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Royal Jordanian Airlines Crew Training Department
ETOPS COURSE TOPICS
• • • • •
Introduction Regulations ETOPS Approvals ETOPS Flight Dispatch Crew Procedures Cre Proced res
• • •
What is ETOPS The benefits of ETOPS The Mil Th Milestones
The Opportunity Presented by Technology pp y gy .
What is ETOPS? The operation of twin engine aircraft over a route that contains a point further than one hour's flying hour s time from an adequate airport at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed one- .
The benefits of ETOPS • Track shortening g • Reduced flight time • Fuel savings • Overall reduction in operating costs .
Area of operation before ETOPS
Area of operation after ETOPS
The 60 minute Rule Limits Twin-Engine
The 120 minute Rule Limits Twin-Engine .
The 180 minute Rule Limits Twin-Engine .
The Milestones 1936: 100 miles of an adequate airport 1953: FAA created 60-minute rule 1985: 1985: B767 f first 90 min ETOPS operation O S 1989: 1990: 1991: 1993: 1995 1995: FAA AC 120-42A ETOPS rules A300/A310 FAA ETOPS 180 approved DGAC ETOPS 180 approved JAA issues IL20/ AMJ 120-42 A330 300 JAA type design approval t d i l A330-300 .
REGULATIONS • Regulations relevant to ETOPS? • Applicable regulatory sources .
Why regulate ETOPS operations? To achieve an Equal level of Safety and Reliability .
Regulations relevant to ETOPS? • Definitions • Diversion Strategies • ETOPS fuel planning requirements • MEL. DDG .
Definitions • • • • • Adequate Airport Suitable Airport ETOPS Enroute alternate Maximum diversion time Maximum diversion distance • ETOPS area of operation • ETOPS entry point (EEP) t i t • • • • • ETOPS segment Equal time point (ETP) Critical point (CP) ETOPS EXIT POINT (EXP) One-Engine-Out Diversion Speed • Exposure Time .
Strength (for landing) Length. Width ATC services Communications weather reporting NOTAM Lighting equipment One approach & one let down aid Rescue and Fire Fighting Services .Adequate Airport • • • • • • • • Runway Length Width.
Suitable Airport An Adequate Airport which satisfies the ETOPS Dispatch Weather Minima in terms of ceiling and visibility within the required period of suitability .
ETOPS Enroute Alternate A Suitable Aerodrome is nominated and indicated on the Operational Flight Plan for a particular ETOPS flight as an aerodrome to which a diversion can be safely accomplished .
Maximum Diversion Time The maximum diversion time (120. Authority . or 180 minutes) from an ETOPS enroute alternate authorized in an operator’s Operations Specifications issued by Authority.
Maximum Diversion Distance a u e so sta ce It is the maximum distance which can be covered within the Maximum Diversion Time based on: a) ) b) c) ) aR f Reference Altitude. Altit d a Reference Weight the approved one engine inop cruise speed pp g p p It is used to define the Area of Operations .
One Engine Out Diversion Speed A d i l i di d l db 1. and 2. th i i d fuel i t the approved single engine cruise speed is calculated in standard atmospheric conditions (ISA) and in still air . Calculation f i l 2 C l l ti of single engine cruise speed f l requirements. Establishing the area of ETOPS operations and any dispatch limitations.
ETOPS Area of Operation Area in which it is authorized to conduct a flight under ETOPS regulations and is defined by the maximum diversion distance from an adequate airport airport. 330 .
q airport . from the last available adequate .ETOPS Exit Point (EEP) The point located on an ETOPS route at which the aircraft would proceed beyond the declared 60 minute distance.
p *(in forecasted atmospheric conditions at 10.000 feet) . from two suitable Enroute alternate airports.ETOPS ETP A point on an ETOPS route that is located at an p equal flight time*.
. The EXP marks the end of the ETOPS segment.ETOPS Exit Point (EXP) An EXP is the point on the aircraft’s inbound route where the aircraft is within 60 minutes flying time at the approved single engine cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate airport(s).
Critical Point (CP) A CP is the point along a route at which the difference b t diff between th standard f l expected t the t d d fuel t d to be on board (fuel to continue) and the required ETOPS diversion fuel (fuel to divert) is minimum or di i f l (f l t di t) i i i negative. (The CP is usually. the last l t ETP) . but not always.
Exposure Time Period during which a diversion scenario is forecasted to be horizontally exposed to icing conditions for a certain duration .
Diversion Strategies • • • Standard Obstacle Fixed S Fi d Speed d The Fixed Speed Strategy is the one used for: • Determining the Maximum Diversion Distance (Area of Operations) • Comparing fuel requirements and helping to establish the Critical Fuel Scenario .
Diversion Strategies .
ETOPS Fuel Planning Requirements The minimum fuel to be carried must be the higher of: • Standard Fuel Planning Requirements • ETOPS Critical Fuel Scenario Requirements .
Standard Fuel Planning Requirements .
ETOPS Fuel Planning Requirements The Critical Fuel Scenarios Decompression 1 Eng Inop & Decompression HIGHEST Most Critical Fuel Scenario .
ETOPS Fuel Planning Depressurization Scenario .
1 Engine Out + Depressurization Scenario ETOPS Fuel Planning .
000ft) • MEL items (such as the use of the APU as a required power source) .ETOPS Fuel Planning ETOPS fuel planning requirements must also include: • Contingency fuel (as per company policy) • Fuel for Anti-ice use and the effect on unheated surfaces (if exposure to icing is anticipated at 10.
( (MEL) & ( ) (DDG) ) Minimum Equipment List (Airbus) Must include restrictions for ETOPS "For ER or "Except for ER For ER" Except ER“ Or “Extended Overwater flight is prohibited” “E t d d O t fli ht i hibit d” .
MEL example .Airbus .
ETOPS APPROVALS • Manufacturer Approvals • Operator Approvals • Policy of Regulatory Approvals .
Operator Approvals ETOPS Type Design Approval: • ETOPS Type Design Eligibility yp g g y • ETOPS Type Design Capability • ETOPS Capability Statement .
ETOPS Type Design Eligibility yp g g y Includes design features such as: • • • • • • Propulsion system reliability Electrical sources redundancy / APU design Emergency / Standby electrical generator Minimum crew workload operating systems p g y Systems redundancy Time limited equipments .
Propulsion System Reliability .
APU Design .
Time limited equipments .
26.50 p3 .References Equipment q p Cargo Category Cargo Fire Bottles A320 A319 A330 C 2.01.26.20 p1 1 + 285 min 1.20 p1 1 + 285 min 1.01.50 p3 A340 C 2.
ETOPS type Design Capability In service. aircrafts must demonstrate a certain level of actual performance reliability such as: – – – – – In-flight engine shutdowns (IFSD) Diversions and air turn backs Un-commanded Un commanded power changes and engine surges Inability to obtain the desired thrust levels ETOPS critical system malfunctions .
Technical Transfer Analysis y .
ETOPS Capability Statement Design Eligibility and Capability information can be found in: • • Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) Configuration. Maintenance and Procedures for Extended Range Operation (CMP) Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) • .
Operator Approval Operator achieve their by submitting an Approval Plan to the regulatory authority of the State of Registry and g y y g y are based on: • Ai Aircraft capability statement ft bilit t t t • Crew training and qualification • Maintenance procedures and practices .
g. – series of related events .Policy of Regulatory Approvals • 120 min is the maximum initial approval that may be granted by an operator’s “Approval operator s Approval Plan” • 180 min is granted through “in in service experience” • Manufacture/Operator ETOPS approval can be REVOKED – serious single event (e g IFSD) (e.
ETOPS FLIGHT DISPATCH • Required Documentation • Si l ETOPS Alternate Operations considerations Single Alt t O ti id ti .
& EXP Windows of Suitability ( y (based on ETOPS Dispatch Wx Requirements) p q ) • • Adequate En-route Alternate (NOTAM) Plotting chart or orientation chart with area of operations limit .Required Documentation The BRIEFING PACKAGE must be constructed to include: • The OFP shall contain: – – – – – “ETOPS Flight” Denotation Critical fuel scenario computations ETOPS Minimum Block Fuel requirements EEP. ETP.
Critical Fuel Scenario Computations .
ETOPS Minimum Block Fuel requirements Standard Fuel Planning Requirement ETOPS Fuel Planning Requirement HIGHEST Minimum Block Fuel .
. ETP. & EXP . .EEP.
(one hour) • Ending 1 hour after the latest ETA at this en-route alternate airport (take-off time) + (Flight time to equitime point after alternate) + (diversion time at long range speed FL100 one engine) + (one hour) .(based on ETOPS Dispatch Wx Requirements) Windows of Suitability ETOPS Alternates must meet Dispatch Wx requirements: • Starting 1 hour before the earliest ETA at the en-route alternate airport (take-off time) + (flight time to equitime point before alternate) + (diversion time at normal cruise speed and altitude) .
Adequate En-route Alternate q En(NOTAM) .
3. typically 60 short minutes or less. . 2. at the single engine cruise speed. 4. . 1 The ETOPS segment is relatively short. There is only one en route diversion airport with weather forecast at or above ETOPS enroute alternate limits limits. The ETP between two en route diversion airports is located outside of the ETOPS area. . in standard conditions. and in still air. A reduction in diversion time is achieved by using a single alternate.Single ETOPS Alternate Operations g p 1.
Single ETOPS Alternate Operations g p EEP EXP OPKC 120 min .
Single ETOPS Alternate Operations g p OPKC is the only ETOPS Enroute Alternate There i no ETP only EEP and EXP Th is l d Critical fuel requirements should be satisfied at the EEP and EXP respectively .
CREW PROCEDURES • • Crew R C Responsibilities ibiliti Diversion Decision Making – Weather – Failures .
Crew Procedures Crew Responsibilities .
Crew Procedures In Flight Briefings A comprehensive briefing shall be conducted in the following phases of an ETOPS flight: • Before entering any EEP • After crossing any ETP .
Crew Procedures Diversion Decision Making Weather: • Dispatch weather minimum requirements no longer p q g apply when in flight (Before the EEP if weather falls below the applicable minima a ETOPS may not be entered) .
Crew Procedures Diversion Decision Making Failures: • Loss of Navigation capability (depending on airspace) • Failures requiring landing at the nearest suitable airport • F lC Fuel Considerations id ti • Electrical Generation Redundancies (depending on aircraft type) .
Crew Procedures Diversion Decision Making In case of a diversion due to engine problems it is recommended to use the speed schedule used to establish p the area of operations (i.e. Fixed Speed Strategy) NOTE: “The PIC has the authority to deviate from this planned speed after completion of the assessment of the actual situation” .
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