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withforeword by

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Professor of Chemical Engineering University of Tulsa Tulsa, Oklahoma

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PRESSURE VESSEL PUBLISHING, INC.
P.O. Box 35365 “ Tulsa, OK 74153

FOREWORD

Engineers who design equipment for the chemical process industry are sooner or later confronted with the design of pressure vessels and mounting requirements for them. This is very often a frustrating experience for anyone who has not kept up with current literature in the field of code requirements and design equations. First he must familiarize himself with the latest version of the applicable code. Then he must search the literature for techniques used in design to meet these codes. Finally he must select material properties and dimensional data from various handbooks and company catalogs for use in the design equations. Mr. Megyesy has recognized this problem. For several years he

has been accumulating data on code requirements and calculational methods. He has been presenting this information first in the form of his “Calculation Form Sheets” and now has put it all together in one place in the Pressure Vessel Handbook. I believe that this fills a real need in the pressure vessel industry and that readers will find it extremely useful.

Paul Buthod

PREFACE This reference book is prepared for the purpose of making formulas, technicaldata, designand construction methods readily available for the designer, detailer, Iayoutmen and others dealing with pressure vessels. Practical men in this industry often have difficulty finding the required data and solutions, these being scattered throughout extensive literature or advanced studies. The author’s aim was to bring together all of the above material under one cover and present it in a convenient form. The design procedures and formulas of the ASME Code for Pressure Vessels, Section VIII Division I have been utilized as well as those generally accepted sources which are not covered by this Code. From among the alternative construction methods described by the Code the author has selected those which are most frequently used in practice. In order to provide the greatest serviceability with this Handbook, rarely occurring loadings, special construction methods or materials have been excluded from its scope. Due to the same reason this Handbook deals only with vessels constructed from ferrous material by welding, since the vast majority of the pressure vessels are in this category. A large part of this book was taken from the works of others, with some of the material placed in different arrangement, and some unchanged. The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Professor S4ndor Kalinszky, J&os Bodor, Lasz16F61egyhiizyand J6zsef Gyorii for their material and valuable suggestions, to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and to the publishers, who generously permitted the author to include material from their publications.

The authorwishesalso to thank all those who helpedto improvethis
new edition by their suggestions and corrections. Suggestions and criticism concerning some errors which may remain in spite of all precautions shall be greatly appreciated. They contribute to the further improvement of this Handbook. Eugene F. Megyesy

......................................... 25’7 PART III Measures and Weights .............................................................. 11 PART II Geometry and Layout of Pressure Vessels .............................. 465 ............................................................. 447 PARTV Miscellaneous ............................................................... 321 PART IV Design of Steel Structures ...............9 CONTENTS PART I Design and Construction of Pressure Vessels ..............

............ 159 Welding of Pressure Vessels ...... Seismic Load...... 122 Inspection Openings.... Eccentric Load.................~~~~ti~ti~~~~...... 15 StressesinCylindricalShel~Definitions...........PART L DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PRESSURE VESSEL 1.............................. Anchor Bolt Chair for Tall Towers...... Vessels Under External Pressure . Code Rules Related to Various Plate Thicknesses of Vessel................... Properties of Materials.......ChafiforDeteminingThicknessofCylindrical and SphericalVesselsunderExternal PressurewhenConstructedof Carbon Steel............... Elastic Stability.. Description of Materials.................................................... Wind Load.. But Welded Joint of Plates of Unequal Thicknesses...... Specifications ....... Design of Base Ring (approximate method). Specification for The Design and Fabrication of Pressure Vessels................. Tanks and Vessels Containing Flammable and Combustible Liquids....... Reinforcement of Openings........................... Opening with Reinforcing Pad......................................... Stresses in Vessels Due to Lug support....... 8.... Pressure-TemperatureRatings of American Standard ... Stresses in Vessels on Leg Support.... Strength of Attachments..... Nozzle Loads ........ Openings without Reinforcing Pad. Fabrication Tolerances...............................CarbonSteelPipe Flanges.......... Weight of Vessel............ 86 5............ Design of Skirt Support........................ Welded Tanks .................... 10................. Design of Anchor Bolts (approximate method).............. 170 Welded Joints..... 6. Stresses in Large Horizontal Vessels Supported by Two Saddles.... ressureof P Fluid..... Combination of Stresses... Regulations.................................. 9... Minimum Required TicknessofCylindricalSheH.... Vibration.............. Application of Welding Symbols........... 153 Reinforcement at the Junction of Cone to Cylinder ............ Vessel Suppotis .............. Openings ...............Formulas...... 7.......... Deflection.. 204 .............. VesselsUnderinternalPressure_~__~~_~~~~~~~............... Length of Couplings and Pipes for Openings... Design of Anchor Bold and Base Ring....... Formulas......................... 31 3....... 2............. 181 Code Rules Related to Various Services..... Extension of Openings........ Materials of Foreign Countries . Definitions.~ . 52 4........... Joining Openings to Vessels........ Design ofTall Towers ... 194 11...............................

........... 221 t 15................~ 232 Fabricating Capacities.... 16..... 247 1NREFERENCESTHROUGHOUTTHISBOOK"CODE"sTANDSF0RASME O O MI E EC H AEYNN I GC I F N L E O AR I S ) L C T AB E (AMERICAN S N E R P R E VS S CU S R S E EC DL E S O E V RT II F EO C OI N S O R US C T IR O N U L N E I T O P R E VS ES SD SRF EE 1 — A S A .... Pipe Engagemerit.... Bend Allowances..o.u................a........LiRingAttachments..~..~...... Rectangular Tanks .... U.. I M O E NR T I A C N A D NA R D ..........~....~.o......... Preferred Locations...mv...........u.. Corrosion ..... ......... Lengthof Stud Bolts..........u...... ........mv. Painting Steel Surfaces ....... Pipe and Tube Bending. ....~.... 212 14.~..... .. SafeLoadsforRopesand Chains..... Miscellaneous . . ........ CommonErrors..u.....13.... i...O...o.....V...... Drill Sizes for Pipe Taps..~....... Pressure Vessel Detailing.o..... Transportation ofVessels. U I V LI S S N D 1 E ...... ...~.........

General primary membrane stress induced by any combination of loadings. for high alloy steel Code Table UHA-23. (See properties of materials page 180. This rule applicable to stresses exerted by internal or external pressure or axial compressive load on a cylinder. Tensile stress b. General primary membrane stress induced by combination of earthquake or wind pressure with other loadings (See definitions pages beginn-ing473.. or c. below.. d. insulation. LOADINGS (Code UG-22) a. lining.= Maximum allowable stress in tension for carbon and low alloy steel Code Table UCS-23.S P V Pressure vessels are subject to various loadings.2 times the stress permitted in a. S. Weight of the vessel and contents c.) S 1. which exert stresses of different intensities in the vessel components. Longitudinal compressive stress STRESS Sa The smaller of S. b.) . piping. psi.5 Sa 1. supports d. Cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations e. Internal or external pressure b. Seismic force and wind pressure need not be considered to act simultaneously. Wind pressure and seismic forces f. Static reactions from attached equipment.. The category and intensity of stresses are the function of the nature of loadings. the geometry and construction of the vessel components. internals. Primary membrane stress plus primary bending stress induced by combination of loadings.184. Impact reactions due to fluid shock g“ Temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESSES (Code UG-23) a. except as provided in d. or the value of factor B determined by the procedure described in Code UG 23 (b) (2) c.

er l s i Longitudinal stress.R ~ D= P= s. these combined loadings m g oa a h v e e p a rw v be ir a i ed q r u e n yl n e t l i r l e t t p h w l a wh a s a n t t i esac f r a c te t c ssrr y ui m f se r u t n o ie a l nl h i t e h oi c h b o e ct k i ln gy T s c o m p sh r edt s t se r i xv e etu r e a e r t ss n e se a o dtl trs i r e in p lt u r es e r s n se a o l r e p s s nn u e d e s u b d e t a e tr lf o n em d u l a y s : h b m i lr e h e F O R M U L A S T t . inches EXAMPLE . ) are not Tn C l factors. = s* = [ = M I N O T A T I O N d ie ao vm a eei ts n e s c e h l f .25 inches PD s. psi Thickness of shell. STRESSES IN CYLINDRICAL SHELL Uniforminternalorexternalpressureinducesinthelongitudinal eamtwotimeslargerunit s stress than in the circumferentialseam becauseof the geometryof the cylinder. aeh d h h s e h f i’ W i o n a e n n r rg i s present.iven D = P= f = 96 inches 15 psi 0. C I R C U M F E R E N T I A LL O N G I T U D I N A L J O I N JT O I N ‘ $ D s. A vessel under external pressure. . + . ‘/ . must be designed to resist the circumferential buckling o p r o t m v oy h . when other forces (wind. = ~ 15 X 96 = ~ = 1440 psi s* = $ F s s t gt i o u = 15 X 96 = 2 2 X 0.25 het d i db c c ghao aa wi d e u I y ae : p 8 l mi v p h t 8s cr e e h s i w n n p t d r er a er re ss nl s r a i n l o r h en o e w t uc r i o rc v ea ep s rera on x t is fm a nt re hm v b p sb o e d H=% 3 w Hh= C 2 e t o er h i r o t i ei fc ( ga w l h e t t r f ./ . corrosion allowance excluded. etc.d i e od d t e e ts m o tie rdg e qn u e r e o m t e hl s t t o . r e n ot e e x r pt n r e a p s n s a ur l r s e . . earthquake.$ 3 s~ = ~ S2 ‘ s. . psi 1 Circumferential (hoop) stress.

When calculations are not made. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE The internal pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the ultimate permissible point. DESIGN PRESSURE The pressure used in the design ofa vessel. the design pressure may be used as the maximum allowable working pressure (MA WP) code 3-2. will satis@this requirement. The pressure of the fluid and other contents of the vessel should also be taken into consideration. See tables on page 28 for maximum allowable pressure for flanges. openings. See tables on page 29 for pressure of fluid. HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE O and one-halfntimes the maximum allowable working pressure or the design e pressure to be marked on the vessel when calculations are not made to determine the maximum allowable working pressure. A common practice followed by many users and manufacturers of pressure vessels is to limit the maximum allowable working pressure by the head or shell. when the vessel is assumed to be: (a) in corroded condition (b) under the effect ofa designated temperature (c) in normal operating position at the top (d) undertheeffectof otherloadings(wind load. A design pressure higher than the operating pressure with 30 psi or 10 percent. external pressure. . when the vessel: (a) is not corroded (new) n (b) t i h t ( te and the other conditions (c and d above) also need not to be taken into consideration. at which the vessel is normally operated. new and cold. the hydrostatic test pressure should be increased proportionally. If the stress value of the vessel material at the design temperature is less than at the test temperature. H y d r t o ss t be h t o ac i cns a d a a ftc a t b le r hdl b u l l e i e c a c t r i e aol n o m p le e ts e n d . It is recommended to design a vessel and its parts for a higher pressure than the operating pressure. 3. etc. whichever is the greater. 2. It means the pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the ultimate permissible point.) which are additive to the internal pressure. The term. maximum allowable pressure.I 1. not by small elements as flanges. etc. See tables on page 142 for maximum allowable pressure for pipes. OPERATING PRESSURE P N R The pressure which is required for the process. is used very oflen. hydrostatic pressure. 4. served by the vessel.

4t Seenotation on page 22. o r htm g u s l io a h c src o r t rda e nh g m y : f e e i l t PR = 24SE+ 0. 3 .d d1 p r i c y b G 0 n e1 . x o a l l x 5 w. 5. T f o l p l o c aw o i h t h i ac k nm e a s t n f r e q u t e no y s l u s t g f i t l . c e n n s ij o i h besides the internal pressure additional loadings(wind load. . The efficiency of seamless heads is tabulated on page 176. .Press. W. si e en s e t StressValueS Temperature )( M A .e h ha e s n per iu o n c ah l s f it t h o ne g is s t e u sd i n a a l m lr h e n e . s r S i e m r av r i yc l e w uw m r br k l e e si ns m t g i r t e mo e a o p l i b u l ei h te dt u o ra e hb s s t w nl n e : e e + 900 lb eh d H y d r t o o m u l t t ii .) e w s tsh me e al xsr li h a l s a b h g ee aa p ss r l t e n t a . .v oc l ee i r y n l s . e .sc h ea ms t b sf r eo ( G s t e a c v C U e l s d. StressValueS At Design Temperature (Or Design Press. l s ct g s e 6.v o ~o g h i t es T e s t t T s f a t s f f fg n o g t eu am t s ic s n at m esr p e uq h tu o e a r e r u lo d w i ee ld xs h a li l mdw uwo m r br kl ef ei st n sm g o r h e o e a p u o ar ay h h e p eT d f n s l a r h m y d l i. we m p sd e c hy o l e i s n gsh er u i eb t al l l e o ct at p s ed rh i o n do g u o e s d d n n c jf l d a o u m p sn e itl t s r v se h b hsh ee s t a e n re c ml c i t on r e d i n d i r a s i s d la l l e abC cd & d -r e 2 .ao hn sga hn lt u fe d f i f n eiia ocl w ne n ct y . MAXIMUMALLOWABLESTRESS VALUES The maximuma a g i it t b u i t l o n g ic t C p U o l l t o e s a v b s l a ie e l l r f m d i i est f m so e e d r e e r nr i t a w n t p r e u es t f a t r ova p 1b eaT n l m n g e x9n l ie l mo o u m a s rb e l ts es ri v e e 8 a ah c.4P P= 2SEt R – 0. reaction of a cd d a l eu r n s g ) i i t ue ed o g t n de l i T sr i g ef o ih ai r . s o o e l o s b n i n a n n n n r sh a t r ri t i eg s t ss i i ph er go s t nau eq i h n m n ad oe r . . JOINT EFFICIENCY The efficiency of different types of welded joints are given in table on page 172.I t 1 V f P c t h at pressurehshall be: s . n e r e l i t h rg t se i ws e g s oot na e hln e mch ir r l lc u m f j e r en n t ie a il h e r i w v t n e h y o ii l i t e o ch y te s l.: e9 e 9 ) A Pneumatic test may be used in lieu of a hydrostatic test per Code UG-100 P s a t s tr t eo e s so ma t a t f b lxa s i li so mho uw m r b k l e e s t ns h g l w o p a r w i u r eh e n ro ae p n g t ta vh o n e r fh s yb c t o f e m w lo s ua t i t i e e f dt a c t oh r y c a s n ne p t s s o us r a a fn e ce s eCt r U i f o. s n a hs i c e a f lr l ee o f cd o l u l e r d a un ed i r n aa tl n g s u i es u m a h .

U g i me g s .t s gr s i t C A po h 1 s e d nah dp . r r pe k i s s n ug r = eI s D i nd i s a i m n e d t c e h i e r .ei a x l l i 2e p b e p 1. n s ls h i f e lv. lhn o ete is a n s nd e cn le r o P e d x 0 i c S ue f e 3 o dr E 8 hm i u5 a . e n e c h ta i { e n c hc f s . t f 6 o gE r I s b -h p a a3 p 1. 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD PD ‘= 2SE– O. e o rm a e p t p e u ss ai e a i t l g h i . e l d e . 6 c 5s e e e n n n d ei d e . e a l s r t = f s C = C o rA r l o o w . ee e s e 3x d nR P l s 6 hm ti u5 lv .jt “ /1 = 1>/4 0 a 1 s o t i hr ra o lta sm r t . .2t R -1 -– f w e ias a t o t o t h t s ej h hi o t s i e hh a [ 2 W t w h t h aiee h 0 S .i c e k n n ec s h . a epo h p i C A s e l li . a eh j e o o w e a d d e h i n t 2 1 os hC r A e a o espr e nd n : .2P r 1- p= 2SE t R +0. t ce i . de ei x t id h s p c ) .n a nn c e . . ae s e l de . F e l l ih p o m a ii o n 4 ( b I P= -Dy.I NOTATION P = D P N R FORMULAS IN TERMS OF INSJDEDIMENSIONS w S= S p e o p vt E = J e o f ip i c 1i e a n c t y 7 .2P 1. l a e d i n i dc u eh s g r w e r n si e . f n g r s o e m i s a s l aul n o R =x I a br . 2 W [ w h t h aieh c x ok. B SPHERE HEMISPHERICAL HEAD PR ‘= 2SE–0. F h Ih r d lo r t aiu e gft fhg si u a s n i ol a e f it e eed hfno f l s t l i e m fa e s d n e h c x 0k. l cn o.6P P SE t = m-m s t su i a t ll h s l e i yg h s ev S e ar en t r o e o n s n p r ep c e a d i g n g e . a l is i o c h e s s s e 2 s A CYLINDRICAL SHELL ( t L S E O A N M G ) R e PR f= SE– O.

= (). e .N”f’AIK)VE A fhwrmine the maximum:Ill(nv. HEAD . () 125 in.275 96. P I’br().3 I25 W + 0.5()() in thi~k kh{.o crd or o ng d d vi e n a d ot n e i o t i r e e t t m sl e i f l * s d H n a w t c i o r a rh t ol s iw o e n n c e l o h a l l SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE I)c[crmincIhc rcquird lhicknms.16? in. HEAD SEE DESIGNL)A’rA ABOVE Determine IIw maximumallowuhlcvrn-kingpressure.A. Izfi 2 x I7500 x 0.25 ‘ 2 x 17500 x 1. + C.2 x ().Ible If(whingpressure. when it is in IICNctmdili(m . seamless head \!’heni! is in corroded condition. *e S e q [ n i sa mi d c t” = r I F ic e s 5 7 a 00 t e C ym = i 0 n . 0. P I’or(). P = 17500 x ().0 SEE DESIGNDA’I’A ABOVE Determinethe maximumdlmv:iblc U[wkingprcwurc. 5 o o 5t e . Use: ().n xc a i e .6 x 100 + C.275 in. c .ef i d .11 wtlrn Ihc tIS<.325 in. P for 0.?5 + 0..Il i. in IICW currditi(m.3125 in MIN.125 in. n m tc l y e f a s f h e a d s n i rc n a h d i i8 d u s e s e s * e is sg u R n= 4 i i r e n i c e 6 s e rsa 0 e l 0 s Diu= s9 i e w f Au dh i ia hr k n lne edt s e lh r .X5x 0.5(M) . f f oi s cp 8 o s o i h n a h h e j .3125 in [hi(k head.0. pkrfc —. e o 0f oi is c0 ei n e .. = ().2 x 100 0.3I25 + IOJ p~i SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE Dctcrrninethe requiredthicknessot’a SCJMICSS ellipsoidal head 100 X 96. /= ]00 x 48.275— = 10(1psi Use: o 437s in.A. SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE The head furnishedwithmrtslraigh[ Ilwrge.0 X 0.A.275 in.= SEE DESIGN[). 2 X – — = 0. THK. 0. I d’ ii hemispherical head.X5 x (). in. 17500 X 1. 01” shell o .1?5 I7500 x 0.2 x I00 + C. MIN.287 in.154psi 48 + x I(K) x 48. Detcrrnirrethe required thickness.125 in. p . 0. fJse: ().? x I7500 x 0.50() in. in. n A 1 c ra 2h ol es iws o u n n c e c o rl .2 x 0.85 -.0.E D P = X NA : E = 1 ED S AI G T S= 1 5 E = 0 j s p d p e r s p 7s vt5 o 1 p @6 5 l .85 -. thick.

e n i hb o l t ei an n (c lhI a e p f u d fe r .e s i r n o. .I NOTATION P = D P D = I N FORMULAS IN TERMS OF INSIDE DIMENS1ONS w S= . 1 CONE CONICAL SECTION 2SEt c ‘= 2D + 1.885 L+0. J r 1 M * : L = D + 2t 3 1 2 q . e a h l is i o n h so r a r l o o w n a nc c e .2P V . 0 ca i (see note 2 on f p a . d e di i d as i in suc e sh lg k n n sr u a i c dd nk i e c u e h s i l t e h 2i i c k n ln ec s l s .2t s a a o ‘ c a (SE– O.r = W f i n 7 rn a i d n i d u hs s i c e e= C . t ea t 0 ‘D W i g h r t e 3 s na pa t a n eia rac re l i q n a .d 5 d (e i ex p n ) ) E A F S L A M D N G HE S D H I N E E ( T O R I S P H E R IE A LA H C W ‘ = 1 h 6/ e 2 n ED A D fr 0.s e h . d i s ai m n e d tc e e hr . d n eg g l r e e .p t ps e u ss ai e= I i a l r L a f r = I e o f ip i c 1 e a n c t y g.lt P When Vr l t 1e h s a s n PLM ‘= 2SE– O.0 A O L F 50 U A 0 “E C S T 2SEt ‘= LM+oo2t O F R M ” ‘ M 1 3 1. e 0 s y u ( A C p 1o e.885PL f= SE– o.6P) = o A % ~ 2 1 T h a a a h ann g l r t e e f e ah p g e l 3o x . 1 ‘ ~ < \ P= SEt 0. E = J R = I = p e r s o e m i s a s l aul n o a w Oa g r ex o p r r pe k s i sn u g r s ea Sv to m r a .

d o n oy tir eh%d +uk L l y ae ( / a em l l : = r 3 ) u .r n3 C tn or uv c te ai o hl ) / e h r o e s t .21 E DESIGN DATA: P = lOOpsi esign d pressure S = 17500 psistressvalueof SA515-70 plate@650°F E = 0.A. 100x96.85. when the vessel is in new condition. Use0.625in. f= 0.125in. 1.6875 in.606in. thick cone.866 SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.75 from table.885x96+ 0.125X 1. inches ~ = required L = 30°0nehalfofthe apexangle t = Resuiredwallthickness inches C.85 xO.jointefficiencyfsearnless o SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Cos30° = 0. thick seamless head.2 xO. P for a 0.6875 = 141psi SEEDESIGNDATA ABOVE Knuckle radius r = 6 in.75+0.481 Use0. 0. r of a cone 100x 96. p.125inchescon-osionallowance * incorrodedcondition greaterwith thecorrosionllowance a SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure. 0. p= 2 x 17500X1.0-0.500 0. 100 2 x 17500 +C.25 X R = 48inchesinsideradius* D = 96inches inside diameter* wallthickness. L/r= ~= 1. P for 0.1 x0.A. xO.885X100x96. 0.125X1.481 in.866 +C.plate SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE L/r = 16$ Determine the required thickness.75 t= ‘0.thickhead o L i g t rt a NOTE: When the r A b4 c a ml b tu fl c a i 1 a no to6f nca s .00. 2x (17500 X ‘2X 0.611in. L/r= ~ = 16 A4= 1. P for 0. thick seamless head when the vessel is in corroded condition. 0.866 Determine the required thickness.2XOo500Xo.625in. 0. ~= 61 (j SEEDESIGNDATA ABOVE % Knuckle radius r = 6 in.125in.6875 17500x 0.125in.481 = 100psi 96.500in.1x 100 +C.min. t of a seamless ASME flanged and dished head.A = 0.0xO. Use0.A. when the vessel is in new condition.866= 133psi x 96+ 1. Determine the required thickness t of a seamless ASME flanged and dished head.75 from table Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.plate =0.500in.500 in.I25 17500x 1.486 in.481 in.0x0. 0.efficiency ofspot-examined joints E = 1.

B* f 1 F h o t h o t s S w e i a s a t f r d .d .4t . . i c e k n ln ec s l s .e i y gh so e v s e ar en t r o e n S n p 1 a g e 4 W t w h t h aiee c x o . - 1 F e l l h p w o t a h d od t el m s h at .a he j i o e s ir .ei a x l l i 2 e p b e p g ss lh e l B SPHERE and HEMISPHERICAL HEAD PR f = 2SE + 0. e A CYLINDRICAL SHELL ( + R L S E O A N PR * = SE + 0. et fse 3 o dr gE 8shm v u a r i 5 t C A po h 1 s e d nah dp . x o C i r ao s 1 .A: = Comosionallowance.22 I NOTATION P=D w S= S 1 p e op vt P N FORMULAS IN TERMS OF OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS 7 E = Joint efficiency.inches . t h R P t E h .loa r t as e gft fhgsi t ce o t h u i u n h t s e h hi i o la e t fi te le hf o fl is t hc f j i e n d a i e hh a e m f a e s d n e .shallbe applied.8P @ d’ R P . b G3) s t su ia t l h sl .lt r s d e r r pe k s i sn u g r: eO s d i e u i ti as m i n e d tc e hr = o rm a a p t p e u ss ai e W i t l g h a .8P + u h = D14 P=D~l— . lh n o ee is a ns nd h k c n t le r o P e d x 0i c S u.~ y.einches i g l r = e b .page 1 r s o e m i s a s l au n o wx O a u radius. e 1-3. e l s r = a f i h 8 9 C. r a a r i m a ii o tn t 2 s hh :A e ps e1p r e n n 4 . c 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD PD h ‘= 2S45+1.4P ~ 1 U 2 P = R y.

t0.23 E DESIGN DATA: P = IOOpsidesignpressure S = 17500 psistressva1ueof SA515-70plate@650°F E= O. P for 0.500 in.286in.125in.500 = 155psi 48-0. thick shell when the vessel is in new condition.thickplate 0 SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Head furnished without straight flange. P= 17500xO.273 = 100psi 0. Use0. t of a shell 100X48 ‘= 17500x0.8&efliciencyofspot-examined joints ofshellandhemis. i A . .A.500 Use: . P for 0.min. P for 0.85xO.4 x0.headtoshell E = 1.8x100 + C SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.4x 100 ‘0”322 ‘n” +C.00. Use:0. 100x96 2 x 17500 X 1 1 +C.3125 in. when the vessel is in new condition.3125 n 2 5 .125in. =194psi 0. thick head. when it is in new condition.85-0. 0. X E = 1. 0.0X 96-1. 1.4375in.thickhead . ip. + 2X 17500x1. 0.A.min.8 xO.OOjointefficiency ofseamlessheads l? =48inchesoutsideriidius D= 96 inchesoutsidediameter t =Requiredwallthickness.8 x0.500in. t of a hemispherical head. inches C. t= 2x17500 %.jointefficiencyfseamless o SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the required thickness. Determine the required thickness.thickhead SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the required thickness t of a seamless ellipsoidal head.3215in.447in.85x().= 0.125inchescorosionallowance SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.273 in. 0 x 8 p.A.3125 48-0.398in. 2x 17500xO. t= SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure. ‘0-161 ‘r0. . thick head.

o d dii i dn a l r L a i u e E = J R=O ) e o f ur r = I f ip i c 1 e a n c t y g. 1.A: = C t a i s d ni i d u e h s c e . 2 1.4P) d @L 1 T h a a a h ap n g g re e e o ea n l . 2SEt ‘= ML –t(ikf-O. .0 0 16 0 % ‘ 7 q : L-t = D 2 .inches ~ = one half of the included(apex) P = Designpressureor max. 2 5 4 . 0 3.t l 3 f x h t . i W Lh T e1 e PL M f= 2SE+P(M– O.0 5 . 50 3. .8t PD ‘=2 Cos CY (SE+ O. 5 0 5. 2 5 6 .885L– O.7 5 2.d 5 d ( e i ex ) p n ) E A F sL A M D N G HE S D H I N E E ( T O R I S P HHE R I E A L A C W h = 1 e n 6 L 2 / r / ED D 0.2) 4 . 7 5 5.e s e uc s sh k n n sr u a i c dd nk i e l u e h i c t e h 2 ic k n ln ec s l s . ea t 0 2 W i h g rt e 3 sna pa0 a n ea rac r e l i qny a .r 2 2. e a i h o r a rl o o w n a nc c e l is i o n h s CONE CONICAL SECTION p= 2bsEfCos CY a D –0. allowable d n eg g l r e e w o p r r psi s ke i s n ug r ea a s i S= S v & o m e a p ts p e u ss ai e= O f l g r t . s e h .0 0 5 3 .8t h 6s n a2 s f .I N ~ A T I O N P N FORMULAS TERMSOF OUTSIDEDIMENSIONS IN Outsidediameter.8P P= SEt 0.0 6.885PL 2=SE + 0. 00 . = W i n 7 C.2)’ VALUES OF FACTOR M ‘ M 1 1 / 1. 0 2 .t e i s ° u “ ( A C p 1 o e.

+-CA. 0. t of a seamless ASME flanged and dished head.A.2) +-CA. 100X96X 1.75 from table.thickplate SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE L/r = 16$ Determine the required thickness.500xO.500 in.75 t= =0.75X96-0478(1.125in.min. 17500x 1.5()()X().372 in. ‘= 17500x1.866X(l\50. X0. 0.85+Oc4X 100) = =0.125in. 0.75-0. thick cone.866) 0.25 E 3ESIGN DATA: P = IOOpsi designpressure S = 17500 psistressvalueof SA 515-70 plate@650°F E = 0.8xO.625 P= 0.( t e6s c C o :d t o n NOTE: W Mm ca a eA eh%d + ~ tr m u l ly ae ( : = 3 ) . ‘= 1. Determine the maximum allowable working pressure. 0. t of a cone 00 96 ‘=2 x0. U 0 X D = 96inchesoutside dimeter ~ = 3@onehalfofthe apexmgle L = 96inchesoutsideadiusofdish r t = Requiredwallthickness.500in. P for 0.0xO. 2x 17500x1. 2X17500x1.85.(0.0x 100(1.min.thickhead 2 : s. L/r= ~ =16 ~= 1.125inchescomosionallowmce SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.2)=100ps* Use0.00.885 0.497in.75 from table.0+0. thick seamless head when the vessel is in corroded condition.483 in. thick seamless head.8x 100 +C. Use:0.608in. when the vessel is in corroded condition.866 Determine the required thickness.efficiencyfspot-examinedjoints o E = 1.75-0.85X 96. Determine the required thickness t of a seamless ASME flanged and dished head.A = 0. inches C.866= 134psi C).125in.603in.478 . 6e % 5 SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE ~ =1 Knuckle radius r= 6 i M M 1.thickhead t r h o L i e g t r t n i 1 ea ho n f or a n or -n s nt tr uv c e ai o hl ) a h / e .625 in. in. P for a 0.625in.jointefficiencyfseamlessheads o R = 48inches outside radius SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE :0s 30° = 0. P for 0.885x 100x96 =0.478 in. 0. l yb t u f l c b o a SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE K r p= 6 in.478 in. SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Determine the maximum allowable working pressure.OX(). ~= 2X 17500X ().

S =Maximumaflowable stiessvalue ofmaterial. psi t = Minimum required thickness of head. in. tr = Minimumrequired thicknessof seamless shell for pressure. t~ = Actual thickness of head exclusive of corrosion allowance. in. in. exclusive of corrosion allowance.&u Y I F NOTATION E P E=joint efficiency P = Internal or external design pressure psi d =Inside diameter ofshell. in. in. exclusive of corrosion allowance. . t~ = Actual thickness of shell.

33 ..27 I E E P DESIGNDATA P = 300 psi design pressure E=joint d =24in.26 0. .13x300/15.052. inside diameter ofshell s efficiency =15. from the J inside face of the head 2 m = 6 in” .000 x 1 == 1. c = 0.223 in. head t~ Checking the limitationof — d = 1. “ . .243 i required thickness of seamless shell for pressure.3125 = 0. t t=d ~ 0. t~ =0.375 i s = 0.33 + t= d & 0. Theratio ofhead thickness to the diameter of the shell is satisfactory SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE c = 0.13 PISE = 24 ~ 0.0001psi maximum allowable stress value of SA-515-60 plate tr =0.250in. plate The shell thickness shall be maintained along a distance 2 dt. t = d = Use 1. Use 1. .000 x 1 = 1. .75 in.243 = 0. n .57 in..731 in.243 0. alesser thickness wfil be satisfactory for the head t~ = 0.33 — = 24 0.. Use l.214 x 300/15.625 in.375 = 24 J 0. DETERMINE THE MINIMUM REQUIRED THICKNESS.214 0.. .33 — = 0. .. n .000 x 1 = 1.26 x 300/1 ~.250 — 24 = 0. actual thickness ofshell. plate Using thicker plate for shell.3125 in.

PSIG 4 l 6 b lb.5-1981 150lb. MAXIMUMALLOWABLENON-SHOCKpRESSURE PSIG. 2.5shall not be used for higher ratings exceptwhereit is justified by the design methods of the Code.13 SA-216-WCB2 SA-181-70]’2 SA-350-LF2 NOTES: 1.28 PRESSURE – TEMPERATURE RATINGS F S T O FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS P E I E R P L E American National Standard ANSI B16. 300 l HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE. T m Flangesof ANSIB16. Ratings are maximum allowable non-shock working pressures expressedas gage pressure. For service temperatures above 850 F it is recommended that killed steels containing not less than 0.1 0 b 0l . n h m ot s ne m h aa st i t en f r e i d a c a te e l . 25b 0 l b 50 450 1125 1500 2225 3350 5575 9275 TEMPERATURE. Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800 F. . a s t h ne hb r u i ai et o shl i a cl e k b n e e o s n s v n a l 21/2 i t d e 3. at the tabulated temperatures and may be interpolated between temperatures shown.10070 residual silicon be used. Temperatures are those on the inside of the pressure-containing shell of the f l I g a en i ni g t e se r a a t a lho t. 900 l 0 . F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 285 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 740 675 655 635 600 550 535 535 505 410 270 170 105 50 990 900 875 845 800 730 715 710 670 550 355 230 140 70 1480 1350 1315 1270 1200 1095 1075 1065 1010 325 535 345 205 105 2220 2025 1970 1900 1795 1640 1610 1600 1510 1235 805 515 310 155 3705 3375 3280 3170 2995 2735 2685 2665 2520 2060 1340 860 515 260 6170 5625 5470 5280 4990 4560 4475 4440 4200 3430 2230 1430 860 430 Ratings apply to materials: SA-1051’2 SA-515-702 SA-516-702 SA-537-C1. the carbide phase of carbon steel may be converted to graphite.

3t r qI e n 4 eud Dn asi f n 5 f r rc eo eW he a nr Hf e r o a 6 7 8 t d t 9 se e o e 1 d e2 b a a F at h e r e e . y e t d 3 y . H o eW a aF i d t o e sr ee s f tper o n n P nr r t e a C r C d it e g s si o un r i P op S u qI n eu nn a d s r rc e h 0 w 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 i t . e l r s eo d i s p eh e t s e u n i re no t e a t ph p a s i el e l . h pi r f has os o uf o ren l e h w e n d t t u hr ti y v td a a es hi in u .q n r h u etp oa r t p eus s s i n 3 uund r a e c p 4 i l3 qs e T f t p i r pe s ns h q o udu are fae h r on e n e e i h te r a y va ta dh bt o n s i fe n cr g i to be m u t l f t h i b eph e l 4 e a 3 . l t r c e b c hd a i a b t a lt e d d nd l o eu n h g s r eg hb e s e l r e e o lsb oh wt t it wpo w re ea h h h a e n e e s s . The intensity of the pressure when the fluid is at rest is equal in all directions on the sides or t t h u e t h i f s g l o h b u t o iof h v d o a e t e p e i bottom of the vessel and i d a w T v T w T t f a s P H F 0 t h p s e t a t h t s a b t ha w s ri ie c c o hs nt h u i s s de e e r r e ds .2 - P F STATIC HEAD The fluid in the vessel exerts pressure on the vessel wall. v e e e ea r g l rt h bb h u l e i tl sp s li li ge ht rc o ti fh v i e ic co hn s y d e i r a t di m l a w t p e d a f l t u i f e r ie P s a op s uu S .

What plate thickness will be required and what will the weight of the vessel be.08 — 0. S A C S 5 2 S 5 8 S 5 3 1 5 1 5 6 A B S 1 . In case 2.37 1. 11730 13800 12750 15000 14875 17500 B Ratios of Stress Values 11730 12750 1.5 6 A 0 6 S 1 85V0J.73 13800 1.93 0.08.79 14875 1. -20 to 650° F.85 15000 1. using SA 285-C plate and fill radiographic examination: In case 1.18 1. EXAMPLE: 1.99 “ 0.09 1. therequiredthickness 0.08 — 0. 100Yo J. .86 Table A shows the stress value of the most frequently used shell and head materials.17 1. The stress value of the material 14875 The stress value of the material 13800 The ratio of the two stress values tlom Table B = 1.4780 in.01 — 0.49 1.92 0. A Stress values at tem~.08= 13608 lb.67 1.27 1. E.92 0. Foravesselusing SA 5 15-70 plate.85 0.28 1. whenspotradiographed.18 17500 1. 2.79 0.08 = 0.86 0.09 — 0.18 1.4426 x 1.78 0.30 T f q c u o om i po r cr e i r qs k o t n h a p u li ir aace weight forevarioussmaterialsdand fk d t n ne s at different degree of radiographic examination. 0. Table B shows the ratios of these stress values.92 0.4426 inches and the weight of the vessel 12600 lbs.5 6 A 0 5 .85 0. E. 12600 X 1.27 1.17 — 11730 12750 13800 14875 15000 17500 — 0. In this proportion will be increased the required plate thickness and the weight of the vessel. .

s a sao t ul n t e r nm b s r wa n t o gi s w t ohtea un m d hp e i he y C i l C re e o u i fr de m xse pt tor s ar ms Ca r ule r r o ( G nt q s e n e e e n s U e d.eo . f r s o a l l G 9 ) n d e tu m e a U t -s i C o c t 1d : 0e G 0 e dos E s o r 2 p t7 r u e m h se o t it f g e l p lh ocd a w o i t g A f e o S f s P o mr o h n o n nn g C e r M e S s e V s c De t 1 iT Is c I l I o no V h a. 4 at . f2 et T s 2 F a U V C T nh h b a a p i o tpl v l l i i o t h spe da s a tr ef ae tlp be s dme t u itlr e n i s e e e e m e r a t d e n rhs ie d0i se dtg e u rnt rmC ei U e -shd ( ( do y 6 e ce 2 o S p s eb n o C C ( t H a 5t v b e A c o 1i i ) mts d i p e y s c f tt n o h e s o t a e .2 ( o d P re e s s s S i n g vl e e .h G e ( sp N : d 8 ) c y eg i ovn l G de 8r j is a cn sac l e k ) e w s l s ji e o U . 4 .31 E D V w r e e e P rs e is g s un r e P X e i sn s f es n e u d s o ee n dx i w c ero er r r n k o si1 l s n o t e l r v d t p e re a p u a h t b is tr c w a th C i p s oe e h dd m e oy t m dhn b oe mot pwi l e c o e fo e x l tp o ee er s ssn s ah u l r e a e sf . U t o 9 f . 2 d f e lg r e e s s tn a gi n c i l m o r uw ie m n s u e o s G 8 ) A v e w s hd s e i s i a ic l o n h s n te sr d u r c e t od e u d i f dei m no n to es e c g n t C q r e et p r a e w s s i hu n er i q b u c d e r s e ai s e g x n pto e ee d or 1 sp r sa n ul r te d i hf d o r n e r o l n ne be d se es r i s gd no t u e e e d x opoe her o C t r f t d l t e crs o s rn sed ui tr e n a l H o w e e xv p e r r re. v l e -ro ( r n L l e r sJ . lC ia s U t n ei u tr o t2 .d w e a s l f l e v gl a n so oc s s i e p d u v ru ar to m c i s n u rb hlul a a s u b t j a e i c n t he y e d r r t o o o an w a t a ih h ys d r t o t si tr a t t d n s t e l c e n n e p r a c t a pc n be l t ue m e-a ( si c t i a . .ta e he s e Ih p r g x c r se nf r C ho di e s . G 9 ) E d i P T V t i my a c it o t y hs t ee pm r a as a a b h e p fr t nd l ls et e u1 o t h t e s t i a t/ m l e s e 1r s i f f b e er e t n wc a ee r m e o s par h e l r s t i s m u in r nh e i e m d s u e n o t m p n e a c d n a t e b p rn e U s -u s ( t u e r e9 . ila m ln oee a d l r br d g a x i x p t e r e 1S p s o u pr ce m r o n s a 2 l s f te e oi m 5 a r xa rh n r th t p x pt r e e w s h s i aiucs l r h m ee Ca.

C o t m m p a u a h t l i e mo u e p ar b kr l x l w w o m s r e . 5. Maxunumallowableworking pressure. Outside diameter.05 when L/D.05. cm to r i ie zan ov n t a m o o r t ve o a h l B a d u e e f . E than 50. in. i o s v e t o o y f A t l t dc e a t t el v r l m a i h n a l e c u te o 4 E t n a p t p l e i ac ca be ( l r e p i a aa h m . rt eh 4 3 t v a o4 a M l v ) e o ur tt t t iev c fa A h7 e a p p t he c a l e r l i a e t n r e m p b u * 5 F t ir n t e orh s e h.2 n s8 d ( n Ch ) Gh e l i e de . m 2 A. G . ofvessel section between: 1. psig. in./l equal to or greater than 10 the maximum allowable pressure: 4B Pa = 3(D0It ) T value of B h shall be determined by the fole lowing procedure: 1. See pages 49-511) n d Determine L/DQ a b oI 2 E F n U Gi O ( e . stiffening rings 3. cone-toqdinderjunction or knuckle-to-cylinderjunction of a toriconicalhead or section.u u z t E M Lal L F A If the maximum allowable working pressure is smaller than the design pressure.= L = External design pressure. and at 0.32 E N O T A T I O N PRESSURE X FORMULAS P= P = d. Assume a value for t.. psig. Pa. h oo r i z t v t n tl a e rl e iy r e s ne o o l ph 3. . the length. t A ! — D.2 P a O a n5 w t L/Dpheis greatere r t 0 of L/DO. in. A i m z CYLINDRICAL SHELL Seamless or with Longitudinal Butt Joints When D. circumferential line on a head at one-third the depth of the head-tangent line. is l e 0. value g t . 1~ t. M . 2.g42) rat8 the. jacket closure 4. the design procedure must be repeated increasing the vessel thickness or decreasing L b s t i rf f ei n * a c v p p b c t F ao A l f o u t t er l l s o i t en a l fh g t ei m p leb r lt a ie v u n a e h e l l c a t r of PO a l a b t u fl a t r ee m c o n h d u l y a e ~ A s W S TI I 1 !-$? 2 F R TE F 1 W t g b G N II H N a N p p h v Pa = 3 /t) ( D 0 o a Dh e il l n tu e 1 / th o e e fs t i i t Cv U e o . tube sheets (see pa e 39) t = Minimum requiredwa fi thickness. B A u z 2 ~ F O t pr / o ot n h t ie rm m ne c o t i e .

‘k * GG ‘. i *Z “00 Since the maximum allowable pressure P.2 (page 43). See page 40 for design of stiffening rings. is satisfactory.) L/DO= * a s = = = = from chart (page 3000 f ‘ ‘ q c r( h 4 po a a rm 3 g t e e ) G : + “ d f e t ap e b r t m p i r n oe dh ee c d 0n c a i g eg sd o cu r e i e b y r .000/3x 192= 6. .56 psi. Since tlie maximum allowable pressure P stiffening rings shall be provided.(length of shell 192 in.8 psi. ) heads 16 i L/DO= 592/96 = 6.i C e 2 l ll h a p f 8 T e m p 5 r F t0u r e 0 e a E = M o of d elasticity ol m u a s t2 e u 7 o p 4 ) a g n e D A L e t te rr e m q hnut eh i i s h l la ° .“ 0 ( 0 c0 i0 s J l s h A 5 t e n : 7 8 . P* = 2A E/3( DOlt) = 2 x 0. outside diatmeter of the shell f e ths ra sl n t e og i a e l n n 4n if t O ie n= 5 o i et ft e l m g e n t Length o t v H 2 e e l a l i :pd s o s i d 1 a M a o t s e S r . = 96 in. (lengtht of shell 576 in.33 E D E DATA S I G N X P = IS e x dt e e r sn pressure a i l g n D. Since the value of A is falling to the left of the applicable temperature-line in Fig. UCS-28. a? 0 e i r ce eek d i e n s l s .17 Do/t = 96/0. Length of one vessel section.5= 192 A=O. e e ) sa s s t h u h i me =k0e n l i e ( s.00007x 27. . and one third of the depth of n g h n . L = 200 in. r 3 0i p 0a @05 f . e 0 9 g .000. is smaller than the design pressure Using 2 stiffening rings equally spaced between the tangent lines of the heads. plus one third of depth of head 8 in. the assumed thickness of shell using two stiffening rings. l ps ct : 4s 5 a n eL = 592 in. is greater than the design pressure P.00007 from chart (page 42)determined by the procedure described on the facing page. Pa = 4B/3(DOlr) o Q = 4 x 3000/3 x 192= 20.

DO FLANGEDND A DISHED HEAD ASME R. = Minimum required wall thickness. a greater value for [ must be selected and the design procedure repeated. the value of POcan be calculated by the formula:Pc = 0. . W . (2) The thickness proofed by formula Fa=BARo/1) where&=O. Assume the value for t and calculate the value of o r m u / ( l) (see page49) a : A using the f 2 E t t v t n a p t p mh e a c c t ar e hel r pe i a aa l i . inside crown radius of flanged and dished heads. inches. t +% The required thickness shall be the greater of the following thicknesses. = Modulus of elasticity of material.* 3. in.67 times the external pressure and joint efficiency E= 1. ( + ( T O R I S P H E R IE A LA H C D f. 0. (1) The thickness as computed by the formulas given for internal pressure using a design pressure 1. ( b 4 3 a l rg o a A. t v o a h B l u e e f . DO = Outside diameter of the head. (page 43) SPHERE and HEMISPHERICAL HEAD B The maximum ‘“ = (RO/t) allowable pressure: The value of B shall be determined by the followingprocedure: 1. R.9D0 for ellipsoidal heads.00.. h Move vertically to e l u e f the applicable temperature line. is smaller than the design pressure. psi. P Pa = Maximum allowable working pressure psig. t- DO - *For values of A falling to the left of the applicable ~~–•°à–•Tá–•Xæ–•temperature line.9 00. and B to be determined as for sphere.0625V~R0/ t ): If the maximum allowable working pressure f’. (See above)ROmaximum=D. computed by the formula above.34 EXTERNAL PRESSURE FORMULAS NOTATION = External design pressure psig. RO = Outside radius of sphere or hemispherical head. The required thickness and maximum allowable pressure shall be computed by the procedures given for ellipsoidal heads. 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD I R. in. From the intersection move horizontally and read R.

RO= 4 A = 0 . : 1 .3125 in.) e i s d 3s = n x 2 = .3125)= 0. 1 2 5 / ( 4 8 . Pa = B/( RO\r)I= 6100/276= 22.3125)= 0. 0 0 / 0 . Since the maximum allowable pressure Pa i g P t a s r t e t adh t s hh u i i m ak e en s e f a c s t o r y . The assumed thickness: t = 0. .00045 B = 6100 from chart (page 43 ).DO= 96 in. e r A = 0 . a 0 3 r RO/t) ) e B a5 Since the m ~ t a s a x l i l mo ru Pa i sg l r eu e r adh a p w em b s t t e t s hh u i i m ak e en s e f a c s t o r y . SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE. A = 0.g 2 m 8 8 a. Procedure (2. r 0 0 oag e r 4m 3 t ) . A sah s t u e i m f = 0e n h c ka Procedure(2. 2 5 0) 0 0 0 6 5 F F r U Ci o ( .125/(96/0. e ~ d u y .1875 in.3 d e5 t e e r 0 m p i r n 0 oe h S 4p = 2 g ) b t B c d d e s o c t r f i bp e hc da i g n e eg a n . n0 0 . . . RO=. 0 0 5 B = 6 f 7 c ( hp a Pa = B/(RJt) = 6700/256 = 26. cs t i d s s t e a r s re p e h a is n s e g .s 2 i 7 . = 0 / 0 . 0 0 /=0 0 1 8 7. S t i m a n x h cl i l me uo e pa r r k Pa is sexceedingly greater than a w o w m b l i e e ns u g r e the design pressure f’.1 psi.35 E DESIGN DATA: P = 15psigexternal design pressure Do= 96 inches outside diameter of head Material of the head SA-285C plate 500°F design temperature X Determine the required head thickness. 5 in. is satisfactory. 5 ) 0 . i 8 . assume a head thickness: t = 0. = 16. a lesser thickness would be satisfactory.0004 f 2 c r ( h 0 4 p o Pa =aB/( m g t= 5200/307. cs t i d s s t e e rs re p hs a is n s e g SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE.4/0. SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE Assume a head thickness: t.1875 in.p245 ) = 4 .93 psi. For a second trial. Pa = 8 5 0 0 / ( 4 8 . A = 0.1 25/(86.=0.) Assume a head thickness: t = 0.25 i R = 4 n i 8 . 1 2 5 / ( 4 8 .n ..2 psi.

n. m ratios e a I L a DI ‘1 NOTATION A = factordeterminedfrom fig. .e d s i p g hs o n ci .) “ s l% te s a v s for u athickness. in. the value of P can be calculated by the formula: Pa = 2A E/3(D. From the point of intersection move vefically to determine factor A. psi t = minimumrequired t te = The thicknessof the conesshallbe the sameas f t the required t h i f c a k nh e o l se s e sn s d . r and the i . a = o h o t ian n p d n eeg D s= E = L = Le = P = large end. 5 C4 o l m t m m p2 a u ax h t i . Enter chart UGO-28(page42) at the wdue E 5 wn L/Dl h e a t of LJDI (. mc a e h q i l u a c a r h hg t t o fu l e o h nr t e ef e . e u m ~ l e The valuesof B s b determined thel h a by following procedure: 2 D e t t eL. P c i o w o t. outside diameter at the small e i n modulusof elasticityof material (page 43) length of cone. c i nn h o e . using of stiffeningrings./t. 4. From the intersection move horizontally and read the value of B../f. . o A f ol a at ut l l e o r t sa e h n fp l i g cable line.. B = fhctordetermined from 3 charts (pages 4 D1/te 3. l ew o ou e arm w 4 7 ) c lh l I e Pa fd s f e e md u is t at d h l e f e hs etr si s l p ra n ( a a g xl r d )e e e t . e repeated r s e r must be gd e u n Dl = outside diameter at the increasing the thickness or decreasingL b pressure. n .36 E P FORMULAS CONE A L X CONICAL SE(XION D N ‘a AX D L WHEN a IS EQUAL TOORLESSTHAN60< and Dl\r.Pa.(L/’2)(l+D~/Df) external design pressure.L/D&)( h o or0 i t tov n t z is greater than 5 M line representing~it. Enter the applicable material chart at the value of A* and move verticallyto the line of applicable temperature. in. in. see Code UG-33(~(b) W H G I ER EN A 6 a T T H E S R 0 A Pa = flbum allowable workingpressure. i = t Cos a r a o d v e eiq i d o f a o ctr r u n te y j l u i nSn cp d t 1 e ar e e u .) For cones havingD A ratio smallerthan 10. 1 A 4 ‘ = 3(D.UGO-21L0 (page .. n q F v d . g 5 h i ic k n effective thickness. (see page 39) equivalent length of conicalsection.L/Dl and . > 10 a ax l i l pm r w e am b s l u e r o u s The m ..

.37 E DESIGN DATA F’ = 15 psi external design pressure Material of the cone SA 285-C plate 500 F design temperature CONICAL HEAD D( = 9 i X a =2 n d e 6 g. 8 36 . f./t@) = CONICAL SECTION (See design data above) DI = 144 in. pa = 4B = 3 X (144/0. o0 r h 4 a m 3 t g 2 1 4 4 94 6 4 X8 6 2 5. 4B 3(D.4142= 115. Assume a head thickness. A =0.324) 4 4 3(DJr J s i . c f 6 p r 0 a. 3 2 4 = 4 3.288 = 333 cf p r 4a o r h a m 2 t g . =58/96 =0.8 psi.8. =96 in.6\2 X $ ’ 6 = /3 1 4 4 4. = O e 2 r. L (1 A7 2 1 w e e ) ) 4 X 5. page42J 1 S t i m 4 B= 8( . D. Ite = 96/. A =0. = = (5 c. 0. / 2 a n a / t t 4 = 2 t =tC . the assumed plate thickness is satisfactory. f 2p r 04 a 0o r h .00037 ( 4 ~ 5 p. x / )l= 1 X ( + 0/96) = 58 +1 D 6D 1/ L. =L/2 ( L. 0 m 1 Le=(L/2)(1 I w + 9 L + D~\Dl)=41.9239 = 0.8 p a n xh cl i l me rw e P. = 25.. the assumed thickness is satisfactory. 7 =5 0 . 3. t. =( D1/2)hncx=48/.3125 . 6 7 / 1 4 4 = 0 . e 5 s Determine the required thickness. 3 n7 . EXAMPLES & . t Length.3125 in. O 0 i . 3(333) Since the maximum allowable pressure is greater than the design pressure. i 45 a 7 17 s 4n .6 L). a =30 d r k n e ed s e e s . 2 4 1 D1/te= 1 4 4 / 4 0 .00065 (from chart. fe = t cosa=O.200 = 20. g .288. 6 . a m g t 3 . 3 2 4 X ) 7 4 . t t e r r em tqi h n i eic u L n= [ (gD r D J )h / 2=]. 6 ~ ( O . is sgreater eu a po u ea b ls than the d m r e e p rs e i s s g u P. . ) 6 Le/D[ = 3 4 . D L e e D. /~. 2.say 116in 1.

.

1 -a .39 E P FORMULAS X 7 L J o T L R Use L in calculation as shown when the strength of joints of cone to cylinder does not meet the requirements described on pages 163-169 It will result the thickness for the cone not less than the minimumrequired thickness for the joining qdindrical shell. 7 H Use L in calculationas shownwhen the strength of joints of cone to cylinder meets the requirements described on pages 163-169 r L.

= ~ .10 @ in.s 10. A. in. = The sum ofone-halfofthe distances on both sides of the stiffening ring from the center line of the ring to the (1) next stiffening ring. or the number of rings shall be increased.40 E NOTATION P RINGS X DESIGN OF STIFFENING A : Factor determined from the chart (page 42) for the material used in the stiffening ring. cone-to-shell junction. = Cross sectional area of the stiffening ring. in. t = Minimum required wall thickness of shell.. or head line at % of its depth and determine dimension. 111. I. Assume the required number of rings and distribute them equally between jacketed section. P = External design pressure. in. = Required moment of inertia of the stiffening ring combined with the shell section which is taken as contributing to the moment of inertia. = Do’L. or (4) to cone-to-cylinder unction. DO= Outside Diameter of shell. in. Calculate factor B using the formula: “’[*J 2.(t+A]L)A {. When the value of B is less than 2500. sq. Enter the applicable material chart (pages 43 -47) at the value of B and move horizontally to the curve of design temperature.4. the stiffening of the sheH is satisfactory. in. If the moment of inertia of the ring or the ring combined with the shell section is greater than the required moment of inertia.4. 3. Select the type of stiffening ring and determine its cross sectional area A II. The available moment of inertia ofa circumferential stiffening ring shall not be less than determined by one of the following formulas: D02L.(t+A~L)A ~. L.9 The value of A shall be determined by the following procedure: 1. From the intersection point move vertically tothebottom of the chart andreadthe value of A. 4. A can be calculated by the formula: A = 2B/E. E = Modulus of elasticity of material (see chart on page 43) 1. psi. Otherwise stiffening ring with larger moment of inertia must be selected. L. The width of the shell section 1. f’. IV. (2) to the head line at j depth.. Stiffening ring for jacketed vessel: Code UG-29 (f) . Calculate the required moment of inertia using the formulas above. (3) to a jacket connection. = Required moment of inertia of the stiffening ring about its neutral axis parallel to the axis of the shell.Calculate the moment of inertia of the selected ring or the moment of inertia of the ring combined with the shell section (see page 95).

a s g u rn e .f y0i p 0a@05l f .000= 0. ht e ehe r l i e fl e . . The required moment of inertia: [1102L$(r+ A.5+ 3.3 q cf 1 t . us i j u ye s ia o b i d t d t ir te im h u n o i i m n o e ee d rn t t i q o on r a f . = 2 X 2095/27. e A = 2BiE. a e I A a z = o n6 x 4 g s3 i 4 . t m s 6 d . i 3f 1. T v o a ha F lc t uo e r = B= 3/4[PDOjct 3/4 ~5 X 96/(0.4in.41 E D E DATA: S p .5 + 3.00015 IV. t h 5 i o cs 0 k n 0 e se s n h . u f i r f fm e b ns in unt algbg a b st e cT c ke r tl h cn lo g n . U s o h 2 s s t ii fr f e i ngq i n n g ag n u p b ea o t c wet e -d td e eh ni hp r n e ( e f i a g = 1 e in. e u e e h 5 a 0 0 n . ‘s 0 ( 0 c 0 i0 s h e i t 7 r .03/ 196)X 0. = 14 S m e S t i a S p I 962X 196X (0. im fn 9a a t l7 h l ” e a m u ir n ( i t h s o o i m n o te ns r et t a h ef( nc i t fg ee v l. ne ae h s 1 4 s ” d e l i a 1 ) t d i e q s t a i t f e el n y e d .00015 = g 97 in ~ = = . .s l . II.03 ~1961 = 2095 2 S t 2 t i v no a B hi c l l . 14 t i r e n q h c o io em ee e de n 9 r ) it ts . T selected angle: 11. a g fe e ~ t 9 i 5 f . p 4 a 3 g n e ) i . eo t nv gf e ths ra h st n t e og i a e l n n 4n if t O ie n e 5 o i e ft e l m g = n t 2 e e l a l i :p s o s i d 1 a l d a o t t es tr i i r h f S e.i f a l n i f n ng 3 e g A 6 e m p 5 r Fa t 0 u r e 0 e ° o o d l u a ols m t u a sc2 ie t . l f l n : 7 .e I G N X P= D. 5n l e /e e 0 n . s e s Lj d u rf e 9. p n s i l i o u nd t i sao.000. s r o a i n n g i ld s ed .\Q4] . .= 1 9 L H M T E= M o 1 = 0 xs dt e ei r r s5 e .cf 9e e l7 c ui l nar t i o ng s . ) r t e 1 t m o oh m i ne o e tn e III.

0 1 THE VALUES OF FACTOR U I F S O REM F U DL E ANU S V O S A E N R S A S L S N E X R T SP E R E D L E R U .4 2 Cacml owl 001 A .

- e Uolwj .

I I I I n r I I I i z .

45 II 111111 l I # . I w I I 1 I I \ \ w 8 E Pa .

Ua I t 1 I I I I ! 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I ! . I I . t 1 1 1 ..46 e Ho13vd . \ I 1 I I I I 1 . E . \ I \ . t I 1 I Y-RI\] I u) . ..

4 .

2 f r o i t o n n t ghsv r e n nh et s e o e o t f l e o h n t i i s r r c i o . f e n/ g . Code (UG. i eo t b o a l rh1% i t ed noitn e a m m ct e o t i he a l rh i o s f a tc e e t h a dt e s t tf s of c do hrs cd tFi tt ii e gs s u e t e n e s o n A . W c h o r e r l o r si o t i e op a nr n o c v e i t di rs h fde e .wo e igd pd e e ltd h a e c r n t e l n e n . s i ld s e h . CONSTRUCTION I i p r e f u r a i tc l ssae n st t a rce o em p t o is i nt g . tr “ i w t l h e e s g b . xh o s m r l u reu m e u pbl pf e lr c t te a d s u t a i h n e s c f o g i o oei Ug G d.n l esl ti a d t e o h m os at he fl t o l s l e1 hio w i eh t z sl e l a n l se t i o c k w n o es sta s sia t f e jlf f le o n l hie r r n v h e e tt e .a i c h se s h tb a y b e s t u t so e hc s t a i t r j t t t u ich yus o nt vt ase t g Fu o l re e e a li o a fl eme t . t r ” te l .ASME. n r r a DRAIN AND VENT S b d a F r i r f pf i o f d t r i a h m t a d n a on t m s iC ao F n t e li nt aei r gc n h es o rd i is z n he ne ht aaf l g oa l tv n o hs dh o ae o l s l ae c t i ln t a o ia t nm t a n gr v eh Po r d a n o e h pt c o r aa 3lan l y o f e o t . n2 n a lc g g a rn l ar n l 4 1 F E T t X f t h A F iA g u r e x wi M R P LO E U N T 1 G 3 Il Sf D % E : I S ? x I i R II NN S G 2 l Sf D 4wE iB g u r e d d o lg e l ” 6 c o l6 e l ” g c te l .t a s c nh e f e o t v e e n sh r c s e e f le . s r t i s oe n he t. r e . The total length of intermittent welding on each side of the stiffener ring shall be: 1 f r o i t o n u nt ghl.30.. h o o ei n n oe s o i i t d i f f o r u o l h t l i ee l ts ri au n c f vg u a r p a l el uo sc n. u’ e 2 r 9 . s o an tu c s it hrln cs ue m ff e er ee o d o e h a i d o t v e sh s e fle .i col a i n asu o r mn t ot e ee l i s c o e s e n s a t b u h t t . g s rt s ee d r oh h h d vr e m a x e i r m o i uo rsm i b uul c ne r d n e et 1 s f 2 si u g l b n t p s o i a a– n e t nc w a t s a h t h r e T n c lh bene l l ig ai i t i .s et c ti r of n f i e t e p l b o ou c s n e s i r a t ut hs hs t easa tnr r n un ac hg tr u d r p ae f l th a sl i ds T ar e n. g e e is a f ef e WELDING According to the ASME Code (UG 30): Stiffener rings may be attached “to the shell by continuous or intermittent welding. 2 .) o M S p a 1 tf i n 8t f e x a rt rt c x oe o1e i ri ri n . bin a i t n ag a l b w t s f o s e e n h t t the shell with continuous fillet or seal weld.48 E CONSTRUCTION P X OF STIFFENING RINGS LOCATION Stiffening rings may be placed on the inside or outside of a vessel. SHAPEOF RINGS T r m i b h o n e ac g t oa a n o y u s let efn rc h t r e s g a i e ro y n r s . v s ae t r ee td o i t m c f ae l ie h i h d me n n h e m r i b c o o t pu u l he a t T tt s ti f ee ccn hbt nf .

49 CHARTS FOR DETERMINING THE WALL THICKNESS FOR VESSELS SUBJECTED T U T C F V t s c ih t a n r r dgt i i ae a f. e ) T f t r i e h hnu hi e o r d Dk aed t e Res2 rs m t inc n . a I t R = R = F F F e q h u t i e ir c e k a n e h i d h e m i so ph h e er i i c a a n d t r l r 2 e l l o i h:p s 0 o i . ~“ 1 30 0 “ 40 50 2 60 70 ” 090 100 110 120 130140 80 150 160170 180 190200 SPHERICAL. tt a ele nl y v f e a M h o r . d a1 a9 e r f l a a od n ih g n s e r i ha t d sd s .o v s n . . = Outside diameter of the head. D. ELLIPSOIDAL. r hr q t i 1 ee n c dE : o R 3 M v e o r t t t i e cm .000 p i n s l u i i v .o i nI i . a. n .lle lr4 yi t u nro oe i e za ovr n. .ap . in.000 to 38. hs i s d i . FLANGED AND DISHED HEADS c s (Specified yield strength 30. aet th vh e a . l se tr h e uih nc mk nb ea d vs aeo s i h w i sf t s s c t e s d c h bh a d ree a v t i e a e c oc s p w e td d i n e cn ehse o Ait h g S n e s l o nr d a m t h e o S o e V dc D tI e i i 1 I . i d e n e s a u .o RmW=Do u n n s c d i dd e w e i . l dx D s 0 n edd hsr rs a i.

27s Zm. 225 2ca 175 Isa 1= Im !Ea 14 Isa laa I la Ioa m m. 2a m. I 90. Ice. 502 475 5m. m 2Z-3..50 CHARTS FOR DETERMINING THE WALL THICKNESS FOR VESSELS SUBJECTED TO FULL VACUUM 323. 30. L I D ! l 1 1 .. 5 67*9 2 3 * 5 0 7 a o . 525. 1. 475. 225 2m. a r?s. 5 3 2 m n). 27s. a -Q5 Qo. 37s 35a s 3m. (5a 123. 70. 3a Q. a m m. C Y L I N DS R I C A L E H ( S facing page f L L e xe p l a o e a t i o n ) n r . a 30. la 3 d m 6a e a 375 350. !0.

70 75 . l l a /d d t n a h t a bt a e o .5s . . ma ITS.n l p . .75 . . o raD vh t l eo u t e / e v r f t o or i z t oc n t D. e o r t t t i e c m a p lle l r y ti u ro e n v a e o or i z a ov rn t Da e e n y o . . .m .i P o r daVe c H h s s ueeo H s Yeie D g R nO d.03 . C Y L I N DS R I H A L E C ( S p y e t l h v h c h v c s i i tf ir e e e d t n 3 . h t e d . w k nj tw rc i on g i f s ht t c a r n t. SA d .50 .Xl . \ 325 10 Is .90 . lt e l v ey o a hn l d du e e a o w n t a f t = = L = L e t o 1 D i t 2 T g 3 T d l p h o s ih e ln l f . . oe v hss e eh s c e asea l l e o r o l n r e..Q . m Ap p .20 . y7 6 1 .4 .C ” .m .55 .s0 . 0 n i L L v . 3T5 330.65 ..95 !. 17S Isa !25 . e n d RO BC O EN S S 5 IM N 1G .2s . i t f .a e l r v u l y v o e e o r dt i v c r a . . .542 . ee pl ry ev s e e n ot si n g v ra l r D . n 2 2?5. 415 441 45. r d e i ab s t et a a t s n t c e s e e a i n f fi e ye n n ti n n g h e t e a .51 CHARTS FOR DETERMINING THE WALL THICKNESS FOR VESSELS SUBJECTED TO FULL VACUUM 525” Soo. . .m —’2EQ.90 .63 .sS . -Q5 -QO.35 .% . 3n 330. v n bs i pe s gg a T P J “ B o H Y D R O C A P R L P J “ g S ia o C o p y r i g e i n s t N a A s C ee.n e p n l u o s hrs h r a i u e ni s r g e n o sn de t .25 . 4?5. -no. 2?s ?3a 2ZS 290.05 . o l n e l h os e w t g t s t f t t i ka t h g f s e t att nw !c e oh t ieg h ne n e o e hte t a o ths d nf ei e t a . do M dnC wd FE h V e aTe a h ri ” c d s k n es e . g d t0 3 0 l 8p h. con es tti m he f e tf r e hsnf ti nan h n o e eh f i r r t i e t eg o i thirdl of t n h n u d ee h s e l t n e h d ie p . e ar a r v i g on a e c t r t L h l ) u t e e g o or i z t oc n t u .10 X 7 ’ 5 .32 .m . p 2 9a 5 N o 5 7 . 492. . 125 ICo. r.s5 ICC. 15 . .e ) 0 0 l 0u oi 0 i s c s T f 1 E 2 M M 4 M 5 E 6 M 7 M r i e s h u h i o i rdce e k d l e s l s : q nt h e n n c o t ( h wf e p a.= t = .(M . 325 o ~.3.00 S5 X0.. e A se D s r a l A N o v 1 ep 2 m 9 b 6 7 r e 5 6 ..55 .

00256 K.hq.& K.q 70 13 80 17 90 100 110 120 130 21 26 31 37 44 . the higher values of wind speed shall be applied. in open terrain with scattered obstruction. E a o t I I Wind speed. suburban areas. Importance factor. (Table 8) = Velocity pressure. VELOCITY PRESSURE. Exposure B. ft. F=qz G CjA~ (Table 4) ANSI/ASCE 7-93 STANDARD (References made to the tables of this standard) Projected area of tower.8 for cylindrical tower (Table 12) Gust response factor = (G~& GZ)* When the tower located: in urban. G. (1~2 IESIGN WIND ‘ R E Sl S m projected U R kb . The basic wind speed is 80 mph. mph. Exposure D. C & D (Table 6) *See tables below for values of q and for combined values of Gh. The minimum design wind pressure shall be not less than 10 lb. Exposure C. in flat. unobstructed areas. The wind pressureon the projected area of a cylindrical tower shall be calculated by the following formula. The basic wind speed shall be taken from the map on the following page. Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient* Exposures B. = @x H) Shape factor = 0. in Puerto Rico. When records and experience indicates that the wind speeds are higher than those reflected in the map. 0. Y Velocity Pressure p 0. approved 1994.52 D WIND T T LOAD The computationof wind load is based on Standard ANSIiASCE7-93. sq. mph.0 (structures that . 1.00256 V2. q Basic wind speed. represent low hazard to human life in event of failure). in Hawaii and 95 mph. ft.

by locating the ladder 90 degrees from the vapor line. ft.5 1.9 1. H Diameter of tower. Il. .0 2. F=q x G x (9. H The tower located in flat.9 f c w E C EXPOSURED 1.9 2.971 Ibs.9 2.2 2. .53 DESIGN OF TALL TOWERS WIND LOAD (Continue~ COEFFICIENT G (Gust r Abo?eE~~~~d. fl.8 Shape factor = 0. F DESIGN DATA: t w b v d s D V = 1 = m 6 fi~ 80 ft. The total wind pressure on a tower is the product of the unit pressure and the projected area ofthetower. F =26X 1. D Height of the tower.4 1.6 1. This specified pressure shall be considered to be uniform on the whole vessel.8xA qf t r a = psf ob lm 2 e G from table = 1.5 1.1 1. EXAMPLE: Determine the wind load.8 Area. With good arrangement of the equipment the exposed area of the wind can be reduced considerably.1 1.8X 0. l. i 0-15 20 40 60 80 100 140 200 300 500 EXPOSUREB 0. exposure = = = . per lineal il. For example: 30 lb.7 1. unobstructed area. 6 ft. 80 ft. The wind load. For example.4 1. D 6 vessel height.8 0.2 1.2 1.3 The area of caged ladder maybe approximated platform 8 sq.8 1.7 0.6 0. ft.1 2.6 1.3 1.7 1. Area of Users of vessels usually specifi for manufacturers the wind pressure without reference to the height zones or map areas. A = DH = 6 x 80 = 480 sq.4 EXPOSUREC 1.0 2.4 1.0 1.8X 480= 17. as 1 sq.6 1. per sq.

A i . I L A ‘ S K ’.~-i_. . .MAP W S (miles per hour) .. _..’ “r i---- (q 90 i j----- u --m .-—---. .. — r-v i i ---...— -/ ‘&—— .\kl 2 .=.. . my . ~ A . .T‘-. ...

M W S (miles per hour) NOTES:1 V 2 3 4 5 6 a a f a l s ts u r ap3 e t -a. l r t i a e i ws p y e hn er r s W s m ip a b s n b sc e . dRu dn9 er ii r s 0 td r o h o s 5 . u d nd e cs y t te ad w s n t et e nc nh n r l en e a ds o et a o b m e o aa n o e i l a n o e i t t e . r d r 5 id la 0 cg is-a rhnt i see b uah d s a ed e. c iri p o ei an ec t c n oe pu t da b l e s .e m g i e e fr ed o o c p ua to3 t n s ea ud s r s r no r c y e s t s bl e l x s v o . ia l n i0 t y 2 p t0 h l f . a Ca e g oe i w a a i n r ono b au b . e w a w o n n e d r s C a t u o w s i hc osp o in m e n n e on f tueo Ai g ns la i uda s v n i s k i t i . 8 a o a i i m o p c W l h o eo e c ce r o nr h. L i i n t n br peeo l tsa t. n o t u ee d a d r r no i o s s e f W s f iH p i a en fw Pe ..

oe te h r vu s .1-1955. .q t 5 p e pe s m f t 0b oe 9 q . rnhe e f s v n a au he r o e i s io o u r n r h ah i s p s r d z s a g a e ts s f n b 0 . de o b a hg e b t i lw l evo r i h eew s v n s au he r oe e a s o g b u rhf o t o p e f s d i i g s t i r n d b i t c m a t s ea d e a h p y e .p t h y o 6 n r h r s b m u l b i t e 0 ri ie d s n s f z uf d r o rb 1 n an n 1 e l lp ssn f l r b e s 5p q e tc 8 t .s l f r Tb : e q h t0 n s r ls p p e p c r i s f sb he ou n r st eibl d e l r oei t d f w o v or he m o s e i c d a s u n e h e l sn ee Relationbetweenwindpressureand windvelocitywhenthe horizontalcrosssection is circular. r r . ie i h n s tt s o e r a 3 Ir t e k m e z e z hi l hfi ene i dO ekr s d aw h o oie tm wn .56 D WIND T LOAD T l a i a o l tm e a eb d to a s h s e ASA n e d n r n d tt s a o A58. . t 0 .m o p tc l l a e t . i e w e e i t e e d r d v t iieo se a rc bs r tl s eeh a h w n t i v8 de ro s5 c sr l e o p n i a l . t o g 3e nh he 2t s l f n o3g t r 4 h fn 3t o l n e l i to d t o i v c wa a l e el h sur a ee s ls p f lh l i a ee a td c t . . i h n c a i n r x b l r a d 9 d e f g t rvr e l a e o i s p 0 h n o e e r m . Sn i s aa p hc a e i p g n e eg n .This d d d a rn Computationof w b b s s o u l ti e u s tic e oa lo f t oldc d r n e e e n i t rg di n s s e m o n u s e standardis o T t T a w m t p o t ri h f h a 3 s f l e ua d r g te v r f o tte 0 U v u l no e h i t d t a e n s e b o . T t wo h p ti e a s tn s l i o t d r p we r o ohn d r p sr ce e t s i s f u n r o e u et u u nh a e t p r o a j oe t cr t t e W e hg o d w ai e r or f r aet no . p c ri h mh s n ss n e p l e l a t i h ia e 0e a t d w rai p . W C P E SR I l R I E E p S N S T U H R O ER EH Z OqN T E L W H D I w N A OC S QSO IU SO C T A N * G U L R R T R E A N R E A G H M AT R A E A P S 2 3 3 4 4 o 5 5 0 5 0 2 2 0 5 o H 5 0 30 to 49 I 25 I 30 I 40 I 45 I 50 I 55 I 60 [ 50 to 99 100 to 499 I 30 I 40 I 45 I 55 I 60 I 70 I 75 I I I 20 EXAMPLE F T a I I F w t t c p t v m h h y w i p rih n P e fs nd sm eur d r a e o w p m . g ee hmq edu n t h ep m e p h n o a t o it x f e a o t rw c e ihr b e an do f neu s d cd F e ee ea db l a y o . lo )l ( B o i t 0 y U e s o sv e e s s rss u pe sf elml ac nl ui fo aft c ty u rp e r rri hs w s in rs t e h d re o u a f s y w e u F e r t t e h n ez c h i oo emg a o h e r et ae e x a a3 o m p p . I m e q a u i a p na m t e f tn tta st c t r y h o i eh i ae f a a cc ct t o r r d o ur wn ng e f l c .is givenby the formula: Pw= 0.x Vwz= 2 p0 0 o2 e r s u5u a r n f o o d p rn ts h u rpe r o j e oc f e dc a y e a n d r p q e t o 5e s e t a r l i a a h s o 3s f i e g g b h r t ot e e e a l e o uf v0 nt ed .0025 X VW* E W v X o A M P L w P h = we Vw = w E p v r i l e pe s s n f W u b dr s e e i ml o n c i p dt qe t y Pw= 0 1i m v n e 0 e p d o x pf 0 i e t r s y st u s r e : l a c e r h . .i v e . .

57 M W P .

V X h.HIHZ= L o v e noe v g s e te sfs ch e s f il e o r l n s t t M =M a mx o t mm u e a m h s t t be t ( i b f l a n MT =M o h mhe f el i n g ~t t h b t t a . 58 D E O S T IT AGO N L W EF L R S WIND LOAD ~ = v= hr(V- P. 3 0 X 3 8X 4 0= 6 . > 4 I z = ~ ! ‘ O - A ”M P L E : i : N D1 =v 3 ft. T J_ - N O T A T I O N W o ti v w i ht s e suh f l e fa e t l i ht de n i s tt c o E E f f o it c i je no h c iy d n e f t e d s w e l L a ef rv e tm r .960 Xn78 = 308. f l ’ ’ m . 0 0 a a hn n t t gi o te e mnn lt t e = . ft.J ’ . f =R e dt q h ui c ci o kr r n e r e d c sl ..) t=R2nSE r t ~z h. h=) = . 0 1 7 e r 3. 5 X X4 X = t ! :) 1 3 x .iu od ne e x os i n = = = = D2 t Y~ I I 1 E G D L S U S T M X e i A tt = 4 v = 4 M = HI + (HZ12) 78’-0” = Pw X D X H = V X h = M = H1[2= 28’-0” e w P L E : ” = e ’= n . k 4 u z % 5 ’ P 2 1 ~l D. a f 4 o = r pm s f D e tt e r m m ioh n m e n e e nd w i t = H12= 50 f Oi t n . . Oin. 6 6 9 82 = T o t a l I g M oa t m b et o at l ntt n h g o t e m nn f t I i e g PwD. H n= 100ft. = F o V = 1 3 M .= 5 5 2 0 5 V e 30 x s 3. 6ein. = M Pw x D] X H = 0X 5 . 3 5 8 4 – 0 6 . S. . 4 = 81 . h. . 5 k = M – hT (V – 0 f ~ 9 – 2 ( . HI MT = M – o 3 cX 4 p e 30cX 3 ’ o o t bm a – 4 e r 6 o X 2n = 1 08 2 8 6 . Oin. 1 1 3 0 X. 4.D.880 o 9 1 0 l M. 4 4 n0 2 x 9 = 24 3 Platform 30 x 8 lin. hT = 4 ft.~ = r oa v e dei a s i s un e s l f . .5 xs 100 e = 1 l 9 L a 3 xd 9 l d f e i= r2 t = . D i f s b t t rs n eu cocc eo s tn s mi df d ee roea a a n i o n H.: = 0 ’= p0 s” rm m ioih n m e n e e nd t w X5 i t = p X 44 i t = t v = to e – 0 - e D] i h2 h.tE X A EFM CP O M L S = “ l L EO B I O N P R A 6 A D E D 6 E G t X 6 II ~ ‘ <0 s !‘ .4 6 f l 78 . n R =M vt o m ra a e lat s e cu rs t t i e r u fs l e a o s p a =S s v =T s olh te ab rl .

p i 7 p i n . l a 6 d d e . 1t tg % h fh 1 r f t m o e e o o v e ro w e i g hw at t p a l h e t n i bd e a f e t w e l h d i n ge s E r p w e c e tt i si g o i hn h t ut 1t sg h h e e t f : E q u i p m e n t s : 1 1 1 1 1 1 i n s u 3 l a t i o. e g a nr c ih o n. o h d oti r ttu ei o sao fn h s w l o o l ef oe c e wt i i i g on . t r h i si b c o m p hs r e ds st rit ev we u es t g g e v oh e y e t n : = w where Ct S = u s tp r n e i ss st . hnci h t s h e l . c o s . s s k i r . s i n pt e l r w n ao a . n g u s o p e n i n g . l cu e dt h i e . r u n n e n i f c o nn r d T A E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 w r es w e hb h i c g a l a hf u lt l v a l t c eero d ni ce t a o h tw l cu e dt h i e . o h o sg h n h e e t f : c s oc e t . : h e 1r e B O 1 v 2 t 3 o C T 1 v 2 t T e weight.u s + 6 o t 2 w 9 e i h i . g ie e sr c s oc e t .g r s m i s c e 1 l l a n e o . m i s c e 8 l l a n e o . l h e a d . i W= w o v i a g t s b s h s e ot e h fvotl n si ed dl ee re a t i ro e e u c c n i o n c = c i r c u m s e o sh n oc tee m o f r e k il i e hrli m t e nt e e f a r a d t = t h i o t sk n she hi k es i l f r en l t r .u n g m r g s u s go h f g s d h d et m o u s 8g f 1 d h r y . yt s i n s r l ai t i n o .d il i o tn ni e n ts e.n p l a 5t f o r. t b r a i s n . r g a nl 0 c uh o .59 D E O S T IT AO G NWL EF L R S WEIGHT OF THE VESSEL The weight of the vessel results compressive stress only when eccentricity does not t h t e U ih sh s es u s e a f le l t exist and the resultant force c o i wn c ia i d o et xsv c o m p d et st s wi o ei i h i s i gg a oh i e n i t c a ns t t o o l l i sn t g . s p e f r a t qi n u g i i .which includesthe weight of the: r a t i n . d o n w w e w i ie e sr e a i g n h ci tw h s t. T w e d h ii o fv f g eh e r s e a ns f t ee it n rl b v es b g eo i l e n n 3n na s n e l t e g m i a t p e i g g 7 . lt r e k t s ur p p a o r .d il i o tn ni e n r a y . f i r e p4 r o o f i .

.60 D E O S T IT AGO N L W EF L R S V I B RAT I ON A a r e w s t ut i o la d ntw vl vei d b r r Tl a s po i poo t hnr v. 2 ’ ’ ’ ( $ z =j e = ‘ “ ’ . t r ao id o O nf . e t P ri . i o . n . t . T A T I d =0 ( D )F T r ~ N . e f . l i e c R M U L A S T= o . ii b ohe o s e f e l t e r s hb l o i sm li li tn a ena pd et c o v e i i b co r ll a t t fs i aa of f t a a i i n u d r e u g r . o v e ni e n g ss t f sku h d i i f l n t g t c l e r f p s2 s q tea e c c e cr l e. N D H = O = L O O g t v w w = 3 = T = T = W = W ud ti o asv m ef ed s t e s e et i r l f . 1 . u a 2 a h io s c ak t kn e i isa s h r s b fn t e t e s olh ts b a6 e p ral e . 8 ~ z M a o V i A l i l mo we am rb x P u b r a s t i o e nf . .2 “ “ T a a l v c i ht d r u ea o tatx ei b n lv oi w a a t i b r b l e looe n e h se c o n t d R e f e r re C nE cVee i : s b o eV a . . t ei sc e sa f sPl S rs1 a e e M p9 l A u . e oe t ilo gw h eb t r f . . . . e c2 7‘ o ~5 b4 0 b o a td i i nt n r n n = d e r a cmm ih an a u n ila e l w u d mb a t x l e o m a ir b ir a o t i o f n d . r e a d n e g l T a l l p o wh a r b c el i oeea mf p d u m t ane pd e i r mm i e s ef sm i e b c h e b o e t r s xh o d u l T s c h h a l r v lm bei ro dd i ti c is i oc t n H s a h s ne dd t i b t o n no a i e nn a o o u s t s s i r a u s a u p a p t l l s l h isu n ep e pr t oe a r v rrt o e ts h n s rt h o n e i l a y d i d i p i b g e F P e V ri o b i T sec. g . g o x 1 = ~~ S i n 0 e 0 1440 X 32. . .e r d. r o: Vn F e r . oe t i o go h wh oele te i p f og r h r t t f b E X A M P L E G D i = 3 v f Oi . 4 c e e H g t v w = 1 f Oi = 3 = 0 = 1 = i o w = D : e tt p oe v 1 t 2n 5 0 t n 0 l s. f l l p t2 .

o h th a s o dh h w due to thata r t p e e a e fg e loadingar i e m The overturning moment at any level is the algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces above that level. The remainder of the base shear is distributed throughout the length of the tower. NOTATION C = Numericalcoefficient = (need not exceed 2. x X for X S ‘is x H B T b t b t s Rw MX = [F. x H + (V – F.61 DESIGN OF TALL TOWERS S LOAD (EARTHQUAKE) The loading condition of a tower under seismic forces is similar to that of a cantilever beam when the load increases uniformly toward the free end. A portion Ft of total i o D s a i m d a hi i g c n r s g a e of in V s a m r ito becappliedeat o r i z m t o assumed is l the top of the tower. (a) and (b). lb.. The design method below is based on Uniform Building Code.25V) = O. including the top.=NumeticalcOef ficient ‘:””: = Efficiencyof weldedjoints = (b)Seismic Diagram Shear BaseS h e F. a r .need not exceed 0. = Total horizontal seismic force at top of the vessel. X X + (V -~j X (X – H/3)] for X > H13 S a h se ae r 4 S eL T are shown in Fig. for T <0. ft. FORMULAS SHEAR F~~ t 4 1 MOMENT &l = [F.07 TV (F. 1991 (UBC). = 0.) x (2H/3)] 4 H13 V— = Z[c ~ v— IWX= [F.75) 1 7?/3 Outside diameterof vessel ft . O v e r t Mu r on i m n g e n t ‘ s ah h t i t eh oo e h est zre os sn e at s l a m e i s a i r a i h l o a t ah o T t swr i ee a h n r fg au a lad eat ir t n e le o p .7 H = Length of vessel includingskirt. determined from the following formula: F.

0.. 0. 0.3 for zone 3. lb. = 12 M T R2Sr E or 12 M.15 for zone 2A. ft-lb.2 A soilprofile feetor morein depthandcontaining orethan20feetofsoftto 40 m medium stiffclaybutn~ morethan40feetof softclay. 0.S = 1 w t s depthexceeds 00feet. o h 2 A soilprofilewithdenseor stiffsoilconditions. TR2Sr E IV = Total seismic shear at base. psi T = Fundamental period of vibration. in.4 for zone 4. in.0 m i L.S = 2. seconds = c.62 D E O S T IT A O G NWL EF L R S SEISMIC LOAD (EARTHQUAKE) NOTATION = Occupancy importance coefficient (use 1. s = 1.2 for zone 2B. Distance from top tangent line to the level under consideration.500feetper t second byothersuitable or meansof classification. for soil characteristics Rw = Numerical coefficient (use 4 for vessels) I r x -0 Asoilprofilewitheither: (a) A rock-like material haracterized sheu-wave elocity c bya v greater han2. Seismic zone factor. L H St = Allowable tensile stress of vessel plate material. ft. MX= Moment at distance X. (b)Stiffor densesoilcondition herethesoildepthis lessthan200feet. X t = Required corroded vessel thickness. R =Meanradius S =Sitecoefficient of vessel.0 for vessels) M = Maximum moment (at the base). (see map on the following pages for zoning) W = Total weight of tower. ft-lb. 0.S = A soilprofile containing orethan40 feetof softclay. lb. .075 for zone 1.

25 X 1. Rw = 4.= 0.F’t)(2H/3) ] = =[240 X 100 + 3115.5 1.035X 1003/4= 1.240) (96 . fundamental period of vibration shall be calculated T = C.400 lb.07 X 1. . lb. H = 100 ft.2 X = 96 ft.625ft.07 TV= 0. x> H — 3 thus + (v– F) (X – H/3)] = M = [Rx = [240X 100+ 3115.75 = Rw 0. M = [EH + (V .100/3)]= 205.5 1.1 X 3115 = 2401b. 4 ~.1213 = = 1. and I = 1.400 = 3115 lb. = 3. Xf13/4 = 0.125 ft.25S T213 ZIC c v= = Xw 1. O in. s = 1. W = 35.2 X 1 X 1.125ft. O in. -lb.. Determine: The overturning moment due to earthquake at the base and at a distance X from top tangent line First.1 sec.63 D E O S T IT AGO N L W EF L R S SEISMIC LOAD (EARTHQUAKE) EXAMPLE‘ Given: Seismiczone: 2B D = 37.76 X 35.76 <2.5 in. z = 0.240)(2X 100/3)]= 216.

64 SEISMIC ZONE MAP OF THE UNITED STATES .

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c g a l nl o t c e n t ar f il c s t d . M o M m Wee= 1000 Xt 4 = . ns wg a o = E c lc e on t a ib c l r d . = M = S v t o m a e o t a e b c s i st a n tp uf d. = n n 2 10 W I = b ~ f l 5 . . . r ai e r n ra l s u e e l r e c er lr f o i = T h io vc ke nxs ec ss lo sua d l lio i . d i a l o p . r oa v e dei a s i s un e s l f . O m: n = e = 15 in. n e t e M c 5 M= F O M ES O R NT M T R U L A S R E Q U I T E H IS C S K N 1 We t =R z n SE 2 ~= 1 1 * nR 2t ‘ — I e \ * -P w . a ot c c e x e n h w o o m n e e c lc e o f n t a it c r d .m n i e adl e e e er e b seh s r ee t q s u a ai d ap v dm y eyi rnt b o e ns n ht l d r e ie s on e sgl x e e d t t ti e a r s u ro s i e ol i n o m m d i r c s a d .M. = 2 p 3 X 1 . i . S. E G i e R t X A M P L E t 7 w v 4 ft. = 0 l 0 = 1 : Determinemoment. = E f f o iw c jie e o ln ic d y n e t f d s . . n .66 D E O S T IT AGO N L W EF L R S ECCENTRIC LOAD Towersand their i a a l m s f a t o o t w qe u r a n p ams lse u rn m a m ale t lret iyvc a u r h n i u y t r o e l t tx t whni e t h i v dg s s uh sec et s m pfe sr e l os s s E n vq e u l is p y o us e h o e t t ri p tt ta vc ho te h s od s c ohc e s lu an sn y e m e d esi t sr ti ec o a t lb u t i e u te i a du m n r i d a t td w i u e n a rh i g i gb n soh es u t t T l d ui ne sh yn m m ie r r ri c aa e e e n d r t n s g sa t. = M o e m lc e e lon t t a i t f bd o c f n r c . 12 x 1000 x 4 J = 2 e 0_ . s s e e m q nu a p p t m i ef nl p t e n e b n s n g g b s t cb t ye u dnh . R s t w N O T A T I O N = E c c e t n dt r i i f cs i t htt t y ra. and stress. 4 2 2 W t t at h i hm tee o o r k e s o ha n el i u r e c r e c l a es en o mn r a ei sm d b e h u mate m sa l r i h n n t t o c h s n .X 0 1 5.

1 . Ay = 1 sq. 0 5 2 4 9 R S e f eW r ah C e o ei W l c as No e n . y g l ie n h d n M e : N t n a r t r T o n h : t i lEl u E l m S s Ux s s Itg. 1 = = 2 0 p . s :1 = ’ 5~ : ’ 0 0 0 = tx= t = 0. n n u 9 . d .c i oh n w e pas r b e (t ls s r i v ee S .l a s s ( e s cs n l s e h t e i n r s h l i d bd oi u e e cc ” sko a a ic a aln l g l n u t o a um l ) u c y t er i r a t e h s t q a d u asi h c f a a o uti wl s u oh ehe T oes o s lf r ee h e luu on t d sen ie a v f h s e e v r o o . 1 — 1= . S. s = 1 R S93 r . . dy = 2 i o m e e n D : e n t t e a r I 8m l . t hs i g n f i f ai i tc c a net t s i o u sl r t t a Tin e l g i trf h m n u e l s o eo i s a t i r hn b n f i o y i. 3 .25 4 ‘y = t + 24 1 8 = 0 + 0 . n f na el t n rr e ie of thes tower more te y L f u i f s c r sa h i g d e i effectively than circumferential stiffeners. nb p 2 ila. 5 0 0 .c e2 e ) 9 . 5 x 0 f5 0 1 . 5 . M T . m cer or n s sa i a) s e ly r i e a dsf g e a u oe i c rs ns b m b a d t ef b n k ls c l s o p s ao e n c g l i e ty t d d ii. If the rings are not continuous around the shell. 0 0 0 2 2 x . in. h nh ( go Eb l f s ec ek l e i n r g ) v ye s uu e l l B l b o u cc k . D e t t e a r l m l c i oh n w e p s r b e (tle u s r i vs ee S o m a s e s e t n ir ef rfi e n e r n g s L o n g s t t u id if n f a l i i n u t s o e h e d s tn . k h e C . . 0 5 0 00 0 0 . v5l l. n . a v t g l s a a a b@ i iil t i c H e a h n d e ei n v bn W o ia p N d s w n o m y a t s t r t y b o e slk .67 Design of Tall Towers ELASTIC A tower u 1 2 I t t s e E s i an STABILITY c x d m pi em e f sr i ti l oaw n b o r a s a iw oy ci nl y s n t u a b i e i a e a o s s l B b u o t k w l c i.25 in. . w n. l 3 . o e e l n l e o m t ev n ewt h ss ah s p i e e uc ] af hr s i elp t y o f i r r m o e u h ( p et r s rr r d o u p d p o o w r n t c s oa . 0 0 0 ~ x 0 0 =. 2 . = 0 . 2 . l a i y ln g t h i n v w e a ls l twn td e hh li o he t k s n i e h e ht s e o n lf e eos . 2P 2 . its stiffening effect shall be calculated with the restrictions outlined i t C U oh( C d. E G Given: i R t X A M P L E s 8 8 is = v 1 i e = 0 i n 4 .

” a t d ih e S t ia dn e htf cdl ue ec a t e x l ol on c n e o it c e s a t i s f a c t o r y .5 x 48 (12 X 48)3 x s n = 8 x 3 20 .e t kt n n i e n eh c sw l oo d n r i o i c of l oo l a d o n r e s g t b i S Sn Tv . gA a O t . s f t 6 o c n c o e e ne of e f lh e t c t t wi uol n m d e ih b ce n a o lae c d u ld t a s y t ee i df r h n m o a b f o f l o o c am n lbtd y le e d a e r m r a i e v ” M F O R M U L A A N O T A T I O N S AM = M D1 = W =M E a dx e i f ( m t e t c it o a o np l u m i h o ti t d w o i t n wi he l e f t e t t ri h s u f a o o e l ua p l t u c s i t yf . ( R>lot) h w e n =M r ea t td a oi o i hu w n s n r e f R = T h i o c k i kn e i s s n s r t f . E G i = 2 f X A M P L E c e m o u t i n : v E H I R t 6i = 30.68 D E O S T IT AGO N L W EF L R S 1 D rowers s r m d i hb d o e u d i l e n d n s t g m ele d e i h op tr 100afeet h height. n ) ohn td t f ia r d h e f . 8= ~ ’ o . Cte H y d r oP c r a or k o n s i n g c e s b . Oin. 0 x 0 2 . = 2 ( i ) r . e t s h i i o tc ns k ein k e g e d m e it i d s t s .h t o is n t l i r . .. t Pw = wind p r ep s s u rs e .000 = 48 ft. . T f m 4 a x h l i l d m e w e6lai meb n l t1e c f o hn e ee o u f c i o h p 0 48 X 6 n 8 8 . . h o s A m e f ct a h c du e l fa l twei c t tg t h h n o. d s i s L e v n e i g s = scs lf e u l id . 1a h 9 . AM= PJI. f : t .i 3 30 f 2. . = ~ = 30 p = 1 i = 0 e t D n e : t t e m r a dx he n i f e lA e m i m n . er o n t h f k H = R t m o o 3 i m n f e e cnnr y .H (12H)3 8EI I = 1 . 31 i 31 t s i g r h0 . ‘ 1 x 3 0 0 1 n 2 5 . “ e v SC e n M m y e b “ u nr a 6rh t c T u t8 D te i f w l.000. . 0x 0 0 M.

2. press. – Stress due to weight T s t r s s Condition e At leeward side – Stress due to wind – Stress due to ext.tt m h has e e m applied. 4 T s At the bottom of the tower At the joint of the skirt to the head A t A c t D D D b oh h o ad ht t t t s e oj eha m o e d i lo en l t h n ao . . t s r h b h s a s l a c tu sl fl e c a e a l tl lee odo c wa it t n o lh i e o n g s dr t e h 1. r s r u been o s s y ns . – Stress due to weight p o s s h i i t e t i g e a e ot sn ts e n so h a n i t ecid g ve p nor T e s s s i e d v n n i eg d o n m e t u m o t a s t ti io hne w m r ds is f tce e as t o t nch eo s m ip r ir oge on sv i e or r n h e e e s s so e ts w u hm e et a s a d a i r h h bw d o e e u sf ie e rl a t e r . g a e d e t o i e ch eo nt s en qte u e ln h s s f e c o r n d e i a t s d o s l rf B e e r d e e inue d r.d t d t s t t t e rw ri rw w i a r td d e u is s n e p e un s r e s t se ee u si sg eh de e r a ) w .69 D E O S T IT AGO N L W EF L R S COMBINATION OF STRESSES T s t ir h n e bsd t s up e r c e evh i d o s u cyso rel shallbe investigatedin s s d e l aiy b ei dn d g t a h d o u dn a pressure and weight of l o f qi l a t de k e r r) n . 2 3 U s v F H r r o i c i n mi ga o n e d s t r ei n. t ig o tn d h di f c ef o en s rr t ie w n i t eo n t h s v . I i a t t g r B r T e e s tn l h tqd o un a o da e c d o u l ts a n u o t u s h n d k s i m c e r t o g d n oto e e dha r et r h r q uh a i kr e a iw e i n l w o d ic h e t : sn td c i ra b n eu c cs e ns t r b ih sc u y ta y m wla rt i l siz g s s e d i m s f u wl rto e i a or g t l nh m o u d a a r e d i n q k . t m eh t e is ot c t ekf rn ee s rs s i g v h tn l t n i nr g t s fe e l n ii n t n i g e o f r u er h ue ut u o t s hs se b e h s o ra a e tm l f i o n l l c l o d n w r e m x i ee o h d 1. a combinationto establishthe governingstresses. s e u n ir e r s n a o l e o os o C o m b o n a l i io n o a n r i w t ( e t v e sh s e le : S A windward side t t a h dqo u d a pr o f l e x a tk + Stress due to wind – Stress due to ext. C o m b o n a l i io n o a nr i w t ( e t v e sh s e le : A w + S + S – S i d t d t d t ns d w t r w e t r i p e t r w ee i a rt d ui s s n un s e s st r u si s g Stress Condition Ae l e — Sd o es + o S. s g p r e ir a n . eh — S t o e d t . 3. s t r s r a n a ol t a n td m b d t i y zt i r ohn et g nt g a et s r o u w vn e a f l r rl o i eab od r u h l s oa o xhk i .i ns m g a o n n t a i i n f s s s o t o t i t t ie n u s i n noe otd e le x er s p t n re ae r l n s a u l r e . press.r e e sid c .

g t e d e .37 ()<35 0. 2 8. t = T r e tq h u i f i w r k pee r deoae t ss n s o ur h r cw n i s b d h t e e = s j t o ih i e n l n tl o . S T E O F R S t f w d l p t i c i r i n F i f fa r e = x A \ x H t E X A M l o n g h ct u d d eti rin e an el pu sre ier s sn e s a o u l an is t t o h o r c u m f se r e o t rhe a e t san s h t n i o l r e wl h t e h i afi r c e ek q . P L= 0 E : i . 1 F B i oa p tt l h i i ar c ok t qa f tu e si s r e n e e h d o ( t + tt t t rt h m/w r c ek q o i 2 n e si s r ) u o c o n sh i e e i t ee d h h d r g t . t a s s c n o i A aa F b i B aln gc oe u n va de t n f i i te e i t d d h t f a oot n r ce w e r e d n i s n s d o t t o f o wh wa h p o e f i e rh r ct i caa hd i n nq su sa t e s . 3 2 .39 ().1 1 (.43 X 1 3= 43 f m e a n 4 d 0 z 5 g b 5 E Q Q x 1 R b a t 0 . 1 1 . 2 .48 0. 1 2 . F T rm = 0 a ob X . 4 6 .c a k sb n d e el ee s c a r c e oa r sd e e n d g l y . H x m tp = T r e t q h u i f i ci r kn ee t deroe se r s s n s a r u l r n p ( TH e i o n s oi on n p ) . 2 9 . .53 0.70 C The b t T t O S (cont. a lci c f n t t.44 0. . 5 0 . 2 i .5 0 m 1 . 0 0. 3 0 .46 0. 4 W = 4 .51 0.3 . u f pt or e i r a sn v saa t ur l te ae b b s el s in h o dt o i t r n e r i r l fe s o T nr A a u d o fb s . 3 4 . 1 9 . 1 1 2 . = 63 n.= lmH = 0. 0 3 . o a d mm b e o g i u X h nn r s t ot tr tw a oh nnw g m w e e tt nh n ht h i ii ce c cn k n hl l o ii pt h a i nt p o e t e r e a s t is r s auf atr cr etl o e r w s r dn s a l t y i ih s s u r e .41 (). 4 8 .32 T A V A BA OL F L UA E mC .42 0. . m 0. r = 0n k = 100 ft.33 0. c e t i r k e e * 1 1 6 . 3 .) O e mn o d im w e ig d n i e c r ne e a bs di on s toht t d t n u t f t or t g o tm o h e om t ot t w p h e t l h r hui ca.50 0.2 . 1 ) .

r o r g n s M i r n e i t q m u i fu i c mk en t doe cs r ssnn s t ai rsu dl te orre i hen h i rn p r e e o s r t 1 go h t e a h n m e n t PR 250 X 12 3000 ==0.6P = 13.4(3. h e o f r i f s nt b a t nt . e o t t r ah c sm h t et hT = 4 f O i d h t s ej h oa e i d l n l o t P m= 2 p i n p5t rse e r s n 0 s a i u l r e Pw = 3 p w p ri s e s n s 0 uf dr e R = 1 i i r n as v d e i2 s .etc. ~. h=j= 86. 2 t Ls t 9 r t h o nn gg sih t e u h de e t nf e e a f h o r m o le 3 t h i r a l m i t n h i i 0 m i ku s n m e2 u s ns9 sa c .538 = SE – 0. 6 in. Requiredthickness: MT t = R T S T F F = 1 x 3 8 7 x 12 . u s s e f l o n i d e = 1 p 3s v7 t o r S 2 e C0 s i u s 8 sa 5 l e f A s I m a a t2 e t 0e m 0 a e l r ” a t t u r e r i p F s o l h t e a b a l r .600 x 12 = 871.a M h n . r r .. to .128 in. T i g h r t et t ah h t i c s cha sk r wn un l s ia s t i ea l c e e T O T0 A. 2 1 . 0 7 t _ s PW x D1 X H = v X h] = M 3 M x 2 x 4 es o = 3 nt ( h .u dr 1 e r n6 5 .800 = 72. ~ A : o “ v II D E C O N I D I G T I NO N S S D = 2 ft. insidediameterof vessel D1 = 2 ft. = 72.A Required thicknessof cylindricalshell under internal pressureand wind load.400 – 13. 2 4 4 = 2SE + 0. width of towerwith insulation. . 3 5 5 . . f m 04 ) oa t m b ~ o t ae m = MT = M – IIT(V – 0. =T v N a l l f o c wo ar n o oc se i o n . 2 8 0 7 0 1 23x 0E ..4P = 2 X 1 R e t q h u i f i c rok n ng deo t seu dsd nti w d ra p li ru i neM s l e bi n g oa t u m o d e n s eb r ( e t 0b 4 0 .5 x 30 X 2.85 – 0.6 x 250 Minimumrequiredthicknessfor internalpressureconsideringthe strengthof the girthseams: 3. 5 1 5 5 5 0 0 21 3 n 6 r e t q h u i c i ca r k wn ue l s i t s t or e he h l ee td s a c t td n o gh sh t e ht e r o f ae tm m h b g t i w p ri o e s0 n s i . + 0 7 . = \ f dt s = 4 f Oi l e tt n o g 8 . t 3X 0 . lb.5 x 4) = 86.71 DESIGN OF TALL TOWERS EXAMPLE .wt .750 X 0. 1 e n2 8 .260 i 11. 4 2 = 8080 7 i . .5 Pw D.85 e f f oi wc i j e no c di H d : 4 o z : o * -e m I .200in. e l y en E = 0.~. x 25 = 80 . lb. b h 3 el .2 ett =0 86 5 6 0l 8 .000 PR 250 X 12 =0.600 ft. Oin.400. b o. = 2 7 4 . i p r no e s 0 ts i u .600 – 0. x .

s a2u t s 8 e e 5 f iC0 s rs l 0 a 2 i 0r s t e m po e r a t u r e .5 P#.680 M = 55 2O 5 O . D ED S I G TN A A 3 f Oi i dn t i s a n m i e . e a m f 150 X 18 PR 0 i . i n s i Qo n . 0 0 4 = 4 2 3 . oa t b m = 692.x 1 = 8 .231 i n = 1 = i= 0X5 . = 0 e f . . lnn pe t r d e e gr s a sn d ri n w s iu f r a P / l a ‘ ‘ m ‘ m I < .5 0 8 . au . .d t .ll h e f to i wo ha ne s t s at f l l n D] = 3 fo 6 i r w m o v it p ie p it n gc . 55 4 0 t = — + 0 B . 52 t 2 8 0 l ) b 7 2 . 1 . X H o n a d s 30 x s 3. 1 .X 4 = 6 . 150 X 18 PR 0 i . h o n e f r = 1 p i n p o r s e r s n s0 a i l r t5 e u e P p r e s s u r e P.u r r . 1 f Oi l 0e t t n o g 0 w . 55 6 0 t = SE – 0. T s o l hI te ab rl . 8 144. .2P W V P L L e l a a i PW X D. .6P = 13. 2 X9 2. + 0 P .750 X 0. 0 0 6 4 = .2 x 150 = dv x h] = 0. 1 e s0 ts s E i n . . 3 5f 8 0 . m d 3 x d9 l e f r 150 X 36 = 2 X 13. ee r t f w di n si . 6 4 6 0 .060 . 2 – 0 . e r er s e e u r . h o o h t h~ = 4 f Oi d j o i n t . 8 e f l R . 2 6 .r e a d s u ss d v e i .I D L E O S T IT AGO N L W EF L R S EXAMPLE B R w — e t q h u i o icc y k l ens de u d sh rc s i oce al fd l ol o a i r i n n m b i e o t e i o g w h e t r f . t = R2 = SE = i p f X X X . = .5 x e 100 l x lin. r t 30 f 8 o ft. 4 I M I = i r n e i t q m u i u i ch m k en ed o s h f r e sa r d PD t = BE – 0.100 – 4 ( 1 X 6 3 2 8 1 M.100f l m b a s T m ) I M oa t m b eh o st n h (ett e J o t a ’ ma e l d MT = M – h~ (V – 0. v 2e s e a e a l :ml il p e t s 1 s a l i c H d : m o e a i e e e cm = C i r c u ’o s f e rt he mn cd e i e h l m f al tn n ( c o a r l r l n o s w o nno c r e d t ) o r e q u i e i a Minimumrequiredthicknessfor internalpressurec o n st i s d te orr t i hle n o gn gg ih tt e n s o shdi.h e t ss m e t e h e t t .t .85 – 0. x 15 7 80 .hJ = 1 – 03 X ( Xj 3 3 692. U 0 2 i pn 3 s l 3 n a .750 X 0 M i t s r n e i t q m u i fu i c mk pnt reoe c e r ssnn st ai sud l t e or te i he n i g c g u h me h i rn e d s o s r r r c n r t o is e h a a e ll m l f .f o iw c 8e e l e 5 d y a e i s n c md f s E i f s t n b rat t n b a c .940 t nX 49 0 Totalshear V= 13. 1 n1 ‘ 2 X 1 3X 0 E. 1 p 3 o v t 7 o Sa 5 Ae m . 2 0 – — – 0 l t l n ac o o oh t F i p r no e w.

000 lb. : o . 0 0 0 b b0 0 0 0 . 2 1 0 0 0 ( W t e g g s 8 % 1 9 0 6 1 8 4 . A T L N G A Test water + Erection Wt. 42.e4 f 7 4n 0 = t t 6 h c a r u F d r i Ba P o g 7 r a m b fm g t oa . 2 / 3 3 2/ 0 .25 plate r i c rd v is satisfactory. 1 P 9 i b4 p n g a y. e ) i kr s t m T o t a l # E O I T T G H H TW O F E E R S e b g o e ipl n 3 e e ai s n g g b a n 7 4 n e l 0 x 7 3l 87Skirt 4 8 195 0 9 6 2 B r 4 a i 0 s n7 e 25 9 7 4 n5 r c i6 h o 2n r 0 4A . 5 t m . e ) i kr s t ( 0 t e . o : 0 . p X =40 . 0 l y 0 p d l .8 e k 0 0 + 6 1 p p a o r yt1 s 1 0 1 l ia t in o n2g s 2 0 S a2 l n i n g9 0 0 4o n I 7n s 5 l a9 t i u 1 9 1 m P l a t f 4 o r 1 1% 8 L a d d e2 r 2 l 0 3i .3 h w 7c 8 f i o ct 5u 2d f s . see rage 416 .e p c q e s e i 0 s n o r2 n t r a e t s wl i l sth o c t is a o n od r e ds e a i td ad a io n t f t tr o m p e .000 lb. y ) 8 2 6 2 plate is required. . 9 3 1 a t o t r .000 lb. n a se e r l u n e b e . — For weight of water content. 33.73 EXAMPLE B (CONT.4 h w 5c 8 f i o ct 0u 3d f s . - : ~ ~ ~ : o b t “ m ~ o : 1 o t - u d i ~ p s t lh r i e ca ak v n t ea h re ee o s t o g u h f f e e n t s s i i t t o w e r . while at the top the wind load is not factor and for internal pressure(hoop tension) only 0.) A 4 : o “m “ N & The preliminary calculation of the required wall thickness shows that at the bottom approximately 0.to withstandthe windload and internal pressure. e ) i r s t ( 0 t . e eu 0q h nn t h i a c l.75 in. 3l 4 0 . TOTAL TEST WEIGHT: 75. c t l e o.5 h w 2c 8 f i o ct 5u kd f s .n o 3 a o1 d1 2 m 5 A . P T E R WEIGHT:I 36. f r m : ( 0 t .4 x H =.F e c o n o o em i ia a sa l o t i n s sa 4 h 9 x 3 X 1 2 x 2 H t 0 e b 0 I p wnl T s ur I n s ru O p e + 6 S S 9960 T T O +E T C E YR r el r r O O W e I W’ E C a a i c y t qi t i E 3I L O3 N H.k ne o e t n ns i n gt e rhdm hs dh e i f a e te t e i s t s e c U 8 sf w m p i il t av g dt s e h s hs os . 0 oh F t di ~ i h ( n ft i at dnr A ac s X P e7ob a ) l m g e s o t = w . T A Gl s nu g to n 3 6 2i 3 T0 S :b 0 0 0 0 1 a . T t h i r h e k f n h u eti sro o( e n d o s i r.000 lb.e n 8 o1 3 2 .6 nl p c uh0 o 1g r .

x . 2 s8 2 i– 9 s u ts r ru e ri. o hc r ra o l t cu i u c tl ba s t r i t o at e t h e s e t nn a e a i t u e h e n ht s 1 0p d . X 65 dt t ir n ep tu r s eS s s ~ e=a ou l r e r = n s e = 1 4 x X 6 s sn e o d dt t w r e ui s Rz n t = 1 8 x 3 . S s . dt t ir n e p tu rse e r s s n e a ou l r s e . 1 e s nh 1 s r p i ele t 1i . . a l T c a l c h u s l a tar it ee b ns o sh h t hf ss t o t o e e ot e a m o h t d wr thae n s th t a s o s w i n s d i o i p a e rc r d a n tg d i e ioa n t gt v e o e n f n tr hfw n e e id h i e n tg w o n i o i c n i f T i h c e w r ne f f t . 2 2 0 = = 9 p . 1 2 7 4 . f t . 6 3 0 7 x . 0l h e o e e s h 1 d t . 1 x1 0 r c e o c n t d i i ot n n o n i 3 4 w = s=—= p ec ro an t d i i n tn g i o n 1 xm0 1 C W I N lh p .8 d . e o 6 d u i s+ 9 s n e Stress due to weight 0 . e o d t 3 Stress due to weight 8 – – 3 5 p. 7 5 5 t. 8 . + 9 p. t 3 w o 1 t r e 7 u is – 9 s n .n. DD C O M B I N OA ST IT O R E S S E S N F D W AI R D D S LE E ES W AI R I E M E R E CT T N I N O DN I ) T I O N ( P C O Y t e u i s+ 9 s n . lt n t l p S dt t w r e iu s n s de o . 4 7 7 1 0 . = = R v t 1 8 3 . p o w m h e ie 0ac r i kf t. st p h ee 7 dt i b a5c o o . o d6 4 3 – + 1 1 . X 0 2 z = 5 8 12 ‘ ’ 5 4 3 X .3 2 0 f =l 3 t 6 f 1 t . 3 1 w = — dt t w r ee u i s g s s h e t= o . 0 0 0 3 p 5 s = 5 ! . o ps e s 8r o a 5 to d it i i n n t g i i no h d g wo i a v re e 0 cs n n w s n l s o w t r p ele e as wta s 0 h f a b t m l h o e jr i ei e e a t f l ii 1c hi 1 ep 6n t c8 tr . + 1 1p . 0 0 0 3 p 9 s 5 . e S 6 d 4 r w 0 u is– 9 s n . n 1e o s 4x t a2c l l i s o e wt a1 r b p ee6 e 8 ss s7h s e.68 =0 1 . x 7 . x . of 8 n 5 sh e 0 u ei t . PW x D] x X = V x . e n i og n ) e o c t S d t t rw e Stress due to weight ( i p r n d Ne o 6 d 9 S S d t d t t ri t rw pe e Stress due to weight I T T T S A A t a t l I O P E R CA OT N DN I T I O N I N G u n s+ r e s t se. s c e . lT t i5 u c i t p h i nsl ia t ia c f . 6 a o 3 t x f l o io r n=m240 x . – 3 9 S d t t ri pe 2 n s+ 1 es t se u r os 8 . 8 c a l p Ar u e l v a i t o e u ds l y ) 1 c s T o1 0 p t . 0 s8 5 –i 8 p. 0 Ia 0 3d X 7 d l mie = n r . = Mx e it t ‘o -m e I * 1 ! i ‘ ‘ m Shell P L s ‘ ‘ b v T S ( 3 x 3 x 7 = 7 .at k t o r ys . 7 5 5 .D 8 70 3 s 5 3 8 .n e e s n s 7 P 1 5 3 . 5 .74 E B( Checkingthe stresseswith the preliminarycalculatedplate thicknesses: Stress in the shellat the bottomhead to shelljoint: P S S S i e i o t i 0 ac i k t. T M o o MX m t ae n 1 X 3 6 1 9 2 8 0 1 M 2 r . 3 =0 1 7 t 0 . thk v te ie sot a e t m s f afe l h c a l n t hs i s sr 1 a e7 f h sd e sf h o n t e t r l o wt t 2oho. 3 =0 5 5 7 6 2 2 2 0 . .

e ie l s r t t t l a r t n 0 tc . 3 1 M = = 5 RI n t = 1 8 x . ft. 3 1 0 2 x .h p h 2f l i se n a c h4 of t k d 5 . ooe i o h m w f o t s a t i s N a c u c ra yl t c i ur l e e o t r it uos n r r aeh s d ea m ast e bo e nn f f t o .) Stressin the shellat 40 ft. =l 1 ft 1 n 1 x 1 1 24 . 3 2 4 p . . 1 dt t ir n ep tu r se e r s s n e a ou l r s e c a l pc Ar u e l v a i t o eu ds l y ) 1 s T o 7 l 4 .75 EXAMPLE B (CONT. 6 0 1 . 6 f X t . p . h a o q i em n n i o o . = 1. down from the top of the tower. 5 . . r = m 8 o 240 x 36 = 2 30 x 38 lint ft. .140 x 19 = a d d e r T M o ol t m v a e .25 in. 4 2 0 0 p . Platethickness0. S dt t w r e iu s n s de o . t 8 a 1 T 0 i t .5 X 40 = 4. PW x D1 X X = v X : = Mx S P L s S ( 8 h 30 x e 3.200 X 20 = l l 8 a ?0t x f lin.

MT = 6 R = 18.8 0 3 . . n4 ( n2 n6 r . x 1 = i o 1 MT n R2 ~ SE . S = 18. pm uc r o u r o a s l e F t p r s ts . G t is vv E X A M P L E a ch eo sn mis E i edxee e a r l em d p e n s B l n e . E“ = 0. X 1 7 X 1 4 .76 DESIGN OF SKIRT SUPPORT A skirt is the most frequently u v s e I si a s o t iw a ts m s e a o i ss f sad cf ep v ot pe y o o t r n th d u t r r t e tb l c s o c . U ‘ 3 1 .75 in. F i A ga u s r t en h s c B m ooo d t m w sm e t ok h os y th pna i t e t ar cI fh t m e e a o c a l c ou t l r t e i q hnu s i t ri v ee lo j h l e edo u f eg e c s i n te fn v c y a o w e f zd a t f . i b i C ( o m 1 U bd u ’2 a s e We ) y d e . . 0 b 0 0 . X 17 . . .000*stress value of SA-285-Cplate . D = 37. = 0 Ai .12 0 40 .1 5 0 40 . 0 0 0i . L f 6 a e o ” t kr k c i 0 0 6 e t F W w ef = o i g h r t D X 3 x SE= 3 . 0 6 =0 2 i 2 . W = 3 1 l 2 t 2b 0 * s t D F w e t t e r r e m sq i ht u h e i rc i k e ndr e n k i e r =1 d 1 x 6 23 8 8)5 0 8 3 . 0 =0 .n h t w iet se d tu lt o hd s ai ue h s g t ur o e e ql h u l d a n u y n a n a d e dz l e tdi e e i r tfm s i g no he ks n ke eh i s h t n h i ct s s r ft e .5 in. X T ( Y t i i ! p s f4 s i h l l 6 R E F E R T E N Ce E rS : m h 8 2 .60 for butt joint 3 f 8 l .

1 1 ./S 5 1 1 B 6 .1 1 0A 21 / 3 t 1 8 20 4 3 2 24 o 4 1 5 / 1 / / 8 1 6 1 -1 3 %18 2/ . 3 6 . 3 6 -2 2 5. To hold this minimum spacing.M 4 /A O/ U A 2S L A TN E C BS HD O S R O L % . It is advisable to set the anchor bolts not closer than about 18 inches. 1 0 -1 5 7 . An approximate method which may be satisfactory in a number of cases. 7 1 68 t 1 8 1 41 o 2 2 3 08 / 4 0 . The strength of too closely spaced anchor bolts is not fully developed in concrete foundation. 72 0 -1 4A 9 /7 l e / 2 A d 2 i a mA 1 5 t 5 e rl. 5 1 M a a l l x p e D i e t ne r 4 b ai em S r p t r se . u 1 1 8 nA n 3 d 6 %.. d 0 e 2 -2 3 /1 . The root areas of bolts are shown below in Table A.b e rt d s t s ce s the n fe e d t i hu c de m r r r o e al m a b e cn o y h s b l o ( fn b ah e r f br u t a a n a t t r g . 0 2 0 % . in the case of small diameter vessel the enlarging of the bolt circle may be necessary by using conical skirt or wider base ring with gussets. 1 8 -1 9x 3 0 /1 XA / I L 8 O US M B FL E S S E W T R E A O 3 3 A 8 L M . 2. For corrosion allowance one eighth of an inch should be added to the calculated diameter of anchor bolts.S 1 17 B 8 /O 4 w o s o t li a t n t rd s e hr h t r a a d d s . Bolt Bolt * Size RootAreas i Y 5 3 x 1 l l 1 l 1 1 1 2 z 2 2 3 * F b 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 3 8 . /I 2 21 1 2 t 1 0 82 o 6 / 6 1 . The anchor bolts m b inumultiple of four and s t for tall towers it is preferred to use minimum eight bolts. 2 3 -2 0 1 S 03 % .S 5 / 5 c i 8 f i c a t i o n / 8 -1 .2 a 9 . 24 to 36 4 4 . For anchor bolts and base design on the following pages are described: 1. o a s e r d i s The number of anchor bolts. d 0 e : 12 o Y c 2. Spacing of anchor bolts.1% 8 / 5 9 v t 1 ie A r1 3 o26 c %.SA 193 B 74 / 2 a 4 u 1 n n d8 %. Diameter of anchor bolts. Dimension in. A method which offers closer investigation when the loading conditions and other circumstances make it necessary. 1 q n1 . 3 7 . 1 3 . t 5 2 8o 4 1 6 t 7 01 o 8 5 22 / / 8 .77 I DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT V s r e vr et s s i o o k s t t i n ca e t a l o cs n wk f u s a s t a m . 1 6 -1 9 3 /1 4 AC 4/T B L E . ? TABLE B 13 12 NUMBER OF ANCHOR BOLTS TABLE A I Diameter of Q Minimum Maximum Bolt circle in. 6 v t ei r n l 0 3 SA 193 B 78 O . n l 7 8 / .2 2 1 9 4B 1 52 A1 .4 3 u 1 / 4m N 8 3 8/ . Computing the required size of bolts the area within the root of the threads only can be taken into consideration. s 0 .32 / 7 1 44.

. e l c h O t a n b mh a o h F o r T i r rA a t 7.in.+ s i s t n .4 i . u e = 2. forcorrosion.196 sq. .= . C h s e ci t a k r in ne c g s h b o 0 ls o s nt 1. . M-= 8 6 l d 0 u r b e ci t 01n i . 4 02 00 – — =. a n b c o hl o t rs 0 q n n u e d i e A~ = 7 7 1 X. in. E G b i c s i X A M P L E qbe . . u dk t e rb .D ( O A M B A A simple method for the design of anchor bolts is to assume the bolts replaced by a continuous ring whose diameter is equal to the bolt circle. m b 2 eb ir 2 os . e e i nd e p 0 i c b o b a o a t i s rf a c t s r e . . s l t f o y .t e s n0a m n :i h n o re nme = nD e e . 8 . N= (See TableB on the A d 0 id . The required area of bolts shall be calculated for empty condition of tower. s se n l 0 heua 0 s m t . CB = 9 i T= 4 Preceding Page) (4)2Y’” bolts. 6 6 ./lin.b.402X 94 – 14. N ~ A TC8 sg -— N .— w 12iu A8 Ce B. T t I . Required Area of One Bolt Sq. o .324p SB= 2 x . FORMULAS Maximum Tension lb. se: i 1 n n 2g u 5 . e O . 1 l . i l3 q“0 n t s 0 . b i . . u r z vio 3 i r e t l c n h l t et . . x B = m ~ SB = 1 9 a l l s o vw a r a b e l e s u s t o l e f t r a m og e r . N w r i b t c e h s h i r i a c n l q e ne t t io l AB = A o b i lc n f l C* = C i r c u m f e cr e nio c e r M oa t m b d e t a n o te usia rt et f eh w h n l M= N uo a m n b c o h r l o f t r b e N= a ax l i l s m vt u a mb b ml l e os t o w ora e a p SB = M W o t v e i d g e hs r r el cie e nli u e h t s f t w= q e s u s l se i f a i l e r t obg n . 9 0 7 f 6l 4 t 0b 0 7 .ob a c t e l e a Pl 4 n uof bolts. o g 9 n . in.4 3 0 S t im a n ax h l ci l s m e i w e a m b e o tu r l 1 5 t . e 0 r w= x 4 0 2 4 -4 p 5 t m 0s a 0 h i i= 0 m . S B it Anchor r p o s e l T ~= —.

2 i a f 1 y= 2V4 o u 6 i w ’b s r i n/ a i d 2s e n C = 7 i n $ 7 . (For minimumdimensionssee Table A on page77) M = Momentat the base due t w o e a r t f hn q u oa d k t erb .b . f n T 5 r ua. m. f = 500 psi from n 4 X A M i g o s P nb L t E r . operating A O T l . . n As = h s i e 4 7 q n 6 . i 6r. A. 7 6 C S 1 7 5 8 t .in.400 4 + 7. 75ob a.500lb. = Cantileverinsideor outside. TableE Page 80 1 n b o s Pc = 12 x 86. + 9 D B 3 sg s S = s x s. A p p r 1oW x i o m i B Ring in. / 1 1 in i n . U 1 i t b h r n i i e c% s .as shownon sketch above. B e S a e oS n p r t pd t ri i r ne ne sg s &s ~ . / 2 l i n7 . k g e s a n . t2 A p t 1r= n : = 4) Ai . 5 7 C . 1.273 X 77 = 305 psi S – 3 x 305 X 52 = 10. i v e = 8 6 l . i l W = W o v e i d e g u o s h rs eot trie af nlt p l e E G .32 x 5 = 1. a s ue s m s ~ . = S b ea l a o c rfo os i np ncS rg s E do en i . 2 f M P h t* Is 12 “t t8 = _Di Approximate Thickness of Base Ring in. o 1 n i . l 0e b 0 2 s 0 . h s tc r k e i s n s g e s : e = 2. . n e l: 13= Dimensions. r u h t o T t h i o h t kb n r e ses rs h te bfn s e e s li n h it d l n r tb d wee u o s c i s c ah i s a e g s i n g e e a r t h q u a k e . b e a T e t a Pe h . r i s t s k ih hi i a r q n t e . . e eg l . ci k o e iD rn . . i . N ~ A T I O N r = a 0 i . t e n .2 k 4 D i. i . a td e e t y C. n f t 2 5 .500 7 7 = 2 W = 7.79 D O B R b l e a n t r d o i gu t e r e i h s g b l u n o i of t o c r om d l h y u r na e n ate nt e i h e n xt o a c l d le s o e w o a f oc n dt t n o u h t b e l a o t o f i o n an g d a d i f en . i t52 AR = Areao b As = A w . tl m 5(3(3 ( o 2 hl c i ot 4 ! s m i d n i i m f m l =u s m i o o e n . D: e t t e m r im wi h na iet m h d i e c t k n i u n m b r0 f a o.t f . .n c .p ec ro a f ed ii t r i g o s n n t g n to 0b n h e n .60 in. F O R M U L A S m 1 - 7 M l a C oim m r x p b i . n . . = C i r c u m fO e ro es n . whicheveris greater.b . r~ = 0.167 psi e s n5 t d ri 2 ne B e s a t r ri 4 n e g s1 s B. ( s – nD D 8 e i g5z Z 4 q i O 7 fs n ) . . .t n n A .

b2 5 0 0..0293&b’ –0 .i –0 7 . therefore. e a e l s a h at n i q u e i hl 7 T oa e B as t r nm i h n e s i u e e r u o ee nzm d g . 2 0. With the designmethod givenhere.0972f.b 0 0 J . the minimumrequiredanchorbolt area for a practical size of base ring can be found. : 6 0 f X Y .b2 O. kbs hee o s h e n a c l u n d a t i o n d e vb hi e a t tt a i w o l ean o e w na fl e h cs tt a u te la r s salr e o et s r r p e g a l c u l a t i o n a lt c u lt aa i ti ec s kn n ee g b r h e s g u p s s l a a n t c e h o sh a . b0 0 . As the anchor bolt area increased.80 DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING When a tower is under wind or earthquakeload. 1 D C a D 4 C f I a c C U c s t t ev lt c r n b So c e t t ei o t e a r u p r omk i h n l. .b 0 -1 00 b . o s e c t o m p r r ie i s i isn i eo cf e s es af t nn b g o d t i s r t ir tei b ur t o sa o i s i sh n k s n n F k I 1 T D A B L E V oa C o n u s te a sn t f s l a F u no K c t i o n s s z a U 0 . M e 1 M : : 0 1 / b x 0. 3 -10 0 .000 1 2 3 0 T 2 f p 8 E A I 2 0 I s 1 1 .the base ring area can be decreased. b2 0 Ii f.000 s o 2 .O .b e l e d e e Sa th s te i r t h c a s. 3 f.500 0. It is obviousthen that the area of the boltingand the areaof the base ring are related. the neutral axis does not coincide with the centerlineof the skirt.bz 0 . / 3 2 .131f. O::s: s .1245 b 0 0.123fcb2 0 -0. 1 1 13 1 32 B L s 0 I0 I I 8 E 0 0 I I 1 I 0 0 1000 c Ii 1 fb n .1 0.667 1. . b 0 .o . 8 4 0 . . on the windwardside tensional stressarisesin the steel and on the oppositesidecompressive stressin the concrete foundation. me strength Ofthe steel and the concrete is different. o.0 0 .0558f.

@.81 DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING F * —— 1 4 O R k M U 9 L A S /(. M b r ( s os a n r t s eSo p e hl l c s b B -. i o a m n e ct c e f h r r o c l f rl t a b io et . el po es hl s ot n rs i i b c . W CirCk. I O N eh B t = b C d = The distancebetweengusset plates. . o ns s t D ao tne p tb r. I Lb 1 ‘f. ti . . e p c e e a d i n ne g e a n l h e g . . . a ax l i l s m vt u a mb b pe l e pls u as s e o w ora l a t fe e i . hs n n e e f g . o m p s r e i t st s cr i v ea n t h s o e o c re s ue o nt t e d e r e pg h r h b t t e ai ne ss o m p s r e it st s cr i v ean t h s o e b c s ei p n t e e c s l t e e t c r oh r l i . = T : j 1 M M =C C = D = D = C = C = C = 1– = M = n : s w z = R = R = T = M = W = C a or e rt f q a ua e n b s o i ea o hd i l c r o q lr n r t . e p c e e e d i n ne g e T a l h a g . o w h i i c hr S e T ra eF oa t e p b rs . o n s s TtC a D o . . . oa t m b d e t a n o t e usia rt et e q uo d t k b e w h f lh e n a r . e =~ Fc. n a s l h a g . o nS sT t Dao t e pt b r..r e p c e e e d i n ne g e . i . t h e . t h t. o t ti e ago bh wl ta h f se rb e t e . .) t B S n .‘ . f tB il = ~ E 1 ~B p r t ah i iw c g k n u s i n tl i a t B ne N O T A T e s g t ss e s . i o a m ne ct c e io h r r o c l f rl n e t a b i .= ~ 1+ I 9 Bt - 1 & ‘~b~ +I i v t I . e p l c e e ae d i n ne g g e v tr e r h g o m a o o e l iu a o ss o t u i ftc s o eEn y cS T f elE atd ee cb t d l a c i tf n s r / e E a b d o c iii o r u c ls l n f e t . t te p b . z:::/ . measuredon arc of bolt circle in. t “b= (/4 + . t . t i = w o ti n4 b d r iah . . T T el es o a s ni n o b ni t a s r n i b a Fc a ll o ehl ~t n s do. . . e s n i t a s r n . .

= 3 0 =0 0 0 . 7.-h = 1.640 0 2 0 . diameterof anchor bolt circle. e ) 1 5 a . 6 3 0 3 0 7 08 t al r e t 3 .1 .14 x 60 C o m p l r e t o i o v n a h= 1r– ted = t8 ’ e– 0: o s sc e Lc n e n57 F. fc —2 c . 6x 1 z.m n e c t. S. l l 0 o s e0s n 0t b s li o e e l l e t p t w ai r i s s s n . 3 09 n = . l o 0t b 0 o 0 hh . 6 w . d p0 6 5 s 3 6 . jd “ l ao f t r s M – 2 d ) x 168 2 x “w 0! 9 3 0 ~2 0 4 = 2 s 3i X. = 57 5 7 es ~:. 0 x .4 2 43 0 s 0 .35 X 60 X = 8 1 .150 7+ 1 .125 X 3 x 2 = ~d 2 3 = = 3. / . i1. p . l l 0 o s vt p s 0 w a 0 b b ei l e as u s s e ora l f e i n g . 3 x . oT l f s r a e n i h. 7 3 1 sa ni b tc nr hl g rqo h2 rs io o r. u a B. 1 8x 0 . i 5 7 p 3 0 s .35 . DETERMINE: e o h rr i . 0 0 1 0 ~ 0 2 M– W D = 6 = 9 0 X. = 2 n U 2 F ou a i r nr b e c eod h – W = ~ . r 1 A a i dob ?i T b l mw 4 e eo o t a e u i rb f l a t cd di ofd r c y o a n m b s 8 t . 7 = 0 . T i i shu f af i igc m 0 w t e a i s 8 n s ht u 0 v o fCb= 1 l p .35 X 60d b ‘ 2 x 0. s 1 1 + Sa ‘ ‘fctj .r b e eo d oe on o e t au f = 1 5 i 0.Ooo l t e e t n s p e a t o sr c lpsi. Tensileload on the anchorbolts 3 0 5 = 4 l 9 – 2 .3 7 1 x 1 5 = . = r = ( 193. t w 0b ie h f 11 = 6)1 o (n cE Pr a8e T b e l ta 0e g .l s a %t u e i t r nr o o g use (12) -2 in. 0 + 0j z cc t c h o nf h t s e Da a b r l = 1.c b = in.ss ot u i ft s i Tet fwy e i t f h h d i c t k o t d i l c l ns o ( n n cE Pr a 8e T td e l b a 0e o b e r ) ai g .82 DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING EXAMPLE DESIGNDATA: D d = 5 f Oi d t i o an a . . ) . L U T I O N : s8 i s w bu r i m a a aeci d o m .5 7 8 3 jD T s. te e ti g w f e . n = 1 a =1 c = 1 r = 1 = 3 = 6 r c f= s w M S A O a n o m a 0 o e l u a o . r 9 f 2 m. 2kd * 1 R e aq 1 1 1 18 1 x 1 T T = 0. diameteranchorbolts. a l 2l c o s 0os at m or lp e n r g . n i t t s ar i = nel b hes o c hs l o e t r n = .150 0. l 1 a tt 0b b 0 e a n . 280 0 i 157. 1 xz 6 2 2 C.x 0 8 . 8 a . uo c l t nm z anchor bolts. e t e . 4 ra nn e e 3 8 2 f ~ 2N k 2 x 0. 1 9 2n 5 8 . s t o m h .nns r eet s gsb r id cv ee if.

19 X 60 ss n t q h u i oi b r k e n f de= i6s i c r a f en g 0 n 0 .85” . p.461 b r . i Mp a .2= 0. ~d 6 b= — = 7.000 X 0 = x 5 1 5 7 X.85 f T r a F = M = 0 m ~ l m e : .000 = 193. .192 + 36. .3 7 1 X 1 hs l ot e n 0 s 66 = 5 5 2. .196 x 89 Y x & 6= 5 1 e .nw c es h s e e n t n 4 a g e ) t u e e se .i U5 I = ob 0i l 6 5n b 8 e ac” s .t k 0 ee . fcb = FC (14 + n fsjr CC= ( 193. 4 5 l 6 7 . = 18. = 1 . = M – jD 692.100 – 36. 0 T d e t c t r h e i o a h b o re eua hsg s pns lss e a es t .192 7+ 1 .) Checking valueof k whichwascalculated withassumed values of~. . 1 6 l e e 8c 8. 1 1 b 9 i Sa = = F. 5 9 = 1 .19 17 _ .19 X 60 + 8 2 X 0. e ee t s c k n t s ie u f g U ( s g i2 p u l ts d s i t bs e h e tts at g . : 0 t n 7 sb h 6 n i l .764 24 b 7.X 0 8 9 .406 i 1 5 .192lb.~= 1. ‘fCb T Da a c 6 = 10 9 + = 2 c j z = = 0.000 Thentheconstantsrom f k= 1 I + ‘ 1 1 S x = 0.000psiand S. ~ = — = 0. 9 b C o m p s r e i t st s cr i o ee n t h s v a c o res u o nt t e d e r e h b t = 8 p e ta e gh i r 0 ne s s f e e g 5 fc = fcb x 2 :M+ 1= 596 X R e 2 X 0. tB = 11~ = 6 d 3 X 805 = 2. . 3 X 2 1 .2 1 X. r~rCf = 0 5 p 65 2 6 8 0 s 2 3 4 + W = 157. . 1 fC1. rs 0 : i p 5 1 0 ) 9 s 8 0 4 C o m p s r e i t st s ar i v nee b ho cs S = n = 1 x 5 f = 5.DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING EXAMPLE (CONT.

co a t h e e C t no t l t n R eoe lgf e i. st o . T B a R tb S a h i at o iP z e s f b v e ke a S lr c h A e o Ssi n .m hm a AD u n B r .84 ANCHOR BOLT CHAIR FOR TALL TOWERS The chairsare designedfor the maximumload whichthe bolt can transmitto them. s s l a l o e s The anchor b s a o b i p l anz l b t hc a e a da t c e du l ee as l t c t e r fd i b o e h g A c l s po o n o t a i g n e g s . 3e . t l a o d t t p gnl sg eha h s ea f e lo d t l fe nt wid oT l uh s l ’ l e c i l b w t w e c s in l i e u e ie f w z s l ge lh i h b o hfe la o t an d h l li he p i fn n hf e ei ar n k nt e e lt e j o n t l i c g - DIMENSIONS inches hchor 1 bolt dim 1 1 1 1 2 A B c D E 1 F G 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 2 1 3 1 1 1 { ls/~ 13/4 2 2 2 3 23f~ 2 2 3 4 5 3 3 3 518 5fa 1 3 e 1 1 1 1 11/4 11/4 1 13/4 1lj~ 2 2 21/8 / / 2 4 1 2 3 3 3 ! 3lj~ 3 5 s5 6 3 / 3 4 4 5 5 11 / 13 2 2 2 / 2z 21 3 3 32 1 / 3 4 6 7 7 . u num 9 i r n J g 1 e r n6 .

.

External Pressure. 3. The design method of this Handbook is based on the revised analysis mentioned above. Design and Analysis. external pressure can successfullyresist external loads encounteredin normaIservice. Zick’s work has also been used in different studies published in books and various technical periodicals. Internal Pressure. The load due to the weight of the vessel is combined with other loads. vesselvary accordingto the angleincludedby the saddles. According to Zick “experience indicates that a vessel designedto 1 psi. (Pressure Vessel and Piping. 2. If the vessel is not designed for full vacuum because vacuum occurs incidentally only. Since the longitudinal stress in the vessel is only one half of the circumferential stress. Wind load< Long vesselswith very small t/r values are subject to distortion from wind pressure. about one half of the actually used plate thickness is available to resist the load of the weight. The API Standard 2510 also refers to the anaIysis of Zick.” 5. The British Standard 1515 adopted this method with slight modification and further refinement. The ASME published Zick’s work (Pressure Vessel and Piping Design) as recommended practice. The loadingconditionsare different for a full or partiallyfilledvessel. a a 2. Zick’s analysis presented in 1951.86 STRESSESIN LARGE H V SUPPORTED SADDLES BY The design methods of supports for horizontal vessels are based on L. ASME. . LOADINGS: 1. 3. 4. P. 1972) A horizontalvesselon saddle support acts as a beamwith the followingdeviations: 1. a vacuum relief valve should be provided especially when the vessel outlet is connected to a pump.

this is true even if the use of stiffener rings is necessary. except for very small vessels.87 LOCATION SADDLES. so as to utilize the stiffening effect of the heads. Longitudinal bending stress 2.. If this is not the case. in the bottom of the vessel. Long thick wa!led vessels are best supported where the maximal longitudinal bending stress at the saddles is nearly equal to the stress at the midspan. Thin walled vessels with a large diameter are best supported near the heads. then the saddles can be placed at the statically optimal point. Tangential shear stress 3. This point varies with the contact angle of the saddles. (UG-29). For unstiffened cylinders under external pressure the contact angle is mandatorily limited to 120° by the ASME Code. The distance between the head tangent line and the saddle shall in no case be more than 0. (Code Appendix G-6). OF The use of only two saddles is preferred both statically and economicallyover the multiple support system. The location of the saddles is sometimes determined by the location of openings. (L) Contact Angle O The minimum contact angle suggested by the ASME Code is 120°. sumps. etc.2 times the length of the vessel. Circumferential stress . Vessels supported by saddles are subject to: 1.

T 1 ‘zr z: () 0 R2ts e a t d l l s o e r vt w i x0 t c t ie . = ~ K4Q r n i o n g K5Q 3K6Q Q -— &=-~t~(b+l5@s) . ?(: w 2 S4 timesthe z Q AT HORN SA%LE s4=– !3 g Q 4 1 t . = 0 *Q ~ti q I/l! u< m UJ A n a -$ M .1 STRESSES IN VESSELS ON TWO SADDLES R o ~ A Q m t~ = = C .Stress I i e :4 ~d S1 p n xt pt t s l dt t n hru r e ( e r Ps n sR a n/u lh 2r s a c l l es oh ew adr b t uJ~ YYo Am Au ~ L ~ Z * v (Tensio~at ihe Bottom Compression the n o Sf ]+2~ AT MIDSPAN QL —4 * o p a $ l & e c t a ie 4A en g n g e S1 4H . S3 plus stress SHELL IN S* -— K4 – ~ts n < w Q . a r a b e ml e s s o v l e a l . Allow. 1 A oa n o sn t d g ce a a d lt Max.= O .56@@ F .= L 3 SHELL : Et AT ~ b + s ) ma K7Q s5=– ts(b+1. ~ i2&QR —— Lt$ 5 ( ‘j 3 “L~ BOTTOM .J IN HEAD ADDlTIONAL STRESS [N HEAD =— Ilth S3.=0 .

n s i l e E z Modulus of elasticity of shell or stiffener ring materidpound per square inch D ~ ~ z w m ~ 4 ~ n ~ ~ u z ~ The maximum bending stress S1 may be either tension or compression. m c u e c m ou t osr ff e l x s t ra t e s h hs a s r dh t d e T s ih n br t ia e t o d ts i s d n s preSSUK4reSS. provided the wear plate extends R]l Oinchesabovethe horn of the saddle . In Unstiffened shell the maximum shear occurs at the horn of the saddle. n o ae l ts tt e h e o rd e I a s t i s f tf h e n aene xhd ni g . Use stiffener ring if stress S1 exceeds the maximum allowable stress. t o ahn si t cm k r n5 e t ea s S o h b t r s a If wear plate is u k s o t s u a h w h ue mtn l h f i c l k r d nt o re w e s o .14 in the formula for S1. When the shell is stiffened.m lo m ei rm t s i o n o o h t m r i l c u p ae s b s ht s o e t U s t i r s i f t e c in r ee u m f b r ge n sft ne a ed f i c n r h e e i tl xir t c e e as e xh sd i s m nm g a l l s o w ar b e l s t e s . for factor K the values of K8 shall be used. Whencheckingat this point: ts = shellthickness. . Computing the compression stress in the formula for S1. b = width of saddle O = centralangleof the wearplate but not more than the includedangleof the saddleplus 12° i sf o e rf m d f u t l. Computing the tension stress in the formula for S1. & $ m m $ G z w u ~ e If wear plate is used. When the head stiffness is utilized by locating the saddle close to the heads. The combined circumferentialstress at the top edge of the wear plate should alsobe checked. the tangential shear stress can cause an additional stress (S3) in the heads. and A< It12. the value of factor K = 3.005 and the vesselis designed to be fully stressed under internal pressure. s s5 t t6 I t s i nh sh t e i tf o lm e a n seh tdi o . oicknessts may r 4 r the e t S d s a n so be taken !? sum of the shelland wearplate thicknessand for ts maybe”takenthe shellthickness squared plus the wear plate thickness squared. for factor K the values of K1 shall be used. The compression stress is not factor in a steel vessel where t/R SO.89 STRESSES IN VESSELS ON TWO SADDLES ~ YY JJ NOTES: positive Values denote I $ 4 ~ t e stresses and negative values denote compression. provided the wear plate extends R/10 inches above the horn of the saddle near the head and extends between the saddle and an adjacent stiffener ring. in formulas for S2 for the thickness ts may be taken the sum of the shell and wear plate thickness. This n pu r e e r s n se au lr t o stress shall be added to the stress in the heads d t i W s t h i r f ae i u e f nnns e r rga t m e xhs d i o e m . ca ue e ce a u s h t m q u h a r st e o A ~ ~ ~ & a L ~ Q ~ ~ Q I w p e u i l i af s o f rfr m e f u thel.id hw d p e l e a p t vs i t e d eh l e h t e q l u b +e 1 a a al.

430 6 8 0.171 1.079 1.627 0.139 1.632 0.637 0.137 1.858 0.640 0.230 0.629 0.283 0.722 0.365 0.846 0.369 0.347 0.401.526 Con0.547 Any 0.225 0.272 See chart on facing page 0.480 0.589 0.996 0.295 0.235 0.466 0 4 0.640 0.650 0.714 0.933 0.387 0.585 0.673 0.314 0.799 0.651 0.813 0.078 1.398 0.569 For 0.409 0.319 0.668 0.705 0.505 Tact Angles 0.308 0.385 0.362 0.618 0.327 0.718 0 0.687 0.309 0.746 0.708 0.654 0.687 0.669 0.635 0.702 0.14 if the shellis stiffened by ring or head (A < R/2) .971 0.954 1 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 0 0.853 0.729 0.334 0.448 0.818 0.557 5 1.642 0.751 0.689 0.669 .698 0.694 0.627 0.544 5 0.240 0.90 STRESSES LARGEHORIZONTAL IN VESSELSSUPPORTED BYTWO SADDLES VALUESOF CONSTANT K (Interpolate for IntermediateValues) ‘K.682 0.380 0.467 0.643 0.301 0.261 0.781 0.627 0.879 0.518 0.697 0.592 0.320 0.647 0.760 0.355 0.654 0.923 0.796 0.720 0.531 5 0.413 i 0.831 0.220 0.634 0.657 0.726 0.054 1.753 0.350 0.250 0.376 0.599 0.641 0.050 1.097 1.116 1...245 0.601 0.ONTACT ANGLE 0 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 1 1 1 K2 K3 K5 K(5 K7 0.420 0.624 0.108 1.336 0.505 0.443 0.432 0.216 0 0.740 0.278 0.613 0.732 0.335 0.702 0.355 0.759 0.614 0.894 0.577 0 0.0.289 .033 1.340 0.946 0.667 0.260 0 0.158 1.722 0.455 0.256 0.283 0.813 0.616 0.366 0. = 3.485 0.296 0.345 0.880 0.746 0.837 0.781 0.393 0.377 0.780 0.692 0.876 0.763 0.271 0.900 0.: 0:657 0.603 0.739 0.994 1.322 0.022 0.678 0.492 0..183 .913 0. 0.683 0.013 1.672 0.

91 STRESSES IN LARGE HORIZONTAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BYTWO SADDLES VALUESOF CONSTANT K6 0.01 0 : 0 0 : R 5 A T I O uA .

500 psi. depth of dish of head 960in. e = 0 r t 5> 0 6 . internaldesignpressure 300.) Stress at the saddles ~. 05 h e 4 It d n e o t s ce v t eo ha s e et sl d i s 1 e srx .2-%)3m*qxw(::~%)=4.-tan. 3. distancefrom tangentline of head to the center of saddle 24 in.j~~)=522psi K1R2t.92 STRESSES LARGEHORIZONTAL IN VESSEIS SUPPORTED BY‘IWO SADDLES EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS L DesignData s 48 in.1-:jj:)3m.A(. = 250psi.contact angle SheI.85 I = o 6“ LONGITUDINAL BENDINGSTRESS (S.000 psi. .00in. n os 0c R/ 0 .459 : ir o nm = le s e s a s psi 2t~ 5 p : S 0 s 0 o 0 i 0: .000 load on one saddle lb. ae =t 1f m p C o m ps r e t ns f r i sa en t oi sO i s o c t /s1. outsideradiusof shell 1... Yieldpoint 38. 2X1 4959+ 75(XI f12. w o is ad d t d h l 21 in. 60 in. lengthof vesseltan.1 aterial: SA515-70plate m Allowablestress value 17. Stress at midspan = x 602x I ~:%(+:~j.mx4(_l-~::. thicknessof shell = 120deg.psi = = nRzt.14 x 602 x 1 S dt t i r 2 xd PR n p t u r es e— r s s= n— e u o r l= 7e e s a Thes o t e nu st s x o rt g h u 7 . Joint Efficiency: 0. 8 0 8 10 s 5 7 7 .

000 psi .=%L*H)= doesnot exceedthe s = 14.56 <~’) % doesnot exceedthe compression yieldpoint multipliedby 0. Q Ss =— 1 .279 psi – 2t A/R =48160 = 0.8.000 1(24 + 1.) TANGENTIALSHEARSTRESS(S. ‘– 300.4:1 )=’$’mPsi of ashellmaterialmultipliedby 0. A(48) > R/2 (60/2).5 = 19.the applicableformula: ‘.000psi. S =– 5 5=–6. 38. 17.5.93 STRESSES LARGEHORIZONTAL IN VESSELSSUPPORTED BYTWO SADDLES EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS (cont.—3K6Q t 3 X0.036 (from chart) s.5 =26.56 d-) S4 does not exceed the stress value of shell material multiplied by 1.”:?*OOO t v ( :::3”.5.250 psi Stress at bottom of shell (Ss) K.) SinceA (48)>IV2(60/2).500x 0.8.036X 300. the applicable formula: s4=- 4 Q . 17.000 4 X 1 (24 + 1.000 = –18. r~ + ~ .500 x 1.8 r e l s us e CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS Stress at the horn of saddle (S4) Since L (960)> 8R(480). K = 0.000x0. 1“’’.319 psi 6 x 300.

. - + - d S R ! + h I j ! ~ t ni ~ e s ~ 3 l n i d Sh a s .r 3 d ~ O u tn s i dK ge K . A = C s re a o t i r o c s 1 = K = n s ae l ( 2 8@ L Q R = R = @ = s o o o o a d aI i ad n = db u dl s ne A S ~ R I ni s n i d g e . K l g e . K9Q6 K.K # . - “ U w . tq K ~ – e I 9 w G “ $ Q T Q 6 / = ‘ c ! 3 $ ~ : s 6 = . o t h f l/d e & 5 Q + Es “: ~ – .94 STIFFENER RING FOR LARGE HORIZONTAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BY SADDLES / II II II l! N O T A T I O N .– 1 t r Q . ~ 5 + < c ~ Saddle and Ring . ~QR = Stress at the S ~ . 5 sm Q . K C o m p r e s s i o n 6K ~ S ~ a t S h h e l t e Il G 1 ov e r n s =9 Q – / . 1 .K ’ :j ~ R : e < m“ and Ring + .~ 9 S at t r e s h s ~ s ~ ~t e = S h e l l % R O ui t s n i d ge .

032 . . 3. Determine the distances (h) from the neutral axis to the center of gravity of each rectangle of the stiffener. The first part of the formulas for S6 gives the direct stress and the second part givesthe circumferential bending stress. 4.017 NOTES: 1.053 . 3. 2.33 .34 . including the area of shell section within the effective width.037 .045 . — $ CALCULATION OF MOMENTOF INERTIA (1) 1. Calculate the moment of inertia Ig of each rectan~es Ig =~. pressure.95 STIFFENER RING FOR LARGE HORIZONTAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BY SADDLES VALUES OF CONSTANT. The effective width = 1.56 ~~ on both sides of the stiffener ring. Summarize the results and denote it AY. the stress due to internal PR shall be added.the distance (C) from the shell to the neutral axis c = Amy 5. Multiply the square of distances (h2) by the areas (a) and summarize the results to obtain AI-IZ b d3 7.30 . Determine the width of shell that is effective to resist the circumferential . Add the areas (a) total area = A. Divide the stiffener ring into rectangles and adculate the areas (a) of each rectangles..78 ~~ bending moment.29 . See example calculations on the following pages. In figures & fmrnulas A-F positive signs denote tensile stresses and negative signs denote compression.32 .27 .022 . If the governing combined stress is tensional. 8. 6. The sum of AH2 and Z I gives the moment of inertia of the stiffener ring and the effective area of the & en.where b = the width and d = the depth of the rectangles.026 .25 K1o .K (Interpolate for Intermediate Values) Contact Angle e 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 K9 . Multiply the areas (a) with the distances (Y) from the shell to the center of gravity of the rectangles. 0. 2. Determine the neutral axis of the stiffener ring.

10 . 77- X = in4 = 12 1 MARK I AREA I a o @ A= – ‘ – Y h b a X h2 = ‘ ~ – A – — A O =— ” 1= 2 –l Y = + s + = 4 . 3 - 5 . I S .56 ~~ = = h. 1 I= 2 + = + = i 4 n A ‘\ * q ““”251-F%-’2’””25 x 1=1.oo in.1 2 2.d. 3 7 0.96 M O O MINERTIA(I) OF STIFFENER~NGS E N T F EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS A R=7 D I M E I N I S IN O LC S H L N O U RT AO I D D I E U E S S 2 H E N S S L F L 1= 0. = 9.5 x 63 = ~. 9 1 h I A 0 .78~x 11 = X ~ = X 1 A R I 1 E - i A @ b2d: = 1 0.86 + MARK I ‘AREA I i 0 @ A= ~ A — – = = d . 4 b. Y R a E I I b I 1 5 3 = 4 2 1 .

3 n 1 . I I * 1 = 0. . I = AH 2 + Ig = 6 9 3 + 94l z 7 .78 J72 X0.5 = 4.68 RI 12 E o “ =g “ A “ ~ ‘ @ b.MOMENTOF INERTIA (I) OF STIFFENER RINGS EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS ALLD1MENS1ONS ININCHES R = 72 in. 4 3 + 2 90 = 5 . H 9 7 g0 . OUTSIDE RADIUS SHELL OF CJ $ . 5 Y h 2 - = - AY A 25. d: ~ * = x 12 4x0 — 12 = 12 a 1 2 3 A= ~ ‘—= =0 b — .23 — = 2S4 1 = = 9 .78 ~~ m A 0.a 7 / ~ = A 2 — 8 ~ 2 =2 . i 3 0 4 . ” I = A = 2 + 7I = 5 9 3 . 4 . 3 n 7 3 i 4 6 .

d tc i o s l f i h v s r r ss e sd t e f i F=K1lQ.25 in. = To resist this force the effective area of web plate= lU3 x 0.) VALUES OF CONSTANT K.241 150° .204 g 130° l .000 lbs.Where Q= the load on one saddle..298 180° .6“ Weight of vessel= 375.25= 4. lbs. The base plate and wear plate should be thick enough to resist longitudinal bending over the web.l A Intact Kll 120° n . 3. Theaveragestressshallnot exceedtwothirdsofthe compressionyieldpoint ofthe material.2 38. Q= 187. hl m c er t tst ieh ts s ni f h z s too T t e r~ef l f c h ) c d e e w e u e o r i ( n t a e e o o s t s at r hd te n d s i lhoei o te s o o at n i e d ha(R).250 lb.25 = 9. per square inch.25 in. = constantas tabulated. The thickness of the web plate is satisfactory for horizontal force (F).(See examplebelow. K...318 EXAMPLE: Diameter of vessel= 8’.000 psi.500 Ibs.222 140° e .259 160° . = 0 f t a R =5 =1 i F F = K. 2.204 x Q 187.279 170° .250/4. x 0.500= 38.000= 20. Saddle material: SA 285 C Web plate thickness = 0. Contact angle = 120° Kl. .“ D S M A A R X E 1 T c s s r aa t hd l os . The allowable stress = ?4 x 30.000 lbs. The web plate should be stiffened with ribs against the buckling.

In this saddle for the anchor bolts slots are to be used instead of holes.1 / 8 4 2-3/8 3-1/4 4 21 -0 4-5/8 5-3/8 6 3 .58 / 5 .3 2 .7 / 24 . When the vessel is supported by concrete saddles. When the change in the distance between the saddles is more than 3/8” inch long. must be allowed to move.5 / 8 5 . 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 u 8 800 3/4 1-1/4 1-5/8 2-3/8 3 3-5/8 900 3/4 1-3/8 2 2-1/2 3-3/8 4-1/8 .0000067. Dimension “a” calculated for the linear expansion of carbon steel material between 700F and the indicated temperature.1 2 ./8 -7 / 8 0 0 1/4 1/4 3/8 3/8 0 0 1/8 1/8 1/4 1/4 1/2 0 1/4 3/8 3/8 1/4 3/8 5/8 3/4 1 7/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 3/8 5/8 3/8 3/4 1-1/8 1-1/2 1-7/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 2-1/4 1/2 1 5/8 1-1/4 1-5/8 12-1/8 2-3/4 3 1 / s 3 1 / f 7/8 1-3/4 t 1 1 [ 5/8 1-1/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 2-5/8 3-1/8 1 1 o a el t 1 3 a m e . one of the saddles. waterproof sheet at least 1/4” thick is to be applied between the shell and the saddle.1 / 84 . The length of the slots shall be determined by the expected magnitude of the movement.1 / 8 6 1 / 8 ./ 2 . an elastic.99 E X O A P A AN C O N T NR A C T I O N S I O N D E L S H O R I Z V N T SF L O E A S B 4 9 ~ ~ BOLTS – ~B O R I L 2 T S QS A D ~ D 2 L E S * - “ + + EXPANDING VESSEL CONTRACTING VESSEL For thermal expansion and contraction. MINIMUM LENGTH OF SLOT (DIM. The coefficient of linear expansion for carbon steel per unit length and per degree F = 0. a slide (bearing) plate should be used.0 / 2 . 90 o l r318 5[8 ho 5 33 0 4 1 * 1 3 4 4 1/ .1 / 4 .1 / 84 5 / 2 3 8 2/ .5 / 86 .12 . preferably the one on the opposite side of the pipe connections. “a”) a H @ z : ~ ‘u ~ $ ~ & le width of h s h d n l e o i bc + y q l DISTANCE FOR TEMPERATURE oF BETWEEN SAD-DLEs -50 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Ft.7 84 . The table below shows the minimum length of the slot.7 / 3 .

4. At the sliding saddle the nuts of the anchor bolts shall be hand-tight and secured by tack welding. E I G Ii k ~ MH E E T \ &D- H I I “ & Q ‘: SU B E P A . the vessel supported by two saddles 2. the maximum allowable stress is % of the compression yield point: % of 30. Weld: %“ continuous fillet weld all contacting plate edges. the maximum allowable load on concrete foundation 500 psi. Drill and tap %“ weep holes in wear plate.000 = 20. toresisthorizontal force (“)duetothemaximumo peratingweightofvessel as tabulated. 3. 5. the minimum contact angle of shell and saddle 120°.S FOR SUPPORT OF HORIZONTAL VESSELS r B H O j’” ] H i L ‘“. SEE FACING PAGE FOR DIMENS1OIW .~ L : -L C Y E A S - C: C ‘: J L The design based on: 1.000 psi.

000 112.000 502.000 470.000 .030.000 7-o 6-1 7-6 6-6 8-O 6-1IY2 8-6 7-4% 9-o 7-9% 9-6 8-3% 1o-o 8-8 1 1 4-9 5-o 5-3 5-6 5-9 6-3 9 9 9 9 9 9 18 18 18 24 24 2-8 2-10 3-O 3-2 3-4 1 1 1 1 1% 1% IK 1% 1% 10-6 11-0 9-1% 9-6!A 1o-o 10-5 6-O 9 6-6 6-9 24 24 3-6 3-8 3-lo 4-o 11-6 12-O 9 9 24 24 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 21 31 31 3/4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Yl Y’ Y2 3/8 3/8 ‘/2 % ‘/2 ‘h 3/4 3/4 !L? ‘/2 ‘/2 Y2 896.000 % ‘A ?4 Y2 % % 986.000 50.000 210.000 104.000 84.000 62.000 1.000 852.000 90.000 282.000 252.000 1.000 98.000 760.000 220.000 312.000 344.000 144.000 940.101 SADDLE {OMN.076.000 8 % % l/2 !4 3/4 % !4 Y2 % % ‘A % % ‘/4 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-6 3-o 3 6 6 6 6 6 6- 11 11 11 1-0 1-1 1-2 1-4 1-6 -1 11 11 1 3A % % ‘h 4% % 5 !4 % % % 3/4 % ‘/4 ‘h ‘A 3/8 3/8 3/8 1 8 3/8 4-9!4 3-6 6 11 1-1o % 1 % 6-O 6-6 5-25 5-8 3-9 4-o 4-3 4-6 9 9 9 9 18 18 18 18 2 2-2 2-4 2-6 % 3/4 1 1 % 3/4 ‘ ‘/2 3/8 436.000 134.000 56.000 128.000 806.U lwAMEITR )F\EY$EL OF MAXIMUM G H K c D E F 0 4 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 I-6 1-7 1-8 4 o-3~z !/Z Y? Yl % V2 % K !4 ‘/2 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1 3- 1-2 1-4 1-6 1-8 1-1o 2-o 2-2 2-4 l-x 1-2 1-3!L 1-5!4 1-7 1-9 1-1OY2 2-2Y2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2-6 2-8 2-1o 3-o 3-2 3-4 3-6 4-o 4-6 5-o 5-6 2“2 2-4 2-5 2-6% 2-9 2-11 3-!4 3-6 3-11 4 1-9 4 1-1o 4 1-11 6 2-o 6 0-4 4 0-5 4 0-6 4 O-6YZ 6 0-7 6 0-7% 6 0-8 6 0-8% 6 0-9 6 0-9!4 11 0-1o 11 0-11 4 % ‘h % N % % % % ‘/2 ‘% % % % % % % ‘/4 % ‘A ‘% 42.000 76.000 / 402.000 536.000 70.

n = number of legs Q = ~ Load on one leg. NOTATION: W = Weight of vessel. K. respectively. inch * @lI’ o Q El H = Leverarmof load. 2B = Dimensionsof wear plate S = Stress. 4 . inch t = wall thicknessof head.102 r S V LEG SUPPORT w. K5 and K. lbs. Ibs. 2A. respectively. Kq. K. Computing the maximum tensile stresses.. inch K = Factors. in D=1.) 1 CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS: + 6 KG)+ H K Q [ NOTES: cos a ( Rf f (K7 +5 6 K8) ] Positive values denote tensile stresses and negative values denote compression. K. K2. The maximum compression stresses S1 and S2. in formulas for SI and S2. K3.plus the tensile due to internalpressure shall not exceedthe allowablecompressionstressvalueof head material. K4. f R ~ S(K3 + 6 K. KGand K8 denote positive factors. the The maximum tensile stresses S1 and S2. denote negative factors and K2. Computing the maximum compression stresses. R = Radius of head. in formulas for S1 and S2. inch.82S f Rt E n LONGITUDINALSTRESS: Q [ C K (Kl + 6 O K2) + .see charts C = inch C = radius of circular wear plate. pound per sq. K5.. KG. and K8 denote negative factors. K3.PIUS tensilestressdue to ~ internal pressure shall not exceed the allowable tensile stress value of head material.

2 1.01.0 4.2 1.5 2.103 STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT 0. D & K5 020.2OAO.0 3 4 .81.6.5 0 2.40608101.0 D VALUE OF Kz 8LKG .

20 ~ k O 0 0 .40 Q? 0.01.5 2.012 1.60.2 1 2 3.0 D 4.81.60 0.0 4.20 0.STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT 0.81.50 k!? -0.4060.30 0. 0.0 D VALUE OF Kz 8ZKg .2040.0.10 020.0 VALUE OF K3 8ZK.0 3.

8 2 100 (-0.022.8 = + 2778 psi The sum of tensional stresses: 7.030) + — r . Kz = 0.000 lb.85 Yield point: 38. K6 0.065 + 6 x 0. K5 = 0. LONGITUDINAL STRESS: 1.85 = 14.500 psi Joint Efficiency: 0. rr.000 Q d = 200. Factors K (see charts): c= ~ = == 15 inch K1 = 0.500 x 0.010.) Maximumtensile stress: S1 = 200. K3 = 0.065 + 6 X 0. Kg = 0.065.778 = 10.634 + 2.800 (–0. weight of vessel n = 4. load on one leg R = 100 inch.020.634 psi 1 The stress due to internal pressure: PR —— 100 x 100 2t – 2 X 1.000 lb.000 1 [ 5 0.025. 2B = 30 inch.025) 100 — 1. numberof legs w 800. dimensionsof wear plate ? = 1.105 STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS DESIGN DATA 800.030.000 psi.diusof head H= 5 inch.800 P = 100 SA — 515–70 Allowable stress value: 17. Kq = 0.8 inch thicknessof head Cos~ = 0.065.875 psi .010.412 psi It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam: 17. K. = 0.8 = + 7. leverarmof load 2A = 30 inch.

778 = – 14.025) 100 G 1 = + 2778 psi 2t – 2 x 1.82 cos ~ ( –K5 + 6K6) + .0:44psi 200.875 psi 2.) Maximum compressional stress: S1 = ~ S1 = Q cos ~ ( – K.266 psi It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam: 17.) Maximum tensile stress: Q =~ [ 1.849 + 2.065 R T( – K3 – 6KQ) 1 = – 17.065 – 6 X 0.022 + 6 X 0.010) The stress due to internal pressure: PR —= 100 x 100 2 X 1.800 ( –0.85 = 14.030) + — r 100 ( –0. – 6KZ) + g V [ R 1.627 psi It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam: 17.849 psi 2t = + 2778 psi The sum of tensile stresses: 2.875 psi C i r c u m f es r e tn t ir a l e s s : The stress due to internal pressure: PR —— 100 x 100 1.500 x 0.000 5 – 6 X 0.800 ( –0.85 = 14.500 x 0.82 [ 0.8 The sum of stresses: – 17. V 0.044 + 2.778 = 5.020 R ~ (–K7 + 15K8) 1 100 = S2 = 200.8 1 =+ 2.010) + — v 100 (–0.106 STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT 2.) Maximum compressional stress: Q =~ [ cos m ( – K5 – 6 K6) + ~ R r R 7( –K7 – 6K8) 1 .000 [ 5 + 6 X 0.

85 = 14.020 5 – 6 X 0.8 1 = -5.000 1.010) — 100 1.STRESSESIN VESSELSON LEG SUPPORT S2 = 200.059 psi.837 psi The due to internal pressure: PR —— 100 x 100 = + 2778 psi 2t – 2 X 1.800 ( –0.8 The sum of stresses: – 5837 + 2778 = – 3.022 -6 x 0. It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam: 17.500 x 0.875 psi .8Z [ 0.010) + — v 100 (–0.

& ~“1 ‘ 8 + * A ‘ “!!!! 1 SECTION A-A I X f 5 84“ 5/ / / 7 ’ 1 ’ 5 6 °8 2 7 “ 1‘ 8 “ “ ” ” ” 0 ”a “ V D E S V S EE H I E M I S L ANG.. x x1 x5 x 1 6 X6 X5 21 ” o .3 .LE S E L G SIZE H A T m A 3 X3 X3 I ° 0 ” / 0 . - LEG SUPPORT Notch out angles \ to clear seam I I I I \ I ! I I I I I I f. — . x 2’-6” ” 10’-0” ~ X3 x .

. Load on one lug. pound per sq. N ~ E D R2t I t~ t s K2R CIK1 + 6 — + ( v t oh a rs D 2 (1.17 + B/A) ‘~A c2t ) e S p E t s s l : d o tn hu n i t in r n e ptu s re eP r s sn Rs a o u l / r x ae2 o 1 s e s e n h e c l t e e l as t etue s e i eel f im lao hgle i s ei s n e cer y a t m h t r ff i c f m CIRCUMFERENTIT L R S A E S S : QH ‘2 = * DR2f Kd R C3K3+ 6 — ( c4t ) NOTE: In tension S2 plus the stress due to internal pressure PR/t shall not exceed the stress value of shell material multiplied by 1.— . in shape factor. 109 STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO L S U N S T I F F E N E D S T S H E L LS I F H F E E N L E D L N W = Weight of vessel. in H = Lever arm of load. lb n = Number of lugs ~=:.. 2B = Dimensions of wear plate O S = Stress.d — 3 B A R r LONGITUDINAL STRESS: . . lb R = Radius of shell. in 2A.5. see charts K= ~.. see table Factors. . in t = Wall thickness of shell..

10 0 n 0 0 VALUE OF K] .110 STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT 8 6 4 2 0 0 0 0.

111 STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ( 0 VALUE OF Kz .

112 STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT 10 5 0 0 0 0 VALUE OF Kj 0 0 D 0 .

10 0.15 ( C3 0.84 0.02 1.07 1.90 VALUE OF C 1 1 0.05 0.STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.85 1.80 0.68 0.04 1.85 0.10 1 1 0 C 0 VALUE OF K4 BIA R/t 50 100 1/2 200 300 50 100 1 200 c.98 0.06 1.03 1.60 1 1 C2 1.64 0.32 1.02 1.81 0.79 1 1 0.97 1.89 0.95 0.15 1. 0.07 0.72 0.10 1.92 0.04 1 1 1 1 0.05 1.50 1 1 1.79 300 50 100 2 200 300 .02 1 1 C’4 1.

K2 = 0.000 = 300.500psi Yield point 38. (see table): RI.114 STRESSES IN VESSELS EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS D E D S IA G T N A DUE TO LUG SUPPORT —.795 + 3000 = 14.021 : L o n g i St u t d i r n ae l .200.5 ( + ~ 0. w= s . (see charts) K1 = 2.5 – 11.025 x 90 1 x 1.8. = $ = 60.000lb.000 psi Joint Efficiency:0.5 = 3000 psi The sum of tensional stresses: 11. weight of vessel n = 4 number of lugs Q = : = 1. X228+ 1 0.0 The factors K. radius of shell H = 5 in.85 = 14. dimensions of wear plate t = 1.17 + 15/15) Stress due to internal pressure: PR = z 100 x 90 2 x 1.795psi It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam: 17.167 x 5 x 15 ) 2 (1.85 Shape factors C.K1 + 6 ~ 2 “ ’ = % = 6 0 K3 = 6.200.875 psi . C.~ D _ ) ~ = 300.17 + B/A) ‘x ~A .167 x 902 x 1.500 x 0. leverarrn of load 2A = 30 in. = & UR “ ( + 2 (1.000 x 5 . B/A = 15/15) = 1. load on one lug 4 R = 90 in.0 c1 = C2 = CJ = C4 = 1.000 lb.8 s Kd = 0.795 psi – + 902 0.5 in. thickness of shell p = 100 psi internal pressure Shell material:SA -515-70 Allowablestress value 17.025. 2Z? = 30 in. W = 1.

8 + 6 1 x 1.5: 17.500 x 1.5 = 26.250 .115 STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT C i r c u m f S r e t n t ri a le e s s : s~ = & s~ = QH DR2t ( C3K3 + 6 KJ? c~i ) 0.167 X 902 X 1.5 = 6000”psi The sum of tensional stresses: 10.000 x 5 0.5 ) = 10.616psi It does not exceedthe stress value of shell materialmultipliedby 1.616psi Stress due to internal pressure: PR —= t 1.5 ( 100 x 90 1 X 6.616 + 6000 = 16.021 x 90 300.

& t 6(Y t ug 3 T } _ _ _ V o e L i un 4 L L a Ax l i l o One o L u wu a m b lD eI M E N S I O N S W ~ a ~ ~ d ~n ~ ~ ~ ~ “O L w F bI g s 1 .000 22.200 3.000 14.000 25% 2072 21Y23478 3578 2 20 All dimensionsare in inches Stressesin vessel shall be checked.000 12y* 13y4 llfi 14Y414% 1 10Y2 ~8 1l!A % % 3/8 3/8 58 72 12V4 17 17Y8 1 15y2 13 1374 lg% 1878 90. 1 m o 1. Use wear plate if necessary I .400 2.d h T hl h I J [- --l.600 6!/2 5 5% 3Y4 6 5 4 5% 7 9y8 ~8 5% % ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 1/4 7 9 16 24 674 5VZ 5/8 5% Y4 6?4 1 8Y2 8~4 63/4 7y4 6Y4 10Y4 83A 9Y4 9% 9. .600 5.116 L S FOR INSULATEDVESSELS r !1 L u’ Lb.000 22Y4 18!/2 19k 31 lti 18 388 482 140.

.117 L S FOR UNINSULATEDVESSELS Jl t T hl j h l ‘L–— T w ~ ~ L L l m l o uw o Oo ~ a ~n L u b1 g A i a m bD lI M E N S I O N S W ~ d ~ n e~ ~ ~ ~ O L w F s I . I 4 60° 2 o e L i un g b 1.000 36.400 2!4 2 2% 4 4?46 YJ4 1% %6 full full 1/4 %6 %6 3/8 ‘/2 y16 5/8 5/8 ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 ‘/4 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 1 2 4 9 21 28 45 80 148 218 260 2.000 A S U 3!4 2Y2 3 5% 5?46 4 3y4 3?4 6~4 (jl~b 53/4 5y4 6y4 974 7Y4 7 9y~ 8~z 9y4 10 12 15 10 1 1 774 14~ 14%6 2Y?2 %6 full 4 5% 6ti 7 9 17 17%6 1 18y8 lti 22Y2 1% 9y’ 10M 18 11!4 2Y2 22 15 6V4 28H 29 !46 1Y2 12 161/2 1574 7 31 y? 32yg 174 13 18 17% 8Y4 34Y2 3578 2 14 d i m e al n i si i o r c n n s l h e n s t ir v e e s s bs he sh a ee n l l k c s c el de w p is n e a e e s r s a r f y e l c a t e .600 5.600 9. .000 14.000 56.000 140.200 3.000 90.000 22.

000 30.000 300.5 ~ %b= EL as =5 ~ “~ Notes: 1. The design is based on conditions: a. . U wear plate if necessary to eliminate buckling due to normal or sudden loading. Minimumtensile strengthof lug material 70.-.000 200. Direction of force is in the plane of lugs._ &J~ ~.000 250.L : L a I .000 100.= gL &s 25 . x = 45° “maximum b. s e 3.000 20. — — — I .000 50.000 psi. c.& J VESSEL WEIGHT (LBS) 12.000 70.000 D (IN) 1 1% 1% 1% 2% 2Y? 3 4 4% 4fi (1:) ~/~ 3/4 1 1% 1 172 11/4 2 2 21/! R (IN) 1v? 2 2Y8 2YI 3Y2 4Y2 5 6 6Yz 7 H (IN) 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 L (IN) 10 10 10 12 12 16 16 18 18 20 WELD (Min) c o . .000 150. All dimensionsare in inches 2.

d q Sh~~kle HoIe Diam. J- Sheared Edge H .13 I I 1. I 3.d cut B Arm of Mo~ent I . .6 Q .2 2 01 .>-l/ 1 -1 .0/ 2 2 01 . .13.1 Y j 2 .8 .72 L I 4-1\+ L 2 16500 1-3[8 20000 1-1/2 23750 1-518 32350 2 4 5 6 8 . 1-3175 1--‘.28 2.[> cl? .3 / 4 3.06 —. 3 ./ u-l / . 710 1060 1600 -%/ I I 1 /. .75 : 2.90 1 1/0 8 1-1/8 I : 7/8 7/$? 1-1/8 1-1/4 1 la . 27 . 1. 6 / / 0 i m ei l n i s ni oc n hs l e s n . 2 1 4 59 2 3 -4 / 5 3 63 1 3 35 / 16 39 6 / -6 1 1 5. Di~m.2 4 .:. A d 82 . ..4U Al .I 5 .<” 1 .94 A I I I Rdl.U4 . 4 89 .47 1 cc ‘ 718 1 1-118 ‘m I 1-1/4 1-1/2 ‘“’A a . -1.44 .0/ 2 2 0 / . 282(-)I SIR 63’75 11300 13400 21A I -I I 11 I ] / u .-.OL 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 -1” 1 . 22 42 72 3 1 3 “ 506 0 - 1-1/2 1-5/8 1 9 1A 1-d/+ 1.8 .f ‘:” I 8 ‘: l I 2-5/8 2-7/8A .45 / .3 / 2 .22 1. .48 2 / 1A 1— . 117 1 ./..Y4 J .69 / L .06 ‘ I Z. 5-7/.12 1-1/4 1-2IQ A u 1L - 1.U2 1. 4 88 . m Lug D1 5/16 3/8 7/16 I l .4 .-” . 3 85 .75 1.LIFTINGATTACHMENTS f-h MINIMUM DIMENSIONS F LIFTINGLUGSUSINGSHACKLE O ~~.88 1 3 5 7 2. I .6 .0 2 0 0 3-1.62 !LB 2 II4.

Machine Design. V. Theseare expressed as percentage of the rating in the axialdirection. diameter which is good for 4960 lb. A 302 or equivalent. The abovedimensionsandrecommendations takenfromC. To design the lugs the entire load should be assumed to act on one lug. 6 see page for designofweldand lengthofW. handling. 100%0 Y = 33% 20% w = 10% z= r w EXAMPLE: An eyeboit of 1 in. and length of the lifting lug shall be determined by calculation. Ibs. the following ratings are recommended. EYE . The thickness.120 LIFTINGATTACHMENTS (cont. in. load in tension(direction x) can carryonly 4960x 0.33 = 1637lb. load if it acts in directiony. q Assuming shear load only thru the minimum section. psi.’ WELD: When fillet welds are used.) When two or more lugs are used for multileg sling. the am gle between each leg of the slingand the horizontal should be assumedto be 30 degrees. 1965. For loadingsother than along the axis of the eyebolt. . the required thickneas may be calculated by the formula: R I P t = 2S (R-DIP) where t = required thickness of lug. S = allowable shear stress. Commercial eyebolts are supplied with a rated breaking strength in the X direction. March 18. erection.storage.Moore:Designing are Lifting Attachments. P = load. it is recommended that throat areas be at least 50 per cent greater than the cross sectional area of the lug.) RECOMMENDED MATERIAL: A 515-70.BOLT Threaded fasteners smaller than 5/8” diameter should not be used for lifting because of the danger of overtorquingduringassembly. All possible directionsof loadingshould be considered(during shipment.

the result will indicate the allowable load on one side of the inclined sling.34 .00 – 600 0.70 1. If the ailowable load for a single vertical rope is divided by the cosecant of the angle between one side of the rope and the horizontal. A A A & 1(-JO 0. the product will indicate the allowable load in inclined position.00 0. If the rope applied to an angle of 30 degrees.85 450 0.50 1. Thus the maximum allowable safe load shall be reduced proportionally to the increased stress.70 300 0. The table shows the load-bearing capacity of ropes and chains in different positions.40 1. Example: The allowable load for a rope in vertical position is 8000 lb.17 Angle of Inclination On One End On Two Ends 9(30 1. Forthetwo-rope sling the total allowable load 2 times 4000 = 8000 lb. in this position the allowable load on one side will be 8000/cosecant 30 deg. Multiplying with the factors shovm in the table the allowable load for a certain rope or chain. = 8000/2 = 40001b.121 SAFELOADSFOR ROPESANDCHAINS The stress in ropes and chains under load is increasing with the reduction of the angle between the sling and the horizontal. FACTORS CALCULATE TO SAFELOADSFOR ROPESANDCHAINS L .

tle s rt ad e 1e c o l r a r ou s l i l ih s / n o a e n s n l s 1 i tn h h i i o cs kt e na e n s d sa a i o lf lrd a p l ou l s e w sa m u w p m r (b) t m p c r l o i o The minimumthicknessof a pipe (ANSI/AB36.5percent allowabletolerance(see page 140). Theopeningmadeby apipeor acircularnozzle. I 1 — . it is recommendedto use in place of heads. flangedconnections (d) the first sealingsurface for proprietaryconnectionsor fittings CodeU-l(e)(1) SHAPEOF OPENINGS: P Openingsin pressure vessels shall preferablybe circular. shell reducer sectionsas shownin the Code FigureUG-36.the scope of the Code includes: (a) the weldingend comection for the first circumferential oint for welded j connections (b) the first threadedjoint for screwedconnections (c) the face of the first flangefor bolted. NOZZLENECK THICKNESS(CodeUG-45) For vesselsunder internalpressurethe wallthicknessof openingnecks shall not be less than: (1) the thickness computedfor the applicableloadingsin UG-22 on the neck (pressure. p a b nf w c evu e o e n d cs l i . etc.reaction of piping.) SIZEOF OPENINGS: Properlyreinforcedopeningsare not limitedas to size.An obroundopeningis onewhichis formedby twoparallelsidesand semicircularends.ellipticalor obround.but.maybeconsideredanellipticalopeningfordesignpurposes.1OM)is the nominal thicknessless 12. whenthe openingin the head of a cylindershell is largerthan one half the inside diameterof the head.). plus corrosionallowance.122 O externalpiping is connectedto the vessel.theaxisofwhichisnotperpendicular tothevesselwallorhead. Openingsmaybe of shapesotherthan the above. (2) forotherthan accessandinspection openingsshallnotbe lessthanrequired for the applicableloadingsand not less than the smallestof the following: (a) the thickness of the shell or head (to which the opening is attached). (See CodeUG-36. required for internal pressure (assuming E = 1).

D. 2. 15 in. less than 18 in. 15 in. two .1% in. pipe size removable connections. I.) complying over 12 in. 4. providing the vessel nontains suitable openings through which inspection can be made conveniently. . I.D. that are to be installed so that they must be disconnected from an assembly to permit inspection. provided it is of such size and location as to afford at least an equal view of the interior. shall be provided with suitable manhole. inclusive I.) which are provided with teltale holes (one hole min. The preferablelocation of smallinspectionopeningsis in each head or near each head. or less inside diameter if there are at least two minimum % in. The required inspection openings shown in the table below are selected from the alternatives allowed by the Code.D. as they are considered to be the most economical. and providing such openings are equivalent in size and number to the requirement of the table.D. handhole. two -6 in. manhole or I. or other inspection openings for examination and cleaning. pipe size. per 10 sq. UG46(e). inside diameter. I. of which are subject only to corrosion and are not in compressedair service. UG-46(C). manhole or two -2 in. INSIDE DIAMETER OFVESSEL 1NSPECTION OPENING REQUIRED INSPECTION OPENINGS ARENOTREQUIRED: 1.123 I O All pressure vessels for use with compressed air and those subject to internal corrosion. erosion or mechanical abrasion. for vessels over 12 in. pipe sizenozzle withthe provisions the CodeUG-25.D. Compressed air as used here is not intended to include ~ which has had moisture removed to the degree that it has an atmospheric dew point of -50 F or less. inside diameter under air pressure which also contain other substances which will prevent corrosion. for vessels 12 in. NOZZLENECKTHICKNESS The wall thickness of a nozzle neck or other connection used as access or inspection opening only shall not be less than the thicknesscomputed for the applicableloadingsplus corrosion allowance. pipe size threaded opening over 36 in. to 36 in. if there are at least two removable connections not less than 1% in. for vessels(not over 36 in. but less than 16 in. min.D. pipe size threaded opening 18 in. UG-46(b). I. The manufacturer’s Data Report shall include a statement “for non-corrosive service” and Code paragraph number when inspectionopeningsare not provided. min. UG46. In place of two smaller openingsa singleopening may be used. 3. for vessels over 12 in. ft.

1 . Below the most commonly used types of welded attachments are shown. For other O W R P typessee Code. Fig. UW-16. 2 - 4 .I. .

125 B the e O l o W w R .

tl e ct sa o se r a nrl l fo g os w a s nn cn e c l i ls i i o l T w s d ehi e h f la z ti em nd i es r rn ed qi u ie r e u m e n t s . p h n 0l e l f . . e = the smallest f t o 3/4in. a=~ t o ( + = 1 ) w . r b= no minimum sizerequirement c = the smallest d=t t h 1 n e ce i i 6 a w s s f r 2 . .h o . t.t i s 1 mm o / t h lo 4 li a t e 1 r = the smallest f t. t =n o t m h i io f n ki wan. . or 0.i o t = t h i o v k w n l es ac s s s e lr ae r l f lols os w as nn cn e . o c e o l i . m.Y 1 E P S N OE I 1 E O . LE D D R E R N O T A T I O N i3i t 7 sh .375in. o o to 1 i i o ch k p S 1 n t f . .THREADED AND WELDED FITTINGS T F I B H UE R T L E G S H E S C OOW M UMS T E N OYL Y EE M O O H W O S TW P C O N N E C T CI O F SU . . r v . . W F D-~ G T E6H . ee h m e m S N O ~F E A P C E E IS A N N GG E . hl c 5 i e e a s e se rl t e n s s e n t .

PIPE SIZE. P R E W E 1E . S N O E I1 F D O. Theweldingmayeffectthe threadsof couplings.G TT O 6 Y . . A. 4. 3. in thickness. 2. Themaximumsizeofthe openingis limitedtothe outsidediameterof the attached pipe plus 3A in. pr/ - n f e 4 3i i . (Code UG36(c)(3)). ai t o as p mi 3 e id t e e + xi . 5. pipe size fittings attached to vessel walls over 3/8 in. t t 7: %+ s d Dm = o ud — . or less in thickness. Strengthcalculationof attachmentsis not requiredfor attachmentsshownin Figs. pipe size fittingsattachedto vessel walls of 3/8 in.THREADED AND WELDED FITTINGS T F I B H UE R T L H G $ E E S C OOW M UMS T E N O L Y EE M O O H W O S T W Y P LE D D S E C O N N E C T CI O F SU . Theweldthroatshall bethe greateroftheminimumnozzleneckthicknessrequired by the CodeUG-45(a)or that necessaryto satisfythe requirementsof UW 18for the applicableloadingsof UG 22.It is advisabletokeep the threads aboveweldingwith a minimumY’in.or fittingsandboltingpads maybeattachedtothevesselsby filletwelddepositedfiomthe outsideonlywithcertain limitations(CodeUW-16 (f) (2) and (3)) such as: 1. and for openings: 3 in.H E R S SEENOTATIONON FACINGPAGE: GJ I a I 318in. z ne FITTINGS NOT EXCEEDING 3 IN. In somecasestheweldsare exemptfromsizerequirements. C and E. or cut the threads after welding. The maximumvesselthickness:3/8 in.2 in. min.

128 SUGGESTED MINIMUM EXTENSION OF OPENINGS The tables give the approximate minimum outside projection of openings.NCHESUSINGWELDING I NECKFLANGE NOM. OUTSIDE PROJECTION.NCHESUSINGSLIPONFLANGE I PRESSURERATINGOF FLANGELB NOM.S f d n -lc E x t i o s if o n i e e uM o i sue n tx h t m tn u sf mer e ri n n p o e o o rn t tupt h u e r t v o aw t eu o rle o e d o o i p n t r u g h c hf e . When insulation or thick reinforcing pad are used it may be necessary to increase these 1 dimensions. PRESSURERATINGOF FLANGELB PIPE 900 I 1500 2500 300 600 150 SIZE 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 8 8 8 10 10 12 12 14 14 14 14 14 8 8 8 10 12 14 16 16 16 18 18 20 8 10 12 14 16 20 22 OUTSIDE PROJECTION. PIPE 1500 2500 900 600 300 150 SIZE 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 INSIDE EXTENSION a & P c a t ti c 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 10 6 6 8 8 8 8 10 10 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 1 10 10 10 1 10 10 12 1 12 12 12 8 8 8 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 8 8 10 12 12 12 12 8 10 10 12 12 14 1 .

4. 2 inch pipe size in vessel wall over 3/8 in. Larger vesselopeningshantheaboveshallbereinforced.needs further refinementsas follows: 1. The plate actually used and nozzle neck usually are thicker than would be required accordingto calculation.) is equalor greaterthan the area to be replaced.indiameter ndless:%thevesseldiameter. however.but only the amount which is requiredto resist the internalpressure.This practice results in oversized reinforcement. Somemanufacturersfollowa simplepracticeusingreinforcingpadswith a cross-sectionalarea which is equal to the metal area actually removed for the opening. It is not necessaryto replacethe actuallyremovedamountof metal. The area requiredfor reinforcementmust be satisfiedfor all planesthroughthe center of opening and normalto vessel surface. utnot a b > to exceed20 in.From this area subtractedthe excessareaswithinthe limit(Ai. (A). t Therules for reinforcement f openingsare takenfromthe Code.A Hereisgivena briefoutlineofreinforcement designforbetterunderstandingftheprocedure o described thefollowing in pages. The reinforcementmust be within a certain limit. Fig. The required cross sectionalarea of the reinforcementshall then be: . Forvessels over60in.129 R D F I O P E Single.. (Fig. 5 . ndareintended a toapplyprimarily toopenings ot n exceeding thefollowing: Forvessels 60in.@). This requiredthicknessof the vessel at the openingsis usually less than at other points of the shell or head. (Code UG-36 (c) (3). Largeropeningshouldbegivenspecialattentionas described CodeAppendix in 1-7. the opening is adequately reinforced.) This simple rule.Likewisethe insideextensionofthe opening(Aj) andthe areaof the weld metal (AJ) can also be taken into considerationas reinforcement.UG-26 o throughUG-44. Thebasicrequirement thataroundtheopening is thevesselmustbereinforced withanequal amount fmetalwhichhasbeencutout for the opening. welded openings not subject to rapid fluctuationin pressure do not require reinforcing if they are not larger than: 3 inch pipe size .in vessel wall 3/8 in. The areaof reinforcementmustbe proportionallyincreasedif its stressvalueis lowerthan that of the vessel wall. utnotto % b exceed40 in. If the sumof the areasavailable for reinforcement(AJ+A?+Aj +A.4zAj AJ).indiameter: thevesseldiameter. The required area for the sell or head to resist the internalpressure. o f 2. (A). Otherwise t difference must be supplied by h e reinforcingpad (AJ).The excessin the vesselwall (Al) and nozzlewall (AJ serveas reinforcements. A. 3. butwiththeeliminationf calculationstheyfind it moreeconomical. or less.The reinforcementmaybe an integral o part of the vessel and nozzle or may bean additionalreinforcingpad.

the required area A shall be increased. IfthesumofA.9 times the diameterof the head. Area ofinside extension ofnozzle square inches (t.E = 0.square inches... E= the efilciencyof that joint. (See next page for examples. Whentheopeningis ina cone. 1joint and E = 0. When the opening is in a vessel which is radiographicallynot examined. square inches.8D .130 REINFORCEMENT FOR OPENINGS DESIGN 1. 2 joint. t..(See next page for examples. f f NC!?@ r use the largervalue.80 for type No.) Areaof excessthicknessinthenozzlewall (’t. d u Area of welds. = the requiredthicknessof shell or head computedby the applicableformulasusingE = 1.) 5t.-@2h. . Whenopeningpasses throughanyotherweldedjoint. If the stress value of the opening’smaterial is less than that of the vesselmaterial. where d= the insidediameterof openingin its corrodedcondition. If the stress value of the opening% material is less than that of the vessel material.0whenthe openingis in solidplateor in a categoryBjoint. isthe thicknessrequired for a seamlesscone of diameter.t. is the thickness required by the applicable formulas usingAl= 1. FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE 1 (continue@j AREA OF REINFORCEMENT u d D I-Q--l E ~ 0.D measuredwhere the nozzle axis intersectswith the wall of the cone.) 2.is the thicknessrequiredfor seamlesssphere of radius 0. t.t.A the differencemustbe suppliedby reinforcingpad.) + ~2 (t.— 5t or (L-t. square inches.. AVAILABLEAREASOF REINFORCEMENT i ’ Area of excessthicknessin the vessel wall (t—t. inches. area AI shall be decreased. For vesselsunder internalpressurethe total cross-sectional area required for reinforcementof openingsshall not be — less than: A = d XI.use — the smaller value. A2AJandA~ lessthanthe area forreinis forcementrequired.) h..)d or ) (t–t.85 for type No..8 times the head diameter.. When the opening and its reinforcement are entirely withinthe sphericalportionof a flangedanddishedhead. Whentheopeninganditsreinforcementare ina2: 1ellipsoidal head and are located entirelywithin a circle the centerof whichcoincideswiththe centerof the head and the diameter of which is equal to 0.

see the precedingpage.857) —2t. ..167= 14.857) H r fn(f-1. Of.000psi.857 To the required area.. The stress value of nozzle material: 15. .000= 1. + t. 1. From the area AI shall be subtracted: (1— 0.= nominalthickness material. Yto be d measuredfromthe outsidesurfaceof the reinforcingpad. h= dist~nce riozzle projects eyond b the No credit shall be taken for additional strengthof reinforceinnersurface ofthe ment havinghigher stress value than that of the vessel wall..500/1 5. A shalI be added: X + 2tM (1Q 0. vessel alllesscorw rosion allowance. selwalllesscorrosion allowance. REINFORCEMENT FOR OPENINGS DESIGN FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE (continued) G xx 3. shallbe consideredas equivalentto the weakermaterialof the tm= requiredthickness joint. STRENGTHOF REINFORCEMENT inches. A in inverse formles~co~osion proportionincreased. Usingidenticalmaterialforthevessel andreinforcingpad.000/17.5 tor 2. the requiredarea for reinforcementis 12 square inches.500 psi.000psi.inches. + t.167 Inthisproportionshallbe increasedtheareaofreinforcing pad: 12x 1. d= seeprecedingpage. R 1. 4.500psi.:sno=’e It is advisableto useforreinforcingpadmaterialidenticalwith the vesselmaterial. LIMITSOF REINFORCEMENT Themetal usedas reinforcementmustbe located within the limits. inches.00square inches. If the strengthof materialsin AI Az Aj AJ and A5 or the t.For other notations. troy When additional reinforcing pad is used. 2. + Rn=insideradius of nozzle in corrodedcondition.their area consideredas reinforcementshall be proof nozzlewallirrespective ofproduct portionately decreased and the required area. seepreceedingpage = materialofthe reinforcingpad are lowerthanthat of the vessel 1.inches. c = corrosion allowThe stress value of shell material: 17. use larger value. the limit. Ratio 15. . P t. ance. ) f“ Im TF \ ------I I tr I b. If the stress value of vessel material= 17. NOTATION: t= thicknessoftheves. ratio 17. —.5t. the stress value of the nozzle material= 15. EXAMPLES: inches.5000 = 0.Thestrengthofthe depositedweldmetal allowance. t Y The limit measured parallel to the nozzle wall Y= 2.131 . x t. a.fy:. R n k trn The limitmeasuredparallelto the vesselwall~= dor R. use smallervalue.

REINFORCEMENT OPENINGSFOR EXTERNALPRESSURE.inches. thicknessrequiredbytherulesforvesselsunderextemalpressure. For all other configurations the value of F = 1 /4= dxt ~ — .inches. 1.= The wall thicknessrequired for externalpressure. F = Factor for computation of the required reinforcement area on different planes (as the pressure-stress varies) when the opening is in cylindrical shell or cone and integrally reinforced.132 REINFORCEMENT FOR OPENINGS DESIGN FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE (continued DESIGN FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE. OF The cross-sectionalarea (A)of reinforcementrequiredfor openingsin vesselssubject to externalpressure: where ii= Diameter in the givenplane of the openingin its corrodedcondition.CodeUG-37(d) (l). The reinforcement required for openings in single-walled vessels subject to external isthewall pressure need be only 50 percent ofthat required for internal pressure where t.

375 in.108 sq. 3.1-JJ REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 1. Designpressure:250 psi at 200°F.)t. 0. ..6X 250 2.) Aj = (Insideprojection.440 in.5 in. Az = (Excessin nozzle neck. in.625-0. 15. The nozzle does not pass through seams.5t~= 2.048 in. in. 13. h = 2. in.432+ 0.432—0.= (Area of fillet weld) 0.625)x2= 1.800X 1.in.) Larger of following: (t–tr)d = (0. A.440= AREA OF REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE A.000X 1.625 = 1.) Smallerof following: (tn–tm)5t = (0. 6P = 250 X24 = 0.. . q n . tn=0.t ‘SE —.200 s i (tn–tm)5tn= (0.933 sq.in.0-0. The vessel is spot radiographed t No allowancefor corrosion Nozzle material:SA-53-B S=15.140 Sq. k.048)x 5 x 0.88 = = 0.in.535 sq.048) X5 X0. in. t“ tr ~ I tr T * + h w d P? I I “ Rn DESIGNDATA: Insidediameterof shell: 48 in. tm=~*p AREAOF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED A.08in.391 sq.000 psi.440) x 5. size: 6 in.761 or (t-t.800 psi = t= 0.761 x 0.08= 0.432 in. 0. = 5.+ ~ 2 = (0.5 x 0.829 sq.) (.140 Sq. ShellMaterial: SA-285-C n S 13.3752 Aj = (Areaof fillet weld inside)0.= dt. Fillet weld size: 0.6X 250 X 2. Extensionof nozzle insidethe vessel: 1.432 = 1.= (Excess in shell.625-0.0-0.066Sq. 0. x 2h = 0.440)x (0.additionalreinforcementis not needed. .265 in. Nozzle nom.432-0. Wall thicknessrequired: for shell.432 x 2 x 1. 0. for nozzle.3752 TOTALAREAAVAILABLE Sincethis area is greaterthan the area required for reinforcement.432 = (No credit for additionalstrengthof nozzlematerialhaving higherstress valuethan that of the vesselwall.

857 x 0.500= 0.)tn 2A= 0.000 psi. 15.761 X 0.500 in.6 X 300 Area increased:+2tnxt. AREA OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED 2.= SE .432-0.432 + 0.432= 0.058)5X 0. 0. 17.432 in. Ratio of stress values: 15.)2=(0.5 in.5002x 0.857)= -0.933 x 0. a decreased area shall be taken into consideration. Since the strength of the nozzle is lower than that of the shell.)d= (0.808 = 0. 0. in.500 in.000/17. ~ = dt. Shellmaterial: t= 0. Nozzle material: SA-53 B S = 15. t. -2 x 0.0.000/17.058)5 X 0.432-0.808 = .416)x 5. 0.474 sq.432x (0. t“ tr I tr ~ DESIGN DATA: Inside radius of shell: R =24 in.08‘0.857 X 0.857)= Area reduced:-2 x t.n)5tn= (0.933 x Area decreased0. A2=(Excess in nozzleneck. AJ‘(Area of fillet weld)2 x 0. in. = 5. AREAOF REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE Al = (Excess in shell. in.(1-15.) + t. in.397 sq. 15. t.= 0.857 Wall thickness required: Shell.500-0.416= = Nozzle.43= (Insideprojection. in.800 sq.857)= 0.692 sq.500-0.416)(1-0. (t-t.514 SCI.808 Area reduced: 0. Designpressure:P = 300 psi at 200° F..5 x .6P sap ‘R = -. Since the strength of the nozzle material is lower than that of the vessel material.416) (0.857 = .500X 1-0. in. Fillet weld size inside:0.0-0.857.0. t. the required area for reinforcement shall be proportionally increased and the areas available for reinforcement proportionally reduced.500psi The vessel is spot examined There is no allowancefor corrosion Nozzle nominal size: 6 in.500)x 2 ‘O. (t.) Smallerof following: (t.5 x .692 sq. in.432 x 2 x 1.484 s i o q n . in.n)5t= (0. 2.448 sa.156sq.334 sq.761= 0.6252x 0.416 in.000/17. 300 X 24 = 0.6X300 300 X 2.000X 1.) (1-0.88 = = 0. 0. J ! h T Extensionof nozzle insidethe vessel: 1.857= ~j ‘(Area of fillet weld inside)2 x 0.500. in. 2. t.625 in. SA-516-70plate.051 sq. 0.500 = 0.500= 0. Fillet weld size outside: 0. .t.935 (t.010 sq. 0. t.)Largerof the following: (1.214 sa..432x 0.058 in. in.134 REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 2.416 (1-0. in. n S = 17.857 = TOTALAREAAVAILABLE Additionalreinforcementnot required. x (t-t. in.500) = 2 x 0.

077)5X0.375 in.) Smallerof following: @-t.500 in. UsingO. Nozzle.= ‘R SE– O.106 sq.000X 1-0. (tn–tr.) 300 X 24 = 0.141 sa. itmaybeheaviernozzle ec~ kirgerextensiono n fthenozzle insideofthevesselor reinforcing pad.5= 1.375 in.6 X300 3.5 = 1.0. = (0. in.500 sq. Shellmaterial:0.028 sq.706 sq. t“ t rn tr t r # h d u + t DESIGNDATA: Insidediameterof shell:48 in.5 = 0.SA-516-60plate forreinforcing padthe widthofthe pad 1.901sq. The nozzledoes not pass throughthe main seams.625= or (t . Az =(Excess in nozzle neck.058 0.0–0.805=1. in.694in.500)2 ‘0.000X ].058or 1. .E = 1 There is no allowancefor corrosion Nozzlenominalsize: 8 in. t.[. 15.therequiredareaof pad:3.)5t = (0. in. )d= (0..135 REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 3.)5t. = 15. Nozzie material:SA-53B.486) 7. A3= (Insideprojection.500 x 2 x 0.5 in. (t -t..500-0. AJ ‘ o f w 0 (The area of pad to shell weld disregarded) 1.)Largerof the following: 0.= 7. in. SA-516-60plate.058sq.500-0.486)(0.500 .486 in.in. Wall thicknessrequired: Shell t.486= AREAOF REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE AI = (Excess in shell.077 in.901/0.625 widthof reinforcing pad: 5.706–1.therefore thedifference shallbe provided byreinforcingelement. 0. (Reinforcement pad to nozde neck.625 X 0. TOTALAREAAVAILABLE Thisareais lessthantherequiredarea. Designpressure:300 psi at 200° F. The vesselfidlyradiographed.)L x 2h = 0.8125 = 0.6P = SAP —. = AREAOF RE~FORCEMENT REQUIRED A = dx [. + t) 2 = (0. Theoutsidediameterof reinforcing pad: Outsidediameterof pipe: 8. ) (t. in.805 SQ.069in. of fiilet welds 0.077)5x 0.Usingreinforcing pad.500 in. in.6X300 300 X3.in. wall Extensionof nozzle insidethe vessel: 0.500+ 0.500-o.069 13.375=5.

a i & e b c Groove-weldtension Groove-weldshear Fillet-weldshear 0.397-0.500 in. a.500= 33.375 in.= 6. 33463+ 67382=100845 lb.60 0.000psi allowablestressvalue of nozzle material Ft A G= 0. wall thicknessof nozzle. Fillet-weldshear 0.= 15. joining openings to the vessel.andb. 1. Xt. o p s o sfa i a bt i l elementof reinforcementbeing considered. The allowablestressvalueof the weldsis the stressvalue of the weakermaterialconnectedby the weldsmultiplied by the followingfactors: .432 X10500 = 44090lb. Loadto be carriedby welds (A-AI)S = 2.74 x 17500= 12950psi. ~heckthe strengthof attachmentof nozzle load to be carriedby welds. xweidleg x 12950-10.70 times the allowablestressvalue of nozzle material. dm c ‘* t = 0. wall thicknessof vessel 0.49 x 17500= 8575 psi.or lh e u s r f e h r a o un g 2 T 2.484 x 17.weldtensi~n~. .136 STRENGTH OF ATTACHMENTS JOINING OPENINGS TO VESSEL At the attachments. fillet weld leg. in. failure may occur through the welds or nozzle neck in the combinations shown in figures A and B.. Groove-weldtension 0.478 lb.193 in. b. b d.4065X(). 1. Stressvalueof nozzlewall shear STRENGTHOF WELDSANDNOZZLENECK: ~ xweldIegx8575= 10. X10500=9. AI = 0. EXAMPLE3 A = 2.“% a dttr=6. Thestrength intensionofthecross-sectionalareaofthe a b P c P 1. T h r a o u ng h @ lengthon each side of the plane of reinforcementarea.484 sq. Both pathsarestrongerhantherequired t strength33478lb.432 in.Through a.375 x8575 =33463lb. outside diameterof nozzle .70 x 15000= 10500psi.500psi allowablestressvalue of vesselmaterial S. POSSIBLEATH P OFFAILURES: 33463+44090= 77553lb. 2.50()X” 12950=67382lb.Through a.625 in.Nozzle-wall shear c Gr~ove. Through@and@ 2. h .397 sq. in.4065 xO. STRESSVALUEOF WELDS: 0. Through@ and@ @ The strengthof thejoints shallbe consideredfor its entire d @ 3. The strength of the welds and the nozzle neck in those combinations shall be at least equal to the smaller of: 1. mean diameterof nozzle 8 S = 17. @ @ The strengthin tensionofareaxf (A = ~ f less the d ) strengthin tensionofthe excessinthe vesselwall @j.49 Possible pathsoffailure The allowablestressvalueof nozzleneck in shear is 0.74 0.andc. Fillet-weld shear ~..72x0.

575= 13.7361b.500x 0. wi d sl e l 43.500= 18.055x 17.950= 13. 43.172sq.55 x 0.996lb.500‘66. zs l l f l e n o . 0 i . is strongerthanthe strengthof 21.000= STRESSVALUEOF WELDS: Fillet . Througha. l l 5 o s vt p s 0 w ao0 vb leim le a s u s s e e re ra e s t S 1 5 a .m d 1 i e no2 n m a 5e z t . l o f 3 .250lb.463lb.A.260 = 130.500x 12. c. = 1 2 o .55X0. t =0 i .105 lb.736+ 43.950=43.641sq.in. r s a i n f g c 5 f c d t.907sq. c ande Paths 1.260llb. POSSIBLE PATHOFFAILURE: 1.990 lb. n t g d than h reinforcing pad strength of t r e e is greater t the The outerf (dP-do) t.500= 1. ThOU@c andd 87.293 lb. S = 1 7 a . Nozzlewallshem ~ x tnX10. nz a o e rl e f .70 x 15.76X0.t h 5i o v n 0 w n 0es a s . c i nf g d 8.641) 17.000= 10.500X 10.25X8. e l f t g d i .500= 12.in. .w 5e d l in 0l e .575psi 0. s s l e f l l c k e ..293lb.500) 15.572lb.375X8.5OO 12. = 0 n k g cn t h oh t ao m e n zt z l e f . Path3. W D R I E E EL D O D SY : C L h the s T OB t e of a c t r e C A R B (A–A.74 x 17. l l 0 o s vt = a 0 nb l io le s z ut s z e e rl p s 0 w or a em a t =0 i . eg l f t d 0 i . 21.127 / STRENGTH OF ATTACHMENTS JOINING OPENINGS TO VESSEL EXAMPLE4 DESIGNDATA A= 3.500= LOADTO BE CARRIEDBY WELDSa. o 8 i .500= 8. 2.176lb.575= 43. t h 2i o r n e k i nn p0e os .625in.55X0.F0.=0.572 + 87.weld shear Groove..and2.260 = 110. STRESSVALUEOF NOZZLEWALLSHEAR: 0. e: (A2+21“OS= (0. in. Filletweldshear ~ x weldlegx 8.outsidediameter f nozzle. arestrongerthanthetotalstrengthof 44.950=87.A. t h 5i o c n 0k w.736+ 43.weldtension 0.49 x 17.25x 12. d.868= 175.907 + 2 x 0.105lb.990+ 43.500psi STRENGTHOF WEL~S ANDNOZZLENECK: a. X 17. Grooveweldtension ~ weldlegx 12.950-13. = c.18X0. b. l o f 2 . 3. Grooveweldte~ion @ x weldlegx12. . u d 8 t i n 4 r m5 i e n p tf e oe r ra i o s a e i d .868lb.575= 20.)S = (3. Throughb andd 66.950psi 44.260lb.172—0.575= 43.w 7e a l in 5l e . Filetweldshear Z#2Xweld1egx 8. e.n 0ez a s .

LENGTH OF COUPLINGS AND PIPE FOR OPENINGS .12R .

139 LENGTH OF COUPLING AND P FOR OPENINGS .

The thickness required for the vessel for internal pressure (assuming joint efficiency.750” Wall 0. see table “Maximum Allowable Internal Working Pressure for Pipes” on the following pages. Wt. Wall= Sch. 0.375” Wall 3. not less than the smaller of the following: 2.125” The Vessel Wall Thickness: 0. 10.250” Wall The Required Pipe for Manway: The Required Pipe for Nozzle: Std. EXAMPLES for using the table: 1. 60. 60.750” Wall Sch. 3. Sch. Std. Min. The minimum thickness of standard wall pipe plus corrosion allowance. The thickness computed for the applicable load plus corrosion allowance (there is no other requirement). handholes) IN VESSELS UNDER INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL PRESSURE. Wt.125” The Required Pipe for Manway: The Required Pipe for Nozzle: 2. 10. Opening Diam: 18” Design Pressure: 800 psig.3 125” The Required Pipe for Manway: The Required Pipe for Nozzle: Sch. Corrosion Allowance: 0. E = 1. Opening Diam: 18” Design Pressure: 140 psig.0).250” Wall 0. = 0. THE REQUIRED THICKNESS FOR ACCESS AND INSPECTION OPENINGS (manways. For selection of required pipe under internal pressure.140 N N T FOR NOZZLE NECKS IN VESSELS PRESSURE (Code UG-45) THE REQUIRED THICKNESS UNDER INTERNAL 1 T t c f t a l i U p c h but for other than access and inspection openings. but in no case less than the minimum for shells and heads specified in UG-16 (b). Allow. 0. 0. Opening Diam: 18” Design Pressure: 150 psig. 0.328” + 0. 40 Pipe .125” Vessel Wall Thickness: 0.750” Sch.125” Corr. Corrosion Allowance: 0.453. 1. Corrosion Allowance: 0.

The requiredthicknessfor a 14 in. wallrequired. internalpressure PR = 15x 17. S= 15.n “ 3.000-9 “ “ t =SE .but the thicknessof the nozzleneck shall in no case be lessthan 0.%in.) The smallerof 2. Shell thickness: t= 0.375 in.0. Do = 36 in. long nozzleneck: 1. (0. The thicknessrequiredfor the shell under 15psi.D.incompressedair. D. 2. MaterialSA 516-60.but the thicknessshallnot be less than the smallerof the following: 2.328 in. for wall thicknessof nozzleneck is satisfactory. The minimumthicknessof standard wall pipe: 0. S= 15.plus corrosionallowance. Thethicknessrequiredforthe shellunder35 psi internalpressure(as equivalent externalpressure) = 35x 47 = O~lo in PR ‘= SE . and 3. Thethicknessforthe applicableload t s m o t ah f l o ll l h o w ee r i nf e g : less t h 2. wallrequired.375 in. (0.. The minimumthicknessof standardwall pipe plus corrosionallowance. The requiredticknessfor 14 O. Material SA 516-60. is 0.0625 in.3125 in. 12 in.110 in. Externaldesignpressure: P = 15 psi. EXAMPLE1. for shells and heads. Externaldesignpressure:P = 35 psi.328 in. nom.0.but k no case less than the minimumthicknessspecifiedfor material in UG-16(b)(1/16 in.steamandwaterservice.141 THE REQUIRED NOZZLE NECK THICKNESS FOR VESSELS UNDER EXTERNALPRESSURE(Code UG-45) 1..6P 3.000 Outsidediameterof cylindricalshell: Do= 96 in.0. To withstand15psi externalpressureapproximately0. EXAMPLE2. To withstand25 psi externalpressureapproximately0. Shellthickness:t = 1 in.but the thicknessshall not be less than the smallerof. and 3.forunfiredsteam boilers).. UG-45 (a) (2).05 in.) The smallerof 2.6P 15.018 in. 12 in. long nozzleneck: 1.O.000 Outside diameter of cylindrical shell. The thicknessof head or shell required for internalp r u s t s sexternal r hen e u i designpressureas an equivalentinternalpressure. nom. The minimumthicknessof standardwall pipe: 0. 3.000. .6875 = o 0~8 in 15.02 in.3/32in.

:”:g 5392 I 2658 0.133 X-STG. X-STG. I 0.246 4333 3139 2013 0. CORROSION ALLOWANCE IN.191 0.358 STD.350 6481 I 5164 3924 2754 126 0.095 0. DESIG‘IPE NATION UZE PIPE WALL THICKNESS NOM. in.218 SCH.164 ~‘.154 X-STG. For highertemperature see notes at the end of the tables.160 XX-STG. T=E 3/4 I 1 xX-STG. 0. 0. 0.154 SCH.A106B)at temperature-20 to 650°F.382 0.160 0. I 0. t = Minimumpipe wall thickness.160 0.127 2118 1046 806 0. NOM. where The Calculations Basedon the Formula: P = The max. (.135 4299 2192 100 1985 0.113 X-STG. E= 1.179 SCH.400 STD.200 SCH. The figuresunderlinedare the maximumallowablepressurein corrodedcondition for the pipe of which wall thicknessis minimumthe standard wall plus corrosion allowance.140 1-1/4 X 1-1/2 2 I SCH.3099 — 0.334 7194 G 31 0. STD.250 XX-STG.270 9712 7041 %7 0. 0.154 3959 2287 732 0.382 5537 X2 G — 1’4 252 580 I I I 1494 I 1582 I I I I 1648 642 1744 . 0.218 XX-STG.0joint efficiencyof seamlesspipe D = Insidediameterof pipe.308 STD.175 2982 1864 947 0.343 XX-STG.219 4424 I 3059 ! 1779 ] 578 ! 2848 0. 0.135 1786 938 852 44 1696 0.145 0.in.294 STD.allowableworkingpressure.313 8820 7423 4842 .142 I M W A P P= F 23Et D+ 1. 0.000psig.160 0.psig.167 3282 1988 774 0.257 12153 I 8526 0.129 0. 0.191 G 0.the stressvalueof the most commonlyusedmaterialsfor pipe (A53B.875 times the nominal thickness).160 0. 0.123 2362 1126 0.116 2847 1261 744 I 0.250 0. 0. ~ MIN.219 5764 3946 2274 0.099 1072 I I I 288 0.281 XX-STG.191 6386 4069 2515 0.300 4215 I 3260 I 2348 1477 2629 0.436 0.2t P . S = 15. 0.

562 0.295 2075 0.1 3379 552 1127 1767 2X 2890 208 773 1401 2044 5 30 5 3 40 6 2 1 96 2 7 0 9 5 6 4 5 45 4 2 3 5 6 0.219 777 0.203 0.160 XX-STG.Allow.500 0. X-STG.120 SCH.160 XX-STG.375 0. X-STG.120 0.30 2% l I 3 .242 861 1485 G 2748 3427 552 634 1181 G 2425 3093 329 411 882 1431 =6 2764 113 190 58~ 112[ F 2440 8 X-STG.383 0.20 SCH.492 2368 0.600 0.674 0.318 0.120 SCH.3 .500 0.375 0.2412 I 1946 3880 902 1488 2140 2808 6 39 2 81 111 1175 — 2515 211 1937 280 908 1490 2412 425 1042 1673 4394 1259 G 2520 3201 .383 2739 0.438 0.160 XX-STG. 3/16 I 1/4 o I 1/16 I 1/8 Max. SCH.328 0.337 0.628 1896 2319 1658 2075 E 1835 1189 = 959 u .86f 0.438 1587 1353 1121 892 665 0. STD. STD.71$ o. STD.531 0.258 0.593 0.120 SCH. MIN.432 0. 160 XX-STG.300 0.590 0. SCH.625 0.465 I 3379 0.143 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE ORKING W PRESSURE (cent) NOM.242 I 0.278 G 0. X-STG.519 0. PIPE SIZE PIPEWALL THICKNESS NOM.226 0. SCH.636 0.27t CORROSION ALLOWANCE IN.378 1793 0. 0. SCH.280 0. X-STG. SCH.189 0.552 0.25( 0.547 0 0 12 556 1116 658 1801 1221 1754 2964 2350 — 3134 4432 3773 78 555 1044 691 1689 1183 2992 3546 4115 — — 137 561 995 730 1616 1168 1802 1350 2= —— I 2890 1.PressurePsig.276 0.557 4701 0.237 0. STD.216 0. 561 1245 577 2707 1971 1261 I 831 1525 2991 2245 3766 2599 3359 — — 5822 4969 Z DESIGNATION STD.75C 0.208 ~ 0.1OO SCH. STD.438 0. X-STG. 3 ~ 2398 3597 5113 4 0. SCH-160 XX-STG. X-STG.198 1546 0.328 0.483 0. SCH.628 3077 0.525 0.718 0.226 0.438 0.756 3767 0.263 0. XX-STG.

120 SCH.319 0.60 SCH.375 0.80 SCH.438 0.75G 0.30 STD.984 0.601 0.289 0. X-STG.148 0.140 SCH.738 1./4 Max.80 SCH.375 0.711 0.330 0.60 SCH. SCH.40 X-STG.365 ~0.65{ 0. MIN.30 STD.094 CORROSION ALLOWANCEN I o I 1/16 I 1/8 I 3/16 i“”.43t 0.984 1.250 0. SCH.20 STD. SCH. SCH.355 0.812 0.406 0.093 0.273 0.500 4 o.82( 1.160 SCH.875 0.160 SCH.519 0. 0. SCH.000 0.843 0.593 0.766 0.500 0.718 0.438 0.738 1.144 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE ORKING W PRESSURE(con~ NOM.95( 1.328 0.269 0.120 SCH.000 0.500 0.140 SCH.937 0.793 0.492 0.Allow.843 0. PIPE DESIGNATION SCH.10 SCH. 2647 2400 2155 1913 1675 2977 2725 2476 2231 1988 2868 2617 2370 2126 1885 90 264 441 621 228 50 406 585 766 370 193 549 729 ~ 712 532 1263 l= 894 948 ~ 1506 1318 1132 1838 1647 1458 1270 1085 2179 1984 1792 1601 1413 2611 2413 2216 1986 1829 2963 2760 2560 2362 2166 371 222 76 522 540 389 692 91 240 635 483 ~7 333 184 701 549 248 854 398 904 751 486 1059 598 1194 1038 ~ 730 578 ~ 1469 1311 1154 ~ 1820 1659 1500 1341 1184 10 81 5 2178 2 1690 15304 23 10 3 2467 2 1972 18101 2s72 2910 2 2 2 69 202 475 338 49 184 319 456 594 167 303 440 716 577 287 423 561 839 699 407 544 682 962 ~ 585 pJ 863 1146 004 ~ 1173 1031 1460 316 1550 1406 1262 1843 696 2166 2017 1869 1722 1576 2500 2348 2198 2048 1900 S 8 10 12 1 I .628 0.438 0.40 X-STG.593 0.160 XX-STG.219 0307 0.140 SCH.219 0.PressurePsig.250 z 0.328 0.51$ 0.125 0.562 0.383 0.312 1.100 SCH.687 0.875 1.100 SCH.250 1.312 0. SCH.20 SCH.100 SCH.140 PIPEWALL THICKNESS NOM.125 0.906 0.250 0.20 SCH.875 1.80 SCH.120 SCH.

383 744 0. DESIGPIPE NATION SIZE 14 SCH.273 554 0.531 2446 1.562 1.218 1.492 0. SCH.40 18 SCH.937 0.203 2118 1.80 SCH.750 1. SCH. STD. SCH.375 0.120 SCH.843 0.60 16 SCH.60 SCH.328 & 0.375 0.273 625 0.60 20 SCH.20 SCH.258 2517 1.574 1108 0.031 0.656 0.562 0.968 1.20 STD.375 0.281 1.40 SCH.012 1766 1.328 649 0.10 SCH.820 1418 1.312 0.031 0.100 SCH.100 SCH.230 2834 0.812 0.100 SCH.375 1.160 PLPE WALL o THICI iESS gOM.406 1.250 G 460 0. 1/4 1/8 3/16 1/16 [ax.438 668 0.500 0. SCH.500 0.438 0.80 SCH.328 0.121 1760 1.902 1403 1.156 1.738 1436 1.10 SCH.80 SCH.656 1129 0.140 SCH.145 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE(cont.500 1.313 2078 1.367 2425 1.140 SCH.711 1097 1.558 2789 T B m 4~ 0.438 1. MIN.394 2809 368 0.902 1771 1.593 1.160 SCH. 1.140 ISCH.593 0.120 SCH.438 0.750 0.438 838 0.781 1.30 X-STG.All :P s i x E ~ 5 166 43 6 1 398 279 146 6 2 504 384 355 7 4 717 596 617 3 7 C4 861 937 0 1310 1185 1 1263 3 8 1643 1515 1 1595 7 2 1980 1851 1 1990 1 2 2384 2251 2 2275 4 0 2674 2540 2 5 262 157 38 4 1 354 248 130 3 2 447 341 222 2 3 541 434 315 2 4 636 529 407 1 5 729 621 689 7 1015 ~6 974 0 8 1306 1195 1 4 2 1314 1652 1539 1 18 78 77 1658 2002 1 21 09 70 2308 2 1958 2314 25 45 30 2669 2 4 m x 2 3 0 117 1 402 3 7 4 7 284 ~ 5 0 6 0 407 697 ~ 8 0 900 998 1004 1 1 0 1303 1202 1353 1 4 5 1657 1555 1665 1 7 6 1974 1870 2025 2 1 2 2340 2234 2346 2 4 5 2666 2558 .500 0.) NOM.519 795 0.066 2111 1. SCH.40X-STG.312 0.30.20 STD.160 SCH.160 SCH.120 SCH.250 0.722 2774 ROSIONALLOWANCE IN.30 X-STC SCH.219 m 518 0.10 SCH.

382 0.601 SCH.804 SCH.328 0.500 0.562 0.812 1. N 0.602 0.80 1.625 0.968 0.438 SCH.340 SCH.250 0.438 214 289 365 440 519 G 672 750 827 196 334 475 5Z 685 1006 1297 1667 2006 2311 2660 181 244 308 372 438 502 567 633 697 211 267 379 I 128 116 202 31 192 278 106 267 136 353 344 431 258 419 332 507 409 496 584 486 G 661 z 649 738 40 117 97 176 255 236 315 395 304 464 384 443 524 6X G 842 924 1214 1131 1048 1582 1498 1413 1919 1833 1747 2223 2135 2048 2571 2482 2393 37 4 5 108 98 7 26 1 171 162 2 90 8 235 225 6 152 4 298 291 2 218 1 364 354 6 281 7 428 419 1 345 4 493 F4 7 410 0 558 548 2 474 7 622 148 204 315 85 141 252 23 78 188 T 30 275 330 443 .602 0.687 0.312 0.343 2.250 0.219 0.688 0.60 0.547 0.562 0. 0.547 0.328 0.30 0.847 SCH.050 DESIG NATION 0.500 0.625 0.375 0.20 STD.437 22 24 376 452 G 606 681 761 839 916 275 414 z 625 766 1089 1381 1753 2093 2399 2750 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 26 0.750 0. PIPE SIZE PIPEWALL THICI JESS MIN.375 0.750 0.062 1.328 X-STG.219 SCH.218 1.656 0.273 0. 0.273 0.40 0.492 SCH.688 0.140 2.438 0.438 0.273 0.500 0.219 0.250 0.562 0.382 0.) NOM.312 0.066 SCH.160 2.375 0.500 0.437 0.146 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE ORKING W PRESSURE(cont.531 1.10 0.312 0.586 SCH.492 0.100 1.120 1.492 0.328 0.375 0.656 SCH.

250$ 0.)0 0 0 .018 J. 0.1 be 0 . 6 09 ) .8633 0. 05 2 .250 0.C 0 kI 0 . ALLOWABLERESSUREGIVENIN THETABLESBYTHE P FACTORS THISTABLE: IN TEMPERATURE NOTEXCEEDING DEGREEOF 900 950 750 850 1000 650 700 800 – – A 53 B Stress 15000 14350 12950 10800 8650 6500 6500 4500 2500 : 15000 ’ 14350 12950 10800 8650 s + : s A 106B ‘ 1.213 0.280 0. MIN. 2 6 0 5 2 . 0 ) 0 . DUETO HIGHERTEMPERATURE.00 0.72= 850 psig. 0.at Temperature800°F of The Max.2660 0.Press. 3 1 .3125 0.Allow.280 0. Std.000 0.85 0. 1.Allow. Example to find max.1181Psig.PipeWitha Corrosion Allowance 1/8” From Table= 1181psi.5766 0..93 38 0 st i W e n Sd aa e U mr . pressure for any stress values: The Max.1666 FACTOR Example: The MaximumAllowancePressurefor 6“ x Stg. 0 5 2 0 0 0 .245 0.147 NOTE: IF THESTRESSVALUEOF PIPELESSTHAN15.000PSIG. 06 0 . NOZZLEEN~CMKpTT~CKNESS I 2 Vessel Wall C O R R O S I O N w I o 0 1 Requiredfor Loadings(UG-22) 0.Allow.3000 0.280 0. For ThisPipeThe Max.7200 0.9566 0. allow.Pressure ~Wo x 1181 = 1023psi.Press. MULTIPLY THEMAX.213 NOM.245 3 6 in.3125 0.From Tables The StressValue 13000psi.250 J.4333 0.E.E.1181x 0.245 0 6 i 0 rc 0 6 0.r m bs 1 8 r n e i ht a m u i uei cn m k on h f r n e do s e z ez s l cr e 2 . ( v e s e r t G & o rU i e r( lGd e a e . Pipe Minimumf 4 I C F * U m o m nS T i S &H h p rS e A f o B ti o U l e e ( Gl a r sd - b1 s .

in.the 12. .6P t = the required minimum wall thickness of pipe. The thicknesses given in the tables do not include aIlowance for corrosion. For the determination of the required pipe wall thickness in piping systems the various piping codes shall be applied.148 R U W I T P F P The required wall thickness for pipes. .000psig. where S = 15. E = Joint efficiency of seamless pipe R = inside radius of the pipe. Selecting pipe.5% tolerance in wall thickness shall be taken into consideration. has been computed with the following formula: PR ‘= SE– O.875. psig. The”minimum thickness of the pipe wall equals the nominal thickness times . in. P = internal pressure. With interpolation the required thickness can be determined with satisfactory accuracy. tabulated on the following pages. For the inside diameter of the pipe round figures are shown.t s vt or a h t m l c s o oh sm u m s o f asen tfor epipe. e eu e m tl ye r i a dl A 53 B and A 106 B @temperature –20 to 650°F.

0 0 .0 7 4 0 . 2 3 3 . 0 0 . 5 0 7 0 . 0 . 0 2 . 1 0 . 0 . 0 2 . 6 . 6 .0 7 1 0 . 8 0 0 0 4. 0 . 7 0 30 . 0 0 8 7 . 0 1 3 . 0 500 0 1 . 1 . 1 0 1 . 3 0 3 . 4 0 6 0 . 0 9 . 0 . 1 0 5 . 1 00 5 2 00 . 4 04 .0 3 0 . 1 2 9 . 2 0 0 2. 5 0 3 0. 0 0 6 0 0 4 6 0 0 7 0 0 0 . 7 4 08 . 6 2 1 . . 3 0 0 3. 2 004 . 0 4 1 0 .0 3 2 0 . 2 3 03 .0 0 1 0 . 1 . 4 5 0 . 3 09 . 00 0 . 003 2 . .s. 400 0 7 0. 8 0 . 3 08 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 3 01 . 0 . 7 . 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PRESSURE PSIG. 1 . 0 0 2. 0 0 . 0 0 . 4 5 0 4 0. 0 3 . 0 1 . 2 . 7 1 0 . 0 0 . 00 1 . 0 3 5 . 1 0 2 . 3 0 1 4 . 0 0 7 5 0 . 0 0 . 5 . 0 0 . 00 1 . 6 0 . 0 1 . 7 . 0 . 5 0 8 .0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 4. 2 . 3 0 0 4. 0 0 . 7 4 . . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 0 . 8 0 1 . 2 0 3 . 0 . 0 0 6 . 0 0 6 1 0 0 9. 5 10 . 9 2 6 . 0 2 . 1 0 2 . 6 . 1 0 . 6 0 . 0 . 1 0 . 9 . 7 1 0 . 0 0 . 1 000 . 0 0 . 0 7 . 0 1 6 . 5 1 0 .2 0 7 0 .0 0 4 0 . 1 o . 05 4 . 0 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 5 0. 2 . 6 2 0 2 7 . 8 3 . 5 0 0 1. 0 0 . 00 0 . 0 3 . 1 . 0 7 2 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 . 1 3 . 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 . 6 4 0. 0 0 . . 00 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 3 1 8 . 0 0 . 0 5 0 5 5 7 0 s 8 0 6 0 2 6 0 3 6 1 5 7 1 7 1 8 7 1 0 8 1 8 2 1 4 8 1 5 9 1 7 9 1 8 9 1 0 1 7 300 3 0 . 4 0 . 8 5 0 8 . 0 3 . 0 . 8 0 0 2. 7 0 0 1. 0 7 0 0 8 . 0 . 0 2. 0 . 0 . 1 9 3 . 0 0 0 . 0 3 . 00 1 . 6 . 0 . 0 2 1 2 0 . 0 . 2 002 . 0 . 8 1 0 1 . 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 450 0 0 8. 0 0 .0 7 2 0 .05 06 2 . 0 3 4 0 4 .0 0 3 0 . 0 4 . 0 0. 0 . 0 0 2 0. 7 50 0 0 . 0 . 9 0 1 . 4 9 1 0 . 0 4 8 0 70 8 0 9 0 40 9 70 0 00 40 1 70 1 00 2 40 2 70 3 00 3 40 7 4 0 0 5 0 350 5 0 00 . 07 2 . 3 0 . 2 0 4 . 8 ~ 0 3 0 . 2 0 3 4. 0 0 . 0 5 . 4 09 . 0 0 5. 7 1 4 . 0 3 . 3 00 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 5 0 0 7 3. 0 . 0 0 . 4 3 5 . 0 1 4 . 0 0 . 3 0 1. 0 0 . 6 0 9 .0 0 . 00 0 . 3 0. 0 . 0 150 0 . 5 2 0 1 . 0 . 100 . 250 2 0. 00 0 . 0 200 0 00 . 0 0 3. 4 1 0 . 0 2 . 9 3 . 7 1 0 . 3 0 2 . 3 . 9 5 0 . 9 .0 0 .149 REQUIRED PIPE WALL THICKNESS FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE 1. 4 0. 2 8 . 2 1 6 . 2 ( 1 2 . 0 0 3 1. 0 . 6 4 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 6 9 . 4 40 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 0 2. 0 1 3 . 5 0 6 0 . 0 . 1 0 0 2 7. 1 . 6 . 1 4 0 . 001 1 . 7 3 . 11AM. S 3 .

0 9 . 0 0 .062 2 5 9 9 8 7 7 6 5 5 4 3 4 3 7 2 0 1 3 1 6 0 9 2 9 6 8 9 7 2 7 5 6 8 5 1 5 4 7 3 0 3 4 2 7 1 0 1 3 0 0. 0 . 1 . 0 4 . 0 .187 5 1 6 . 2 6 4 4 7 5 . 0 1 . 0 . 60 2 . 3 8 . 0 .031 6 2 0 5. 0 5 . 3 6 2 . 5 0 5 2. 0 . 0 5 . 0 3 . 80 3 0 . 6 3. 007 5 . 409 5 . 0 . 0 . 0 1 . 0 5 2 . 5. 7 2. 8 7. 2 0 4. 1 50. 0 6 . 01 2 . 59 3 . 0 . 0 . 800 0 . 00. 1 2 5 . 0 5 . 1 2 3 4 5 PRESSURE PSIG. 7 6 3 . 303 4 . 0 2 . 1 10 . 3 1 . 0 . 00 . 806 5 . 0 6 4 . 5 7 0 6. 0 . C 7.156 9 1 3 .0. 0 4 7. 102 . 600 . 0 3 30 . 0 3 0 4 0 4 .249 6 2 . 90 0 6 1. 7 0. 0 4 7 . 0 . 0 .0 2 . 2 4. 6 40 . 0 9 0 5. 0 5 2 . D 3 . 0 40 . 0 4 .311~ 8 2 7 . 0 8 0 4 . 0 2 2. 0 7 9 0 . 901 . 3 0 8 5 . 00. 6 0 4 . 80 2 . 0 . 0 3 . 0 4 . 0 2 . 504 4 . 0. 9 3 . 9 3 5. 0 1 . 0 700 0 1 3 0 5 0 0 7 9 1 . . 60 . 0 650 0 . 1 40 3 40 . 4 4 9. 2 80. 0 8 2 . 0 2 1 . 0 2 0 4 . 9. 0 3 . . 6 850 0 0. .150 REQUIRED PIPEWALLTHICKNESS FORINTERNAL PRESSURE (cent) 1 IAM. 2 50. 0 2 1 0 6. 43 2 . 8 . 0 .729 1 6 4 7 7 0 7 3 8 6 8 9 8 2 1 9 5 0 2. 0 . . 0 0 1 3 . 0 . 0 0 2 . 4 5 . 0 4. 0 4 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 7 5. 2 00. 0 1 . 0 . 0 7 1 . 9 1 0 5. 40 . 0 . 5 6 3 . 17 3 . . 10. 64 2 . 8 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 9 8 . 0 1 50 S 4 40 . 550 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 600 ) .0 3 . 0 3 1 . 0 3 . 30. 8 5 . 0 . 06 3 . 0 . 7 3 0 5.124 3 1 1 2. 22 . 3 1. 6 5 . 2 0 2 . 3 0 4 .093 7 0 7. 0 6 1 . 0 5 4 . 10 . 0 4 0 . 0 . 38 . 700 4 . 8 6. 1 7 0 5. 0 5 . 0 3 5 . 0 3. 4 . 0 0 5 0 7 2 0 5 9 5 0 5 2 7 60 4 0 6 0 2 60 8 4 6 0 1 7 70 3 9 5 7 0 2 70 I 900 950 1 2 8 5 8 3 1 0 4 8 7 5 0 3 3 0 6 8 9 5 2 3 3 5 1 4 8 4 4 6 4 3 4 6 1 5 8 9 5 6 2 5 3 6 1 8 0. 5 1 . 0 3 . 8 s 3 . 8 3 . 0 8 .218 0 1 9 . 0 7 . 00 . 0 6 4 . 6 505 . 750 9 2 0 7 4 0 6 0 8 5 0 4 0 1 2 1 0 4 1 0 0 6 1 0 9 8 2 0 7 0 2 0 6 2 0 5 4 2 0 4 6 2 0 2 8 3 0 1 0 0 3 0 2 3 0 9 4 0 3 7 6 4 0 6 8 0 4 5 1 0 4. 1 .280I 2 2 4 . 6 6 7. 4 9 6.694 6 0. 7 6. 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 7 3 . 5 0 6. 8 90 . 8 7 4 1. 90 5. 0 8 0. 1. 3 . 4 0 . 0 6 8 . 208 5 . 0 . 6 1 .0 3 8 5 . 0 . 0 1 .

0 9 4 1 0 . 2 0 . 53 3 0 . 3 4 1 . 0 . 0 1 4 8 3 1 1. 3 8 6 . 0 . 6 4 8 0 8 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 6 . 7 2 7 0 .1 6 7 4.1 9 7 5 0 3. 1 5 7 1 9. 9 0 5 8. 2.1 8 2 1 . 1 90 .1 1 2 8 7 . 811 41 9.3! 2. 4 0 . 1 0 8 0 . 0 65 1 . 4 9 1. 8 0 3 . 0 . 9 5 0 1 0 . 6 0 . 0 . 3 2 2. 4 0 7 . 0 0 8 5. 3 0 2 4 3 6 . 2 0 . 9 1 . 1 . 9 8 . 51 0 . 1 1 7 .1 1400 .9 50 . 0 41 . 9 4 7.1 0 .0 9 4 3.5 9. 6 8 5 6 0 .0 2 7 0 6. 21 1500 0 0 4. 1 .5 0 5 7 5 . 3 0 9 2 4 .1 6 4 3 . 5 3 0 4 6. 6 7 0 4 . 5 61 1 . 0 . 5. 0 .1 3 2. 0 . 1 7 5 0. 7 0 0 4 2. 3 7 2 0 7 . 5 9 0 . 0 .1 2 0 5. 1 9 8 1 . 0 77 9 . 0 . 2 2 . 0 . 0 78 29 . 2 0 0 . 7 . 0 .0 6 5 0 4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 PRESSURE PSIG.4 0 6 8 . 4 31 4 1 . 0 . 91 .0 7 3 9 . 2 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 4 2 4 5. 3 1 4 . 1 8 1800 0 .1 6 4 . 3 0 . 0 10 . 6 0 4 4 1 . 4 2 .1 1 3 3. 1 6 1 8.1 3 7 . 1 . 4 21 .0 4 1 . 7 0 . 1 . 3 80 0 . 2 5 8.2 81 9.1 6 8 5 3 . 5 5 2. 20 4 6 .1 8 6 1 6 . 0 8 1.8 0 6 2 . 6 5 7 0 . 3 2 .4 01 51 0.) 1. 2 6 4 3 5 . 7 0 0 . 9 1 5.1 0 6 82 . 1 2 3 1. 0 1 6 2. 2 9 2 3. 8 4 6. . 3 1 6 5. 2 3 0 . 1 . 5 2 . 0 0 2.s. 91 . 4 1 8 0 5.1 9 8 .1 1 .7 0 7 3 .1 11 9. 9 1 9 3 .6 01 37 . 1100 1200 0 . 1 6 32.0 . 2 1 0 6 1 0. 30 7 1 90 8 8 8 5. 6 0 . 11 2 . . 9.4 9 . 4 0 . 7 0 I4. 1 0 1 8. 1600 0 4 . 4 1 3 4 . 8 4 2 . 2 . 1 . 0 . 1 9 8 7.1 6 2 . 2 5 6. 1 . 5 0 .0 6 8 3. 5 0 .6 0 2 4 . 2 5 8 0 . 1 6 1 . 3 0 .0 2 8 9 . 6 41 2 0. 2 6 0 . 4 1 0 2. 81 . 5 9 8 1 . 1 . 5 5 6. 3 4 0 . 6 8 4. 2 1 8 7 .1 3 1900 00 5 3 . 3 0 .1 4 2 8 . 0 9 4. 0. 00 6 7 60 . 6 0 . 0 2 0 .1 8 1 4 1 2. 0 . 1 8 40 2. 5 0 . 1 6 10 . 3 0 5 . 4 0 1 7. 0 1 0 0 . 81 1. 7 0 . 5 3 .0 2 9 51 . 0 . 0 0 . 11 1 1 2. 2 4 0 . 3 4 0 .0 5 4 0 9 . 0 . 91 4 8 51 . )IAM. 3 9 7 .0 7 4 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 00 70 . 1. 60 3 9 . 7 9 0 . 1 0 . 71 7 3 . 5 0 4 7 0 . 5 9 . 0 7 2 .0 2 9 4. 7 1 8 0.7 0 1 3 . 8 0 2 9 1 . 1 3 6. 6 7 8 6 8. 0 4 62 0 . 800 0 . 4 0 2 2 5 0 . 7 0 3. 6 0 0 . 9 1 0 6 1 1 9.1 8 5. 0 . 11 78 . 0 66 5 . 8 0 . 3 1 2 0 . 91 5 11 9.4 1 7 9 . 9 0 3 9 . 1 0 . 0 . 1 0 7 2 .9 0 1 8 6 . 1 6 2 3.0 3 5 .1 1 . 0 . 0 9 5 7 . 80 5 3 0 4. 2000 0 6.1 4 6 4 .0 4 3 6 3 . 0 1 2 . 1 8 9 4. 4 9.151 REQUIRED PIPEWALLTHICKNESS FOR INTERNALPRESSURE (cont. 6 4 0 .0 8 0 7. 4 7 01 1700 0 4 . 0 5 0. 0 7 6 . 2 3 6. 81 . 71 0 3. 1 0 9 1 4 . 3 1 3 6 6. 5 5 8. 3 1 3 1 8 3. 50 . 9 0 . 7 0 10 . 7. 91 . 7 4 .1 4 5 9 . 8 2. 5 8 9. 2 8 2 6. 1 1300 0 . 9 . 0 . 1 5 3 7. 0 8 4 5 . 4 0 3 4 . 8 2 8 . 4 1 2 7. 1 . 0 6 1 8 . 9 01 0 0 .1 1 9 1 6 . 2 9 0 . 3 6 . 7 0. 54 7 . 1 9 01 0 . 0 1 2 3. 7 9 4 1 3 9. 8 9. 5 1 9 8.

3 01 7. 1 5 6 5. 1 52 0 . 71 . 5 3 7 . 01 2 3. 1 1 4 1 1 . 2 1 0 8. 9 3 2 4 0 . 6 3 7 . 2 0 2 5. 2 5.) 1. 3 . 5 1 1 .8 3 2 2 . 2 7 9. 8 42 9 2 4 3. 09 .3 0 5 2 . 5 4 4. 1 02 5 8 02 6 .2 7 5 2 . 72 8 9 . 3 0 8 . 2 .1 2 0 . 4 6 2 2. 2 3 2 1. 610 0. 1 2 3 . 2 . 2 3 9 0. 3 0 5 0. ‘lM” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PRESSURE PSIG. 61 0 31 4.2 6 2 3 . 2 1 . 5 0 2 9. 1 1 . 0 2 0 1. 5 0.1 7 6 1 . 32 9 9. 3 1 6 4 . 215 216 . 5 4 2 6 .2 5 1 2 . 2 6 8 2 . 8 1 3 2 .152 4 REQUIRED PIPE WALL THICKNESS FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE (cont. 91 . 1 . 81 3 9. 4 2 7 5 . 7 4 8 . 611 8. 1 7 4 2 . 1 . 9. 1 . 1 2 . 1 4 1 7. 4 7 9. 3 1 5 2 . 1 . 42 0 7. 8 5 8 9 . 3 1 . 3 0 3 9. 61 6 4 1 7. 7 . 6 1 1 3. 11 . 6 83 8 . 0 . 6 8 1 . 22 . 1 8 1 1 2 . 21 1 6. 51 1 1 . 22 . 12 7 4. 12 . 7 1 .s. 51 9 2 . 1 2 3 7.2 4 3 2 . 1 2 3 2 . 21 . 2 .~ 9 . 6. 7 9 2 9. 41 . 6 1 .1 8 5 . 81 8 8 2 9. 1.1 7 4 8 . 7 3.5 1 2 1 . 22 8 1. 912 9. 9 3 5 7 . . 01 . 81 0 7 . 1 . 2 91 . 1 . 418 1 5.1 6 5 8 . 1 . 4 2 7 8 . 61 8 3 . 61 4 6. 2 3 4 2. 1 .2 7 1 3 . 2 1 5 6.1 2 1 . 9 1 6 . 2 .1 4 6 7 3 .3 8 9 2 . 02 2 3 2 0. 41 5 . 317 7. 21 . 9 3 2 1. 2 7 2 2 .2 9 1] . 0 2 7 . 1 2 2 . 6 9 7 . . 51 .2 8 0 4 . 4 1 2 0. 6 ] 2 3 . 9 2 0 0 4.1 3 9 . 9 2 5 .2 3 8 2 2 . 42 1 2 . 31 . 0 8 1 7 . 1 62 8 . 0 5 . 5 5 . 8 . 8 2 3 . 2 1 6 81 0. 6 51 8. 1 2 0 4 . 1 . 3 6 2 3. 2 6 . 61 ..8 9 2 1 . 8 4 2 1. 4 2 3 1. 2 0 4. 1 3 7 1 1 . 71 3 5 . 9 62 5 . 0 0. 2 . 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 . 6 2. 4 1 8. 1 . 5 93 7 1 1. 114 4. 1 . 1 8 0 . 1 . 83 4 93 . 3 3 92 4 . 5 1 2 6. 1 5 9 6. 2 1 7 7.2 0 9 5 . 61 . 4 1 0 5 .2 02 . 5 0 . 4 1 1 . 9 2.1 0 . 2 . 71 2 6 . 5 2 8 4 . 712 2 5 8. 6 5 2 2. 4 6 1. 4 5 2 .

tohl e o.The allowable nozzle loads are bounded by the area O of FRF. and A from Figures 1. and calculateFRRF. first evaluate ~and y.5 P = 150 psi S.~~c~and MM s as A4w. roSy A4RCM R~2 = x Mm =& S Y –0) Plot the value of FN a FWand the smaller of . FM= — (ST—O) R. The vesselsare not intendedto serveas anchorpoints for the piping.the pipingshall be adequatelysupported.500 psi rO= 15“ b= . for the specified~ and ~ substitute into the aquationsbelow. as the stress due to designpressure.7511 SY= 31.500 psi@ 460° Rm= 37.153 N E C F V M .To avoid excessiveloading in the vessel. 0= (q(R. A = 340 . 2 and 3. r{.35 From Figure2.875 ($) Determine CL~and A from Figures 1.070 From Figure 1.A41w. = 17. ———— — . fl=.2= 1. Y=+ CalculatePressure Stress (~. i p n n z y o c s a s s seh n t determine d e thenozzleloadsisbased inpartontheBulletin107of WeldingResearchCouncilandrepresents a simplificationof it. Then determine CL2. .2 and 3.875 (&)= . ~R\f EXAMPLE: Determine Resultant Force and Moment T= .— — .. a = 440 y= + = ~= 50 () From Figure3. . I 4 FRJW A R.then use S.-. P b t a d i j n oh o ie g l ixzs n e l igtet ev r r eT e mth s el below. * -—.) [f a is greaterthan S0.875(%)= . E x t F e or & M nr ao c l m e e s n t s T calculate the maximum forceoand moment.

= psi ~RcM= Rm2~o~y =37. s * e q i e n a u r cr e h FRFu= al nl a . N U a ob v t s oi e t l gl : u s a rte u ehe a p s h n = DesignPressure.850psic&=17. @ =(#2(3 1. Mershon — Welding Research Council. h y e a F’RF.500—14. T k n b 6 * T I uR z O N : l s l ez e l a f = i h e a r e rf oe zroa F =c2 t l 0 i a o n o e z.5)2 (15)= (31.500) = ~zo 984 in-lb 9 1. w 0 n on 0 a *l s l (o o . .500—14. e pounds* s k h is f a f R g R c t ei . G. T hh =D i m i ice k n n l e c s l sh .a o b l ie 0 a l ls b w p d lr b an o e z o a F. l e. u e r I u u e M n a WR e i s L u Mnl g t m at un d t mo u iM Dr u s ie g e n Pp r te ss s o r e s o . d x e i sF m u pl R o t o r a u nc n u m t o r a f M S a sph u e se r eli M e l .M ’ a x R e s m uMu l ti m a e n R i M o m n p s o u n d s * e n N i ou n lm e s bs e s r * e e a r r b Uv s s s a sl l u o ue t ee s = D i m e n N i o n lm e s bs s u = D i m e n N i o n lm e s bs s u REFERENCES: Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells due to External Loadings. t o s q i en u a c r r h eF = . e d e t e Mm.154 NOZZLE EXTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS IN CYLINDRICAL VESSELS (continued) . n0 b 0f 1 0 i l? w ..032.070 z (37. w da o b t l ie 0 0 b b u l B p . dx s m i n c h n p o t u n d. K.850—l.850) 53. Heat Exchange Institute. =c u z 5 t ll t . a aQ A ~T 7 a f l f l n o Mo as z. s m ui u l c tm m f n r t M i l a x C @r u a e i t or e e a naytD g e d te r M l n Ms o c r .214 lb. Bulletin 107/August 1965 — Revised Printing — December 1968. n e u c l FRRF h l Maximum s Resultant Radial Forc( o h n s = f e.52 (15) (31.850in the equationsfor calculatingFRRFnd MkM a ~alculateAllowableForces and Moments Fw= ~ (~y. Wichman. M-m= y (sy — ‘-= ~ IL S P ‘ R T S o s ~ Y a O =N =M = S T A o O R =Y S T e m = S p = S p Dt s Vt s h P f t v l o a oo a FRFa t t u s e m o n af h l r e k f ~.i a e oJ 0bn f 0ns 4 0 2 i l . in. Hopper and J.o 1 n & L d w W l h b a b o b u r a n o d r 0.500 ‘=%m-3= 75( ~ . Standardsfor ClosedFeedwaterHeaters. R.97~ in-lb.poundsper sq. 1969. . m n c hh n.p t o u n d s * e m ie p p r ao t su u r q n e d n a e p i . L.2) Jse o= 24. 0 b on 0= u0 ( o lA. Z = DimensionlessNumbers r t za i s o n ie d c A e =s D i . e e n N i ou n lme s bs d i l u h s s m e e a S d ia i .alculatePressureStress 2(150)375 ~ = 14. A. Inc.

I :-+-!r i !{I --+--L - l-l++ +--l-%-l-~ -: . t 10 . ----: : 4-%-4 4 : ~•••ì´„• i ! . f. . . I t .-. .. i::: i I 1 !. .!”” i! !:”m!!!- 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 .1 : I II I .’ ..155 NOZZLE LOADS Fig. . 1 . I. I I : i I ~i i ~ I. I I I I I I I I I 1 t I I ! I I [ ! . - . 1 I! !. . ! — I 1 1. ? I . 1 1OJ 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 . . I I I [ WI . !. 6 5 4 3 2 a 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 .. . .. I [ I ..: I \. I .: I t I 1 1 I 1 1 i I I 1 1 I I I I I 1I I I I I I [’1 I I I I 1I I I I I ( . . 1 . . 1[ I I r . .I ]02 .

1 5 6 NOZZLE LOADS Fig 2 ! .

1 1.5 . Fig.15 .35 .1 . 3 1OJ 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 6 5 4 3 2 A lo] 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ]02 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 0 .4 .2 .3 .11 NOZZLE LOADS.25 .45 .05 .

.

A= anglefi-omtable or B.in.VALUESOF A FOR JUNCTIONS AT THE LARGE END P/S. fi= axialload at largeend due to wind. C and D) due to bending and shear.010 0.etc.. A ~ = factor:SS orSCEC E.009* 28.“. Determine factor y.in. psi. deg. deadload. Q.VALUES OF A FOR JUNCTIONS AT THE LARGE END 0. EI 0. deg. y = s~~~ For reinforcing ring on cone.coneorreint20rcing ringmaterialrespectively.100 0.005 0. E.EI and read the value of~ from tables A and B“ 2. y/S’~E~ TABLE A .002 0. EI 30 17. lbfin. (Use minimum 1.004 0.5 30 15 18 21 23 25 27 A.excluding pressure. R=inside radiusof smallcylinderat small endof cone. t.005 0..008 0. DESIGN PROCEDURE (The half apex angle cz<30 deg.001 0. t= minimum required thickness of cylin- der at thejunction.125* P/S.5 12. For compression E=l. 11 TABLE B .etc.= algebraicsumof PIL/2 andfi lb/in.5 24 27 4 6 9 A..in.c or r modulusof elasticity ofshell.deg. Design size and location of reinforcing ring (see next page). Determine P/S. . in. NOTATION E = with subscriptss. deg.040 0. deadload. R~=insideradiusof largecylinderat large endof cone. S= withsubscriptss. orrallowable stress c of shell. P= Designpressure.) 1. e r u r W 3 D t v f o Ai l t c r s b p e e =y/S.0 for k in formula).= actualthickness ofconeatthejunction.cone or reinforcingmaterial.O for butt welds. Seechartsbeginningonpage43 for modulusof elasticity. lblin. U= halfapexangleof coneor conicalsection. E= with subscriptslor 2 efllciencyof weldedjoints in shellor cone respectively. t.in.003 0. o aa t e f * A = 3 d f g e r v e o gP/S~EI0 l . j= axialloadat smallenddueto wind. 4.006 0. psi.psi Q~=algebraic s~ofPR~/2 andfi 1b/in.= actualthickness ofcylinderatthejunction. discontinuity stresses are induced which are with reinforcement to be compensated.= requiredthicknessof cone at thejunction.excluding pressure. For reinforcing ring on shell.080 0. t. 1 R T U J I C P C A the junction of cone or conical section to cylinder (Fig.in.020 0.007 0.002 0.

+ m+ (tC/t. in. kQLRL 1 . 30” FIG. . in. ~ r~ . c c g er l nd a l n e can tt R v e ls y i a w U ( ( s g “ ap h r h bo2o : o i e ) a f v t r o t u C h S o e he dD It i e l fi eI io s. in. K The distance from the junction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall be situated.25 X & N O W T t t h ehj u n c Si o n c:o m pl r en s iovref i eax c e e d t h est e n s ~do nea l t ba r y d a E t e s o d l i o e m 2o P r e s p e. Required area of reinforcement. ) W t r h e m hu o c o em r c ts oo w o cirf o t c air a aof l enn r sei k n en l h d o e a nf e u d s n e t d i fe w p g tt u a w t h ha n a a h ani g d g nt e l3 df a x d . C Area of excess metal for reinforcement. in. gp a e b n aece ep l r e et e h t a s b e s s 0 s n e ( 1 C( ( o . A.—t~ {h. when tension governs (see notes) . A sq. D The distancefromthejunction withinwhichthe centroidof the reinforcementshallbe situated.. = (t. em g r h a . A.E1 () Area of excess metal available for reinforcement A. I i l V ce s v . in.L S.t c d t i/ s erb 2hi h a .. whentension governs(see notes) kQsR.25 X~ JUNCTION AT THE SMALL END Requiredarea of reinforcementA sq. 0. /zj cos (a—A) (t.L = (t.160 T J R C C FORMULAS M JUNCTION AT THE LARGE END x . A la tan a ‘. sq. in.x. sq. in.d~ g e ) 5 & . in.) x (a—A) {Rst.EI () a tan a E!l FIG.—t) G+ (t. = — S. 0.n oi a y . G P M./ cos CZ The distance from the junction within which the additionalreinforcementshallbe situated. n o ” n . / cos a The distance from the junction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall be situated..

.4375= 1.300x 100 1.4375 = 6.0.800 X 1 () The are: o’fexcess in shell available for reinforcement: AeL= (ts.69-0. actualthicknessof cone.95 Use k = 1 =5 + 800= 3.thicknessfor large cylinder = 0. Location of compression ring: Maximum distance from the junction = ~= ~100 x 0.. P/SsEI = 13.132 = 4.. half apex angle of cone.49 in.69 sq in. ~ ArL= SE ( 13.joint efficiencyin shell and cone = 0. allowablestressof ring material = 0.132 sq. in. = 0.0036 f t 50 . allowablestressof cone material = 14.ECE.65 in.19.4375 in.joint efficiencyin reinforcingring = 800 lb/in.60 in.AeL= 4.~ ~+ (tc..300 lb/in.L .161 R T J E C C DESIGN DATA: = 30 deg...55 in.tr) @t~ /COS~ = (0.500x30x 106= 0. actualthicknessof smallcylinder dL t..55/1 = 4.55.800psi.= 1 o t s 106 3 0 X 1.0. a .. insideradius of smallcylinder = 13.25 {100 x 0.4375 . requiredmin. required thickness of cone at small cylinder = 0. the required cross sectional area of compression ring Using 1 in.500psi.25 ~~ = 0.=30x 1 m o e p = 1.500 in.429 in.800 x30x 106/ 14. thicknessfor smallcylinder = 0. internaldesignpressure = 100 in.800psi. Maximum distance of centroid from the junction= 0.L = 0. the width of ring: 4...429)X ~100 X 0. axial load at smallend = 50 psi. The required cross-sectional area of compression ring: kQLRL~ .5/cos 30° = 0.0.. thick bar.. .55 in.800 X 1 A A= 1 e e S Ai l t ~ r r i r ! U r ~ SsE.4375 + (0.. Factor k=y/SrE~= 13.375 in.8 tan 30°= 4. axial load at largeend = 952 lb/in. QL=PRL12fI . allowablestressof shell material = 13. requiredthicknessof cone at large cylinder Jsing the same material for shell and cone.+ t a = 1 X 3. A. = 0.. actualthicknessof large cylinder = 0. l X j.41 in. 1.360 in. insideradius of largecylinder = 84 in. requiredmin.49) x{1OO X 0.5 .

5 in. .395/0.) /cos x cos (a – A) (tc.94-0.t.. E. QS=PR. .4375 = 1.5 = 5. Factork=l 4.0375 (0.94 sq.5/0.162 R T J E JUNCTION AT SMALL CYLINDER 1. in.41) cos (30-5) x (0.. Location of the compression ring: Maximum distance from the junction: a = 484 x 0.375 .reinforcementis required. = (t. . / t.25 fi= 484 x 0. Using lfi thick bar.375 = 5.0036.17 sq.17/ 1.0521b”/in” 5. A. in. To eliminate the necessity of additional reinforcement by using thicker plate for the cylinders at the junction in some cases maybe more advantageous than the application of compression rings. l = 0. = kQsRS ~-~ tan ~= 1 ~~>~~~ 184l~o tan 300= 8. /2+~lb. Maximum distance of centroid from the junction: 0.5-0.6 in. the required width of the bar: 8.77 sq.) C (continuea) C –A) (t. in.) * StC a (30-5) X (0. S. = 8.E. the required cross sectional area of compression ring. PAS.77 = 8.41) x ~84 x 0. Factor~= S.5/cos 30°= 0.0. () u () ? The area of excess in shell available for reinforcement: A.800x30x10s 3. Since the-moment of intertia of the ring is not factor. Therequired cross-sectionalarea of compressionring: ~ ~r.A.45 in. the use of flat bar rolled easy-way is more economical than the use of structural shapes..36) X COS + (0. 2./in =50~84+ 952= 3. fromtable B A = 5° E SinceA is less than et. Insulation ring may be utilized as compression ring provided it is continuous and the ends of it are joined together.=13.36)X 484X .~ %+ (LI t..

04 0.be changed.010 0.= PM+ J tan a M = -RL tan a + L[ + R{?-R.1 R T D. obtained from table E. $3:: pa~~ 46 for construction of stiffening ring) 3 FIDI.25 0. ATI.VALUES OF A P/SE o 0.125 0.. t-l J U C E P C L.2A 1[. TABLE E . Select the type of stiffening ring and determine the available moment of inertia (see page 87) of the ring only 1. Is = ~400 For the ring-shell-cone section: ADI. 2. or the shell-cone or the ring-shellcone section 1’.30 0. Determine P/SE. 37 6 a a t f E CX= d f g e r v e oog P l 0 . and read the value of A from table E. or at the junction o t l section to cylinder when cone.? line for the design temperature.35 57 60 40 47 52 A. .ZA 71. + A. in.) where 2 2 3RI. or conical section doesn’t have knuckles and the value of A. F The required moment of inertia and cross-sectional area of reinforcing (stiffening) ring — when the half apex ‘ angle a is equal to or less than 60 degrees — shall be determined by the following formulas and procedure. 1. is less than ct. deg . the value of A=2WE..002 0. For values of 1?falling below the left end of the material/temperature F[. the axial compression stress reduced. Determine the equivalent area of cylinder.10 15 21 29 33 A. u/e r re S s N I n t e rt m ob e ma t f i: ia an t e rvom y a d le a ur e e o p l o n d e e i t I T FIG. moving to the left to the material/temperature line and from the intersecting point moving vertically to the bottom of the chart.L w I I 3 Reinforcement shall be provided at the junction of cone e o c to cylinder. A~lJ= ~ + . From the applicable chart (pages 43 thru 47) read the value of A entering at the value of B.08 0.tan a 3.deg.005 0. sq. If the value of B is falling above the material/temperature line for the design temperature: the cone or cylinder configuration shall.20 0. o 5 7 10 P/SE 0.15 0. d r !$! .Y = 10. I’. 4. Compute the value of the required moment of inertia For the stiffening ring only: AD[. and/or the stiffening ring relocated. cone and stiffening ring.9 5. Calculate factor B B = ~ (~ .02 0.

+ t. A. The required moment of inertia and cross-sectional area of reinforcing (stiffening) ring shall be determined by the following formulas and procedure. G . ~+A. L. L.t.: A. 0. ) FIG. respectively.cone and stiffening ring.~. (t.. . An= ~+ Calculate factor 1? B . in. /COS @ The distance from the junction within which the additional reinforcement shall be situated.~ L~ LL ~ = =I Reinforcing shall be provided at the iunction of small end of conical section without flare to cylinder. . t L I R1 A “ I 2. Am L. or 1[.55 ~D~t.164 T J R C (continue~ C If 1 or 1’ is less than I.~ = 0. ( :~’ where Fs = PN +jjtan a RL2. (when compression governs): A. in. Division 1. 6. tan a Let. select stiffening ring with larger moment of inertia. in.~ = @fi.“) Area of excess metal available for reinforcement: A. in. Determine the required cross-sectional area of reinforcement.an~ [. the design shall be in accordance with U-2 (g) (“as safe as those provided by the Code Section VIII.~ sq. 1.25 ~ R.sq.@&):] NOTE: Whenatthejunctionthe compressiveloads determined byPR~2 orPRJ2 are exceeded by~l or~J tensional loads respectively. Determine theequivalentareaofcylinder. a The distance from the junction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall be situated.R~2 N=~ + Z+ 6R.

Compute the value of the required moment of inertia: For the ring-shell-cone section: ~. and/or the stiffening ring relocated. = AD.s = 0.(Code1-8(d)and(e).0 10.selectstiffeningringwith largermomentofinertia.) NOTATION A.. a ev = area of excess m reinforcement.. in. the axial compression stress reduced.a a = b ol l e r .55 % [(t. in. end of conical section. I! Iflorl’ is Iessthanl. in. 025 G NOTE:Whenthereducers madeoutoftwoormoreconicalsections ofdifferent pexangles a withoutknuckle.G The distance from thejunction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall be situated. Determine the required cross-sectional area ofreinforcement. i A. in. sq. land of the ring-shell-cone section.’ = requiredareaofretiorcementwhen D~ = outside diameter of cone or large QLis sq. in.= 1:. sq.2ATS 5. QLis in compression. 6. A. af t i cross-sectional area of the stiffenlA. sq. in..sq. B = factor At. in.. cone and stiffening ring.thedesignmaybe a basedon specialanalysis. ndwhenthehalfapexangleisgreaterthan60degrees. For the st~~e~~~ ring only: ~. e 4.orli respectively.9 Selectthe type ofstiffeningring anddeterminethe available moment of inertia (see page 89) of the ring only. F J C (continued) C t a c ( t r e a p v o B m t t l t t m l a f at i p m v t t b o t nc F v o t l e f n l f t d d t t v o =2 e of B is falling above the materialhemperature line for the design I t v temperature: the cone or cylinder configuration shall be changed. ing ring. in. A. in: A~s= kQSR~tan~ SE metal available for reinforcement Ac.165 R T 3.L = requiredareaofreinforcementwhen AT = equivalent area of cylinder.-~ + (tc-tr)/cos ix] n . The distance from thejunction within which the additional reinforcement shall be situated. sq. sq.

. in. in4 — availablemomentofinertia ofcom- bined ring-shell cross-section. c m i n g i. s sR s. — outside diameter at small end of conical section.E = 1 for butt welds in compression.. h a r lo o usi wt o o n r c g i e r l o i a o d i bs e s at t nw r f c ef e i e n nin n g g t i r e s a c h t i o cus k w h ei l s e t an t t. etc. in. allowable working stress. psi. . lowest efllciency of the 1ongitudi- shell. allowable stress of reinforcing material.0. minimumrequired thicknessofcyl- axial load at large end due to wind etc. . outside radius of small cylinder. e h f . L. . of cone material.66 T J R C (continued) C shelljunctionandone-thirdthedepth ofhead o theotherendofthelarge D. required moment of inertia of the stiffeningring. in. outsidediameterofcylindricalshell.s n c e el l rd c oo n e s r b h s t. unstlflenedvessel section: diso r tance betweenthe cone-to-small- shelljunctionandnethirdthe o depth ofheadontheotherend of the small shell. from table E..head or cone. lb. . d n l g ee l f in~or stifle-nedvessel section: the — A valueto indicateneed for reinforcedistancebetween the cone-to-large ment. outside radius of large cylinder. deg. psi. reinforcementor shell material respectively.psi. f naljoint inthe shell. The value of~2 shall be taken as positivein all calculations. but .. k A — S&L5’RER not less than 1./in. Q~ I T = available moment of inertia of the RL R. design lengthofavessel section./in.t IS I. i w n i da t l he o f r u a l o w m q u o oi i m n o et ed n r r e t t c i of ar i o s i o n n . D.’ . P external design pressure. E — .= ~ +fz 2 axialcompressiveforce duetopressure and axial load. forstl~enedvesse[section: distance between the cone-to-small-shell junction and an adjacent stiffening ring on the small shell.The value offi shall be taken as positivein all calculations. Ib. fi — axial load at smallend due to wind. pd e LL .. shelljunction and an adjacent stiffening ring on the large shell. psi. in. a l l f o c wo a rn o c s e i o r i o ex g el so a vn e i e g e s t c as h s g n t i h f oa l na a . m i r n q u i r m d t uh i c f n e e i e o mk I e n g t a h os fl cu o o f e f cn a o w n e c t o . psi. r ors modulus of elasticityof cone. c o r a r l o oi w a n c n e l s i o n a l x e c in i o a o g nt l n t. . Thewidthoftheshell whichistaken as contributing to the moment of inertia of the combined section: 1. in4. in4. PRL PRs — +fi Q. in. t stiffeningring. allowable stress of shell material. e o e = r L L. for umtl@enedvessel section: the distancebetweenthecone-to-large- .IO~D. o c i o n n e f . a c h t i o cuc k w t an oi l s t e s ic t n i o n4 . E — with subscriptsc.

minimum required thickness of small cylinder. = 0. = 0. o Ds = 48 ~ = C T d o l c E.5774+ ~0+ 482–242 ~. minimum required thickness of cone. design length of small vessel section.5774 = 1061 . P/SE= 15/13. E m a r m a c fl o e p o s = 100 lb.9 2 +3RLtana=— 2 2 3 x48X 0. actual thickness of cone./in.1875 in.25 in. = 0 i a t o c JUNCTION AT THE LARGE END 1. outside radius oflarge cylinder LL R = 24./in. design length of large vessel section.0016.800= 0... maximum allowableworking stress of shell and cone material.5774 = FL=Pk?+fi tan a = 15 x 66.25 t t = 0.2+LJd%A.167 R T t.— RL tan a + — ~ =66. from table E A = 4 since A is less than U. J E C DESIGN DATA DL = 96 in. t. axial load due to wind. 2.00 in. Assuming As=O. A~~ h/. external design pressure F = 48.25 in. = 244 in.. axial load due to wind A = 30 lb. SR = 12. ~ = 15psi. t. = = 120X0.125+ O=21 in2. Ec. = 0.us ofsmall cylinder “ Designtemperature=6500F SS = 13. maximum allowable working stress of reinforcement material. LL = 120 in... Lc = 48 in. -&2 LL RL2 48X 0.800 psi. t. outside rad.9+ 100’x 0. L. reinforcement is required.700 psi.125 +48 X0.00 in..

32 ‘L= 10.46 in. = 0. T r c a o r X X r S. The reinforcing shall be situated within a distance from the junction: m.25/2 + O= 36.1 ~96 x . = 448x 0.168 T ~ = :(~L) TL J R CONE TO CYLINDER EXAMPLE (continue~ = 0.It is larger than the area required.800 X k= ~12. The conical section having no flare.09 X 460X48X 0. =7 ~ 7 x 4 = 149. 6. A. a “+ + 4 5 : ( X .75 x 1061 X96/21 = 3636 3. and the effective width of the shell: 1. The stiffening is satisfactory. The available moment of inertia: 5.025 = 5. ATS= LJJ2 + L~tJ2 + A..n ~ ~ ~ + +2 . A = 0.800 X 0.412 in? The cross-sectional area of the stiffening ring is 2.0003 from chart page 43 4. Using two 2% x $4flat bars as shown.25= 3.7 in.5774 ~-025( 13.9 5.E. (see page 96) It is larger than the required moment of inertia.9 = 10.365 in.L = I SE s 106= ~ 09 0 3 106 3 “ 0 100 ’460 L = 1. 2.25/2 + 48 x 0.25 ~ JUNCTION AT THE SMALL END 1. The centroid of the ring shall be within a distance from the junction: 0.= 244 x 0.= O.5 i ~ = R 8 t + ....10 x ~= 1.25 = 0..= L.86 in.7 15 x48 -460 4 460 )33]= 1.00035 x 962x 21 = 5. ~ .. = 13.. 4 4 2: + j .tl2 + L&J 2 + A.25~48 x 0. reinforcement shall be provided.389 in.5 in2.700 X ~L= ~ ‘fi ’15 j48+ kQ~RLtan a A. Required moment ofinertiaofthe combined ring-shell-cone cross section: ADLATL 0.. Asuming A.

1448 x 0.2.25 ~R.~. The required area of reinforcing: k = 1. a The reinforcing shall be situated within a distance from the junction: G.00014X 482X 36.153 = 0.4 (see page 96) It is larger than the required moment of inertia.2 T of ring used for stiffening 1. =Q..25 in.09X 210X24X 0 13.169 R T F. = 10.9 10.= PN +fJ t I J a E =1 C (continue~ C X 149.0.()()()14 4.1875)= 0.=d24 x 0.25 = 2. and the effective shell width: 1.5 = ~ 08 in ~ 1’.328-0. the stiffening is satisfactory. Required moment ofinertiaofthe combined ring-shell-cone cross section: AD... 6.t.9 5.= 0.7 in z3 T T 2 4 8 Area of excess metal available for reinforcement: A../in. Using 2% x % flat bar.DS = 3/4~22.25) + d24 x 0. z n s b l . Since value of B falls below the left end of material/temperature line: A= 2 B/E = 2 X 2232/30X 106= (). =~~a == (tc . .?An = 0.= ~ +j= 15 z X24 + 30 = 21O lb.44 i n .25 . tan a = 1.)+ ~.67 in. It is Iargerthan the required area for reinforcement. (0.. (t.. :48) = 2232 B ‘? x 3.0.-A.81 in.25 . i .5774= 2263 3 F$.800X 0.25 (0.153 i Ar.09 A.t. and the centroid of the ring shall be within a distance from the junction: 0.25 = 3.7+30X 0. ~ 05 kQ.25424 x o = O ... The available moment of inertia 1. = 0. -Z) .175 in. .

The aspect of economy 1. Using backing strip it must remain in place. The requirements of the Code 3. (Except as required by UW-ll(a)(5) This rule of the 1989 edition of the Code eliminates the concept of collective qualification of butt joints. The circumstances of welding 2. is always more ec~ nornical than the use of J or U preparation. D eo W s eJ i lg o dn i e nf d t s ( o J t b u f v d i i v s s a u c tain design conditions. Regarding the type of joint the Code establishes requirements based on service. the requirement of stress reduction.24 inches) from the inside. The Code-regulations are tabulated on the followin~ DaEesunder the titles: -. The welding processes that may be used in the construction of vesselsare also restricted by the Code as described in paragraphUW-27. no manual welding can be applied. E x a m io nW a t e iJ o l n o e nf d t The efficiency of joints depends only on the type of joint and on the degree of examination and does not depend on the degree of examination of any other joint. 2.) UW-2. In many cases the accessibility of the joint determines the type of welding. In a small diameter vessel (under 18 . 3. their efficiency and limitations of their o i n t s applications. THE CIRCUMSTANCESOF WELDING. a. then the aspect of economy must be the deciding factor. the last (closing) joint can be welded from outside only. In a . The type of welding may be determined also by the equipment of the manufacturer. Some considerations concerning the economy of weldings: V-edge preparation. particular case the choice of a type from the numerous alternatives depend on: 1. [ . If the two preceding factors allow free choice. UW-3 c. CODE REQUIREMENTS. material and location of the welding. THE ECONOMY OF WELDING. In larger diameter vessels if a manway is not used.) Table UW-12 b.170 O P WELDING V R There are several methods to make welded joints. Types o W eJ l o d i e nf d t s ( J permitted by the Code. which can be made by torch cutting.

weldingequipment. etc. Whether using stronger welding and thinner plate or the opposite is more economical.171 Double V V a Lower quality weldingmakes necessarythe use of thicker plate for the vessel.depends on the size of vessel. This must be decidedin eachparticularcase. .

n . 3 S i n g l b . pN ~ o ia E mo x i a n m h e r w an s B as s b rh c o m t i w m oe e tl o h u i t n 1. D f o u l ij b l e .00 i s d e s ue r f la c ci u t k i rs n ig e a am ol v t l e f op w l e e i o l n t a e d e e e d l 0 dd e .j w e uo d e di t e l w i u o b h a o s u k t i t c s t r i n t e f g n p t 0 . p fd d e r d f . 8 c j S i n g l b . E - TYPES CODEUW-12 F R g a r b us E d x a p c . S i f p u n l l .0 8.f u l o la i e l l nt — p t 5 S w i n fg l ie . i ~ a d g n — p t s .j w e uo d e di t e l n t t w b a is c tk t i r nh ig 0 p w r h e i m i ac i h n s n p a lw f e a lt c d e i e nr g . gj i w l e ~l o l lu $e .172 T W J JOINTEFFICIENCY.lf u ll l e t l j o a i n p t p w i l e t lu hd g s .

o w D w a ej lo d i h pe n f i d t e r c s th s e bi t t C ee m t i t a oh g d d r y ne ae w y s e p . a g ri t o c oi r va e e t c n r h e J C o t e i g o n r y t: C m a e n d e d . k n t y C o t r e i n f h o s r c n hm ee n a t e f e x f c o l et lh e c wk i e e s g t d n n o i F T 5 Y O P R E ( Circumferential ajoints f a t ) t o a P c t l h r i i. B ( F a t t ba oc h h m a o h e e ) p r o e e s s i s t ui r nh d [ s h e o 2 i i v d n i an n m re ea s o i 1 r e t q h 1u i icf r w iie 4 w k n o o uo h t f s o i e l ad n n a J C oa tA ie g n o . lr od c i e s s g e s . 3 e / r 1 1 s v o J a o t h ea m ci sh tp ih ee r g c a a l o ti n h t sn i d s a h e xe c l l r u l d s e de . e h l t d e . a r : e i n f o rT c e mh e n st h . F T 4 Y O ( L o n gj i a t nou o d 3 i an i n ) v t h i c J C oa tA k ie ( C i r c u mj f e nr e n 5 i ) b o o t a i i t h c J in C oa tBk ie .c toy o . B n vt a r di e ne rl6 oJ e d 4t v o n. et r a t i o n . n el s h p r h w n 8 n e e i d . g 1 n 3 r . a n rp u e e r o l t 1 e nr s t a r v 8d a Tgl an l e t e s ys d u . e e ir e l e t ls d s n l gd y e f r.a c k at n rxe n e iie sm i u h M s ment of heads n o 2 i ov o u te n s u i r 4 i .D I A WELD TYPES C oa tA Bie L I M I T A T I O N S P PV L A Y R I IN N O G U O g . t k n sd e I t: E t ah a s t hi t r . st t y j h o e f iby arc or gas e s un o n t madeh se h l i t e d l n e l weldingprocesses. l vto y . i s s h g n o r t ty w : e l d .n o N : . n o r oe nn t i o a l n o n i n2 i i o v c u8 n o t e r . n o r. t r i t ls r e P R E n : d o r v c a u at sl b . lv o t / e s iwt rm 8 l m e e b dl u ua a d i n t i c g. 4 e n 3 B j us o b h ft n f a .n gi p l u ge i r c o n mn euego o ilttn m t o p d u go s s m f c r u e a l w t t e e o t pd lhi n l l gh a o e o t fp e s e n s e ta t s fr a u t F i ss o n d e e e n i ou o n t 1 t h . 3 d i t a s m h o e 1 eti t e l o rh l / eo s o ct ‘ r t k2 i . S FOR TYPE N 1: J F J r Ct y T 2 NY O O P RN E 1 C oa tA ie . n v in 1 v ne 1 c r Y lz o / . lo ys hw p b n e . l e oo s f iE i c I fi b n j . t y : f ns g f e n u .ag c oo o mv eer sl e h r p f l e b t . r s 5 e o e l o f o r w m e eu o lhe a d n e e dis s l . n E T j s te a tpi re s: oh t h e a t d p. t C: o y E bx w cw uo e ep ip t l lft n t fat d o — f c i r c u mjo f e oo e n itn i ra n l r l t F T J C oa C i r c u mjf e 5 i t a n 1 h o d i a m e 3 Y O tA ie g. i t= c e o dm tp r r e s s i o n . .173 T W J NOTES E . P R2 r t B y :. . t e r o r m m pu li s so t t i p c f a e d . J o n t B i w e t l s d es i o h n i o g c owr eu eb bl j ltd u o ee t d i n ( C i r c u m f e r e n [t i )a l n o h a d s b j o f l m t h i sf l d a t t t a s c ohh m a e on l t k l v eo s t i fe s p o u tr r f i s i w e s r e j n c e o t b h r e n e a bm c l o g h l e e v is s 5 i i n o t / m i i c t n kh a. d f : . F T 6 ( F t a t ta oa h h o c t p r t es s nh s o r e t q h ui o ci wr k f w i o i l e on s l A JointCategory: Y O P R E m a x l i l m o .t i d 1a i m a 1 hm e 2 o t n e ts h em r e wf r e e g l rhde o i dpn pgc i e a c i h f t p o l ol h u e g r e . e n t t d 3 c p l/ o . ue o a b h a j w m c e m o) e r ane t 5d T fe s h n v x e f f i c i e i i t c it v e s a e g n h b u i r v o l / e sn a tt br u 8 i . h e g e b Co b i u t n t b-e s w d e a uy d b s h l .

i o w r je p h i cd g a o l i e n d t s m i n a t i o n o s t n d a t o r y ‘ W ( b 1 ) 2p e t y 1p P C o e U C S e . Uw-11 s e o c h t ei o a n sd r s U 1 2 W ( d ) r Joints Band C butt welds in C a Ata e b g B o nr u y t d t e n c w i ve s e l e s c dc t s i s e no n ln s s e a h s e b o hT a n a dy d l s p l1 e f ee in wall thickness do not require UHT-57 (1) or T ( y 2p e ) 2 F r a d e x a i n m a U l y u T ( ol Ty ( .e c n y a 0 o 0 . s o T t j o u hi n enc d ro t et se sd a p i r r i ee c o n t f ja o e m s i ni ed t a r t s e e t d i t c d o i b g n el n t T s h p r e e q uc si rw e e aa eh bl t sio .ak l n r e i h ic ee d w o .a s i m n d t e o sn d ai i t t gir o bn u s e .l b w o i ve e s e l ed s c nd tt s i s e o n ln s b o ja s i n a h d d s e f f 1 i c i e n. . e 8 8 5 r i f p t P yC1 p t U . 7 4 D W J WELDED JOINT LOCATIONS qin u o i ari e aw e l n h t s l i y c n m p p t a e ay rI s . b l 1p s u 2pe p ) t r T (o T t ( y e ) 0 0 .1 -. m e yn e e l cs e t ss se 0 l 0 . C 8 2 po e e S 8 5 . a B to C e r 9g A c lb ( ( s o u r l y t T r Tt y ( d S w s ( eeni i b e c n d o uu d p i t n t g o e g n l l s 1.9 c o n d t i ti n o oon o z ih s zs l ee n s r l bi sec o m l m e c n h d c aaw tmi nb g e r s ) t o i u w f h w u i eh tlt e n r slc e hc h t s n i e r a d i o c g ar A tw p e h vy a i g e oe l r s y d s se n l i n s e o c h t o eis o N n a sd o r s r m a n) d c a to s o nr v a . a l t c h e a b n r l D C O E N S D P W O E N E A JI T N T GO N I Y R A D PI O G RE J P H OI C I H E E N C Y A M N A G R I AT C O NT N E E X O D I YN AF TF I IO C T I R E A T I l u c a i A ta gD e gn F o snu r l y e t dl t 1 T d ie A hs . r ce s m hav tt e e dc ri aen .0 0.

n 2 p (t2 na e p 3) a ( p b ) (s c ) n e ) d r s e U t W n. .t ls o p l e e . 5e T ( y 5p ) a t o r y . )u l l ~ N ( p o 1 J W( ( 2 ( 1 aa ) ) ) o Ba i Cs n h n t b a s l d l e / ef sa s b ec s r soN e y l n . cal g sn o y a. dn i N aAt b w o e l l el e t d y l p u s . eo s s ) b te le( o d w 2 U 0 W( ” .4a I ) ) g t n o n : A s b t r o ao e 0e 2 9 . e p l gn i w T y u t )p r .p C 0 5eS ) r y ( 4 o s t 0 . rNn ay.4a 1 ) ) r U F u r a d i o e x a m i n m a n d T v ie d e fs e x t p r oe Uw-1 l J Ao s b iT h Nn ay t ls p l e e o ( ( e f a x u c t eoe p ) i t f i T c ( Type 1 s n r y ( c h n r os i m c i i uk n m le e l s s t a s t e e l ) . j i os i h n e t s lV nef l s a 1 ) c a a h s e nh a 1 a d d l s o . n g e r ( c r c t u a b e s o e x r d x r J oo c ai C tf n e m e o s o c fh y a n g e r s g t r J t ie a ) ) d e s t f a b l r j h i c o a a W( d . F e . . h u h s ge n o n g h a ea d n n h d s l l x e t n h io t c i k }r f e rh s u s a l f de l t n e iey 1 v oe n sw o s z }e z g e lr l ra e p cl h e a l t x e dp t U W( ( 2 d 1: a x )) h ) .1p r n o e t e 1e e o e2 v U y .e 2 s ( 1 b t ( a ) ) ) h b p a o U W 2 ( a ) v h t e re ]intsB andC butt J Ds o bi f h n aiut b w l s l e l l e l td u l el t W d J 2 n p e n w t r ea t Dl oi s id e i n o c h ns et ls n l e x tt e h t r d i . V ( o e .s l l r u a l d l ie e de .) D C O E N S D P W N O ET O JI TO N T E G N IY R A DP I O G R J A P H I C IH EY E F M A T G R I AT C O N N E E X OA D I YN A TF I I O CN I R E A T M I T E N C ( 1p ) r y e l l .( 2 F ( 1 r n 2 ) a b ) d ) o2 F st i ol i n s m i p e Cof p ci s n tn e t t t r sl a t a J e u spot e fq u ro through d r welds iextending e No m a tthehentire sectioni of the l e r ae w m e e tl ar d l joint W 2 ( b ) J D f p i e n n e t t r l a s t i ol n o u w e ex tt le h n r d o sn u g g d i h t e s n ea ht c i t t ri e o h e n t e j U o W( ai.2 (u a d l n J l ( W ( . ) 1 T r ( y .175 I DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS (CONT. s op 1.( 2 n ( 2 nt 3 ) b ) d ) A sr o e er Bos s N o(t W iu i t i i 1p 2 e 0 $ V a – i r t o U PhC o e UCS-56 6 U nstean f J i ( with d p e sr s e xu c J n i 5 p S n a o(e o b i t c oh U l a d e s c o 4 d i n boilers l t d e b e t h. l p s Bose e b ilt h .mn s (n s C o )i 2 U l ( W ( . 4 T ( ’ 0 y e 6 p ) hs s e e l s i g no e d r e r n a l s n s u rl e y ( c ) o A s i b hn at ls l e I. o c 1pt a 0r a t al i e n N i ( hn t g o 2 a l . 6e o e ) r y ( i n a t i o n U.b f s h o e r p b pt b i t h N 0 ay t g lse ro ax pe ce h . h . o~ T n ( 0 s fW 2p. r d) 1 h e ( v r i. ) 0 ( 9 j . 6e r t y 2p ) ione d my T ol p i n e f d ( s 0 g r a op w h yi j ec 0 P3pC . a 2 l l s o s u b s J a Wn (c.

0 l 2 Y .) D C O E N S D l : P W N O E G N I Y R A D PI O G REJ P HOI C IH JI TO N T A E T E E N C T I AT C O NT N E E X O D I YN AF TF I IO C TI R E A Y I A G R A M N Aos bi t h N n 1 ay t ls o p ) l e e . (t Pe 1) . e n rt i a e a l s @ s t h i s c ek h an m se s e o e l s af s r r d . J Bo s b i t h Nn [1) o sN u wr s. 8 8 0. 0.0 9 . to P t h h ~ 1 p w o o I t r ei a t e n a n d a o e y . 0 * c a F i u l v a ot il r v n i n g l c n o o c i r c u ms f e ort . U 7 s s (e l d n p o e re o m si t t r a d i o g r a p h s e a 0m l e s.e : y 1x 5 i c p e p 2 e m a .c a o n 1 s t ) r )u0 c T t i( o ny . t e ( 7 P r ve s e e c i c s s ut e tb h j l e x 5kc is n d fi i r N w e j e c ooln t r i t ( a p e r 3em f r A o Bj ioa i t h i c k n U W 2 8 E l e c tA r b ow s U a . P nC 1p o e S 2C p 9 U l W ( f s . 8 .t as u 1 I T ) ( l l d 0 T ( ) F u l w t t h h l a w e e l o o ci a n . ( 5 b ) ) W 1 2 ( d ) o 1 i n t . d i e t s f e 0 i i t to ) e e h d e r r n n t r s n y e s s ( d ) W ( F l .8 e l 5 s a so l t .0 . 8 w a te 3 l y r d p s e e . l W ( a 1 ) 4 5 6 . 8 0 u r e s s u r y e w 1 2 ( f ) i l e E F F I C ( I E N CU Y I S A L CE U L EA D I O N S T B E C ) O T N O S E A M L T EHS I S C A A N Code UW-12(d) H E F K DSS S M E E TYPE OF HEAD H s O p h t e e h T OFY JOINT i l s P E r N m i cN a e Ar o1 00 N 1 .l g u l e w e l ( d i n 6 g ay t ls o p l e e . g y n No d p 0 . T y o h 2. u n ( Te l( ) e oe / s n e ss d s I. y t t h 1 iT ( he n . s N g rt e o a h t ea t o m p lW e t e e n d l A d y s .l t h 90 i tf n s 8 . U 2C p 9 l 9 F c o v 1 1 S v s h U ( U J c b u U l t e r a xs o n i cm a o e y 0 Aon w s a u n r l l e i d nw as e . s s p o t e s s e l Pe C o e e o c Jt i s c o oo n n n n e c t r s N s ns g o i v e t i e l n o an w A o Bhd s 0 e r nU r C5 S e d s ae a c h t ies o n s d .F he r . P l C 1p 0 S y . 7 6l e 0 .176 DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS (CONT.0 0 0 0. . .0 p o t D 0.

t radiography o p isoptionalofbutt weldedjoints(~ 1 2 w a hn i 1 r c o ) h required to ~ filly ~diographed.0or 0. wall thickness do not require radiographicexamination in any of the above cases. 3 All categoryA and D butt welds in vessel sectionsand heads where the design .s c t ib o s f n t r i a t d u i yt fo eeg d f a c p i ol hy o r a o i b a u a o t r hr n s a ru e s i t e o n sa th rt uv c t d i f on hs p o s e n efto ee r m as ed tt i a o b gl e a p c o m e e n i e r l r r i p t r . nozzles. ULTRASONICEXAMINATION n I f e m r a r te i l etr c w tn ara o e ss l l lea w n d w r e a s s li d i s d nt e i c l e c t g o g a sg h l y p g rat e 1 1 ash s t b esh /l rtn r aa ns e o ln2 i . of 2 S . d t d t ir e t q iu ihornr e a md e i o oet gxs r a a m p i h n ifa c tm ie ob l t l.177 EXAMINATION OF WELDED JOINTS RADIOGRAPHICEXAMINATION FuUradiography mandatory of joints: (Code UW-11) is c c 1.9. greaterthan 1 radiography. ommunicatinghambersofunjired steam boikrs having lethalsubstances. 1 1 Exemption: B and C butt welds in nozzlesand communicating chambers that neither exceed 10 in pipe size nor 1 1/8in.or when the design of joints based on no radiographicexamination.ct a hl e y ot nu g h hd o eu t i i u a x a l m lr i e e ln e t n i g r t eh . A sections(including nozzlesand communicatinghambers c above10 in. (see preceding pages: Design of Welding Joints). All butt welds in shells. 4 All butt weldsjoined by electroslagweldingand all electrogasweldingwith any .or 0.wallthickness) r mmect seamless the designof Catego~ A and D buttweldsinvesselsectionsand headsbasedon ajointefficiency 1. a minimum.smandatory as i of B or Cweldswhichintersectthe Category buttweldsinvessel . No Radiography. 2 All . of the joint or part is based on joint efficiency 1.0. If spot radiographyspeciiled for the entire vessel.o e l b e c p ter or b t ac n e a m c h os r n t nr iy if n r ra oi i d c s tv i o o i n se d e u u e o n w e p l r sd o b i uc ln t er aa ss e o sx i cf a tm e ei h n lno e e td n i g r r rt h g ln a l l l y eh 3 U l t e x as m m n n i . radiographicexaminationis not required of CategoV B and C butt welds in nozzlesand communicatingchambers. heads.No radiographicexaminationofweldedjoints is required when the vessel or vessel part is designed for external pressure only.a n n a w n d d lh 2 I a .9. pipe o vesselsectionsor headswhen size and 1in.

p C E L A OE R D A N T I IT R T E A L S Y E O N T D D J TA I C E N T P H C AE R E I O N R O x2 3 & 1 T & r L e g i e nn t e L &3 e ai t ~ p o o{ e u $ e v jr ~ s~ t i ‘ s L @ & y $ H T S E AH E D LS L A T T A C H M E N T z ~ l / 2 ( t @ T s p h c h le en ma e e t l l i a e t l r b o e si o t h h i ee h r ed n p c le n t a e r tl i n e e ‘ ~ Y % Y e n ’ % ..E 9 . ( . m e e i l n nhde i h ~ m r u g e e ~ f il 3 ba n tn e g u 1 e i ce.n a l 2 soel 5 o nrr s t f r sa bi ash gu n f f a fat i r lc e i ql nne l h g e o e u i t Ta s p h ee nm ta o . H HIH N C N AU E OT R .n ti L i n $ /e g — @ e —7 : ~ —tc o s tn a W t e h~ t.le r t s i la ent e p c l er b e h el i o t h p c e e n t aae r f le id n e e .t ~ .F O UT R. ~ z “ e.. h l t - T S E AH D E LS L A ~ A C H M E N T ~ 3 Z z l / 2 ( t h .ty th .C E 1 . e xt 1 d e n e x h oe w n e h c p e rer s o a q r ouy i n a ro e ge t s e l v ei n t d t 1 th k s a h f W l t i e h t oql e u e . ~ H a S 1 a n n L Y g~ -.178 B P I T O E W C L J U T B T A IP T E D R F E F E T H N EC M N T E O SN S R I E D R E F H I I I E K 1 H O O N E N . 3 O T T P R L F EW U D W ) L E O N H T T G ATE T H E A R F SSE I D I M O AI H R P N E T H B N N L I TI 3 T M L UM E F B FE S T T W D T J HS A U C R E F TEA W A E E E N N T EM SH B.s .

1 APPLICATION WELDING OF SYMBOLS WELD MEANING SYMBOL OF SYMBOL n m +rt v m = P v m K 6 8 & & w ~ ‘ ~ & .

~q SYMBOL INDICATES L d D m SYMBOL INDICATES 1/4 IN.APPLICATION WELDING OF SYMBOLS WELD SYMBOL MEANING SYMBOL OF b G ‘i’’’g%N:i.E’”E g~g2g9D ~. INTERMITTENT FILLET WELD. EACH 2 P * 8 E - P s .

a n c l e s d s a h to n ( ol g r a p e y d . s d I s J ( G - e e m l ui sitn r ih i o cl kt n m e e ucs -25 s a i q t h e md u ? hs s r c i )ra s hs a te s e tr b hv e r i no rc v le i u w e o e d p a dl r l t o l soo ni h lo a tn n 1e o oh t c s a t as n w c e f / h i t c ek nd e s e s .kn n U 1 s 3 s( 6 p ae e s 1 e .o 3n hb u a s o l e l dt e . p t c oe an f t e o p e mc i s f n i c aA t i oA n s U l t s r el S g S .181 C Service i R RELATED To VARIOUS SERVICES Code paragraph Brief extracts of Code requirements A ip r v e lse r s u u s r cl e o i m pa r et e r sxi s hUc -d r e( f s w e s l s e a e p . l h e c a o l t n a dbs l so t fb np e o rUa o y ( l l s l a r e o l h we e a a t de td . a t u s ( G( i kns n & h .c s etl j uru r r ie os h dd i c m i o n t l i nc d eo t t h e c a l o ii srd t ee e d n . 4t p e r o m t i h ti et t r p wa h ir ssa eg i h r ra n ao h l i e d b p p s v dl ee d w s u i i i n t s t ap e p chl e t e i o i n n o b n g . d a s f s n ee d 6l f - N O T E S : 1 U ns f b t i om r eai eb l . a dol an msi a s rc uc y c o o r eed d a n c n e c e r t s t w t i ht h e 2 V ei w s s s a e e x w f.s s a C s 2 n i q t h i md u f ? h i t an t h u c i ra s h m tpa e rs e ees ds r ben h d b c o e o s i v i a c r le l p r o w vc i i d a r e l ot d sno il wh ta n n1 o coh e s o r l o e a t s / n 6 -2 t c a l c h u t l lh a i t c M k d t nt he i is 3 c i . n de c n t hbi uo s e d r s s n ss o l a e l dt U -e .( 4 ~ l a mE mx a p c b o l nne n a m o n o x d o g a u s e s m l i q u i dd L s u e b B t s st W w T S s S t V i e w h uej a lo v il t f a s a ab h c r eu d i n f a h b o ci e r h te r e e l j o v hi a c o d i e t ec t n s ost l ne se tlu ntbs s i U a.8 C 3 a f s Uw -2. s 3 s e l / h e e n 2 l . i W ( a V ew sar s tt 2 ne t h i a b w ac o r a i c u p l t ah l M t h i i 3 c s &h h n e ~l l . V e w s a r s e e m l ui si tn r ih e o cl kt n m e e U s . nra t it se ogs ou orf si nape fs lr o a r lg m a p o h e c h t a r 2 .6( ( . e w s a r s e e m l ui sitn r ih i o cl kt i q t h e md u a m c n h n m e e ucs -25s % hs s n i & n .

6 5 1 2 0 6 1 2 0 6 1 2 0 6 e . . 01 9.k f n w e e o oln t s dsf r e ue cr t dui o ( n G o c ue l m a s s c t b n h a l h / s 1 a s6 n . v t i e a c rw e va .1 .l i a lc mt rU 2 i v o u d e in st s m h4d . 1.k ea n mh e e so eu n nlas f f s bdti d o r us i e ( fG d b e -m) c u h s l e la r n hb l ta o e il h 1 l s a ne s n t % . .i p n d g d i nn ir o e t . 1 . 1 2 44 . 3 1 6 1 . .95 .2 1 1 1 ic k l n5 s ~ 1.r m i tnh h i i om s . 1 3 7 6 1 3 7 61 .0 7 3 . 1 . 1 5 5 . 0 7 3 . 1 . 516 4 v t n i a N p 1 4A 1 . e s s o r c e m e n t . 11 121 41 .0 7 3 . . i-u U ei f( o (G t r e p q e n r o c i w n e g p l l u de n2 i .27 . 5 %6 . 1 . of f u l iu b j U a W b l f l oll. . 1 . . 1 3 6 A % 6 4 8.. 1 . 1 <A i T m i \ N p 7 1 . I1 1 e 2 1 s 1 2 1 . 3 7 N p c k n3 s < 3 .1 l 3 6 . 1 1 . 1. 818 . 3 6 . w l ii e /t t l U 3t ( d r n W / rUWt l n ‘d W d b f 2 8 - ( . / c s 6 e dh a l (C 4 S i w n eo g pl eue .wen e sr a nac tro mv ae r li o l rcno i e o a C n o c e a d e .n mf eo f rs b se w e3ufo ti e u n c m n tx 0 h i i omcr ek i . 1 . loe n i eg l io tt u epd t l na ra c il c . 1 . 6 5 a a b 6 8 e9 1 8 9 . 9. 1 . 1 . 5 T s 6 D 7 S f 8 S o 9 M 1 1 M S a c io. 9. 1. e i i ndp g s s d n n i p r p e zU qo e ( u e l d t 3 i o . 8.< . . I1 7 1 12 4 4 . .n .l e . 7 . T t i l ft ne ct pi r uc u ho d j g rt es n oUr aa l tl m f e . 27 . 2 2 1 2 0 9 01 2 29 0 2 . . 7 . e p t a b l e . 1 Q? 1 C V n a T i h i e 1 s 241 p 5 l 8i 9 c 6 o 1 1 1 t ha e 9 i s R W T R V ? 5 2 4 6 . r e i n f o r c e m e n t .s ’ h o 3 I l c t o U S m p r s e sai t s . t a r i a ct e l r b a a i f c tx h i i omcr e k i . o 1 1 t 1 1 12 41 2 s 2 4 2 . 1 ha s1 i lc n 11 s k 1l . 07 1 2 1 1 X 3 & o6 7 Xv 15 6 A % — 1 .1 . 2 2 .2 8. . . .en T p d tt a sb l s a w n j i i o d e e r o ze o . . 1 1 . ‘. 6 5 1 2 . 9. 1 7 1 1 . Wi b . . . 6 9 l 1 . e ec ee p l t as o . . 5. 6. 9 2 0 .1 .37 6 . 4 1 4A 3 6 4 4.- 6 2 M a n u f a m t u a r s e rr b k c . tnh h i i omcs k e a n m he e s u es n cl a sof m d p d r se s ds ien d u h l i s ae 1. 07 3 . f f n l iu jg l wl o l p ae wie l fl tn ett p t ut a oohh h g n ed eT n a t a i . 1 .A x 6 24 1 5 2 3 4 5 2 4. a i e smc tr b e v e i i a /rc s e s n h 3 d le 3U l G e ( 2 n i t t nd a gh d l s e te a e m l a e r i U G e p n i ( pn g .2 0 . ( 1 T l T s m i t 1e m i e sr B E N o t e s x r ot Ci r Rae e o f t i r s d m e fn et s ) q u c e tn h h i i omp .0 3 . 1 . n mf eo f rs b se w e1ufo i t e u c m n f 1 l u gj l l o l pa n i w l e . . 1 . 1 . 1 b 1 p 7 l1 i c 7 a 1 0l7 11 1 07 1 . r d s w n 1 e o h t c s a a l p h u t n ll h a i tsface bk p t n r e oe s v s il d e de . . 1 .8 . 1 4. p 7 l 1 i1 c 7 a1 1 3 7 61 1 3 1 62 b l e o 2 t 1 2 e7 1 2 s 7 2 . .1 1 17 1 8 . 1 .. e . .

UCS-57 graphed. . Double welded butt joint or single welded butt joint with backing Table strip shall be used for circumferential or longitudinaljoints. Post weld heat treatment of P-1 materialsis not mandatory provialedthat material is pre-heated. se st s s u s t s dr f e efi l e iir sc c re t t iU eo (nt g Wg e d u b j c a o P l w2 l ho et ee) r ese rr a . i eu itt o d bh n ao s s ctu a kc u d t tt ci ee n p f tg a r f i bpl o e r n d y 1 P-1 shall be fully radio. 22. 1 p ) l t u t wl o . ej 3l o p d i r b t h ( o y( a w i 4eb n jg l 1 evn . 21. UCS-56 19. Note (2)(a)(b) O T E : w h o t e r ee i nl t e t m ie e nq p th r ioe fh or ie b o i t i e d s a ar d tt n u rs j d o r n t r s e a t u w s t e e ase ii ot nt i Pe c e 8 g s r N T oa o fu e . 2. Post weld heat treatment of P-1 materials is mandatory for all welded Table connections and attachments. See page 179 f N P b p l t e m o p oo p ae t r ru a r t e i e r w o n . Pull radiographic examination of butt welded joints of P-1 Grade 1. l ai p et nw ht lt o c s c ue t p d t g Tb so U a e n u j o e i l a p e u lf a t a t l a o h e c e on a n r dtv s fs e h s xe t p te s u rl o e l s o . p a t . e d s t n nt l e s h( l s o u l b 1 ) a 8 g e 5 .183 C R O U R E L LT D V A E E A S E T R W D T OA I UO K L N EV S L E E S S I H C S O S ( C o n t i n u e d ) N x r ot Ci r o t e s Rae e o f ti r s e m e fn et s ) q u c d c W bh r S ( 1 S m W Bs S f i B E f 2 l i g l lw l. 3 materialsis mandatory. uw-lz 20.e t aq m d e i tn r (2) e d .

Low-Pressuretanks may be built in accordancewith 1. No. 12F. REGULATION Atmospherictanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable good standards of design. Materialof storagetanks 3. 650. American Petroleum Institute Standard No.5 psig. In addition to the regulationsof the above mentioned standards and code. SectionVIII. Drainage 7. 1985) CLASSIFICATION ATMOSPHERIC ANKS T Storagetank whichhas been designedto operateat pressuresfrom atmospheric through0. Ventingfor tanks 5. Standards 2. Inc.106. ASMECode for PressureVessels.ChapterXVII. (These tanks are not within the jurisdiction of the ASMECode SectionVIII (U-id) but may be stamped with the Code U Symbol U-lg) LOWPRESSURE TANKS Storagetank whichhas been designedto operate at pressuresabove0. & No. ection S VIII. the occupationalsafety and health standardscontainrulesconcerningtanks and vessels as follows: 1. Definitionof combustibleand flammableliquids 2. Underwriters’ Laboratories. 620. 12B. Stora e tank or vessel which i? asbeen designed to operateat pressures above15 psig. Atmospherictanks may be built in accordance with: 1. Emergency reliefventing 6.July 1. Locationof tanks 4. - 8 4 - T C F A A V C L Excerpt from the Departmentof Labor OccupationalSafety and Health Standards(OSHA). but not more than 15 psig. Installationof tanks . No. No. 12A.5 psig. P V P V s b b i a with the ASMECode for PressureVessels. Low-Pressure tanks shallbe built in accordancewith acceptablestandardsof design. 12D. Part 1910. (FederalRegister.1 . American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 2.

* .u oh 2a e n l Fo 5d t r e a n 0 t aa r o e h v td i e 6n eg h s h f 5 t 2 h m e e rcs h l a h oo ci aoc. .i o e : . ci 6 n t g s N I tO H aT t n mhE c b o. ) .185 LOW TEMPERATURE I am i d n m i t m e m uipaf tem g a a tn e e s t r h n e s s . eF n r w e h i . t . ~ Z < “ “ 0 V .0 a r wa t a ur rr t e m G T 3 p F e 7 2 n F s t a v t ei w os t n c ah e r r r yn hs a i. tm i r p e e f a m ua s ot t e re s d a q c i ro t i sl m S G B a -t e 1 .394 1 I 8 N IC I tm 2 ot e p x a p cid n s t 1 0 3 4 5 hm ii c k n n ae i 6U.0 0 0 a f r n t r o e dd2 m c 0 t i i uh T m i d n the e m s ip 5 ei e 3 mg t .c o o c b i na a lt i a n s b l n t o m a r o i o b t c e i uF Ur o C v S tm -eei s 6 s l h fi we G p r e q u i r e d .ih a g es s i t F p r f o ub v r uadtm e ha w e siie r t r s h t i s s t i i tm e U s G t . A Sr 5 G1_ 5& B5 A 0 2 r i n 5 n o 1 r6 m6 o l 5 i z 0e f a o1 r 6 m o a rl 5 i - A 5 &. ~ @ o. E A t nt t r t m in d n h m n e i ms . .u n 0 2 e i m u r 0a s r ( A p j p e fo fc isa cib ii l h e n i cc ai te sul l i e n l o T s 1t n 2t a w a o t f i o sl l l t h j w J i n a o l t h oi m c h a k t n i ee A. c S ” 2 6 \ 3 Z g W A a - ~ F d 1 t ee O R ms ip f ei F r U r tC uS r .n s .go e 6 h n 6 .sc al t l sye e s h t e e l d 4f ge d: t t e e ms ip n el r t ag ot. I I I OPERATION u n l e -c i r k d l ef n o d w l y e s s n a . o h mn e mss d o k u o m a a t l e i r o is rs t t Al h C de e o . r F a e o s S e A c aa p a a n S A G S A G S a s &6 &7 I 0 / 1Y / { /{ A o r M ~ I 1 8 6 : 40 .4. p a 6 R E D O MC I IN O I N M U T U FM M TE E M T E R A T L R E P A U E X A M P L E : > 3 : 0 .S e m . d nk i .~ r l l l b ni itl o f l son l t d l h oe s s t e e o y gb h n ee 4 l s w d t w o o o n 5 8 . 0 . du i e t g e m m p ce r t o 1 u ir d m ea p s r a i a t l h e 0 2 ° F e U C S 6 em da s t b tuh re s ia d a e l-l 6 dl ge U M T G -C S P N i s .deu s l i c r s i e 1x i eo e 1 ne t d t h oi m c h a k t n i ee r ~u s l i c se i D n1 d 3h v t ii h y d c r o t ss h a te i . .e6 6G 5 sm ag In o t J . 1 ~ 0 0 =0 / 1 5 .9Fa r w a ta Ru 7rr nt e m A m p e 3 4 6R S ST C V AEB a t. d o s o i l e c i F U C1 i l S t .i n 5 n G 6 0 f z I j 4i a e : :F I 0. o a c o o q s in g t lan f e i n w d o d n d ti r r ene l g lu ii sr t eg m e l ns .i 6 c n t(g b . l o tt w m a be n i s p t r s a i h t . ” ’ I t a sc i tht t euf ni af es r s l t i se oo r e n p r a e o s l s i 1u hp 2 ae te s @d r i On t o n r s m a a zl si o m h e u r a tm e la l eas 1 5 . 20 I I I I I I I I 0 0 /0 / ‘‘ .y a c lc i l m an l .

P Form Specification Nominal Composltlon Number Grade c c C .Si C .Mn .Mn C . SA-193 SA-194 SA-307 * Dataof the most frequen~yused materialsfrom ASMECodeSectionII and ~11” .Si C .Si C .Mn C .Si ~ 2 C .Si C .Si C .Si C .Si C . dam.Mn .Si C .Mn .Mn .Mn SA-283 SA-285 SA-515 SA-515 SA-515 SA-515 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 SA-105 SA-181 SA-350 SA-53 SA-106 I LF1 LF2 B B B7 * 2H B* c c 55 * 60 * 65 70 55 * 60 * 65 * 70 * M CARBON LOWALLOYSTEEL* & APPLICATION Structural uality.Si a&: C“S ~z ‘u c1 e E z M G . For pressurevessel maybeusea withlimitationsseenote: 1 Boilersfor stationaryserviceand other pressurevessels Primarilyfor intermediateand high temperatureservice 99 —— – “ – – “ – For moderateand lowertemperature service 99 —— 99 —— 99 —— For hightemperatureservice For generalservice For low temperatureservice For generalservice For hightemperatureservice For hi temperatureservice Bolt2* in.3 m C . or less For hightemperatureservicenut Machinebolt for generaluse *Forowtemperature l operation seepage185 ICr-1/5Mo.Si C .

0 30.0 60.0 35.0 55.0 35.0 38.0 30.4.0 55. 1.PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL (cont.000 psi.0 60.0 36.8 3.0 105.3.) Specification Number SA-283 SA-285 SA-515 SA-515 w b e 2 SA-515 SA-515 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 .0 36.0 – – DIAM> 2k’2 in and<4 in See Notes 1 2.0 32.0 38.0 65.0 32.6 3 3’ 3 3 3.0 70.3 — 2.0 30.000 psi.0 70.0 70.3 2. 55.a J z ZQH <z~ ~<_ & u ~ 2W E% 3A m u z G : SA-I05 SA-181 SA-350 SA-53 SA-106 SA-193 SA-194 SA-307 I LF1 LF2 B B B7 2H B Grade c c 55 60 65 70 55 60 65 70 P Number 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 – Yield Tensile Point Strength 1.8 3.8 2.0 30.0 30.0 55.0 35.0 70.7 3 — — 5 Form .0 30.0 65.0 125.0 60.0 55.0 60.0 60.0 35.0 60.0 55.8 3.

allowable stress value 7000 psi. l y 2 s 2 2 7 2 6 h 7 6 x u P t hr e eCe r s sa n ae an l ftrr e ree t n p t s r e e e r d s n s e n is h u x do c a l c o l a nt i o l n s y u . 8. 7 .1 8 3 2 . . 6 2 6 . 5 2 5 . 5. 4 7 4 2 . I . 3 2 .IOOA residual silicon be used. 3 2 8 5 2 . MODULI OF ELASTICITY FOR FERROUS MATERIALS 3.8 7 3 -. I For service temperatures above 850° Fit is recommended that killed steels containing not less than O. 0 2 . No increase in these stress values shall be allowed for the performance of radiography. 5 4 2 . Withtheexception of flanges. 8 2 6 . Not permitted above 450° F. rt 7e si l t lg e -. the carbide phase of carbon steel maybe converted to graphite. 7 7 2 5 . andstiffeningrings on which strength welding is applies does not exceed 5/8 in. SA-36and SA-283ABCDplatemaybe usedfor pressureparts inpressure vesselsprovidedall of the followingrequirementsare met: (1) (2) (3) 2. Only killed steel shall be used above 850° F. Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800°F. 7. either liquid or gaseous. 4. which are somewhat less than those on which the values in the table are based. 0 3 . The vessels arenotusedto contain lethal substances. 2 nl 3 2 t s0 9 2 h C <2 k 2 8 2 . 5 4 2 . 0 5 . The material shall not be used in thicknesses above 2 in. For welded pipe maximum allowable stress values are 15Y0less. Material 70 C C H a s a s a w Cbe 0 i oe . 31 2 . 2 .2 rt w Cbe 0 i oe 2. 8 .u r e 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 5 7 2 . The stress values to be used for temperatures below -20° F when steels are made to conform with supplement (5) SA-20 shall be those that are given in the column for -20 to 650° F. flatboltedcovers. 6.188 PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL (continued) NOTES: 1. Tmaterial isnotusedintheconstmctionofunfiredsteamboilers(see Code U-1 (g) ~. o T v ia t hl E s o Millionp f T e m p Foei r a t . Killed steels which have been deoxidized with large amounts of aluminum and rimmed steels may have creep and stress-rupture properties in the temperature range above 850° F. 7 nl 2 3 s I 8 t 9 2 h 2 0 >2 % 2 .

1.5 1 41 3 7 .7 6.&l12.5 4.5 4. F.5 4.3 8.1 8 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS CARBON& LOWALLOY STEEL Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension 1000 psi.5 2.5 2.5 lfj.6 21.7 9. .9 11.3 12.5 2.5 4.8 13.5 2.5 6.4 13.8 8.0 14.5 8.0.3 15.6 14.5 4.6 14.7 6.8 - - - 8. .7 6:5 - !.5 2.8 8.2 15.5 - SA-193 B7~2%’ 25.4 8.5 6.5 4.() 3.8 13.3 6.0 10.5 4.5 2.0 23. a 5.5 2.5 4.8 12.0 13.5 6.1 10.4 8.5 ‘ Seepage177forlowtemperatureope.5 4.5 6.0 17.5 4.0 I LF1 15.4 8.8 5.8 16.4 13.) 7.* Specification Number G :r For Metal Temperature Not Exceeding Deg. 0 5.0 10.3 12.4 13. d~ :0 e 5 900 0o 950 0 0 o c SA-285 SA-515 SA-515 SA-515 13.7 6.8 13.0 17.6 14.5 4 0 15.4 17.(.0 1 SA-53 SA-106 SA-194 SA-307 LF2 B B 2H B ]7.5 6.0 12.4 9.0 10.1 10.5 - 2.3 9.3 12.1 10.8 16.0 14.9 11.5 6.5 - - - c 55 60 65 13.3 15.0.8 12.5 13.5 16.8 8.8 12.$ - - - - 15.5 16.5 6.0 9.5 4.5 13.5 4.4 13.5 16.5 6.0 9.0 15.2 15.b 14.0 10.0 10.0 14.2 13.5 2. 3.0 14.5 2.4 13. I .0 25.0 14.5 8 “ 8 - SA-515 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 SA-516 SA-105 SA-181 SA-350 70 55 60 65 70 17.ationo * The StressValuesin this table may be interpolatedto determinevaluesfor intermediatetemperatures.5 2.

2] 6 .7 15. Pp. 21 7 . Bar go a u A : s g TABLE 4 Spec. o e 317 SA-312 TP316 SA-376 SA-376 TP316H SA-452 TP316H F316 SA-182 g SA-182 r F316H 316 SA-479a 2 2 — — 2 — 235 . No. 2 7 4 . . 21 18. 0 9 9 . 21 . 31 8 . 11 8 .0 16. Smls. 5 3 . 1 0 . 1 7 541 7 41 0 .1.4 71 51 61 41 18. 2. 4 19 . Cast Pp. %: . 10.312 2 2 e 3 2 3 2 — : g < : a d Product TABLE 2 Spec.. 51 . 0 9 7 . 61 1 . 1 . 2 15 . aA 316L E S0 S 54 r d. 1 . 51 9 . 1 4 . Smls. . 41 . 3] 4 . 51 2 .: Smls. 0 7 M MATERIALS A X A L I LM O S W M V B RL U A T A 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 18. pp. .8 1 1 1 1 18. 51 6 .1 . 15 ( 3 0 5 . 41 3 . Pp. 51 8 .’: . 1 4 1 5 .: TP304H TP304 TP304H z . 5 3 .? & 33 =-~ “Z g“ “? ijg e re o S l S ecr N ot 6a o 4 . Pp. 41 3 .9 15. 61 . 17 4 .3 16. y v m s r c m m b p s r o t f 0 t h h am t g t s v o a r . 51 9 . 11 . Bar Pp. 2 8 . 4 5 . Tb. . - —— sN pG u d aA 316-t 317 TP316 TP316H TL~?l~\ TABLE 1 P Plate 00 TAklLE3 e N o t c ao r c 2 3 : 2 — 2 — r S o N dp G u 304 . 21 .::: Tb . c t t r m s s o . 110.312 W. P Plate .312 SA-479 g G 304L TP304L TP304L 304L F b t d Product =jS ~’g j’ ~ >* . 31 7 . 9. 3 3 . 01 8 . . 01 N O 8 . 1 1 .6 . 2 8 . 31 41 . . 21 3 . 0 9 9 . SA-240 SA-213 SA-213 SA-312 SA. Tb.7 1 1 1 T E 1 81 1 61 1 61 RF I M A 71 . y:: H:: S m SA-213 l TP304s SA-213 SA-312 SA. 31 7 . r N r — — — 5 ~ z O* ~ ~~ Plate Smls. 1 . . 31 6 . 51 . SA-240 SA-213 SA-312 s G 316L TP316L TP316L Nr — — — oa ~ B EE 1L S P US . Pp. 61 . a SA-452 s SA-182 SA-182 SA-479 Q * a g ‘p304 2 TP304H — TP304H t — F304 2 F304H — 304 235 . 2 . dt P . C SE Forg. 3. g ~ . 3 8 . .. Pp. 0 . Smls.1 15. 41 . 9 L T SE M T E R A RT U R E S E O P A L 6 . 1 5 . SA-240 SA-213 SA. .fj . 4.1 . 11 3 .190 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS STAINLESS STEEL P No.2 1 3 . 51 9 . 1 9 1 4 7 . Forg. 6 . 4 2 . 10. Smls.z2 7 . Smls. Forg. 19 e s a b o 1 1 .: . 01 7 .4 Io. 11 7 . 111. 3 0 . . 3 I4 . Pp.0 .6 1 3 4 M A TAyLE 17. 8 16. 49 . . 01 1 . 0 3 . Smls.8 Group No. 0 9 7 . . 8 1 1 3 N T d w t F 1 S e h s 1 1 s c a a a q [ p v 1 1 e p d I 1 w 6 c 51 11 s 5] 11 T l v v c . Smls. No. 11 ‘ . . 4 6 .8 81 81 61 61 18. ~ ‘ 5 s z [ z y ~ ~ 3 +@ q “gg Tb. 41 8 .

80 9.31 3.62 0.50 -0.72 4.15 -1.97 7. ::.91 2.5s 10.29 0 0.S2 9.42 S.7 8 11.6 5 9.6 2 7.06 4.8S 6.10 2.S6 1.8 & 10.44 9.14 4.0 1 8.10 8.46 -0.s2 0.50 –1.92 17.7s -0.04 10.29 7.74 22s -2.45 -2.44 -3.97 7.02 11.76 -1.22 1.50 42S 2.01 –1.22 14.62 8.24 3.ss 8.toy.25 7.1I 4.27 1.26 2.4s 11.S6 7.22 5.38 7.88 5.77 13.71 -3.28 0.73 0. I 1 N MATERIAL ~mp.80 5.31 8.34 6.47 S.31 10.77 -0.94 1.26 10. 4.20 1.69 3.77 –0.90 1.63 1.72 so –0.57 4.42 10.9s 8.ss 11.03 2.64 9.4S 8.42 –0.62 -1.81 13.62 S50 4.16 8.00 10.27 -1.36 0.S8 3.S8 14.68 -4.66 16.14 11.33 10.38 6.s0 2.23 6.33 4.30 9.21 2.63 -0.11 2.27 -1.78 12.3S 8.18 -0.oo -0.24 12s -1.62 2.81 1.25 -0.10 1.38 -1.s7 –2.s0 13.67 4.94 -1.46 9.94 S.46 10.65 5.s4 14.77 12.69 4.67 -0.1 s 5.92 275 –2.74 -3.62 Sol Soo 3.7s 9.11 –1.73 17s -1.79 4.83 3.37 1.42 2.12 9.40 0.“:::.83 7.28 8.s3 10.46 200 -2.98 100 –f.84 -0.61 4.69 14.2I -3.47 4.77 7.80 12.06 13.62 -1.76 1.84 13.40 2.98 6.06 8.20 14.24 -0.86 4.42 0.73 5.96 1.74 1.:.66 11.11 3.30 17.82 6.69 18.21 1.0s 9.84 2.32 0.62 -2.05 6.8S 1.80 11.10 8.80 2.95 S.90 150 0.ss 7.27 -0.50 12.48 37s 400 3.11 13.86 S25 3.16 12.61 4.74 4.3s -2.7s 11.42 3.67 –1..79 10.98 -1.97 –1.91 3.69 4.18 5.S9 6.41 2.16 6.76 8.52 0.08 -1 .7 6 8.30 1s.89 9.22 12.27 6.43 7.S8 .44 2..28 0 0.21 0.39 3.67 3.S6 15.42 0.96 6.17 9.64 1.86 0.S6 1.S2 13.2S 7.03 2s0 1.13 –0.S 3 8. g::.18 13. 5 Cr Mo .02 3%Nickel Aluminum &q:on -2.63 8.94 12.43 775 82S 8S0 87s 900 92S 9s0 97s 1000 102s 10s0 107s 1100 112s 1150 117s 1200 122s 1250 1275 130 0 132S 13s o 137 s 140 0 142 s 14s o 147 s 1s 00 25 Cr 20 &l ~:n~’cu –2.02 -1.34 1:: 0.95 8.68 -1.96 -1.49 6.8s 8.10 3.05 4.20 0.31 –2.71 -1.07 4.32 -0.23 –2.28 3. S:33 S.90 16.34 4.s0 12.72 2.61 2.00 2.46 9.61 0.86 –1.S4 –2.06 –1.7s 0.82 12.s7 –0.85 -1.76 10.99 10.0s 2..86 14.S0 6.11 3.78 13.14 0 0 o 0 0.30 2.49 -0.6S 11.07 -1.06 11.83 11.s 6 10.37 675 4.50 -3.22 0 0.84 -0.90 5.98 -0.25 3.94 6..7S 6.41 -4.18 2.1 1 10.91 3.s0 S.80 9.37 1so -1.11 12.17 -2.96 7.s0 0 0.89 4.93 8.s0 7.49 –0.02 3.97 –0.8S 7s -0.53 7.4s 1.46 0.26 “ -3.71 2.93 S7S 4.s0 -1.64 6.37 11.04 7.64 1.34 6.11 12.94 1s.76 13.79 -1.03 3.32 2: -0.26 1.17 -1.30 -0.93 2.99 3.18 6.41 -1.99 200 1.46 0.63 -1.78 -2.17 2.53 0.81 4.S8 0.62 2.93 7.84 1.18 5.21 1.98 6.44 12.31 7.0s 12.46 -4.92 4.s7 –0.62 8.25 -2.72 6.99 1.14 -2.60 7.16 4s0 3.50 4.22 0.69 2.21 1.68 7.7s 1.80 0.39 S.83 2.s7 10.90 2.10 –3.47 12.56 -1.16 7s0 5.24 3.38 0.3 3 10.32 275 1.S8 0.26 5.9s 10.s6 9.10 4.49 4.34 6.80 2s0 -1.62 7.86 2.32 –0.0s 9.09 14.48 -1.22 2.31 6.13 3.46 S.88 –2.83 6.09 11.9 8 9.30 3.01 1.38 -2.26 2.97 -3.72 7.60 :.09 4.6S 9.3s 3.39 14.52 3.3s 5.90 72S 5.74 5.10 11.20 0 0.03 S.22 6.66 0.191 - THERMAL EXPANS1ON LinearThermalExpansion between70F andXndicated emperature.81 8.s2 1.12 10.68 2.04 4.1S 11 .43 13.63 –0.1s o 0.16 -2.50 -2.09 10.47 6.72 –0.93 350 2.s9 –1.28 6.30 -1.64 6.37 .86 14.17 7.48 8.4 0 7.01 -0.86 -3.81 -1.1S 8.4S 2.s8 16.31 6:87 5.80 0S.98 -3.96 9.11 -1.23 0.08 3.1 8 8.86 8.69 17s 0.26 3.79 -1.2s 10.90 32S 2.08 1.27 4.90 -1..23 0.81 8.12 so -0.:C 120 17 Cr )gF Low-Chrome thru 9~ 18s!W8’\i 27 Cr -2.02 .17 7.0s 9.S2 4.28 9.98 -3.o2 -2.24 16.79 11.48 11.99 I S.93 4.89 47s 3.22 1S.26 –2.34 4.18 7.4 2 9.82 1.41 2.46 S.43 11.88 1s.14 7.31 7.23 1.36 125 0.83 3.46 -0.0S 6.94 7.96 –1.80 4.17 8.30 11 .18 0.S2 7.46 1.s3 3.11 650 4.04 2.70 0 6.58 5.19 -1.15 13.98 S.32 -1.s0 2.47 2.63 700 4.76 14.03 22s 1.3s 3.33 -1. nches/100Feet T I THE DATAOF THISTABLEARE TAKENFROMTH~:AM~KIcANsTANllAItll ~Ol)E: O T S T FOR PRESSURE H~lNC.70 2.68 25 -0.15 S.s0 5.46 3.13 1.61 300 1.37 -0.38 11.7s 10.04 300 -2.68 6.43 6.33 1.71 1.82 5.2 0 9.13 9.10 13.42 1.24 -2.s7 -1.61 0.s0 -0.96 2.23 7.98 –O.48 2.08 8.38 1.69 5.74 4.8S 11.80 5.94 7.47 8 6.71 2..21 -0.40 12.71 6.I.79 3.30 8.62 8.3s 9.90 4.70 S.08 18.03 -3.24 3.77 10.71 12.07 7.47 5.

B.O Bar 1 @ x 3’.3000# Sq.Street En.Fig. 6“. Bore 3“ . Gasket 18-300 # Spiral Wound ASB. head 2“ S.375” min.375 min.En. FLANGE SA-1811 b ~ Q ~’:kw:d Welding FORGED FITTING GASKET SA-105 0 3 9 ASB. R.Fig. W. 48” OD x 0. 4“.300# RF. 2“ -3000 # S. En. ASME F & D Head 2 S. En. nut SA-193B7bolt x 1 @ 5-1/2 stud w/ (2) h. Sht. 2:1 ellip. For this purpose it is recommendedthe use of the widelyacceptedabbreviationsin the sequences exemplified below. Cap $.Tee 2“ -3000 # 450 S. So. Head D SA-105 h Welding ELBOW SA-234WPB B. Eli 4“ . 6“ x 4“ Std. SA-285 C SA-515-70 SA-516-70 HEAD .Plug 2“ -6000 # Scr’d.Std. Std.6000# 900 Scr’d. 900 L.F. L = 48” r = 3“ 54” ID x 0. Bid. So. nuts x SA-1942Hnut 8“ Std. 1“ – 6000# Cplg.500” min.M.150# FF.F. For ordering material the requirements of manufacturers should be observed. 6“. Red. 1“ -3000 # 900 Scr’d. Wn. g . 1“ -6000 # HalfCplg. 1“ .En. L.Cplg.. 1“ .Cplg. PART 9 9 = ~ BOLT CAP Screwed COUPLING DESCRIPTION Bar2 x 1/4x 3’-6 Bar3/4 @x 2’. Hd. Bore 6“ .Fig. X Stg. Filled 48 “ID x 0. Fig.it is advisablethat a standard method be followed.Wn. 1“ -6000 # 4-1/2 Lg.600# RTJ. R.X Stg. WI(1) sq. Fig.450 S. 18-150 # 1/16” Serv. 8“ -150 # R.150# RF. Hd.F.192 DESCRIPTION MATERIALS OF Whendescribingvarious vesselcomponents and parts on drawingsand in bill of materials.O MATERIAL SPECIFICATION SA-7 BAR 3/4 @ 2-1/2 H.w. 2“– 3000# Cplg. Hemis. R.

Ecc.6-1/2 4“ .Std. 160Pipex 2’ 4 24” . R.Pipex 1’. Pipex 2’-1 8“ -X Stg.Std. 1800 L. Reducer 8’”x 6“ X Stg.1 DESCRIPTION MATERIALS OF (cont.438” WallPipex 1’-0 FL96” X 3/8 X 12’ -6 ~ 24”OD X 1/2 X 18” ID ~ 18” OD X 1-1/2 6“ x 4“ Std.0. Tee 6“ x 6“ x 4“ X Stg. Tee I 0 PLATE SA-285C Welding REDUCER Welding RETURN Welding TEE SA-234 WPB SA-234 WPB SA-234 WPB — — . Reducer 6“ .Std.X Stg. Return 4“ . Red. 1800 S.) L W o eN l n 1 d e i g 3 LWN RF. Return 4“ . 8 n c g k I SA-1811 SA-53B 0 ” 0 PIPE 6“ . Cone.S. R.

4301 / X 5 Cr Ni 189 =1.6415/15MO3 =1. 16 k 18 k 16 k 18 k Ct 5 Cn 3 — — — — — — — Ss 50 — — — — SM53 C SA453 c 316L SA.0050/St50-2 1. AND COMPARABLE G n W ( c e F Re es e e MATERIALS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES r m a n p d t E .0844/ 17 Mn 4 1. m e i J i e a ot .0345111 1. S F.0435/HIIi 1.0425 / H II 1..0116/St 37-3 1.0038/= Rst 37-2 1.0435/ H 111 1.572-55 SA -51560 1. .44041X 2 CRN]MO1810 X5 CrNi 189 08X 18 H 10 X8 CRN1T1 1810 03X17 H14M2 .7335/13 CrMor St 38-3 Mb 13 17 Mn 4 13 CrMor 4.4 St 50 — CT O-2 CT 3 kn 2 BCt 3 cn 2 =181 cn = 12 K K47 12X M Ct 5 Cn 3 ~.0425 / H 11 I SA -51570 SA -51660 SA -516-70 SA -572-55 SA -240-304 I – A -42 I 1.( R)a y F o e D op S s U r vt n .0050 /St 50-2 — A 50-2 I Mb 16 I Mb 19 Mb 16 Mb 19 St 50 I SA -240 -316~ — =22 CNDIT-1$ 1.EQUIVALENT U . rA a.283A SA -283 C SA -284 B SA -284 B SA -285 C SA -299 SA -455 SA -440 & A 15 D 3 = A 33 TSE 24 a = E24–2 E -24-3 1.0036 I Ust 37-2 15Mo 3 = St 33 St 381[-2 St 38 b -2 A 37 A 52 15 CD 2.0035 I = St 33 =1.05 A 50-2 A -42 = 1. ) r pn a n SA -204 B SA .

All vesselsshallbedesignedto be free-standing.a t n c e c d o r t ed ad n s u a a g i l a . e m p d i w l ea d ot t i Ae t Bsi S haot P niM Vl e sEe s S ru e rd d D I i el 1 aI o r e n C f e so s c e t V e iv i . t u c f a b r s r c i ee . sn I i s u b a t e d q d u e ns t d s e n a . orc n htc rdf .weightof the vessel. ore i csr pr f dta u t sep rae u rn r cl ic h hss e h s c e e s a i a o c r o h h f .impact.a e i S ti c r e H ks o s. i e s v a s p t y T p C s h t a a e n d rs a e rfr e td t tr s e e n aelcly ht es cr nt a ret e tmd A i M t s t h o d p a e s l e p e ob i v e C e da e nrs d c t a c s b n es m rg u n n tt i ho bn ov oC de Ts ro r h tg d uo hl e a e e l d y i td r i o n e c c d y t t e d a n oh q u d o p eth c i ef it c d a t i n o s n . esfe i l b ls r n i nec s d e pts e t dci . t ii n the i g o x6 n l n a o s c .i et e l e u o 1 cf oh l e ee0 ns is n c s ooef dl r l e c em an asd n n a p sro rt eg r 0 t h f . . pressure.re zs gV n nete a s l uS s r e e u l d p s p d o n r o t L a Pi r oe s o sT a S w l f o hv e c vt r .and temperature.195 S FOR THE DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF PRESSURE VESSELS N P p t a t O T E S r ve se sa s sm a s n e u enh r c ld t u sa vecdre s e[v or p at e r n ada d ic h tn ri d ia u u r e f a e r s t p e w a h c ra d o a ni t ad g e a o cu h s n s o p g n r c v e i e sdT ss s su e h rc file f ini c . I c o c o a n t fp l u i . The maximumallowableworking pressure shall be limited by the shell or head. V S V m e a sv a H f a s a pe p s ul . not by minor parts.To determine . i t o e e r S e i E N E R A . 2 3 Wind load and earthquake. es r h . the magnitudeof wind pressure. f o S I G N 1 PressureVesselsshallbe designedto withstandthe loadingsexertedby internalor external . n aar g e e l s c t n r .a t li v v e e n o s i tn r u e n t o n p e i s c p h r awo c h t h s b c iaete mcc w o h oih mce dc e ae e f eo l tal bln l o e w e d . u u u s y t tl e h or q wa u h d i kirc e nhr g e v a e t r n r a i g e .earthquake. r ss e ne ah n olw eatm r i l g e n t c d c s ep A e ( n a O l S c t Hd h e t y A )t .r . It is assumedthat wind and earthquakeloads d n s h d b r ( e n p oe fsu e i l w g i d oe e ie hd n t o a r o s ic m o l c t a t n e too v h r l e .the probabilityof earthquakesand seismiccoefficientsin variousareas of the United States StandardANSI/ASCE7-93 (MinimumDesign Loads in Buildingsand Other Structures)shall be applied. e 4 5 H o P Z T i d v z e s n tp s b p s l o a lrs dsb edd d e l as ec iy c g t n m e de ed L nt g i o u s t h a st o r l l oi h . L A G 1 2 3 T S p e c i t f io c w . ip op t rt~ oe r v n ha h la s ef er .un t l e v rr s pi u to a o il d mc e ao reea n ec sao n n se an rl u e s a r q r e e t t t r ti t e i et c h o oono o a ms s i m ch fi sr e e e a rts rd o s s a e l t o d t p a c t k n b e o o A d e w ra V d D r E v f i l at t Sr ip oh c n i o ft i pi a um i oros h c o t h dd a r se a e h w h it . r a d ta s enwee r iae no s e sh a p c r egd k S e e h ce i fe i c t ds v n c e i p P r ve e s ssb dh s e r.wind. u o hlt yO t c i c o u eh s t ll t a h np a 4 5 6 7 M a n u f s a ci et .t t es p t n u h or eh tc rr d h i a g i o i a h rahd as e n wet ir e n q gd i hs r re c eo vr ue f t d a o f hsa b i ro nip gc rea ve i es d ss s e r nt o n u e f le s r . l a h a a w p i p n r g o sv a lr .reactionof supports. t p l l u e .

s k o 4 f k a s sa c e se i b ih p r ao t va lmi i d l w s i 1s d s e a bg8 p rs e a i l e o e t td 2 m -v u w im e n i h h er 0 s t .’ d a c i q n da g in rr i e c a t ibdoo n u r b d m sli a p p u r r o pe v c a oul roi cnpr W t d e ss f e d rb ip .e T sm e s d nh i o r t s e ep r tf e i e i f c a s k ns k o sh1 is i a r nr l/ t c l e b h 4 e . n r m . csp li u f r lia c e eh d ad hs nse i er ig n i ad do i itr c n t e y t o a d r h a M oi tn eg n r s b i .d li s c o s e u lu f e s c h s a f 3 M a n u f a w t u e r pe l rr . mr i esc . pi f it ct d bnl el y h a h d e ee o e r a s h l i op S p t e s s d e h l l . r r d w p e C ai r ct u m f s rs r e ne t si a la h b m e o at lcc f l ol l p l eee en d l a e e . 7. s e f h o at b o 8 i i p m ef u . a t s e b r hs i p a ae lb. nc e e e o t m sk e h ith t e r 1a t 8 Ol sv a i l . . e ht r n r t aewc hm e d e r l x t a c i t e p a o t s i me n d a a h l i l mo uve a rob m l e ae tu e in iParts UCS l f the ASME x s w t ma l s g er i a v of s e s n Code by 33-1/3 percent. S a s d b d w l e te t l s l v d e le e s e x ws c s op hle c . r b u w sr h e xi 6 c g e lT ee n t d e u s h m 0n b . s a bo h d e eap it n a s a t r l u lT s o hh w i en gl i l c o n c e r h n i in g s t .1 9 6 S p e c i ff i t c D t i e o nh s a a ao F 6 S t t m b i r n irgPce a n t V i do e (n scs o sn r tf e e nl u s o r e s u i i r s e ks s a s odreo .c ne p cco r h n i i sw nf s o lr is c e e ar w o e e D s g n. p r e v h ss s t e s e n h 1/ l m i n n l m e uh i c 2 T t h i o cp k u nl f e. 4 L o n g i s t u id ci y a li o n m d r sis n h a i s e c il e s rl p l a h s e . Vessel manufacturers shall submit designs for approval when does not e d s n i o p t e rn c r qi s h uf t l h y i r c eek dnt e s e s o s g e o e p t i a furnish a d C F A B R I C A T l u. y id o n r d t l W t ch o o ec e r c unim fnse r g eb n r te ie fa i l n pf o ur nc ai vn o t i d a v h i r e a i m ay g s s e b hg ara f o alm u lx n a p d t irwh n e idt l dr oe i inr hf n o g l e u e n sm e d p o r i p l a c e n . e l r e e tv f r ti e fd ni eg n a s l w n g t t s s e h br h n d o l k V ei vr r t s i s bc h. e n o o fca ol l c n h ha e ii d e i r aa m s se t le thetnh e o r aas n a c d l pv s el l n a ’ s i4r n sh -g . a re la o l vas s i i w l k e s htd i h h i a rho a c ut e t .o s hl s a t t r he i n e pf o t ir a ca i r id ng s s un l u a r tp i a p s no awg np s e d . a n r sa . b d h se af . N l o n g ij t u o d i bi nh oa nll aw lt s a ol s dw o ewe h i co a n ar m o e r e t i t t l h a n d o p w l p h a rv e coi n r ps p eu e wr a t i i l mh p o sl s f i e b d l e s . s ea a h h o f ee b d l a r 4 a d . l l m t e w t h a a ih t tt ea hc c r hy o e e d .f e r r ef d s .s ee u c s k d n r h nsi agcp o a h s p so ms aei t e i e o t bi t . a p o s l o o l d a u c A w w e s l l b dh d i ba n lt o gm l e n ls t h ha ei l e a e p l r d o i c ne s g s . N 1 M s w . p s w l d e a lth v ae m t qe t t u e u d ah i s aol tim o d eu tep vh ro. e n l c o c n l a l s ah l b u hi l s e t b -h a u o ta d c l p a s l p t l te ne rdi ha n i o er fs o a ia sc i adn g n o l e e g p n .ahs tp . s a ua l b os fl t t i t l suh p oee wd c i i p f r i he e w a s p h s tt e o s t r r a i p to p t u or c n h a a l s e rf . i es o e t c o n e T 1 5 S d t S a p S d 6 B i m i i h i n n s h / o i c fm i h wue i 4 sm l z . aie a l g l s nl lo o e w p aa r b rre lnc is o s o u6 c rp r e e b e ed o e n n g ae iu a eric d r we a q e n e dh s l c e e b rh lm f tr l tl s o h i o u a rings 7 A n v h e o 4 am 8 h o . e s p s b p f o o ti ads v l ea o a d b d i o h e e t t te mlhs ea d n e s m af fr i k in soet ea d l la t r i d d nr . aen ro g p o lr o p e h a e n h l l f r t p u r c a h p s o ew rr ’e p v r a a c i qe un d f l g i nfr i e a t i od n . ds s lt s u n . oly t le s d u e b dh e i c r m a e c r P e r m ia n e s b t t a l sy l lt k e n r d b nu agwp o sil s t l h i p e to d tr t n n a c s ih i w r e t o pu a p u r c W h a s hbe s ra .

p yr b g b t i f a a i n s b nt v a e al n d u f s a Tc e t y r l e ar r hb s i s ch au c t yo rm m p m l se d t u f .i . . p ml r b ec n u aa l f h i g d dl h l s q e ou r sd a s dr n are a e f ni ofe ds tc a mt l as t i o n t e n et l e r 10.s h f l e o u p l i n g . W c h o t vb e p e r r nf o s p ea o ce e ci t o n r p rdu s ir c r hg e a r o v i e on d d t g nh a t m i a n u f s a c f t h uu r. ea d Raised face. .a 5 r o.ol tA a 6 . . M C o a c t u n o s wbv h a e p r yo r v l s i ai d l v e e t d aw d i sf e s t h s .as h d n r nh 4 . I n t e T r ns r a bl h as u ar b n t l is s lh r bee r d i a c n a ys tby tov a e l s .oh 9 o t l o 0 n g ia t o vd x fen e a s l i s f h u ° i e s l f .197 Specificationfor the Designand Fabricationof PressureVessels (continued) Whentemperature expansionwill c b s t c s 9 O c O F F e ma t u 3 i h s c r nh/ t ead c nin s g h o ea i 8 ht t t s w a e a s e d bnll ee p ie s. . .i e aa 3 rm i 0 d fo 6 . a lb a a p r e 1: ar a e t d 4i t o . . r a e ao b l s d h i t n a o i i l n lu pt d ai i. . l s a c n o gt naS e f t sl o h a A s a b n a c g o a ee a h f l n lB dm . p n gr b t e a . r g yo.z a h e nr e I 0 Sg 0 I b . . b Raised face.b o sl t . . R t ji F l a n g e s b hf t wh b r o p w ti W w t O T f t . .n lt r dai 2t roel d v a 5 e d h f e n s o b d u t 1 a t e l os t a m h i 0 d -i 1r d a g ied h ne i f go t e u e s m n ho a n xa y o fl s e t x n m l c r i e t c fa 1 m oi pe o t tn /e o n e o r t t n/e c r 8 c h 1 h l e h g . r Ring type joint. p eo n i i 2 n a g c s m s na e b h 6 s l l a df0 .n . r n t e d s s e t l T s A t l e s r b hd a e a ys f a us g n nl l oi e e fd o i o1 o p r o v m a w i l l t e e dwh i f 0a f s o g wt l t t ii g bn r gaee . . p p s e s nb h r i en i ag nf sfn l o a r lc oeeae dw n a f c o l re w d d rcl o o . 31 . .S 1 r 6 N d a l l tA o i 6 rl o s el 9 0 rf t og h e e b l e 0 u de I7 .sh h tl e s a p rdl i d h ell c eti o e p r o r t a c n n t wa i l u in v ls tw i h u dhh s d e s e re f wl l o s ee s a o b o i n tu r r wf ee v r de ien n c se te s r n n etha e e l e t I t u a mn i d rn e ei a d 1m d uo oi tm n r/ o i au a c e s h a i w p i li l h e te ls 1 eesi h c k n nn a t cs s s / ev il e Oe s sp s e e f al n h n a l n i h d nct s es e o s a thr elo dor . p lf e 2 n i -i na 1l gc n sa / h b r fe s n h2 ll s o re a 6 a 6 l tA l tA lg s a e n l r a d g lw es s : 0N w n 3S g i 4Sig i N n 0 e g S 0 b I ipN s 0 n ipN s 0 n vi i na psbc . .z m h e a e l I 0 n e i na plbc .l ls at g tr aiu oc nt i o c t s p u i rs f dc gt a e c s s n n p a l n k i n h a p p a t r o a v n s av m l i f t a t b a r l i c a o o r . . .v a a c t r o en cro e l . . T m i oh n iu d m i ueao m r de e te n ehf ro r b hfi i an ga p t s tim i p s c 4 e n tc l o u d t i sa t m o d p t e n en r e n g fc ’ s k o i e h i e .t erar r n l q h ual a i h s r k et t edn u th n d hb e o n e g i s s e s s u f t s e t s o te ve i sh ns r ge d le . . t i h nd eh s a o i tn ne e t oe e h z r e z wf l e en n l f d e lod ne c i m d n a t c e h k i a e f l i d t ib t 1/ fi i g n o m n 1 t o p c y r s 6 ah m d ra i r ls e m t h e f t r d i n f ge r o he . y f f a a i n r l m a n u f a Tc t su r ue rr p a ai d oo n w nn t c o o s lms de bar h u n rr g n il r .r c o u l fh r a e i n pe o e r bcd h i an g c o a m d so lms a ett t u e o h s t o s e f t sr a hl p i e i e n o ho h t w e i h c ea o l n r d e c ht e td s . t h 2 h c o n h c a s r d hwe d e e t l t l e d w l eah c e n tow te n lTe h u s b e t a s l h e d i l i o u o l o r p r o l s b ihp ao r na ow v a e i i i dl v e td / p hlo w un4 p gl li gt a e s t l 1 e n e c h h e e a a t fl v a h nb h s et p s re a tee e s e s s s t nr e e d e t r e l u . . p g sa nle h i l s n e t f qo8 ih uoeu t o . le h ei s u p b p c o o r st ec d r d i e dt t y lnh/ eo i r cp rc o ilks inwa o cn i t h d e e n a 1 ec s 4 . rl d bi h u n d h s a ae aW gt s t e v l d e e h r. . h e ir l i n c o cd a ns l d i s et o d se l al R e i n p o s r cb ih n rg d o f a p a w va l 1 s i d l t e e t d /t ep h pl l 4 e ot a i na h lc . .

e qni s a l e l e td w u n hca uew htlr t eideh ese d t t t o u o tt h h s o i a e h e r e o ax 1i f me2 asd t -e nlc iy eu n ca t h e od p p q n r re s 1 D I F a o p N S b I P r t2 o a i c l a T E C T I ts i r o a h en c x te e n n .a at r o n n ls i s u sl rt p h a R eldn i l rgf ot n r i i c u r ai r n ip o n mi a bn u l at g i i s lss p y pz oo e sr ut l i an nt g i o n . 3.t l s l l e We sh v h e e re o lee r. s n hs p e a a luo. The completedvesselshall be providedwith a nameplate securelyattachedto the vesselby welding. sow e m il a d s n l e w tdil a t V v i v a f l a v egb e rs oe b he 2 dq a ue i c. tao pl u r r cf h h e a k r ee y ra e ’n hs a t i e vo e a i e b en ry p s s e t r n l n s h r s e a el m ai l n e l f ov t c etr u s ep orn n f s ic b a l oy t o y t o l u h aa e r e i f i tr r y i o t i s p i e h c in f si c a t if os n . o e h p a i l A p p u r 1 e n a n e cp e.b bo pi pn s e I f r c as ri t n b t eo el ne a n nhlfa gal a ew t slc e i al s e r s td b u a oh e n f sr b s n e q e r e a bc ah o s i ln n n u a ua s k -t d w e f l dls e ad q et c r t e t h n l v g oo eos s a o e e m a io nv ta s e bl h m b r e n n h w a y s e a ia ls a s e l .fp yal . te n o e ua m l c n g T tb e r s v e vr ts i b s h e c e q a uw i 1/ lp i2p ls .198 Specificationfor the Designand Fabricationof PressureVessels (continued) T t I I C m R t R c 1 e m e o m 1 n n i ih ct ft t h h i i o c i k e nm el e a rtsa en s w a f lrr pnk s si n o b lrd a t o e n m u n pt s o u p h n g n a c / nh 4 . te a lg a i c a n p e l t h a b t r b a l -l f i ow n i o l y 1 e lh 2 c e.etc. e as r p nt r b i a s elbp s o h e t i n awn l n e lgd i a l g r e hd a t r l et a . 2.nv r i t c y s o rd o e a e a gd p d e a e t n dfr o e t d l h aa pd l d a n ts f b h h rd o am . ssr . v s o i . ea o r d t l s r b nh a g1 a N 5 e a A n l e s l l 0t S i l o. 5. a g On e . If the vesselis post-weldheat-treated. 3e omhn iy s n a ut s e t s n e e d s0 . N ls c l i e n lh e it i tid ct ta eb ta seeh gdb i o md n 1 P u r r c e h ts a r es e . . hydrostatichtest pressures e b h a ia nf t al aa i dln ote dq t p i a er t n m m e u r a t 7 V h es oi nr s o p i u a cg ct h n o l nan t e i .seams. a e r k ox e v rl d e de .internals.le i tn n d c no hh h ts o i. The referencel s 6 T . i s s n p lelt c t see e do s co aa sl r l t y d e b l n i f it r n 1. of the vessel shall be indicated on the shop drawingsby the distance to a commonreference b i h e r a m m n e o n t tr sle y h e h e d l p n a l a l k nl e line. w d lt c h e b e r i n n s c m c i o e at h oh r v n m i o n v t a eb n r l h bn p a ar l os l v s e w c o li r at r el eotl d s F w oha pn e oen i d o i o c n t n p e sc u e cv d tm o i t u a b rr sp n t b . 4. The location of all vesselcomponentsopenings.n d l1 t /aa et 2 r t tat hi a rl nog T g c s 2c n h i t e e n t r s b o h o n n t i w l u g o t ult sl he y d a e o eh ra d m li d o e n . ii rv h n eg ssv h a e a h st c o d t i ne ea rl m t iit y n e tr t p e e t s u f b r c a a st t s v h u e r aas tea e t t w ieo arn k hma a i na sdc h c i r o w r td a i ne h m h s r e l l s e p s p e c i f i c a t i o n . u i i n e d I n s u l u a r tp i s p n o h 1 r i atg l s o b n i il /s w e l tci e t s2 dthh h si oa hk n t h c n i n s u ls a p 1 i fn a o n cio a t o te d . 2 T v p E a s e r o p p har w o o v . Removable internalsshallbe installedafter stressrelieving. O. or whendeterminedby the economicsof design. p i lpl 1 s a v t ew l a L r r q eh o u .no weldingis permittedafter stressrelieving.s l e u o r s gp t w v e d e d s v t i e i q s u u f l i a a bt s e o f n h . Radiographicexamination shall be performedwhen required by the ASMECode ..

8 S w 9 V b G F 1 B c b S c P d P h e R H G M S S t h h t t p m w a a a h rt l b i. u o b n U A R A N T E. b owts w d a i st . c i c o er h d s ha t n f r gm t i d s n a p t our r eit t r c s i oe w p e r u g s r ee a t a m e n t t . s l bun h t c i d v d a e eo m u i a ro l d d n t . se ha e ei t od m m n eu hfnr a t f t h uu rp erau n e lp as y s c e r r o r ep p r i o t dre ua cn s i s bp lra o r t e a fn o y l c lh eo ph o f nr g t o e e c r w i e o t r a t . sl a n r t l i la ef tyi o d t a r i ih n y d g t nu e i e m e e b p i e n n a r c o n s l i o c o toa v t s e i p c u u sh n o s e n le . i a fc r e o m er h d t a e r k o a po n s c n s g e e . a nl cp i e h he d r r p r eu v e n ts a t i v t e . 199 Specification for the Design and Fabrication Pressure V e( cs o sn tei nl u s e F P R E P A RF A T I H .st l h c l i hpo bp h ooe ea ods b g l e o m l ex e d ner r s s eb a ag a o i a r i ht nd t u he t m ve r be d sh no e e m sr e f le . a g m t f e . m e r ha do eu nefl d v e u e cf yl y t oi o h ner eg trs aa e t t n u hf nfa . n a oe r c l el r se l c iaa l u r l t oyi b o b n ds oi f r h t a l p k s e a l a r t av c a i f hsun r sgnn ni e s hl mi e ld as g t p a r r rl y i a v m le a e a e c n ts e d e a R I EN P O A R L T . ul o i d i a n s l t d o o rh tco a s w o ti o vn. i h o d p t al t ba l t e e e e s l . r t p s m e n t .a t r as t l si s h n o v e e b d c sa r c e . d aug b p e ln gs l g b b . S c n nk g n o et g et vf i o r h s r f e .. 3 A s 4 T 5 F s 6 B f u h i h i a on l si ro n p o c b o b e h fc l el se a d h n gow d a rs t t t i b c n ya e eb hp er tv td ao rh te le b s o a lp n ew g n a e l n nd pi g r s r c w o v c h i ios e . E a n u f g cu t a u rrt e rtn tv e ef s h s a l c s f o ie e dlal l i sl t si t i o t nl s t h a a h e a u t n a p e c i fa i c a t ii of n f t i h n rf a r di ade t o tu s so r lmk ma t a n n s a h t i n p e w e i g n . NO P S O I 1 A o M E R N T ue d g ds n a h . wpge i s hsn m g en ne e h a d i s “ b s s o t r a pt o e c cc o i.l i e s r . - a M a n u f a d t r r e a r . r sa e n tt d 2 A f i s n lu w i s r f a . a a l t ell e ru tepbd r r o i h oc f a 7 V e s s b hc s e l ai l ed.’ ps c u e rs d hsai p on fr g d t i s u sn y rd r ri o es n t a g e h r we u g h s t e t co s oo a pte i.c g u rr d d t r o p p m a i r a o t m a n a e c a ell ts e s r ea etral i yr en aps l . ep as e dn h i . . e a sb s s i t c e a. ho p lp el de . l il l eh eloa rei no t a t n d u t rt se g i m l d eo se o a vrc o oe aed u s . bp ia l n . l l it s c f f h i y t d r t e s . er a tot r s av l p o e s r u rn si a tu l a s t a . i lc i h s : ”s .

. . . f 1 f D e v c ii r ca u m f i e r oe. . c a r o o e a o t i n tp he o n s a d i r ete d i i o n n direction . . . . . . . . . . 7 D e v c ii r c u m f i e roe. . c e g P r o j s e h tdo i io fs t . . e ’ c D i ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ : ’ : : ts t t r a e nf l c . . i n u e i gc r h e c o n t np e i c p e i d n t g o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ai i m e h tn o il oe nte a a t l n h u e sn bi t l h n n es r e ow b i s t s o ae er s i r . e h i c l applicable . . ~ 1° e e Q ! ! i D e v o ib a h t io o o . . N o C z o zw lp a hl t b . ibn u e gc o r h e c o n t np e i c p e i d n t g o . . . . . . . t 1 N o C z o zw lp a hl n i t. . . e h i c l applicable . . . . . . . .200 V T p A t T o d r o l l F T ics s a e t e d . . .o l e h rm a an scn oeeb ws f h a ay r s a p p l i e d . on n r t tm l i . . . . . . . . t 1 D i b s te a t a w d ec w e l~ c 1 i e t n c j e a n @ ~ ~~ r n o p a n ~ w a y e D i fs t t a r n f c aoh eo . . f h tdo i io fs t . nn te i a al l a t m o t o s u uh o v tr f e en a e . . . . e d D e v c ii r ca u m f i e r oe. . . s o u s t u o v i fte dt a fse c s e a he s r of opening . .s ?r 1s e . . . . . . c . m o c e n ot v e re wl si n si e e h e f v .a c o l e -s a w a c if t o di lb c eu e ol s w y ae e d n ao c p t u r r ed r s l a m n u f r y s v e e s s u s r f e e e l ri a n n u c r eo h s t l e i ee n r d swi a c ln h se . i 1 d * . . . . . re ei. . ! l T t . . . nnte i a al l y t m s u r o t o s u uh o tr v f e. t e a r n t c r n. . t f y s u r e 1s e nt a he 1/2 c o f l h D e v f i h o t r i i v z. n l l i a ef t n s direction . . . ~ 1/4 c o f l . en r l a ni t oet s th a be ht bi dw a ln i sp l er c s s h ea t l a llh c ei ti d i m c n l Q b & a : R : : : : . l f o a cm n e e c e n ot me r a lt r n n ef l e a r if ey n n i e w v se u s l p bs p ue oo s tl r ag t t d o d. . . . . . . . . . s o u s t u o v i fte dt a fse c s e s r of manway . n o c ne e h . . ml s o c e n ot v e re wl si n s i e e h e f v . . . . .s tr . t e a r g P r o j se c r n. . nnte i a al l y t m s u at the joint of structure .en a e . D i fs t t a r n f c aoh eo f o l a cm n e eg c e n ot o e rp l eri nn e li e nr i f eg n n t e f v se u s l p b p ue oo s tl r ag t t d o d. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .f ttl 1i n y et e o p F e Tray Support r. . D i b s t e a t en w c ot e ee er l n i n c n openings . . t 170 Deviation from nominal inside diameter as determined by strapping . . ~ 1/32 p F e .l e. . . . on o r t tm li . . . . . ~ a 1 . . . . . . . . . . . max. . . . . . e d ) a n h D e v f i h o t r i i v z. . . i ef n 1 t s n N l o C o z u lu p e f l s i s . .. . 1-1/2 P Vessels for internal pressure. te e h e o n l e s s b n i b a p o l b e a b t o w l o te e h o o n l e s t s e l r o t two saddles. . . . . . . . n l l oa direction. l e it nh e o s n r t reference line . between the maximum and minimum inside diameters at any cross section shall not exceed one percent of the nominal diameter at the cross section . . . . ~ 1/32 @ @ O E F T r ‘ + I t T o r x p t o H o l o u u Cn re p F d n o et s f sd U G . . t 1/ i D e v o ib a h t ii o o . . . .201 VESSEL FABRICATION TOLERANCES (continued) N o (z c zo n l tei n s u. . . . . . . .a t tf e &hell o. . .n . Out of level in any direction . . . Deviation from verticality for vessels of up to 30 ft overall length . . . . . . . . I 1 re i e / ef s ef s S 1 D i b s te a t o w l c . . . . . ~ 1/2 for vessels of over 30 ft overall length ~ 1/8 per 10 ft. l e it nh e o s n r t centerline of shell . . .n eg oa v z l 8 e s g de c e o en v t rt o l l c . . . . . i 1 a d d l e l l k D i c et n a ot b e oc . e . c . . .l . . . . . l. . as 1 t tf e / e t v a p F e u s n L o n g i t t o bd iip n a . . . k 1 k m T r a n so b eip r s. c a r o o n e a t i n tp he o n s a d i ete d i i o n n direction. de o d G d s dy v i 8 e 8 e 1 n/ e 0 e rS s n s a U l ro e G C u e e8 e r e m U C a a i au d e installation r O r . ~ 1 k D i c et n a ot b e oc . . The difference . . . .l . . l . . . . . . .

. . . .r p ~y 1oh r t t r e ts d t o a w n n cc u o . . . Height . . t 1 t. . . . . . . . Out of level . . . . f 1 v D i f a e l w T W P iw ai i t i o osl n u d . pm ~ eo1 r o . . . . . . . d a so1 e e l f a o c e . * Distance to reference line . e a e r e d j e c n supports . . ? 1 s. . . . i e. . t . ~ 1 Y. . p w w x / I * r n f x. . . . . . I 1/8 * z D i ts i t n v n s w . .202 V E F A B S I CT AO T L I E R A N C E S S R E L O N ( c o n t i n u e d ) T B s E v } + s S r u ( p c ap n ot o i yr n u t e d ) n a t D i b s te a t n w tc . e s . . . . Distance to seal pan . . . . . . p . . . . . . s . . . . . . . . .

g f t n. APIStd.203 A S S C u S p e c iP f i c a t i I o n f o r t t9 i. A283 C or D. C. OPENINGS Tanks shall be furnished with 24 in. h o SHOP WELDED TANKS o M m R aae q r uj iyor Ao mS fe rtnP t aI s n I d Z e f d . x 36 in. steel productiontanks in nominal capacitiesof 90 to 500 bbl.cylindrical. A. i a D C b b l bf i .r1 nF m e T E a id O P E specification covers material.6 0 7 0 9. shall be tested to 3 psi.3. t . shell and deck plate joints shallbe double-welded butt joints with complete penetration. tanks in diameterslargerthan 10 ft. The bottom and the deck shall be attached to the shell by double-weldedbutt joint or 3/16 in.. 7 0 7 9. design. air pressure. The slope of the bottom and deck cone= 1:12 WELDING Bottom. shallbe tested to 1-1/2psi. D.26 0 1 5 1 60 0 1 0 1 00 0 2 1 1 20 0 2 5 1 60 0 2 0 1 60 0 3 0 4 0 1 6 0 4 0 1 7 0 1 4 0 7 5 — * e e r a n c i l tn s g i d e H t t m y e . 6 in. N C b 9 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 7 T o o a p mW i o n r a k l ui O a ca i p t a y c i . l . shopwelded. and A285 C. the latter may be skirted or unskirted.aboveground.Fig.1 1 21 9 8 1 9 102 6 10 0 11 4 12 6 22 6 6 2 2 0 9 5 1 6 5 2 6 6 2 1 n 3 i n A / . The deckshall be conical. Sump: 3/8 in. A M A T E R I A L B R D E JQ9 H Plates shall conform to the following ASTM Standards A36. Fig. E through K. both insideand outside. B. fillet welds. (in standard sizesup to maximumdiameterof 15 ft. 12F Fig. extended neck cleanout.4 TESTING Tanks in diameters up to and including 10 ft.) for oil field service. Fig. PAINTING Onecoat primer. and construction requirements for vertical. Bottom: 1/4 in. e e i r .air pressure. MINIMUM PLATETHICKNESS Shell and deck: 3/16 in. CONSTRUCTION The bottom of the tank shall be flat or conical..

Shell to Bottom Plate Joint Continuous fillet weld laid on each side of the shell plate. 9 oh n 8. INSPECTION Butt Welds Inspection for quality of welds shall be made by the radiographic method. Roof plates shall be welded to the top angle of the tank with continuous fillet weld on the top side only. APPENDIX A — OPTIONAL DESIGN BASIS FOR SMALL TANKS (Summav of major requirements) SCOPE This appendix provides rules for relatively small capacity field-erectedtanks in which the stressedcomponents are limited to a maximum of 1Ainch nominal thickness. Roof Plates Single-weldedfull-fillet lap joint. A 516-60 The plate materials shall be limited to !4 inch thickness WELDED JOINTS The type of joints at various locations shall be: Vertical Joints in Shell Butt joints with complete penetration and complete fusion as attained by double welding or by other means which will obtain the same quality of joint. By agreement between purchaser and manufacturer. the spot radiography may be deleted. Horizontal Joints in Shell Complete penetration and complete fusion butt weld. S t a 6 n E d 5 iaE rg d1h t d 0i ti . The bottom plates shall project at least 1inch width beyond the outside edge of the weld attaching the bottom to shell plate. Fillet Welds Inspection of fillet welds shall be made by visual inspection. MATERIALS p The most commonly used plate materials o t A 2 C A 2 C A 3 A 516-55.204 WELDEDSTEEL TANKSFOR OIL STORAGE API. The sizeof each weld shall be the thickness of the thinner plate. Bottom Plates Single-weldedfull-fillet lap joint or single-weldedbutt joint with backing strip. including any corrosion allowance stated by the purchaser. + b t s .

The tank shall be filled with water. or 2.... and examining outside for leakage 3. Applying vacuum APPENDICES OF API STANDARD 650 Appendix A — Optional Design Basis for Small Tanks Appendix B — Foundations Appendix C — Floating Roofs Appendix E — Seismic Design of Storage Tanks Appendix F — Design for Small Internal Pressure Appendix H — Internal Floating Roofs Appendix J — Shop-Assembled Storage Tanks Appendix K — Example of the application of variable design point procedure to Determine Shell-Plate Thicknesses Appendix M — Tanks Operating at Elevated Temperatures Appendix N — Use of Unidentified Materials Appendix O — Under-Bottom Connections . Painting all joints on the inside with highly penetrating oil. 1988 TESTING Bottom Welds 1. underneaththe bottomanda headof6 inchesof liquidshall be maintainedinsidea temporarydam.or 2. Eighth Edition. After attachment of at least the lowest shell course water shall be pumped.linseed oil. 205 W S T S API. Standard 650. or other suitablematerialfor detectionof leaks. Tank Shell 1. Air pressure or vacuum shall be appliedusing soapsuds.

. incl.. . . in. R = radius of curvature of roof. . . m i n BOTTOM n ..70 when not radiographed t = minimum required plate thickness. . L L = 4 ~ .*in Maximum@ = 37 deg. tank. . .. .8D (unless otherwise specifiedby the D A O M N E D M T R 1 q fl e e u h ah e s c ek f 6 i e n t i tt t e a n u l me : o t t a h sr g n i o c a i n p c t h cl r eo s s h s .85 when spot radiographed 0. .. deg. . 28 min..-l S H E (2. .. . .. . odeoe p m o s a or r im o m t t et a n nh o g h s b t m lio ae e pi l . . . * but0not less than 3~6in. . 9:12 slope Minimum6 = 9 deg. .6) (D) (H– 1) (G ) + C. Maximum t= 1Ain. . . . 650 — APPENDIx A FORMULAS NOTATION = G = specific H t = = D = E ft. 120 to 200. . . . ... .A. . ft. . . .000 P N b op o 1 ei d G DR 1.. . . . .. .WELDED STEEL TANKS. (E) (21. . . .So u p p o r t i r n n C R oo o n fD sa e o : m R n r o e e ol U m b ~2 3. . ft Smallerthan 50. excl. Std. .So u p p o r t i rF gS e l f . .000) but in no case less than the following: Plate Mean diameter of thickness. = joint efficiency. a c t oi r o n sa e a u e s t e l r p ow l ai do tti o e 1 t t s a t in t chhm ei a shf i n e m e af s s t u r m h er . . . . API. . . . . . . 0 ~ i n * SELF-SUPPORTING CONE ROOF ~m:umt . R= radius of curvature of roof. . 0. .... . . . .in. . % 50 to 120. . . 2:12 slope r= R/200 but not less than ~lG in. 6 = angle of cone elements with the horizontal. . . . . . @ ~. ~. D SELF-SUPPORTING Minimum R = 0.. in feet. .m n F T T R IO All S e l f .500 t s l t ha h o m a ie n l s v i t lm e ui a t a m o m h s / n s f 4 . . Over 200 .

. . . ..207 WELDEDSTEEL TANKSFOR OIL STORAGE APL Standard 650.000) “ “ . Flat bottoms shall be attached to the shell by continuous fillet weld laid on each side of the shell plate. See Appendix A for design formulas. . . ‘/4 N s ROOF DESIGN Roofs shall be self supporting cone or dome and umbrella roofs. incl. . Top angles shall not be required for flanged roof tanks. BOTTOM DESIGN All bottom plate shall have a minimum thickness of ?4 inch. . . . . A 283 C. . . . . . . A 285 C. 3/16 Over 10. . .5. A 516-55. . A 516-60 WELDED JOINTS As described in Appendix A (see preceding page) with the following modifications: Lap-welded joints in bottoms are not permissible All shell joints shall be full penetration butt-welded without the use of backup bars. . .but in no case shall the nominal thickness less than: o T m D i ia na N a n P m t kih in ac a k l n e e s mo l e T le r t n c h e s ) ( f e e ( ti ) up to 10. Bottoms may be flat or flat-flanged. . . SHELL DESIGN Shell plate thickness shall be designed with the formula: (for notations see Appendix A on preceding page) (2. . Storage tanks designed on this basis are not to exceed 20 feet in diameter within the scope of API Standard 650. TESTING Apply 2 to 3 pounds per square inch internal air pressure. . .. . . .5. . Joints in bottom plates shall be full penetration butt welded.6) (D) (H– 1) (G) + ~ ~ t = (E) (21. . . MATERIALS The most commonly used plate materials of those permitted by this standard: A 36.. . I . . Flat bottoms shall project at least 1 inch beyond the outside diameter of the weld attaching the bottom to shell. . . Eighth Edition. 1988 APPENDIX J – SHOP-ASSEMBLED STORAGE TANKS (Summary of major requirements) SCOPE This appendix provides design and fabrication specifications for vertical storage tanks of such size as to permit complete shop assembly and delivery to the installation site in one piece.

e i o et n i y f fs g t s u aa n m us gs t e rc u a sr h a s s l O S.208 S u P P C W a SO I T C A H D o M m R ae q r u j iy o eo m fe rn t s m r I PC O I ND G E S p e r tt a i n i n g o I C A K E LL L NO P R B D L ES U P L A E S S W A E S N O I EP E F O R M U L e A f R S E n P t r e e r s n s a u l r = PD. e . wo n e c s pn t i d n df – r2y(f” d A) + E ( t F M a A o A 5r Ba A 1 lT s n M 0 t e Si a rB p la d a i hn s en t asr e st. n t . hs y1 t e d s y 3t t s . r 19 S0 .2 or 300.r e i q u r f te d em o httf i a bg r i ir ac la s i . txi d e t c Fm Me s T . I R t er -e V s c D i 1o v A i B t s ai oP o r iVM C ns fs e eEs ou r s S h n e le sb h f o l l o w e d . .3. 3 S . 2 n a s e s r n e . t –SA r te a iet n i s o p n e a. i n s t a l t l an o ips o . E 1 d e t w r m iai ns c i t % irlg e ne ue l i nr e e t h a t mf qf ts s i n p r o cu i d t uU sr i 2Ga n s3 o aS d2 e n n8 . 0 p e o ae l F . A C H B 3N 1 .2 0 4 0 0 50 02 .1 9 I 9 E P M A C A L N IL N 3 T 1. 1 ( i Lt ga P a p s G h ms a o h e o ) n 2e se 0 x . . W+2 .P(l . 1S- 1 9I 9 2 / .13 4 l u i t n a n sl p ee cl i r eis i i s c a y il e t y e h e s f m l d n x R t e e sr n a au t r e P 1 a 0 r 0 s . 0 300. S) D r= t = . 000 1.1. pe mo p t e E a a t uD r le F e d t s y i c n g t n r e x c r oe s e a l i b h m 1 i 0 T 0 a s . a to a ir .e – . l d t 03 4 0 o 40 0 1 .80 . 8 0 16. 2 A 1 IS 6 P t r e e r s n s a u l r 9 n 8 = P t e t s m g c g C c o d v e fd es h b e rg s i n ec . o n . - + S E +@- 2y(r. 6 m 27 s 5 e 7 00 o 0 8 5 0 m n l i b pm o i l t a e t d n y t 1 41 . 0 F 00 80 . i p( n di 1g3 o 5 6 6g t .r)] + A A a l l – 2 to 100 2 2 02 3 . + q ~ A T m e B 3N 1 . Only Category D and For determining M fluid p r o c D i1 v e i thickness and stiffening requirements the d UG-28. d l t Si a rB F sM T eee me p r tN r a axt u Dr lee s e o e E rc o e F ( . 7. co t .a m a iP a x tiG bu us )rop e h vp L t r o m bl u si t i i m p ue i e et f – o t e 1 e u 2 m l qb l r i .D Sn f e 4e s . M 0 d e 00 0 tures of these gases. U B 3 1 S . 29eands u r V s i o n I .1. s0 a n u fg a l c ti u qp e e d et s f i F M u A e A 5r Ba A 1 lT s n a r u r o e e a m o . s i u - . – A) C p h r o e ms i ci d r n i s b e e m s u i m e . 1.

etc. and thermal stresrses. 201 .18 in.grooving.02. c= the sum in inches of the mechanicaldlowancesithreador groove depth)plus corrosion anderosionallowance.2 Cl) 3.b. A= an additional thickness. Statically cast .5 Austsnitic Stmek 0.10 of the nominal dia9s0 1000 toso I boo above meter. . (Ct. the piping system shall meet 0. Jnd tu providefor mechanical trength.1.shallnot be lessthan t.3.2. . fatigue.7 (Code USAS B31.304. pip witht equaltoor.Summary of hiajor Requirements of COD ES PIPING (continuation from facing page) NOTATION NOTES 1. or for water serviceabove 100 psi with watel temperatureabove 220 F the pipe shall be seamless llaving the minimum ultimate tensile strcngth of 4tt. Ihe valueof y fur ferritic andaustcnilicsteelsdesigned temperatures for failure. .7 0. Where the minimum wall thickness is in excessof 0. 0.14in.4 0.8. inches = efficiency factor of weldedjoint in pipe(see applicablecode)For seamless ipe E = 1.201. . .idcUSAS B31. cunsidcring manufacturer’s minus tolerance. psig.7 0.or maximum allowable workingpressure.203) h Note: For intermediate temperatureshevalues t maybeintcr. ~ = outsidediametcfof pipe. Paris. .y equals PISE greaterthan0. . and to provide for mechanical strength.0(XI psi and weight at least equrd to Sch 80 of ANSI B36. 0. Para.1) 5.2.0 p ~ = for cast iron pipe casting quality shallbe usedin placeof E factor F P= internal designpressure. Para. Piping systemsinstalledin open easements. . (Code ANS1 B31. shall be designed in accordancewith USAS B31. 2. For cast iron pipe the following valuesof A shallapply: Centrifugally cast .greaterthan IY6..corrosion s ist~d erosion. t = thicknessof pipe requiredfor pressure.2. (Code USAS B31. consideration.1.7 0.4 0.) V&Y = coefficients tabulated as below Values of y & Y 6. . requires special 0.regardless anof ticipatcd smviccconditionsshalllurvc a designpressureof at least }0 psig between the temperaturesof minus 20 F and 250 F.grooving etc. The minimum thicknessfw the pipe sclcctcd..4. 0.4 0. . . . Fornonferrous aterials m andcast iron. Para. . Wheresteelpipe is threadedand used for steam service at pressureabove 250 psi.1. .385.7 0. the maximum working pressurefor piping systemsinstalled in buildingsintended for human useand occupancy shall not exceediO psig. . The minus tolerance fur seamlesssteel pipe is 12.n. . (Code USAS B31.b.2.nches i tm = minimum thicknessof pipe in inchesrequired fer pressureand to compensatefor materitil removedfor threading. . .corrosionand erosion.4 0.in inchesto compcn sate for materialremovedin threading.4 0. of ~900F d bCkrWdlti[] be tukcli iSS: (Code B31. 2. 104. trsking into account esign d and materialfactors such as theory of I For pipe with a f)o/ftn ratio lessthari 6.) Temperature 900‘ 1: and below I I so ‘wd J’ “* 8.JO. . inches )&D. Every pi~ing systcm.3. : d = inside diameter of the pipe in corrodedcondition.1) 4. .5% of the nurninal pipe witl! thickness.2. pi~ ~nds s]M]I meet the flattening limitations of Ihe applicableCode.5 I:rrrilic Steels the rcquirem$nts of USAS B31. or pcdated. Para201. Para.2. When not specifically required by SI gas using processor equipment. . sig p S = maximum allowable stressin materiistdue to internal pressureat the design temperature. which are accesible to the generalpublic o: to individualsother ‘than the owner of the piping system or his employee or agent.7.

s i m n t . .r s n s a u l r t a s i I n P e e t i ni s t io n l s ant t e e o . t t et e s l d c ( nh 1s o e t.1 9 I 9 I 2 n P t r e e r s n s a u l r R E F R I G E P A T I OPN R I I N tm =t+c c G ThisCodeprescribes materiats. at –20 F to p r bo e p ur owl dt eu s ecea e nc s i ’ s d t c f r a ie 5 0 t t if an a e arg s nt mr u.210 S u P o M m R ae q r u j iy o eo m fe rn t s m r I I C AK L PC I O N DG E S U L R A f pertainingto PIPEW C A L T A H A LL L NO P R N E S S W A B D L ES E S R M U & SO B 3N 1 I P EQ T F O C D O EP E . t e h o n ln i t s o tc s h o ah g c sp n ti e ro ao r n (a ne s 1 e2 3 4 5te e t e i f s g S o e e s e q u o it p m p e t n f t i s y c l h o ef p e ap d e e b n o f c a f o tp r o r f g ai d be o r r id c m t e e r d e p a f p ar f i i oa gp si m n eg o as r .erec. d a b . P 5 a0 4r . assembly. . 0 a 1 Fs 0 6 p 5 .3. 4 S. 0 l n 2 e s cn A B 3N 1 . design. e c i s i y nf s i i t e mr d ee n g l i u n g s . e B. g . 1 a . 8 S . or d. advised that m t a a x l i l s m i t um a r b e o w m l de t ir n i p u rae a e r l s n e t s p m a i A e A r5 SB a a el T t p i i it r p eh s i up e e s c digi c nt v i o n s A 1 B S s 1 j r n i t i r e . a n dte r os al c ue o r c o un d ed n l ss ea u c m i h 402.200 psi. d s t s aa s of o p p ee t m e a yt ta sin o i f n 2n t xd F x E x T. e a .e t s l l n u l m A t r B A n f p e i t g r a o le la pie eudn t s r u o l i d dua m e A 5 S ia a 1 lT s q m . nt . .mo i .w h e r S= p p t o p o a r a g r a p h s . fabrication. c.3 . fS G 25.1 9 I 9 2 R O I L E U Internal Pressure U D M t“ =t+A S TRANSPORTATION PIPING SYSTEM T C p r o e mi c id r r ns bi e e m s eu .l 2s . A B 3N 1 .e se n a t ih o n ea l r y t l E x P t re er sn s a ul r e ( w p a b t e ) r t i ts k e ( p d i e f pc e s xi g n n ) g i t o e e r n Ta rp l r d e h se h s s u c ireb nhg e d n e d w n r n e xs 1 s ( o Ie rr d 1ei s n a & 0 d d e l i t e e s) a s m ci o r C d ai o e cp e u e g t gr 5 3 i r c s i z e f . p c d e a i ot e A p SB r el T a o n i r l u t t o n ou t e c t u ssl tp h o em t e a r fA’1 s B S = 3n i h e e d0 6 p 5 0 . aiq d u s s .w no h s c o n s t a r u c s it e os n pa.n n s a . T C s hn o h t i p ad a p s oe l l w y t 4 : F l 0 o 0 ( a s e l f -o c n os n tysan i su y t b i e jt =mr t sc d e t se o s shu a ir c ekg au tn e d ) e p r w t i i h e c ( nh 1 o e S t. c o m s r ea s t s i e oa t n e s r . m h s i ~ h e r q u i rf e t m d e e m t sas t i e gr r i n ea t. s d i . a s =l 2 i Fn d e p c s p s g t r se s shu a ir c ekg n w t i i l p lr e a f sin n tea r s i r i a.e s e 2e o d t e a l rh i e ve e o ir i v y i n t g s p e c n r n d . ar e . = z~) ‘r t = 2(s + e - t i o n . i t o i n n a l p i c s a .b e l c y i~ on n . where h e a rc t e o gn t ra a n a acd i i s s ifn o r n i b u s m e s t s d S e m u t s y i i s n t c o e p m pd e ia l n i g n =as sp . For pipe n ag a n u oag r ll t iai u q e ria . c s c w r i d P a o n .o skr a e . i n pn s g p t g m o r a m r5 i a A r e g s u t l g a mtt i a a ns ga e s n . p= . a d g s e t n t t n d l i n e s .1 a. e w r e t eo p s tit r aip n ln i p po n r q g e nu g a i p pd a l li lc s o vt l a a b l s g i tf i t o C i c p t i.t i h a i ic a k n l e c e t e c . 5 S . s m s a s s M e ei m n b w rl s l y t i u Cd = no d w m .n s .1 9 I 9 2 G T R A N A M I S S I SO N S A D D I S T R IP B U I S I PO NS T Y I TN E G M S T C c h oo d i v efd es h br e rg s i n ec t. b.n vs sF i .

ta ln l o e s l wn u o a i i C k t t e n h o w ma s h i s n n B ae l T l a . y p o w m hi ais n c ak l n t 4e L il i s m oi P a D t i V o . h i l c k C s e o s ed ii n st d e n . 0 .ij t u f d i a i lc o n a n t y o 0. S a t .1e F .lo a30a . c l m a n u f amc t u ir e or s ’ l t n u e t s es . a . . a 2 Pipe b s e m h tn f el d . . s nl t e f r se s i r aat r a l ie s t e n ui . n p l i uf g t l s s t e a s r y q u i if r p e n m e n o t eC e r g s B s . r a r r o2e s q i uo in r T ee s m p e r a t u r e . e 8 4 F 1 s . 8 .e e F r t a r t e i a = p r a u a c n t q u u Ci n P r o 4 e d e d d a e 0r f . s 0 0 r s 2 l 5 e i u a p r o m t ee c a t f id v sue 3 r F e s e s . r s a 4 F e m 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 9 u C n P o 4d a d e r 2 e r a .ra d l ae le i o s e 4 a 0 i 4 b n.8 t 3 i 1 r e P d 8 4 . ep sr s a 2 e . 1l c . 4 1l 1 4 . 1 . 4. hn f V oa D l Fe u Fs e c a i s g 1 If o e r o p e t c m ta ni u of nap c t u r e t n m t i o l sn e b r thu a i naa c ekl s n F c o n s i d Te rma t ti i o n l n e r u a o h . n i o on f c c c s ee and i a p p c l ip o a bd ln B 1 i P . tc o e t r i i a r l e s o i d e ) & ~ l i n c h e s F b r m i a t u e t r l ir ae s l o L o n g. f s e s a o m t i l 1 ee os 2 s p i p e r .0 r t = = o b ft aC i r t n o e ao dd b em l . a a t l het s s tt a d = i t“ n = f s l t T e l n e l t =m ml i m sf .Y= c o e f fm i ac it eo n r t i a i c e a t e d : f e x pt or e etr s n s aru l rh e d . 1 3 F. 8 a l3 8 1 b . ee i n c c e t h ra eg a r d o r in o n vg i T end T g e m s D.s u b T l ho i sn h e hf re i s s u m r h n tg l f d e pe n r o e t i s u s s g S ur n ro Mc e ic d E e a n i i yc n f e lf e r s n o e .e l t n o w mh h i ia T t a en l e os ls t n k l h c e m b au r an w s c s l e h e y s e ee a p fication is not available. i n o i i rst i o rl l s u i w ao n n e s c o a l l uo w f a n m h f o. s l i . o s ar rhm g u l an t aex n t s .s e s t c f r o i r b me s ud ld ae t ss a c rf pa rb e ess dc r i i sb s a h ea . b i t o n c h e s t o c o n s t r ue c t i s o nf . N 0 O T E S E= 1 . ef e e f A rm N e a Sit tc mao nn da r o di a n dw u e i r n e i t q m u i u i c mk C n fe Ps o r P e o si st p pe i ir r e n ht h r e d s i i A m e r . r P o ie ep r l e 4 c o .n t = 0i e t e i r y l. D . i s i i n uc c o o r h r m e s si Fo fd n u n c o n t m ie r l rr e a u o n o f o a e r a lo nl o p w i a o d c ne s u. h1 T .c s a n c e . a 1 a a u l o b n r a n c e e 5dsL . d u C n P o d 4 a 0 e 2 r e . N e o t W tmT h sa n c . o t t g t i p C l h i s o a b f e e l P &Pi = i l i a p a o n c d as described the formulas.d a i l a r ut ee s a p nc o lcra r e u s r. n t ef ri p e o l ao t ee i o t n :t m a n u f amc t u ir e or s ’ l t n u e m s ev . 4 n = i t e e p r I eD f i r { o a ) u n / . t i sa pm = i t e e p r f e d f u . a g e a i n i c ntr h e a a c sdk l e n e n s F os l w i 1 . i n c h e s Y ‘ d +dD o u d . 4 f 1c8 .e p1 o m i l . at 3 C l a s s oi L i o a tI ai Cot. 1s u r .in o n o e o s d f e n s a l l o w oa n c ne . 5 0 0 9 f i n p t r oe te s s n= u r hr l u e . i n a ct r i le fqw y n i s in g o tes p . 8 e Fn s o a l l o i w i a n c ce s h f t ha gr re n oa d e od p vd Nh t e .f g t s 6 i nd is a ip o m d e .r 4 .211 S u o M m R ae q r u j iy o eo m fe rn t s m a r S n g m g e f P I PC I O N DG E C o n t i fn u f a tr a o n o a i p i c N O T A T I O N A= s c d f D h m e c h c i ol l r ~ rc ao l s. or . e1 . n d t pe r r sp n s i a s sgu r n i e i m . a h r r F e nT h sec i t d a .

.

00027 Ratio. . ea t r p . hw q t l s i tn d eV h= v : e o c f lr f e P r e r e ar a tos l in1 i Bg S : h .25 (lmstant.5 0.070 t a S 0. ur a t snn t ni i0 f . 0.0035 3.043 0.5 0.38 0. tn m s io r cn s .022 i 3.47 0.0016 2.~ or? Constant.0..041 0.024 Constant.4 0.26 0.~ or.5 0.116 0.cr 0.667 0.p l s a t ef .w da l t l t n d mu k c h s a dn i eis a o a v l a l n s t a g ae o u u s af a e he e c d r y h lsrp eo e h y d r p sr t ea ts iTn c q u l r o ehy n a t .031 0.= @ e .0083 4.078 nh d x L =a l g A D G h eo n t n I f = k m t ga T G F E E ii f bk te u sa t mun w pc e p eo sm e IL N E Somepreferable welded joints of plate edges: LL T s t i f w e a l m B I B L I O O d t m e V o j 1t A a 3 b i t c t n m eb na i t n e t t sta tc hf ag hy eeh d a in n o t l eh r o me li ot rn et y i t n w ae e k d b p n nli a g an o cs u y ei e s dd i i o d t e d er .f1ke cd i s n u gh4 s w . n e e.49 0. e l a t o u g o s e rr ri t a a r t n k h s s vae i ee s c a o rbso ne s oa f d f y l e R O S T I A I D O E F S I a s a i e l d l r u e efo ao hn s l e gB .34 0.0 0. n s t t i f ma e b n n n l d a ka f e t c a e p a c i t ty .0 0.se o : ( r: i )B5 e.00083 2.00046 1. M U f F A XS I MI U MZ E 3r s c h f y a ee at o g t od .43 0. h s e e h s s e a ~al o u n e d s / f 3 Ratio. ot c ik d.~ . G R A P H Y h e sa o ei h i g ro fr ne t f t f d o ls l h e o e d r p a w i en ne r g s p : s k . 3 / Constant.091 1.r t i eet qfry ui e ia c rl oae n diga u l na o o s u a m e r f t t r h it f c h h l i va de o r t sn sc s r c l e aa h lp H a mc w e oe e mv t . : S z at a D.16 0.5 0.086 0.213 R U T N Y D R OE SP T R T I S H R E A C S U R E F l a t t.2$6 0.333 0. r e f e oln Res e c c ts t i a d n ng u l af r o u K . m h el s g y e o r n i a s o fi t y e s i p t o r i e c t ta n i g p unr l n a fb ek e r o ac t b a les heu f as e b er aii ct f a g t i yn oh o a ef r s a s r o n u t i l o i s z a p t i ao n c e f .080 0.0 0.0 0.056 0.060 0.a h W E L O e t o PD 0. d r 6 f L b e o d e r t e6 D T E o w S I G N u e 7 um t f L =t V r oh m t u ol l a pl s o a a bni gn oa g me sa s x e li e l mdo eu nf m eb c l t f e h w e r a d w a l t d # e te nt hro i.

Y = deflection of plate.H/L (SeeTable) of p f 2 = modulus elasticity.000.. t l c s s e y os b op ti i l e t ao s n u m r i ef r f tti a s u p p o r t e d .psi.036 Gl% Rz = 0. inches = w = load perunit of length lb. ” 4 ’ ~ ./in. t~ t* height of tank.Dl_ ‘ T h i t m k bn u e a a f s . M a dx e i f ol p e u c l m i a o n m t t H = a 0 F G. the l s = stressvalueof plate.TablesUCS-23 = required plate thickness.30.7W 2 Minimum requiredmomentof inertia for top-edgestiffening: w= w ~ H I = W2Eta OA T EE N M T DA - W B O P T L T S H P P E O BR U B M g I 4 I 1 B 1 “ = * a sx p o m uu f m a p n o g r i s a c pi t i h i o cb k o n t e n s s o v e t m ‘ 1 G . si.214 RECTANGUI. inches REQUIRED PLATE THICKNESS ‘=’B / ./in.as tabulatedin Code. riches reactionwithsubscripts indicating location. c o r s r e o r s vi v e i c e .inches length of tank. = 0.000orcarbonsteel of G = spectlcgravity liquid H= I = 1 = L = R = t t. . in maximum distancebetweensupports. inches = = thicknessof bottom.. T h i c s k bn h e n s cs i r el a sl f i a . FF E NR I 0H N AG 3 L M 6 ] ~ S T I ~ R. b.3w 0.AR TANKS UNDER HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE WITH TOP-EDGE STIFFENING NOTATION = factordependingon ratioof lengthand heightof tank.

s o a c i h b e d s f h ta a p fe e d nc h a p k~ a n u t e e d os i g r e p f r eo rp s e i td i d o n e o r r o s f : L = 4. .0625 corr.000 x 0.24 X 784 ~min= 192 x 3Q000.8t S m eg r A i 5 a l C o r a r l ol s 1 w 6 ia n c /e : n o i o 1 . e 8c t s p f as uc p i p n o g t sr : o r a 5o t ae sv d h m x IB= 1=4x0 .l~T5 1-3/4 x 1-3/4 x 3/16 (. 36 i 1 8 7 c 7 h n t W o it t d 4 athf = .18 in4)satisfactoryfor stiffeningat the top of the tank B O P T L W T i n u o bm OA H M P P E O BR T E E S U T BE N =eb 1 =ea if r mn 4 2 f c s DA h .3 x 20.214 in4 6.808 = 14. /3 = 0. HIL = 34178 = 0. O u t sp t i l h h inO c r kg t n 1 e le s a su 7bl a a c a .57 lb/in 2 = 0. 0.063 R E Q PU I L R H EA D T I C K T N E S S t= 78 10.5 = 6. S T I F X FF E NR I N AG M E w.036 x 1 = 0. .063 X134x 10. M Y 6 s S e lb = L 2 5 4 k 0 4 i “ = 1 n’ 6 e i ’ m.31 x 1.43.18 in +0.808 lbiin R = 0.e l y 0 . = 2 6 f 3 = .h5 n i f e3 k c 1 h n t s = 1 3u 7 s 2 5 C i 0 a n . e e 4 s 2 s y .808 = 6.24 lb/in Ri = 0.036 1 X 342 = 2 20.6 X 20. = 78 inches H = 4 x . allow = 1/4in.215 R E C T A N G U L T R A A E X A M P L E N S K S D C C T P E D S IA G TN A m a t .187’m “ . r c=ee i d t 4 f .47 ft. : 3 t a o t a t c 6i gt p a h n a 8 0 k ff e al p p o r 0 o tn i y= cl : u x o n w t Ge 1 n a = t t e : r .

/S 0 .. t f h d e c p o et (SeeTableon page 213) o o e l ua p l t u d s i E= If = heightof tank inches I = momentof inertia.. L = l t e t n i a gn o nt c hk h fe. .216 RECTANGULAR TANKS WITH VERTICAL STIFFENINGS N P O = F m T A a d T I O N n o d lr i r an n e a cs i s t g n i g on t height. 0 s mm u o oi mr q u m ee d n t f Iti~ = ‘1 ‘4 192 E t. =G0. S T I F R FF E e NR I q s N AG M E Rz = 007W ue m c ro t o dvi d u o s r n tui i e e l t if s fc e a n l i f n g z= M i rn ei 0 .3W 2 2 —.i 3 n 6 = H R.lf/1 y f i. - h k e . 9 . p c . . s . 0 6 4 2GH31 . vt or a p epl l s a u s s t e e i f e p q u lhi i r ic ek n dt e= s e s t a n c a h 9 . a k a h e t t lh s iu ic a n nt l e c s e s “ . 0 3 6 .inq ?= s = specific gravity liquid of the maximum distancebetweens[iffcnings i a n on the longeror shortersideof [hc t s = r = n c s . ’ ~ 1 L l ” : : l l ! ! ! ! A R E Q PU I L R H EA D T I C K T N E S S t = ’ r L O l A ~ b D 0 .

1 3 7 5 = l 3/16 i l o w 0 n +0.3 x 20.000.036 X 1 = o ~15 in .036x 2 = 6.in .8 = 6.172 in3 2 x 2 x 3/16 (.000 psi L = 78 i H= 34 in B = 52 i Content:Water n G=l n s = 13570psi 1 = 26 in HI! = : = 1.0625 corr. 784 X ~1 = 0.036 X 1 X 343 x 26 13750 = 0.22 X 34 X 0.0642 X 0.19 in3)satisfactoryfor verticalstiffening 0. a S T I F FF E NR I N AG M E z = 0.217 R E C T A N T U LA A R N G W V E I E X A M P L E S K S R S T T II F F A N I N G S T C H E L D E D S IA G TN A E = 30.22 R E Q PU I L R H EA D T I C K T N E S S t= 26 X 0.24 = .24 X X w= I 1X342 =2081b.31: /3= 0.

requiredplatethickness.218 RECTANGULAR TANKS Under Hydrostatic Pressure WITH HORIZONTAL STIFFENINGS NOTATION E = G= H= I = L = P = R = s = t = t..3 0.000tor carbon steel SpeCifiC gravityof liquid heightof tank.036 GH s— L } Ob .in. sc u t i b i s no t rnt i i k p h tx ts i h b i g .6H S T I F F E N I N G S H2 = 0.036 GH2 Dn .4H T H I C K N E S S 1 = 0.psi.06 w Rz = 0.000. g it n ch h ef s / ne i .nches i L S P A O C I N G F HI = 0.in momentof inertia. pressureof liquid. n .psi.4 l r e e t o w a an n k . A / i w = 0.psi.3 W Rz = 0. 30. = modulusof elasticity. o c d c a l t n stressvalueof plate.2 R1 = 0.64 w M f t O I S T N I F E F R F E N r s 11= m RI L4 1 R E ta o i 9 2 T OF A I I N G M i n r e i qm u u o i om i r m m e e de n r t t n f i n t e r o m e di i f a frt e n i n g s t Rz 1 =— L’ 192 E to 2 .

ft.500 X 5.: x 30.44 x 924 192 X 30.b / Rz = 0. 92 inches H= 5.25 = 0“967 ‘4 .3 w = 8 i n9 RI = 0.0625 corr. The side ofacube-shaped tank forthe designed capacity: 3~~= 5. . using SA285 C material Corrosion allowance = 1/16in.000.000 x 0.219 R W I E H T S N E DESIGN DATA Designed Capacity= 1.667 x 5.25 9 8 2 = 0.12 = 3.41 ft. 13.~ ~b. a p 4 ip r n oc x h . r SPACING OF STIFFENINGS: H1 = 0 H =36 i . Hzn = 6 0. e 2 s L = 1.036 X 1 X 602 = ~ .k 2 l .750 + 0.2X ~ .12 ft.4H = 24 in. approx. 60 inches For h 6 i i n s.3 x 60 0.000.. REQUIRED PLATE THICKNESS: t = 0.000gallon = 134cu. (approx. .06 w = 3 19. Preferred proportion of sides: width = 0. allow = 5/16 in.4690 in4 2 9 4 19.12 = 7.) Content: water s = 13750psi.036 X 1 X 60 = o. approx.68 ft.000 X 0.12 ft. LOADS: w= 0.44 lb/in l MINIMUM MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR STIFFENINGS: 11 = 12 = 1 3 X 9 .

d . i a i n .000 psi t = 15’ 0. p . a = h o r i z iio n t t a c l n h e pr tii i t c c nl h a . 0 3 h 2 1 .a ma e b es n s r u pf p g ak e m e c o n o bms t i rc a t ol y i d l sy e . = i g n hl = 60 in 0 . = s P t a s E Q U I R E D P L A T when a. . 5= 0 20. 0 3 6 x 1 2l 0 = . vt or a p e ll a s p u e r e i fs e l . + + s s v t or ar e l a s tp uoe r e s af dl i .7~ V P P=ab 0.000 PI = ab0. .625 = 5/8 in.in.776 = om389Sq. 5 = 17Z r i 5 q7 n o 2 8 . d . 0J . e u . .036x60= 7.000 . E D S IA G TN A e n f g wt hi t 2 fd 3h t 0 .b E T H I C K N E S S L T R S O O R I A O D E N D R t = 0.000 psi. b = v G s p g e rc o li a f v = i i qc t u y i i * d f P= p r o l s i sl qu r e i b d f . L l E . s . ?‘ 4 4 . N O T A T I O N S c t r a f A= R e q us r ie rc ao e o id s o n s a e l t r s i o i q n e .220 T F R IS UOP -E P O D R u T K r e os S R E C T A N T U LR A R N O G A U Hn y d d r P sr t ea r ts i sc o e T a t v u o o h h is esto i df a f t e sne i on ilyg h s t d v f . = 6 0 x 66 0Gx *0 . 5 b5 $ s 2 .036 Gh E Q CU I R R E O D S E C TAI O N A L E R O T R I O F E S A D A = % E D L X A .e th 5 f = .776 lb. 1 x 0 120 20. n 0 .7 b x 60 0 x. = 3/4 # rods 20.h l M t P t= . m = s i = r e q p ut lh i r c e k dnt e s e s* . a = 6 i b = 6 i G= 1 S = 20. hz = 120 in s0 0 i 0 . S = 2 Sp= 20. m t a i . plate P =a A = 1 0 5 .000 3 6 = 0.036Gh1 = 60x60x0. Al = 7.

thejudgmentof the designer.corrosionresistantmaterialsare usedas liningonly.25in. This requirementdoes not apply to vessel parts designed with no x-ray examinationor seamlessvessel parts designedwith0. The desired life time of a vessel is an economicalquestion. In vesselswherecorrosionoccurs. The rules of liningare outlinedin the Codein Part UCL. Internalheads may be subjectto corrosion.A corrosionrateof 5 roilsperyear(1/16in. C Vesselsor parts of vesselssubject to thinningby corrosion. Majorvesselsare usually designedfor longer (15-20 years) operating life time.or by using some other suitablemethod for protection(code LJC-25bi). shallbe providedwith corrosionallowance not less of than one-sixthof the required minimumthickness. UG-26. The vessel can be protected against mechanicalabrasion by plate pads which are welded or fastenedby other meansto the exposedarea of the vessel.The sum of the requiredminimum thicknessand corrosionallowanceneed not exceed1/4in.The simplestwayis the use of teltaleholes (Code UG-25 e) or corrosiongauges. All pressurevessels subject to iintemal corrosion. Forothervesselswhenthe rateof corrosionis predictable. or mechanicalabrasion shall be providedwith inspectionopening(CodeUG-46). (Code UCS-25).erosion.85joint efficienq. The corrosionallowanceneed not be the samethicknessfor all parts of the vessel if differentrates of attack are expectedfor the variousparts (Code UG-25c).l I — .thedesiredlifeof thevessel will determinethe corrosionallowanceand if the effectof the corrosionis indeterminate. Thereare severaldifferentmethodsfor measuringcorrosion. Vesselssubjectto corrosionshall be suppliedwith drain-opening(Code UG-25 f). that are to be used in steam. .ApendixF and Par. To eliminatecorrosion. = 12 years) is usually satisfactoryfor vessels and piping. while minor vessels for shorter time (8-10 years).or forthe entire thicknessof the vessel wall. The tie does not prescribethe magnitudeof corrosionallowanceexceptfor vessels with a requiredminimumthicknessof less than 0. all gaps and narrowpockets shall be avoided by joining parts to the vessel wall with continuousweld.erosionor mechanical abrasion shall have provisionmade for the desired life of the vesselby suitable increase in the thickness of the material over that determined by the design formulas.erosionor abrasionon both sides. water or compressedair seMce.

It is most important that these notes be carefully read when using the table. the Haynes-Stellite Company.222 SELECTION OF CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIALS T t a i bh f uo n r l m ae t o i l pn o t af r o l h oi a w a in g n te tg e e am s p n t s a a Footnotes have been generously used to explain and further clarify information contained in this table. “Metals and Alloys Data Book” by Samuel L. a H o sw g e v a e ur m . In rating materials. Materials rated under the letter “C” may be satisfactory under certain conditions. The letter “X” has been used to indicate materials generally recognized as not acceptable for the service. the Dow Chemical Company. The letter “F” signifies materials which are somewhat less desirable but which may be used where a low rate of corrosion is permissible or where cost considerations justify the use of a less resistant material. — ) . White. “Corrosion Resistance of Metals and Alloys” by McKay & Worthington. c er s ees f s u l el or s a c d a a per and c a a e l e c c n n dy ui c c t di v i t y o t r a l . “Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering” and “The Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. the Crane Company. Information on metals has been obtained from the International Nickel Company. Caution should be exercised in the use of materials in this classification unless specific information is available on the corroding medium and previous experience justifies their use for the service intended.” Third Edition by McGraw-Hill. the letter “A” has been used to indicate materials which are generally recognized as satisfactory for use under the conditions given.

y being a plastic. D- ” — . it is not recommended 6 l bs l e unless confined a * Sources of D E S- A-A a r tm U- s at & C -: o n r J - g P .223 by any i c h e sm i t c to aa170F lbut.

....e c o m m e n d et d ... 5..... x s c F c a p o r 1 l b @ 4 s5 )q O........... ...... ... c . F........... x 4 ac n h e d ...................... ............ . F G F e o pc o n n d d e i = C a ........ : A A c A A A A A A A c A : A A – A A A A A A A A & A A A : A B x x A c A A A A A A A F A dA A A A A A a A c A A c A A A A A A c A A c x x A A x A A A c A A A 2.........x ..................... i r t e fh ao o o a u t n t n o e g n e x s d ti t C h e m i~ z w 5 c & v : o & l c a : ~ “ ~ ~ m E ~ w ~ 2 ‘ s ~ 7 b : G F F . A ...............c c - c - A A A A A A c c F A A c c - A A A c F c F A A x A A x 4 1 u n .... Sqo — ......... s I ul a.. ... .. .............................: $ A A A A A A A A2 + + * ....*.................. .......c c l e p n e z t e ir nt l e he .... .... c ..... c F c u r e V ....... d c c dc ... a 14.. A .............. F .... F ec rt i i u P ................ x l e n e ......................... A A A A x A A c A A A - 4 i gn d ~ . . Hasleiloy h f 18... .........e F Fr x l i f c a q A k o a o.. .... F F ......... .. TO 122”.... 70”.....c ....... r x i c d c e x h il no u .. p u e m At A h A o n a A A A r h ... z c A c : i : & g g $ c F c Z z c F c 3 ~ c A A A A A c A A x $ c c 4 a c c ec .. x .... .......... a c e t o n e ............ m ............. ..... ......... ............ u t .....A... ..................... ....... A A A z o n ........ A. ........................ x ............. ~ 3 E 3 “ $ : A A c g 2 c A c ............ ............. ...... F i ....... x c c c x x x c c x – x x c c x A - A x A A xy A – x x c c x x x A A A c c A A c c A c F A A A A A A A c A : c A : ~ A A A A A A A A c : . .. x c A ...... 2 ...... .............. ........ .......... ............r F i x d x eA x nl i o u m hydroxide ............................. sFa A ................ A.............. A .. ............. A 4 1 u c m . ... A sa r r iy .....x n0 ... A.......r...........................A... ..... .............................. F .......... c e 1n 2 ez n ..... c... ..d u t i a D n t u i table no s u o : o t ec o x = t N d r .... F x x A x m mc oh ...... A A A .............. A ~ immonium t l I I ........ h ...........F F A c c F F v . A c A A A A A A A c ......... ........... ....... ........224 C C w R O M Resistance Ratings: A n Good............. ..... All Perrentj.............. F A y t i d ei ........... a c e t y ...................... A c c A c r i i d ........................ – . F F A A c c c A A c A c A A A .. / C ..................... 12S0 maximum...... . ...... l s ..

27. — I . 26.- C ( R e R O G GN E E T e n gs g ) e C HS E M E C APP L O S A I O O P I E S a c ai s i s a t tS n ac nf e g ap s m R a i : * text a S f er o e n t t — 48~0 — — U n s a t fi s f a c t o or y R c r t e o m p t e1o r e a s a 5 o m rr 8 r C t u i e e s r o 9 200”F. UPto 176”F. 10~0 .

. x x x x ‘ s e u....~. . . ..... l yg c l ... .d e ...asoline.. c cx o c m i i d x .... . 2 u ~ t ‘ p $ b o $ g = : s Butane.....d u t i o t e fh a o o o a ut t nt n oe g n e x s x G t N d r ............ ...... A h y ... . A c Ao A A A A : A c A t c c .......... l T f H b 9 f i ...........e......... 1 1>..... .... .. e y ... x dc A A ...._.._.. . .. .... t m o — ......... .......A. x ...... .. d .... r c m i i : d ..... A r 6o n o .. A.A A A A A A A A A A A F F x c A A A A A x x x x x A A A A A x x x x A A A A A A A A x c A A N c oo n t t o i epn o p s e p u o l o d sa i tn g e e DO A ercents. lx .. o ...... .. ..... A lA c r f u a ... A A A A f i n e d ... A F ex F t ex c F F o .--+---.. c ...... r ~ a h y l p oc . .. ...g g ..... ....c ... ....... .... y F eA .... iA .226 C R O M A F G w i r c = C e o p c oe n nd i d a .... ..e A........... .. ... A A A : r~ n A ... x x c F Z h a r ..c A A i c F A c A c c A A : c c c A A . A A A r s . ...A ~ i t .....-r ----Z t h e .h . z : m g $ * ( ~ : $ * K ~ .... .709.. ..-................ .... A..... ....... t h..e c o m m e n d et d d i t o C h e m u 2 0 i zc aG l w G ~ ~ ~ ~ : m m E c ~ E z & 2 6 3 % + 1 ~ G E s j < A A c c A $ z ~ g : s .... ..... . o m c i c hm l C r = a a r pb c oh l i e i A cd .......... ...A — .... ......... c $ y d r o f cl c ( o o r ix6 c x dx5 d a u i l F > 6 5 x % x c x Z h & d x x A x x A x x A x x A A c x c A - A A x A c A c x x c F A A A A A x c A A i .... d.... x ct r l r f i a x xe A f o r m a _ l . ... c ....n r...A A A tA c c F F A A A A A A A c A A A ........ ...A llc A A A x c F F ... ... ...... ... ‘ oa .. a iF . lA ...x c % . ....... n c F .............. .A oA lA e y r ............. .A A B a u l bc u to a ny o.A A A r e y ...........l l C a c l h c l ~o u F imF d . ..o..r ..l........o-.. .... e A H y d r o c ( hS cl Oo ”r xi cc .. A c F c A – A A A A A A A A x A c c A A A A x x x x x A A A A A A x I A .......... x x c x x A x x A x c A A A A A A A A A x x x c c x ......-.... c i....n A . c . ...... .....................-.....A c A x c A A A A A A x x F x c F A A x c x c A A x x A A A A A A A A A A A x x x x F c ...... ... c A A A ........ -. . .... ... 2 A A c x A .. ..-.... .--... . A . A . c... c A c x F A A A A A x A A A A A A A A .. i x c A A A acid..... .. sour----------------------------c x x A R e . . .................. . Z t g l y c o l . ‘erric chloride .... ......... ... ..o ...---.... r n ‘ u .

r d - isce l e l o a 2 ~ z QJ .- n 3 z : c c A A : x 1 : A : A $ 2 PI PI F r DI C c P F A A c c c c $ c A c ? A A A z c c c c $ c c c c : k A A x F c c A A c c t A A A — E : A A A A A x x x x A F F x c c F t h n ge e t > A A A — z A - x : A A A E x x x A iee tex O – t A — . es — f .C (SEE R R e C s O G I T E E N G a i e n gs g ) e H E M I O C PA PLP O S O S A iR s a t a ni ac nf a g ap s m: tS e c — u n ~ > ~ A s b e s t — o Woven p C o m . R u b e Rubberb B o n d e 1U I s . e : — a . - 1 t f 1 p r o h alloyJ : oa .

. ........... H h f Pre$ence water oj temperature... A c x a u r s a l { a i c t c ... c c c p r o e ............... o ..... ......... v L a . .. c h A n a e S ob i sd u l ..iA m_x ...............x ... A l e :e c ‘ h o a p.F ............ .c L a ( s q o u l e er c n s ct s )A c A c ... I SVO . A A A F m : g c g u b y : p L o > g .. c........ i t e .. ..... .............. ? e t Or ( o S 1O O ° luFA-mcc sr u d A . ... .... T e ~ j s c A c A c A A A A – A c c x A A z * ............ c a A t s sl i fu m e A A A P r ... g $ ~ + .... .. i c c c A2a c CZ1A mc i ti d . ...... ) : w g a a g e : A ..e x s ri o x u M a g s n e ........n .... . e x d x x x A l u t x C o n c e n t r a t xe d x x x A .-....... c A A A A A – A A A A c 2c A c A – c A c A A c c 2c A A A – – A c A c A – c A c A A c F c 4 F c c F F A A A A A A A A c A c – A c A4 – A A A A................. A .. A F c if a tu e m S oc hd .... ..... x_ ... g $ A A A A A A ......... x d l o r x mc u H H N c oo n o t o i epn t pu s e p o d sa i IO. x – )x y A y c s i u .F . F m Fi Fd x e F F e sl i o u r x k f a gh n y e d ...c c A c A A A A A A x x x . x A x c x ----------------------------------------------. ic c c d C c ......- - - C C w R O M R e s i s R a c ce C a D n t u it o u ao s b n : o lt e x E tN d r i r t e fh a o o o a ut t nt n o e g n e x s d i t at : A t= n( i c ln n g a eF O F s oa – d u t i o e o p c oe n nd i e o ...... g ....... A A – – A A A An A Am A A .. Fi m Fd F e A c c i .... t m ) .. ..l...... _ ai _ n ........ ..... A A A A A A A ......... ... .....F . x _x.... -c .. a ( o s s c oad r d b oi a F u .. ~ ~ C m E c ~ E z 2 G 5 i 7 E 5 g Q 8 ‘ ......... c s x ..e A c u s l i u f t x x A tiercury..................... c c A A x c A c e i i d . ...... .............A ........... .... . .... ............... c maA – ......i2 ndx 0 f eA r e .c A ........ A c A A A c A A A A A A A A A A A ... ......... x c xd x x x A rr i iu d ... z c ......... A m c i c d ... c.x A m c d F e F c x ir o u i c x $ oh y p o c i h... ........F ...A F g.-......... .... ........... 3 a 1 ....... A e A A A A A a n S e( ...... .... x _ y u........... . G 4....... c o m m e n d et d C h e m w z ~ i zc a ml g z m ~ ...... c d c A A x x ac l i i ... c c ) a ........... c c .... c c c A c A ........ .......-... tn g e A A A A c A c c c c A A c c A A A c A A A A A A A A x A x A x .... cx m xi x x x x s r i ou d e ‘ o t s a u.. ........d e s o h yd d ....... x d c A A – c F a cc t i i ........ ? a a l ...... .... A....... ........ p o ................ ............A A lA ...... .... e x D i .... L u b r o i rc a e .. ...c A A A A ................... ur s oc d . F A x A e f 8..... x x ~ a g t...... A .nA ig A s n A A .... C x s hc o r e ‘ o t h a y s d ... A – i c C – A A A A A A A A A y d e r o x i d e ...... .d l: ( g . Ad A i t if l e M a g c n h .... A........

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.... H ..... ........... .. x 7 o 5 % .........A ........ ... 7 Gas...... c o m m e n d et d .... x A x o t 7 5 c .c A x A F N c oo n t t o i epn o 0 p s e p u o 8 d sa i . oS f d....... c .A A A A A F x c F x c c c x F A x c E c A A i A A A – – c .......... ........ . x A x o t 1 0 c ..... A . ............. ... l ‘ % G w ....... . Xn c y ce -d s ik n e i c h .. c A .A ... dry........... X cd – A – t c a ri i c ... t s l f e e ........... c .. . X F .......... ...ulfur dioxide..... ...... ....... A )A A t e a d ? sa w t ...A ....... A Z 7z z 5 c A A A A A A A A .A .......... c .................. ....... c J fa ( tr b e e o r a i ..........r An eA...A .. c x x ............l x x d x A ... x d tFr e F .............. e 4 aA r ae e r i h a i w s ....... F f u cr o u ‘ a a r ........................... F A A A A A A tA ... C ...............................230 C C w R O M R e s i s a t A D nG c n eF oD Fs o : R t a i g a D n t u it o u no : b a s o l t C = eC e a – d u e o pc o n n d d t i e i i r t e fh a o o o a ut i nt n o e g n e x x c N dr e......... x x .......... : ~ u 2 4 & c ~ ~ : & 2 2 5 L : 2 v ~ a K z ‘ & : A A A x # w ~ m 0: : T z : g u Q E z 2 s 2 i A A A wY + v t ~ w Q $ v $ u L o : g & : : ~ w w e$ : c & .. .......A ...d A c e c ii Uu m iodium th iosulfate...... u A A A i m o p de .... A A A ..... p h e ... x A o t F u..... A ... A A A ~ ... i . A – – r A x c c A – – – 9 A .c x x x c x x x – x x A x F c A c A A ......A c . l u........ e ~ A * c A – A A A A A c A cA A c x i i A i A Ax cC A A AA xA c A A A c c A A i A A C A c c A .......... I .......... ..... fm .... c H .......... lc i c di r o t x m os t d e u .............. l c c c A A c A c A A c A c A ..... A ............... . b f S — .... X x c xe A x l no r i d inc sulfate ................ c 9o 5 % d H ............ A A x eu i u l a f ( c c 1 r ... x 0 cd c% A d ... C ......... ~ .............. A A A A A u d l i wo f .. c A C t i n e .... r i c h l o r o e dt h . A A ea ... y A F ...... A A A n e _ ............... i X Fsd F A ........... ................................. d t t s t o C h e m u N s i zc a ...... n – g – A c m i A u l a ....... A – ...... A.... l A c .......... . – A A A A A A ..... x x . “ h A cp c e y itearic acicl.....c A A ” Zc A c A A F ~ulfur. ‘ o l u e ... c A x A A x x x A A c c c A A x x – A A F A c A A x c x A – .....A lA .................... A y l e W ...A ....... onitrate d........................... tn g e e All Percenls.... i ................. . tc A . F – c e t u r p e n .. u i i o c l ......

x .A – A A x x x t c c x l es — x F x x x F x x x x x x F A x x A A A F x c A A x x A A — — A c c x t A A A t A A 5 A A A ~ A – A – A – A A c A A t a S A A c A A A A c A A the e f 0 A A A A c x A A A A e p rx A A A A x x A A A A o e oa t . o — l 32.x . c A A A : c . F F A F F A A F A A A A – b a 330”. :~ . 3 l o s ~ g g s : $ I = “ A C R B z ~ & ~ ~ u ~ ~ s o u o b 2 & ~ : w & g . $ Q ~ o + 0 “ ~ .– .c F c A A A A A A A A A A A A A – – – – – – A A A A A A A A A A 4 A A A A A A c c c x x x c A A c A . t i . n c a ~ > . A A A F F x J A – – – – i A A u P P P P P 1 u A u u c A A A A A A c A c A c . u ~ ~ $ ~ w ~ e s t o R s W m po . c F x x . i A A A A A A A A A c A c A A A A A tt h nt a g ebt c A e f es - A A F x A .– – – F A F F – c c c – – – c c c c i A F i c x : x x A A c c i c x % x x A A c c i c x % x x A A c c x c x i x x i c x i A c z F c : x x F A x x ? x A c : x x c c A c i i A A 2 c x c c x x 2 – – – – – A : – - c c A A .231 C ( R e R O G ) e C H E M E I O C PA EPLP O S I T E E S O S A N G s i s a t tS n ac nf a g ap s m: R a i e c a i e n gs g . ~ ~ u : ~ g z g *J c A A A . ~ % . R u b b b b e r F n r i d c te i d o J . A A x — x x $ A — A A : A A A A A A A A A A A ~ x x x ‘A A 1: A ~A ~A ~A x x * 2 2 : A c A x A A – – – A c : – - c - - : : x x x x A A A A x x x x - x . : . v . c F c x A : D A – A A A – ~ x – – x x ~ A A - c c ’ A A c A A A A A A A X3 1 Fa] A A P A A A A A A A A x x A F x x A F A A 4 A F — A F .$ : x x x x A c A c x x x x – x . UJe ij n cw r o e ph a as n r e t~ i[ e a i t i .– . 2 2 * > m u a $ & Q . m : ~ ~ : & + * : 7 & 0 g ~ u 7 . w g c ~ ~ ~ ~ Q : s w z : ~ ~ Q $ ~ z m .– . ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ Q : z z A ~ * u e e n e b n r d b M i e s c re l l a n e o u ~ L m 2 ~ . c A A .

M A LEFT OPEN AND ARE TO BE FILLED IN BY THE USER OF THIS HANDBOOK ACCORDING TO THE FACILITIES OF THE SHOP CONSIDERED. i MINIMUM ON EDGE . MAXIMUM WIDTH in. 3 Q R O L A LN I G N LG E S MINIMUM SIZE MINIMUM DIAMETER in. MAXIMUM THICKNESS i MINIMUM DIAMETE.% Q LEG IN LEG OUT MAXIMUM SIZE MINIMUM DIAMETER in. ROLLING BEAMS MAXIMUM SIZE MINIMUM DIAMETER i ROLLING CHANNELS FLANGES Q Q IN FLANGES OUT MAXIMUM SIZE ROLLING FLAT BAR Q DIAMETElln. { MAXIMUM SIZE LEG IN LEG OUT MINIMUM DIAMETER in. 4 .232 F C N E THE TABLES BELOW ARE FOR DATA OF FABRICATING CA}) ACITIES OF THE SHOP WHICH HAVE TO BE KNOWN B T V E D HE S ST YC EN OL LR UBEEN S I GE E H H . Rn i ROLLINGPLATES TENSILETRENGTH S OFPLATE p NOTE: FOR MATERIAL OF HIGHER STRENGTH THE THICKNESS OR WIDTH OF THE PLATE MUST BE REDUCED IN DIRECT PROPORTION TO THE HIGHER STRENGTH s i .

THiCKNESS OFHOLE “ri-ilCKNEss ::AHMoELTEEi: in. DIAMETER in PUNCHING HOLES vliNiMUM iNSiDE DiAMETER R 3E’ ESSEL ccessible FO V A iNSIDE WELDING TYPES OF WELDINGS AVAILABLE FURNACES FOR STRESS RELIEViNG inches WIDTH ft.233 F NOMINAL PIPE S1z i? C SCHEDULE MINIMUM RADIUS in. F. HEIGHT MAX. LENGTH ft A I . BENDING PIPES PLATE THiCK~ESS in. MiNiMUM PLATE iNSiDE i THICKNESS RADIUS in. MINiMUM iNSiDE RADiUS n BENDING PLATES WITH PRESS BRAKE MAXiMUM PLATE MAXiMUM PLATE in. TEMPERATURE ft.

This support may be in the form of a filling material. or.234 — P I s o b e an p d t ii o A tnu n o g p IT bp u B P E N U o eet t a b h r p ad u N E D D I * B EN G h n e sh d n . for example. . w at i b a p d h i o pl e i u and method of bending depends upon the thickness of the p possible. an internal mandrel or ball-shaped member may support the inner wall when required.dependingupon the method of bending. To prevent such distortion. d R ( S t 4 3 t a P n f d I d i a r i pd d o )( E e R to 4d) Hx 2 Pe t a ir % va p y MINIMUMR4DIUS *FromMachinery’s andbook. wrought iron or steel pipe of standard weight may readily be bent to a radius equal to five or six times the nominal pipe diameter. os l esn t s e tt f qr e eu s a s u i n d t p li h e r tube tends to flatten or collapse. to bend extra heavy pipe to a smaller r standard weight. It will be understood. e s e e h r r a et n t t f i ce i r t e c c m t p a e aos t s nre d e o h s p o r i n o . be three and one-half to four times the diameter. when a bending machine or fixture is used. Inc. however. material.New York . the common practice is to support the wall of the pipe or tube in some manner during the bending operation. As a generalrule. Extra heavy pipe may be bent to radii varyingfrom two and one-halftimes the diameterfor smallersizesto three and one-halfto four times the diameterfor largersizes. MINIMUM R4DIUS: The safe minimum radius for a given diameter. The minimum radius for standard weight pipe should. that the minimumradius may vary considerably. H Industrial Press. as a rule.

2 3 / 1/4 7/16 2-1/2 2-9/16 b 3/8 1/2 19/32 23/32 3 3-1/2 3-3/16 3-11/16 I 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 15/16 1-5/32 1-1/2 1-23/32 4 5 6 4-3/16 5-5/16 6-5/16 - . .235 PIPE ENGAGEMENT LENGTH OF THREAD ON PIPE TO MAKE A TIGHT JOINT I Nominal Pipe Size I Dimension [ Nominal I Dimension Pipe A A Size inches inches I I I I 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 I I I I I I 1/4 I I 3-1/2 3/8 3/8 1/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 I I I I I 1-1/16 1-1/8 } I I I I I 1-5/16 1-7/16 1 - I I I I I I I 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 9/16 11/16 I I I I I I I I I 5 I I I I 1-3/4 11/16 2 2-1/2 3/4 15/16 I I R O N D I M E D NS I O NL SO V L A R O I T A WT I N A F O I T A OP T P H R EN A GD I N G I N R DRILLSIZESFORPIPETAPS Nominal Pipe Size 1 Tap Drill Sizein. / 1 1 8 / Nominal Pipe Size 23 2 Tap Drill Sizein.

316 0.860 0.254 0.791 0.290 0.125 0.059 0.488 0.173 0.129 0. When bend lines are parallel to the direction of the final rolling the above values may have to be approximately doubled.500 0. thick bar bent to 90 degrees with 1/4 in inside radius as shown above when the sum of dimensions a.845 0.087 0.090 0.375 0.243 0.519 0.132 0.032 Bend Allowance Inches With Inside Radius (r) in. t = metal thickness.501 0.169 0. varies in terms of the thickness.062 0.105 0.118 0.188 0.155 0.672 0.685 0.324 0.566 0.409 0.569 0.443 0.658 0.142 0.476 0.093 0.066 0.114 0.750 0.515 0.607 0.048 inches MINIMUMRADIUS FOR COLD BENDING: The minimum permissible inside radius of cold bending of metals when bend lines are transverse to direction of the final rolling.593 ~ 0.752 0.424 0. 0.236 BEND ALLOWANCES For 900 Bends in Low-Carbon Steel Metal Thickness (t) in.302 0.580 0.198 0.310 0.101 0.383 0. EXAMPLE: Carbon steel bar bent at two places.183 0.145 0.768 0.476)= 11. 1/32 1/16 3/32 1/8 1/4 1/2 0.382 0.952 r&I 4 ben~~l~o~~n~e ‘1 =a+b+c– w=a+b+c+d– w=a+b+c+d+e– (2 x!end allowance) (3x bend allowance) (4x bend allowance) Note: w = developed width (length) of blank.437 0. r = inside radius of bend.168 0.128 0.202 0.224 0. b and c equals 12 inches.395 0.289 0.367 0.474 0.313 0.211 0. — .217 0.260 0.078 0.079 0.050 0.146 0.160 0.777 0.661 0. The required length of a 1/4 in.276 0. t from 1-1/2 t up to 6 t depending on thickness and ductility of material.764 0.187 0.250 0.699 0.676 0.329 0. is 12 -(2x 0.146 0.

For lengths over 18” 0. &smaller 0.25 in.25 in.19 in. since in dimension “A” only half of the gasket thickness is included.5 . O. increment. Plus tolerance offlg. Length of the stud bolts do not include the heights of the point.12 in. Sizes 20 in. thk’s. 5. For lengths over 12“ to 18” incl. 3. Rounding. (1. Minus tolerance ofstud length Forlengths upto 12’’incl. andlarger O. For ring type joint see table page 346 and take half of the dimensions shown.237 LENGTH OF STUD BOLTS FOR FLANGES * 1. *Extracted from American National Standard : ANSI B 16. Gasket thickness for raised face.5 times thread pitch) 2. 1 . Sizes 18in.O6in.offto the next larger 0.1973 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.12in. M & F and T & G flanges 0. 0. 4.12 in.

on heads.. N E DE E T D FH O O L H P S M M I D E L OR ~N O N P R A C T G I EC NA E A R C A C L D L P Y T E D . F. the dimension between the . etc.. H.238 P V D IN THE PRACTICE THERE A S E RVD E F R F WE R O E D N E T TY A I I EA L A P R E VS S . shown with taded chmenslons measured from the reference line. line ~odbeshown for one saddle The other saddle shaY be located showing 1. etc. In this case lt is not necessary to show on both views the connections etc. Dimensioning on the elevation drawing. Show right-end view if necessary only for clarity because of numerous connections. can be shown without makin the picture overcrowd f or confusing.-w$~~ bolt holes of the END VIEW I. Select the scale so that all HORIZONTAL VESSELS 4 f 3nd View 1- openings. Ref. The seams have to clear nozzles. Locate davit. lugs and saddles. seams. On elevatlon show only a simple icture of saddle and ! he centerlines. If showing them on the SP~~EC~~CA- 1 BLOCK TITLE D.mg 1s m place on elevation. internas. The distance from ref. Locate name plate. in shell. end view would overcrowd the picture. All locatlons shall be. Two symbolic bolt holes $~aytdy tlgn%~le~~t~ straddling the parallel lines with the principal centerlines of vessel. C. etc. Locate seams. lf a se arate detad has to be mat e for these.A B I B E T H I E D C L S MA A A A VE T Np OE S DS SH BOI L OI T E N L I D E R A R L O TE R R ES C OHS E M E. E.. Show the saddles separateGENERAL ly. A N L E A.line ELEVATION w Saddle MIS~~~~~SEOUS ~ B. U RS E E TL K D IR A YAWG L W W G T A S Y E B M S A S N H I N E S T SA H M E C O N S O D T R . after everyth. L . G.. Show on the elevation and end view a simple lcture F of opemngs.

etc. 2700 and use it in the same position on all other orientations. 900. can be shown without making the picture overcrowded or confusing. T i o o r in e h s nt in t v b i ao s ec i n f o r a m at b t c a n t o ei o z ln i h o M I S C E L L AD E E UT N O S e pI a r a e v o l r s l b aa t i e o n o h u w pm . ) VERTICAL VESSELS + O r i ‘-E* e n t E a tl i e o vn a t Bi G A S c [ TIIle Block A. seams. trays.. Select the scale so t a openings. F . B. @ Em : u --. draw the width a of the vessel in a l s t c h s a a p e n f e a d r ea o l la t eL c S i f i tc.239 P R E V S S E D S R TE A( E cL L Io N n G U E S I t . e l i oo n h z o lt ne t a t w D. . mS 3 . 1800. S t ho r i o hs e n E . If the vessel diameter i unproportionally small to na s e the length. ORIENTATION PLAN degrees: 00. G.

show 2 orientations if necessary. L. . 1800 8 Lowest 0 Point of Plate “D” ORIENTATIONS . . symbolic bolt holes shown in flanges make clear that the holes are straddling the lines parallel with the principal centerlines of vessel. coil. J O ( (JO 27oo q . etc. if there is not space enough to show everything on one. one for the upper section. For vessels with conical sections. etc. lugs. w t 1 .. K.) Nozzle on Top or ~ottom 00 ~—+ H.show in the orientation the direction of slope. Two. J. 1800 1 ~ partition plate. M.240 — PRESSURE VESSEL DETAILING (cont. in the vessel. one for the lower section. If there is a sloping tray. Draw separate orientations for showing different internals. It is not necessary to show internals on vessel orientation if their position is clear from detail drawings or otherwise.

Davit and hinge to be located as the manway i most accessible. I I D. . Girth seams shall clear trays. tray downcomers. . Do not locate long seams behind downcomers. Ladderand platformrelation. F.207 times the overall length of vessel. 5’-0” above base. Ladder rung level with top of platform floor plate. If there is no manway. c. or level gauge. length of metal jacket sheet). or right hand side. Longitudinal seams to be staggered 1 i p 8o s s0 i b 0 l ef . Skirt access openings above base minimum to clear anchor lugs. etc.floor plate. Seams shall be located so that visual inspection can be made with all internals in place.12 feet” (approx. Manway 3’-0” above top of platform . Long seams to clear nozzles. Insulation ring spacing 8 . K. The height of first rung above base varies. “E” dimension is equal . Lifting lugs .2 PREFERRED LOCATIONS Of Vessel Components and Appurtenances A. Skirt vent holes as high as possible. nozzles. maximum 3’-0”. H. I & %’ + L. r I -. maximum 1’-6”. lugs. Anchor bolts straddle principal centerlines of vessel. s v . B. A . lugs. minimum 6“..if the weight of the vessel is uniform. H I E. Name plate above manway or liquid level control. Insulation ring must clear girth seam and shall be cut out to clear nozzles. + N. 3_u M. 1 G. J.

lugs. (outside diameter) instead of I. Certain changes are necessary on the drawing which are earned out on the elevation.D. platform. etc. etc.that the nozzles.242 COMMON ERRO RS in detailing pressure vessels A.clear the anchor lugs.D. Vessel-davit interferes with nozzles. open%gs. Making changes.. it is c. on the elevationin their true position. f Lugs. are shown on separate drawings. havecertain extension. This can be overlooked especially if .lugs etc. seams. The tail dimensionsor the distances between openingson the orientation do not show interference. . ShowingO. The practiceof not showingopeningsetc. B. ! There is no room on perimeter of the skirt for the required number of 3 . The reinforcing pads of two nozzles overlap each other. Thusit can take place that: a b c d e Skirt access opening does not . When the location on the elevation and orientation is not checked. Ladder luginterferes with nozzles. anchor lugs.(insidediameter)or reversed. the manufacturer does not furnish the vessel-davititself. but it is disregarded. interfere with each other. .. but the lugs only. vesseldavit etc. D. advisable ask the question: “Whatdoesit affect’?” to For example: Billof material The changeof materialaffects: Scheduleof openings Generalspecification Legend Orientation The changeof locationaffects: Elevation Locationof internals Locationof other components. Dimensions shownerroneously: l’4Yinstead f 10” o 2~0’instead f 20’etc. Reinforcing pad covers seam. but not shown on the orientation or reversed. 2. This can occur: 1. vessel seam. Particular care should be taken when ladder. Changes. ) . o Overlooking requirementof specialmaterial the E. . are on the. or more than one orientations are used. may increasethe probabilityofthis mistake. Interferences Openings.

A O LSI I L O N O NW . P W L T . R A CO D L T K S Y A P H I E H E L . R E H ST OH E A@ 1 T . . S KB A S A BN D .Y X . . D P T a z o W z u ‘ c S 8 E W W W W O P L I P E R BM I R L C I I T B N E F E SS I D E R M E P S P E @ SS R O A U T U R I R E E F E G M S W . E K G P A A I S K N E T T . D E . A X A H A A M O I R G KN &N N IC GT . m t I V R E RE S S QE E U L D S I A S W P H P I E L P I R P G B O I X N H . .2 PRESSURE VESSEL DETAILING (cont.) \ 1 . A x R R. T T . S . G ST d : . LT / R S G G B 5 T T FL ~ E * a z N B c W F A O N O L L o Z T I N Z E I u H G L N N CE G p G K E . R F E N O . / D S S EC N C F I EO M S D I O G R A P H I C I M I N A T I O N A T D I ON A E N C SE M 1 E L N 0 L I Y TA T 0 D N T 0 E ( C S E L I E F L A E R W A I H T II P OP N I G S H ST G U T B ETL H E I I N G L )O N G I T JU E F F I C I . Y T QC .

PRESSURE VESSEL DETAILING (cont.) OPENINGS m q ) ! I 1 5 — I .

Y.Nw. = 6&” S* 53-49 24*X~2“ X 0 H .. eliminatesthe necessity of detailing every single opening on the shop drawing. . Y I c-1 A/-f M-l /lvLET /%llvw/ly SEnVICE 1 2 6 3 3 /8’ 3 SIZE RATING c 0G w 0~ w0N TYPE — “ ? -& ~– f. yd” M//u.# 0 % c j 0 7T a ”/ & “ /~ r D R M b WE LO SIZE L E LE OF GS .Detailingopenings as shownon the oppositepage with data exemplifiedin the scheduleof openings below. 8 A MlIv. . . – — ) 0 ) ( “ ’ I 5 ( 5343 H —. “ ~/ 5 2 v // /~ ~O yg. S/l 5 M BORE 29Z” MIN.

height may be handled.) d. b. b. (height of truck 4 ft. a. With special routing.. 6 in. Oin... O in. 2. height above road 13 ft. width of load 8 ft.000 Ibs. It increases considerably the costs of transportation.. Oin. Oin. Truck shipments over 12 ft. 6 in. height above bed of car 10 ft. width and 14 ft. to 5 ft. Oin.. .. loads up to 14 ft. The maximum size of loads which maybe carried without special permits a.246 TRANSPORTATION VESSELS OF Shipping capabilities and limitations. Maximum dimensions of load which may be carried without special routing. 1. Oin... TRANSPORTATION BY R41LROAD. c. width require escort. TRANSPORTATION B TRUCK. O in.. weight approximately 40. length of load 40 ft. Oin.. width of load 10 ft.

l m l i iep ml i e n nvil i fre o gl m e e c l l e tr o i o rv n v l i h dm o es had oci t r o atug le l r ei ea l rt a .e l i i ac r i p o g o m ns t t y s ce al tl l e n c o u n t r e a r e dt i c en .t e s i t e d v t t e r u o a lh d . i s a u t r C O C N D I A T IL O N S E I C o a s S A B R A S I O N W t ph a m eh nr t ue i b nser tsga ig s a t o ht nh t e oc s oi i dp h a ntr t i i c n u l i an s i d o o . Oleoresinouspaints may develop m greaterresistanceby incorporationof sand reinforcement. v s e s t . b c i l i h e t i t d f a cP r t e to r e sa y a .l eh r osa iei y o y c r x e ki o s i n r c s l l g .247 P O S T S U ER F E AF C L E S P U R P O S E T m p a o r p ipa h u e t ns p t r e ei s ne o r g vs a t sit eo nTe f i o hf a s u r p a r f c e l e it . l e s . c o t e o t y n t a p t n t s t tr h o o p a pe jn a l s i i et i o n fu p etrr e f p sa r t ca ct e i o o p noh e p ta d r a t t s h b a n e n e r s f d f ee i rv e a ni ea p y r os p on o1s tr 1 i n0 F n e g r rt e i g t o x 1 atf o 2m o p c . i p c I m s p r o t i i n b a l c a r of ad s c p lks h e wy dgi .v e en n o t o i nh n o tg r aa r o e s tte i vr v n e t ohsa s r s m e a r p r i t c o c. ns a i a etn p g i l ns ic ss k s al t at . o l oh e r d bi l a s 1b i t 0o h i . l i e o sn n eh l c i a ndt pig e l em f s . s h s a l e t o o o m o h s i ic n a a t d a h e c te g tr mh ed t s h tr yo a rv oo ie tt de c tt s h o hen o e a l t n i t s i p l e p l .l t o l t s ec 0 o p %soh 5 t f 3 y a ai s sts rft e i ct n t f hu r r n tu t g v o a u n h s a q g i iue p an i glaf g i i p h Sa y r p ie en oxtrm . o n e t n n s P s ti ds e e v v a g r o i pr a a ae i ll r e ots i b ii lan f d g m t si r .epoxies and vinyl paints have very good abrasion resistance.i yv cp e e. c e e a a t cl u rt E C O C O N S M D E RC T I O N S N O I I A T s e l o hep c a ta s i eoi p n rr n f p f bat r ca t t ety o nc a h n sn i di u n e a ed i e o n p a p r oo e c o l n e m i c s . M t i s lt gdi i et n b lal .m er c . w fh oo i s t r cr u mc s t t uu b r esn e t q h u r e l no ht lp e l r I i ate tn t i g n i .u it ms1tt a t n g g o h t h h e a w r aa h n i u t n s f cre i d n o g h2 e s b r T h e h u p ~ e f p saa r hc fb ei a o u a gl t n a dc n i e ce lndr o st av s e ee fsh r a t o b n l a i h e it d s e e E L E O C P T I S O YN I S A T N F TM E S t ao t h b f ol l p l e o ss aw a ieg n grt e s i v s d p e e r pse sho c s op nt y t e s i r eh n ge u t e l a i e e s tt n ir m e a h du eia p n eet a dv q q tu o r f i t ai sy r o e c f otn v du rT s dc o e n a n i r o ii t i s h a b t u lh h a b t eat e de f a v t ee S e S e t no h r neP c m te Cue o l e ts snp c n i g l f r kr t u a i n u r i e c i ’ a i r e co m m n n d a s i od s . he u np t h o oo w p hh as r att ee x m f r ee l t l r e o n h r t m s c s p a i s c e h c e and rougheningthe surface. d e . m i c at e pr t m ia a h s i e r n fi e a t l .u i ht h . y cf g f s e u f 2 b r i n . Z rich coating. a S U R RF E P A C AE T I O N P A R T p r r ih e mq f u a si reus y i oc t e ej s a is t f r iru lo n o mh t o a c p e m s b ri s ae a u l l li s f vc d g r o e a f a o m re a e. a e a h t c o r 1 h b o s e . e o a f e i m p o F r m a a n xo di h m e u sr l m oe at na b. h o . i u . b o m f T c a d e x d i s a n o s S T a t t o p o i n h a os i r2 e m n oa l .and phenolicpaints are also good.u ie lb e ics tt r .o e.th r o o l p e t T a p b a r am h i s un u tie s t s ae tb s l e oe fh b r t e f i t a a s co i cn toh e i m o d c n l s . n i a f s e on tv i th o sn m eef m e t ap c re h i n . Urethane coatings.s e a t b t l s e r i n h e b p n e v q u o p t m a a n n c i f e a c n u f et r s .

then the maximum dry coverage (spreading rate) theoretically will be 1600x . one gallon of paint covers 1600 square feet surface with 1 mil (0. Losses due to overspray. or . 60%. especially with spray application. etc.248 H T EI M P E GR A T H R E U B t e e m lp e o r o5a t0 uw r . or in the supplier’s literature.) may decrease the actual coverage to 40-60$Z0. a a t y .60-= 960 square feet. THE CONTENT OF SOLIDS OF PAINTS BY VOLUME $% I % 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 Varnish Paint Aluminum Vinyl Paint White 14 70 103 104 106 Black Alkyd Paint Black Phenolic Paint White or Tinted Alkyd Paint. even more. ) . for example. THE REQUIRED QUANTITY OF PAINT Theoretically. the paint never can be utilized at 100 percent.s6 0 ba 0 °t f s F au f i c o oo ha optd h i e o n o gr 0 e o t g o r fn c s t r e i a s t t mi se fAn ct 5b o 0 r 0o . which can be found in the specification on the label.6v 0 0e surface s Recommended Paints: u to 2 2 3 3 7 8 0 2 3 4 5 8 0p 0 Oil base 5 paints limited period 00 0 An alkyd or phenolic vehicle 00 0 Specially modified alkyds 0 silicones 0 Colored 5 00 0 Inorganic zinc coatings above 550 F Black or Aluminum silicones 0 F .Aluminum silicones up to 1600-1800 F 1 2 0 0 Silicone ceramic coatings A L S 0 F 0 F 0 F 0F 0 F C O R R C O H S E I M IE C V See tables I and V for the selection of paint systems. If the content of solids by volume is. complexity of surface (piping.001 inch) thick coat when it is wet. The dry thickness is determined by the solid (non volatile) content of the paint.50 In practice. Black 70 15 1 6 % 50 & 70 37 57 47 . a blast cleaned ° F is desirable.

) Req’d (1‘7) 104 5. 6 or 103 * G 9 9 5.5) 5. 8. mild chem]cal atmospheres Steel vessels p w f t w s f 5. 2. 5. infrequent immersion in fresh or salt water or to mild chemical a ( lc5) 6 or 8 (I Not ( 1?) R ( E ( IC5) 104 (1 .0) 7. but should not be used in contact with oils. short term or temporary in corrosive environments p 9.01 1 ing 1 and 2 or 3 6 ~ 3 ) I (wet) 63 M Corrosive or chemical atmospheres. high humidity and condensation or to the weather or moderately severe chemical atmospheres or immersed in fresh water Immersion in salt water or in many chemical s c severe weather exposure or chemical atmospheres 4.3-0..5) i (1 ( G n .0 w 3 6.25 Longtime protection in sheltered or in8.0 404 or 8 6 or 8 6 or 8 6 8 4. severe weather.0 9 F G G 9 F 9 4.02 Fresh water immersion.5 4. condensation. TM S A P I c o .5 roils.05 Condensation. 6. or other agents Underground and underwater steeJ structures U c p u e w r d Not Req‘d Not R ( 12 63 ) 0 ) ) or for high tempera- 6 ture *Four coats are recommended in severe exposures Req’d (1!-18) (25) (8! 5) 35 **The dry film thickness of the wash coat 0.3) 14 104 (i .0 Steel surfaces exposed to the weather. high humidity. or ( 1.0 I 10. or 6 ( I . high humidity. very severe weather or chemical atmospheres Complete or alternate immersion in salt water. brine drippings and Other extremely corrosive conditions are Q present I 2 or 3 Not (1’. and exposure to the weather Condensation. or very severe weather exposure. & :. non corrosive environment. or 6 3. chemical fumes. Mi]s See Table IV 2nd Coat 104 ( I .0 104 (1 (1 I Steel s exposed to alternate immersion. . inside of b t w t 8 n c 3 o m Req’d Not R (1.3) I (I I ( I Ps i ~ 0: WL+ 3rd Coat 104 (1 104 (1 I ::h./ G a l L K 6.:?= ~ Y I S ET L N E. or I . ness (:?7) Condensation.5) I ( I .5) 4 5.5 (1G5) 10 6 Not Req’d 3 ** Not Req’d 3 ** 3 H (lHs) 9 ( 1!5) (192) (1:5) (1% (1?) H H 6. solvents. condensation.. P T System Number s C A I BS A z N T I N G E .03 Dry. or chemical atmospheres 4.r G 6..5) I 03 (I 5.::.= @ 1St Coat Paint and Dry Thickness.01 accessible places.0 I G G G (2.

oo Zinc-rich coatings comprise a number of different commercial types such as: chlorinated rubber. 3 BASIC ZINC CHROMATE-VINYL BUTYRAL WASHCOAT(Wash Primer) Pretreatment which reacts with the metal and at the same time forms a protective vinyl film which contains an inhibitive pigment to help prevent rusting. 2 C C P O H o n v t O S L P U AR T R E E A A C M E N ST 2 P S H DT F T E S es r u of rsteel gto insoluble salts t i hn f a ce e C- of phosphoric acid for the purpose of inhibiting corrosion and improving the adhesion and performance of paints to be applied. With proper topcoating in brackish and seawater immersion and exposure to chemical acid and A P I BS A o . styrene. fresh water immersion. HOT PHOSPHATE SURFACE TREATMENT Converting the surface of steel to a heavy crystallinelayex of insoluble salts of phosporic acid for the purpose of inhibiting corrosion and improving the adhesion and performance of paints to be applied. mists High humidity or marine atmospheric exposures..I T S e To e a iP ut rn l p oe S sd p e e c i f i c N u m P 1-64 C T R I E NA T I G T M E L N T S S Saturation of the surface layer of rusty and scaled steel with wetting oil that is compatible with the priming paint. urethanes.Zg Not Req’d E- n . T M n Su E t i a 2nd Coat e d ) n P 1 coat (’l:) a T 3rd Coat nc h i iroils nk & ::!t . tidal and splash zone exposure. I subject to chemical exposure such as acid and alkali. chemical fumes. SSPC-PT3-64 4 SSPC-PT4-64 . Epoxy Paint System T R t T 1 I a W b E e f e r e n A I c l T O P RB E I T R E AI T P E E N F I C A T I C I N S L E M C .Uz= Ob Y I S E To L ( cN G . condensation.= gbl . .250 T {stem Imber sPcPs Fresh or sea water immersion. crude oil. polyesters. thus improving the adhesion and performance of the paint system to be applied. sewageand alkalies. I (’l:) 32 I ~. vinyls. silicones. burial in soil and exposure of brine. epoxies.:- te See Table IV : ?J&~ 6 :.

followedby wirebrushing. mill scale oxides or slight.or by combination of these methods. soil.2 .paint or foreign matter completely except for slight shadows. dirt. POWER TOOLCLEANING Removalof loose mill scale. grease.rust. or by electrolysis. alkali. paint. streaks. rust. HANDTOOLCLEANING Removalof loose mill scale. or discolorationscaused by rust. FLAMECLEANING NEWSTEEL OF Removal of scale.loose rust. grit. or foreign matter by the use of abrasives (sand.paint or foreignmatter by the use of sand. Very light shadows. or by combinationof thesemethods. shot).power sanders. COMMERCIALLASTCLEANING B Removalof mill scale.or by both. power grinders. NEAR-WHITE LASTCLEANING B Removalof nearly all mill scale.tight residuesof paint or coatingmay remain. WHITE METALBLASTCLEANING Removalof all mill scale. and loose paint by hand brushing. rust-scale. and rustscale by chemical reaction. and contaminantswith solvents.hand chippingor other hand impact tools. or smut. grit or shot) PICKLING Completeremovalof all mill scale. and loose paint with power wire brushes.emulsions. SSPC-SP 2-63 SSPC-SP 3-63 SSPC-SP 443 SSPC-SP 5-63 SSPC-SP 6-63 SSPC-SP 7-63 SSPC-SP 8-63 SSPC-SP 10453T I . or slight discolorationscaused by rust stain. or slight.veryslight streaks. rust and other detrimental foreign matter by high-velocity oxyacetylene flames. BRUSH-OFF BLASTCLEANING Removalof all except tightly adheringresidues of mill scale. rust.rust. (Sand. grit or shot to obtaina gray-wh~te. uniformmetalliccolor surface. rust-scale.tight residuesof paint or coating that may remain.hand sanding. power impact tools. I n SB U c e T e E E AN N T I N G A I N T I N G 5 PL R FE E A CRS A T lI FO I N A T I O N S R P A IE ~ ~ C oa iP ut rn l p oe sd S p e c i f i c a t i e N u m b S 1-63 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Removalof oil. The surface shall be free of unreacted or harmfulacid. millscale oxides. — P T % t T 1 I a S b O l L C V L e f e r e A.or steam. rust and paint by the impact of abrasives.loose rust. stain.hand scraping. rust-scale. salts.cleaningcompounds.

102 103-64TNO. Type II-yellow. L I e O e ax r a P d o dV n i h d e . Gray No. mixed pigmentalkyd-linseed oil Type 111red lead alkyd Primer. Iron Oxide. MAP44 X’2 MIL-E-1593513 . iron oxide. Outside. 11 and Alkyd Primer 12-64 No. 16 Black Alkyd Paint 102%4 No. White.~ TT-P-86C ~z TT-P-86C 32 z~ TT-P-645 ~k MIL-P-15929B ~ j MIL-P-16738B ~ 2 MIL-P-15929B ~ & a II VR-3 Lg MIL-P-15931A I > * !+. Vinyl-Red Lead Type Vinyl Resin Paint Paint. 15 Steel Joist Shop Paint Coal Tar Epoxy-Polyamide Black (or Dark Red) Paint 16-68TN0. Red-Lead Base. 12 Cold Applied Asphalt Mastic (Extra Thick Film) 13-64 No. Zinc Yellow-Iron Oxide Base. ai O n e s t c a . Outside. 103 Black Phenolic Paint White or Tinted Alkyd Paint. alkyd Type Paint.— A B c D E F G H I J K L M N o P 11-64TN0. Vinyl-Alkyd. Alkyd Type Primer.5 : MIL-E-15936B ~ ~ 52-MA602a ~ . Bituminous Emulsion TT-P-86C : ~ m “ & ~ . Ready Mixed. Outside. Iron Oxide and Alkyd Intermediate Paint 10744TNO. 13 Red or Brown One-Coat Shop Paint 14454TNo.252 —— . e iw e d 12 13 14 15 16 102 103 104 106 107 . Rust Preventive Coal Tar Enamel and Primers Coal Tar Base Coating Coating. Boottopping. 11 (Vinyl-Alkyd) Enamel. 27 (Vinyl-Alkyd) Compounds. Iron Oxide & Linseed Oil Primer 15%8TN0. 9 . 14 Red Lead. III.Z z. Ready-Mixed Type I red lead-raw and bodied linseed oil Type II red lead. and Fractionated Linseed Oil Primer E P Z R A W R tR e L n R d a e Bd e e a aLd o r i m e r D Z u O i nx s a P i c dV n i t n h e . Vinyl. Zinc Chromate.5 MIL-P-15147C j z MIL-C-18480A ~ ~ MIL<-15203c . 1 2 344TN0. 2-64 No. h 5 ek a d ic i n 6 c i -s 6 hn 64 na P o r. P T :e t ~ 1 r 1 a e b n l c fe Mo e A A I I P N B A T I W LI N N E G T . II. 104 Black Vinyl Paint 106-64 No. alkyd Paint. S a t e r i a l N u m b 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 1 Red Lead and Raw Linseed Oil Primer Red Lead. Types I. Paint. 106 Red Lead. Gray No. Bright Red Undercoat and Indian Red Finish Coat Enamel. d 4 6 44 na P o r. IV 10444 No. l n d i en ai 8-64 No. l u V m Pi i n a u n mi y ( hC o i V o ot P i r eea n dr l I O re x Z Ci 1 o i d r dRo en L h n m x 1-64TN0. Vinyl Type Paints. l n i 5-64T sNo. 8 n l t 9 i) y n l t -64 No. Raw Linseed Oil and Alkyd Primer Red Lead. 3 m z l : T N + t < Tt N : ~ U l n d O n i ws e d e di e di . Antifouling. Iron Oxide. 107 Paint.

e .o. . 1 3. . 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 A a c g e c l . . . . 1 l A l m o e . 4 2 2 4 4 2 4 . . . . 1 1 2 2 1 2 p u h a1 Ammonia. 3 1 3 c r ii 2 n d o H y d r oa f l 1 uc o . . . Chloroform. . . 1 1 1 . o . . . . p 4 h 4i 1 d 1 e 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 . i. . .h . .T L A N C A E T R M E A C O M A Acetaldehyde . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 1 3 Ferric sulphate.i . . . 1 3 . 4 4 4 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 . e. o r 1 lo 1 . . 4 2 2 4 4 2 4 . 2 4 31 1 . i 1 n 1 d 1 e 1 . . . 1r 1i 1 2e 2. . . . . 3 3 1 r 1 i H y d r o a c h3 lc o . i c % C h a r 6 o c . 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 4 3 31 C a c l h c .i . . . . . . 1ml1 l 1 a 1 . o 1 r1 mi 1 d1 1e 3 . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 F o r m a l 4 e .i 2i 20 2 d 4 3 3 . .h 1 l 1y . . . 1 1 3 3 1 2 u e 1 Mdline. 4 4 4 1 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 Boric acid . .h . . . 1 2 1 1 1 11 c . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 H y d r o a c h1 lc o . . . H y d r oa f l 4 uc o . r 1. . c Gasoline . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 11 Ferric chloride. . . amyl . 1 i0 c1 1 d1. 1 Acetone .1 1 3 3 1 2 u e 1 A m m s o u n l . . . 1 h1 ma 1 t1 1 3 . . . . . . . . . ux i1 d1 e 2 . . t. . . 4 4 4 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Ethylene glycol .y. . 0 c 1 F oa r c m. c % Citric acid. . . .n . . m . . . . i. . . . h . . . u1 1 m1 1 1 e1 2 1 1 2 2 1 r i d C a h l y c r .p. 1 1 0. .n. . . . . . 1 2 2 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 4 3 4 C h l o r o b . r1 1 am 1t 1 1 3 . m . h t . .o 4 n 1 C at e tr r a bc . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 21 1 C os u p l . . 1 m C a h l y pc o c . . . . . 1 2 c 1 1 1 3 1. . . . . 3 3 3 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 Alcohol. . 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 1 3 A m m n o i n . . . . .h . . . 1 . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 A l ic s o o h . . . . 10% . . . . 4 4 1 1 1 1 2 41 1 Glycerine . u1 o mr2 i 3 t 2e 2 4 1 1 2 21 i l 2 C ad i r s ub . r ii c 1 0 1 d 1 1 3 2% 2 2 21 .1 1 3 3 1 2 .p. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Butyl acetate. . . . . . . . . o . 1 3 . . p . . . . .1 1 1 1 3 % 1 2 2 1 d . 1 1.o4o 4r 4i 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 l n d e . 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 A l b c n o o t . u 1 Ammonium hydroxide . . .o . . 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 1 3 A m m c o h n l . .2 P T A C V H B E I N IN A T T I C E F RG I N A L L E I S CI S O. . . 1 2 c 1 1 1 3e 1. 1 i % 3 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 4 1 3 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 . . . 1 1 2 21 1 d . 2 2 2 2 1 . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 tr 1 Diethyl ether. . . 1 2 . . . . . . u m d A l u s mu i l . . . e1 a 1 1 1e 1 . Chlorine gas . t . . . .no . ethyl . . . . r i2 c1 01 d1 1 3 . . . . . i 1 1 d1 % 1 . 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 Acetic acid. . . 1 3 21 1 c .i .l . . i. . . . . . . i 1 c2 dc i 1 1 a1 4 l 3 3 4 4 3 4 i . . . l A l u c m h i l .%1 3 . . 4 4 4 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 C h a r 1 o c . . 1 1 2 2 1 2 . . liquid . 2 3 2 24 4 Benzene . .p1 y 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 . .2 2 2 2 1 u h oy l Alcohol. . . . a. . 3 1 3 r ii 2 0 d % H y d r o a c h lc o . . . .i 2 20 2 d 4 3 3 . 1 3.i . . . . 1 1 m 1t 1 e1 4. z n e . . . . . . l. . . . d e 1 F oa r c m. . . . .

.r 1i i 1 c0 d 1 1 . .z.3 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 Oxalic acid . . . t o e 1 4 4 2 4 1 1 2 Mineral oil . . . . . o u s 1 : i . 1 1 1 Phenol. n e .i % . . . 1 1 1 2 P o t h a y s d s r2 i o u x2 mi1 : 02e 2 . u 1 dr1 1 1 .3 3 i H y dp re o 3 o . . i. . pi. 3 1 23 . . . 10% . . 4 1 1 % 2 1 3 1 d 3 2 4 e P o t h a y s d s r9 i o u x2 mi1 d 52 2 . . . Nitric acid. . . % 1 P h o sa p ch c o . .2 2 1 2 h . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 S o s ud l . . 4 s nu a 1 P o t s a u s l s .y1 1 yl2 1 nl 1 4 t e .T L A N C A E T R E I A C O M A (continued) A N m v c 8 3. . . N ai 4tc . p. . . . . .i n 4 g1l 1 1 1 . 1 1 3 % 1 . 1 % 2 P o t p a e sr m ai . 4 o . . . . .: 1 1 1 3 N i t r o b . d . . . . 5%. . % 1 1 P h o sa p 6 h c o .e . .t . 15-25% . . . . . d . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 4 4 4 1 1 1 4 : : 4 44 : 44 T r i c h l o r o e . . 0. . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 Silver nitrate . r . 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 m . 3 r i n 3 e % i 1 2 2 1 2 H y ds ru o.i0m1 : e . i . . . o . 2 2 4 24 : : 3. . t 1 S o s u l . xe 1i n1 d:% e . 1 1 1 1 1 1 S o c h l .p1 h m1 1t 1 e 1 d . S b o i s u . i u 1 a 1 m1t 4 e 2 . S o h yd d i 1 o u x . . . .ti. . 3 4 4 3. . . . . 3 1 1 3 3 1 3 . . p 1 h e . u 1a 1 m1 e 1. .r . . . 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 m1 a 1 1 1 e 2 M a g s n u sl . h 1a 1 t 1 e 1. . 3 1 1 3 3 1 3 . 4 3 Phenol . . . 1 d S o h yd d i2 o u x 2 m1 0 e 2 . 3 r g 1 2 . . 1 S u l a p 3h c u . 2 4 34 2 4 N ai c t c . . 4 : .4 4 1 3 3 1 3 1 : 2 2 4 Nitric acid. . 3 . i r .hx . S u l a p ch c u . 1 1 1 .gp . .r . . 2 H y d r o a f l 7 u c o . . . . 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 .i . . 3 . i 4 Sodium nitrate. . . 4 2d c. . . h . n. . . 1 i d 4 S o h y dp o ic . . . r. e i d e 2 1 4 H y p o c h ao l . . e . . i. . h. 2 : 1 1 2 2 1 4 S o c ad r b . r.. 1 1 4 . . 1 1 . . . . . . . . i n d c :e 3. . . 1 h n1 . . . i. . 3 3 . u t 4 3 3 1 3 1 M e e k t h . . . : 4 d 1 3 c : 1 1 4 : 2 4 Kerosene . . 2 g 2 m 1 n 3 a 2 t 2e 3 . . . 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 . 3 4 1 1 3 3 1 4 h l .l e n e . . . . : 4 44 1 1 1 3 Toluene .l . y . . . . . .l . 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 h.o. . 1 i d 4 % 1 S o h yd d i4 o u x 2 m1 0 e 2 . . . . .% . . .r 1i i 1 c0 d 1 1 . . 3 3 1 3 S u l a p 6h c u . . . 1 i e 1 S u l a p 1 c u r. . . . u n a i. 1 3 3 1 3 o n d 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 Potassium alum . . . 2 4 1 1 2 2 1 3 r . . . . 1 m u 1 1 1 1 1 1 Sea water . r. 1 i 1mt1 1 1 .o . ..a .3 1 . i1 i 10c1 d 1 1 1 3 % 1 3 3 1 3 . . . 4 2 4 4 2 4 3 2 1 1 1 3 Oleic acid . .r 1 ii 1 c1 1 1 e .i1 i 1 0c1 d 1 . 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 . i. . . . u 1o 2rm1 t e3 . .3 3 : 4 H y dp e ro 3 g o 2ex 2 0 1 d 2 2. . r1 i2 c 1 5 d . i % 2 2 2 3 4 1 . 1 : 3 3 4 2 2 4 . .p. . ru 1 i m1 e . 2 4 1 % 2 2 1 3 r .h. . o2 i 2 c d 1n 1 1 3 e . . 1 1 P h o sa p 1h c o . . i1 i 10c1 d 1 1 1 3 % .4 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 4 2 4 2 L u b r o i c . 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 d u e S u d l i p o . . .P T A C V H B A I N T I N G I T N E F RG I E LM E I S C S O. . .

....... ......”...... ..UHA-51) . ... ........... d= 6.---.. .. .. ...”. MDMTcorrect formaterials used (UCS-66...................... .... ... .... Welding: al Are correct WPS(s) shown ondrawin~s? . ....... .... ..... Drawings: a) All info& ‘“ b) c) d) e) 9 detailsrequiredbyQCManual shownon drawing.. .... .. .......~........ RequirementsofUCS 79 (d))specifiedwere applicable............ ..""........ .....-...... ..... ....... ... ........... ...... .””... ......... ... ......~--. .... ............. .. .255 CHECK L F I 1...... .. s ( a ............"".......... ....--........ .. . u p c) USC 79(d) & UG 81 requirements specified as applicable .... . .. ..... .............. c) Are copies of WPS(s) available to shop s u p e r v i s .... ) Shoporder... .. ””””.. Requiredreinforcementcalculationsavailablefor all openings.---........ Revisionsor metal substitutionshownand approved....... All materialidentifiedas SAor SB ----------------) ... ----. .......... .. ...... serial number.. .. ... ... ....and/orjob numbershown.. Approvalby fabricator(on drawing) ...””””..=.. . .. ... .. . ...... Headscorrectlyidentified. Correctstressvaluesandjoint efficiencies(S &E) used......-... .. .... ..... Correctformula&dimensions used for heads ---------------Do nozzleneckscomplywith UG-45? -... ....~...... -----Nameplate facsimiliestampedcorrectly: MAWP.. ..... .. .... . .....P O a Is job n b) C~rrectspecification(SA or SB) used .ti........ .”””.... Externaldesignpressurecorrect-template calculations&template available.... Specialflangeorstructural loadingcalculationsavailable ... ..... ......... ......".. ..... . ...... . MAWP&MDMT matchesdrawingand specifications. .. Identificationwith S/O or S/N andapprovedby fabricator... ..-. .... .....”...... ) Materialrevisionorsubstitu~on approved and shownwhenapplicable ....... .. . .-....... ..... . ......=..... 2....... . ..MDMTand RT.. for instruction? o r E ... . . . Codes and Addenda. Calculations: 9 5. Bill ofMaterial: a b c d e 4. ...... ) Requiredmaterialtest reports specified ....... . ....” b> Are complete weld-details for all welds shown on drawing? ... .......... ... .. . .. ...... .......... ..... All metalcorrectlyidentified..... ...... ...... ....... . ............ ......""" e) Immaterial ordered identical to Bill of Material or drawing requirements? . ....... . d) Material Test Reports requested .... 3. ...... .... ... . ..... ....... . . ..”-”” Dimensionsused match drawing .. ..... ... .... . ....... ... . .. ...... .... ... ........ .. ....

.............1 procedureand certifiedpersonnelavailable? ....................... 12.......................................................................PQR.....256 CHECKLIST FOR INSPECTORS(corztinuec/) 1 I QC d) Isa Welder’sLog and QualificationDirectory kept up-to-dateand available?........... or interpreter?....................... ...... ................ & WPQforms correct and signed?..... ......... g) Is sub-arcflux............... .. ........ specifiedin the PT procedure?./orCode requirements?.............................. intemretationby a SNT’-~CLeve1 or II examiner I —...........................wfilm... h) Are tested gasesmarkedor identifiedand calibratedas stated in QC Manual? ...........electrodesand shieldinggas(es) used t ......... ......... ..... . ........... . i) Is welder identificationstampedor recordedper QC Manualand. .. I I ABBREVIATIONS: Authorized Inspector AI Maximum Allowable Working Pressure MAWP Maximum Design Metal Temperature MDMT Quality Control $........................ . e) Is the PT materialbeing used the sameas ..... Do all radiographscomplywith identification.. ...... h) Do weld sizes (fillet& butt weld reinforcement) .. ... ........& 52)? ... ........................... 7............... Al I Non-DestructiveExamination& Calibration: a) Are SNT-TC-lA cmalification records with currentvisual examinationavail~blefor all RT techniciansused? ..................... Appendix6 or 8 available?............ ......pipe diameterand weldingwith no backing(whenrequired)?... ..... o density..................... e) Are WPS.and acceptancerequirements of Sect.....position....................................................... c) Are the requirednumberof film shots in the proper locationsfor thejoint efficiencyand weldersused (UW-11..... ............ b) Do film reader sheets or checkoff recoid~sbo.penetrameter..... fabrication..... ... f) Are weldersproperlyqualifiedfor thickness............ ..............VIII and V? ... . ............. same as specifiedon applicableWPS? ........ d) Is an acceptablePT and/orMT procedureand personnel qualifiedand certifiedin accordancewith Sec... .................... complywith drawingand Code requirements?..... Radiographic Examination Serial Number s/N Shop Order Slo Welding Procedure Specification Wl?s ............. i) Isa calibratedgage size per UG-102available for demovessel?... ....... ............... VIII... ..........is a visual examination !3) For 1331. ........ ....................

...................................... AND LAYOUT OF PRESSURE VESSELS GeometricalFormulas."..... 258 2....... 280 Intersections.................""".. Drop at the Intersection of Vessel and Nozzle ..... Flat RingsMade of Sectors ..... GEOMETRY 1......""""""...................................................."""""-" 268 3...............e s 312 ......................... 293 12.............................. Circumferences and Areas of Circles .............. 278 Bent and Mitered Pipes ........."""-"""""..................... GeometricalProblemsand Constmction....................................... 272 5..................................... 297 13..................................... 281 10.......................................................... e n a n c ................................................ 276 Fustrumof EccentricCone .................................................................257 PART II........................ Solutionof Right Triangles ....... Length of Arcs . Table for Locating pointS0n2:l Ellipsodial Heads ................"....................................................... Fustrumof ConcentricCone ................ 300 1 A p p u r4 t ...... 9.................................................."""............... 291 11............................. 7................. 270 4........................................................ 8.................. 274 6...................... OptimumVessel Size ...................

: s O A ’ \ L E * * “ A B A T N UT G R L E A E N DG S I A r e = a b x h = ~ s - w A : ~ s ( : s . d o 7 a =0 T A N r x ~ o a =$ A or.’ ’ : b s c ) . a2 +b2 A A b h [ C A A N TGR U T r L I e E E N DG A = a L E . 900 A A axb r a .A T G L IE D N R A N a G ~ L E ’ c o A . 7 E = = ~ 2 1 a b a a gn n e u l b I b b B ’ A% A A = a2 d = 1 .6. = . A w .b = — a G L e 4 1 A U L i A S eg ) l ap ee h cs a R e E = 4 . . ~ : x s . b ‘I/== ~= e ~ = A=.258 G E O M E T F R O C RA M I L ( S e Q xS a o m e fp t U r ~ . a = 0 R E C A A a A d = a = b = r - r b o D P A R A L L E L O G R A M A A r e = a A a x = b = A a T = J A b y R I G H T .

A = D i a d g= Area A= Side a = Side a = A R E C T Given: Side F iArea D i Side Side N G L E a = 3 in. and side c = 10 in.-in.7071 d = G ‘ 6 s i q n 4 . Side b = 8 in. and b = 4 in. 83 n1 1 . in. . Area A = s = % (a + b + c) = % (3 + 4 + 5) = 6 Find: A= # 6(6 -3) X(6-4)X (6-5) =fi = bsq. .. .10)= 24 sq. . n A = ad x b = : 3 x 4 = 1 s = q / ~ n .. R I A N T G R L A E N DG L E G H I T Given: Side a = 6 in..a) x (s-b) x (s-c) =i12 (12-6) X( 12-8) X (12..259 E ( S Q U A R ~2 = X ro A t e Fu m M P L E i S gnn e e g ) F E o S l aP ea h c s a Given: Side Area Find: a = 8 inches 82 = 1 o n a.d d - en e i n 6 2 . = 61 s 2 2 q 3 / 2 /. .i 7 3 1 1 n 2 0 = g i * n 2 .. + 10)= 12 F iArea n A = sd z % (a + b + c) = %(6+8 : Ad s (s. and c = 5 in. a . OBTUSE ANGLED TRIANGLE Given: Side a = 3 in. - i =2f l 2 =06 6 0 =3 8 n4 i= i2 i . . = i n a d g= o n a = l_ a = A/b = 1 =3i2 b = A/a = 12/3 = 4 in. 1l 4 . x 1 7 1 = 8 . and side b = 8 in. a = d = 12 0. P A R A L L E L O G R A M G i H v e a e= i 8 in g a : t h n s t b = . i 0 0 n n~ n~ = * = 2 – 0 1‘ – = 4 6 A C A N T G R L E E N DG L E U T I A Given: Side a = 6 in. b = 4 in. 4= 11 4 4 i 1 1 x. . F iArea n A = a x b = : 6 x 8 = 2 s d 2 S c i= d h ~ 6 ez 8 + m S id ‘ e 8 = ~1 a ~ – Side b ‘~c2 – az ‘*102 – 62 =4 1 q . 2 i n4 0 . = 4 i f5 n 2 i . 1 h i n i F iArea n A = a x b = : x 12 = 9 s d 8 q Height a = A/b = 96/12 = 8 in. Side b = A = 96/8 = /12 in.

0 9 7 2 R.= 0 8 R. = 0 7 r. 6 8 6 6 6 R = 1.155 r E G O U C L T AA R G O N r e a = ao c i r c i u mcus c ir i b r ef d s = ao i dn s ic c uri i s r b e cf a . = 2 = 8 r 8 2 z 3 3 . 0 = 2R. 4 7 4 1 0 1 A H N 2 GI L W 4T A e 4 7 4 N a h E N T 5G HL ( ) Eo a — 2 a 1 h G L E E Q U I L A TT E R I A A R L 6 m & u D w : ‘= R A f @ A R 2 i R = r = a = R = E e A A A a ~ r x a = 1. = 2 8 R.(3 ~ d c l d l e 8 1 z 2 4 8 ed r e 4 E A * N i b e A a @ - .155 r 0 a . a = 1. = 9 = 5 r 8 9 z 4 8 6 z 3 . a.155 h E r b h ( 2 G H U E LX AA R G a Z O I e D = e = = h = 0.866 a T A R A A (c P a + ) O N e 4 A r e = a R ao c i r c i u mcus c ir i b r ef d c d = s l R R ao i dn s ic c ur i sr b e cf d l i e 2 a0. 1 = 3r . = 2 5 R .a . 6 8 5 2 G P UO L L AY R G O = N u o am s r n e = ’ @ = ~go” – a “ = J r A A R R r = R 4 A R 1 r = 1 a = 0 R r .260 G E O M E T F R O C RA M U L A S I L e x S a o m e fp t l ap ee h c s a i gn n e eg R A h [ a A b h a I T = A = a 2 =~ l = 0 = 1 R GI r e . 0= 0 7 8 a.

) ) + nA = d z : 2 X 6 q n R E G H U E L X AA R G O N Given: Side a = 4k. Side b = 1. 2 7s4 8 . Radius of circumscribed circle. b = 8 in.155x3.414a = = h = 0 0 .i7 6 1 5 n6 8 .-i . side a = 9.765 R = 0. radius of circumscribed circle Given: Find: Area A = 2..-in.. R = 7.464=4 in.750 Find: Area r=m=-v= 625ino nra 5 X6.-in.8 6 6 8 6i .a = 0 8 x .866 x 4 6 3.81 sq.a = 2.4646in. a = . .598 x 49 = 4 8 1 w 2 .155 r = 1.7 4 . A = ~ = 2. a =7 . Side a = 0. R = a = 1. 6 = 9 6 n2 8 h = 0 F i n d : 5 5 9 = h2 .59 in.1 a = 8 X 6 x =. i 2 n T R A P Given: Side F iArea E Z O I D a = 4 in.765 x 6 = 4.. and heidt h = 6 in. F iArea n A = 2 d : r = 0 8 x .25 X9.125 = 142. = 0x 8 7 5 0 1 . — q Area A = ~ 2 2 .828 x 62 = 101.58 sq. 2 . = 0. + ( b h = ( a 4 6 = 3 s 8. 5 x .261 EXAMPLES (See Formulas on the Facing Page) RIGHT TRIANGLE WITH 2 45° ANGLES Given: Side a = 8 in.-in. x . E Q U I L A TT E R I A A N G L E R L Given: Side a = 8 in.125 in.5 i6 2 8 n . REGULAR POLYGON Given: Number of sides n = 5. 64 Find: Area A=~ a2 =7 82 = ~= 32sq.828 R2 = 2. REGULAR OCTAGON R= 6 in.

— az .262 G E O M E T F R O C RA M U I L e x S a o m e fp t l ap ee h cs a C I A R r C L E L i A S gn n e eg ( ) d @ A C ie r c u ma f e r e n c e = x A= r2 x ~ = rz x 3. . x L I P S E r rP = P ee = i a m e t =a3 . U E ra L G e m 2 1 8 R T O R = a=a r A = 4 9 r 6 . d) of which total area equals area of circle diam. r a tn = 1 o h g. D. = R o am .( 2C x y2 ) a i = t mn x t c i Q m 4 Y = c — 0 D D d ~ ( w 0 0 N = the required number of holes (diam.1416 z d L C A A I A n = d ag 3 . . 0 eo a n f R S C x 4 1 x 6 2 c g 7 c 0f d Ix0a r 8 e 7 n 6 UE L CA ra = A e . x xa x b 4b 1 =1 ea z e 6 t r er z r a p p r of x o m r a nt ee u o il i f p m t . 1 ( a + 1 )6 4 b { 2 P = 3 E L a — b x = u L o L p c I P S E a o t e ii l n n l g o ti ps s n a oo a e if jx r s o i — + . N 2 1 0 2A Y T & a < v ‘ r X r x a x 3 a = 1 5 7a a=— r C A A < I A A R S C AM R E = n A e : o s r a c = C l= g ca i =ot t nar o f iu r a e r e oe sn ga l c = 2r x sin a T Q a — w x ~ L * + E A A A L A z .

h. E L L I P S E Half axis.. and b = 3 in.. A a = r2 x ~ x — A = Chord c = 2r x sin ~ = 2 x 6 x sin ~ = 2 x 6 x 0. @pipe= 28. Area A a = r2 ~ x ~ = rx x xa = r = = 62 x ~ x ~ = 6x x 6 x = 18.7S5Q C = dx = x if a = 60° dx a = = = = x x = = CIRCULAR SECTOR Given: Radius T = 6 in. pipe? N= (’/d)2 = (6/0.274 in. a = C I R S C U E L AM R E G . Area A = ~ x a x b = 3. c -( 2 ) 2 (2 2 2x ) ~ . x = 6 in.2 .85 = = Sq.485 in. then s C = ~ = ~ = 2.276 in.25)2 = 242= 576 holes= Area of 6 in. P = + ) = @ = + ) = E G L i A L I P S E va = 8 ex andn b = i 4: in..2 Area of 576 H in. ‘ 6 ~ = ~ E H X m %i @holes have same areas as a 6 in. x N a = T X~ = Radius r = 6 in. diam. A = r2x ~ = A = = 12ZX0.1416 x 8 x 3 = 75.398 in. a = 8 in. in.7071 = 8. #holes= 28.2 EXAMPLES (See Formulas on the Facing Page) CIRCLE Given: Radius r = 6 in. .

x r xh % L “ S = 3. Y L I Volume .: - ’ : = C & P R I S M m w T f : oh : c r ‘ . - v v i Volume S = A o = r o s n u i r c e i 0. . 0 =x r x h d n u e 4 82 x ’ h q .1416 rc F R ’ UO S C = 1. . . C v . “‘ .. P ~ s =% 1. (— . N D E R o = ry c S = A l i s n d r ri a c f af la e u % + . :* ’ .( G E O M E T F R O C RA M U I L e x S a o m e fp t l ap ee h cs a L i A S gn n e eg ) C b ~ V = V U o l B u E m e i– v= ~3 1 S I I — I J L : Q P U o — R A l R I u ES m e M V = V . h d v : N : 0: ” x: : 7 = d E o = r o s c 1 6 . C v .5708 C( D + d ) I I . m Ay r efaa eo f es n d iso h ere n= s d eu b ai p u l a al p s o f ea c n a ‘ ” i h i p e r p e nt de i c fu u a r r n f s l s a co d e r prn y .2618 h ( D2 + Dd + dz ) = a = R–r c. .5708 dc T U O M N F E c f a af l a ~ ‘ 0 h . — . O Volume 3 : . S = A 4 = 1 i r 2 7 c f a af l a 2 1 .

v 9 = =n = 1 2.265 E ( C Given: F U Side iV Side F o S X ro A t e Fu m M P L E i gnn e e g ) l aP ea h c s a B E a = 8 in. . x: rm x h = 4 e . . 2 + ..2 .. e i E v iVolume n V = hd x A =: 8 x 12 = 96 cu. S Q P U R A R I ES M Given: Side a = 8 in. 3 . .8 4 1 6 R F G F UO C S T U O M N F E = .. d C G F A Y i L I r v iV o C ry N D E R = e 6 in. X 1) 5 8( Surface S = 1 6 7 s 8 q . . C ( D5+ d 7 1 0 . x 2 h. 2 -2 3 8 6 u 5 i9 n . i C G F O i iV N E v r e= 6 in. cr x c1 = : 4 c a a l e 1 6 = 3 .5 -8 i 6 n . n and h : = 12 in. 6 . n n . 2 + 7 7 3 2 4 u 1 2 0= 7 = 8 42 .2 .x 1 1 1 = 4 x 4 15 s 2 q .. 5 27 . F iVolume n V = adx b x c : = 8 x 6 x 4 = 192 cu. = 6 i —1 = = 8i b a ! 8 4 b 6 x x c = —1 9 ~ 2 = 4i n c . a 2 x x b 6 P G F R I S M s ue A r= n 1 f s : aq a cd h -= 8 iin. n d x7 0 26 4 = 4 z2 5 c 7 u 1 2. = t r i D vi V = 0 + 1 = 8 2 2 d ) iVolume n d :. x 6 x11 4 3 = 2 1 . . o V =l 3 u . and c ‘4 in. b =6in.1 ~= 3 i n2 n .n 7 2 a e D m n2 e i : a e d n 1 i n h = 1n 4 . 5 n — 2 4 . h ( 2 + D 6 d D 0 .-in. x 1 2 0( 6 + 21 x31 8 1 4 =5 2 2 2 c . 5 6s 2 q . x : rm x h = 4 1 e 3 1 x 6 1 1 = 12 1 3c .-in. n 0 o V =l 1 u . 8 . 6 x 4 n d l i S ne d r rSi a f 3 af l . o V =l ad = 8 : = 5 u m n a = G 8i c e u .. 0i d . and: h = 12 in. 4 3 + o C r o S n ue i r S =f 3 a f. x 9 . 4= n 1 i7 n i 4n 6 .cx d x1h : = 4 u =c a e 1 6 = 3 . A c = ~ ‘ 3 1 = 6 {4 1 ~i = . 72 .

266 GEOMETRICAL FORMULAS (See examples on the facing page) See tables for volume ical. spherflanged and dished heads beginning . elliptical on page and and surface of cylindrical shell.

6252 + 32 = 248.-in. .5236 d3 = 0.7 3 Cu. T G F O R i Radius R e = v o V =l iV n A A r= U S 6 in.4 sq.74 cu.s C2 = 11.1888 r3 = 4. iand: u = 3 in. x mm ( : 1 4= 1 1 6 x e e4 m @ = -4c 6 1 1. -1 i 7 n 1S = r2 X 3. n m iV = 3 A S G P o V = l3 d n . n 1 u 9 R m r.625 in. = e 1 7 3 9 z 9X 6 X .1416 x 62 = 452. or = 4 x 3.5236X3X ~ 4 ( ) Area A = 6 .267 E ( F o S X ro A m e Fu t M P L E i S gnn e e g ) l aP ea h c s a SPHERE Given: Radius r = 6 in.22 = 7 473. n 3 X 82 + 3 X 11. ) .78 CU. z .3 . . 3 q .x 3 1 ( Ar 2 r u . S G F P H E S R E I C AM L E G N T s i R v a r e= d6 in. in.4 sq..5236 x 1728= 904.9 d : x 3 9 R = .-hi. i 7n — . Find: Volume V = O.-in. u r 6 2. v= 0..-in..1 i 0 n . and h = 3 in.1416x= 6 X 3 = 1 a m X i 0 H EZ R I C A L N O E u i R v a r e = d6 in.78 cu.2 = 84 e x 4 s7r7 q 8 3 . i Cl : = 8 in. X6 X3 = 1 2 8 1s 3 q 3 2 .1888 X216 = 904. in. Find: Volume V = 4. Area A =4Tr2 or A= T d2 = 3...1416 x 122 = 452.. 3 a 4 9 x 6 7 . and : r = 2 in.

t i i T n e h h o s t l r h ai i t n cg f ee t t hn O i ho sc i. D . Measure on this line Dimension M.d~ I q P o I T F t T IC E NH N C T I O AO D RE A RU E C L FA y ‘ b w p o t a # k h a e oD i r m e ea .268 GEOMETRICAL PROBLEMS AND CONSTRUCTIONS AJ x z . A z~ D J M CONSTRUCTION OF A CIRCULAR ARC The Radius is known. Y=R-A4 = 2 aa t f Ch r i r k 8A4 FJ c .k i n dn r . C are known. but because of its extreme length it is impossible to draw the arc with a compass. and Chord. A d Connect points B a m e M a d si m D /e ed rn p se ni d 4 i cn u l n u p r e o R e p t e p a r th o i t cn e r de uq as h e e s c t o i ru t g c a M w cb a e i y b i a l s 4. The intersecting point. o p r Ao a f o i P r n oo t o i nB m s o i a dC t t o h t h n i n n t ee e h s . Determine the length of Chord and Dimension M. O of the two arcs is the center of the circular arc.+ t LOCATING POINTSON A CIRCLE y =x =q~’ L = . te c ll i t eTi te m n s e c h o v o o r t t t ir i a ah nps g o l rt e i s n c e t f hc e ieht c a u l r a c r . Draw at the center of the Chord a perpendicular line. ~ind Y == =~ = %= 4 in. R. & q. strike an arc from point A and from point B with the given length of the Radius. ’ : : i n o TO FIND THE CENTER OF A CIRCULAR ARC When the Radius. ~ C + 41W . C h n n n s d M o . e tc t re sc f r c o w s i t i nr l at t ii s ng t h rp t s s e c . t r hsc e e r c . X= 3 in.USOFA R O C I A ‘ q e ~ : ‘ ~ ~ ~ : ~~ .@ T d i a Lm 2 e t 1 15 r 8 e FINDTHERAD. EXAMPLE = Sin. y . a B B li n Ds i a e n c . O N F G PF T C L e A H Y TO IE N L D R E E X A M P L E d h s = a i m 2 e 4t e e i r i = f d n I g n t o h i o c f :e p i e l s a k n1 s t n l T a t x A C U 3 L E L p ~ ~ : . .

GEOMETRICAL PROBLEMS AND CONSTRUCTIONS ...

392 in. a = x = 12 x 0. A = 3o0. b = 6 x = 6 x = i e ( b c a A ) A = A n ?300. a b e4 6 tan B = ~ b b F Sidea A B n i = = 1 n g 2 . b = 12. = 0 a A =~ sin 0. S 5 c c a ‘ a = 3 in. side g a = l6 in. b = 12. b A = F Angle A = 30°.866 = 10. b A c b = 3 in. a a b = a x cot A A a AA A = 250. c =- = —6 = b A& a a = b x A A = a = = b = x x =6 A b A A @ b c .856 d C AA A. a F n A A n i ‘ n ‘ 0 l .d g = Sidea = 6 in. = 12 c i— n = 13. side c = 12 in. side a = 6 in.500 = 6 in. 30° Find side b = 12 x 12 x 0. 8 6 ~ e1 2 l d.S67 in. b = 4 in.S00 A =~ = 30° A B Side a = 6 in. c = 5 in.SOLUTION OF RIGHT TRIANGLES R E Q U I R E D E X A M P L I NOWNSIDE OR ANGLE FORMULAS E S ( E N C I R C L E D ) @4 t b A ‘ ~ ’ a Sidea s 6 in. C A c @ c a = c x sin A Angle A = 30°. side c = 12 in. c c c @ = 12 in. c = s Side a = 6 in. b = = 4 A. b = C X COS A I .867 in. side b = 12 in. a a B =y C c A c B =+ = O = 0 . c = 12 in.

= 4’-1 yz C2 = 12. Cl C2.971 A F r u Es C t C uE of E Given: N T m C P R O I L E C N E X A M d M i e at the m a e a large end.2.784“ Ss = 6’-7 I946 S: = 4’-5 Yl(j C5= 23. ft.184“ ‘*G== 4’-511/lG HZ + & G G’. = 4’-2 IMG s3 = 6’-4 ~ C3= 16.212“ s.-in. .968” S4 = 6’. t D n= 36 rin. . 2. c1 = 9. . e 4. in c1 = 6.317“ Cz = 18. S 1. . = 4’-0 % S1 = 6’-0 ~ s. . C of Circles for “Segments =1 t h A The Bottom e t 300 6Q0 ~oo 1200 1500 Factor c times mean radius = Chords.000’ C3= 2S.. in.000” Sz = 6’-2 Yle S. ft..-in. Cl C2 etc.4S2” C4= 31.776* ‘6 = At The Top Factor c times mean radius = Chords. s:.67/lG S: = 4’-4 ‘/fj C4= 20.176“ C5= 34. sl~ .

2 8 y -5 l r6 5 ft. The length of vessel = ~ n . .0 n1 X ..0 . say 42 ft. E M F c n o hf t aa e ac tr ra li p h n gse h g a t ei d n ee c d t h d i o t era v tc e e i d sh t n f t sa p e t h o or i z t ov n l t ar ele l p h r e t s ne n o aE en g l t iy v o te i h u e e f t ir n t e orh s e v cmeto ir eat n ir v c t a v l e l o yf h l d m o en a a du ) e e f . i 00 F = F 100 . Houston. permission.272 O V S P T l T ( b et o p a v u e i a c s l e co r a e t w la the c i i n t material. 1 in. ft. lf i . E s= . t a Length = 4 x 1.0 p dt h i i a m d u e e mt nn e n a m l rg t d h . s b d e l d p rt h o a m eft et n d i ig ac t m f fhe i l u m o h b tboa te f ru o l n lh r e o wc ie e p n o d y r ie l s h st mu eirp at0 e e l s ld0s i h p os a0e a i i d ad as l r u T i 1 e n o s d m se de F=~ CSE . i 0 C = 0 8 0 t 0 . .X 1 0 6 6.000 3. m in. D D = Inside diameter of vessel. . u 0 6p .1. EXAMPLE Design D oi P= 100 p F t 0 c a t a : V = 1 s c . where V = Volume of vessel. cu.52 = 42. 0 r D = 5. ft. theh correct r of s d p a minimum t y i o a d n i a g m t h e eh t t a e o r r m i n l e e ..14 x 5. 0 . psi.6 ft. as h o 2 0 = 0 05 i . where C S = S E = J P= c= Design pressure. fi S = 1. — . * FROM: “ Gulf Publishing Company. o r a r l o l s i iw oa n c n e o n v t or a m ea l tp s e u rs s ea i e of f i c i n e n t c y .

1 I 4. .1I1 3. ! .000 I [ . 1 .000 50. b.000 I \ .000 80.UUU k . .000 1 I I I I I I 1 I 1 40. . 1.000 I I i 1[I I I . . . . ! I I I i . .000 400 300 200 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 10. .000I I 6 I 1 I I I I II 1 I I I I I 20. %~ fz~ t i w 1+ I 1 I M 1 I [ I I t.. . I0 8 . +[ I r I . .000 I 1 f 1 I i 5. D CHART FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMUM VESSEL SIZE ( f Sap fc e a x p l ea ng a t e o rn ) i n g o i . . . 1 1 i 1 I 1 1 I I [ I 1 r . .000 2. I I 2 3 4 8 910 VESSEL DIAMETER.273 100. FT. . . . . .

the weMing will be increased by increasing the number of sectors. less plate will be required. Divide the area by the r p o D e q w u o ii r a ls a t l o o t ee p s t h f a a h t wh n b l t eo at h p i t n gl n ha e ht t 8 S E C T O R S 5 A a l l d ( o w 1 a n dac f e xc l mi . D z Outsidediameterof riu.707 D 0 n 0. f n c u b t e t s t i ewa n c e g t e e onn d a t r o t f e e E QH W U I IR E D D t T p E H l h a L F RA I O FN E T G R S O A S E D C T E O RF S S E x Oa eF m a p c l e e P a i gn n . Determinethe requiredarea of plate 4.. stiffeners etc.274 FLAT RINGS MADE OF SECTORS L 1 Making flat rings for base.500 D e n D. Determine D/d and D2 (the area of square plate would be required for the ring made of one piece) 2. The figures at the left of this page show the width of the required plate using different number of sectors. 2 SECTORS The chart on facing page shows the total plate area required when a ring is to be divided into sectors. This area is expressed as a percentage of the square that is needed to cut out the ring in one piece. ONE PIECE Since the sectors shall be welded to each other. * ~ T R O P M ~ m 3. R S 3 6 E 8 C T 3 c r Os e d Re f e c r ( ha f o n t tr a e i i v t n dn i Sc t o p a d t c rm i g tn o a a p qg h uw i r t r f h ee a e d e ne sh d io m o g t u r r s d Q o+ R E 0. DETERMINATK)N OF THE REQUIRED PLATE SIZE 4 SECTORS 1.866 D 3 SECTORS ~ u 0. by dividing the ring into a number of sectors. The cost of the weMing must be balanced against the savingin plate cost. d = Insidediameterof ring.

Did= 1. Add allowance for flame cut.. 4. D2 = 28. 120 in. Divide this area by the required width of plate (facing page). in.) 100 90 % LL 80 o @ ~ 70 u $ 60 & q 50 CA $ do & * 30 CIa + ~ 20 — & 10 ~ o 2 w — .112 sq. From chart (above) the required area of plate is 50% of the area that would be required for the ring made of one piece. Width = 0. ring made of 6 sectors 1. 3.9 inches.224 sq. the length of plate.1 3 EXAMPLE 4 5 6 NUMBER OF SECTORS 7 a Determine the required plate size for a 168 in.1 12/84 = 167.224x 0.5 X 168 = 84 14. 5.50= 14. ~ l.4. I.L. 2.D. in.D. Area required 28. O.L 13 FLAT RINGS MADE OF SECTORS (cont. = m a ~ 169 “ 1 .

r 1 D rl = —1 2’ m f + a R C o T n R i a c oa n l o k / P= x3 T R e qh u P li r ae .- .DI 2 e s tan c1 = + . - - F r u Cs O tN C E m C T R I O C of u N G D DI = H D e i M M H v e n N : E a d i e a t m l = e e t n e rr a a h n a d ie a t m s e e tm n e a h n r a = e t if o r g u hs tt u m e iq hn u le i P a r t te R r e et d T R e q h u P . c li r ae e d b— = D.

I i M M H N v e n : d i e a t m l = e e t n e rr a a a h n d ie a t m s e e t n e a a m h n r a e t if o f rg =u h s t t u e u o p m (l b s a ee t cr t e o f iP hn u el i q D — r a ee l d t e = t t e Rr m e D . 2 s DXZ 2 Rxs Rxt exs exc b 1 R m X 5 > +% ~ + 1 2 ~ 7 c t / & 2 2 + i 9 2 l’% e x Y . = H n = D b .277 F r of Cs O tN C E mC T R I C u u N O N E Made from two or more Plates t - % G D D. 2 R = i = a = i o 6 n n n n s W o it R d e q t h u= R h + 1f ee d -t P li r a L eo t n R e g q th ui hi P l r a ee d t f t F r mu h f s at r u e om d me 2 P :l 2 Y+Z t a Xe s + : Reauired Plate .– 2 tan W = * -b D Elevation c rl = ~ +H = D .

2 R x sin 45° + C. Fig. B . Draw the side view and half of the bottom view of the cone. =~H2 W circle.F r of Es C t C uE N T R OI C u C m Plate by Layout N E Determination of the Required and by Calculation c 1. Rh denoted e mean r radius of the base the e See example. Draw arcs from points z’. F t p r 1 2 oi e n m ° o h 3 ° t s at w r c r i O e i kn tet c S t f a a p rto ai 1 no i g r o ( m 1 m a et s r k a p e s ah d u o t b o c o i t ct r h t oc o f e a i n a 2‘ t e r s e d n r c 2 # Side view of cone 4 O of the top circle. S3 S3) circle divided into 12 equal spaces. A o C A L C U L A T I O N T f the t c iu ro t v np a bt o l u a hre a e u l t a f h c d l c O B only (marked If the bottom C3 . 3’. with the center 1’. Divide into equal parts the base and the top circle. etc. 4’.

C C =1 etc. 2 . . = = . using C c = .. “ “ ‘ = = = 6 . . = = = ~ 1. S1 = 6’ -0 % = ~ = = = H2 + D2 = 6$. s. . . = 4’ -1 %.970 L F r u Es C t C uE of E X A M N T m C P R O I L E C N E at the large end. 2.8Y2 = = = = = c = C~ s. = 4’ -0 % s. ft.-in. . . D = 36 in.

BENT AND MITERED PIPE .

o ~ 0 ) s ° h l h a = l = e 2 2 o 0t a ) s 4 c ° s a. T a o nt h i ng t e rh s e ec t f e lp e l i a n t t a o t x c h y i= o4 i e ns d f l h d e g r e e s .o 2 f d e g r e e s . / .---16 ‘– — . k\ r [ ./ 1. c t i h g a y n p o t ie o h b s ln ec t m o e n fa e t s t at s i t r e t hc le h e d -i o e u t n n o t d i n t e r a s em c tb i u o nf a s n d c u o t p t a f i t p n t m g e i o r t t np u i i e n t g c . !Cl C O N S T R UOC T I IO N N H T T E IC2 \ \ \ S E C E T L I L N I G P S E D it c i r ic uh d o et r e ne c e v m f e c y il ie n np qd a ea u r t d r a on t l r a e l a e e m d eia pn n i to s i i t h v c T m a a o t jxe h loi eil h r i t s p l o d n i gs b te a s in w cn e e h te e tt t s e p c o t t i m nn a nig t h ns a i x d o t d i ao ht m c e y t l Th rn d ef ei e p o t ie o nl c l t di s p a f s e e b h e t m bi u nt s c e i h o dh o yr g d t n c y l s i p b p d r ec r a ee c d t i n a o j s o b c o a l cw ua le a t i o y es h n x r n h p l b i e f W l i t e m d we t .a c t i e o i e r e l l i p s e . = r x cos 45° c%= r x sin 22-1 /2° a .hn e D e s o e e la a es m o be cf o c h h n t w a c u l B c t o i n o n t n e e.a ‘2== cq 4 c 4 a t i n t e r p s e i cln t i ea g h n n p e r p e n t d t i c a u l oa tr x h i o c y l t i n n d t e hr r is . -w I ‘Y” h 1 1 = ( = ( a . :b ! . e c ah i c u m f o e rc e y n l cD he n i d v e f e t i t l i h t i s n i nn a hu s o em m o b e t e p q a a u c i rr a c u hmlo f e s r e sn e t t t c y l hD n a d e e el r . E X A M P L E f c a l co uof l length i rof n a t o e l e m e n t s . .e c s oT m tte .e i r a m t h e r d o i a upv e gr c he ni d h c n i ps o i u t t l h i e t nit e l r o me i . T c i r c u h m of te r c e ny c e h i e l n i d i i v 1 ie n d p q e as du r t oa t T a o n ah s g e = c l e t 2 e i . r h w s c i h n o t ep a l s t h r a es n qt f h e ei u c l e s a r h a b nt a c i e l s k nl a l a c o n s i d e r a t i o n . c = r x cos 22-1 /2° 1 .2 I C . si 40 in 0°t e .—.~ *G1 & When P \ \ \ ‘F } : 17 . t i h oi m b l o a a l t o ui b y s r p ai a d ny t f e l d o e n . D E V E L O P M E N T T l e H n e g t qt ih t h u . c.

1 I — 1 ‘/4 O T L D it i e e d p o o o i n t D D c l a D p t o c t I 1 d F O IH N T E N S E C ET I F N I R E O c v i r c u h m of te er c e n e c l e h n i d y i np q a a ud t r a e rn t ll a e a m d a o s ai vp ic o s T i i i h n n ne h rt s e .282 I o e d q i C a u m a e a to ne n r t g r 9 s l e h c te i o f n w i f l i ts e 0 I I . f E V E L O O M EA N T T E R N P P T F s t lr r o a e i i g qw h en tut n a l t eg a i r c u m o f t e rc e yn c ei h n i e v r es l D t d f i i t sn n n ea ht o e m m o q e a u u s p b e e t c i r c uh m o et r s c ne yc e h n d f e l i a e r l t e hm e r w d n n au t v g i c a e o i e r p e n t d t i c u hl a i r e e t s e o r e l D n e s l e o e hn e g a bte e m o e jf h c l p c h r e n c a l c u ( l ae t ix o b a . e m B l p o e S r n e l o n nt e e c pt i oh ot g e i l n n e e nh m d s t r o e curvec of theuintersection h t h ee d t can be developed. EXAMPLE for calculationof lengthof elements If the circumferenceof cylindersis divided into 16 equalparts a = 22-1/2° c1 = r sin a C’2= r sin 2 a C3 = r c a c4 = r o s . c o t t ie ln ed t m s e t e n lfr e m s i i h h e t t e r s e c t i o n .

c e o e e T c u r o v t a h t u er o l h i t he al f e r h c y l d i e n t e b r e t m r l i n e os d n i d e h g e l ec C e e s n p t t a s a c ch i. Project distances c1. 2 . to the circumference of the larger cylinder and draw elements at each points. D E V E L O O M EA N T T E R N S P P T F D a s r t l r of e ii lgw h tn tu n a a e q e t ag h t c i r c u m o f te rc e yn c ei h n i e v r es i . a o t rp a v c rho t t i ls i n a e hl r lw g c a y 1 der. e o c hn h g t .i 2 n . f d @e f e 1r ° 14= R @ c. + E f D i c1 X A M P L E c a l c o o ll a t oi r en n g m t e h u e o l e f n i t v c i i rd c u hm n f t eg rc e n ec le h i1 =n i o y 1 e n p q at u 3r o t 2 sl 0 .- I o u n d ei C q wmu a e a to ne n r t ge r 9 s l e h c te i o f n a fi i l ts 0 I inder into as many equal parts as necessary for the desired accuracy. a a = = r sin 30° C2 = r cos 300 C3 = r 1 = = . pt i ono g h n y i t e l et h s t e r o e cte sc ut h u ee r d m n h t o vh i n t e r c s be d t i v a e n l o p n d . C2 etc. t h e r d o ia u pv eg i cp h e nt dt hi c nu l a rh r s i o l D i e t nt e l r e meo it . . r . h l D t d f l f t i s c o yh il a e it rs n e d l e a h r n m n l t n u o e m p qb a tae u c i r rr ac u ftm l f e s r e sn h o t s c m yh l aDi n af der e l r e a m l e . m j l a S i r e b e Bl c oo nw nt )e e c. The intersecting points of the elements of the large and small cylinder determine the curve of intersection.e g m 1 d s t c a b c e e w t a h c s l i .hn el g e h me h ne t e b p r o o ce a c l t c iu( oy en t x o a n . t s . Draw an element at each division point. .

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T L O IH N T E N S E C ET I F I R E O D it v c i r i c uh d of ee r e ne c e m t b rc y o nb i v a l c n dhi e o i r et n a m e a pq a n n e sr c y e t s au a l f t i n o t a h ec n D r r ee a d c c u d r a e l a e e m d eia pn n i toc s i i t v T p oo ih in t e r o s t t e c s t i o n e f c o r r e s e o l n d d i m g te e n r t m p e n e t l o i n h t e r s e c e t ie o f . i n n D D t c n c t t o c B e t T m l i w m

E V E L O O M E AN TT P P T E a s r t l r oa e ii l gw e n ut n q h t c i r c u hm o f t e r e o n r c e h b e a y al di n i i d nv e s n r d t i d a ht e u o em pb q a eat u cr r a f ith l u m f e D r e a rc e e .l a e n m h e r d o i a upv e gr c he ni d h c n i p s o i t l Di eh t n t e l r e me i . hn o t e l e b h m r e o n fo e c t p j t e s a l c u ( l ae t ix o b a , e m l p o e n S e c o n nt ee c p t i o ht n n g o y i l et s t e r o e ct t sc u h u ee r d m n h o i n t e r c s e c t e i va e l o h b d e n o c u r o v t a h t ‘u t r o e h e h c ya il d i e i n e d r n em ri n t b t eo e n l ec C te e s h n 1 t tpf s g m t a dh n i s a eb c egn mc t e t t a ah t l i eo r c hn o h g r e t e a t c ya (l ei il n s v a e te ri o e d n A M P L E l c o o l l a eo t e i n or neg u l v t il m t

il e

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n

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k

E X f c a D c
c,

i y

i n g c i d c iu h m of te r e n e c e r i o 1 e nn pd q ea = 3u r a t r at 2 /1 = {

= r sin 30°

R + C 2

-

2

C2= r cos 30°

12 =~ R2-(r 1

+ C1)2

J

4 R2- (r - C1)2

16 = R

285

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% / 4

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T D c m t e D r s b e c e o d o o c l e a o a ( D D t d n c t p t j of

O IH N T E N S E C ET I F N I R E O c i r i c uh d o ee r e ne c e h v m f t i y l o i b n v d o e i r a te n n w h e a p q a anu e rcay e t sl s s a o n f d e a h c ic uD r ee a dc y . a s r a r l a e m d e a n v t i co s e i ti h o n p c r i o r p a c v l l w e i s a i en w ar , r de T l t u2o i s i h n l ,t n . i c e o ct tp ii d ol h tn e ar nm e i nn e t p oo ih n t en r y o te e c ts i o n i s f l e a m t e c no r t r eh s p o n d ie n s d i P r cr t l o p hj s oe . c e t t i e st n h t e l e vT a i t n i t o hn s . e oc t ii e n g e rp n t p r o ah e e c l t eo n em s e i n j w r f e t te r m ii i h t e r ns e e t e l o nn c t r n e t e l e v T a st i n o e h . t c h c u r ou t a h t u tr o e v i h l f h i t o b d e n t e b r em i s n e d t o h eo a n a ag r e tt r 2hta 3 n f s s cf , e c f t pr v olohc i a dl amc e ue l n a w e x e m bp l ei T f l e s po s i d ahw c . a a a re m 2 t o b 3 c bf s c , a , i . at s h m o b c w ls cn u l r y o a a a t e S x ba e e m l p ol e w e ) . it

L

E V E L O O M E A TT P P N T E R a s r t l r oa l ii ee w h nq t g u et a g n t c i r c u h m of te r c eo n e y e h l c a d ei in v t i s r d d ate i n h u o e m pbq a e atu r r a c f thl i u m f e D r e a r e e .l a e n c m w h er o d au v g i cp os i h i ihe o nn p e n d t cl u D i a eh r t n e r e m e t i l o l eo t hn e lg eb t pe he hm nr f te e o c c t a li c tou l l n a e t ir h n g g b ny 1~, 1 e t e *.x b a S m e l, p e o l c ( e

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C6 =

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THE LINE OF INTERSECTION Divide the diameter of the cylinder into equal spaces. The horizontal planes through the division points cut elements from the cylinder and circles from the sphere. The intersections of the elements with the corresponding circles are points on the curvature of intersection.
D D c t T m D p l c

I

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E V E L O O M EC T P T N Y LH I N D F a s r t lr a a e i i gl q h e t t ut n o w n ea g i r c u m o f te rc e n c ale hdi y n i i d nf e v e t s n a h o p m m a ob e c e ry r ti u a t l h s p o ah t d c i i p ne i og s d i i f eoe v h a n bi t ln e o e a hn o d t g r c y ty e l c h h i a e r l t e a h m e r ew o nianu pt g i coh d v s e r p e n td it c u l a Dri e t n e r oe me l h t e o t n e gl e b h m hr e o n fo eb cs t t p j e t a l c ou t l a t ei oo nhn 1 e t f h e t s l 1 g 1 2

‘E f e

X c l e

A a

M P L E l co uof l length i rof a t o m e n t s .

P i 2 iE l l i Hp s o e e n 1a la p : i d T c ep h n o r t o th e e i i ra oeh p n p a r m a a s t p h s e l er iy c r m a alo h n e tg e d w i he 0q t i c u i d h aim ao ht m 9e t . s l e h W e t a ph i dw ieh i. l a tpo i 0 h e e i n m t t i d m a oh e i t m he s tt eleh ro ia h i n t e r a s e c tv i e o l o o t p c m y d n l th i d e n n e nc b f i oa t a u d b n h seomd r v n i e b e n c a n , , . a a D n iH n s e p g e i c l ep a h o r ~ a n n h u h sc p k nh sl i a i i he i u i qt s r c t s h .

C a x i g

l t c d u i ls xt h X ee c e l es 2 , a a n t t c , l x = x ~ + r xesin a n etc. s, ; P 2i F i l i v S i wm t w i t kt r ao w d d i

n eh d e da rtt yh e ei r o t e e r ts g c m e i u ao h a d s f t h

287

T
connecting cylindrical

P
and rectangular shapes

D E V E L O P M E N T D it c v ii i e hr d n q e a al u e p c t d a e r l ae e m d w a nv a e i n p o i n t .

er a ti c s

F t li e o en n e g a d b e e m h l t c h e t r i a n g ub l c a at li o n T l a t i r y o c u o e l e a m h y n pr t oho st t e n eu e t e s t r i o a n side of ne s is g l which e A A A --e a- t t ’ o 3 2 1 nc h ’ h ,t s i t i h eo d th i t r g a snhe s ti t e h p i e c e .

A
q

q

A A A-

B t e d e g v e h li o o t p n m e e n ti h l 1 a d t - r r n t i r a liSg d - w h S g h a n e w b h S o ae s t q h e t u e aA s s i a s A ai w h h yn p o o A t D s d u d e e n e f b t r u a n n o u cl d a t i lyo c o i g a n u t F i t op i n1 2h i . e n d tt e o n 3 T l eo 1 h n 2 g - e - em 2 t 3 f , a 3 t h b t ea t qkt c ue o e t anh o l r o d i v o i st i c o iint s ra t h o h f e l p c

small enough for the desired accuracy. Strike an arc with 1 as center and the chord of divisions as radius. With A as center and A-2 as radius draw arc at 2. The intersection of these arcs give the point 2. The points 3, 4 etc. in the curve can be Found in”a similar manner.
E f X c
c=

a

A M P L E l c ou l l a eot e i no o rl d = r x sin a

n eg

m t ef

r x cos a

L E O NE L E T M H G E N T S F I t a db eh so mc r v ci e b e e n d a n n b f to d e u v e hnf o e p d m re eno t a l t s p i tiw i h o e c e n e ns :

one end is square 2. one or both sides of the rectangle are equal to the diameter of the circle 3. the circular and rectangular planes are eccentric 4. the circular and rectangular planes are not parallel

288

T
connecting cylindrical

P
and rectangular shapes

1 2 2

3 4 3
@

3 : - 3 2 1 2 + - A

D E V E L O P M E N T D it c v ii i e hr d n q e a al u e p c t d a e r l ae e m d w a nv a e i n p o i n t .

er ti c

F t li e o en n e g a d b t e m h l e c h t r i a n g ub l c a at li o n T l a t i r o c u e l ea m h y n pr t oho st t e n eu e e t t r i one n side of which is a g l e s A A A--e a- t t ’ o 3 2 1 nc h ’ ,t s i t i h eo d th i t r g a snhe s ti e h p i e c e .

B t e d e g v e h li o o t p n m e e n ti h l 1 a d t - r r n t i r a liSg d - w h S g h a n e w bh S o ae i s t q h e t u e aA s a s A ai w d e h h yn p o o A t D s dn u e e f b t r u a n n o u cl d a t i lyo n o i g a c t F i i n1 2h i . e n d t op o n 3 tt e T l eo 1 hn 2 g - e - em 2 t 3 f 3 t h b t ea t qkt c ue o e t anh o l d i v o i st i c o iint s ra t h o h f e c

small enough for the desired accuracy. Strike an arc with 1 as center and the chord of divisions as radius. With A as center and A-2 as radius draw arc at 2. The intersection of these arcs give the point 2. The points 3, 4 etc. in the curve can be found in a similar manner.
E f X c
e =

a ~

A M P L E l c ou l l a eot e i no o rl d = r x sin a + -d ( -

n eg a)( b

m t

c = r x cos a

)2

In the above described manner can be found the development for transition pieces when: 1. one end is square 2. one or both sides of the rectangle are equal to the diameter of the circle 3. the circular and rectangular planes are eccentric 4. the circular and rectangular planes are not parallel

289

D

C
T p m f c

I

E

P

+

c I

b m ee f h d s i h o ao it sd i t v o c e i ta f tr l i t eo t hn c s goo hd n s a e t a l s hw eu nr ideg i ot sth t i vt e T r e l n e o c t ne c . g hC = hdo h te i c x r w c ch i

i e ro r nnc q l fu t h o t d p e a h a r f e nr hi h c idh r e e c r u h r ao f m e e , t i d le o s a lt r e o

o
E X A I i r e cf 8s C =D T t f a i A e t i

la f e e at r a c , b eb u t

M P L E : t d u a 2 r v ed s i di n a o ie e 8 e t0 nhsc q r p l t u e c ao e q ii i t d m ic c r e a p o ta t r c a0 e rohb s 3 l m e 2 : 6 f . 8 e 8 ax m 0 l i b a~ M t d q e . = 3 e x r 2 . 6=37 8 8 . i 2 60 6 t2 8 0 n 5 c8 3h 6e

ls s

.

C = D E X I i r

C = 100 x sin
No. of Spaces

eo c hn hf g a o d e r eh o ds fu io s m r pen n o d t n n s r y sa e b d cr t o e o f s w h ih l e : 1 8 0 m s e t e i r n n uo sm p b a e c r e f s P L E : u a 1 r i et ds i d i n 0 da o m iic e 1 r0 e nh c p rq l 2 a u i v c e t e t e ro a 0 t l s 1 8 0 — 1 x s 1 30 1 = i0 x 0 0 ’. 0= n 0 ° i= 2 .n 0 6 c 2 h 2 6 1 2 0
No. of

c
0.00000 1.00000 0,86603 0.70711 0,58779 0.50000 0.43388 0.38268 0.34202
0 0 0 0 @ . . . . . 3 2 2

c

No.

c

c

1

2 3 4 5 ; 8 9
1 1 1 1

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
30 38 35

0,12054 0,11609 0.11196 0,10812 0“10453 0.10117 0.09802 0.09506 0.09227
90 1 10 80 2 3 90 20 4

51 % 54 55 56 57 58 59

0.06153 0.06038 0,05924 0.05814 0.05709 0.05607 0.05509 0.05414 0,05322
9 05 6 . 7 06 1 . 4 07 8 .

76 ;: 79 80 81 82 83 84
5 40 60 % 5 10 8 5 ) 8 4

0,04132 0.04079 0,04027 0,03976 0.03926 0.03878 0,03830 0.03784 0.03739
20 0 3. 10 1 4. 00 2 6. 4 0 8 0 5 0 3 3 3 3

0. 20 6 8 7 0 3 86 8 0 2 86 3. 5. 20 29 88 68

2 33 2 3 2

15 16 17 18 19 20 ;; 23 24 25

0.20791 0.19509 0.18375 0.17365 0.16460 0.15643 0,14904 0.14232 0.13617 0.13053 0.12533

40 41 :: 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

! 2 08 5. 8 9 4 0 0.04907 7

0.07846 0.07655 0.07473 0.07300 0.07134 0.06976 0.06824 0,06679 0.06540 0.06407 0,06279

65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

0,04831 0.04758 0.04687 0,04618 0.04551 0.04487 0.04423 0.04362 0.04302 0.04244 0.04188

89 90 91 92 93 % 96 97 98

9 5 03 8 , 0 0.03529 4

1::

0.03490 0.03452 0.03414 0.03377 0.03341 0.03306 0.03272 0,03238 0.03205 0.03173
0 . 0 3

290

m
I P
W

SEGMENTS CIRCLESFOR R4DIUS= 1 OF / l\ Length of arc, height of segment,length of chord, and area of segmentfor anglesfrom 1 to 180 degrees = 1 For other radii, multiply the values .

of 1, h and c in the table by the given radius r, and J the values for areas, by r2, the square of the radius.
1

andradi”s
0
Deg

e
De[ T . i 4 5 6 -1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

h

c 7A

1

h

c
A

e
Deg

Area

h
I
2.11? 2.129 2.147 2.164 2.18? 2.199 2.217 ~,?34 2,:5 ]
2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

c

l
6

ment

0
2 9 3 3 0 9 0 2 3 i 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0.000o m 0 . 0,ooo1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0.667

1

1
T

A 0

m7 62 1,082

3-F

1

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

;

~ I

0.715 0.73?
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 I

1

63 1.100 64 1.117 65 1.134 66 1,152 67 1.169 68 1.187 69 1.X34 70 [~q~ 71 I.239 7? 1.257 73 1.274 74 1,291 75 I.309 76 1.3?6 77 1.344 78 1.361 79 1.379 80 1.396 81 I.414 82 1.431 83 1.449 84 1.466 85 1.483 86 1 87 1 88 1 89 1 90 1 91 1 92 1 93 1 94 1 95 1 96 1 97 1 98 1 99 1 100 1 1,763 102 1.780 103 1,798 104 1,815 105 1,833 106 1.850 107 1.867 108 1.885 109 1.902 110 1.920 111 1.937 1.955 1.972 I 1.990 I 2.007 2.025 2.042 2.059 2.077 2.094

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

I

121 122 123 124 I15 126 127 ]28 129

I I

; , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

&6~54

I

162 2.827 163 2.845 164 2.862 165 2.880 166 2.897 167 2.915 168 2.932 169 2.950 170 2.967 171 2.984 172 3.002 173 3.019 174 3.037 175 3.054 176 3.072 177 3.089 178 3.107 179 3.124 180 3.142

1

i

[

291

Ziii4
I

d

D

A R T I N O E H SP E C T IE O N T R T O S H A N E O L ZF L Z N L D ( D i m e In s ni o cn e hd e s

E )

N M
~

I 3

NE 4
0.4375 0.3750 0.3125 0.3125

A %5

(

I

1

1Y2 0.0625 0.0625 0.0625 0.0625 —. 0.0625 0.0625 0.0625 0.0625

2

2

%3

0.2500 0.3750 0.2500 0.3750 0.1875 0.3125 0.1875 0.1875 0,1875 0.12SC o.1250 0.I 25a
O.

T
6 %8
1.0000 1.8125 0.8125 1.5000 0.6875 1.2.500 0.6250 1.1250

+

O.125C 0.12 SC O.125C O.125C 0.062S 0.062 ! 0.062: 0.062 : 0.062 ! 0.062! 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 0.062 ! 0.0625 0.062 ! 0.0625 0.062$ 0.0625 —. 0.062: 0.062$ 0.062$ 0.0625 0.062$ 0.0625 0.0625 0.0625 0.0625 0.0625 0.0625 0.0625 0.1250 0.2500 0.1250 0.2500 0.12.50 0.2500 0.1250 0.1875 0. 12s0 0.1875 0.1875 0.12s0 0.1875 0.1250 0.1875 0.0625 0.1250 0.0625 0.1250 0.0625 0.1250 0.0625 0.1250 0.0625 0.1250

292
I I

I i I

I

I

dl

I

D

A R T O S ( D i

I NO EH S E C T I O N T R P T E H A NE O L Z LZ N F L D md e I ; n ns IN 6 ic o hn (P A 2 8 e E

E

s , )

S !

h i
1.0625 !.5000 !.0625 [.7500

e

l ;

l .1

N M 1

P I

a

20

30

4.1250 3.1875 2.6250 2.3125 2.0625 1.8125 1.6875

7.000 4.1250 3.3750 2.8750 2 5000 2.2500 2.0625 1.8750 8.000 4.8750 — 4.0000 3.4375 3.0625 2.7500 2.5000 2.3125 2.1250’ 2.0000 1.8750 1.7500 1.6875

9
5.6250 4.6875 4.0625 3.6250

.

0
D.000o

[ [ [ [
L .0625 [.0000 ).9375 ).8750 36 38 40 42 ).81 25 ).7500 ).7500 ).6875

40 0 0
.1.0000 7.1875 12.0000 8.0000 6.8125 6.0000 5.4375 4.8125 4.5625 4.2500 4.0000 3.7500 3.1875 2.8125 2.5000 2.2500 2.4375 2.2500 2.0625 1.937.5 1.8125 1.6875 1.5625 1.5000 1.4375 1.3750 1.3125 1.2500 1.1875 1.8125 1.750[ 1.625C 1.5625 2.375( 2.250( 2. 125C
2.000C

6.0625 5.3125 4.8125 4.3750 4.0625 3.7500 3.5000 3.3125 3.1250 2.6875 2.3125 2.1250 1.8750

3.0000

5.0000 0.4375 9.0000 8.1250 7.3125 6.7500 6.3125 5.2500 4.5625 4.0000 3.6250

+
0.875 0.7500 0.6875 0.6250 1.0625 0.9375 0.8125 0.7500

1.5675 1 1.1875
I 1.1875

1.0625 1.0000 0.8750 0.8125 0.7500 0.6875 —— 0.6875 0.6250 0.6250 0.5625 0.5625 0.5000 1. 1.4375 1.3125 1.1875 1.1250 0.875C 0.812 : 0.750C 0.6875 0.6875 0.625C 0.625C 0.5625 0.5625 1.0000 0.9375 0.8750 0.8125 0.8125 0.7500 0.7500 0.6875

1.7500 2.0625 1.5625 1.8750 1.4375 1.7500 1.3750 1.8750 1.2500 1.5000 1.1875 1.4375 1.1250 1.3750 1.0625 1.2500 1.0000 1.1875 0.9375 1.1250 0.9375 1.1250 0.8750 1.0625 0.8750 1.0000 I

96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144

0.3 12! 0.4375 0.3 12! 0.37s0 0.250( 0.250( 0.250( 0.250( 0.250( 0.3750 0.1875 0.1875 0.3125 0.3125

0.500( 0.500( 0.437$ 0.437: 0.4375 0.375(

0.375C 0.5000 0.375C 0.4375 0.312 : 0.4375

0.182! + 0.3125 0.1 82! 0.3125

,

293

I

TABLEFOR LOCATING POINTS ON2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS t ~ From these tablesthe dimension y can be found if the diameter, D and dimensionx are known,

~Ient ‘
L i

R=t

n r

e a h hd o

e i

u e a

sd

f .

I
T
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 — x
1

3 = 12 Y 2.9580 2 2.8284 3 2.5980 4 2.2360 5 1.6583 0 6 — — D = 14 x Y 1 3.4641

r

z 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T 2 3 4 i 5 6 7 8 9

!

2

)

7 = 0 ?.2284

3.3541 2 3.1622 3 4 2.8722 5 2.4494 6 1.8027 70 D = 16 Y
3.9686 3.8729 3.7081 3.4641 3.1225 2.6457 1.9364 0 ) = 18

x 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

T
Y
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 4.4721 4.3878 4.2426 4.0311 3.7416 3.3541 2.8284 2.0615 0
I

7.0710 Y D = 26 6.8738 4.9749 T Y 6.6332 4.8989 T 6.4807 6.3442 4.7697 6.4226 2 6 4.5825 6.3245 3 5.5901 4.3301 4 6.1846 5.0990 4 5 6 4.5 3.5707 6 5.7662 3.7416 3 7 5.4772 2.6925 2.1794 5.1234 8 0 0 4.6904 9 ~= 32 )= 22 4.1533 10 T Y 3.4641 11 Y 7.9843 2.5 12 7 5.4772 7.9372 0 13 2 5.4083 — 7.8581 3 5.2915 ) = 28 7.7459 4 5.1234 T Y 7.5993 5 4.8989 - Y 6.9821 7.4162 6 4.6097 6.9282 2 7.1937 7 4.2426 6.8374 3 6.9282 8 3.7749 6.7082 4 6.6143 9 3.1622 6.5383 5 6.245 2 . 2 9 6.3245 1 11 2 5.8094 6 0 6.0621 7 5 12 =24 5.7445 8 4 13 Y 9 5.3619 3.8729 14 5.9791 4.8989 10 2.7838 15 5.9160 4.3301 11 0 16 — 5.8094 3.6055 12 ) = 34 5.6568 13 2.5980 Y Y 5.4543 0 14 — 8.4852 7 5.1961 ) = 30 8.4409 2 4.8734 x Y 8.3666 3 4.4721 7 7.4833 8.2613 4 3.9686 2 7.4330 8.1240 5 3.3166 7.3484l 7.9529 2.3979 l L’ —(

i

5 6 7 8 9 0 ,1 ,2 ,3 ,4 is —

7

7 8 9~ [0 ~ [1 [2 [3 ,4 .5 ,6 ,7 — T T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 —

7

7.7459 7.5 7.2111 6.8738 6.4807 6.0208 5.4772 4.8218 4 2.8722 0 ‘=36 Y 8.9861 8.9442 8.8741 8.7749 8.6458 8.4852 8.2915 8.0622 7.7942 7.4833

-

7

.

1

2

6.7082 6.2249 5.6568 4.9749 4.1231 2.9580 0

-J

D =38 x Y 9.4868 2 9.4472 9.3808 T3 41 9.2870 5 9.1651

3248 36 0 10.0777 7.9498 18 13.4782 11.8094 4.3631 4 16.6400 0 1 =60 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 -L 2 3 4 5 6 7 10.0384 12.3137 11.5916 9.8474 12 15.8007 6.2478 11 15.8745 21 14.4226 5.3095 17 15.2889 8 16.0623 9.1612 Y 27 9.1244 7.4721 3.9931 10 18.3675 8.4868 9.9282 6.7703 — =78 .586 14.1421 29 10.7467 9.294 TABLEFOR LOCATING POINTS ON 2: 1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS(Cont.8322 11.8481 17. 10.0853 Y 9 18.4924 13 16.3288 12.8317 8. Y 1 10.2665 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 x T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13.1644 5.8994 1 Y 14.2015 0 =48 Y 11.7082 9.2916 1 ‘66 11 17.4881 9 10.6654 9.6886 12.7367 6 7 8 9 10 T =42 x .1658 25 12.1414 6.9374 4 17.9917 14.1803 2 3 4 5 10.1245 5 16.1421 13.4499 15 14.0990 3.9722 ~ 2 18.9896 11.8405 0 -7 .0871 9.351 13.7121 10.8666 6 16.3704 24 13.6332 5.5885 7 16.8661 14.0078 20 14.6969 27 11.4868 Y 19.5185 13.6143 6 5.4523 10.4907 31 9.225 18 15.2130 2 3 24 11.1391 x Y 12 16.3972 5.1515 32 8.1624 13.1833 =7 8 19.4164 13 15.6168 8.7482 7 17.1245 19 15.9518 14 14.6564 8 17.2984 34 23 1 1 .4568 14.4743 7.4309 28 11.9498 9.9442 8.9087 10.6306 17.3137 17 14.7459 7.5993 7.9059 16 14.2330 8.2426 3.3078 10.7854 2 16.0623 9.5563 23 13.7083 9 8.6969 14.2665 12.7321 -i29 2 19.9706 1 16.3783 16 16.3516 8 7.3675 9.1234 4.1225 0 8 9 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 21 x T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 9.6558 32 5 19.6824 9.4907 13.7979 9.9666 14.9160 22 12.4936 28 8.2462 20 13.4629 13.8939 1 12.0934 4 5 11.3484 6.7477 13.1846 5.6602 8.7958 3.9372 7.3923 10.8738 31 4 19.198 10.5499 9 17.7279 2 12.2462 7.3851 3.5831 3 16.9583 11.8740 30 3 19.7242 22 14.8309 5.) T 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 x =38 9.9059 11.3391 4.0710 6.7279 33 5.2678 0 7 19.2678 4.9737 1 17.1243 10.0138 8.3314 6.1651 8.4284 10 17.3666 8.8322 11.0311 33 6 19.6654 10.4083 4.4833 6.9442 8.0413 0 =40 Y 9.4852 7.0691 8.4705 7.3091 14.1937 21 12.4317 15 16. 35 8 4.9874 9.7902 14.9416 26 12.5393 9.5399 3 12.4164 13.8262 7.9248 14.8885 5 17.6168 8.8255 6 17.9666 9 15.619 11..8743 8 10.4278 0 = 54 Y 13.5383 5.6202 10 15.3589 3.198 9.3654 6.9302 8.4881 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 T 11.4697 14 16.4422 6.8264 7.8293 30 19 13.5434 6 11.225 7 10.9553 13.3592 12 11.8868 9.9904 12.3923 10.2915 7.

7486 21.8997 19.7283 20 18.1246 29 29 18.2047 16.8062 12.884 9 23.6332 4.052 11.6274 13 26. 5 3 2 6 3 0 .7846 20.5524 8.9565 11 26.48 41 41 11.4499 22.798 12 26.4339 15 22.3095 15.4558 25.9954 -i.4499 22.225 10.2029 18 18.3516 45 45 6.3848 18.0768 18 22.7021 12 23.9531 23.4778 22.4284 33 33 16.4109 2 2 2 2 : 7 2 20.7705 16.7169 0 =96 Y 23. 1 8 26.3468 10.6278 19.1742 26 19.6224 13 23.6015 33 12.4936 28 28 19.5713 16.7083 18.1686 32 13.0868 22.7407 16.9442 38 7.9258 8 23.8885 32 32 17. 6 2 2 9 3 9 .3874 x 0 T 1 =84 2 x Y 3 4 20.5609 20.3704 14.7834 17.5739 13.198 8. 7 8 26.7434 4 26.1246 19.9625 29.5 12.8957 29.1720 0 = 120 Y 29.7394 14.2889 37 37 14.5812 21 22 21.2801 5.6654 43 43 9.0654 23 24 20.3391 19.9911 39 39 13.0777 6.7846 24 25 20.3325 15.2337 25 16.124F 19.8741 7.9666 14.6023 7.295 I TABLEFOR LOCATING POINTS ON2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS(Cont.9333 29.5344 14.615 19.8507 20.9411 34 34 16.4285 24.6969 31 14.8496 29.2971 14.8167 9.8745 26 16.3961 20.619 42 42 10.4944 22.1905 30 14.3307 22 23 21.799 19.2947 12.7761 22.0329 18.4734 7 26.7942 39 6.0857 28 15.8734 47 x 0 48 7 7 = 108 2 Y Y 3 4 26.8745 36 36 15.6525 14.8885 23 17.9583 1 1 3 7 23.3717 20.3288 35 11.6643 5 26.6139 17.8322 11.9815 6 9 2 .1833 18.0384 12.5122 20.2379 9 26.9762 20.5552 41 0 42 =90 v 22.6271 25.0799 24.3613 8 26.554 18.8174 21 21.0712 13.6577 24.9687 19.3827 23.6155 20.9248 14.2665 40 40 12.6629 38 38 13.6082 36 10.6748 18.9322 23.1644 4.8328 10 23.1384 17.2003 18 17.1421 13.2988 17.9904 34 12.1865 22 17.7063 20.533 14 22.3078 9.4031 40 4.3235 31 31 17.1556 19.4878 25 26 20.5916 44 44 8.9374 19 22.4317 16.9833 29.1467 10.9958 29.9464 19.1421 13.4165 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 21.9792 23.2735 25.0397 16 25.9165 7 T 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 4 50 8 51 52 53 54 7 x 4 2 3 4 5 6 7 25.1868 23.3693 11.3249 16 22.5 6.7951 .103 10 26.666 19.2486 15 25.3923 9.4924 27 16.4444 14 26.9762 20.3644 18 17.9373 37 8.8556 46 4.748 15.5713 24 17.0294 16.8193 15.1012 15.5744 6 26.) D=78 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 F 18.7876 20.4599 11.5499 17.7722 11 23.267 20.4662 21 18.9706 16.735 30 30 18.9737 19 18.4241 35 35 15.8747 24.8431 27 27 19.6643 23.994 -i2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20.6525 29 15.2059 17 22.9948 23.1077 21.2736 8.

2783 34.9314 30.9896 10.367 24 23.9032 21.9666 14.749 31.7176 35.296 TABLE FOR LOCATING POINTS T 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 & u 120 29.6917 32.6643 23.6182 28.1364 32.7409 30.7184 24.4923 32.8602 25.3939 29.1138 33.0156 31.2874 29.8139 32.6437 29.8569 34.3875 c i a 4 ah e a l e la .2614 29.8617 28.4484 31.9225 20.9464 20.9037 25.1025 27.1679 22.9444 35.7083 27.8828 30.1814 10.285 31.9393 32.4561 28.367 23.3939 29.9808 25.2614 18.3729 33.6856 25.4284 16.1662 32.3315 30.037 26.1769 30.2835 8..303 17.5708 33.5384 32.9737 18.9333 29.2631 25.8831 29.3771 25.1246 18.5774 35.6586 27.748 14.2488 25.8998 24.0549 24.3535 32.3607 21.1077 21.9106 27.8431 19.4956 28.9861 35.5788 28.7703 9.5778 30.8747 28.9052 32.8865 31.8118 L 67 68 69 70 71 72 13.8328 26.7239 34.3675 7.7477 12.7261 32.45 32.5996 11.7771 35.5407 20.2843 28.4083 35.249 31.9943 21.6948 27.7567 32.3267 26.5967 24.1402 23.3137 Y 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 5 9.7333 31.8634 32.9815 26.541 30.0474 28.7902 13.0624 13.6481 18 17.249 32.4642 16.2404 28.0999 34.533 26.5832 34.3961 19.4603 31.0767 r 55 56 57 58 ON 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS (Cont.5804 29.7602 33.4924 15.3224 19.6167 23.4955 27.4558 25.9137 28.798 22.8748 35.1123 29.666 18.9687 35.1025 27.6811 z 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 7 Y T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 59 54543 0 60 — D = 132 T x 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 .4965 35.9131 35.4243 20.7706 28.1127 30.9961 31.619 32.9848 32.6606 29.6511 35.4839 14.4116 24.4261 5.9507 32.2414 17.7909 26.9659 32.6274 21.5831 15.9791 0 N O T T c u r h a v o a e l l i p s h e ei t a i n o su o it i at r e l l i p s T p a r h a l c o u t r o p sp o si i n e l l o i a t n h d o a t t t ha bi a n r o a p p l i c a t l o c a p o i n t g eh o m a r iu c a ln d e t e r m i c u r v ( e i t o h w s c h a p e 5 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 J@ 2 22.7321 29.3772 25.0622 5.9411 33.4915 29.9962 32.8997 19.1719 29.7227 0 = 144 Y35.6224 26.8035 14. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Y 32.4347 34.3129 35.6358 15.8361 8.2164 22.9821 34.6495 22.2843 27.2718 26.8295 35.2101 35.3307 20:6337 19.) 10.1333 28.603 31.9965 35.3133 16.2718 27.9777 27.5931 29.035 24.

EXAMPLES A. = 3 N F 7 9 o l t V @ / 2 6 4 1 C 0 ” oz @ 3 z a l t e e c 0 d rt al oeb o h lm g e t e n a =7 ’ . can be obtained easily using the values given for diam.0 i ) ( D 6 0Y O J . 0 ” oz @ 3 z a l t e e c 0 d ? ° r l a eo Wb na f lg o 3 m 0e r ho t f ° c 2 a 6 1 x2 3 6= 0 1 8 . 8 ( Y B 6 . i r 8 4 n3 c ? ° h 8 f . O. = 3 ° f ° c 0 0 8 . 0 . These tables are for locating points on pipes and shells by measuring the length of arcs. ti e ” d ° oe e od h m e o @0 ° m h e i 8h c 4 f s 3 : 8 n c P 3m’ ) 2 4 d 7 9 .D. 4.p 2 ” e . V D0 N o l oz @ 6 z a l t c T a t b mh e r a f st c P 0l c o n s t @e r s l e e T n o i 3z f h z t s 9r l ~ T l eo t hn a 7gh & ’ . O =3 P . 3 D 4 . i 0 0 7 5 0 n0 5 1 8 1= 0 i . e0 e e r c u r i n t e 0 e r . All dimensions are in inches. not shown in the table. 1 or degree 1. @ D p 22%0 ! 2 & 7 { 1 9 ( 0 ” N o l oz @ 2 z a 2 t e e c l ? d 4 F t r l a eo o1 a o lg b n m te r h 3 P’ . The length of arcs for any diameters and any degrees.297 LENGTH OF ARCS 1. I =3 O = N o l FW t d . The length of arcs are computed for the most commonly used pipesizes and vessel diameters. n9 .D. 2. 3. W t h D0i c 3 k . 1 = 8 0 . Y 2 @ 7 9 I s . w 3P O. ln / e” s l8 = ” a a t h s ?. 8. 2 = 8 W . 8 . x2 2 6 15 i 8 .

a 00 00 m 5 0.80 0 27 .2 3 17 0 32 . 3 3 0 53 04 0 2 5. 8 0 0 . 1S 2 8 0 1 3 : z w & z ~ z 0 z 2 3 a 5 6 8 w w ~ ~ A m x a 8 $ & a z ~ n .8 2 . 070 1 97. 1 680 1 50 5 1 . . 1 6 1 . 0 6 . 0 0 4.298 L D D 1 1 1Y2 E E O NA G 1 G R R T E 2 E H C S 02 F S i 0 0 1 . 1 32 8 8 8 . 1 7 4 .

3 0.7813 11.0313 11.0000 12.6875 8.35619 47 3.3 1.6563 16.2188 . 8 2 3 80 4 5 53 .3750 125.9375 1.1875 4.1250 14.1875 2.9375 15.8438 56.9688 70.7188 16.4375 03 7 0 0 6 .2188 23.0000 11.8750 12.5000 207.4 3.7188 4.8438 1.7188 7. 10 1 31 8 6 0 1 3 .4063 33.6563 16.5000 18.1 0 2 .2813 3. 5 .5000 18.5625 61.9688 7.1563 11.9375 8. 5 4 . 25 6 9 9 3 3 2 .7813 169.5000 169.8438 20.1875 245. 6 .6875 62.5938 12.4688 9.6875 42.8125 94.0625 10. 6 . 71 3 1 3 1 0 36 2 ..37 9 .3 8 .14159 4. 6 1 3 3 1 44 . 2 .4060 56. 0 7 7 07 5 2 . 5 05 20 6 65 0 10 3 4 4 7 79 1 14 5 48 8 2.5625 61. 3 3 1 8 9 8 4 . 4m 3 0 0 .6563 0.0938 4.5625 1.9375 0. 3 . 7 5 2 52 8 .2500 141.4063 84.8750 2.1250 15.2188 6.2500 103.1250 17.5625 62.5938 6.3750 4.5313 94.4688 20.8125 113.7188 17.6250 3.3125 20.1563 3.9688 47.1250 75.4063 80.6563 4.7500 3.0938 33.5000 6.7500 18.4688 0.1250 5.4375 4. L E D O NA E 9 5 G G R 01 R T E H E 5 2 C S 8 F S D 1 1 1Y2 i 0 3 a .2500 2.1563 9.4 2 .2188 1. 3 .2500 100.2813 30.6250 3 54 0 7 2 65 20 5 6 82 6 0 49 7 2 07 8 6 69 9 0 21 0 2 84 1 6 46 2 8 3 .2500 65.0625 3. 30 6 8 5 0 6 88 2 . 7 .1563 22.2813 6.0000 37.3750 9. 1 5 . 1 4 .7813 8.0938 127. 7 6 9 53 0 7 5 7 2 .5313 106.4375 10. 89 9 8 003. 66 78 :. 1 4 .0000 37.6875 75.8125 89.4688 5. 6 5 .8438 14.2813 29. 5 8 0 02 6 2 3 83 .8750 20.1 8 9 03 6 34 74 5 1 56 8 66 5 17 8 52 89 w N G m & z d 4 g z $? 2 2% 3 3% 4 5 6 8 10 12 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 .6875 42.0000 9.8125 25.5313 5. 89 9 1 88 2 . 1 . 16 0 8 05 2 .2813 4.0313 7.9688 113. 13 1 33 5 6 6 5 9 3 .5313 1. 5 0 4 .3750 11.7 50 8 .5000 6.4375 10.39 8 .5625 9.5 1 1 8 .2813 31.0625 8.3125 3.9375 2..5625 14.6563 188.0625 37.0938 3. 0 71 2 8.9688 75.3438 7. 0 4 .9688 94.0625 43.2188 9.2500 . 0 .0313 8 3 2 .9688 7.4063 22.7813 2.1250 84.2500 9.6563 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 7 9 1 3 4 6 8 0 2 3 0.5625 1. 4 4 3 0 9 3 9 .7500 10.6875 2.2500 53.4 4.7813 11.1250 26.0313 1.2813 7.0000 1.4063 13.1250 27.2813 7. 1 4 . 6 9 8 35 7 6 7 8 5 3 .1250 51.5000 6.4375 11.2188 12.8438 31. 3 .3458 —-.8438 20.08 8 ..7500 4. 5 2 7 0 5 84 .0000 25.9065 28.4063 0. 31 0 84 3 5 7 3 . 5 .58 9 .5625 25.2500 13.7813 10.9375 23.6563 9.5938 .4063 47.7 00 .6875 40. 71 3 50 2 .5938 3.6563 131.0938 6. 8 .6S63 183.8438 65.7188 28.5000 1.4 3. 0 3 .0 6 .8 1 0 .4003 1.3125 3 0 2 34 2 .1250 50.2500 98.0938 15.7188 5.6875 87. 08 5 7 86 2 .0938 122.2813 18.0313 29.0000 4.5313 1 0. 5 5 1 3 3 15 07 89 61 53 36 18 9 0 m : u ~ A ‘ 48 a LLl g 54 60 5 * m + E 4 s 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12.7813 1 06 1 .: 6.6250 20.8438 21. 1 29.— 226.2813 33.3750 1.2188 1.1250 51.5625 16.3 2 . 63 4 39 6 4 3 63 . 0.8438 56.3 1 2 .8438 8.3438 14.5625 14.5313 4.1250 1.0000 3.06 5 1 .3438 30.0625 1.0000 10.3 0.8125 27.7500 0. 62 7 0 0 2 2 .0000 23.4063 81.8750 1.0313 18. 6 .3125 25. 7 55 02.3750 155.8750 5.9688 50.4688 11.0313 2.7813 40.4 0 3 5 0.5625 59.9688 14.5625 13.7813 8. 5 1 3 8 1 .0313 25.6875 113.3750 5.8438 69.5625 37.6 .2500 56.0938 119.8438 43.7188 0. 150.0000 23.8438 22. 22 0 5 0 8 0 3 .3750 1.5625 25.9063 3.4063 34.2188 5.5938 13.5938 0.4063 47. 54 2 0 3 1 3 .1250 28.0000 12. 25 5 58 9 8 0 0 3 .8750 5.5625 13.

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2 . 96 0 . 6 x 0A 3 . 5 %9 3 . 8 . 3 % 08 . 5 1 67 0 . 45 5 . 4 % 4A . %1 93 . 95 0 . 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 &1 6 1 6 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 41 0 .1 8 . 7 3 . 0 . . 8 ~ 48 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 61 6 1 63 0 . 0 . 4 ~ 8 x 2 % 6A % 04 %4 ~ 8A Y 18 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 06 5 7 5 5 9 1 4 3 2 5 2 7 1 9 1 00 3 9 9 5 8 7 7 9 7 1 6 3 5 04 7 9 4 1 3 2 3 5 1 7 1 9 0 9 1 3 09 8 5 7 6 9 1 6 3 5 4 5 3 7 9 13 1 2 1 3 1 5 0 7 9 8 1 8 3 — 15 6 7 0 5 2 5 4 6 3 2 8 0 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 ’ 9 9 9 9 34 6 33 33 43 43 42 52 52 6 72 62 62 71 71 81 81 81 8 91 91 01 01 02 12 12 22 92 2 22 32 33 43 44 44 54 . . . 5%1 3 . 0. 4 45 0 .1 3 . 1 51 13 24 26 27 39 30 41 0. 5 5 1 54 0 . 0.1 9 . % 9 33 5 . 0 % 58 . 2 . 84 0 . 0. 1 . 51 860 5 1 79 0 . 0. 9 . 8 %4 . 3 ~ 1 % % % % % 3 % 1 % % ~ x % % ~ 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 0 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 1 7 8 8 8 9 9 0 0 2 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 4 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 5 . 7X 5 3 . 1 % 98 . 2 . 61 0 . 9 . 8 %8 . 4 3 7A . 2 . ~ 38 3 . 5? 5 3 . 1 6 . 2 . 2 . 8 ~ 68 3 9 05 5 9 55 9 66 9 66 9 77 9 77 % 78 % 88 % 19 8 % 99 9 90 9 91 9 01 9 02 9 13 9 14 . 00 0 . 6 ~ 5~ 3 .1 0 .1 1 . 1 . . 1 . 3~ 3 . 3 %6i . 4 M1 . 0. 4 % 14 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 11 4 0 6 0 8 9 0 8 2 7 5 7 7 6 9 15 1 4 4 3 5 3 7 2 2 9 1 4 0 6 19 8 9 8 0 2 7 6 4 6 5 8 1 4 13 3 5 2 7 1 9 1 0 3 6 9 8 0 18 2 7 4 6 6 5 8 5 1 4 3 3 12 1 2 0 4 0 6 9 8 0 7 3 7 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 l 8 . 6~ 4 3 — — 186 . 5. 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 . 5 1 55 0 . 1 % x % % % 3 % 1 % % % % % % ~ 1 % X 3 ? % 3 ~ 1 % % % . 7 3 . 0. 3g 8 .1 4 . 7% 2 3 . 0. 56 0 . 5g 1 3 . 5 %3 3 . 7%6 3 . 4%0 . 0. 0 . 9~ 5 . 8 8 9 9 9 9 5 1 32 0 . . 47 3 / . 0%1 . 6 3 . 8 .306 C A A C If A r 1 25 25 26 37 38 39 40 41 . 8 %1 . 4 . 0 N 38 . 0. 0 . . 5 1 66 0 . . 5 3 . 3~ 9 .1 8 . 0X9 . 2%2 . 3%2 . 7%4 3 . 2~ 4 . 360 75 0 . 8~ 0 3 . 58 0 . 9 . 1 . . 0. 5 1 70 0 . 3 . 9%9 .1 3 . 9s 3 . 6 1 77 61 87 6 1 80 6 1 82 6 1 94 6 1 96 6 1 98 7 1 00 I . 1 . 5 %7 3 . . 69 0 .1 . . 1 %5 ~ 9 3 %7 %1 ~ 5A 5 9 . 1%5 . . 3? 7 . 6B 2 3 .1 5 . 7~ 0 3 . 5 X 34 3 . 5 . 8 l0 09 0 . 7%9 3 . 9 . 7% 6 3 . 2 x 6~ . 9 . 9%7 .1 1 . . 0. 8 83 0 . 5~ 9 3 . 7~ 8 3 . 3 0 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 . 7 7 3 . 0. 0 . 7~ 2 3 . 0g 7 . 4 3 9A . 0. 2%8 . 22 0 . 0 0. .3 ~ 6 ~ 0 ~ 4 %8 ~ 2 %6 ~ 0 .

81 398.- C A A C I (continued) — .95 401.90 423.45 395. % X % % % x ?’4 134.77 400.37 421.80 420.38 399.23 3%. .51 413.94 423.15 422.~ 407.34 412.20 398.27 405.63 397.08 415.59 409.26 416.06 % % % % % % % % % % % I % % X Y8 S % 3A % .87 405. % % g % ~ % ?’4 % % % % % % % 127.02 9 12125 0 12150 12174 12199 12223 12248 12272 12297 12321 12346 12370 12395 12419 12444 12469 12494 12518 12543 12568 12593 12618 12643 12668 12693 12718 12743 12768 12793 12818 12843 12868 12893 12919 12944 12970 12995 13020 13045 13070 130% 13121 13147 13172 13198 13223 13248 .49 393. % ~ M ~ ~ g % g X % % % x % 128.37 410.09 393.52 402.09 404.94 412.69 426.13 402.97 421.16 400.30 403.98 410.06 395.16 411.55 422.13 391.05 417.47 426.31 392.19 420.73 402.76 422.76 411. % X E % ~ % 132.23 407.98 399.62 408. % ?-’6 >~ 3A % 131.66 417.12 413.44 -.44 417.83 418.66 406. 409.72 424.55 400.05 406.48 415.84 3%.52 391. 1 3 .02 397.88 394.23 418.41 397.58 420.30 414. ~ % % % % % g ~ x % % % % 129.55 411.08 426.19 4 409.70 404.40 419.01 419.87 416.27 394.87 13324 13350 13375 13401 13426 13452 13478 13504 13529 13555 13581 13607 13633 13659 13685 13711 13737 13763 13789 13815 13841 13867 13893 13919 13946 13972 13999 14025 14051 14077 14103 14130 14156 14183 14209 14236 14262 14288 14314 14341 14367 14394 14420 14447 14473 14500 3 2 % % % % 125.74 391.91 403.48 404.92 392.70 393.91 414. % % % % % % x % % 126. ~ X % % % % % 135.33 423. % X % % ~ x % 133.29 425. 3A % % 3A ~8 3 390.69 415.73 413.12 424.51 424.34 401. 384.62 419.66 395.59 398.

52 477. % % y.93 445.78 464.79 442.47 437. % % % 459.22 429.21 451.78 453.25 438.18 453.49 479.42 461.63 4S3.308 C A A C 1 I( .43 140.93 456. % x % % ~ ~ x X % % % % % .17 464.57 453.17 475. ?~ x ?~ ?4 96 3A 446.35 454.21 462.07 459.83 429.11 446.45.18 442.38 474.74 477.89 447.08 437. % g /8 % % % x 439.54 444. % % % % % % 146.86 449.40 143.22 440.77 475.89 458.43 450.71 457.75 455.57 442.41 1 18265 18295 18325 18355 18385 18415’ 18446 18476 18507 18537 18567 18597 8 — .27 480.85 16827 460. % % % % 41.88 480.39 452.61 430.02 483.44 428.32 456.75 444.86 438. 427.31 17908 17938 17%7 17997 18026 18056 18086 18116 18146 18175 18205 436.00 452.64 450.97 443.24 482.35 476.% 454.00 441.46 448.46 Area 15837 15865 15893 15921 15949 15977 16005 16033 16061 16089 16117 16145 16173 16201 16229 16258 16286 16314 16342 16371 16399 16428 16456 16485 —— 16513 16542 16570 16599 16627 16656 16684 16713 16742 16770 16799 .I % X % % I % % % % % % 430.13 477.07 448.67 459.14 455. % x % % % % % 137.6Q 462.61 452.82 462. I Circurn.72 15175 15203 15230 15258 15285 15313 15340 15367 15394 15422 15449 15477 15504 15532 15559 15587 15615 15642 15670 15697 15725 15753 15781 15809 145.56 16856 16885 16914 16943 16972 17000 17029 17058 17087 17116 17145 17174 x ~ 3A B 147.04 439. % % 3A N % % % 478.28 458.56 475.84 482.03 450.82 451.01 I Area 14527 14553 14580 14607 14633 14660 14687 14714 142.64 461.29 447.24 460.65 428. % x E % % % 144.53 455.50 446.14 444.92 478.25 449.67 481.70 479.06 481. % 17790 % ~ % 474.39 463.61 441.68 437.50 457.04 428.36 443.03 461.40 441.82 440.68 448.65 439.09 479. 481.99 463.26 427.95 476.32 445.10 457. —— 136. Dia.

~ x 3A % ~8 3A ~8 163.30 489.83 515.72 532.00 538.16 % 486.22 526.04 536.94 509.87 513.34 497.12 499.05 492.58 506.% Area 21642 21675 21707 21740 21772 21805 21838 21871 21904 21937 21969 22002 22035 22068 22101 22134 22167 22200 22233 22266 22299 22332 22366 22399 22432 22465 22499 22532 22566 22599 22632 22665 22698 22731 22765 22798 22832 22865 22899 22932 22966 22999 23033 23066 23100 23133 23167 23201 I —— 155.30 511.38 % 485. ~8 X pa ~ % 3A ~8 168.57 528.23 493.09 501.27 491.15 508.57 539.93 531.94 498.45 492.309 C ? Dia. % % % % Y8 164.02 494.56 % 486. ~ % % % % 78 171.54 530.97 529.48 490.77 % 4S6.90 522.73 510. % % ?’6 % % 3A % Circum.~ 484.18 539.89 533.00 527.48 M1. >~ x 3A .26 513.43 525.51 510.79 517.78 539.66 492.21 537.70 4S0. 521.41 494. % x % % % % % 162.36 518.37 496.50 532. % % B % % y~ % % % % 159.91 500.69 501.65 514.05 503.59 484.39 538. 483. >8 X % Y2 % % ~8 161. Area i8627 18658 18688 18719 18749 1&3779 18809 18839 18869 18900 18930 18%1 18991 19022 19052 19083 19113 19144 19174 19205 19235 19266 19297 19328 19359 19390 19421 19452 19483 19514 19545 19576 19607 1%38 19669 19701 19732 19763 19794 19825 19856 19887 19919 19950 19982 20013 20044 20075 A A C I( Dia.55 508.59 495. % % 157.77 497. B x 3A ~ % x % 170.90 511.69 512.36 529.55 497.83 526.91 489.04 525.20 .83 504.51 521.40 S16.33 509.47 534.88 491.68 534.64 536.41 505.09 490.26 % % $8 % 96 3A Xl 156.51 499. % ~ ?$ % % % x 165.01 516.80 495.65 525.18 528.62 516.19 517.08 523.04 514.73 499.&5 503. % x 3/8 % % 3A % x y~ % % % 5 . 166.72 521.15 530.01 505.29 533.58 517.15 519. 502.47 523. ~ 96 Y2 —— 158.07 534. .99 38 485.40 527.22 515. 16Q.86 535.44 503.23 504. 1s4.86 524.19 506.62 505.32 531.98 4%.97 518.33 520.12 510.62 494. g Circum.20 495.76 519.16 497.61 538.94 520.84 493. Circum.44 514.29 522.81 ! s I 484.25 535. % x % % % 3A ~8 169.61 527.11 Area 20106 20138 20169 20201 20232 20264 20295 20327 20358 20390 20421 20453 20484 20516 20548 20580 20612 20644 20675 20707 20739 20771 20803 20835 20867 20899 20931 20964 20996 21028 21060 21092 21124 21157 21189 21222 21254 21287 21319 21351 21383 21416 21448 21481 21513 21546 21578 21610 Dia.26 524.37 507.47 512.68 523.11 532.76 508.13 488.54 519.9 500.43 536. B % ?4 % % % % 167.34 498.73 488.80 506.79 528.75 530.52 488.95 487.98 507.82 537. .87 S2.08 512.

38 571. ~ % 3A % % 3A % 188.63 569.13 574.34 573.66 589.56 561.20 570. 5 5 2 3 4.27 S6.73 585.48 576. 3 3 572.55 583. 3A % % % % 189.24 568. B x % % ~ x ~8 187.99 560.62 591.23 590.31 564. 184.48 587.30 586.73 5%.95 562.74 563.17 561. % % 180. 559.C A A C I( c o n l i n . ?’6 x % % % % ~8 186.88 566.27 588.70 565.12 5%.38 560.78 561. % % % ~ % ~ ~8 179.70 576.41 580.95 584.59 587.10 565.94 595.58 592.16 583.02 580.56 572.91 586.84 568.42 569.74 574.49 565.27 577. . % x % S % % ~8 —— 182.80 592.01 591.84 590. g x 3A % % % % 185.99 571. ~ % g % % % % % % % % % g x % % ~ % % E % Y2 % % ~8 181.98 593. 578.88 577.51 Area 26590 26626 26663 26699 26736 26772 26808 26844 26880 26916 26953 26989 27026 27062 27099 27135 27172 27208 27245 27281 27318 27354 27391 27428 27465 27501 27538 27574 27611 27648 27685 27722 27759 27796 27833 27870 279Q7 27944 27981 28018 28055 28092 28130 28167 28205 28242 28279 28316 ~ % % % x % .06 567.23 579.52 585.92 564.02 569.33 5U5. 178.77 583.16 594.35 562.37 593. 3A % ~ % % % x % % % % x % ~ % % Y8 I I .37 582.166 1 572. .41 591.84 579.80 581.55 594.76 594.31 575.05 578.05 589.44 589.60 559.09 576.95 573.53 563.66 % % % % % % 183.34 584.52 574.21 559.91 575.77 Area 24885 24920 24955 24990 2%25 25060 25095 25130 25165 25200 25236 25271 25307 25342 25377 25412 25447 25482 25518 25553 25589 25624 25660 25695 25730 25765 25801 25836 25872 25908 25944 25980 26016 264351 3 26087 26122 26158 26194 26230 26266 26302 26338 26374 26410 26446 26482 26518 26554 Dia.45 578.45 567.67 567.19 592.59 570. ~ Dia.98 582.12 585.09 587.20 581.13 563.81 570.63 580.59 581. % % % % % x ~8 Circum. Circum.87 588.

90 608. % % 3A S % % 78 195. % % 3/8 >5 % 3A ~8 2W.76 605. 202.35 648. ~ Circum.93 617.05 611.54 627.18 614.83 612.11 640.67 642. 1.51 629.03 644.54 638.97 637.24 643.76 627.47 620.40 613.32 639.58 631.46 631.10 651. % x .79 636. ~8 % >8 % % % B 203.26 632.Oi 624.60 635.31 650.40 624.90 597.94 628.15 616.61 ~.21 645.29 597.58 625. .29 608. 196.4 % % % ~8 193.15 627. % % % M % % 7/8 ./ /8 Id 36 il .74 638.32 617. % x :.89 619.15 605. 190.54 616.~ 646.17 647.43 611.86 621.78 647.29 612.51 607.33 606.04 600.57 647. 615.57 653.07 642.43 644.54 605. % g Z? % x vu 198.88 641. % % 3/8 % % x % 199.94 606.83 601.86 61026 610.44 622. % x ?5 % % % ~8 Circum.32 628.05 633.40 635.18 636.22 623.08 631.71 651.58 603. 3/8 % % % % 2@5.63 644.39 646.36 604.89 652.29 630.28 652.36 626.07 Area 32047 32086 32126 32166 32206 32246 32286 32326 32366 32405 32445 32485 32525 32565 326435 32645 32685 32725 32766 32806 32846 32886 32926 32966 33006 33046 33087 33127 33168 33208 33249 33289 33329 33369 33410 33450 33491 33531 33572 33613 33654 33694 33735 33775 33816 33857 33898 33939 % >4 % ~8 192.08 598.50 618.72 629.50 651.65 633.83 634.62 624.S(3 630.79 603. z % % % % y8 Circum.97 626.65 611.11 629.311 C A A C I( ? Dia.18 625.79 625.00 63S. 5%.44 600.93 650.47 609.08 620.64 622. 634.36 637.68 598.04 622.47 598.15 638.68 620.97 615.40 602.85 643.72 640. g X 2 % % ~8 201.29 Area 30172 30210 30249 30287 30326 30364 30403 30442 30481 30519 30558 305% 30635 30674 30713 30752 30791 30830 30869 30908 30947 30986 31025 31064 31103 31142 31181 31220 31263 31299 31338 31377 31416 31455 31495 31534 31574 31613 31653 31692 31731 31770 31810 31849 31889 31928 31%8 32007 Dia.: % % 191.22 601. % % 3A % % % % 194.62 602.72 607.83 623.00 613.S7 636. % x >s ti % % ~8 207.72 618.75 616.86 599.08 609.75 649.64 600.11 607.82 645.28 641.46 642.11 618.01 602.96 648.97 604. % % % 205.79 614.53 649.25 599.36 Area 26353 28390 28428 28465 28503 28540 28578 28615 28652 28689 28727 28764 28802 28839 28877 28915 28953 28990 29028 29065 29103 29141 29179 29217 29255 29293 29331 29369 29407 29445 29483 29521 29559 29597 2%36 2%74 29713 29751 29789 29827 29865 29903 29942 29980 30019 30057 30096 30134 Dia.57 614.19 603.29 619.50 640.61 613. % x % ~ % ~ ?’4 197.43 633.25 621.14 649.58 609.93 639.86 632. ?“6 % 58 % % % ~ 2W.

8i l u s o l ” s e l l id n e u t d h v ae a ges ea ttc i e e nfs ld e i tc v t e i o t i . r r t e s d o p n p r t hinge i i g n e e g o f STIFFENER I l I > .312 D 3 .— . xe d s n s s i i r v n e t ..i nlrae y en v f d e . C F I II . en l o /ln f t w . t \ Y s I H N O 1 2 3 4 5 Z O O T l E A l A w T d U d F f r O N P iT E f m Sa c 3 ec h b a s l a r e uq Al N F I L V N E G R OT O P I C RN LI E A N t : e rr t i ab l e o s a .q sw u t t hiu soi h e a s hi t s e o i g o r m d nn h o u e s d e t.—.

a elb s le s y t a n t . dn i m e m n u o ir e B e sn d r a rh g ser b l sY 0 m n hl s u io o r B a e po l s m d v . ht ta a a d ee r f i a us m K o rn e o il te r n e si h n w e s s s ai i hf n do n r h t u ip r v i n a g d h s o c a o s a or r u sa s bo le a e i i d r e s f i d t t s . i wn t ii i m d nu t m h h 2 c ga r : e 2 s :r e e s0 . n a e a o pn r i lh g sv dp t er e i e 6t rae s ny s e t 0 i . o n s t i t l rhi o e r ai sfh y 5 dn ete a gl w z o o e a s i bl p i r n a g v osI i s d l o ea e ed d s n pt ee a n H sra wn a d d y rh s a .313 FIXED STAIR AND HEALTH (OSHA) STANDARDS F F b M A R p E S t S f A b D i n s i wt b p x a ir e i w o rdo h i s e nr eea c tr e i s o est n i gstb a u et a l e t e a w vre e e e vl p d e e d r l e r l v l l s i t a s x i b rdh ewe a s c y i a llg o nf l re e dt iri n a o o v l h a e inmo s a cv e i al p a e tad s a t o y r d f et i lm l e t u t v h a m s t o rr o vs c n e o o t 1 r oa g t . e o d a 0u e c e a a c n r l n yn i p n 0d d f 0s . i a l h o t o p hi x e l o i e l b f s r o a lv o o ed i s o nc d i s s t n o td pi sr e e e f at f y r s s .7 o o t el de . e) o d w : 1l s l l e rh s ( m e i g ia o t n s rs rR ( en t u a s bb a) un del d a l s ef T t g R z (o i n 0 A t n H o r i 3 l i e T o Rsr tn a cl i { h i en ° e e ua e cn i ~ h e d an n ) 7 . i b e sy c e hnn d i t n e a l c a t r wo ed r a d h ig l d e t aa r n oc e s b s rh h i a d sn l d i lg .

. ] / 3 2 1 / 1 l f e GE T L F DL B EA DN T R A TI 3 F L DIAM.e e ot s e r l o h t o e r l f e e t e n rn 6 . L U W K ON L t E G 1 3 1 / 3 . I G E D AL E L I D A N F B = ~ R – ( c = R + 2!4 – A D = R+ R i d 2’/2 – 6 B D P ao f d t di i ao hm =e i a+ 1Im i i 1 i a u n s g f e a m m . f l w a f n p i eg u e tot s r l a e h i l l n n w t o u o d p h ar s e h v ei e s e nr f et gc d i e a ol t f ir p e f r e u q ou p s e tn l re y n g ds .HINGE +iii’’”k-w ICl b N F w t T f R s r = E L UW l a p u is t ng ii hl t s o dia n o o t s p c hi o b ov e u W en t l l p e us d l e r g . G F S 5 I 2 14 0 # 300* 14 / 2 2 11 4 4 4 4 / 3 4 / 3 4 / 3 4 / 3 4 / 3 4 / 3 4 / 14 3 4 1 6 3 18 1 / 10 2 4 12 1 G 3 I N 3 R A T 1 / G 1 / 1 I I 900* I I . e n i A = ~ – ( RR 1 R / +t / / a 2) 2 2 1 2 + O T T L-B n s e d s d . l y D . H I I C N 3 S AND DIAMETER OF PINS S U .

in. aul l r d e s s e sr a nt w i f a iee v y e d r n i e r oe t c l b a e l l o a md t im d a g e . ce n hn g or:a ooi fa m c n e tnp e o a d d ae i d t o p e p i o o r h l nt o a l v a n i z i n g . m a t s e c r t o i n a . min. r o C e o c at its v i. min. au t f gar / h q r ru i e 4 s r s t a e c y t l xh b 1 o .“ LADDER S 2 3 S in. max. eds c t irv fs i e he u o r asp t lt n re hs sc o t t y r re a h o f u c ta d a e e u u q u s v t a r l eb un t gT a a i m e n s t h d v a yddo e ua i h go odegi p a p l i v g na e m s.rvu b n d e i ret s c r yl e e a s t db sh o . r i s n s t nr u c ga u g r .rr am v l i p e f e p ot s m a i n i t m 2r u w t m l l5 s e x o e f a e tf 0 .s e e oi ds m r u ui am n n i o a d t lr m e e mcs p rao e l n m m n d i z d e f o s h r 2 1 ix 3 i f o / b a/ l nn a t2 2 a 8r .hi el r se et c dnr i l 2 ef it o e l he a q w eo h g m f e b e r s o0 o t v s g e v e l .- . max. u 1 in . m SIDE R [note N 1 C l 2 H c a 3 A 4 I e i c 5 T t 6 A 7 P g O T E S i n ar e g o u t . o r i z o o n f t a a f p. e u p n l e b a u s l r h ns r . 30 in.a b h s r e d am p o l s v e d l rg e el de . r e c o h m e i n . I T D E E 7 0 PT H 2 RS O UT G HE 4 in. e tl o A: r e m A i3 l n g T l f S o M 6 n o st ta e s b ap . n ysl d ase it b tf p o g ar oa m l e e dl 3 v e a od e s l l l h n r lv i fe r t l il me Wn i sg h tag e hef a .

316 M IST M e t e E XT R A CT OR x i t r a s c t o t rr us in t d i esn s gii tr q v .011“ .A e B t ‘ d - C m T Y O M P E XE T R S A C F O R S I S T T \ I D E– A T A I L D E– C T A S U U PO P M O E XI T TR A C F O R S R S T T 6I 1 than 6 ft. t E T N HT C IF 1 O E N 3/ 1 4 . u l r a i b s e p m a a y l f a b e s p lo ise q m u d t o a r i mt t p p rc r o f h v. r v m a pn rec r ee o o u c i u pe m s a nsh t a .S. “2 O O DS I . PRESSURE DROP MATERIAL CARBON STEEL BEARING BAR R B C W IC E W WIRE MESH 6 >! .S. lx3/16° Y4qi G R B D O A S S % R A B R S IP N A GC I 3 N -G R 4 G R B S O P A S C S I N R E l I bf G . TYPE 304 S.01 1“ TYPE 304 S. when the diameter is greater e beam 2 5 SPECIFICATION THICKNESS OF PAD THICKNESS OF WIRE MATERIAL OF WIRE DENSITY lb. ft./Cu. ~>. s support in .7 21 1 - 4 6 “ 7. n er u e oo e a i q fT s e m s fu m r r o e pe o l t m d a a m a tl a s e v a i rni c l r a h b qdln ue is i r nh e n a i s a e s a y zd Q 4 d .center of mist extractor. 9. H / sT q 5 .0 0.5” TO 1“ WATER GAGE 1“x3/1 6“ 9 .0 5.

arc welded. it shall be marked: “Duplicate”. Pressurevessels stamped with the Code-symbolshall bemarkedwith the following: 1. a Commonly u m a f t n e e pr a0 o l da s lm t as r t i n nt e l c2 s . theappropriateabbreviationsndicating typeofccmstruction. s s te dr .e rc C k s U e e 1ds Ls e5 sl d . MAWP250 650°F MDMT 650°F at 250 psi S/N-19560 b 1996 i s n h s sb pu ee sc l t e e a e s i c e . ot s a c e a e dp m n d l n e ma e ae c n l w la a . inspector. c o l n g t e r a ov5 bl a .as s) r t l b e r 8 e s i i a .psi. supports. i the sexvice.S “UM” s m b u h w y b to as h i el e x h el e i smn np [ pt Ue eo cs d t oi m ( n k v l sf e d rs e l C e l o d ) e ] 2 F v e m os o 8sa f 9 n 5 ld s iY % ce o n. W-1l(a) (5)(b) applied U RT 2 Spotradiographed RT 3 WhenRT1. t e ae mt c pac o eyh d e e p rd se . m d l h e te r i m .RT2or RT3are not applicable RT 4 Postweldheat treated HT Partof the vesselpostweldheat treated PHT Nonstationa~PressureVessels NPV 1. minimum designmetaltemperatureat pressure. n maximum allowable workingpressure. sa d et aheh fti s bo k r ne e l s l sr a e . b n l h ta 5 e o ih h / l s T a Ct 3o s g n e h -ah s s y mne b e our l l e i n d 2 . e 1 i ee 3 o e n o T n p a h l b s m w a et eu ll e i a d l v s eu o l md st o eo sub n r i t al e c r d k h e n s h a e t e n n e e a l e o d v ie i n s s au ll e o ti ls n d s . . m 2. r s n u e tt Y a h s lp l e 0 d e t e c e sy Mi n p n a a[ p r a .preeededwiththe words:“eertifledby”. qy rs u v i ei e .’317 - NAME PLATE Pressure vessels built in aemrdanee with the requirements of the Code maybe stamped withtheofficialsymbol ”U”todenoteTheAmerican SocietyofMechanieal Engineers’ standard. og b l r u o o t vtu a f g e e e .°F. .oem t r h e . etc.. n Lettering s size m i b d a at o l p t emh dba s .e c 1 a f i e r ln e o n T ) — USER C E R B T I F I ( s T T E D v e r N E Tw e v MA P A L Y X A M P E T L E dr E ml W H [ R 1 s b s h t OMEGA TANK CO. k e 0 mil m sa fn. as tabulated: Wheninspectedbya user’sinspector USER Arcor gaswelded w LethalseMce L Unfiiedsteamboiler UB Directfting DF Fullyradiographed UW-ll(a) (5)not applied and RT 1 JointsA & D fullyradiographed. manufacturer’s ame. t n c d e .(MAWP)psiat temperature. ( . etc.usedin lethal L used on skirts.(MDMT) manufacturer’serialnumbeq(S/N) s “year built Abbreviations aybe usedasshownin parenthesis.

CHECKERED aPLATE r % ——- n sr d a lb h g r s r ls e l e - 1/4 BENT PLATE tre .1/4 jA%’&l/4 P i n f P b d l e a s t bf f o a r b a m s is l c h i r e c s e u s fis sa t e ec t li a c l t e e id t pe o n n s g d ha f yab o p l r i o dn .min. pe c oa f h r s e d ae p t h e r . a r f . 30 an.318 PLATFO Conforms RM 3 f!. —r—— M a n u f sa c f t hu u r 1 r r e n l ix 0 sl e a b A m P w M M D p B B h o b o ao o oe s l a u s l v si k r a i s f t re h e cn d hn t p c s z p . max. o . l tt s . n p i o g r t f s a s if d 6 ofr g . s l t I $ A f c l t ibl o d or t b n ee -— od e -——.2 f le 1 o@ 1a s a o t a f l / t l/l oc e f q r r l h t s e 1 t s 2 6 . t . p t a s lu s s 9 r fi a n c ux c xa c p o a a s p o ah a 6 # di pi f p n 6 . A L T E R NS A U I P V P T E O 9 o $ o . e t i n nr e ir l s f a f t a f b o ri r is m e a s t c s c f s o c io hi m t h i wp o n l ne a e aoa t p k e re nd p k hi d o. . n al o h n rl/ i c h e i c l k ne 1 oe0 $---+Fl . 6 an.e n o a nn s l l S E C A –T A I c d k ed d 4 Clearance O N in n g r . 7 IF tiANORAl L POST ANGLE 2x2x3/8 MI DRAIL BAR 2. o eo r : i g e s xm a e . re e CHANNEL n d 6x8.

The projection of sleeves shall be increased when necessary for reinunder certain load.SKIRT OPENINGS 1/4 IN CONTINUOUS FI L LET WE LO / INSIOE ANO VENT HOLES I s e o h m d r o oc o n r e b to n s h y i c a f c o m b l s i t oi q b lu e ai u g t ds s s s k b i hp rr a ow v ms i i dli e e tn t l d m o t 2u i v wn h m l o cf o n e l c a a h a p i o e s dg d e s gh l rs e t 1 s i b8 a pT a v hr e st o c . e c s s E C I C S E R S F ST E S T O S Y P A K . Sleeves should be provided a for a copenings. e a v a o m e u c os o p p e l i i d p g u n e r ACCESSOPENINGS PIPE OPENING The shape of openings may be circular o any other shapes. h n l e a e t e h l h i n e s u Fl as t il od bn . The projection of t thickness of h sleeve equals fireproofing minimum 2 inches.r k i forcing the s ing conditions. Circular openings are used most frequently with pipe o bent plate sleeves. D i a ( m1 e = i6 D e n t r c 2 )h r t & u D PIPE OPENiNGS The shape of pipe openings circular with a diameter of 1 inch larger than the diameter of flange.

a nGd ” i t e h e n . z e a h d oi eo e g fg e r c tu e h v sen n e fd wv c i e o r n lr d ii e tn o go h n ds f r i e s s s e t w i i b s a hhb f o t f f u oe i nl l t e md o u d i hz ea rTm h e l tee e h ir b o g ou h e h tv t z s a e t . —. s 6 u t 9 . . h b a o h bu t l o a dod u h le ab z m f lb e s t e u e ia r v ni e tc er y qh e u le i n iz t m e a r a l r e f ag r ra t n o c h e s c o e e r a e o rn r s . — — — . — — @ # — . —— — — ——— 62!!3 . . — . . . q .n tr ag1 i rh / s8 . — — - R T OE L X II N Q G U O = D I DF $ 2D I A O MP E T I E R tl + + tl GRATING’ F--i I 1 1 u I 1 I I I 3 - D > r % F M a A LC RN P A L T A A DF O B S S T F t 1 ec r a s a /r l t : b l e or 4 e i p o g w a a n r i 1 I G L E E R S A B TA I FN FG x t 1 l i b e .. R J o.a p flf a f d t le u u w s n wt el o yi t a s r e qr e e a s i e o d i z a m e l t e r . x a T n e f e F r M Pn ac t “ t V e o r r cs t.320 VORTEX T l C n F t s l p i q u BREAKER e x mh o r v p o b o rr s ei tet a e ek l f eix t m u s n n d a svsto i e r r a t b e l h e r i eh o o e u i d s . be pn r i en vg e O e e : o A u r u4 n 1 ga l9 . t d dt i th w a r f l o a btn s. — — V 2D O —.

. .Millimetersto Inches. CircularPlates. . . Kilograms to Pounds. . ... ... .. . Packingand Insulation. ... . .. ... . .. . ....... Area ofSurfaces ofShells and Heads. . .PoundsperSquareInches to KilogramperCentimeter. Pounds to Kilograms... .Centi- .. .... . . Square Meters to Square Feet... .. ConversionTables .... . . . Gallons. . . .... ..321 PART III. .. .. . 334 of Heads...... .. . . Flanges. ... Bolts. ... .Plates... . . ..... .... ..... . Welding Fittings. . . .. Table ofProperties ofPipes..----ti ----------------------------------------of Shells and Heads.. . .Minutesand Secondsto Decimalsofa Degree. . . 3.. . ... . .. . KilogramperCentimetertoPounds perSquareInch. .S. .. .....Inches to Millimeters. MEASURES AND WEIGHTS 1... . ....... . . .. . Weight. 426 DecimalsofanInch. 374 5. .. Flanges.. 425 6.. . U. Gallon to Liters. .. . . .S... ScrewedCouplings. . Pipes and Fittings. ..Degreesto Radius. Tubes. Openings. . Liters to U.. . Decimalsofa FooCMetricSystem. . .. . . .. . . . . Dimensions. .. Square Feetto Square Meters. 322 2. .. Long Welding Necks. . . .

0216 .275 .. 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 .355 3. 0 .03!20 6.654 3.3927 3 .154 . .188 .30s!t . 40 80 160 .171 1 2. .423 : .452 6 1.218 .638 3.275 . .497 6 ...1106 .3775 .3568 . 0 t .4403 8 ..1220 . .281 9 . ..950 8 3.400 .545 .0794 “ 80 .940 2. .2 8 4 87 .375 2. .738 .660 0 1. . .1910 .2!20 . 6 5 4 3 9 1 “ 80 160 . .1545 . . .200S 9 .221 5 2.434 .0804 Transverse area sq.0246 ..109 s .167 .1316 .177 .272 . 0 .344 .1013 ..1433 .1550 .. .294 . . . 2 ..675 .177 .109 s .850 1 3.186 ?.109 s . 3 .633 1.083 .7648 . .106 5 . 7 .344 . 56 4 .561 1 2.583 5 1..1706 .3040 . .495 8 ..493 .. . .405 2 .4213 1 .660 1.330 ..187 . 1 4 8 . .2340 .130 1..434 .145 s 9 .0157 1 .344 .497 0 . 1. 9 2 . 4 8 .742 .083 .660 .275 <275 .670 .434 .466 ..622 .497 4 .2’20 .1073 4 .088s S . In. ..119g .5360 1 56 3 3 74 2 34 2.405 s . Std: X-stg.220 . in.1764 .8820 .3620 1.678 1 2..1637 . <X-stg 0 0 .5401 .0499 . lb..1280 .322 P S c c aa Sched & alloy s P h n ar eu e No.177 . 47 .535 5 .857 1.109s . 0 0 .095 .049 3 .567 .280 3 3. 4 8 1 4 8 S X S 0 0 0 0 t 0 .424 .0955 3 .1405 .938 0 .1497 5 .0364 7 5 1 0 1 0 ‘ 80 .275 ... <X-stg 0 0 “ 80 140 . 5 4 ..824 .622 7 ..0740 .6471 .497 8 .405 .220 .652 0 3. .308 3 s 3 3 3 3 3 “ 80 160 4 8 ..275 . .036 7 1.106 9 .5647 .659 1 1. std. 40 80 4 8 S X .834 .1514 .0633 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 . 40s 0 2. . .375 2..404 1 1. .. ft. d X-stg.622 1 W. 40 80 160 .. Wall t Weight t per foot lb.423 . .2903 0 .344 . 0 .2301 ..900 1 1 1 t.. . .. 71 4 .. 9 2 2 2 .2333 ..252 .147S .7080 .u side diam.420 4 5 . ft. .622 7 .0660 .1875 .9630 .6082 .806 2. 1 4 std. 0. . iq.375 I .473 1.41170 . . 1 S 9 3 5 2 20 30 40 6 0 1 2. tt 3 a u de i sg at i r e 1 for -n s bl pn to a Ae o B d e N f 3 t e as d io pI nt l .405 . 1. .. .1295 ..2660 .497 7 . 0 ..140 s . 1 40s 80S . 22 .614 .344 .767 1 1.220 ..727 1. d m w b l e e e n sr i g a n i ah d g tor nw s e A m iBe -e N-n.364 s .068 s 2 g $ S .440 1. w ft. .40 . .410 .660 0 1. in.113 s . in.546 . .0568 .106 0 0 0 Inside $urfac( per ft. i ee9 s r p s e l ni 1p n y s l S 6 Weigh[ Designation S h e l o side diam. s s S 0 . .0740 .344 .3519 6 .. Sq..065 . 3 305 3 32 0 1..

64 3.082 4 .500 3.250 .69 4.900 .500 3..99 6.765 9 . .196 1..42 I 2 2 2 1 1 1 3...500 s 3.300 .704 3.37 5.500 s 0 t t .323 s . : 2.673 5.5074 .. . .492 5.500 3. .6095 8 . .767 ..769 2 ‘ i “ ! .312 .867 .58.464 6 8.91 2...80 1.73 3.050 6.... k a t t Weighi per foot “lb..81 2.605 6. .155 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 6 4 5 7 . S .047 1.453 63 4.142 .276 .438 3.86 2. 80s .940 9 . . ..788 79 4.71 9.. X-stg. . . . 4.500 3.047 I.26 7.547 3 2..34 1. .047 2 I .. .883 7.39 8.11 11. .. . 0. . sq.375 9.406 .58 6.48 4.. 80 160 .46 2.. .438 .760 3.622 .819 9 .875 0 2... . .622 .89 9.60 ..6381 0 6.. thickness in.6900 7. .753 .785 9 .241 254 . .029 1. ... .500 -3.500 3. 7.75 10. .. .753 . s 21 1 .38 5. .450 g 9.041 .364 0 3.217 S . .125 ..34 3. 4 4 .971 5.. ..062 2128 1 0 13.875 0 2. . 4.81 4.875 2. . .115 1. .744 1.40 . .. .61 .700 7. .875 2.02 3.700 6. .680 26 4.28 8. .203 .500 3.. ..093 1. .761 9 .279 1..548 0 3.022 5.165 . .. 4 .2) 6 .875 .. . ..148 .33 4.84 s S .120 .. .. 0 0 ..622 .. .238 36 3. diam.. .312 .10 3..42 4.. in.981 . ..100 7.802 .753 9 ..802 9 .441 2. 2.. .32 9.971 .. .64 8..5564 5 .89 8.85 3..346 8.047 I . “80 .622 . 1 .624 3. .. 30 5.375 2. X 3...732 3...600g .56 6.. .753 . .853 9 ... .5237 . 1 4 8 .047 I.393 7. 3.687 9 ....99 5.047 1..60 3. .323 P R O P E R T ( I EI S O P t c S P o ) u ) f q f . .753 2.155 7...880 .875 2. .343 .753 .851 9 .52 3. 3.06 5.78 4.375 X2..’ 3... .53 .06 2. .6462 0 1.289 g .552 3 5 6 7 1 13.3929 ’ ) i c Nominal pipe size V Stainless steels iesigm ion e Outsidt i Insideg Wallh diam. . . .61 5.1 i 6.20 3.. . ft. .790 9 . .134 5.80 4.312 3. in. .52..111 : 1.65 7...4920 ..436t ..500 3.4627 0 ..66 4. 3.929 . ..500 .25 0.. .. .704 9 ..716 5.673 6.32 8.1 ?8 .622 . s 40s std.62 7..363 1.57 8.622 . .500 .753 .18 6.047 I...375 9.978 ..375 2..26 6. 4 4 .30 6.300 8. .28 4.500 3 .14 6.91 ..51 13.. . area t t Sq.17 I 2.188 . 5.375 .950 ..105 1.. Fn E u Inside t Trans-s rsurfac f verse a e per ft.047 3F 1 4 8 .601 9 .047 I . 40 ..442$! . < ..4581 . . .407 4...047 1..984 0 ..047 1. 4 8 . .218 .80 9.375 0 2. . . .380 5.19 2.75 4.188 . .62 3. in. .635 2:469 2. s ..3.188 . .

1 53.540 1..688 4.188 . .10 26.62 9.26 2.456 1.. ..31 13....19 5.625 0 6.80 12..438 3.134 s . 8..(525 6 40 .180 2. .359 1.62 13.625 0 8.54 7.71 5.500 4..090 4026 4...735 I.. .456 I .650 1.718 . . .5 23..864 . 40 .26 2..30 53.352 .271 . 8 .375 ..26 14. ...437 .79 36.51 5.625 . ~ater ]er ft.563 5.80 11. .64 120 160 .50 28.500 4.36 2260 27.12 4.04 10.77 21.938 3.813 4... .625 6. .54 8. 80 120 150 4 8 .6 23... .859 4..24 12. 12. .32 9.40 14.639 1.625 8.625 .563 5..148 8....56 . 13. ..324 P R O P EO RP T I E It S c ( Schedule Nominal pipe size ‘arbor alloj eels No.188 .531 .85 23..3 54.32 5..08 6.52 19.98 5.50 11..28 7.26 2. . .96 38. . l P o ll Urliice .432 S .40 45.187 6. 2.93 15..7 120 160 . .456 1.280 s .29 11..219 939 10.01 18.735 I .15 8.386 1..47 7.295 5.79 11 35 12..161 2.F n E tl ’ ) w \ a w in.456 1.000 3.876 3826 3750 3.00 14.1 22.875 5.375 ..16 13.125 6.97 25.203 .10 32.500 4.15 18.. .15 12. std..!280 22.500 4.500 4.500 .tainess teels )utsidt liamrt..900 3.42 14.57 32.55 9.500 .1 52.02 20..97 31.35 5.735 I..770 14.152 5.70 30.500 4.86 18.59 20.19 17.735 I ... 1 .660 1. .562 ..30 9. . 6.337 .2 23.456 1...66 8. 5 9.735 1.83 54. .563 5...85 10.134 s ..287 .5 54.265 6.158 .27 5.064 1.. ..178 2..95 28.165 . .761 5.735 I .90 18.45 5.277 . 6.563 5.063 6. .258 .250 . ..95 27.9 1.735 I .357 6.5 53.563 5.57 12..563 4 I 4.50 12.99 27.. )er Transverse area sq.78 1 1 .313 4.625 0 6.45 13.625 6.219 .152 2.17 11..07 24.26 16..75 31.300 .55 12. .60 18.62 19. .011 6.67 13. .750 .98 4..500 4.129 1.30 21.625 .70 13.563 0 5..91 16..735 I ..735 1.625 8. 8.135 1.80 40 40s 4. ..456 1.38 13..047 4.640 1..625 .958 3.’237 .30 19. . . .26 2.625 0 6.10 29.587 1. X-stg.625 6..02 18.695 6.375 ..735 I .591 1.180 . .250 .73 12.75 11.500 5.195 1.26 2.624 3.61 12.500 4.606 1.625 Xx-stg .31 12.735 I .6 23.281 .81 30. .735 I . 80 80S 16.500 4...14 23.87 7. ..26 2.500 4.625 6.735 I .625 6625 6.78 23.05 12.321 1. .169 .51 11.175 2.563 5.205 .456 1.625 6. .500 3.456 1..695 6.. [ . . .674 .625 .438 .620 1.500 ~..312 .065 5.35 14.227 1.272 1.. 1 .10 28.260 1..475 1..00 30.500 ..96 11..06 7.29 10.563 4.. .24? 6. 80 1 40s 80S .. 6.510 1..02 17.148 s . :()() 4.470 1..

8. 0.1 0 27.26 2..81 2.593 .54 2.26 2. ft. .250 7 .26 2. .60 5.5 0 36..625 8. .. . 01 water per ft.9 0 35.256 18...81 2. .5 0 29.81 2..7 51.20 5 04.23 3.8 18.12 5.054 .5 49.. . 0.72 2.73 2..9 74. ..00 5 24.9 52.81 2.. ..420 . ..86 5 24. pipe It 22..843 7 I..2 29. 22. .219 7 . .7 120..3 0 35.81 2. . .395 7 .26 2.68 5 54. . .2 21.6 43.00 5 80. . 80S .136 .. 40s .. Nom inal pipe size P o Outs id iurface >er ft..500 7 . .26 2. ..2 50. 0 .625 8.4 45. 0 0 0 0 0 0 .3 0 31.6 38..1 58..2 64.1 15.000 7 1.7 40..26 2.. iq.0 51..906 Weight per foot lb. .26 2. 40s . .469 .. .219 .2 0 35.625 8.65 5 21.8 Transverse mea $q. .7 0 36. ...70 2.5 51.374 . 0.81 2.9 0 26. ..203 .20 5. ..348 7 .26 2..238 .P R O P E RP T ( E I Sc O I t Schedule No.9 119.65 2.10 5 89.26 2. .81 2.8 51. ..812 ..750 . 28.0 0 34. 31...7 73..q.26 2. 0.1 36.6 0 52..03 5..44 2.500 .26 2.7 71.64 2.26 2....165 7 . 7 .063 1....7 79..9 0 31...625 8.0 0 .7 16..5 60. 10s ..3 31.718 .22 3.34 2 3.0 83.352 .307 7 .1 67.250 ....48 5 43.310 .192 . 1 . 9.81 2. .26 2..1 118.16 27... 80S ..6 119.4 0 34. .6 80.62 2..40 5 77. 0. 0. ..8 68.6 81.. 10s .34 3.55 2. ..279 7 . ’ ) Iarbon i alloy teels . . . .24 3.6~5 .365 7 ..5 118.tain ess teels ...344 . 52.24 5 38. .322 . . .. ..718 7 .F n E Inside surface )er ft. ...0 49.406 .26 2..3 21.625 8. . .8 20..180 .238 .593 7 . 0 0 0 0 .875 .. .81 2. . in.1 19.020 .7 47.3 84.625 8.81 2.34 3..4 21.8 18.9 46.34 ..26 2.3 0 24. 34. thickness in..66 5 40. .42 2.50 2.90 5 i 6.1 0 33.81 2.9 77.4 56.68 2.81 2.66 2.750 7 .81 2.98 5 64.625 8.4 36. . ..625 8. 0. 0.20 5 09.625 8..625 8.1 20.. .81 3.6 21. .250 .22 3.125 7 ...26 2. ft.960 ... Weight designa tion )utsid liam !l :nsi de iiam. 8 .71 2..81 2.2 51. 9..4 2 .81 2. . .29 2. .531 7 . .. .8 I 2. . ..4 8?.277 .. .375 .8 33. 9.344 .81 2.625 8. .61 2..37 2.5 22.188 7 ..22 3.5 17.12 85.625 8.1 0 25.5 84.81 2. . .. 0 0 0 0 0 . 2.3 2...3 48.625 0 0 0 .3 78.625 8..9 0 36.7 22..203 7 .5 42. .7 0 32.26 2.6 16.625 8..34 3.625 8..5 37.74 5 57. .1 0 29. 0.

000 I 3.67 2 03.2 0. .6 41. . w ~t’e at igh per root lb: Mt..34 0 2 3.0 . .062 I 2.34 1 1 3.. .34 3.750 88. .750 1!2. ..5 .750 12.9 46.9 ..326 P R O P EO RP T I E I S c [ t S~hel Nom inal pipe size ~isrb Or allo) eels P o l ) u . . I4.938 11.750 12.000 1 3 .376 11. .67 3.3 5 54.3 0 1 37. . I ~ thi~ kness in.064 11.0 41. ..34 0 1 3.. 7 1.500 1 10.4 .9 1 55.9 .67 8 53... .0 8 110.34 2 3. .67 3.9 3..5 2 36.874 11!750 11. .8 .67 3. .188 . X-stg. 150. .750 1 .67 0 23. 113.67 3. .34 3 3.0 .5 52.9 48.000 13.406 I4.8 3 3 45. .750 I !2.0 44. .4 3. I4.. .6 48 11 11 11 11 3. ! 1 I I I I 1 55.150 12. .5 0 1 45..34 7 3.67 0 0 33. .0 52.9 49. .624 .] 80S 12.750 12.000 I 3.9 ..238 .1 50.750 12.000 10. .4 .3 3 34. I .1 ! .7 59.5 48. 50.34 3 111. 114. 2 37. .. 12.000 1 14. .5 .67 48 3 3.750 125. .375 .188 .7 49. . 1 I4.0 2 47..8 59. .1 39.1 . W. 63.6 6 8 108.5 2 6 0 3.67 5 3 3 9 3 0 3 3 3 5 3 6 3 0 3 7 33 30 94 26 .750 73.67 0 8 . 106.67 3. 1.34 3. . .000 1 14. .34 . 114.0 3. .7 49.67 3. . ..560 I4.6 3 4 53.313 1 10. in. .5 5 65.. .500 11.0 20 43.. 161.9 2 63.5 58.5 .1 ..7 48. . .F n E l ’ ) t No. 111. I4. .2 .2 43.438 . I4.1 . . . 12.2 46.5 3 12. 103.126 1 . .524 28 32 35 37 46 55 58 631 0 64 0 75 8 85 7 86 53. 140. 116. .9 44.01 v I u rranserse Irea q.4 53.312 . 12. 116.. .67 95 4 3. 12.000 I 3. .34 3.250 .. .000 13.34 3 C 3 3 3 0 0 4 . .2 .750 12.1 .67 53. . . t Weight iesigne lion Outsidt jiamn. 14.000 1 96 7 1 05 9 1 1 .375 I 4.626 11.250 I I .1 .8 1 40.34 3 5 3 3 6 8 3. .000 t 3.6 4 57. I!2.5 50.750 12.0 . .750 12. 1 1 1 1 1 41 3 3 2 2 2 . .750 40s . 14.750 12.7 8 00 51. . 108. 1 CONT.34 8 4 3.5 31 42.34 4 3.500 0 Std.I 8 5 3 1 50.34 0 3 0 3 2 3 5 2 7 2 3 2 5 20 25 29 22 . .090 .279 S . . ..67 57 0 3. 1. 2..67 3.000 1 .750 12.000 1 14..000 11.000 13.750 1 10.220 . .8 .2 2 .... .34 7 0 3.67 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 . .67 0 4 93..2 5 6 80.

2 169.. ’2 97.3 79.843 1. in.7 129. .90 9 1 1 8.20 4.000 1. . 0 .. ..0 4. . . . .. .. Nom iniil pipe size . ft.1 95.. . .20 4... q r ‘ ft...531 .. . ..2 .. ...90 4.6 204.1 160.... .000 8. .000 0 8 .5 83.5 01. 3 4 ..500 .0 220. . wt. .2 99.11 3.1 182..20 4...89 3.48 4.6 102.6 184.. .5 8 0 3 .. .750 .20 4..’0 241. . thickness in. w tVe aI per foot lb.281 1 t .. 5 5 5 . .238 0 ..20 4... .0 187..20 4.39 4.000 8...20 192.. . b 1 1 1 1 .000 $.. .5 927. ..20 4...4 168. . 0 0 1 1 135..6 . . . . . . . .58 4. .218 1 .375 .2 96. 1 6 8.1 233. .438 . .78 .6 181. .406 .7 175. .... .45 4..0 1W.o 189... .5 91 .....000 I.312 344 . .20 4..W 3.000 8.20 4.29 4.20 4.40 4. .. q.0 924.8 99. .4 .8 210.000 8..656 ..3 132. 1 2 . ..7 71. ..5 213.90 4. 1 4...42 4..0 178.000 ~ 0 0 . .5 98. o’ Jipe II [ ....90 4.. 0 o 0 0 0 0 .000 8.0 165.2 193.9 152..20 4.90 3 4.%!0 4.20 4.000 8.. 4 5 5 1 1 .000 1. .55 4.0 180. .... .!22 4.250 0 0 0 0 0 0 4..5 176..20 0 4. . 6 1 1 .000 ). . . .031 1.83 3. ...7 229.F n E l ’ ) Inside ~iam.tain ess (eels Weight designa u P o l )utsid urface )er ft..!2 88.327 P R O P E RP T ( E I Sc O I t S~hedule No. ....687 ..0 185.32 4.7 1 7 .188 0 .469 .2 75.. . .6 144. 04.0 92!?..20 4. ..0 237. .3 182.000 8.000 1. . .000 8.51 4. ..7 79.

..... . . . .. ... . 703 3 902 3 1 01 4 05 1 .. .... ... 00 181...0 0 0 2 ..... . . . 2 . in.0 ... .. 0 .3 . . . ... ...... tion in. ..... per ft.. .328 P R O P E RP T ( E I Sc O I t Schedule No. . .. ... .. 4 ... .3 .F n E Inside surface per ft.. .. 0 ... 2 2 2 . . ..... ... 9 239 .0 1 07 1 05 1 02 66 18 60 78 381 65 6 6 2 6 .... alloy ‘less :eels s 1 . . 5 22 8 . . verse .. . 3 .. X ... . . .. . 42 42 42 s42 . .. . water surface per ft. .. .. 0.. ...2 ....... . 0 4 3 .. . .. . ..... ’ ) .... 5 228 . t. 6 7 1 . I . .. 0 . . . 4 . 0. . ....... . ....... . . 4 .. . ness per foot ~utsidi.... 63 5 .3 . .. . g . . .... P o ....... 0.. .

. 6 . I . 2 2 2.68. 6. 5... . 6.. 6 6 . 7. .. . d of tipe 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 ft..69 . 6. . ..F n E l ’ ) Weight iesigna lion n i t w s a Veight i a )er ‘Oot b. .. 7.. .. 6.. .. ! 2 2. . . i . 19.. .20.2 660... 1 . . 6... . 0 . 0 . 7. . 7. . mv wt. . —— 7. . .... 6.62 .250 . . ..58 . 6.0 0 5.53 . urfa~e er ft.33 2 5. . . .45 .0 0 0 0 ......14..8 649.9 0 127..... . 6. .. ..... . .59 .48 . 1 .125 . . 677.. 0 0 0 0 . .. ... . . 6 6 6 6 .. . 1580 0 177 1960 0 0 0 0 0 C C 0 0 C C ( ( ( ( 0 0 .56 ...4 80 134. 0 0 0 0 141. 0 169 0 186 0 0 99 0 119 1380 . .. .51 .. 0 0 .329 P R O P E RP T ( E I Sc O I t S a a tain!ss eels P o . .... 7. 0 153 .54 .. . ... .28 1 n u ‘ 2 I 1 2 . 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 ! 6 .. .66 .8 672.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)9.. ..06. . 0 136 .. ft... .... 6.. . . 0 0 0 .5 654... . . 2 2 2 k ? 4 4 4 140 160 .0 666. .3760 .61. 6. 5.. 6 .41 .. 0!9. ...4 0 130.2 2 2 2 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 . . .. .64 ... lb )utside l e . 4 . q... 0 . # . ..

. . . q . * . . . . *. ..... ..! ...tl-l . .. O - . . . . . . . . . . . . . .)... . . ... . .). . u) q . I — . .. . .. . . . . .. . — a . . . . - - 0 N m q 0 ! . .. . . . . . .. .?30 X2 x: . i . . . . . .. . .. . . w w z q I A-* l-lmm I * N.

.

332

PROPERTIES

OF STEEL TUBING

Sq. Ft. K’all

O Do
Tubing

T
ness

E x I w r n a l h Inlernal i S c u S k rf u T rh a ef cI a r e e c [ f o e i
Area Per Ft. Per Ft.

Sq. Ft.

\

W

Tubing

Constant

c OD A
ID

I

I

L

L

Ft. L

I

c

Metal Area (Transverse D Metal Area)

.I

.1518

.604

I

I ]

.
7/8 7/8 1 .055 .050 .150

.4477 0 .4596 .4717 .3848

.229 I .2291 .2291 .2618

6

.1977 .2003 .2029 .1833

0 .522
.482 .441

.755 .765 .775

698 717 736

I.159 1.144 1.129

.1536 .1417 .1296

1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1
q

.135 .125 .110 .105 .095 .085 .075 .065 .060 .055 .050

.4185 .4418 .4778 .4902 .5153 .5411 .5675 .5945 .6082 .6221 .6362

.2618 .2618 .2618 .2618 .2618 .2618 .2618 .2618 .2618 .2618 .2618

.1911 .1964 .2042 .2068 .2121 .2: 73 .2225 .2278 .23(M .2330 .2356

1.362 1.247 1.168 1.046 1.004 .918 .831 .741 .649 .602 .555 .507

.700 .730 .750 .780 .790 .810 .830 .850 .870 .880 .890 .900

600 653 689 745 764 804 844 885 927 949 970 992

1.429 1.370 1.333 1.282 1.266 1.235 1.205 1.176 1.149 r. 136 1.124 1.1[ 1

.4006 .3669 .3436 .3076 .2952 .2701 .2443 .2179 .1909 .1772 .1633 .1492

Liquid velocityin feet/second : pounds per tube per hour Cxs g l
S

gravity w

F=

C

o cu H r

Et

X ! C I H N AS N TG E e s yA !T I

T E

I

I

333

PROPERTIES
W T
BWG ness

OF TUBING
w L C W ( L S M v T C Inches C“ — ID V ,

l
,Area

E S
per

I S L

L

I

L

I
i8

I

I

/8 /8 /8 /8 1 /8 i8 /8 !8 !3 /4 /4 /4 /4 /4 /4
/4

[ [2 13 14 1 [ [7 18 19 20 ~ 1 1 12 13 [4 15
16

i2 I0 , . , . . , . . . . . . , .

I1 . . . . , , . . . . . , , . , . I 0 0 0 0 0 I0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0

I~

I6 . 6 , 1 .1 94 1 . .1 [~ 86 1 . 1 78 1 . 1 [ 1 9 .8 6 . 1 2. ( 5 3 .1 4 . 2 .1 2 42 .I6 . 2 34 . .1 2 2[ 5 . 1 31 .1 18 2. ( .1 3 ~ 0~ . .1 2 94 . .1 8[ .2 16 78 2 . .[ 1
I

1 ,1 3 0 3 .16 9 8 .16 5 5 .6 3 f 5. 6 ~ 1 2 12 5 6.6 8 .16 3 1 .16 9 2 ,1 93 ,16 5 1 ~ .6 8 4 4 0 . 92 4~ 1 .19 4 o 2 .19 9 .196 5 . 97 3 5 . 98 ~ 5

. 0 74 . 0 7 . 6 6 0 8 0 . 036 .6016 ,4o76 66 5 6 8 9 . 135 . 366 , 5 5 , 35 . 3 65 , 4 2 2 7 6 , 34 ,5 64 . 49 24 94 . 3 . 34 . 6 2 6 5 . 333 . 364 8 3 . 8 2 0 . 53 3 . 863 . 3 . 49 2 . 12 . 2 6 8 6 9 . 43 ~ . 562 .4 2 3 3 . 3 1 .9 62 9 10 . 9 .6 3 6 0 82 1 65 . . 3 . 368 . 339 8 8 . 5 3[ . 368 . 93 1 87 . 3 , 463 7 . 637 2 6 . . 69 6 .2 [ 6 4 9 3 . , 64 —.8 35 — 57 5 6 .

l 3 3 1 4 8, .8 g 7 [ 6 5 5 5 7 28 5 [ 5 1. 0 ~1 4 1 3 3 [ . 3 8 4 5 5 3 6 24 4 1 8 8 1. 5 0 3 49 4 5 [ 4 1 28 4 . I. 2 5 18 32 5 4 8 90 5 34 4 1.263 3 I144 9 3 30 5 1 5 0. . 1 1 1 2 9 0 34 5 1 0 4, . 4 1 0 1 7 9 2 5 6 39 5 [ 1 8. 4 5 2 0 5 1 0 35 5 1 2 1. . 7 1 0 1 5 5 0 5 —7 4. . 9 9 0 0 9 5 1 6 3 4 8 2 01 1 8 5 . . 8 2 2 5 2 0 32 5 [ 0 0. .1 1 7 2 4 0 . 3 3 5 1 4 5. 3 4 6 2 4 2 4 0 35 5 I.6 8, 6 835 1 . 4 [8 1 9 2 7 4 4 47 5 5 1 9 .. 46 —8 [ 2 4 4— 53 1 1 2 — 6
I .

/4 ‘;:
l/4

17 19
20

1/4 /8 8 ~/8 )/8 7/8 7/8 7/8 7/8 7/8 7/8 7’/8 7/8
1
1 I [ [

22 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 [8 19 20 22
, , . . .

I .

I — I 1
. , , . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . . I

— .777 740 .

L 1 [ i I I 1
‘ S

. 1 . 16 .065 [ . [ . [ . 20 .035 ~ .
v g f
w

. 0 0 . .5945 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0

.5 .5 . .6 .6 .6 .6 .6
= p

8 .24 .27 7 .2 5 .21 4 .23 4 ,25 ,27 ,29 [ 2

.266 3 56 2 .2 5 .26 763 8 .2 869 9 .2 969 2 .2 .269 1 692 8 !

I

.113 . 889 8 8 8 . 3 7 , .~[5 — 488 7 1 . 7 . 217 . 787 0 6 . 8 . 318 . 186 3 5 6 . 4 . 310 . 685 4 4 5 . 1 4 . 310 . 984 6 4 . 8 . 413 . 38 9 43 I 3 . 5 . 19 — 83 1 2 3 4 . . 7
W o m

2 8 1 8 — 4 9 6 9 6 9 9 1 1 3 1
f

6 8 8 8 6 8 9 2 8 9 9 3 7 9
— .

1 1 1 1 4 1 8 1 9 1 3 1 6 I. 9

7 4 0 5 7 0 0 1 0 1 0

. . . 3. 53 . 5.— 4 9 .[ . 29 7 . 8. 54 . 0. 98 [I. 0 . 3. I 1 .4 1 — 0
c

22 21 4 21 6 1 90 11 4 11 2 2 0 26 5 01 0 09 4

s g l 9
7 7

w A
A A

Cxs
F z

1
7 1

C

o ou H r

E t

X E e

C I H N AS N TG s yA fT I

T S P t Sa 3 i 1 t n 0 l . ee 4 s 0 es T U T E E

I

334

H
F c f H S T v e o so s a m em l r e d n d a i el l ueld it m e s rao s i d am l s r d o se a s l i f m hp e u a s e o m w o l h d a y , av l me a g eu t ss eb er r w lu h se m l i e s y o t e tr i c a l m n l i r es e u a l ii l h p h l a a d n ih g n s e e ha d e dd ds . me R b oa s FA ea d a wm o s N T l cy o ln ssf t s r u e c r d o n . e e e d t i G E

IL G A H

F o h r b e u t ae -t wdd es l d h nd he m t t n e h s e s loae efr l a lwd i at g hn t o v t eh t g e e h h i n et h t a i ot c s h d k a h c th c rteo t r n ld eP lnoh g a & 3 o r- e 3 3. se a C i U Gd E e 2 i p r ha ce e t xh i e m ni ed e p a h p r wt c ss rl t i fr e l a ta ie ng gh et a c c s s u e i a d h s . T u l s he o u n t afg e la tl ai i hg nf f e tc l sl h : pIo 1e oi i s dnf a r l /c , s r g h e 2 n i s h o e 2 f l a a d n ia g ns ie O hnf n hec e m dhi s o ph h e er i ca ra l d d d d e s s . F f o h l a r t e mh . t ae t cddh k a s e ba ur e —n-t l w e s l hd h es d t a i s h h t t n i e d a n g e . r a o i t lg l v

On the following pages the data of the most commonlyused heads are listed. Thedimensionsof flangedand dishedheadsmeetthe requirementsof ASMECode.
W V E O IH O O LH G ES Ht A Ta b U ES M p A E 4 e e g o i lp n en e i s n Db F S 3 a De Fa! S 1e w g g 7 6 n e 4

SURFACE OF HEADS See page 425

335

DIIU EN SIONS

OF

HEADS

n
D
D
A F S L
D

S

Y n d eo ih n d nr ih x

M U

B I O T S

L T

SEA

H B D L N E E

D=

i h d

i s ao hm e m i ts ep e h ee l il c i anpl s i e d a r r f a d t d i s as i A , de f eS l e &ar M n u o m t se ha ed ds . o ed s i o p &i D ht e F d se h fa h fd

o

H E M I S P H E R I C A Li h =

L(R) = i
d o e E L L I P S O I M=A L D f au k . t h

sa o d i d o d iA i eu f S s &a fM n l h s a e u h i af e s o ddrf ims n u t l doe a n e s pt re e r s n s a u l r e . r c i f sto o cA dl ro em r n f i u pl ore n e s s n s d t a r Mns i

r = ~ t = w
A N G I E ES M D D &H

~n m u a i c n

k fi ~ lS l & d e a u

f gs E e mr

k o ln o m s i l s nn e m ,

i a m l u

AE D D M E I N I S 1 O LN S H 1 L N C

E N

WALLTHICKNESS
3 L( r h M L( r h M L( ; 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 3 1

14

16

18

20

22

24

M L (R) r h M L (R) r h M L (R) r h M

1 / 8 2 1 1 2 2 R ) .1 1. 1 25 . 508 07 5 . 2.750 6 2 2 . 59 3 8 . 1 5 . 6 3 9 5 15 4 R )1 14 . 1.500 1 1.875 2 2 5 . 2 5 0 . 2.875 7 3.188 5 3 0 . 3 7 5 . 6 5 1 . 3 6 1.44 1.54 8 R )1 1 5 5 1 6 1 8 .1 1. 1 25 . 2 50 8 . 2 556 5 02 0 72 . . 8 3 7 .3 5 5.3 67 . 356 02 5 . 7 5 1. .4 36 9 1 1.56 1.41 1 8 1 8 1 1 8 8 18 .1 2. 1 55 . 2 00 8 . 2.6,252 3 0 00 07 55 . .3 5. 3 05 . 3 06 7 . 4.06358 4 5 52 3 07 . . 6 3 1 .6 9 .5 1. 1. 6 1.412 1 4 2 1 2 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 .1 3. 1 75 . 2 50 8 . 2 0 72 . 3 556 . 3 020 . 50 3 .3 6. 4 88 . 4 810 . 4 815 . 083 . 4 301 . 4 306 1.4 0 .34 1. 56 1. 7 1. 1 .6 2 1 . 55 4 24 4 24 4 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 .1 5. 1 05 . 2 00 8 . 2 556 . 3 0 72 . 3 020 .3 503. .3 8. 4 78 . 4 510 . 4 083 . 4 301 . 4 875 .5 56 8. 1.5 8 1 .40 1. 1. 7 1 .7 5 1 . 65 1. 5 5
%

3A

T

8 0 0 6 0 0 0 39 4 0 3 . 46

336
D I M E N S I OO NHEADS S A D I M E I N I S IN O LN S H L C W
D ~

F E N S E S L S
i

T A H

I

C LK

N

L (R)
26

; M
L (R) r h M L (R) : M
L( r h M L( ; M L( r h M E r h M E r h M L( r h M L( r h M L( r h M L( r h M

m1
4 1 2 1 4 1 3 1 4 1 3 2 5 1 3 2 5 1 7 2 5 1 3 2 6 1 4 2 6 1 z 2 7 1 4 3 8 1 5 3 8 1 6 3 i0 1

Y T 1 . 4 . 1 , 2 1 . 4 . 1 .

28

3A % 5/8 24 2 2 . 6 2 61.875 22 5.2 . 4 3 54.50C 04 0.4 . 1.65 7 1 7 2 1 . 6 24 2 2 . 7 5 8 71 5. 02.625 2 . . 7. 5 7 84 14 3.5.375
1 . 7

30

30 30 1.875 8 . 4.813 84 .
. 1 7

32

30 R 30 2.000 02.000 . 5.500 55.375 . 1.72 1.72 7 .
3R 2 . 5 . 1 . FR 2 . 5 . 1 . 3 . 2 . 6 1 . 4 . 2 .6 1 . ? 4R .2 .7 1 . 4R .3 .8 1 . 4R .3 .9 1 . 6R .3 .9 1 . 3 . 12 . 56 1 . 7 3 . 22 . 95 . 1.757 3 32 . 56 . 1 . 7 3 52 . 6.6 1 . 6 i 6.2.625 1.7.063 . 1.727 4 0,3 0,8 1 . 6 4 2.3 9.9 1 . 7 5 6.3 0.0 1 . 7

34

36

38

40

42

48

54

6

l% 2 1 l;~ 2 2 42 5.3 0 63 2 2 5, 0 .3 8 .5 8 7 6 8 .5 80.5 21 . 5 1 . 5 61 . 62 62 62 03 7 5.3 2 5 00.3 05 5 0. 5 . 9 3 855 . 7 2 1 . 6 2 1 . 6 91 . 5 0 1 . 1 0 30 30 3 03 3 2.625 2 3.000 5 3 7 5 2 . 0 .3 , 8 1 3 75 5.5.125 0 5.375 0 5 0 .5 . 7 1 . 6 51 . 6 5 1 . 51 . 1 3 03 3) 03 3 02 0.2 63 2. 2.3 5. 003 65 3.5 5.5 06 086 6. 2. 21 . 1 1 . 6 1 . 6 51 . 43 3) 03 03 43 63 2. 2 5. 003 1. 2 5.3 22 5.2 1 1 8. 6. 06 336 5. 0 0.6 66 3.6 1 . 7 51 . 6 5 1 . 6 9 1 . 6 5 1 . 3 3 63 3) 63 6 2. 22 5 0.3 5. 0.2 2 5 0. 2 53 003 9 3 1 8. 7 5.6 35 8.5 8 1 36 7 5. 0 .6 7 51 . 51 . 7 1 . 6 5 1 . 1 63 63 63 3 63 6 2 72 5.2 3 7 .3 50.3 3 7 5 3. 7 5.3 06 0.6 3 7 5. 4. 3 8.6 3 76 556 4 3. 1 . 7 21 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1 . 6 2 1 . 03 03 63 3 63 6 2 0. 0.2 52 0,3 5 00.3 5 0 0 .3 2. 5.7 57 6 3.7 . 0 07 017 9 3 8. 1 . 6 91 . 6 9 1 . 6 9 1 . 6 9 1 . ) - 4 0 3 3 22,625 5 2 6 3.375 2 3 6 2 5.; 87.000 8 7 1 2 5,7 0.7.125 0 8 1 21 . 1.727 2 1 . 1.567 1 24 24 4) 2 42 24 0. 0.3 0 0 3 0 0.3 0 0 .3.375 0 3 0 78 5 0 .8 0. 0.8 5 6 5 6 8 6 8 .8.625 5 8 2 . 1 . 6 9 1 . 6 9 1 . 6 9 1.626 9 1 84 4) 84 44 8 48 5. 0.3 23 5 0 .3 2 5 2 5 3.375 0 3 2 2 5 0. 5 0 7 5 0 .9.438 539 6 2 3. 8.9 79 5 0.9 . 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1.697 2 1 4 54 05 05 5) 45 2. 5.3 6 2 6 2 5 .3.625 5 3 6 6 2 63 2 5 .3 , 0. 0. 1 05 1 . 0 8 0.438 56 5 6 2 5 . 80 7 6 8 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 2 1.727 2 1 .

4 04 5. 3 5. 05 1 4 01 . 4 2 04 3. 66 . 4 01 . 4

4 0. 7 0. 8 3 6 4 0. 7 3. 8 8 6

. 3

. 3

3 . 7 34 2 7 . 7 55 0. 5 01 . 5 4 03 0 54 0. 0. 7 3 7 56 1 3 1 0. 0. 5 01 . 5 4 030 0 54.125 0 7 0. 3 7 8 6.813 3 6 1. 4 5 01 . 5 4 63 6 54 0. 0. 3 7 8. 26 5. 5 3 1 6 91 . 5 2 63 6 5. 04 0. 3 7 9 7 5. 8 .7 6 3 6 91 . 6 2 63 6 5. 04 0. 3 7 4 0 .7 2 5. 3 1 6 91 . 5 2 0 5. ::125 7 0 0. 28.125 5 . 6 2 1.48 5 24 2 7 0. 04 0. 8 3. 09 0. 6 91 . 9 84 8 7 04 5. 0. 6 0. 79 5. 7 21 . 2 45 4 7 54 2. 5. 0 0 . 0 . 3 0 7 21 . 2

. 4

. 5

. 4

. 5

. 5

. 5

5

. 5

. 6

4 . 6

337
D D E D I T A E

ENS IONS I
A M R

OF HEADS M D I M E IN I S 1N O LN S H L C WALLTHICKNESS 2 21A 17%

E N S

l%

3

26

28

L (R) r h M L (R) r h M
L( r h M

30

30 4.500 6.125 1.39
3

32

L (R) r h M

30 R 4.875 6.375 1.36 30
4 6 1 . 3 .4 .7 1 3 .4 .7 1 3 .4 .7 1 3 .4 .8 1 3 .4

)

-

4.500 6.563
1 3 4 7 1 3 4 6 1 3 4 7 1 3 4 7 1 3 4

3 .5 8. . 7 6 . 1 . 3

0 7 2 5 9 . 3 9

5 0 3 3 6

0 0 8 4

34

36

38

40

42

48

5

8.313 1.46 42 4.500 9.188 1.52 48 4.500 9.875 1.56
5 4 1 1 0

6

3 0 0 0 2 0 5.5 0. 8 0 7 5 3 7 5 07 . 0. 1 0 8 8 1 . 3 . 3 9 3 6 4 . 3 3 6 6 6 5. 0.5 8 0. 7 5 5 2 6 0 2 7 3 1 5 3 0 8. 7.7 0 5. 6 3 3 1 . 1 . 4 1 . 4 6 . 4 4 3 3 6 63 6 + 5. 0.5 8 0. 76 5. 5 2 6 0 2 0 0 3. 1. 57 3.8 0 0. 7 8 1 8 3 7 . 1 . 4 1 . 4 61 . 4 4 . 3 1 63 6 3 3 6 5. 0. 85 0.6 7 5. 5 2 6 0 2 0 88 . 1.8 0 3. 0 0 5 18 2. 3 5 1 . 1 . 4 1 . 4 61 . 4 4 . 3 1 + 63 6 3 3 6 5. 0. 85 0. 76 5. 5 2 6 0 2 9 8 . 8 1 . 68 2, 5 8.438 8 1 . 1 . 4 . 3 1 1.44 1 4 4 4 24 4 42 4.875 5 . 5 26 . 5. 6 6 0 .7 2 7 . 9 49 . 3. 5 6 1 0 81 9.250 9 1 . 1 . 4 1 . 4 61 1.48 1 4 4 4 84 4 48 5 . 6 2 4.875 5 . 26 5. 6 0 .7 01 . 0 [ 1 . 0 13 . 075 8 81 10.063 1 1 . 5 1. 4 01 1 . 1.54 1 5 5 45 5 45 45 85 76 5. 6 .4 5.5 0. 0. 2 5 6 0 .7 2 . . 0 1 6 . 1 1 8 . 1 [1 0 . 5 1 1 8 87 13 1 0 08 1 1 . 6 1 . 5 21 . 5 8 1 . 5 4 1 1 .

1
6 5 0 9 6 6 5 0 0 6 3 5 3 9 6 6 6 5 0 0 0 0 3 3 9 6 6 6 0 0 5 8 3 3 9 6 2 2 0 05 5 57. 5 . 03 1 . 02 5 . 3 1 . 4 4 8 84 . 0. 05 578 5 3 . 51 8 . 1 7 2 . 16 . 4 81 . 4 6 . 45 45 . 08 05 5 57. 9 . 8 1 6 . 2 38 0 . 2 2 . 5 21 . 4 01 .

2 0 0 5 0 3 6 8 2 0 0 5 56 3 1 4 2 0 0 . 8.3 0 4 6 .

338
D I M E N S I OO NH S I N
DIAM ETER D

E C C LK

A H N

DF E E S L S S

S

W

T A H
%

I

9“6
6 L( 4 r h 1 M 1 7 L( 4 1 ; M 1 L (R) 7 4 : 1 M 1 8 L( 5 r h 1 M 1 9 L( 5 : 1 M 1 9 5 . 1 9 6 1 1 1 6 8 1

%

66

72

78

84

90

96

102

108

114
L r h M

1

126

L (R) r h M
L(

6R .4 1 1 . 1 . 7R .4 2 1 . 1 . 7 .4 3 1 . 1 . 8R .5 4 1 . 1 . 8R .5 51 . 1 . 9 .5 6 1 . 1 . 9 .6 7 1 . 1 . 1 .6 . 1 1. 1 6 1 1 1 7 2 1 1 7 2 1 R

132

; M

66 6 60 0 6 06 6] 06 6 . 0 4 .4 00 0(4 C .4 0 0 0. 04 0.4 0 C. 0. 4.000 0 0 0 1 0 . 1 .9 7 0 1 3 6 1 [1 . 12 1 5 . 1 1 : 5 . 1 1 4 . 1 3 3 0 0 . 5 1 C 16 3 0 1 . 7 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 71 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1 , 7 2 . 26 7) 26 7 26 66 6 26 3 7 3 3 74 5.4 3 7 5.4 3 74 5. 3 7 5. 4 3 7 5. 3. 7.4 5 .4 5 0 1 1 0 . 11 9 . 1 1 8 . 2 1 8 . 21 6 . 21 5 . 2 1 4 . 2 33 87 52 0 57 0 0 3 1 . 7 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 71 . 7 71 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 . 87 7 27 27 7 27 27 2 74 5.4 0 .4 7 5 7 7 5. 0.4 . 7 5 0 7 5 04 7 5 0. 7 5.4 0 .4 1 6 . 31 5 . 31 5 . 3 1 4 . 3 33 0 0 86 08 3 31 0 . 3 1 8 . 3 1 7 . 3 5 3 0 0 1 1 . 7 1 . 7 71 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 . 48 48 4 8 47 8) 47 47 1. 2. 5 .5 1 1 2 2 5. 1 2 5.5 5 1 2 5 .5 1 2 5 .5 5 1 2 51.5 0 0 3 4 8 41 8 31 0 . 31 9 . 3 1 8 . 3 18 . 31 7 . 3 5 6 . 01 4 . 4 3 3 87 5 1 . 7 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 71 . 7 7 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 7 . 08 4 48 48 8 48 8) 48 5 5 5.5 0.5 0 .5 5 .5 5. 0. 0 5 0 0.5 5 0 5 0. 5 05 2 51 6 3 51 1 . 51 8 . 51 7 . 5 16 . 516 . 51 5 . 51 5 . 5 04 35 08 82 1 . 7 1 . 7 71 . 7 21 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 21 . 7 2 . 09 69 0 9 09 08 9 09 5. 8. 785 57.5 8 8 7 5. 85 7.5 55 8 7 8 7. 5.5 5 . 8 7 5 3 6 1 1 . 6 1 8 . 6 1 8 . 61 7 . 6 1 6 . 61 5 . 6 1 5 . 7 04 5 2 57 0 2 56 35 1 . 7 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 21 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 . 69 9 69 9 69 6 69 69 1 2 1 2. 5.6 1 6 1 2.6 5. 2 5. 1. 2. 5 .6 6 1 26 516 1 2 5 2 5 6 5 08 3 3 8 7 1 9 . 7 1 8 . 7 17 7 . 75 1 6 . 7 1 6 . 8 1 5 . 8 1 5 . 8 0 3 1 . 7 1 . 7 5 1 . 7 5 1 . 7 51 . 7 5 1 . 7 5 1 . 7 5 . 01 2 01 9 2 29 0 21 9 20 1 0 20 5 .6 0. 056 5 0. 56 0. 0 .6 5 5 56 0 0.6 0 0. 5 0 .6 1 4 . 9 33 3 1 0 8 8 89 . 8 3 8 . 8 81 7 . 8 1 7 . 8 1 6 . 9 1 5 . 9 6 7 55 1 05 1 . 7 1 . 7 5 1 . 7 51 . 7 51 . 7 5 1 . 7 51 . 7 5 . T - 01 1 0m 8 1 81 80 0 8 1 r r0 7 8 7 5.6 6 8 7 5 .6 8 7 58.6 8 7 5. .6 8. 7.6 5.6 8 01 35 5 92 91 . 91 8 . 91 8 . 9 1 7 . 9 16 . 98 6 . 51 5 . 9 6 5 7 51 1 . 1 . 7 1 . 7 51 . 7 51 . 7 5 1 . 7 5 1 . 7 5 . 1 1 0 1 1 41 1 1 40 1 4 1 41 7.250 57 2. 2 5 2 0 .7 ,7 2. 0. 7.250 0 7.250 5 7 6 82 2 1 . 1 4 02 . 0 20.750 2 8 0 1 . 3 21.500 8 8 . 7 5 20.625 . 1.75 7 1 1 . . 7 5 1.75 5 1.727 1 . 51 . 1 2 1 01 21 02120 02120 1 2 0 6. 6 2 5.7 .7 6.7 2.7 5 .7.625 5 7.625 5 7 6 2 6 2 12 . 2 5 . 8 8 12 . 1 2 8 . 1 2 8 . 1 21.6253 21.563 0 2 7 517 . 56 . . 51 . 1 . 7 1 . 7 5 1.75 7 5 1.75 7 5 1 1 . 1 2 6 120 - 1 2 - ) m 120 1 2 01 8 .8 0. 0.8.000 i0 8.000 0 8 0. 0 0 8 0.8 32 . 3 4 . 2 22 . 2 2 8 . 3 23.563 5 23.500 3 2 78 . 16 8 8 1 1 . 7 1.72 7 5 1.727 5 1 . 21 . . 1 .

3A

1

1

11A

I

339

DIMENSIONS
A
D

OF

HEADS
E N S

D I M E IN I S 1N O LN S H L C

23A ] 3 60 Tir L (R) 5.8.250 59 r 66 h 2 13.125 1 8 . 0 1 M 1 5 1.41 4 1 , . 1 . . 2 1.50 1 1.586 1.586 5 1 6 6 6 66 6 66 66 66 66 66 L( R ) .8.250 5 9 4 .4.875 55.250 0 5.625 0 6.000 6.750 7 7 r 3 13.938 1 5 . 1 2 12.500 12.625 12.7503t12.938 13.250 1 . 3 1 h 1 . M 1.46 1 1 . 7 2 1.69 7 7 72 7 2 72 * L( R ) 6.000 56.750 0 7 4.875 5 7 . 5 . 6 2 5 .8.250 59 4 . 52 r 78 h 4 14.750 1 3 . 6 3 1 3 [3.250 1 2 . 5 0 4 . 31 . 3 13.750 14.063 8 1 35 . M 1 . . 6 1 6 91 . 5 1.485 1 1.72 1 . 2 1 7 ~ 7 8 7) 8 78 7 87 78 7 87 L( R . 2 5 0 5 .8.250 59 5.125 1 5 5 . 25 5 .6.000 66.750 2 7 r 84 h 41 . 4 14.500 14.875 0 1 53 5 15.500 1 1 . 7 1 4 14.188 1 2 . 5 0 2 . M 1 7 1 . . . 9 1.526 1 1.72 1 . 2 1.65 7 1 6 2 1 . 8 8 48 r 8 48 8 4 84 84 E , 5 0 6 . 0 0. 7 5 66 2.7 5 8.250 059 5 .5.500 55 05 0. r 90 h 61 6 . 3 2 2 51 1 5 15.188 1 2 5 1 . 5 . 5 1 1 . 5 1 1 . 5 8 3 . 8 16.313 1 0 0 M . 1.72 1 . 21 . 7 1 . 7 2 1 . 6 2 1.546 9 ] 1 7 1 . 8 8 48 84 48 8 48 8) 4 84 L( R 5 .5,875 85 7.5 56 7 5 0 0 8.250 059 8. 7.6 5 .7 8 7 5. 96 : 10 . 76 3 . 3 1 6 1 7 17.125 1 2 7 1 . 5 . 71 0 . 7 1 0 . 7 0 0 6 3 0 17.875 M 1 . 1 . 6 91 1 . 6 1.546 9 1 . 1.69 9 09 9 90 9 09 F m * 6 .6.125 1 6 2 .6 5. r 1 2 . 7 5 16 2.6 1 5. 7 2 5 8.250 5 9 102 h 1 8 18.125 1 1 . 2 5 831 . 82 81 . 8 1 0 . 7 1 0 . 8 0 9 . 0 18.688 1 3 6 31 M 1 . 2 1 . 7 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1.58 2 1 1.72 . 6 1 7 1 . 96 9 69 69 96 96 96 9 96 L( R ) r 7. 5 6 .6.500 5 6 0. 0 .6 5 5 6 5 0.6 5 0.7 0 8.250 0 9 108 h 1 9 19.125 t 1 2 . 5 0 91 . 9 1 0 . 8 1 0 . 8 1 9 . 9 19.500 1 1 6 30 039 . 83 M 1 . 2 1 . 7 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1.606 2 1 1 7 1 . 1.72 , 1 0 1 01 80 102 201 1 01 21 20 102 m 6 .6.875 8 6 76 58 r 6 . 8 7 8.250 559 8 7 . . 86 7 7.7 5 5. 114 h 1 9 20.125 2 3 . 1 3 3 8 . 8 1 02 . 0 1 0 . 9 1 0 . 9 2 9 . 0 20.312 2 0 6 30 M 1 . 7 5 1 . 1.62 1 1.72 1 1 ~ 8 1 108 0 108 R * 0 L ) 7 .7.250 2 7 5. C.7 2 5 2 5 7 2 2.7 5 5 .7 0 C.8.250 09 r 120 h 2 1 21.250 2 3 . 1 3 12 . 1 2 1 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 9 . 0 21.125 2 8 8 86 338 . 81 M 1 1 . 2 . 7 . 1.72 1 7 1 . 7 21 2 1.65 1 1 1 11 41 1 1 4 114 114 41 E 6 6 2 6 2 6 2.7 6 5.7 2 5 .8.250 5 9 7 .7.625 67 2.7 : .7 r 1 h 2 2 22.188 2 2 2 25 . 2( 2 1 . 1 2 0 . 1 2 9 . 1 21.938 2 6 . 2 56 338 . 81 M 1 . 7 1.697 2 1 . 1 1 . 1.72 1 . 7 2 1 1 ( 01 120 R * 2 L ) 2120 02 21 I 1 r 9 8 .8.000 0 8 08 C0 8 . 0. . . 08 0.8 0 8.250 00 132 h 2 3 23.250 2 3 . 1 20 8 . 0 7 32 . 3 2 1 . 3 2 0 . 2 2 0 . 3 22.750 2 7 2 56 M 1 . 2 1 . 7 1 . 7 2 1 . 7 2 1.727 21 1.72 . 1 7 1 .
1

l%

1

60 4.500

60 4.875 5 1 [ 1 . 1. 5

m I

WALLTHICKNESS

T

2 21A 2% 6’0 60 6 .5 26.000 56.750 0 7 . 6 2 11 1 0 0 . 2 *12.125 8 0 0 8 8 . 12.438 3 1 6

0. 31 4 0. 4 6 5 0. 5 7 5 6 8 0. 5 8 5 0 4 0 0. 6 0 5 5 2 4 0 0. 8 2 3 5 2 0 5 0. 9 7 5 6 5 .

.

. .

+--l’+

. .

. .

. .

. .

I

I

. .

T I I -L + 1
1

0. 0 8 9 8 . 6 9 . 2 0 5. 0 0 . 3 . 6 0. 1 1 3 7

. .

2 5. 2 2 . 3 7 2 . 0 . 00 3 5 . 5 7 2 .

340

DIM EN S1ONS
DIMENSIONS 11AM tTER D

OF
IN

HEADS
I N C H E S

WALL THICKNESS 5/8
L(

%
1R . 8

%

1

l%

l;~

13A

l%
2 2 3 3 5. 3 7 7 5 3 8 3 25 . 56 5 7 5 . 7 5 23 2 3 0. 7 5 7 5 0 3 o4 5 o3 7 2 . 7 2 4 E S S L

1

;
M L(

1 8 2 1 1 8 2 1

144 ;
M
)IAM SEE

3 ) 31 1 38 7.8 . 3 32 . 32 9 . 32 8 3 1 . 1 . 7 1 ) 31 1R 31 .8 7.8 5. 78 5 2 . 5 28 . 52 8 7 1 . 7 1 1 .

21 3 5 .8 7 3 87 . 32 8 . . 7 51 . 23 1 . 07 58 . 52 7 . 1 . 7 21 . T A A H

231 23 1 23 1 5 .8 7 58 3 7. 3 5.8 7 3 51 3 2 7 . 32 6 . 3 2 6 . 5 08 7 5 1 . 7 51 . 7 5 1 . 21 3 23 231 1 78 5.8 5 7 0. 5 0 7 0.8 5 2 6 , 52 5 . 5 2 5 . i 02 56 3 5 7 2 1 . 7 21 . 7 21 . I C LK N

:

p ~ ‘ 1 $ E : R ]3~ 5 lx L( 1 8 2 1 1 8 2 1 1R .8 3 2 . 3 1 .

,E

W

2

21

23A
3 21 3 5.8 7 32 3 3o 7 51 3 21 7 0.8 5 42 9 56 7 21

3—
03 3 5. 7 3 51 . 5 7 2 . 23 7 0. 5 4 16 . 8 7 2 . 3 0 0 7 5 022 7 2 3 2 0 5 326 7 2

[38 ;
M L(

144 ;
M

) 31 31 3 .8 7 .8 3 24 . 33 3 2 1 . 7 1 R 1 31 3) 1 .8 7.8 5. 78 52 . 52 2 . 52 1 5 1 . 1 . 7 1

23 1 1 23 538 7 3 7. 5.8 . 82 3 . 3 2 5 . 3 7 51 . 7 5 1 . 7 51 . 23 1 21 3 7 5 7 0. 58 0.8 . 52 1 . 4 2 0 . 08 82 . 7 21 . 7 2 1 .

3 01 79 3 5. . 32 2 . o7 . 7 21 . 1 23 5. 7 09 . 42 8 . 33 . 7 21 .

TOLERANCES WALL THICKNESS (APPROXIMATION) * OTHER TYPES MINIMUM HEMISPHERICAL .EQ’D.THICKNESS UP TO 150” I.D. incl. OVER 150” I.D. To 1“ 1“ To 2“ 2“ To 3“ 3“ To 3.5” 3.5” To 4“ 4“ To 4.5” 4.5” To 5“ excl. “ “ “ “ “ 0.1875 0.3750 0.6250 0.7500 1.1250 1.5000
1 2 5 . . 7 0 5 0

0.0625 0.1250 0.2500 0.3750 0.500 0.6250
0 0 0 0 1 . 0 7 . 0 8 . 0 d f er e ) ) s “ i

0.1250 0.1250 0.2500 0.3750 0.5000 0.6250
5 0 0 . 7 0 5 . 0 1 0 . n n g . 0 7 0 8 0 0 5 7 0

“ 5>>T. 5 5>> >> 5 & .

” 2.0000 nq weu i si m o HSh . Oe . i u d r 5 n F

*S I 4 O O W

p m e i c tn i i i f (mc r y ke h u N D O 4 O ti a Ov R S OID E u ,8 P( D IT E dl ” m i D

sr h d e H su ”

p n 0D n

t 9 .8O e O UU N

Dr .6 n 0 p ” NTE F S

. lD o 7Ol i u. 5 9n ”Ov up .m c ” O . s , S e y e .

1.6s m l e

“Oi Dr

“” u

l t

p h e h ri b mi n i C tt e t o e h d d i m t s

341

FLANGES
FLANGE FACING FINISH In pressure vessel construction only gasket seats of flanges, studded openings, etc. require special finish beyond that afforded by turning, grinding or milling.

The surface finish for flange facing shall have certain roughness regulated by Standard ANSI B16.5. The roughness is repetitive deviationfrom the nominal surfacehavirigspecifieddepth and width.
Raised faced flange shall have serrated finish having 24 to 40 groovesper inch. The

cutting tool shall have an approximate0.06 in. or larger radius resulting 500 microinchapproximateroughness/ANSI B16.5, 6.3.4. 1./ The side wall surface of gasket groove of ring joint flange shall not exceed 63 microinchroughness. /ANSI B16.5-6.3.4.3./
Other finishes may be furnished by agreement between user and manufacturer. The finish of contact faces shall be judged by visual comparison with Standard ANSI B46-1 . The center part of blind flanges need not to be finished within a diameter which equals or less than the bore minus one inch of the joining flange. /ANSI B 16.5-6.3.3/ Surface symbol used to designate roughness ~ is placed either on the line indicating the surface or on a leader pointing to the surface as shown below. The numbers: 500 and 63 indicate the height of roughness; letter “c” the direction of surface pattern: “concentric-serrated”.

&“’cED

1 J CONCENTRIC SERRATED FINISH

SYMBOL USED IN PAST PRACTICE

rn s h c l e es n . 8 d 0 n c o rb v o e B 6 N e t d S A r e . n t i a m e t e r s . y 5I 1 . 2 24% . . 0 22 . d . l i se n l eo s n s e 8 a lt WELDING a t se l a et ln o e n . M s s 3. A 3/4 B E G 156 1Y2 11%6 . 3?46 .07 7. 7%6 .n m y re lr ot d u s l o fe e a l . e l f a p n s g i o i e2 2 z a 2 sp 3 r e 6e 2 sn . 2%6 . T t 5. 2 14% . . 8 3 . . 1 6 i rh af / n i ea s 1 cie c du ii n l . de e s d n i m eC n a s J o n sn D i . 2%6 .98 5. 4 Z6~8 . 8 19% . H 3 3 6 59 63 78 J 86 ‘/2 9h6 2 s%6 I1~6 0 ‘! 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 2 3 4 8 5 0 5 5 6 6 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 38%0 Y88 0 1%6 0 0 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 5. . a m e c r o i m a m sl f s n ot le r t o u o y dg e . . . 7 7 8 8 1 1 1 2 2 2 o 2e 2 2 4 5 6 2 8 2 1 8 1 8 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 5 2 5 2 5 3 5 . 4% .05 6. 6 18 . . F l 7. bg6 . B d 6. d . 0 3 . 4 15% . F a S d i T A N A D B A N R1 D S 6 r ’ 5 m ea l ni is i n o . 41%6 . . . o w h o o 1 i ll l r e at t/ a ns r b hg e 8e a r l o .66 6 8 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 . l e o nh g s b td on he i ul n s c od l s u o d t e f t h e c hi r g o h e t n f . 3%6 . l b a tno d gi rme e s s n s u id o oo s w SLIP-n e h n n ON o t e h s e p r se w c i i sf i e d . T d 4.342 1 l F S 1 A 2. . 5%6 . . . 1%6 6 1 3 1!/’s 3 5 1%6 5 1% 1%0 136 0 1Y6 0 11!46 0 11%6 0 1% 0 2 T b 2 2 3 0 0 ? 0 ? .. 6 Z8Y2 . 91%6 0 12 . . I 1 F A A P E C F IA D NIE MG E K N E GO S D O NB O L T I A N A T D I RO N BLIND N G . d S t 1 A v e a i i 1l s a A ba .

343 .

8 d 0 ~ c o rb v o e B 6 N e t d S A r e . I I--’l 5 i m ea l ni is i n o . 8V8 . l b a tno d gi rme e s s n s u id o oo s w h n n .09 c D 1 1. g u t g G 1 !/2 r u E h h ‘ b H J A B 1.m sl f s n ot le r t o u o y dg e . 7. o w . . .344 3 S 1 A 2 M s s 3 T d 4 T t 5 B d 6 F l 7 F a S d T l F A N A D B A N R1 D S6 .90 2 2Y2 3 3112 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 To be 1~8 2~8 2Y2 2% . l e o nh s g b td on he i ul n s c od l s u o d t f t e h e c hi r g o h e t n f . y 5I 1 . 51A 5% . n t i a m e t e r s . 2 25% . 10M . . 28~8 30M 0 32Y6 6 8 3 0 .n m y re lr ot d u sa l fe e l . 4Y8 . d I . 3%6 315A6 . de e s d n i m eC n a s J o n sn D i .. . 1 6 i rh af / n . rn s h c l e es n . . d S t 1 A v e a i i 1 s al t ba . l i se n l eo s n s e 8 a l A WELDING a t se l a et ln o e no . I--’l F A A P E C F IA D NIE MG E K N E GO S D O NB O L T I A N A T D L e T h H n to I RO N BLIND N G . 2 z a 2 s p 3 r e 6e 2 sn .i ea s 1 cie c du ii n l . e -n o t e h s e p r se w c i i sf i e d . 156 17~27 7 20Y2 23 0 25% 0 28 0 30~z0 33 0 36 0 38% 40% ! 43 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 8 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 8 1 8 1%0 1%0 1!4 0 1%6 1 3 3 5 25 0 0 20 21/2 0 0 2% 0 2% 3% % 3% % 3% A 4 163L 6 19 8 21 0 23?48 . s e l f a p n s g i o i e2 . 4 27% . / h o o 1 a i il l r e at t ns r b hg e 8e a r l o . a m e c r o i m a . . . 0 12% 2 14% JA 3 8 5 90 5 5 6 .

345 L A 2 W l N l . 3 J . .ength Bore K 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 % % % M 3 N 1 1y 5 5 9 2 Z 3 3I 4 5 6 8 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 9 93A 101A 11 11Y2 12M 1 ly2 2 2 2 2 2 3 . . A P C E O u F I A DNEI t s GO E J N E S G M i d e IR Bolt Diameter . ni c gi e g we n k c t u Lr e ot ln h ig a sev a ato r eln p a d eb le a r i s c r d e r . 4 5 6 I I S a t l o F M . b oa r d s o m a e e a da m t jn n u a o f w o er n l s nd .

o w h o o 1 a i ll l r e at t/ ns r b hg e 8e a r l o . . i a m e D i a) m e Outside e e r t t f b L e no H g to hu Diameter t t T h r a oP u oH g h i of nu a ou f H bFlange W e l d i n g J A B c D % 1 1H6 3 1!4 7 1% 9 E G H J 1 1!A 2 3 3 4 5 6 8 1 1 1 2 2 3 Y 4 4 5 6 8 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 . F a S n l F A f a p n s g i o i e2 2 z a 2 s p c o rb v o e B 6 N e t A r e 3 r e 6e 2 d S . 8 d 0 A P E C F IA D NIE MG E K N ES I RO N GO BLIND D O NB O L T I A N N A T D G . 4. . . z . . . . 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 . sn . . .n m y re lr otd u sa l o fe e l . . . T l e o nh g s b td on he i ul n s c od l s u o d t f t e t h e c hi r g o h e t n f . . e A d ‘i 7. l i se n l eo s n s e 0 a t WELDING s a t se l a et ln o e n . . . . . . .346 4 l F T H m ea ni i i n o rn s h s c e es n . B d i a m e t e r s . . . 3 6 9 3 8 5 90 5 % 5 % 6 15 6 1T~z7 20!/27 23 0 25~2 0 28 0 30% 0 33 0 36 0 2 6 0 8 8 0 0 0 6 3 3 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 A 2 s 26 27 Z1H6 7 2% 8 3Y8 8 3%61 131H6 . 4 1% 9 11%6 5 11%6 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 6 0 5 4 4 7 7 . i d i m e C nD s i J o n s n a n . F l o t e h s e p r se w c i i sf i e d . d 2. . . . 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 . . l b a tno d gi rme e s s n s u id o oo s w e h n n n 6. d . . . odl u e d s et d 3. . . . 3% 1 4 2 4% 2 A?/2 2 7% 2 2 8?/8 8% 2 4 7 5 6 6 2 8 2 1 8 1 8 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 5 2 5 5 28%6 5 30~6 3 38% 40% 43 . . . .. M ~ 4 s S t 1 A v e a i i 5l s alA ba . . . . . i r af ii n a s n i n e c. 1 . .y 5 I . . n t 5. a m e c r o i m au msl o s n ot le r t o f y dg e .

347 .

e d s et d : _ _ . 2 2 1 4 6 9 3 6 7 5 8 % 3 4 . ns r b h g p8 e a k r l . . y 5I 1 .% % 6 1 6 2 3 4 : 8 o 2 4 6 8 . s c od l s u o d t f t e t h e c hi r g o h e t n f . f y +g d e . e ‘ 7 F l f a p n s g i o i e2 . 1 i r af / in n a s i i n e c.nON . l i sd e 0 a t e n W s a t se l a et ln o e n .n m y re lr ot d u sa l o fe e l . 8 d 0 a n c o rb v o e B 6 N e t d S A r e . 8 IY2 6 8 8 4 ‘%6 11A 1 1 1 . G v $ Q h m m g u . o u h t hD ~ ~T ~f bs i ~ c e L t e r no H g H t o t h r afoP u o g h i o nu lT a F a f l n Hr bF e ou e l B W e l d ia n gs e G J H D E c 2 2 2 8 1 1%6 1. t $ T l e o nh g s b td on he i ul n .32 z~8 4V8 11h6 ‘ 3/4 1 Y ~ . o w 5 B h o o 1 i ll l r e at t/ a . d .348 6 S T l F A N A D B A N R1 D S6 . — M 4 ? M a m e c r o i m au m sl o s n ot le r t o . D i a p z B / . n + t ~ e o .09 z~6 1. i d i m e C nD s i J o n s n a n .70 m ‘ . 5 F l b a tno d gi rme e s s n s u id o oo s w SLIP. I l-El + 5 A J t 1 A d i m ea l ni is i n o . e h n n l o t e h s e p r se w c i i sf i e d . i o n B i i A m a o D m i a m ee r t e r D i a e t. + d i a m e t e r s .. d Ln l eo s * s ’ s S t 1 A v e a i i 5l s alA ba . odl 4 u . . rnl s h c e es n . 1. y E y : 3 9 y % S F A P E C F IA D NIE MG E K N ES I RO N GO B L I N A D O NB O L T I A N N A T D G . 2 z a 2 sp 3 r e 6e 2 sn .

349 .

350 .

351 .

. .4 . . I d . . - 3 — . . . -. o w h o o 1 a i ll l r e at t/ ns r b hg e 8 e a. rnl s h s c e es n . . a m e c r o i m au m sl f s n ot le r t o o y dg e . 0 2 .fe e l . I r’1 5 i m ea l ni i i n o . odl 4 u e d s et d d i m e C nD s i J o n s n a n . l i a m e t o H u a P o i o W e l d i e n n r f b t t f g J A 1A B c D 1!4 1% 3 1% E G 1Y2 1% H ‘/8 1 1 IM 1!42 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 8 1 1 . . 6 0 5 4 4 7 7 6 2 2 8 8 - z~6 2Y2 2% 4% 4% 5% 6% 73? 9 11 !/2 14!/2 17% 1g% 21% 23% 25% Y2 1 1!4 1% 1Y2 15% 1% 2% 7 1% 19 4 9 21/2 2% 5 5 3%6 4% 6 41H6 7 7 % 3 4 5 6 8 1OY2 1 2Y8 31% 3Y8 4% 4~8 51A 5% 6Ys 7 8 7 5~8 6%8 7~8 8 --. -.o oo s w e h id n -n o t e h s e p r se w c i i sf i e d . . . l b a tno d gi rme e s s n s un. . d S t 1 A v e a i i 5l s alA ba .352 1 S 1 A M s s T i T t B d F l d T l F A N A D B A N R1 D S 6 . . 1 i r h af / in n a e i s i n e c. . . . r l o n t i a m e t e r s . . e ~ S F A A P E C F IA D NI E MG E K N E I RO N GO S BLIND D O NB O L T I A N N A T D G . . n m y re lr ot d u sa l . l i s~n l WELDING s e 0 a t e eo s nH a t se l a et ln o e no . . l e o nh g s b td on he i ul n s c od l s u o d t f t e h e c hi r g o h e t n f .

i t e n h t tc o f l s h g l h eo c i r g o h w t n f .m sl f s n ot le r t o o y S t1 e 0v ea a i i l s aA ba l i s en 5 . Bolt S F A P C E F I A DNEI GO E J N E S M G I % i r c l e L M C K 1?4 4 Bore N 1 2 1 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 ! 4 b 1 9 % 1!4? 2 21/2 3 4 12 5 6 8 5 1 8 12 12 12 16 16 16 16 16 16 9 1 % .353 1 L d 2 M s s 3 T W N i m ea ni is i n o rn s h c e es a m e c r o i m au . o ld u f i .e n gl etd a b oa r d s o m a e e a da m t j n u ao n we o er n l s nd . 5 B . ni c gi e gk we n t u Lr l ot ln h ag a sev a ato r eln p a d eb i r s i o r d e r . J b i i n ci l l u ueM d n e s t 4 T l e o b n d o n . — No. hi c 6 D i m e M ( s i l oo ew s n. n n . h o o 1 a i ll l r e at t/ n s e 8 b r hg o e d i a m e t e r s . A lt a t se l a et ln o e no .fe e 1 i r h a / i n n ai se n 4e c c . n m y re lr ot d l .

.?54 - .

355 .

R R 0 %0 0 2 2!4 & 2 z z ~ & — ~ ..{6 ?{6 X6 ?’(6 X6 ?{6 %2 3<2 X2 5/ 42g? 3<2 %2 X2 YE % ~S 5/ /32 %2 $’6 %2 X6 5/ /12 %2 5’2 X5 % z % 20 22 24 x – % J(2 X2 % % %2 %2 X x X6 :’(6 X2 X2 X6 %6 — %2 X6 Y8 z – — – RING NUMBERS NominalPipeSize 150 3 0 9 1 2 o 3 06 . E N R.. iii R z R 0 Rj6 0 R 0 e R 0 R R R22 R25 R29IRU ~R36 iii 0 . 5 5 I .{2 s/ (32 5/ . g 052 I e s J % . 6 7 7 7 7 8 R R 1 Pm S i 1 i4 9 3 1 2 6 0 d)” t i n i a p l — 5 R40 0 0 s0 R0 .0 ]R ~R I R R .. /16 % x 2 2% % % x % x 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 . . 0 R : 5 R0 z 5 0 8 R e 0 Ri9 r R43 R48 “R52ii55_ R64 R68 R7~m 4 R . 0 09 I si t a n “ 005 $ 5/ 2 % % % J<z :{2 5/ /32 5/ .... . ... 5/ / R e s a s l tu 0I n cc ri 01 e n b 0 .32 IZ 5/ /:2 !<2 X2 %6 %6 3/ ~15 3/ ~.32 5/ /32 ?/ $31 5/ 132 % 1/ ...32 %* %2 .a % RI !<2 7/ /32 X2 7[ ~42 7/ /32 7/ /12 %2 7/ . . R0iR 4 R0 R IR R 4 4 R R0 R R 4 4 4 R IR R I R60 4 0 R R 5 1 4 R 5 4 R 1 R R 5 4 2 . . .<2 ?42 %2 %2 X2 :{6 %6 ..1.. ! R38 1 1 1 6 R 6 5 3 5 R ‘R 9 R 6 6 5 3 9 R 5 R R6 R0 R] 6 6 5 4 7 1 5 .. ] R37 Rio iii iii R . IR39 1 3 R 3R R 1 6 . R .356 R J F 4 N P S % x 1 1% A P P R O X D M AS T B I I T E A E NF C L E E T W A EN NG o m 1 i i % ? i I n 3 p z % a 5 I l e4 e % % X2 P 0 r I0 6 D i % .. 5 5 4 0 ‘/2 3A 1 ..8. eh .

357
A

S’1’UDDING OUTLETS All

.
SIZE ~lCK (BORE) TAR B lt2 1.50 3/4 1.50 1 1.50 1 1/4 1.50 1 li2 1.50 2 1.75 2 ID 1.75 3 1.75 3 1/2 1.75 4 1,75 5 2.00 6 2.00 8 2.00 10 2.25 12 2.25 14 2.56 2.56 16 18 2.75 20 2.75 3.00 OD 3.50 3.88 4.25 4.62 5.00 6.00 7.00 7.50 8.50 9.00 10.00 11.00 13.50 16.00 19.00 21.00 23.50 25.00 27.50 32.00 STUD ‘F OD CIRCLE CJMI 2.38 1.38 1.69 2.75 2.00 3.12 2.50 3.50 2.88 3.88 4.75 3.62 4.12 5.50 6.00 5.00 7.00 5.50 7.50 6.19 8.50 7.31 8.50 9.50 10.62 11.75 12.75 14.25 15,00 17.00 16.25 18.75 18.50 21.25 21.00 22.75 23.00 25.00 27.25 29.50

1
STUDS NO. SIZE TPI 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 20 20 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 5/?3 518 5J!3 518 5/’8 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 718 1 1 1 1/8 1 1/8 1 1/4 13 13 13 13 13 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 TAP HOLE DEPTH DEPTH E F 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 0.94 1.50 0.94 1.50 0.94 1.50 0.94 1.50 0.94 1.50 1.12 1.75 1.12 1.75 1.12 1.75 1.31 2.00 1.31 2.00 1.50 2.31 1.50 2.31 1.69 2.50 2.50 1.69 1.88 2.75

3
SIZE ~lCK
(BORE) B 1/-2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 In 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 TAR 1.50 1.75 1.75 1.75 2.00 1.75 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.25 2.56 2.75 2.75 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.44

OD
3.75 4.62 4.88 5.25 6.12 6.50 7.50 8.25 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.50 15.00 17.50 20.50 23.00 25.50 28.00 30.50 36.00

‘F

STUD

STUDS

OD CIRCLE NO. SIZE TPI CJMI 2.62 4 1.38 12 13 3.25 4 5/8 1.69 11 2.00 3.50 4 5111 11 2.50 3.88 4 5j8 11 4.50 4 3/4 10 2.88 3.62 5.00 8 5i8 11 4.12 5.88 8 3/4 10 3/4 5.00 6.62 8 10 7.25 8 314 5.50 10 3/4 6.19 7.88 8 10 7.31 9.25 8 3/4 10 3/4 8.50 10.62 12 10 10.62 13.00 12 7/8 9 12.75 15.25 16 1 8 15.00 17.75 16 1 1/8 8 16.25 20.25 20 1 V8 8 18.50 22.50 20 1 1/4 8 21.00 24.75 24 1 1/4 8 23.00 27.00 24 1 1/4 8 27.25 32.00 24 1 In 8

TAP HOLE DEPTH DEPTH E F 0.75 1.25 0.94 1.50 1.50 0.94 0.94 1.50 1.75 1.12 0.94 1.50 1.12 1.75 1.75 1.12 1.12 1.75 1.12 1.75 1.75 1.12 1.12 1.75 1.31 2.00 1.50 2.31 1.69 2.50 1.69 2.50 2.75 1.88 1.88 2.75 1.88 2.75 2.25 3.19

358

SIZE ~lCK (BORE)
B l T

OD
A r3.75

‘F
O R

S

T S

T U TD

U D T

3/4 1 1 1/4
1V

2 2l 3 31 4 5 6 8 12 14 16 18 20

1.69 1.94 1.94 1.94 2.19 1.94 2.19 2.19 2.44 2.44 2.75 2.75 2.94 3.19 3.19 3.44 3.62 3.88 3.88 4.31

4.62 4.88 5.25 6.12 6.50 7.50 r 8.25 9.00 / 10.75 13.00 14.00 16.50 20.00 22.00 23.75 27.00 29.25 32.00 37.00

CIRCLE CJMI 1.38 22.62 1.69 3.25 2.00 3.50 3.88 2.50 4.50 2 2.88 3.62 5.00 4.121 5.88 2 5.00 6.62 7.25 2 5.50 6.19 8.50 7.31 10.50 8.50 11.50 10.62 13.75 12.75 17.00 15.00 19.25 16.25 20.75 18.50 23.75 21.00 25.75 23.00 28.50 27.25 33.00

NO. SIZE 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 24 24 1/2 5/8 5B 5/8 3/4 5/8 3/4 3/4 7/8 7/8
1

D HOLE A S DEPTH P DEPTH E F

I

13
1

11 11 10 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 5 8 8

1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/4 1318 11 1518
1

1718

0.75 0.94 0.94 0.94 1.12 0.94 1.12 1.12 1.31 1.31 1.50 1.50 1.69 1.88 1.88 2.06 / 2.25 2.44 2.44 1 2.81

1.25 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.75 1.50 1.75 1.75 2.00 2.00 2.31 2.31 2.50 2.75 2.75 3.00 3.19 2 3.44 3.44 8 3.88

9
SIZE ~ICK (BORE) OD ‘F
O S T S U T T U D D

HOLE A S

CIRCLE NO. SIZE

TPI D 10 10 9 9 8 9 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 8
8 8 8 8 8

B 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14

TAR 2.19 2.19 2.44 2.44 2.75 2.44 2.75 2.44 2.94 3.19 2.94 3.44 3.44 3.44 3.62

4.75 5.12 5.88 6.25 7.00 8.50 9.62 9.50 11.50 13.75 15.00 18.50 21.50 24.00 25.25

1.38 1.69 2.00 2.50 2.88 3.62 4.12 5.00 6.19 7.31 8.50 10.62 12.75 15.00 16.25

CJMI 3.25 4 3.50 4 4.00 4 4.38 4 4.88 4 6.50 8 7.50 8 7.50 8 9.25 8 11.00 8 12.50 12 15.50 12 18.50 16 21.00 20 22.00 20
24.25 27.00 29.50 35.50 20 20 20 20

3/4 3/4 7/8 7f8 1 7/8 1 7/8 11/?3 11/4 11/8 13t8 1318 13/8 1 u2
2

DEPTH E 1.12 1.12 1.31 1.31 1.50 1.31 1.50 1.31 1.69 1.88 1.69 2.06 2.06 2.06

DEPTH F 1.75 1.75 2.00 2.00 2.31 2.00 2.31 2.00 2.50 2.75 2.50 3.00 3.00 3.00

2

m

359

SIZE ~lcK (BORE) TAR B 2.19 1/2 2.19 3/4 2.44 1 11/4 2.44 11/2! 2.75 2.44 2 2lr2 2.75 2.94 3 3.19 4 5 3.62 3.44 6 8 3.88 4.31 10 4.56 12 5.00 14 5.50 16 5.94 18 6.38 20 7.31

OD 4.75 5.12 5.88 6.25 7.00 8.50 9.62 10.50 12.25 14.75 15.50 19.00 23.00 26.50 29.50 32.50 36.00 38.75 46.00

STUDS STUD ‘F OD CIRCLENO. SIZE TPI CJMI 10 3/4 1.38 3.25 4 10 3!4 1.69 3.50 4 9 2.00 4.00 4 7E 9 2.50 4.38 4 7B 8 1 2.88 4.M 4 9 3.62 6.50 8 7/8 8 1 4.12 7.50 8 8 1Us 5.00 8.00 8 8 11/4 6.19 9.50 8 8 7.31 11.50 8 1V-2 8 8.50 12.50 12 1318 8 10.62 15.50 12 1518 8 12.75 19.00 12 1718 8 15.00 22.50 16 2 8 16.25 25.00 16 21/4 8 18.50 27.75 16 21/2 8 21.00 30.50 16 23/4 8 23.00 32.75 16 3 8 27.25 39.00 16 31/2 STUDS STUD ‘F OD CIRCLENO. SIZE TPI CJMI
1.38 1

TAP DEPTH E 1.12 1.12 1.31 1.31 1.50 1.31 1.50 1.69 1.88 2.25 2.06 2.44 2.81 3.00 3.38 3.75 4.12 4.50 5.25

HOLE DEPTH F 1.75 1.75 2.00 2.00 2.31 2.00 2.31 2.50 2.75 3.19 3.00 3.44 3.88 4.12 4.56 5.06 5.50 5.94 6.88

~
SIZE ~IcK OD (BORE) TAR B

m

TAP HOLE DEPTH DEPTH F E
/1 /1 11 1 /1 1 F1 /1 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 . . . . . . . . 4 4 8 8 3 4 . . . . . . . . 10 10 3 5 6 5 6 8

3 1 11 1l 2 2 3 4
5 6

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 4 5

. 5.25

1 5 . / 6 . 4 7 7 /. 9 8.00 f. 3 7 9 . 9 1 . L 04 12.oo . 5.00 1 6 1 . 46 1 2 2 . . 98 1 1 6

1 . 2 . 2 . 2.88

3.50 4 9 3.75 4 4 . 5 9 4.25 2 4 . 4 5.12 2 5 4 4. 5.75 4 4 2 6.75 5 8 7.75 54 8 .2 . 9.00 9 8 10.75 02 8 . .
12.75 8

3 6 30 0 75 1 5 5 11 1 110 1 11 110 5 02 62 5 27 m 0
2

1 1 9 9 0 8 0 8 8 8 2 8 9 8
8

8 1

14.50 . . 17.25 5 0 . 20 5 21.25 .
24.38

08 . 12 76 . 12 50
12

8 0 28 58
8

4 . 4 .

. 0 . 0

T

361

90°L

63 ,// /
./’ [ /

WELDING FITTINGS
ANSI B 16.9 All dimensions are in inches. A Welding fitting material conforms to SA 234 grade WPB. Sizes 22,26 and 30 in. are not covered by ANSI B 16.9.
uz w t i m s h ao c i k s np e 3r s a e l s l s2 g 2e e . e n s i o n . F1applies to standard and X-STG. caps. Dimension Fz applies to heavier weight caps.

1.

2,

R

oElbow d n i a 4. F 5

3.

(n
/ —

D

-1

Nominal Pipe

I
A

Dimensions
D i a A m Be 1 .
518

90°LongRadius Reducin2Elbow–

size

c t
1 5

5 e

r

E

0.840
3/4

1

0

,.. 7. , ... 0. . . .
1 l 1 /02 / 0z7h6 ’

1 1

1.315
1 1 2 2

1Y2 718 23/]6
. 1 . 2% . 3 . 3 6 1 1 9 1 3 72% % 6

7
F;
~

1 %/

,

.

8

lfi

...

1% 5 1
8 1%f l

1

45°LongRadiusElbow

IY2

3 0 11

1!4 l 8 /

4 1 6

%

2 ‘“\
A-

/ 4 7 3 2 3 33116 1% 1 8 6 5 /

~

2

8 174 % 7 5

2!/2 53‘5/16 1% 1 2 3 / % 3 3% 4
05

90°ShortRadius Elbow

180° ShortRadiusRetun

\, m
E

,/ a
180°Long RadiusElbow

3
A

3.500 4,000 4.500 5.563
6

4% 5% 6 7%
. 9

2 2% 2%

6% 7% 8%

4% 5% 6X
s 7%

2 2% 2%
/3

2% 3 3 3% 1 4 5 I 6 7 3
1 t 6

3% 4 5
6

31t8 1

/

r

3Y4 12’5/1( 6 5 93/16 3yz 6 2 5
1 68 1

-

8
1

8.625 12.750 14.000
I 16.000

12 18 21

125/16 /4 5 153/8
1

I 10.750 I 15 I 6fi I 203k 0

5
8 6

1

7!4 243/8 12 8% 28 14 16 18 20 ... , 24 ... , 30

14
1

21 24 27 30 .,. . 36 .., . 45

6% 7% 7 8 9
1 1

] 24 I 10 \ 6 32

18

20

18.000 ~().()~
I

I 27
I

8 9
1 1

IIK

36

30 33 36 39 45

12% 40 13YZ 44 15 16 @ 52

i
Cap

22
24 26 30

z~.()()() ~40000 26.()()() 30.000

12 0

10!4 ,., . 10K ,., .

18’A 60

.

.

-

1

WELDING FITTINGS
1. 2. 3. 4, ANSI B 16.9 Alldimensionsreininches a Weldingfittingmaterial conformsto SA234gradeWPB. Sizes22,26and30 in.arenotcoveredbyANSIB 16.9. Forwallthicknesses seepage322. Dimensions Outlet
%

Nominal Pipe Size
I

Outside Diameter
y

~
z 1 1 1

H
1 1
11
1 , -

J
. .

Tee
.

3/8
3/4 ‘/2

,840 ,675 1.050

.840
1.315 1,050 ,840 1.660 1.315 1.050

1
1% 1% 1% 1718 1718 17/8
1
2%

‘i
.

11 .

18 i .

8 ” ,

1

1 ?
‘/2

1?4 1?4 4 1%

2 7

1!4

7

/

8

1%

2
1

1%
1
%

2%

2% 2 1!4
1 1

1.900 1.660 1.315 1,050 2.875 2.375
1 ,

3

3 2% 2
1Y2
1 .

1.660 1,315 3,500 2.875 2.375 1.900
1 .

2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2!4 3 3 3 9 3
3 3 3 3 3 3 6

2ti 2!4 2% 2!4 2%

“ii “ 2?4
2Y2

Reducing Tee

2!4

I

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2% z

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3 3 3 3
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,
8 8

2
1

7
%

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2 2 1

4.000 3.500
2 2 1 . . .

3?4 3%
3 3 3
4

k k
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2

3i 33 3 23 7 3 2%6

3 0 3 3 3/ ‘ /“ 3/ 3 / 3 / 0

h’ ~

.

% % %

.

Concentric % Reducer i 8 3
8 8 8 1 % % % — h / ! 8 ! J % 8 % % . . — 8 % % 8 Eccentric Reducer /8 8 8 4 % 4

18

8

/

3%

....
4 5 4 5 4 5 4 0

8 3 9

3 3 ;7 3 7 3%0
4

4

. . . . 4

3.500
2 I 2 2 1 . , .

4
41 8 4 3 4 9

3 3 ;7 31 7 31 i0

7 / 5 : 4 5/ 4 01 3

363

WELDING FITTINGS
G —. ~ .—. 1. 2 3. 4. ANSI B 16.9 Alldimensionsareninches i Weldingfittingmaterial conformsto SA234gradeWPB. Sizes22,26 and30in.arenotcoveredbyANSIB 16.9.
Forwallthicknessesseepage322. -

* – (= -1- F — u T u

1

I
Nominal Pipe Size 5

Tee

Outlet 5
4 3 3 2 ~ 2 6 5 4 3 3 2 8 6 5 4

Dimensions Outside ~ Diameter 4 5.563
4.500 4.000 3,500
2 2 6 5 . . . . 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7

H
47 47 4 % 7 47 4T % 47 55 55 55 ‘ 5 % 4s 45 % 7 6 6

J
. . 7./ . 5/ 5/ 5/ 3 51 5 5 /5 1 s/ 5 “ 31 ‘ 3 51 5 / 57/ 5 / 5 5 . “65. 5 33 6 /8 /8 8 /8 8 /8 18 /8 5 8 8 /8 8 1 /

, H – “ 6 +

8 3 6 5

7 7 2 6

+ ? R e

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~ i

G 8 e n g

4.500 4.000 3.500
e 2 8 6 5 . . . .

/

r

J ‘7
1

8 6 6 5

7 2 2 6

3%
1

4.500 4,000 10,750 8.625 6.625 5.563 4.500 12.750 10.750 8.625 6,625
5 1 1 1 . 4 2 0

7 7 8% 0 8% 8% 8Y2 8!/2
1 1

61/8 6 8% 0 8 75/8 7?4 7% 10 9% 9
8
8Y26

6 6 .... 7 7 7 7 .... 8 8
8 5
83

: : 12 10 8 6
5

.—.—. D Concentric Reducer

12

0 0 10

10
1

10 5
1. 1. 1.

J r‘1
.—.— —.—.

14

14
I 1

0 1 0 7 1Q 5 710 5

0 0 “i0 0 1 0

s 1 /

1 1/ 3 1/

8 6
1 1 1 } 1

8.625 6.625
1 1 6 4

11 11
6, 1 1.

9?4
9 0 1 0 6 0 1 0 4 2 ] 1518 111/s 0

13
1 3 0 “ i0 2 2

c

18 1

Eccentric Reducer

8 6 18 16 14

12.750 10.750 8.625 6.625 18.000 16.000 14.000

12 12 12 12 13% 13X 13X

10% 101/8 13!4 13 13

14 14 14 14 “ ii” 15

364

WELDING FITTINGS
ANSI B 16.9 Alldimensionsreininches a Weldingitting f material onformso SA234gradeWPB. c t Sizes22,26and30in.arenotcovered byANSIB 16.9. Forwallthicknesses seepage322. )minal Pipe Size 18 Dimensions Outlet 12 10 Outside Diameter 12.750 10.750 G 13% 13% H 125/8
1’21/8

I
!~~ +! .—. G

L: J 15 15

:1 G, Tee

8
20 20 18 16 14 12
1 8

8,625
20.000 18.000 16.000 14.000 12,750
1 8 0 .

13M
15 15 15 15 15
.1 7 1 6

11%
14%

15

05 1 2

0 2 5

2

% Reducing Tee

5 5

0

22

22 20 18 16 14 12 10 24 22 20
1

22.000 20.000 18.000 16.000 14.000 12.750 10.750 24.000 22,000 20.000
1 8

16!4 16?4 16)4 16% 16% 16?4 16% 17 17
1 ,1 0

16!A 16 15% 15 15 145/8 14[/8 17 17
1 1 80

... , 20 20 20 20 .,. . .... ,.. , 20
2 02 6

J r ‘1 -—.—.
7 D !7 7 4 0 0

24

16 14 12 10
30 30 24 22 20 18 16

16,000 14.000 12.750 10.750
30.000 24.000 22.000 20.000 18.000 16.000

17 17 17 17
22 22 22 22 22 22

16 16 153/8 15]/8
22 21 20% 20 19!A 19

20 20 20 20
.... 24 24 24 .... ....

Concentric Reducer

r-l
J .—.— b Eccentric Reducer ..—,

365

FACE-TO-FACED1MENS1ONS F FLANGEDSTEEL O

GATE VALVES (WEDGE ANDDOUBLE DISC)

+. & 1-

I

300

I 400

[ 600

D
1 – – 2 7 – .

i

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9

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s
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3 3 4 5 6 8 1 1 1 O 1 O 1 O 2 O 2 O

8 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 4

1 – 1 1 0 1 12 2 3 3 3 3 — 4 4
1
p

1 1 3 % 1 – 5 4 1 5 0 2 6 %9 8 52 %3 1 62 0 3 36 1 29 3 4 1 4 D 52 1 3 6 D 65 1 3 8 D 78 2 4 — 0 D 81 2 4 4 D 08 5
e

X ‘ % 2 5 % 5 8 X 0 3 6 , 9 5

15 4 1 2 6 2 8 2 % 3 % 3 % 4 0 4 % 4 % 52—. % 6 % %
s

14 2 27 20 32 36 41 43 55 69 63 77 5

2 2 2 3 “ 4 50 5 — 2 0 4– 4 6– 08– . 0– 4–
p S

8 1 6 7 2 4 9 4 5 6

8 2 4 9 3 8 K % 8 f 1
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1 — 1x 2 s , 0 i 6 7 8 – 8

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b 1 9 9

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8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . i 2

1 1“ 1 1 1 1 1 i 4 3 3 —3 _7 3 4 ;

1 01 I 1 i 1 21 01 2 = i 6 2 2 2 , 7 3 08 2 3 3 !2, i 4 03 5 3 6 33 6 3 –3 —x 8 64 84 9 0 4 0 Y 4 ~5

3 i% 3 6 4 % 5 % 0 8 5 9 1 — 6. 3 8 2 % 1 6 — 4 —0 1 — Z 2 — X 1 — 9 5 8 — 1 ‘1 7 % 4 5 8 2

2 — % — X — 1% 1 8 4 % %— 5 22 1X 8 2 1 % 7 % > 3 v 6 2 — % !2% 44 . —3 % — 2% 2 % . . . . — 24 - 3— 3— 9 2% 6 k— % . – 3% 3 –- 0 .-— 9 % . 1 3 . - 5 .- . x 5 25 — _ 3 . 3X % 4_ % 38% 4% 0 – 5+ _— o % 5 % . 1 . 4 6 – 5 5 ?4% 4 % 4% 6 .. 5 3 %.1 8 8 – — ,% . — . 5% 2 X2 ?– 6 0 6 7“ 6 7 1 4 – 7 % 5 %

% % 5 % 0 X X — ! % % X 2 %

GLOBE AND ANGLE VALVES < &
Raised Face
300
Inshes


A

400 –

6
– x % 1

900

15w—

2500

Dimension2 x A,

2x 9 9

% % 1

– — — – –

– — – –

9 1

9 2 3 4 5

2 3

8

1 4

5 6 8

1 1 1

1 1 2

1 1 92

52 72 2

4 69 %3

6% 8% 1 2 1 1

2 8 % 2 3 % 3 4

02 23 63 4 4

0

3 ? 3 7 4 2 5 0 — 5 4 2 4 – 9

4 09 3 8 %

R
N P

T

iJ
N

y

n

p

g

e
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3A2x

400
6%6

-

Y2

!

6%6

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I

10%

3A

9

1
—l 2 2 3 4 5 6 8 1 1 1 ’

: ..
7 8 ‘ — 1 l 1 2 2 2 3 3

+

87!

8%

— 8%

‘- — 1

—. 9
1 %1 — — % 14% 4 6 —1 4 1 —5 . A 28 ? — 2 2 - 3 % 2 4 % 39 % 3 — 3 % 4 8 0 5

1

9 1l 1 1 1 1 i 1 2 2 2 – –

l 9 9 1 %9 — x 9X 1 1 1 2 1i 13 % 1 — 3 2% %2 9 1 — ! 4 —4 3 4 1 3 1 2 41 — 6 7 4 % f –6 i 1 2 8 2 5%~ 6 8 1 2 ; % 9 ~ 6 2 2 6 2 3 0 2 8G 0 53 s 1 2 6 1 % 2 83 0 3 3 8 1) % 1 – 4 x – 1 6 –6 < –

1 1 1 % 1 % 1 % 1 !% 1 ~ % 2 % 4 % 2 2 % % 3 4 3 4

_— 12%
1x . . 1 % 1 -..-.— 26 X 2 8 i—...– ! 3 6 3 — 4) 3 5 9 0 5 5 2? 4 – 0

0 1 52 % ? % % 64 % 6 % 4 0% 64 %

1 9I 7 3 r i ao nB 1 a 1 0 .8 1 3 0 – 2 2 s 0 3 –’ 6 5 2 33”% — -0 3 Y8 — i2 . .TO-FACE DIMENSIONS OFFLANGED STEEL SWING CHECK VALVES R aF i P r l ep q i s u b r e e n . 600 0 S u & m ‘. r Sd .1- 367 - :. r ..5 00 N s 2 3 o 8 1 4 5 6 8 11% 13 14 – 13% 14 15% 17% 2 2 – 19% 2 4 3 – 22 2 0 3 2 3 t 6 lx 2 2% 3 4i 58 6 8 1 1 1 11 14X 16% 1 %1 02 2 2 3 3 4 11 14% 165 13% 17% 2 8 2 1 3 6 3 .:Fd a -D t e om . 2 4 6 3 2 % 1 8 4 %— 1 2 9 i 2 . . 2 “ 3 1 1‘ . 3 1 9 1 4 4 0 31 1 1 . . 1 – 4 – % 1 1 0 % “ 1 2X %1 2 3k1 i 3% f %1 4% t 7 i1 5 0k %2 6 2i Z2 8% ” %2 . 52 — . % 3 – 4 5 4 6 5 8 2 4_ 9 3 8 0 1 1 % 1 4 2 6 X 2 8 2 1 3 6 — 3 4— 3 5 0 9 5 5 2 —0 4 52 % o % % X % % _ k % % % s f Fe a r c e e na tc E e .1~ “ 1 1 1 1. 6 1 % 1 %3 1 k — — 3 % . s n 1m I i 300e I 5a 400 l I. 7 8 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1i I 2‘ 2 2 —“ .o EFn d s ed V o n r s lo o n n i c e n i r a u f se v A m N e a Sit tc A nn daN 6al . ’ — % 1 % 9 % — 9 — 9 9 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 ‘ — 1 1 1 R e . .’.FACE. 1. — .: a s e c d .&. i 9 z 1e — 9 9 e 0 .— . – 9 — X 9. 4 1 1 %— % 1 % 1 i 1 % 2% 2 % 2 % 3 . 7 4 2 5 0 5 4 2 4 —9 5 8 2 ?4 9 3 8 % 1 1 6 1 1 2 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 0 R per i n g I % 3 1 6 n 1 c 4 ‘ y – 9 6 f A 6.

(.‘ . w - . l.

( r r Re w . e * 0g o . n l d e l S l o o d tl d d e g + w ) / + + s g e + @ s n h z t + + + + $ C r o s s o v e r E T 9 l D D b .. “ ++ ‘ . e - c e r & n [ P ~ ( r M [ c ~ T uD r o n w d T uU r n we d H p w w ~ B a s L e L ln ec T ~ h L D oB ur ba T L R S ( o e n d g R u a c df i i P n u s g P ee t n T t ee t p ) r e < O iu O D u iu t l o t t d l l rw e t d l e t rU ) r S O ( O u r .?69 - S A F B C u s h a $ C R S t r e S r d a o u ii s c g i i n F S l g p I A a S n c F Z g r B e ea S “ ‘ d w e We p i + .

- . = S Y M F B P OF LI O I T S T P I RN E G S F l aS nc gr B a e e dw S p e W e i nl de S l o g o l d d l t d S J C P E L x a t o o n p t r i e e t L + ~ + ~ + ~ + ~ n t n e c t +i n g i p e a n s i o n ~ e r a l O rP i lf i a c ai g li l wu p u te i g e : e D l - R P B P R C E e l p d F u l c u t nn g i s - l e r i Kc c g g o P e o c c i l d u n c e e n c e n t -r t r i + + = ~ = -C *t + +---+ t & m - a + S l e e v +-t e -t-l- -++---* +--e ~ S ( ( t S r a t o t ii gL h z t t n t L * e ) ) L * L - L e O U u O D u l *p e l w e ‘ o u b ’ e s wY e e p R e d u c i L n g L “ “ - L L A L .

o l t e e n ) o e l b e s . o l t e e i o n ) v l e e s . l g o l be v a t i o n ) o a b n e ) t V o m aa y P o p e v e d e r u r a c n t li c v a s s o t i lc ia g c e n r d g e e Vh ae S tWr a o vk h yt k ) r + i g p .S Y M F B P OF LI I O T S T P I RN E G S Flanged S c r B a Se w p e e Wi nl d g . ce o k G a a A Gn ( E l e B V aa G a a A Gn ( P l G la A Gn ( E l e G ( A B G O R C ( C u l P l o v t l ga a e s . l oo e l d dl t d e S S i nw g e l T ee p S ( S ( U V A C A O iu O D u O iu O U u n a Vn h a Cn l i o t t d l l w e & n u s ve k s ee n t ee t t ) t ) t d l t l p e o v e ag l l e lc hg e l t l ga a t ll e .

372 S Y M F B P OF LI I O T S T P I RN E G S Flanged S c r B a Se w p e e W i nl l d de S l o o d tl d g ~ ~- - & --#3q G G L P o V c l k s V l a ie t f a o ha i Iu e a e b e ll v d g e v e -e -mQe Q O u p o B u V t S a V n c i r f l l t k n g l ry v vy e .

.

.28333 pounds. All weights are calculated with the theoretical steel: 1 cubic inch= 0. This wilI cover the overweights of material which corn-es from the manufacturing tolerances and the weight of the weldings. add 6’ZO the total to weight. To obtain the actual weight of a vessel.” the given diameter signifies inside or outside diameter. 4 5 The weights of the heads include: A.374 WEIGHTS 1.” are the weights of shell when headed by “1. S. S “0. weight of 2. 3. For ellipsodial heads: 2 inch straight flange or the wall thickness. whichever is greater. B. c. w i i m t o p c d t f c r m b d m d w r T w oa p f t t p o L o i A . The tables on the following pages show the weights of different vessel components made of steel. For hemispherical heads: O inch straight flange. T s m s C 7. For ASME flanged and dished heads: 1?4 inch straight flange. The weights of shells shown in the tables refer to one lineal The weights tabulated in columns foot of shell-length.

L E E H L L . I. . 1/ M . 21 38 44 51 78 84 1 1 1 8 1 4 0 11 1 18 2 244 261 278 24 9 31 1 8 41 52 5 62 3 72 2 83 9 1 93 1 03 1 23 1 4 5 1 2 2 2 2 49 0 4 1 5 2 5 5 3 8 2 6 2 2 EI . L E 6 S S / L EL s[L .375 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D ‘ E 1 1‘2 ~ T A H 4 I CLK ” N 5 D . 1 4 6 4 2 5 9 6 2 6 8 7 3 7 8 8 8 4 9 19 14 10 15 10 1 26 1 1 3 1 67 1 13 2 59 2 05 2 61 2 27 2 93 31 59 3 352 3 114 36 3 07 3 5 837 49 5 89 4 45 7 1 H M . L s‘S A . & 9 6 2 9 6 2 9 6 2 9 0 6 1 2 2 9 3 6 5 3 6 9 1 9 69 29 8 9 5 9 30 9 12 9 03 9 95 9 97 96 92 94 97 90 92 05 I S S A SH 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 02 20 13 3 23 33 33 34 . L s[ . D P 32 48 53 51 67 75 72 80 9 18 9 29 10 4 16 3 18 19 0 16 2 15 4 15 2 1 0 0 1 9 0 28 0 23 1 23 4 24 7 23 30 32 3 1 3 0 3 5 4 5 E H . 23 28 34 49 54 60 85 90 1 6 1 1 0 1 6 1 2 2 1 7 3 22 5 28 6 23 39 1 45 7 41 3 9 67 5 73 4 89 95 2 1 21 1 27 1 23 1 9 1 5 1 1 2 7 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1~ 1 1 1 1 1 41 26 82 30 24 44 65 68 07 82 48 96 80 1 10 0 21 1 12 8 2 44 25 0 3 67 39 2 4 80 42 4 03 5 65 6 277 0 888 480 1 912o 6 1 34 I 152 5 1 86 1 84 24 39 43 5 8 5 5 61 785 12 100 100 119 128 10 2 10 3 21 4 28 6 30 8 47 0 52 9 54 5 61 6 88 2 0 1 96 2 7 17 3 0 9 8 8 0 2 5 10 4 11 6 13 8 14 0 15 2 14 6 266 26 8 10 28 26 36 46 58 51 65 0 7 6 8 13 0 11 1 10 1 11 2 12 3 15 3 20 5 27 4 39 8 32 1 47 3 50 5 64 7 7 9 8 7 0 1 2 8 1 3 5 18 3 5 12 4 7 15 6 9 181 8 139 1 145 1 168 3 4 2 3 9 41 84 0 47 8 40 2 2 39 6 43 0 40 2 85 8 4 3 6 9 4 3 6 6 6 3 6 5 7 . 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 1 1 1 10 10 11 22 24 36 37 49 50 62 74 85 97 1 8 1 0 1 2 1 3 15 I76 I8 8 s‘ EL SA & IE 1.

.. . .L 30 48 56 74 82 1 0 1 8 0 16 2 14 3 12 5 20 7 28 9 26 14 3 3 32 5 30 3 44 1 68 0 72 1 96 1 10 1 34 1 68 1 2 1 1 6 6 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 2 4 3 8 4 2 6 1 8 6 5 7 & H I CLK ” SA EI 1. 4 9 9 0 : : . 7 4 1 48 2 34 1 86 42 4 1 4 3 61 7 1 2 9 89 9 2 0 7 7 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 8 6 4 4 5 7 2 1 8 5 5 6 4 3 5 5 8 3 1 1 4 9 8 7 2 5 . . 5 7 3 0 9 7 . . 38 57 67 86 1 5 I5 14 0 13 13 4 22 6 281 21 9 30 2 39 4 39 7 48 0 56 8 74 8 82 9 1 10 EI . s.376 W O W S T A H 8 EL H . 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 25 26 27 39 41 54 66 79 81 93 1 6 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 5 8 0 s F L . / L E E H L .: 6 0 291 . & 4 3 3 2 1 1 0 9 09 28 48 57 76 96 15 24 92 60 58 0 46 A D / E I S S 1 1 A SH 0 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 6 7 7 2 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 ? 2 2 3 3 3 3 04 40 1 4 42 2 5 53 35 4 3 M . . L E 6 E H . E 1 1 1 2 ’ 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 42 36 84 50 26 74 60 8 9 18 011 12 2 413 14 6 815 5 1 0 216 29 8 41 3 3 3 0 66 4 8 5 2 81 6 7 4 3 81 05 86 92 2 04 1 5 1 38 4 57 1 1 70 9 6 01 1 2 1 24 8 5: . 4 . . 42 48 65 72 82 01 9 110 1~ 22 134 5 14 1 15 4 16 27 7 25 0 28 9 36 32 46 5 8 56 1 73 7 83 6 98 17 9 2 12 15 157 120 25 3 26 6 24 9 S s L F 22 33 45 50 65 0 3 7 1 2 8 9 1 3 6 12 0 13 4 16 5 13 6 12 7 13 8 26 9 20 22 35 9 1 47 7 50 63 9 7 56 891 6 212 9 1244 1876 1808 1430 1452 1885 2817 . E. & 7 5 65 73 81 99 17 15 13 11 0 19 2 17 3 15 4 13 61 1 9 8 1 97 1 51 2 15 2 89 2 63 3 4 370 1 32 34 5 46 49 5 439 7 41 1 54 5 56 99 5 52 3 7 0 3 7 2 M P D 0 3 5 2 6 0 7 8] 0 9 12 0 14 2 5 1 4 1 1 6 7 1 9 4 1 3 1 4 2 1 7 3 1 0 4 3 1 7 7 1 1 2 8 5 0 2 2 8 5 0 3 0 8 3 6 3 5 3 0 4 0 4 9 4 25 05 05 05 7 6 6 8 1 5 1 9 8 8 H N 7 D I . L S S / EL s. 9 676 7 06 : 1. HL .. . 2 3 .

47 58 78 99 10 110 121 142 262 283 204 334 355 486 417 447 649 851 1 73 1 15 T A H 2 S I CLK ” H D EI 50 68 07 7 19 9 12 0 13 1 14 4 0 16 5 17 0 28 1 29 8 20 6 22 0 33 0 34 N 9 L E 6 E L S L F. 83 6 .377 WEIGHT OF SHELLS 8C HEADS W D V E I S S A SH 1 M .&D 33 48 55 04 6 15 7 9 2 9 5 14 3 15 3 16 5 17 18 0 7 20 6 21 7 22 23 0 6 24 38 6 42 5 55 5 69 4 82 0 3 96 2 2 . 41 1 . 77 8 . 00 4 . / L H . 24 3 !98 6 !61 8 4 !35 2 !09 6 !62 8 ~62 1 2 L 46 68 0 8 12 0 14 2 16 4 18 260 282 0 24 3 36 5 38 8 40 1 42 5 54 8 56 9 72 2 98 1 64 1 10 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 6 2 1 8 2 4 4 0 6 7 8 3 0 9 5 4 1 S S / L I 9 1 3 5 7 9 01 23 45 57 89 01 23 45 77 99 75 71 771 933 8 296 6 559 6 12 0 6 75 6 9 38 3 3 02 8 66 5 20 9 2 84 3 49 E E L HEAD L E 4 5 7 8 1 9 12 13 14 15 16 27 28 29 20 31 32 45 59 62 85 98 11 15 18 7 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 7 1 4 7 F L 3 2 43 4 6 85 7 00 8 21 9 24 13 6 14 8 1 05 16 2 1 47 18 6 2 80 21 0 22 35 8 48 51 0 64 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 0 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 05 50 16 62 26 73 37 74 L E1 & M H 0 71 82 1 2 1 3 14 14 15 16 2 16 4 17 6 18 7 28 9 29 20 4 21 6 21 3 23 2 35 10 37 12 49 67 86 90 1 1 11 7 3 10 6 15 10 9 11 2 12 5 16 9 2 20 26 6 0 23 23 5 1 9 23 35 7 22 4 49 1 33 1 62 3 7 0 76 4 3 3 1 90 7 4 9 6 4 5 8 3 9 8 9 0 13 2 17 3 10 144 148 2 31 2 25 208 282 356 78 2 1 67 81 1 1 9 94 24 1 1 10 4 2 3 ’ 1 1 0 66 2 5 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 2 6 48 8 71 03 0 35 78 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 4 7 6 9 7 1 9 7 1 6 2 9 8 8 9 1 5 7 9 34 41 42 56 4 43 4 89 5 55 8 57 2 5 2 4 59 7 5 5 3 61 8 2 63 65 9 78 3 70 3 0 8 6 6 6 4 6 9 6 5 7 1 7 0 1 0 0 3 3 0 3 4 3 7 2 03 2 2 34 8 2 67 4 8 3 4 72 7 7 0 8 5 6 84 8 8 2 0 0 8 6 86 1 8 7 0 7 2 329 6 383 3 436 5 7 6 04 6 6 9 5 3 9 69 1 9 4 62 3 .

4 4 5 6 0 3 1 7 3 1 5 5 7 0 9 4 2 8 4 2 7 6 9 0 102 3 116 5 181 7 185 0 140 3 164 4 298 9 293 2 237 5 222 9 1 3 3 1 83 3 8 39 .378 W O W S T A H 8 EL 3L . 5 3 5 6 15 9 8 2 4 6 9 16 5 18 7 18 3 11 12 1 3 25 24 1 20 5 32 7 36 8 33 0 41 4 5 49 7 1 3 8 37 1 EL A EI & 8 2 7 2 1 6 3 1 56 o 7 9 5 0 2 45 7 9 0 4 3 9 6 3 5 7 71 1 03 5 1 46 9 2 4 8 4 1 39 3 7 17 51 05 0 49 84 29 64 00 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I4 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 0 7 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 06 70 17 72 28 4 2 45 0 6 6 81 7 20 8 24 1 15 4 66 1 18 8 3 09 1 21 2 4 22 23 6 8 25 36 0 2 37 41 8 55 4 69 0 73 0 6 97 22 1 814 1 564 1 09 8 1 31 6 1 73 2 2 16 8 2 59 4 2 92 0 2 35 6 2 )8 3 3 2 79 3 1 57 4 54 77 9 1 14 0 17 11 3 ’64 287 21 0 34 2 38 5 41 8 44 2 58 5 51 9 64 2 5 84 1 94 1 44 1 4 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 4 0 4 2 4 4 5 4 7 5 0 5 2 5 4 5 7 8 -4 63 8 8 1 ~ 11 7 13 2 ( 7 1 1 18 6 0 1 1 8 11 1 4 8 10 9 ~ 1 ~1 1 8 6 1 2 1 2 5 28 27 6 1 28 6 26 1 25 6 21 2 38 1 32 31 46 4 7 5 3 5 ~ 6 6 5 4 7 7 8 7 8 4 8 8 3 9 8 2 1 4 3 3 5 3 5 6 3 5 8 9 4 0 4 7 1 1 6 5 2 7 0 6 3 6 9 4 2 12 8 1 2 5 1 0 1 4 0 9 0 12 3 5 17 9 12 26 5 2 21 1 25 29 3 34 5 0 38 33 6 15 6 27 1 29 6 31 5 35 48 0 41 5 55 9 59 4 9 63 67 3 80 7 16 1 13 5 1 9 1 2 2 3 3 3. & H I CLK ” SA E I1 & 96 19 1~ 3 16 19 03 1 26 2 1 39 1 53 2 26 7 00 2 23 46 2 70 2 2 03 26 3 26 3 40 26 46 2 45 1 76 5 0 168 1 0 56 6 ~ 66 2 4 8 5 66 0 2 0 76 9 6 4 4 1 7 6 77 0 77 5 87 9 87 5 97 9 0 2 6 0 M 0 D P 8 83 1 90 17 1 11 1 4 H N 1 L E S S D Y E I S S A SH 5 M .4 4 6 9 6 4 1 46 366 3 2 9 8 97 6 0 5 0 3 47 9 5 5 5 2 1 7 3 1 0 9 4 0 1 35 7 0 7 8 5 0 8 2 2 5 ~ 1 7 1 1o 0 7 5 0 6 38 1 5 7 2 8 8 2 9 1 5 6 I — . E H L ‘S 6 0 00 7 9 1 14 3 16 5 L IL . / L E E L H I ? L 5 7 1 8 12 1y 3 15 16 17 29 2 21 23 34 35 37 48 52 66 80 14 18 1 2 1 6 10 2 4 2 2 2 3 3 8 2 6 0 4 D 1 ~.

L 2 6 8 9 0 14 2 10 4 16 272 8 29 1 24 4 30 7 36 0 42 48 4 9 54 2 60 6 66 72 1 6 90 12 8 1 6 1 4 2 2 2 3 3 0 2 2 0 4 8 6 6 9 5 & H I CLK ” SA EI &1 10 16 12 18 04 1 20 1 46 2 62 2 88 2 14 2 40 2 66 3 92 3 38 3 64 3 90 3 08 4 4 362 1 745 5 2 22 58 M 0 D P 90 1 8 14 1 16 4 15 7 11 23 5 26 9 21 4 24 8 9 2 4 9 5 2 33 5 5 3 1 39 8 34 5 42 7 49 5 5 5 0 H N 1 D 3I.379 W O W S T A H 4 E L i. 1 7 2 9 14 16 8 1 6 19 1 25 3 25 27 5 36 8 31 7 30 4 41 0 43 1 55 3 57 2 75 3 97 1 2 12 2 3 16 7 13 5 18 7 25 3 25 8 21 4 30 9 33 4 31 9 42 48 L E 6 E H S L F 57 10 6 3 6 8 5 14 7 16 3 18 10 2 11 5 43 0 9 25 2 27 7 28 30 6 32 8 34 45 3 50 9 66 4 811 0 1 563 1915 14 8 18 1 11 4 25 7 28 ~0 22 43 4 03 6 1 4 8 2 6 S 3 L EL . 3L 1 7 8 9 16 1? 3 13 I50 9 288 0 25 333 6 30 47 0 3 45 52 7 69 2 7 67 704 861 1 23 1 15 1 7 0 0 1 9 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 1 3 3 5 8 0 6 3 2 3 5 0 5 5 0 1 & EI 7 4 2 09 16 34 61 89 16 33 61 88 25 53 90 S / A D ~ E I S S A SH 3 M . / L E E H L . 7 8 1 13 15 1 6 18 1 9 1 2 23 24 36 37 39 41 42 5 4 69 8 3 18 13 18 13 17 22 ~7 2 3 3 3 4 2 7 1 6 ? L 1 1 1 1 1 2 ~ 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 I (JZ 0 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 0 8 80 1 9 9) 21 0 1 30 31 1 1 41 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 40 26 83 15 0 ~7 1 18 4 1 60 11 8 2 03 25 2 2 46 28 6 3 89 31 0 3 23 57 8 6 42 77 0 0 9 6 22 1 74 2 181 6 1 69 4 10 12 1 656 2 2 2 4 2 0 13 6 27 0 49 3 81 6 33 9 5 0 3 7 7 2 6 1 6 7 4 60 9 3 1 669 5 8 68 7 5 5 721 5 9 4 76 7 7 774 9 3 2 74 8 6 ~ 83 1 5 826 5 8 3 4 81 8 7 99 4 3 97 0 5 15 4 13 6 8 8 9 2 7 4 3 1 18 4 1 4 1 58 6 5 9 05 9 580 6 7 2 0 6 52 878 4 5 2 930 7 0 8 7 3 982 2 5 1034 0 6 0 3 1 4 1086 1 3 2 6 4 5 6 8 6 81 7 05 7 2 ~ 0 8 9 5 9 1 1 8 4 0 63 6 5 7 35 5 11 2 5 1 1 5 5 1 53 7 0 3 7 28 5 8 8 5 5 2 5 0 13 0 9 7 18 8 19 9 8 12 2 2 51 1 04 8 5 9 8 42 2 0 5 0 8 4 4 4 8 92 5 17 6 1 10 2 2 69 2 54 8 0 4 9 65 6 2 3 7 5 1 5 6 .

L 8 0 19 0 17 2 16 4 25 7 23 9 z 22 31 5 40 8 48 2 57 6 56 1 64 5 73 0 82 5 80 1 1 86 182 1 8 0 2 0 4 4 2 2 3 3 4 2 0 4 6 2 7 9 9 2 5 0 8 9 2 7 4 3 5 2 8 E I1 & 14 13 11 1 00 29 2 47 2 76 2 95 24 3 52 3 81 3 10 3 58 3 87 4 26 4 54 4 801 5 364 627 0 61 8 8 75 4 709 86 4 93 9 99 5 1 50 11 6 17 3 13 0 19 7 7 9 2 6 2 0 0 1 4 8 T A H 8 SA M D P 0 I CLK ” H . 39 9 54 1 7 10 9 7 1 1 1 7 3 7 2 2 5 7 2 9 9 3 5 1 3 2 33 1 45 2 47 2 59 5 51 1 63 8 4 89 9 4 16 5 8 10 1 417 0 51 3 8 82 9 1 62 5 0 6~ 1 6 03 7 9 0 0 1 2 2 83 8 94 4 4 4s 14 4 35 2 9 0 0 1 1 E H SS 10 ~ 6 6 3 8 7 15 1 17 9 19 111 7 13 7 25 1 27 8 29 319 334 3 35 47 6 49 3 3 51 8 67 7 83 0 0 99 2 19 5 5 11 8 1 19 1 7 1 134 2 89 8 2 951 32 5 5 93 5 0 53 0 4 13 9 8 74 4 3 .380 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D J E I S S A SH 7 M . / L E L I. 23 40 2 I . N 1 D I. 0 8 0 11 0 13 0 15 8 0 2 0 21 4 30 0 37 1 40 0 45 590 640 790 740 890 E 1 1 01 21 41 61 91 21 41 81 11 41 81 21 61 A E E H L I 2 8 13 15 17 19 11 23 25 27 38 30 42 44 56 58 60 75 91 1 6 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 8 3 9 4 0 ? L 1 12 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 }2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 0 5 47 2 4 96 8 16 17 0 29 1 11 4 63 1 25 8 07 2 29 2 41 3 32 6 3 84 46 0 28 4 54 8 7 49 95 2 0 160 4 1 6 72 18 2 9 1 724 10 36 2 896 2 43 2 7 1 8 3 74 1 2 0 3 5 36 9 4 4 8 4 5 :~ 4 9 4 12 0 13 3 12 7 17 0 10 25 9 25 9 4 22 0 28 5 27 6 31 2 38 5 38 2 36 0 38 41 8 49 52 5 0 6 0 7 2 7 6 8 3 8 0 9 0 1 1 1 5 1 0 1 8 1 5 01 950 41 1 31 2 1 1 5 01 5 1 1 8 71 9 2 1 4 1 3 2 3 3 4 4 3 1 6 1 8 1 1 1 4 2 2 5 0 8 8 0 4 5 4 1 7 1 2 2 7 2 2 2 8 2 0 9 100 11 0 121 1 I 85 1 3 1 I }2 1: 31 143 1 3 6 3 0 4 0 4 1 4 1 52 5 92 6 3 5 5 1 57 0 8 1 56 3 9 17 4 67 7 1 5 17 7 6 10 3 6 13 9 7 27 85 0 2 24 21 28 25 22 9 1 0 8 4 6 1 5 5 13 3 8 5 3 34 2 8 1 9 24 5 2 0 4 8 9 57 6 11 2 2 13 3 6 6 3 94 6 3 7 9 28 8 2 9 8 6 1 9 4 5 3 3 8 0 17 2 01 4 83 4 55 9 3. L [ L E S S 5 EL .

117 138 160 181 202 223 245 266 287 308 330 351 372 393 415 436 500 564 628 692 756 821 885 949 1013 HEAD ELLIP F.&D.s. 124 147 169 192 215 238 260 283 306 328 351 374 396 419 442 465 533 601 669 737 805 874 942 1010 1078 1146 1214 1282 1350 1418 1-1/16“ HEAD ELLIP F. 12 14 16 18 ~o -)? 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 139 160 182 203 224 246 267 289 310 331 353 374 396 417 438 459 523 587 651 715 779 844 908 972 1036 0.&D. /ESSEL 1*8 SHELL 1.s. 148 171 193 216 239 262 284 307 330 352 375 398 420 443 466 489 557 625 693 761 829 897 965 1033 1101 1169 1237 1306 1374 1442 1510 1578 1646 0. HEMIS 104 125 153 178 212 242 277 311 350 397 448 500 562 614 677 741 953 1191 1457 1749 2067 2412 2783 3181 3606 83 102 122 150 175 202 231 261 294 338 373 412 452 495 539 597 749 931 1134 1357 1590 1851 2134 2435 2758 100 132 170 212 259 310 366 427 493 563 638 7! 7 801 890 984 1082 1404 1769 2175 2624 3114 3647 4221 4838 5496 6197 6939 7724 8550 9419 1100 1077 3819 1164 1141 4268 1228 1205 4743 1292 1269 5175 1356 1333 5697 1420 1397 6243 1484 1461 6815 1549 1526 7411 4057 3099 4535 ‘3462 5038 3843 5498 4246 6053 4667 4809 9712 5243 10609 5697 1I 544 1486 6633 1554 7241 1623 7874 5108 10329 5571 11282 6053 12276 .s.s. 637 698 897 1121 1371 1646 1945 2270 2620 2994 3394 76 93 113 139 162 187 214 242 273 313 347 383 421 460 502 556 698 869 1059 1“268 1496 i 743 2008 2292 2596 2917 3258 3617 3996 4393 93 124 159 198 242 290 343 400 462 528 598 673 752 835 923 1015 1318 1661 2043 2465 2926 3427 3967 4547 5166 5825 6523 7261 8039 8856 SHELL 1.381 WEIGHT OF SHELLS k HEADS WALL THICKNESS DIAM. HEMIS 98 118 144 168 200 228 257 288 330 374 421 471 523 579 .

1 17 4 12 7 18 0 23 28 3 7 34 49 1 45 9 50 65 4 71 0 66 8 91 3 1 87 1 52 1 28 1 4 1 0 0 2 6 2 2 2 5 EI .8 L E L HL . E. HL . I E E H L . 15 18 10 13 25 27 20 32 35 47 49 52 64 67 79 71 1 9 1 6 1 3 1 0 S F L .382 W O W S T A H . 160 19 0 1 1 2 ~4 2 26 9 29 7 31 8 1 34 37 5 49 2 2 0 5 6 52 67 4 69 0 4 72 6 4 9 7 0 8 9 84 2 10 14 0 17 9 15 6 S L s F 3 6 9 1~ 6 1 8 11 1 16 3 26 6 20 28 0 4 31 5 34 4 36 8 49 8 42 1 4 51 6 56 9 6 5 61 9 1 0 8 9 7 3 7 1 184 6 132 9 139 3 0 2 77 6 L S S 3 EL s. s. & 7 2 8 4 3 7 8 0 4 3 69 ’ 05 30 85 21 6 6 1 1 7 60 2 11 / A D / E I S S 1 1 1 1 1 Z ~ 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 % 9 9 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A SH 0 1 / M . 1 ” 1 SA EI 1. E 1 1 1 2 2 ( 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 3 9 2 4 15 17 6 8 10 12 ) ~5 2 27 4 2 69 32 8 04 3 47 2 49 41 6 84 5 56 0 29 6 8 60 8 9 4 32 1 050 16 78 18 1 12 3 16 6 20 8 24 2 38 5 3~ 9 46 3 50 7 54 2 68 7 72 3 86 0 90 5 1 14 1 88 1 1 1 3 2 2 5 2 4 7 0 6 4 5 8 5 4 6 1 9 0 3 2 0 5 55 3 11 64 5 03 9 758 6 9 1 7 77 0 3 3 89 4 2 8 7 92 8 9 8 3 9 14 6 4 0 8 1081 1051 6 7 18 1 7 1 1 8 10 8 2 1 2 8 12 5 14 3 16 1 18 0 10 9 8 6 7 9 4 1 6 1 2 16 1 2 1 9 3 3 4 5 6 6 3 2 5 782 55 4 09 4 64 7 29 2 8 9 9 0 1 0 1 1 01 2 1 03 11 3 1 24 21 5 1 36 31 6 147 1 512 3 6 2 7 9 3 9 18 25 2 5 1 22260 4476 3 2 99 4 3 0 920 3 6 5 55 3 1 62 86 4 5 79 4 2 32 3 4 2 13 5 3 84 5 4 54 6 5 26 4 2 1 6 92 8 8 7 26 3 5 8 40 0 2 9 64 8 4 0 9 89 0 22 4 62 0 3 9 1 7 4 50 9 9 8 4 5 8 0 3108 2398 4732 2 3 1 5 29 5 2 5 7 7 5 7 4 3 9 2 4 2 337 0 0 6 30 3 3 1 9 0 6 5 8 6 8 4 2 5 6 5 0 6 6 6 2 2 3 4 5 5 0 39 8 76 64 7 34 2 1 52 5 0 6 1 7 7 6 94 5 757 3 8 13 0 9 77 81 3 2 3 99 6 57 3 16 4 75 60 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 7 1 6 3 7 5 05 2 71 04 2 0 13 0 7 6 78 6 41 28 6 1 15 5 8 7 46 4 11 44 3 3 17 3 1 1 94 6 1 9 97 7 1 0 08 8 7 40 6 9 5 4 61 0 7 1 1 0 7 8 59 7 6 6 0 31 6 2 9 2 6 6 8 18 8 4 6 8 11 2 7 0 3 2 0 3 4 8 . & H I CLK N L E 6 E H . & 11 1 15 2 39 2 63 2 87 2 11 3 45 89 3 3 13 3 67 4 01 4 45 4 89 43 3 5 770 M P D 0 10 0 13 4 13 8 2 29 25 7 26 3 28 9 33 5 31 2 31 9 34 7 40 6 41 5 41 4 47 H D .

14 2 14 1 6 18 J 0 22 2 4 36 3 8 40 2 4 44 5 6 68 61 0 2 74 92 1 8 1 44 0 1 87 0 1 60 6 1 44 2 52 8 8 2 32 2 4 0 12 0 7 8 9 266 3 7 8 3 9 4 0 1 17 14 20 27 34 31 47 74 5 11 5 67 2 74 81 67 9 12 4 19 1 17 8 1 8 8 2 1 8 2 3 3i6 0 8 3 8 9 4 92 4 95 5 $8 69 2 T A H / E L 4 SA E1 & 14 0 2 5 8 l 4 8 2 6 0 4 9 5 0 0 581 I CLK ” H N 1D ]I. 1 L [ .383 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D J E I S S A SH 1 M . 5 18 9 4 1 o 2 4 2 0 2 6 0 1 5 1 6 4 8 0 61 4 9 14 7 13 26 8 23 1 24 0 8 37 1 34 2 9 44 3 L E 5 E H L ‘S 150 170 10 4 3 14 260 291 318 340 377 400 439 553 582 67 1 68 4 74 7 95 1 1 54 3 158 2 3 01 4 L S S / 1 EL .L 2 17 E &I 10 38 66 4 9 22 50 08 46 84 22 70 28 860 351 932 6 E E H L : ] z? 7 A 1 1 0 1 0 3 5 8 1 3 36 49 41 54 57 69 72 75 87 1 5 1 3 1 1 2 9 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 0 1 1 2 0 M D 12 16 20 25 21 ~7 33 31 32 8 47 45 6 45 9 47 5 54 56 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 ~ 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Q 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 19 ~ 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 5 3 3 7 4 4 52 152 6 1 056 7 50 0 1 8 55 4 4 9 5 0 7 56 9 53 0 11973 59 12819 5 7 15 4 7 9 2 17 1159 5 12 12 3 1 513 1 8 557 2 1 8 92 2 4 1 37 3 3 7 72 0 1 2 2 3 9 6 18 1 35 9 2 19 7 4 3 9 5 5 5 6 5 2 2 84 3 59 4 6 0 4 3 0 63 1 4 2 6 54 7 8 8 43 7 0 34 2 6 14 ( 2 05( 8 851 5 1 7 98 9 8 33 8 9 77 61 12 : 41 68 3 86 2 66 4 05 10 4 01 8 0 3 1 1 04 1 5 1 1 26 2 7 1 1 37 3 1 1 4 3 3 72 5 4 4 4 5 34 1 5 5 6 056 4 7 s6 1 2 85 5 0 95 1 ! 8 0 1 61 C5 7 16 3 7 14 3 16 1 0 16 2 16 1 5 15 1 6 016 3 05 2 16 3 11 4 1 58 4 5 9 56 4 6 168 5 7 62 6 9 7 70 7 ( 7 7 8 8 41 1 0 16 5 1~ 88 81 8 762 2 31 03 ~ 2 2 ( 6 2 0 16 3 9 11 9 086 9 56 / 9 11 49 7 3 6 8 6 S 68 5 8 2I 3 5( 4 8 9 49 7 2 01 1( 6 426 6 2 ~ 0 95 0 37 ( 7 01 85 5 5 0 4 ..

5 6 8 7 ~ 7 5 8 0 9 4 0 8 0 3 1 9 2 5 2 2 3 4 5 5 1 6 17 1 9 0 2 1 3 2 3 5 35 8 8 48 1 7 40 5 6 52 9 6 64 3 5 76 7 4 88 ~ 3 90 7 1 22 2115 7 1 1 73 E .384 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D J E 1 1 1 1 1 Z ? . 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1~ 1 1 1 1 1 ~ 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 I S S A SH 0 . . 1M 3 . N 1D L E 7 E H I . s L ‘ A 1 1 2 2 2 ( 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 ] ] 21 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 5 06 6 7 8 72 62 8 2 52 3 43 0 3 33 4 5 6 7 8 14 2 04 95 4 85 6 76 72 3 4 80 0 18 0 8 4 64 5 1 76 2 1 64 1 5 47 3 14 5 9 1 0 6 21 5 12 3 8 76 9 7 06 0 10 1 0 2 7 8 80 I8 6 9 6 7 9 5 5. 40 1o 4! 1 35 8 3~2 10 9 18 0 1 16 0 60 14 6 13 1 8 11 2 4 11 5 11 6 j7 7 10 7 3 12 8 8 1 9 2 6 6 5 5 6 6 3 5 6 54 27 8 5 8 9 4 4 8 48 5 8 42 ~ 0 7 5 ~8 6 52 5 5 69 ~ 5 44 0 64 90 ~ 1 C6 62 2 1 39 ~ 0 3 2 41 8 9 56 2 1I3 96 6 9 0 47 4 01 72 8 7 1 0 30 4 9I5 5 8 2 6 3 ~9 4 5 26 0 3 9 0 4 60 1 01 9 9 1 4 4 : 427 41 1 9 0 4 7 8 9 1 5 85 i 66 6 5 62 ~5 9 8 2 ~ 5 1 2 1 3 0 5 8 817 3 2 645 4 f . 1 26 4 25 7 25 0 24 3 33 33 7 32 2 42 6 41 0 41 5 0 50 59 5 2 580 7 681 3 672 9 674 758 833 8 91 1 94 T A H 8 SA M P 0 D 3 12 19 7 26 2 29 8 25 4 1 32 34 8 38 6 46 5 47 4 43 4 S2 4 54 5 52 7 52 9 67 1 3 7 3 3 8 0 0 8 9 6 90 13 1 2 1 5 1 2 1 4 1 2 3 4 4 2 4 1 4 2 6 5 0 0 5 I CLK ” H .[L . L / E L s. 22 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 39 8o 41 01 3 62 3 434 9 2 5 4 4 7 9 6 9 5 0 1 4 1 1 6 3 32 59 77 05 24 6 E E H L : 19 ~ 1 25 28 21 34 37 40 43 6 5 9 5 61 74 87 0 8 93 12 11 10 28 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 0 . 15 2 4 18 1 6 1 ~4 8 27 ) ? 20 3 4 3 36 6 49 8 42 0 5 5 2 7 4 5 60 6 63 8 76 0 79 2 1 8 28 14 5 7 1 6 90 16 2 4 146 5 16 205 234 383 423 462 502 661 0 72 0 89 969 1 38 1 18 7 19 1 1 2 2 3 77 5 5 0 2 3 6 5 1 1 7 9 8 E &I1. 19 0 8 1 3 z6 6 6 2 9 9 3 2 3 6 5 3 9 3 4 2 4 4 5 8 5 8 4 6 2 1 4 3 699 775 0 7 857 6 0 941 4 3 16 6 2 15 4 15 0 24 2 8 3 2 3 4 3 1 4 4 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 sS 16 5 9 8 8 2 5 3 8 5 2 1 4 6 7 6 0 1 3 3 1 56 5 5o 4 63 0 76 39 7 0 82 0 111 3 15 0 6 14 90 3 17 94 2 25 2 27 1 23 0 33 9 39 8 3 8 3 9 L sI S S / 1 EL .

11 14 28 21 34 37 40 44 57 50 63 76 80 93 96 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 9 9 8 8 3 0 S ‘ II. 7 17 20 24 37 31 44 57 61 74 87 91 1 4 1 8 1 1 1 4 1 8 2 8 2 8 387 7 3 90 7 4 93 7 5 97 6 01 8 7 7 96 8 7 8 90 1 EI.L . 8 1 1 6 9 . & 38 2 2 60 92 2 3 34 3 76 18 3 50 4 92 4 44 4 06 5 5 68 50 10 61 72 62 35 64 07 75 89 85 0 91 5 1 7 1 14 7 1C 4 16 2 12 0 18 8 14 8 SA I CLK 1 ” H MP .6 1 {2 1 83 3 17 3 8 15 4 1 1C 8 1 1 7 2 6 6 24 3 0 7 9 S5 8 5 1 8 8 9 1 { 2 1 8 7 6 7 2 5 5 7 7 5 1 90 6 1 6 41 7 ( 0 19 6 911 88 38 5 5 7 7 2 1 2 7 2 (2 8 S 8 E 6 22< 3 11 0 5 9 36 4 22 0 6 0 71 9( 43 9 86 3 9 : 5 32 1 3 3 ~1 37 70 1 7 8 9429 6 6 ( z 10.9 0 6 3 5 7 4 4 7 3 6 5 4 7 1 8 8 9 3 9 1 0 1 1 1 5 6 1 0 1 2 i3 3 1 9 1 3 2 3 4 5 6 4 0 2 9 2 2 87 5 32 87 82 77 2 157 6 4 0 22 3 2 1 3635 4 2 4 4 4 4 2 5 5 C 2 29 22 5 23 171 23 5 7 24 9 4 56 1 5 6 5 2 5 59 4 56 54 2 6 61 61 62 6 6 6 6 2 3 4 5 01 6 17 7 0 11 8 12 21 0 4 5 6 5 2 4 6 5 7 8 55 ? 4 7 48 6 8 9 4 6 8 1 8 ?4 9 94 04 8 1 0 2 14 0 9 0. 0 D 2 1 5 9 22 24 5 21 1 31 8 5 33 3 39 2 47 1 41 1 49 1 2 5 58 57 63 61 D E H s‘S L 0 17 8 0 4 2 7 3 0 1 5 4 6 7 3 0 7 4 7 7 4 0 84 87 50 84 L EL sI. L L s[ . 6 16 9 18 3 20 32 7 2 34 6 46 0 58 5 60 2 72 8 84 6 96 1 38 1 10 1 03 1 95 8 8 2 1 2 8 7 0 6 7 IE 1.2 E L . . 1 / M . 14 2 6 2 2 9 2 4 6 1 0 9 2 7 6 4 9 8 2 6 2 9 8 2 6 6 8 9 2 162 410 13 6 86 2 29 0 232 36 4 639 42 8 055 58 2 42 6 6 56 88 7 81 0 3 5 8 1 2 40 1 7 8 1 43 3 8 2 1 14 47 9 2 3 1 1 0 ’ 6 3 5 816 5 3 3 29 72 392 728 4 73 04 630 5 3 6 16 4 82 2 5 46 2 6 C0 1 6 64 1 7 . 717 8 69 0 1 3 5 2 { 4 3 S 3 38 ( 77 1 2: 4 9 1 1 1 (5 (2 (9 37 0 2 5 2 3 1~ 9 7 12 1 0 ( ! 32 8 2 4 3 1 2 2 38 4 25 6 636 84 6 . T A H . 2’ 2 3 12 2 30.385 WEIGHT OF SHELLS tk HEADS W D ‘ E 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 2 2 2 2 I S S 0 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 A SH . & 44 7 1 4 8 1 4 8 1 4 8 0 1 2 5 3 8 4 1 A N L E S S E E H L L .

386 WEIGHT OF SHELLS tic HEADS W D ‘ E I S S A SH 1 M . L L 13 27 20 34 37 41 44 57 51 64 78 81 95 98 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 5 6 6 0 1 18 2 1 41 24 6 88 2 31 0 3 25 38 4 4 62 45 8 5 09 62 2 6 46 79 6 83 8 0 86 0 [ 16 8 21 1 25 6 30 0 45 5 40 0 54 69 0 74 7 5 88 1 33 1 18 1 03 1 97 1 2 9 9 2 0 1 6 5 T A H / E L IE 1 5 20 25 8 39 2 3 64 3 09 44 98 4 43 98 5 62 5 270 6 821 6 4 672 114 7 865 7 716 851 1 97 13 3 17 0 8 6 5 4 5 I 8 SA CLK ” H M . 9 7 33 79 25 71 7 2 3 8 9 3 0s 8 1 7 8 4 5 0 4 6 2 EI & 66 9 2 38 84 10 66 12 68 24 80 47 13 89 4 55 4 31 A I 1 E E H L L 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 90 1 1 7 1 05 2 2 1 1 09 2 5 61 3 1 3 97 72 7 1 4 41 72 82 83 93 94 2 2 2 3 3 9 3 6 3 3 8 0 8 0 5 4 4 84 5 28 6 62 7 07 8 42 1 0 9 4 9 9 9 6 5 9 18 18 2 0 7 2 8 5 7 5 6 9 19 7 5 8 6 9 5 13 2 7 5 0 11 9 45 8 3 0 0 6 1 9 4 7 14 1 8 2 0 1 1 8 4 5 2 8 1 1 4 18 2 8 2 1 2 2 0 8 5 1 2 9 9 14 1 15 14 10 3 4 5 6 7 3 2 2 5 3965 7 3 8 4 4 4565 9 5207 2 5 7 7 0 5892 22 6 7 3 3008 2 43 53 0 64 4 6 7 8 9 0 96 5884 7 65 4 73 9 8 14 1 7 6 8 2 3 2 3 3799 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 6 11 15 7 10 9 14 5 18 0 7 6 4 8 4 2 7 2 08 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 1 09 11 0 2 21 22 2 2 33 2 4 2 5 7 94 8 05 5 9 04 6 0 1 6 1 17 4 9 87 41 33 51 79 5 1 15 5 1 51 2 8 0 99 9 89 6 4 12 5 8 18 8 8 6618 6 4 1 1 85 16 016 28 9 7 5 3 3 78 9 1 1 6 ‘7388 8 24 24 0 8 6 2 97 0 7 8198 8 2 21 6 1 6 120 9 1 9 6 9 31 4 8 3 3 3 8 4 15 1 1 1 2 8 7 324 3 2 0 7 8 41 2 4 2 5 1 3 9 51 3 0 9 9 2 3 429 6 7 1 9C 4 2 38 5 2 9 6 2 69 7 13 3 101 8 5 8 41 0 1 87 6 8 19 4 1 14 6 6 51 8 9 1 6 7 49 5 2 6 !2 5 2 91 7 6 I0 2 1 3 4 17 2 6 1 98 5 523 4 28 1 6 1 35 3 7 7 2 81 2 29 7 1 73 9 3 0 . . D P 14 6 27 1 23 7 24 4 39 1 9 35 5 48 48 9 8 48 9 53 52 55 63 67 4 6 0 3 6 0 4 1 D II 1 3 4 28 6 21 0 35 34 9 8 2 4 3 6 4 3 9 5 5 63 4 6 7 3 7 0 5 4 8 8 9 17 1 16 5 N L E /1 E H sS L ‘ 18 6 18 2 25 7 29 4 33 7 8 36 406 431 573 2 57 9 64 2 78 3 71 1 85 0 6 99 1 S L S 1 6 EL [L .

17 0 244 392 339 497 5 54 601 79 6 86 3 93 1 T A H / 4 SA I &1 E 7 22 19 3 3 47 94 3 22 4 79 4 36 4 94 5 41 5 6 08 I CLK ” H N 1 3 D I . . 5 I8 5 98 C 96 026 9 7 1 7? 166 2 ( 8I 1 4 1 11 237 9 4 2 .387 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D J E I A S S SHELL 1 M E L 25 29 23 36 30 44 58 51 65 79 83 86 90 1 4 1 8 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 0 1 3 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 . 2 26 0 21 4 39 8 36 7 2 4 6 44 7 59 0 53 67 1 77 9 85 1 2 97 9 613 11 7 71 3 0 L E 6 E H ‘ ‘S 2 19 8 23 3 27 5 31 5 35 2 39 7 42 0 56 0 50 9 64 4 78 8 72 9 860 8 901 152 3 L [ . 3 E L 19 2 22 4 26 6 20 8 34 37 41 45 59 62 66 70 84 87 0 912 1 1 41 51 62 72 93 03 14 24 [ . 1 17 5 26 1 34 5 33 2 42 7 51 3 69 9 78 7 87 1 55 S S / EL E & 87 26 64 13 42 91 69 18 77 0 35 L H ? A 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 9 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 01 1 12 2 2 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 00 1 22 3 0 M P D 8 16 33 2 0 24 7 38 59 3 4 30 3 44 4 42 5 59 6 59 57 68 63 4 7 0 7 5 3 2 6 0 1 1 8 9 2 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 01 76 60 1 98 332 6 1 96 7 213 1 3 9 985 7 1 0 0 756 8 1 7 7 2 1 5 3 5 2 3 838 3 95 9 1 7 19 6 11 4 13 2 16 1 18 0 10 0 12 1 1 44 041 1 43 732 1 2 4 624 1 0 4 305 1 9 5 97 0 7 89 4 4 4 6 01 3 68 4 35 0 0 4 3 7 94 53 13 73 35 1 0 53 8 2 3 66 0 2 26 70 5 8 3 49 0 0 4 73 5 1 7 4 1 1 5 97 2 6 11 3 7 25 5 8 50 6 9 76 3 13 4 1 8 1 19 3 1 7 7 7 126 0 2 4 1 897 3 8 14 0 8 20 0 8 1 6 1 1 3 0 6 13 1 6 23 1 9 2 4 6 2 3 6 0 15 3 1 38 2 1 2 0 1 4 4 3 4 12 11 16 11 14 4 5 6 7 8 2 35 1 49 6 48 8 51 8 66 3 4 5 7 8 22 6 7 43 1 3 63 5 9 74 9 6 94 1 3 5 5 98 7 6 52 9 7 17 0 8 72 2 9 37 5 8 42 1 8 71 C 6 9 55 8 81 :7 6 0 64 5 91 44 2 2 77 0 11 (0 7 3 86 2 21 87 1 5 8 024 c 3 E 126 9 5 8 1 2 8 2 229 3 8 5 2 2 9 23 9421 2! 9 6C 4 2 2 523 40C9 3 5 71 76 0 2 6 9 4 7 1 46 8 4 C 8 4$ 2 3 7 t6 95 1 [87 1[ 7 8 4 3 00 41 16 1 6 0 92 6 5 71 2 6 63 2 81 i 3 5 4 Z 0 01 4 0 6 4 1 5 2 (5 6 16 1 27 2 0 7 [ ’ 973 1 65 4 2 35 32 6 2 47 1 4 0 8 2 31 C5 572 2 5 9 2 5 18 2 41 22 0 827 3 6 1 4 50 5 2 2 50 29 J 9 16 2 3 1 .

s ? L H 8 9 41 9: 64 2 5 86 48 39 21 2 Z 3 5 6 7 9 3 7 2 6 0 4 8 2 7 2 3 4 6 8 9 4 4 9 9 4 5 8 7 ?1 .388 W O W S T A H & H I CLK 1 N L E S S D . 1 5 61 : 5 0 1 9 7 8 6 8 9 0 2 1 9 I. ~ob 48 D 4 E I S S 1 12 A SH 0 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 . L EL si. 1 0 24 i 28 32 36 40 44 4 ~8 5 62 8 6 06 70 2 8 44 98 0 6 9 821 1 63 0 3 I ~)g 7 2 2 3 7 4 4 4 9 5 5 6 1 8 9 0 18 E I1. & 9 2 3 33 73 3 43 2 4 63 13 4 83 5 4 5 3 03 6 63 0 SA M D P Z1 1 A & 08 E E H L i 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 2 1 3 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 5 7 6 8 . 2 ~ 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 I1 1 \2 1 1 I4 ] 7qo 6 6 6 7 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1840 1 1 0~ 1 ~1 0 2 ~2 ~ 1 7 34 1 3 ( 8 96 18 7 4 04 3 1 21 8 18 8 04 4 6 7 8 1 712 9 84 6 4 2 1 31 1 0 0 84 8 6 9 3 16 1 0 2 1 5 3 6 94 9 1 45 1 2 4 1 9 4 4 1 7 5 5 6 3 0 4 9 7 3 7 8 0 810 61 2 1 12 2 42 6 43 2 1 04 1 1 2 4 1 28 1 2 4 3 7 4 2 7 6 3 1 0 2 2 8 4 5 6 8 0 5 2 38 4 2 6 3 1 4 7 4 40 8 6 8 64 6 ’8 9 2 9 0 1 2 4 3 5 8 0 4 1 6 5 3 7 1 5 5 8 4 1 5 5 3 5 1 6 5 ~5?8 9. 4 6 5 13 8 0 6 64 0 8 1698 9 5 6 1 7 8 1 9 96 3 8 5 1947 6 6 8 4 0 1 16 1 2071 45 2 2 I95 9 8o 3 2319 0 24 5 2443 2567 5 87 6 4 6 1 7 08 1 8 2 9 20 0 94 1 35 ~ 50 0 3 4 06 3 89 5 86 7 4015 23 0 4552 00 2 5123 28 55 8 )76 9 97 3 7 6 ~ 5 27 3 2 48 4 4 79 4 1 90 6 2 7 27 1 5 (7 ) 2 4( 6 22 8 8( 9 2 ] 64 30 f 7 0 j 0 4 g 0 6 8 1 2 6 3 7 4 8 5 5 1 3 3 12 2 1 92 6 4 1~ 8 326 ( 1 6 2 52j ( 3 1 62 j 1 17 1 54 0 9 4 i 38 5 7 63 2 24 6 6 22 2 01 5 2 1 5 3 23 32 ~ 9 2 0 1 1 5 82 0 6 2 2 I4 4 1 6 9 9 8 1 ~0 4 4 .L . 21 8 2 3 2 8 37 7 31 43 5 5 4 9 2 53 60 7 2 71 8 4 86 E H sS ‘ 20 9 9 7 3 7 9 0 9 6 3 1 50 71 72 53 14 18 43 18 33 L . M . 2 ( 8 J 13j ( 2692 48 7 28 I6 6 8 ~940 9) 0 4 9 7 I [ . . EL .

3 14 0 21( ( 42 1 4 252 2 3~ 3 73/5 E H L ‘S L E L S S 4 EL [L . 2 20 31 5 49 6 57 2 65 9 73 7 81 4 99 2 10 7 10 5 13 1 10 1 91 2 72 21 3 23 4 38 8 32 1 46 6 50 0 EI & 6 4 2 9 0 4 0 9 6 7 5 3 0 3 1 7 9 51 7 42 5 1 24 3 36 7 18 8 90 1 72 5 1 3 0 3 54 0 1 4 9 8 8 2 7 I E E H L L A 1 1 1 1 J 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 1 1 1 9 2 4 3 3 8 4 7 4 1 5 6 5 69 7 4 8 8 92 16 11 15 19 14 1 2 1 2 2 3 3 J 1 25 8 21 36 49 7 4 1 2 7 53 62 2 7 61 1 78 6 84 1 99 0 16 1 3 11 2 6 53 17 7 10 5 6 15 6 6 0 1 51 52 46 9212 4368 0 1 3 4 1 55 2 2 0 2 6 15 9 28 88 9 1 4 1 36 9 4 22 9 3 452 0 5 6 53 7 52 6 5 90 0 1 82 01 6 3 7164 01 6 6 0 4 8 3 ( 1 5 4 4 8 3 1 12 9 6 1 4 1 640 1 5 7 1 4 6 8 3 3 5 79 6 1 1 0 4 1 4 9 2 5 : 8 2 4 : 2 7 0 38 8 1624 4 ! 8 34 1 5 7 2 41 1 3 0 2 6 9 7 4 7 0 1752 5 4 87 40 3 7 0 2 2 22 2 2 9 6 . 1 1 5 Z 9 95 9 6 1880 6 5 4 6 82 2 3 2 0 9 5 16 1 4 2 2 0 2008 7 7 [2 6 6 8 2 02137 7 2265 8 03 4 12393 9 2521 1 26 7 22645 1 5 22 56 7 74 8 00 8 31 6 9 9 8 8 0: 1 2 9 92 8 1 0 6 13 2 1 8 3 84 2 16 6 69 21 1 4 79 8 2 3 18 3 7[ 3 9 6 0 6 1 O 2 1 1 3 22 $ 3 3 3 3 2 27 5 22 1 6 4 2C 7 7 2 32 9 2 9 0 4 8 ’3 8 I 9’5 [ 7! 6 14 1 8 [3 1 9 9 7 64 6 1 6 8 2 89 1 6 1 0 6 93 7 5 5 1 0 1 7 3 10 9 51 1 0 21 3 1 7 0 6 ? 9 1 5 7 93 7 4 150 5 2 0 ? 57 184 3 69 8 8 6 90( 9 8 7 31 8 1 8 0 3 15 0 0 50 4 81 2 0 72 2 208 0 43 90 657 0 2777 1 38 9 32906 1 3034 1 41 9 62 2 18 94 1 15 5 4 123 6 1 4 3.389 WEIGHT OF SHELLS & HEADS W D ‘ E I S S A SH 2 M .I 4 30 9 39 37 8 48 3 40 56 8 64 3 76 7 82 2 7 2 90 6 1 24 2 1 72 1 18 2 5 16 . L L 21 2 2 45 39 6 ’ 84 3 48 O 22 4 57 4 5 61 65 8 7 09 84 2 8 48 0 92 1 6 106 2 8 1 14 0 [ 9 25 2 20 6 34 7 41 8 50 3 64 1 75 7 88 6 91 3 16 1 66 1 9 1 2 1 4 1 7 1 E L IE 3 14 3 57 4 09 4 52 505 558 6 10 6 73 746 7381 8012 6 8844 8 967 5 9 94 7 9 2 [ 25 3 9 5 1 51 6 1 57 3 3 11 4 5 19 2 2 17 0 SA MP 2 16 2 80 3 51 3 34 4 43 4 36 0 54 56 8 68 7 6 2 7 3 78 8. 2 7 1 : 1 21 1 4 3 3 15 2 71 1 5 62 1 2 2 C 5 2: 3 029 4 3 41 5 [0 4 11 $ 1 ( 6 .1 88 91 T A H I C LK “ H N 2 1 D .

T 52 . 45 . 1 8 X G 0 D 4 1G 0 1 80 . . 0 30 . 1 . 0 . 1 7. 2. 3 0. T 53 . 5 .0 3 . T 1 6 3 . 1 0 X G 1 2G 1 3 40 . 4 1. . 06 . 0 . 00 . 8 1 02 . 1 . T . 4 . . T 64 0 D 4 0G 9 1 50 . H 6 . 31 . 7 1 O. 4 1. H 32 6 . 4 . 8 . 0 6 . 2 3. H 73 6 . 00 .154 C 3 . 2. T 11 . 84 . 2 . 01 0 .0 . 8 8 . . 9 2. 40 83 1?4 C 21 . . 5 .T . 4 0 .4 . 4 I . T 1 1 2 3 0.8 2 6 0 . 05 0 6. 7 0 . 15 0 1. 9 4 . 0. R L . 1 . C 2. HL 3 6 T 1 5 . . 1 8G X 0 2 .1 . 5. H 42 6 . 3 1 0 2 . 3 3 . 1 9 . 7 . 4 . L 3 C . 50 . .0 .2 D 0 0. 8 2 .T 11 .390 WEIGHT OF PIPES AND FITTINGS I N P S . 3 . 62 . . 0. 5 . . 2 6. 7 2 . 8 3. . 6 2. 62 . . 5. . 0 . I C 3 D 0 4G 7 5O70 . H1 4 6 . 3 3 X G 0 . 2. . 90 . 53 .0 2 . 0 . 8 84 10 I 2 I STD XS S 1 X S I . 1 1 . 2 0 9. 10 . 6 5 .3 4 G 8 9 r . T 32 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 5 . 6 3 .8 . 23 . 6 .1 . 7 1 . 62 .0 .3 . 10 X G 0 30 40 . 5 1. LL . 0 2 S XS S 1 X S I C 1 . T° E0 5 9 P 4 9 I 0 1° 8 8 0 ” 0 1 NL L St . .T 31 . H 12 6 T 23 . 7.0 8 . 3 61 . R . 0 3 8 2 7 0 . 4. R K . 4 2. 11 .0 5 . 1 8 . 8 8 . 3 7 . D IW I S XS 1/2 O I N O M P GP W A ~ f A N E O 1 T H Z E . I 16 .T 21 . 1 34 . 0 3 0.C . 1 . 7 5 X 3G I D 1 5 6G0 0 8 4 30 .T . 8 . 0. 3 . .3 . . 00 . 160 XX STG 0. 4 5 . T .9 1 11 11 12 SCH. 20 . T 52 . 0 1 6. 1 2 . 7 2. 6 .T 72 . 1 . 03 . . 81 . 6 9 . 6 3. 3 5 I 1 3. . R .2 D 1 0G5 . 2 . I I . 2 . 3. 1 3. T 94 I I I I I 2 I S XS S 1 X S S XS S 1 X S . R S . 0 5 X G 0 I 0 4 . 80 . 4. 6 I . 0. T 1 3 . 1 . T . 9 70 7 4 1 0 1 0 3 7 0 1 0 5 9 4 0 . 0. 1 4 .0 6 . T 72 . I E L B R OE W T U R M . 9 . 1 0 . 0 1 2 1 S XS S 1 X S S XS S 1 X S S XS S 1 X S I C 0 D 3 0 0G 7 0 50 0 . 30 . 3 5.

. . 4 . . . T T 2 6 . 52 . 5 4 5 . 2 8 2 0 7 .0 8 1 . T . . . 60 1 . 140 2 .500 C .0 7 3 . .0 n I . .593 H 05 C . 4 7 02 0 5D 8 2 3 0 5 . H 5 23 4 .T 1 3 . 0 06 1 . 9 ( 0 . 68 3 9 D0 1 5 G 10 9 1. 0 0 . ..2 0 1 .6 2.7 2. . .T 2 3 . L .718 H6 2 C . 93 8 . 4 3 5 5 1 9 6 5 0 7 10 100. 6 4 6 .531 H2 . R . .4 2 0 1 X2 .337 . 8 5 . 2 C .T 2 4 . . 1 . . 8 08 1. 6 . 4 0 04 1 . 14 . 3 S XS X S S XS S C S 1 X S S XS S C S 1 X S S XS S 1 S 1 X S 1 H C 92 .7 . . 3.438 1 1 . 0 6 5 8 . 1 2 52 . 4 0 0 6 0 . 5 1 0 2 . . 5 0 03 8 7 . 6 83 1 5 01 8 1 0 95 1 2 1 7 2 2 0 2 6 1 2 3 0 3 0 4 4 5 5 7 5 . . . . 1 6 4 5 0 5 H C 1 2 . . 14 6 2. 5 2 . 70 . 45 . .6 6 5 . 1X 2 G I 1 6 . . 4 B TW U R T° 8 0 0 1 1 8 . H2 H3 D4 5 ) 3 2 5 02 6 4 . 2 9 . 6 4 8 5 0 6 0 7 6 2 7 2 0 2 8 0 3 9 5 2 0 5 2 0 1 5 2 0 3 8 4 0 4 0 0 4 5 5 2 1 . 0 0 C . 30 5 . H 7 6 5 8 . .0 0 4 1 . 38 0 . 5. L R OE N 1 T ml n 1 1. 1 0 3 . . 85 . . . 18 . . 82 . O EI N G I 1 4 N A P N Z r M 0 F T EI AO E H ?lPE I N E M 9 L St K % L . 6.1 0 8 .237 ’ 1 1 T . L . 42 8. RS . 3 . . 6 C C 0 . 4 0 6 . 0. 15 2 . 381 8 7 C 1C ( 5 . 0 5 8 C .674 T 2 2 .2 2X 7 G D 1 4 5 G 2 0 7 20 7 0 3 .39 . 13 . H 2 2 3 . 15 . . H3 6 6 . 5 6 . 8 5 03 6 .0 2 7 . . . T .875 7 G T C C T ’ t . .391 — WEIGHT OF PIPES AND FITTINGs N P S . 4 7 8 . R . 7 17 0 8 1 . 2 4 4 . 15 6 I R . 7 .4 . .812 H6 4 C . 4 . 00 . 7 C 5G 1 4 . H 4 4G T. .3 2 5 3X 8 G 2D 9 8 3 8 3 G 4 . 5 0 0 . 2 0 7 6 .8 4 9[ 10 ( c r 5 . 20 6 . 3 6 3 7 C 8 . 6 . 83 . .1 0 2 0 5 8 . 3 0 . . T 3 7 1 2 .8 2. 2 S 3 S S 6 X S S 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 X S S S S x s o 2 3 8 2 2 .0 40 112. 12 7 . 84 .5 1 5 8 . 52 . . 63 8G1 6 2 . .T 3 C . . 8 6 . 7 9 .4 5 30 .906 H7 6 . 0 . 0. 80 11 3 . 8 5 0 5 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 3 8 3 4 1 0 2 7 2 2 2 6 3 4 5 0 5 1 6 0 6 8 4 . 7C . 20 . 5 0 7 71 .0 . 47. 160 0 . D 2 4 6 . 4 7 .2 4 3 . . . 19 2. .0 5 .4 . . . 5 . 9 16 . . 1 3 .5 1 6X 3 6 . 5 1. T G 4 8 2 4 8 3 0 8 4 4 7 4 9 6 6 4 0 . 1(3 7 .0 8 SCH. 45 8 3 5 0 7 .4 3 . . 1 7 8 . 6 . . 95 .7 .3 0 1 3 0 5 . 0 5 4 5 4 0 . . 4 0 . . . 00 .0 5 0 . 0 2 13 15 24 20 20 269 20 8 46 7 5 4 0 40 8 .

7 0 .6 51 m 4 2 0 3 0 3 2 2 4 24 05 7 n 13 29 25 2 0 4 3 3 0 18 6 16 1 7 23 2 23 24 3 77 19 42 8 7 4 0 ( c 10 o S S S S S n 8 1 1 1 1 C C C C C t .6 1 5 0 1 0 0 3 0 7 03 19 22 26 0 36 3 47 5 2 2 25 12 24 46 89 36 6 0 4 5 78 . . R L . ) . . . 154 06 . .4 22 . D5 . . 1 9 . H8 6 1 H 8 0 . . . 12 90 8 10 1 40 1 0 04 1 2 06 1 1 S 2 S 3 S S 4 XS S 6 S 8 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 C C T C C C C C C C . 1 H 4 1 .2 X2 0. . . 1. 13 .7 0 62 5 00 3 6 2 6 58 8 89 0 1 0 1 4 3 16 12 20 23 25 0 35 2 4 1 5 720 8 1 1 0 6 2 7 2 15 6 22 0 20 9 33 369 1 5 5 2 9 43 76 10 41 7 0 2 3 1 3 6 6 1 ( c S I . 1 1 . . . 1 1 . S I 1 C 2 C 3 SC C SH 6 C o n t . 2 3 4 5 5 9 50 7 0 8 7 1 3 1 0 0 1 90 1 0 310 72 3. H 4 2 H 5 3 H T 3 6 4 80 T5 H1 6 . H3 2 . 13 5 1G . . 05 9. 19 . 50 5 30 7 7 8 00 8 0 1 60 1 80 1 8 40 1 5 0 02 2 0 02 11 03 . T . 1 3 . 1 1 H.750 1 . 2 2G 2 5 . 45 003 1 . 301 5. H8 . 0 2 0 2 3 0 0 3 2 0 4 0 4 4 6 0 0 . 4 1 7 . 83 . . 2 . 01 51 . R . . 2 8 02 . 6 43 .1 . ) H6 5 H7 7 0 H8 8 2 1 H. . 80 S S S S 1 C 120 C 1 C 1 C H3 3 H4 .2 08 32 . . 3 1 . 7 1 . 0 0 18 . P 9 I P 40 E 9 0 1 5 1° 8 T ° 8 0 ° 0 N L L ) IE S G N A ” I E f I O N ’ A P 1 L St . L . 23 6 . H5 4 6 5 . H4 3 . 02 . 6 . RS . H 01 1 1 H. 06 3 28 7 5 1 0 0 1 7 . T H7 5 . 04 5 00 6 52 6 63 8 06 289 1 7 1 . . H 2 1 . P S E L B R OE W T U R N O M . D4 3 . 03 13 4 .3 2 2 3 3 5 0 1 0 7 0 0 5 0 9 1 D 1 C 1 82 . . . . . R . 39 . .1 01 . 6 1 .392 WEIGHT OF PIPES AND FITTINGS NOM.3 1 6 . R “ H K .H ! 1 6 .1 . . . 6 1 5 . H6 7 .5 1 4 2 8 2 6 2 6 3 4 0 2 3 2 6 4 4 05 7 56 0 06 3 09 0 12 18 15 12 20 22 0 29 3 38 41 5 7 47 2 60 6 15 1 12 3 10 6 18 2 14 6 21 3 26 37 3 2 37 41 9 1 40 01 44 52 76 14 41 9 9 4 5 1 5 4 6 0 5 0 1 S 1 S 2 S S 4 XS S 6 C C T C C SCH. 4 1 H. . 1 04 9 7 1 2 . 857 8 . 4 1 1 H. I Z [ E \ q 4 .

. 1 1 . 2 4 H. 5 . 1 1 H 0 H 2 H 4 H 6 209 . B R OE W T o T : U .5 . 4 . 5 1 0 1 1 0 7 1 3 2 0 0 2 6 2 0 0 5 33 0 3’ 47 05 0 07 4 06 7 08 0 08 7 1 2 1 5 6 1 8 0 1 0 4 1 2 9 2 0 9 3 7 6 5 2 1 1 3 7 4 4 9 6 5 1 0 6 2 1 6 3 5 75 4 98 1 21 8 4 5 9 26 21 9 32 0 5 48 6 40 9 50 64 81 2 4 5 28 3 36 27 1 5 31 9 39 58 9 68 0 72 28 ~ 90 36 14 37 15 87 6 47 20 . D2 3 . 12 H.3 G4 .2 . 2 4 1 H. 3 H 5 . 3 . 3. 0 O 20 4. S 2 SC S C H . T 9 5 .0 . .8 : . 2 5 3 7 3 8 14 15 ) .. 7 3 T . S 4 C . 2 6 4 . 3 861 2.2 3 5 1 7 3 0 1 5 0 1 1 6 0 2 1 9 5 7 2 0 5 8 7 2 7 7 3 1 5 33 2 9 4 60 0 42 4 48 5 4 41 7 0 . f 4 5 2 3 1 8 8 0 34 0 97 5 3 4 1 45 . 5. 7. 573 08 5 0 O9 054 067 431 1722 1146 1021 22 { c o n t . 3G 3 . 3 . ) H 18 1 . 1. 58 . 2 H 4 . H 19 0 1 H. H 17 . . 2 52 . . 2 2 1 H.80 S S S S 1 1 1 1 C C C C 1. 1. S 6 C 5 2 H 3 H T7 X S1 5T H 15 H 18 . 7. . 8 0 62 0 50 05 1 1 06 9 00 1 5 1 S 1 S 2 S S 3 XS S 4 S 6 S 8 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 C C C C C C C C C C . 1. 5 H 1 . 3 6 . D 1 M I G p ‘ A T !IA O N: l L : N E O K I ZT EH o 8 C C 1 1 n C H H C C t .393 W N P S ( c S S S S S O P A F L . 6 .1 2 . . S 1 C . . 8 4 H . 2 0 1 H. 9. 1 O 1 . R E N O M O M .031 1 1. . q q 4 33 0 3 6 1 9 03 2 0 9 54 : L: .6 5 0 7 0 0 9 0 1 0 1 2 D 20 32 46 1 0 2 1 5 2 0 0 2 3 3 9 2 1 C 0 8 4 3 4 6 9 1 85 7 1 33 157 6 7 2 9 27 0 40 6 50 66 0 5 90 3 4 43 4 34 0 43 5 78 87 89 10 56 1 73 8 15 SCH. O E.

. H 15 H 16 . 3 15 .7 .4 6G . 4 2 1 H. 8.3 .! q 6 2 8 5 % 2 4 5 7 4 2 5 8 0 n 9 3 7 0 n ~ )c o n 22 . 15 16 16 17 2 S S XS S S S S S S S S 1 C 2 SC 3 4 6 8 1 1 1 1 C C C C C C C C . t . 5 6 2 . . . . 3 0 1 H. R . . 2 H 6 H T9 .394 WEIGHT OF PIPES AND FITTINGS N P S J O O M .P V A ) IE S I G N A ’ E F O I1 I P ’ I Z [ E L1. T . . . . m r . 99 3 119 3 158 5 6 7 9 1 7 4 0 6 1 2306 367 53 7 1 0488 1 16 1 22 1 930 1 4 44 . . 1235 1 8 59 2 6 5 0 0 2 . S L H K . . .. 4 4 2 H. 5. . 21. . . . 2 H. -. 3.8 1 . R . . 0. I P E I ’ 1 8 4 5 1 ’ L L 0 ” 8 0 ” 9 ° ’ 9 10 N L .. H 29 1 H. R S. DU w R E ’ 1 ’ U M . 5 2 0 0 2 7 D 2 0 3 6 4 0 0 7 8 5 6 31 0 7 01 9 4 03 6 01 2 06 8 04 4 1 01 6 52 0 03 3 20 4 7 85 87 1 2 2 3 0 63 95 8 5 19 1 17 16 1 8 28 7 27 7 9 4 2 44 5 53 0 72 0 5 924 1 66 2 1 93 8 1 39 0 62 8 59 8 62 90 1 41 1 35 1 79 0 0 9 7 4 17 98 80 41 2 3 4 6 5 26 . R L . 62 83 13 14 15 15 16 16 5 7 5 1 7 0 3 1 0 3 6 5 2 6 8 8 0 2 5 5j 7 3 2 0 2 5 8 7 4 13 J 9 16 3 9 6 01 6 94 77 8 0 5 5 5 30 .

8 5 . 8.1 8 9 5 .0 . 3. 0 0 6 . 1 0 . 20 .1 0 1 0 4 2 0 8 3 0 4 0 3 0 7 40 50 2 7 40 9 16 150 1 08 70 5 .0 3. 0 0 3 4 5 6 8 10 1 1 1 2 3 6 . . 4 7 . 2. 11 0 22 0 3 4 5 6 7 0 9 8 19 . 1 1 . .6 71 94 1 1 . 2. 0 .1 5 . 7 0.4 . .1 7 0 . 0 0 8 6 .0 . 0 4 6. 15 .0 3. 1 0 . 1 . 510 0 .0 1 2 1 1% 1Y2 2 2% 3 2 5 8 9 6 1 1 1 . 0 10 .4 9 . S O L I O F 300 lbs. 3 . 7 6 . 20 . 0 0 . 0 0 5 .3 0 .3 . 8 10 .50 1 3 . 8 5 . 0 . 30 50 1 2 2 3 2 4 5 8 1 8 6 .2 0 6 . 10 0 . . . 11 .7 7 4 ..5 2 . 14 25 27 32 8 9 2 7 3 2 6 93. .2 0 9 1 .0 .2 7 4 2 5 . 77 .3 1 . . 6 .0 . S P N S TO U L V D I S E P L N 1 % 2 2 2 2 4 . 3 . 45 .0 2 . .0 .05 0 1 .395 W 150 Ibs. 3 3 . 0. 10 .2 5 .80 0 1 . 2 4.0 4. . .2 0 . 1 . 20 0 . 60 . 20 8 1 14 5 1 . 70 2.0 1 254 278 324 220 1 2 72 05 1 280 3 0 3 6 5 9 8 9 9 5 5 8 18 120 20 22 24 26 30 155 159 2 2 3 1 1 2 325 2 3 70 34 433 9 4 1 4 9 5 7 81 1 5 3 6 82 260 270 375 439 1 470 4 600 1 4 4 6 I I . 3. 1 0 2 02 3 06 40 0 50 5 80 4 2.8 7 11.4 8 1 7 1 0 2 7 2 10 0 . 40 . 71 . 66 6 . 20 0 . 20 . 15 1 10 10 10 . 10 15 10 .4 0 . 5 1 0 5 7 . 30 . 5 5 25 20 25 35 40 . 7 2 . 35 . 10 . 6 . .1 0 4 8 0 6 4 4 8 2 19 17 1 10 2 22 7 3 94 3 . 0 .2 .0 . 0 9 1 0 5 15 14 2 11 3 7 . 0 7.0 7 9 8. 0 05 . 2 .1 3 4 5 7 2 2. 40 5 0.1 5 . 6 0 .

1 9 8 . 0 0 68 .7 1 1 10 20 . O I N P S N G T h % 1 l% 2 3 3 4 6 3 3 4 5 8 1 1 2 1 5 2 1 3 4 3 1 4 .37 . 0 .0 7 0 .0 0 2. 5 2. 0 5 0 5 . 29. 1 .0 2. 1 0 00 . 1 .1 . 10 .1 7 0 0 .0 2 3 4 6 9 2. . 8 7 60 3 . 43 0 35 0 .0 8. 3 5 3 5 8 9 2 0 1 J 7 . .80 9 090 0 5 10 2 20 9 1 23 8 3 4 5 6 8 2 1 .2 7 . 3.0 0 3 . 33. 20 231 80 295 20 378 40 10 9 1 1 14 1 2 1 1 2 2 24 26 30 416 41 7 5 6 7 3 9 1 15 114 3 10 8 16 8 24 29 9 37 1 6 366 40 0 2 6 5 6 8 5 3 8 8 481 3 1 555 83 690 0 7 79 9 9 1 00 9 15 1 0 564 67 2 1 81 4 5 17 6 119 527 69 80 95 1 7 14 1 6 .4 8 . 1 . 10 . 20 1 . 3. 2 0 5 3 .0 . 01 . 10 .1 10 10 21 36 1 7 . .1 5 . 10 7 . 06 9 8 31 7 3 1 1 1 2 ! 294 3 4 4 1 2 1 32 39 . 8 0 . 4 0 . 10 . 20 .51 6 . 0 7 27 9 05 19 9 1 61. 30 2 .0 . 0 5 . . 35 30 45 . 60 8 0 .45 0 2 3 3 6 1 8 . 4. 1 .0 .0 . 0 0 . 86. 02 09 00 0 9 2 6 1 7 4 .20 5 .0 2. 0 0 .4 6.0 . 10 10 . 40 . 72 152 156 242 23 3 6 6 5 60 0 77 0 3 3 4 5 6 8 3 8 5 4 9 4 95 3 1 16 2 5 . 2 0 . 2 .0 . 68.4 6 0 30 3 .0 . .0 9 7 .5 . 1 51 .5 0 1. 0 0 9 8 . 1 0 . 3 4 0 5 0 8 0. 8 5 .0 26 3 3 5 398 5 6 6 4 6 9 1 1 2 139 . 0 20 4 30 8 .57 10 20 25 25 35 . 29.0 .0 . 41. l% 2 V/i 3 8 1 1 2 0 . .0 0 9 . 10 . 1 6 .396 W O l I P N F 600 lbs.2 8 8 6 . 60 2 . 1 . 8 1 1 . S O I S O J 4 L 1 L 3. 5 35 . 10 . 44. 0 0 .1 4. 510 .

5 8 ~ . 1 0 0 1?4 2 2%? 3 1 2 3 3 .60 13 4 12 ( 16 37 0 5 0 5 740 9 99 4 — 3 .0 . 3 0 2 0 0 .1 0 3 6. . 1 4 0 . 30 7 .8 . . 7 0 . 940. 4 5 4 I 09 2 1 9 . 10 2 .3 5 .10 5 .397 W N P S O I I M P . 20 4 . Z FLANGES 9 l E E W N 1 .1 8 . 70 6 .0 . 1 2 4 6 7 0 4 4 6 . 40 2 . 30 9 .0 0 2 16 9 85 16 6 10 5 10 97 9 98 5 12 9 15 84 4 54 6 03 0 4 7 0 7 0 670 5 949 4 .5 . 9) 7 34 16 11 3 4 2 0} 40 0 10 .2 0 8 . 4 8 . 60 0 .2 4 . .433. 25. 20 . 75 0 0 .0 . . 9 . 2 4. 30 30 5 . 18 26 47 4 68 82 1 - .5 10 0 . 2 4 . 1 .1 0 5 . 1 3 40 4 . 0 ~ 1 06 27 0 1300 570 5 00 1 7 2 7 7 5 2 1 5. 3 30 08 1 0 . 26 3 .3 2 05 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 1 1 1 2 1 2 4 4 9 5 8 1 1 2 3 3 4 6 7 6 9 1 5 3 8 1 0 1 2 3 9 3 1 11 8 37 34 62 58 1 . 6. 2 3 1775 82 1 6 1650 52 0 5 9 00 02 00 7 0 0 9 3 0 1 2 2 39 3 0 5 5 1 3 1 2 3 21 6 8 7 5 2 0 55 5 0 30 2200 93 2 . 1 8 : D I TK . 10 0 4 . V L U N i 6 6 7 1 7 7 8 1 1 2 3 0 4 5 6 4.1 3 . 70 04 I 6 . 6 3 10 9 . 6. 0 .250 1335 9 . 10 0 5 . 80 8 .040 91 199 9 299 7 1 6 361 2 . 60 . . E O E 3 L $ CL N G S D TK IO . 3 1 9 2 0 45 2 67 5 98 2 130 . 2 5 0 z 1500 l E D E I 3S L P ~ CL N .7 0 31 . 3 6 . . 1 0 5 .5 0 0 65 . 60 .0 1 0 07 I . 0 . 02 . . 9 4 .37 . 9 .

0 1 . 98 .L s C P LI N D K S : N 4 3/4 1 7 9 1 8 9 1 2 2 8 1 . 3 6 . 2 3 3 5 8 2 . . ( 4 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 .( 55.398 WEIGHT — NOM.0 42. 30 30 0 . C . C . 0.( 83.1 0 0 . ( .( 7 .( 28.1 0 2 8 3 5 5 5 8 5 .C 52.C 38. 0 0 0 0 . 62 . 0 . . 2 9 . 1 k 5 1 5 14 24 37 57 06 40 ‘8 6 9 0 15 20 45 66 36 24 48 36 28 68 5 0 40 30 40 20 3 3 5 3 5 4 1 8 5 2 5 2 1 1 1 20 2: 24 2( 30 . 0 7 . 0 0 0 . 2 .C 94. . 0 1 5 . 0 1 1?4 2 2?4 3 1 25. 2 6 .D Ou K E L D E 3 I . . 0. 1 .27 !10 \23 185 925 300 1 2 3 5 0 6 . 0 3 4 5 6 8 IC . SIZE - OF FLANGES 2 O E L E l I L C rP N .

0157 . .78125 . . . . . . .5 42. . . In ordering steel sheets.65625 .5 26. .0172 . 1 . 1 0. G G S O S S T S Lb. 2 0 6 .65625 .0217 .0516 .0045573 . . . 2 5 3 2. .71875 . .90625 1. . . . . . I .5 30. . 24 00 . .0396 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 2 26 8 5 82 8 3 42 8 2 0 18.5 34.0276 .84375 .399 Manufacturers”Standard Gage for S S This gage system replaces U.0039062 . .0635 . .65625 2. .82 pounds per square foot per inch of thickness. . . . 2. 0 9 . Per Lb. . . . .0575 .59375 .5 16 17 18 19 20 1 9 8 72.5 52.5 62. It is based on Weight 41.5 12. . .40625 2.0058594 . .020616 . . . . 2 2 0 . 7 0. . 1 1 I.5 9. .027127 .2 8 21 ( ? 5 8 .5 1 3 6 S 2 1 245 5 8 . . . .018446 .0247 . it is advisable to g a g M E S S M E S S 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I . .016710 . O Lbs.0202 . . Standard Gage for Steel Sheets. .011502 . . 2 4 0 .53125 3.90625 3. I.0710 . I0 9 8 7 6 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 I . 1 2 5 8 0. . . 0 0 .0142 . .96875 2. . . .5 10. . 46 5 2 1 25 . . . . . . 2. . .0187 . .031467 . .5 38. . .03125 .0134 4.0 18 4.56250 . .1084 .5 13.022786 . . 3 0 1 4 . . 1 1 0 50 6 5 3 .5 47.0080295 1. .0785 .0071615 .S. 0 2 69 57 . . .0934 .15625 1.0062934 . . .5 14. 8 0 4 1 0 2 1 2 5 5 1 .0049913 .0041233 .5 11. 1 0 . .90625 .0054253 . per Equivalent G S G . .0456 . .8 0 3 18 58 . .5 7 16. 5 0 .15625 3 3 1. .5 7 60 5 5 . Galv. . .014974 . . . . 4 4 .28125 2.013238 . T E G S 8 1 9 1 1 12 13 14 1.5 9. . .

3.1 5 2 .1 . 4 31 9 91 1 31 3 72 5. 2 4 7~ . 0. 4 93 67 20 94 .1 . 2 3.7 2 .5 . .2 .1 1 . 2.5 .0 8 . 51 5 . 5 1 1. 9. 6. . 2 9 2 5 2. 4 %.? 2 . 82 9 . .4 .1 3 3 . 5 92 .1 .. 12 . 8 50 1 8 801 4 101 1511 8911 4321 1 621 1. 3 92 3 8 1 . 21 . 9 2 2 .1 % . 6 0 . 3 5 .2 2 . 0. 15 .400 WEIGHT OF PLATES Pounds Per Linear Thickness. 2. .1 2 01 % 21 2 .8 .3 . 8 40 . 51 2 . 5. . . 41 4. 7 64 . 3 4 7 . 62 4 .8 .0 7. 7. 3 % . 090 8 61 7.8 .1 % .2 2 0 8. 01 11 11 21 31 41 41 51 61 71 72 82 2 9 02 02 12 22 32 32 42 52 62 63 73 83 93 93 24 . 4 5 7 9 0 2 3 5 7 8 0 1 3 5 6 8 9 1 3 4 6 7 9 1 .1 . 5 3 81 4 9 4 . 6. 9 1 8 . 2. 5. 7 % . 1 . 5 1 61 6 2 7 2 5. 4 39 . 4 59 .6 . 3 .8 5. . 8 % . 6 02 . 82 4 . 5 78 . 1 2 5 3. 6 4 1 90 39 9 54 1 89 1 05 1 30 55 8. 1 6 .2 85 2 1 2 64 .1 9 3 . 3 . 9 8 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 ? 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 .9 .6 % . 7 31 .9 6. 4 8. 1. 2 1 8. 81 . 3 0. 5 0 . 4 1 6.4 .1 A 11 8 4 . 1 1 Y1 . 9 4. 5 1 9 931 2. 1. 7.5 . . . (. 3 .5 . 26 . 1. 41 36 51 87 02 37 53 88 03 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 7 8 . 7 1.4 .1 4 6 . . 574.1 9 .1 6 .4 . 8 . 3.1 5 . 41 5.8 .0 8.7 2. 8 5 5 . 4 50 .7 . 58 22 85 59 91 .8 16 . 5 36 .1 13 . 3 38 . .9 2.2 .9 .2 2 .2 .1 0 10 1 0 641 6 6 . 41 9. 0 2 9 8. 4 6 . 4 4 . 62 . 9 . 4 .9 .6 . 7 . 4 6. 5 1 8 521 1. 5. 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 . 4 1 2 . 31 (. . 3 .2 .1 8 . 41 5 . 7 . . 1 5 1 . 4 88 .1 % . 2 5.5 0 %.1 63 .2 . Inches Foot ? . 5 11 . 99 . 8 . 3 7.1 3 01 52 1 8 . 98 . 36 .7 2 . 39. 8 1 . 0 4 .4 . 9 53 23 . 8 69 . 9 40 8 9 3 .4 . 2 2 3. 0 ~ 4 3.3 .4 . 51 0 . 3 %.1 770 [ 531 1 391 1 1. 9 08 . . . 25 2 . 92 6 9 2 5 8 1 4 8 1 4 7 0 3 6 1 6 2 7 2 8 3 8 3 9 . 8.1 80 1 0 51 1 2 71 2 01 31 3 51 3 6 221 (. 36 . 0 .5 .8 . 1 4.3 5 .1 % 01 2 2 . 4. 3 75 . 62 1 . 6 27 . ‘idth In.2 0.7 .1 0 01 % 21 6 . 91 . 8 14 7 7 7 . 3 3 .6 9.9 . 61 8 2 5 9 3 6 0 4 8 1 5 9 . 699. 1 0 . 61 81 . : 3 2 7. 5.7 . 71 4 . 9 7 1 . 5 53 . .9 .1 5 .1 5 6 . 8 % . 2 65 5 2 6 .4 . 61 2 . 537.1 81 .1 7 4 .9 .9 1 . 652 . 6 3 7 1. .1 .3 .: 91 .8 8 3 .3 . 8 2 3 .6 % . . 4 2 5 1 6 1 .8 0. 51 3. 3 9 5 0 6 2 8 4 . 7 88 . 4 96. 2 01 2 38 . 8 91 . 6.1 7 1 611 4 . 2 89 2 2 8 . 21 5.5 . . 2 . 51 :. 4 .6 . % % % 15<6 1 % ‘ % 1 .7 h. 85 .3 0 1 .5 . 8 37 8 3 0 . 3 2 0 . .3 . . 3 4 5 5 4 9 7 4 2 9 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 .0 2 . . 0 . . 2 . 13 .1 I I .3 . 41 3. 1 %. . 2 7 2.1 9 .8 2.5 . 72 6 .2 1 .7 .8 2 . 31 3.8 . 4 18 4 31 5 45 5 58 6 61 6 84 7 97 7 01 . 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 . . .0 .1 .2 .1 4 9 . 4 03 . J8 . 71 5 . 1 6 1 73 .6 . 4 1 0 . .6 . 3 05 3 33 .1 6 00 1 4 . 8 2 $.4 .1 2 1 .4 .7 . 4 2 2.1 4 21 1 5 . 8 6 .1 2 . 0. . 4 . 3 71 4 . 0 0 .8 .1 4.1 .5 . 9 16 . 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 6 .1 9 601 7011 45 1 1 1.7 4.6 . 2 8 7 .1 . 9.4 . . 7 3 3 9 :0 . 63 . 2 .6 .82 . 2 4 . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 6 .1 0 601 1 901 3 211 4 611 5 911 3. 2 92 .1 2 7 [ 3 . . 8. 3 2 7..3 . 6 16 . . 7. 6 92 . (. .7 . . 7 2 8. . % 11 C 8 1 1 8 3 .3 . 92 . 37. 54 . .1 . 5 .0 4 .1 7 % . 5. /.3 .1 8 91 1 .2 .1 9.9 8. 61 0 . . 92 7. . 9 9 . 4 .5 . .1 8 0 . 32 .6 .2 2 . 49 .9 .1 .7 .5 . 3 66 . 31 4. 21 8.9 . 7. 2 7 45.1 1 . 2 2. . 51 .1 4 .1 % 0 1 6 0 . 8 2 (.9 .2 . 4 0 .. 5. 9 %. 7 %.1 8 6 . 3 1 6 31 . :.7 4 . 3 3 3 4 1 .? 2 .9 2 . 7 67 . 3. 11 .9 . 3 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 .2 2 .7 8.

[ . 7. 4. 4 30 . 1 7 1 4 2 . 5 ~0 . 4 4.8 0 5 . 6 39 . . .4 { . . . 94 . 17 .5 1. 2. .75 6. 8 . 2 9 2 6 2 .95 C 6 . 48 4 . 35 . 2. 6 7 ( . 36 2 56 7 76 2 97 7 17 1 7 t 57 1 88 ( 8. 5. 14 8 9 0 0 7 2 1 1 8 1 8 1 8 3 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 61 1 1 1 81 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 5 7 2 1 2 52 %. 3 1 8 62 %.05 2. 9. 7 43 . 72 9 .3 9 5 . . 54 ’ 9 33 . ( . 64 8. . 82 %. 1. 6. 03 . . 85 . 8 32 . 7. 8 41 . 9 1 . 54 3 . . .[ 3. 18 . 21 5 . 1 . 3. 6 21 2 5 2 9 31 2. 8. 1 81 1 1 31 . 88 .9 o . 9 42 4. 2. 56 C .5 5.. . . 07 . . . 1. 51 0 . 45 6 .8 7 $ . 66 . 7 2 9. 82 7. 24 . 7 . 7 .1 5. 6. 5 44 . 1 511. 74 . 1 . . 74 4 . 8~ 4 . 1. 64 .8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 . 1 2 1 %5 4 1 3 21 27 4 1 4 21 %9 5 2 . 75 . 75 . 74 6 . 1. .5 :. . 3. 2 9 .3 3. 93 6 . 03 83( 4 . : . 8. 18 1 . 02 %. 0 4 . . 13 . 83 1 . 8. 8. 7. 0 34 . 3 $. 1 . . . 6 6. 15 . 2 1 5 52 5. 19 7 . . C. . . 6 ~ 5.8 (. 34 . 44 3 . . $ . 9 . . 2 31 3 6 42 %. 2.8 . 16 . . 8 . 9. . 2 2 6 2 . 7 22 . 2 4 6 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 35 5 52 5C 65 7 2. 1. 2 2 7 2 . 72 2.3 9 5 63 6 73 3 83 1 93 8 03 6 13 3 23 1 44 8 54 64 74 84 94 04 14 25 5 3 0 8 5 3 0 8 4. 9. 3 36 125 128 22 2 33 5 33 8 43 1 43 4 53 8 63 1 63 4 73 7 83 0 83 3 93 7 04 0 04 3 14 9 34 6 44 2 54 9 74 5 85 1 95 8 05 4 . 6. 16 5 . 54 . 1 1 5 2 . 7. 3 . 0. 3. 6.7 3. 36 46 . . 0. 4 46 . . . . 3 2 .95 1. 04 1 9 8 6 5 3 2 0 9 7 6 4 3 1 0 8 5 2 9 6 3 0 7 4 . . 97 5 . 9. .5 8. 51 8 . 22 8 . 37 .86 5. 0 25 3 . 5. 55 . 35 . 1 5 0 1 7 31 . 1. . 3 57 . 2.1 4. 77 3 . 76 2 7 . 03 1 . . 4 7 : . 45 .401 WEIGHT OF PLATES Pounds Per Linear Foot ‘idth In.3 9. . 67 . 46 6. 3~ 7 42 1 53 5 .0 $. . !1 % 5 3. . 42 2 . 3 $ . 2. 2. 495 0 . 73 0 . 0 2 83. 1. 0 8 . 0 1 4 2 . 92 2 . 1 3 .69$ . 2 43 . 28 . 75 . 7. 9 7 : . 5 35 . . 7.1 o. .8 4. 3. 6. 5. 26 36 46 . 5. 53 4. 24 2 . 12 . . 7. 0 ~9 . 24 . 53 . 7 3. 0 50 . 2 28 9 2 8 . 63 1 . $ . 95 . 03 . ( . 78 8 . . 4. 8 2 4 .36 3. 1. 57 . 84 . 8 9. 6. 6 54 . 63 73 84 94 04 14 24 44 5. 4 5 6 7 . 3 22 0 2 2 . 13 7 .09 1 . 54 5 . 8 2 7.. . 1 0 1 13 4 1 . 1 . 4 4. o 6 42 . 6 7 9 1 . 92 8. 9. . 52 . 9.56 4. 8 X. 2. 6. 5. 43 3.9 . 33 . . 05 5 . 6 33 . 2 47 . 7. 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 33 %. 65 6. 4. . 1 1. 2~ 0 . 9 30 . 52 62 72 72 9~ 1 ~4 o2 7 12 0 12 3 z2 7 22 0 23 32 9 43 6 53 2 & 9 3 73 5 83 1 93 8 03 4 13 0 23 7 34 3 44 0 54 64 74 84 94 04 15 25 35 45 5 55 75 96 16 36 . 1 9 . 16 . 1 6 1 1 9 31 . 1 Y. 1. 4. .2 :. 1. 5. . 84 4 . 84 9 . 45 . 99 . 9 36 . 1 49 .2 $ . 96 .9 6 . 96 . 2. 34 7 .1 . . 93 . 1 . 63 6 .9 4. . 17 8 . . .25 3. 92 0 . 7. 5 ~ 31 6 ~ 4. . 5 1 1 Y 2 . 48 3 1 0 8 . 43 4 0 .. .1 3. 43 4 . 8. 4 55 . 7 . 3 3 3 3 8 3 8 4 03 13 4 23 3 2 o. 54 6 . 65 . 02 9. 2. 5/6 8 8 9 9 9 19 9 1 . 86 . 94 4 . 66 . 9. 83 5 . 6 (. 7 ! . 72 2 . 55 . 94 2 .1 5. 72 6. 9. 7 ~ 8. 26 .5 5 .5 7 4.. 1.4 C. . 73 0 . 1 58 . 6. 34 7 . 11J6 3% 6 . 6. . 04 0. 92 2. 6 . 32 9 . 8 .8 . 3Z 4J . 7. 1 : .. 13 23 23 33 . 1 .66 4. . 7. 45 . 63 5 .2 7 1 . : .7 5. 76 86 . 4. 37 . 04 8 . 8 26 9 . 3 41 . 6. . 3. 9.. 91 1 . 53 z. 2. 5.. 84 7 . (.. 02 5 . 0. . 6 ~ 6. 4. . 5. 32 3 . .2 3. 4. 23 t 23 . 78 0 . .4 9. 5 . 25 . 04 . 0. 8. 48 68. . 1 01 01 ” 11 11 11 7. ! .1 0 1 ?. 1. . . 32 32 32 42 4 2 2 42 52 ? 52 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 0 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 72 72 82 82 92 92 0 3/ 03 13 23 33 33 43 53 63 74 . 3 . 74 5 .2 ). 26 8 . 1 23 9 2 6 . 55 .1 1. 53 9 . . 12 3 . 9 ~1 1 . 16 7 9. 44 . 9 6. 93 .96 9 1 2 4 4 0 1 Y 2 . 44 8 . 75 5 3. . 7 37 . 9. ( . . 4.

1 122 . 5.8 5 .1 . 1 . C 0 1 6 1632 3 1 .0 5 .7 . 8 7 .8 6 . 5. 7. 1 701 82 . 6 7 1 .4 7 . 2 1 . 87 2 . 5 6 7.3 1 .5 1 .5 l . 17 9.9 .1 9 9.9 . 1 0 . 75 . 8 8 1 0 1 1 1 3 1 1 9 8 6 4 %’ . 128 140 153 166 1 1 1 1 8 0 1 8 156 3 1 .2 5 .4 1 . . 8 7 3 . 1 401 3 1 . 6 6 . 8. 50 1 4c . 5 6 .1 [ 9 . 48 6 . 97 0 . 6 9 3. .0 . 1 121 . 102 17 27 38 48 58 68 78 78 88 98 09 19 1 3 4 5 . 06 9 . . 1 C1 1 3 2 1 . 9 f. 5. 7.1 5 1 . 117 . 575 . 7. ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 13 13 23 33 33 44 44 4 5 6 4 64 7 4 8 4 8 4 94 04 05 15 1 5 25 35 35 45 55 55 66 7 6 76 g6 ~6 9 6 06 0 6 16 27 27 37 47 47 57 57 84 84 94 04 14 24 34 45 45 55 65 75 85 95 05 06 16 26 36 46 56 56 67 77 7 % ‘ 0. 1 .3 1 .1 1 .6 1 5 . C 1 $ 4 5 6 8 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 50 80 20 51 81 21 51 2. 0. 1 6 6 1 77 1 97 2 17 3 27 3 48 4 68 4 88 5 98 6 18 6 39 7 49 8 69 8 89 9 99 9 . 3 49 5 . 48 . 1 1 1 2 1682 4 1 . 17 9 .5 1 . 1 1 5. . 2 1 1 4 1717 4 1 1 2 1 1 .3 . . 1 1 7 .1 1 . 6. 1 49 8 . 8 .7 1 .7 6 . 1 9 01 3 1 . 14 16 1~ 11 13 15 17 19 1 . 1 1 4. 2 9 Z .6 .8 1 . 6. .1 01 ’1 ’2 12 82 52 23 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. 7 7 7. 673 . 4.1 8 8. 1 9 7. . 9 0 1 3 1617 3 1 . 1 7 0 1 211 82 0 3 . 81 1 3. 1 1 1 $ 1667 3 1 . 1 126 . 2. 4.1 5 . 7 6 8. 1 2 0. 1 4 41 . 3 5 5. 88 1 .7 8 . 89 .96 . . 9 0. 1 (. (. 30 21 21 11 01 92 82 72 62 53 53 13 33 54 74 1 . 1 8 6 .3 7 . . S 0 1 1 1582 3 1 .9 . 26 8 . 36 6 . !. 58 4 . 1 119 .5 1 . . 2. 2 8. 0 2 .8 8 .2 7 . 9 1. . 0. 3 6 . 7 3 8 4 9 5 2 5 7 0 2 5 7 0 2 5 8 0 3 5 8 0 3 5 3 1 1. 9. 4 5 6. 28 38 58 68 79 89 09 19 2.4 1 1 6. 28 7 . 1 6 01 81 .3 6 ~ . 7 0. 0. .3 1 . 1 124 1. 3 7 8 .7 1 . 4 90. 1 101 8 1 . 0. 1. 9.3 . 1 I . .6 6 . 0 7 . 8.3 6 . 69 .1 1 . . .0 8 7.5 6 . 2 6 1. 68 3 . 2 8 9.95 . 5 1 . . .6 1 . 4. 2.8 9 4. 6 1 1 .7 7 5 . 5 1 I 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 37 57 68 88 8 0 8 2 49 9 6 89 09 1 2 1 4 1 4 6 9 2 5 7 0 3 6 8 1 4 7 9 2 5 8 0 3 . 40 . 8 1 9 1 0 1 1 1 182 194 06 27 185 198 187 201 47 67 190 204 193 196 199 202 2057 208 7 211 8 214 8 88 207 08 210 28 214 217 58 79 220 99 223 2269 1 230 39 <. 6 3 . 3. 173 4 1 211 ( 1 3 411 2 1 4 4 21 4 1 K !21 $ 1 7 41 41 51 51 44 54 74 95 15 25 45 65 76 96 16 26 1 94 1 1 1 14 1 3 1 35 1 5 13 7 16 7 28 7 179 191 204 207 3 211 5 214 7 218 0 221 2 224 4 228 7 231 9 235 1 238 4 241 6 245 8 6 9 1 4 . 1 128 <. 09 . 2. 8.8 . 7. 91 61 . 5 4 .5 .7 . 3. 11/6 6 ? % 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 % 6 6 6 7 7 7 .54 .65 . 9.4 6 . 19 8 . 63 1 7 2 . 0 5 8 115 . 1 7.99 . 20 . 6 79 2 .9 1 2 .9 . 8 6 . 1 40 .6 1 9.5 9 2. 80 0 5. 9 1 1 6 3 . . 4. 4.1 7 . 9. 40 . . 96 1 . 8 1 . 9. 1.5 7 .. 50 . 6 1 3. 4 7 4. 9. 1 82 1 22 11 2 13 3 15 18 10 12 15 17 19 12 14 16 19 11 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 1 . . 1 t. 8 0. 29 1 . 2. 09 . 5. 4 1 . 29 7 . 0. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6. 6.1 1 6 1 6 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 . 10 .9 8 3. 8 6 9. .402 WEIGHT OF PLATES Pounds Per Linear Poot T Inches {idth In. 4 9 ( .3 89. 1 3 90 . 8.4 . 6. 2 7 . 3. 2.6 7 .1 . 5. 59 4 . 98 0 .8 . 9 7 . 28 . . . 1. 2 5 4. 9 6 0. 9 7 C . 9 0 .

1 12 1 10 1 19 17 16 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 0 8 7 5 4 2 1 9 8 6 3 0 7 4 1 8 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 % %6 1 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 10 11 11 12 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 21 21 21 21 1 4 6 9 41 41 41 41 41 41 52 52 52 52 52 62 62 62 62 62 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 9 0 2 3 5 6 8 9 1 2 4 5 6 8 9 1 2 4 5 7 52 52 52 62 62 62 62 72 72 72 72 72 82 82 82 82 82 92 92 92 472 67 2 872 972 182 382 482 682 8 9 1 3 82 92 92 92 08 28 39 59 79 99 10 30 50 70 91 11 31 51 62 82 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 7 1 5 9 3 7 0 4 8 2 6 0 3 7 1 5 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 0 0 1 1 2 2 5 233 0 7 236 0 9 239 0 2 242 1 4 245 1 6 249 1 8 252 1 0 255 2 2 258 2 4 261 2 6 265 2 9 268 3 1 271 3 3 274 3 5 277 4 7 281 4 9 284 4 1 287 4 3 290 5 6 293 5 8 2% 0 300 303 2 306 4 5 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 11 32 52 82 02 23 53 73 94 24 44 65 95 15 35 66 8 0 3 5 7 0 2 4 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 6 9 1 4 6 9 2 4 7 9 2 4 7 9 2 4 7 0 2 5 7 0 2 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 7 8 11 . 1 1. 0.403” WEIGHTS OF PLATES Pounds Per Linear Foot T ? 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 . 8. 5. 1 21 . 4.1 1 6 . . . 3. 12 0 .1 1 8 . 3 15 4. 9 17 . . . . . 2. 1 0 0 1 6. 19 0 . 1 42 . 2. 1 1. 0 1 8. 01 01 01 11 11 11 11 11 21 21 21 21 21 29 29 39 49 59 69 7 1 8 1 8 1 1 9 0 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 9 1 0 1 1 1 3 1 5 1 6 1 8 1 0 1 1 3 1 5 1 6 1 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . . 10 . . . 16 0 . 15 1. 5 18 6 6 15 . 41 9. . 71 2. . 1 1 . 1 61 . . 16 0 .1 1 5 . 10 0 1. . 1 81 . 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 312 315 3 11 3 12 3 3 4 4 13 15 16 17 4 18 4 20 4 21 5 22 5 24 5 25 5 26 5 27 5 29 6 20 6 21 6 22 6 25 7 28 7 20 7 23 8 25 8 28 8 20 9 23 9 25 9 28 0 21 0 23 0 1 1 1 26 28 21 23 592 60 2 80 2 00 2 10 31 51 61 81 02 22 32 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 . . . 1 41 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1. . . 7 71 81 91 01 11 21 31 51 61 71 81 91 01 11 21 31 3. 1 01 . 8. 18 1 . 91 . . 17 1. 13 0 . 6. . 4 12 5. 61 :.1 1 3 . 11 1 . 81 3. .0 1 9 . . 7. . 12 . 14 1 . . 1 62 0 1 82 0 1 02 ( 0 0 0 1 23 1 43 1 63 1 83 31 8 42 9 4 21 4 22 4 24 42 5 2E 5 21 5 23 6 25 6 27 6 29 7 21 7 23 725 728 820 822 824 926 892 002 10 2 302 60 91 21 52 82 13 43 73 04 34 65 95 25 56 76 07 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 722 032 333 743 043 453 753 063 463 773 1 73 4 83 7 1 4 8 83 93 93 93 8 312 7 3 319 7 7 325 8 1 332 8 5 338 9 0 344 9 4 351 0 8 357 0 2 363 1 7 370 2 1 376 2 5 383 3 9 389 3 4 395 4 8 402 4 2 408 5 99 49 80 30 81 32 72 23 73 14 65 15 56 06 57 98 2 9 2 6 20 22 2M 25 27 29 I I . 51 .. 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 [ 1 1 1 1 1 546 67 77 77 88 98 98 08 18 18 28 28 38 49 49 59 69 69 79 9 9 9 9 1 1 1 0 0. . 9 14 0 . 9 9 . .

86 40.o9 11. 3 1.350 2.23.8591.q3 26.344 9. .59 55.367 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 1 1 1 T .2 1 7 .43 8 81. 2 . .239 .54 .8187.00: 6. 3 . 21.52 23.03 1 0 1 10 1 . 1 50 . 5 2.12 31.344 .496 8 8.00 6.64 14.556 .11 4 4 5 5 .79 6 48.1 1 21.05 47.11 61.21 53.00 8.53 26.5U 20.50 5.06 14.56 52.852 .130 1 1.80 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .31 18.605 9 1 1 1 1 7 $ 9 1 1 1 .20 52.8783.833 0 4 8 .028 6.87 11.25 24.683 z 2.052 1.043 1.875 6.315 .97 79.90 35. 8 1 0 . 4 4 5 6 4 5 6 7 5. 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 .869 . .00 5.99 44.225 7 2 5 3.199 10.019 4.60 3 8.25 4.704 .85 43.348 .64 16. 3 0 6 3.80 0 9 .43 38. 2.00 40.19 ~13. 2 4.16 [1.60 37.03 5 . .72 ~3. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6.2660<28 6 51.38 10.138 5 3 9 8.56 77.73 11.72 0 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 ‘ 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 24.938 3. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .010 9<401 ~. 9 0 6 8 5 5 6 6 1.626 .54 40.50 9.07 .170 .501 .941 1.43 49.638 8.133 6.056 .19 57.261 .72 46.57 13. .29 16!68 .75 6.910 1 2 5 2 2 6 2 2.35 0.08: . 1 .3! .00 10.30 74.463 7.0767.24 56.50 46.097 1 1 2 7 0 5 1 .765 8 1 6 6 4.441 .911 4 5 5 6 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 .13 11.25 37.87 60.5: 23.. 33 .88 40.668 .893 0 0 3.03 28..542 6 2 3 0 1 2 2 2 .:5.06 58.42 —— 30.77 5 20.99 9 89. 1 1 1 .04 56 2 2 2 2 5.23 22.103 2. . 1 1 8 .754 ! .125 .2 60 3 .726 3. 1 3.120 8.262 : .93 40.477 7 3 3 8. 3 . 17..51 7.63 71. .24 65.24 1 0 1 18 1 . 6.86 18.758 7.738 1.00 9. 21.02 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 20.00 .07 28.45 68.:: 5.2 7 8 1.57 57. .70 35.6.26 63.12 12.+ 3 .02 24.668 .77 12.681 .139 0 .033 7.77 50.00 4.59 34.92 29.375 .67 43. !7.3791 5 5 3 3. 11 1 2 2 2 .916 2.37 35.5. 74 .01 40.956 1.24 16.196 .223 .04 30.282 .845 .845 1.90 42.5178 1 7 2.6E 22.25 ~ $ 29.35 55.313 6 . 6 . 53 . 10 1 41 40 . 30.71 16.00 11.215 5 3 3 7 6 4 3 2 6 9 2.822 5.08 37.319 28.07 19.04 9.93 3 3 1 3 4 4 4.39 18.90 :25.02 20.48 38.9996. .. .9343. 01 1 .207 3 4 4 2.94 1 I I II 8. .265 6 9 3. 3 19.0056.10 55.18 42.85 72.252 0 1 .421 1T /7116 1% 1 %6 - A ?486 ‘1/16 - m . 32.42 32.005 .58 66.79 38.28 49.55 [3.74 6 7 7 7 22.75 5.10 26.06 36.39 . : 1 .900 .06 52.38 .661 3 3 4.407 3.0379.0148 2 0 0 3.731 7.08 .1724 1 8 34 4.93 21.41 1 0 35.6263. 1.890 .612 .39 12.07 18. 4 3. 0 1. 9.157 1.8453.126 .885 8.299 2.508 7.130 .520 2 1 4.05 3 7.256 0 .383 ..02 !2.217 9 .46 14.038 9.50 4.43 27.03 9.25 2 17.6708 0 8 7 3.55 31 4 38. 72.6003 6 4 5.26 13.25 5.42 1 .161 6 30.087 .1540.22 58.87. .55 7 50 8 7 .31 75.255 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 . . 1 .391 1.043 10.84 49. 03 .503 2.09 35.020 5.704 3 1 9 2.734 .26.17 4 8.8046.223 .50 10.56 63.469 8 5 5.426 3 .28 3 4 33.39 70.129 3.72 83. .50 !m ‘ 5 318 . 18.723 .50 700 7.88 6 54.43 39.87 23.468 .587 4.340 6.? 8. .1 6 430.230 7.36 59.563 6.188 .31 7 7 8 8 16.8W 1.37 2 18.404 W ALL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES CIIA 3/16 C P 1.46 23.530 .16 $1.010 8.125 .530 6.956 52 6 7. .59 50.915 1.006 5.977 3 8 6.2[ 3 38.71 .816 2 3 7 9.348 .50 i 1.06 51. 26.814 7. .983 5 6 5.734 10.079 2 0 4.79 25.66 9 85.23 3 31.506 5.: 14.126 1.85 . 19. 3 4 4 5 2 .03 32.75 49. 1.50 8. 52.93 46. 1 0 15 2 .511 .42 50.560 4.356 8.978 .2875. 32 52 62 82 .0485 7 6 9 5.153 . .55 30.87 5 5 6 6 32.76 32.72 33.20 46. 9 4.282 . 222 7.92 44.22 52..58 45.16 6 6 t 42.211 50?5.03 26.774 .507 .20.469 1 1 2 8 .06 22.00 12.598 6 5 1 5.512 0 2 5 0. 1 1. 92.066 7 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 27. 2 4 .627 11 0 2 1 3 1 7 8 1.50 12.858 10.1 1 1 2 2 0 1 2 3 . 1 06 .26 i2.60 5 5 0 35.40 5 45.785 7.011 10.

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l 703 712 883 894 993 804 . I 309 I 411 I 537 + . 55 65 65 & 592 i 600 4608 9 % 5615 6 6 639 6 ++ 2 3 67? 40761 : 846 3 ?686 717 8 8 3694 027 7 8 4 3703 427 2 8 9 712 801 28 7 8 2 39 9 730 8 7 8 3 49 8 47 18 79 1 2 3 5 6 7 39 10 1 1 72 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 7 8 9 0 1 2 4 8 . 5 6 ? 97 29 $ 6 1 79 1 1 92 0 1 1 11 1 1570 417010 183231963 2094 3 8 9 5 15869 17192 185151 2 2 49 3 3 5 4 8 0 1 8 1 8 1 9 1 9 T 1 1 8 2 9 2 0 0 2 2 1 1 1 8 9 2 2 1 9 1 8 2 4 1 2 2 0 2 1 1 8 6 2026 2170 2045 2192 2065 2213 2086 2235 1 7 8 0 2 4 2 2 6 2 8 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 .407 W iLL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES DIA 18 C %6 % 7%6 ‘A ‘/16 ?8 ‘‘\16 P WEIGHTS IN POUNDS I I 3/lfJ ‘/4 ‘% i3/16 ~8 ‘5/16 1 7 7 7 2 . 3 . .904 1005 813 823 926 1029 832 936 1041 842 947 1053 785 I 3 3 3 3 373 377 ‘-1 497 502 5 5 6 6 3 7 1 5 1 3 5 2 w .-. I 305 I . 2 8 3 2 2 ! 3 4 4 t 4 43 55 .

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409 W DIA 3/16 I ‘A 5/16 I ~8 ‘/16 C ‘/2 ‘/16 5/8 P ‘ 1/16 Y4 13/16 ~8 15/16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 7 3 7 7 3 7 7 3 7 7 3 7 3 8 8 3 8 8 4 8 8 48 8 48 8 8 4 8 8 4 8 8 4 8 8 4 9 9 4 9 4 S ’ 9 4 9 9 5 9 5 9 9 5 9 153 153ti 154 154% 155 155!4 156 156% 157 157% 158 158!4 159 159!4 160 160H 161 161% 977 1302 1628 19532279 2604 2930 3255 3581 3906 4232 4558 4883 szog 983 1311 1638 1966 2294 2621 2949 3277 3604 3932 4260 458J 4915 5243 989 1319 1649 1979 2309 2638 2968 3298 3628 3958 4287 4617 4947 5277 996 1328 1660 19922324 2656 2988 3320 3651 3983 4315 4647 4979 5311 1002 1336 1671 2005 2339 2673 3007 3341 3675 4009 4343 4671 5012 5346 1009 1345 1681 2018 2354 2690 3026 3363 3699 4035 4371 4708 5044 5380 1015 1354 16922031 2369 2707 3046 3384 3723 4061 4400 4738 5076 5415 1022 1362 17032044 2384 2725 3065 3406 3747 4087 4428 !768 51095450 1028 1371 1714 20577399 2742 3085 3428 3771 4113 4456 4799 5142 5184 1035 1380 1725 2070 2415 2760 3105 3450 3795 4140 4485 4830 51755519 ‘52075555 1041 1389 1736 2083 2430 2777 3124 3472 3819 4166 4513 4860 1048 1397 17472096 2446 2795 3144 3494 3843 41924542 4891 52405590 1055 1406 1758 2109 2461 2813 3164 3516 3867 4219 4570 4922 52745625 1061 1415 17692123 2476 2830 3184 3538 3892 42454599 4953 53075661 1068 1424 1780 2136 2492 2848 3204 3560 3916 42J2 46284984 53405696 ~ 1075 1433 1791 2149 2508 2866 3224 3582 3941 42994657 5015 5374 5732 1081 1442 18022163 2523 2884 3244 3605 3965 4326 46865047 5407 5768 1088 1451 1814 2176 2539 2902 3264 3627 3990 4353 4715 5078 54415803 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 14 3 1 1 5 3 1 1 6 3 1 1 7 3 1 8 1 3 1 9 1 4 1 0 1 4 1 1 Y 1 1! 4 1 1 3 4 1 1 4 4 1 1 5 4 1 1 6 4 1 1 7 4 1 8 1 4 9 1 1 9 5 1 1 0 5 1 1 1 5 1 2 1 4 1 0 5 1 0 6 1 0 6 1 0 7 1 0 7 1 0 8 1 0 8 1 01 9 ? 0 0 1 01 3 0 0f 1 0 1 Y 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 ’ 3 1 1 4 1 1 ’ 4 1 1 5 1 1 5 1 11 6 1 7 1 1 7 1 1 8 1 1 8 1 1 9 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 Y 2 2 1 21 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 5 1 2 ? 5 1 21 6 2! 7 1 21 4 9 21M 2 5 1 21 X 21 6 21 X 31 7 3 X 1 31 8 3 + 1 19 31 i 31 0 31 j 3 1 1 3 z 1 4 1 4 j 1 4 3 1 4% 2 4 4 2 4% 2 4 5 2 4% 2 4 6 2 4 ~ 2 5 7 2 5% 2 5 8 2 5 j 2 22 9 5 5 X 2 2 5 0 2 5% 2 5 1 2 5 4 2 2 6 2 6 4 4 1 02 5 12 5 22 5 22 5 32 5 42 5 52 5 55 2 62 6 76 4 2 86 2 92 6 92 6 02 6 12 6 22 6 32 6 32 7 42 7 57 2 62 7 72 7 72 7 82 7 92 7 02 8 12 8 12 8 22 8 38 2 42 8 52 8 62 8 62 9 72 9 2 89 92 9 47 92 57 2 62 0 7 17 62 88 22 98 72 08 32 1. 4 2 6 113 9 2 1 82 43 Y 83 8j4 77 4 24 60 9 22 2 39 2 4 7 4 9 503 65 1 4 63 33 2 74 67 44 70 1 0 12 30 2 5 7 8 9 123 35 3 4 83 53 2 94 68 74 80 4 8 12 32 3 7 7 2 0 643 15 4 4 93 73 2 24 58 34 01 6 6 2 2 4 913 583 23 5 2 33 7 0 63 85 44 58 14 11 9 4 22 2 5 1 7 1 9 3 883 66 68 4 4 3! 7 43 23 0 ) 3 4 2 4 1 2 22 2 5 2 8 3 0 8 63 43 2 3 303 4 6 3 84 49 64 52 4 0 22 2 5 4 8 7 1 923 16 9 73 53 43 3 04 49 8 4 62 7 7 22 2 53 6 8 1 1 4 543 924 49 . 9 8 282 5 32 0 8 62 3 8 58 22 69 82 79 42 82 9 9 92 5 9 02 1 9 12 7 9 22 3 9 32 9 0 42 5 0 52 1 0 62 7 0 72 3 0 82 9 0 92 5 0 02 2 1 12 8 1 22 4 1 32 0 1 612 4 52 2 1 1 62 9 2 72 5 2 82 1 2 92 8 22 0 4 2 12 0 9 2 94 2 8 4 8 7 9 2 92 43 89 93 72 4 7 3 7! 43 9 4 7 6 0 86 2 913 1 7 30 02 2 63 5 13 42 63 65 14 77 7 40 22 7 2 15 7 2 23 4 7 80 83 33 12 83 45 44 88 9 102 78 2 2 5 3 2 4 3 7 8 353 83 93 0 03 35 64 98 1 9 0 60 2 5 3 3 0 . 82 0 9 73 53 6 1 4 9 5 2 2 5 8 8 573 1 4 12 03 93 1 64 77 54 40 34 02 2 33 2 2 5 0 8 99 3 784 5 7 3 13 03 1 4 74 40 64 23 4 1 3 2 f3 2 9 3 1 42 3 23 13 34 04 37 94 40 84 43 7 0 3 26 5 2 4 3 433 7 2 9 3 3 95 24 1 8 14 40 04 63 0 8 32 2 6 6 9 15 3 544 0 8 6 6 3 53 2 5 34 41 34 84 2 63 7 2 2 6 9 9 56 3 15 73 73 2 64 8 8 64 41 54 14 5 4 32 2 6 9 8 3 1 9 98 3 884 6 8 83 2 5 84 51 84 34 8 2 4 3 7 3 0 403 46 03 03 03 3 04 59 04 52 04 65 0 0 4 3 7 5 0 823 06 13 13 23 3 24 39 24 62 34 85 3 84 3 7 2 3 3 3 8 0 24 3 76 33 3 44 1 9 5 4 62 5 4 16 5 7 4 3 7 0 0 763 36 43 43 53 3 64 09 74 72 84 36 8 55 3 4 7 2 0 174 07 4 63 73 3 84 90 94 73 04 66 1 3 4 7 4 3 583 6 4 3 77 63 7 ! 1 4 04 70 14 83 I4 34 96 9 3 03 4 7 44 9 3 5 EIO06 26 6 2 53 4 8 7 1 014 32 4 60 7 03 23 4 7 64 04 85 57 9 0 53 5 8 0 1 53 4 05 4 5 0 9 2 3 33 4 8 84 14 0 5 87 2 8 53 5 8 2 1 05 4 774 4 1 0 33 53 5 8 1 4 24 35 1 7 4 7 53 6 8 5 1 47 4 39 4 3 1 1 5 84 34 5 48 7 5 3 53 6 8 4 3 8 2i 99 4 ’ 01 4 2 1 7 52 63 83 5 8 5 4 45 85 8 8 0 4 53 7 9 0 2 41 4 73 4 1 2 4 69 3 90 2 10 4 40 7 71 0 91 2 21 5 52 8 82 0 12 3 42 6 73 8 13 1 43 4 84 7 14 3 54 2 95 5 25 8 65 0 06 3 46 6 96 9 37 2 77 5 27 7 68 0 18 3 58 6 90 9 59 2 09 5 5 8 00 1 50 3 01 6 61 9 11 2 .3 80 7 53 42 3 5 1 8 3 23 26 84 98 4 6 0Z 61 2 !57 38 4 j3 ! 3 1 gj 23 I l6 5 3 3 3 3 04 )8 6 4 0 52 2 6683 7 8 62 3 41 81 ( 93 3 3 73 I6 34 19 9 2 12 2 5 2 833 0 8 6 323 64 7 4 06 3 1 93 96 54 29 1 98 2 453 9 6 483 9 1 1 2 13 9 43 44 13 87 74 39 4 7 1 4 4 13 3 7 9 4 2 02 62 6 03 63 14 34 87 04 40 6 51 2 .

6 2 8 52 5: 1 6 26 1 7 05 9 5 8 52 8 36 80 G4 6% 7 5 6 7 6 6 G 5792 6238 6684 7129 I 181 ] 1367I 1822 i 2278I 2734 I 3189 I 3645 I 4100 I 4556 I 5011 * 186 186Y? 187 187X 188 188X 189 189fi 1 1 1 1 1924 1935 1945 1956 1966 1977 1987 +1998 2406 2418 2431 2444 4 2458 4 2471 2484 4 4 2497 2887 3368 2902 3386 2918 3404 2933 3422 2949 7 3441 2965 8 3459 2981 9 3477 2996 9 3496 5 2 0 8 + 5 9 9 3 1 6 4 9 2 1 6 9 9 i- $ .229745 33463 3718 4 4 4 1 61 4 6 1 2 26189 2992 3366 2 4 1 41 5! 5 16 2 26340 3010 3387 3 9 4 1 61 5 4 5 1 3 26501 3029 3407 3 6 4 i 1 51 5t 4 16 4 26662 3047 3428 3 3 4 6 1 6 5 3 p ! G 26823 3066 3449 3 4 2 6 1 6 5 M 269943084 3470 3 4 1 6 1 5 1 1 6 271553103 3491 3 4 T 7 1 6 1 1 1 17 11 1 51 72 91 62 031 53 171 43 3 1 3 % 1 9 1 1 1 5 7 2 73 7 7 01 1 2 9 3 63 5 3 25 44 1 6 1 1 8 5 8 2 % 73 5 7 1 2 9 3 73 9 1 6 3 45 64 1 1 61 5 9 2 9 83 2 7 1 2 9 3 83 91 8 3 65 84 16 1 91 5f 9 2 i 9 3 9 7 8 1 2 3 1 9 9 3 9 3 8~ 5 1 1 72 6 82 9 4 2 0 2 0 03 6 8 4 14 1 2 0 0 1 7 1 2 0 6 12 % 13 38 72 2 0 2 2 4 24 1 4 3 1 1 72 6 22 1 23 08 72 3 4 2 4 44 4 2 0 3 1 7 1 2 1 6 22 % 3 3 78 62 5 4 2 0 4 2 4 54 6 1 1 7 2 6 3 2 2 43 4 8 6G 78 4 2 2 4 6 2 0 5 1 7 1 2 2 62 4 2 % 54 1 8 584 9 4 2 0 6 3 3 9 1 1 72 6 2 4 2 3 63 9 9 53 4 94 1 4 1 2 0 8 7 !2 5 2 A 7 3 6 9 1 1 3 2 6 43 5 14 3 4 3 2 0 9 3 544 1 1 72 6 2 6 2 4 8 3 3 9 4z 5 2 2 1 0m 1 7 1 2 4 6 72 G 9 3 09 43 2 5 44 7 4 6 2 1 1 4 4 1278 1704 2129 2555 2981 3407 3t 7 5 1 7 1 2 5 7 2 2 8 2 % 13 5 9 1 5 4 3 34 8 25 78 94 6 1 2 1 5 4 1 2 9 8 .1 2 0 115 1 3 444 6 4 ” 75 5 3 2 i 17 ] 21 3 3 4 B 4 17 1 73 7” 03 .410 W .4 3 703 3 4 8 9 2 2 1 6 7 14 54 17 1 73 7 ? 13 4 53 40 2 2 1 6 9 3 35 24 19 64 1 1 7 3 7 2 8 6 3 213 32 5 0 31 2 2 62 4 4 0 4 8 9 J/4 ZE % ‘3/16 I 2 I 15/16 I 1 I TT 1443 1451 1459 1467 I 0 43800 54 4 3 10 7 60 4 1 20 4 1 4 1 7 4 1 7 4 1 8 4 8 4 2 8 5 2 8 5 + 151 2 24 11 0 1 6 59 4 4 73 35 99 5 4 43 55 39 74 03 75 79 94 i 5 9 14 34 10 5 3 4 04 60 5 54 00 64 5 5 0 47 4 3 4 9 8 4 05 5 1 314 755 34 35 71 5 4 5 06 21 5 6 6 6 = 7* 85 46 12 : 25 6 055 8 7 2 15 17 m 5 83 7 5 5 39 7 4 3 02 5 85 93 0 5 78 45 4 6 42 4 m m p 7 4 5 15 1 0 5 54 7 7 5 15 95 4 35 65 8 0 5 1 7 5 45 85 83 5 25 9 5 0 1 4 8 6 5 2 3 x 3 5 326 9 6 65 8 9 6 6 5 63 85 9 2 0 6 56 9 5 93 05 9 5 3 6 07 35 E 2m 9 8 3 6 4 5 53 55 0 1 6 17 9 6 5 84 75 6 68 0 4 3 1 81 2214 91 25 1 0 8 75 2 4 5 6 5 0 7 2 1 54 16 7 8 0 25 15 0 9 97 41 45 4 5 836 3 9 a 5 3 2 77 75 5 1 6 5 256 9 9 6 6 6 6 7 9 4 9 65 9 61 5 56 9 9 5 8 26 9 6 10 2 3 1 5~ 2 2 4 6 36 56 70 1 48 45 2 5 6 76 6 6 31 9 8 8 0 35 6 2 8 6 9 6 006 9 1 8 29 3 1 9 ~ 3 7 19 3 4 26 51 53 86 27 6 6 2 09 35 7 9 9 9 4 76 2 82 2 05 6 8 4 1 0 6 68 52 90 85 2 3 4 4 6 36 6 13 8= 5:6 5 9 80 35 8 6 8.3 1 2 51 1 8 6 916 5 3 5 9 6 93 6 9 5 46 24 0 7 1 21 6 45 a 1 6 9 0 7 3 6 8= 8 4 6 6 206 5 4 6 6 3 1 9 9 36 9 5 96 7 6 2.LL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES DIA C 5/16 P WEIGHTS IN POUNDS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I ‘ / ~ 8 2 5 1095 1460 1 2 2 12!3203285 3650 4 5 9 5 1102 1469 1 8 6 2 2 2 5 29383 33050 36727 4 1108 1478 1 2 2 2 5 1 8 7 29564 3325 36958 4 1 12 56 1487 1 2 0 1 8 9 ---.

411 W ILL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES DIA K 3/16 ‘A 5/16 ~% 7/16 C P WEIGHTS IN POUNOS ‘/2 ‘/16 5/8 ‘ ‘/16 3A ‘3/16 ~8 ‘5/16 1 .

. 3 . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 . 1 2 n Si f 4 5 5 0. 9 7 3 . 6 6 6 29 6 80 6 80 5 42 6 . . 0 1 2 0 4 246 3 8 .5 8 7 . 3 7 53 3 1 :5 5 3 4 .2 2 3 2 93 2 64 2 35 2 05 3 76 3. . . . . . 2 52 2 62 3 72 3 82 6 2 3 7 2 4 7..0 1 . 6 7 .0 9 8 9 :5 9 . 61 . 11 7 . . 21 . . 32 . 23 3 03 3 53 4 94 4 35 4 76 4 17 4 57 4 08 . .3 03 3 78 48 3 9 . 1 . .8 . 4 4 8 8 3 4 09 3 3 . 2 229 47 . 4 7. 3 6 0 4 7 1 5 9 2 6 0 3 7 1 4 8 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 .6 6 30 7 6 8. .6 1 1 1 :6 1 . .7 1 2 . : 2 7 . . . 7 1 . 3 1 .5 .7 8 09 81 62 43 35 16 97 7 . 1 44 0 . 44 .01 2 0 2 40 2 81 2 11 2 51 2 82 2 . 1. 12 . 91 31 61 01 31 401 . 22 32 . 1 206 0 . 47 . . 1 . 92 72 4 7 29 5 82 5 92 : 02 12 6 22 7 33 8 53 8 73 93 0 13 . 3 1 . 4 6 9 7 2 8 3 2 9 :1 1 11 41 71 01 41 1 7 1 1 1 7 . 4 5. 1 3 9 2 42 2 7. 6.1 . . . 9 . 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 .1 . . .9 1 . .3 1 .i nHn u Ae N Ix 2 h a B1u g s d o i s d t8. . . 20 21 . 6 0 . 1 . . 4 4 8 7 59 1 . 1 9 7 .2 1 3 1 5 262 1 : . . . 61 . 0 9 7.3 1 . 1 213 16 . . . 8. 2 . 81 6 1 8 6 3 . 5 9 0 . 78.5 2 9 5 5 . 6 0.4 1 .1 1 3 3 4 7 : 5 3 6 9 4 7 5 . . 6 . 0 . . 2 2 23 24 2 2 3 3 7 0 4 7 0 4 7 0 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 4 1 5 . .6 36.5 1 4 .3 8: 0 5 0 23 1 1 94 . 5 7 5 . 8 1 . 1 7 . 81 4 . e t n This table conforms to . .1 0 . 0 6 0 9 1 2 2 5 2 8 3 3 3 3 32 72 13 64 :4 5 8 76 16 67 :8 8 89 20 01 93 74 55 . 4 2 1 . 2 . 8 1 9 7 : 3 0 : 1 2 2 3 8 4 5 5 5 5 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 3 6 7 8 9 1 % 4 1 1 7 1 % 0 61 2 . 91 8 . 4 1 . 5 .3 8 9 1 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 5 7 9 1 5 9 3 . . . 3 9 .4 1 2 W W Length U Inches B u et h a a D i e rh xn de ap a n i a Bm i eI o % % s ih q u g o p o d1u t n s t ne o 1 8 1 4 6 9 2 5 8 1 4 7 0 3 6 9 2 5 8 1 4 rc l n es d 0 n s n s h f te % Y2 9 2 1 8 2 47 1 2 54 5 2 62 9 3 3 3 3 79 97 0.7 .5 ~ 1 . 41 . 61 . 91 1 5 271 5 . 4 .1 34. 5 3 B 8 a . 12 . . 45 .8 A 1 R 3 S . : 3 74. . 22 . 51 2 .2. . . 42 . . 0 . 51 6 6 6 6 79 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 I 90 \: 3 6 1 8 1 1 % 1 1 % 1. . . 3 : .. 7 6 9 .0 1 . 8 8 . 46 89. . . 61 . 31 1 6 9. 43 2. . . 31 . 1 .5 1 3 1 . 75. 4 9 4 9 4 9 5 0 5 1 6 2 . 3. . 3 7 1 .1 1 2 0 4 254 7 9 . 44 77. . 3 3 . 212 . 0 0 0 1 1 1 6 6 7 8 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 2 221 26 . 42 . 49 8 3 4 9 4 0 5 33. 0 9: .2 37. ~ . 0 1 . 8 .7 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 Per Inch \dditional N 1 8 1 1 1 . 3 237 58 . 31 1 91 6 2 .5 B 0. . 1 4 . . 42 3 .

0 3 57 . 3 3 4 5 9 0 1 6 4 6 0 3 6 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 1 6 5 4 7 3 0 0 0 2 8 3 6 1 9 C 1 RC E O U P EL D W I 2 3 6 l l 00 00 00 . b b 5 4 . 01 .3 1 0 .2 0.4 46. 1 9. 0 52 . 0 20 .4 3.7 .413 W O NOZZLES W A W i ( N N l F d al iR aen i n nf g k r c ia n g e t Se h I c n g P o e d fT Q a R ue b o i l r ec n r c k e ) f e S 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 CLASS 150 Y 6 9 1 2 4 6 9 1 1 2 3 4 5 300 11 2 12 25 4 7 1 1 0 2 32 264 316 63 8 72 0 1 84 600 13 15 4 6 6 5 1 5 1 1 5 4 2 5 2 3 5 8 5 5 7 6 5 1 9 1 108 1 9 3 900 1 2 4 7 0 120 0 27 5 38 0 56 5 71 0 99 0 1 3 3 8 4 6 2 1 8 3 1 1 0 1500 18 3 7 0 0 1 250 365 675 955 75 65 5 7 5 9 5 4 1 NOZZLES for Quick Reference) S 3 4 6 8 C 150 2 4 7 1 1 2 2 4 5 7 1 300 4 6 1 11 26 44 59 84 1 4 1 0 1 S % 6 6 5 1 2 22 1 39 0 5 5 7 6 5 0 8 6 2 100 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 8 900 771 1 07 2 00 4 11 2 6 1 4 96 1 1 9 1 0 2 0 2 0 5 5 N 1500 1 12 36 65 1 6 1 6 0 0 0 9 G 2 6 2 8 1 S 3 1 3. 6 1 7 0 18 .

. 4 3 2 45 2 2 2 3 8 3 2 3 6 0 3 4 3 0 1 5 3 4 5 2 2 2 4 9 1 2 9 4 1 4 .414 WEIGHTS OF PACKING P S C % % % % ~ x x 1 1 l l l 2 3 3 4 T T S d 3 c o ah n f d et 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 % 6 n r e s ae l ohi t e c d n t oi mrc U aS t S u t r o e C e t ae l h n e w ea f 4 5 5 6 6 5 I E oP Cu Fnu e d bo s i o r c t R Z A S EC R H I I G P N RG A I I L N N TL A C A R B B N R C A AM RI E C L AO S N T I C A EO R B T OP E N S E L S T L 1 9 7 1 6 5 9 3 7 6 4 % % 2 2 x 3 3 6 3 6 1 7 2 7 5 4 4 7 3 .0 8 4 8 ho i e t v ot . 4 05 7 4 .u ce . b sc e . 1k l e 5r WEIGHTS OF INSULATION P C A LS C I O L I PU C N IU C M A UD FE T S O B E 1 I R OC 2 T . 1 c hd a o eo s i j eg a n o i v c r ae il 8 s g t st n d e 0h f e we i d cghs e s a w l % c aha t et a lt b i f n sm h oo ri s d t e e u d r e k n g . 4 67 5 7 .e 3 m r M n o o N m%ni 1 u %i 7 . FOAMGLASS M G F F w m e O I L F A M NW E A I G L RO A B S A S LO S E S R L 9. . 4 72 7 6 5 5 4 w e o hc i 1t C e 0 g a s h r i e t p bse e o c f ee n tmt a e h t t aa ilf n s l t r o no l g S n e e r o 1 e p A% l pl 5 2 0.

.. h” . .... . . .. .. 8... 2... 6.... o ....... 4 ......... Z ....... n .. a..85 P h o a s ... .......... ......... .. ”” o.. ... ..... ....... ~” a.... .0 Propane .... ..e ... ... . a 7 x . 6 0 ..h y l ..o.. .......... -.... .... .....a 0 c ...... h .. ..1...... .. e ... e 5 .... . l.) 4 ....1 .. ... . ..... ......2 2..i ...... 0.......... ...... n. H .... 2 C . .... e .. ......... . .....e..... ..........8.. . . ...0 ......... ... . .... ... . l ............t.2 . 6 8 8 2 ............... .. . .........° ......0.... .... .........m e t h ......3 o n ..... 0 Whaleoil ..... 22........ . Z ......... . ......Charcoal......r...7 . ....... .89 C C d i s u l r h i d b . ..l cB . 1...2 6........ O.. . ... .0 N ... ....... .. 7 . a 1 ....0 ...... n6 e ....... 11..... .. ..... ..... ... . ...... ... ha......b u t N ...o ...... 6 0 : . 2 ..... . 3 9 ............ . ... HYDROCARBONS F.~ [ .....6 8 F U 6I B 2 c r S o. ....1 0 . ~ ~o~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ t1~”~ ......... .. 8 My ....... ..... .84 Mortar.. 4 .... z.342 K o 4s 0 e ......r..... . S ... a . .... ...8 GASSES32°F......5O77‘cetY’ene ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~bituminous ~~~~~~„ 0920 .. . 9 n ............... . W s a......... 18..... ” p w. . Cadmium....... ........y.. ... .......d i m e t h y l c y c 0 o p e n tO n e ... 2 i u Mm ...... t..... ........ 2....... ...... d...... c 0c7.. ... .........m e t h ..o...618 Methylcyclopentane .......z0... . ...... . ..... .... 7 n .... ... ..l 9a s s M e( Fr ... . ... .... o..... o. .. . .. u Coal. c .. d... ... .. P o t... ..4 Nickel... 7r L e i o .....92 Mica.....a n tl...................... ...... 0.. ....42 C o t to . n............. t ee . . ............. .648 C a .......n e n e ..........c a s tr.. . 6 1 ....m o .. .... n . s ..1 .... . 1.......... ... r o1 l e 0 ...... 1 v0 .............. Toulene. .....3 Z ......... .........................94 Emery n s e i 3 e d ....... .....87l8 s p.. ... ..06i Brick.......... ...... 1 Taprock.70n Earth..O.... .....o ..........e.....o............. o ..................... n 2 06 Gold... ......... ....... 0.....5 2 5 Tin.t g s e 81 n ..... i c 3 3 ....................... ................ 0..0 u .. ... .... ... .......... ... .. 1. .. “ ... ....0......... 1 u ~m .. .. 2 2 ..................... 9 0 .........8 N NitricAcid . .. i ... ... xa .. ..... lo ..... % .. ..........r ya .... c 8 t .... 0 ..e 1 n E e .. h ..P ........... ...ON Soapstone Ethane .......................a .. .. .............. .. 6 N-octane . . . .... . ..........b .... a.... 8 .. 17 e t a n i Vinegar 9 ....... ...2.... ... ..g .. ........e . ... 6 T e ....0........... i. .. i ........... ” ” ........... ....5 . . Sulphur .8 m . ....7834 MISCELL~NENJS Bismuth ..2 0 i 7e c s 9s k e...... ...... ....... .. 1 ...........9 P l ... p... A.. a p e . ........ ..... .. ......... 1.n . ..0 .. Uranium . .. h ...0 l M a n g a n e s ..3 I . ...Z ..... .... ...n t a . 2. 0 ....7501 Water .. . .. .......... .. . 3.....Q A i0 c f d .... a 2 n y b d e n m a .....a6 n.. .2....... o m h ...... .. ........... .dry. ..... ... i. 0........ t s l r ........ S . SPECIFIC GRAVITIES METALS2°F.. 5.. j j t n e t Cobalt...........0 SOLIDS Barium .. ” s e ...... ...... i... ..... .535 Benzene......l a gl.........0 ... .. d......... Cyclohexane 3... 2. ... ........l 8. .............. 6 . ...... 2.0 a h e x .................92 Sandstone i 4c . ..... .. .. w a t .... ..0 [ s o ....2 . 0i u O a s s . .... .. ..... ........ 00 8 7 Palmoil . ..... ........... 4 u Tm u r o ..0....... ...5844 ..s o 9h a r a l Iridium. 0.......... 8.. a B o r x H .. 0x. T u ... .... . 3 7 l i i v I e s. ........ .. a.... .........i0....ho o 0sc :p...... 0. .. ..... ............. “ ” : ” + < ”2... P e ....... ..... . 6 3 3 1 o ... o ”1r0 ”u ” ” ” 7 ‘ ................... 1..... . . ................ o o u h l r B .. ... .n6.. ~.... .. Magnesium. ..0............0. c 6. . .... .......5077.0... .. 1 6 Slate.. ...T ...... .... ~ ” 5 ” 0 ~ ~ 4 ..... ... .... a .... e .. “ .. : ........ ......71 Bromine a a c r d ..... . ..3.... ............ 2 8 r T a .. . 6 6 ma 6 . ....7 W ..... ... . . . l ........0 “ Boron .........50 Concrete. ..... .c 0 . ..........8844 Asbestos.. ...... ... 8 .. ...... Copper.. .....7 ..n ... l ...6 n a d i u m ..r8 ... . ..... ........ ......... ..... ..... .... . e P ......50 Ice ... .. ....... .... r .. G a ..... ....i6 u r o m m . . 19............... ..... ..... 0......t 7u .......... ...... ..... 2 2 ....... 1 u Rapeoil . ..... . 60/60° . ...... ...... ........... 1...... .. . 2.. L 0 3.. C.............. .......... e .... ... 1.......... .. r ....l ..... .......... . ........ .. l......... nC e n .......I . ..6.. .........97 Limestone.2...72 r . . ........ 9 4 2 0 i a .. ..... ....n.....3564 Air... t .... ... ............. n.. ....... 8. . ... .... acid . .. 0 8 3 ..... ........d i m e t .... i...... ........ l ... n. ...... 13c i .... . o. ......... .. ...d i m e t h y l b u t a n. . ......... ....... . . .76 Gypsum p h t h a ..t. p r e r...... ... 2.. l .. . ....... e........ 8..................... ............. ..l ... ....... ........... e .. i u Sulphuric l l u r 6 m ... 2...7740 ..7536 .... o 2 .. 6.1e ......z50 Aluminum .... .. ..0 a ........b u t ..l. .............r................ ..o3 kr . .......08 Quartz...... . I s o ... i . ........ d. .Fluoricacid ..4 ..... ....... 2........ ............0 ...... ....... .. .... .. 0 3 . . ... .fjz3 vapor Antimony .. 8 .. 1 u M 0u a c ird ................. ............... 1 ....... . 1 r S ........... . ..... ....w a................................. .n2 u 1 a t i m ........ r ........ ........... . c . ......... .E... ..r ... e..... .....S .o.......... 4 D ° i mc . ....pd d .... ... .....p e n t a ... ..... . ......y . ....... S. . ..... Pm 9 o d i p hco i s 7o d n y Steel ... . B . ....... .. 6 4 . A l p c ... ...a. ......78 . .......... ... ................ e 2 r...... ..7..... r ........ ........ .... ... 2 3 ...............t ................. ........ ~ l c i ” 0 ” ” ” ..8 n t a l m 6 .. a. .. ..... e....... ..... 2 0 t i e M o l . . e ... ().. ..70 Cyclopentane ...!.. ...... ... V a ....2 s o l e Lead....2 r u g 0 n.. G . 1 r i M c ....k . ... G.....m..... .... 5 .................. 7................. .......... ........ 9. I -w r . 1...... io i.......0 0 .. C h ..r ....... ....... ....781 Methylcyclohexane ...... .. e ...h . ..... .... ...2... .... 8s a t r r i T i ... ... 1. .... ... ......... 9 ... .. n1.... 9.. x ..... .. ... ..... ........ ..... ........ u m ..........7 ...... . 0 e i e C d ....... ......... 2. ... ” 1 9 .... 0 .b ...........p e n t a ...... N .... .8 ........ ...0. t 7 . ............y ...... .....6 ....... A......bituminous ... ... 2.. .....................6 ........ s .....2 3 .... ........... u . ire............ ...........k .....~ N-butane ... ..n .. 1......... .. 0... . .. jo ............ .Z... .. b ... ..5 ... ...0..h 7p e h 0... .......... .... .......... .... 5 3 i l 4 e to 7..70fjrl Sulphordioxide ... ............. . ................ . .... 7 7 ........... r ml a 9 d ( s e n )j :7: lt : : j . .... . .. 4.. 2. ........... B 8 r 7 6 5 r9 C 2a C 3O C 4O C 5O C o1 A h a l .

9 44.47 31.3 72.40 1.7 155.1 0.1 3.11 103.1 501.0 744.14 Water lb.32 3.9 413.3 21.04 0.30 4.2 16.9 335.37 83.9 220.2 1134 1303 1489 1692 Bbl.3 35.6 0. 0.47 0.2 287.2 2.9 113.49 2.9 55.4 713.5 86.0 146.4 13.9 65.5 268.57 22.14 0.0 1.9 151.7 710.94 14.23 122.91 3.7 211.4 112.7 9.83 3.99 1.00 1.25 0.17 12.9 19.5 248.03 7.9 177.2 4.27 41.32 17.98 62.67 89.85 7.6 350.0 80.4 0.2 50.9 8.2 190.8 1.37 27.0 10.FT.2 52.35 65.66 0.3 7.95 1o.50 20.0 185.3 95.6 95.02 0.7 23.7 63.9 5. 8.9 530. 5.6 32.9 8.3 1.4 475.44 15.58 37.76 0.31 0.1 259.4 523.2 587.7 2.86 1.12 2.0 2.0 36.91 6.9 330.3 601.2 67.5 174.19 0.33 12.1 Gal.36 0.63 0.00 9.00 20.6 8. 0.5 376.27 26.0 119.31 27.8 47.5 647.7 4.11 0.5 302.71 2.98 19.30 0.46 40. 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 Cu.6 23.D.26 1.53 6.5 979.62 13.87 8.0 Bbl.87 0.0 3.00 23.83 9.8 28. HEAD* Cylindrical S1-iELL/LIN.30 18.00 31.08 0.24 2.4 162.9 58.0 424.3 33.9 78.416 V I.1 7.5 44.8 1.53 0. 0.3 4. of Vessel S A H 2:1 ELLIP.40 8.93 18.0 846.9 16.6 70.5 27.5 3. 0.39 0.55 1.6 12.04 6.44 0.6 1021 1360 1765 2244 2802 3447 4184 5018 5957 7006 8171 9459 10876 12428 14120 t *vo]ume within the straightflangeis not included .24 0.11 11.12 1.2 38.Ft.3 19.6 6.56 0.8 2.23 5.84 11.42 16.2 Gal.2 0.8 5.98 1.9 211.19 0.0 94. 0.04 5.55 2.6 15.96 12.09 36.4 1.83 50.29 w o Water lb. 49 67 87 110 136 165 196 230 267 306 349 394 441 492 545 601 784 993 1226 1483 1765 2071 2402 2758 3138 3542 3971 4425 4903 5405 5932 6484 7060 Cu.03 35.99 15.1 1. w o t .8 127.06 0.9 777.8 839.1 226.74 0.Ft.6 3.88 5.14 0.5 4.3 0.0 103.7 41.8 28.2 130. f in.3 56.4 11.50 4.

7 130.56 42.97 125.1 454.50 38.14 60.8 423.07 0.0 605.83 7.63 53.96 5.59 0.4 13bl.8 190.70 12.45 2.0 537.7 826.55 0.96 73.76 23.5 398.5 261.09 4.57 wt.33 31.64 1.40 101 132 167 213 266 318 390 456 551 631 728 813 950 1106 Bbl.98 4.49 51.78 4.07 6.9 224.49 0. HEAD* .5 244.23 0.55 71.88 1.63 34.41 3.00 27.04 2.14 3.11 0. .02 17. 0 wt.33 7.73 43.42 0.67 19.87 28.21 9.37 0.98 5.66 84.49 40.22 16.34 0.8 303.19 ~ 0.HEAD* G-d.81 102.15 0.90 89.08 0.88 1.53 83.60 23.74 55.Ft.00 2.98 62.86 13.33 *VO1umewithin the flange k not included . i n Gal.60 75.06 70.06 1.12 0.30 1.61 9. 12 ~ ~~ 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 3’2 34 36 38 40 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 0.65 0. 0.08 17.5 134.66 100.70 11.07 3.30 10.75 3.65 22.0 147.07 15.20 0.2 843.6 191.08 13.27 I 0.83 12. of Water lb.03 0.2 207.Ft.80 110.54 52.16 0.05 0.2 519.7 441.15 68.5 117.9 1100 1391 1775 2216 2649 3249 3799 4590 5257 6065 6773 7915 9214 s 16.9 371.95 7.7 1046 1489 2043 2719 3530 4488 5606 6895 8368 10037 11914 14012 16343 18919 21752 24856 28241 0.86 6. of Water lb.61 2.54 ] 17. A S DF &D.15 2.80 3.10 1.09 2. 1.14 8.91 1.40 80.62 0.86 32.50 0.05 0.29 0.26 1.10 16.33 4.83 .14 44.7 166.56 56.80 2.19 72.9 i 4.29 0. i Cu.67 23.48 1.96 1 3.2 1003 1203 1428 1679 1958 2267 2607 2978 3384 of Vessel !.51 52.73 0.29 10.58 0.6 255.00 39. 7.88 30.2 452.76 10.98 46.62 26.07 0.09 0.4 134.37 0.30 14.12 0.22 0.7 127.82 1.64 6.36 22.88 2.57 9.34 25. 0.9 628.94 1.8 325.3 178.38 0.21 1.88 62.47 35.02 0.65 0.3 700.12 15.1 348.95 38.1 171.60 37.92 24.32 28.33 19. Cu.31 9.10 20.66 3.4 309.07 12.47 0.6 229.0 160.32 108.35 97.30 54.80 16.16 75.07 12.73 2.11 4.8 671.30 1.00 28. 0.25 5.68 5.71 7 I V I .91 80.1 319.12 7.00 19.07 8. M S E A H HEMIS.26 0 0.

033405 .259338 .043129 .255822 .089545 .084212 .165233 . Oin.271126 .223507 = 1053.1845.026952 .149554 .092246 .191102 .014427 3 4 5 6 7 8 .s7 .113686 .223507 Total volumex coefficient= partial volume 4712.168416 .256992 .124364 .071307 .055905 .001212 .30 .122403 .119477 .050524 .038867 . L =60 ft.095884 .1060.00s742 .147494 .041694 .254652 .170546 .026331 .022115 .012920 .167353 .272310 .009625 .157867 .040273 .265218 .034747 .046782 .030124 .053579 .079841 .032081 .074686 .030772 ..07 .75/10= .069633 . Proceed to the right until the coefficient is found under the column headed (5) which is the third digit.418 PARTIALVOLUMES HORIZONTAL IN CYLINDERS t t o Partialvolumesof horizontalcylinder equalstotal volumex coefficient (found from tablebelow) 3“ EXAMPLE ‘E HORIZONTAL CYLINDER = 10 ft.018141 .148524 .000600 . H = 2.036789 .100486 . ft.156822 .078975 .17 .118506 .5501 .098638 .4 cu. S.054351 .025715 .061449 .27) in the column headed (HID) in the table below.006267 .176976 .09 .043852 .141361 .058262 .108920 . ft.266397 .20 .24 .7854 x D2 x L Find the partialvolumeof the cylindricalshell Totalvolume: 0.037478 .022703 .133291 .001445 .028208 . Coefficientfrom table: H/D= 2.00 O .055126 .5’2315 .143398 .047523 .138320 .139332 .005503 .123382 .187820 ..25 .188912 190007 .z68760 .O4241O .25fj165 .2.144419 .275 Refer to the first two figures (.063872 .169480 .18 . Gallon cu.083332 .078112 .099560 .274682 .25CU.264039 .104211 .032740 .096799 .115607 .137310 .028842 .o~4496 .ft.015459 .0598!50 .181294 ..202141 .146468 .067972 .062253 .000ooo .163120 .08 .’201031 .253483 .088650 .002800 .’21 . multipliedby 7.004077 .066323 .023296 .173753 .1. The coefficient of 0.166292 .130296 .16 .1.06 .103275 .094061 .22 .164176 .076393 .080709 .112728 .044579 .000429 .0203g2 . Oin.197709 .114646 .192200 .140345 .000151 .273495 .174825 .203253 .261687 .135296 .035423 .008310 .186729 .111773 .093153 .017593 9 .109869 .267578 .070469 .018692 .063062 .102343 .269942 . multipliedby 28.051283 .199922 .004421 .260512 .05 .059054 .110820 .120450 .23 .075539 .101414 .196604 .052044 .178053 179131 .010534 .50 1 2 . ft.04 .129302 .175900 .17538 .02095.046043 .121425 .159963 .131292 .317016 = Liter COEFFICIENTS H/D .029481 . cu.019813 .087756 .127321 .086866 .5 .12831O .154737 .4 X .19.480519 = U.023894 .7854 x 102x60= 4712.10 .l&5639 .105147 .31 .145443 .013417 .072147 .275 is found to be .75 ft.58915 .262863 .12.085094 .15 .198814 .132290 .049017 .5347 .036104 .134292 .155779 .oo~223 .012432 . D TOTALVOLUME:0.004773 .049768 .107973 .152659 .039569 .001692 .lh~~ig .19 .180212 .153697 .007886 .067147 .

313134 .Tii .MM645 .84X37R . .Iii .371036 ..41~42fj .596392 . .43137s .56 57 .9~4~(jl .888227 ..9.79 .5.706207 .3~~8~l .S38987 .382274 .345799 .821947 .601423 .610210 .418736 .s~~387 .347455 .9095.944095 .883428 .446587 .502 .892027 .562288 7 .891080 .844221 .348690 .595 .547068 .727690 .fii .863698 .409904 .8:~~i08 .892971 . .812180 .608956 .753.7.S08XW4 .7! Ui(ii4 .58 .5635 .473269 .87857.~%547 J9674? .X8918(I .561021 .5 .696562 .383526 .918419 .956871 .5 .3082S0 .922749 .359840 .728874 .2~()&?7 .285401 .(351 310 .496179 .548337 .90502!3 ..927853 .3872X? .667322 .71.819788 .5793 .S57622 .901362 .553 ..406125 .482176 .!-363896 .308545 .50.647598 .445318 .458012 . .’296198 .319219 .i94.841(R5 .5134 .301O2I .876618 .659946 .!%5253 .935313 .x~731~ .483449 .522914 .4~.672226 .948717 .5114.767356 77876.906847 .310705 3~1660 .949476 .X16537 .776493 .558486 .WvW2 .77 .39 .931198 .881494 .520 .357359 .349926 .3314.435178 .X5965.82 .450394 .585051 .9 .684434 .2S1820 .7S779.5.703802 .4:12645 .940150 .74417X .518!) .912244 .343751 .691720 .277058 ..S:30.64264] .59 .+19998 .861680 .84941:1 .916668 .597 .947190 .419 PARTIAL VOLUMES IN HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS COEFFICIENTS (Cont.858639 .488542 .%+27 .%5:{532 .597650 .50 .%)6741 .%23024 .933677 .444050 .66 .!)41738 .H62690 .873667 .813271 .3449%5 .:{74778 .5 1 li900-K\ .868708 .925314 .S .959727 .835824 .336363 .914906 .X18706 .396063 .469453 .559754 .307068 .702.856602 .5 .679561 .896725 .77.35 .309492 .53.433911 .:: .867710 .966.936128 .393.533090 .5~o~69 .7X .739488 .967260 .5 :35.372282 .:]8102+ .501274 .2!3M5(i5 .817622 .’294995 .95614S .jl i .76.951732 .x3 .494906 .903201 .507640 .947956 .4S5995 .958306 .920159 .394S08 .333905 .81 .311918 .463096 .90 .805600 yoml .952477 .42’2.622725 .5633 .33.3YI104 .(icl 6.~j:]$.~ .914021 .459283 .59 .s .921025 .960431 ..384778 .~74’21i .740662 .51 .900440 .8985S6 .797859 . . .825175 .37 .284207 .5(j5~ .576212 .52.%54557 .484722 .58 .91135o ..730058 .583789 .571154 .871690 .832647 .7418 :)5 .884393 .80 .28659/3 .%51476 .297403 ..) H/’D O 1 .6!5501.51 .3.945649 .5 .407:384 .959019 .~~147(-j .814361 .mOOOo .358599 .437712 . .R20N.(.965927 .’W7X(XI .7.943312 .940946 .936938 .7627X+ .521642 .5421 .92 .3697!)0 .954690 .874653 .470725 .91 .763909 .534362 .768.8:17934 .962522 .877. 4 5 6 7 8 9 .506 .61397(I .708969 .57 .928693 .953218 .399834 .508913 .:3~532~ .718180 .950983 .842133 .460554 .968576 .944874 .346220 .55 .55 .927089 .36 .716987 .63.919291 . .572418 .939352 .511s 1 .X43178 .831584 .923607 .!302283 .869704 .549606 .5 .497452 .4719!97 . -.846303 .872679 .332678 .882462 .937747 .847341 .963211 .38 .961829 .71 .X11(-M .866709 .421261 .897657 .475814 . .:16108’2 .61 .447S57 .801 1x6 .!)07754 .283013 .895789 .76 .397320 .56119 .498726 .597 .524186 .905939 .887272 .929531 .638918 .320439 .510186 .910455 .93~0~8 .536904 .86470’4 .588835 .708610 . .893913 .!-)15788 .52506 .x4 .886314 .70 .(WI .714599 .Q~~~$~ .630210 .362325 .8.

00 I .{}!).WM530 .YI.!)96581 .5X.98401.5X .9(.!3!)3340 .5 .994119 .997493 . .9S:34S.98 .!)w2.5 .997?00 .989466.5:{() 992939 .985060 .!)!)5. .9!)6257 .9s6.97.996896 .99 .999721 1.982!)48 .579 .5 .999947 1!) .!KX)O(M.5.999849 9 .!)82407 .ww .5~~~.997777 .!13 .974897 .973048 .95 .973669 .979045 .989924 .999571.998048 .979618 .!l(}!)Kifi .5 .99I‘2.9!)’2114 .97 11.985573 .990375 .r)xiotu) .978467 .5.977’297 .504 .) H .990%21 .!)!)1(}90 .!)7 .993733.7%3 .995923 .994497 .96922S .wlw!) .994966 .9!39400 .972422 .971792 .!-)4 ( /1 2 D3 4) 5 6 7 8 . 0 0 0 0 ( M ) .976106 .980187 .Wmol .984541 .5.!)76704 .!)s1:{0s .!?99212.!)98:30s.980750 .!)70.974285 .Wii.420 PARTIAL VOLUMES IN HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS COEFFICIENTS (cont.!)98788 .!)!W.!)XS().986081 .9778%5 .

421 P A R V T O I I A O L R IE Z CO Y L A N D E R S L H U M S N T N L I ( p e r R e e n ot D a gi t e at i Vmo oen t c l a l eu f r m e . ) L * .

24 .018176 .004444 .003589.011764.009702 .009057.001304.00514~.04 .275 is found to be .00.023835 .025879 . .001993.025360” . .005893. .00379.147347 .002646.OM’831 .09 .275 Refer to the first two figures (. Oin. .021869 .~503 .0009~ . .008129.146Z18 .10 QAQ Two 2:1 Ellipsoidal Headson Vertical Vessel Total Volume= 2. .0017m . .004672. ..03 .029090 .030760 .0944 D3 O.020916 .ooOOM .021390 .0000oO .000075.008433.08 .Gallon cu.WMN15 .00’2143 .006691 .028542 .029642 . f .5638 .56S . multipliedby 7.m15G~.185281= 48.140799 .001844.001431. ft.001184.506 CU.~~lz .0033R9 .~~szs .000146 .006-i19 .317016= Liter COEFFICIENTS 1/D .0 Two 2:1 Ellipsoidal Headson Horizontal Vessel Total Volume: 0. Find the partial volume of (2) 2:1 ellipsoidal heads of a horizontalvessel.ficientfromtable HID= 2.000191 . t.00085T . multipliedby 28. .06 .030198 .023336 .5 .008742.000760. .0195~:3 . .009377 .01 .000108.0031%.000003.020447 .01105.022842 . t. Proceed to the right until the coefficientis found under the column headed (5) which is the third digit.006153.006968 .004zzz.024847 .028000 .m~~ .137.002308 .ms:~~~.Oe. The coefficient of .026930 .75/10= .02 . .000583. .2618 D3 Partial volumesof ellipsoidalheads and spheres = total volume x coefficient (in the table below) EXAMPLE: D = 10ft.026402 .032473 .031897 .00753S .5 lM7 . ft.001069 .031326 .010368. f cu.141883 .01 .75 ft.144059 .27) in the column headed (H/D) in the table below. .00 . The total volume of the two heads: O2618 XD3 = O2618 X 103 = 261.150663 .9719 14!)554 .007250.05 .01!3620 .480519= U.142969 .5236 D3 2 3 4 7 s 1 9 5 6 O .00066S.022353 .019069 .ooO02i. .4 2 2 PARTIALVOLUMES ELLIPSOIDAL IN HEADSANDSPHERES D I 0.S.003006.8X .010032 .019983 . H = 2.oao360.0243:]S .8 CU.000298.0004Z9.010709. .002474 .145152 .033053 .000242 .027462 .148449 1:18042 1:.u Sphere Total Volume= 0.185281 Total volumex coefficient= partialvolume 261.

602843 .36791O .362109 .398629 . .555399 .525490 . .~fj~lgz .682187 .81 . .535972 .476008 .861358 .464028 .544946 .166495 .747823 .417833 .627728 .168804 .33 .312194 .738516 .863502 .289972 .37 <38 .601371 .865634 .62 .337662 .686403 .730461 .720976 .35 .501500 . D COEFFICIENTS (Cont.708652 .811118 .926481 .764837 .) O 3 .5 . .29 . 4 .630637 .851551 . 6 .495500 .633542 .901695 .938483 .922277 .917976 .80 .59 .777669 .56 .834655 .872992 .908171 .5799 .199827 .370817 .356325 .864570 .90449:1 .895038 .712776 .244280 . 9 .60 . .639339 . .562852 .538965 .53 .526988 .929771 .43 .394216 .489501 .352000 .340519 .734497 .854848 .936157 .595476 . .341950 .845994 .694795 .18.923971 .687806 .323456 .610190 . .877124 .176974 .876096 .441619 . 1.561362 .423 P H/D .382486 .285853 .388344 .376644 .523992 .915348 .726407 . .624815 .920568 .933793 .885225 .8z .690606 .707273 .9369:36 .93~19f3 .564341 .395413 .322043 .703129 .201056 .198601 .330542 .479005 .676544 .288597 . .558381 .605784 .658050 .559872 .608722 . .~:]1289 .164198 .780208 .453560 .339090 .53 .648000 .909082 .258815 .743846 . .64 .450572 .283116 .640785 . .232578 .742517 . .621897 .571779 .186479 .309394 .860281 . .506000 .31504)1 .866695 .179334 .577719 .582167 .607254 .291348 .2416CA .636443 . .503000 .354882 .’212231 .507500 .51 .165345 .698969 .494000 .395686 .701744 .887216 .880187 .381024 .28 .529984 .881202 .913576 .645118 .668037 . .5S5130 .41 .626272 .316406 .642231 .257483 . .419315 .191’296 .76 .184086 .480504 .19615. .925648 .400102 .549428 .594r .679368 .760943 .725052 .462531 .63 .592523 .693400 .401575 .773843 19792 .449079 . .2097:30 .820666 .:{4 .882213 .473012 .598425 .397157 . .438638 . .537469 .313597 .875065 .228718 .662338 .157376 .31 . .500000 .435659 .27 .886222 .917103 .591046 .386878 .573265 .520995 .509000 .673714 .547934 .784000 796478 .40 . .434170 .84 .444601 .5281 .17. 16!I!W3 .414870 .677957 .531481 .894073 .66376.906340 .284484 .218526 .715.583649 .808704 . 0 .272240 .326286 .77 .890176 .391278 .614587 .714147 .767422 .461035 .884224 .653750 .443110 .852653 .511999 .437148 .896000 .751781 .429708 .567318 .346250 .853752 .637891 .383949 .918844 .541956 .366458 .867753 .71 .649439 .75 .447586 .871951 .844873 .359215 .823026 .899811 .883220 .528486 .931392 .766130 778940 .800173 .343382 .741185 .620437 .556890 .739851 .522493 .629183 .787769 .565830 .540461 .403049 .928954 .821847 .5259 .210979 .20228S .379563 .669458 .850446 .305205 .39 .317813 .546440 .26 .294106 .716884 .44 .723695 .553907 .923126 .754410 .786515 .468519 .543451 .835802 . ..167648 .650878 .336235 .513499 . .378103 .163054 .689207 .665190 .372272 .365007 . .432682 .197377 .347685 .486501 .329122 .42 .903564 .549 .914464 .408954 .580685 .516 .281750 .55 .893104 .467021 .670878 .655185 .710028 .369363 . .353441 .504500 .660910 .411911 .900755 .78. .753096 .410432 .270889 .188S82 .373728 .298256 .812321 .833505 .287224 .892131 .203<522 . .809912 .15625(3 .768711 .350561 .692~4 .474510 .70 .634993 .700357 .705894 .392746 .632090 .586610 .73 .870906 .594000 .292727 .310793 .488001 .458044 .357769 .404524 .510499 .54 .711403 .389810 .375185 .36 .617514 .919708 .843750 .618976 .534476 .704512 .50 .684999 .32 .459539 .909988 .859201 .324870 .349122 :363557 .52 .307996 .928134 .83235’2 .862432 .727760 .898864 .878148 .5 .905418 .306600 .78 .532979 .88S206 .319222 .56 .891155 .902631 .921425 .420798 .331963 .334810 .423765 .874030 .201031 .498500 .907257 .613122 . .930584 .5 .781474 .190088 .912685 .824201 .552414 .5X5(X3 .656618 .214741 .568805 .17~~~9 .93771’2 .516497 .519496 .299643 .910891 . .40f3000 .643675 .296871 .604314 .550921 .58 .757029 .492500 .927309 .896958 .869858 .596951 .416351 .431195 .659481 . .798944 .58956S .483503 . .85.174626 .646559 .763541 .934585 .254826 .74 .~0599~ .333386 .857031 .666614 .797712 .2084s4 5 .1781.303812 .623356 .21348.302421 .652315 . .83 .570292 .755720 .187679 .456.599898 .517997 .428221 .579202 .452066 .935373 .776396 .477507 . 1s1705 J937Z() .750464 .672297 .57 .61 .344815 .588089 .491000 .320632 .413390 .729111 .407477 .849337 .576235 .446093 .611656 .848226 . A 1 R V T O 2 I IN ELLIPSOIDALS L A U L M E HEADSA SPHERESN 7 8 .911790 .574750 .769997 . .675130 .697579 .897913 . f .465524 .680778 .422281 .79 .737178 .696188 .471514 .482003 .3fXM61 .1734.4970W3 .161912 . .72 .683594 .327703 .426735 .616051 .514998 .295488 . .

9%S94. .9!).581 . 1 .!)!) 4:17 .70 .!)S()()17 .!)s47!)1 . 1 i( .!10!)!)73 .5.!):.997SS2 . . . . .999925 . . . . . .9w:J32 . .WLHw .()()(XM)O .56 .9!)(X311. .!)S0477 .!)!) :. 1ti.!)s35. .S(} O .\.56 .!J7!J.<)~.54 .9973 .98996S .J71 . .!)S0!):11 .997.j .5.!J9W’5S . .{ i \ .992462 .!)S7S74 .!)X1:{S() .f)SS2:3[i.998931 .56 .!)!)ti~11 .j:j.94 .424 PARTIALVOLUMES ELLIPSOIDAL IN HEADSANDSPHERES COEFFICIENTS (Cont. .9s71 .!)-ll. .!194S. .9!)3032 .!)93:.WXW54 .-)O1 .!XI1871 .5S.5 .992169 .993. + 6 7 8 9 . . . . .9X6374 .!)99809 .J)9~750 . 2 3 4 5 .{)6 .5:VZ3 .l .09 . . .gj .091.526 .Wl!lfi!)ti S .!IWLX().f)~~~(j~ . .~)f)(j~ofi .WXWIX). .s47 . S .!)9. . .WJ9:1 .f)(j:l .99 1.53J .!)~I$J24 .!)S5986 .999497 . .50!).~\)4107 .OS~~(}~\ . .!)%359:.99062!3 .!kl:]i(j-! . 1 . .{)7 .!)!)9240 .001 . .l. . .9~yyj7 .!-)9s816 .!)!)S1. .q~om)~ .986757 .WW9N3 .!)(jtj%li .!)96994 .q~ .-. .9S3L94 . 1 .9S920 I .9%{126 .!)(j(j:](j~ 1.9!W943 .~q.999702 .9S:N69 .!)99040 .994(jlj .998:300 .9{19143 . ..q~ . . .567 .!)H96:{2 . . .9!)1’2. . 9 .9!)S007 .999417 .) H/D . . . .9!). . .999(L!O .999997 .{)8.!l.99769z .999952 .9!W.5778 .!)4 .5 .50{)4 . .997177 .j .!NW89’2 .9s7507 .

. . . 0 . . . 60 . 0 1. 60 . . 19 28 24 35 42 56 6 6 72 82 91 16 15 12 13 11 . 9 . 6 . 40 . . 02 15 14 17 26 20 38 32 40 46 53 . 3 55 . 28 . 2 . . . 6 . . 0 4 9 4 0 6 3 1 9 8 7 7 8 0 1 13 44 8 0 33 71 32 80 54 12 88 68 42 . 77 . 79 . 35 . 2 1 5 8 9 2 35 85 33 89 43 05 64 32 07 80 62 50 7 2 2 3 8 4 6 4 9 3 0 5 1 6 2 9 2 8 4 7 8 2 8 8 85 32 8 . 0 11 . . 1 . . . 32 . 15 . 7 65 . 2 0 1 4 5 7 71 0 . . . 1 . . . . 30 . . 50 . 27 . 17 . 69 . 10 . . 17 . 30 . 1. 3 . . 1 21 1 46 1 61 2 87 1 0 3 3 27 4 42 5 68 5 83 6 08 7 23 8 49 9 64 1 . . 7 . 0 50 . 1. 0 20 . 8 . . . . 49 . 50 . 10 . 1 . 20 . 70 . 5 10 . .)8 71 X 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 1 2 2 3 3 4 0 1 2 4 5 7 8 0 1 3 5 6 8 9 1 2 4 6 7 . 10 6 0 23 5 21 6 . 71 . . . . 80 . . 8 3 5 9 0 0 7 1 0 6 10 . 1 . . . . 56 . 9 1. . . 21 . . 40 . 10 . 0 1. 2 . . . . . . 14 . . 1 . . 5 1. . 1. . 1 70 . . 5 1. D 0( 8 X D2 09 . . 7 . 4 . . . 0 0 5 9 90 . . 20 . 39 . 1 0 1 84 2 41 0 . 04 6 1 9 1 1 2 23 36 38 41 52 55 67 70 83 94 . 1. 5 . 35 . 9 2 6 0 5 1 6 3 0 7 5 1 3 2 2 4 2 5 7 2 9 2 5 7 1 6 9 6 7 8 6 0 6 8 6 0 8 6 0 9 1 2 2 3 4 0 5 0 7 8 9 5 0 5 2 2 . . 1 5 1 7 5 3 2 2 0 5 8 . . . 20 ~ 9 ( 1 )9 . 4 . 3 .x D) Di n h e s ( 2 . . 2 . . 1. 7 70 . 1 . 89 0 0 4 2 2 8 4 0 6 2 0 3 5 7 1 2 7 2 3 8 9 . 8 0 9 . . 3 0 2 20 .425 A * O D u a S Iu e a er n e t f c t l f u i d tgeh t u i o d ) ar nb e he sl ( S qF o straight m r e i e flanges snot i a n r S M H 1 eE m W i s l t C y l i i nd d 2 i c a lA : s e F d d S l d l i a m eperht eE e r l il p F s l ol ia a a n p gh n e e r Hi c e a s eh * e ea d a d d Lineal Foot H e D a iH d H of Vessel . . . . 1 . x 59 D 7 ( 1 0 x D 2) ( c n.

. . X . . .0000 ~ ~ . . . 2 . . . . . . . . m 7 7 8 9 cl i i Decimal a -m . . . . . . . Milli- m 1 1 1 1 1 l Decimal M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 11 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 . 2 4 . . o . . . . . 1 2 2 2 D INCHES In. . . . . . . 8 . . . . . i 2 I 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . 6 . . . . . . 1 2 I M II L L I EMQ EU T V A L E N T S T H E R I Milli- e ‘ c meter i 9A D ” ea m . . .D W D g : . . . . . . 9 . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AF 3 . . . ~ 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 . . . . . . . I9 1 1 . 5 . . . . 5 6 . . . . . 1 . .

035 Oz second O“C = 32°F 100”C = + 212°F Length Area Volume Weight/massl Time Temperature MUL~PLES AND FRACTIONSOF UNITS S y m prefix o b m m c d d h k m i i e e e e i e k n I l Unit Multiplied by k n ]r 1 1 t 1 ( o I ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 N i.427 METRIC SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT This systemhas the advantagethatit is a coherentsystem.01 m gs ~ ~ 1 millimeter.196 sq.Thefractionsandmultiplesoftheunits are made in the decimal system. U unit O M meter meter2 meter 3 gram second degree Celsius M symbol m equivalent of 39.Eachquantityhasonlyone unitandall baseunitsare relatedto eachother. mm = 0. dm = O.h o u h . a l6 3s i a r n e d s l i o n e r m c d D h k M c k 1 1 t l 1 g 1 i i i a o o a m l t .310 cu.yard 1.000m= 1 kilometer.km MEASURESOF LENGTH UNIT: METER. m z Z ~ 1 centimeter.001 m *not used in practice I *1 decimeter.yard 0.1 kg 1. 1000 gram is one kilogram. cm = 0. u n d2 1 t e t 0 h u n 2 t h o 3 u m i l 6 a EXAMPLE:Unit of weightis gram.37 in 1.lm .

q 1.428 METRIC SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT 1. cg = 0.001 g $ ~ I ~~ ~ ~ 1 L E o~ G ~ ~ -J &L . kg 10 g = 1 dekagram.001m3 0.001m3 0. 1 = cu. mm2 = 0. centimeter = cu.lm~ 0. dm2 = 0. dg MEASURES OF WEIGHT UNIT: GRAM. m3 1 hectoliter. mg = 0. millimeter = O.001m3 1 g= 1t t G 100.0001m2 1 sq.000.000.000 g = 1 quintal. centimeter. hl = 1 liter. cm2 = 0. millimeter.000.01 g milligram.01 m2 1 sq.000.000m2 = I = I = 1 a* MEASURESOF AREA UNIT: SQUARE METER. g centigram. m2 T LLJ < ~ 2+ o ~ -J ~ L L o r ~ *I sq.000 g = 1 kilogram.001m2 i p r a c t i c n e MEASURES OF VOLUME UNIT: CUBIC METER.()()0. decimeter.

.0002 x 10. 8) 1 0 6 1 .1 0 .3 1 1 0 .4 .8 10 z -1 0 1 ] 0 .4 10-2 10 1 10-5 10-3 10-1 1 10-7 10-5 10-3 10-’2 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-3 Cg 108 107 105 103 102 1 10-1 mg 109 108 106 104 103 10 1 EXAMPLE CALCULATION Weight of the water in a cylindrical vessel of 2.416 liter. .3 1 -3 1 0-6 1 0.J 1 2 0 1 .9 1 1 1 m10 m10 1 m0 0. A O LU S c m R E mm EN S p G mm T F H m m k 1 km l ~ m 1 & 1 1 0 1 0 .21 1 1 0 .6 10 .m 0 . 1 31.) .6 0 0 2 4 E 3 m 3 0 2 0 0 R O EL S c U M F m 1m 1 hl 1 1 d 1c 1m 1 10-1 h 1 1 10 d 3 m l m m 1 33 0 0 1( 0 0 1( 1 2 1 32 1 0 0 3 6 5 3 1 1 1.6 10 .41 20 0 .0 (1 z -1 11 0 2 1 0 2 E A O VU S 1 1 3 1 1 0-1 1 1 . 2 . meter.000 mm inside diameter and 10.1 0 .000.5 1 .1416 x 1.5 1 0 1 .4 1 .000 mm length: 3.4 1 10 p 1c 1m I 1m 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 p 0 0 0 3 - MEASURES OF AREA k h m a 2 a 1k 1 ha l 1 m 1 1 1 1 1m 10 0 10-’ 1 0 1 1 01 ’ 1 1 01 201 4 1 .416. 6 1 20 1 0 1 0 1 m 40 0 20 1010 0 1 6 4 0 2 0 m 1 8 6 4 0 4 2 0 1d 1c 1m 1 1 1 1m0 1 0m 10-10 0m M 1 a 21 0 1 0 1 0 .s 1 10.2 104 1 107 m1 0 .9 1 0 .8 10 .s 10 .000 mm3 31. kg (The weight of one liter of pure water at the maximum density (4”C) equals one kilogram.416 cu.429 4 M S M E d O M .6 102 . m 31416 kilogram. 1 0 .000 = 31.5 1 0 -8 1( 1 -3 0 1 -6 3 0 3 0 -6 3 3 t It lq 1 kg 1 dg lg 1 Cg 1 mg 1 10-1 10-3 10-5 10-6 10-8 10-9 MEASURESOF WEIGHT dg kg g ~ 105 106 103 10 105 102 104 1 102 103 10-2 1 10.

00 80. The National Board of Boiler and Pressure k i n g t * Reference: M Vessel Inspectors.00 10.000 Diameter in inches 66-72 78-90 96-120 126-156 Diameter in millimeters 1. 20 times reducing the object in proportion of 1:2.00 63.50 40. 1:5.00 31. 1:50.000 2.The symbolfor millimee n r n ib e s o oh e )d o r da w w o i n tn f gn o ev l . 1:10.called Renard Series(R1O)of PreferredNumbers.00 6. r el h r d o t Hh e w t e s o ters.00 The recommendeddiameters are based on a geometricprogression. mm (no p s D i b hs m o t a h ea n s bi 5d do a l . 1:20. 5. 1:100. 1:1000 a i with Metric.30 8. 2.50 16.430 METRIC SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT RECOMMENDEDRESSURE P VESSEL DIAMETERS Diameter in inches 24-30 36 42-48 54-60 Diameter in millimeters 630 800 1. n i m s yn m b s 1 d ( g Scales @Metric Drawings: enlarging the object.00 12.00 25.5.00 Diameters in API feet 70-80 90-100 120 140-163 180-200 220-240 260-300 Diameters in meters 20. Diameters in API feet 10 15 20 25 30 35-40 45-50 60 RECOMMENDEDANKDIAMETERS T Diameters in meters 3. .* Dimensionson drawingsshall be expressedin millimeters.500 3.15 4. 1:500. 10.00 5.150 1.00 50.m w r wa A w D I M Ls N A S II O L N LR L I M E T EE l h e n n n E : i g e M I S o ii om s ig lv l i m e t ea tx e p ri rs ee t ese r e s 1m e 0.600 2.250 . 1:200.

431 1 I 2 0 v i I 1 .

’32 .

433 .

434 .

435 I I t I t I II I I I I II I .

II 2 I t II I II I II I I .436 .

m m 0 0 . @ r.437 I Oulclcnm -me -F I 00 - r 4 m ‘]“ T ‘“ * A G - - c i 0 - 0 r-l 0 w) 0 e 0 0 0 0 w.

438 — h — — — * — m — N — . I 1 .

439 t i 5 .

440 1 1 r t I 1 1 : I I I . .

4014257 0.7504916 0.01745 RADIANS ec so 1 1 — 0 2 3 4 0.1221730 0.50614 S5 0.4 .47123 89 0.366S1 1 9 0.89011 79 0.0349066 0.5759587 0.4537856 0.4188790 0.10471 98 0.4363323 0.6 57 58 59 70 71 72 9 0 73 6 2 74 4 4 0 .3316126 0.715S850 0.1396263 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 i2 .99483 77 1.0872665 0.69813 17 0.80285 15 0.55850 54 0.4886922 0. .3141593 0. .73303 83 0.0174533 0. 0 0 5 6 7 8 9 [0 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 .7679449 0.9250245 0. 2 2 2 4 8 3 1 9 7 3 9 4 0.6108652 0.3839724 0.85521 13 0.6632251 0.7853982 0.9 .09773844 0.2 .441 CONVERSION TABLE – DEGREE D D e E w 120° 121 122 [23 [24 125 [26 127 128 129 130 131 9 132 5 2 133 8 134 6 1 7 2 0 GT e R e A E E D s M — o S I i A n N O uS ~ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S te 0 0 1 DEGREE = + = 0.0523599 0. .8726646 0.62831 85 0.54105 21 0.6806784 0.8203047 0.95993 .06981 2 3 0.9424778 0.3 .8377580 0.01229 2 75 6 2 76 7 2 9 77 6 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 ’09 ‘lo 135 9 136 S 6 137 0 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 1s3 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 4 7 — — — — — .9075712 0.3490659 0.59341 19 0.5235988 0.6457718 0.5 .

n n n n e o s e 0 t > ° 4 30 6° 30 ’ ’ s s s s ~ 2 C S 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 14 6 .3 1 f 5 1 1I 8 2 O 1 E 1 X C S A M P L E S o h 8 a2 3 n t 7 r. 0 r .3 1043 ‘Q7“. = = .9 6 2 3 00 6‘52”. 4 0 5 1 r 8 a 4 03 d 0 r 7 a5 6 d 0 r 0 a1 ”6 d 70 2r 6 s1 ’6 a d ag 2 nr o lm 5i 4 a 3i 1 a 4i 8 a 4i 3 a s e v e 8 .6 171053 ’14“. 5 5 d 1 i4 2 3 5 01 8 4 00 2 3 0 0o 4 8 6 2 5 2 6 2 a 47 n78 2 8 5 7 0 1 26 31 71 6 ” ’ ” ’ ” ’ ” ° ” =2 8 = 8 2 2 4 °4 ’ 04 ’ . r n 5 t g. 5 O010‘!8 1 I1 O 00 0’41“.442 C R 1 R R a d A A =~ D n T D T I = 5 D I A 7 – D A E G N R S E R 7 t E O 8 E S E S Ten- . d a d eie 6 2 o l Fu t t i r ao a n bo b : a = . 4 I I 0 8’41”.4 229010 ’39“. N 2 E 9 G5 D Thousandths i Tenths a iiundrcdths s 1 2 ’ 5 ’ 6 o ~’ j O0 0 “. h 1 a . O 1701 ‘19“.2 114035 110 27‘33“. . 0 . . . 0 = =0 . . . 75 . .6 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ’29“. g 6 ea 4 d ° i ’ ”a o n l Fu t t i r o a o n p: b p o o ol m s a ei tn ge 8 26’ 3 3 = = = =7 1 0 0 .

1667 1.’b 81 82 83 0..01528 556 583 611 639 0..01111 139 167 194 222 0.% 10 20 30 1.01250 278 306 333 361 0.1: 46 47 48 o% 0 18’ O“ 18’ 36” 19’ 12” 19’ 48” 20’ 24” 21’ o“ 21’ 36” 22’ 12” 22’ 48” 23’ 24” 24’ O“ 24’ 36” 25’ 12” 25’ 48” 26’ 24” 27’ O“ 27’ 36” 28’ 12” 28’ 48” 29’ 24” 30’ 0“ ‘ and “ 0.000 0 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 :.% 0 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 :: 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 % .00972 01000 028 056 083 0.: 41 42 43 0.5833 6000 6167 6333 6500 0.:\ 36’ 0“ 3’ o“ 39’ 0“ o% 6’ 0“ 0.9167 9333 9500 9667 9833 1.01389 417 444 472 500 0.8333 8500 8667 8833 9000 0.00833 861 889 917 944 0..005 250 001 002 003 004 o’ 4“ o’ 7“ o’ 11” o’ 14” O’ 18” 0.01667 0 0.i: 16 17 18 o. o 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 0 o 0 DECIMALS A DECREETO OF MINUTESANDSECONDS ‘ “ o“ o 51 52 53 ‘ 30’ 30’ 31’ 31’ 32’ 33’ “ 0“ 36” 12” 48” 24” 0“ 0 0333 0500 0667 0 o’ 028 056 083 111 0 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0.6667 6833 7000 7167 7333 0.32 96 97 98 1. 4333 4500 4667 4833 0.: o 54’ o“ 54’ 36” 55’ 12” 55’ 48” 56’ 24” 57’ o“ 57’ 36” 58’ 12” 58’ 48” 59’ 24” 60’ O“ 66’ O“ 72’ O“ 78’ O“ 84’ O“ 90’ o“ 96’ O“ 102’ o“ 108’ O“ 114’ o“ 120’ o“ ‘ and “ .8’ 48’ 49’ 49’ 50’ 51’ 51’ 52’ 52’ 0“ 36” 12” 48” 24” O“ 36” 12” 48” 24” o“ 36” 12” 48” o% 31 32 33 0.% 76 77 78 O. 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 :: 56 57 58 .% 60 70 80 2.: 86 87 88 45’ 45’ 46’ 46’ 47’ 4.443 CONVERSION TABLE – DEGREE MINUTESANDSECONDS TO DECIMALS A DEGREE OF .7500 7667 7833 8000 8167 0.9 722 750 778 806 0.00 009 o’ o“ O.5000 5167 5333 5500 5667 0.% 91 92 93 0..:: 36 37 38 0.% 21 22 23 o% 26 27 28 9’ 0“ 9’ 10’ 10’ 11’ 12’ 12’ 13’ 13’ 14’ 15’ 15’ 16’ 16’ 17’ 36” 12” 48” 24” 0“ 36” 12” 48” 24” 0“ 36” 12” 48” 24” 0..} 13 0. 0 0.?) .

444 + ‘mIwl o & o d- . .

445 .

................................ .............. ........... ... i m e t e r s .......... ....... .. ......... radians .. :ubic feet ............... . .. .... i m e t e r s ........ ...................... . ................................ . ............................... .......... ......... 3 9 3 7 n t .............................................................. ........................................ .... ... ..... ... .... ................... ..... ................................ :ubic feet .................... ...... ............. ....... ...... .... y . ................................................. ........... ........ x 2 8 fl 0 8 e& 3 e2 n t . .. ......... .... iters ........ ... .......... .................................................... . . ....... ........................ . ............................................ ......... ........ ... .......... ............................. ......... . ....... ..... .............. ................ . .................. ...................................... . statute ........ ... ....... . ......................................... .......446 C ( c c e e c F o Fn fv ea mr cs e t i t se tn t a or itnh S nm a g s e hdert s st r e t f iee f1S3m 8e ...... ............. ............................ ......... ....... ............ ........ ............. . d ....................................................... . ................... ............... ...... ....... .................................... ... ......................................... ............................. ... ... .... ...... .................. . ........................... :ubic feet ..... ... .. a ............................. ................................................................ . ............. ............. meters meters meters ..... ............................................................................ .. ........ 0 o o o r sd r y A E c T M U L T I P L Y B Y B T A T O 3 ........... ........................................... .......... .. ... l .... .......

... 458 6................................... Bolted Connections....................................................................................... DesignofWelded Joints ........................................447 PART IV................ DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES 3........................................................... 461 7.............. 463 ....................... 452 4................................ CenterofGravity ........................................ 455 5...................... ExampleofCalculations ........... Beam Formulas.............

in4 M =Moment.5 in2.000 Ibs. TENSION . and d=4 axisof moment on the base.psi n .000 X 60 = 60.psi A =Cross s e c a t i i r o n e a s l a 2 Shearstress.67. (psi) S* = ~.psi.4 .335 in3 z=~ b u SECTION MODULU s y .000 lb. Y Z = Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber. (psi) mm Section modulus d If dimensionb =2 in.67. A = 2 x V4= 0.000 Ibs. the required area of steel bar m f a 2r S sd 8o t e 5m i e p s ) ~i > P AR = — = E = 0. si S~* = AlIowa le bendingstress.*~51’~~o~=0. 1= 10. p ( .L. m A p Single PA = AS~~ (lb) AR =$~~n2) s~ = ~A(psi) ~P P = 2AS~~ (lb) To support a load of 11. t s~~ = Allowableshear stress. in compression.67/4 = 10. 1=42. Z= I/y = 42. in2 S~ = Allowabletensileor compressive I =Moment of inertia.psi.in-lb P =F o lb r c e . psi s TYPE OF LOADING stress. ~ = AR = RequiredcrosssectionalArea. .67 in3 axis of moment throu h center.67I2 = ! . tensional load is: Area.(in3) The maximumbendingmomentat the 60inchesfrom the support: sup ort of a cantilever beam due to a loaJ of 1. acting at a distance of M =Pl = 1.75 in’ > 2~ J P/2+— Q Double SHEAR P[ A – p (in2) 2ss~ M = P/ (in-lb) MA = ZS~ (in-lb) M zjQ= sr-. Z=Ily = 10. PA = Allowable force.000 p s s~ s . in-lb M* = Allowablemoment. = $:in21 s = + (psi) PA = AS4 (lb) p AR = — (in2) The stress in a 2 x % in. in = Section modulus. bar made from SA 285-C steel due to 5.:i.. S = $ = 5~~0 = 10.000 in-lb. P A+ COMPRESSION P A.000lbs.5 inz s~ . in double shear: AR =~ = A 2s. The required area of bolt made from SA-307 B steel to support a load of 15. in3 EXAMPLES p-p J ..448 S A S F T DEFINITION OF SYMBOLS s~ = Bendingstress. lb =Tensile or compressive stress. Q BENDING -Y s = ..

shear on throat 2. s t r American Institute of Steel C o n s t r 5 e n g t h O S EI D Full penetration groove weld tension. tensile .60x The values of 0. tension transverse to axis of weld. shear Partial penetration groove weld 1.600 psi (using leg dimension) same as fillet weld i 1.40 x n ) T 1 x E F L FOR NONPRESSUREPARTSOF VESSELSANDOTHERSTRUCTURES UCS-23 Notes } Specified minimum yield stress Min.600psi (using throat dimension) 9.80x 1 tables UCS-23 0. shear on throat 13. compression. Plug or slot weld .TEEL Bearing Shear Compression rension (except pin eonneetion) Bending ~hear Bearing (on projected area of bolts i s W E oh c J L o e n n ea c t i o n r TD N E STRESSES ALLOWABLE STRESS SOURCE CODE 1.66 x 0.60 x 0. tension parallel to axis of weld or compression on throat same as for the steel welded American Welding Society 13.600psi same as for the steel welded Fdlet weld.60x 0.449 A TYPE OF STRESS & JOINT .

.-

-

P
D E F I

O
Y T
I MO

SR
xx f e t i i ir n

A

=

A

ON S I i zr

1

=

B O I J j N F r Radius of gyration, ~~ = e n a Y =, D . i s t a a n [ ec i ’ . z =n i ’
A = bd I=

b

f = Z = a r = 0.289

1

y
1----1
a
a r = 0.S77

d

. ,, : :: ,. ::, .,. , :,: . E&
Z = r = 0.577d

A =

h

“~~ .

~~ :’ “i Y

y = Yzd I

Z

d

u

k b

L
a
\@

‘=
A = ‘~ bd

A = az

, ,..
—’:”

. ,

,

.

: y = .
I=

,,

a

.

.

,: .

I=
Z =

a

2

Z = 0.118 a~ r = 0.289 a

r =

d

A =

I =
Z =~’–

Z =

/

\ /“

\

E!h ‘ ‘ I
A = bd
-

a —
K
a b — ~ a :“,,.:.”’ Y

+ r = 0.289 U2 b2
A = a y = 0.707 I
Z =(0.118a’ – 12

-r = 0.408d
A = Y= ~= ~ + +

r = 0,289

+

w
A =

( b ( +4 a +b 1 ( 2

a a

a

y = Y2d

Y= I = 1

I=

Z=

r = 0,289 d

-

Z =

r = .. -

Q

451

P
D
A

O SR
T I M Y O N r B
z

O
c x f { ii r be
, A = ~ = ~– : [ i =
-(a z =I

E
=

F

I O SI N
z

. O
=

LF S
Section modulus,

1

= Moment of inertia, in.4
A = ,. y =

?

,,,.,,,.-- ,.,.:,. . .,., :,:,. .:::.:. Y , . d

I= Z = 0.098(D4-d4 )/D r

F L

®

+

,.,, ,.,:.:.:. :,:.,.:,:,:.:.: .;. .......,

-

,

/ f

w

u

r = e n f n

R
Y

S c

A =
[

e o t c w t hi a ol‘ i n l y wl R 1 nh d i e e r0 ~ ;
.:: ::::—

b—t) dA = 4 ~ .1 b – ((l?d a)+ dz + > , ~ + 7
1=

IGi

1 = R’( r z = R’[ r r = O. A = Y= d

I
~ L a

i

5z =
r

!

3

A = bd - h (b – t) Y =

Z= d
r = 0.132

E s d 6 A = Y= I
Z r A = y = i = [bd’–h’(b–O] /12

Z

/4 = bs + h( ?..... ... :~,: fj Y z = r y = != ............... +

A = 2 1 :

i ~

452

C

G

E

‘ center of gravity of an area or body is the point through which about any axis the h e loment of the area or body is zero. If a body of homogeneous material at the center of ravity were suspended it would be balanced in all directions. a ‘he center of gravityof symmetrical reas ass uare, rectangle,circle,etc. coincideswith 1 h geometrical center of the area. For arqas w i e c n h symmetrical r whichare t . a o r o e

Ymmetrical about one axn only, the center of gravitymaybe determinedby calculation.

x

I

Y

-+ . 25
Y

I

c

C.g”

~-

b
a

x

Y

EXAMPLE #1

The center of gravity is located on the centerline of symmetry. (Axis y –y) To determine the exact location of it: 1 Divide the area into 3 rectangles and calculate the . area of each. (A, B, C) 2. Determine the center of gravity of the rectangles and determine the distances a b and c to a selected axis (x – x) per endicular to axis y – y. gravity 3. Calculate distance y to rocate the center of o r m u l a : by the f y = Aa+ Bb + A +B+ C A s sf u a mo rr i eon c e t Aa= 16, B= l s e sf : g a gr 14 n and C= 12 square inches and for the distances of center of gravities: a = 1, b = 5 and c = 9 inches. y = 16X 1+ 14X5+12X 9 = 4462in. 16+ 14+ 12 The area is not symmetrical about an axi:s. The center of gravity may be determined gy calculating the moments with reference to two selected axes. To determine the distances of center of gravity to these -

Y
h

c1
,

a x e s : 1 Divide the area into 3 rectangles and calculate the .

areas of each. (A, B, C)
2 D a d t t e c r me ig hn .r o t a r e e eli r o e v d i sn a hb aa n c t c a e xs na, x t%e t d e s al,t bl, ac, t n a c y – e s x iy 3. Calculatedistancesx and y by the formulas: e t i

( c

\

... 4cj-

hc f t , -i o s

x -+A.
ccl+ 1 - ‘A Y x

x = AuI +Bbl + Ccl
A+B+C y = Aa+Bb + Cc A+B+C
P A a L c

b x 1’ t a

—al Y
X A# M

E

and c,=3 ~ = 16x 4+ 14x 1+12x 3 = 2.71 in. y = 16X 1+ 14x5+12x8 16+ 14+ 12 16+ 14+ 12

s sf u a mo rr i eon c e g A a= 1n Br=14 e sf 6 t a g ls CE 1 s n qi2 ua f a dd =h 2n oeeto a s n n c r s i e g n a a = 1 ibe=t c= 9: sf 4, : b,=1 o r tv ir e 5

= 4.62 in.

4

C
A

O G
T T w f t ” T T p R c I

E

r h

\
A

\

E
a

L
B

c

A N G L E e g h n r i aa t e e n itr e t rh f sly e ADitsa it e nn o t v i o c o e BE, bh the isides BCeand Ah The p e r Cp e n d ii c .s u lt a i s c c t d t cr e \ g o n r t any one of the sides is y o h ta m v e i r t f equal too e t hh p e hi p e gn d i side. t h a ra = ha+ 3 e i r r t t h c u Hence, e l o t

. r
h e

I

Br

R A P E Z O I D D 7 c e g h n r i oa t vl e ji r o t e a l r ABi l DE. e a ln e l

o i th i m t f y s

n n is n he on e dg p i d i

c
1

=

~

(a + 2 b)

‘D

m
1---

f! -J

IEd

3 (a+ b) a + e =

~ = h (2 a + b) 3 (a+ b)
2 b a + )

3(

rA
a

T /<
4

@

b

SECTOR OF CIRCLE Distance b from center of gravity to center of circle is: 2 rc = r2c = 38 ~g, r sin a b o! ‘T E a ih e x p i r e e s g s r e sed d of sector, i w Ah = i c n For the area of a half-circle: b = A r + 3 T = 0.4244r For the area of a quarter circle: b = 4 & X r + 3 T = o.6o02r
F t a o a o r h o a c e irx s i er a t c f lh ef :

b = 2 r + T = 0.6366 r r
b

1

C

l=$kl R
r

SEGMENT OF CIRCLE The distance of the center of gravity from the center of the circle ~3 r3 s a i n is: b = — A 12A = 3 in which A ==area of segment. PART OF CIRCULAR RING b from center of gravity to center of circle is:
b = 38.197 ‘$~$a

&

h

A

a in e

x gpi r l e s e s degrees.

e sd

n

} •ir
o
h

FRUSTUM OF CONE For a solid frustum of a circular cone the formula: a = h (R2 + 2 R + 3 rz) 4 (R2 -i- Rr r2)
T l o o t ac c h P t e i g on r n tta o h e o
by: –

r

c v eo isr nhu f i yr e f t o a R +

c f f

frustum

of a cone is determined

3

I
*
d

h(

2r

)

a –

3 (R+ r)

4

C
EXAMPLES
A
2r-o”-

O G

E

1

1

-o

=

0

0

I

I
lb lb

80 Ibs 75000 Ibs ’600 Ibs b

x

I

2’-6”

1800 lb 600 lb 78880 lb

x=
=

75000 x 50’ + 80 4,017,760 78,880

X

2’ + 1800 X iO’ + 800

X

102’ + 600

X

2’-6” + 600

X

97’-6”

=

Ibs = 50,935’ = 50” – I 1.1/4”

B
I

108’-0” t’ 6’-0”– 5’-0” 42’-0” (24000 Ibs) ~ 2’-0” I 56’4’)” (17000 Ibs)

9 2’ *

2400

b

1900 lbs s &

= 1000 Ibk
+

t

, A[

weight:

x
. q

17000 lb 1400 lb

1

l

9

x

2400 x ~’+ 24000x 27’+ 100ox 49’ + 1
= 4

7 7

1 0 , 7

Ibs. 7

14 0 1 ( 0 0 1’ J. x 8 9 7 o O

O 0+ ’ X1 0 +

2200,900 =—= 47.700

46.14’ = 46’-1] ’16”

4

B
D
E r I

F
T I M Y O
!

O
O W’L F S = load, lb.
V v w e = = =

E
= = = = =

F

I O SI N

N B

P=
R

M F

u n i d f i o trl r mi b ou t e s l y n p ra a n oo f m io l e r n c nx b e= fD , i . s . at t a X i lcx l e e i l t = l n o c o n r c le ncl t or aeA t aef dD de f i , e c t i o n , o b .
=

Cantilever fixed at one end – Concentrated load at free end
K R
~

A s

u

p

R V p= P o M X

P r

= tt = , P X

= 1

x 1 A free end, Arnu = $&

Ax = ~ – 312X X3) + t 6EI ‘2’3

a

P

II p ,

Cantilever fixed at one end - Concentrated load at any point R= V=P b A support, = P t When x>a = – a) Y Pb3 R (31 - b) At free end, Amu = ~
-j

b

Whenx>a Whenx<a A = Pb2 (31 _ 3X – b) AX = p – ‘)’ (3b – I + %
x

6

E
R = V =
Vx = Wx Wi

3I

E

Cantilever fixed at one end – Uniform load over entire span

R

A support,

l14max ~ =

W12

t

Mx=
( !– 4 4

+
1

At freeend,

=

8

W14 A = -

2 E

+ 3 1 _X ! I E

Cantilever fixed at one end – Load increasing uniformly from free end to support
R R

V=w -+-

Vx=WA
A support, = ~m

12

=
=

M

x t 1E4 5

=

w=

WI
3

At free end, A

W13 W12

A a=

& &

x () –

x 1r x

free end, O = + — Z2EI

456

B
5

F

O
1 n x t ’ d ,

12 RI
x

P

Supported at both ends Concentrated load at mid-span R] = R2 = v = P/2 1/2 P Pl A load, = — t W x < h M e ~ 1 4 R2
l Ao x < h1 P = —m a 4 ‘ ‘e ‘ d A ea 8 /( 1 , e =nx– ~ E 1

B
6

1 W S
P

3 = dI 6

E

n– 4~ 3

2 X X/ 1 x ’ i
—a 1

u

p a pb o e r Max w

o t C e n dn tc e l n t ta ra ao pt e d oa n o d h s Pb A l a < b h R~ = V/ e — = n o =
1

nt

d

a RI x m 1

b

R2 = V2 = — W x h 1 i 1– b~)s ~ when a > b A rnti = — A l 2 &> 3 ~bx W x<a h Ax = 3(1’ e – n –X2) b’
A ends,

Max when a >b

MX = — e <

Pbx
a

A o.

91 & (2al =–
= + —

+ $
t
-

–3a’

)

7

S

u

p a pb o e r

T o t R

e nu d tn

a RI
x

P,

P2

V=P

cw o t n q c su n ot o r a qa s e uddpf a se l r , c de h el ae l t a l = x<a h MX= PX e =W

a
R

A center, Arnax ~ = W x h
= — e

(3f’–t 4a2)
:1
I ’31a

– n3a2 – X2}

B

1

When X>u AX (3h - 3X2– az) but x <(1– Q) = ~ At ends, 6 = Pa 2EI(1 – a)

8 Supported at both ends Two equal concentrated loads, unequally spaced from ends + P2b ~2 = + P2(1- b) RI = V1 = PP I 1 a b Whenx when RIQ1 Ml = RI a = – PI – v but X h M2 = R2eb Max w RI R1 W x<a h M. e RI X n = 1 B W x ah e n > but x < (1 - b) MX = RI x – (X – a)
)

a both ends Uniformload overentirespan
R = ~
1

=

WI

-

l V=W (—-j 2

V

)

P –

1

c

e ‘

n ‘

W t

M ~ ( - x x) - m r t- ’ e j a

=

center,Arnu= ~
*

Ax

+

At ends,

O= — 24EI

m

457

B o
,l~lR
2 x

F
ends Uniform load partially distributed over span’ (2c + b) c a< h = e= ~ n Max w lvlaxwhena~:V
W
Mmax

O
=~(2.,~)
x< e> b) u n ( + =
– a – t

X
=

hb

a

‘b

I

At x = a + ~ 2W w =RIX When x <a ~ ( I – a)2 When x>a but Mx = R W x h b) > =( e –a n +
e x =; xx < h
A

RI

a+

X pd a t n P
-

F
12 p 1/2

a ib R=

o o n n ct d l n ta hm ao si e dd a C e e d r t -

s

$tte;e~;er and

M... . ~ V
2

$
‘ i \
/

<,
\

8

$

W ~

‘ M. = ~. (4x – 1) 1 e / n
= &

A =

4

~

Fixed at both ends Uni~orm load over entire span \
R = V = / II[i ;IIII1] ‘ R A e M =
W/2

V n
=

x+

=

-7 w

x( t

)

\ /

x
A 3

I m
x
u
I!!

‘ ‘

1

J center, M = s A t , (61x– i2 – 6XZ) .

d W

At center,

W14
= 3

= —

(1 - X)2

Both ends are overhanging Uniform load over entire beam R = V{ + V2 = w(a + l\2) VXI = WXI V. = W(X– 112) For overhang,
B A e s t u wp
~
=

= ~

A support,

M

= $

t

M. = e ~ r n(lx – X2– a’) p o e t s , – 4

x

t

a

a

Whena
M

.
= — = 1

x total length or A = .3541
WP
M C 6

R,

RI

458

D
GROOVE-AWELD a u Groove w

W

J

FOR STRUCTURALMEMBERS

s

i a

ac a f t m
l e

t
d

o t b m t j

F g

W

t

s

o

t

FILLET WELD
S

of w
‘../ ,. . b

u e

throat

The size of an equal-leg fillet weld is the leg dimension of the largest 45° ri ht triangle inscribed in the cross section of the wel8 .

I-1---J%’
face ,,

The size of an unequal-legfilletweldis the shortestdistancefrom the root to the face of the filletweld. Throat dimension= 0.707 x leg dimension

K

root

MinimumWeldsize* \ Thicknessof the thickerplate, in.
Minimum fillet weld size, in.

over
1/2
3/16

3/4
‘/4

‘/2
%6

ZY4
%

6
‘/2

6
5/8

* Weld size need not to exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined

Economy filletwelding of 1. Use the minimumsizeof filletweldrequiredfor the desiredstrength.
2. L
p 3. A o o w s f p

Increasing the size of a fillet weld in di~ectproportion, the volume (and costs) of it will increase with the square of its size.
tc a e a e vc t c l e on t t b r dri c o i dt a ,c d ea s i i s doi oebw l n e- ,w e l d e i e a c y l y i t i o n . wi pt lr a l n s t vt l e f r t s t eo l hyc r h r ci o ete e ra ve o ne eg tr h e l y e da g s e t

/
Allowable Load

)#
x a t a l p l l o eor a % x 1 el ae f m h w :a b l o

,
%e “ wi d 4 xln 0 n =l 2 o 4 0eIlg “
t d b

The strength of the welds is a function of the welding procedure and the electrode used. For carbon steeI joints commonly used maximum allowable static load 9,600 (9.6 kips) lbs f W er 1 square inch of the fillet weld leg-area, or 600 Ibson a %6” le x 1“ I

Fo

e

C o m L b o n ae i S s h a e r e ao nt t b e n v e c t Io i r b i a ola tl y e m e t h o d

d d s srd r si s t niddr o t e n sa r s u e o nsm t b r ec ii oo c am g b o s g e c ll c a d n s l t e hhat s p e t r noioesn v m y pd cl eoi ns s i n e r d . a s d a c i r i a d f e v .

-rd7

D
~
A

W
V =

J
subjectedto bendingmoment,in2

FOR STRUCTURALMEMBERS

= Length of weld, in. W f = A l l l o o w$o b9 elk a w e p m .l e eg a rr = B e m n o d k mi e i ng n

V e sr th i e c i a k a l r p , = F wi l l d e i l m e el n ts i d o i l ~i .= dL n o , f o 6 wi s k a e p l li d e nd d p l e a l ii o nw n e ea c l l h t p , = Avera se vertical shear on fillet s

P = Allowable concentrated axial ?
w

weld, Eips per lin. inch of weld w~ = Bending force on weld, kips per

COMPRESSION

VERTICAL SHE,AR

BENDING

RESULTANT FORCE: W = ~W,2 + W22+ W32 EXAMPLE #1 Determine the required size of fillet weld. The length of the weld is all around 8.5 inches and the tensional load 20 kips. 20,000 Ibs. ~ . -P- .’ 20 —= 8.5 A,,, o
w

2.35 kips per lin. in.

w =— =
f

0.24; use X“ fillet weld
.

$ EXAMPLE #2

Determine the required size of fillet weld. The length of the weld 12 inches (6” each side) and the load 9 kips. & 62 Section modulus, (from table) SW= ~= ~= 12 in’ 9,000 lbs 3’ M 3x9 = 2.25 kips per lin. inch Bending Force, ~ = — 12 w

Shear ForceW, = ~W= ~ = 0.75kips per lin. inch Resultantforce, W =<W~2 + WJ2 =
d ~
2 + 0 =

v

kips per lin. inch.

W 2.37 Fillet weld size, w = — =— = .247”; use K“ fillet weld f 9.6

t -.v b I S ( 1 d ( = t~ b + o p 2 w d ) b ) Y I d A‘ ~ I Y b t x . ~ d w 2 . x + S 0 hi l d 1 dx 1 – x .x PROPERTIES OF WELD OUTLINES 1 I d2 s.W = ( ( – fm d (2b + d) 2 o ~ t t o m ) ) + a o a o r xt b c . o e m t ) t x - SW. b + : W d .460 DESIG~ OF’ W J x—. = —6 d s ‘~ z I S = b W d L — — b iY S ( S— ( d ( =t~ + d o 4 p w m W 4 ) ) 3 b ) b ) dl ( + d o= — t t o 6 x(2b + d) i r — + I I + b x r (max.stress at bottom) Y --b Y 1-l x s .

461 E C A X .

=---- A vertical vessel is supported by two beams. I : b I : Section modulus: z= 300._-.E C EXAMPLE #2 A X I .1794 in - .---= .000 lbs M Sz=—= 300.000 psi..000 X 69.2 Stress at the center of wide flange: 10. = . The weight of the vessel is 20.000 I The section modulus of a wide flange 8WF 20 is 17 in3 Moment of inertia: 69.000x 1203 ~ 48 x 29.000 17 = 17.~= %6 h.000 = 15 in3 20.. SA: 20.647psi A I Deflection: A A 48EI = 10.000.000x 120 4 = 300.000 in-lb l Required section modulus: z=!! S* Assuming for allowable stress._= ==------=--.000 lbs 1 = 120 in Assume pin joint The load on one beam: Moment: I d 10’-0” P M =—= 4 10.

0 51 7 . 4 2 9. 1 l . 7 15. 8 b.73 8 .21 2 1 0 2 . — E T D m m m R 4 8 o z 3 g 3 / 1y 1 1/8 1 1% 1 1 y2 1 2 ‘ 2 1~ ~ 2 ~ y .463 B C FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS REQUIRED LENGTH OF BOLTS NOMINAL BOLT D I 1 % REQUIRED BOLT LENGTH = i GRIP+ D1MENS1ONS BELOW. SA 36 Nominal iameter D o B T A A l i T A L S l o eS n t i r l s r i el e a ba i f t e s 0 .0 4 24 .0 s .2 4 5.5 8 15. 1 73 1 . 81 9 3 54 8. 5 9 39. 9 6 6 0 59 634. 12 2 6 4 9 . 7 0e . 1 7 6 . . l ed 4 o n n li e 3 s o 6 r n u n s . SA 285C. 12 e 7. 12 1 8 14. 1 5 1y / 11 4 l 8 1E / y 2 .0 . : A T S E H AE 2 WO 1W R S R / 7 n A S H / * N W y ” I1 7 h SE H R E 8 c e R s S A . ALLOWABLE LOADS in kips SA 307 unfinished bolts and connected material: SA 283C.y 4 z D 8 S T B m 1? l y1 l 4 45 4 8 L /E D y I BOLT HOLES shall be ~16° larger than bolt diameter. / I 1~ 6 8 1f 1 7 1 1i 1~ 1E 1 1 l 1~ 1 1%6 1 I1 1 1y16 f ?46 1 1l 5 / 1 6 1 1 2 1Y 1 7 ‘ 2/ z ~ 8 1 ~ 6 1 6 MINIMUM EDGE DISTANCE AND SPACE The minimumdistancefrom the center of bolt hole to any edge BOLT DIAMETER 7 5 MINIMUM EDGEDISTANCE A S 7 1~ H E 2 AA R R / 3 7 4 OO E T DL 8 4 L / / . 0 046 .1 3 23 . 37 lL o wo a e n s l i o h o w a e a Sb d Da 4 g. 9 2 9.0 n 6 vi 3 7 1/ 23 . 6 l .

.

470 3...................... ......................................................... ... 483 7.~....... Standards or Specifications Dealing with Pressure Vessels ..___~~_~~~fi~ti....Specifications..............o.. 479 6...i.................... 474 4. ........ List ofOrganizations Sponsoring or Publishing Codes...............ti............~~~mu~~tiomofiu......... 466 1...................... Definitions ....... ..ti......ti........................ .....~...... 494 . Boiler and Pressure VesselLaws............................. 476 5........ ........................ Standards.............. Abbreviations 2.MISCELLANEOUS .............. .............. t m................... Codes.... Index ti_~.......... Literature..............PARTV......~~~........... ....

A B B E B L B O B O B Bt U v C e l oo P t o t rK a rT i h n e o i r Cr v V a l c e AB AISC Ccw cfm CFW CG CG cm % %to% co CONC CPLG CORR ALLOW COUP CRS g Cse ALLOW ANSI ASA API APPROX ASB ASME CounterClockwise CubicFoot per Minute ContinuousFillet Weld Commercial rade G Centerof Gravity Centimeter Centerline Centerlineto Centerline Company Concentric Coupling CorrosionAllowance Coupling ColdRolled Steel Carbon Steel e t R t bu bo . F ON DRAWINGS 2.466 A COMPILED:From 1 ASAZ32.13-1950ABBREVIATIONSOR USE . w n e e i i i t ASTM AVG bbl B B B B B B b B B Barrel R B We B i r m Wiren i G W C e C n t to c l e C e n C t T C u C l iD n Cu t F u c df p f eC l o c Pt i o Cm o Tt H Cm W u Wn c k e D t T D o w n t ue i r s mD h a l D oE u E i t H e D e t E ve e l D l d W g h a DIA m c o s ri e g o m e b t l v a i c CA Gauge Degree Centigrade Corrosion Allowance DIAM DIM DP Diameter Diameter Dimension Design Pressure . k w d e T cc x H a T . ASAZIO.I-I941 ABBREVIATIONSOR F SCIENTIFIC ENGINEERING & TERMS ADDED: ABBREVIATIONS ENERALLY G USEDON VESSEL& PIPINGDRAWINGS AnchorBolt AmericanInstitute of SteelConstruction Allowance Allowable AmericanNational StandardsInstitute AmericanStandard Association AmericanPetroleum Institute Approximately Asbestos AmericanSocietyof Mechanical nginE eers AmericanSociety for TestingMat’ls.

Feet Cubic Foot Fillet Weld Gram Gage Galvanized Gallon Gage Glass Gage of Outstanding Leg Gallon per Day Gallon per Minute Grade Heavy Head Hemispherical Hexagonal Handhole Hole HLA HLL HLSD HR HT ID in INCL INS INT JE kg 1 lb lbf lbs LC LCV LG LG Lin. LLA LLC LLSD LR Ls LWN m MB MK MAT’L MAWP MAX MH MIN MK’D HighLevelAlarm HighLiquidLevel High Level Shut Down Hot Rolled Heat Treatment Inside Diameter inches Including. Elliptical. Included Inspection Internal Joint Efficiency Kilogram Liter Pound Pound Force Pounds Level Control Liquid Control Valve Long Level Gage Lineal Foot (Feet) Low Level Alarm Liquid Level Control Low Level Shut Down Long Radius Low Stage Long WeldingNeck Meter Machine Bolt Mark Material Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Maximum Manhole Minimum Marked . Forged Steel Foot.) DT’L DWG EA EH EL ELEV ELL ELLIP EQ ETC EXT F F-F F&D FF FIG FIN FLG FS ft FT3 FW 13 GA GALV gal GG GOL gpd gpm GR HVY HD HEMIS HEX HH HL Detail Drawing Each Extra Heavy Elevation Elevation Elbow Ellipse. Ellipsoid Equal.467 ABBREVIATIONS (cont. ft. Equally Et Cetera External Fahrenheit Face to Face Flanged & Dished Flat Face Figure Finish Flange Far Side.

468 7 ABBREVIATIONScont. k PROJ PSE psi psia psig Millimeter MillionStandard CubicFeet ThousandStandard CubicFeet Manway North New& Cold NormalLiquidLevel Number Nominal NationalPipe Size AmericanNational Taper PipeThread NearSide Not to Scale Overall OutsideDiameter OutsideRadius OccupationalSafety and HealthAdministration Ounce Ounces Pressure PlainBoth Ends PressureControl Pieces PressureControl Valve PressureIndicator Plate Projection PlainSmallEnd Pound per Square Inch Pound per Square Inch Absolute Pound per Square Inch Gage RAD REF REINF REPAD REQ’D RF RJ RTJ RV s s/c SCF SCH SCR SCR’D SDV SERV Sht.) ( mm MMSCF MSCF MW N N&C NLL NO NOM NPS NS NTS OA OD OR OSHA Oz Ozs P PBE Pc Pcs Pcv PI —. SF SHT SM SMLS so SPA SPEC SPGR SQ SR Ss s-s s/s STD STL STR SUPT SYM T&B TC TBE Radial Reference Reinforcing ReinforcingPad Required RaisedFace RingJoint RingType Joint ReliefValve Schedule ShopCoat StandardCubicFoot Schedule Screw Screwed ShutdownValve ServiceSheet StraightFlange Sheet Seam Seamless SlipOn Spacing Specification SpecificGravity Square Short Radius StainlessSteel Seamto Seam Standard Steel Straddle Support Symmetrical Top & Bottom TemperatureControl ThreadedBoth Ends .

) Psv R TEMA THD THK TI TLE TOC TOS TS TSE T-T TW TW Pressure Safety Valve Radius Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association Threaded. Thread Thick Temperature Indicator Threaded Large End Top of Concrete Top of Steel Tube Sheet Threaded Small End Tangent to Tangent Tack Weld Thermowell TYP USAS VA VOL v WG ~ OUT WP WT XH XX STG Typical United States of America Standards Institute Valve Volume With Water Gallon WeldingNeck Without Working Pressure Weight Extra Heavy Double Extra Heavy Double Extra Strong .- ABBREVIATIONS (cont.

1990 Spec 12D Specification for Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids.Code for the Construction and Inspection of Boiler! and Pressure Vessels TANKS American Petroleum Institute (API) Spec 12B Specification for Bolted Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. 1982 .SPECIFICATIONS PRESSURE VESSELS. Petroleum and Allied Industries (advanced design and con struction) Canadian Standards Association (CSA) B-51 -h41991 .470 C STANDARDS. Petroleum and Allied Industries 1515 —Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels for Use in the Chemical. 1995 I I I Iv v V V V I x X P M N H N R B R P R W F R B S P B p P E R C o f C C a o P 1 D P o N V P P O o H e B 2—A e u i b V a f I B R f —D Q P I Components British Standards Institution (BSI) 1500 —Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels for Use in the Chemical. BOILERS ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

1988 S f U N N A D N N N N L 1 5 S t S t W A L U L W A I T T ( f f ( F F n a a C C a b n AWWA Standard for Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage 3 5 5 F P F L L A &C P P G G ( L S a U r C a H G P l PIPING A B B B B B B N —1 —1 — 1 — 1989 —1 —1 S P F C L R P G P P P I a T P w P ( R P 1 A P S e Piping Systems m r Gas Transmission and Distribution HEAT EXCHANGERS E S s J M 5 E J w 1 A A a I P G a tt E x PIPES American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ANSI B36. Low-Pressure Storage Tanks.CODES. 1990 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage. 1988 Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large Welded.1OM-1985 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe .19-1976 Stainless Steel Pipe ANSVASME B36.S S S 1 Std 620 Std 650 Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Prop duction Liquids.

Pressure Vessel Plate and Forgings.STANDARDS.O1/SteelPiping. Concrete Reinforcing Steel. SPECIFICATIONS F FLANGES.14-1991 ANSI B 16.04/Structural Steel. and Tires — 135 S M I U S S C B P C o B — 1 C ( O I n ( o t Steel Structures Painting Manual Volume 1.5 1988 ANSI B 16. Sheet. Wheels. Section 1 Iron and Steel Products Volume01.03/Steel Plate. 131 Standards Volume 01.11-1991 ANSI B16.20-1993 E D o a a F F F F w F T P A R F M The American S A f T a M (ASTM) 1989 Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Strip. Steel Rails.9-1993 ANSI B 16. Systems and Specifications U S b S — B a P V L S o B a P V L C C a P ( R S a R a C . 95 Standards Volume 01. Tubing and Fittings. and Wire.25-1992 B ANSI B16. AND VALVES E a V W P P S F a O G T F a F S a S F A G S f S a N P P B S B a L I u American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ANSI B16. 10-1992 F ANSI B 16. Good Painting Practice Volume 2.CODES.

1) .STANDARDS. 198840. SPECIFICATIONS Environment P C o Federal Regulations. Protection of Environment.Parts 53 to 60 (Obtainable from any Government Printing Office) r A S o C E (ASCE) Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures ASCE 7-88 (Formerly ANSI A58.473 CODES.

. o .:t$. beobtainedromthejurisdicf tiomlauthorityrtheSociety.::5.::. Law5Rules andRegu.:.:n:. ore M detailed information availis :::5u. [t doesnotlistalltheexemp- laws and regulations.. .Pressure essels V V e s VIII(2)-Pressure XI-I n Is n e s r p ve N Y u c l e Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska YYYNNY YYYYNN YNYN YNYY YYYY YYYYN Y Y Y YNYY YNYY YYYY YNYN YNYN NN YN Y Y* N YY N Y N N N.TABULATION OF THE BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA JURISDICTION Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida I II NNNN YYYY YNYN YYYY YYYY YYYY YYYN YYYY YNYY XV VIII(1)VIII(2) XI NN YN NN YY YY YY NN YY NN KEY:ASMECode SEC I P 1 ( B o o 1 1 w i ) Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana I o YYYY YYYY YYYY YNYY YYYY wY Y a Y Y Y YY Y Y YY YN Y y N VIII(l).::5:::0.Lawdoesnotcover *-Onlyportions f o Codeorcall jurisdiction Y y Y N y N N SOl.:.n .JRCE: T c o h nt d a b io u e n ls Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pemsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia YNYY YNYY YYYY YNYN YNYY YYYY YNYY YYYY YNYY YYYY YYYY YYYY YYYY NNNN YNYN YYYY YYYNNY YYYY YNYY YYYY Y N YY NN N Y YN YY YN YY YY YY YY NN NN YY YY YN YY N N N Y tionandvari~cesnthe i m ::.ation~ CoP~right 1994 uniform Boilerand PressureVessel Laws Society..:n:::.

O:::.Pressure essels V VIII(2)-Pressure essels V XI-1nservice Inspection.475 TABULATION OF THE BOILER OF T JURISDICTION Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick New Foundland & A U 1 11 YYYY YNNY YYYY YNNY YYYY Y Y YYYY YYYY Y N P S (continued) V A C L IV VIII(1) VIII(2) XI YY NN YY NN YY Y Y Y Y YY YY Y Y Y N Y Y Y YN YY Y YN YY N NN YY YY N N N SEC I P B o o w i l Labrador Northwest Territories Nova Scotia Ontario Prince Edward Island Quebec Saskatchewan Yukon Territory Albuquerque Buffalo Chicago Denver Des Moines Y N Y YNNY YYYY Y Y Y YYYY YYYY Y Y Y YNYN YYYYNN YYYY YYYY YNYN IV-Heating Boilers VIII(l)..’. lawsandregulations. Joseph St..:.::.Onlyportions f o Code orcall jurisdiction SOURCE: Thiscondensedabulation f t o o dataistaken fromSynopsis B L ao P R a a i r Vl n s ee s e R w g l u s n ae u e l N Detroit Los Angeles Memphis Miami Milwaukee New Orleans New York City Omaha YYYY YYYY Y YN Y Y N Y N N Y Y YYYY YYYY Y Y Y N YNYY Y Y Y Y Y y Y Y YN Y N N :::::i. Louis County District of Columbia YYYY Y N Y Y YNYY YYYY YNYY YNYY YNYY YNYY YYYY Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y N y y YN YN YN YN YN YN YN Y Y N Y ‘Urthernformation.C:.may ‘ be obtained fromthejurlsdlctlonalauthorl~orthe socie~ Y Y Y Y .:urJn.::. N u c l e Y N Y-Required yLaw b N.: . Moredei v tai]~d n f oi ar m aa t i i u t n S o Sc d yh i e n e o t St..Lawdoesnotcover *. . Louis Seattle Spokane Tacoma Tucson Tulsa UniversityCity Dade County JeffersonParish St.::.e.:: ::O.

ONCanadaM9W 1R3 CE COMMERCIALUNIONINSURAN COMPANY OF AMERICA 1 Beacon Street Boston. 10017 (212)705-7722 AMERICANSOCIETYFOR TESTINGANDMATERIALS 1916RaceStreet l?hiladelphia. New York. Box 351040 Miami. NY 10036 (212) 642-4900 F U S n ot A i am S ee a rd n ni d(s c a tfUa i d tS s u At ne S t tt Ie s ra K* p t 1r A i m Se o t r 6 A rns c o 6o( c r i A 9 a i s aa n d d a ts i S o n A ) ) d AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE 1220L Street. INC.Y. Rexdale. MA 02108 (617) 725-7304 CSA . FL 33135 For Orders Only 800-334-9353 ASME ASTM AWWA AWS BRITISHSTANDARDS INSTITUTION* 389Chiswick HighRoad LondonW44AL *Bfitish tmdwd S Publications areavailable from The American BSI N a StandardsInstitute t i o n a l CANADIANSTANDARDSASSOCIATION 178RexdaleBlvd. 19103 (215)299-5585 PA AMERICANWATER WORKS ASSOCIATION 6666WestQuincyAvenue Denver. NY 10038 AISG. AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE** ANSI 11West42nd Street.CO 80235 (303)794-7711 AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY P. New York. 20005 (202) 682-8375 API AMERICANSOCIETYOF MECHANICALENGINEERS 345East47thStreet NewYork. Northwest Washington.D. NJ 07652 (201) 368-9100 ENGINEERING & SAFETY SERVICE hMERICAN INSURAN CE SERVICES GROUP.N. \5 John Street.C.O. INC.476 L S S ~AME& ADDRESS O O P D W C P A PA S P O P V 4MERICAN BUREAU OF SHIPPING 15Eisenhower Drive ~mmm.

L N & AA D D M R EE O S S A B B R E V I A T SPONSORING OR PUBLISHING CODES AND STANDARDSOR SPECIFICATIONS DEALING WITH PIPING ANDPRESSURE VESSELS COMPRESSED GAS ASSOCIATION. Pittsburgh. Washington. CA 90601 (310) 699-0541 THE NATIONALBOARDOF BOILER AND PRESSUREVESSELINSPECTORS 1055CrupperAve. Suite 1004 Arlington. NY 10591 (914) 332-0040 U N D E R W R L T E R S A T O R I E SN. Tarrytown. I A B O R I 3 PfmgstenRoad. Box 9101. 1725 Jefferson Davis Highway. INC.C. E UBPVLS Louisville..W. 6th Floor.IL60047 (708)438-TANK T T STEEL STRUCTURES PAINTING COUNCIL 40 24th Street.IL60062 (708)272-8800 3 3 C SSPC . PA 15222 Telephone: (412) 687-1113 Fax: (412) 687-1153 TUBULAR EXCHANGER MANUFACTURERS 25 North Broadway.20210 (800)344-3555 D S 5 E A S TN I T U T E I N E L K 7 0 OakwoodRd. 1300 Summer Ave. Cleveland.. NY 10591 HEAT EXCHANGE INSTITUTE. CGA EJMA F ICBO Whittier. . Va22202 (703) 412-0900 EXPANSION JOINT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 25 North Broadway. OH 44115 (216) 241-7333 I N T E R N A T I OO N L E R E N C E C N A F O B U I O F F I I NC G A L S L D I 5 S Workman Mill Rd..LakeZurich.Northbrook.ColumbusOH43229 (614)888-8320 NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION P. 3 6 0 . MA 02269 (617) 770-3000 (800) 344-3555 O C C U P A T I O N AA F S A L E T N H E AA M L N I T T RHA T I O N D I S 2 Constitution 0 Avenue. Batteryrnarch Park @incy.. Suite 240 8 0 E S R S U DR E N E ST Y . 0 Y D NBBI NGPA O Washington. UL UNITED STATES COAST GUARD 2100 Second St. D. Y40243 (502)244-6029 K .W.. Tarrytown. INC.C.O.N. S. 20593 (202) 267-2967 U V 3 N I B F OO A I P MR R L E L S S SA O E C W I L N Evergreen Rd.

W.L S S NAME& ADDRESS O O P D W C P A P A S P O P V ABBREVIATION USEPA WRc UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AGENCY 401 M Street. 20460 WELDING RESEARCH COUNCIL 345 East 47th St. New York. Washington.C. D.. S. NY 10017 (800) 548-2723 ASCE . 47th Street New York. NY 10017 (212) 705-7956 AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 345 E.

1981. Inc. ASME. Strength of AZateria/s.H. New York. M.LITERATURE 1.P.. 1955. 7. Marcel Dekker.. New York.. 1974. 1973.S. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Harvey. 5. OK. Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis (Collected Papers) Volume II. Vibrations of Shells and Plates. 14. S. W.E. Stresses in Shells. New York. H. A4cGraw-lYiii Book Co. 10. Gill. Theory of P[ates and Shells. R. L. New York. Materials and Fabrication.F. Soedel. 1 John Wiley and Sons. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Inc. Design of Process Equipment-2nd Ed.B.J.H. Mahajan. 12. 11. Timoshenko. Ruiz. 4. S. 1985. Macmillan Publishing Co.Verlag. Pressure D V D . 3. ASME. Process E a S 5th Ed. 9. Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis (Collected Papers) Volume III. Young. Tulsa. Components and Structural Dynamics. K. (Out of Print) 6. Bednar. S. Theory and Design of Modern Pressure Vessels 2nd Ed. Van Nostrand Co.. Brownell and R. 1986. 13.. Pressure VesselDesign and Analysis. Bickel and C. D. 2nd Ed. New York. Timoshenko. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.. The Stress Anaiysis of Pressure Vesselsand Pressure Vessel Components. Vessel Handbook Publishing. 2nd Edition. ASME. New York. 1970. Pressure Vessel Design Handbook. Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis (Collected Papers) Volume I. Springer .. 2. 1972. Flfigge.K.. 1976. 1972. 1959. Roark and W Y F f S 1975. 1967. Inc. Analysis. New York. . W. New York 8. J. New York.

18. H. B. Theory and Analysis ofPlates.Inc.Houston. 16.i s . Szilard.Pressure VesselSystems.Sheet Metal Drafting. John Wiley & Sons. Tulsa. 1987. Chicago. 45. Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment. Design of Flarzgesfor Full Face Gaskets. M. M Co.Hydrocarbon Processing..1974. F. Do eR s Pressuren Vessel Design Manual. M. 1961.New York..McGraw-Hill Book Company.. Taylor Forge& Pipe Works.15. Betterley. Kohan.New York. Gulf Publishing n s . . R. L. 1 Foundation Design Handbook (Collected 7 . Farr. 21. . P r e n t i c e . 1987. AnthonyLawrence.NY.PressureVessel HandbookPublishing.TheUniversityof Michigan Press. . 19. Houston.1995. I n E n g C e lN l w io of d f J s . Inc. 1968. Bulletin No. 23.TX. R.TX. Jawad & J. BeamsonElasticFoundation.McGraw-HillBook Co. M. Ann Arbor. OK. New York 20.. 22. 1984. Hetdnyi.IL. Forman:PressureVesselComputerPrograms.H a l l c . 1974.

—9 C V Rectangular Tanks.— N 6 Perforated latesandShells. 6. —12 HubFlanges. C —9 Non-Bolted losures.12 — Fatigue andincremental Collapse. i dl ys s f Flanged andFluedExpansionoints. 11 P — PipeBends. 4 — TallTowers. 11 o LocalStressesnVessels.— 10 Elliptical pening. —3 Elastic Stress Analysis. S —9 Oblique ozzles.—8 o V ConcreteorPressure essels.24 Nozzles. tressAnalysis.—18 o Prestressed oncrete essels. tress S Analysis f—8.—4 J Bolted Joints. —7 Discontinuity Stresses. 24 HighTemperature Materials. 9 Division ofASME 2 CodeComparison to Division 1.— a 11. —4 External oads.24 External ressure.— 9 Flange Design. —3 Buckling fShells. O StressConcentration. f V —4 Ligament Stresses. esign D ofi—4 . 4 f V — MaterialsorVessels.481 S COVERED BY THE WORK(S) LISTED UNDER LITERATURE ( B B n u r m t th w e fo d T e b e r r he wk at r( s l os ei b) n h t e s iu j g c ht .—7.ntersectiontress I S Analysis. ShellandTube.— 6 Corrosion esistant aterials. tress S Analysis ~—8. R M —12 Cracks.— L 10. Analysis f.—4 o Foundation esign.— 6 LowTemperature Materials.24 Flanges ithFullFaceGasket—21 w FlatClosure Plate. P S —8 Fatigue.— 11.—4 Hydrogen mbrittlement. 9 V — LocalLoading. l — Flange n i d l 1 4Design &Analysis. 24 — FlatPlates Formulas. —6 Filament-Wound Pressure Vessels.—12 E LegSupportorVertical essels. f —6.9. —6 ofFlatandCurved Plates Formulas. 10.— M 10 Fracture roperties fMaterials. evelopment D of.—4 Rectangular Tanks.— 4 TallStacks. —7.—6. 6 — Buckling. —3 Earthquake oads. 9 — Brittle Fracture.—6 A o DeadLoads. tressesnVessels xerted S i E by.— a 10 Lobed Pressure essels.—9 i Floating Heads.—3 a PipeLoads.—6 CreepEffects.—6 o CastIronPressure essels. —3 Stressesn. 4 J — PipeSupports t Intervals Formulas.—6.17 Nozzle Thermal leeves. heory T andAnalysis f.23 i LowStress Brittle Fracture. Stress Analysis f. C —9 Nozzles. 7. 16. —12 LugSupportorVertical essels. —9 Expansionoints. —6 Corrosion. 9.—9 ElasticStability. M —12 Computer Analysis fPressure essels. a —6 Composite aterials. tress S Analysis ~—8 o PipeSegment Expansionoints.—24 C Collapse. —8 PlatesandShells Formulas.—6s .—3 Design ofFlanges. nalysis f.—4. f V —12 Cone.— 15. Formulas.. —6 Fracture echanics.— 6 Plates. 8 — Nozzles.—8 A e n n o aSmooth. —10 Plastic Collapse.e e O C y d l iS n h n e r g i l c s af . 7 — PipingSystems.—8 o LimitAnalysis ndPlasticity. langed J F andFlued. Rotation of. 24 L — Economics ofDesign andConstruction. 8 — Cylindrical Shells.—4 PipeSegment. 7.— S 7. nalysis f. tress S Analysis f. 8 A o Modular onstruction. 7 — Deformations inPressure Vessels. 11 o Plasticity. 11.—4 Dynamic tability.—7 t Conical eads H andReducers. LowStress. 20 D — Fracture. S —11 Dynamic ndTemperature a Stress. V —9 CodesofVarious ountries.Conical ection S whenHalfApex Angle isGreaterhan30°. 6 — Elevated Temperature Effects.9 Mitred Bends.—12 P o Heads.24 o HeatExchangers. 4 — Flanges ndClosures. Fatigue ndIncremental.24 Membrane tresses.

—7 WindLoads.Stresses o p p Exerted r s . 24 o Sliding SupportsorHorizontal f and Vertical essels. 7 V — Spherical hells. —3 StressConcentration.—4 b 1 Vibration. 24 . .S U B ( c E a Cz J T hS u f e d ) etg t l sf s . 9 S —7.— 9 ThickShells. 4 F — Vertical essels V Supported yLugs. Analysis f. ibration f. esign 4 D of. esigns fTall. 14 — SheetMetalDrafting. — TallTowers. 7 — Welded Joints.—10 o Temperature Stresses Formulas. TallStacks.—4.24 I Formul~—3 Stacks.14.—4 V o Selection ofMaterials. Effects fElevated. f — 4 inVessels b by. ixed. nalysis f. 7.—4 Temperature.—4 o Induced byFlow.g S e A i n as l m s i i s c 11 y s .— Analysis fTallTowers.9 Welding.— 4 ShellsofRevolution.—6. —12 Wind-Induced Deflection fTowers. — 7 S.—7 o Wind-Induced Vibration ofTowers.—4 D o Structural Dynamics.—9 Stresses nVessels. nslysisof—6 A TubeSheetDesign. ThickCylinder.—6 S A o StressandStrainDueto Pressure onor Between Elastic Bodies Formulas.—11 WeldDesign.—6 Shallow Shells. 7 Tanks. —3 Thermal tresses. —11 Support fVessels o byLegs. R e i n f oo rO c p e em n e i n2 t g n R S u i p p on ~ — g2 R o o t H a F tl ai n u g ne o S a D d o d s~ e 2 l ie — .—4. f u o V p 4e b Lso p sr4 u 6 S u Lugs.—8. 24 — 3 .— 24 7 n . 9 — StressesnHorizontal i Vessels Supported yTwoSaddles(Zick). esign D ofRectangular.—6.—7 b Stresses inFlatPlates. —22 ShellandTubeHeatExchangers.Design of.

l a rn t h e il e r B e gd u — sh e h t t i u t t Ap f f i c n o g p a ni o e nce t tn p a n g l e s . as distinguishedromgage f pressure. i i n t e pr s b c eta zi t n(n gw ee ed seum n c e t o t ia al e l n r b j ao 9 di ( t cn n e jot t o(r) g i d C n e to a r ) d .DEFINITIONS f a t —T r e o mh u m r a fate al s o v e a s r t o h o rf l r o imi u h togdi ot n t n ac y c h m n s o a o t i o ha g ie c ro im . — Material backing up the joint e t r h o o t —A o al n n uo s r m b y bs f t e e a n r c e f s B a u g a a S c i at b k i a r nc h a m ev p t r i ao an cel gr i n o is e s t i d g i a f f o a s o p l o t cn i n t rr t o m e lw o ew m e xn c tr ee s pt . e — M a a s t e t b i ba ar rl s r U A 6 0 ) w t h s h r e a c t pn i e c yra m p h e n o w l d i s b t o fe r a t f i ol n u r r e e o ua s o t u g a e ll h .l o y l v b f e e —Av t i w y t h p i a ie n o h ac . w a f i ef im t l t a s hl Ii ri i en g a t a h p w l i l ln i t oe ue xw t t hg e r r o a tr n n a h — — A w duringweldingto facilitate obtaininga sound w a j o et i m nle i m w l a y p r o i ti m a p i x n s p a l B w m ue a n j o p i r i v n e se t c o n s t s r u hc h t i c o m e p n l a te r t p e f u s i o n T o b w p je y u oel S o D n oB g u l i e S o qi J un o at B u o r w e p lr od c i e ns f sg e sJ o u p —Ag n w h c o a r l i ep s rc eb n nhd c e e e i o u ca e t s d i n y Fg P e u e tP r l aa t w a e i l a e w c or w ri i i nc tc t h . h e r e o f . m t t e f nh w s i a i — T n e g p l il d ge a if b o rl atmo ai r t cd o s e o i —A el . u n 0 .bd i n a l l q o u d a . o h u r t P e e n e t J r a o u i i t t h t h B t w o w it in o u i a p p o p c r aa et w i s o wn i n t r t f e t h l i o s ui oh hu r t B J d e b a s c t kr i i n u o f m i s el tl ae f l r e . S?3 CD m= m . e l Pressure— The pressureabovethe rc f i e a l — W e i a w l o pe h e t r in f e n f t is or n r q u mi o a aL e w l e d i i q o tr h h n c t m is T p m o m e an t ea t r o y f n p I d n o il tn ow a g o i hn r n d d g absolutezerovalueof pressure thattheoretically obtainsin emptyspaceor at the absolute zeroof temperate.t i o h n w . f r io t e h s e c o m a u n s m u er e a sl al p o e n t t e l l e le y in c s .

l e d 6. c — r o t e ve b a hes s d -u rm r e f te a l c x e n t e i e a s — T m m h e e p f w s e o e od s i d l n gr . r e r . a tp l i ao o t s t t f ea a wh c E t x uo n r e m v n r t u e t c o n o gs e c rs r d uo h cc o snu t h ir n e u ila t ird s t i s t a f sa e m o ae d lt c h pe ol m os ri c c e e us o l la u r y a j .2 e 0 e ) tended completely through the joint. —C h t fa o n o hg i —O m e r nt e o m sh o o e r dii ft n d f g cmo ahb n p s r o no es n d u r cf u v a i e e i bo d t d e s fa s e u f cm i oc s a s s f e h r s arle t s ul s m o i ro s u m f t s es f t ne oe s s n io tc r a p a w t o i ar e nl e lt l y ie a mt d l n a.utl on n c l h t e il l o z n g i s a h f j u n c e st t io hdw i n ed s ifl a n l m e b o e f e e r o e t h i c k n e s s e s . — Damage or failureof a to p tn e . r ef v l e ro s we . n n e o a eens l n yt t dhi u prr x e se i oaa t r l pd n .a t g t m d p ih to p ia l ah a o t n t t rt n n u f h e a b a t o h xw ru t o m t u oo g s hmc n hi y i h e h a i z ri h e o iw nt e o aii o s . s d e uf o ar r m e o m h o e n o m c a t r i a i n o s t r e s s . —A — A m a —T p r u e i sd s e u h m ti m n i p n h n mmgih suios ci b i e i t r e m k p h c y a sr a ico ttce dr ai is lt p i cfhs e r h f o a U o 0 e h o c at v u e( r ssh C. m t e e isd s n d y e s uf o a r d m i a s t o i hp n a c a o p o ag t t o t “ d ee h s cof “ as m i ec mrg a ” e r m f rtp . d i “ i u sn e dg s .s o a z d a o x io t d a a t c a ic h hs na i o t o e mo r e en c a n f ll at n eg . eh tt ts p c er c ed n t r o t a a v a i r he t a r a iyi e nl fif ez i ae n d i t t f m t a e h o m o ag ui n ne p o i nu l f h e n s a o r td m e —T m I db I et c t o r u a o o mls b e o oi ln c r w fi i n t r s eea a s f t e ai i e n g s g u e e s . — i d e f o r m —T l o i w n e o s f u c n o o nd e c tes r a eT rn t r st i ie ners d s t a h i n t e fr m i i te i tl e nl dt w l e i nt g n u su u w ra s e l i ft t e b r t ee oh hha le y dn c at o l j io w a h n e i tr p c e i . en . t e m p ( e t r ah t t ru h r i e eu h xg nph e e t o c k u o n d n t r c n o — Penetration w e h i x c p ech ro -a ef d t i ptn i g o o a h s s i (d U C r G eo -d d. a —Aw Corner o t a je a lt o j d u i e hc d t ti n n oe n t — As o o u l a owa pc p ra ot f xt oi m a it e s l y o t s r a r e s d g hi t n t e t n s si f ai sc aa r n f o n e t er r wa h f t ii i o g at l e c s h e or h . r e l l a p t a i oo va sre t l t ay iu a c e t n n o rg h u sn i ln ge en sy i o fft i o fc v en o ths c r r t ta er a n s e — e r b m o s t ii o o o s r ur nh r a le o m o a g G e i r d n a s d g o sra u .u-i r n en e f se e b r te e f ii noc hr oe I rte i o v o r ln m tion o A cn o tl m y y m .s A e . other line. —T l u es h ton a r a s e g d ko i a f va g i m nn ao an tv de oe r n e i dr i c d e t s a i a fg tn l l e l du o o iw I g s1 r h 1 t c o s ie t r w vo hi a m n n a u . t ef or . r m I k o i h t d f e c o m ps or e s r s t d e m f c ie t a g tt rr hs fo ri u n g i a hsd h o tee r d u s i o n c h t t y h e n d m a It t e d r e a ra h l e b mc r of ee vs i f e .o p n h a p s ls a u a p t s n e s e d eo d m d t b p a h o e d x i u c c oo b s nes g i r y s e is y t t r h e f vaa e l h r i t s o ed e w c >a c u t o s a i a en x cg c eou s os r r e e r p a c gravity in forcing the plate b c a f u a c s tr i aie nxg kc ui e ne gs c y g s ts against a seat. n e t f — A threaded sleeve u t c so n hT e h r i h f e a t t s eh ea brr ye ei wp o v .l d m n t e r e ic e ef p t h a i o d o s .ev r e m e l a on i rf e m n a a r e r h s n o s o r a sf s . shutting o f h a f r od r e un ip n t g u . n h m ue t tn e a a e n ll st ee sim p oae r n a d e v r t t i n c or w e m i e l n de ss i h e t n f mh o ei m l l ad u et i cenn r g io g T iy i a n a r d o l a a p np r o r x i m e a t e el y i n e p r s e i s u s rs c i uepa aels l l a s l l s s y t v f o l e i ht o sh e n e opposite to t f l o w .

t p e r rc h e n i ta a c g tp e i e o rn e c e d u a e r n n a nd e o F t . x aa s m f p r il r s aa l s m ll m e d e ea l i i t t a a h m ae e r n set .c a f rh i p e r s m a n e n tt e . m u l o tt i a pp lp ir a ho l r l rs o aw e aer b pl re e f f tse pr a uhA p f e loi e p i ft t e s bo l s v (a lC u o e d .o S c — T t rf o et a l ht t t f y o hi a a r t e l ao on t g bga t e i ae n s r o f w c o f a uo a m l l eos su m r r bue c a u i d t e td t n rl t ta i o fh hd u p i i aos e s i m a o p d e r os t e —Al o c o mo pl o n e o aa o n o a g r c ims r e o a m e t ei s in m os b n — T f e r o m d a e tt n e c r yi a t a v cl o o e s n f r a e c w e n e ti t t s r s ip t eci e d c t a t io oo t n n e dp to s a te n ctt oi norys n i sd c r h i c h e f e s i u m r a r e n a t h to r c oe nT h p r eo i h l e pt . e g g c r i n o b m eo m b t e r f hs . area of a fillet weld is a s t sb t u p m r eo h — A w e process ind l i n g o o t hd ih r m o e w c ho n ise ul m aa fbh ir e a d r n e s c c t l o e e tl e d t e g % a s t el o t w e n h n ge j c oo n fi a t iln n u ut n r ht xe t c i m g r e .f ds o t e .s h y r ee s d a a i n t n g i tu yt . — B — As — A b e n d l u o rai ma a m u eesi m r u i ea a ni c t t f n t i t mi t a s x h wt t mr hb ur e i a v c es c e m sa e w f e bl d e i d tn dm e l fh n n iuo t t r ml y g i p m e h i . l u d i m e a i e g e i e o n f i l o w m b he m i t i as m aa f hg a a n e c a y —C a o sp u a s s tb a t l i ne i n f g s r e s c o m c p fo a a i r eb l e e r e d s l d s u s e d t d c o n t f t oo l r o m ot ie r h e a s s . m a r t a i e n g g t l t h e ro ot ah c t e a T l s e t th w r c h e iae s a u l a s t s t s l e T e f s t e e cs s t . h l e (ue n U C g l W t o r -h l d 1 a l i ( ( .t s hi t t m a an t t n eg c u t g t h r d e e h s sa r e s e i d i d ci f s t t l l r o a r i co t e t n m i e ho u a a n h c e f n f e s i Fc t s s e l t e o p i r tc a n ea c i nd ep x r a c l ah S ei — A t ber u e e c o r n r vt oe n m i h ti e o t r i l s ns .t s ea n c i s t s i a r c n c g s r u e j l o ao t c s it a s r ot s r w e tri es a l s h a h r i s a ti n t s i n n t i ie t c s u na r w pf pa l i m i t . e c o n v et n L o n c he t.s r h s E a e o t n um o o u m r t f c a c te o n f a ic r ilu o oa n s l t c c t wj t fs eo U h eii c s n n v e e sste s a p r e e ots ir t n t e r n s si f ai sc aa r n f o n e wa i f t ii h h c ao f oe s w dr bs c oht t i ao n ee i ncl h n nl t u w d e l s a v t mi o vm e l al a ud enm lr o e o a yl t n i t a c nl ce Al b ss i jb u el o e .a e w i b te d f r c a ci t nu r g e . l o n g t ih t t o cd n oi m eap lir e t n o eu e ns t r w ri ecti t si a ptt h xy e ch i a t s i t a b r o oe e m st ess h mt m b a un b e a WeldedJoint —Theefficiency b e I n i s d o i m u e t t d . is m te s e s n g e t n of a weldedjoint is expressed a numerical as s at t p r o p e o hms i r is nf t e mt t r o e n o s oe a j eh a ao i s d t g nn e nen s i quantityand i u i t ds a fb h tx t t s r i aue h l u e s r . l lt e c l t t r e s w l b e i d n a s i a g en i o v t i o fc ve en e tt c r r ta e ff as oh s r a d l f pt ao ro t a t t iea a w c nh t u on w le e s e lb e h. w o p h ri p i n m o — Aj — T a bo a m i h lt se i t t te r y e i fn t o c o ph s b o t ia e i bs u so n p a tl j o t t p a b e p enc r mod a nm e fwn eot i l r yt m h e n od ei u tx u tp i ta pn a l s l di i th i n e d l o g d i n o b r oe c a r kD c u ki c mi g e i balr . u — A w t h v e er h l c ad p h p g e d e o i e s — A o a mt t s ae c o t m e t b h b o e f fr e r n e a s o u t d lcc r t o i m o bf o i f m mj i s e e A ? f ee h g n n a w a e trl l e d o d e eh n d r a o e o se r s i n o o s n o d . l n eh tt F i w al e s l p l e e r d c a t n h d e b t l d i me e e n i s h j uo sr d o i e o .s ot e r w —ifAnw e n t s t y a o a pe p r o tl i m a x p r o p o r t A o e a l l s t y o e r lt i n i a . t eu n l . x i ra a n mi ogig r na lp eh ei d s r urh n r re s d t t l f . t ire a a t l i l od n s c p p n t w d .

r d 9 . s w a g f i w l o w a i i a pm p t hs i o c ha tr ti o n ta h t l e o u f t p r a e w s o sw un i t r u e o hf do h h u rl t l e e — f S r c to n le a iae n i t t i s e p e r co e n l t oe gm e ce a t t s ah tr f s ba n h e m e t a l . s Th m e c o loh m l m s .f 1. 0 7 g e m g t a n w i m leb e l m ap s d l t o rs y ey e ne d g l it s ch a r ( sr c b ofi e d n er i s t e l ea w d Ff iii n etn .i i n us m . t p r p e os va s ew r s rt ir lst t ie sh l h s u e m a b p a r t s i uc s c ge r rp let y i i bt il z ea u tl a a p h g i i T o U v no W e Cs . e p lr o u p a w h c o a r l i ep s rc eb n nhd c e e e i o u ca h e t t dr i e na y t g m e n t t . 9 e ) — P r e c o g o rh a a g p rb i c u a s i ri t s b r 7b 7 o C 5 sv ° a u i e c o i o p c i t ai t i r o n b a o — F n p o a r n mr t p i e e f n d y e r h u i ma o f ae i r m ten ac b . d j o i n e d e of f oii 5 c i( 5 e U0 t c W o . j o t iw b ( e hC l d n e FullFillet —Af wi w l s h l e i eil o ts d z e UW-15) s e e t t t hu io tch t k h l m e ioh s n s m q a n e n fe e r e b r o l i d — T e ( e n h c na c o y s l u e r n e d ) j o i n e d .a ia d a l h — T a a r e p e n t a o b p s t r o e e l a xstu a t ue a r e h e d sl m c e b i e(i t t o e i t s p h -e oea i fn d l i ) l.. z t G W e — A a d o ri lg w n s g od c ime nsa f esg e nns o a r lm aa np i g o .i p fa epl o n l l r i y c o e n td a i s e l o re feno e s v n i l o cs nu e n gg h m n e g n -an tF 8 b Me 7 od 5 Q v ” l —eD e . 1 r a W d e5 ) w i t e e 7 l na i sd 4 i s s 6 h o 0t e s 0 a t 7hrr — v oa v le m asu t s ee aw e l d . T a ht p eh r rit r r n o y e e it ep e a l e c h e e r n n e t i l. e F & (f!!b u e s II . G a a —A t S te v ha l l a ve ev ss s w l r p t c a f T H y d T o— s t ce a o t mv c h f el ei ts t l r i sp w w s i a b s h ut b a aet he l r r et l e e d t t j p c e s — O w a i n t e h w iy h e t iq1 t cu t 1i ma m / l x h eoi h as o m g e s lw hbh o a to p b ee d d w r i s n o a m i a r t u ao a i l n h l s y e a d l l w o o p a r btke bl me s a u g rr r i e m s is o d w w eihc w r ehs d oc e c s h et n v d oe 1 ths t s d 1 ep e rl h b e r % s il o ae s s as t ep t r as e v n te o n o g t r b e ee t m ea n e m e a nn h u s a tu w t st h n e a o a sf s l a u g ie d f . . c r w u i r h e n e s s . is n n g -.T w F f t a p l t j a n ( m t d i hrm o a o e n a eq i e o ung h e l s f t i g f nl l l a e e d t i 0 et .sk i lt le e ed e r m n e d . m d w m co d t l — Low ductility o a et i a t b u aoo h r y tde i o o s ona s t lp g r ho d i c aa e cl r e hc p t yr r nor o y u c u i l g c l r eA aik n nla n a n g bgos . c n a s n r d s h c r c a m o sp pr he e s r s i u c r e . a r a b e l e s u s o o t i l e e n e o tn m s a ib t h w e nre a i ila ae d n e n g oe f l d .ag l eu a. i a tb n l 1 e l l l o o wf oa w i b s l le e hl tl qd e a d ut l h a l a n s l e —A w m be d ae pl o d s r o to w d a u( e hc b m l i e sn d ie a m d u n m o t a r f e f m i i aeg l l rt b eo a d i m et en a s l i l s nh g)vw .o s h n t e ey u t ye l p mb wh o t h u n ie h t e c m iy s hpe h l e l r ii fc as ll o .ta s e u r sad. t (u Ur C Ge o .t e r o t i d a to i o h e .T o n h e d 2 h e f e . t i l l7d im mdh e es n s s i oe n .i a o n m oe i c yp ea y on to ppt e m a t o t t e e s r r t o li r e i sm t a ox t o r r rm r e o s is ms i t c i e u s p r o e o l e c c t e r o s l y s s i sr . h e n nC 7 y T 0 d 8 ) e S t sa no g d ar a o p o d h r l l s o v tw fa r f b lwl i eu s l t et s l la s c dh t i sn g e a o e e r V Ua n o a tz r z eh i ln f e t r vs ei m de sr t ss n o c ea n er l o s e s 4 h o ies 9 vt 9 f rr atn ’ ve l 0 s o uhss a ) e f s e re e l S v t rf a ge l r u oo s s e a (t e ( C U i o l . t r e oe p a e t r i a a — H i n o G a l v —aA n p z pci l o gy z a i t tn igp e rngef o ft r p m r e h o h e i a u n c i a n o i c t cd d r h r i c r l i h a f e a r A r pi p c lm u b cebs ahs t d .

d e t be t c mt a hab cl t e r is h a rey c s e o l c a s ph oa s l ua l m t i.d2 2 e ) h f e —A 1 h g i e n .u oi m o y i n n a d r u f m r m n e e dn o te tnh e a o s t a d ii d c mfi g kis o c rc n n i il w i c h o en ib a hec c t n aiw o re t r ) . s t m a m t ah e u r f a e ae c l r oe r n r i c tt r u e L a mV i — A v s t h e e s a s e vs ol t i e e xe l a mg isr n a o p orf a se s ia tr m n a e d a n e tt i n t r.r e s o ia m t a ta b n e c br i ia maf pi v n o eg c ( s t y C. o n i r h tn e s —T s i o b u i o l t iv h t t e d e hs f t e se r r e m li n o e t s y e f e m a g x p i r a p e e u sr g a t i uts s i m m s r e t t g h l o iih la a q ( e tt U Ceh is Wr d l .d 6 0 e —S u F n Wi d l e g el l e er d t e e . —T m u m r f e s ss it bs o i s l L S u t b —hPt a a n g cl eo a n o s ui s ei s s ptn er ur. — U A 6 0 ) —L v af i d e r ei i a d i r e cl t i o n n psl . w h i m eu oi t a l o m l d h w o sp e a q r r ob a t r et i e r a a he tps e edc iri fb iie c ca h c s e p f u b m s t y a( y U C e A ro . — T o ( a lda ti r n a eo d r s o g s r o T i l ooc t u b h cs so i n. f t d e t o de i sc c t ni tr io en tn i t i o h o o t u p a r efn u r —Aw w c h o n ol i s n u i ifr t ef a r n oc n o m ea n t sr e e t s d u e y w a h n o in T r c y d i os c oes n .n or a o t t y h p e e sr . c l o p a e e v d i eg ts r l i m op o aa e ei dda r s n h s w t n e es co. sl a ie t o o dh ns d . q u g e K ( s a T c o s l L m i dn h a e m i p e mt o u oh m o n o f o lr e t l h r w e o x efo t i v e lr i e a j a do n o s cai m t l n c e o to o p .i or t hn d n t g o t e s e re h p m a r e e t n a t l . a tt o f p l c a d f d G o . c h e b t n n s a r o x d ny o l gi d iie sfd u n p a pt gir oe n s i s a o du .s lA e -l l d 6 . e e ae o kte d em n e e t h e e e d h e i n o tr h mi ci e k n n ag al s u e s s n x co s e l l L Vi —A s e n es d l ae . n j in o d tt ih e l w nd m wac s n h t t s o ie e a oxt l t sc m het n i t t e rr t a J —o w A i e a ce rk . m Si t e e e u sx —l T h l o r o e do g l hi tld yi e z e e d d l . A e x f b a m o p od la i el t . b < e u n . it t ei u ie i r sha f t t ar r s u r i i c e s m re a ca g a ol l e l t o n i c y s t o h y h t i up e n sc eeh ffre l oms i s m oa i m o m p a o ps i to ia p oc en or t t i p e a r n m d s r e s d o t M a lI l — e r i b h l e era t t. u ao d 2e ) o a c o mv p i e i o s tp eep dr to ea s t l e fs f o m T t u L i — T a s m e oe s c h m t to a ii t lo e n ri ai d de sl t i e g n n p ae r prae tr dh i e r es g n a e f a b e t s h l v us s t s ou sh b hbe a t e wj lt a o rce l l e n n o ta s w . s u p e — A n u m e e ra x i p l a lel o s v c l r u e a t r o t sh t or a hres ein o vg fet e th Ce a di ( U w e o bl d j r te a to d z t. nn sd t C o ( a i.s .e n2 e C o t g o o t h v a o a t hl e p s r ohf e r f i q i s d a n t lg we ir i o h Iuh t s f a e l e o ee s nd p . 0 e ) r e p o UC t A e ( r o d .s d 6 . 0 a 2n a ’ d . e A e n a b e is m ro e rgb b sy e u td r a e s d i h n y g a b r e k e p r o m a b ta s e bir i nl a gl o l yw e . n s r a e d s a v g e i n s i onn e g e x r l t i n ts e s ms u w r o t .k 0r e o lm e s c h e 0 0 m o l6 y a ’ d 0 7 n v . s t r e k l a w a U o 0 e u b n e t nd e a e d in nos lr g rin t. o f v m a n <g 4 a n n i < 2 c V . r e b r i t u t t p ce rn e ee o h t s c a e i d T l s . —Ad o c wu o mh p o s l w l u l e o dg r t .m i ia mspecifiedo l n e s s i t a s d f e hsy e materialthat m b u q o su a n i u ta adv t c h su a e m r m s f ha er o a t u y nl l t m u g uf i eti d l v( ao Uh s d e G n .t a efa m de g e r r . y< ( e e t n l t s h : f n dt s l m o n d e x c r l e iu n s o i r c e em e n ft .t i p o r p u i h c i b r u o n sk b w p e l as n c e y e d s e d . o v e r m l ap pe ap ai tn gg a rr s t e h s o et r l j o m i o e nf b a ia e l dn l y e s tf .

s t t wt t h —T c o mo i r h n e i id f i oc ta u s s s r a v v eh o a s a atlo r io tc s k e u ec c sn t n n h o s — h o o n er e m p n n t a f l r e h b sqy tn e u d mi l u a d l g e ct u re e os h ss r e f s e si i d o e e rena t i ro A t . u p b d f n — f u i tls t t uh ir ar iu ap e o b e a o u n 1 nt ndin d h ce s n d i d ln e h P o 1 i v ln ip r c eo h ge pe n 2 s i d e a c ar r — A groupof welding c s m e h c a n l ht e sw i h’hhshls M o — u pl r u oi s w ) e t hw s i i d pi fr l t e me s s r u. m a u i .c l i a b t r square of eitsh a l y l ew o o p a r bae l i isie u s a w r k n sg r un u r distance from the axis. 1 = n r’t where r = mean radius of cylinder t = wall thickness N d t V e —A ea d l l ve a e T it a spp h p ko r f i.t t h e o e i o c r t D be ceo rof le x a si s d.d d. e n n es uu a t t sr f e aaenc l c t ei h r h o d ne . b o w w rt h uo i epr o h . 6 3 ) a i t z or s c o ma ol e ia t h n c g c a l o z i h s e i int f b re t e ee f o ps a ras a to u r Sce s c o c a s d r r em r n a n e c e i l g s i e on a m c v t ese i u t on b b n je e feb r sc y b m n o r f ttd a oo -s e i n oe n g u lt m a g e t li es i r nf c s s l i i t n f l oi ht ri n n m e sore s e e d c 1 t iy0 C n0h 0i o ” m F r i c r. f s e i i t a mb rr es e u t sb rb b s j e e n e 1 rn c 5 t d e m o o .r e .or a t t r umori o e t . — T r o c a h ho u a ts n en h eg f e i e af t r s wt r r e ti u s s s t s nh s t f ct r i t a a o i ot h n e p e he r . T r o c a h ho u a tt ne n c n f s e o e o eg i p r s e w rs r ie it ev s e spt e oe n c s i t i o l— He s t u t ns h t r e t a t 1 b i F no0 g c o m p r f t ts cr i o v ane u d i n n i a r o ex t n b c s e s oo h i ti a i a o li h t v p a e ce a o et u n r f r t e m i c r a t lo s wt t ir p rte o phslo r i Fi imn mn eo il ro h s t o a s e omt pi r s .lo tli no co s p F o s s e o l a t c e e r n o n i s o at rts o e p riw ci a oi l c s o t t hd u s i ea h n tn sr e e el mi n g s . a s r e s mi s a a u a s snkt tc e a e i iu t n s ile t sn e t s l i r m e a r e a t — T l o n g s i t uu d r i nf e a au f c o t e p a eftb o l a pt e i r n b g u h o 0 0 F . s d t y e o ta r s e u h d — A m t i s i t or a e o m n c e n abt ntt h g u as p r oe a n s eo n t c c e h f . t e a P i i v i l rf s b n a m a u t t o e m r o o atedh tl sla . rig ne m i g a e e r n i o t o i p e oh n i nn f g e .eu eaa m s i es g b . k a a s e u l i b p e t a es b t eol t t eeh o t t v t The Moment of Inertia (I) p r r e e s d s i e t e p vv r ie n c g v e e l u r it e f h for thin walled cylinder q o u p ( e e U C i A n o tn n g d6 . sl tmu ie i cn io tr f m ad l o i n zc ei o r a o o l ll l i l u s yf c a t on g n a i t s f t a h e a n mo s m e i nr e r n s i o drn . — T r r e o m ha tt x a ii e c o n p d s i twu h t i p e r t o p a fohe r i tr i n l n er ol eo nq f ua r i aal nr c d t dt u o i o n h oi a s t a e o s p e .a w s u i h rs o e r m i s e se s f e i l n m p e l e y la o e n m i t c oe phn e s r a fht e e xas mo l a e t x h e g h I t Q n e t . c oi t r t m e gn h cn nio e m m i i i r a l i m i t . —T t e m p t e w a b h mu iar r t m o t e p o tt v a ha b e f t s p eo c ieo ftr o h p U n su G Ua e G ( -n U C2 a 2 td - — T i a i tlt a t i e n c lrheo fn e i t i s s s i ar ee (ed o s v t i h A0 o . M oo m e n t f eo c n t so a m e l e e r i —At — a f no e c T m o o ih m n o e e n tr d tt e ti t f ee a r ofm s i h u n e r o f e t a e f a a w r r e it as e pt n e a c h t o n axis is the sum of the —T p r a et h ts s u + p r oo bd b t u a c u t n ol a p t d r i ve y . 0 e u about its transverse axis. s a d n e c d e i s s sb ia e rt g ty u w oso eh hd e t t n m i o un l e i f e l a i d ti if cif ir e e r c et in no t n s .” . s e a t ir o n a a c e l .

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m t in r ae l s s s d e v i a s l b o o w eh l d ev n done dv ye u r m e p o a i l e o m a i pt r e e fr v a e s rn tsl t s ue os m ii h m i a f d n gz e e a s t h i n n aho sr p mh a o ln t lu t y l au e a d d ed r c h t e a m pn e r g a t e r e .s Uon a g G . d i n s je a lt o j d u i oe hn d t ti — t e u n F n fWi d l e n c o —Aw el l er t partslocatedapproximatelyt rightangles w a o — F p t l m oa a px h i r t e to eachotherin the form of a T. m a n u h u n d u r tieoo lw e r a n t a t h io hc k p n a a ip si dp p e s sf ie t h t e e s n f . c o m w t e h aim ic t a k bl u hea s m r c l n l s s —T ( f t d S H y t p r t r i v o ai es v h a io e t t h uls s p or h e s i s gu e r n e .o ee n h s u m e i i g t s ’ hae s w t mo a e l e f i r e t q h u ia i c rk o ra rh os o i d oa nn c e t c e n d ls l s w e e n (UT)—a nondestruc- .t d h 2 T “ d t h h i s ct ks n.nhe e i l s chs i n a —Aw m t eh ap l o aad o dsrl ee a to d oe m cm fae rvec a i d ai l lls y s lc t a a s b n l w e il p d m l e o i n g ptt n n e n e rt n ph t n tl mla a i e ul fhi amc t d u r o e e r a. i l0 p t r e C e e p e )n eon o gm n s rr h tt s .w o swe i ii u d t o ft y n i o s l a o d d s d d uc h o n .U G S 2 C 5 ) C . 1 T “ r e t h h ui ic t k . n o t h i cw k n n oa i sa l srl e lo ts o s wi ao n n c e s m i c e r h i n ac u l tu sa d nl eil s d h vn daar gb lee e u s — Us t s esn ni t t s i r il a l t h o t w l e e o f t t e m o o he rt a ( t eu U rh e sA o -tt f d 6 u. m i u sn d s e ri t i o l sel r mv n cao e a l t b a e h o t s dn 0 te h 1s ( c.d 1n 6 ) m a s t u e bt r a si e t a r te etc c oh i j c l d a f a c t e n g w i tw h i s t e a h n ro d i u n t g T. i k C g hi r n — T m a sxh at i m r 0 u e ie m . —T a m s ho p t u u o n en o r e a r e a .n ie an e l gslg y at r u i h l n e a c r t h l te o h m s t a r s aeu b ls s ec e q r s a e c d t k a i s n l u o o c n n l g f m a t e r i a l . r e s r d r eo P s ent a t t s ei me t a t s .nt 9 h e9y d d o r C n )s t a r t aeibeam of ultrasonicvibrations e ( h o produceof c t a i U G -n s 1t 0 0 t ( dt bh )me (CodeUA-60) t e f p n e o un a t rs ie c . ce e h s o s ’ a m s t q i r n d —n c m s c e p b u f t o ir t e m t h D u dh v y ia ee s s i f o n o A l . ro c e oa a l l oi e z pe e d n i b l i s c o ra rl o i s iw ( oaU nn Gc e. 3 T “ n to h m i ic t kt . d te h s ( c i k C g e on s .e 2e s 2 b uf )e .m ue e r h sh e e a c sn f bi w m l ee l et l d a y ld . r a u fm i it n e e x t c w a e m l a r dd se e . s r u c n pt i ii e t s h o p r h t l e n u i e s ne gg nh t r e u e n n s i h — T d e v e oh c o p y m e cen c l l i t t h i a fa c( n rn ab gs e i e l a n i h d t t w t h g e r ap drm io haed c nl ttcy s i c g g l o iri h i r gn i a.bs a l pt n cr i rn e d bu a n c o n eu d ni d t ro i r b m Vessel i —oA n i f y s u t f t e m p o e b r d a it u t r f h ec er o i r r nym g f a f l i f e e c io e e x pn aT n hs si e o trf . a g so s — A s e l f . ok r n i e z o so snl t ay l s r e q u ih r d e m e e n ett s e f o r r tivemeansfor locatingand identifyingnternal i m ti t np r i ebh n o a ss a lus c rut le discontinuitis y s e s c g e e a t id o n detectingthe reflections n b they a o u i t U r l G i f .it t e u c — T n il l ta e b — U s e iM vP e o r p s a a l l e l l to w l b i l e rde r a twt i o cl e a y v d a t h o h c r l c t ib h . i u n — A t e c o h e p wo s u i e d n i q m i w e t h t e l iei o ch s clt c fr ni h l der a o l s t s i i dd ee o . — d e vb a m l ao tp b t d e e r ii a a a y lcn a c t e n t e hu n eeo at k o n nh b e t a el r n o s n ia g l d e i . T b f c a l s t c o u i r eiaees t s eri ssd u a h p l t r th e e n r o t p ha r ie t g h r s a p p ee h r sm i e s ss ei t l e a i f g h b oie t o l b n vt ea e i n p t r e a e d s n ts ae utrl d r e b r m e e n ehs d i — A g e n rm i s g y mts i a efd e t jlt t ta g o ca w e a h lnlo et e n a u eon f o r f m u l l a oo te s v .

i n h o s s o t r a o e s l l e a c e g t . — I u rr g ert h aof t ils n t en p o n a s W r I o I t c o n s oh v u et tws in oespn leh dl ri fai p n o f d u d I -i l c n i a anrn abg ct t e .m a g t a c ar r i . o n . e l uf e a e t s : uh o h t r e s p o s r t t en hns ace sp r ur mre nes w t s t uhs trd r ie s h s c -i s a hbr a ei n c r a i i a .r e hf tu fl r at ei f lnh u o i t m rs ew . e r .is cs e r tF e ur a t e s o se g y n c w . m hda o a t i l e ud d w n n e mt hd ci e o h nt rt d ihe a n f u l e c t e a o n d i v t i p c l re v s he i c t so n d o u c O a f m a e lee xa tr hy y ap r w b o ie u n t i i li s o l d i n e f dt n . r a od m b n n p . i . ac s m a e t ru a n pag ls l at a .e .me e h l a d d i n e n s e s t o g u g . e tscs n o m c. 1 S h m i e e l u r be a . da ec r r l gc e a d r a s d t m g . ph i . u i r i i p m o pt s do e r s st t a e nn sg t u i b i t t 2 P r we s p sr o d c r i.w e i i th esln i at td cr . f s m a ott t e m s i e rh mu e sr t is o ir o a el m u s e mi o i e w o r da l tl e i lra sr oy n n ow n y yd s i ito r s e t n l g h t .i i l ne g s rc i e ta. w t n o e ih i e d el n s o t b i m —T —T m m t e a tp h r o awi je R —F l e w hc ae n s e os r t sr lw o mt n t m a t d eh e r i a a t l ses o. aa h t f o e ts i nf ah e t ll t m n el e ae h wl r eo. eu e d r n c f o l l o w s : b.r i t r c e s ue g r h c e c ae r e s bs t t r r C i (c s t U hea W s e oe d d.i l e s n ns g ds upper y c . e d f t g i r g a s . c s o a hw tw r e h es e i r s t s —T l h y m d r eo a gx rt e w n aef ce l u la d le . h o r ia z t o l n y oa p lhi .p y 2re oe a s) 3 pb c n o oc ie eu rl f n g u 7 s e s e r e t m w i p ix i a u a r t 0 b p no h o e . lr r s d c ihee ne c s r l e s da e g e h p ow t e s t d r n f o u t dr oee n p i o s e t i ht t o d e h s m —T m j e o h i t r u n oia i e s nl e g s e s p c d n m a w ke il nd gs .

.................... s h i n g ....................................................................... 13n f i c a t i o 9 7 4 o n to r a c t i o n f H o r vi z e ...........................276 To cylinderreinforcement..........................................236 Bendingof pipe and tube .........483 API 650 tanks ...... u t t Weld. centimeter.................. 184 Commonerrors Detailingvessels....... 181 Thicknesses....................... l 8 .. el o sn t s a 9 l s 1 2 o n .......483 Anglevalves ................................... 14 s Clad vessel........... 280 B v ao p le Segments of ........................................... 2 2s s c kl n e l 0 o n s t r u C t Si o n C o V c S I S f ........conversion to Fahrenheit......... 484 Accessopening................................... 159 ....... 439 Millimetersto inches..... 446 Gallonsto liters ................... 300 s r c l e of c Circumferential tress ................... Anglejoint ....................weightof ....... Completefusion.......... 443 f 8 3 Degreesto radains.............. 484 Cone.......................................................... 484 Factors.............................. 69 Combustibleliquids.... 441 ............................... in................................................................ g 2 3 6 ................ 438 Radiansto degrees .... 258 Area of surface..................................................................................... 4 t l e n e s s u ...........................110 Chemicalresistance Allowable ressure p ................ .............Circles........ Internal.......186 Centerof gravity.... n .. . propertiesof ................ r o so l i 7 g t7C n i -divisionof................. 404 Circumferences areas and i ... 224 Allowable ressure..............28 Metals................... 36 Frustrumof........................... i............................... Conicalsection....... ...... Allowableoadonsaddle l ............... 20-24 Dimensionof m...................................34 Internalpressure...................... Wallthicknessfor internalpressure...................................................... .................................... 4 l A A A 4 9 Chipping..................................................:.........232 Carbonsteel.............. tickness f.......... Cylindricalshell head......................... o 140 Chemicalplant piping.............483 Checkvalves.............. 20-24 Automaticwelding .20.466 Checklist for inspectors.........................241 Arc welding ..........................r at c t t l u e 4 e r i t.......................circumferences w l ea d ............484 Chain intermittent IiIlcl Weld ...366 definition ...... Preferredlocations................................. ......... 4 8 3 Boltedconnections ......................................................... 2 E x p t r e ........... f ... 300 n b dc eh ......... 335 Externalpressure........... ............. 367 Absolute ressure p .........463 Bolts....24 Externalpressure........................ 4 r c e s ..............................................IN: E Abbreviations ...... allowablepressure...............203 Appurtenances.................. 4 l l o y 8 3 and areas of.................................................... 4 B B B B C ir e n s e s ru l rd e ..300 Planes. weightof.......................................438 Litersto gallons.. 484 l oo p ab n e c ............ 18-25 of gaskets......... t ...... 4 l s a s ew s C C r f ri .........................................................allowablepressure............. 440 Poundsto kilograms.....425 ASMEflangedand dished head................... Ccntroidof an area ................483 Definition............. ‘ p a c i .....20.................................................................. 290 Circularplate.....483 Annealing............................. Allowablepressure.................... 470 Combinationof stresses.......................... 20......................................................... 224 s Allowabletressesfor paints............452 Centigrade..................................483 Base ring design ..........................................................................vd e e r c i i o mn a s l s 8 3 o a degree.................. ...... ......483 Capacitiesof fabrication......... u3 r e r sn s a l e W t h a i ................................255 Abrasion ...............433 Poundsper sq...................................................... 253 non-pressureparts .......431 Kilogramsto pounds................... s.204 API 12Ftanks.............444 ........................... Codes .............455 Bend allowances of Steelphltc ...483 Area of circles.........................483 Backing........ .......................... p flanges ........................... 484 Coderules relatedto Services......................................................... 79-83 Beamformulas.................................... to kilogramsper sq...........................234 Ilcnt pipe ........... 442 ...... .................ne................. 439 Inchesto millimeters...

........441 Descriptionof materials...........................................22 W ......... Eccentric Eccentricload................99 of metals.........of seismiczones................................................341 pressure-temperature rating ...................418..... 484 tall towers ...................................138...................................444 Fatigue..................................................strain ...177 Expansionjoint .......................20........................................................ Flangedfittings........................ 184 Flangedand dished head........................conversionto centigrade......................... 3 t e i g h D a m s a .....................215.......................... 484 2 Corrosionresistantmatcrinls.......... 289 Doubleweldedbuttjoint ...............485 Elasticstability ................................. 361 Cylinders........................................34 locatingpoint on .......486 Fillet weld ............................................................... 61 map...............................................67 Illcctroslagwelding..........437 Cornerjoint .................................485 Fiber stress.....................................................485 Elastic .......437 Sq.... 484 Lengthof... 484 Degreesto radians..........................18$22 Endurancelimit...................................425 dimensionsof ................... 240 a i vessels n g Dimensions ofheads.............................. 24 area of surface.........28 Flrmgc dimensions................. meterstosq.390 4 ............................ 291 Ductility...................................prcssuretemperaturerating ....484......................... 1 448 D e t ofpressure l i ...............................Sq....... 52 weldedjoints ........................... 191 s 8 4 Extensionof openings............ 18..................... 32 Thicknessfor internal pressure.......................................485 Filler metal......486 Fittings....... 42-47 stiffeningring ........................... 483 Deflection.............................................................................................................. feet .................... 443 Decimalsof an inch......................................................................293 partialvolumeof.....................................................395 pipe................................ 484 Corrosion.................................................................. 330 Discontinuity................................................ 68 Deformation........... 485 Drop at intersectionof nozzle and shell ..... 66 ................. 139 Weightof ........485 Divisionof circles ................ 484 Couplings.............. 15 external ................. Flammable liquids.......................... 335 Eccentricity.........................................................definition........................... 413 Wchling............................................................31 f charts ............................200 Factors............................................................................. 468 Definition........................ partialvolumeof..........................335 externalpressure .......361 7 weight..............................485 Elasticlimit......................................484 internal.............................. .................. allowablepressure............... 126-127 welding......................... 426 Decimalsof a foot ......................22 Area of surface. 192 Designpressure.........485 2 2 Ellipsoidalhead allowable pressure .... ............... 31 Designspecification....485 Earthquake....... 18............ 195 steel structures....................................... wall thicknesst’or internalpressure.....................485 Fahrenheit....................................................... 425 Externalpressure............................485 Efficiencyof weldedjoint .......................................................................485 lapjoint .. c i m a l s conversion............34 thicknessfor internal pressure.........485 Engagementof pipe.........................235 Erosion............... Creep...421 Cylindricalshell allowable Pressure................................ 22 area of surface................ 447 tcmpcraturc....conversion....................... 312 D e o a degree.................40 Fabricatingcapacities............ 64 ... meters .......................................................484 Fatigue ............. 426 Definitions.............................. 18..............28 weightof ................ 4 s t g ri ne g Davit ............................. 128 Externalpressure ......................................................... feet tosq...............................361 dimensions.......................................446 Factorof safety ..232 Fabricationtolerances......485 7 5 of horizontalvessels ............................1.................485 Examinationof weldedjoints .................................425 dimensionsof ............................335 externalpressure ......................................conversion......

........ s .......... 439 area of surface................... 194 2 3 l n s pc c h c et o r k ’ l s 2i s Maximum5 .............. 487 I n s o e p c et i n o in 1 n p ........................... definition......boilerand pressurevessel ........................................................ g of foreigncountries... 2S1 f o c s o tn cr eu ..descriptionof............................... ....................... 297 e r t m a h u l a 6 G v l . 1hydrostatic pressure test Lugsuppport. 8 .. 487 Junctionof cone to cylinder.................486 properties of .. 487 Lapjoint ........ 28S workingpressure............................. ............. 118 definition............. 8 ............... ............... 108 p r ............... 18..................................486 L temperature operations ....................................................................... 291 F g p u i . I n s u l ao t ........... 487 Laws... 4 8 7 ...243 Geometricalconstructions.... n m t......................................... 487 volumeof ............... 487 Joint penetration...268 ...................... 186 3 1 conversion...................... r ..................... Gate valve .....................................................................................314 [..................... 1S Lug..................................... 487 Heat treatment.................................375 Liquidpenetrantexamination........... ..........................22 Liters to gallons............................. ................. 2 s o b l e m 6 8 G s i f or ............... 189$190......chemicalresistanceof........................4 h w e ii f n ....... 109 for flanges .28 Magneticparticleexamination......................................................... 139 d i m e n s i o n 366 .................. ..... 185 o w Hydrostatictest presssure.................... 142 8 7 for I n p t r e ............. 315 Laminatedvessel.................................486 Gaskets....................... ............................. 34I ........................................................................................................ 2d e ls o s c k l tn a 6 cylinderand plane... 479 pressure....... .............................................. propertiesof ........................................... 118 ....................... e of e c cc e ............. 159 Killedsteel .......... 474 Layeror laminatedvessel ...................................... 4 t Joint! l el l el l d efllciencies. 187 I[ydroslatictest .......... 486 Materials.416 Linedvessel ......................4..................... 13S........................ o g ...............486 Liquidpetroleumpiping....... 438 ................. 1 m Lengthof arcs . 13 I n t e o cs e c t o i o n n r f e values....................... allowable Literature ..... 487 Impact stress ...................... 487 test .................... 486 Malleableiron ............486 dimensions........................ c t 5 allowablepressure............n s g ae p i l 2 0 8 Isotropic................. 487 Kilogramto pounds......................s n . 487 . ............. 14 1Iingc.........................486 Ligament......................... e. ................... 4 o eo v l e dLethalsubstances. 487 F f wiu ..365 Generalspecifications. welding .........................................o .................................................... 2 I { i gs h ...... 174 3 6 F F h r Gage Gallonsto .. a ... 425 Loadings ........ 28 4 I n t e w m.......... Is.. 487 weightof ..... 241 i n p t r e ................................................ 487 flydrogenbrittleness............................... c ........................ tflanges1 .... 1 3 dimensionsof ... Ladder .. 4 e Lengthof pipeand coupling6 ao l b v e 8 for openings..............ta l le o y e l 8 6 Longitudinalstress.................... 2 7 6 ................................. 4 ................... 119 Ileads ............................................................... 293 o r wall thicknessf Locationsof vesselcomponents..lifting ...............r ...............................w l t e h aia .......................487 stress and cylindcr .............34 ellipsoidalheads..........4 ..... .............cylinderand sphere................................... 4 r i t et e n t l d pipes.................................. s of stud bolts.........................................................................................................................+........... 4 n az a p t i h o s 6 G rw ....210 1Hemispherical head.... e.......... r ........ ............ 487 s 6 Liflingattachments...................................................................conversion.................. ................... ..........................................i f n ...................................................... 2c n ot r i n e 7 of nozzleand shell.... 102 f o ....192 Inchesto millimeters.......................... 2S6 u c ................. .......................... conversion . 1 r e r s n s a u l 1 e stress5 ..... 172....... 16.....drop 9 .. 237 G i r t i...................................2 u l..............................335 L o pointson t i n g c a externalpressure ............... Longweldingneck... 1 ........... 4 test report............OW-dk)y S(CC] ................................334 Liflinglug .................... 4S7 Leg support ...... 2 s r m u l a 5 8 dimensions............

......e .............. 3 a s et s ............ e 4 8 Partial v h e a d 2n ....... s .......................... l......................... a i...................................... P po c w...l 3 i rca k tnlt.... 1g c o n ........... extensionof..........30 n d p i ............. 4 i Plug weld .......................t ..... ..... ..................................... 3 ........................... ....... i... 488 Normalizing............... n.......... 9 ... P o ul 8 n t a e i q c u en a ef ls s ........ 4 r s e e l reinforcementof..........l ........................... ...... 2 g i p o ei nr d e P r el fo eco r a r t ee i dos n s s v e c o m p o n e n t 2s ...... 4 s t i c i t y 8 P b l e a nl l d o................... i ........ 476 Propertiesof pipe............................ ........ 153 Nozzleneck thickness.......................................... 3 t e i g h f 9 P f is i t y ..........e ................. 1 Reactionof l e f on p e ng i n g t1 ..........h .....247 n .............. ......... ....... e o ..... a................ i .. 3s e n s i o n f 3 0 Randomlength.... 129-137 d e .....i ...................................................................... 3 c ....................................v ....... ......... . 9........a u l r er sn s 1 e 4 w o ......... ............... f8y ........ 2g t a i l i n weightof ..s c ............. ...........................n ...... 4 sa o nt ’ si o o .......... 488 Non-pressurewelding............................ 488 Nozzledetails...........u l9n a r g 8r a c t o 0 r y 4 ..... 4 s R a to 2d i a s degrees.......................................... .......... t .................................. 128 P r ve se s s u .................. 4 e l u 8 M oo i m n........... ................................. R f................ ......................... ......... 272 Primarystress...ni ............. ... .. ................... er ................ 489 P P P P 8 8 8 optimum vesselsize.... ...... os ..............1 ................weightof ........490 e n g a........Measures ........... 317 Needle valve........... 321 Measurement........... P po c w... ............. 3 ...!.. 2 3 7 a w ...................0t e r e ........... ....488 P r welding........ 488 Nipple ............... ........... n P ot k ui l c o o gn ....... 1 s d Pd sl w 8a o ...... metric system of. ............. m i ........... 2d R e f p r o o p.......... ..208 Radiographicexamination... 0 f l 4 0 f l 4 8 ............ .............................................. 488 ........................ 2 2 2 5 ...... p tu.................... r .... 488 strength .............. 2 n e 3 g 4 relationto platethickness...... ... o n d ......489 Organizations....... 413 l a w ............................. 488 Surface............... .....ne...... u . ...................t ........................................................ t .. inch to u n d s e q r .............. 224 Metric System of measurement ..................... i ........ s........... 414 o t Paintingof steel structures....442 s p ..............T e m r e r a...........rv s a .. e....................a ...........490 P e t refinerypipinge..... i ..................... 3 g l t p i b n eo m s 6 P c i ........... 4 s weldingof ....................................... .......... 4 e2 n1 ne a c l i 4 n g ......i2 s l u ur e f d detailingof .......... i................................................ ................................. r................ 3 f o 8r m 1 M o o rd i u ......... .................... 244 P r re ve s....... 2 8 0 d i m o ..........................................conversion...... 4 4 0 n 4 .................... s e 1s s n tl e ...... 4i ...... c o o s ....:.....e v f s lau i l e 4 r e Operatingpressure........ 244 P r e s s u r e ...................... 2 h i f c k n eo s s r n p t r e .. 244 Nozzle loadings........... 2 t g e m e n 3 5 ........... h e e i o n o M i t n h i oi m c u k m n s s r a df i oe gx r a a mp... kilogramp s c e n tc i o m n e .... 4 r o s i t y w h o t e r ees.........................................1 f l. m . a.. 427 Membrane stress ........... h oo c l y lu ................................................... .................................................. 4n v e r s i o P t ...................... ................................ l ... o s e ................ 488 Neutralaxis............. o ...... . 4 gl i u d s i t Pf y v 8l a 8 v g ..... chemical resistance of.............. h e a t i n g Openings............................P ................ 4 e h e r 2 2 Radiographing... 3 s e r t i e f 3t t 8 a n............................... 2 po i d n eg s 0 P l a ................... ..................... t e ...................... 488 Metals................... 4 d e n t al t a tm t oper sq............ 488 Metal arc welding . 316 Mitered pipe ...................... d e Q 1r fuas.......................t .a7 8 t .......... 488 test .................................. 488 s t o ir s ............................... ........... 2 g i p oei nr d e P r el fo eco r a r t ee i dos n s s v e c o m p o n e n t 2s .. 4 e l n a l 2 e t i e gs .......... i. 4 f s c t i o n Oxidation..... s ah h e ..... 140 Nozzleweightof ..............g ....... .. 122 P r e ......... ................... 489 o s Packing..489 e s s u r e temperature.... ................. e.. 2 8 3 7 8 P-number...................... n ..490 P a s s ....... .... 15........ ee nr t f a 8 8 489 i wall t Nameplate. o ............... . 413 Pneumatictest......... i...... ............. ............................ r e................ h t f 0 M o e ld a . gc........................ .. ............................... n ...................174 r o l u m P b ei ........e m ....1h ..122.. t ............r ... ................ h t 0 k l d i n f 7 M i l lt i m n e tc e h s e r s ow ........... 4 8 9 Radiusof gyration ......... 2 k a ........ 332 s u b e f 9 s 5 1 9 . 4 P r oe f s ...........427 Mist extractor ...........

... 13.................................................................................................. .......................................... 367 vessel...........................leg ....... 212 Slag ..... 437 Squaremetersto squarefeet....designof...... n 2 f s g 39 ............... .............................................356 Ringsmadeof sectors........................................ 492 conversion....external........................................... + ........................................... 491 for oil storage ....... n n dpressure ... 491 Studbolts............ esign .........49o Seamlessheadjoint efficiency.......... @O Section modulus ........................................................49o Single-weldedbuttjoint .........................49a Scarf ..... ..................... 492 Solutionof right triangles ............................ externalpressure ................................................................... 412 [’hcrnml a[iguc...............................weldingof......................176 vesselsection ..................... 458 Stud ..490 ...... 195 rest ..... 29 definition............................................................................... 491 Stressvaluesof materials..22 e e o r S $ R e i n o f o o pr ce i n 1 gi 1 n Spot welding.399 Shell...................................................................... : ........ ............... 492 of vessels..........n.......................... 203 I’ackweld ..........Code rules ............ ............. 22 rest pressure.........49(I Scheduleof openings .................................................................................. rectangular......................................18......... 191 partial volIImc of .....491 Structures.......... 492 Skirt design...definition............................ 49Q Right triangles. 52 openings..... Size of openings....... q ls s for internalpressure..................... 49( Resistance welding .. 447 Stiffeningring........................... t.... .......................... o n ........................ conversion.....49o volumeof .............. 313 Standards............ 491 ranks.........................86 in pressurevessels....................conversion Specificgravities...........................416 weightsof ................ 31 externri! pressure ............ .......................................... 369 weld .... 34 rhermalexpansionof metals.............................. solution of...... 122 checkwdvcs........................ 444 Specificgravitydefinition.... 49o Shop weldedtanks......g......................................................... 7 R e w t u h i ai r c e k l d n e Squarefeet to squaremeters........................................................319 ranks...... 491 Steelstructures. 14 in largehorizontalvessels supportedby saddles...... ............ 190 Stair ..................................... 47o Statichead ................... 491 ....... 204 Slot weld ........................................... ....................allowablepressure................... .........491 rensile strength... ...... 492 Specificationfor design stress ...... 272 ~ymbolsfor pipe fittings.............................368 Seal weld...245 Screwedcouplings.............49o lapjoint ...................... ................ 437 Stabilityof vessels................................................. .....270 temperature. 18.... ..... lengthof......R e f r i pg e r ....... 481 Submergedarc welding . 98 dimension....................................... 274 Rootof weld ........................... 18-2.... ............ 357 Subjectscoveredby literature.........61 map of seismiczones ............. 189 Stresses........ 109 0 .............................470 rest pressure ................................................491 ree joint ...... 64 Services......448 Stress............. Residualstress ...........40 construction.. 492 f rhermalstress ...................... 122 Shearstress ............................................. properties of ............. 76 rail towers.... 290 Seismicload.. 491 Staggeredintermittent filletweld..... ........................ d .................................................... 2 Slendernessratio...... i.......................... 48 Strain .. 2 I ( i a ................................... 69 in cylindricalshell................................ shop welded................................... 1 i r t c o l.................................................................... 491 Stainlesssteel........................... .................... 492 Specifications ............................. w thicknessfor internal a l l R c i n f o C c c m c yn t........... . 176 Secondarystress .. propertiesof. 102 ....p i... 49o Sections.........................combinationof..................................................415 centigradeto Fahrenheit............. 492 Sphere............................ 450 Segments of circles .................... weight.....................................designof .............. I Scale............ definition.49o Sheet steel........................ 181 Shapeof openings .......490 Saddledesign...................................................... 27(! Ringjoint flanges ..... 447 Structuralmembers.................................... .... 491 Stressand strain formula........................... ............ 237 Studdingoutlets ................... 49] Supportof vessels.. 375 Shieldedmetalarc welding ........................

..................... ..........................................Thicknessof VCSSCI wall..........................................................418.............................................. ........ ......200 packing.........definition.............. ......... ........................493 Vibration.............414 Topicscoveredby literature........................ 174 Unit strain .............. ........................................... JtjS of nozzles ... .... 177 weldingof .................... ............................. . 178 locations........................................... 18-27 .....................definition........ . ......... 148 galvanizedsheet .......... 493 24 7 ...........definition...... 4r e cl u a l ta s for internalpressure.............. ............................................................................. ............ ........................................ 179 Volumeof cylinders.........54......241 rod ....246 sheetsteel ...................375 propertiesof ..... ................. 234 shells and heads .. ..... 482 8o 2 code rules related t .....................................................399 Threadedand weldedfittings.........................59 e .................................... 18-27 couplings............ ............... ........... .............126 insulation.............. 174 Unequalplatethickness examination.... ......481 pipes and fittings Transitionpieces........................ partial ....... ............492 e on i 1 2 sizes f o p ................................................................ plate ....................332 vessels .... ................................................ ........’ for pipes ................ M.................... 492 designof .........412 charts .52 4 of shells and heads......................493 Vessel...................493 U....................... ...............mturc Vortex breaker................. 21 Wind load ................492 W j e c l oa d ..................... ......400 Transportationof vessels.................... 287-288 plates ...... e l d d Typesof w Weld. .............................. c i pr ................components.................492 metal..... ............374 for full vacuum....................................320 Wroughtiron........ ........................................ 170 preferredlocations......... ................... ......... ................................... ..... .........................................244 Vessel.................................. 321...............493 fittings ......... 1 Weights..........................definition............................................493 Yield Wallthicknessfor internal pressure.....492 Welding...361 V~]VCS .......... ...........414 Throat...... .. 140 flanges.......................... 492 procedure.................................49 bolts.. bendingof............................................... ....................488 of solids.............204 stress................... 1 n g r s Ultrasonicexamination ......... .......................................... 49-51 ... 148 definition.................. of pressurevessels ....................................413 Tolcranccsof fabrication....416 Windspeed map ........... 264 Workingtcmpc.. ..............399 Tube...................413 Tolerances...........60 symbols..... .............492 Weldedsteel tanks......... ............ ....492 nozzles...395 of pipe wall ................... ............... .................................57 ..................... .....413 for nozzleneck............ r1 i t e s t ei eg on d Undercut...........................................492 Weaving.492 openings... .. ......................................................

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