Review of Exoskeleton Systems

Nitheesh I S B090078EC

INTRODUCTION
An exoskeleton is defined as an active mechanical device that is essentially anthropomorphic in nature, is “worn” by an operator and fits closely to his or her body, and works in concert with the operator’s movements.

Performance Augmenter or Active Orthosis

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HISTORY In 1890. A set of patents was granted to Yagn. ●Technical Report by Zaroodny on Power Orthopaedic Supplement(1963) ●HARDIMAN(Human Augmentation Research and Development Investigation) ● .

weighing 680 kg and having 30 DOF.HARDIMAN ● General Electric Research in co-operation with Cornell University Hydraulically Powered. And being too heavy. ● ● ● ● . only partially realised. Components for amplifying strength of the arm Increased human capabilities on a ratio of 25:1 However. the project was soon discarded.

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CONCEPT ● Structural mechanisms with actuators and sensors whose links and joints correspond to that of the human body. Exchange of mechanical power and information signals. Actuators in exoskeleton provide the power. ● ● ● . User provides control signal.

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CONCEPT-II ● Take the lower limb. . The Human Leg has 7 DOF.

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Positive or near zero Power at knee – Negative Power at ankle – Evenly split between positive and negative ● At fast speeds. Actuators should work accordingly ● . Power at hip . a different pattern.CONCEPT-III ● At slow speeds.

it must be configured to each user's unique needs ● . ● Small size high torque actuators with high power-weight ratios essential ● Power transmission with high transmission efficiency and minimum friction alongwith back-drivability ● Special designs at joint to generate biomechanically similar motions ● For the disabled.CHALLENGES ● Robot should not give unbearable weight to user Should give natural motion with no vibration and jerks.

EXAMPLES OF TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED SO FAR .

A) PERFORMANCE AUGMENTER .

DARPA ● ● ● ● DARPA. is funding a $50 million project known as “Exoskeletons for Human Performance Augmentation”. water. The DARPA program hopes to allow soldiers to carry larger weapons. ammunition and field supplies to be brought along. protect against enemy fire or chemical attack. provide stamina and allow for more food. It is even believed that one day “exoskeletons may be programmed to bring injured soldiers back to base by themselves.” These exoskeletons will rely on hydrocarbon or chemical fuels which will allow the soldiers to independently control the robot in the field . the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

Compose of three parts. smallest available at that time ● ● ● ● .two actuated robotic legs.BLEEX ● Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton Energetically autonomous. 1 at knee and 3 at ankle Linear Hydraulic actuators. first of its kind. a power and computing unit and a backpack frame 3 DOF at hip.

3 m/s without load ● ● ● ● .9 m/s and able to walk at 1.BLEEX-II ● Load distribution sensor to determine ground contact 8 single axis force sensors to control actuators Inclinometer to determine orientation of backpack Hybrid hydraulic-electric portable power supply Helped users support a load of 75 kg while walking at .

Significant improvement Structure supports entire load of 84 kg. actuators and everything needed for an autonomous wearable robot Employs rotary hydraulic actuators located at joints. Can support 23 kg on arm while walking at 1.SARCOS ● Sarcos Research Corporation. is creating the Wearable Energetically Autonomous Robots. this base can “mimic human movement while also storing energy. a Salt Lake City robotics and medical device manufacture. power systems.6 m/s Can walk through 23 cm of mud ● ● ● ● . or WEAR for short Using complex and innovative kinematic systems.

HAL5 ● Hybrid Assistive Limb developed by Japanese company. Full body weight of only 23 kg. Cyberdyne Relies on EMG signals from wearer to understand his intentions Uses computational power to store functions for repetitive activities like walking up stairs. Used for rehabilitation as well as heavy labour support ● ● ● ● . which it then continuously updates and improves.

B) ACTIVE ORTHOSIS .

Mihailo Pupin Institute Exoskeletons .

● Pioneering work done by Miomir Vukobratovic and his associates at the Mihailo Pupin Institute Earliest was kinematic walker. which featured a single hydraulic actuator for driving hip and knee Partial actuated exoskeletons developed in 1970 had pneumatic actuators for different movements on hip. knee and ankle Corset on torso had 14 solenoid valves for the control of pneumatic pistons More than 100 clinical trials performed and a number of patients with varying degrees of paralysis mastered walking with the help of crutches ● ● ● ● .

France as well as Stanford University Advanced the concept of an inflatable interface with the wearer Work focused on efficiency of hydraulic power source and a control algorithm based on joint angles ● ● ● .AMOLL PROJECT ● Active Modular Orthosis for Lower Limbs Incorporated researchers from Montpellier and Toulouse.

Device is relatively compact and consumes low power(10 W) Trials shown to improve gait of dropfoot patients by improving foot slap and creating better symmetry with unaffected leg ● ● ● . which affects people who have had strokes and cerebral palsy Using SEA.MIT ANKLE FOOT ORTHOSIS ● Developed to assit dropfoot gait. and assists with dorsi flexion during the swing phase of walking. the device varies the impedance of the ankle in plantar flexion during stance.

FUTURE WORKS ● Development will centre around enabling technologies like actuators. power supplies and transmissions that are lightweight and efficient Improved understanding of muscle and tendon movements may shed new light on exoskeleton architecture Investigation of non anthromorphic structures may provide solution to the existing problem of closely matching the structure of exoskeleton to wearer Studies on the safety of humans strapped inside exoskeleton have to be yet performed ● ● ● .

CONCLUSION ● A brief review on exoskeleton systems along with some of its outstanding examples were studied It's medical and non medical benefits were discussed along with the challenges and its future prospects ● THANK YOU .

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