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Consciousness- our awareness of ourselves and our environment Biological rhythm- periodic psychological fluctuations Circadian rhythm- the biological clock REM sleep (rapid eye movement) – a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur Alpha waves- the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state Sleep- periodic natural, reversible loss of consciousness Hallucinations- false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus Delta waves- the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep Insomnia- recurring problems in falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy- a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks Sleep apnea- a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings Night terrors- a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified- occur in stage 4 Manifest content- according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream Latent content- according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream REM rebound- the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation Hypnosis- a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur Posthypnotic suggestions- a suggestion, made during a hypnosis suggestion, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized Dissociation- a split in consciousness. Which allows some thought and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others Psychoactive drug- a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood Tolerance- the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect Withdrawal- the discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the use of an addictive drug Physical dependence- a psychological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued Psychological dependence- a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relive negative emotions Addiction- compulsive drug craving and use Depressants- drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions Barbiturates- drugs that depress the activity of the CNS, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment Opiates- opium and derivatives that depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety Stimulants- drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions Amphetamines- drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes Methamphetamine- a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the CNS; reduces dopamine levels
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Ecstasy (MDMA)- a stimulant and mild hallucinogen Hallucinogens- psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input LSD- a powerful hallucinogenic drug THC- a major active drug in weed; mild hallucinations Near-death experience- an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; often similar to drug-induced hallucinations Dualism- the presumption that the mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
Monism- the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing I. Levels of Information Processing a. Consciousness i. Def of: awareness of ourselves and environment-able to exert voluntary control and communicate our mental states ii. Cannot be touched, found or picked up—therefore, it is a construct. b. Subconscious i. Most of out sorting, parallel processing occurs here; whirling all the time-includes daydreams, fantasies, dreaming. c. Daydreams i. -4% of population are classified as fantasy prone personalities-have trouble distinguishing real from imaginary. ii. Why is daydreaming or under the surface processing a good thing? 1. -allows us to “practice” what to say or do. 2. -enhances creativity when we live in our “make believe worlds.” 3. -good substitute for impulsive behaviors. II. Stages of Sleep/Dreaming- each cycle last about 90 minutes Circadian Rhythm a. Stage One-alpha waves on EEG-lasts only a few minutes-“awake” but very relaxed; hair grows, new cells are made, chemicals in brain are restored. b. Stage Two-alpha waves disappear; sleep spindles appear on EEG (about 20 minutes); sleep talking here and in other later stages. c. Stage Three-transitional stage; sleep walking may occur (non-REM phase) d. Stage Four-delta waves-deep sleep—when you are really resting-(30 minutes for 3 and 4 together); bed wetting, growth hormones. III. REM---body is paralyzed but brain is active; 4 or 5 dreams every night; each one a little longerlast from 5-45 minutes; bp rises, brain fires, eyes move. About 100 minutes a night is REM sleep. IV. Non- REM a. Brain is active, but body is at rest b. This is when you are really resting c. Bp and breathing is down V. Theories on why we dream a. Restorative theories-sleep restores depleted levels of energy; eliminates waste products from muscles, repairs cells, oculomotor system maintenance=stage 4 sleep increases after excessive physical exertion. Helps us to “solve problems” (sleep on it). Research shows people with interpersonal problems enter REM earlier and stay there longer. b. Reprogramming theories-(Evans/Foulks)-Dreams are the brain’s attempt at interpreting and assimilating new information. Filing “stuff” away that senses took in during the day; weaving it together so you can file in under “dreams.” c. Reverse learning theory-(Crick/Mitchison)-Dreams/sleep enable the brain to erase information that is no longer needed and file it is a drawer marked “of little use.” d. Sentinel theory-(Snyder)-wake up briefly at the end of REM to check environment for danger—(very evolutionary in thought) e. Freudian theory-Dreams are a safety valve where you can have unacceptable urges or wishes and no one will know.
i. Manifest content-“story line” of the dream. ii. Latent content-“symbols” in the dream of the REAL meaning. VI. Practical Sleep Issues a. --Younger people need more sleep than older people BUT genetically influenced. b. --infants sleep 75% of the time, teens-9 hr. average, adults-7-8 hrs. c. --Long sleepers tend to die a little earlier than short sleepers. d. --Walking or talking results when an electrical impulse gets misfired. e. --Spring forward results in more accidents. f. --Lack of sleep associated with lots of catastrophic accidents—including implications in Lexington with air traffic controls. g. -Also makes you more susceptible to catching colds, flu, etc. because immune system compromised. VII. Sleep Disturbances a. Insomnia-10-15% of adults i. --usually from getting out of circadian rhythm drugs and alcohol block REM sleep-incubus attacks (dreaming, mind wandering during the day) can result. b. Narcolepsy-1 in 2000 i. --falling asleep when there is a lack of stimulation (class, driving long distances, etc.) Drop into REM in about 5 minutes; don’t get the non-REM restful kind of sleep they need-why they are tired; brain stem disorder; usually not diagnosed until 20s; sometimes manifests as a learning difficulty; may be a lack of hypocretin-neurotransmitter produced in the hypothalamus-haven’t developed a substitute as yet as currently treating with provigil. c. Sleep Apnea-1 in 20 i. --intermittently stop breathing and they wake up; symptoms: snoring, irritability and tired during the day; connected to obesity in some; treated with breathing mask.
VIII. Hypnosis-state of heightened suggestibility
a. -does not enhance recall and may lead to false memories b. -effective in pain control; still researched for whether or not it is a state of consciousness that is simply on another level while focusing on something else-e.g.-what are you thinking about right now/I bet not this. IX. Drugs a. Def. of tolerance; illicit drugs vs. prescribed drugs and abuse. b. Lowest rates of abuse: African Americans c. Greatest predictor of drug use-friends who use drugs. d. Alcohol use is down, marijuana is up; cigarettes down except in teens. -Giving up sleep causes serious psychological and psychological problems 1. bodily rhythms are disrupted by shift work, rotating shifts, staying up late/getting up late, jet lag worse when traveling west to east 2. 6 night w/o sleep=psychosis long term sleep deprivation=fatal -sleep is…misc 1. RAS (Reticular activity system) is a brain structure involved in sleep (melatonin/serotonin are the two chemicals) 2. Oculomotor system maintenance- keeps eye muscles toned
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