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16
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bmomaA'rJh toHweYkd YJ
a&muf&mb0rSm rif;uAsm&GwfwJhtcg..
rif; ighu.kd ..tdyrf ufweYkd YJ qufo,
G yf g/
jyKcJhaom...
aumif;rIwdkY\tzdkYudk
igcEmu a&'D,kd vIid ;f awGyv
Ykd w
T v
f Ykd
rif;zrf;,lvufcHEdkifygap/
arhavsmh&Da0 rl;,pfvsuf
t0dZm&JU avmifNrdKufrIrSm
]rdpm wd&Yk UJ 0dik }f udk aomufvYkd
tyrSaD ewJh ADZmudk udik af qmifNyD;
emembm0 wpfaumif xGucf mG oGm;av&J.U ..
avmuwpfae&m..../ /

oD[ESif;apm

17
Y

18
Y

tvif;r&Sd ta&mifrodaomae&mudk
]acwf}[k qdkxdkuf ? rqdkxdkuf

od*gF &yef;yGih f

X
Y
ta&mifawG aMuaMuuGu
J aJG e&mrSm
uReaf wmf &yfaerd.../
uReaf wmhq
f yH ifawG
tyleYJ uRr;f uRr;f &J&J
cufwmu
OD;aESmufukd tvif;rpGaJ o;bl;.../
uReaf wmfeh aH b;rSm
qm;xyfvu
kd &f r,fh [if;awGcsnhf
tJ't
D odeYJ
uReaf wmhaf cR;udk uReaf wmfvsuv
f sujf rnf;&w,f/
wD;wd;k oHMum;ayr,fh
pum;tqifrh rD
BuKH vaSD ewJh tZwa wGu
b0a>c ywfysdK;udk prf;&if;eJYyJ
urf;ra&mufEikd w
f hJ avSay:rSm....../
[kwfy...
tvif;r&Sd ta&mifrodwahJ e&mrSm
uReaf wmfaew,f..../

armifrif;rl

X
Y

twdwu
f
igh&UJ tdyrf ufxrJ mS
udik ;f wyfxm;wJh zvm;Bu;D vG,v
f Ykd
ajc&mxlwhJ yvufazmif;ay:rSm
od*gF &w&m;awG a&mif;csz;l w,f/

tJ't
D wGu.f ..
yGpJ m;vnf;r&Scd b
hJ ;l /
aps;jzwfay;r,fo
h v
l nf; rawGcU yhJ gbl;/

Mumawmhvnf;
ra&rwGuEf ikd w
f hJ
a&Ttakd &mifpueaYf wGu
avSmifajymifcMhJ uw,f/

tckawmhvnf;...
O,smOfwpfcx
k u
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yef;yGihf wpfyiG ahf ygh
csKd Nred w
f t
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UJ *d gF & yef;yGiahf wG[m
b,fawmhrS rnKd ;EGr;f awmhygbl;/

atmifausmfxGef;(ykodrfBuD;)

19
Y

20
Y

oluawmh
zm;yDyDjyifjyifjzpfzkdY
udk,ftNrD;udk udkufudkufpm;ae&wJh
]zm;wpfydkif;? ig;wpfykdif;av;}vkd
olUb0? oludkufudkufpm;ae&/

cyfnn
hH hH rke<Yf uyfvydk J
b0u yJhyJha<uusvkdY
Mum&if ...b0aysmuf&csn&hf UJ .../
(trSefw&m;rSm aus;Zl;&Sifqkdwm r&Sdbl;wJh
aus;Zl;&SifrSmawmh trSefw&m;&Sdayvdrfhr,f/)

tiftm;jynfrh ;dk a&awGukd


cP ...cP csKd;cGifh&cJhvdkY
tar aumif;uifBuD;udk
aus;Zl;txyfxyf wif&if;
(ou&mZf 2000) rSm
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vla&miftkyaf &;cGi&hf cJNh y/D

n0g0gav;atmufrSm
X
Y

wdrfig; Muif;u
OcsvdkufwJh ]v} ...
tJ'D n0g0gav; atmufrmS aygh/

olUudk ...
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]ig;} wJ/h

wpfcsKdUu ... olUudk


yGuyf u
G q
f l ...tEkynma&aEG;tk;d xJu
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vufzufajcmufav;wJh ...wcsKdUu/

olUudk ...
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wpfcsKdUu .../

aomfwmaZmf (1972-2001)

22
Y

21
Y

arSmaf umufol
awmifypl mav; r[kwcf b
hJ ;l
vlu vkyx
f m;wJh tpGeyYf pfcH awmifuek ;f awGtay:
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n...nawGqdk
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kd w
H k
ajrpmykjH rifjh rifah wGay: 0JysaH ewJh yd;k pke;f MuL;awG . . .
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aemufuswwfcw
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toufaoG;ay;qyfco
hJ al wG &Sw
d ,f/ /
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]]pdkif;awmifoli,fcsif;rsm;odkYtrSwfw&}}

]'ge;f vTu
J Asm}
X
Y
wPSm,SOf? ork',aZmawGaMumifh
tcgcgrif? ,k,vkYd rarmEkid b
f Ul
oabm&Tipf &mayg?h tawG; tawG;0if . . ./
raemb0ifrmS awmh ajr;uav;xif . . . /
ajr;uav;id?k idu
k mcRyJ u
kH
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k u
dk m vT&J rwJh
vufpyJG w
k ;D uawmh? x&HrmS yif
d J
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k JT . . . /
tcRJ ryDuvmh yDuvm? wDwm tawGaU wGaMumifh
oDumra0hEkdifwmu? bm0eme,f?
0dyvmuG,fygvkdY/ rMunfumrGJ?
q&mh q&mawGu? tcgcg owday;ayrJh
(armifNcrd &hf ,f) tbcrsmrSmawmh? bm0emh? bm0emawGe?YJ
oDumh oDumvGJ . . . /

OD;cspfoef; (ajrpm&if;OD;pD;t&m&Sd-Nidrf;)

23
Y

]&nf;pm;rsm;rsm; xm;zl;w,f}
X
Y
trSww
f & ? xm0&yif
wrf;wcsi&f UJ ? ocifov
d m;
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jyefvnfvn
S Mhf unfh ? tcsp&f o
dS nf/
trSww
f & ? xm0&yif
aomuyifysdK; ? ocifcsdK;&uf
NidK;&ufarhrkef; ? a<uvGifhjyKef;&
yxr ESifh ? aemufqkH;yGifhcsyf
a&MunfiwfrS ? cspw
f wfco
hJ nf/
owdw& ? xm0&yif
vGr;f armcsi&f UJ ? ocifov
d m;
cHpm;onf;vTm ? vuFm&Gmudk
vmcd0k ifMunfh ? tcsp&f o
dS nf/
owdw& ? xm0&yif
EIwpf cGe;f qifh ? ocifv
h ufaqmif
yef;Eka&mifr[kwf ? qkwfNzJajcrG
yxrwGuf ? aemufq;Hk vufusef
a&G;cs,&f efrJh ? cspw
f wfco
hJ nf/
ocif....cspfrvm;
wrif....ypfomG ;

24
Y
&ifziG phf um; em;qifapcsif
ra<ucif yGifhcsyf
tqk;H rowfcif/
oHa,mZOfr;D ? arhc&D;awGxJ
&Sv
d nf; &Scd hJ
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Munfv
h nf; Munfch hJ
Niv
d nf; Nicd /hJ
'gayr,fhav a0'emrSm
Ekjcif; &ifhjcif;
oHo, uif;owJh
cspfcJhorQ jzpfcJhorQ
]topf}eJY pcJ&h wmcsn;f yJu,
G /f

vGrf;t&dyf (a&Tjrefrm)

25
Y

26
Y

ncg;cg;

*Gwf('f)bdkif

r[l&mwdkY &,farmaecsdef
tdyfpufjcif;rSm raysmfarGUwmeJY
pdwfwpfaumifvHk;udk qGJzGvdkufw,f
twawGvw
G v
f yfygapawmh
rkqdk;jzpfcGifhrBuHKcJhwJh om;aumif[m
ayjzpfvnf;cH wljzpfvnf;cH
pl;rSef;odvnf; qkyfcJh l;rSef;odvnf; pm;cJh
l;awmhvnf;wpfrl;romEdkifcJh
avmu"Huv
kd ufqEJG w
I q
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hJ cg
t&Sdudkt&Sdwdkif; jrifwwfapzkdY
topfwdkif;[m Avmr[kwfovdk
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ajymaevnf;tydyk gyJav
aw;rqdkEkdifwJhb0awG
rD;wdkifawGatmufrSm&yf&if;
tdyrf &r,ft
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kd w
f myJaumif;ygw,f..../
ucsifav; (aq;-ref;)

&,farmjcif;
aysmf&Tifjcif;eJYtwl
b0qdw
k hJ wpfcPrSm
waoG;wnf;aexdkifcsifwJhqE
jzpfcsifwdkif;vnf; rjzpf
rjzpfcsifcJhwmvJ jzpfcJh
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rsufvHk;wpfpHkyGifh
vlaU vmuxJ 0ifvmcJw
h ,f/
0rf;enf;jcif; . . .
0rf;omjcif; . . .
'kua wG . . .
..........
tJ'aD vmu"H w&m;eJY
pD;csi;f xd;k . . .
'Pf&mAvyGeYJ vJusaoqH;k cJ&h ifawmif . . .
b0 . . .
avmuudk vGwaf jrmufzYkd
]pdw}f qdw
k hJ t&mudk ]ynm} qdw
k .hJ ..
Nidrf;csrf;wJhvrf;rwpfcktay:
OD;wnfEikd cf &hJ if . . . . /

vwfa&;uAsm (SNT)

27
Y

28
Y

aEGuvkd rG ;f aomrsu0f ef;rsm;


M
M
M

M
M

yef;aumufyGJ

X
Y

rcGJbl;&,fvkdY
pGJzl;cJhwJh 'Dopm
rif;...arhaeNyDvm;uG,/f
a&mifpOfpdkvufaom oufwHtm;
jzwfrsO;f rsm;ESihf aqmufvkycf Jh
tdyrf ufu arSmq
f efw,f/
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ikyfvQdK;aysmufuG,fwkef;.../
ridkwwf rcRJwwfygbl;
tuJqwfwJh &iftpkHukd
jrifapkHav;yg..../
wku
d yf JG0ifolrSeo
f rQ
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cwfuRJwpfaumif&JUrmefeJY
tvGr;f 'PftHwkr,f.../

ixifi,f

X
Y
M

vwefc;l
nmzl;wH a0pnf?
yef;o&zD
aejcnf . . . a&T&nfzse;f awmh
ocifr . . . awmifnKd wef;u
tvSyef; . . . a&TuEkwpf D
oif;ysHUxkH&nf/

tcgrD
&moDomydkuJ
jrwfapwD qkyef&nfyg&
vGrf;apwD
awmifawmfOD;u
jrwfpad E . . . xHawmfyg;rSm
armif r,fpHk a&TvufwJG
yef;aumufwJhyGJ/

ukdaX;aX; (ykodrfBuD;)

29
Y

30
Y

cHpm;csuf

yef;uAsmjyyGJ

X
Y

X
Y

twmusL;ygwJh
wefcl;udkuG,fh a&mufawmhr,f/
cspfoludk arQmf&nfrSef;vdkY
vGr;f vSayghu,
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&ifxu
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(uG,f) l;vkrwwf/
jrjcL;tdrf

arG;&yfajr nDaemifxkwdkY
wnfaxmifjyKwJh pmpkuAsm
usdK;jyKap aMumif;&maumif;odkY
a&;zGJUnDnm/ /
awmtvSESifh NrdKUjypkHordkY
0ifvSnfhyg yef;cif;pD
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oefY&Sif;wJhIcif;/
Munfhae&if; Munfhae&if;
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us&m&m 0efwmxrf;pdkY
uAsmyef; *kPf&nfvQrf;w,f
yef;jyyGJqef;/
wmwdOD; (ykodrfBuD;)

31
Y

32
Y

arSmf0ifaeYpGJ

rrSnfhbJ 0gwmwm

X
Y

X
Y

azazmf0g&D 14
rif;ay;cJhwJh tcspfawGeJY
urmay:rSm taysmfqHk;jzpfcJhzl;w,f/
azazmf0g&D 14
rif;erf;cJw
h hJ terf;awGeYJ
tl;trl; pGv
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azazmf0g&D 14
rif;ay;cJw
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igpm;oH;k cJzh ;l w,f/
azazmf0g&D 14
rif;wnfaqmufrJh
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BudKwif&ifckefcJhzl;w,f/
azazmf0g&D 14
rif;jyefvmr,fvkdY
BudKwifawG;&if;
igarQmaf ew,f ..../

o&rfrm[ef

cifAsm;u tzk;H cHcsiv


f Ykd
jymudv
k u
kd &f mS aewJh rD;cJawGvm;
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[dk;....vGefcJhwJh 14 ESpf ...15 ESpf...


16 ESp.f .. 17 ESp.f .. 18 ESp.f .. 19 ESp.f ..
20 ESpf... qdkwJh ykHjyifawGu
a&TtppfvYkd cifAsm;vmajym&if
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h m
0gwdik ;f rSnrhf vmwJh bwfpu
f m;yJ..../ /

armifpdk;opf(rEav;)

33
Y

oD;pm;cygvGwfNyDuG,f

34
Y
vlav;av....
ausmif;aeoH;k 0g ? vlxu
G v
f mawmh
&if;rSm wpf&m ? wd;k oH;k &m
'dkY,mcif;vHk; ? qHk;&w,f . . . /

X
Y
vlav;av....
arG;artlonf; ? IrNi;D a&..
0rf;enf;zdaYk umif; ? 'daYk cwfaMumif;udk
jyefajymif;ajymrnf ? axmifem;vnf
rsu&f nfrvG,yf gESiu
hf ,
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vlav;av....
rifah zESiihf g taMumif;ygawmh
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vlav;av....
qd;k ay;aoG;pf ? &if;&Sppf pfukd
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rif; ay,mvkyf ? rifhvufikwfrdkY ?
rif; vkyfonfh,m ? rif;\,m. . . wJh
rygvkyt
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oD;pm;cygvGwfNyDuG,f . . . /

vlav;av....
rifah ztm;xkwf ? BuKd ;pmvky
f
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rsdK;yifEdkifEdkif ? usefawmhw,f.../
vlav;av....
armifavaqmhjrL; ? a&mifaypl;ESihf ?
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wpfa,mufwnf;om; ? tm;cJxm;rdYk
pnfum;aAsmwD; ? ouFe;f pnf;
,mBuD;wpf0uf aygif&w,f/ /

vlav;av....
rsdK;awGa0iS trawmfacs; ?
pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;ESihf ulaz;&if;csm
0dik ;f 0ef;umvQif nDnmxGe;f opf ?
vkyo
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f nf;tl ?
ighajrvSLwGif ,lMuygav ?
trQa0rif; azom"k ac:vdrahf v; . . .
arG;artlonf; IrNiD;a& . . . /

pd;k udu
k kd
,Ofaus;rIwuov
kd f

35
Y

]] ]EId;} ol r&SdrS ]Edk;} ygNyD }}


X
Y
E

eHeufcsed cf g rd;k aomuf,rH mS


&GmOD;ausmif;u wk;H armif;oHom
Mum;&pOfrmS
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h ,f/

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bk&m;cef;0if
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wdwq
f w
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ykw;D tcs ? teEtaz


trQa0Ny;D ? aMu;pnfw;D oH
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ysm,D; ysm,m tdy&f mEd;k x
rsuEf mS ]cd;k }opf cJw
h ,fav/

jc0H if;xJrmS wHjrufvn


S ;f &if;
arwmykw
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rD;zdck ef;0if tazhtwGuf
eHeufpmudk jyifqif&if;eJY
wpfaeY&UJ vkyif ef;pcJw
h ,f/

36
Y
E

tckawmhav
]orD;}udx
k m;Ny;D
]taz}cGcJ mG oGm;cJw
h m[m
wpfESpfausmfausmf MumygNyD/

'gayr,fah v
rd;k aomuf,&H UJ wk;H armif;oHom
oJo
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]tazh} ]EId;}oH
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&ifrmS odr;f &if;
]EId;}ol r&SdbJ
]orD;} tdy&f mu ]Ed;k }ygNy/D

vGrf;t&dyf (a&Tjrefrm)

37
Y

38
Y

oli,fcsif;
L

rif;aooGm; ? rif;tm;&nfreS ;f
trQwrf;a0 ? vSL'ge;f ayvnf;
raoGepd ? xd'k geudk
rif;& r& ? wdusaocsm
rod&macs/
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trQwrf;a0 ? vSL'ge;f ayvnf;
raoGepd ? xd'k geudk
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ra&&may/
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U a&;
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igh&JUta&;... ? rif;ta&;vdk...
tao;trTm; ? udpr sm;rS
BuD;rm;aqmuftkH ? tvkH;pkHxd
wwfEikd o
f rQ ? 0dik ;f ulr
wuGtwl ? aqmif&u
G u
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jiLpluif;pGm ? oHo&mwGif
trSejf rif ? tjrifreS af &;
arQmcf siahf wG;Ny;D ? av;av;pm;pm;
vufwo
JG mG ;pdYk
pdwu
f ;l jzLjzLav;eJaY v.../

jrjcL;tdrf

tqHk;rJh
X
Y

tcsed af wGu tcspaf wGukd


o,fydk;&if;
vrf;auGUwpfae&mrSm qkHw,f/

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o,fykd;&if;
vrf;axmifhwpfae&mrSm qHkw,f/

trSwrf xifbJ
rif;eJY ig
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igwkq
Yd EkH idk rf mS vm;
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