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From “Indio” to Filipino

Posted on July 8, 2011
From “Indio” to Filipino
Lapulapu of Mactan (1521) and Dagami of Cebu(1567)- first Filipinos to refuse to bow under Spanish yoke.

Categories of Revolution

Personal Motives

► Lakandula and Soliman

-Revolted in 1574

→“Conspiracy of the Maharlikas”(1578-88)

-Led

by

kin-related

datus

of

Manila

-When caught, they were dragged on hurdles to the gallows, hanged, decapitated, and exposed in iron cages, as a grim warning against the crime.

-

Their

severed

heads

were

stuck

on

pikes

place

in

wicker

baskets

for

public

exhibition.

►Tamblot of Bohol(1621-22)

-an

outlawed

babaylan.

-employed magic and religion in alluring the people to abandon Christianity and to return to their former beliefs.

-he promised that “mountains would rise against their foe; that the muskets of the latter would not go off or rebound on those who fired them; that if any Indian would die, the diwatas would resuscitate gim.”

-he

was

crushed

by

Juan

de

Alcarazo(alcalde

mayor

of

Cebu)

with

a

number

of

men.

-Alcarazo killed Bankaw and his severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake and publicly displayed it as a warning. Saying that they could petrify the Spaniards and that woman or child could easily change the enemies by simply hurling bits of earth on them. As in other revolts elsewhere. - he died without seeing the end of the uprising which he successfully initiated. they used magic to attract devotees. Gaspar Morales refused to give his brother(Sagarino) a Christian burial. it triggered his revolt.► Bankaw of Carigara(Leyte) -Datu of Limasawa -Like tamblot. Religious Motives The continuous Hispanization of the Filipinos through religion was in line with Spain’s policy of “Gospel.” ► Miguel Lanab and Alababan of Capinatan(Apayao) -Revolted in June 1625 . this was a consequence of the realization of the Filipinos that the Spanish might was weak. Gold and Glory. as proved by their humiliating defeat with the fall of Manila in September 1762. ►Dagohoy of Bohol -a cabeza de barangay of Bohol - longest revolt in the Philippine history taking 85 years (1744-1829) -one of the causes of this revolt is forced labor but when Fr. -He proclaimed “Free Bohol” in Inabangan and Talibon mountains and refused the unjust payment of tribute and rendering of forced labor.

”  In 1663. and other religious objects to the Dominicans.In 1626. and desired to kill him. A great number of palms were destroyed by the cruel Spaniards to starve the Isnegs and forced them to surrender. Alonzo Garcia and Brother Onofre Palao.  He was described as “the only rebel chief with anti-religiousideas”  His believers got tired of his “irreligious and despotic” rule. desecrate the images and loot properties. Iloilo.  Proclaimed himself “God Almighty” and who “went about in the garb of a woman. “deprived all the citizens and dependents of the Church” the freedom of worship by instructing his adherents to give back the rosaries. Garcia was cut to pieces and his flesh thrown to the pigs.scapularies. they killed Fr. -they compelled the Isnegs to go with them to the mountains. ►Tapar  A newly Christianized babaylan in Oton. set fire to the churches. ►Hermano Apolinario de la Cruz . a Spanish punitive force wasdispatched to check the Isneg uprising. ►Francisco Rivera (Tuguegarao)  A visionary who appropriated for himself the title of “Papa Rey” (Pope and King)  He. and fled to the mountains.  This uprising was stopped by Juan Pablo Orduña who came from Vigan. burned the house and church. together with his believers. .They mutilated and beheaded the Dominicans Fr.  The Spaniards captured the leaders and were killed.. -Fr. Francisco de Mesa.

His body was quartered. initiated the rebirth of the confraternity. by Br.  Phase II the revival of Cofradia to the capture of Januario Labios. Resistance to Spanish-Imposed Institutions ►Magalat (chief in tuguegarao)  The opposition to the unlawful tribute collection motivated the Cagayanons to revolt. Ermano Pule with the Filipino secular priest(Br. Florentino Tuason.  Members were not allowed to hear mass in a Catholic Church. and his two hands and two feet.  Members were also instructed not to be wedded by Catholic priests.  The confradia met mothly on the 19th day. Ciriaco de los Santos) and 19 others. paying a monthly fee of one real (12 ½ centavos) and rice. His revolt could be divided into two phases:  Phase I from the founding of the Cofradia de San Jose to the death of De la Cruz. 1832. this was renamed as Cofradia del Sr. members were arrested and Ermano Pule was captures and shot to death. (1870-71)  The Cofradia reappeared on Corpus Christi day in 1870. were hung inside a cage and placed in the guardhouses. his severed head was hung in front of their house. San Jose i voto del Santisimo Rosario.  In 1841. . Enriquez and Cordero. (1832-1841)  In Dec. founded the cofradia centering around the cults of San Francisco and the famous brown image of Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage of Antipolo.  The confradia’s existence was unknown to the Spanish authorities until 1840. but by their own priest called “Profeta y Pontifice”  The 3 families of Labios.  5 years later.  The Confradia died with the capture of Labios and his adherents.

000 men to oust the hated alcalde mayor.  He murdered the provincial governor. ► Juan Caragay (1719 in Pangasinan)  A man of very low birth  Strengthened by the dictatorial acts of the alcalde mayor who used force in the unlawful collection of tribute and draft labor. ►Juan Ponce Sumodoy and Pedro Caamug  Leader of the uprising that spread as far as the Bikol region. organized a force of 3. dragged her and threw her over a cliff.  Magtangaga’s revolt failed.  Boatloads of rice were taken in the encomiendas for a 30-year period. with town priest acting as official tribute collector. central Visayas and northern Mindanao. . Diego Fajardo’s order of shifting recruitment of the tiresome polo y servicios personales from Luzon to Visayas.  This was a reaction to Gov.► Eastern Mindanao (1629-31)  Unjust collection of tribute in kind.  The Spaniards captured Sumodoy’s mother. ►Magtangana  Led the Itawis and Gaddangs in the middle Cagayan to rise up in arms against the authorities in 1718.  Sumodoy’s head was presented to the alcalde mayor.

In 1750′s Pangasinan experienced destructive floods and poor harvest. ►Juan de la Cruz Palaris  Led a rebellion in 1762 against Gamboa’s personal excesses. ►Diego Silang  Opposed the exaction of the comun(annual tribute of one real fuerte).Maria Josefa Gabriela de Silang. especially important among the poorer class of Filipinos.  Receiving the gravest penalty. his wife . which was further aggravated by the personal excesses of the alcalde mayor.  He was killed on May 1763 with a musket through his back by Pedro Buecbuec an ex-confidant of Silang. marshal-of-camp of Mangaldan. drafting of polistas. and the Ambaristo or basi revolt. 20. Two essential monopolized items. Antonio Zabala. with his distorted head. sparked the Lagutao revolt.  In the end. Joaquin Gamboa.”  She was then executed on Sept. the Samal Mutiny. he was quartered pig-style.  He joined forces with the British. tobacco and basi. 1763. dominated by “Igorots” who chopped off Caragay’s head with just one stroke.  Eventually. ► Lagutao and Baladdon .  He headed revolt in 1762. hands. He was killed by the reinforcements from Dagupan and Binmaley headed by Juan Ramos. and other dishonest practices of the new alcalde mayor.”the first woman to lead a revolt in the Philippines. feet and gouged heart publicly exhibited at the six bridge of Binalatongan to strike terror among people. Palaris was betrayed by his own sister to the town gobernadorcillo and was hanged.

tribue and tithes which had been progressively increased yearly.  Lagutaos’ party was hunted. spreading to the provinces nearby  the maginoos of Silang doubted the land surveys which take a large portion of the communal lands.  The revolt failed. with the rebels summarily hanged and their bodies mutilated. women.  Their families’ properties were confiscated. .  Also known as the “Ambaristo” revolt. they killed the teniente visitador and the tobacco monopoly guards. the mutineers were hanged. Led the revolt in Ituy and Paniqui. which included the control of making basi. son-in-law. and children.converted Christians. Lagutao presented himself to his followers as their liberator from the Spanish impositions of the tobacco monopoly. 1. and their heads put on stakes for public display.  On the last day of March. ►Ilocano Military escaped from Vigan to Piddig  July 1807  Against the oppressive monopoly of spirituous liquors introduced in 1786. ►Lt. bringing along with them back to the hills newly. his brother. Peasant Unrest ► Tagalog Revolt  tagalog regions were marked by peasant unrest which started in the hacienda town of Cavite. and in the struggle killed the leader. youths. capturing besides 81 men. their bodies quartered. and eleven others. Francisco Malibiran  As a reaction to the introduction of the estanco. Andres Magtanong and Sub-Lt.

The Moro Resistance ►Moro Wars  Starting with the reestablishment of Fort Pilar in Zamboanga(1718).  Tulisanes(bandits) were troubled peasants because they are dependent on the lands dispossessed by theuldogs(hacienda lay-admin.  The tagalog revolt failed and leaders were killed or exiled. the Spaniards failed to conquer the Moros(1750s) .  “land grows each year”  Principales of Silang  They assaulted the controversial hacienda  Destroyed the granaries and houses. The lands were unjustly awarded to the Chinese and mestizo tenants of the Dominican-owned friar estate of Biñan. ►Luis de los Santos (Parang) and Juan Silvestre (Juan Upay)  Tagged as a “reunion of bandits”  Forced labor and exaction of tribute in the form of firewood aggravated the already tense situation.) ►Casimiro Camerino  “El Tulisan”  He was granted amnesty and became the colonel of the force called Compañia de Guias de la Provincia de Cavite”.

having a common religion. Filipino Nationalism: Decelerators Louis L. a future rebellion or a filibustero. therefore.  They were afraid that if a Filipino who knew a Castilian language would become better educated.  No Lingua Franca. being attached to common traditions. speaking a common language. and the indigenes were derogatorily called indios.  1876. and the “Moro Wars” was carried out mainly through the juramentado or sabil allah ritual suicide attacks. Failure of the Revolts  Philippine is an archipelago.  The friars refused to teach and promote their language among the Filipinos. Snyder defines Nationalism as: a condition of mind. possessing a literature in which aspirations of the nation have been expressed. Jolo surrendered to Spain.  Indios were not united in words and in deeds. and.  Moro Raids  In revenge for Spanish acts of reducing Moro captives to slavery and destroying their homes. Iranuns and Maranaos begun their harsh ravaging pillages in Visayas  Thousands of Christians were captured resulting in the decimation of population in Visayas. in some cases.  “Indios” became a “Filipino” only during the last years of the Spanish government in the late 1890s. feeling or sentiment of a group of people in a welldefined geographical area. .  People called Filipinos applied only to the Spaniards born in the Philippines.

permanent domestics and their carriage drivers could live within the confines of the walled city (Intramuros). Chinese mestizo .  Spanish priests Filipino Nationalism: Accelerators ►Opening of the Philippines to World Commerce  Manila proper and the suburban areas permanently opened their port to international trade.  With the opening of these ports succeed greater demands for export crops.  First daily newspaper appeared.  Formed the town principilia.  Primitive strategies in war and weaponry. an elite social group composed of gobernadorcillos and minor native bureaucrats. ►Rise of the clase media  a middle class of Asian and Eurasian mestizos  Emerged from the economic boom derived from expanded agriculture and commerce. Bank. the first Phil.  Travelers in Manila made reservations at the Hotel de Oriente  Banking facilities were transacted at the Banco Español-Filipino de Isabel II. The divide et impera(divide and rule) colonial policy.  Mail service between Manila and Cavite started.  Outside the walls (extramuros) were the Filipino. only the Spaniards and their Filipino wives.  Pre-nineteenth century.

and his subjects. Tondo was describes as “all slums” .”  John Locke in his “Two Treatise on Government” suggested that the social contract between the king.  Anti-Filipino writers wrote hurtful literature belittling the Filipinos. but “modern ideas of liberty began to penetrate the minds of the natives. his subjects had the right to overthrow him.  he was responsible for the arrest and imprisonment of the student leader of Juventud Escolar Liberal. ►Racial discrimination  The intensity of animosities between the Filipinos and Spaniards. neither a farmer nor a philosopher” .  Glorious September Revolution of 1868  The arrival of the liberal Goevernor De la Torre.  He abolished press espionage and proclaimed freedom of speech. major residential area of Filipino clase pobre :the lower class. means that if the king failed to do his duty and did not respond to natural rights. especially the friars. ►Impact of European liberalism and the administration of Carlos de la Torre  According to Pardo de Tavera. who did not exercise absolute powers. reached the highest point with the Reform Movement.  Motto: “Los hijos de los leones son tambien leones” (“Lion cubs are also Lions”)  De la Torre was disliked by the Spaniards of Manila.  He instructed to intercept. mails coming from prominent Filipino leaders and priest.  Filipinos were maligned and degraded as “neither a merchant nor an industrial.

Gaspar de San Agustin:  “God created the indios together with the rattan” meaning that the Filipinos “need beatings and the rattan. the epithet of chongos”  Fr.  “The Spaniards will always be a Spaniard. and the indio will always be an indio… The monkey will always be amonkey however you dress him with shirt and trousers.” ►Effects of the secular-regular conflicts ►Cavite mutiny of 1872 . “logical that the Indians. from friars and seculars. in their immense majority should receive.”  Fr. Miguel Lucio y Bustamante:  Filipino could neverlearn the Spanish language or be civilized. and will always be a monkey and not a human.

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