to YOll. Min' netdaritatslm.
I shall never forget your kind- Qoulouliotua oltm loutfou IMe).
ness to me. ounoutfllallajagh'm.
I return yoo a thousand thanks. BilUerjl arz' tls'h6k''kUr ItUri •.
I beg you will accept my most Min' netdarane olata Uih8e'1r:U",·
grateful thanks. ti,ni qaboul bougourtllG4lW
Thank yon, Sir.
I am sorry to give you so much
trouhte.
You overwhelm me with your
kindness.
No trouble at all.
I shall be most happy to returu
you the fa vour.
Y õu are really too kinde
I hope I shall some day be able
to get out of your debt
istirham Idmm.
ThJhek'kur ederim 6fflftil ...
Zati alinize bOIl qadar _aA.1l
vwdiyim ichin mutUs' Bifia.
Lou,tfou'I&0U8 qoulonousou .. all-
,joub Idigor.
Hick zahmet tUyil. Bir BUy tUgil.
LoutfounOUBOtI 'yOOI idijegiM
ichita ptk mIIl' -oKtl ON".
Haqiqaten pei fiasik BiIIU.
Inshal-lah bir gtln olotw bor-
ioomou Ida Ulrim.
Arabic Numerals. 887
I am delighted to have heen uae-
ful to you.
lJotdoundoughoum
ichou" pek memnouftOutll.
I am extremely glad to see you.
Nothing at all! Not at all!
No ceremony between friends.
Svi g6JrduyUml dlrljlgi tliha-
yerU ",emftOun oldoum.
Bir shey dlyil.
Teklif lIoq dour Iffendim!
o '\ Lesson 56.
Arabic Numerals.
§ 685. The Arabic N umeral Adjectives are fre-
quently used in Ottoman, especially in writings, in
offieial terminations, in speeehes and serrooDS.
§ 686.
I. Cardinal Numbers. 4-\.",'
..
.l> \.J ' ..b. \ vahid or ahad one; fem. o..b. \-' ' ($» \ ihda, vahidJ.
esneyn two.
se-le-se threp.
erba' -a four.
khamse five.
sit'te six.
seb'-e seven .
.
li. 3emanige eight.
tis'-e nine .

? '? asllJirl, ashlr ten.
si(tr zero.
? .,b.\ ahade aSM'I' 11, re \:J\ isna as her 12, ? 4:lt sel/set
asher 13, ? hrba-at ashe'l' 14, ? khamset ashlr 15,
? sittet asher 16, ? seb'et ashlr 17, re semani-
yet asher 18, ? asher 19.
Ü'.? tshrem 20, seleseen 30, erba-geen 40,
khamseen 50, ü\:-t sit'teen 60, Ü\.- seb' een 70, U semaneen
.. .. . . -
80, tis'een 90. (0.,,!l';' w-,? etc. is not used j"n Ottoman.)
..
miye 100, l. miyetlyn 200, selisou m·iyetin 300,
-
elf 1000, elfeyn 2000, J':J\ seleset alaf 3000.
§ 687. II. Ordinal Numbers. "\..k'
..
'($,)\:. ev' viI, hadi 1
st
; fem. J.J\ oula.
je sani second; fem. saniye second (I/60
th
of a minute).
25*
388 ., u-Jl LesBon 56.
salis third. fem. ..:H.! {;..L sabi a8venth.
rabi fourth.» \J ü-- \; sami" eighth.
khamis fifth.» c:l.; tasi ninth.
U-lL sadis sixth. ashit- tenth.
§ 688. By the addition of an elif \vitll a tenveen,
they are changed into adverbs (§§ 681, 683):
':J." eo'vela firstly.
? li l; saniyen second ly .
.
*
l:l t; salisen thirdly.
t$
\.; rabiyen fourthly.
t$
Loll- 3adisln for the 6th time.

l- sabiyetl» » 7th »

\.-\.; tasiyln »

8th »
9th ,

L.t;. khamiJSen fifthly. ''''; le. ashiren» »1 Oth ,
§ 689. The Nisbe of the units is made by the
... '
measure (§ 580 f.):
...
Jt; sU'nayi composed of two lettera, bi-literal.
j)lj S'ltlasi » »three» triliteraI.
ef rltbayi
» »four » q uadrili tera].
§ 690. Fractional Numbers.
nisf, half (§ 207). u-..1.- s11ds, sUdtis 1/ ••
sUli,s, l/a• stlb' 117.
t:..J roub', ouroub 1/4. J. s11mn, s4mt1tt I/S.
khoums 1/5. c:; tus' I/e.
p- ushr, lilo; eoshur t.ithe (pl. J\.!s:.\ tJ8oor).
§ 691. In forrning compound numeral adjectives
in A-rabic, the smaller number always precedes the
larger, while J ve. is put between every number and that
which foIlows it: that is to say, in reading they begin
froJTI the rig h t: as they write and read from the
rigll t (§ 13).
Exanl ples.
w}y..j ., tiset ve selasoun (or selase1M [§ 578]) thirty-nine.
Arabic N umerals. 889
::: . ..- , . . ,
!..laÄl &: ' v? \ .J \cJ
, 0.... ",.",.
Tahreeren fi,l ylrnnil khami8 t:el 'shrem,

min sheh" zilqadltish .hen(i, lisenetin seblt-asher 'VI BeUsoumiyetift
vi elf. (This Firman) was written on the 25
th
of the saeted month
Zilqade, in the year 1317 (of the Hejira).
lS.JJ yo rL;;.. t$);L:..:;..\ d: shouhourou sellsl i",tihanlati
khitam boultlou. The terlD examinations were finisbed.
Ivqat. mubareklyi khamsl the five bIislful
times (of daily prayers). el(u Uyll ve leyUt the
1001 nights, i. e. the Arabian Nights, Turk. Bin bir gljl.
The Diminutive Noun.
§ 692. The Diminutive noun is made by the
0' ,
measure fouqeyl (§§ 166, 167, õ44):
..
abd a servant: a little servant.
hasan beautiful: houseyn darling, prettiest.
0kLselman prop. name: Boulegman Solomon.
, t It. r:W herelse 148.
, ':::, - - ,-
2. , , • 'All. '.. " , 1 ·\.t, , · J\ ' .. I , .. ,. , 'I \
U\....N..l..,., W\.U 1 • ,-,\A . .
,
,
, 4A:- ')'r. 0 P. L'tr t. , ,,":,1::5'"
V .;; , JJT' [-', , !
, SJ • ,;. 7 .",... ,..' lA .. •
,. ... ,).n-' ,->J A • J j4\J
, 11. "10._..;. \ \ ' ... 9"', \ '.AI .. .,;.
\..J .. \.-w • v.r .. ) 4:-,
• l.lV- t ors- \ T
Words. 1. ahatl, asnerat, miyat, oulout or ala(; the units, tena,
hundreda and thousands. 2. 'J/s, 2/e (duals [§ 568]. 3. (ousoul sea-
sons, pl. of (asla se8son; a section, 8ubdivision of a book. 4.jesayir
islande, pl. of jezire (§ 64:6). 5. ameliyat proeesses (Arith). 6. ",ad' de
article (§ 644 b). 7. shoukour months (pl. of shlhr). 8. product
(mel. of housoul [§ 604J). 9. havass' sense, faculty. 10. khamseen
a period of 50 days, following the Erbayeen, ending at the Verna!
Equinox. 11. erbayeen the forty daye of midwinter, beginning
with the winter solstice, 21
st
December, and ending 30th January,
when the severest cold is experienced. 12. kesri asharee the
deeimal fractions. 13. ad festival (Pentecost). 14. individua)s.
890 ., 'J' Jl Le880D 56.
, t 1\ Exenfse 1".
_ 6, , 4: , 8\ e'! , • t_ ' it. , • '1., _ \
r) ... .J'..7" y-' u b-.) '-'
':"J!;) ':".li \;.;) fo.1. 8
Jy
)JI • i:.- ,rrJ'
...jMi';' ...:- T • .» )!.e.hl 41\..1 j
• ,-Ö.';")..1ÄJJ' e.)4..t'
.. ..... .... .
: J;) fo
.
, 9 ... , , ,
, JJ' JJ' :;J ' Jt JJ' :;) ,
.", .; , .
, • It , .. \ ,"'Co 11 • ,. •• ' '11'-." ••
l5 -);) 4a!) t. '-'J JJ J J
'15· • I· • ,J. .. .. , 14: .' '11 r
.);) ... 0
: J..I.-; 19.?b , • J' 17. , ...... ' 18
,., -
;).r. V • 11.,.r.
...
A -..sh;) J (.$1.
, ,
,.., ... ,., ,.
... ...
,:: .. <--".::.f
Words and Notes. 1. 'Initskirat intoxicating liquids. 2. dOUÜGtl
tobacco. 3. damgha stamp. 4. hareer ailk. 5. saya fiahing, hunting
11lahi fish; rOltSOum taxes. 6. tabeer al." to be callad; DouyoMflOtf
OU'I110utniyeyi Osmaneeye Idares" the of Ottoman
Public Debts; terk to leaye; ihall to refer (IV. of [I
7. '1nilkiye civil; askeriye military (§ 581). 8. tUrljae degreea (pl.
of derejA [§ 576]); nltbe a rank, grade in the Ottoman nobility.
9. sintf elass. 10. "ultemagiz privileged, superior (fayil of ,&tIJ-
?fUZ [§ 624]). 11. rfttbeyi bala the supreme civil grade in the
Ottolnan nobility. 12. vezaret the rank of avesir. 18. tar.'
Aubtraction. 14. zarb multiplication (if pron. darb it is 4:a blow').
15. sayf summer. 16. khazan autumn. 17. shita winter (I 591).
18. springo 19. tnesadi,,· infinitives (pl. of masdar [I 648]. 20. lBtJIIrt
fundamentally (§ 681). 21. Intijlr'red Rimple, primitive (mefoul of
22. mezeedoun fiyhi angmentati ve: mueed (H 605, 6'10) i
tU!lk,,: (il' preposition, hi pronoun ([§ 671 i] = angmented in itseIt).
Arabic Numerals. 891
COnTersaUon.
Congratulations .
\ ........ J .. J\J."
,nd Felieitations. -:T
heard with great pleasure
H. I. M. the Sultan has
ciated your services and
"red on you a decoration of
ird clasB of the Osmaniye.
e heard with the greatest
lat H. 1. the Sultan has
Dted yon l\Iinister Pleni-
tiary to LondoD.
I in the newspapers with
ne joy of YOUl" prornotion
degree of Mdtemayiz.
Lady.] My joy was very
on hearing that H. I. M.
lltan bad been pleased to
r on yon the Insignia
lird class of the Shefaqat.
e accept my congratulations
is honorific distinetion.
e accept my sineere con-
latjona.
not express my gratitude
le interest you feel in me.

.J
• .J.J-!J..1\
tS!ft\.1

U.1i)

.tS..u.J\
..
• · "";.J
•. Y .J- . .J4': .-
41;..;-- J.
• .JJl\..p- ;;\).1\
..

Ä\
r).. üL:..\
:w..\ J."i • .li..u.1\
• r..u.J\ üJ:""'.1

• ..:..Il d.')'}o
ü.J.:Y.
,.
· r.x.,; \ .J l J"';;

,.

392
I am ever so much obliged
for it.
I pereeive from this high token
of the Imperial favour that your
excellent quaJities are appre-
ciated everywhere.
I hasten to congratulate you on
the new dignity of w hich Your
Honour is the recipient.
[To an Anlbassador.] Sir, Our
August So\pereign, H. I, M. the
Sultan, desirous of affording you
some token of his appreciation
and his regard has been pleased
to eonfer on you the grand
cordon of His lmperial Order
of the l\Iejidiye.
Will your Excelleney therefore
please to accept my very sineere
congratulations on this to ken of
the lnlperial favour of whieh
you are the reeipient?
I ask you, Sir, to be kind enough
to present t.o B. I. M. my very
respeetful homage and to eonvey
to him the assuranee of my

J .. J ..... /'..
r.r.- r.:I'.
,
·
r.!' •
oll'
.• ,CI-· -L :'..LA\!..)\'

A.AJ."

• ..1ii .lJ.

.-
iJl!;
,-,La.\ .J u-.,
Arabic Nnmera)s. 898
profound gratitude, and to re-
present to him how greatly I feel
hononred by such a high dis-
tinetion and how mueh I am
sensible of his high munifleenee
and bounty.


..:JI) r:l"; ReadlDg Exerelse.
J Home (Fatherland).
,,:-4b. .... , \)'4"
, 0,) ' 4....
J
.i.4.'
J'
I 451 l: '. Aa 11', .:JL!
.. <.s'! ?.r. fJ; .JJ ..

. .J'.; 4.' 0.) 4-.).,.-' 4.'
j-:kJ • J..ll}" •• .r:-!- "-!'
45J:.f- !J' 'Jr
.. ,..
8
t
,. A' 1 l ....
• 1Il __ "
.0::::.;),:" 'Jr &kJ
.,. ,
• iS
J
",,!, .ck
J
1I11,!1\;. 21
p

Words ana Notes. 1. sense, mind. 2. mureb'ba square
(mef. of te,.-bi' [§ 615]). 3. fllu8el'lhl triangle (mefouI of teslels
[§ 6] 5]). 4. qaziye decision, truth. 5. to judge. 6. 1)ijdan con-
science. 7 . ."atan home, fatherland. 8. outside, other, non- (fayil
of khourouJ). 9. sth'hat truth. 10. itimad to believe (VIII. of
amd). 11. sheer-khor that Aueks milk, suckling (§ 585). 12. mayishet
(n. w. mim of aysh + gwh) a place \\' here to gain his 8ubsistenee
(§ 541). 13. kliJsM a nook, retreat; teragh leisure. 14. his'siyat
feelings (pl. of !liss). 15. meyl atreetion. 16. mevahib gift8 (pl. of
me.vhibe). 17. qoudret power; Providenee. 18. tenef'ffl,s to breathe
(V. of nefes). 19. ataya gifts, bounties (pl. of atiye [§ 646]).
20. p. t. revnaqli splendid, brilliant. 21. looking, glanee; Zlmhayi
iftitahda at the first glance. 22. khak soil; ground. 23. te-al'louq
et." to fasten, to attach (V. of alaqa § 622).
394 ., LesBon 56.
2& • • .tLt, .,
• o.)\A Jr
./ • ..c.....!; /' 4!i1j,' , Jr
.... ,
4s' ..:>-;..J>- .. .J.
. "
• t_ 81 '80.., '29.... 4S(j' ! • t_ • W,
4"r'J ) JJ.M
88, • • t_ e'. , St .. • L.,
Jr • J..1rw
J 86j,.,,<'"
· J..d:, J 4$).".L; 88

'Jr .:"WI
li 45.. ,.. 44 J .. 434-,j' 42 .... 41.. •• 40.) \ti,
J '.!.J. J J
-
\.:,.) 4,4.)\.J. J' • J-l!J.J' j.,o\> J\S(j' 1-
. .. "
• .;? ' ;;'J
4S.!t:f""6. :.,\IJI ,)Y':'Y .rl
J
4<".,j ')r
..li M .. .J, , 50.... 49 ..
eJ .. ., .r:-.1.
5', .. a 51ill 4L' t 5C.;' • .k .,. ,
..J. .. J 4 Jr I$'"
5S
i
Y'jA .A'.j;' 4Y.t. J
24. mad' de material (§ 582, 644). 25. jus a part, fragmente
26. p. glizeshU past (§ 555). 27. p. yad recollection; haSeetl sad (adj.
qual. hi'tzn [§ 606J). 28. tehaj'jur petrification, embodiment (V. of
hajh [§ 622J). 29. hur'riyet liberty (§ 581). 30. comfori, rest.
31. haqq right. 32. qayim existent (fayH of qtyam). SS. existeDce.
34. I.jdaa ancestors (pl. of jedd [§ S!J9]). 35. maqblrl a burial
place (N. of Loe. qabr [§ 598]). 36. sukun rest, eaImness. 87. fllCijl
result, effeet (§ 582). 38. jilvegrah a place or seat of beauty, life.
39. ishtirak participation (VIII. of shirklt). 40. t,t'tiAad union
(§ 628). 41. menfa-at interest (n. w. mim of ",af' [§ 597D. 42. kIBrit
abundance. 43. muvanese familiarity, friendship (III. of 4ttÄglt).
44. j-ihetiyile by means. 45. qarabet near re)ationship. 46. ou-
khouv' 'Det fraternity. 47. nilbet proportion. 48. hakimiyet sovereign-
ity (§ 582). 49. tasa,.'rouf disposal, possessjon (V. of BMf).
50. haqiqi real (§ 581). 51. ghalib conqueror (fayil of g1Kllew).
52. shemsheer sword. 53. 'llevhoum. inlaginary (mafonl of ea .. ).
!l4. khatt line. 55. 'Inil'liylt nationality (§ 581).
...... Arabic Compound Words. 895
l\
t ..
. , ". "' ... ' .. '
b- ..J '-oJJ>' ....
j.Db. yo
P yo J.b\
56. 8Mbab youth. 57. oul"', ·"'ge noble (§ 579 of 'oulo .. ,,).
58. 'Ütima union (VIll. of jim [t 627]).
oV Lesson 57.
Compound Words.
§ 693. There are many compound words in use
in Ottoman, composed of two Arabic words. They are
connected together either according to the Arabic or
the Persian systems of Izafet (§§ 51õ, 668). The
majority of such words are composed according to the
Persian system.
But there are some Arabic words which are in
frequent use in Ottoman in composition with other
words of Arabic origin. Their use will be best under-
stood from the following examples:
§ 694. I. Arabie System. JY""
1. <.S; *" (sing. genitive), J; ZO'U (nolnin.); <.SJ; .evi
(pl.) owner, possessor:
llJ..l zirouh animated.
W l sishan glorious.
• .i! l ziqiymet precious .
.lJ\.Jl soulyed possessed of a
• hand, bandede
""'"" • .6
J4J \ .Jl sool jelal posses8ed of glory, Lord of Glory (God).
'\j\ lS.Jl sevil erham p08seS8or8 oC relation, relatives
2. sahib possessor; pl. as-kab:
. .
..
Wa.)I\ "'" sahibul imza who 8igne, the undereigned .
..:.. ( :j \ ..:.. \ i :...,.. c.. sahWrlI khayrat dZ hasattat. The
- . /
p08sessor (or the author) of this good and charitable work.
3. la not, without:
896 ev l..esson 57.
1"'\'
la youh' sa innumerable.

r. la yhnout immortal.
. ,
la youkh'ti infallible. la budJ' inevitable.
c.:r la sh ey' nothing. J \ 'J la übali careleee.
§ 69õ. ll. Persian System. J,r'1
1. JJ 'l.,elee, veli owner; patron. pl. UJ' etJliya .
..
.lf' veliyi ahd the heir apparent, crown prinee.
J.J veli niymet, veliyun' niyam benefactor.
J.J veli niymeti bimin'net a benefactor who upraids not.
2. erbab (pl. of j·ebb) owner of, endowed
. . .
with, master:
erba'bi hik",et men of wisdom, philosophera.
fl erba'bt huner endowed v;ith skill, &rÜsans.
J\..r erba'bi mlraq lnen of curiosity, of hobbiea.
t.,Jl yo bou ishifl erba'bidir he is skilful in this.
3. sahib, pl. '-oJbc;' as-kah possessor, owner:
. .
l-:, sahi'bi servet a man of wealth,
as-ha'bi slrvet the rich class.
as-ha'bi nejabet the noble class, nobiHtiea.
sahi'bi fi,ra8h iIl in bed, sick.
4. ey' enl:a, pl. of tJ nev; kinds, varieties:
ef \ enva' yi nleshaq' qat all kinds of troubles.
5. J'" el,.l man, person, pl. J,\A' e/tali:
r>\-\ eh'li islam a Moslem. ,JP f eh'li irs hODorable.
eh'li beyt family. jA\ eh'li khUwI expert.
JA\ eh'li hiyet astronOlnere eh'li manttq logician.
eh'liyet capacity, capability, ability (§ 581).
t. eh'liyetli able, capable. eh'ligetN incapable.
Arabie Compound Words. 897
6. 4.J-> hUsn goodness, good: pl. mehasin.
A.,b. ü->' hUs' nu khtdmlt good, valuabla service.
Jl> ü->' hus' nu hal good conditioll; eharacter.
ü->' hUB' nu khatt' fine penmanahi p.
7. • r sou evil, bad (pl. mesavi [§ 649]):
.r hal bad behaviour, bad conditioD.
:,- sou' yi zatln a bad opinion, suspicion.
r sou'yi qasd attempt to murder.
J\c.-=-\ r sou'gi istimal bad usage, abuse.
8. ,-le adem non-existence, absence{used withnouns}:
adf'mi ita .. at disobedience.
ade'mi r;,-a-yet dishonour.
r..1c ade' mi qoudrlt ,,·eakness. l y:-.J adi' mi . wjoud
non-exlstence.
d-iga' rt adem abode of annihilation, death.
9. bi'la without (used with nouns [§ 530]):
.J""';' bi'la qousour blamelesB; spotless; perfect.
bi'la gkaraz ,,·ithout any intention, aimless; sineere.
10. ghay' ri non-, in-, un- (with adjectives):
ghay' rt mumkin impossihle.
r)... ghay'ri malum unknown.
Jo! ';/ gha y' rt layiq un worth y .
JtS ghay' ri krati ollaumeient.
r r nnlslim ve ghag'r, muslim Moslem and non-Moslem.
11. Ja kemal perfection; perfect:
d') kema'li di.q'qat perfect attention.
klma'li teshek'ku,· perfect gratitode.
898 .v U-.)l Lesson 57.
12. ftelll person, self:
. ",
'4--it.. bin'mfB, binef'Bihi peraonally.
. .,'"
t .• ",efs, BhihirtU in the very city.
t. tSJ,;!" klndi nlfsim uslrinl Oll my person.
13. ".y',,#, the very same:
.",
t.. ayniy'U, biay' nihi exactly the same .
. - "',.:...
ay'ni SOU1"et the exact copy; the very same way.
t. L.j ay' ni zln.anda at the salue time.
Readlng Exerclse.
JA' J
'w\1L JJJ'
,
• ., 6
0J
\(.:. 5 _ ).lJ .. '
.. J.,
, !l 9 J. 8
11. \ • , 10 • ,
• \.J JJ:> o::0.i .J.
, U;T 18).,\)1 JI:i) 41t1. UP!;
• wl.Y,.J lS"'4i \;.ll; JI J.hl
Words and Notes. Nekblt ou zil'leti ehli loulmet the overthrow
and abaseruent of tyrants. 1. abd slave; habhlh Abyaainian;
a negroo 2. dehr ,,·orld. 3. p. bakht fortune, destiny. (AlJnaioD il
Dlade to Nadir Shah, the eonqoeror of Tartary, Afghanistan and
India 1735-45.) 4. Da1l/hak name of a ceJebrated Arabian tyrant,
who conquered Persia and slew king J emshid. He is said to have
bad two sDukes living between his sboulders, whicb were fed
daily with the brains of two little children, Zohak (Astyagea?
Deioces?). 5. 'Inilk kingdom. 6. Kicive name of the blackami&h
of Ispahan, I(ava (Cepheus), who killed Zohak's tax-gatherer who
came to seize his ehildren, hoiated his own aproD 88 a
of revolt and malle Feridoun (Phraortee), a desceD-
dant of Jemshid, king, and delivered Peraia. 7. plriBhatl il." to
8catter or ruin. 8. iqbal, idbar prosperity, misfortnne. 9. bB
baghlamaq ·to trust. 10. dayire circle (§ 582). 11. dlfW 4,'" to
torn, re\yolve; eTtenberi devran fortone's wheel. 12. rilm wroD,i
the fayil of which is zalinz tyrallt. 13. giriftar al." to be 8nbjected
to. 14. akhir at last (fayil of akhlr).
Arabic Compound Words.
• S4: 4' ss v" y.- S2 ow\Ä,. .J.
! JJ\ /' ' J.h' !bJ .) /'
• ;j /' J)J\ ' 14fi;: /'
, 88 .. \:. ,,.......... tt, .. ,!,. ,
.
• 4i...Y.. .; !
39
4' A
899
(\!.L L.;, :..l:.,
• . .• J
: J; --'!" 1I.)l \l;
• CC
4
1\ i: 1 !l;1
15. ekse,. for ekslriya frequently (§ 683); jeza punishment.
16. jim kind, sort; amll crirne, sin, guilt (= tootb for tooth and
eye for eye). 17. ahen iron. 18. rakhne ruin, death; souhan a tile,
rasp. 19. tezkeer et." to remernber, remind. 20. Ian cursing.
21. Haj'jaj a celehrated tyrant, governor of Iraq. 22. Jengiz the
great cruel and conqueror of the 13
th
century. 23. tebjeel treating
viith great honourl 24. Nous'heenJafl, name of the greatest king of
the Sassani line of Persian sovereigns; Souleyman Solomon. 25. qabil,
mumkin. (fayil of imkian) possible. 26. elfaz words, terms. 27. tayh-
geer to change, verify (§ 615). 28. tlfreeq to distingujsh (§ 615).
29./if pron. kut,. means blasphemy; if kerr covering, atonement;
belief. 30. insha et." to build. Sl. deer a monastery; mesjid
a mosque. 32. naza,.i Haqq in God's sight (comp. Matt. VI., 45).
33. mijous fire-worshipper. 34. ile for 'Ve. 85. irdemek to moan,
to suffer. 36. mm' net a.fHiction; ghafnm sorrow. 87. p. pagan, a. akhl,
end, limit; s·item injury. 88. "lukUifat reward (III. of keyf [§ 706 b]);
husnu- (§ 695 6). 39. tbink about; Yousouf Joseph. 40. tkhvan
brothers. 41. Tarlahi liqad aserekel lahou aliyna Truly (By Godl),
God has appointed you ruler over us (these are the words which
the brothers of Joseph spoke - according to the Qoran - when
he made hinlself known to thern).
400 eA u-Jl Lesson 58. ... ..
Convenatlon.
J.
- .
! '.J\.,.,b. '!. l,!;.,\
r UJ-I - JVU....r r
I .Y ,\ ;.. I .Y
r! rJ'.J
:J I rri\ fo
d';/ -L . .4.i,.l1.J \ • . U,
.. 'r
U
..
• .J:"
A


r\.J
I
OlLJ\ J';
lSAb -
-r.l:i\ w.J:"""
JA.r; !
.!l.J!Y.

A visit.
. J-:.j\ f
'-7"" c.r! r.
($..fJ- .j.
iJ.J..J.\J
Jbt.:i\ .A\C

yo I r.J.:j\ ol
j;
oA Lesson 58.
4t;)\p Synonymous Words.
§ 696. In the Arabic and Persian languages it
is customary to use two and even three words of the
same meaning in the same sen-
tence to express one idea. This is considered one of the
beauties of the language. That was the esse with the
old Ottoman literature too, in which the Turks imitated
this characteristic of the said languages.
But through contact with European languages and
their literature, the new generation of writers has begun
gradually to forsake the old wearisome system and to
SynonYIJlQlUJ . Words.
adapt the. use of simple and single .words. Yet there
remain some instanees of the old system, which by
the sanction of centuries have been stereotyped; and
cODsolidated even in the common speech.
§ 697. The synonymous words are united together
by a J, which is generally pronounced v6,. nQt
veo The shorter of the two comes first.
. "
For instanee, the Turkish word
, r ....
isexpressed by t!.lil J J- iiIdam
, .
or '::"J'f.J say ou ghayret edelim: the words
, '::"J'f 'ii-liI all meaning <effort'; and the maaning
. of the sentences is (let us· try'. '
rf jmOOi Arlahitl ke.remou inayle
dukenmez the mercy of God does not come to an end.
;;. .loutfounowo" tlmm'ni 1'" terejJt
ederi1n I ask for your kindness.
, .
.J' \l\ t.>"':';'l w iy-fa eylldim' I paid.
debts is prononnced· vu, alter vowels).
The words _\ ;;. _, both mean eto. sek' and _\ !
_\ 'mean eto pay'. .'
N ote. QU, is appended to the last syllable of the previous ,vord,.
Examples.
-\ \:l .J med'hm,c 8ma'.et."" to praise.
-\ .J J....l.i,; taqdtt· ou tah' seen et." to praise and appreciate .
-\ .J J:i qatlou idam ,et.'" , to. kill.
-\ ..::.,;f .J akhzou girift it." r to arrest and seize.
o l t:r .J ...;:, ,hlUtr ou arnadl ready.
w.,:J .J r)c ouloum ou {unou,'n arts and sciences.
w\ij' .J ilmou trfan Beienee and art.'
-\ .J f arzou taqdtm et." to pre8ent,' to' offer.
Jl:i\ .J devlit ou iqbal prosperity and good fortune.
Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 26
.... ,
." .,,'
II. • Symphonlou Termln.tlOD8 •
• ,
§ 698. It was a great task in the ancient Ottoman
literature, in imitation of Arabic and Persian to accu·
mulate in a sentence words of the same termination; 88:
e.l:-J rlJ. rt(. ltt,jtJfA
oloun'ja when dinner(-time) was over.
fJlltMUe4
pGtliB1ltlAi the proaperou bbih-day of B. L K. the HoItaD.
C.JJ\ JJ- u-.;t ,. e,.A jülouou .,. ... -U-
tIOU8OU Nurai dTlouZ-ltJhi the aupicious BCCe8Iion of B. I. K.
cjL!; taUAa,,' "Aa"e 0 ...... the Ilorioua
Ottoman order (of knighthood).
"",,'
m. AntoDyml.
§ 699. There is another class of words whieh,
though are not synonymous and have oontrary
meanings, are yet connected together by J OU, t1G:
,
lJ..\ .J aiA.ou ila a taking and giving, buying ad MUiDl,
trade, businesl. Turkish al18A fJhV1a .
f..r'\rä\ aJy' y. bou fl010tHl oll i......,.
fJOII. OOur this road hu no beginning and DO end.
• Jl:-i\ iqbaZ ole iCJbtW .... fia in the ti ... e of
proeperity and misforinne.
JJ ,.;. J. Js' .j:- .;; cAojOfMllGr.;" oll WIi bir
Mey". give the children something more or 1 ...
,
\ J \:..\ liIaIbolG ..... oll tJfItUI IrU-
.'" I went to Conatantmople and came back.
Misal,'lh- Exam plea.
... ,.
..;. .J khay',ou 8hArr'
,
hayatou -emat
J t,- BOtIval "I jimb
j(" kGr f1I ,arar
,
-' li.. Be(a ml jlfa
m4ki7i(tJIou rnüjasal
good and .VIl.
Hfe and death.
queetioD and .."..
gain and 1088.
pleuure ad pain.
reward and panlahmeni.
8ynonymona Words.
408 .
,
• .J • \ "yf. ri Vtiyfa
VM OU ilttjar
payment and receipt of a debt.
leuing and hiriDg.
. ,
r-W .J tlBli". .UlUlu".
,
delivery and receipt.
.J v"\}\ iqrtU OU iltiqru
Jending and borrowing.
teachiDI and Jaaming.
. ,
.J ta-li. OtI u-ar ·lu".
, o. Bxerclle 160.
'''":''''" t,.:, J 1.,) , t:!.1..;.lü; : OP 1 J'-' Ir. W I \ 1.
4>J) .J! ",:,)JI J\!!) • fl
,. I lA t.6., .6 , , I .,....t
J;M J r.r.;4 J ", ... T •
) . I \.. •
.'! ,.. .. .. ...T...s:-... 'J*A
\('.1. rJ::!' ..:-s::::;.. '
J 4' ..,.L.-' to • Jj, -!I
• · 4' «\1."
le..:,,\..
•• O:J"; .ü."...,." t.1,. üUi.
,
18 J:rt .J. 0.) r o-lä ltj n.
,. ,
A,) . !f
, • c::!i !.l;,)'-J Jl:iIl.S)i.J'; • 16)",)4'
• ..clJ; e..\;.J!
Words MJd Notu. 1 •• a'doud reguded. 2. """ii dir he hu,
OWDS. S. mlrhou. deceased and admitted to God's mercy (mMoul
of rahmit); S. muthl('(a dead, asleep (mefoul of thlf" [§ 82SDi
S. haji Jerusalem pilgrim (fayil of "ajj' ta "ajij = hdj,); Kalja"
Haji BoghoB EffiMi. 4. papa the pope of Home. 5. id-digtJ,
id-OO-a to claim. 6. "iqad conviction (VTII. of aqd [§ 627]), mAtJfI
balief. 7. halili' for lwUiIU your aituation, distresa. 8. MS etmü
to state politely. 9. flamerd coward (§ SSO), ernel. 10. "hnan tiainee.
11. 'kerllskull, head. 12. kUlah' cap; mlrd a manly man. 18. ",ÜMeJ
dreadful (fayil of ihaU, IV. of J,.,.). 14. itta to extiDgnish (1619).
15. htjret et." to paas. 16. B4fla lower, lowest (fem. of .(11 [§ 610).
••
eA ",,)l 58.
45-V- jj V ·}.. .. ";-').1. r!I."
• IA...A.- 17 'L:_':' 17J . ·
.. ., .... , "
1 jt; (:). Jo.
• cld
l
I i.cil' ut Jt r
· i • A..,..I J \. • J
17. seyr ou seyahat journey; 17. prens dt G al the PriDee of
Wales. 18. es-sey'yid a descendant from'Mfihammed, 1UJji
pilgrim to Mecca. 19. baqi everlasting (lagil of 'haqa), oo,..
permanent (fayil of aevam).
, 0' lõI.
I. 1. The speaker
f
began I his speech,' by saying,
cHonourable hearers.',s 2. Where is the residenee of the
undersigned? 3. The word c,who' is used for those
who have sense', and c",hieh' for things which have no
4. My unele is wealthy: his property is
(innumerable). 5. Kojaman oghlou is a skilful (capable)
artisan, he is a thorough of his business: but
Bichaqji oghlou is an man, his family is always
in poverty 5. 6. Scientists and artisbJ 'have done great
services to humanit
y
6. ' . '
II. 7. The teaeher of penmanship in the College
is Haji Nahid Effendi. 8. The pupjls who have been
disohedient", the teaeher disgraees 8 them. 9., There
was a great multitude 9: the Moslem and the non-Moslem
inhabitants of the city, with their families, were all
present there. 10. I have not the habit of lendiDg
and borrowing. 11. The leasing and the hiring of this
house are finished 10. 12. The question 11 education 11
is a question of life and death for a 13. The
payment and the of your debt ·are impOssible
DOW. 14. Ali-Mouzaffer Effendi was appointed gnardian
(patron) to this orphan.
. Words and Notes. 1. natiq (layil of f,UJ'Utq 2. 'OMtltJ,
et." 3. hous' san sevil vaqar hazaralt: huz' zar pl. of haslr, .ftJiJ
(§ 694 1); hazarat p1. of hazret. 4. ze'D'il ouqOuZ:, Ot&qoul, pl.
of aql sense (§ 694 1). 5. faqr ou zarouret. 6. inBtJftiylt (§
7.' ademi ita-atda boulaunan. 8. ademi ri-ayetde, bcniloutlO:ur. 9., il-
diham (§ 620). 10. khitam boulmaq. 11. meseU (n. w. mn. of IOIIIHII).
12. talimou terbiye.
,. ..
Synonymous Words.
ReadlDg herelse.
XJS;
. . ..
fJt-
· I.)\!, ))J' 4.:};. fJ I.,\!,t
, ! 4cl.l.!T
'<.SjLt \..J IyJ
.,
'8
e
,,1_ •• ·a 6.· .a1q
u . ,DS# .. 'r'
.).) 9 ... J. • , •
.JV.."-'..J
, nr-=.; 4l:SI;
11!t?
•• , 14 \.Jt 18.1_'
'. 4A) .,. .J' J J:.J:.J
· t.!!1 ' 17!l4.w)JJ 16jJ.))j
.. "
,
" 2S"" I. 22.:" :, 11 "';:::::' 10.. A
OJ .. JV
,
Words and Notes. Terkibi-bena a poem in stanzas of simiJar
metre hut of different rbyme; the distiehes of each stanza rhyme,
excepting the last distich (pp. 302, 396). 1. tef'tk'kul to trust (in God)
[V. ofvekil]; yaver helper; Haqq The True One, God. 2. shad happy;
nashad unhappy (§ 530). 3. (Ilek arevolving sphere of the heavens;
fortune, destiny. 4. meshreb natural disposition; Msaz discordant,
ineorreet. 5. dlJJnek ineoDsistent, changea blc (§ 489). 6. 'rake
refuge! Trust to God! (= May God keep you). 7. halim mild,
gentle (adj. q. of hilm [§ 606]). 8. ghazab angere 9. youmshaq
khouylou mild-natured; chifte a kick with hoth hind feet at onee.
10. pek, perk violent, severe. 11. gracefuI smile: nezaket (pseudo-
Arabie from p. nazik) graee; tebes' sum smile (§ 622). 12. p. shter
a Hon; qasd et" to intend to kill. 13. bed-asil whose family or
origin is vile, bad; mean, nasty. 14. nejabet nobility. 15. unitorma
uniform [It.]. 16. zerdouz gold-Iaced (§ 535). 17. to saddIe: palan
a pad substituted for a saddIe in the East; it resemhles a Jarge
cushion. 18. bed-maye vile-natured (§ 536). 19. pleasure party,
society: mey, wine. 20. ishret drinking, wine. 21. giher disposition.
22. tem' yeez et." to distinguish. 23. mehekk', vll1g. 'inehing a tOllehatone,
test (n. i. of hekk [§ 599J).
'16 L. .._, J 4L'"
J!. .. ..
e);)
, WT :
. . ., .... ..
· ."'}i J
, 8S .. Sl ..
...r.1 ... J:. '-'J! .J.
! S5 \A... I -;."' ;:;
.. , Lr... ..
I )1 JJI 38)\ I J.JI 37\.,..
.. \, .. " , 40. ..& ... , , • 89 !J
·----! ,)
, 4S , .. )f 41 J , t 41 "' 6 .l!) l.
JY J • ).JI J • "'
I r'J.) 44JA'
t J;1 \.1. I J=- 4.5
• -.::.!' 47,\:;..
24. nous-n', nousouh' advice; yola gez",ek to come right.
25. to punish (§ 615). 26. haqq' right, claim. 27. k6Jta beating,
cudgelling. 28. belief and religion. 29. erbab' glllna the rich people
(§ 695 2). 30. namous a sense of honour, decorum; nameeglt bonesty.
Sl. naghme 8ong, a melody 8ung. 32. taqdeer et." to appreciate.
83. p. gUsh ear. 84. tazyee to Waiste [II. of .ray']; ,.erls the breatb.
85. tebtieel et." to change; maqam a tuna. 36. awet, 11"'11' woman.
37. magnloub ol." to be defeated; ne'Va any unreasonable biu. 88. 18
brave man CArmenian). S9. nefs the carnaI man, the apirit of
conscupiscence. 40. ram et." to submit. 41. mtmM'di like
a tree. 42. nabit 01." to grow, to vegetate. 48. 8a,," 01.' to be
firm. 44. ehI a capable man (§ 695 6). 45. fIOq8tJt1 deleianey.
46. work. 47. pezira' yi khitam et." to bring to an end •
.u Conversatton.
A Visit on Ship-board.
I .!JJ yo yo I CJ rl -' \ l;..o I CJ rl J I c:.l:--
I r.,;i\ ? C,):J.j
r r..1:.i\ J,) JJ---:- W.f':- w\,)"; ?
! r.J.:.i\ j,) .,ä-\' ? J.)4i !1fi·.Ä-
Euphonic ChaDgee of the Letten.
-!..u,..1....!. j • -'.J\ /'.-
_ Jo \,!._ _
· j» J! l:=-- \
· .kL )\.,a
-j» J.
y. w'J.J\
4 Jr
f r..L:.i\
.... ,
. f\
· .;»
s;\ ,§J' jy JJ\ Jft ·ftJ\.-

.lf..:5""'t. ?
" ...; .:.U,;: w'J •• .i..,
..tI • U ..tI. J'

? J..i
Jt.).. u=rr I
·

.J'J
.7 .'


· r))"\
I
o \ Lesson 59.
Euphonic Changes of the LeHers.
A. Assimllation or Idgham.
§ 700. Idgham is (the imposition of one letter
on another, or) the assimilation of one letter to another.
This oecurs when two lettere of the same kind have
come together. The imposition (or assimilation) always
takes place on the second letter, provided that the first
., v-Jl "I.les80D· 59.
is <imescen.t (§ 42).' The assimilation is denoted. by a-
skedde (W) over the second letter; ,quiescent letter
is marked by a jeema. r) [§ 45].'
§ 701. There are four eases in' which Idgla.
oecurs:
a. II the First of the double Homogenoous Letters
is quiescent, it is removed or imposed upon the seCond,
and the latter is doubled or marked with a shetltU; as:
. .....
-.:...l1. muIet: the first lam is quiescent: therefore it is omitted
....
and imposed on the second lam: and this imposition is indicated
by: a sMdde, which show8 that the second lam is doubled thus:
.
... :..,l. mil'let .
....
hid/det t:anger': is written 8S 'Aw,'(Ut."
.... '" .
da'Vet, afv: the Obj. Part. of the meaaore J."a.
•• '0 •• ,.
is medouv, mafo'Uv; the first letter .J ia quieacent,
... ,. . '" ........
therefore imposed on the second.J; as: , ,jÄ.a. metJotw, flUJfOtlllJ.
There is no ehange in the pronuneiation in either
instanees.
b. If the First of the double Homogenoous Letters
is punctuated by a vowel, the vowel is east back upon
the preceding letter and the letter itself imposed upon
the second:
ikhlal to spoii: the remainder is (16M al: the
., . . ,
Subjeetive Participle is the first of the double letters hu
a vowel, the vowel is east baek upon the preceding letter: heDce
moukh' -UI, becomes moukhill' j after the assimilation
... ... , ,.
mou-khill' .
-- shedid severe: the Noun ofSuperiority aecordinl
. , .' . .'
to the measure Jjj \ (§ 609) is lJ-!,\ esh'-tUd: R8IIlove the vowel
.. ....,. .. .,..
to the preeeding: it is l..l! \ eshedd, after the assimilation .1!.'
e-skldel t:severest'.
c. If the Preceding Letter already has a ToweI,
or if it is an eltf, the vowel of the first letter cannot
be carried back to the preceding; therefore the vowel
of the first letter is omitted: and the letter itself is
placed over the second of the double homogeneou8
letters:
Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 409'
,)\..1.:".)\ irtidad apostasy (VIII of 'Vll
J
[§ 627]: the remainder
. ,.,
is ,);.j.) (§ 634 a): the Subj. Part. is. mune'-ditl: the first of
the double letters ,) has a vowel: that vowel cannot be brought

back to the preceding because it allready has a vowel: there-
.. ,. ,
lore the vowel of the first is omitted: as murl/ltd, and
the letter itself imposed u pon or &ssimiiated with the second
.., ". ,
,): as mUT-ted,d,' (vulg. mourtad, mirtad) apostate.
Note. In such cases the Objective Participle is the same with
.,.,.,. .. "., ..".,
Subj. Part. as: murteded = ,)J.,j.,..,. = J.J..r fIIurteddj but
the Obj. Part. of the measures Infiqal and Iftiqal is not used .
murour to pass: V J:;': according to the measure j.;u
. , , .
the Subj. Part. is .).)L. ma' -rir: the first of the double homogeneous
letters (.)) has a ;owel; but that vowel cannot be transported
to the preceding letter, because it is elif: thererore the vowel of the
first re is omitted as man-: and the letter iteelf &Ssimilated' .
with the second re .): as jC marr'.
d. If two e'lifs have come together, the first elif is
assimilated witll the second: but the second elif, instead
of taking a shedde, has 8 medda placed over it (§§ 29 d,
39, 47, 603):
J\ Imr order: the 8ubj. Part. of the measure J!,li is
e-amir: the first elif is omitted and the second hss medda; thu8
.:J a-mir commander. ityan to follow: ""Ji: J!,\,i:
.. ,-
e-aeti = J \ a-ti following .
...
Note. 1. All double homogeneous letters are not suhject to
assimilation, there are exceptions; as: ,),J... meiUd help, Jb- khaUl
injury, zarar loss, sebeb reason, iktitab copying.
M •• •
2. !he Subj. Part. of hajj epilgrimage) is = E.c:.\:...
hajj = (.b... hajj or haji pilgrim [to Mecca (8ftnni lIoslems),
Jerusalem (Christians), Kerbela (Persians) and Haji Hektash near
Kir-shehir CQtzUbashes)].
, 0 Exerelse 162,
Change the following wor.ds into the prescribed
forrns, first without idgham and afterwards with idgham:
Into the Subjective Participle (Fayil§§ 601-3, 634 d) :
., v-.J;) LeIaon 69.
...,.
' 'I 't, & '.il' I.i!,.' '
, , "V- r.,.,
.)1).,...' 'Sr\;.f' , 10 rJ '
. .,. .,
Into the Noun of Location (JiU):
11 , .. , llJi 1: '11 ",
J.I •

Into the Noun of Superiority (:ftii § 609):
.. 0;. '1'''' , l' ., , , 16· .' , 1'1:. l' 'J'. '
,." .J:. ..u..u •
, \ .. .. JI .. •
. ...., . .,
Into the N oon with Mim (..:.lu..):
IS I 'lS" " 19·" .' • 10 ' , , d· 'Jr _L'
:) , ..J JJ .r .) ·
.... . .,
Words. 1. confusion (spoiIt). 2. to implore belp (who asb
help). S. to eat. 4. eas e, especiality (especial). 5. additiOD (added) .
. 6. to take. 7. persistenee (persistent). 8. compIetenese. 9. a ba-
coming red (intensely red). 10. common (general, public). 11. to
abide, stay (an abode, place). 12. to pass (a passage, path). 18. to
8cratch (a touch stone). 14. compIete; true. 15. faw. 16. belovecl.
17. delicious. 18. love (love). 19. loss (loss). 20. joy (j oy).
B. Bodillcation of Letters. Eelal.
§ 702. The letters 4.s J I are called cweak' or
cfeehle' letters (hourou,fou illet), and all the others are
called (sound' letters (houroufou sahike) by the Arabs.
The weak letters cannot bear any burden or Cmotion'
(vowel), as the sound letters can; they cannot have any
vowel, they must be quiescent (§ 42). If in the formation
of words they should ba in a position in which a vowel
would naturally be placed on them, were they csound'
letters, this vowel is removed or modified.
§ 703. The general prineipal of modification or
pernlutation of the weak letters is as follows:
When a vowel and a weak letter I) which
is not analogous to it come together in a word, the
ordinary laws of euphony require that one ehould yield;
and in Arabic the vowel prevails.
Note. EUr is analogoua to ustun, ye to eBf'e and WlU to
eotre (§ 27).
... , ,
Eophonic Changea of the Lettars •
§ 704. The weak letters J and 4.s require especial
consideration: the changes of , are not important.
§ 705. Jlodifltatton of tHI" J'J
8. If vav has a vowel and the preceding letter is
quiescent, its vowel is transported to the preceding
letter; 8S:
iJ:"; , J) , J Ba11ft, qa"Z, kha,,( J;J , the
, . ., , . ., ,...... , .....
Obj. Part. by the measure J.,...u-. (§ 604:): J.J.J-=':',A
, ....
mas'-voun, maq-voul, makh,'vou,f: modified ma-,ou-o"" etc.
,. ,..... , ,
after the assimilation , J m(l-80Un, maqouJ,
makhouf Ckept, spoken, terrible'.
b. If the letter preceding vav has esre as its vowel
(J-:;-) vav is changed into 4.s (4-); 8S:
'The word. Root. Measore.
Natural Modified
form 1. form.
., ,
.... "'.,

{
:r,:)

.. dou'o,
.rl
....
da-yiv da-yi
,.
*".
.
". ....... tII'
Jfä:t..
{

• , ...)\.A
vezn
uJ.J
U ......
,
miv-san miy .. san
" A· d
.,'" .,
J lii,
{

.) t,.;:. \
VUJOU

. .... ......
....
iv-jad iy-jad
. .,
,
.,. ",
(§ 620)
.... " .,
Subj. Part. I
J.J.J-..A .;,..1.A
'J\l\
l
*"
,
....
fIIud-vir
mu-d"" .
c. If the letter preceding vav have astun as its

vowel, the vav is changed into e'lif (-a-):
I
. .,., .... ,
·
saf'vet
....... ': '
U;\.L. { .:..-,",

mUBa-fe·vet mwafat
· ., .... c.:
,c.:

",
{ ':".JJ

ad(1)et

»
mou-a-devet mou-a-dat
1 The fornls iu this eolumn do not actually oecnr, but are
given to show how the rule works.
4:12·
The word.
• risa
".
J.) qavZ
., v-Jl Lesson 59.
Root. Measore.
I
"" ".. "" I • """".".

: J:;J i Jr.:
I I
I
""".". i
; J.J:l I »
NatoraI'
form.
ModUled
form.
. f
d. Vav after servile eUr is changed irito
(§§ 591, 602a): ..
• ". I ".".".
J.J :l devr
i{
da-fJir
. '
YJ laghv
. Jri;,
".
"'"
J lii
{
.J
il-gh;fJ
I, { .J
dou-av
I {
ri-sa'l'
"
.Jh ou-lou,'v
d

is-ti-lav
I
i
, 0 \'" Exereise lÕs.
. ,
J.\l
da-Jlir
• {il\
.-
il-gM
.
dou-a
• C;,J

risti
.:>\.:.-\
is-ti-la.
Change the following nouns into the forme mentioned
below: first into the natural and afterwarda into the
modified forms:
Subjeetive Participle (§§ 602- 603):
lr('; ,sJj' sJ.!- '6
r
}'
Noun with Mi'ln (fo;):
r}'
Words. 1. to continue. 2. \yord, agreement (consenting).
3. emptiness. 4. lasting. 5. eminence. 6. sleep. 7. coneent.
8. fear. 9. taste (taste). 10. permission (figurative language).
11. death (death).
Euphonic Changes of the Lettera •
. Derivative Iilfinitive [§ 621]).
. .
.. , '.
1 J ", 11J " '14: '" 15 : '" .. ', '
:lJ)J (t"'J U'J
Deriv. Inf. (J\U:....\ [§ 631]): 16;';" '
:12. arrival (to bring forward, to eite). 18. amval send).
14. (to invent). 15. clearnees (to explain). ,16. to-ex-
CUBe, pardon (to resign). 17. loyalty (to receive). 18. (to ask an
explanation ) .
. § 706. Iodillcation of ye
..
a. If ye would properly and regularly have a vowel
and if the preceding' letter' be quiescent, the vowel is
transfered to the preceding letter:
The word. Root. Measure.
Natural
form .
Modified
form.
.:;L segelan I J ,i';: ,{ J:-: ;
- . I v-:-- - i mii-Yil me-sil
I i ." e."."" ."
. ." I' ,," · " .. ' I { tol .....
seyr 1 i a.! • • ...r:::;--
I. . ! . I i
b. If the letter. preceding ye have· ustün for its
vowel, the ye is changed into elif:
I
,
. . • "" "'"
" ,''' .... .-;. ".' J l:.. li l:..

"

neli . I . li... • . . .
u> lmu-na-fe-yet' mu-ftOrfat
. "" " "" ,,'
. ",. ,,' {\
ri-ayet I ""J. 'j Uiu... .. y
. mura-' e-yet lIul-ra-a.t
::., J j ziyaret ';':; Ji ei: {' j:: .) (;::
, mez-yer me-ZlM
, .. / e."e ays'" . " . "" J'; ei: J. c.:
t::.:' ma-ash
• ". " " "., .,,, • " { •• :" e, :. "".":-- .
\ • 'A heybet ,. 'i i· I 'f ., 'f"
• - . • .. I meh-ye-bJt . me .. ha-blt •.
c. If ye is quiescent. and the preceding letter has
rotre as its vowel, the ye is changed into vav: ;
I e 'I }
ijaa, . Sobj.Part. -
. mou-jia
ijab (§ 621)
· '.. .. I
d. After the servile elit, re is usually cbanged into
Aemle (§§ 091, 602 a):
The word. Root.
Measor& I
Natural
I
MocIl8ed
form. form.
· '(.;
,. ,,.
I

{
,--,u

· "'yaW,

• JI' . ,
...... . .
... ib tICI-i6
I
• •
., ,
, , ,.
J(ij,
I{
cS\:U,
.\:a..,
Wdiye c,S.J.A .".
,
i ,.
I
,
i1UJtJJI
iWe.
\ 0 t herelle 1"-
Change the following words into the
mentioned below: first into their natural and afterwards
into their modified forma:
Subjective Participle [§§ 602":""'603]:
, .
• '_I ' 1· .. ,. &,. , I·" ('. , I • ". I' ,. I I A I' ,
UU; J 0.)\1 J U.A.J U j\- ....., •
.. .. -, .. .. .".
, .. ,' , ... ,' , ., ' '.J'I

Deriv. Inf. (J\Ail): I 8::.f\i('
Derivative Infinitive (J\dl):
• , •• '\At' 10· .. , 11 .. ', 11. " ., , 11.' • r'
'-st . J U .. t..J.r-!..
Noun with mim {JU-.}:
1'·. ,., 16·,1 ,. ( • '11· (.1
· 4J J J.J' •
., ..... " ".,.'"
Derivative Infinitive (4.l;lU = § 618):
18::';'- '19 ,eet , 10.. " 11 .:', II , "" '18\ .:, II •• t. '
.. · r. · J.) Te ;J ..,...
Words. 1. visit (visitor). 2. much (redundant, nper8aoal).
S. to obtain (worthy). 4. to leave a remnant, to look (otb_,
remainder). 5. to eauae: to leave a legacy (who leavM =
to one as heir; that caosas). 6. dres8, costume (to weu. pnDaal
7. end (to come to aD end). 8. to be enough (to 801&08). 9. com-
plaint (to complain). 10. softneas (to loosen). 11. driDkiDl (to
drink). 12. to act, happen (to perform) IS. (to wear). 1'. abaD-
danee. 15. much (aDction). 16. horror. 17. light (Ught-bOUl8).
18. respect, esteem. 19. meeting, encounter. 20. delJaht
21. whispering (supplication). 22. medieine (treatment). ta. pleuare
(to vaunt). 24:. discord. 25. pleaaure (reward).
Euphonic Changes of the Lettel1l.
415
..:.Sl) BeadIJaC herelse.
le Ceremony of the th J JI}
,natfon of the King _
of England. ;:
on: Aug. 9., 1902. - The
lony of the Coron,tioD look
at 12.40 in Westminster
V, the interior of which was
didly deoorated.
wd of incaleulable numbers
athered all along the route
Royal Couple [the King
le Queen] from Buckingham
8 to the eathOOral, making
siastic ovations. The King
.red to be in excellent
1.
p. m. their Majeeties (after
g received the homage of
rehbischop of Canterbury,
'rinee of WaleB, the Duke
)rfolk, and the represen-
B of the NobiIity) retumed
(.; ........ ) - v- \ : I,JJ:.)
cJ.$.\
• \ l?-\ 1 I
:, I • .,U\ JJ '
,

( Jt}

6 u!i)l,..,J. I.,.)J.J!
·
Jt,.. \
·
Word, and Notu. Ingiltlrra Qr'all htUrMllritaill ru.i ,aIe"·
i. 1. ,.Ism pl. meraBim (I 649) ceremony. 2. fhJqB-'atU utra-
Lrily (§ 671 b). 3. mwlaa',Aa' ,ourittU splendidly (1458): ..a-
l mere of sha-sha-a (I 685). 4. MltJr", pl. of IwurM (H 497,
5. jhn'mi ghafur a great mulütode. 6. aAtH.al, .0.',"1/1:
pl. of hal, rih-hi-ye Banitary: of tJh-IuK (_ 579).
h pisqopo'. 8. iU for fJe (I 470). 9. Pnn. dt Gu. I ell
lk. 10. ladlgUm (pl. of ladI) noblea _lA t
ylt 888embly, mebotu of ba',) d,
to Buckingham Palace, where
they appeared on the balcony
and were loadIy cheered by the
throng outside.
We are assured that the
experienced no fatigoe from
(during) the ceremonyand looked
weIl throughout it.
The illuminations in the evening
were n:-agnificent; a vast crowd
thronged the streets and lilled
the air with tbeir shouts of joy.
, (The Constantinople Agency.)
London: the same (day) - Coro-
nation day was favoured with
splendid weather; the 'city W88
richly beflagged and a vast cro'wd
fill ed th e 8 treets.
The in the Abbey, of
which the duration was an hour
and a quarter, magnificent.
The King showed no signe of
,fatigue.
.... ,
... \ \ J\ .i
... .J-' r-' .J'-' '..F
J.
• li lr. r.r
c.i!..1l.J\
,.
r--J - e.).J:.)
aa. ($.11\ 'aa • ..l:i r'
'"Jt"'" _ .. '"
• .,J.;J.,.. J.
($)iti.".... .olU, Jj rb:.)j\ J-

12. te-e-min et.": to assure (2 of emn [§ 615]. 18.' wr u.al
perfect (§ 557 e). 14. nasiye looking, face (§ 582). 15 •• 'ouIt.ItIttItI
magnificent (mef. of tantana [§ 458]). 16. tl-'ab ou mlB1wMJ.tjtM
fatigue and suffering; hiss et.": to feel. 17. ayitl ceremony.
Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 417
processian (of the Coro- . .... r-
J
rl) ,vas gorgeoU8. All the <.S)iJJ.J\ u-!)I
-
: and Peeresses were in s"'!'!'J. \
attire and produced a grand \ .).JJ • <.s .)Jr.!J...J
· (and among them ,,"ere) (.J.r. .... ) J (J\,j.)
Kitchener, General Sir )l;.J\'
,elee,andAdmiraISeymaur. );y S:\.J
lotels were decorated, and 0l:.l.J\
. \. _ 20· \ -
rdinary prices were main- • .J.l.I.J.)
L The terlns for places .. <.Sj; J\,}
'vere very mode- • .JJ.:-!' <.S)";'tt'
The enthushtsUl ,vas great. • .JJ..!.u.y. t.:!.J J.
Ed"'ard, although very
ooks yery \velJ. No accident
reu. (The National.A.gency.)
18. alay procession. 19. stra bench, platform. 20. doun
noderate. 21. hadise (fayil of houdous [§ 582J).
in Westminster ool .. :"-.J) - : oJ,J.;.)
y and the procession lasted <'s.J.J./
UT. The weather is lllagni- · le. • r\.J.)
, After the ceremony the J\,}
and Queen returned to ..:.!\....,-
ngham Palaee. • J.)J.!..:! \
(ing, who looks thinner, .. j .. :-;.
....
'es that the cerelnony -';.JY,....l'. <.sp J\J;
i him no fatigue. ..J,)J.!..:!\ <.9-!f J ...
(Fournier.) (
rkish Conv.-Grammar. 27
418 ,. '-' Jl Lesson 60. .... A
,. Lesson 60.
Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases.
Elden geleni yap.
Skintdi geli,-.
Iii,'; f/1:inde air.
Bm oltllasanlt boglloulajaq idi.
As qaldt beni uir geozden
edi-yoroudou.
o qada·,-i el tOerir.
Baua el ver'lnez.
Bana el etdi.
Ona geoz etdie
Aqli bash:i'na geldi.
Bashi dara gibi. }
Bashi tasha gelir gelJnez.
Onou b1·'I· sltey yer1'np
PeI" cltapouq alilllyo'l·.
YUZ1tn11 al;;1Ilish.
Aqli'Jna .qeldi.
Aqllna braq.
Dcd'iklcritni {ikrifidf: tout.
Depetaqla getd?·.
Eodlltn lJatladt. .
Ustliftil bash·lut dillislulir.
SfOZ1tnll acll1naq.
lle qadar vaqit Sllre,-?
Bou hich uil" sheyc yararnaz.
(}eozd {Jljl gech'l·'·.
Eli1ne oeõyle bir kitab geclt-
diyi yoghoudou.
Yenzeye grliI" a1n1na saqla-
'Inaya lJfl'lnez.
qirnliziya chalar.
S1Jitni rki qatla.
qat d-ir.
Do as mueh as you can.
He will be hera presently.
Üllee in two days.
But for my help he would
have been drowned.
He came very near causing
me the loss of an eye.
That was sufficient.
I cannot afford it.
He beekoned me.
He ,vinked at him.
He came to his senses.
When he got into trouble.
He regards that as of no
aeeount.
He is easily touched.
He is out of humour.
It oeeurred to me.
Remilld him of it.
Remenlber what I say.
It went down head foremost.
It alarnls me exce8sively.
Change your elothes.
'1'0 eommence conversation.
How long will it tak,? .
This is good for notning.
Cast your eye over it.
Sueh a book I had never
seen.
It is good to eat, but will
not do to keep.
Its skin is reddish.
Double the string.
Their house is two stories
high.
They had given a token ..
MiscelIaneous Idiomatic Phrases. 419
Ja bir qab gechir.
n oraya, ordan oraya
olajaq beoyle?
tq asma.
t yerine fjodou.
atdi.

t uste varrnayor.
)uzoun (eyri) dour.
bende 0 youm.
var ada'ln da vare
alt ust etdi.
; yaziq dir?
, yaziq deyil mi?
i kes!
lchiq bir adem dir.
de' mi bashdan chiqara-
sin?
i
geldi. N azara geldi.l
deydi. Nazar deydi.J·
dash adam kesilmish.

guju'inden oldoum.
basitina tOlJla,.
( mi ch1,qiyoroudou?
ouzoun dour.
ise oldou.
sorma!
Put a cover on the book.
WI1Y move it about from
place to place?
Don't care.
He has hit the nail on the
head.
Re has become bankrupt.
I cannot bear to speak (on
so painful a subject).
He is thievish.
I have equal claims with
you.
'rhere are more sorts of
men than one.
He has put us all to con-
fusion.
I am to be pitied. .
Am I not to be pitied?
Be quietl
He is a liberal man.
Will you lead me a180
astray?
He has lost me all my pro-
perty.
He has heen affected by an
evil eye. Reis bewitched.
The hill is full of people.
He was the cause of his
death.
I was hindered in my work.
COllle to your senses.
Were you dying, that you
were in such a hurry?
He talks much.
Forget the past.
I cannot teIl (how badly
matters are going).
27*
420
... r·
Appendices.
The Ottoman
In all litarary matters the Ottoman Turks have
ShO\Vll thernselves a singularly uninventiva people: the
two great sebools, the old and the new, into whicb we
11lSY divide their literature, bei ng elosely modelled, the
one upon the elassics of Persia, the other on those of
Modern Europe, and more especially of France. The
old or Persian school flourished froln the foundation of the
EUlpire down to about 1830, and stiIl continues to drag
on a feeble existence, though it is now out of fsshion
and cultivated by nona of the leading men of lettera.
Tbese belong to the new or European sehooJ, which
sprang up SOlne fifty or sixty years ago, and which, in
spite of the bitter opposition of the partisans of the old
Oriental system, has succeeded, partly through its own
inhel'ent superiority and partly through the talents and
cournge of its in expelling its rival from the
position of undisputed authority which it bad occupied
for up"Tards of tive llundred years. For the present
purpose it will be convenient to divide tha old sehool into
three periods, which may be ternled respectively the
pre-elasf4ieal, the eIsssjcal, and the post-classical. Of
these the first extends frolD the early days of the empire to
the aceession of Suleyn1811 l., 1301-1õ20 (A.H.700-926);
tl1e second from that event to the accession of MahmoudI.,
1520-1730 (926-1143); and the third from that date
to the accession of Abd-ul-Aziz, 1730-1861 (1143-1277).
rrhe \vorks of the old sellool in all its perioda are
entirely Persiall in tone, and form. We find
in the'r'u the sume beauties and the same defeets that
,,"e ohRerve in the productiollS of the Iranian authors.
The formaI elegance and conventional graca, alike of
thougllt and of expression, so characteristie of Persian
elasRicalliterature, pervade the of the best Ottoman
The Ottoman Literature. 421
writers, and they are likewise imbued, though in a less
degree, with that spirit of mysticism whieh. runs through
so much of the poetry of Iran. But the Ottomans
did not stop here. In their romaDtic poems they chose
as subjects the favorite thernes of their Persian masters,
such as Leyla and Mejnoun, Ferhad and Shirin,
Youssouf and Zuleykha, and so on. They constantly
alluded to Persian heroes whose stories oeeur in the
Shah-N arne and other storehouses of IraniaD legendary
lore; and they wrote their poems in Persian metres and
in Persian forms.
1
The mesnevi, the qaside, and
the ghazel, - all of them, so far at least as the
Ottomans are concerned, Persian, - were the favorite
verse-forrns of the old poets. A mesnevi is a poem
written in rhyming couplets, and is usually narrative
in subject. The qaside and the ghazel are both
monorbythn)ic; the first as a rule celebrates the praises
of some great man, while the second discourses of the
joys and woes of love. Why Persian rather than Arabian
or any otber literature beeame the model of Ottoman
writers, is explained by the early history of the race.
Some two centuries before the arrival of the Turks in
Asia Minor, the Seljouks, then a mere horde of savages,
bad overrun Persia, where they settled and adopted the
civilization of the people they had subdued. Thus
Persian became the language of their court and Govern-
ment, and when by and by they pushed their conquests
into Asia Minor, and founded there the Seljouk empire
of Roum, they carried with them their Persian
and diffused it among the peoples newly brougbt under
their swav. It was the descendants of those Persianized
Seljauks the early Ottomalls found ruling in Asia
Minor on tbeir arrival there. What had happened to
the Seljouks two centuries before, happened to the
Ottomans then: the less civilized raee adopted the
culture of tbe more civilized. As the Seljouk empire
fell to pieces and tbe Ottoman came gradually to occupY
its place, the sons of men who had called thernselveB
Seljouks began thenceforth to look upon thernselves as
Ottomans. Hence the vast majorit,y of the people whom
1 See the Reading Exercises in pages 259, 306- 307.
422 A ppendices.
... " '
we are aeellstomed to think of as Ottomane are 80 only
by adoption, being· real ly the deseendants of Seljouks
or Seljoukian 8ubjects, who had derived from Peraia
whatever they possessed of civilization or of literary I
taste. An extraordinary love of preeedent, the result
apparently of conscious want of originaI power, was
suffieient to keep their writers loyal to their early guide
for eenturies, till at length the allegianee, though not
the fashion of it, has heen ehanged in our own days,
and Paris has replaced Shiraz as the shrine towards
whieh the Ottoman scholar turns. While conepicuously
lacking in creative genius, the Ottomane have always
shown themselves possessed of receptive and assimilative
pOlvers to a remarkabIe degree, the result being that I
the nUIDher of their writers both in prose and verse is
enormous. It ought to be premised that the poetry of
the old school is greatly superior to the prose.
When ,ve reach the reign ·of Mahmoud IT.; the
great transition period of Ottoman history, during which
the civilization of the West began to struggle in earnest
·with that of the East, we find the ehange which was
coming over all things Turkish affecting literature along
with the rest, and preparing the way for the appearance
of the new sehool. The chief poets of the transition
are Fazil Bey, Vasif, notable for his not aJtogether
unhappy attempt to ,vrite verses in the spoken language
of the capital, Izzet Molla, Pertev Paaha, Akif
Pasha, and the poetesses Fitnet and' Leyla. In the
works of all of these, although we occasionally ·discem
a hint of the new style, the old Persian manner is
stiIl Aupreme.
More intimate relations with Western Europe and
a pretty general study of the French language and
literature, together ,vith the steady progress of the
reforming tendency fairly started under Mahmoud IT.,
have resuIted in the birth of the New or M o d e ~ schooI,
whose objeets are trutll and shnplieity. In the politieal
writings of Reshid and Akif Pashas we have the first
clear note of change; but the lnan to whom more than
to any other the new departure owes its success is
Shinasi Effendi, who employed it for poetry. as weIl as
for proseo The European style, on its introduction,
The Sultans of the House of Osman. 428
encountered the most violent opposition, but DOW it
alone is used by living authors of repute. If any of
these does \\?rite a pampblet in the old manneT, it is
merelyas a tour de foree, or to prove to some faith-
ful but elamorous partisan of the Persian st yle that
it is not, as he supposes, lack of ability whieh causes
the modern author to adopt the simpler and more
natural fashion of the West. The whole tone, sentiment
and form of Ottoman literature have been revolutionized
by the new school: varieties of poetry hitherto unknown
have been adopted from Europe; an altogether new
branch of literature, the drarna, has arisen; while the
sciences are now treated and seriously studied after the
systeln of the West.
Among writers of this school who have won dis-
tinetion are Ziya Pasha, J evdet Pasha: the states-
men and historians. Ahmed Midhat Effendi, Sami
Bey: the lexieographer and eneyelopedist, Ebuz-Ziya
Tevfiq Bey, Mounllim Naji Effendi, Hamid Bey:
who holds the first place among Ottoman dramatists,
Mihran Effendi: the grammarian, and Kamal Bey:
the leader of the modern school and one of the most
illustrious men of letters whom his country has prod-uced.
He has written with conspicuous success in almost
every branch of !iteroture, history, romanee, ethics,
poetry, and the drarna. G.
Sultans of the House of Osman.
The dates those of the Sultan's
.
are acceSSlOD,
according to the Moslem and Christian eras.
A. H. Ä. D.
1. Oeman l. Son of Er-Toghroul 700 1801
2. Orkhan » l> Osman I. 726 1826
3. Mourad I. » » Orkhan 761 1859
4. Bayazid (Bajazet) I. » » Mourad I. 791 1389
Interregnum 804 1402
5. Mehenlmed I. » » Bayazid I. 816 1418
6. Mourad II. » » Mehemmed I. 824 1421
7. Mehemmed II. » » Mourad II. 855 1451
8. Bayazid II. » » Mehemmed II. 886 1481
9. Selim I. » » Bayazid II. 918 1512
424
10. Souleyman I.
11. Selim II.
12. Mourad III.
13. ?tlehemmed III.
14. Ahmed I.
15. Moustafa I.
16. Osman Il.
Moustafa I.
17. Monrad I';".
18. Ibrahim
19. Mehemmed I'!".
20. Souleyman II.
21. Ahmed Il.
22. lloustsfs II.
23. Ahmed III.
24. Mahnloud I.
25. Osman III.
26. Moustafa III.
27. Abd-l11-Hamid I.
28. Selim III.
29. Monstafa IV.
30. Mahmoud II.
31. Abd-l1l-Mejid
32. Abd-l1I-Aziz
33.
34. Abd-111-Hamid II.
A ppendices.
Son of Selim I.
» » Souleyman L
» » Selim II.
» » Mourad I II.
» » Mehemmed III.
»» »
» »Ahmed I.
(restored)
» »Ahuled I.
»» »
» » Ibrah im
»» »
»» »
» »Mehemmed IV.
»» »
» II.
»
» »Ahmed III.
»» »
» »l\loustafa III.
» »Abd-111-HamidI.
»» »
» »1\'1 ahmoud 11.
»» »
» » Abd-111-Mejid
A. H.
926
974
982
1008
1012
1026
1027
1081
1082
104:9
1058
1099
1102
1106
1115
114:8
1168
1171
1187
1208
1222
1228
1255
1277
1298
.:.., r.A Arabie Calendar (pp. 96-98).
A. D.
1520
1566
1574:
1595
1603
1617
1618
1622
1628
1640
1648
1687
1691
1695
1708
1780
1754:
1757
1778
1789
1807
180H
1889
1861
1876
The Arabic, i. e. Lunar, Year being 10 days. 21 hours
and seconds shorter than the Christian i. e. Bolar year,
does not correspond exactly with it. Its reckoning begins
from the Hijret or departure of Muhammed from Alecca
to reside in Medina, A. D. 622 July 15/19 (Mouharrem 1).
In order approxiInately to convert a year of our
Era into one of the MoslelD Era: suutract 622, divide
the remainder by 33 and add the quotient to the divident.
a year of the Moslem Era is. converted
into one of the Christian Era by dividing it by 33,
subtracting the quotient from it, and adding 622 to
the remainder; as:
The Ottoman Financial Calendare 425
1902 - 622 = 1280 + 33 = 40; 1280 + 40 = tr,.
1904 - 622 = 1282 + 33 = 40; 1282 + 40 = tr,,.
1328 - 622 = 706 -;- 33 = 23; 706 + 23 = V"
Conversely
tr'. + 33 = 40; ,r,. - 40 = 1280 + 622 = 1902
+ 33 = 40; tr" - 40 = 1282 + 622 = 1904
V" -;- 33 = 23; V" - ,r = 706 + 622 = 1328.
4JL. The Ottoman Finaneial Calendare
..
In the 120õ
th
year of the Hejira (I/II March 1789),
Sultan Selim III. issued an Irade to use this calendar
in finaneial and eommereial transactions. It eorresponds
exactly to the Old Sty le, only the new year begins in
Mareh instead of in January. The following table shows
the years of the Finaneial Calendar corresponding to
those of ours, till 1909.
F. I c. II F. I c. II F. I c. 1/ F. I c. II F. I c.
1205 1789 1225 1809 1245 1829
1
1265 184911285 1869
6 1790 6 1810 6 1830 6 1850 6 1870
7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1
8 2 8 2 828 282
9 3 9 3 939 393
1210 4 1230 4 1250 411' 1270 4 1290 4
1 Õ 1 5 1 Õ 1 515
2 6 2 6 2 6 262 6
3737373737
4 8 4 8 484 848
5 9 5 9 5 9 5 959
6 1800 6 1820 6 1840 6 1860 6
7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1
8 2 8 2 8 2! 8 2 8 2
9 3 91 3 9 3: 9 31i 9 3
1220 4 1240, 4 1260 4 1280 41
1
1300 4
1 Õ 1 : Õ 1 5 1 [>11 1 [)
2 6 2 6 2 61 2 61 2 6'
3 7 3 7 3 7 3 71 3 7
4 8 4 8 4 8l 4 81 4 8
426 A ppendices.
... .. ,
F. 1- c. 71 c. .F. I c.· F. I c. II F. I c.
130511889 1309111893 1313;1897 131711902 1321 1906
(),18901310 4 41 8 8 3 2 7
7: 1 1! 5 511900 I 9 4 3 8
Si 2 2
1
' 6 6' 1;.1320 5! 41 9
: I I
..
Parsing. Tahleel. . .
The method of parsing in Arabic ineludes Gram-
matieal and Logical Analysis. But in Ottoman-Turlrish
all that is really Ileeessary is to give such particulare
as are given in tlle subjoined parsing of a piece. The
genders, numbers, moods, tenses and all partieuIars about
the ,,"ords must be mentioned, and the parts of Regular
and Irregu]ar Verbs must be given. Read first with
expression the following Exereise, and anaIyse it after-
wards. Turn up all referenees to the Grammar .
..
The Prophet's Speeeh.
. .... .
... jJ! :, ':-OJ:l <.S.J:.5 Jf' J. ,.f1 .. .)
\ ; \0 , ,
JJ-' 1.lA\.) <.SL:;\ • u-ii J ' lS.J.äIli
,
<.S J-:! \ A:l l;"';u rL. J:=
• <.S.ll:i <.Sjtr. Jo .olu.,'
J · j:l <.Sj\i. !l\ '(;\;..
.j"';).J\ :l\.f..\ 1:l\.).J!
J!'J Jt.; J> rf1 Jr.)
: <.s \ y..J! 01' "".,JSJ..1. \ \:! .J
A · .!1.)\J.j o:lfol,., I tS'
o.wl:i c.s"
? l.\. J>- of'.,.. ·
• l '-:"' .J'fr fr.) r. tS::. f"'; IS \' :..s' l ..:.. \ el ,
..:r- rx!1 .:.,t-I .J 'rlJo.J Jl. ü: ? C:I' tP
? 4i
• ... .)f' (.>!. .fo cil-, J.:l
... rv Parsingo J:bt:; Tahkel.
4' r ./' "-!\ (>!. Jo IJ •
J.J\ wl..&' w
cl
' J.
<.5.)4 ' jl.'l.J! • .) j.J\ • (jJ:!-
.),.ü w.l±- W.J\ J. \J.j · .. .)\;.);

< l! • '6':;' .J rL:J1 :;
..
Khoutbe'yi Peygkamberi (the prophetic
. .... .
sermon, or the sermon of the prophet'. Pers.Izafet: if the
first noun ends in vowel hA, a bemze is pJaced over it (§ 519):
. ,.,
is an Ar. noun, measure (§ 592): ta special bomily
and prayer, in wbich they praise God, bless Mouhamrned and
pray for the reigning Calipb, delivered by an offieia! preacher
khatib) before the midday service of worship in Friday
. -
(Jouma'a namazi).' p. is composed of , rl,,·., peygham
tmessage, revelation' eur is omitted (§ 560) + J. bh- tcarry'
(§§ 535, 554); by the addition of (j -I, it is changed into Noan
of ReI. (§ 527).
\ J'f1 Jr) Resou'lou Ekrem. (The most venerahle
Prophet': Pers. Izafet composed of two Ar. words (§ 517). Jr.)
(prophet, apostIe' Adj. Qual. of of the meas. JP (§ 607).
fJ\ N. of Superiority of masc. meas. J:i;\ · ::":\y is a
miraele wrougbt through the ageney of a saint, but • mUjue
is a miraele wrought by Divine
Jj .J. bir Jouma'a gunu con a Friday': Tark.
Ind. Article (§ 60), JJ<:*' Turk. lzafet (§ 181). Ar. noaD,
o .,. ,
meas. ;J...ij (§ 592), the fayil bei?g Ceollector, mosque', other
derivatives: jf' = wf' Turk. noun
with pron. affix third person (§ 105 8).
Kendi de vesine t on his camel': .Tark.
Izafet with pron. <.5.J.:s' pers. pron. (§ 14 7), = 0.1.)'
Turk. noun 'with pron. affix third person sing. dative ease.
428
,A ppendices.
bindi che mounted': Turk. intran. verb, Ind. Pilt
...
sing. third person of the masdar Der. le!! ''z''JJ:!!.
4.1 jAl .; jJ! J ve yiis ne{er eh1i isla",'.U rand
with believers two hundred in number': Arab. Pen .
. ,."
conjuncth·e (§ 470), jy' Turk. Card. number (§ 192), .,.,..Li Ar. noan
Ineas. Jii used for men (§ 203): Reg. Fem. pl.
(§ 576); r:>L\ jA\ Pers. Izafet (Moslem'. noun (§ 695
1
). 8. Ja\
meas. Joj, Ir;egular pl. JI..I (§ 650). = tA-eA'hü,,' to
marry; r>L.L submitting himself to the divine disposaJ, lV'. of
r>L., fayil miislim (one ,vho submissively obeys God, Moslem'
(§§ 512, 634 rl); Turk. post position, sign of Instrumental case
(§ 232).
Qoubadan che started from Qouba';
.
a. prop. noun, sing. abI.; nom. Qouba (a place near Medina';
c.SJ..illi Ind. Past, sing. third person the primitive masdar
,deriv.: J.-!:.illi (§§ 263, 268).
J 'fC nefsi (to the [main] city
of (as distinguiRhed from its onUying regioDa): Pen.
Izafet: a. C:the very substan<.tp, main' meas. a. prop.
noun, Ring. dative of the measure Abstract noun by fhe
additioll of Ile (60 = e [§ 582J).
,jb oldou ehe departed toward': comp.
Inttoans. verb., Ind. Past sing. third person, formed by uaing noOD
with aux. verb l\ftlsdar Jl.J\ (§ 272): a, fayil of
d(lriv. 1\1. Jli,;\.. =
esnayi ,·ahde, -raltda (in the course of th'e
road, or journey, i. c. on the ,,'ay': Pere. Izafet (f 518):
a. Irreg. plural of senee (§ 639 b) Ctwisting, winding', ueed
in Tur,kish as asing., in the sense of (the couree of a journey,
Parsing. J:b.:; Tahleel. 429
the time of a stay, a period of time': o J.:,. \,;\ lSl:J\ (in the course
of the stay', o.)t;.; J.J\ (at that time, in that intervaI'; ö..1A\j sing.
loe. esse.
ci J..r' sol tarafina t to his left side': Turk. sdj.
. . ,,,
and nonn: t. adj., s. = , meas. J..i.i with
pron. affix third person singular dative (§§ 99, 1051).
4l!' mCyl ile eswerving, turning' for
the Turk. eonj. \ is used to express the meaning of .!ljo-'-! \
(§ 430). a. J:.. meas. •
o..,lj.)) J! ...; y t L Benee Salim Mn Of yourdounda
the settlement of the children of Salim ben Of':
, ,,,
Pers. and Turk. Izsfets. masc. p). of , (§ 575); rl L-.
stands for patronym (§ 669 8); o..li.).)y. = .)jy" lS.).)Y..
(tent, home' second memher of Turk. Izafet, with pron. affix third
person sing. loeative.
ci tj'J Ranona dffi·ilen vadinin
ust tarafina ein the upper part of the valley called
Ranona': l;.,,;\.; Ar. prop. noun; mefouI of .!.1..J .'!.) (§ 402);
first Dlember of the Torkish Izafet, Ar. nOUD meas. Jc.l;
sing. genitive; Turk. postPOSitiOll used as an adj. (§ 452);
a. ci..;b = , J..;b noun, pl. (§ 639 b); it indieates
motion (§ 237).
endi ehe balted': Ind. Past singolar third person
oo
Primitive masdar deriY. (§ 263).
orada adverbjal demonstrative (§ 144), sing.
loeative case, it indieates location (§ 237).
.(, ghayet belighane bir khoutbe
()qouyoup recited a very eloquent speech' : lE:.
super1. degree of Turk. adj. (§ 226). 3. p. pers. adj. or
.adv. (§§ 528, 684): a. ef. adj. Qllal. of 'eloquence' j '-:"' Yo}.J\
480 A ppendices. ......
Turk. Gerund (having recited' or (he recited and afterwarda •.• '
(for •.• :J c.sJ }.J\).
Jouma'a natnaz" qUd' (he performed
.. .
his Friday prayer': c.sjlt Turk. Izafet CA 109): 8. =
...... ,
4.l..iJ first member. c.sjlt second member, third person of p. jli
(the Divine worship of Islam, consisting of fixed recitals of praise
with prostration of the body, five times a day', J..1:i j\i eto make
his prayere' J comp. trans. verb (§ 272); c.s.J1.i Ind. Past. singolar
third person. •
.1. !lI (If
Khatim' ul enbiya ltazretler'inin en iptida .qfldtghi J ouma' a
namazi bo-u dour (This is the first Frid$Y prayer which
the seal i. e. the last, of the prophets (Mouhammed) hu
performed': rL;. Arabic Izafet (§ 668
1
), a. rl> fayU of
= pl. of:"; nebee (§ 645 e), which is Adj. Qual. of
nUbouvvet (prophecy'; =
Ar. noun meas. ::..'.;; with pron. amx third person pl. Genitive,
used after the name of God, saints and great personalities (AA 497,
500). \ 11\ Turk. Superl. adj. (§ 224): \ Ar. deriv. masdar
meas. Jli:i\ (§ 627) of , Obj. participle of J..l:i
(§ 413); y. Demonstrative (Pron.) Adj.; JJ copula (§ 67).
;)\.r..1 4.5"'42;; J\
Jj),' iptidaki khotttbesi 0 dour ki khulasa vejn' ile ter-
je'ntesi bourada iyrad olou.nour eThis is his first epeech
(or oration), the translation of which is given below in
brief': \ Turk. prOD. adj. (§ 138). Pers. ReIative pron.
(§ 317); Ar. Quadriliteral Masdar meas ... 11-i1 (§ 59b); J\J.'
jy JJ\ Masdar Ji. JJ\ ol\.;.\ Turk. comp. passive verb (§ 274:), Ind.
Aorist, sing. third person.
Conjugation of Turkish Verbs.
431·
Jt.,;\ Conjugation of Turkish Verbs.
Inftnitive of Verbs Kaadar.
Masrlar: the Root Y+maq; ShYmek', Yazmaq".
Negative: Siv'menlek, Yaz'ntamaq.
'Terbal Substantives: 1. Sivmeklik', 2. Sivme', 8. SevillA' (§ 288).
Derivative Forms (§§ 261-268):
o tourtmaq', Basdirmaq', Yatirmaq', Taranmaq',
Yazilmaq', Chekish1l1ek'.
Potential verbs: SeVebillJwk', neg. Seve'memek (§ 288).
Accelerative verb: Sevi'vertJl-ek (§ 286).
Verbs derived from nouns and adjectives:
Hazirlamaq', Hazirlanmaq', Hazirlatmaq' (§ 277).
Compound Verbs (Nouns with Auxiliaries) (§ 272):
Sival' etnwk, - eylenWk, - qUlnaq, - bo'Uyounnaq.
Partieiples J.i tJ
Gerunds 'J (pp. 206-207).
1. yazar'jasina 4. yazdtq' da 8. yaza' raq 12. yazdighirllda'
2. yaz'madan 5. yazdiq'ja 9. yazasi' yazajaghindan"·
3. yazin'ja 6. yazali' 10. yazaja,qhii1a' 13. yazib', yazip'
yazar' yazmaz 7. yaza' yaza 11. yazin'ja 14. yazar'ken.
Verbal Adjeetives (§ 436).
1. Yaziji', 2. achiq', 3. surgun', 4. oolit', 5. sevinj'.
Noun of Excess: Chalishqan', su.zgej', dalgij'.
N oun of Location: Yataq', otlaq'.
Instrumental noun: Elek', daraq'.
482
Indicative
Mood
yaz'
yazsin'
!Jazalitn'
lia' ziniz
!Jazsinlar'
yorourn
slvi' yorsO'Un
sevi'yo,.
silvi' !/orouz
se.vi' yorsoufl,ouz
sevi' yorlar
sece' riln
sever'siii
Set'el"
seve'riz

scve·rler'

sevd'in'
sevtlr
..
sevdüliz'
. ,;cvdiler'
sevm.i'


/jC f'm·isl/ iz
Sh'1ldsh' siiiiz
nn ish Ur'

sl fPjek' sin'
A ppendices.
4..i\; JW\ ' J.i Finite Verb •
..
Assertive
Mood
Relative
Mood
Conditional
Mood
Imperatlye J' (§ 316).
Presellt Jb.. (§ 318).
sevi' '!I0r id·itn sevi' yor slvi'lIM uhn
"
id iil
"
imishsift
" ism
"
idi
"
imish
"
ise
"
idik
"
imishiz
"
isBc
"
i i/ir1iz
"
imishiftiz
"
isMie
"
idiler
"
imishler
"
istllr.
Aorlst \.,G. (§ 326).
sever' idüll
" idüi,
idi
"
idik
"
" i di11 iz
" idiler
l sever itnishim ISefle,. tsbn
I " i1nishsift I " tsm
"imish "isi
"imishiz "isek
" im.ishsiftiz I " isetiil
" imishler i " isel;".
Past <.s.)""':' (§ 344).
sevd·i' idint I sevdi,' iRlm
" idü1
"
idi
" idik
"
"
idifiiz
idiMr
I " i!lIA
: " isl
I ise'k
I
: isMiz
" iseU,. •
Dubitative Ji; (§ 351).
sev711ish' iditn
"
"
"
"
-idin,
id·i
idik
idifliz
ideler
I sel"mish' i,ni .. IsetJmish' i ••
I "imishsin " isM
! "ünish "is6
"itnishiz "isek
i1n·ishsifl,iz " isllliI
"
"inzishler " iseltr.
Future (§ 357).
I sevejek' idim.
"
idifi,
: i·ulishim ISkejlk" ,sim
," imishsin " isB1l
Indicative
Mood
sevejek'
sevejeyis
sevejek' siniz
sevejekler'
sevellim'
sevesin'
seve'
sevelim'
sive silfiz
seveler'
Conjugation of Turkisb Verbs.
Assertive
Mood
sevejlk' idi
"
idik
"
idiftiz
"
idiler
Relative
Mood
setJejlk' itnisk
"
imiskiz
"
imisksiftil
l
"
imishllr 0
Optative t>A lftJ \ (§ 865).
SefJe' idim
idin
"
"
idi
"
idik
" idifliz
" idiler
Conditional
Mood
sevejlk' ise
"
isek
"
isMiil
"
isll".
Supposltlve (§ 37?).
sev'sem
sev'sen
sev'se
sev' sek
sev' seniz
sev' sele,
se,;' se illim sev' ,e imiskim
- "idin "imisksift
" idi " imisk
"idik "imiskiz
"idini: "imisksiAiz
"idile, "imishler
Necesslt.tlve (§ 884).
sevrneli' yirn sevmeli' i dim imiskim I s6vmeli' isem
sevm.eli' sin
"
idin " imisksin .
"
i,tn

"
idi
"
imiBh I
"
ise
sevmeli' giz
"
idik
"
imiskil
"
isek
sevmlli' silliz
"
idiilu
"
imishsillie!
"
isMis
sevmlli' dirler
"
idiler
"
imiskler
"
iseler.
The Verb To HA YE.
Beni'm senin var, Qnoun var · · • \ I hav8 a (book).
Bende var, sen d e VQ1-, onda var . . . I
Bende dir, sende dir, onda dir. _ . I have the (hook).
Benim var idi, seni;;' var idi, onoutl var idi \ I 1 ad a _
Bende var idi, sbnde 1)ar onda 1)ar ,dt I 1
var im.isk, seni,. var imish . . . ('fhey say that) I bave,
Benim var isa,. Bende vat- isa J f 1 bad a -
Blnim senin . . . I got a -
Benim olajaq, sini1l olajaq . . . I shall have a
Benin" olsa,. senUi olsa idi. If it were mine.
Turkish Conv.-Grammar.
28
4:34
..

The Official Part.
The Imperial Palace ,\9.- '-'.tlJ. L.
His Imperlal Majesty the Sultan
,::-."r Tishrifati lmmoumiye Nad,." The
Grand Master of Ceremony 0
I.ÄI ag1ttJd,
- - Qizlar aghad, The Chief of the
Eunuche of the Impo Palace.
J.4 ' Sil" qlmrlnayi Hazreti SMIa'ri,ari,
, Bash Mabiynji, The Chief (Lord
High-) Chamberlain.
Mablyni BaII1I Kt°ltJblli,
. The Imperlal Cha n eeli ary.
ti'6 v.4 Humayoun BasA Ktätibi,
· 'fhe Flrst Secretary of the Imp,
Palaee.
Kwtibl Khousousiyi Hurln ShIJI.
· .,'i.vari, The Pri vate Secretary of
H, I. M.
j J-4 \.J!.) Divani Bas1l TlrjlmcJtI',
The Premler Dragoman of the
Imp. Divan.
,.:;':- J. 4 \.J!.) Divan' BasA Al4tlrji.i,
The Premler TraDs)ator of the
Imp. Divan.
OAL.\ Hdmayoun lmlltn', The
ChIef Almoner (Imam) of the
Inlp. Palace.
rf\.J.J
L
YaviM E1cremi Hazrlti PadialtaAi,
. , .: The Aide-de-Camp of H. I. M.
<.S..re-' , :F'akhri Yavlran, The Honorary
aides-de-cam p.
W \.J.J , .JJ Y p). yaveran, Aide-de-camp,
Aldes de camp.
·r.
The Sublime Port. 435

.. co
•. :!'?-
Ba8h Mousahib, The Premier
Courtier (French Courtisan).
Jlbi Hltmayoun, 'fhe Privy Purse.
c.s 6...;.?- W t(, \ l!., ..:..,':!"
Khazineyi Khassayi Shakane, The
Civil List.
.1lfayeti Shaha' ne Erktänt Harbiye
Mlt8heeri, The Chief of the
Military HousehoId.
c.SJ:..M
\'-\ ,-:,,4
k..n
li
<.s J':..M eS.J l!\
lS.J Icu W.J! L.
<.s ..1-.M c.s,) l:i
T
J Ü.J \
lSy..M lS.Jl!\
co
<.s y. .M \!, J.>.
c.SJ'...M
Mabeyni Hltmayoun Mltdiri, The
ADireetor of the Imp. Palaee.
IstabU Amire Mltdiri, The Grand
Equerry of H. I. M.
Babus Sa'adetul aliye Aghast, The
Director of the Porte of the
Palace.
Qapoujoular K et' khUdari, The Chief
of the Porterso
Hatab anbari M1ldiri, The Direetor
of the Depõt of CombustibIes.
Mabeyni Hamayoun sir Miymarl,
The Premier Architect of the
Imp. Palaee.
Mabeyn-i Hamayoun Sir
The Premier Physician of the
Imp. Palaee.
Matbakh ve Fourounlal· Madir-i,
The Director of thelmp. Kitchens
and Ovens.
Erzaq anbarl Madiri, The Direc;tor
of the Provisions.
H01-tboubat m1ldiri, The
Director of the Granaries.
Hadiqayi Shahane MMil·i, The
Director of the Imp. Gardens.
ChiftlikUitiHamayounMttdiri, The'
Director of the Imp.
The Sublime Porte
• •
l'he Couneil of Ministers
Sadri A'zam, The Grand Vizier .
.. )l.,)' \ ?:-- .. S Sheykh-ttl. Islam. The Minister
\ '-"" of the Canon Law of Islam.
lS.,.t;t \.) Dakhiliye Nazirl, The Minister
of the Interior.
lS ,1:,\; 4..>,)\:;. Kharijiye The Minister for
... Foreign Affairs.
lS...)l;l; Sel·asker, (Harbiye Naztrl,) The
•. Minister for War.
28*
486 The Offieia! Part.
Shourayi DbJUt lUym, The preai-I
• dent of the Conneil of State.
.J Adlige ve Mezahib Nad,." The
· • Minister of Jnstice and Public
\\'orship .
• Maliye Naz',", The Minister of
Finance.
JJ\... Mearifi oumoumiye Nad,." The
Minister of Public Instmetion.
Bahriye Naz'''', The Minister for
• Naval Atraira (Navy).
Top-haneyi Amire m,"Mm, The
. Grand Master of Ordnance. i
Evqaf Nadri, The Minister of I
Religious Funds.
.. .J Tijaret ve Nafi,a Nadri, The
Minist.er ofCommerce and Public
VVorks.
-- t
.;...... \ ,. Shehir Emeeni, The Prefect of
Jt""



fl,)
the City.
Zaptiye Naz'rl, The Prefect of
the Police.
Liman Reyisi, The Prefect of the
Port.
Ronsoumat Emitli,Direetor General
of Customs.
.....; .J ..:-
w,)l.. .J 0\...).J\
Derteri Khaqani Nazlri, Director
General of the Imperial Archives.
Posta ve Tilegraf Nazi,." Director-
General of Post and Telegraphs.
Or11lan ve MAadin fJi zira'at Nadrl,
The l\linister of Minas, Forests
and Agriculture.
ItfayitJe alayt Komatada"',
Comrnander of the Fire-Brigade.
The Grand Vizieriate
- -
\ ' wY.. w \y..') lSJ-A \ Atnediyi Dim'" H4m4youn, Re-
ferendary of the Imp. Divan.
c.>-..l:..J\ Mektoubi Odad, The Bureau of
• Correspondence.
L> .. ti f; Teshrifat (Jalemi, The Bureau of
• the Master of Ceremonies.
c.>..u Viiagati Mftmtad (JalAMi, The
• Bureau of the privfleged pro-
vinees.
\.;i .... Siifilea ThhrifatjW, Introdacerof
the AmbMaadora.
rv The Sublime Port. 487
The Couneil of State
..
0 .....
0
...)'\,)
0 ..... 0.,;\,)
.. lSL> .\
tS! 'r
Jr.-:.; jy\
.JlilkiyeDayiresi, The Civil Depart-
ment .
Ta nzimat Dayiresi, 1.'he Legis-
lative Department.
Dayirhi, The Ju-
diciary Department .
Shou,rayi Devlet Kitaheti, The
Bureau of the Couneil of State.
Vumourou Nafiya Qmni8ionou, The
High Commission of public Con-
struetioDs (Improvements).
Shout·ayi Dlvlet mulazimi, The
Auditor of the CouneH of State.
The Foreign Offiee \1;,;

o .. li j
0..1i
o .. ü
o-6.bJ \ J \jJ \
o .. li
.. j Y \
(,.;._..kJ\ J:la.
0..1;
Kha1-ijiye Mustesharl, The Under-
Seeretary of State for For. Atrairs.
Terjemi qale-mi, The Bureau of
Translation.
.J.llektoubiyi Khat·ijiye qalemi, The-
Bureau of Correspondenee.
Tahri1
4
ati Ejnebiye Qalhni, The'
Bureau of Foreign Correspon-
denee.
Et'raq Odast, The Bureau of Ar-·
chives.
Mo'u,hase'be Qalerni, Board of Audit ..
OUm01,f,rOU Houqouqiyeyi .
lite Qalerni, The Bureau of Dis-
puted Claims.
Houqouq nulshavirleri Odad, The
Hureau of Legiats.
Tabiyiyet Qalemi, The Bureau of •
N ationality (naturalization).
Matbolt'ati Ejnehiye Odari, The
Bureau of the Foreign Press.
Sijli ahval Qalemi, The Bureau
of personnel.
'he Ministry of Internal Affairs
'->"u Matbou/at Qalemi, The Bureau of
the Press.
JJ:-:-J; t InUkhabi Mbnou1
4
een Qomisiyonou,
The Commission for the Selection
of functionaries.
4:88
u, ..... J r-i The Offieial Part.
JJ\1a; .1c\i.; TiqallUd sandigM Nazareti, The
.. Direction of the Pension FuDds.
The Sheikh-ftl Islamate
, J.!\ r.JJ.J.J..,;:, Sadti R01tmeli, Roumlli QGmaWri,
.. .." _ .. _ The Vice-Chancellor of Tarkey.
lS f-,...;, li J \ ' J Sadrt Anadolou, Aftadolou (jtJzas-
.. kiri, The Second Vice-Ohancellor
of Turkey (p. 458).
\.,:i Ü\A\ ' \.,:i Fetva Etn·in;, The Superintendent
.... of CRnonieal Decisions.
(the Fayil of .. l:i\ = lS?) Murti, a judge of the OanoD Law
of Islam.
The Ministry of Finance
co •
y- 0';\')\ Val·iclat Idareyi Oumoumi,l6ai, The
... General Directorate. of revennes.
y- 0';\')\ Idarlyi Oumoumiylsi,
The General Directorate of Ex-
• penses.
y- 0';\') \ wY..,) Idareyi Oumoumillesi,·
The General Directorate of Public
.. Debts.
(.>-O...J' \') .ü:=" l:-6t:.. Mookasebali atiqa dayWUi, The
Bureau of regulation of ancient
accounts.
.J Ashat· ou aghnam Ernanlti, The
administration of the tithea and
taxes on sheep.
Directorate ofWeights and
'rest.
(.!..li j L Ma thihne Taliriran EJnIb.iyi
Qalen"i, The office of Tranalation
and correspondenee in toreign
languages.
w\Y..,) Divani Mouhaslbat, The Court of
Accounts.
\.. j. Mais' sesatt maliye, Financial Esta-
blishIoen ts.
The Imperial Mint --\..t ., ..rt • 4i
(.>_0;\') The department
" of Minting.
(.>-0 y \') ahaskui Dayir8si, The department
of assays.
(.>- 0; \') ...:('t.. Makina Dayir8si, The department
of l\Iachines.

The Custonls Admin. - Ministry of Pub. Inst. 439
..
c.>-It J' \') Qal Dayiresi, The department of
Refining.
The Customs Administration -..:,..; L.I
L;:_It';\')\ rr.; Rousoumou Sitte Idaresi, The Ad-
ministration of the six indirect
.. taxes (p. 890).
S;jAf" L Ma m{tslcirat za!'hire glJjmrflyu
nezareti, The Dlrectorate of the
customs on cereals and liquors.
J.;Uä; S'.,..ra f" '-:.-\.; Kerest.e geomrUy-a Nkat·lti, The
Directorate of the Customs on
wood.
.J 0J:- Meyve ve Sebze geomr(ty(l, Nhat·eei,
The Directorate of the customs
on fruits and vegetables.
J.;Uäi BaltqhaneNezareti,TheDirectorate
of the Fishery.
ub.,) 6..Jt.ii\ .!l..ft!.A Mttshterikul Menra'a inhisari dou-
fo Ichani Devleti Aliyelli Osmaniye,

The Regie co-illteresse of tobacco s
of the Ottoman-Empire.
u_o,;\')\ ,-::-,,-1: cJ.J!,) Douyounou Oumo'Umiye IdareBi,
The Administration of Public

J-=-'; ,.; yr cJJ!,) Dou,younou Oumoumiye bash qo-
misit·i, Im perial Commissary of
the Ottoman Public Debts.
JJ\'"
The Ministry of Public Instruction

c.>...u \') te.
<>Y,..lA


- .


Enj-ameni Tertish ou Mouayene, 'rhe
CouneH of Inspection and Cen-
sure (Supervision).
Matbou'ati Ejnehiye (Jalbni, The
Bureall of the Domestic Press.
Matbou'ati Dakhiliye (Jalhni, 'l'he
Bureau of the Domestie Press.
Matbou'ati Dakkiliye MMiri, The
Director of the Domestic Press
Bureau.
Melc{Qtibi Aliye MMiriyeti, The
Direetorate of the HigherSehools.
Miktehi Mil1ciyeyi Shakane, The
Imperial Civil CoHege.
Mlktebi Soultani, The Imp. Lyceum
of Galata-Seray.
Miktibi Houqouqou Bhahane, 'l'he
Ilnp. Lyceum of Law.
440 c,"-''; The Offieial Part. .......
Lisan Mlktebi, The Imp. Lyceum
of Languages.
Mektehi Sanay;, The Schoolof
Arts and Indostry.
Mektehi °lptidayiye, A Primaty
Sehool.
A Grammar
• · - · SchooI.
Mektehi Idadiye, An Academy or
- . - · Preparatory School (which pre-
pares for a College).
Mlktlbi Ali, A Superior (High-)
oo. • School or College.
.. w.\ ';\') Mouallimeen, A Normal
School for OOaehers.
';\l Dar-ul Mouallimat, A Normal
School for lady taaehera.
Meletehi Ttbbiyeyi Mil1ciye, The
- oo.. Civil Medical SchooI.
Ashiret Me1ctebi, A 800001 for
.. NOlnadic 'fribes.
Rasadkhaneyi Amire, The Imp.
e. Meteorological Observatory.
"'1y,.lJ:. Mo,zekhaneyi The Im-
e. perial Museum.
ovtc. Matba'ayi A,noire, The ImperiaI
Pri nting- House.
J
The Ministry of Justice and Public Worship
lOS ./...lA \ l.
..
lS - oo

c.> • .,K c.i'.lA J-
..
c.>-. J \')
Mezahib Mudiri, Director of Public
Worahip (Religions) .
adliye Hiylti, The Board
of the Justice.
Mehkemeyi Temyeez, The Court
of Cassation.
Bash MCtddayi ounwumi, The Pro-
curor General of the Court of
Oasastian.
Mehkenleyi Istinaf, The Court of
appeals.
Istida dayiresi, The Section of
Requests (in the C. of Casution) .
Jinayet Dallirhi, The Criminal
Section.
Jb,nha Dayi,.esi, The COrrectiODal
Section.
Houqouq Dayiresi, The Civil
Section.
1.'
The Ministry of J ustice. - Prefeetw"e of Poliee. 441
c.
(.)-0..)'\.)
Jeza Dayiresl, The Court of
Criminal jurisdiction.

Hiyeti It-ha1niyeDayiresi, TheCourt
of seeusatjoD.
J.l!lhkemeyi Billayet, The Court oC
first instance.


'rl:..

\ ' \ 4<'C.4
j.,l... (..>A/
t.S.;'5
Mehkerneyi Tijaret, The tribunal
of Commeree.
Birinji Tijaret Mijlisi, The First
Cornmereial Court (where the
cases between Coreigners and
Ottoman subjects are dealt with) .
.J.llehkenleyi Tijareti Bahriye, 'fbe
Com. Court.
Hakim, pl. Muk'kw.nl" J udge.
Regis, President. (The presiding
Judge.)
.Jfe'hkeme Azasi, aza, Member of
couDeil.
Mitddayi Oumou.mi, Proeuror
General. (Public prosecutor.)
.J.l!(uldayi Oumoumi 1nou'avini, The
aFlsistant Proe. Gen.
Zabt KmUbi, The Clerk.
w.,l... .Jlollavin, Assistant.
Jfou,stantiq, The trial justice.
JfouqatOelat Mouharriri, The No-
tary Pu blic.
, ',->"J.,.. M(uidagl, davaji, /chasim, The
p lai n ti if'.
A.:U:. ("),,,J.... M ftdela!!l (tle.vh', The defendant.
JA\!' Shahid, vulg. shahad Witness.
c Jri \.J"') Dava vekili, avoqat, Lawyer, attor-
nev.
0\-4 L:.:l (J Vekiäletname, A power of attorney.
The Prefecture of Police -.::..,)
Polis 1nejlisi, The couneil of poliee.
0\-4.)\'>";\.1 mijlisi, 'l'he couDeil of
gendarmery.
t..S J-:--'; Polis Q.ontiseri, The commissary
of polIee.
(,,)-6..6.,\ Pasaport odast (vulg. pashaport),
The bureau of passports.
442 The Offieia! Part.
§.f-.,L. u-d..n Polis mudirIigi, The prefects of
poliee.
Jj ua; SOl' 'laareti, The directorate of
,vaters.
y- Habskhaneyi ou"wumi, The central
prison.
...:...iL.\..K- Shehi,· emanlti behiyhJi, The Pre-
c. feeture of the City (of Consl).
'õ..J' \ l Jo i dayireyi beletlig/, The first '
.. muuicipolity eirele.
(.>""'O..J' \l '! Belediye dayirlsi, The munici-
pality.
Belediye r/yisi, The mayor (of
a city).
BelUigA mijlisi, The monieipal
couneil.
Timal"khane, Asylum oltheinaane.
Goureba K1lastahaftlsi, The ha-
spi tal for strangere.
J ':"'J\f
The MInistry of Commerce and Public Works
y- )I.J'! Demir !}ollar idareyi oumoM.i,lm,
The general direetorste of rail-
roads.
ut Y- J..M lJludirio-umoumi,Generalmanager.
,->,,",Oj\.)\ Jol.. .J TouI"ouq ou meabir idarm, The
general of roads and
bridges.
0.J! lJluhendiskhat1e1/.i The
8('hool of Engtneere.
Jr'
()ouneil of International SanitatloB
Idarlyi ounu>urou sUahiyi, The
sanitury administration.
Dayireyi Sihhiy/, The Bureau of
Salli tatioll.
Tehaffouskhafle, QaratatifItJ, The
loJazaretto, Quarantine Station.
<.>'* J \jJ 1 .
Tlle Ministry of Religions Funds
e.J Feragh-, AJienation, Quitclaim.
J li:; \ I",tiqal, Transmission by in-
heritanee.
The Ministry of War. 448
J,;tJ
The Administration of Posts and Telegraphs
c..S).:-J? Divliti .Aliyeyi Osmaniye Ittihad
Postalari, 'l'he International Otto-
.. man Posts.
J.;Uä; Defterkhaneyi Khaqani NAzareti,
The Ministry of Archives.
Zira'at banqasi, The Agricultural
Bank.
(..)-...1; J Osmanli banqasi, The Ottoman
Hank.
e.> .lA "'L Banqi Osmani Mudiri, The man-
./..
ager of the Imp. Ottoman Bank.
The Ministry of \\T ar 4j.r
r e.>'J\.J Babi Seraskeri, The
SeraskerIat (The W ar Offiee).
'-:""..?- c:.,\SJ\ Erktant Harb, The General Statfo
,->_0;\.) ,-:""..r c:.,tG\ r"; Oumoum Erktani Harb Dayiresi,
The Department of the General
.. Staff.
(..)",",o..f\') PiyadA Dayiresi, The Infantry
" De partmen t.
,->",",0..)'\,) c.SJ\.,,- Suvart Dayiresi, The CavaJry
.. Department.
(..)",",o..f\') Topjott Dayi'l·es·i, The Artillery
Department.
u-o;b .J Istihkuunat ve Imha'at Dayiresi,
The J)epartment of Military
fortifieation and buildinga.
1,.;,_0';\') Mouhakemati askeriye Dayiresi,
The DepartInent of Military
Justice.
0""'0;\,) Sihhiyeyi aske7·iye Dayiresi, The
of Military Sani-
.. tation.
.;."..\ Oumourou Sihhiyeyi Insaniyl shu·
besi, The Department of Mili·
.. tary medical Inspeetion.
.;y\ Oumourou Sihhiyeyi Hayvaniye
Shubesi, The Departmentofeques-
trian hygiene.
o-Jb TeftishiaskeriyeQo1nisiyonouaUsi,
.. High Military Comnlission.
<..:-_0./\.) Levazimatf oumoulniyA Dayiresi,
" The Commissary-General's Dep.
0-0 \') ",::-"; Mouhasebati oumoumiye Dayiresi,
The Department of General
aecounts.
444 1..: ..... .) r-i The Official Part.
..
<.>",",0./\') Jandarma dayirlsi, 'fhe Depart-
_ _ ment of Gendarmery.
J.'.J' fo ' '.J \ Itfayiye alayt, ToulournbtJjl ala'"
The Brigade of Firemen.
Mektebi Harbiye, The Military
/';. · /' School.
6.1 ....J, Mektebi Tibbiyey' Aikmyl, The
- -.. Medical ?tlilitary Sehool.
<,S..f....}.;. IA.J>-" rY' Oumoum Mtkiätibi As1r.eriyl MU-
•. diri, Director General of the
Mili tary Sch ool 8.
lIi1itary Grades Ü'.,.).r t.
';\.)r Serda,·, General (ef. p. 458).
rf\ J\.)..r Serdar·Z Ekrem, Grand Marshal.
ltli;'3lzeel·, Marshal. \:
*
· ]!'Iriq, General of division. l i
2..;' J Q Q' \.."
IJ.,;:- Miriliva, General of brigade. f;l -
IS')'I.,;:- Miralay, Colonel. I
r
wli
Qaymaqanl, Lieutenant eolonel. f tii

<.>;, d:! Bi11 bashi, Major.
<.>_l'-\ Jj Qol aghast, Adjutant major.
jJ! Yuz Captain.
JJ\ rj )\... lJIlUazim'i eV1:el, Lieutenant.
jt.; rj)l. Mlilazimi sa.ni, Sub-lieutenant.
t.S:-\ lS':J\ Alay Emini, Intendant of a regiment.
<,S'.JT Alay Kwtibi, See. of a regiment .
..,)Al.\ <,S':JT Alay Irlland., Chaplain of a regiment.
L>Al.\ .)y. li, Tabou·r Imarni, Chaplain of a baitalion.
J..,b. J.L Bash ehavou.sh, Sergeant major. j
•• Sira chavouslwu, Sergeant. f['
; ... Q. -
o! <JJ \ 0 n basht, Corporal.
(.$ '''';; Nefer, asker neferi, Soldier, Private.j'
· 1S.f-c Js..J QOllr'a asktfri, .Ajemi, Conserjpt.
i..S...;G .1l:=>\ Ikt·igat allkiri, The army reserve. "-t
The Ministry of War. 445
-,').,)\ Ordou, Army. Ftrqa, Divisjon.
-
50 \j Liva, Brigade. ($':1 \ .A lay, Regiment.
SJY. Topjou yakkod souvari hoo1ftgu, Squa-
dron.
($.,).J! \1, Oll:i ' .,)J! \1, Tahour, piyadl tabourou, Battalion.
JJ! BOOluk, piyade beolugU, Company.
, olL., Piyaae asakiri; -niferi, Infantry; Foot-
soIdier.
, ($.fL" Topjo", asakiri; -nlflri, ArtUlery; -man.
, ($..Jw- lS")\..,- Souvari asaki·ri, Cavalry.
($...).i,; , ($Yw- Bahnyl asakiri, Marines.
". t
( -ä1;') Asakiri nizamiyl, -Mo'Uvazzaf, Regulars.
l.,)..JU- Asakin redile, MiJitia.
.Asakiri moustah{iza, The last ReserveA.
($..JW:. Khassa asakiri, The eorps of the Inl]).
Guards.
wY.. lS-'l.,)\ Deordunju Ordouyi Httmayoun, The 4th
Army Corps.
Note. 1. The eentre of the Imp. Guards is
2nd Edirne, 3rd MonasUr, 4th Erzinjan, 5th Damascus, 6
t
h
Bagdad, 7
th
Sana.
Note. 2. All the Moslems in Turkey are called to enter the
Army at the age of 20, which is called the age of Maturity (esnan).
The term is 9 years in the Regular Army (Asakin Nisarnigl).·
S years under arme and 6 years in the army reserve (Ihtiyat);
6 in the territorial army (Militia Bedin and 3 in the territorial
reserve (Moustah{iz).
ArtIIS
50
Eslihagi, nariyl, Fire arms.
Eslihayi janha, Pointed arme.
J; Tuflng, Gun. ..!l. ".} Fisheng, Roeket.
.Jj-,-,.,) RevoZ've'l', Revolver. \1, Tabanja, Pisto!.
Top, eanon. s::; r Bayonet.
Qatsatoura, Strap. Qilij, Sword.
Qabze, qin, Sheath. Alal l: Bq,lta, Axe.
Mizraq, Laneet. Khancher, Sabre.
Qama, Dagger. Yatagan, Yatagan.
446 c.r-.) r-i The Offieia! Part.
The Admiralty
Shourayi bahriye, Board of Modralty.
w()\ Erkiini harb dayireri, Btaff-office.
BahriyA nastti, Minister of marine.
a.) '. BahriyA m'Ushw" amiral, Admiral.
( co U. \J j \.li le j .l Donanma qomandaftt, A dmiral of the
Beet.
J!...)i Feriq, Vice-admiral (of the 1st
( l! Miriliva, rigale pasha, Rear-admiral.
,).J,).r j Oomodor, Commodore.
lJliralay, Captain.
0\
, L)-!.)'''- ,.,;,.s''' Bin baab', gerni 8ou"arisi, 8OUtHJri,
Oommander.
Jj Qol aghasi, Lieutenant-commander.
.... ,
ur j J! Je..l.i Q'idlmli yusbashi, lfirst Lieutenant.
jJ! Yiiz basht, Lieutenant.
J.J\ r
j
)\.. .1J1.iilazimi evvel, Sub-Lieuten&nt.
jw rj)l. sani, MidahipmaD .
..r4 - - - muhendi8, Naval cadet .
...... ,
.... - - - I1l0000Zlim, Naval instrnctor •.
t,;, \ Tttfeng endas ,abiti, Marine o1llcer:
l..;, Harb zabiti, Executive offieer .
. . w()\ Erktant harb zabiti, Staff offieer.
- . .
t,;, .... ;.fSt)" Gooye1·te zabiti, Deek officer.
t,;, .J.1:i.) Torpido zabiti, Torpedo
t,;, Topjou, zabiti, GUDnery offieer.
Je» Qidhnli zabit, Benior offieer.
t,;, j-e-ü Qidl'l11Siz zabit, J unior offieer.
L. t,;, -' Nlvbet Oi zabiti J Omeer of the da)'.
, \ , OD duty.
\,).)\.J Varda zabiti, Offieer of the watch •
..
-$').rl. Seyri sefayin "nemourou, Navigatinl
ofBcer.
The Admiralty. 447
la, 6...! l!; \' L. Charkhji zabiti, inshayiye zabiti, Oi viI
u:. _
offieer.
Oharkhji basht, Chief engineer.
JJ tu <..>!. Oharkhji bashi , Assistant
.. englneer.
i'6' w.r. li Qalyon ki'õ,tibi, Fleet paymaster.
ci'6' Selint ktätibi, Paymaster.
2...r. Briq kratim, Clerk .
Qlaeouz, PHot.
l.J..r:'.J..,; Porsoun, Boatswain.
.J.,A;\.J\... Maranqoz, Carpenter.
Qalafat, Caulker.
Dumenji, SteeramaD.
Topjou, Gunner.
YelkAnji, Sailmaker .
.JLa\$. Gaybar, Topman .
. -
\,).J\J Varda bandera, Signalman.
\ Sefine elllini, Master at arms.
' Mii,8tayid gemiji, onbashi, Seaman.
Nefer, tayite, vulg. tay'fa, Blue jacket.
& Silahendaz nlferi, Marine.
Aj'mi neter, Dock hand.
Mousiqaji, Bandsman. t..:J:-,}.Jy. Boroujou, Bugler.
\,j' Trampet, Drummer. Demirji, Blacksmith.
,-,4 Ateshji, Stoker. u':-.J.r.J Keomurju, Trimmer.
6.=-:i-' (.;oA\...\ Sefine papasi, Befine imami, Ohaplain.
l,;._o,;\')\ Qarantina idaresi, Quarantine ad-
ministration.
\.J li Qarantina mejlisi, Board of health.
...J:S. lem'iz pratiqa, Clean bill of health.
J! Boulashiq pratiqa, Foul bill of health.
The Imperial Arsenal L;
:. a. ) 'J. Tersanl,(daros'sana'a), Dockyard,arsenal.
ResilnkhanI, Dra wing office.
co
..J'\,) Inshayiye dayiresi, Construetor's offiee.
co .
Torpido dayiresi, Torpedo department.
448 r-i The Offieial Part.
...; \;. Dlmi" khafte, Blacksmith' s shop •
...; \;....s:;l Dlökme khanl, Fo und ery, torga .
..;\;. Bichqi kooni, Sawmill .
.. ' Qa.zankhane, Boilermaker"s shop.
L>-": )' tr\ ..:(l. Makina imalatkhanlBi, Engine shop.
'-!.,-; TeB'Viye fabriqa81" Fitting shop •
.:i..r f Teer gllJ'!le·ne, Rigging 10ft.
eheUk fabriqas1" Steel factory.
Uf'"'oj\ü Yelkenji maghazast, Sail 10ft.
Havouz, Dock.
.J \....., Babih 7wvouz, Floating dock.
Soulou havouz, Basin or wet dock.
.J';) QOll,rou ha'Vouz, Dry or granng dock.
elO,) '.;L;T Anbar, ambar, Stores .
.Jt •
Kereste mallelli-fIlMan, Timher yard.
Dlft'erent Kinds of Shlps
f' 4-- Sefine, sefayin; gemi, Ship.
va- jA.;.,) Zlrhl1 setitll, p]. sUfen, Armour-plated ship.
jA.;j BarbetaU zirh'li, Armour-plated barbette ship.
jA.;j JJ'; QouleU zirh'li, A.rmour"plated turret ship.
w.r.l li Qalyon, I ... ine-of-battle ship.
, Firqatin, Frigate.
QOI"Vlt, Corvette. J! Jo Briq, Brig.
Golet, Brigantine. ..b r. Ga",bof, Gunboat.
).JSf.J.) Qrouazor, Cruiser. .uqoKfltJ, BchooDer.
c..>-!.J
t
TUJjar naviai, tUJjar ",a"""', Barque.
j.J\') Da-t"loumbazU "apor, Paddle boat.
J..n\.J .J...rÄ-!\ isqrou ",'apor, Serew steamere
.l, J! o.,;\; Tenezzu.h vaporou, Yot, Yacht.
Provinees ViI ayatt Shahanl.
(Jahaaourea se{ine, Full-rigged ship .
..:..j.- J';'\) QaraghoZ slfine, Guard ship.
JA.).) Ztrhli setini, An Iron-clad.
Saj gemi, Iron sbip.
(.>-4- Talim sefinesi, Training Bhip.
NaqZiye setimsi, Transport ship.
ur-;.5 Mesane gemisi, Surveying sbip.
449
4- >! Yoljou tashiyan seline, Paasengar ship.
-' !\ Torpido tstimOOtou, Torpedo boat.
,J ! \ Tahtelbahr torpido { Su bmarine torpedo
istim botou, boat.
Torpido Klehtrt, Torpedo eateher.
The Provinees (p. 126, 441) 4,\A\!,
J \J ' ..!-J.. 'JJ Vilayet, vali, Provinee, Governor-General.
'J\J Valigi jedid, The newly-appointed Vali.
Ju Vali vekili, The aeting Governor-General.
J\J Vali mouatrini, The assistant governor.
\J Liva, sanjaq; mUtesarrir, County; governor.
r Lal:; Qaza, qaymaqam, Distriet, sub-governor .
..f.....lA Nahiye, mudir, Parish, Mtldir.
Vilallet qapou Ketkhaudast, vu}g.-keh'yast, The
agent of the Governor-General.
lS./.,.l,. '.)\,)fl,) Deftirdar, mouhasebeji, mai mudiri,
The eomptrollers of revenue and expenditure in Vilayet,
Sanjaq and Qaza (p.352).
\ , lS./.,...lA , Mlktoubjou, tahrirat mudiri,
tahrirat kratibi, The chief seeretaries in Vilayet, Sanjaq
and Qaza.
Ji \l, , lS.J.>A t. Ji li, , (.$.J.>A t. jGb.- fl,) Deftlri khaqani mlmourou,
tapou memourou, tapou kiatibi, Registrar of Real-Estate
or Title-deeds (in Vilayet, Liva and Qaza).
U"',.,.a; , (.$.Jy t IJ"' U"'.,a: Noufous nastrt, 'MUrOUS me-
'Inourou, noufous kUitibi, Census-taker (in ViJayet, Liva
and (Who issue the Tezkeres and passports aI80.)
Turkish Conv.·Orammar. 29
450
r-i The OffieiaI Part.
J e.J Feragh. l1.
omi
siyOflOu, The qait claim
C0IllIIl1S810D.
Tahsilat qomisiyonou, Commisaion of
taxes.
J\ II Tahsildar, Tax-collector.
Mouhajireen qomisiyOflou, Commission
of immigrants.
Sandiq Imini, Treasurer.
u..li /lA Ma tah,ir 'Dirgi qaUmi, The boreau
L of cadastere.
u."".....! c.>...,üiL Zira'at banqasi shubhti, A branch of
. . the Agricultural bank.
(J,.r-:e'; ...r' u--:l..n Polis se; qomiseri, First commissioner
of Pohce. .
..r-:-'; Qomisb, Commissioner.
u--:lJi Polis, Poliee, policeman.
lJtturettish, Inspector.
Mehkemeyi sherlye, The court of Canon-
Law.
Mtifti, A judge of Canon-Law.
........ Uä; Mehkembyi nisamiye, mehkhntyi atlliyl,
.. .. The Judicial Court (pl. Mlhakim).
» ! ,-_:.t Nayib, merkez fiagilJt" Deputy judge.
. .
(from f> ' fb. ' Qadi, hakim, A jadge, magistrate.
'..ft.,... Mumeyyiz, Chief secretary.
. .-
, ,..;; .... ' \.iL;. , ,) Musevvid, khoule(a , mUbIy,u, JJIOt&-
... qayyia, Clerk.
Belediye mejUsi, Municipality.
6.lJ1 Belediyl regisi, Mayor.
.. ...
.. _' Beleaiye tab,öi, MunicipaIity doctor.
- -
<'sJ.".. l.. u=.' ' \ AshV', ash' memourou, Vaccinator.
<.SJ'...M Posta mudiri, Post-master.
Diplomatic Terms
';.J.J\ ' ' Se{ir, elchi, Orla elchi, Miniater.
\ .!l J!..f. Se{iri kebir, beoyU.k elchi, Am baasador.
Sefaret mUsteshari, The cOUDsellor of
legation.
lJtlaslahatgü.zar, Chuga d'affaires.
,. ..
Diplomatie Terms Diplo-masi Tabirati. 451
Bigeti slfaret, The personnel of the
Embassy.
Sefaretkhane, Embassy, legatiou.
BaBh kratib, The chief seeretary.
. .
J-JJ-';'; Qonsoloslar higeti, The consular corps.
, u-J,.,-; Jj QOJlsolos, shehbender, The consul.
.;4 ' u- Bash qonsolos, The consul-general.
Jr' , J:?J u-J,.,-;'; Qonsolos vekiii, The vice-coDsul.
J)':JJ-';} , JJ-.;j Qonsoloskhane, qO'l'lsolato, General-con-
sulate.
Qanchelarya, The ehancelJary.
\./. • Ta' atiyi tahrirat, Exchange of corres-
pondenee.
TahriTati reslnige, Offieia! correspon-
denee.
Tahrirati ghay,·' resmiye, Unoflicial
correspondenee.
, 0.) .. :--.) Soureti resmigeae, resmen, Offieially.
0,) .. :--_.) Soureti ghay'ri res1lliyede, Unofficially.
JlG\ M-abadelegi l(krar, Exchange of opin-
iODS (vie,vs).
JlG\ Mubayeneti efkrar, Divergency of opin-
iODS.
4..;- Muzekkereyi ou-moumiye, Consular dis-
patch.
y Mushterek nota, Collective note.
":Ali! õ..Jj,. , ./...;.L; Taqriri shifahi, Muzek- } V b 1 te
1.1 1 • h 0" h· 1 er a no .
. 1/. _ tw:rr::y'" S 'I a "'ye,
l).lai.J.!lJ-' Sonveqatiteklif,4ltimatoum,Ultimatum .
'& Soulh, musaleha, Peace.
o';-;} , Qonfe,·ans, qongre, Conference, congres.
Mourakh'khas, Plenipotentiary.
-ltc ' la.. Mouahlde, ahd' name, Treaty.
& Soulh mouaheaesi, Treaty of peaee.
Tijaret mouahedesi, Treaty of commerce.
Tazn.inat, Indemnity.
Tazminati harbiye, War Indemnity.
l)";'\.;\ Teslimi araei, Cession of territory.
99*
The Offieial Part. .... r
)l:...,\ lshghal, istigla, Occapation.
-
Takhl.ge, EVacuatiOD.
..
l. Mlezotmln, On farloagh.
..::-e Huktimlti mI81woutl, Conatitutional
goveroment .
.ülla.. ..:-. Hukumeti moutlaqa, Absolute govern-
ment.
Jumhouriyet, Republic.
l>-l-\ wjli Qanounou Isari, The constitution.
, wl:.r:-- Mejlisi meboU8an, parlafllltafo, The
Commolls .
..!J.r:-- Mebous, Deputy, delegate. Me P.
wl:f\ Mejlisi aga", Senate.
Mejlisi aya" aeas', Senator.
li ' .) Namsea, Qanaida, Candidate.
M1lntakhib, Elector.
\jf'..h \J '($\J Rey, pl. ara, reyllr, Vote, votea.
\JI Eksenylti ara, The majority of votes.
UT Aqalliyeti ara, Mioority of votea.
\ Tekli(, -et", Motion, to move.
Ekseriyet, Quorum.
($Jö.J .. i.':I.x Politiqa firqalari, Political partiea.
l>-..i"; Mouhafazakldran (irqasl, Consemtive
party. .
c.>-';.) J..; Teraqqi perfJeran (lrqast, Progreesin
party.
(.;1-';"; . ..:!-!.?" HourrigetperfJeranflrqad,Liberalparty.
..:-. Hukumit tarataaran', The supporten
. of the government.
..::-e Hukumet khilafgira"i, The Opposition.
.. "
rt", .J.) Firqayi aramtn, The Demoeratic party.
"
"';.J Firqayt jumho'Uriy/, The republieao
" party.
c.>-!..) I/'irqayt moukhalefl rlgiBi, The leader
• of t.he Oppo8ition.
Diplomatie Terms DiplomaBi Tabirati.
W Bouhrani rikela, A ministerial crisis.
TeblddiJlu tJiJkila, Change of ministry.
\ - ' li.:-\ IsUfa, - etmek, Resignation, to resign ..
\ Jy.' Jy. kl, azl etmek, Removal, to remove.
c.Au.; .J Nasbou tayin, Nomination.
-- .
.. et j Ter{iyi f'utbe, PromotioD.
wt!: y Tbvjihi nishan, Deeoration.
' .. Rutbe, stnif, Class, order.
J:i\ Achiq, Deficit. Bu,dge, Budget.
Basilat. varitlat. lneome.
Mesarifat, medfouat, Expenditure .

>\.-,6.. ..l.,;.J Fazlayi harilat, SurpIus.
c.
' Mouharebe, harb, '1'he war.
so
.. Mouharebeyi bahrige, Naval battle .

.. ! Jo 6t:,.. » berriye, Land battle.
<.
» dakhiliye, Civil war.
- .
w>\s:.\ Rani harb, A declaration of war.
c.
0) \ ,) \ Idareyi rorfiye, A state of aiege.
J li.; \ Ittifaqi muselles, The TripIe allianee.
.J JLt;\ Ittifaqi tedafigi 'De tejavouzi, An offen-
sive and defensive aHiance.
):J.J,) Mo'Uharib devletler, The Belligerent
. Powera.
"";.Jl... Dlvleti mouavine, Allied Power.
Bitaraf devlet, Neutral Power .
..;;;r Abloqa, Blokade. Mudarebe, Battle.
Mouhasere, Siege. Attack.
Istihkw,tn, qaJ,a, qaU, Fortress.
u.-J,JlÄ.. Teslim mouqavelesi, Capitulation.
Ghalebe, Vietory. Feth, Conquest .
.. s:)t:.. Mutareke, Armistice.
JU \ Beynel milel, Intel'national.
r-i The Offieial Part.
Festivals
Jt.; Allah Tae1a Burltim, JI- _
"abi Allah, Jenam Haqq, God, the Most High.
d: . G\' . 0\ ,\ J l! ShAri
f
} The Holy Trinity.
'-O.J J Selese
o-:f Eesa-el-Mesih, Jesus Christ.
UO' .. uH r.JJ Roultom Qoudous, The Holy Spirit.
. "-
"'''e • Kilise, Kilisegi Mesihiyl, Churcb,
.. .. .. .. Christian Churcb.
rY.. Yevmi makhsoUll, Anniveraary.
r-J SelamUq reami alisi, The ceremony of
.. Selamliq Ca public procession of the
Sultan to mosque at noon on Friday) .
..l.f' Eed, pl. ayad festival. Bayra,,!, or
JewIsh festival.
ry. Ylvmi velaaet, The birthday.
j..r \"'\ Isifll. fJ'itn·u, Tbe name-day.
c.>!. J:-! ' Sim basht, yil bas7&t, The New Year's Day.
wY.t,.. Veladlti Humayou,n, The Birthday of
Sultan.
wY. t,.. UO' fo:. Ji'tlo'Usou Hu mayo un, The accession of
H. I. S.
j Zati Shahaneniff, qtl,j qoushaflmas', The
investiture of H. M. with the 8WOrd
_ of the
\ Qiltj alaJ/i, The ceremony ofinvestiture.
j';;,) ,) \jr. Sllahzadegtäniff, sf1nnet dtlytlml, The
. circulllcision feast of the Ilnp. princes.
cJp,) sUnnit d4l1tlml, A
ClrcumClSlon feast.
W.;;,) , Veleeme jlnligylti, dUyUK, The wOOding .
.. s:jL.. aU :.u Leyley·i mubareke, pl. Uyaliyi wibarBcl,
. .. ... The Holy night, - nights.
,)J.r' ,)).r Met'Zoudoun nebi, mevloud, The birth-
. day of the Prophet.
C..,.,-. , Leyletul miraj, miraj gljesi, The Night
of the Ascent of the Prophet (26
th
co Rejeb).
4u Leyletul Ragayib, leyleyi Bagayib, The
. .. Night of the first Friday of Rajab,
regarded as the anniversary of the
conception of the Prophet.
,,-ee Festivals ve Y01·toular. 455
' Berat gejesi, The Night of Absolution,
the Night of the 5th of Shaban, in which the re-
velation was communicated to Muhammed by the
angel Gabriel.
J.ri Qandil gej/ai, Any Night of general illumination for a
Moslem festival, ofwhieh there arefour: Muhammed's
Birthday, Conception, Nigbt-ascent and Absolution.
';-Ü '.;» , .;.lÄ1 \ Le'!llet' ul qadtr, le'!lle' '!Ii qadir, qadir'
gejes'i, Qadr gejesi, The Night of Power, name given
to the night of Ramazan .
.l..J\ Leylet'ul eed, The night preceding either of the two
.. - days of Bayram.
f Arete, The day preceding the two following Bayrams.
fo ' ,-=,A c.Jl.,d..,;')ai Eedi fitir, Ramaza", ha'!lrami,
Sheke1· bayrami, The festival at the end of the fast
of Ramazan. (The first three days of Shaban.)
.kl:.. Eedi adha, Qourban ba,lrami,
Hajilar bayrami, The Moslem festival of saerifiee,
the Great Bayram faHing on 10-13 of Zilhijje.
co co
..i.r ' Khirqayi Sherif, Khirqayi Sa-adet, The
mantle of Muhammed, given to the poet Kla'b.
co
wY.t.- Sourreyi The yearly gifts for
.. Mecca and Medina.
Mevkibi Hajji Sherif, The Sacred Caravan for the
Holy Lands of Islam.
Christian Festivals (j.,kJJ!)
.!JftF Meell!di Eesa, Kuchuk Pasqal,la,'

, (.;..-";..r .)>\:- Meelf!'di Eesa arefesi, Ehitom, The
Chrlstmas Eve.
, 0"-5" ' Qarnaval, Et kesimi, Barqandan, The
... earniva!.
.!J y"y. Beoyuk Perhiz, The Lent.
4.)\"; , .!J y..y. Pasqalya, Zadig, Easter.
( (..:r' 4- rE..r OuroujouHazretiEesa,TheAscension.
Eedul Khamseen, Khamseen hayramt,
- - .. The feast of Pentecost.
'\.r\» Qouddas, Qoudda' si Sheri(, The Eu-
charist.
($l!c. Asha'yi Babhani, The Lord's Suppere
The Offieial Part.
.... ,
Jewish Festivals
j-J..rb.. KhamourBotU FW'A', The Jewish
Passovere (15 NUlBaft.)
,;/.' ,-:-,\J.,J'; Ohorab bayrami, K.ipour, 'fhe feast of Aton8-
ment. (10 Tishn.)
' u=...G Qamish bayrami, Soukkot, The reast of Tabel-
•. naeles. (15 TiBhriJ
r\..J\I oJti Qara bayram, 'fhe Jewish fast for the dee-
... _. truetion of J (9 AbJ
, .. f GUl The Jewish Pentecost. (6 BifJ4f1J
, ft Shlktr bayrami, Pourim, The festival ofPurim.
(14 Aaar.)
Orders of the Ottoman Empire
\S).A.!.J; 0l.!.; t.:.... ...
.. .. ..
1. J\ ]{haneooni Ali Osman: Star in brillianta (Jlou-
rassa r/), established by Baltan Hamid.
2. jt!; ErtoY"oul nishani: Gold, established by 8ultan
Hamid.
s. Jb.:.:i\ 0l,!j 1ftikhar: Star in brilliants, estabIished bJ
Bu1tan Mahmoud.
4. ju.\ 0l!.i [rnt'gaz: Star in brilliant.s, establisbed by
• Sul tan Hamid.
5. 0L!; Ntshani Osmanee: Star in brilliants, 1, 2, S, "',
established by Sultan Abdtll Aziz.
6. 0l.!; Nfshant Mejidee: Star in brilliants, 1, 2, S, "', 5.
established by SuItan Majid.
7. 0l.!; Ntshani Shlfaqat: The onlyorder conferred on
ladies 1, 2, 3, estab1ished by Bultan Hamid.
Medal s )4.JI..l.A
..
1. Gold medal of LiyaqtJt.
\.lA j l:=.e \ 2. Gold and silver medala of Im'"tu.
\.lA c:.l:,., 3.» » » » :. IfItluery.
0\,;GJ} 4. Silver medal for saving life.
5.» » »Iftikhar.
The Different Ranks in the Ottoman Empire
.. ..
JJ'


}

Note. 1. The title-holders are called p = paaha, = b = bey, a = agha,.
2. Ruteb is the pIuraI of rUtbl (grade, degree'. B4tebi MilleigI = Milleige B4tbeUri.
r'

<


"'
..
<::)ot
...


"'
a. ..
....



...

..
c$

..

...

....



-.J
458 r-i The Official Part.
Civil Grades MUkiye BUtlJIfIbi
1. Vezaret, Vezir, The Rank of Vezir (the highest civil grade).
2. Rutbeyi Bala, 'fhe Rank of Hala .(bey, effena,).
3. Butbeyi Oula stni{i e'l.'vel (bey, e{fend'J yakhod Boumlli Blylh
. beyi payes·i (biy, effend",), The Rank of 1st grade, claes.
4. Rtttbeyi Oula ainiti sani (effendi) yakhod Mmmiran PoyIsi
(pasha), 1
s
t grade 2nd class or the rauk of Mirimiran.
5. Rutbeyi Saniye sini(i MJvll Mutemayizi (ifftmdi) yakhod MiyrfJ
'ltmera payesi, 2nd class M dtemayiz or the Rank of Miyrdl
dmera.
6. Rutbeyi Saniye sini{i sani (etfendi) yakhod Stab" Amire Mütlir-
liyi payesi, 2nd clast; 2nd grade.
7. Rutbeyi Salise (effendi) yakhod Riktäbt HUfllayoUft QapOtÜou
bashilight payesi (effenaf), 3rd claes.
8. Riltbeyi Rabiya (lffend't), 4th class.
9. R'lttbeyi Khanzise (effend·i), 5th class.
Milital'Y and Naval Grades .Askeriye BlltbeUrl
1. Mushirlik, MfJ.shir (pasha), Marshal = AdmiraI (p. 44:4).
2. Feriq, Ileriqi evvel (paslla), General of Division I. rank.
3. Feriqi sani (pasha), Gen. of Division II. rank = Vice Admiral.
4. Mi"iliva, Liva pasha, General of Brigade = Rear Admiral.
5. Miralay (bey), Colonel = Captain.
6. Qaymaqam (effendi, bey), Lieutenant Colonel = CaptaiD of
frigate.
7. Biftbashi (effendi, beg), Major == Commander.
8. Qol aghasi (effend",), Adj. Major = Lieutenant Major.
9. Y-a.zbashi (en-endi, agha), Captain = Lieutenant.
10. Mttlazim (agha), Sublieutenant == Suhlientenant.
Grades of Religions Hierarchy Ilmiye B6DJeleri
1. Sadri Roumeli yak hod Rourneli Qazaske'l·Uyi Payeri (#flrul.),
The Rank of the Chancellor of Roumeli (corresp. to Arch-
bishop): The Vice-Chancellor of Turkey (p. 438).
2. Sadrt Anadolou yakhod Anadolou QazaskArliyi pay/ai (lfrlrul'h
The rank of the chancellor of Anadolou (corresp. to
3. Istanbol Qadilighi payesi (effena",).
4. Haremeyni Sherifeyn payesi (etrend",).
5. Biladl Khamse mevleviyeti payesi (etrena",j.
6. Makhrej mevleviyeti payesi (effendi).
7. K ibari Mllde.rriseen payesi (effendi).
8. SiileYfnaniye Madounounda muderriseen paye8;' (etf_di).
9. Hoja, Khoja payesi (etrendi).
Official Titles Elqabi Resmiye. 459
Offieial litles
.. .
There are expressions to denote (His Imp.
Majesty the Sultan', the followings are much in use:
, ,
. , :t..l.7.i\ . .#I\'!',)L • • . J.J' . · . J.J
..r .J -T- ..r ':'
· Jl:- rf J...l:.!\
Zatt. hazreti Padishahi, Zati hazreti .fihantlaTi, Zatt. hazreti
shlhinshahi, V llinimetimiz, Velinimeti1niz Padishahimtz etfendimiz,
Shlvketmeab efflndimiz, Shevketlou Paaishahimtz effendimiz, Zati
Shevketsimati hazreti giyti sitani.
Imperial:
. ' ' ..,;(,l. ,. ., , lS.)\,.li\ -- 'JL;\ -- ,
':' c.J.}!
' or ' , etc.
Padishahi, Shahane, MulukUine, Humayoun,
Seniye, Jihandari, Jihanbani, Shehinllhahi, Tajdari or Padisha-
hileri, Shahaneleri, MulukraneleTi, etc.
Especial titles of the Mother-Sultana (Valide sultan
aliyetush'shan hazretleri):
p'l:s:. ):l.J,)
Of Foreign Ernperors and Kings:
,).)\.J,) \ ):...!:. J\) 0l:-..l:.A
Hindistan Inlpe,'atorou ve Ingilterra QtraU Hashnzetlou Albert
Edward hazretleri. (H. M.)
! b Hashrlletpenaha'! Sire!
Of the Shah of Persia:
0\ J.. \ (H. M.)
Of the Imperial Princes:
):l.J,) CH. l. H.)
Of the Khedive of Egypt, the Presidents of
Republics and the Grand vizier:
}:J.J,) Fekhametlou devlttlou Effendi'lll
hazretleri. (H. H.)
Zati fekha1netSttnati hazreti
Sadri Azami.
Of the Ex-Grand viziers:
):JJ,) A\ Ubhetlou devletlou Pasha kazTetleri.
460 t.,>"'-.) 1.lle Officia! Part.
Of Foreign Ambassadors:
(.) Y j.J \ ,-",'1 ) ):.J t-, \
Of the Sherif (governor) of Mecca and Medina:
t>);..rd> ):.J.J,) (H. H.)
Of the Eunuch of the Imperlal Palace:
fo,.l:J:. );J.J,) (H. H.)
()f the Minister of War and the Husbands of
Imperial Princesses:
r.ci\ );J.J,) (H. H.)
Of the Grand Marshal (Sel"da" Ekrem):
t>fl..rd> P \.) ."l:l.J') (Excellency)
Of Functionaries of Civil and Military Grades.
, Of Marshals and Viziers:
<.Sfi..rd> }:J.J,) (Excelleney)
Of the Governors General (Valis):
<.Sj;..rd> P }:J.J,) (Excelleney)
, Of funetionaries of Bala, of the Imperial Chamber-
lains, of the Premier Secretary of H. I. M. and of the
President of the Couneil of State:
r.ci\ PP (Excellency)
,.. Of Generals of Division Vice-Admirals,
and of the functionaries of the First grade of the BUt-
O·ula, and of Roumel·i Bi1Jler Begiligi:
rri\ .Jl.;')l.- (Excellency)
", Of Brigadier-Generals (Miriliva), Rear-Admirals
and the functionaries of the 2
nd
grade Rutbeyi Oula and
the Mtl.tf:sa
'
rr·lfs:
rJ.:.j\}-7,)\'-
o Of Captains of ships (Miralag), fune-
tionaries of )ltrtenzayiz and QaY'Inaqams:
t>).;..rd> rJ.:J\ P f
Offieial Titles Elqabi Besmiye. 461
, Of functionaries of Rutbeyi Saniye, of Lieutenant-
Ooloneis, Captains of Frigates and the Director of the
Imperial Stables:
\&.\ or or <.Sri\):..:r-
v Of Majors (.Binbashi,), Commanders (Captains of
Corvettes), Mitdirs and Intendants of Regiments (Alay
Emini): or <.S.l:i\ or
It. Of Adjutant-Majors, functionaries of Rabiga,
Lieutenant-Commanders and Captains:
or <.S.l:i\ or ;;?
, To those who are below the above functionaries:
or <.S..c..;\ or H
Of Moslem Clergy.
Of the Sheiykh-ftl Islam:
r.ci\ ):\,),)
Given by Clergy:
<.s J.j"
Given by laymen:

Of each Ex-Sheykh-ul Islam:
):\J,)
t " Of the Judges of Rourneli and Anatolia:
r..c..;\
,.. Of the Istanbol Qadisi and the Judges of
Canon Law: r.J.:i\
'L., 0,' Of the functionaries of Haremeyn etc.:
<.S.J.:i \
v Of the functionaries of Mftderriseen (Doctors of
Theological Seminaries): <.SJ.:.i\
It.' , Of the functionaries of the 8
th
and 9
th
grade:
<.S.J.:i \ ;; ;.;
462
The Offieial Part.
... "
Of Chelehi Effendi (the Sheykh occupying the post
of MeyIana Jelaleddini Roumi at Iconium): .
<.S..ci\};.)l!.:)
Non-Moslem Clergy.
Of the Catbolieos, Patriarchs, Bulgarian Exarch
and Grand·Rahbi:
<.S);...rd> <.S..ci\ ! \.l·\".;.J Rutbetphuihal
Of the Chancellor of Protestants (Millet Vektltl:
<.s ).; r.>..:i \ j.;.) la-
()f Archbishops and Bishops:
r.d\
Of Pastors, Missionaries, Chief Priests and Priests:
c.S.J..:i\ given by Mos)ems <.S.J.:.i\):..-..r
Commercial Terms 4J)\l
.. .
Accept (to) qabottl et."
aecepter qab01tl eden; - ted '111aq-
bO'l.tJo'U,m d OU1°.
account hisab, '1110'lthasebe; -eur-
rent Jtisabi jari; on- alel hisab.
aequittal lbra·n,a1ne, -ibloa senedi.
action Jtisse sen ed i.
address adres, khitab.
advanee peshin, teslirnat.
advise et."; letter of ad-
vice ikhbar1Ul1ne, ikhtal'narne.
agent agenta,
agio aqje fa-rqi, bash.
agreement o'UzlasJuno.
allowance lkrarn.
amount meblaglt, lJara.
assets nlevjoud, -at,. 1natloubat.
assuranee sigou.rt(t, tle'lllina·t.
a verage (f,·varya, -1nali.
:BaH, to be - kefa.let, -et."
balanee ·ulut'azbte, -difteri, bi-
lancho; baqiJleyl hisab, bor).
bank banqa; -shares esham;
-note qayitnl, banqnot.
banker bankel",
bankrupt, -ey 1nullis, iflits.
bargain pazarliq.
barrel fJa1·il, (ich ..
bearer han,il.
bill of exchange qambiyal,polir1ta j
- of larling irsaliyl qa1JfllUi.
blank indorsement big" jWo.
bonds taht'il, sehim,· esAaml ON-
moumiye, qonsolid.
bottomry gerninifl UrAitai.
brevete, chartered Wratl,.
broker dellal, simsare
hrokerage dellaliye, rimBtJn,&
budget i1"ad masraf ae(tIN,1Y4t1JI.
bulletin jldvel, potl,sou1a.
buresu qalern, idarBeham.
business oumour, isA.
buy satin almaq, ühtira.
buyer mftshteri, aliji.
Cn pital sennaye, rh(dmal.
cargo ha-moule, '!lfik.
cash pa ra; in - pe8nin, fIlIqtUn.
certifirate ilmoukhablr, ,AlluMliit-
-na1nf.
change tebdil, bozma.
eharter berat, imtigaz.
chattel entvali minqoule.
Commercial Terms lsUlahaa Tujjanyl. 468
ch eek chek,. eoin sikke, para.
eommeree tijaret, akhzouita.
eommereial tltjjari,. -la'w canonou
tijaret.
eommission qomisiyon; -er qo-
misiyonjou, -tujjar.
company qoumpanya, shirket.
consols qonsolid, esham.
contract mooqavele, qonlourato.
copy qopya, nuskhe.
corresponuenee moukhabere;
-dant rnookhabir, adem.
course of exchange piatsa.
eredit qredito, itiba1·,. matloub;
on - veresiye.
creditor alajaqli, dayin.
corrency rayij aqje, para.
customgeomruk,rou,sou1n;- house
geom1·uk, rousoomat dayiresi.
costomer mushteri, bay·i.
Damage zarar, ziyan, khasar.
days of grace musaade, tnuhlet.
dear bahali, fiyatl1,.
debt deyn, borj.
debit zimmet, duyounat; (to)
zimmet qayd et."
debtor medyoun, borjlO1t.
deduction tenzil, tarh'.
deficieney achiq.
delay teikhir; without - bila
seriyan.
demurrage istalya.
deposi temanet, deposito.
destination tIIahalli maqsoud.
discount isqonto, tenzU.
dissatisfaction khoshnoudsooz-
louq.
dissolution feskh, laghv.
dividend hisseyi temettu, kwrdan
dushen hisseo
dooble ehitte; -entry muzaaf.
draft qambiyal, poUtsa.
draw a bill (to) politsa ehlkmek,
- back geomruk resminifl, iya-
desi.
dra"Ter keshideji.
due teediyesi lazim gelen.
dupJicate nil.skheyi saniye.
Endorsement jiro, havale.
error sehv', khata, yane1.sh.
exchange ejnebi piatsasi, - poUt-
sasi,. ?'tHlbadele, trampa.
exporis ikhrajat.
Factor qomisiyonjou.
fair panayir.
finaI gati, son.
firm tijaretkhane.
foreign Ijnebi.
forestaller madrabaz, muhUkir.
freight hamoule, yitk ; (to) gem·i
yukletmek, tahmil et."
fund meblagh, aqje; sermaye,
re81llmal.
Gain kUir, qazanj, temettu; net-
sali temittt1, safi ktar.
goods esh-ya, male
guaranty kefalet, lee-lil.
Honour (politsayi) gaboul et."
Import(ation) idkkalat.
imputable tenzili lazim gelen.
indemnity tazminat.
indorsement jiro, kavale.
indorser jiranta, jiro edene
insuranee sigO'll,rta, teeminat.
insured sig01l,rtali.
interest fayiz, g(J,zeshte.
inventory mufredat defteri.
invoice fatoura, qayinll.
Letter tahrirat, mektoub.
liability borj.
licence roulchsat, behiye.
loss zara1·, ziyan.
Maker medYO'ltn, keshideji.
mark ma1·qa, alamet.
market charsht" piyatsa.
maturity vadenilt ikmalt.
memorandum hisab pousoulasi.
merchandise mal, emta'a.
merchant tujja1', tajir.
money aqje, naqU.
monopoly inhisar.
mortgage rehin, vera.
N egotiable geeher, rayij.
net sali; isqontosO'l.tz.
Offer satligha chiqarilan mai.
office ida1"ekhane, oda.
order emr, stpartsh.
Package paket.
partner sherik, ortaq; -ship shir-
ket, ortaglUJ..
patent berat, imtiyaz.
pattern mostra, rornek.
pawn, pledge rehin.
payable teediyesi meshrout olan.
464 The Offieial Part.
payee aiVi, ha·n,il.
payment teediye, eda. [qonli
personal property enu:aU me-n.-
post posta, - vaporou; - office
postahane; - order mantla.
power of attorney vektaleename.
priee (igat, qiytnit, baha; -eurrent
(igat. ja,.i, rayij.
principal str1nalle.
protest proteato.
Quality nlv, jins.
Real esta te e"u;ali gayri .,n enqml le,
mal ",tt.lk.
ratifteation tasdiq.
reeeipt ilnlouhaber, ·maqbouz; on-
ba ilmouhaber.
referenee mt' tijal·itkhani haq-
qinda ve,.ilen sheha-
det.
reimbursement fesliln, tee.dlyl..
rent ijar, kira.
respoDsi ble misoul.
responsibility nlesouliyet.
retail perakhuie sattsh.
J'eturn a·vdet, iyadi.
Sale satish, sarfigat, Stl,·U?1l.
sell satmaq, fit'm,kht etmel·.
seller bayi, satiji.
satisfaction mbntaouniyM.
securi ty 1ct/U, 1cefalet.
S. G. D. G. (saDa garanti du
gouvernment) tA-
etni·nati olmaqBidn.
ship gemi, 811inl; -ment tMtnü,
yfJklemei (to) tahmü It."
letmek.
simple 8ap,,' adi.
sign imzalamaq.
signaturc imza.
smuggled qachaq (nUll, t4M,,).
solid qafJBe.
stam p : postage. poBta POtIlOtI j
revenue- damga potdou, HttiJl
poolou.
stoek hisse, his8e 8baldi.
superior ala, agMr (mai). .
Titledeed tapou Blnldt'.
trade mark alamlti fariqa.
trustee vasi,
Ultimo maht 8abiq, gic1aln a,.
usu ry tirejilik.
VVarehouse
warranty lc4faUt.
weigh tartmaq, 1)kn It."
weight aghirliq, BtqUt.
wholesale topaatl 8f.JttBA.
~ , .
Voca bulary.
Abandon (to) braq1naq, a. terk et."
abate (to) ashagk" varmaq, cht-
qarmaq, a. tenzil et."
abili ty a. qabiliyet, iqtidar " qou-
dret.
able R. qadir, muqtldir.
abIutioIl p. abdest.
abode ev, p. khane, s. mesken.
sbolish (to) a. loghv, makv, im-
ha et."
aborninable p. napak, mourdar.
about a. dayir; taqriben.
above yoqari, yoqarda; ustun.
absence 8. ghayboubet; fiqda'n,
yoqlouqo
absent a. ghayib, na?llevjoud.
8 bsolute 8. moutlaq, tllustaqil.
absolutely a. qatiyan, kulliyen,
as' la.
abstain (to) a. ijtinab et.", p. per-
hiz et.", perhiz toutmaq.
abstinence a. ijtinab, p. perhiz
ktarltq; a. imsak, orouj.
abundant bol, choq, a. kesi-r.
abuse (to) R. i(sad et.", bozt1aaq.
abyss a. varta, lujje, q'ar.
acadenlY p. enjii,meni danish,
f. aqademiya; 8. 1nektehi ali.
accept 8. qaboul, akhz et.", al-
rnaq, a. razee olmaq.
access 8. tlqarroub, a. doukhoul.
aeeident a. qaza, vouqouat, hadise.
acclivity yoqoush, bayir.
aceompany a. rifaqat, arqadash-
Uq et."
aeeord (to) a. itt1°faq et."; 'l:ermek.
aecording (to) ... a geore, binaen,
nazarln.
account a. hisab, mou'arnele.
aeenlllulate (to) birikdü'mek, s.jlm
et."; yighnzaq, toplanlaq.
Turkish CODy.-Grammar.
aeeurate dogkrou, p. dUrUst,
s. sahih'.
aeeusBtion 8. shik(õ,yet, ittiham.
aeba aghri, B. vlj'a.
aeid ekshi; a. hamiz.
aekno,vledge 8. iqrar, 'I? tira(;
ta"imaq; 8. tasdiq etmek.
aeorn palamout.
aequire (to) tahsil et.",. ro'!lrm-
mek.
aerOS8 taraftfldan; arqiri.
aet (to) a. hareket et."; etmek, yap-
maq.
aet; aetion ish, a. (i'il; p. jeng.
aeti ve ishgUzar ; (verb) a. {i'ili
muteaddi.
aetually 8. (ilhaqiqa, sahihm;
(now) skimai.
aeute sivri, klskin; 8. (Itin, (an gl e)
a. zaviye'!li hadde.
adamant polad.
adapt (to)ouydourmaq, a.motlva-
fiq qilmaq.
add(to) qatmaq, 8. zamm, ilavl et."
adder engerek yUant
addition 'ilave; (arith.) jim'.
adieu 1 8. e'!lrallah, .Allaha ismar-
ladiq, f. adiyo.
adjeetive a. si/et, vasf.
administer a. ida re etrnek; vermek.
admiral amiral, bahriye 'nnlshiri.
admire (to) beyerl'lllek, 8. taksinet."
admit (to) a. qaboul It."
adore (to) tapiflmaq, p. peres-
tish et."
adult beoy-b,k, aqla baligh.
adultery 8. zina, f a l ~ ' shiyat.
advantage a. fayide, kiar, isti-
fade.
adversary a. khasim, 'adou,
p. ditshmln.
30
466 Vocabulary LouUhlt-cl11.
... "
advice a. nasihat; kll,a'ber.
advocate, t. (tl:oqat, (laDa vekili.
- (to) a. iltizam, istis-hab, tervij et."
aftair ish, a. ,n aslal"at ; p. jlng.
afrection a. mouha1Jbet,houbb; illlt.
affiance (to) a. a1tli nikw,h, et."
afrray gh,aDgha, a. niz' a.
afrront R. tahqir, h'lqaret et.",
t. gujendirnzek.
aforesaid a. salif iz zikr, ,,.,,ezkur.
afraid (to be) qorqmaq, a. khat'"
et."
after sOff,ra, a. ba.denou, badlnla.
afternoon ikindi, a. badez zeval.
again bir daha, a. tekrar, tekraren.
age yas"", a. sinn; a. asr, tUDr,
Iyam.
agent a. vekil, adem, f. aglnta.
agitator a. moull,arr·ik, mlttsid.
agony a. iztirab; haletun nl:'.
agree a. qavl, ittifaq et.", razi ol."
agriculture a. zira'at, renjblrlik.
ague sitma.
ah! akh!, aman! vakh.
aid yardim, a. mouaDenet, imdad.
aim (to take) p. nishan almaq.
air a. hava, havayi
alarm qorqou, a. iztirab, heyejan.
aias I Iyvah! yaziq!
alderman 8. aya"" sahibi noufou,s.
algebra a. ilmi jebr, jebr.
alien a. Ijnebi, t. yadirghi.
aIike a. mushabih, betizer.
sUve diri, sagh, a. hayy'.
all kep, a. jamle, jemi, klllli.
alleviate (to) a. takhfif et."
alley dar soqaq, chtqmaz.
allianee a. ittifaq, ittihad.
allow a. izin, roukhsat ve.rlltek.
allowance a. tayin, ta.yinat.
almanac a. taqvim, p. salnal1te.
almond badem.
almost heInan, az qaldi.
alms a. sadaqa, eeyane, zekiat.
alone p. tenha; yaliliiz.
alond pek, p. avazi [nUend ile.
alphabet eli(be, a. houroulou heja.
already a. zaten; p. henouz.
also da, dakhi, a. kezalik.
altar H. nlezbah.
alter (to) n. taghyir, tcbdil et."
t. deyishelirlnek.
. althoagh hlr neqadar, p. lyerc1&i.
altitude yu,"kseklik, a. "rtira.
altogether R. jl1mleten, tlmam/n.
alum shab, sheb.
always a. dayi,na, p. 'MmisM.
ambassador p.llch;', &. sl/ir.
am ber p. kehruba, kthribar.
ambergris a. 'anblr, a,nblr.
ambition a. ''''rsi shan, iqbal pI-
"estUk.
amble (to) ral&van, 11Mi,., yorg1a(J.
gltmlk. [gIäh.
ambuscade t. fJOlI'Oll, p. kiliiin·
amiable a. latif, p. kAos'h, t. tdtZl.
ammunition p. jebhafll.
amount a. yek4ft;
ample bol, joshgou", a. kiri,.
amulet a. ",ouskha, tiZirim, Mma·
amuse (to) eyZlndirmBc. ['la.
ancestor a.jlddj (pl.) aba ouljOOrl.
anchor dlmir, lenglr.
anchovy sartUla, sardalya.
ancient a. qadim, t. I,ki.
ankle topouq, a. ktab.
anecdote a. hikiayl, lati,l, qllsl.
angel a. tntlek, melallikl.
anger a. hiddJt, khirs, t. idfkl.
angle a. zaD;,ge, p. kidshea
angry dargMn, p. ghualnatJk.
animaI a. hayvan.
annals a. tankla, (pl.) tbarith ..
annoy (to) a. taji. It."', osaradir-
annual yUliq, a. smevi. [ .. aq.
ans\ver 8. je"OO, p. pasoukA.
ant qarinja, p. tnoureM.
antagonist a. moukharim, mqib.
antelope jeyran, jeylan, p. ""ou.
antichrist a. dejjaZ.
anvil lõrs, sal.
anxiety p.lndisW, a. MNBI.
ape maymou,n, p. kebi.
apology lõzur; a. tareigl; .Udt.a-
apoplexy damla, a. nUnlI. [(a'a.
apostate 8. mUrtlad vulg.JJIOMrlad.
apostle a. rlsoul, harNI" (of
Christ). [mlydatlda.
apparent a. :ahir, p. tJBhikiar,.
appeal a. khitab; m4najat.
appear (to) georlinmek; &. eGhir,.
p. numayan ol."
appearanee georunz'ish, a. soarit,.
shekl; zouko"r.
Vocabulary Loughet-che. 467
appendix a. 'ilave, zarnirne.
appetite a. ishtiha, vulg. ishtah.
apple elma, (of eye) g{õz bebeyi.
appoint (to) a. nasb, tay'in et."
apprentice oushaq, p. shayird.
apricot (dry) zerdali, (fresh) qa-
yist.
apron p. peshtimal, (ota.
.Arabian, -bic arabi, arabja.
arch kimer, p. taq.
arch bishop nzitropolit, arachnort.
archer p. ke.nlankesh, tirendaz.
arebiteet a. nlimar, qaZra, p. ousta.
arigbt doghrou, 8. saUm, sahih.
arithmetie a. ilmi hisab.
arU1 qol, p. bazou; a. sUah.
arIUY ordou, p. leshker.
arrange R. terlib et., t. dizmek.
arri val gelish, R. vurud, v'ltsUl.
arsenal f. tersane.
art a. renn, pl. funan, sana'at.
artery shah da1nar, a. sheryan.
artichoke enginar, gangar.
artiiieer a. esnaf, ehli sana'at.
artificia11/apma, a. soun'i; taqlid.
artillery toplar, topjou e.slihasi.
ascend R. sou'oud et.", ehiqmaq.
aseertain a. tahqi.q et."; yoqlamaq.
ashamed (to be) outanmaq, a. hi-
Jab et."
ashes kuI, p. rlrnad.
ask sormaq, a. istifsar, sival et."
ass eshek, p. khar, a. merkeb.
assassi n qanli, a. qatil, p. khoun-
riz.
assistyardtnl, a.mou'avenlt, ianl.
assuredly a. (ilhaqlqa, haqiqaten.
astray yoldan sapnli.sh, gumrah.
astrologer a. mitnejjim, t. baqijt
astronomy ilmi hiyet.
atom a. zerre, jevhlr; juz.
at one a. keraret et."
atrocity a. z{Um, mezali'1n.
attack a. hiijl1m, hamle. [et."
attempt(to) ehaUshmaq, a. tejribe
attend, (UpOll; a. khiz1net et."; (to)
3. haZtT ol." .
attention a. diqqat; khass douI'!
attract a. jezb et.", cheknzek.
auction a. fnlzad, rnuzayede.
augment artirnulq, a. teksir et."
August (month) arosdos, okosdos.
aunt (paternal) a. eme; (DlaternaI)
teyze, 8. hala.
Austrian nemelu!,
author mu el lif, muharrir.
auxiIiary ya'1'dimji; (verb) 8. ftyli
iyani, fiyli 'anlm (§ 272, 309).
avenge 8. t. intiqam almaq.
avenue a. jadde.
await beklemek, 8. fllountazi'l' ol."
awake ouyanmaq.
8we qorqou, R. dehshet, heybet.
axe balta, girebi.
8xis a. mih'Ver.
axle dingil.
azure lajiverd, achiq mavi, grov.
Baby beblk, chojouq, chagha.
baehelor ergen, 8. azab, bBcrar.
baek arqa, Si1·t, 8. vera.
baekgammon talilou.
bacon do1louz pasdlrmast
bad a. fena, p. bed, t. krotu.
baga.kese, chouval; khourj,heybe.
baggage p'lri pirtt, ptrti., 8. eshya.
baH a. kefil. bait
bake pishirrnlk, 8. tabkh et."
baker lkrlllkji, fourounjou.
halanee 8. terasi, p. fnizan.
baleony f. baIcon, p. shahnishin.
bald daz bashli, das, p. kel.
ball top, glllle; qourshou'n; f. balo.
ball oo n f. balon.
ballot a. qour' a.
band bagh, p. bend; taqitn;
bandage sarghl. [fo banda.
bank sou kenar-1, qtyt; 8. sedd;
f. banka.
banker a. sarraf, f. banker.
bankru pt a. ntitflis, meohluz.
banner bayraq, 3. alhn.
banquet a. ziyafet.
baptism f. vaftiz, 8. ta'mid.
bar ehoubouq, sir1.q.
barbarian 8. vah' sh. i, yabani.
bar ber berber.
bare ehlblaq, a. uryan, t. achlq.
barefooted yalill ayaq, p. berhene
bargain pazarUq. [pay.
barge ma'vouna; mayet vaporou.
bark aghaj qaboughou; (of dog)
urtunlk, ha'Vlamaq.
barley arpa, a. shayir.
barn a. p. anbar, antbar.
30*
468 V'oeabnlary LoughJt-che.
barometer R. 'mizan ul hava,
f. baronletroo
barraeks qishla.
barrel (l·chi, f. vare?, varil.
barrow el arabasi.
barter trampa, deyi8h
base alchaq, &. (rdna, deni, p. khor;
(foundation) daban, a. esas;
f. baso (ses).
bashful outanjaq, 8. mahjoub.
b&sin p. a. kwse, chanaq.
basket seped, a. zenbil.
bastinado dayaq, 8. falaqa.
bastion 8. ta' biye, tabya.
bat cho'lnaq; yarase, gl1je qous7&ou.
bath &. ham'man" s-ijaq.
battalion tabour. [ghavgha.
battle &. fllouharebe, p. jeng,
bay (gulf) klõrfez, (colour) dorou.
bayonet sttngu, p. nize.
beacon R. minare, p. nishan.
beam kirish; (of sun) p. ptfrtev.
bean a. baqla; f. fasoulya.
bear ayi; (to) dayanmaq, geatitr-
'nze.'k, R. tehal1lmul et:'
beard saqal, p. rish.
bearer a. hanlil.
beast a. hayvan; p. ja'lltf.T.
beat deoymek; boz'lnaq.
beautiful g'ilzf!l, p. dilblr.
beaver qoundouz.
bed yataq, deosheg.
bee ari, 8.
beef stgh-ir eti.
beet root pa-n}ar,
beggar dill-nji, a. sayil.
begin bashlamaq, a. ·iptidar et."
behead bash I.-nt kesnzek, a. qatl.
behold! ishte, nah 1, 'Ila!
believe (to) inanmaq, inlan et."
bell (small) ch ingtrdaq ; (large)
clzaf1" qanlpana; (of R time-
bello,,·s kto-ruk. [piece) zil.
belly qarin, a. batn, bat'in.
beloved a. 'Inallboub, 1I1as7l,ouq;
(fem.) a. masltouqa, mallboube.
belt khner, qayish.
bend eymek,
benediction bereket dou'asl.
benefactor en'endi, a. veli niymet.
bereave (to) R. 'Inahroom et."
berry p. dane, a. lzabbe.
beseeeh yaltJarmaq; 8. Ut.tl a, rljfJ I
et."
besides, -dan ma' aa, -OO" btu1lqtJ.
besiege a. mou"haserl et."
better egi, tlaka eyi, p. biA'tm-.
bi ble a. kitabt mO'lUltJdtUs.
big beagUk, in, qojaman.
bile safra, IJJd; 8.
bill a. hisab, f. pausoda; 8. SIfthl.
billet f. pousoula, biUt.
bind baghlamaq, p. bIntJ II."
bird qoush, p. 'IIlu,.g"'.
biscuit f. blksimet, ,aUta, gmlk.
bishop f. episcopo8, merkluutJ.
bit R. jUz, p. parchCl; 8. lopItJ.
bite (to) trirmaq, diBla'lImIt.
bitter ajt. -nesl a;fliq.
black qara, p.8iyah, 8. lMJId.
blacksmith ileJnirji, p. aUttgIr.
bladder 8. mesarae.
bleed (to) qanamaq; qa" almaq.
bless (to) m'llbarBcUma, •• t. Wrl-
ket oqoumaq.
blessing 8. khayr tlou,' a, b/riklt.
blind p. kea,-, &. a'ma.
blood qan, p. dem. - money
a. diyet. - thirsty p. khoUfWiz.
blossom chichek, p. ghotteAL
blow (to) (wind) esmik; (mouth)
uflemek.
blow a. darbl, "ouroush.
blue (light) mam, glilf'; (deep)
lajiverd.
bl un t keor, klsmJz.
board tahta; 8. mljliri irlMl.
boat qay1.q, f. fi,Ziqa, sandal.
body geovM, 8. vilju,d, bltUft, p. tba.
boil (to) qaynamaq, qayntlmatJ!l;
pf,shirmlk, 7lashlccmaq.
boil ed souda pi8hmiBh, haB"'atl-
'I1ltS1l,; qaynar (8OU).
bold a. jlsoKr, p. dilafJlr.
bolster yasdiq, y2"'8 lItJSflIgAf.
bolt s-u,·me, Sltrp.
bom bshell f. qou1tlbarlJ.
bone kel11ik. book 8. kittJb.
boot chizme. border p. kena,..
bore (ofa gnn) cha,; (to) tUl.lk.
borrow (to) eõdtiftJ almaq, a. iBti ..
qraz et."
b080m geak4s, p. sine; qogo1l,..
bottle shish.e; bottom dib.
Voeabulary Loughet-che. 469
bountiful boI, a. t. bereketli.
bow (to) bashlymek, a.ingiyadet."
bow yay; 8. tllnlnna, se'la'ln..
bowels baghirsaq.
bo,,-l a. tas, kwse; UUe; f. qarata.
bo\\"string kirish, p. zih.
box (('best) sand'lq; (desk) ekek-
1Ilejt!) (small) qoutou; (on the
ear) sille, toqat; (tree) shünshir.
boy oghl an, ehojouq.
braee (pair) chift; (hraees) asgh'i.
braill bl:yin, bl yn.
bran k/pe'k. branch dale
brandy raqi. brass
brave yigit, a. jesour, f. pehlivan.
bread ekmt'k, f. pidtL
breakfast qakvalti. [maq.
break qirmaq, a. kesr et."; qiril-
breast grokus; 1nenuf.
breath nefes, solouq; H. teneflYiset."
bribe a. rishtet ; (to) rishvet vlr-
briek tougkla, kiremid. [mek.
bride gelin, a. arous.
bridegroom guvlyi, damad.
bridge keopru. bridle bashUq.
brigade liva. brigadier miri liva.
bright parlaq, p. rousken.
briIliant pirlanti; parlaq.
brimstone p. kukurt.
bring (to) getirmek.
broad enli; g(/ni8h.
brook chay, sou. broth et souyou.
brotber qardash, p. birader.
bronze touj. brush fircha.
buek glyik. bueket qova.
buffalo a. janlous. nlanda.
bug tahta biti; beojek.
build (to) a. bina et.", yapmaq.
building a. bina; a. tamir.
bull bougha. bnllock tosoun.
bullet qourshoun.
buneh salqim; elemit, p. destlt
burden Ylik, p. bar, a. hamoule.
burial a. jenaze alayl, defn.
buried dlfn olounmoush, a. med-
foun.
burn (to) yaqlnaq, a. ihraq et.";
t. yan'l1zaq.
burning-gIass p. pertevsouz,khour-
debeen.
burst (to) patlamaq; patlatmaq.
bury a. defn t:t." geomme'k.
bush chali, chaliliq. [sab.
busy a. mes/tghoul. buteher a. qas-
butter tere yaghi, kere yaghi,
p. kere; (elarified) sagkt gag"'"
vulg. say yagkl.
button duyme, f. qobja.
buy (to) satin almaq, a.ishtiraet."
buyer 8. mushteri, a. bayi.
buzz vizlamaq, viz-viz etmek.
Cabbage lahana, keMm.
eabin (in ship) f. qa1nara.
cage cafes. eake qourabiye.
ealamity a. afet, nlousibet; bela,
ealeuIate a. hisab et." [qaza.
ealendar a. taqvim, p. salname.
ealf dana. ealieo ehit, baBma.
eaU chaghirmaq,· a. tesnziye et."
eaIm a.asoude; (weather) a.mula-
ealumny iftira, b'lthtan. ryim.
eamel deve, a. jemil, p. ushtilr.
camp ordou. eandle moum.
eane qamish; de ynlk.
cannon top. eanvass yllken bezi.
cap (es, p. kulah, f. kep.
capital p. paytakht; (money) ser-
maye.
eaptain (army) 8. zabit; (navy)
p. suvar'i, f. qaptan.
eaptive a. esir vulg. yes' sir.
caravan p. kervan, a. gafile.
eareass lesk, p. laske.
eard a. mouqava; f. kart.
earder (of eotton) a. hallaj.
caress oqshamaq, taltif et."
cargo yuk, a. hanloule.
carnal a. jis1nani, nefaani.
earpenter(house)durger; (joiner)
. doghrafnaji,' (ship's) 'Inaranqoz.
earpet hali, khau', kilimj 8.sejjadi
(prayer-earpet ).
earriage araba.
earrier eshekji, qatirji; a. hammal.
earrot havouj, a. keshoor.
carry geotWrmlk.
eart araba, qaf'Lli, qaf'Lni.
easeade ehaghlayan, a. shelale.
ease sanditj. eash a. naqd.
eask fichi. east (to) atmaq.
castle a. qala'. eat Mdi.
eatch (to) toutJnaq. eatgut kirish.
eatholieo8 qatoghigos.
eattle a. hayvanat. davar, sigkir.
470 Y' oca bulary Lougll,et-cl&e.
caulillo\ver qa rnabit. [giri.
('ausai (verb) u. mu.teadd·iyi tas-
causc a. stfbeb, 'molljib, bayis, badi.
C8valry atU, p. s-iivari.
c&vern flzaghara, in, R. ghar.
eeiling tavan; celery k(:re'lJiz.
cell &. luljrl:. centre a.
eement toutqal, eamq; alehi.
certain 8. mouhaqqaq, a. t. shubM-
chaft saman. chain z';nJi·r. [sise
chair sandalya. chalk t6b t:sh i,·.
challenge m(:ydan oqoumaq.
chamberolla; (ofmine) a. kha.zi-rut
change yishtnlk;
channel SOlt a.
chapeI R. p. ibadetkhanR, u.1n.abed.
cbaracter a. siyr(:t (morai); (\vrit-
ten) yaz1., a. khatt; (quality)
a. keyfiyet.
eharcoal ktotnlir. [giizar.
eharge d'affaircs a. p.
charity a. khayrat, sadaqa.
cbarming 8. latif, p. dilber,
t. gti.zel.
cheap oujouz. cheek yanaq.
cheat aldatrnaq, doland'irmaq.
cheerfnl p. shen,shpnshoukh,keyfli.
cheese peynü·. chess p. satranj.
ebemise qadin geolnllIgi, a. qamis.
eherry kirazj (morella) viskne.
cbestnutkestane. chew chiJ/nl!?nek.
chicken pilij. child chojouq.
chief bash, serf/erde, sheykh.
chimney oJaq, baja,. lalnba jarllt
('hill ehtne. chip ?longa.
ehisel (jalhn. eholera qollra.
choice a. ikhtilla'l', yed'i ik