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Basic

Numeracy

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Topic
Percentage
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Percentage
Percentage
Percent means per hundred. It is given by % symbol. Here x% means x per
hundred or x . Thus, any percentage can be converted into an equivalent

100

fraction by dividing it by 100.

eg

20 1
;
20% =
100 5

150 3

150% =
100 2

Also, any fraction or decimal can be converted into its equivalent percentage by
multiplying with 100.
eg

1 1
100 = 20%;
5 5

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3
3
100 = 150%.
2
2

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Important Formulae

Increase
100
Original value

1.

Percentage increase =

2.

Decrease
100
Percentage decrease =
Original value

3. If the price of the commodity increases by r% then the reduction in


r

consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is

100
100 r
%

4. If the price of the commodity decreases by r% then the reduction in


consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is
r

100 r 100 %

5.
If As income is r% more than Bs income then Bs income is less than As
r

income by

100 r 100 %

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6.
If As income is r% less than Bs income then Bs income is more than As
r
income by

100
100 r
%

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