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A Lexicographical Study of the PtolemaicTexts in the Temple of Edfu 'Ibesis submittedin accordance with the requirementsof the University

of Liverpool for the Degreeof Doctor of Philosophy by PenelopeWilson March 1991.



I A stelafrom the time of Nectanebo [ftom Sakkara- Quibell, Sakkara,1907-8p.90 line 7) lists including rnnn of Djahy andsty resin ; this is also found in the Embalming embalmingsubstances ritual [Sauneron6,5-6 ,cf. Giveon Bedouins p. 189 n.12]. Examination of some Ptolemaic .

that showed they hadresinandbitumenon themandrnnn may havebeenthe namefor this mummies It and substance. camefrom Coptos,Puntand Syria-Palestine was usedto makethe Nine sacred oils More recentlyresearch has andwasalsoa constituent variousoils at Edfu [Harris,Mineralsp. 1731. of locations,'Punt!being a nebulous Punt andCoptosare simply convenient that suggested the sources areasoutheastof Egypt andCoptosbeingthe tradingpoint for importsfrom 7une. Findsof naphtha at GebelZeit. Mons Petrolius,andareas nearby, north of Berenice were found to containup to 57% bitumenandthis is likely to be thesource earlierperiods. in Whendemand increased especiallyin the Ptolemaic [Aufrbre,BIFAO 84,1984p. 14]. It is the word period,it wasbroughtfrom Syria-Palestine 41. thoughtto havebecome arabic mwmia and thus'mummy. At Edfu it is usedin the recipefor making'3t-nLr for the limbs of Amun-Min, a recipepresented in two texts : 'Presenting3t-nir ! debenof m , words is presented the limbs of god!VI 165,2where10 for -*

'-trni VI 165,8-9: 12.23 Il 214,9 ; for makingmrht on the 4th are used,groundup VI againarefinely crushed! 166,1-2. is used,againgroundup II 26,7-8;a

monthof Akhet, day 22'hin

In a recipefor UpperEgyptianincense, kite of one

kinds recipefor makingNine Unguents be usedin the Openingof the mouthceremony to seven needs

'&** of mnn which are specifiedanddescribed:-A"4



H 210,1-7

It is not clear if this is a plant or mineral, but it is most likely to be the latter.


aphrodisiacplant Wb H 82 (18) GR

Attested in P.Chester Beatty X, a book of aphrodisiacs and remedies for impotence : rto. 1,12 M 13M a also vso. 1.1 ; 1.6 tarftj and connectMiMe VjVPBM "'T oil. I p. 114 n. 11. In Urk VI 23,3 the plant is

determinedwith -w

Mendes goat. It is from the word nhp 'to procreate' (Wb , 1! 4, It ,

At Il 284), and an m-prefix hasbeenedded[Smith, Glimpks p.1621. Edf6 in the Min chamberit is w =, t. nk n it. f * ere the king greetsMin as a procreator. the subjectof an offering :
.% P 'v*v

In returnthe king receives lands all

-,- -FN &I-I 4oi6j-obeisinc16

hij. He sayshe hasreceived wrty andthey, the




"wearing 'anatef crown, and holding shine onhis head 1398,545. The scene(pl. 335) shows the king -, up two VV vessels to Mn. The rite is also attested at Philae'<1971> Phot.240; <2142>

Phot.952. Yoyotte suggestedmnhp was a further term forlettuce' but the vessel signs suggest this I , is not the case, unless it is lettuce seedsor oil from them [BIFAO 61 p. 141 n. 1 also LA 1336-7 Aphrodisiac] .I v-, " III


Begetter Wb 1182 (17) GR


The word is formed by an m-prcrLx added onto nhp [Smith, Glimpses p. 1621.Wb quotes a Dendera the term refers to Banebdjed (Dum. GI 11149),but mnhp also occurs at Edfu : in the reference where
Mendes nome, Horus here is Lhe Ram of Mendes M rn as an epithet of Horus * MC

IV makessexualpleasure 34.11; who


in Mendes 111256,7.,

In the Mendesian nome(I 6th LE), the relic

1 IIf 'in the Houseof Babnebdjed 334A - This

be themalemember refer to thesacred p. ramshere 'bcgtWrs'[Bcinlich, Osirisreliquien 262; could or also Yoyotte, BIFAO 61 1962p.140-11.


morning Wb Il 83 (1) GR,

The term is an m-prefix added to root nhp'morning' [Smith Glimpses p. 1621.

a, " 001 Wb citesonly : ReshinesTe. -:

in morning 113,15. of overmansion theThrone


watchcr Wb 1183(2) Pyr - GR

is an m-prefix addedonto nhs 'awake'thusa nominaagentis[Smith, Glimpsesp.1611 yet it mnhs , Pyr. VI p.131 Art is first attested F)ir. 1483and 816 in the phrasemnhs t3 rnl [Sethe,Komm. in Gewachter]; in P.Berl. 3049,7,7 Anubis is called ADw3tyw and then'atEdfu in an offering to Osiris; who doesnot sleep1171,14.




Wb 1183(8-11) MK mn is a less usual term for papyrus the symbolic plant of Lower Egypt.'The term has been comparedwith mbyt 'flax' [so Wb Drog 246], but is clearly not the sameplant. Ilere is an OK M JqT of example the termfrom the tombof Neferherenptah the makes wherethe determinative

p. natureof theplantclear[for ref. seeNianchchnum.73 text 9A andn.b]. The word occursat Edfu as a commonvariantfor w3d, idbw and tie like. It may havedenoted a certaintypeof papyrus originally asdistinctfrom w3d, or perhaps specificallythe tuberor stemof the papyrus plant [Di=ar, Blumenp.511,or thepapyrus a certainstage maturity- but in thepapyrus at of offerings mnh is simply a synonymof w3d : papyrusand geese offering :I bring k mnh h1w. makingyoungyour limbs' 111193.3 sim. ; IV and geese 120,12; Horusis ruler of t= the sametext he seizes=, Of j, UZ VH 173.9-10; carrying in the marshes 259,1-2 in VII br

as the protectionof his nestVII 259,5.In a rnpwt text

bi3 are presented 250.7 -,the connection papyrusto Horus is shownwhen 'he is swift VI of of I 114i in KhemmisVII 177,13-14. Sma-Behdet The walking in w3dw mi ^E-2 nomecontains` I )T (w3d) IV 35,17ff andits pathsarehiddenby papyrus
The Lower Egyptian associations are not forgotten in a scene entitled sm3 rn-'b nsty,

offered to Nekhbet and Wadjet IV 204,14 which shows the goddessescrowning the king [Pl.90 Ist . reg.]. mnh is also a term for 'papyriform columns! : the hall has columns of nw tn' V 3,6.

The 3rd LE nomecontains9 ! Ia


it is written93 in the geographical texts . 1330,13, but


IV 23,11-24,1 and V also so there may be some confusion or word play on the word here. ,

5ee k3-ninh also.


to make young

'youth young one! is known from at least NK texts (Wb 1183,13-17) but at Edfu The noun rnno . invented to parallel w3d = papyrus = child = make young or green, and it is used there is also a verb, T or en Vw. k 111193.3; and in word play with mnb 'papyrus': 'I bring mnh V it v VII, 173,9-10, both papyrus offerings. m mnh 0 'w. k



wax Wb 1183 (4-7) D. 18 DG 162,13 U Cr. 166a; CED82; KH91 'Moyj

mn would be beeswaxwhich was widely used in Egypt [LA VI 1088-1094) and at Edfu it is used to make wax figures in rituals for the destruction of foes: in the festival 'words are spoken over a hippo. made of red wax , its face whitened with fruit of the oasis it is stabbedin the , name of enemies'V 133'8.


turtle , see k3-mnh


butcher,slaughterer Wb 1184seeimn4 Wb 187 (15-17)asoneor groupof demons ,

is usedof different beingsat Edfu . It derivesfrom the NK term imnb [Smith, Glimpses mntwy p. 1621. Singular as a butcher,the ritual slayerof animalsat festivals: in the New Year procession,the 41 is broughtin chargeof the slaughter block 1565,15-16; symbolically ,
en e 4



the foe by the hair to kill them 1555,8 One of the doors near the treasury (Y-W) is designatedas the door by which the =22 in their month of duty enter.They are the butchers in the abattoir of

the temple who bring the meat portions and were priests with these specialiseddudes 11159,11.In the ceremony of presenting the foreleg of the bull ; it is . L81 fAl who cuts it off 111127,15; also 41 cuts up the

111178,11-12 and in the Myth after the defeat of Seth

hippopotamus and dismembers it upon its hide, while the lector priest recites the ritual VI 87,7 ; 88,2 (pl. 146 Ist reg butcher inaction). In some offerings the king has the priestly fitle mnbw [Ibrahim, Kingship p. 137-81: cutting off the " I. foreleg of the red bull meat eIbnfr 111178,15; animals of the desert iqr VI 142,12 presenting

'and son of Wepset IV, 18,2.

There is also a specific demon called 'Butcher'. He is namedamong the dead ancestor'godsof Edfu to , 14 incense and libation offerings are made: 0-11 whom in the Horizon of Eternity IV 84.11 ; mn


wr in Throneof Re IV 240.17

in BehdetVII 119,2 1152,2 4 qq

4h V 161,15


I S% 2

VII 280,12; alsospelled

V 63,8 and in an openingof the mouthtext youngagainlike Khepri' 1174,1.

he makesthe deceased'

Mn is theparagon butchers,genoftheabattoirwho destroys foesutterly [seeYoyotte,RdE 15, of 1963p.105 (b)]. He alsoappears Esnaand in the Book of the Dead[Meeks,S.O. 8, Geniesp.71 at n.64 and for i-mn var. mnt seeEdel , ZAS 81,1956 p.17]. The scenes showingthesegodsdo not markout any of themspecially, but hedoeshold a was-sceptre showhis divine power. to S In a meatofferinga genIcalledHti is alsodescribed as 'divine butcherare you I' VI 159A. e'l

EhLralfrom the MK coffin texts, the butchers sentto slaughteror cut somebody are and thuscause death[Zandee, (h. DeathplOO]. They occurlessfrequentlyat Edfu thanother typesof demons 3tyw , Yrn3w)andare not emphasised beingunderthe control of Sakhmet. in They are mentioned oneof as the texts about the sixty guardiangods : -'="" 4 ce 'firm of heart on the battlefield 11132,18

[Goyon,Gardiens 49 (1) ajd57 (2) "boucher]. Also at Dendera with similaruses. p. ' Lgell A food offering describes Anubis as Lord of Cattle Dry-tp 1, 11168,8,readas rnnhwy by

Grenier,because his connection of with cattle,he canalsobutcherthem[Anubisp.21 n.86] Seealso Fairmanand Blackman,JEA 29 1943p.21 n.6 wherethe writing , anyof these words. may mask


uracus goddess Wb 1184(3-9) MK

She in Mnht is first attested the CTs andher namederivesfrom (i)mnh , so sheis'the slaughteress. is associated Wadjetat Buto and her namemay also havebeenconfusedwith mn 'papyrus'. with to Towns which favour her includeSais , wheresheis Neith and thusEsnaand sheis also compared Sakhmetand Bastet, so that sheis shownwith a lionesshead[LA IV coIA8-51 ; Cauville, Essai index]. the king whenhe leavesthepalacemnot is sometimes In the list of serpent accompanying goddesses named 1159,17 V; 243,8 ; in a pun &- mn. ti is firm as the o 5

her lord IV 51.2.Asa uraeussheis parallel to Wnyton theright of the king^,-. protectionof


is on his left VIII 43,5 ; the king"says, 'I have set of Fagef VI 188,4.

in her place united with the Lady 6

mnh V

exceHent, potent (FCD 109)

Wb 1184to 86 (14) OK - A I-DG 163,2 1 As an adjective,mnh is very commonat Edfu, especiallyin epithetsof the king and gods.It is W
usually spelled f or and uses are as outlined in W16.It is a portmanteau word for 'good'

[as epithet of the king 'charitable, wohlt! itig, sozial' Brunner, Die Geburt p.98 n.d ; and virtues 'efficient, wirksam', Janssen Autobiografle 11Bd1. ,

for example: iw'. mnb IV 20,9 ; 54,4 ; nilty-mno V 53,2; nir. mnh often: I t1f or Il 46,8 of PtolemyIII and Berenice; 1494,9; 1421.4.


IV 57,15-16

in As a substantive epithetphrases heare : in the Memphis decreedt is translatedin Greek by mnb-ib from MK texts, 'perfect of " ; pious' which takesa specificnuance the word but asCl6reargues nh-ib canprobably m of E4Ep71 , W des [Cl6re,Le Prol6me personnes mentiondes unestatue, sur its exactsense contextdemands as change *8*1 before V godsandgoddesses 1,11(Wb At 360-3611. Edfu Horus/the king is Hom. Saun.I p. &- 1103,13 but it is morelikely to be lqr-ib). '3? as mnb-ib reads NK of kings andgods)excellentof advice! the king is mnb-s (Otto, GuM p.128-9, p.34 from the M' IV IV 249,7 -,the king , libation text (beer); lboth 1524,5 made 4354,16. (Otto GuM p.129. p.34 from theNK of god andkings) 'excellentof plans': king, Maat mnh-shrw , offering IV 2323 1. god text IV 283,16(Otto, op.cit. worshipping

mnb-tp. r3 'excellentof spells': king p.77).

L= 0 N mnh-hq3w 'excellentof magic'of king or Thoth: wa e en VI 227,2. * 'excellentof hands': Horus u* -t :j wy mnb-It

1116,4 `,

in mnb implies comp6tence practical matters alsoin lesstangible and wayssuchasgivingcounsel

in It is much like iqr in this respectand like it is often associated with competence rituals and thus


with Tboth.

r-rnnb asanadverb, oftenin GRtexts. is At Edfudifferent activities bedone mnb thetemple engraved, inscribed can r. or 13,5;V4,5 ; built IV 43,13; grainis ripened T': IV 14,10 1251,2 IV 330,14 provisions supplied ES ; ; ; are IV 42,5; or perfect number, 0t.,, in tB IV 223,14. IV


beneficence exceHence, Wb 1186(15-16) MK


Also at Edfu : he praises he your beauties, praises


VI 300,14.


Excellent goddess Wb 1187 (4) GR

'die Epithetof goddesses, Natzliche' Derchain-Urtel that of suggests the usualtranslations mnh here involved.Sheis the wet nurseof Horusand do not reflectthe exactfunctionsandnatureof thegoddess helps at the burial and funeral of Osiris, she keepsaway enemies, caresfor her brother, so sheis 'useful'and'protective' HorusandOsiris [Synkretismus n.981. for p27 At Edfu mnht appliesto Nephthys W VI 229.11.


to stringbeads . Wb 1187(8-11)OK

Tombs published by Davies from Deir el Gebrawi (17th and 20th dyn. ) show, dwarves making

in necklaces a scene


[Deir et GebrawiI pl. 131and men


[pl.24 Tomb of Abal.

Here nbw is a generalword for'necklace!and mnb is sometimes paraKelwith sti . so that both can Handwerker 44]. Also notein P.Sallier115,1m nb [Drenkhahn, 'tie, be translated knoethe necklace p. is usedas a word to describe'boring' the holesin beadsso that they can be strung[Helck, Dw3-Hti pA51.It canthusapply both to metalandstonepartsof necklaces. At Edfu texts usethe word in its traditional way : -an amulet text n.k swyt nt 13t n m3lt

'I have strung for you beadsof real preciousstones'VI 299,12.Similar to this in the Myth : ir p f. Dr Y'As for the beetleof gold fastened a thread(or cloth) put it at his throat bprr n qdm on -


VI 133,1.
Coptic MOYXZ'Moxt to be hooked into, be attached to Cr. 166a ; CED 82 ; KH 91 is



to chisel Wb1184 (13) OK

"210 iL I, listsof OK tools !. In

is Handwerker asthedeterminative suggests a chisel[Drenkhahn,

B pp.10, 120; alsoH.Lallemand,IFAO22,1923 77-98]. p. in At Edfutheverbcanbeused a rather destructive witha knifedeterminative genh"" 9b :a more way horn imy-ht n IL3kw. ibw'l hackat theentrails yourfoes'VI 178,5 possibly'your -, of f m qsw. (with 0

JEA by error afterBlackman Fairman, 29 p.3 n.32)VI 73,7. and , Wr nb ,"-5 !R0- r dt 'inscribed ever, for With originaluse: the images the godsare of too Perhaps of bt indicates meaning mnh here, the for eternity' 1395,11. parallel The with chiselled W double entendre mnb'excellene. on withanintended


cloth, wrappings Wb Il 87 (13) to 88 (2) JL DG 164,2 '4 1 S -L

is a generalword for cloth, not necessarilymade up into clothing, though it can have an mntt
adjective to specify a certain colour or type of cloth. The offering of cloth is part of the daily ritual for it clothes the image of the god, at once protecting it and decorating it. The sanctuary thus service, contains the offering of the four main types of cloth - blue, red, white and green : 131,2-8 dW aI irtyw , 131,10-16 ldml ak At Odt hdt and fT' w 3jit 144,1945,12 il irtyw ; also the first

chamber West (21) : di


idmi 1 126,14-127,14

IVA There is a similar pairing in the Throne of Re Chapel : Dnk 1296,7 - 14 also in Room 13 the four are also offered : db3 4) Al^i

2r 1289,14-290,5 1423,5 - 424,3

1432,9' *433,7 The other type of cloth specifically named is MI 1129,3 - 130,2 and , . NI V 196,2-17 where as the coloured cloth is always shown as a ' bolt of cloth 01-A Xr 13 , , held by the king, the latter is 't Qe . type of cloth, perhaps with gazelle hide sewn on (see pl. 258


for example).
mnbt is a general offering it is given to : Horus - nk 1164,18-165.8 ; to Osiris hnk Horus hnk 12f 198,3-12 ; to Sokar Osiris rdi

1178,5-12 ; in the Mesenit a pair of offering to w3.dt Ddt 1244,16-245,7 ;a pair in the Back in the Wabet for Harsomthus and 11 177,14- 178A ; IV L"I 'V VII 99,6

1237,16-238,9 and bnk

Chapel of the leg 1273,8-274,3 and 1279,10-280,6 hnk

Hathor LLb3.5. 1422,13 - 423,2 and 1428,9-16 ; Horus hnk - aOy 288,17-289,16 Qy to Khnurn hnk

V 190,2-13 ; for Ptah hnk

247,10-248,2 ; Horus and Hathor on the outside of the enclosure wall Dnk %De ff.: 157,14 ff. *,260,9 ff.; 306,7 ff. ; for Anubis and Hathor hnk VII 318,6.

The rewards to the king include hk rw 'adornments' of Re, fear in all who seeLhim or the grtyw clothes of Horus. The cloths are symbols of kingship and by offering them the king shows that he is he the legitimate ruler because has the correct clothes and can be recognisedand feared from his splendid Together each pair of colours white/green red/blue symbolise Upper and Lower Egypt. appearance. , respectively , and the control that the king has over them. This explains the importance of the ritual in the sanctuary where the king is seen to be performing his correct duties and proving his legitimate claim. On a more practical level, the cult image of the god would actually be clothed every morning and so the ritual representedforms part of the daily temple cult ritual. A variation on this rite is the combined offering of mnDt and md (or mrt)ointment which is , usually made to Osiris - or the ancestors : Ptolemy Il and Arsinoe hnk md 46,2-10 ; also %!-$Oe 111191,9-192,5 Osiris Dnk md L91 1187,18-188,16 ; 1376,4-16

Ptolemy III and Berenice bnk md Ld

1421,17-422,2 ; Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe hnk rnjj

111140,9-141,8 ; Ptolemy V and Berenice also IV 278,11 ff.; Anubis V 185,17 - 186,10. In

this case the ritual has a mortuary aspect, the md is for embalming and the cloth is for mummy wrappings, so together they symbolise regernerationof the dead [Cauville, Osiris p. 1741.Again by his mummifying the dead the king shows himself to be the true heir both of his human and divine ancestors. In return he receives the throne, estates,regalia , testament , people working for him and also the weavers in the workshops and fields growing flax. Similarly for the db3 6-Y and rins

'ntyw offering 1430,10-431,15 to Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe which is made by Hedjhotep and Medjen of the laboratory. In all casesthe king can be called'son of Hedjhotep (weaving god) nursedby Tayet or


the rbty (Isis and Nephthys as embalmers).In the scenesthe king can hold a bolt of cloth -,or two , I or 10 1 XI 275 or ' XI 315. He normally wears a crown of kingship (Double Red or ,

White or their substitutes) or a crown of fearsomeappearance (the hmhmty for example). , Puns on mnht are relatively rare but do occur : mn. k im. s m rn. s pfy nM Tayet is smnb 0 IV 289,6 ; also smnh W f!td O'd 1423,7. 198,6

Elsewhere: in the Myth, Isis says she has made offering procession

for Sekhet Tayet etc.' VI 67,4 ; in an ,

mn. ti m lwy Srqt'is firm on the arms of Behdee 1566,11-12 and she

makes excellent smnh your body by it'. A song to Re says, 'the Mansion of Appearance is in joy with its lord Horus Behdet in his beautiful festivalof P"01 4=1 VII 38,34. This is known from the reign of Neuseffe, asa moon festival

celebratedin the month of Paophi (LA 11175). In the New Year procession the hry. sYt3 carries , him holding two boxes, one marked with =, J OT Kps 1540,3 for the'cult. PI.37b shows

ary and the other

The s13-mrt rite involves four boxes containing the four types of cloth and one'of the texts of this ritual lists the contents of the boxes, they are 0V 'made by Isis and Nephthys' 1248,16.


cartouche Wb 1189(2) NK

A term knownonly from the 19Lh dynastywhich appliesto thering in which the nameof theking is is While the origin of Ynw 'cartouche' clear mnY is less so. Spiegelberg written . that suggested it could be connectedwith rad 'red coloured'and noted that colouredvesselscan have the form of that rnnYis a cartouches [ZAS 43,1906 p. 158 mnY Kdnigsring]. Recentlyit has beensuggested secondary synonymfor nbbt'fitulary' [LA III col.618 n.13] and that it is primarily a sealring with a pictureof the king on the seal. The word is usedat Edfu : images inscribedwith Horus' greatnameinside are 171,2.


mineralpigment Wb1189(12-13) Harris,Mineralsp. 146ff.

Most likely to be red ochre which came from Aswan and the oasesand perhapsetymologically


connected with


At Edfu the mineral list includes


fresh red ochre, that

is it has not beenburned and washedVI 203,7.


milk Wb 1190(12) GR

mnq occursin GR temples: at Edfu, Hathoris the Akhet cow andshegives = 1588,4 a similar text occursat Kom Ombo,Inscr. no.26,6 has t.. A% 0


n Wsrt

of Isis in a milk

Mammisip.179and n.41 ; in a milk offering at Edfu the king brings offering [c f. Daumas, of the uddersif the Akhet cow which I havemilked for you VIII 105,4; and also at Philae< 1515 Phot222 = Phila I 'Milk them of the motherof NEW.

In milk textsthenthe termis quitecommon theorigin of the word is unclear.Wb recordsa mnqt but vessel: TT 57 = Mem.Nfiss 1 123,11 Urk IV 1848,15Npy
P" A m

//// in a pr-brw

offering. There is a goddessMnqt from the GR period but she is a beer goddess (LA IV 55) and the personification of the beerjug.


'Cool place' - the palace Wb 1190 (15-21) MK

The verb qb 'be cool, to coor is at the root of this term which may indicate any cool or covered room and thus places such as the king's palace or a chapel. From this analysis of the word it is not the administrative headquartersof the king but his living and domestic area. In an appearing in the palace text, the palace is labelled come from J C-31129,14 and in leaving the palace, the king says, 'I have IV 50,2 ; IV 68.17

to enter the Great Place' IV 49,8 sim. 3 03 Y--

S2 f in an offering text, the king is in

his palace 1179,17. In a wpr-bsn text, where the

king purifies the temple for the god, in return Horus gives the king his house protected from the impurities, it is designated as C-3 1133,4 ; and , if 'a' C71 111110,34 ; in sfb

6 db', Horus gives ^E-' C'75 mn JJr nrrw. k 125,18 ; for stretching the cord, the god gives the king cc-3 1131,9 text where the gods of Edfu take the king to the temple , they call at .A four gods arriving at Belidet joined as five gods' IV as ,

en if his palace for him : Im. r ^%o% C-3

205,13-14. Possibly the whole name means 'place of establishing coolness' and at Edfu refers to 'the


palace!rather than

being acool. place! as in earlier texts (Wb Beleg).


beer goddess Wb 1190(9-10) BD

jug A personified andgoddess beerin GR temples, alsoof dsrt drink, which shebrews.Sheis of and from the Book of theDead(Nav.101,1 1)'Menketmakes firm/grow the bushfrom his breast! attested Vk- [LA IV ""d col.55 and seeHelck, Bier p.851.Sheappears often at Edfu , usuallyin beeror wine offeringrituals.
Beer: Receive beer made by ^.^4% o o in a procession of deities jl'.
r= A P"'i Aa to quench thirst! 1151,8 ; made by 0


is brought'who makes beer IV 197.12 (replaced by tnmmt 0 0V C% 54,17 ; in the brings dsrw' I

=A in parallel text). In a general offering the king is said to be 'nursed by ,

Eye of Horus and ttl -4 0 New Year procession Lho'butler of the king brings green 555,6-7 ; the king brings ca 0 L of beer 111150,1 with vessels


Vill his tribute to his mistress' presenting C'3 ...

In a necklace offering : 'the king is upon

2,9. The text is clear, but the word is apparently a hapax.


heaven Wb 1169(2) GR

. givesreferences but Wb only to textsat Dendera, this word alsooccursat Edfu : in thePronaos the , king is like a column r W mnw.kmi -q v"-v 111233,4 in a pun in the'templedescriptionmn. wy ;

IV 'how firm are your monuments like heaven' 3,10. ,

which endures is firm'. or mnt is derivedfro'in mn andmeans'that


thighs Wb 1168(8-15) Pyr.

The singularform is also usual,usedin medicaltextsandotherreligioustexts[Lefebvre,Tableau54 47Q. Still in useat Edfu in different contexts: the king as Horus is 'born of Isis, rearedhr'i--!j p.


of Nephthys'1 169,17-18; Horus Pr of his motherIsis 1171,11.1


of his mother1123(93) , possiblyHorus4r

mnty also applies to the thighs of the Seth hippo, for the ninth harpoonis mn m Mn 77,11. -


In an unusual text : the king is like a column lifting heaveniwty rdi drt. f Or P-4 , .. 0 , jKVV(: his hand mnt. f hr rmn smnt who doesAputting upon his thigh and lifts the sky 111273,17 implying theking is ableto lift the sky easilywithout needing extrasupport[seecomments Kurth , of Dekorationp.83 ; for mnty with masculine article and spellingswithout ty seeIversenJEA 65, p3 1979p.82 n.4]. ,


pigeon Wb 1168(2-4) swallow(3) pigeon DG 161,5 '9 cf. CrAOa; CED244: KH24swaRow SH146-

The Coptic term &HWE mnt is a swallow thoughmn.wt may be confusedwith it on occasion = , c f. AEO 11257*].The latter is knownfrom OK offering lists andat Edfu they are includedin the list of offeringsfor the festival, "J''pwyw 24 V 135,9.


distress sadness , Wb H 67 (6-18) Med. Wb Med p.364-368

From its usein medicaltextsmnt is the term for physicalpain and the sufferingit gives.It hasthis which is removedby godsor certainofferings, useat Edfu whereit occursfrequentlyas something bad mnt is a generalterm for something and coversvariouskinds of suffering : 'the floodedcanal protectsyour nomefrom-.,,. Irk 1325,15 ; as illness 'Bastet, gives the two eyesn wnt=;? -

'there is no illness in them' IV 239,8. Especially commonis the use of mn t in Menat m-ht. sn 0 1177.12and 5; or drives it awayI in a play on words the Menat : snbAi r offerings , 184,85A_v2*; 11119,6 also; VIII 101,14andIV 256,6


In this casemnt implies both

physicalandspiritual hurt or suffering, the menatrepairsboth.


mnt , mnty mountains Wb 1169(3-6) GR $e mnty are the mountainranges Egyptparallelin useto of andalso to Xt3w 'quarries.for they
? I" an. 'a

produce minerals, precious stones, metals and other bi3t. Min, the god of the desertsis of VO and when the king builds his shrine for him he is and ruler mountains and quarries' VII 304,4 and 11. The king exacts tribute from necklace text the 100 CD "%% lot 3 c'3c':


'and ruler of VI 91,17 ; in a

pour out offerings 146,15 ; for the foundation bricks of the temple , their 00 1132,14 ; in m d, texts the king receives produce of the

constituents come from mountains to make it

in an amulet text Horus is Oq3 ! S5 OW6 11116,11 OWV 179,14-15 ;

In the treasury texts the term occurs often in texts connected with necklaces which are made from . , t5 = in P" 11297,14 ; the king is wsh-nmt the king brings quarried stones : with produce C3C3 11299,1 king is )mi ; the iii flooding the temple with his offerings VII 35,15.

Gauthier considered that an area mndt! was outside Egypt and perhaps near Punt which primarily (DG 11145). This does not seem to be the same as our'two mountain area'Brugsch produced msdm located them in Asia [Geog. 11163]. A text at Edfu may in fact relate to this specific area OD '" 00

OLA 6 p.696] and by comparison with texts in other GR which brings nnib 11290,2[seeDaumas temple treasuries.Grenier suggested that the term runty referredto Upper Egypt and the areain Sauneron [Hom. 1383 n.1]. mnty at Edfu is by particularbounded the Libyan and Arabianmountains however certainly a word for mountain, for the singular term is also attestedat Edfu with this unmistakeable :a place Wa is also called use pl.419. The singularform is usedin a term to refer to the necropolis wherethe deadgodsof Edfu areburied -0 1,= hrt. mnt 'high mountain' 0 9- 1151,9 01 e--seq- 52,8 'Q C! ; Eno clonH
r-N A

A 'Cr 12t 1

'mountainof gold' 11289,11= XII

laonthe southwest

MDAIK 16,1958 p.278 n.3 of Edfu 1173,12[c f. GauthierDG IV p.38 , for locationseeSauneron, Cauville,Osiris p.54 nA and BIFAO 82,1982 p.1231. Mehytmakes foes fall upon PQ 'C! eL%! 9- 3 1185,15-16 The origin-of the termis not clear, it may have beenconfusedwith m nlyw or the term m nt for A mountain may have been invented as a new variant word to stressthe enduring presenceof the mountain ranges.



Wb 1169(7) GR

in In GR textsconcerned of with the kingshipand inheritance, particularthe presentation the mks, LL"5 Horusgivesthe king zrm gives thekingpresents . 'which arein my hand'VII 198,8; in a palettetext Thoth ,

rhwy to Horusin WetjesetIV 299.9 ; in porr-sht text (a ritual kingship race) , his and j; _r rhwy 111116,14 the texts stresses legitimaterule. On the pylon 'which are in your hand'VIII 53,11 and it is madeby Thoth

has the title 0-- ',, ';--III& a text

wp-rhwy to Horusand again the phraseis closely connected with the mekes ere is no published it). platefor this , nor doesPM describe Wb indicatesthat the word may be an error for p4ty 'two halves'for a phrasepsYty.rbwy is also that ninty-rowy is analogous attestedfrom GR texts (Wb 1554,10-14)and certainly it seems with in this phrase, thoughnot an error for it. With mnty meaning'two mountains' 'two sides'perhaps or in the sense 'two established of areas rule' derivingfrom mn this would haveextrasignificance the of Thoth smn all fields of establishing(smn) of the right of the king to rule (c f. a text in VI 199.9-10 Egypt containing]Vr-hnty-nhh n p. hnty n3 bw W. 0V


one of the Nine Bows Wb 1192 (4-6) 18th dyn. Gauthier DG III p.43

As with other ethnic names the exact localisation of these people varies through time in Egyptian texts and becomes rather static in use. It can refer to people of the Libyan desert or in the phrase mnlyw-sLtyw the Semitic nomads of the Sinai peninsula (after Gauthier) [ Uphill, JEOL 19. ,

1965-6 pA02-3 for location of thesepeople and p.408-410 originally on the Sinai peninsula and south Palestineextendedin time as far as Ugarit and perhapsat extremeedge of the external world]. Mnlyw alone : in snt-t3 text, qm3tyw and bow down to the king IV 56,5 in

offering desert animals the

bring their beastsVII 323,11-12 . In the text describing

tti the Nine Bows , the %% dm.

havemoreinformationaboutthem , the areais also called p3 0n

0 Igrw 'the land of the Asheru',they live on flood wateron the eastandrain wateron the west , they by HorusVI 197,3-7 so these Asiatic peoples theEuphrates. are offer to , to In lists of the Nine Bows,Mntyw usuallyappear, either connected the Sttyw or identified with


them as one group

e!!!' I Sttyw bowing at the might of the king 117,4 ;

A%' Sttyw '!!!I SttYw trampled by the king VIII 76,8 ;. I, are all servants of the king VI I'51,6. 0%'


lion goddess Wb Il 68 (5) OK - GR

in Mnt - Mntit lioness goddess the Old Kingdom Sed festivals , for examplethat of Niuserre Nr. [Re-Heiligtum11131.31 56a] andalsoPepi11[Urk 1114,16].In the late periodshewasconnected 2alc lionessgoddesses IV 48]. At Edfu shereceives [LA offerings... 4M with other protectsthe divine limbs in the Houseof the Leg 1256,14-15 5 -; 1"-. 314,18 she is listed amongthe templegods
5" Sakhmet -,,

in Behdetwho

fyt greatof fearI Lady of

1122-3(120). Sheis also an aspectof

in Behdet 1 154,4 and in this respect may be a pacified form , note wrt 0 f "-'j bnt BVdt V 301,6 [Germond, Sekhmet p.265 n. 1

the spelling wiLh the menat:

Vemus, Athribis p.411 n. 1 for references]. She is also an aspect of Mehyt VII 14,7 ; IV 273,15-18

1142,16; 1271,17-18[Cauville,BIFAO 82,1982 p.113n.81. also


Wb 1193 (11-14) BD GR

in shape and thus to parts of the body In general the term rnnt seemsto refer to something spherical ball [Meeks, BIFAO 77,1977 p.81 n. 1 rnnAt such as the breasts,cheeks and most obviously the eye Lefebvre, Tableau p-14 141. referred to the eye ball and then the whole eye , also At Edfu the word is used mainly in the divine epithet sbb-mndty
. -4

'make festive the eyes' : with IM 1101,13-14

cosmetics (Horus)


4.1425,16; VI 284,14

Nephthys %w Z: 11143

particularly of Hathor shb

restricted use. .A

In a 'seeinggod text: Hathor is clearvision of the god V 40,11.

'Lady of the eyce , implying shehasvery closeand



(11) Wb1192 to 93(8) Pyr.

P.BerlinThoth 411

AJ. A-)


I Cr.176b; CED86; KH96 MNOT A word used from the PyramidTexts onwardsand referring to male or femalebreasts[Lefebvre, Tableau 25 251 into Coptic and is usedat Edfu : irt and it is alsoa medicalword too. It continues p.
tM m


nLri mdt. f VI 202,2.Writings suchas 99

may be read as mndt : in milk mwt. k 3st J493

t e- Yq texts , milk is ill to I


HorusSekhatcow 1453,1 ; or fi t of the 9n


to hurt , be ill , suffer Wb Il 95 (1-15) Pyr.

In the name of the goddessmr-bt. s 'she whose flame sears' [see Cauville, BEFAO 81,1981 p.21-40]. A goddesscreated to be the counterpart of Nephthys, as Shentayetis to Isis. They act as protectors of Osiris and the two appear in symmetry with one another. Spellings of her name Nephthys who protects her brothcrI 186,6; 7. &A'0 4., AM 4 chamber --*74111213.9 ; Yjk! o 12l9, l6; e-0J4r-I244, Am l0; is

1176,10-11 and named on the door lintel of the Sokar ,

in Behdet 1175 bottom right. They usually appear with Osiris or in the ,

Sokar chamber but are also found at Denderaand Philae [Cauville op.cit.]. , I f11 -Sp<There are similar epithets for other goddesses: Nephthys is also Mehyt is Nekhbet is "Z7Y4'0; nsrt who causes foes to fall 1185.15 ; 0 14 -zk 2L: is 3T r 'w3y 1113,8 ; Pakhet


315A ;

also VI 313,2 ;

nsrt 1314,18 [the epithet can

also apply to Sakhmet Urk VI 53,5 seeE.Hoenes, Sachmetp.2341.

-AY Similar to this is the expression mr dndn 'painful rage!: Nekhbet (oryx slaying) T,, %) dndn1175,5 1310,2 (not mr-fnd as Derchain notes , Rites I, Oryx p.53 n. 1 Doc. 141 111197,8.

and possibly J'k Sakhmet

In mr-snm especially of mourners in the Sokar Chamber and also to stress that mris a verb of grief . hurL This use is only attestedat Edfu and the texts are difficult. and emotional pain as well as physical Wb translates it as 'very sad' very sad woman' 1216,4 Chamber). The verb mr can also be transitive, in puns on the name of Merkhetes ibw 'who makes ffl1210,8-9 ; Dmt pw n 1r'she is a

'for her husband' 1222,16-17 (all from the Sokar





desert wasteland , Wb 11109 (5-8) D. 18

Perhaps the earliest attestation is in the Megiddo text of Tuthmosis III, in the phrase mrw snb 'the coast is cleae [so FCD 1121. At Edfu it is a common term to describe the desert containing wild animals and game : 'fat of lwt-flocks of game-meatis offered of nb nw " Acla 1489,17 ; m3i nb hr IV 32,13

1165,8-9 ; theseanimals symbolise Seth and his destruction 'wt

VI 28,8-9.

In this area the lion is king and the lion gargoyle declares 'I am ruler (h q3) of the desertl' . aM IV 274,6-7 IV 286,4 he is fearsome to animals hr . IV 342.12 and he is fierce of face hr ':w C=X. 111197.7*.the king 111188,10; Horus
c,. m . aw vii

-as a lion is also ruler -50' dwa a-_::

as a lion rules it 319,14

VII 164,13 VII 323,5-6.

jm 0922


VII 62,15 ;

-'Mtr e==-

7be origin of the word is unclear but it could be connected with mr 'mountain' or the like , c.f. r* pyramid, but this is spelled not., %q= ; 'Orwith mrrtroad7; it maybe a loan word. or


for mr-wr Mnevis bull Wb 11106(7) GR

of ritual; Wb attests abbreviation Dendera it alsooccursat Edfu in theProtection theHouse this and at of are wherethe two uraeiserpents called'the daughters -"C, VI 148,4.

text for various The full spelling for the Mnevis (Wb 11106,4-6) alsooccursat Edfu : in an incense animal gods,one of whom is 1520,3 'who gives food and supplies.he is shownas a

bull headd man (PI.36b ist reg. and whrn n RI 'herald of Re)[for the Mnevis bull see LA IV



to love'
Wb 1198- 100(11) DG'167.1


Cr. 156a; CED78; KH85

mE, MEpe--


formsmr. f 'his beloved'.Spellingsareconsistent, in The verb usuallyappears epithets substantive, or but vary between In Maat offeringsthe phrasemr. t.f 'onewhom he loves'is usedas a pun on the word m3t which mayhavehadsimilar vocalisations Phrases bw nb mr. f im or sim. : bw pn Vb be' 1223,2. r-mrr. f as muchas he wants : eat 4= k3A

'this pure place in whiclymy ka loves to

V 153,2-3; flood field


mr beloved(Wb 11101,5-10) often atEdfu: st in retrograde writing:

=: r

IV 16,6 s1f mr. f often and usedinverted

A Vwt-Hr (Ptol) ? tolemy belovedof HathoeVIII 41,16. nbt-lwnt .....

TTI 1248,18. 1374,14 41'1475,7

In titles of kings : (Wb 11101,11-13) Philopator 1475,12. Philometor

beloved. (Wb 11103,11 104,11) restricted (c C DG 169,4 j-=); Cr.156b; CED78 has to mrr use


Wb 11102(1) to 103(10) Old

for gods putting love (of the king) in places mrt especially hearts of gods -cc 249,15 Also Hathor is in bellies - all "'Y 1422,10 ;

Or t3 dr. f 1316,10
2= a2,


1520,15 ; of women

1158,16 and passim.


divine epithet.

to many gods [Vernus, Athribis p.238 n. and n. 1 for list of gods elsewhere with this mrty can apply epithet] and at Edfu : Horus is Al in the horizon 1518,7 ; Montu in Behdet who shines

the gods19 1,10; especiallyOsiris [of Osiris reboM,.Piankoff RdE I, 1933 who protects



his bedj 185,1,;1157,3 ; 1169,5 and Osiris on


hnty v-

1181 (5) ; 1489,18-490,1 deadgodscomebefore sh-nir

W Xfy wsr VI 276,15


Sokar Osiris is hq3 nfr p. 183]. Note also 4 ZEM : Amun is


67,1. Cauville discusses'the term briefly [Osiris 1159,5 ; Amun, possibly an example at Edfu

beside his child

VI 25,3 ([BIFAO 75,1975 p.34j].


tree and type of wood Wb 11109 (2) perhapsalso Wb Il 108 (14-18) OK

A word used rarely in medical texts [Wb Drog. 250; Germer, Arznei 368], it is now believed to be a type of fir tree from Lebanon, perhapseven cedar of Lebanon [LA Il 1264-9] Cedrus libani or Abies cilicica Carr[LALVI 1357-81.Certainly the wood was imported into Egypt for its red wood and its resin too. It was only rarely used for making larger objects such as ships, but mainly for furniture or sarcophagifor example [Charpenderno.536 p.343-3]. In the'temple door leaves of the temple were apparently made of mrw wood worked with copper: , 3= IV 6,7 ; IV 15,1 ; of the naos -"c e 110,3 1; temple V 4,3 it comes from the

'teffaces'=r v-

VIII 169.1. A more unusual use is in the Myth which describes Horus being nursed

(kkw), of by his mother,hidden by her treesand the darkness

simply be a general term for'trces. where the word may



strips of cloth

Wb 11105(9-14) MK A generalshort list of typesof cloth includes heads foesare cut off like of 1388,9 'In a further text for smn-Ywty 'the .

(ms) n ht VI 55,12-13.Alliot translatedlike those

fire'and explainedmrw as being connected with mrw boundcaptiveswhich are put onto the of the had magicalspellswritten on them.Apparentlysuchamulets strips of cloth , especiallythosewhich P.Turin 131,8; 131.11and also on the MetternichStela34]. He againstare poisonare known [PuR , hadstripsOfcloth aroundthemwith spellswritten d'envoutement' which they suggested were'figurines .them,so thathereare'ligotdes'[RdE 5,1946p.69 n.1]. on mrw for a stipof cloth comesin MK texts(FCD 11) and is connected with mrw'weavers'and mr nir^w 'to bind', thoughall seemto be contemporary it is difficult to say which camefirsL A word and

MIT [Cr.182a CED88 ; KH 99] 'bundle' derives fromthisnoun. ;


In origin thereis a town [JunkerGiza I pl.511whoseoffering bearer brings with , W by the determina6e [c E text p.226 n.21.Theconnection cloth andmr maybe olderthansuggested of texts.


provisions Wb Il 110(13) GR

Wb citesMD III 49d as the only reference:Tlathoris lady of Ypswwho created



mrrw is a generaltermfor'supplies!or the like. At Edfu the word is usedin a morespecificcontext:

festival the altars are flooded with bread and cakes including -k[z --> at the c=;. a= , , determinative =D

IV 18,18.The

may then be accurate and denote bread of some kind. The Edfu word may be 1, 1-2=-16 1C-30 listed among -OM6

connected with mrr from the Gol. Gloss. 7,1 = AEO 11231 *

cakesand the spelling here may indicate a loan word. The Edfu example may be a link between this and the Dendcrageneralterm for 'food'.


townspeople Wb 11110 (9) GR

Derived from mrr. t, part of a town or a street rather than being a corruption of mrw 'weavers. Wb , has two references,one at Dcndera and the other is 1554,2 at the New Year festival of Mesen,-IlzcLyl =,.
M nb hn&, wherein 4D W fact there seems no need to read this as people, but simply as 'quarters, streets'.

the exampleand in this respect thus'all its- streets in joy. The samecouldbe saidof the Dendera are is closeto Englishwherewe talk of 'quarters a city' doing thingswhenwe mean'peopleof the of word quarters'. r text: 'Rejoicewomenof Busiris, i, I-, -A 'peopleof noble birth of Andjee VI 83,6 nilt

(after Drioton CASAE 11pAOwho doesnot know how to takethis term).The term may in fact read for IP qnbthowever, is not usuallyusedto write mrr. t accordingto Wb , but in FCD 112it is


mrr. t

Wb Il 110(8-11) MK


ne word is street and is sometimeswrongly written mrt [GAS 50]. It continues to be used at Edfu : at the festival, the king goes around the town
Lrl -"-

m hnd all its- streets rejoice IV 3,2 ; sim.

Lrl sk m sty-nLr and its 'a.C-3 is VII 'streets with god'sscent! 203,13-15 This determinative alsousualfrom the MK andasFaulkner . IV 3,8 ; the GreatPlaceis permeated with incense indicatesit refers to a main route (FCD 112avenue) ratherthanan enclosed room (asWb II 110,11 Also in the festival : bulls are slaughtered (m-ht) rLj 0" throughout palace). city) IV 11,10; wine 'dripsin rU C-3 the streets' IV 19,2. (of the streets the


The OK usemay derivefrom the mrt canal,in this casereferringto pathsin a town ratherthana , waterchannel.


bull god Wb H 112(5-8) OK

He is an aspect the king from very ancienttimeswhenthefunctionof theking wasdividedandOK of (6th dyn.) an archaictitle revived in GR times (Urk 1172) and also queenswere called s3t mrw , "I Y; -C=- N , VI 148A; alsoMam. 14 found in the old protectionritual at Edfu, wherethe urazi are s3ty ",H,.12 (7) Cleopatrais s3t . Mrhw is the bull of Xois or Aftbis As an anthropomorphic god ,

Abydos(Seti 1) and on a block from at but alwaysfrom Lower Egypt. As god of Athribis he appears the areaof Athribis itself. liturgy to establishthe creation by the spitting out of Shu . At Edfu the bull is attestedin a royal *;? 'VI 154,14 Mrw is called 'water'6f Shu: 'be with him in one body in his nameof -,. V ZC for Iyou spit out an utterance, your son in his nameof --VI 155,2; also V1 155,6

1. details,Vernus,Athribis p.455 (n.2 bibliography)to 458], the Edfu text perhaps p.60 and p.67 n.67 ; preserving lost mythology. a Y In origin the term may be connected mrV *o! , and refer to one of the bulls anointedby the with queen theSedfestival. at I

on Merhetare identified [for comments this text - Blackman, JEA 31,1945 Here Shu and


to dccay, pass away Wb If 111(14-20) D. 18 GR -


The verb, attestedfrom D.18 [Tutankhamun Restoration stela] can apply to buildings 'falling into 1 2*ruin' and this useis implied at Edfu : HorusprotectsMesenn sk^ji, 'not dying, not being

and ruined' VI 73,2 . In their translation'unceasingly unremittingly'[JEA 29,1943p.15] , Blackman that andFairmansuggest it is Horuswho is this, but it mayjust as well be Mesenwhich is unchanged. ; also c.f. the butcherswho protectMesen,after their customin the time of TanennA -J'
'! VI 325,4.5 The phrase also is used of the celebrating of festivals : the king has festivals'year 2a =i\ . by year nA --,: C Sp. "'


=\ VI 183,6 (also Dendera)

The originsof the word arenot clearbut it is spelledthe same way as mrh oir for embalming, which hasexactlytheopposite decay'-thetwo termsmaybe antonyms. effectfor itpreserves'andprevents


fat Wb 11111 (1 -10) OK - MK in Lit. Texts DG 16910 Wb Drog. 250

rnrt is a general term for fat or grease and was used as an ointment in recipes. It can be specified as coming from various animals though often from birds [see list in LA Il 205 with refs. ] and also could be taken from trees and plants [Janssen, CP 102 ; Sin. 295]. This noun derives from wrb 'to anoint', the m-prefix making rn-wrh into a nomina instrumenti [Smith, Glimpses p. 161]. 1105,13 ; also -3iy 1474.5 ; -1Y 1489,16; on charcoal

The word occurs at Edfu : in a list of offerings of r3 wildfowl is offered 1489,17;

fat is burned: -17 VI 204,4 also. This

1489,13-14 and I 111.5-7 in the title of a ritual for Osiris where the scene shows the king putting two lumps of meat on a brazier [pl. 35c], with the fat perhaps helping the fire to bum. Recipes in the laboratory use mrht: '1j5' Up -g. 'PAr,;3, : IA.: II

recipe 11203.10 ; also-Y

211 shows that it is nar-fish oil. In this chamber a scene has the title nk Horus and the subsequent recipe for making MouLh ceremony 11209,12-210,6 pl. 43a. Other texts which begin nk -'E can specify that this is a mrt offering 7ake. '="cj ZE.


E) stresses that it is used for the Opening of the

C with andcloth

cloth to Osiris to embalm him and receive the right to rule'

163,16-64,4 pl. 16

life, renewaland a greatflood from Osiris and Isis 1177,14-178,3 24 Possiblyalso pl. guaranteeing n k -clothto Osiris with the four ubises. It may be mrht but the word is not written and

1 798

out in full and could be md 1 187,17-188,16 282 also hnk--f pl. mrht by Cauville [Osiris p.871.


1376,4 transliterated as


lotus bud or flower

In an offering of incenseand libation to the Ogdoad, the text describesthe lotus coming up then says VPV7 9 4-: tmmt m-hnt. s 1289.3 = XI 319 'and the flower ? spat out the little one (dwarf)

inside if. mrh seemsto be an otherwise unattestedterm for the lotus bud or flower. v

mrh v

sieve Wb 11112(12) GR

Attested at Edfu alone : in the laboratory, a substanceis put into the bnmtJ4" called -P&G



instrument astronomical
Wb 11112(13) D.18, GR to setout the in ; alsoperhaps --1131,4

At Edfu : in stretchingthe cord texts- the king as the sonof Thoth uses foundations 1131,3; and establish comersof the temple the J? !k: j an epithetof the king -

; 'excellentof the merkhee111105,8 as Ipy with the

he establishes comersof the templeVII 44,10. the determinative, water clock or clepsydre[Z.Zaba, a Zaba suggested the mrht was, despitethe that tgypte Ar. Or. Supp.II Prague1953p.62-4] , but it dansI'ancienne L'Orientation Astronornique , , by looking at the stars[Cf. Sloley , Legacy to seems be a sighting instrumentto align the templeaxis Glanville p. 1631. of Egypt ed. ,,

of The word may be an m-prefix addedonto rb(t) 'to know' or 'calculate',thus literally 'instrument knowing' [Smith, Glimpses nomina instrumendp. 161). The earliest exampleof the instrumentis from the 18Lhdyn. (c f. AgypdschesMuseumBerlin, 1967p.54 pl. 555-560] but the ceremonyof ' putting in the cords comesfrom the 5th dyn. at least [Pyramid templeof Niusserre,Borchardt,Die Alt3gyptischeZeitmessung 53 B ff. ]. A text of Amenernhet (Amosis to Tuthmosis1) in a broken p. inscription decribeshis activities including I made hsb.ti rn rnpt nfr. s n


by nsw-bity I madea merkhet, reckoned thegoodyearfor theking' , herea time piece? [Borchardt -cit. op. p.60 B, with Tf. 18 line 14 to 61 B, this is now a'losf tomb =C2 in PM I, Ip. 4571.The Osircionat Abydoshasthe 'Shadow Clock Text' which describes the as the upright

indicatorof the st3t instrument,usedto measure shadowof the sun mrtt became word for the the . in the wholeinstrument time [Frankfort.OsireionVol. I p.76-81andIl pl.82-82line 9-10of text]. The scenes Edfu do not show the instrumentat all simply"the two poles and the cord for the at 'stretching cordceremony. the


CX= 'their pools' VI 56,12 which ,

In the netting of the foes, the king brings fish from

it Alliot suggested wasa metathesis inr-mhr seems clear.No otherexamples knownhowever. are of (Wb 11134an areaof land)but realisedthis hadlimitations [RdE 5 p.83 n.71.As corroboration the of Edfu word. compare harpoon 'he to text (damaged) takesthe harpoon stabthe crocodile a V 56,6, which may be this word mrX.

mrs ,

light red Wb 11113(1) GR DG 170.9mis

' 15/3

* Cr.183b -,CED 89 'redyellow. MpoW Two examples Edfu are given by Wb : in descriptions substances in the laboratory used of at % 11206,1; ". '' 11207,4. This would seemto be very closeto the Coptic word mpo! y

but thereis also a term mng (Wb 1189)which is a pigmentand thoughtto be red ochre[Harris Lex. In Min. p.146-71. fact mng and MPO!! j may be two endsof an etymologicalchainof which the

the Edfu text is the link in the middle [c f. also LA 11119 mng and Iversen, Paints and mrg of Pigmentsp.28 also].


throat, gullet Maat Wb 11107(7-9) GR

known from the OK and she is a womanwho presidesover the Originally mrt is the songstress,


making of music and singing in rituals and at funerals (Wb 11107,2-6).She came to be associated with goddessesand in particular Hathor who by her music restored order , thus mrt was identified with Maat. Mait was regardedas the throat of god by which air and food were given to him, the sustenance' of life, and so the word mrt is also used for'throaf over which the songstresshad particular authority. The three concepts mrt 'singer'. mrt 'throat! and Maat may have sounded the same in pronunciation and they make a potent pun , so that they seem to be interchangeable , intertwining and the more powerful becauseone word incorporates the aspectsof the other two. Lefebvre knows this term for 'throaf from GR religious texts only [Tableau p.22 ; Blackman in MG p.420 -,also L, IV col.80-88 Merct'singee with bibliography]. Wb has no useslike this outside GR texts.

In Maat texts: --kl= 4= I 80,i8-81,2

1521,6 507,14 plus

1371,10; VI 317,6also 1218,7 IM I

q1 155,18-56,1 V 217,15 ,V


V 187.10
VII 291,9- 10 ; 1269,5 also; 138,6-7 *,VI 161A also; I

possibly VII 114,6;

1116,18. tfy 'this your throat receives all foods! VII 80,5-6 in a tfy mr. k 1 392,10-11 . The morning hymn to Horus 116 (18) and you live by hee.'', of her

In other texts : an offering of food general hymn to Nfin 'he brings

describes his throat transmitting food to his belly, it is

king an image of Maat'making festive In return for an amulet, Hathor gives the

Hathor herself is Maat, songstress 111124.8.The word occurs frequently at Dendera , where mistress' and throat.


people Wb 11106(11-20)

AtEdfu: Edfu ,

'Rejoice I X-X

his people ! '1443,7 ; (possible example) in the festival at ":= * mitt -6 t ... ryk-b4bn $%I snsn IV 17,11

'all hearts are joyful


Wb 11107(10-15) BD, GR

Lefebvrenotesthat this is a late period word [Tableau 16 17]. It'actually occursin the dual in the p. HorusMerty. The word in theNK templetextsefurs asa writing of mrt nameof the god of Shedenu,

- 801

singer'andalso in Adm. 7,14 where =.

-41= EiE I

from the contextis clearly the singergoddess

[seeGAS 59-60].With this spellingrart became word understood be a termfor theeyeandis used to a in this way in the Edfu tex ts. It joins analogous terms,Maat, Meret andmrt-throat, so that in Maat
it is usually used in the singular : Maat is called -11C `21: 111128,5-6; IV 294,12 also ; IV * texts ==- -

257,13; VII 254,9'you live by hee -; -14C => c=. " ' 193,15-16 -P"-Ck -4z>

is established your face 111143,5-6 sim III in ; of Horus

IV 134,809 Also a plural/dualexample: .

illumine the two lands1417,1-2. Unlike mrt-throat, mrt-eye has a more'extended outsidethe 1battexts : in a plant offering, use
Hathor makes firm in their places VI 247,4 *,in sfh Horus is made content


-Atc- x:,
C=w -c=>

125,12 ; Tefhut sends'"J'

'my eye againstfoes!158,18 ; in Wadjeteye

offerings, Horus

TZI..., who illumines the two landswith them1316,8 ; 1152.10also. x

c= -cYed1165.17 ;-%; am cz> " camelian Z%=* ,

In'epithets : Horus is rst "A a

131,8 also.

As 'the two eyes'together be considered be the uraeiof theking or evenhis doublecrown , this to can
use is also applied to mrty : in urazi offerings, 'Supply offering, Horus receives C Raise up -,= C=* 305,7. Double crown : at the coronation of the king, 'you raise up .9==- cm> j. .0 ,
-,; C "ZE:,

Z cz>

::, 4=*

their requirements' VI 285,12 ; in wadjat with

them on his head 1394,14-15 ; in uraei offering and puts T VII

to the brow' 111119,1; in a hpwt offering , 'wearing

as the Double crown' VI

244,11-12, o=o "I, it ZZ


two crownsdriving away foesIV 16.7, in a 9wty offering /// as the Z; "'--VIH 6,10. _LJU, 166

left VII 110.2-3; POssibly also ir tpt. f n uniting right and

The god Horus Merty also appearsat Edfu, he is listed among the temple gods : -N

(50) andreceives offeringsat 'killing Apopis'


The word mrty may survivein greekccppccWo; Pr. Hr-Mrty with the rn becomingb [so Sethe, ZAS 63 1928p.991., ,


, god (c f. the epithetmrty earlier)


-jIn the canalof the Athribis nome,Horus is a black bull in his eye -4=2,4


in his barqueIV

later by mrw herethe term indicates 29,12.This is the oldestversionof this text and it is replaced ,


the two eyes. Vernus notes that this is to be distinguished from mrwty the epithet of Osiris reborn , [Piankoff RdE 1,1933 p. 172-3 ; Goyon, RdE 20,1968 p.90 or of other gods seelist in Athribis p.238 n. 1] and discussesthis passage[Athribis p.238 n.fl. I,


box chest , (3-6)OK Wb 11108

tied mrt are containers up with four bindings,which are shownin fours and they arebroughtto the gods in a ritual called s13 mrt, in earlier texts mr s13 This original form of the ritual may have suggesting meant'box for dragging'implying that it was set uponrollers or a sled , in turn perhaps that the box was relatively heavy.The earliestexampleof the ritual occursfrom a block of Antef nbw-hpr -R' at Koptos,the top part showsthe king with the usualcrown (atef) and the Lipof W
on the top of the box , the title of the scene is
-<=0 , -J . 4=; b ,


extending the arm to the four boxes'

[Parie KoptosplNI no.21.Many examples the ritu al exist from the New Kingdom [seeindex for of in Barguet,Le Templed'Amon Re p.350 and Wb Beleg] by which time it had become not example due but'draggingthefour chests', change perhaps misunderstanding to 'Consecrating 4 drag-chese a the the rite or to a desire to clarify. it. Also in the Chapel of Hathshepsut Chap. Hat p.193]. L. acau-Chevrier, . is alwaysthe same: the ki n3 wearsthe At Edu theritual is depictedeight timesandthe scene shown atef crown andholdsa maceor In his head. as the ancientact of consecration. front raisedup above

for The rite is perfortned Min : four plumesattached the top of eachone. to him are four chests with of L-rl '0, I', Itt four comersof the earthto rule over 1401,12-402,4; in return the king is given the Lrl -with Ln 0A IV 310,9-311.6;Amun Re -4-': -//// similar reward V11302,14ffand


most often to Horus

1158,12-18 ,3 rU from south , north , eastand west QD ,

boxesherecontainfour typesof cloth andthe text impliesthattheyareprovidedfor V 183,12-13 The . the king's father.for theking actsasa true sonperforminghis dudesin orderto the mummificationof t4(cj-4 also 164,16 - 65,5 . With Hathor: the inheritancedue to him : U7 receiveall //// VI

funcraryaspect againstressed mostclearly -9-- rU 0 fill is VII 153,12-154,10 and wherethe

248,11-249,17 with pl. 152 Ist rcg. wherethecloth is individually namedin the boxes- white , green, red; blue, they represent four comersof the earth drive away foes and are for mummification the ,


purposes. J.he rite concerns the correct performance of funerary rituals and as a result the possessionof the rightful inheritance, in this case the whole earth under the rule of the king. As a reward, perhaps as a word play on nirt , the king is given T3-Mrt. The rite is also attested at Dendera and it may parallel bw-bbsw both in its antiquity and role as an inheritance rite [c f. Chassinat Khoiak Il 644-649]. The word occurs outside these texts also : in the V description of the temple: nb k3p. ti rn 'ntyw 'all its boxes fumigated with myffh' (de Wit has 'streets' CdE 36, Nr. 71 1961 p.93). , In Old Kingdom mastaba, scenesof the harvest, among the offerings of fruit, flowers and slaughtered animals the priests of the funerary cult (bmw-U) bring the sl3t, which are shown as in later texts ,

as tall thin containers mounted on a sled. Moret proposed that they were portable granaries and compared their shapeto that of other granaries; even a bundle of flax. He also comparedthe shapeof or the Djed-pillar of Osiris and suggested that the New Kingdom term mrA meant 'the beloved' . In he proposed that the container was a personification of the grain spirit who hid itself in the conclusion first or the last sheaf of corn at the harvest. From the Old Kingdom Osiris takes on the attributes of this dead corn god and thus the rite becameone of Osirian import, so that by the New Kingdom it was Osiris-Horus inheritancecycle and the Horus-king identification [A. Moret - La Mise connectedwith the A Mort du dieu en Egypte, Paris 1927 dedicated to JamesFrazer and using his models see especially , , 24-31 with notes and examples from OK including Von Bissing , Mastaba von Gemnika , Leipzig, pp. 1911 pl. VIII , IX XI and p.29-321. ,


quay . shoreor canal Wb 11109 (12) to 100 (3) MK FCD 112 DG 168,2 A '//0 MPLJ

Cr. 183a; CED88; KH98

is well attested from MK texts, and is perhaps connected with the older word mr'canar (Wb 11 mryt 97,2 -12 Pyr.). At Edfu it occurs rarely and then in the festival texts . Here Hathor sails south to


nrrt n nIrw nb V 128,4-5

V 128,11also %eautifulharbourof all the nt M3nw

As the namefor a placec.f. the designation Medinet Habu templeas =, I of gods'. .%t,


(Wb Il 98.7), this mustbequay'.


liquid of somekind c 1Wb 11114 (1 to 3) and (4)

At Edfu in a palette offering, Thoth gives the king

Y-- IV 299,10.

mh3y may be the liquid known from medical texts, but whose nature is unclear [Wb Drog p.279-2811. Breasted suggested it was perhaps the cream of milk [P.Edwin Smith p.287] and the determinative M in the Edfu word which may suggestour word is something divided or separated, , rwere to be taken as a verb pig or the like, the text could

may agree with this definition. Even if

still read 'mh3y liquid divided in his hands' for example.The significance of 'cream' in this text is unclear but it may be connectedwith the judging (separation)ability of the king granted by Thoth. c f. too mhr 'milk jug'.

mhn (mhr)

milk jug Wb 11115 (5) mhr MK DG 171 --

known as milk jugs from MK texts [ du Buisson, Vases p. 37 ; Meir Il 6 the word has the rnhr are 9 determinative and T' (so Quacgebeur in CdE 54 Nr. 107 p.49 n.4]. It in a list] but are not situla

continuesin useat Edfu : in the festivalsthe altars ave .j M with ., V milk' IV 19,1 ; herdsof cattle are presented derivesit as an m-prcfix on a word hr 'to milk' [Glimpses 1611. p.

'93 m irl many jugs of jugs of milk IV 199,3 Smith .


to suckle, to milk Wb 11115(9-16) GR

term for suckleor be suckled.Smith postulated root Derivedfrom mhr 'milk jug', as a convenient a *r 'to Milk' for the latterandpresumably also,but it hasnot beenattested [Glimpses 1611.7be this p. verb is usedoften in GR texts. im. sn 'you suckle from them for they are pure' , rcz; 2-S. 3:,. V, 124,16-125,1 'you drink the milk betwenthe ; cow's legs-J& you suckleand your Transitive : the udders the cows-Y& ra of C57


fleshis rejuvenated'IV198,5. Intransitive : the king n 3ht ]Vr.Sh3t 'suckledby cows!I 682;m

JL 0 1138,16-17 3bt suckledby the Akhet from her udders "Cr n hnmt suckledby the nurse N=M- ., V ra 4n al Vn Sht suckledby the Field VI 256,11 her milk 111147,10 Hst with by suckled thecow VII 285,1. From the verb derivesthe noun mhr 'suckling'or 'child' Wb Il 116 (1-2) It is attested from D.19 . wherethe king is a 'child of Anat' KRI 11238,1 at Edfu and a child of ...'1452,17. pw n///// (the king) he is


Sethandhis associates I Wb Il 116(5) GR


Mhr derivesfrom a loan word mhr. = '1;)

[BurkhardtH p.26 no.486] which is the title for an

Egyptian officer. Either becauseof its military and fighting associations or because it representsa foreign soldier it was applied to the allies of Seth : wnp nhs, with alliteration of m mds m hbt IV 234,10-11 ; god drives backj%, are slain before Horus 1203.9 2.16 rM kj,, _QMr

"'from the mansion of the prince 1180,8



Wb 11120(10) GR and(12) MK In the Westcarpapyrus10,10the new bornking-childrenareonecubit in length,m-1. which seems to be the ideal sizefor a baby [c L alsoRB 66,4].From this childrencouldbe calledcubits,andin GR textsmh stoodfor a child: MD 117lb a divine child andat Edfu , Horusin the Myth is referredto as iwty it 'child who has no fatheeVI 73,4-5.

about mhi + hr to carefor, be concerned a Wb Il 120(13-16) MK FCD 113 is an extensionof the meaningof mh 'to fill' , in this casean emotional'filling. mh At Edfu : the king tZ Wd3 t mi U3y 'caresfor Egypt like Hay' IV 76,3 Thoth is

br king "who watches over the king' VI 334,16.



to fill Wb 11116 to 118(9) Old (6) DG 171,6 XD Cr.208a; CED 98; KH 110-1 moe iV 18,2 land with gold dustIV 16,7; 117.15-,

Transitive: ocz

altarswith food 1112,11


palacewith your beauty1131,6. Whenusedof the flood or water,it can mean'flood' : 11

.--ft ^

262,15-16 Il 261,1-2; Horus-: =t I ; -

v-- 4'py he makesthe flood overflow 194,10.

Most important is the use in mh. wd3t 'filling the eye' particularly the ritual preserved the on , Pylon, VIII 135 to 137. wherea seriesof godscome with plants and mineralsto 'fill the eye!and it with its ingredients (paralleled Philae,Phila 1107 ff) --A #31 onceinstead mh, complete of at Sauneron 1pr is used.In this sense hasthe nuance'tocomplete'oreven'heal'[so Meeksin Hom. I tn 236 n.1.7], for thereis also an exampleof 9pswd3t 111210,13 build the eye so that rn itself 'to p. hasthis sense reconstruction something it is wholeandnew.Thereis alsoan epithetof the of of until king which fits this category : --I I n in the Two Lands'I 157,6 mh.gmt ws itrty 'who fills what is found ruined hx m'Hwt-bik VII 56,16 [seeOtto,

4nl 552,17also

GuM p.134 and p.82 also at Urk VIII 144 212 and JunkerPhill 71,12 to show the administrative , I back the eye is also called mh-wd3t prowessof the king]. Thoth himself, who brought 449,1 No rituals at Edfu havethis as a title [seealsoVandier, PJumilhac p.183-4n-3941. .
Note too: With pre2osit m (seeabove) JLr : 1492,14 0 jLf3 w. >'l floods at his time 1320,11 at his time 11242,7. db 'fill requirements 1116,2. provide

Intransitive to flood be flooded the northern inundation hr-: , the river hr T=

floods everyday 1466,1 ; he brings the inundation


to fill the heart, that is be loyal, havesomeone's trust Wb 11118(11)'to 119(2)

ln-ib is known from the MK as a substantiveand the verbal mh-ib-m 'to trust in' is from OK 0


texts.It occursin biographiesas virtue and personal a attributeand in this caseis the trust put in an 11 Autobografie AX underlingby a higherauthority(theofficial is the mh-ib of theking ) [JJanssen, 7 ff. ]. It canbe given to godsalsoan an attribute: Horus -, q,, also V 267.11 ; 6-1L you are trusted'V 343,14, he is wsr. f 'trustyby his might!111136,5 n nirw'V 144,7 ;V 169,9. of

Amun-Pa-adjer the protectoris also mh-ib , VII goddesses 105,13. The king as Horusis

'of theGreatEnnead 297,19 V

of the Two LandsV 146,7; Horus'knowshis crew



aretrustedby (lit. for) them'11132,6.1 The term can also be usedas an adjective: the templeis m3r hairedone'IV 2.3. the turquoise
As a substantive, the plural form with soldier determinative can be treated as 'bodyguard!. The earliest use of this is from Piankhy 11 mll n mh-ib 'trusted people' and by the Edfu texts mhw-lb is a

nt mrk3t-inm 'trusty maru of

complete expression in itself. Grimal notes that this military sense of 'body guard! is attested from Siut pl. 15,18 and it may be that all those who were officially rn-ib in their rank, were expected to be

liable to act as body guards should the need arise. In P. Milligen the list of close associates is 'friends , Wty (sole ones brother and ..M6 *& I'14 see Lopez , RdE 15 pl. 5 and p29-331.

At Edfu the primeval beings are ,

n M3wsn of their ancestor 11133,13 ; sim . III

his army ---e T -'e-20, .'. -6-(IL.' trustedone 32,9 ; in a bow and arrow text'. the king is leader of 6-1 1 15- -6111135,18 in a paletteoffering the greatgodsof Edfu are of his bodyguard ; ]Vtm bodyguardcaring for Egypt IV 390,9-10[Goyon, Gardiensp.44 n.1 and for the Late WES 19p.262 earlierperi6ds]. BIFAO 63 (1965)24b ; alsoSauneom, periodsee


to be in water

Wb 11121to 122(11)
ill hav the root meaning'be'in . has a wide range'of uses which watee, either 'drown' in water , rn 'travel ' in it by boat or swimming and also the Nile in flood spreadswater over the land. 'Me verb is from the Pyramid Texts and some of its range is still used at Edfu. attested

7o go to the watee (so Wb) : in the Myth the foes are in hippo form, so when they try to escape


Horus they 'T.. 2.4r hr-h3t. f 'swim before him' VI 118,1 ; Horus hr ":: the allies of Seth hr 'swim'in Egyptian) : wnn. f Or /1 / the OK at least

after them VI 118.3 ;

are swimming away VI 122,4. In a boat (boats 'sail' in English but br 'he sails after them' VI .118.5 ; the barque of Re

VI 122,5-6. This is not really a new development then and it can apply to boats from Urk 1,109A and Jones Glossary P.215 to launch a boat]. ,


the drownedone

Wb 11122(12-14) MK As an epithet of Osiris tni is attestedfrom later funeraryliterature [Book of Gatesninth hour middle register].Allusionsto the drowningof Osiris and to drowningas a reveredmodeof dying are attestedfrom the Pyramid Texts [Gwyn-Grifriths, Osiris p.9ff. with bibliography for cult of the drowned]. AtEdfu in the SokarChamber one of the mourningsisterssays n t3 w'l found the drownedoneon landat thefirst time, on thatbanknorth of Busiris'1211,9-10.


- used with numbers Wb 11118 (1)

In the laboratory

Intyw JCD

two deben of it are used 11227,15.


oryx Wb 11121 (11-12) GR

is most likely to be an abbreviated form of m3-bd'oryx'. The creature was a symbol of Seth and mh the ending of chaosand the restoration of Maat and kingly power. thus sacrificed to show Wb cites examples from Dendera, Edfu and Kom Ombo . so the word had a widespread use and came into existence for these temple inscriptions. It does have slightly different uses to W-Dd however and may in fact represent a different type of antdope for some texts use mh and m3-hd together, referring m3jL. ti m3. pd mds. ti ..... 111138,18-139,1 6, N., V, all animals of the desert are consecrated and the king slaughters m3-h.jL rn-W 3m tcxtso"2* 142,13 ; also here Bchdct hr &a, N _, seizes the oryx VI 143,3 followed by a separatefate for to different creatures : in sm3 6 &


Edfutextsdo not replace by theW-hd. In lists of these animals, m3-hd0 mh in thegroupgsw,

*01&: m3-hd and ni3w, but list: v 11j3w ni3w for the festivalIV 3,3 164,8-9 VII 323.1. alsoVII

is Therangeof textsin which thern is mentioned greater thanW-bd: SM3-m3-bd,brp 1wtn h3swt,shtp Shmt wheretheking brings -, =t ointment,Vnk sbi n Wd3t. Horus,asa falcon, stands the backof this oryx as Horusof Hebenu on VII 324,9 and 4.5 9.1 : VII 323,14-15 also. rn puns with verbs such as rn 'to seize': m4. k t=k 4= m 93ty.k (talons) VI 101,6 ; or CPV 187.1; in the pun 4bn.f TP VIII 105,18; m ]Vbnw VI IV. andchopsup geese 342,12; mil

4:, sim. , the king tr smb O=! on his block VII 111,5; in alliterationof ma text beginsTakc 'b C`R 1t;el 46 m3'. ti m DNA 1 77,12-13. I kill the oryx with a knife, its body is

rn is also linked to the barqueof Sokar: bn.i

Rites I Oryx [after Derchain, for your cloth they are madeup for the barque SokaeVII 323,14-15 of , p.4 I


to seize

Wb Il 119(5-18) Old
DG 172,2 0 -.


Cr. 9a; CED 7; KH 6 Semantically linked with mh 'to fill', 143,3

imperativeof m4.
mh 'seizes the oryx' VI

also at Edfu : Behdet hr

bmt. sn m 'w. sn 'their harpoons seize their flesh' VI 79,3. 441= IC=D

With following m: "A rn =

`:, *. let your talonsseizethe second harpoon' VI 64,10;and,, 17.

Ityt. k 'you seizethe oryx with your talon' VI 101,6.


cubit Wb 11120(2-7) Pyr. DG 173,1 2.(- --' Cr.210b; CED99: KHIO MkZc t M&Zl


7be cubit measureof length is used at Edfu in descriptions of the temple: its height breadth IV 12,7 ; its height perfect T j %...and breadth is -!. V 3,3.

105 its

Also in describing the harpoon of Horus he usesagainst his foes : the blade is -j 4, staff n 4J 16 VI 61,9-10 ; sim. VI 216,10-12 [see JEA 29,1943 p.28 for the difference in these measurements from text to text]. Other uses : depth of water in which righting takes place mw n 216,11 ; the height of Horus Behdet is sn%, -L-J -1-J n' VI 61 2j 8 VI

8 cubits VI 216,10.

In general the spellings are consistentwith the forms above [seealso LA 1111209-1214].



Literally 'a cubit', this term for the scribe's writing palette derives from the fact that it was held on the forearm between the bend of the elbow and the top ends of the fingers, it thus covers a cubit and is given this name at Edfu. In a water pot and palette offering, the palette is called A m-b3h. k VII 126,14 An 3b. tn

". 1 rzowhere it is offered to Thoth VII 127.7 sim. 'I bring repeated ms j W--j W-; your desired palettes' IV 299,6 ; the king brings and the king as Thoth is called

to the lords of writing IV 389.16 .17 also

Lord of the cubit (or palette) V 91,2.


to go around Wb 11123 (2-4) GR

Wb cites examples of this verb from Dendera and Philae, but it also occurs at Edfu : Hathor says to the king in a Maat offering, 1=t 0, tp. k m mYt m Nbbt 'I bind your head with Wat that is ,

Nekhbef IV 233,1-2. The serpent here isa determinative to show that it means 'to coil around' or the like. Compare with this dM n. k MYOOk usually read md or mhn q.v. mh here may be a mistake for mhn from which the n has been lost,'but examples from Dendera suggest that mh was a word in its own right: CD 11119,17-18 ; 212,4 ; CD 111'30,8 .m tp. k IV 62,5-6 where the sign i2F, , is



garland,crown Wb 1131(1-5)D.18

is The importance garlands head bands ornaments showrankor status clearfrom theearliest to of or as times in Egypt. The word m3 refersto a headband which was tied aroundthe headand is attested howeverit is earliestin Dyn.18 , in Urk IV 22,4 whereit is aW of gold . From the determinative also'afloral headband these symbols life, wereplacedon mummies wom at funerals.and as of and Derchainestablished mh-m3'-hrw textswas (a) a complexrite with Horus Abydeneandsolar that , dyn. in elements (b) theritual hadbeenestablished its form asshownat Edfu by the endof the25Lh , , (c) it was basedon older religious allusionsall of which were brought togetherin the 18th dyn. (Nodjmet papyrus)[CdE 30, No.60,1955 p.225-287 ; in generalLA 111764].The offering of the crown guarantees the king will himselfbe m3-hrw and able to destroyhis enemies subdue that and foreign elements chaos.lEs right to rule as legitimateheir is alsoaffmined perhaps reflectingthe of , funerarynatureof theritual. Thecrownis offeredto differentgodsshowingthecomposite natureof the rite and is simply offeredms , hnk or di or morespecificallyIs 'tied on.
To Horus Behdet great in m3l-brw : Ls (? t 162,15-63,5 ; Ls n m3'. hrw IV %-

103,5-104,12 ms -4=k CK n m3'. brw V 67,9-68,3 ; hacked V 190,15-191,9. With Hathor n m3-hrw With Isis : nk WithWadjet: Ls =k W, n m3'-Drw 1236.4-12 ; O n m3'-hrw VII 94,4-16 UZY, VIII 56,3-57,2 ; in various forms VIII 79,3-80,8 Onk Ck n m3'-brw IV 355,9-356,3 here the crown is soaked in ibr-oil. , msVII 275,9-276,7. Ok, VI 275,9-276,18; di -= CK ... VIII 119.7-120,13. 1171.5-15 Is 2. . Q OL nk -t Ot111141,10-142.4; m.s Z! - UZ f! VII 308,18 - 309,14. Ot,

To the Ennead: hnk To Osiris : Ls IV 259,11-260,8

VI 287,8 - 288,10; ms -=Ie O

In the texts Horus or the king is often said to be the Homed One. Sharp of Horns and the crown or is said to be Aturn which protects the king when he wears it. Osiris declaresthat garland more properly he unties the garland and puts it on the head of the king - all of which show the Heliopolitan the transferrenceof the inheritance of kingship from father (Horus or Osiris) to their son connection and (king). The king is also m3l-hrw who judges correctly before the council. Mostly the king wears the atef crown or the Double Crown or and the actual offering is represented variously [for


W summary see Derchain , OP. p.228 and add to these Cit.

from X pl. 152 2nd reg.l.

The homed Horus may be connected with Horus Khenty Khety of Athribis to whom a garland is

offered three Limes: Ls 252,11-17; Is pl. 1153rd reg

j Em ,:

to HorusIl 43,18-44,7; is


Ijr n Athribis III

V 93,13- 94.5andherethe crownis moreornate 4tq plAOb3rd reg. The garlandis wom on the brow or tied

, to theatef crownwom by this aspect Horusandagainit protects guarantees right of theking the and of to rule. Khepri alsoreceives n m3'. hrw 1107,11-108,3 Heliopolitanrite giving the king ,a Ot n hdn a leafy garland to protect the king

the throne of Geb and Thoth : ms V againsthis enemies 287,5-15.

A further versionof the headbandis the headbandof gold which is offeredto Hathorusingms or nk : Ok ; III ;-n n li'm 11117,16-18,15 119.8-120,6 IV 385,5-15 CL d'm IV 123,8-124,8parallel VII 96,13- 97,9 Mn nbw 11 n Wrn V

with IV 279,13-280,8

VI 315,4-15 i2k ,

0 V- VIII 90,16-91.12 dw'3 74: NU ; CX

Ev- n Wm' Il 294,3-6'; W

176,13-177,2.It can also be combined with a wine offering : bnk irp ms 40060,10-61,3

in V 232,14-233.8 this casethe text explains that the garlandhem is

flowers which cause goddess rejoicewhenshesmellsthem.The plate showsthe to the providedwith

king offering and 'ty* 132 10th col. Also ms -A= Ck pl. n mwt. f V 363.6-11.

Rayet, to give the king joy and This offering to Hathor, the Golden One enables her to shine as Ptah the craftsman who made it. She also gives drunkennessand, here the king is often compared to these texts. The king wears the more complex solar s9m nfr m st-nfr rn t3 pn often within hemhcmty, but the actual head band is shown as crowns, the Double crown and the In

is controller of all mines, mountains and quarries which bring their produce to him, addition the king they provide the raw materials for the headband. The Word for garland is usually repeated in all the above texts, normally in a repetition of the tide, ' : 't% note the other spellings IV 279,14 nfr VIII 119,8 (it is synonymous'with'

W q.v.). Outsidethe rituals the word occursrarely at Edfu : in festivalsof the temple garlands flowersareworn at people's of throatsV 305,2-3. CI; 4 nw hrrw



crown of Lower Egypt Wb 11124 (10) GR

is derived from the word m4w 'Lower Egype the term is attestedat Edfu and Dendera . It may be mo form of mow. s (q.v.) : Horus is 'Lord of Im' an abbreviated & d T Pq3 %Y- 1244,1-2 ; Km

147,2 (here from the context is could well be the crown rather thanjust Lower Egypt) are united dI rY on the head of the king VI 245,10.

possibly , Horus gives

M4. S

crown of Lower Egypt Wb Il 125 (1-2) MK

In the words mh. s -mh and rn' - gin Is the reason for the s is not clearly understood , but it may back to the tutelary goddessof the crown, in this caseWadjet [see Abu Bakr. Kronen p. 31-2 and refer p. 54 ; also Sethe , ZAS 44 , 1907 p.201. At Edfu a text suggeststhere is a difference between rn and mOs : Horus is nb)fm' tq3 m4w and 9 P 1244,3 -4. This does not in the next part of the ritual Hathor is nbt Vm'.s q3t then zY P ( happen however : Horus Im'. s %&P always his head 1381,10 -. Receive Im'. s united on 1163,8 ; also 71 VI 186,16

%WxYl 399,14-15 (Horus) ; Horus is nb 9m'. s Pq3 %V q3 XmI.s 7 Y P VII 91,8.

The earliest example of mh is from the 18th dyn., perhapsto increasethe vocabulary for royal regalia.


Thoth Wb 11127 (3) D.20

is an epithet of Thoth first attested in dyn.20 at Medinet Habu where the king Moy jIq D`--) refers

sl3 'imbml

derives from mb 'to Mr. thusit means 'Finee and MH 1180,7 The word most likely . .4 Thoth in the filling of the eye ceremony [c f. Boylan, Thoth p. 1871 , though the to the role of

in which it is used at Edfu suggest it is associatd with Thoth as the 'Counteeof time and texts Maat [Derchain-Urtel , Thot p.27 ff]. upholder of At Edfu : palette text m4. k m-b34. k Maat text the king mh-hr Wd3t mi,, , S%9 'Your palette is before you Filler VII 126.14 'the king cares for Egypt like Mehey' (with the


doublepun for wd3t of course alsothe eye)IV 76,3 ; alsothe king is welcomed is as , 143,14; in wn%bofferings,king is heir of lqqq gV

T Sk 2qq


98,16; divine seedof qQ g VII 44,13.

IV 264,17andat stretching cord the king is divine seedof ejN the


north wind

Wb Il 125(6-8) Pyr. J, 3 DG 175.3 / -?. CED99(notCr): KHIIO H #-'?,

From the root m. t 'north Lower Egypt!,mDyt is the wind which blows from the north and thus , helpsshipsto sail up stream. is cool and the mostfrequentlyattested the four winds [seeLA VI It of 1267andnotes].
At Edfu : the flood causes-"' makes the breeze and creates "C to exist without evil 1582,16-17 *,Horus controls the wind he , JP'ktas VI 2,1 ; he goes in the sky= the sweet north

he IV 126,2;in raising heaven causes-= ': wind Myth the wind blows awaystormcloudsfor Horus -= line 15) ; Hathoris called nb 10'a

to increase grain yield VIII 90.9 ; in the the ?VI 70,9 (afterJEA 29.1943 p.13'

field grow VII 86,15.'Me king is called nfrt who makesthe --S "* he causes

in a ms.msw offering IV 282,4 ; as the child in Khemmis,, N. I*

the north wind to go south IV 125,16.


Lower Egypt Wb 11123 (12-14) DG 174,7

Lower Egypt, where in fact mtt originally referred to papyrus marshesof

Originally a word m. t was a general place name and there may have been a difference between the ',, 0,41g and I& word -',

the Delta, for rnt is papyrus and different to---e SICLower Egypt [Sethe, ZAS 44,1907 p. 13-14]. is attested from OK texts and the texts from the MK have the ending: -' Lower Egypt can be mtw . mhw or t3-mhw and in later texts /9A was replaced by That Lower Egypt and the word for

north are different is shown by the fact that SP(et.var) never appearsin the word m Dt 'north wind. It is often found in parallel with Kin't Upper Egypt'[Sethe, ZAS 44 1907 1-29 p. especially p. 10-13 and


from p. 151. wordoccursoftenat Edfu The of thetwo together dr Substantive: Horus is nsw ml bit 1W IV 45,2; q3


IV 54,11; bit. k



1260,17; Harsomthus IWN 1453,4 HorusBehdetis nsw rn bit the edgeof darkness , Adjective 1260,13; Horuspreeminent itrty in
IV 52,1 ; of Nile h'py QD



1329,5 ; or 1trty
Ik northern

IV 269,11 ;a nome brings ht

Egyptianproduce 41,4. IV

rnw. s mtw

grain Wb 11125(3) GR

Sethe records mhw used as an adjectival word for describing grain along with YmI [ZkS 44,1907 p. 191.Wb records the word Ym'.s Upper Egyptian grain at Dendera., and it also occurs at Edfu the field of Re is brought with (Memphite nome) V 13,11.


canal IV 27,1-3.

In the 7th LE nomethe canalis called


to encircle something with Wb 11128 (7-9) D. 18 - GR

The oldestancestor this verb is the word mhn which is a boardgamemostpopularduring theOld of Kingdom [LA VI 653-6551. roundpartof theg=ing boardwasin theform of a coiledsnake The with its headat the centre.It is first namedin the offering list of Rahotep, Medum[PetrieMedumpl. 13] at The verb thenis and themin Pyr. 332wherethe gameis identified with Mehenaprotecor serpent. literally 'to be coiled around'(like a snake)and so from dyn 18 can be usedto describethe uraeus . heador crownof the king Urk IV 951,2. aroundthe , At Edfu the verb is usedin the sameway : crown offering Hathor says , coiled on your head'133,8 ; the motherof Horus .1IV 25,11. Ory-tp.k 'I am


snake Wb 11129(2) Pyr. MK



word 'the encirclee is the name for a snake from early texts, but it has different applications. In wr m Sktt MD 1149 [c. f. LA IV col. 31 Bbdt sails upon Nun 174,17 (libation text) ; king is heir

some texts it refers to the sun god at night: but at Edfu it is a flood god Of



(libation also) 169,12.


snakegod Wb 11129 (1-2) CT

Attested earlier than his female counterpart, Mehen is the protector of the sun god, who wraps his coils around him and saves him from Apopis [CT VI 388h, Altenmfiller, Synkretismus p.82 ; LA VI col. 653-51. At Edfu Mehen appearsin the role of the serpentwho provides sustenance and provisions. Vernus suggestedthat Mn. t listed on an altar betwen two forms of Ermouthis was perhapsa goddess of provisions and at Edfu in the examples with Mnt she is sometimes listed with Renenet [Athribis p. 125-6 n.h]. In the procession of provis ioners, one of the deities listed is Jib supplies foods , which -are who

established in his hands IV 44.7-9 . In the parallel text he is listed as N4b-k3w with the same text.



Wb 11129(3-6) NK oft. GR In the Hymn to the Diadem8,4 sheappears In theNK mbnyt became word for the uraeus goddess. a in'this generalway q9 VL of Edfu, especiallyin the procession the king from his palace andat with RendntVI 243,6;

T &is one of the namesgiven to the uraeus: 0^=~'4 to the temple mnyt in puns

t . "IzI. 2C: .q0

on his brow 1394,10.


T &,II

113,11; in a hymn to Min , he appears with

Bastet As an epithetmDnyt is usedfor war-like goddesses: eye V 98,12; Hathor , '; 6& 11168,9


of the pupil of the Wadjet

be wr t on the headof Osiris ; Nephthys'44 who uniteswith her sister174,7 wrt who makesher son
-5? <. 4m

%pswho fires flame at the foes 1219,5 Mut'You are well VII 145,16; Wadjct is 11136,4. herself Il 76,6 ; Neith who created (a L -0

; of Atum 111201,3 Horus is Lord of 1=7


The term may have been confused with similar words for uraeus goddessessuch as mnbt and mbyt, They all have different origins and this word, who are in fact usually depicted as lioness goddesses. either by a pun with the verb mon or by the determinative AJ . 2.1 (111113)Menhyt also appearsseparately.,! palace text above mbpt is clearly marked. In the line 10. Gutbub notes this

uraeus goddess at Kom Ombo also [Textes Fond. PAN n.e] and it is a name for Hathor at Philae [Daumas 7AS 95,1968 p.7 n.43 'Lovde'] and at Dendera,[DVIII 170 ; DVI 60.9]. She is the protector of the wearer and destroyerof his foes. In the following description of Mehit in Wetjesct Horus, great g 2? 100. Eye Re 'Words of t!! of great of fear in Behdet, Lady of Hebenu who proiects Osiris" VII

277,4-5 which not only shows that the goddesses differenf aspectsof the same Principle, but that are , the Egyptians played on this.


Wb Il 122 (16) Pyr.


is a'goddess in the form of a cow who personifies the primeval flood

she is the female

counterpart of Nun . She is first attestedin PTs and then later funerary literature where she is identified with Hathor and Nut especially. She is thus seenas a mother goddess'who feeds and rears her son the king both with food and as a cow with milk. At Esna she is the primeval goddess Neith [LA IV , stays within these

col. 3-4 -, Altenmuller, Synkretismus p. 80-81]. At Edfu the use of Mbt-wrt boundaries : flood goddess,Horus is preeminent of IV 56,8 ; in a milk offering, Horus is suckled by

'who makes the flood go north' W? VII 230,2-3 ncr"e L0



Wb 11126(11-15)'D. 18 mbt is a bowl for holding-liquidsWhichcan be madeof metal . Two ostracafrom Deir el Medina dates)in'mDt dishes- their capacityis unknown delivery of freshdates(asopposed pressed to record CP [Janssen p.4741:' The vesselis attested Edfu in the New Year procession,'he bringspriestscarrying at nt nbw purifying your path' 1558,17 (c f. . 13 ms () j pl.38d.showsthe second priest from the


right holding


and "Ur ); an offering of meatportionsbeginsdd mdwOIPV

'I hold it

in my right handandI hold a batonin my leff VII 102,6. Restore h=. --t


north Wb 11125 (10) to 126 (2) and 126 (3)

DG 175,3

--P3 6MJIT'

Cr.212a; CED 100; KH 112 MZIT"

[seeSetheZAS rnt is attestedfrom PTs and also at Edfu both as an adjectiveand substantive 44,1907p.13-14].
Adjective :a pehu brings bird from qbh "A Cib .02, e northern waters IV 39.1 ; the foe escapeto -,:;;; VI 117,7

in the Myth VI 115,3 ; Horus slew them in Hbnw

northernoasisVI 23,2. 17 Substantive: often bring their tribute1495,10and Q . 'en, 4'norLh his Red crown' IV 329,16.In the commonphrase, the king rules ... southto the 1W carries
limit of the wind and north to the limit of darkness: 85.17 ; 1297,2 ; 1501.14 leads r. 1137.11 ; 1128,18 VII

IV 16,3. In instructions in the temple description ,a staircase.

worshipping the IV_6,4 With the south : Horus gives to the north . ' 111164,11.In compound directions : the foe is king V 141,7 ; with the other three cardinal points . d= north west of Kenmet -"t VI 115,6 ; Ta-ihet is "( '0 1 seen hr. north east of a place ft , In am

VI 21,1 ; the northern oasisis


of ta-IhetVI 23,2. t, north east


nonhemers Wb 11126(5) NK

from theNK andrefersto thosepeoplewho live in the north of Egypt andalso mbtyw occursmainly foreign peoplesto the north of Egypt [GauthierDO 11157-58] At Edfu : Horus gives rsyw . down to the kin IV 209,10; as foreigners, the guardians protectEgypt from -bowing V175,6; andalso beings 4W1Y ft VI 15,17 lea I

as a group of semi divine

'walk on the right sideof the sunboat' 112,10.


mh3 V

to skewer Wb 11131(8-10) GR

The verb maybe derivedfrom mh3 'to bind, tieWbII

130(1-2) for by skewering something a on

[c skewerseparate piecescanbe held together L Gardinerin GAS 87 andJEA 29 p.14 n.c]. The verb occursat Edfu in the Myth as a term for Horus 'stabbing'or 'spiking'-theSethhippopotamus the : & harpoonJj; seventh f. gsty.f VI 73,4 *,VI 75,1 also ; harpoon4J 0 qq n. skewersthe

hippo. from his belly to his testicles 75.3.The verb also appliesto other things: as a diving bird. VI Horusj& jqq Egyptianbull mw m rmw 'skewersfish in the water' VI 74,7 0 n. f the Lower

hymn to HorusVI 83,7.In slayingApopis one of the methods FrZS, is ,a

VII 112,15-16. Fecht notesthat mb3.agrees betterwith the meaningof Coptic miW-77 and semitic ji-L t) 'to beae[Or.24 1955p.29I]. , 'to fighe

CID There is an earlier word m%'(Wb 11156,15 D.20) : Philae <1482> Phot.188 Horus! P&x_-J r 4Sth. mh3 may be a form of m1' There is also a noun . W %0 blade or weapon (Wb 11

I Mb3t-T3wy Memphis Wb Il 130 (13) The earliest example of the term seemsto be from the Memphite Theology line 16c [Sethe, Dram.Textep.35 n.h and 36-71. It is frequent from this time and is a Metaphorical expression for Memphis, which is at the joining point of the two lands and so was considered to be like the pivot of a balance. It was probably not used before the 8th century B. C. [Goedicke, WZKM 69,1977 p. 15 n.61]. The term is also used at Edfa where Tatenen is bn ty , EtA 373,12.1 IV 142.9 111132,1. QXV88V

mhtm to

cattle byre

Wb 11133(2) GR

from D-endera Philae which show that it was a placein Wb cites,two examples this -word of and


which cattle could be kept, most likely an enclosure : MD III 57a

23 9r*3;Phill 1 44,7j, OZO-'$L;

Iunder a sycamoretrce'. The sameusesare seenat Edfu : at the slaughter of the bull , Horus gives the
king'j&O. 9. containing nfr-bulls (parallel with s3t byre) VII 148,17 ; sim. text -P&& L-3'

dns. ti rn k3w laden with bulls VII 317.4 ; meat offering, Horus gives

-6 -C3


sacrificial buffs VII 320,6 . It is a place specifically for bulls which are going to be butchered. Smith suggeststhat it is an m-prefix on ttm 'to seal, shuf which seemslikely in view of the spelling with , A and the use of the structure [Glimpses p. 162]. 71ere is a much earlier rare word mb3 'shed' 'magazine!for wood (Wb 11130,6and Lit. Frags. 17); mlir p. a magazinefor com EromOK rnbr (Wb II 134,6-8 and Wb 11132,9 repectively). In a Ramesseurntext [Gardiner JEA 41,1955 13 p. col. 35 7t, opt, 9%

- is rw a closed or sealedreceptacle, derived from earlier htmt thox' [Arch. Abousir I p1O %0

0 and4; FCD 115].


redor yellowjasper Wb 11132(4) c f. 111301 (7-8) hnmt

A semipreciousstonefrom Punt,CoptosandNubia.minedin the westerndesertnearToshkah. is it in It obtained largepiecesandis usedto makebeads amulets. is probablyto be identifiedwith the and word bnmt 'jaspee and it comesin red or yellow [Harris, Mineralk. 111 . FCD 115 gives it as 'carnelian!;LEM 89 'redjasper'An'.1115,1 At Edfu in the foundationrituals, oneof the specialbricks is madeof 1132,14; in a recipefor '3t-nJr r---j :. GS (parallelwith brsd)

n m3l IS usedalong with the similar stones11215,5.


provisions, offerings

Wb 11134 to 135(3) MK (12) Theearlier of thewordwasin thegeneral businese. Gardiner derived from it use of context 'dealing, for 'to hr 'thatwhichappertains theverbir it means provide someone' of to'andastheobject thestem for 'providing bodilywan&thenoun As it canmean in a general 'govern' specifically. more sense and food'[GAS102-3 f. FCD1161. fromtheLateperiodto be'provisions, c. mhrw came it in GRtemples Wb citesP. Leid347,9,6 and of arefor thegods thetemple where C= ' J; , Ir IV 37.4. is*a varianton analogous imt-p is brought with terms the -C=AqIii


With ir : in a hymn to Min, hemakesthe Nile flood come provisioningEgypt . 'nhw 'he makesprovisions'or 'arranges thingsfor people'1402,11-13;a hemsut offerer V

I I'

r73"Z TZ, --Cft.

In n hnmw. k 'makesprovision for your close family' 11199,3. both of theseexamples

mh' aregeneral the provisionsto ensure well beingof people.


barnfor grain Wb 11134(6-8) = OK mhr Wb 11132,9

for from the NK and its useis clear.It may mhr asa magazine corn andthe like is howeverattested derivefrom the stem1jr with an rn prefix for it is a'place which contains'[c f. AEO 11212*]. ,
At Edfu the word stays in use : in a Nile text mh. n. f wnnwt 'he fills your

barn with things' having watered the fields 1321.7. It is alSOattested at Dendera [in general for

granaries Conti, Rapportip.98 - 1011. see


entrails Wb 11135 (4-6) 'DG 177.9


2-r" mttr' m&.

Cr.211 b; CED 99; KH 112

mILt is identical in use and meaning to imy-ILt 'what is in the belly'. The narrower meaning

intestinescan be given to it, for the canopicjar dedicatedto Qebsenuef contains the mhtw and
archaeological evidence shows that this is the intestines. Gardiner showed that imy-lit is simply the later form of mlltw whic seems to be an m -prefix on ILt as early as Pyr. 1122 and

was given a final -w as a copied error in later texts. Imy-Ilt has mistakenly understood m-ht as 'what is in the bellY'a general meaning but where appropriate it can be more specific [AEO 11252-3*1. , At Edfu : in the festival at the sacrifice of the ied bull , 132,4 ; perhaps also in slaying foes, Horus 'scorches 235,17 'read as mht by Fairman (MSS note). ' 'f his intestines are cut out V -

Q. of one who is disloyal to him' IV


to bring , present,offer Wb 11135(7 - 21) Pyr.


The transitive verb m3' often introducesofferings at Edfu, and the choice of the verb could be by goverened alliteration of m: thusin ms.msw plantstexts ; ms m3b crowns; ms mdw or with s: rns stra ; ms sktt ; ms s3w thoughit is noticeablethat often what are offered are small quite , fragile objects for "ample amulets (beetle. wadjeteye,falconof gold , barques) in these the and scenes , poseof the king is usuallythe same His handsareraisedup to face heighteither holdinga tray or . basketcontainingtheoffering or his two hands hold for examplethebunches plantsor onehand of , , holdsthe offering(a mirror for exarnple) [pl. while theotheris openin thegesture adoration 1203rd of reg beetleon tray ; pl. 152 Ist reg msw plants; pl. 133 7th col. mirror]. It shouldbe emphasised that for this poseis alsoadopted otheroffering verbs,but in a randomselection ms-offeringsthis was of invariably the stanceof the king Spellingsof ms : 'A . IV 387,15 -A V1246,5; w%-Jr V 199,9; J; ' -:Ir IV244,12. V 362,6;

Offering textsintroduced a word other thanms often useit in thefollowing text: Take Maat by n. 1 k1k , onk introduces 1 521,5 ; "rake the hts ir-bts-bb introducesthis ritual 111111.8. In nonritual offering textssuchas the Nile provisionbearers ka offerersms is a variantverb. or q -A n.1 n k3.k


to give birth , fashion

Wb H 137(4) to 138(17) Old DG 177,10 14 , MICE


Cr.184b; CED90*. KHl0l-2

The verb is often attested Edfu and usedas outlinedin Wb. Spellings: at In the Myth, at the soundof the harpoonsnMP.,

passim. or

do n bq3w n dbw 'the pregnanthippos. not

the can give birth' VI 61,12 ; this determinative represent whole word in the phrasems-n 'born or in Horus appears papyrus rm born of his motherIV 18,7; it describes sunbeing bom : the 9w Unt , I

he is born 1128,4 IV 29,8 or other gods : Hathor as the god'shand 86,14.Also the calf king is

mwt. f Hr-Sh3t whosemother the cow bore IV 24,5 ; ms-sw : the aW 1132,8-9.

To fashionin the sense create,usedoften: Re Harakhtyir of nlrwt nlrw 1113,12 Horus ; AP Nun andpoursout hapyIV 28,12; of Khnum, who mademen andgodson his potteeswheel


nirw 117,9. Of the earth, producingplants: as a rewardfor the king for earth'produces you 1476,8.In puns: the fields 582,17.




what the

13 'shegivesbirth to manychildren'1


to go , proceed Wb 11135(19)

A further nuance of the verb ms 'to bring'. It may have had the implication 'to go and offeebut in' certain texts the latter idea had been dropped and'to go' is left as Faulkner put it 'betakeoneself (FCD , 1161 plus r 'to': JV-' Msn Troceed to Mesen I' IV 53,11-12. ::


floral offerings Wb 11136(1) D.19

The word is connectedwith ms 'produce'. Wb cites no examplesbefore the NK but on Frag.58F of the ; ' Vet1t tZ Abusir archive in a list of offerings is a word , As an offering ms is almost as frequent as the rnpwt [Arch. Abusir II pA13-414 n.d].

offering and the two are very similar in'

character.The king wears the samecrown for exampleand it can also be comparedto pendantofferings. There are differences becausepapyrus is cited as-a component of the ms-bouquet and epithets such as 'sweet north wind'for the king are not found in rnpwt offerings [Dittmar, Blumen p. 104]. The aim of the offering, which always appearsas ms-msw is to guarantee the blooming of the , fields, the fertility of the lands of the king, the coming of the flood and the kingship. It is an agricultural rite but without the overtones of rebirth and renewal implied by Onk rnpwt, and this despite the possibility of a pun on ms! 'to give birth'. Tile offering is most often made to Horus who guaranteesthe successof the fields and land so that they contain plants and birds makes fields bow down with grain and become pregnant with plants IV 281,12-282,12; V 242,5-15 ; vS, W Horus tie -

111134,18-135,2with a more Lower Egyptian emphasis(papyrus);'ms

to Horus, again concercnd with the Delta marshesbringing their produce to the king as heir of S Jt : T- tle VII 62,17-63,17 to Hathor Geb 193,17 -'94,12 ; with Hathor , : X-qq%* ; alone rns ,, Il 179,2-9 ; ms -Z7 U& as the Lady of Imat V 91,8-92,2 ; and with specific flowers - ms

n hrrw, from four fields of htp , dsrt , srqt VI 2465 - 247,8. In these cases the -w3d ,


aim is to make Hathor content with the flowers so she rewards the king with contented subjects and plants. Also more specific : rns msw n Sht -w V 81,12- 82,9
Jt3j -, *-

3: T-14qf VII 1" to Horus IV 360,2-11 ; rns niz, I

VIII 37,14 - 38.13 in this case it includes birds from the bird pools ,

in return the gods give thewaters of Horus and Seth'to water the land and bring forth plants, they and again affirm the king as ruler of Egypt and foreign lands. In all texts the king wears a Red Crown surmountedby an atef crown [c.f. pl. 89 3rd reg. ] and e holds with both hands a strand of flowers and plants woven together strand of plants in each hand [pl. 114 3rd reg. 837-8401. g& jr*&, Outside these texts rnsw does not occur often in a 4tpw-nJrw offering, the king'. flowers to Horus who grants him a long lifetime 1487.16 ; on the 14th day of the festival of with JrqqVIK in their hands V 34,8. Behdet, eight waab priests in an offering ritual havejf! k& in one case only he has a

Dittmar op.ciL p.97 and Brunner-Traut in LA 1


children, child
Wb H 139 (1) -, 140 (6) Pyr. DG 179,1 young (of animals) Cr. l85b; CED90; KH101 Mkc., Mf-C

The noun occurs in a number of contexts. Originally ms msw is derived from msi 'to give birth'. implication of heir, that is one who was truly bom of his father and mother, may have had a more legal fostered child [LA III col.428 and n.98-100], as time went as opposed to 11rdw perhaps an adopted or on the two terms becameinterchangeable. the children of Horus and under his care: The other gods at the temple are M Apo' 1110,3 ; c.f. set', 0

father gods are the creatorssuchas Amun 'who hideshimself from V 6,7 ; other 125,17; they provide children with food 11,10(see bd9w). IV39,4. The


bd9w are slain 11

of the four gods,Hapi , Amset, Duamutefand Kebsenuef act as theprotectors Osiris who msw-Hr and assistants Re. As the canopicjars eachhad a specialresponsibility for part of the internal of
organs. At Edfu they mainly act as the protectors of Osiris : in a libation rite A9A, IIII


186,8-187.3 wherefour moreareadded, theyform a groupof eight hereandwith Horus, their father in The theyarean Ennead. four alsoappear 1161 and1168 VI 275 ff. : VIII 119aspart of groups of V P "I 'childrenof the childrenof Sokarl gods.They are namedin the Sokarchamber called and 209,10; heretheyprotectSokarandit is M & tI who raisehim up andcarry his barque1177,4.

In the New Yearprocession, priestscarry the naoscontainingHorusand they are four 544,12-15 37e]so it mayhavebeena priestlypostat Edfu [LA III col.52-3]. [pl. msw-R' they are equatedwith the 4tpyw , so this mustbe a term for the dead 65J. Otherchildren: thosewho takepart in the hippo hunt is the Myth the 'suet' of the deadanimal. given to help in its slaughter 58.14; in IV shtyw Msntyw VI 85.9 - so perhaps CL VIII

huntsandlearnfrom them. to youngsters wereexpected helpin these to msw canalso refer metaphorically plantsas the childrenof fields ,a GR extension the word of P PP '1 '93 1582,17. MPI 11 193 44 the Nile flood creates plants1581,15; the field r


binh Wb 1140 (16) to 141(13)

In epithets : whrn mswt,: Ptolemy V

1376.9 *,t

mswt : Horus hb

e, ,,




Wb 11141 (14) NK to GR

The most recent researchindicates that the term mswt does not mean birth and that the separateentry here by Wb is not needed. From the MK mswt appears in royal titularies (e.g. whm mswt) quoted then in religious literature of the New Kingdom and into, GR texts [Baines in Hommages A and i Fr. Daumas I pp.43-501. msWetWO&W and off y_ 1538,9-10 . 1172,14UtolVe Montu is Re himself in his hprw %f Ir 1r, .. Ir e A3 for example -- 90 u2cfIn"s"Wilar expressions, with to hprw'forms':

Both of thqctms describe the-multiple manifestations of gods and an aspect or .

exist in stasis, bprw however 'becomeand of being . While mswjkbT onceand-Lhdn mode *., -#ad 4; E. --dynamic. rnAvtgf_dsu, irli*c to gods. alll,, who can thengrant it to the king. It is changeand are

** ltv


seldom used alone, but mainly in expressionsas noted by Wb (see also Wb 11142 mstlw and Wb II 151 (10-12) MX-GR mslw). In examples where this word expressesthe relationship between the king and the gods : he is mnh of the Lord of Mesen VI 60,9 ; or of Wenn-nefer VI 61,4 v OZ.

of the Prince of NWt I

43,10 ; amuletoffering
Of gods to gods : Horus is of Re 1120 (61). Also in the spelling

w 1156,15 'n ;A 10, of Wenn-nefer VI 62,11 -, Horus

Itm (Maat) Il 45,16.

of Re 1393.14

where they is read as t by phonetic change from w3,d [ASAE'43 of the Prince of Maat I 'U (libation heir or

232 no. 2151 and it is shown in phrases where the king is tYj 1943 p. 56,2; heis MTV nV 257,17 (parallel to tit here) ; and

text) VI 254,1. The term seems to imply further that the bearer of the title is the rightful 'image' of his father. Horus says in an offering 1prJ images of the temple and your great forms, " 1514,19. Also at Dendera Hathor is , more appropriate D 111165,5. of Re, so image is not correct here, but 'manifestation'

Dprw. k '3 7 equip you (or all)



rype of waterbird

Wb 11143(3) MK alsoWb 11136(4) mst From Lebs.93 the msyt is a type of waterfowl,which is edible [LEM p.3481.Wb doesnot recordit Edfu but: the pehuin the Sebennytos nomeis broughtwith at M0V it , king alsooffers trussed I 111,6. up' of geese the , The word is also at Dendira.[seeGoyon . Confirmationp-125n.359 ; Lit. (2)]. IV 31,13; in an offering


of fields produce Wb Il 142(1) D.20 andGR

Wb cites MH <828> msw T3-mw with reference plants,but the word is simply an extension to of msw 'children'seeingthe plantsof the fields as 'children'and meaningcropsin general.In GR texts daerminatives be addedto the termsuchas C2 and-, to indicatetheir'exact moreappropriate could natureand this is often-the caseat Dendera, thereis also the possibility of confusionwith msw as

827 P

by plants.At Edfu : the king is nursed theField andlives on

her grain 7 VHI 17,14.


to turn (towar&) Wb 111143 (14-16) MK

The term may be an m-prefix connected with the ver sb [Glimpses, Smith p. 162]and known from MK texts, sometimes with following prepositions. At Edfu : a.staircase MJ? 13b.s 'turning to its lefe IV 6,4.

mspr-n. m3wt Edfu Wb Il 144(6) GauthierDG III p.60, .This is a name for Edfu : the Iuntyu are brought to Horus Behdet in
Edfu temple is

(3 0CW=

P VI 196,11
1 7.4.. Th e

3_ rH 4D; of the Sia falcon VI 11.2 ; sim. -M. 4_:l -3 .

last two are from cosmogonical

texts. 'and the term may be connected with the creation - m3w new

suggests 'newness' but mspr is less clear. It has been translated as 'the new place of arriving"the refuge'[BIFAO 64,1964

VI 182 exx. p. 144-5 and n. d also p. 148 nx le, lieu oa se rdfugie (arrive) le =

. 17 T monde = VI 1834]. The only comparable word in Wb is


a town name, one of the

places from which offerings are brought to Ti [Grab des n pl. 1151which seemsunlikely as the name for Edfu. mspr is also the 3rd day of the lunar month (Wb 11144.3-4) and it is the day when the covering of the moon begins, so that the sign in the town name may well be a fan or shelter [see Parker JNES 12,1953 p.50 T also known as bbs-tp covering the head,; Calendars 72-75 also oj. and CT VI 286 r and 13 both of which

M. 13 Meeks noted in CTIV 8g C=X. Faulkner did not know [FECT I p.205 0

and ibid 11234 n.501. Meeks translated it as 'shelter against

the sun' with reference to the OK. word and this would fit the meaning for the mspr lunar day [An. Lex. 78.1852]*.In this case mspr-n-m3wt is literally 'Shelter of the New Place'.-,


to spin , plait Wb Il 144(12-15) MK DG 179A

by msn is the twisting of long threadsand winding them up into a ball [LA VI col.1156; described


Winlock. Meket-rep.30-31andillustrated Beni Ham I P129]. ' in

At Edfu the term occurs in a rather limited way : cloth which is offered to the god is said to be s9 In

3st msn in Nbt-4wt where msn is the processafter sbt/sl : tP *"7 oz 1122,11; 1165,2;AP-, Ij m 'wy N 14332 -, -j ..


n snts N 131.13 ;M VI 248,16.In the Myth,

MtrRO by 4Qmb

the adomments of Hedjhotep and 'neC of Min, wom by Horus is said to be sg.ti

HathorLady of drunkenness 79,8-9. VI


spinner epithetof goddesses Wb 11144(16) GR

Wb citesonly examples from Edfu, wherernsn alwaysappliesto Shentayet Osiris who accompanies bandages shrouds for the god andimplies shemakesthe mummification or 237,11 ;M4. ti 188,1 ;1

1 185,14; 1376,15 ; 1208.3 - sheworks in the Houseof Life and makesher

brother live with her work. Cauville translatesit Ia fileuse 'the spinnee [Osiris p.18b BIFAO 81,1981 2140 andespecially 231. p. p.


knife Wb 11146(2) GR

Wb attestsmsni

from GR texts only, especiallyat Philae where it acquiresdeterminatives

it it which showthat the scribehasmisunderstood andconfused with sni "broLheethus'A7 instead of (seePhill 1 P.69A andalso 32,31. The word also occurs at Edfu in this incorrect form : the king dIA? TI -k VIII 76,12-13 [Phill 132.31 ; also Horus di mb ftyw m h3w.f

m fmyw-mw VIII 77.15 . Miese two

texts are not only in the samepart of the pylon , but are contemporary with the Philaetexts(Ptolemy XIII)which suggests leasta commonsource common at and original error.


harpooner Wb 11145(4-8) MK (10-11) Horusandking (12-13)priest DG 179,5 oz IZ-7, 113 ? aloneare entered

The sign

may readi3wty , but for convenience words spelledwith


had msnty. SeLhe no doubtin readingthe term as rnsn , but discounted connectionwith any under
kcg Coptic 13 HT 'smiLh'and with the Old Kingdom word S4p reference may be from the first dynasty

' 17 denoting a

metal worker. The oldest

Royal Tombs 117,5/6 and then in the

Coffin Texts (see below) ; also Montet, Hammamat pl. 3,1 from the II th dyn. a servant of the king is `7 M-m 4r itrw [quoted by Sethe in ZAS 57 1922p. 137 msn. Harpunierer].The word imy-r w 78

is also usedin the NK - LitYrags pl. 12,2

and thenit is usedoften at Edfu-

The reasonfor this being the connectionof Horus with Mesen in the Delta. This may suggest a pseudc)70rigin the word, for if Mesenis a Delta town , it could havebeenassociated of with marsh 'sports'and its peopleespecially famedas msntyw. Sethe that suggested the word wasan m-prefix on the word doubleprongedspear, which is a

hunting [K. Sethe,ZAS 54,1918 p.50-541. the spearmost often depictedat Edfu in hippopotamus Osingarguedagainstthis ideaandalsoa derivationfrom a non existentverb msn [GM 27,1978 p-69 9]. Recentopinionshaveconnected with the verb msn 'to plait , weave'which candenotea n. msnw basketandalsothefloat attached the harpoon[Alliot Mel.Mariettep.297 ; Culte11702n.11., to woven is a personinvolvedin the hunt for the hippo, wasgiven a determinative which came and thusmsnw in For from the useof the word for'harpoonee[LA IV cot.108-91. example CT 1259b-c Spell61 each MPV"god hereis ii, j2 in the hippo hunt [FECT I p.561 , and Horus , Lord of a msaw

Mesenis the divine form with a cult in the marshyareas Lower Eg;,L Sethequotedmanyexamples of from Edfu but withoutChassinat references. As an epithet the term can be appliedmainly to HorusBehdetfrom the 6Lhdyn. [Firth-Gunn, Teti PyramidCemeteries ; VIII 1,3]but thecult of the harpooner may havebecome 191 only important god from the 18th dyn. : in the hunt fou Sethhe is in his form pr-' 1309,12; (crocodile)
Mesen is for

pr-' VI 62,4 ;I *

'2' '%%

3X br-1

. imm

pr -' 1424,13; in a pun

M ( I

msn"b3 111137,13

to slay NehesIV 18,9

slaying crocodiles IV 13,10 pr-' 0, '

iqr 239,7 pr-

d n fr in slaying water creatures VII 22,11. The king xelfT?

(croc.) IV 212,7 Nb Msn nI t isfbrpj

U who slays the foe (in parallel Horus is i3wty nfr )V harpoon text VI 238,14-15 ; he is 42n qnIV58,1. carries f 1544,1 ; also

'?,tfbr. 4 -_Mina and,

text IV 57,16 and in the same text crocodile A priest at Edfu is called :4




154 procession Ij 1.1

The temple is pr-hpY n IV 330,5. 'A I IV 10,9 ; and also st-wnp I

A S Lord of the Harpoon 111-:

The msntyw are the harpooners who assist Horus in the struggle against Seth and their deeds are recorded in the Myth willing to fight they are trusted by the god and are described as grg-br , spd n '03 ready and Jt L', VI 115,5. When Horus has VI 114,6-7 ; VI 1162-3 tj. " VI 215,5-7 z c.I qnw n VI 124.7

gathered his followers , his harpoonerscome with their equipment VI 124,7. The royal children are called Ur-Btdt

nty nb Msn

VI 79,1-2. One particular section of the Myth describesthe deedsof the msntyw lot e

to 127,5 [JEA 21 , 1935 p.341.They slaughteredin central areas

(VI 125,2-3) there were

different divisions of them


imnt of the west,


Obt (Horus is with them) VI M, towns of the harpooners!VI' dD

They pleased Thoth who named the central areas .

126,1-2. Theyare


qnw n kir nb Msn sms in Msn-Imntt VI'126,8-9 and

jr1frw nty kjr-Bdt imyw-ljr n Msn-[3btt VI 127,4-5. Ile identification of the king the wherethe king stands land stabbing foe in the waterandHorusstabs on with Horusis emphasised MNI -k Or '0' r-03t VI it from the prow of the boat , the label over the sceneis 111,2and pl. 148 2nd reg. extremeleft. At the cutting up of Seth , his suet(soft parts) are given to msw n 'childrenof the harpooners know the tasteof his flesh!VI 85,9. to O'khippo, andharpooner 1337,13andat the festival [Montet, Ktmi XI 1950p.921. ,

The abomination Edfu is listedas of JWMZ,; I . t

V397,2; 1359also db


thusdrive away to turn around.bereversed, Wb H 146(3-8) MK

The meaningof msnh can be seenfrom its earliestusesin Adm.2.8 whereit is usedof a pottees it is alsofoundin MuK 2,1 [GAS 27 andFCD 1171. wheeland Ai Edfu it is usedin the puns: Horus is msnty 111 137,13 ; and especiallywith Mesen : mb-Msn hfty IV 375,11-12 ; Msn n to '43 'who drives away an attackee M'g IV 330,4; u's Msn br Mg VI 11,4 ; ms n Msn nM MINI M9

foes 120,4 ; this is a pseudo-etymology'forthe name of Mesen "because


m-hnt. s Meg is reversed in it', note its waters are also called his harpoon in his hand Horus . hftyw. k V 55,14.

VII 22,12.With

The verb may havelost its original sense is now a verb for 'to drive away'.or it may havean and implication of perhapsdealing with foes in someparticular way. There is a verb snh, 'to bind' a causative n3 'be contrary'andEdfu msn maybe an m-prefix form of this. of


Wb 11146(12)

for msnty is an areaof land prepared foundations, perhaps metathesis sni..Tbe term occursat a of Dendera building texts(seeWb Beleg. : the four comersof the temple in ) upon ... Dum.Baug. c.f. 45 the king digs 50; to the snt foundations; the term alsooccursat Edfu

in a probablycopiedtext. In a cosmogonical it is usedin a pun text with Msn, of the sacred watersat Edfu, Re said --T m-bnt. f and Mesencameinto being VI 186.7 - this is a waterway'who

bearsthe flood'? not a foundation(Seemsntt).



canal -

Wb H 143(9) GR and11136 (6-7) AX =V In thel5th UE nomethe pehucontains :'

118,11 term for flood waters(damaged in ,a

IV). Textsat Kom Omboalsousethis word not only for a largebody of water, but alsoasa termfor , Sobekhimself,and it may havehada moregeneralusethanis suggested Wb [Beleg.KO 183,98; by 86,105; 59,60,29 for Sobek174,861. This word may in fact be a word mswr 'drinking place'(Wb and 11136,6-7),an m-prefix addedonto swr 'to drink' [Smith, Glimpsesp. 1611.It is attestedin the PyramidTexts (930,937) in the abovepehutext at Dendera[Dum. GI 11188 and so thesetwo entriesin Wb shouldbe amalgamated. -I 1-



The nameseems be literally 'who fashioned (created, to gavebirth to) that which is' andis a lateterm, in cosmogonical ZAS 92, textsin particular,to denotethe universal creatorat thefirst time [Reymond, 1966p.117 n.11. In such texts : the Ogdoadare children of Tanenrnsw 9'V 85,8 ; Tanenis


M-s-2 VI 174.11; the king is belovedof ms bt nb 'who madeeverything'V 252,18; belovedof IW in the who established earthand is preeminent dw3t-n-b3 V 253,6 ; in a lotus offering

the king is ms n

S. the who fashioned lotus!CDIV 172.1

In textswheremanufactured is are goods offered,theassociation Mesenty of with Tatenen maintained M =%% 2 by using this epithetof Tatenen here: amulettext king is son of ms 13tjrps who , M : 11 fashionsnoble stones111272,5 the crown of electrurn the king is like . , M li *ZiDo 2 'fashioningto perfection'M 19,15; mirror offering,Horusis sonof IV 238.10. Despitethe literal meaningof its name,theremay be an earlier basis for this word, Wb 11146,11 recordsmsnsd from the OK as a worker of costly stoneand thereis the term BACN14T'Smith'in Coptic - msnty may be a late reworking of theseolder terms and given a form in which its 'etymology' clearlyexplained 'he%ho is fashions which W. as that



ms-ntt 'what is produced'.may be connected with the Ms-nty : in a wsbt offering, foreign lands comewith and IV 120,11. zr a 1.IV 97.3 in ; a geese papyrustext, Wadjetlevies taxesof and


Wb H 136 (10-14) OK DG 179,6 S 4 i13 -. c-, MCkZ oil I

Cr. 187b; CED92; KH103

A well attested word , also usedat Edfu : -47

Ski, pI aredriven awayVI 138,8;,

in the waterarehuntedVI 217,4.This is not the usualword at Edfu for crocodilehowever, a

are numberof other synonyms usedsuchas snt, io .

msh3 ,

to rejoice, (13) GR - Wb Il 147(6) LO

Frequent Edfu andthereareno earlierattestations hereaccording Wb. Smith derivedit from to than at Also usedoftenat Dendera Philac. sb3, with an m-prerbx(Glimpses 1631. and p.


Transitive : 'Horusreceives beer, drinks it and With foil ,-

MP 11

1 rejoice'1524,5. M1

i1iQn br plus 'seeingyou' Horuscauses banks : the 10 br m33.k like MOO-br A014126,11 ; in sistratexts Hathor themoon Or songsVII 174,15; -hearing , M ?)0 also 1523,12; Horus nfrwt r m33 hr. f 'womenrejoice at seeinghis face' 1366,15. , M 14 el f 'one rejoices at seeinghim' V 171,6 ; Horus saysto the m=n: falcon ,n M ell king np tr. k' V 187,3; IV 207,6 also ;MPdI, also V 296,17 in the Myth , the M 0). ',: r, n dg3.t. f (Horus) VI 82,10 chorusof singers ; also for mw. rnp you rejoice n at his coming1116,15., With 'heart' as subject: the blessed dead ibw. sn , Or mh ir. n.k 161,10 ; with libation waters 1327.12 1-16rus to theking says ib. k'm m33.f 1486,12.

NounJoy'(not WB) : when OleEnnead to Mesen'Beholdyour roadsare filled with go joy' IV 54,7.


' brightness,splendour' Wb 11147(18-21) GR

Glimpses p. 163]. It is more


god' from sb' the causative of b'i 'appeae [Smith

c ommon at Dendera (Wb Beleg) but it is also found at Edfu'; mainly in the royal titulary : the Horus name of Ptolemy VIII Evergetes 11 jisr M 1 sr-III--106 JV 4,1 MP 1 I(IV 12,3 ; dsr, . I

536,4 [translated de Wit as 'gloriousapparition'CdE 71-;'1961p.631.It is also appliedto Horus by M C=. (not in himself in the Sma-Behdet Wb or An.Lex. 78.1860); Akhty canal , he is whm. is, , 12 -is VI 242,10(alsounattested) the uraeus the brow'of the king is <7 ; on IR IV 51.7,


birth bricks birth seat , Wb 11148(6-14) Pyr.

mshnt doesnot occuroften at Edfu because the natureof the templewherethe ideaof 'birth' is not of W for or so importantas in mammisis at Dendera Philae, example. . It is found in the royal titulary, in the Horus nameof PtolemyVI : snsn (tir 'nb r) V. MP 'joining the birth seat sn 119,6 ; 1111,3and in that of PtolemyIX snsn . Moo


of the sonof Isis VI 1,11.

msbnt is associatedwith Shai from older texts and this connection is also referred to at Edfu : Shai M -who controls the time of birth Lni r ^R- 'is exalted upon the birth bricks' V 144.16 [see

Quaegebeuer Shai p. 114 n.3.4 and 115 n. 11 in an epithet of 71ioth 'who reckons years and wil IN . . AAO. hr Cu and determines Shai upon the birth bricks' (after Quaegebeuerop.cit. p. 104 and an - original of this is at Kasr el Agouz p.90) 127.5 . Also Horus is Ir which may indicate that he ordains the time of birth. Goddessesat Edfu connectedwith birth bricks are. primarily. Hathor she is the Lady of rbyt in VI 57,10 [the epithet nb rhyt is also given to Isis to but does not appear again in Im I c-i 1311,12 m wilt. n. f

this form at Edru seede Wit WZKM 54 1957p.235 n.14] ; sheis Vpst m

[seeDaumas Mammisip.518 for bwt. Msbnt]. thesetwo placesmay be the mammisis Dendera or , Mentyt is also equatedwith MsUnt the goddess 105c-"3 1575,7, not notedby Derchain-Urtel [Synkretismus, 23 ff]. p. Mes--keAt! [Dcrchain-Urtel cit. p.23-36; alsoLA 11459 op. msbnt = Niederkunft)herselfdoesappear M Ou'ea` 6, Edfu however: in the procession provisioningdeities of at comeswho bringsfood and

(in 'ordainswd what is' 111149,7-9 theparalleltext sheis replaced Renenet 9 1) ; in the land of by IV the imt-pb nomeHorus is nurseduponthe thighsof II"A0 in the templeare the 19% CS, I

IV 37.11-12-.amonggodslisted

'four birth bricks who nursethe godsupon their legs!I


139,2; amongthe official list of templegodsare MOO%^-. 2 , 53 66'67.



Ze 166,64' and 65,

APOc=17i The king is also described Vsp h. "wysn 'onelwhom Meskehnetreceivedupon their r as hands'11115,2 from Westcar 9,23who assists the birth of the echoingall this time later thegoddess at
kings ; the protection ritual is s3

tfy E7-j n 3st 'protection of the birth brick of Isis who

bore Horus son of Osiris'VI 147,13 [JankAn, Schutz p.57 and Komm. ]. A curious use of the word is in making bricks for the temple foundations : the king says make for ,7 Mev, you ,, n nfrt to make firm the comers of your temple' VII 48,8-9 , an analogy of birth and temple foundation.

mshtyw w

GreatBearconstellation theforeleg(or adze) -


Wb 11149(3-4) Pyr.
r,, g s



(Pyr.458) 7be earliesttextswith this word showthat the GreatBearwasfirst seenasan adzeshape with funeraryritualswheretheadzewasusedto Openthemouth.From andthis pointsto a connection AEO 14* and the MK however it was depictedas a bull's foreleg and also as a bull [Gardiner, Wainwright in Griffith Studiesp.373ff]. Te Velde suggests Sethusedthe msbtyw to kill Osiris that [Te later it became Osirianrelic, usedat theOpening theMouthcreatinga ratheroddparadox and an of Velde,Sethp.86fQ. At Edfu the constellationis often namedin the pd-& ceremonywherethe poles to mark out the point 'north' comersof the templewere aligned with the Great Bear , which provided the compass 6^, 1131,4-5;Mt;,. "O. [Weinstein,Foundations 100; Goyon,Gardiens 17 01 p. p. 111167,15 pole is placedoppositethe constellation the wherethe king looksat -Atal

Mat, it for alignmentVII 44,9-10.Horusas a sky god is in control of the stars he put, .93, 2 he put -'c-and starsin their placesV 6,11 ; for direction Y--

into the northernsky VIII

V Cen' at the Foreleg 7.12 When he is up in the sky the troopsof guardiangeniiprotecthim hr . the 111 8,15 *.at the creation before 1py appears , 182.7. As this stargroup is north , so Orion (S3h) is southand the two can be pairedtogetheras southand' north : 'the Lord of Mesen of Egypt in the southand north' (afterJEA wall r* VI 330.7. IV 17,3with perhaps the m dg3 is seenVI

29,1943 p.32 line 3-4) VI 16,13 ; Utr. ]Vr S3 pbty mi In a date: 11T 4P 9mw -9 nt sj'n;*4-=v

beingwritten for'seven'in a date. word


cloth , clothing Wb Il 149(8) NK FCD 118tunic

by both sexes- it could be madeof cloth, metal (as a protective The term refers to a 'tunic' wom CP in battle)or leatherandmaybe the AncientEgyptiangalabiyeh[Janssen, 259 ff. ]. corselet MP11 in procession n p3q IV 3,6-7 tunicsof fine linen. wear The word occursatEdfu: priests



a primordialdeity

In the Edfu cosmogony : hr njr W rn -'.. .: Horus saw theI ba as Mss 1117.5-6 V HorussawMSS (determinativeis a duckling in an egg) = VI 182,15-16iir nLr V Finnestadsuggests is a ba manifestation, this possiblywith a snakeform [Imageof 7he World p33 64.1966 p.144 see n.59 . For a differentinterpretation BEFAO


leather hide skin of an animal , , Wb 11149 (10-14) D. 18

The earlier form msk3 on the Cairo Linen letter to the Dead seems to be the forerunner of msq, translated here as 'leather' [LD 1,2 in JEA 16 p. 148 1. Faulkner gives rnsq and msk3 as different k3 entries [FCD 118] , LA 115-16 notes that ms; is the older WorA and it occurs from the PTs [Wb H 150,3-51. At Edfu msq is used in the phrase tbtb iwf/'w= r msq= which is used to describe the .

dismemberment of the hippopotamus which lay upon its hide which had been flayed from its carcass and was spread on the ground [ Blackman and Fairman JEA 29,1943 p.29-30 (b) ff.. de Wit took the whole term to mean '6corche"flay' CdE 29 Nr. 57,1954 p.33 nA91. It is often used: a gargoyle text ...... Q-P sn IV 111.13 *,consecration of meat portions 574 sn IV 351,6; T (hippo)

Md P!C- 1381,15-16 In Mdcv VII 149,34 other uses : in the Myth , the harpoon enters into . A his hide' VI 73,6 ; also hippo, text ,q, 4 1145,6 ; in a sm3. bftyw text , the king r mds p WA

sn 'stabs their hides' IV 236,1. .

The word hasthe generalmeaning'leathee a writing material. for the library containsIrw wrw n as 1p, 4 [Weber, Buchwescn 14 ff. ). 'great rolls of leathee111347,12 p.


burial place
Wb 11149 (15-17) Pyr. Gauthier DG 11161

At Edfu the word refers to the necropolis or burial area: driving the calves, the king 'drives them to hide ,44 1,78,13 -,a text about burial 16,10.. Horus for his father 'makes remote (dsr) .

and protects what is in it'll

FCD 118 translates the term as 'Milky Way' with reference to Pyr. Komm. 1315 and 1120. Ilie term


is certainlyusedat this time andthroughout funeraryliterature[CT III 376a: VI 231q; BD 66,15]but is not commonin later texts.Homungalso translates 'Milky Way' [Totenbuch pA26] and describes this place as the boundarybetweenthe sky and the underworldand it is also the entranceto the Grabde's Basa,Mainz. 1973p.61 b]. It haslost this very specificnuance underworld[e.g. Assmann, by the Edfu texts.


morningboat Wb 11150(10-16) Pyr.

As mndt dropsthe rn prefix, msktt doesthis also to becomesktt and the word is also.usedin fashionto the original meaning. Edfu msktt is the morningbarque, At known from the contradictory in PyramidTexts as the boat in which the sun god sails at night, this changes the Late Period OS 68,14andq.v. mlnllt for comments bibliographyon this ; Jones, Glossary 2471. p. and AtEdfu: the god shines the morningin' in 379,10-11 Horusin his barqueis like Re in, ; lead Za% in heaven 209A ; Horusis in III
. ft .9b -

by and is praised the basof the eastI VI 82,4 ; thejackalsof the solarbarque in the morningVII 16,3; at the IV 26,12.
W, praised

slayingof the turtle , both

The msktt

'c: -%" to Manu IV 306,11; -q5--5-D andm1ndt go k

boat is also offered to the gods, usually Horus in some form :*ms

by the bas of the cast and apes, the king receives bikw and m't boats IV 260,10-261,8 -, with Hathor hpk 44, 4&t dd"mdw-%*---D, n. k and they gives what the two eyes shine upon by day and night III m'ndt offering) '" ""' -4A ; ms 4G"O', D nt nbw , makes it clear the god sails in

30,3-13 (opposite

this boat in a fair breeze, Apopis is slain from this boat and it goes to the western horizon where the god transfers to the m'ndt boat. Here the king is the prowsmaji (iry-b3t) in Uwho P ---* Z sails

fair breezeVIII 21,8-22,8(oppositem1ndt offering) ; to Re-HorakhtyPnk with a


The king destroys turtle andthe snakeV 168.8-169,2. scenes usuallyshowthe king with the wherethe a solar crown A&, CL the texts cmphasise the boatscrossheavenon the armsof the that and

[pl.48 4th reg ; pl.90 4th reg.'; pl. 1192nd reg ; DCLV Pylon wherethe boat is snty or rhty sisters . of showncontainingthe standards thesungod]. in OT 57) The earliestexampleof the change the function of the boatsis in the Tomb of Khaemhet 'Re appears morning in at Mdm. Mss 1130'--4also note in the theologicalportion .


p of P.Harris17,5

AR' he sails Bakhet[Cauville . Essaip.148n3 ; boatsin generalas a

Heliopolitancult, Kees. Gotterglaube 235-71. p. P I.. Z, is In the4th LE nomethe cult barque called = " O-J



k,g -, tr wn .

The minor dtities who accompanythe sun barque in procession include , tp-rdw. sn 113,3 and pl.47 line 28 shows them as ram headedbirds.


galena blackeyepaint , Wb 11153 (8-15)Old

DG180,3 r,, .4-- 2 3 C-THM

Cr.364b: CED166

Latin stibium

from sdrn (Wb IV 370,3-8q.v.)

Black eye paint, probablygalena,is usedin parallel with greenw3d. It is usedas a medicineand Sinai [Harris, Nfineralsp.174-6] 9P-t. camefrom Syria, Punt,Coptos,Elephantine perhaps and also , dsds which is a graphic variant of this'[Fairman, BIFAO 43,1945 p.120 n.11.It was used as a protectionfor theeyesto keepawayflies. Tb6raw powderwasgroundwith fat in a paletteandapplied
-1 .and it acquired magical properties of protection also. msdmt was the basis for Latin and to the eyes greek c;Ttgt 'antimony' , though it is not this substance [LA 1567 ; ed.Harris p.207-8]. The word is an m-prcfix form with the root smdmt which is the word for this substancein OK texts and was superceded as early as the MK At Edfu the cosmetic is chiefly mentioned in the offering of msdmt with w3d (q. v.) [for a study of these texts in GR temples see Zel-Kordy, ASAE 68,1982 p. 195-222]. Usually the two compounds are offered together and the texts give them a false duality for the WIL is put on the right eye and black msdmt on the left, though this can be used on both eyes. The offering is made to : Horus where the king is the controller of foreign lands and their produce , hnk w3d Min to the Lord of the two eyes , raising up the things of the eye 1425,11-18 ; to for the left eye 11 for the left &rn in Legacy of Egypt

with Isis for he is the god of the desert roads Dnk WIL .... and ,

84,13"85,8'; Dnkw3d kk -*, NII 277,10 278,10 ; Min alone Dnk w3li `--


eye V 191,11-192,5 to Hathordi w3d ; The offering is also madealone: hnk R your

111143,17-144,10. 066 Mp 04 Horus to and Hathor188.5-12and bnk

4b %%

is for you, you seeby them11297,17-298,8 Horus. to godscanseeand

The effect of the offering is to grant that the two eyesare kept healthy so that the

createand the cosmic balanceis maintained.More obviously the sight of the king adornedwith is cosmetics to makegods, goddesses men, womenandchildrenrejoice( 188,4-12). , For generalnoteson the substance Daumas,OLA 6 696 from Mndt : p. accordingto the Dendera treasury.


to hate
Wb Il 154 (1-19) Pyr. DG 180,2 Cr. 187a ; CED 91 ; KH 102 Morrz

6 MOC--f

Antonym of mr 'to love' and to some extent similar to the way bwt'is used. Though rnsd occurs at Edfu it is not an emphasisedemotion becauseof its possible negatory effects For this reason hate is , . MP directed at enemies : Satis 1189,10-11 ; the uraeus sbiw 1154,1 ; geni too -MeL , .M0 -'soik-'hated by saves the king from all evil serpents god IV 52,3 ; it is directed at the other 'bad' things, the guardians of Osiris hate sleep 1212,4. Mq-'zP'-'when doing

Ina N1=t text msd and mr are contrasted, 'Lheking has no bias in him what is liked and what is hated ' (seeOtto, GuM p.46) VII 91,3.1



Wb If 153 (5-6) Med. GR OK 2, \. A word in the OK pyramid of Neith has 'breath comes from 44 Nt. 753/4

which seemsto be the very early ancestorof GR msdt , possibly the technical term for 'losses nasales' [Lef-,bvre, Tableau 19 p. 19]. The term may be an m-prefix added to s3d Pyr_565 'to make fresw , the causative of w3d, so that msdt are those which 'make fresh' (Frischmacher) [Edel, ZAS 79,1954 no.4 p.88-9 ; Smith , Glimpses p. 163].

M -, The term is recorded Edfu : priestsbring incense for at a- 111 of god 1569115 .


rnsdt. ti

hind-quarters haunches , (1-3) BD - GR Wb 11153

From P.Harris 500,1,2'haunch' BD 125,with the meaningextended becomeleg' [Lefebvre, to and [as Tableau62 p.551and it refersto humanor animal haunches cut of meatin lists seeJanssen Ship'sLogs p.20-11. by hippopotamus At Edfu msdt usually refers to the 'haunches' the Sedhian of which are speared Horusin the Myth: M'd=qjf 2 V175,10: V175,12; AI'3'0? 4is given

VI to Nephthys the dismemberment 85,7. at


a kind of myffh Wb 11156(16) GR

'type A kind of dry myffh from Asia usedin thetemple.[Charpentier 360-1no.565c f. alsoDaumas p. of Intyw 'oliban' usedin templesD IV 70,16; 70.17RdE 2,1975 p.1071. It is first mentionedin an 'ntyw offering and is listed as a type of 'ntyw W---j. which

from Geme'tt,it is dry and red, from the spit of the goddessHeket and is very sweet scented11 comes J!! W 205,5-7. 'There are other types of m9'. myrrh too: also called ky. dbn-fry s3w which vi

Yms-Intyw text a list of substanceshere includes-r: u rw is black in colour 11206,8-9. In a 251.8. rZ, C= C-isalsocalled Nnzk r=..


andthis is red in colour-,iL comesfrom the eyeof

11206,15-16. Seth thusis "bad'butit is usedfor rectalproblems , The first part of thesecompound namesmust comefrom the verb rnP 'to go, procec&.the phrase on means'theheart,mouth'gocs , showingthe effect of the smellof the substance the senses.

army. workforce Wb 11155(2-19) OK DG 181,2alsogeneralterin for'people' Cr.202a; CED 96 ; KH 108 MH itNC4- 7-,M 1 K9

force, mining party or asa fighting ml' is a mustering menwho are thenusedasan expeditionary of


unit - but this is not their sole function. The word seemsto roverthe activities of the Roman army for example, though not necessarily with this degree of organisation. The word is well attested up to the GR period and at Edfu is representedprobably by the sign king into the hearts of scribe of ILL-I ti Ag rth-p't ritual , I i65,8 , F1 : Isis puts gfyt of the et var.

Tatenen at the creation VI 17.13 ; Thoth is of t9l the army 111135,18; in the v-- chief of -14".

111356,2; the king is

are all their armies are subjugated also VI 235,7 ; the guardian'genu'

mnb 11133,13 . Goyon [Gardiens p. 20 n.4 ] suggeststhat the term mX' but it is more likely to be iryw

may also read


to march, to go (4-12)NK Wb 11156 DG 181,1 - 433 Cr.203b ; CED 96 ; KH 108

moouj e

is perhaps used in the name of the myrrh types (see above). Though the verb is not common rnY' the NK, Wb quotes a passagefrom the OK tomb of Prince Issy. 'nb [Mar. Mast. D8p. 1911 until d'& C% r=. fg Sr where the word mP for 'army' is written 4L sign may indicate not only and the

that the verb mV is older than attested but that it is connected etymologically with the word m9l 'army' and their activities. The subsequentuse of the verb m9' 'make an expedition' [GNS 29-30] and march [Qadech 22 1] show that it was often used in such contexts. The verb occurs at Edfu as a general term for 'to go' and a variant on synonymous terms, thus in alliteration of m: he brings m3'ty with seemingly no regard for the true use. m3w 'going over the New Lands' 1325,13-14,

mgrw. .


Wb 11157(9-17) Pyr. Pyr. If this is truly an rn-prefix word then the root is r 'to be dry, roast!andtwo passages 1048and , 9 Mo7alla 251 p. R 'to be translated be burnt' 'to dry by fire'. mYrw is the time of day can

from the sky and the determinative -when the sun is `burntup' that is whenit setsand vanishes the soonlost showsthat it is the time whenthe light hasnot quite gone,but perhaps sky is which was


D. red with 'fire. From the 19Lh the word wasusedonly in religioustexts [Hornung, ZAS 86,1961 P.109-111].
From the Coffin Texts tnrw is an important part of the day for Atum for at mIrw he is an old , and at Edfu this is the evening aspectof Horus : child in the morning ..-. old man man
IV 57,7 bw rp 140,14 ; sim. H 165.1

VII 282.14

-'0 r

Atum 11p. 158-9 but discount his reL 11571. Other texts refer to [for this relationship see Mysliewiec , Horus tp m Jg& C30 qVq IV 57,7 ; in dw3-njr the god is praised at morning and sotp k3. k m

1187,10 ; sim. Horus is second of the sun by day and 3hw m

156,6-7. In the temple cult it is the third time in the day when the rites were performed [Sauneron,MDAIK 16 p.276 n.d] , thus 11197,7-8.


categoryof land An. Lex. 77.1894 p. 174

in P.Wilbour and has been studied here mrw occurs 29,1978 p.9) it may be from .

P.Wilbour'll p32 (also RdE

in P.Reisner IH p.35-16 [Simpson]. A comparable

term occurs at Edfu : in a harpoon text, Horus seizesthe harpoon to slay the crocodile
$01 r=

, its bank.

and drivefierce face from his bank V 56,6, the crocodile frequently perceived to be lying on md$-N(-


to sleep Wb 11159(1) GR DG 183,6

J13114 3
6erny derivesfrom mki'to suggests

Cr.162a; CED 80; KH518 think, ponder MOKMC-K The Coptic word is probablya reduplication MIKE which of

protece.GR attestsonly two examples mqmq both from Edfu andboth in the sametext: the king of saysto the sun 'Comein peaceto your city Behdet every day'l 35,14 ; and the parallel - Geb a Ims r' nb in which you sleep

ims r sDd.t3 'Geb sleepsin it till dawn' I

35,4.The meaning Ilis phrase : occurselsewhere sun comesboth fr om thecontextanddeterminative.


in it till dawn 11126,14 beede everyday 11187,12-13but, sun tpee ;

im. s 122,6 ; sun ';-?Y--

in Behdet

n Bdt readsas sdr IV 16,10. Ae The sign of the hawk on thebed is usedas adeterminative. mkt: of IV 10,1(for example -seebelow) or perhaps sdr VII 209,5.

VI 145,7-8


type of ship Wb 11161 (14-15)

A boat rarely attested first from Amarnatextswhereit is somekind of sacred boat (AmarnaVI and 21,12); it is a grain carrierat Karnak[Beleg.Mar. 53,241 thenit appears infrequentlyin GR texts and [Jones, Glossaryp.140'freighter,warship,sacred barque'l: MD IV 67 -:a -10&. of Osiris where , the intendedpun with mki 'to proteceimmediatelycastsdoubt on this being the sameas the earlier
At Edfu in the msktt offering Horus gives %t!& word . i. , -.,
10 %\

for the Lake of Horus VHI 13,9

mk ori&. farn't could equally be restored here and it is difficult to collate from the

published plate(DCLV).


beholdq.v. m particle


festival be festive ,


Wb 11162 (7-9) and (10) verb GR In texts of GR temples. at Edru Hathor gives drunkenness and .: 110,1-; when Behdctis in the sky 5 1,1,, 1 W-J1P festivity without end I

is in the underworld V 29,10. Most often it is used,

in the phrase m-mk The way it is written the term could be m-mk 'in festivity' or as a verb in the, . form mkAi but the reading m. mk looks safer: he enters his shrinel4-1-Jw IV 9,3 ; Behdet stative , 4, It, VIII 106.17 ; he receives his city! 1441,8-9 ; the falcon enters his temple --Z-j vV VIII 107,4 ; receives the temple 119,4-5 ; those in Behdct are

into herethat the preposition hasbeensubsumed tnk. 441,8-9 It is assumed m . V Thereis also an intransitiveverb 'be festive' : of the town of Edru -J rejoicc'IV 3,8.

mrrt. s 'its streets

The ideathat this is Testive'as opposed the moregeneral'rejoice'comesfrom the determinative to



but otherthanthat the derivationof the word is unclear.It may be connected with the late , and

term mk 'be coveredin gold'at leastfor the sense. It is synonymous with n bngg, rVwt from e latterword. thelotusdeterminative comes


to protect

Wb 11160(1-21) MK (afterFCD 119) DG 183.4 M 20) (13 -T:

Cr. 161b; CED80; KH89 rest oneself (pamper. protect) MI Ice A verb used widely at Edfu and as outlined in Wb - it is always transitive. Spellings thus: the two ladies ,c=ws -J

h'w. f 118,11



O'w.k r mnt nb 1184,8 ; alsonotea wadjetamuletdrawnon the groundis to protectYour majestywith it VI 145,8. is used in parallel with synonymous : bw shmw -13 'bmw 1113,10 nd n1wt 1. verbs mk IV 44,14. sdm.f form: dm. s, n. f form his childrenIV 15,7. wnnyw. f his peopleIV 11,14.

In th6 protectionof the body ritual the vulturesign occursoften, especiallyin the magicalpunt 4'! i ,U
ri. L-1

'J 'X_

VI 301,15'his protectionprotects-2 VI 301 to 303,14or Ais protection [seeGhattas, Das Buch Mk. t. o'w SchutzdesItibes p.92 for writings] and 4LUL %_V VI 300.9.

is the protectionof

the title of this book is given whereThoth 'recitesspells (3bw) of lyi

For the function of this spell in thecontextof an amuletoffering seesummarising by remarks Ghattas [op.cit. p.89- 941.


epithetof Horus protectionof 'the pavilion of the One who protectsthe

The g'6dis mk n m3rw nt Two ShrineRow'VI 6,6.


protecdon Wb 11160(22) to 161(4) Pyr. ,


is derivedfrom the verb mki andusedat Edfu as indicatedin Wb. Also in the magicalformula mkt f mk (se-Lmk with references) Most often mkt is the object of the auxiliary ir : ir. tn mk. . O' **L0, 1113,12; Horus IV 10'1. IV 16,4-.godsir. n %whm-mkt it :a GR epithet in a wsbt offering, Horus causes to trepeat your

protection'132,16. t] The protectionimplied by the verb is often of a magical nature: Thoth ir =.j , 3hw tp-r3. i 'protectsyour barquewith spells'VI 84,5 ; sim. Thoth recitesspells W of protecting the barqueVI-128,4 , Sakhmetalso iw.t the library one of the ritual books is called : s3 wnwt k w13. m Vq3w wi3

In #you protecthim' 111301,2. Wsr "-I wn wi3 wrt sb'

III Osiris (or theking) to appeae 'Protection the hour of protectionin which thegreatbarque causes of 347,12 ; and r mkt wi3 111347. 'your protectionis great'so that 7-1 Z:, A

In the Myth during the fight , Thoth declares Horus to the barqueof HorusBchdetis called "04

VI 112,6-7andThoth himself is,,::!.J

VI text 'Protectorof Greatof Protection' 129.4; thusin the geographical Z V 397,2[Jones Glossary 2411. p. , all protectionIV 19.9; Horusis z=7* with

1337,12; and

Corpses buried at Belidetrn are IV 36,4.

with his beams


to overlay Wb 11162 (1-2) Late and GR

is extended in use to show that overlaying something with gold is the same as The verb mki is simply a developed form of mki 'to protecV. It is used from protecting it, the verb here then Dynasty 25 at least (Wb Beleg). At Edfu the earliest use is on the naos of Nectanebo . whose'doors are worked in copper temple '3t<; M 'an overlaid with gold' 1.10,3 1 and r; the walls of the m. nbw m nbw nfr which

m nbw Or -IV 19,11 ; of the gods , 'irsn

'they overlay with good gold ' or 'they protect with good gold' and it may be that can be taken as English has to be too precise here IV 18J. In the description of the temple : copper X_r*k f overlaying the leaves of its doors' VII 7,5-6 = IV 8,8 r-n sb3w. CdE 36 Nr. 71 p.76 n.31. 11WY

[emended after De Wit



back of the head Wb 11163 (6) mk DG 183,2 m q4 ?Y ' Z_ 2) MAQ

Cr. 162b; CED80; KH90

In Coptic 'iieck! is evidently derived from an older word h3 Pyr. 1221d and m03 Pyr. 493b Eb.91.19 [Lefebvre, Tableau 10 p. 12; also Smith, Glimpses p. 1611. I '2L %&*, "' The word rnkV3 is used at Edfu : Nekhbet is called, <;, Udy of the back of the

head of her creatoeperhapsshowing the vulture with its wings outstretchedaround the back of the head (like the falcon for Khafre) 1310.3. But Derchain translateshere 'Lady who protects (mk 43) the one who created her' [Rites I Oryx p. 531.

mk-nb. s

3rd hourof theday, I OLh nighthour Wb 11160(8-10) Amduat

in Literally'She who protectsher lord'andoccurring underworld texts: Book of theNight 65 line 7a AmduatFirst Hour no.39 Tomb of Petosiris LefebvreIl 47 6th hour of the night ,

ASAE 3,1902 p.1751 Her lord of and sheis also the goddess the I Othhour of the night (Daressy, . to would be Re or Osirisdepending p. uponthecontext[Homung, Amduat11 16 no.39 alsorefen-ed as mk irt. s]. At Edfu it is the third hourof the day : whenRe awakens comesout andshinesin the horizon, he is , exaltedby hisuracus.'child in his'eyeapears Horus; godshereareThoth'. Re Behdctand Montu as "7 111217,6 also'atDendera. and


throne, seat

Theword is usedclearlyat Edfu : the textswith other variantsfor 'throne!usethis word: the king r before'theliving VII 258,3; r a'sso'vereign before as greatsovereign

'also the king r V SY I IL with the two Ladiesin placeIV 2462 ft king ; the gods VII 272,10 hr r2 offering'u'p-, to the child V 364,11 milk

it Literally the word seems mean'protectingthe feet/legs'- and from its determinative is madeof to


elsewhere. wood- it may be a kind of footstool- unattested


Seth Wb R 164 (8-9) NK

JL In P.Mag. Harris VI 5



is a term for the crocodile as the son of Seth [also P.BM

10042 (8) rt. 6,4-9 - Borghouts AEMT p.86-87 (125)] and in the late period the term could be applied to Seth himself as a crocodile [c f. Anchnes..p. 34-5 ; Posener in Fs. Schott p. 1II; te Velde, Seth

p. 1501.At Edfu the term was a general word for Seth , used for magic effectivenessin alliteration of rn and applying to him as a crocodile. hippopotamusor'foe! in general. In crocodile slaying texts knife is put into 3bw Msn n wbd 312,14 ; 3bw = Ift m' JK 7 -Q=III 4,2; -J]N,- mds 111137,2 ; the

IV 212,1-2.-In other texts - Msn n msnh Ph: G! -A&L VI 11,4 V1

VI 133; the king makes meat portions from 3bwJj-'LZ IV 128,17-129.2. IV 59,9. IV 234,4 ; mds%9&ZrjeIV ':F IV 273,12 ; mds 'r-, -j -Cr 246,6 mds

In a hippopotamus text: np d -P4, U,

9L In a general sense : vvmp - nhs m'm' ! 2E.

IV 222,6 (meat) ; mds. n. f -i-L Cry.,., P-0 he has turned back

IV 276,15

IV 285,12 - in meat portion offerings on the exterior of the Naos. IV 330,5 Horus sm3

have the enemy determinative : Msn msn -5; t, Zr mg can also )ey 1378,18. 3 -JLZY It,,,

In the LhLE nome there is a shrine here called , -11

which must symbolise

destruction of his foes 1333,2. At Athribis there is a crocodile geni Mg3-Unty-11ty. who Horus' drives away rebels [Vernus Athribis p.415 and n-21. , in the 18th D term Mg3 for a Nubian soldier (Wb 11 164,7-8) or as The term may originate 'skirmishee and itself originally a Nubian word [LEM p.53 and see Save-Soderbergh Caminos suggests Agypten und Nubien p. 143-44 with references]. ,


holder document


WbI1.163(13-17) D. 18 183,8 y DG


The mks is a symbolof kingship and is an object possiblycircular in section which is madeof , , , somekind of soft material, for whenit is held aroundthe centrein the handit gives , leaving the objectshaped from the time of Djoser,where Suchan objectis knownfrom Old Kingdomsources

it is usuallydepictedin theritual run andtheking holdsit in onehandwith the flail in theother[for a is list of OK sources P.Kaplony,RollsiegelI p.235]. Most interesting a depictionin the roundin see triads.7lie king holdstherelatively smallobjectin his left handandthis triad is one of the Menkaure of the Hare norne,homeof lboth which may be connected with the later 7both associations the of described Bothmerin BNIFA48,1950 10-17].Earliertextscall this object by mekes[this monument p. it rims (Wb Il 269,6),for exampleon Middle Kingdomsarcophagi is shownwith a bandaroundit determined D by and colouredyellow and red [Lacau,Sarcophages antdrieurau Nouvel Empire

Fig. 125 and 127] but from the 18th dyn. it is namedmks, and it retainsthis name[OK examples discussed Kees,Opfertanz 142-6].The word is mostlikely derivedfrom mki't6 proteceandlike by p. itemsof regaliait hasthe s suffix addedto it [e.g. tm*.s rnws LA IV col.21 and n.15]., other is The mks is importantin connection with the kingship'and thoughtto be a containerin which the
titulary or a list of the possessionsof the king was kept written on a papyrus or another kind of roll. It is closely connected with the irnyt-pr and together they cover all the possessions due to the legitimate ruler. Despite the lack of evidence (i. e. no archaeologicalfind ?) it seemsthat as Spiegelbergargued it was probably made of leather , which accountsfor its shapeand its role as something to protect fragile and important documents [ZAS 53,1917 p. 101-104 ; LA IV 20-211.1 -

The mks appears often at Edfu and is offered twice to Horus Shendet bnkU and Take Imyt-pr of this land' V' 189,6-16 ; and Horus bnk 9 'rake PU 'you hold t4e Imyt-pr the ...

inheritance of your father' VII 1967,6- 198,11. The pl. for the first [119 3rd reg.] shows the king the Double Crown and holding up quite a small mckes and nothing else . The ritual insists wearing that the iMyt-pr is also here and this means that the imyt-pr is either to be identified with the mks or that the imyt-pr is kept inside the mks assuming it is a container. This then makes the nature of the mekesclear it is where royal documentsare protected and the 'testameneis one of these.A glance at the three imyt-pr offerings at Edfu shows that in two cases R is the object of the offerings [pl. 23b

2nd reg. =1 170 ; pl. 29b 3rd reg. 1296] and in the other Horus holds a notched palm frond = representing years of kingship [pl. II= 13 11.In the mckes offering the king receives kingship , years


of rule , the office of king , the throne. The mks appearsin other offering texts, usually connected with kingship or inheritance at funerary rites: offering mummy ointment and bandages,Ptolemy V and Berenice give their heirour house gsp-'nb the king holds U our mckes and our office! IV 279,6 ; , E 111171,34 'giving U the Two Lands', Horus holds gives ; and the bpX 111170,15; Horus

imyt-pr VII 327.7 he gives , -nd Irf m br. k 'their deeds ? rolled VIII 124,7-8 U which my

U of this land and imyt-pr VII 327,8 ; he gives lands and 7-Irl in your fisf VII 327,3 ; Ppw-offering I bringZIJ ADPH up ij-pw "rake H

and you hold imyt-pr

which I raise up to you 1103,1 ; incense offering, Horus gives

father gave me and the imyt-pr which my mother gave me! 1162,15 ; prr-sbt, ritual run the king , WI U receives which 'my father gave me before Geb' 111116,14-15; as an epithet of Horus he is 'fast running, holding 111117,1[pl. 62 and Ist reg shows the king holding the oar and

incense, the king receivesj%Rof Horus Behdet VI 263,7-8 ; the king brings to Horusj%`='J 'and I unite the Double Crown for you'VI 234,4. As the mks is connected with written documents it is closely associated.with Thoth : with dead ancestors, the king holds and imyt-pr 111121,7; Thoth holds out R to you and imyt-pr

ff of this land' IV 248,11-12 ; Ptolemy IX and Cleoptra 'hold [pl. 93 2nd reg Thoth holds , father VI 199,8 Thoth gives in his hand 1180,8-10

and testament! IV 249.1-2 , 8-9 .. R and testamentof your

- -and notched palm sticks] ; Thoth gives

to the ruler VI 277.2-3 ; in palette offerings also , the king has in his hand 1378,1-2. "! -a" rdi. n. 1 s n. m. k the two

A text has the tide, "Ibe two parts of Egypt bow down mekes which are *-, 1, tiwr Maat presents

them to your majesty as the decreeof Re', the king with the goddess -I give to the son of Isis VIII 53,11 to 54.5 - the ultimate proof that the mekes not

good and legitimate kingship but that its possessionmaintains the order of the cosmos. only represents Certain gods are especially associatedwith the mckes : Horus is nb -mks VIII 54,4 :5" 326,14 1; in one of his official names `1--7
%Z7 Hp


1120 (79) ; also in 13bt-]Vr Amun Re is




1180,5 111327.5.

VI 43,3. Osiris hasthe epithethnty-mks : in the SokarChamber v 4 IV 87,4 ; two landsc4 1196,1 ; funerarymealoffering

An incense offering calls the king 'heir of the two lands , he has received ,

tpy n wp-ihty


'first mckesof the first born'VI 138,5-6.

Authorities agree that this should not be confusedwith the mks sceptm which is derived from the root ks 'to bow', for it makes men incline their headsin respectto the king [Jdquier, Frises p. 176 also LA , IV col. 20-22 and Wb Il 163 (13-17)]. It seemshowever that the Egyptians may have confused them, for at Edfu, in a crook and flail text, the king holds R and he holds the 3ms IV 120,1 where it is , unclear what is meant - though it could easily be either. Cauville [Osiris p.41 n.3] notes that the mekes and the imyt-pr are the two symbols of royalty, the title deedsto the kingship [c f. de Wit, Opet 111127n.93 and 142 n.532] - they are received by Horus his when he succeeed father (Urk VI 11,13).


vessels veins ,

(9-14)Med. Wb11167 mt DG 184,3 51-f Cr.189a;CED93; KH104 Moy-r from ligaments muscles vessels textswith various to mtwt occurs oftenin medical meanings and liquids(blood, Tableau p.8-91. is used theMyth 7 in It tears, urine, whichsupply semen[Lefebvre, in thehead thehippopotamus severed -M Ca 'thevessels his has 42 the where fourthharpoon of of head 68,7; sim.'hornsevers VI head JEA of thehippopotamus' VI 68.9(after 29,1943p.9).


Wb 11169(1-3) Pyr. DG 189,5poison' z- <-rz Cr. 169a

Attestedin medical religiousand literary textscanbe usedmetaphorically mean'son' [Lefebvre. to , Tableau 1 46].The word canrefer to any liquid which is forcibly ejected injected, for it refers pA and -to-the poison d snkes alio or scorpionsan4 in origin may'come from the sameroot as'm twt

At Edfu the term is usedin Maat textsto pun with mtwt. k3 (mr) and perhaps also to underlinethe ld 9iving pote, ntial inherentin Maatherself: Horusis abull happywith v . r A, creatingmenand


-04 birth to gods'VII 91,9 ; perhaps Horus gives e,. t. too giving

hr nk rnnwt mi U bnt

pmwt 'your semen fertilising youngwomenlike a bull amongfemalesIV 232,16. The word is usedmetaphorically theNile flood, parallelingthe wateringof fields by the flood with of the impregnation womenby semen:southern Nile 'he hascopulated of with his wife andput 4t 41 into her womb'I 582,16-17 northernNile lie unites rW dl'MP Withhis wife! 1581,5 ;a text about ; ethe first creationrefersto r-m l imywt, ,=U VI 16,5; in the Hwt-shm areaHorusis

/// who shineson the handsof the rty V 112,4-5(parallel in IV 178,12is !F-M i

mtwt-k3 scedofthebull Wb 11169 (4) GR

In GR texts this phraseis a synonymfor Maat (mYt) It may originally derivefrom the term . mr in Middle Egyptiantexts which is a bull (Wb 11106and 109).The similarity in vocalisation betweenmrt andmYt hasbeenshown(q.v. mYt asmrt'throae'singee and'what sheloves) so that mr as a writing of mYt is plausible.Scribeshoweverforgot the origin of the term and madea fanciful writing based on 7m bestreadas mrt, otherwiseits place mt . The writings are perhaps

in Maat texts is misunderstood becomes though to call Maat'seed of the bull' does nonsense, and endowher with life creatingpotentialwhich is no doubtintentional[from MSS noteof H.W.Fairman in a letterdated2.7.39]. In Maat texts then, the goddess called is beforeyou 111 193,16; sheis -is VI

7; V;? 317,16-17 and hereAmun-Re, Khonsuand Mut are'rr--, n

flourishes in your reign V 157,16 and /M.*1 writings : Horus is contcnt with----'

VI 318,34 ; Horusdestroys and isft

(same text) VII 114,8. With embroidered 14,


and raises up e-.

IV 232,15 ; the king appears

%. i;, with Maat and is content with e; --

VI 233,3 - this text also mentions mtwt 'semen' much is yours,

more than Maat texts usually do and it the punning is more obvious here ; also --cD.. ' -*): you live on her VI 161,4-5 ; Horus is the one who ir

Vi- 'does Maae VI 161,9 ; she is

-"P 310,12; godsrejoice at C A' V;N /-'f'V:;?LVI and the U-sty VIII 4,16 - 5J.

VI 311,4-5; Thoth raisesup

The termalsooccursat Dendera 11221,6 11123,12 IV-72,7-8)andPhilae(Wb Beleg. so it (D ) ;D ;D


was widespread in GR temples [c f. Gutbub mtwt-k3 is equivalent to Maat in Das Ptolemaische Agypten p. 1721.

M-tw = M-dr 'when'

Wb 11165 (1-7) NK temporal prefhx DG 645 bottom D L r7T-6irk= Va sdmsn brw hbq m3wLk when they W

Cr.229b; CED 112

Noted at Edfu in the Myth'no hippo-cows conceive

hear the sound of the thud of your shafe VI 61,11-12 (after JEA 29 1943 p.6 and n.(c) with reference , to Sethe in ZAS 62 po6(3) and NAG 139 216).


(arena) field of baWe

DG 189,7 mtbI


5 S/ I_- 03 .., CED 183; KH223 fold

C2- C)

for sheep r6HP,

.. -

The word occursat Edfu in a bow andarrow offering whereHorus (as Amun) is V hr .

'onewho fights on thebattlefield'Ill 136,5-6. demoticterm from the Myth of the Eye (18,22and The 24) seemsto be a net or a cage,and the Coptic term also seemsto suggest derivation from this a likethump or stampwith the rntbr. The root of the word maybe tbr which would meansomething foot' and with an rn-prefix it is 'placeof stampingthe foot! thus an arenafor righting or place for , keepinganimals [seecomments of &m' the considered term to be an academic y , op.cit]. Sauneron

inventiontalcinga word from the commonlanguage,which thoughnot attested Egyptianoccursin in Coptic[lRdE 15,1963 51-54]. pp.


to mark, inscribe Wb 11170(16) to 1714) NK A mtn'to reward!Wb 11170(11-12)Dyn.18

This may be the sameword, or the two may originally have been separate close enoughin but to 106 meaning be confused-i6N'S verb for'reward!(FCD 121)]. Thereare examples where'to inscribe'is clearly the meaning: P.Br.Rh- 23,7F j ,o I. M ryw -w3jL perhapsals in the phrase mtn rn wr ,
Aw--. C

rn. f Orl

[c.f. Bonh8meBIFAO


78,1978p.3621. If it is mtn-rn howeverthe translationin English 'rewardwith' is more,nataral but it may be a , for and refinedform of mtn 'inscribe! the rewardmaybe in the form of a written receiptor document hasto be written down to be official. At Edfu the form mtn-rn is quite commonand'reward'seems to be the naturaltranslation:
Atum' IV 10,4 fflti4
V, =a(L

-tr 'L r

sm i3wt n Itm 'we reward with the office of _him

sw m -3w-dt 'he rewards him with the length of etemity' IV 16,4

[de Wit varies his translations here 'r6compensonsCdE 36 Nr. 71 p.79 and 'il l'inscrit o-p. p.971 ; ciL

bq3t. s 'he

ep- -CLL"-

bm. k m

tt 4pw 1466,5 W

-!D- r,. Q e-

with his sceptre'l 104,12; Khnum and Horus are said to be., Ee 4- m nst-nbwy ....

with the throne of the two Lords' 1112,15.


knife, axe Wb 11182(10) GR = mdn

The word mdn citedby Wb is the GR form of mtnit (Wb 11171,6-7) which refersin MK textsto a kind of axe [Davies, Catalogueof Egyptian Antiquities in The British Museum VII, Tools and qq Weapons 66-67]. In GR textsthe word hasa knife determinative the possiblybecause ending pp. wasmisunderstood as 9A Die [c f. Eggebrecht, Axe als Waffe, 1963p.3 and4]. At Edfu its use VIII 118.9; of Horus Lord of

with and meaningare clear: 'you havecut off their heads

z (2

bf'. f 'his axe is in his hand'1442,12 ; in the Myth Horus is mV -

of md the axeVI 85,5.In the laboratorytheknife is usedin oneof theprocesses preparing ointment 'purifying &42*4m mw his knife with water and it mixes mrbt 11227,7-8 also MD IV ,

60b ; 85 ; 78a ; P.Br.Rh. 30,11. There is a term in Arch.Abousir II p.423 n.d mdn-hs sharpenerof a razor (occurring also in Mquier, Frisesp.127).Smith suggests on Djehuty-hotep mtn is an m-prefLxperhaps tni sarcophagus p. a descriptionof the king in battle[Glimpses 163]. W 'n, A verb mtn derivesfrom this noun : 75&A 4 elly"'-" 104,3. ; =;7 hecutsupmeatforyou Assouan




Wb 11173 (1-17) MK

FCD 120 rnti straightforw2rd . precise JA>3 M4TE

DG 190a agree, be content

Cr. 189a -,CED 93; KH 103-4 As the determinative

suggeststhis term has its origins as a word implying manual dexterity and

actual competence, rather than simply being a description of a person'scharacter. describesthe exact proportions of the temple and in this respect is synonymous with 'q3 mtr alone the walls exact with HB on them V 3,7 ; rn tn. s 1 'its paths precise to enter the Great exactly V 6.11.

Place' V 4,1 stars in heavenare in their places Verbal: -PI

dr. b3b. 1 'its foundations are exact before me' IV 7,5. IV 4,7 *,3ws r-nfr

Phrases : r-m tr (Wb 11173,19 - 174,4) : height of temples wsh. s ', m II1368,11.


Wb Il 173(16): gloriesof Horusare in his city Qjt1 all .,

by H 22.15(paralleled k

tp. nfr) ; Horus rdi spwt

'puts nomesat their exact heads'1 158,2 ;mI j "I' M accordingto their exact

tp. mtr (Wb V 285) the four chambers the east of

nw&'IV 5,8.



In the templedescriptions word mtr derivingfrom the word abovemay indicate'axis'Le. the exact a 710 T lr3-4! 'directly its insideis half : the first'chamber on axis' IV 5.1 (de Wit CdE 36 Nr. 71 p.65).


to witness instruct, to assign Wb H 171(9-20) FCD 121be in attendance

To assignland : king as ry-wdb , kin9 in sbt offerini their shares'114,16.

tnw to the Ennead117,9 ; with recipient as object , nirw T3-mb't r tnw. sn 'assignsthe gods Lower Egypt to be

11 -, , With Maat as object: paletteand pens -0', 114 , With road as object in the Myth Geb . ,

mYt 163.7-8.

t showedus the way' VI 77,5-6. w3



In a text for presenting

them in'rage

Shu saYshw.i


m dndn 'I have driven mtr against

? IV 144.3-4 possibly unattested but compare a word mtrw 'spies' (from mtr to D. 19.

witness) Wb 11172,19 used in Karn.Mar. 52,11


pehuandcanalin 4th LE nome



)1 -4-

containsmuchwaterand cannotbe blockedIV 24,9-11;II=

birds IV 24,15 - 25,2 damagedin V.

1=1 71 jr7r V 16,1-2 in 4th LE nome; Qf =with ...



-I x=3 and adorations L :rT 11 4t texts), IV 358,1-2 ; also possibly 'what

At Edfu : 'Receive praise m2 3bw. f m sp-n-si3 i3w. k from your mouth is, OU comes ,

IV 57,6 (both dw3-nJr your praises are

1; +,T //// VII 187.3-4. By parallel the

m at the beginning of this phrase would seem to be the identity m and in the sentencem triimy is a noun - perhaps meaning song [c f. Reymond , JEA 48,1962 p. 82 n.2 rn-mtr-r-1my sp-n-si3 meaning 'in parallel to M-

gladness' or the like]. Junker commented on this term at Dendera sw39 Wm

//,e +Tt

= song [ZAS 43,1906 p. 1231.It occurs quite often at Dendera where it is used in a MD III 27g; 'MD IV 25a ;a title over tambourine MD III 59n.

more unrestricted way than at Edf6 : 'Her majesty rejoices at the king says, 'I adore Seshmet with playing goddesses has ///`/k3.s m+r

The literal meaning may be 'witness to eaCexacLly to eat' 'assign for eating' and is an idiom for 'song'. not'gladness'because of the determinative and the sensein the contexts given.


phallus Wb Il 175 (5) NK DG 193,8 md

m13 is an m-prefix on 13 'man' (Wb V 344 ff. ) [not listed by Smith in Glimpses] and in use from the NK [listed only by Lefebvre, Tableau pAO] for exampleAmon made wombs and created mj3'Amon ,

Hymn V I- V.2 ; similar in BD 408,6 the sungod is nb-mj3. At Edfu : Min'is

14. 1398,13 JXPXd vc'O ; Min-Amun 'holdshis flail and grasps



of ' VI 22,2-3 In the festival of Edfu , Sethis cut up and thereis ceremony rd . On' iswy.f giving his phallus and his testicles'V 355,8 - 356.1.

Ji 19w it

jr A word attested at Edfu


rw is also this word mL3 becauseof the changeof m>b. IV 270,8-9 q.v.

It is

here used in a lettuce oring'your phallus causesconception!(W)


arena (12-13)OK Wb 11175

An m-prefix word wherethe m is addedto the root jwn/twn. The meaning this is not clearbut of may be 'attack, smite' thus mjwn is the placeof attacking.In texts the word is usedwherea bull [c its that attacks foesandits determinative a bull suggests it is literally a prepared of arena C depiction [A. BM 20648', publishedin BMQ 37,1973 p.4-91,probablywith cultic associations B.Lloyd , on Horn.Vermaseren11p.616-7 ; Smith rendersit as 'bull ring' Glimpsesp.161 seealso for Lwn RdE 15,1963pp.51-2]. H.SchAfer, 1906p.74-6 ; Sauneron, is usedin epithets: of Horusspr -lp JrAt Edfu the term
d" IIb,

11107,9 mn-lbty kr ;
A. LL3 C-3

95' ) r'-": -.

V 47.11 (me-atoffering) *.or aspectsof him Horus Merty mn-ib hnt ,

11'252,7. In a collar offering the small Ennead are described as mn-ib bnt ,265,18-266.1. In IV amulet texts : Horus protects the king tr .9 might to the king bnt C3

"a cj VII 64,15-16 ; he gives

VIII 48,16 ; Montu protects the king tr 11 4p c-3' VIII 1443 ; the

72,16 In warlike contexts the king himself is 'raised of arm bnt .

geni are mn-ib 71,3.

ji .& .



11132,18; and Montu mn-ib hnt v


road , path , way Wb H 176(-17) OK DG 153, mit

0-, L

) it ')
MoeiT$/ I M(alr

Cr.188a; CED 92; KH 89

It Edfti,, in alliterationof m in particular., hasthe nuance&boLh a physicalpath or min'is usedoften at the roador the lctangible 'way'. For the meanin'g'of deteminativeseew3t. Alliteration of m': in Nile offenng mYty (canal)mg' m3w MY n 1325,14


procession the New Year of

both open the way wp #t With verbs of going : di-' hr 211,13.

in m3'.ti r mn-bit. k 1539,2 . The standards the procession

155,4 and purify sw'b , 44f, 10 - same usesas for w3t. . v-,::'

to the throne of Re 1159,9 ,w

By his light Horusleadspeopleto .2 ,-Z IV 235,18.

1148,2 andkeepsaway foesfrom (Dr-r)

In the templethe main axis route is designated mtn and it leadsstraightto the sanctuary V4,1 Both :* -""40 and c* also VI 7,6. it couldbe readmtn if otherfactorssuchas alliteration'suggest in the sentence.


Seth Wb Il 177(21) GR

Wb has only one example from Philae, but it is attestedoften at Edfu as an abusive term for Seth. Its relatively late appearanceprompted Kees to translate it as 'Mede! being an allusion to the recently I 'soldiee departedPersian overlords of Egypt, and further that it was the ancestor of Coptic M4'rOl I

[Cr.190b; CED 93 ; DG 185.2 OIL-3usedfor this is in the Myth : Seth saysmy

Kees nity Persianfrom Aramaic Maday]. The passage VI 214,12,then'let us call it Al

the names the foreign landsand Horusreplied mJ3 is the nameof the EgyptiansVI of 215,2-3. The conte'xthere suggests that they.are generallyforeign peoplein Egypt in the army of Horus.The mdy heremay be the countrymd3y-whichsuppliedmercenary soldiersto Egypt and her enoughand if md3y is -clear takenas a word for foreignersin generalthen this may also be the term at the root of mdy - Sethas Berlin 1930p.346-7 'the foreigner,outsiderpar excellence! Kees,Kultlegende Urgeschichte, [see und 174 also Te Velde, Sethp. 148 ; Griffiths in Glimpses-p. and p.177].It is possiblethat in this passage the term alreadyhas the meaning MATOI [Gwyn Griffiths in JEA 44,1958 p.77-78however police force'(Wb Il 186,3-13).The basis of ind3i for MkTOI is

GOttingen Sprache, 1916p.124 in Agyptischen, also Sethein Spurender Perserherrschaft der spateren perhaps mustnot confusemdy Medeandmd3y]. In this guise Seth is usually the object of the verb mds 'stab';,mJAqAmds. 374,17 ; also J& VII 168,1; the king or the god mds ti r Msn IV VII



105,15 ; OJLl

qq --4'

V 146.7 ; the harpoon of msnty mds

VI 238,15

and parallel in a crocodile slaying with Mg OgL 1%%jq-*S0 111137.3. In theserestricted uses the term appearsto be an artificial creation but it was probably in widespread use in GR temples [Philae above; also Goyon , Gardiensp.280,2 for unpublishedDenderaexample].


Wb 11175(7) GR rn rn n rmL n Knit the nameof

Wb cites VI 215.3Horussaysto Seth

the peopleof Egypt by Seth'. Griffiths translates wholepassage 'Sethsaidto HorusUt us call the , Mdyw with the names the foreigncountries'.Horussaid to Seth 'a challenge the nameof the of to ) Egyptiansfrom SethV [JEA 44 1958p.781- apparently hapax; but alsopossiblyJs, a VI 214,12.


to speak Wb 11179 (2-28) Old DO 184.7 Cr. 191b; CED93; KH104 Moyre-, moy"r


words , speech Wb 11180 (4) to (12) from NK md. t Wb 11181 (7) to 182 (4)

mdt occurs very often atEdfu in the expression ild-mdw (GO p.230 306,1): ' HAI passim.


Apart from this usethe word occursi nfrequently: everyoneVI 348,5 ; in'temple swr Ab8

'in Maat texts,the

greatgodshear IV 14.8.


(of temple)in


divine words= hieroglyphs Wb 11180(13) to 181(6)

The Greekequivalentupay0owot

that suggests the term refersto both script and language. At 111291.10 [Boylan r6 IIA 1557,18; the Wadjet

Edfu md w- nir occursoften in connectionwith Thoth , Thoth p.1881 the lector priest impersorm ThoLh, is scribeand 'he tes , the templeare engr aved walls of I Alt

, V1 9,5 ; the king is image of


offering Il 69.1.


stick, staff

Wb 11178(1-14) OK DG 184,6 Hassan that owningit was suggests mdw wasa stick for makingfire andthusby implicationanyone deemed be important[Stockeund Stabe 20-21],It wascarriedby officials in office as an insignia to p. by of theoffice bestowed theking andthereweredifferenttypesof mdw staff [op.ciL pp.106-7; 186 188and list pp.6-71. mdw is usedas a term for the staff of Horus which he usesto smite foes and also for his harpoon which is shownas The templeevidentlycontained severalcult staffsbelongingto the temple

: godswhich werebroughtout in festivalprocessionsat the front of the Behdetfetival come 13 J 'n3 13 Horus Belidet n Hnsw V 124,12to 125.1 ; they are n Vwt-Ur n A13 of takento the templeV 131,24 and then thoseof Horus , Hathorand Khonsugo to the necropolis 0 131,5-6; similarly in the templedescription Behdet AV are assembled beforeHorus as his cult objectsIV IIJ and in the New Year procession carriedby the king 1570,7-8 [pl.38 showshim with he also has ps n HB is Xpsof Khonsu in

* ]; list deitiesat festivalsincludestlhZof HorusBehdet1359.3. Behdet1559,5-6[pl. 38e of a Maat The role of the m dw is to slay foesandthusestablish Maat is offered once to p3-sgmh (q.v.) and 9ps n Hr , is for killing foes15595-6 ps n Hnsw 1269,7-8 4W

[pl.28b lst reg.l. Texts dealing with the destructionof enemiesstatethis function 113kw-ibwIV 341, a collar offering templeHorus gives the king SethVI 120,1-2. subdues There is also one specific offering of this staff : nk

all foreign lands138,9 for building the controls of Horus

all lands1161,8 in the Myth controlling

Heter-Hor, which is given so god of

This it 111186.8-187.6. is the emphasis the whole text [pl. 114 3rd rcg of can slay his enemieswith howeveris mutilated,but the king wearsthe White,Crown] and the mentionof Heter-Horherebrings here. to mind thepa-segemch , so that this maybe in fact whatis intended staff An offering of the staff, hrp w -)b 'I continues, 'Take and it is further alludedto in the


AI TCb IV 292,14 '; itext, againbeing usedto kill enemies onceit is called and293.3.'Mis and . with scene showstheking (WhiteCrown)offeringa shortstick [pL904th reg]andit maybeconnected b-, - behindthecalves111169.1. aline in a driving the calvestext, wheretheking rp The harpoonis alsocalled iT i-

'whichmakes ie. VII pathssacred! by removingenemies 201,15-16.

A specialstaff is called EIA01- n Sht which is offered(ms) by the king wearinga Redcrown to Horus X1.614th reg. show s this to becomposed plantsandhavebirdsperched it. It is referred of on

to as

bird , ]it 0 'staffof flocksof geese 142,12 theofferingis mainlyto ensure HI and

foesandtheir killing represents destruction'Of offering for the king. As birds symbolise the enemies , A this may be seenas a subtleform of the functionof the staff 111142.6-17. further allusion to this
may be in a benu bird text which mentions Horus defeating hostiles and carryin g14.

107,6-7.The origins of this staff are hintedat only once,unlike the sgm4 which has an important a it has felled cosmogonical pr m Nwn 'the noblestaff comesfrom Nun role: ' enemics'l 302,12.


to stab, stick Wb 11183(1-13) Pyr.

An m-prefix added to ds 'to knife, thus as a verb it describesthe action ofknife 'to stab' or 'to cue.

In earliertextsit describes attributes a knife andseems mean'sharp"be firmly planted'andin the to of GR textsit is usedwith synonymous to wordsmeaning inflict injury or deathwith a knife or weapon. English 'to stick!may be the nearest Often alliterationof rn seems governthe choiceof to translation. this verb

Direct obiect Wwr IV 236,11 Mdy V 146,7; F-LUosed Mg -object:

Mdy -'Am `

Mh Mg IV 222,6; IV 246,6; : F; SU

n.f Mg IV 273.12

Ids IV 343,74'; I, N'Mn'tyw IV 370,14 "JA: -m3-hA VII 263,16. 111137,2-3 ty *,Mn
374917-375.1. 1174,9 sbiw 1453,10v bd 9-, IV 371,2;V 42,2 v '9sr-lbw V 41,14-15 ' JL3kw-ibw VII

Al IV 341,3;V 233,12

Al r Msn'IV

With non-allitertig object: t3rw IV 15,8 t-- A'

ilso V 142J6 1'43,1 A f1''" ; wiJ. -

* =' 6-7 Sth V 90-, ; Ch


310,7. Weapons uqed a knife bgst s3bt mdyw. k 115.16, vjL mbr m 111 178,16-179,1 1145,11

V 165,5 also with a harpoon shaft m3wt ,

and Horus usesa hw staff block

"9- k"

r- r-W1) IV 293,9-10.It is alsodoneon the slaughter

foeson hbt. sn 1165,13. v 'stabtheir

The meaning'to stab'or similar is suggested examples by suchas

hides'IV 236,1 hereit would not be sensible translate followedby m 'kill' and in examples to , , J? T hftyw. k VIT 159,13 harpoon m'b3 snakeIII 138,6; r/ .0 "S&="='rkw-ibw VII 179,3; harpoon 'wJV11312,7; "Y&-:: -7 mds (knife) m ibw

bryw. f VIII 26,15 - 27,2. Most tcllingly in a metaphoricalsense nrw. k 'fear of you stabshearts'IV 206.14.In the Myth has: Horus the feet of foes'? VI 77,13(afterJEA 29 p.17). In phrases 'sharp' 'keen'seems better. or wherethemeaning mds-ib 'violent of heart!: of the king with other warlike epithets pa-segemehsw m IV 78,9. j ': 4

rdwy n hftyw. f 'cuts off

1559,2 ; Horusas

mds-1'violent of arm': Horusin a harpoontext is '7j

againstrebels1424.13; he is L, 1189.8; VIII 118,8or

holding the harpoonIV 45,8 ; and protectingOsiris

mds. "wy VII 262,13. mds-irty 'sharpeyed' 'with keen vision' attestedat Edfu only from -Wb , but in fact also compare Hibis 33.5-6 mds bl-, [so AssmannM.AS 19 p.84 n.311.They are a group of eight guardiangods vy, who follow Osiris 1166,16-17, in the Sokarchamber 1189,9 [e se 1 VII

Cauville Osiris p.53 'dieux aux yeux meurtriersl. Also they are listed with wpwty , list of underworldgods 176,12and possiblyin the templedescription are JJ amonga

13,6(after do Wit CdE 36 Nr.72 p.304 andn.3). nameprobablyderivesfrom the mds guardians -Their in the Underworld(c f. Wb 11183(15) Beleg) [alsoGoyon Mmi 19,1969p.36 n.3 and of the gates Leclant,Montoucmhat 117]. p.

mds ,-,

ViolentOne Wb Il 183(14) Pyr. -


but mds is attestedfrom the PTs as an undesirable characteristic, only in GR templetexts did it' becomean attribute of and word for Seth.Fairmansuggested translation'cut throat' in his notes a [MSS1.It is usedin word play :m ds.i *9 IV 343,7-8c f. MD IV 12-13 -Tj-`-IV 285,12-13. th ;e Iion,

'9 A '5P' loudly after '-T& -.6m3i-wr-p bty is called'onewho shouts


knife AnJ, ex.78.1934

Meeks cites Cr VII 96j

'the knife(? ) falls and the power of Seth fails; in Pyr. 1999

iR parallel to m3s

a. c5- P 'comes in the hands Thoth forth from Seth- this word may be of ,

quite ancientand perhaps root of the wholernds family. The termis revivedat Edfu : in a hippo the slaying rnds rn hryw. f 'Lhe'knifesticks in his foes' VIII 26,15-273. V


ten Wb 11184 (1-2) Cr. 187b; CED92; XH104 MHT

At Edfu the word is used aI usually written t) but as Wb indicates lk nd can'also be used . as in , !2-'4Q' : md-ifd = 14 (kas) V 6,5.17his comes from the fact that with the Ennead Horus makes ten 24 gods and as the tenth god the sign : kir = 10 This occurs as early as P.Berlin 7809,4.14 Horus . 9, A who is' ten and is also found at Edfu : Horus"provides the Ennead with 9 138,7-8

Horusthe child 'providesthem(Ennead) Ten with other numerals:' (1 lilt b3w 14 basV 184,11-13 In fractions: nnn
. CZ>

'g n

VI 174,14-15. 95 VII 7,8; A 19 IV 5.10

19 VII 68

V 14 vAxs of Ointment 272,15.

ibd 1/30of a monLh day) VII 6,4. (I ,a year 10 VII 6,3 oq 4a. year 30 IV 8,6.

)0 In dates: sanctuary in completed

1 In times :a ritual is performed timesat daylight and twice n o' at the 10thhour VI 235,6 [Alliot 4 RdE 5 p.62-3 n.5, not to be read as mtrt (midday) as the tenth hour is when the servicebegins in for temples preparing thenight Junker,Stundenwachen63]. p. Inthepluralwith P'thousands hundreds' a largenumberof things: plantstheyrepresent or and are in the sht-d' IV 49,1%P

"-eemillions uponmillions... A AD)



- 15dayfeast (half of thelunarmonth) in the Sebennytos nome',Horus is the moonchild who renewshimself IV 32,1 This is the day of the new moon. .

At Edfu IV 17,3"gna

first day and on the 11* on the


placein theDelta? InN 'the Lower Egyptian

In a driving the calvesrite, the king is on his throneas

king in md-st' IV 242,7 (or is this a writing for mdt 'byre' 7) in a stretchingthe cord text , Horus saysto the king , 'You completeyearsin -d P-3 '111115,6.

The word seems haveLower Egyptianconnections it is otherwise to but unknown[JEA 36 p.72 n.601.


Mcday peopleand country Wb 11186 (3-13)

The md3 people from the region of Md3 in Nubia provided mercenary troops for the Egyptian army and also part of the expedition army forces which helped to provide the king and temples with the products of Nubia, that is spices, incense,exotic goods. In the NK the md3y becamea kind of police. force in Egypt who on a scmi-military basis, patrolled towns, the desert, the necropolis areas and , temples [Andreu in LA IV 1068-1077; Gardiner AEO 173*-89* and H 269* - 272*1. At Edfu the people of Meday may bereferred to by Seth in the Myth, when he says to HorusLet us call the 13-& Aqt! Cat A,foreign names' VI 215,2 - perhaps trying to provoke Horus , whose troops are seem to be loyal to Horus -VI 214,12. -clo

mcday soldiers-. The people of 'Prz'

Otherwise md3y is an epithet for those connectedwith the desertsand their produce. It applies to Min in w3jj and msdmt texts and 'ntyw offerings: (Arabian desert) 1185,6 202,13 TA -17 rX-Tnfr -he is of the eastern country

of the eastern country 1399,18 - 400,1 ; 1425,13 ; 11 A nfr of the

of Punt 111172,4. The king too in such texts is Wa *

eastem country 1425,14 ;=-L

of God's land who provides the eye with its requirements I

84,5 ; J& h '3


7-8 of Punt VII 106-,

lands of the eastern

III - 271,8 (seeYoyotte,RdE 9,1952 p. 132-3].



'booleor letter papyrus Wb 11187(6) to 188(3) Pyr. DG 194,5mdi 194.2md3t

The term may be an m -prefix word with A3

termssuchas d3 Vto term perhaps the root of at ,a

B p. traver andd3d3 'head'[Weber, uchwesen99 ff.). from thePTsat leastandthe sign CM Ile word is attested ) (eLvar. is believedto be a papyrus

in [GG Y I, as determinadicfor variouswords- seelist of Wiesmann ZAS 57. ' roll tied and sealed I'-Q 1922 p.75-771.At Edfu md3t is usedin appropriate : contexts the library (Room4) is containing-M! pr-mjj3t HI 339,12and herearekept boxes * writings 111347,12 of thetemple111351,8. M 350.10 T andleatherrolls with the sacred,,

in 671Is Certaingodsare especially connected thelibrary : Tboth is 'greatgod with


q3-rnd3t 7boLhp.192) . Seshattoo 1562,1 (andpassim. thoughBoylanrecords lqz-.=Nlbp 7 C31 6 only is tnwt i 9! C-3 111350,17 "M'j VI 295,10andalsopassim.

(for 7be titlesof someof the ritual booksbeginwith md3t but mostare unattested elsewhere list of by books in the library seetranslation Weberop.cit. p. 1314 and for texts in the Houseof Life seeDcrchain, P.Salt p.96-101)
04!! a% Ilk

IV , book of the helmsman 80,11-12*.

c3 *


book of uniting III'i book -

348,1; in Myth'

_n dr h3b book of repellingthe hippo VI 114.2; 1S-i+EJ 11` I-T V

"or is in the temple - an inventory 111351,8; at the New Year the lector priest reads out ccr2r%21* of what sbr bftyw. k book of overthrowing your enemies 1557,16-176 [c.f. P.Br. -Rh in JEA 24 . 189 and-, fl*, 04, SM I Ot% P.Salt 825 Derchainp.161no.151. a groupthe New Year booksare called CU j, # . cv As , "w

'secretbooksof the god'srituals' 1557,17.Ile book which is mentioned and elsewhere often in
the teMple is I 'the book the paat-people! VI 235.4 where it nt rt-0 p't of overthrowing

the may be supposed actualbook is copied

1 -.

%:. T

[c 111351.8 f. Alliot in RdE 5 1946p.61

I-I it n.13 ; DerchainopIcit p.101 n.24] and in P.Salt 825 X111,8 is p3 rtb p't.

Other books :'Thoth carries

-117, .'

Y--Imks of protecting' the king and spclls of driving

Litany VI 263,5- awaythe evil eye this is followed by a Sakhmet 1 The templewas supposed havebeenconstructed to'Z to according !;. Wn pt rntt Inb-hd

'this book which fell from the sky north of Memphis'VI 6,4 - hinting that the plan of the templewas


based a very ancienttraditionand is eitherconnected Imhotepand the Memphitetraditionor to to on JEA 28,1942 p.35 -,EsnaV p.250 n.1 ; MOET 36 ; 262 n.1]. the god Ptah [BlackmanandFairman, Sauncron this compares kind of eventto the birds who droppedthe slipperof Ccndrillon [in Aelicn V Hist. 13,33 Villes et Ugendes IFAO 1983p.84-5] but notice tht in Egyptiantexts other things , , , fall from the sky asdivine gifts suchasthechildrenof serpent the Islandin Shipwrecked Sailor. on


bailing scoop Wb 11188(13-14) CT -,BD

The baiterasan importantpieceof boatequipment well attested from funeraryliterature[c.f. FECT is III Index p.203 for CT refs. and FCD 123for BDI. At Edfu the md3bt is usedin the boat of Horus
where -! P&

-a of real lapis lazuli is used 'it empties out water like the very best myffW VI :,

80,9 [after Drioton CASAE 11 p.38-9 ; Jones,Glossary p. 198 IV no.6]. In this senseit is an [J.Garstang, Burial Customs 84 pl.721. p. for removingdangers undesirable implement or elements.


Wb 11190(1) MK FCD 123

Wb Il 189 (11) has md (OK) girdle, used only in the phrase Ls mQ 'tie on a girdle! but as Gunn showed this translation is incorrect, moreover the Ls-md 'tying on the fillet! is a ceremony marking the entry to manhood and is perhapsconnectedwith the sidelock of youth [JEA 25,1939, p.218-2191. been somekind of headband.At Edfu the word written 411,- is also transliterated It always may have (q.v. for examples of the offering) which suggests the loss of the internal d, but there are as rn fuller spellings : in the 'presenting the headbandof gold' to Hathor , she is 0 nwt examples of ,cm. Im Lak of Lhefillet of clectrum and gold! V 61,1. t. nbw'mistress difference between the,two terms may be that W is a simple head band around the head but that The 62r- md is more than this and inevitably there would be confusion of the two. Derchain reads the [CdE 30 Nr. 60,1955 p.227 ; Chassinat in his index implies the reading zn VIII word always as m3b 252-3l. 'p. ! Z.


the to fie a bandaround head


Wb Il 190(2-5)D.18 'headband!.but is not a synonymof is for the latter is the, The verb derivesfrom mdo 'a fillef or knot, while md is the wrappingaroundthe headof the band.Faulknersuggests, actualtying of the -I& I by hasa moreritualistic sense translating that the word 'investwith insigniaKD as 1241

62tL--,i head: uraeus; of RB 112,4).At Edfu crownsor diadems onekind or anotheraretied! to the = f encircleshis headIV 51.1; crownof gold 112*4 tp. 60,14-,Maat Ij .: crown V 94,4. her 'encircles headwith gold! V rn s3w

01- tie the fillet to the atef k encircles IV 62.5-6; 95k m tp. yourhead!

barqueof Sokar.Threeexamples it use In oryx slaying texts md4 occursin connection with the wi1t' qPn f! p-. twt m W-d IV 238,17; the animalis slain , the eye is safe AGkzY mf

!2S --*; n Skr VI 142,8-10 oryx

Skr VII 323,14-16.In all casesDerchaintranslated w13n

(md Wb 11190.7'tobuild a boat hew wood) thus: 'your boat is buile . 'I have 'construct' md4 as , built it for..., but it maybe 'to encircle, tie onand refersto tying the heador skin of an oryx to the Sokarboat. Oncethe animal waskilled its headwas tied to the prow %--Jt thereforethe ,

this is slain 'and I tie it on to the sledof Sokae. Howeveragainst notionis an examplefrom animal ... theMyth: 9Qe29 p.13 nj) wheremdh doesseemto he hasbuilt his shipVI 70,10(after -TEA I-

be 'to buil& a ship.


oil , unguent Wb 11185(11-19)Pyr.

[Charpentier Animal fat mixed with vegetable p368-9 no.584]. 7bis is one of the unguents matter [Goyon, in the Openingof the Mouth. It is madefragrantandhasas its basepossiblycow grease used Khoiak 11p.591-21 is a manufactured Rituels indexp346, Chassinat so ratherthannaturallyoccurring In'offering rituals along with rnnbt cloth it symboliscs and regeneration is particularly a substance. by (cf. Cauville his rite performed the heir for his ancestors which guarantees right to his inheritance Osiri p.174).
Offerings of Ind alone -to Horus: bnk 1143,645 'Pil tr nk z= I 45,14-19; di IftNID 11186,13-187.1 ;bnk .L, VII 76,4-77,5 ; Pnk ca 1133,14- 134A ; Onk 1434,14435.4 to ,

Horus with Hathor : nk

IE-NUIT VIII 52.3-53.8 ; Onk


VIII 60,13-62.3 with Harsomthus and Hathor : ir , Isis Nephthys : nk r-- 'YN V1 , 'Pr. ['0'5)

%M, Tr

1239,2-19 with Sopdet .

VI 100,2-104,7 with Harsiese , . 1'"EF\ V 174,6-175,1. nk = ID 1177,14-178.3.

To Osiris : hnk

1171,18-172,8 with Isis : hnk ,

To Khonsu: nk 'YiN V hnk= Y\ a

1270,6-15 ; 1276,746 (ibis and falcon also present) with Hathor .

also with the two birds and an oryx head on the god's plinth 1263,5-13 XI pl. 299. ,

Here the headsof the birds may have beenanointed before they are allowed to fly away [c.f. comments of Goyon . Confirmation p.3 1]. To Ptah: bnk V 68,5-17; Hathor 4nk 'ft\ 1--cr\ V 83,7-16 ;V 179,6-15 these V 184,11-185,3 Shu bnk "ft\ ; 1177,20 - 78,8. V

two are parallel to each other ; Khnum bnk = 272,13-273,4 and Mn-bit , the lioness couch hnk

In all of theseofferings the king is generally called 'image of Shesmu'who boils up ingredients in the lab and he is the manufacturer of m1l. It is also called ibr and 1143,10 ; it is hknw , 'ntyw irt-]Vr ibt-nO4 1263,6

tiXps in fact it appears,to be a general word for ,

any unguentofferedin a ritual , not necessarily specifictype. The ungentis put onto the brow and a hair or on the body to give protectionagainstfoes and makeit strong it is sweetsmelling and its . landsto be underthecontrol. the scentcauses producing rejoicing.In returnthegodsgrpt all incense of king - that is Punt,The God'sLand,Fekheret all their peoplebring the produce theqm3tyw and and , bbstyw in particular.The king is also madestrongand m3'-brw before the council he seizes. the , White crown, thereis slaughter his eyesandcreates in the heartsof his foes(1171.18ff.). Most in evil often the king wearsthe I crown [pl. 1202nd reg. , 1171or the hemhemty, bag-wig , Double

crown or complexcrown - basicallythe crownsof kingship.He usuallyoffers one vesselor pot pl.226 pl.276 pl.296 pl.310, or two V3 t pIA2b 3rd reg ; C1

on pl. 113 3rd reg. , or a tray with five vessels it

pl.263. Whereone vesselis held in one

implying that it handthe otherhandis held so that the little finger is extended towardthe pot, perhaps hasointmenton it and is to be usedto anointthe god with (pl.149 Ist reg. ; 1183rd reg. ; pl. 1202nd the reg.,pl.31I; 310 ; 299) and sometimes finger hasa wadjeteyeuponit . This is the irt-kir a name for ml ointmentand so it simply represents ointment(pl.26 ; pl. the -342). In one casethe ritual specifieshnk 0 -U showsa tray with 10 vessels it IV and the scene on VA 114,4-115,4pl.86 3rd reg. Here, Osiris-Sokar and givesrejuvenation renewalin return. ,


md can also be offered with mnht cloth to Osiris : bnk 187,18-188,16. to Amun-Re and Mut My : nwdt 'd 'I*t\ 0 to b nk T cloth V 196,2-17. 163,16-64.4 with Isis and Nephthys . tnk 0 mnbt

cloth soaked in lotus oil V 284,5-1 S.

Here again the king is equatedwith Shesmuand it is much more a funcrary offering where the renewal

7le powers themd areimportant. king usuaUy of andprotective wearstheDoubleCrownandreceives kingshipon thethrone. theadoration people eternal of and Outside thesetexts"md is mentionedinErequently. Among the list of rituals performed at the dedicationof the templeis bnk C- t5l IV 331,1: anotherlist of rituals for Horushasbnk nt

VI 102,10; thereare certain typesof this oil, a cattle text mentionshnk bb-tpy (New Year festival) VII 220,10-11; in the lab. Ir'MA within other offeringsof things - in a Xms'ntyw text thereis sr' fill the eye z-- 119% U ' n'iht-n'Lr 1-'555,14.

n bb 'of festivals' 11216,10, VII 106A-7; usedto

The laboratory iswy is also called st-nwd-mjL I'place of boiling md-unguenf-d


100.7.Someof the texts assertthatmdhas beenmadeandis equipped with 14 ingredientsM111V 184,13 V 272,15also. "A(I 0 Lher spellings: IV 114.5 possibly Cl? - V'83,11. Ibi laboratorycontainsi recipefor md, ;tp-,rd ti'lr'zt5l for the placeof the first festivalb' y

these manufacturers thetemple11227.3-16. of


depth, lowestpart Wb 11184(8-14),MK DG 195,2 JA5

Cr.193a; CED 92; KH 103deepwaterof the sea MTL) At Edfu mdt is usuallyfound in the phrasemdt r tp.f which gives the heightdimensions a wall, of 'from its bottom to its top', mdt herereferringto the lowest (i.e. deepest) part of the wall thus*IftN r tp.f rn mh 20'i& twenty cubits'VII 11,7-8; also 11187,1 VII 17,11-12-,V 3,4. Also r rntr IV

in the templedescription all its dimensions exactand m lit is no exception are ,


4.7. This is a GR useaccording Wb. to VerbmidI)c deep'Wb11184 (4-7) Med. Also at Edfu - it describes underworldof the temple(i.e. crypt) the (from BD 175Ani).


1-3 th) 04-a ///IV 12.9


byres Wb H 185(1-7) OK

The sign 11, representsa hobble for cattle and from the OK at least was used in the word for a place where cattle were kept mAt. With time this could be abbreviated erroneously to which

attained the phonetic value md and was used to write md from a very early stage.Meir 1114shows% as a byre or place for cattle - an enclosure rather than a barn in our sense,the reading md being assured [c f. GG p. 524 V 19 , 20,21and in the title bry-mdt master of the cow house AEO 190* with references; for the sign 1r Keimer BEE32.1950 p.97-100 from AEB 1951 p.550 no. 1874].

At Edfu mdt occurs : in the temple description, Horus s'93.f 'ANrEtIlLM iw3w wndw lie makes his stalls many with cattle' IV 15,6.


press hard , violently Wb 11191 (14) to 192 (9) Pyr.

The meaning of mdd was elucidated to a greater extent by. Fairman and Blackman [JEA 29,1943 ki p. 19-20 note 3: after Faulkner JEA 23.169 = P.Br. -Rh. 24,91.The determinative of this word T-T was explained by Gardiner asa warp stretchedbetween two uprights' [GG , U35-= Aa23,24], thus is a weaving term which in no way helps to explain the basic meaning of the verb. It implies something is held tight and straight with a measureof force. Uses with direct object Horus h3b 111350,3 W h3b IV 212,11 %.


IV246,8; IV343jl4; IV374,13;


VI 48,3 ;-

3b 1119 -

(47) explained 'thrustsviolently with harpoon' the hippopotamus. at as In the phrasesti r mdd bftyw. s. casts(his harpoon)at his.foes amain v6EX 1381,13 ; III

127,14; VAX 111257,1 IV 59,4 ; IV 173,6; VI 60,7 VII 144,5. ; 4-:-J 11, This also occurs, without object : sty r UwD%,: parallelto wd r s'rq VI 239,4 ; U4Y- /// VII 149,7 j


VII 157,3; 1150,5. Edel discussed termwdi (or sti) r mdd from NK sportingtexts (alsoRB 58,13)and decidedit the 'to was not as Helck had translated shootat the targeebut as 'der treffischerschieBe with the Wb , The parallel wdl r s'rq showsthat in meaningof treffen 'to strike, to hie [SAK 7.1979 p.23-281. this instancer-mj1d is adverbial.In this caseit may be bestto take znAdas meaning'straigheand Istrong',it refersnot only to thefact thatin the determinative warpis held tightly andstraight but the . to an arrow and harpoonis thrownor shotstraight. sti r mdd is the equivalent our 'shootstraightas in an arrow' exceptEgyptiansays'straightasa warpthmad.JEA 29 lists otherusesnot attested Wb , but as extensions the originaluse: of our knife in his bonesUKIL a) I makestrong with my full strength'1174,7. b) in the descriptionof the templem4ws nb V-DL, r mnh a its cubits attain perfectionIV 4.7. V OZK m33.s r bi3t'Seeing it is like a miracle'V 6,8 the gatewayof the temple. C? c) 043-^%, d) god sb r. f L'-' m niwt 'what fortressis like it in cities' VI 16,2. e) the enclosurewall ... my mnw (ZKX=m mwt 'what fortress is like it in cities' VI 16; - In f r q3 n pbty.1 "I batter hishead for you tp.

it from W16's 'follow an example!. thesecases hasthe meaning. 'be like, resemble translation It cantake'road!asobject(notEdfu however) soit doesdepartfrom its originaluse. -



thewatersign --


I 114 P j .4-. YA


j -9 A 3, Uo ,,, Phonetic Change:, 4 T


222D 4! cm em

BIFAO 43,1945 p.72 and73


'for' dative'to! preposition , Wb 11193ff. DO 196,3 Cr.215a: CED 102; KH 115 r-J- Rmo= Cr.216a.

Spellingsas above,but mostusualare --

, IV


GO 164p.126ff andJunkerGrD 189p.137ff. (bring to, give to, say to, to rejoiceat, be content . Usesat Edfu as for Dendera. with, be like someone/thingto cometo someone). , 1. Dative di pr = nb.f IV 20,1 ; in. f passim.

2. to do somethingfor someone: ir. n.f s TYbm.f IV 13,6;


b3w. k IV 57,4.

3. emotions: foes tremble &, ,c* IV 58,8 ; the hippopotamus destroyedTr"FA'. is because of
what he did VI 257,15. 4. with following infinitive : Behdet rejoices s 11103,4 ; afraid 5. After certain verbs 6. with sdm. f 'because'. n can be written for m and this occurs frequently at Edfu : at his coming forth r 1178,17-18 ; beautiful V-q imyw-mw from Khemmis W31 IV 13,9. at seeing you IV 54,9 ; 'nb. k m33

in northern heaven VI-67,1 ; fear of you comes about Ir mht %Yrcplace--& but then

in water dwellers VI 238,11. Fairman noted that-and

went on to say that'with very few exceptions, practically every example of this replacementknown to me at present occurs before _ 0' or [BIFAO 43,1945 p.92 with n.3 and 41. The exceptions hry. nst

noted are : m3i %V hr n p't 'lion with a man's face' VI 127,10 ; you are Horus 'T t3wy being the heir of the two lands 1147,2

hrrw dripping with flowers IV 3,6

tY m Dp appearing in-the Red crown in Dep 136,14. There are-also examples before


M. Before p or b IV 2,4 ; VII 88.9 ; 11187.13 ; VII 90 pt B bdt 11187.13 -. VII

263,17 and also VP

VI IM2 ;


iml with what comes from him IV 101.9. pr

genitival complementin forming the indirect genitive Wb 11196ff.

DG 196,2 Cr.215a; CED 102 PJ GG 86p.66 JunkerGrD 67 p.69 listsuses Dendera occurring Edfu. at also at , r C, Spellings:= 11132.7. ny andasfor n above; notetoo Feminine:T -51 IV 330,2andpassim IV 18,14. of slayingtheir foes VI 126.1; to calm the seain his, IV42,9 % IV 43,9 Un . IV 50.2

VIV 10,8

Plus sdm.f : as a reward moment z--

f W(h. of his raging VI 128.4. rdi pr n nb.f IV 20,1.

choicest bouquct which I present

Plus infinitive : greatfestival -

To separatea noun and its adjective (GG 94): to you IV 356,8 fresh clay VI 203.3 18,5;

n plus material: 'py,. vr iYqdmV In compounds: good snakes j=0(-

d'm made of clectrum IV 331.9.

at his side VII 30,3 here replacing r.

n= imy

possession Wb 11197 (8)

GG 114 '3 and4 'belongs me'etc. and 113,3the phrase follows its noun. to The compoundis usedat Edfu : of Horus Vmsw AZ"-"W his followersVI 125,5-,msn.f M Co your

VI 125,1 It is usedas emphasis back up n-k : phy n.k'Crl to . two halves yours'VIII 94,2-3. are At the'beginning'ofsentences'or Isesfor eI clau mphasis

m33.ns Yours is what shesees

ZIII,,, 115,5; *, 4%%T-, snb 3w-ib 'yours is health and joy' VI 189,11., %z'h;



in order to m33 imy. t3 'he divides it in order to see

Compound preposition at Edfu : wh.Us those who are in the land' VIII 144,15.

first person plural suffix pronoun, we DG 201.2

CED 103

NIV 304.15 sons of Horus IV 153,17 -four IT IV 157.1 111193,10 Iff IV 42,14.

Spelled thus :


Horus and Hathor IV 313,7 ; also

Usually the signs are direct representationsof the gods involved in the texts [see ASAE 43,1943 p.


negation (6-11)Old Wb 11195 DG 115,6= bn

Cr. I Ob ; CED 103 i:7

Junker GrD 283 - 5, p. 196-7.


0A, 11183,6.

(in nn-wn 1240,5 coll.)

VI 55,18

Uses: 1. with followng sAm.f 2. with infinitive 3.n-wn 4. irregular From Middle Egyptian it is possibleto distinguishtwo negatives J Dernotic to correspond Late Egyptian,, and Coptic -and which

M. In the classical

language whetheror and usedin later textsthe two wereoften confused wereusedindiscriminately, functions.Spalingerhasarguedthat the not they originally had different syntacticalor grammatical , I- ^"ft Lthat the derivation of the sign was from. the word nny and he further Suggested 1 because the closephoneticsimilarity to ` of had shownthat [A.Spalinger, RdE 31,1979 p.66 - 80]. Gunn had similar phoneticvalue to the signAand theA --I-- wereusedin the PiankhyStelafor differentpurposes, being 'A'

for as a replacement the dative

dative n [Studies ChapterIX p.83-71.Howeverat Edfu it. is unclearas to how good the Nfiddle ,


Egyptiangrammar the writersof the textswasand whetherthey usedn andnn according the to of fine 'Me language whether had classical the theyconfused usebecause distinctions beenforgotten. or uses nnAand of n canbe compared: 1110-1-4 M 2.11 the number tnw of

With verbs : in the expression n-3b without stopping: n-rh IV 4 no knowing their numberIV 11.11 f no-oneknows his fellow IV 17,10 A sn.nw. tnw. sn IV 44,5. he is neverfar from it 1111,14 -"

1537.11 of geese IV 42A ; 4-"=> geese Other verbs:

A -At

wbg b3wsn their buds bs. f

do not open IV 34,8 ;

f sw he doesnot seehim IV 390,13 A m33.

r__ m swbt V 144,16;

no-one knows his image V 9,2

sdm. n. f: Horus in heaven -.,%- wrd. n. f he does not tire IV 377,1-2; VI 1.16;. ADA #-L IU"9r dr r im3hw IV 17.1. m 'n bwy not heard by ears VI 111.5-6


With infinitive : god rages 11 Ar

IV 15,6

n lit IV 15,9 corn -L-- wgm n 'wt no chewing by flocks IV 26,5.


n (n) - wn often:,.,.,

298 = 1240,5


there is not any except him 1521.3-4


mitt. s IV 3,9,

any excepthim IV 63,9.

In the phrase n-wn Nvhmty.fy. k IV 75,9 ; IV 143,6 ; VI 94,5 (Thoth) ; VI 196,3 ; 199,6 the foe does not exist IV 375,1 Y, In the phrase n bpr bpr 'that which exists did not exise : she is his daughter hpr e 13 146,5-6 ; Horus '93' hpr Negating nouns SI. Zqc. him' 1112,2; %-L-,I 42,1 ; IV 48,10; X V 157,4. Yw lm. f 'no land free from no famine IV VIII

(of animals) 1537,10-11

'py there is not a year of (high) flood IV 34.1 aa

m 3w sm3ty.k IV 50,15.

(orsim.)IV73,7-8; IV372,13-14; IV380, IOHathor. Negation of Ladependtntpronounsntf A rml A :: lq. Akhu'VI 302,2-3. A 3bi 'for he is a man he is not ,

nn it' VI 55,18.

dr. f IV 14,8


rIV 24,8 r. f 'you will not sct foot in


In naffative : he spent time on the waterq

A - IT -:


im. sn and he did not see one of them

A 13 VI 122,14 *, note also the statcment 'the beauties of the temple are exalted by in brw -,



%, Z%l

generations who are not known praisethem'VII 4a-3.

Bibliography on negation is extensive : see Spalinger for a list of references op.cit. p.79 nA2 ; add Osing Zur Entstehung der Nfittelagyptischen Negation -A-U ^ -J , in Fs.Edel p.302-313.


thosepeople (from plural demonstrative) Wb 11199 (8-10) NK (5-7) MK demonstrative DG 203,3 Cr.259a; CED'104 NAI - N61

c f. also GG 110 ff. for dcrnonstratives. At Edfu

'those (people) of Edfu'.,VI



workshop Yeaving Wb Il 200 (24) Lit. MK

Wb does not translate this term, bt it has been shown that


C73 -

is a 'weaving room'

[Gardiner, AEO Il 215*1 or'spinning house' [so Klasens, A Magical Statue Base p.67-8 with a review of the sourcespublished up to this date] and Klasens concluded that it was the place where weavers The ni3t are mentioned in connection with garmentsof the king's linen [Pianchi 113], the worked. mrt-mourner singers, Isis and Nephthys who make mummy cloth there [P.Louvre 5158,8,1-2 Embalming Ritual and MetL-34] and also with Sais and Tayet [Schott, RdE 19,4967 p. 106 nAl. .-

At Edfu the term is used in cloth offering texts in a phrase which varies slightly from example to It is part of the reward to the king from the gods : they give linen and works dns. ti m example . ' C-1 'heavy' in your workshop' IV 289,14 ; sim. in your house' VII 307,6 ; '1 give many weaversyour house' VII 159,1 ; god gives ---j 'their work is levied as tax for

doing their-work levied as tax for c-3 sn

linen heavy in it VII 319,6. C"-: chamber with weavers and 1,a


ibex Wb 11202(1-4) OK


Two typesof ibex are known in the areabetweenthe Nile and Red Sea Capra ibex nubiana (Nubian ibex) and Capra ibex wake CEthiopianibex). Ibexes are representedfrom early times in scenesof hunting and together with oryx and Dorcas antelopethey are the most important offering animal to symbolise the destruction of the Sethian desert allies. Their fat and dung were however used in medicine and they could be regardedas sacredto Nfin [LA V col. 1276]. At Edfu in offerings of meat portions ni3w are listed with m3-hd and g4sw as one of the creatures to be sacrificed: lit IV 351.1-2 Ax, VU 61,15 VU 164.4 "ISE 319,9-10 J9 LVII with gbsw 1113,5 F-I QI 1537,11 ;' W-J e.

they are hunted. tied up and slaughtered

ic. 4"'-"4 --i P9 New Year festival they are roasted on the altar *, ; at the

553,16; the altar is providedwith thesethreeanimalsin w3o-'t texts

169,7.In a list

is probablyto be readas of anmlope animalswritten with only determinative signs,the last ' J& R-CE7 Et 1452.5. this word VII 142,9. One text specifies that their young are topffered ;. -4 C:
They are listed also with mhw 0 13w ""'w *q fp v-4 VII 323.1 ; at the festival IV

3,4. Their fate can be specified nbm-lw3y VI 28,7.

J6, IC-4

hpd hr W

V 151,10-11

At the New Year festival the Shesmu butcherofferer holds blood is drunk 1565.5

they are chewedand their

R npd 1565,3.The king as the butcherholds L3w and , -I

'3bjeV- the Placeof the First festival1555,9. for q.v., 'b. ni3w

niwy flood water= nwy Wb 11203seeWb H 221 (3-13)


to cometo rest Wb 11203(2) GR

Wb recordsniwy at Dendera Edfu- It derives60m the term nwy 'flood' which 'sades!uponthe and q4,& ,land and is useddirectly in this sense: a flood -J bms.f upon the bank and floods the

Two Landswith his beauties MD I 58a note the tautologyof this example'he restsand sits himself in the 6th LE nomeHorus is called i in WO t3wy rn nfrw. f 'one who

IV restsand settleshimself down flooding the Two Lands with his beauties! 26,3 ; in a pun - the ,


fl 00d',

"=1 q4=


and sits uponthe banks111158,2-3.


city Wb 11210(6) to 212 (4) OK DG 210,5

niwt occurs often at Edfu and refers to Mesen, Edfu, Behdet for example. It is most often spelled 0 and -'&t Wb). The vulture sign is read as niwt : he sees T 0- in festival IV 11,5 ; Horus; is bnty as n, especially at Dendera [Junker, As in the two examples but also , IV 14,5 IV 15A ; he unites with V 3,4 (not in

oD-b3 VII 135,9. Fairman argued that the use of -c;;

Schriftsystem p.261 derived from the use of the sign to write nrit/nrw'fear.

above, the vulture also stands for 'city' which Fairman read niwt and suggestedthat in vocalisation niwt (Greek ve-) and nri Nr= I (Bohairic) were so close that JA could read niwt (as in city)

[an occurrence more clear at Dendera ASAE 43,1943 p.302-41. Drioton however refuted this , suggestion from the reading of a word on the gate of EuergetesII at Karnak, where Thebes 'Me City' is sn pw qm3. sn - and here the word should be taken as rawt 'mothee (she is their

mother who created them) so that the vulture is always rnwt and never niwt [ASAE 44,1944 p. 137 n.fl. Meeks suggested a 'new' word mwt meaning 'town' or 'place of birth' , deriving from rnwt mothee but really meaning 'mother city': 'U--j n rnwt mwt D VIII. 5,12 proves that

does have the value mwt and is not a late writing of niwt [An. Lex. 78.1687-,c f. also earlier comments of Spiegelberg ZAS 53,1917 p. 104-51.
The phrase niwwt spwt 'cities and nomes'refers to the whole of Egypt (Wb 11211,20) , from Pyr.

96 '1 give. to you n iwwt and unite for you spwt '. The phrase occurs with the two words together at Edfu : Horus is 'Master. of the gods bnt (D 3am see-=m 119,10; he is protector (ndty) Obe Imf of 4z)jjj .

VI 72.8 ; the Tribunal of Eight gods are ndtyw nt

Z 3WE and nh

VI 311.3 (Maat offering). Ile VI 276,1-2 , Ptolemy 11

two can be split up and used in parallel : the king nil lit

Arsinoe are divine in QD45 and their places are sacred m-ht and

1155,16-17. The dualism in

is taken to its natural Egyptian extreme in such phrasesas: 'your image is established in,,,,,,, UE and your icon in

of LE' VIII 8,10 ., Gardiner describes the sign as a 'village with cross


[GG 0 49 and for reading vau- in Naucratis seeSpeigelbcrg, ZAS 53, p. 105 n-5 0 tJ streets' thereadingof niwt for the sign 0 spelled niwtyw (D N-4 , city dwellers Wb 11213 (1-4) MK Lit. A nisbe-adjective from niwt (GG 79) which occurs rarely at Edfu : in. festivals indna'their hearts are sweee1112,3. 1bsn is confirmed by Pyr.1467 the Lower heaven nywt is

with the city sign.


The City of the North it has gardens and fields and here

In the 17th LE nome, the agricultural land is called, "

Horus is called Amun IV 35,13-15 ; in the parallel text, the land has orchards with fruit V 24.7-9. This is the Lower Egyptian counterpart to niwt 'the City'. Ilebcs.


greeting Wb H 203 (8-13) Pyr. nin Ankhsh.22,5 tremble

Cr-226b; CED 109; KH 121shake.tremble NOSW The Coptic term derivesfrom nyny 'to shakelegs(Wb 11203.7) maybe relatedto nini, a word and in Gardiner it described asa welcominggesture which the hands usedfor a form of friendly greeting. He areloweredin front of theperson welcomed. notedthegesture alwaysthatof somedivinity in was the adverbial,phrasern nyny. In the PTs nini is a spokenword and the writing may be a

graphicpun, influencedby the determinative N- and it is not, as in Wb, a greetingby sprinkling of water [Gardiner, JEA 39,]. The word is usedat Edfu in a description the templeat the festival 'the Mansionof Horuses M of . hy-sndn, st-R' is greetingand hailing is great in the Houseof the gods'IV 17,6 . It

may imply the,waving of handsas a greetingand in this casethe waving of the handsis a sign of Wb lists under'grectingof goddess king' to rejoicing. Possiblyin the SokarChamber, ih nb n pr. f 1209,8. v


Also : HaLhor is

4717 IV 72,17 ;, when the god comes to his sanctuary nst-RI %% %%

rr-In m33.k 1 543,6.


invoke recite ritual) (a ,

Wb 11204 (1-19) Pyr. (c.f. FCD 126 make summons)

In ritual texts the gesture -P

is a 'summoning' pose and in the oldest representations of it, the

Pry-wdb is shown with this posture [Giza 11p.65-6]. He names different services and supervises them [Vandier, Manuel V p. 108 and p. 110 n. 13-141.Tle verb nis which is determined by this sign 'to recite' or 'call out! the offering rituals and is usually connectedwith funerary offerings R, f. means Blackman, JEA 32,1946 p.81 n.22 who translatesnis dbb-nlrw as 'Presenting the requirementsj. At Edfu nis is always reciting or speaking something : in the New Year Processionthe.'scribe of the book' priest (sjl. md3t) is 3h-r3 JJ'wwho recites the ritual 1540,5 ; the lector priestrp

ireads the books of 'felling the f66' 1557,16-27 ; it is used in parallel with analogous verbs detailing functions of the lector priest j1d Yd the , lector hr IV 72,12. 1568,3. In the dw3-r1jr ceremony the king as -

in the ritual nis dbbw-nIrw .'calling out the menu of the offering'. a ritual in The word occurs also daily service before the Dtp-di-nsw offering [Cauville , Osiris p. 157 n. 1]. At Edfu a few of these the I q for Osiris VII 114,15 ; 115,6 also dbhw-nirw rites are recorded dbhw. htpw for the children of Horus IV 153,4 , pl. 88 , 4th reg shows the king wearing the atef Red crown holding up a tray of vessels; in an Opening of the.Mouth Ritual , the king says upon a , 147 dbo-btpw 'after I have opened your mouth! IN-242,16-17 It is important here to

is open and the deceased partake of food again., can prove the mouth is is a verb of calling gods to food offerings in general : the king n Your Majesty by your great names Il 18,2-3 of Horusalso1121,8 ; in the titleof afoodoffering nk3. icalledtomykaH2l, b3r(DAys4(1-nstJhrbrw. m. k invokes l2; theka f 'calls

land on his throne at his voice' 1491,15. Here the king wears the hemhemty crown and the ba to before Harsomthus (pl. 35b 2nd reg.). stands , Also: Vq Pm. f m 3w-ib 'your majesty is invoked in joy' V 2.1 ; Hathor Nekhbet is tw n. s hrw b3li. s 11 15.9 (after 0MR0 51 p. 15 359).

invoked on the day of birth


In cosmogonical textsnis hascreativeimplications:

In ljr VI 17,15*.VI 329,8.


to punish Wb 11205 (9-18) Pyr.

The word seemsonly to have beenused in religious texts and particularly in connection with Apopis as the enemy of Re and head of all foes who have gone against Maat [Zandee, Death p.282-4 with' funerary text references]. nik occurs at Edfu with derivative nouns also : in the phrase n1k. "J hftyw. f ILr. f by Horus , W V 68,3 94,8 163.4.


thosepunished Wb Il 205 (14-15) MK

In earlier texts nik denotes Apopis [Zandee, Death p.2831 Goyon translates the word 'dragon' .

Edfu is a placeof npd [Gardiens 6 n3l andatEdfu thetermusuallyhasa specificdeterminative: p. VI 11,6 in a Sethslay, text. his allies are destroyed ing, 4. phr-r. f

his 'punished people,go aroundhim ' VIII 143,16-17 text beginswith the title j1d mdw 11ZE56" ;a Jf=r bbt n'wnn'.f Apo'pisis on the block, he doesnot exist VI 179.16ff. P1.148shows

beforefour gods,hewears plumesof Onuris. a the theking spearing snake


to sail , to voyage Wb 11206 (7 - 21) Pyr (convey) DG 207,8 to go -Jl NoY&T4,\-, WHY't

Cr.217b; CED103-. KH'116

by was originally a verb to 'travelby rivee. or 'sail' and evenwhendetermined -A nti

is Lhere the

that in this caseat Edfu n'i the verb retains its underlying meaningIc f. Jones,Glossary sense p.2161. intransitive in the 7LhLE nome., Horus is N'y ""a'19 -A rn sktt sqd n 'ndt IV 26.12

qAqR' Re =; bous and sailing -. the pun is importanthere,the verb is associated sails though with in his barqueVI 110,1 Horus in the sky -A IV 14,2 possibly r. s lie

the, travelsto it and entersit (temple)IV 3,9. It also describes IftorAin 2,


n. k and moors at your quay IV 43,9 ; nwy

Followed by kir : a,standardin procession: ',,qqA?
Aok'. "ft

r nw.f 1 581,11.
nprt. k 'travel upon your stairways' 1542,9. he travels heaven 1348,21 ; possibly , j

Transitive (from Dyn. 18): Horus Aq A


'%r Q-


-,. hwt-njr. k --r tn dt I causeyour beloved heart to travel this your temple for ever' VI

306,4-5. In offeringsMy 'Voyager'is an epithetof Min, god of thedeserts it refersto him as thewanderer and in the deserts[seeYoyotte RdE 9,1952 p.132-3and n.41.In Intyw offerings,the king is like qq 01 111172,4 Tirrt IV 94,15 fflalso V 159,10-11 s traversing qA* VII 106,7 andin cosmeticofferings the king is sonof 11K5 , , All' V 191,16-192,1. two moretexts,Horusis N'y in the 7th LE nome he is like In -J q Aq P he is n'y m sktt IV 26,12 ; in 5th UE nomehe is who first ejaculated the suggesting creatorwho travelledover theprimeval on theFirst Occa sionV 109,15 hereperhaps in waterby boat,the text is paralleled E.Mam. 60,2 who decreed what exists,thenasEdfu

The Edfu references this title are the earliest,one Romantexts refers to Min as to Hadrian]. [ZAS 62,1927 p.95-6 temp.


Wb 11207 (8-14) Pyr.

A term which can apply to snakes in general - to Apopis as the snake and to a species of sacred snake. Foremost at Edfu is the Apopis snake [especially P.Br-Rh. 32,35], Both of the protection in one form or another: 'he does not die for you who come as rituals offer protection against n1w , j , -. (that is poison fangs) VI 302,16 [after Ghattas, Schutz p.82 n.4 i with sharp arrows VI 151,10 [perhaps an abbreviated form of n'w U psAt which

V:;? 1 .7 1ArL L protection against

in CT 1153 f and 53 i; also Pyr. 51la where it may be Seth , so Jankuhn, Schutz p. 126]. In occurs the slaying of Apopis qq 4=1. JvvL- do not exise IV 80,7. A text for the guardian geni , Goyon a, %,

-9 ,, 'Lto proposes read'slay

'as n'w VI 329,7 [Gardiensp.13 n.121. who comesand entersPr-bnw

4q is in One of the guardians the SokarChamber '= 1200,8 andalso at Dendera relativelylate.

is of wr MD IV 59b. This development a 'good serpene


in religious texts, seemsto derive from the movement of the snake as it 'glides' n'w used mainly along the ground , so that the root is the verb Wi 'to sail"move smoothl](.


mooringpostin forepartof the'ship (17-19) NK Wb 11207 DG 208 LAM ""--

Cr.218b; CED105; KH120 N, C-IW

I F," A well attestedierm from earlier material, now known from the MK also [P.Reisner II B 23 Cf.

Simpson, P.Reisner p391andalsousedmetaphorically Amenemope 3.16 [Grumach 25 and II in P. 26 n3,16 ; all references Jones, Glossary 199mooringpost]. Its origin is unclearbut is Possibly' p. to not connected Wy, for the poststopstravellingratherthanallows it - but thereis a word n'l 'rope "-"j q%%'], Hymnsline 22,4 Royal maker(Wb Il 207.2; Condon', andp.19 also AEO I p.69 theropewouldbe tied to thepoleand this mayprovidea connection. At Edfu in the warship of Horus : 'the cable (9rpt) is beside motheeVI 80,10. like a sonbesidehis and


sa=d a= Wb H 208 (14) andc.f. 208 (17)woodfor shipbuilding

n'r is thoughtto be NereumoleanderL. [Keimer,GartenpMv=n 11421or Punica granalum L (Pomegranate) [NeWberryZAS 50,1912p.78-9] or eventheparasolpine!(Charpentict 374-5and p. Despitethe uncertainty LA I col-6561. over the identity of the tree it was the centreof an also see tree cult in the Heracleopolite nomeandappears written thusat Edfu ancient and 4; also 1343'. and 10 9 JU 3 1343'.

IV 191.3and 4; V 122.12and 13 (Arsinoite

tree.At Edfu it is nevermentioned all as a sacredtz= at though neithernameit asa sacred nome)' [Buhl, JNES 6,1947 p.80-971.

catfish i2O9 (1-6) Old. Wb DG 206,12n3r 220,10nr


The oldest attestation Wr is in the nameof the king Narmerand it continuesin useup to GR of texts [Gamer-Wallert,Fische p.31-32]. At Edfu the fish is named as the abomination in the Hermopolitan nome AM^ 1334,1 [Montet,Mini XI, 1950 perhaps varietyof the species a Z! 4A II

p.991.In the laboratorytextsa recipefor kyphi manufacture uses2 hin of oil of 211,10-11; in a mjIt recipe deben oil of E7 of ,a A of contents the laboratoryhas mrt %:!:! of n'ryw are a groupof catfishgoddesses

(possiblya plant here)11227.15 list ;a

11194,12. 'they capturethe secrets which arein the

%. $4

land' [Von Bergmann,RT 6,1885 p. 153 with n.4 giving variant spellings, from the 25th-26th ,
dynasty coffin of Nesschutafnut]. A guardian genfttext at Edfu mentions may be fish guardian gods in this contea kj `SM=> 1511.9 who


be strong, loud Wb 11209(12-21)NK DG 208A 2t- X N&W6-

Cr.236a; CED114; KH52b

to the strength animalssuchas lions and bulls and if appliedto men it may of ril refersoriginally impliedcomparison. havetheadded The lion gargoyleis 4m, cw 111230,15

41 IV 286,5 ; at Philaetoo IT=

%t,<l I> Photo. ; Horus is 3

in slayingSeth, the king is ;


r"32 'fierce of facein the deserf 111188,10.

Also as a bull: the king 0-

V bpX 'strong of khepeshon the day of battle!. 291,14.This


Ilwy appears in other contexts : slaying foes the king is epithet n'g-bplf or n'Y. like Montu V 284,1'; in raising the Iun-pillar to Amun he is also V 217.6.

27a dniwy in offering meat IV 129,13 The term' also applies to the voice : the king is 4j Horus Merty a'sa bull VII 275,6. -e--j t V 7.3.

I As a substantive 'SLrongone' it is used of the king Intransitive verb: k -J 1w krh Y

ftyw. k 'your arms are strong against your foes' V 90,12.


typeof vessel Wb 11213(12) NK ,


CP nw is usuaUya bronzejug or ewer [Janssen, p.421-2; du Buisson, Vasesp. 12 n. 1] and occurs at Edfu : in a wine text IF these vesselsfilled with wine IV 105.12-13,

used for the ritual offering of wine.


time Wb 11219(1-15) Pyr. DG 210,1 Cr.234b; CED 114 KH 130


This term for'time! in general is usedoften at Edfu reflecting its use in ft ordinary languageand in , Coptic. It is usually connected with the coming of the Nile flood at Edfu : bring hapy 6% ' VIII 9,13 ; Hapy is 'great n 1167,6; the flood goes on the rields-'TOI--(parallel tPv to

sw) IV 28.12 ; IV 48,9 ; he fills granaries

.9=01 070

VI 33,6 -,there is no stopping his progress '

VIII 24,16.

Also of seasons X'mwis brought tre:

Various: the net is shut 2xr, .9

nfr at his right time IV 42,4.

VI 56,11. 'U Y-- until his time comes 122,6.

Y-D,/ P01

ii nw. f 'his time comes': HB sleep0 in his sky s

Though treated as a general term for time. nw may be something more specific like an appointed time or perhaps"this present time! ( in general on 'time! LA VI col. 1361 ff. ).
1% 1


to carefor , to collect , to assemble Wb 11220(5-14)MK FCD 127

is nwi, attestedfrom literary texts [GAS 67 ; JEA 22, p.1791 found rarely at Edfu : the king travels the God's Lands 364.1-2. collecting what is in'it (myrrh burning text) V


to bring back, to go b. ack Wb 11220(16) to 221 (2) D. 18

"*U': A 'vn"-"'. Attestedfrom Dyn 18 the verb is fully spelled, ', Q... but despitethis may be confusedwith in, especially in the transitive use (FCD 127), but the way in which it is used precludesthe


possibility that it is derived from it. It may be better connected with nww 'to hunt! for hunters go over desert lands looking for booty and bring it back - it is also older (Wb 11218 Transitive : 'Your harpoon Z-A brings in the foe though he was far away' VI 65,8 [JEA 29,1943 p.7 n. i].


to clothe, wrap Wb Il 220 (15) Late - GR

is attestedfrom the NK on an Apis bull burial stela (Year 30 Ramesses "ji, II) nw h'w. f 't. f KRI Il 371.5and thenoccursmore often in Late Period texts.The term nwA 'threador and yarn' (Wb 11217,3-6) nwd.t 'swaddling clothes'(Wb 11225,12-14) known from earliertexts are and there may also be a connection with the verb nw 'to carefoe(Wb 11220from MK) as this is ultimately the role of clothes- to coverandprotect.This verb howeverhasthe addedspecificusein that it specificallyrefersto wrappingup the deceased a mummy,It is thusnot only for protection as but of ultimate rebirth and renewal: P.Br.Rh. 11,8 the sisterscome seeking 113t. to wrap your corpse'[note Faulkner,JEA 24 p. 178'to carefor']. The emergence the true k of 'to clothe' is clear at Edfu : one of the Anubisesin a cloth offering saysto Osiris verb 'w. k m nirl 'S 1188,8 ; cloth madeby Tayet is 'C -'C"r i the limbs of her brother1127,8 in

in the corpses the deadgodsof Edfu are 01-NI-d of wrapped Behdet1151,11-12;theyare ; T911 0565 I this place VII 118,12. in the pehuof the Thebannome,Horus wrapsthe god'(?) as the sonof Isis V 109,13.



hunter Wb 11218(19-21)OK

The meaningof the noun is certain[seeGardinerAEO 189 .* and especiallyUrk 12,4 nw with the Edfu andthusshouldbereadas determinative a manleadinga dog]. This determinative survivesat of [as in as nww , thoughit appears exactly the samecontexts mA3 withwhich it is closely connected &AJMby Gardinerand also Yoyotte, RdE 9,1952 p. 132-133]: Yms-'ntyw the king is noted 4 VIII 141,3; cosmetics Punt IV 94,15 the king is like -. 3offering, the king is of -'AE723r , VA-A-1who traverses minesandbringsminerals111144,4.


In the Myth Horus is called'


dog in the hand of the hnter who bites the neck -A the hunter who capturesby the fear he

and eats flesh! VI 74,8-9. The gargoyle is called inspires! IV 274,5.


Wb H 222 (1) Pyr.

From Pyr. 13 the adze of Wepwawet was used in the opening of the mouth, with its distinctive

it helpedit to' shape is the pictogramnw andits useasa tool for fashioning staues woodperhaps of
come to represent symbolically the formation of a living image. T'he adze opens the mouth and eyes -

but of statues the deadallowingthemto live. Theadzealsohadothernames, this seems have to and beenoneof theoldest[for theOpening theMouthrituals- Otto, Mdndoffnung 16 ff andp.181. of p.
At Edfu the king performs 'ritual the of bnk4 A Z5 'Z io is yours ' says the king

beforehim so that he canopenthe mouthof his fathce.Anubis grantsto' Anubis, it is established , the king that foes are choppedin their throats(stp usualpun) with U W,

by This final sentimentis also expressed Mentyt in a the adze of copper IV 275,16-276,10. of procession gods' foes are cut up npd in the king holding out the adze A further offering is I 575.9.7be plate for the offering shows

beforethegod 61.92 3rd reg). J: 'Openingthe mouth with the two adzesof Anubis"'

performed by the king on Osiris and Nine Mummiform gods 1 173,3-174.7.For this act of a legitimateheir, the king receives 2nd many yearsof kingshipand rule . P1.33a col. showsthe king wearingthe DoubleCrownandholdingup two adzes onefor mouth,onefor eyes. The Openingof theMouth wasalsoperformed thetempleat its dedication textsrecordgiving and on V: and openingthe eyeswith it' IV 331.11. b13 refers to The nw'is'supposedto havecomefrom the siy (CT VII 15 a-e) and in this instance is 7be adzethen would rntori'c iron'and connected with the shape the GreatBearconstellation. of havereal divine qualitiesandex=plcs of adzes havebeenfound madeof iron [Grenier.Anubisp.14 Khoiak II p.472-76; alsoWainwright JEA 8,1932p.3-151. n.57; Chassinat


Ist sing.independent pronoun


Wb 11210(5) GR Junker[GrD 55b. pA2-31recognised new,laterform of thefirst person independent this pronoun at Dendera. canbe usedlike ink but alsolike wi so that it combines two functionsin oneword. It the It may haveoriginatedas ni-wi 'belongs me' (Wb 11196)and is usedas an independent to pronoun with this meaning. Masculine:of the gargoylelion, often cI 286.4.1; the king

'I am lord';


'I am one who leviestaxes'IV bm-nlr 'I am a pries

Isds V 98,5-6; also

r* VII 44,10,

V11202, e77-'-Ltmsnty I am a harpooner' 19,15. l5; VII Feminine: the personifiedlancesays, 81,4 ; 'u spsn bnwt m3wt I am mistressof the lance' VI Rnnt 'I am

nfrt nbt khb dniwy VI 81,4. Possibly, Renenet says

Renene 1287,10= XI 319., onewho bringsinto existence, For extraemphasis particlesareadded: Re 'I Am I' VI 181.1


floodwater Wb Il 221 (3-13) MK (14-19)nwit Pyr. f. NOYIc pool or pondCr.229b ; CED III; KH 525.

At Edfu thereis somedegree confusionbetween two termsnwy andnwit which havedistinct the of They are both alsoconfused meanings. with nn (Nun) ; the first primevalflood of water.Generally the contexthelpsto separate nwy/nwit andNun. but it is difficult for the first pair. The similarity in
spelling and perhaps vocalisation was played on so that the nwy flood water could evoke the first Nun flood every time it occurred in texts. The canal in thelOLhLE nome is w-1 Ur-3, "-& I, cIV 29,9- 10 and G

V 18,13-14 - probably from nsvyt and spellings with theaending are rare. , Horus brings e, '=which waters the fields IV 3,4 ; the 04 canal of the 6th LE nome contains niwy. s who settles himself down as the flood IV 26,2-3. IV 33,5 ; VII

r= "'C-le A and here Horus is

The nwy is the place where Sethian water animals are destroyed: 'fell foes in killing the crocodile, king is ---7 'e- IV 212,8 destroy foes hnt V

149,13; sim.



VI 239,7-8; of the harpoon,'greatis fear of you in el-It PVIII 35,6.The water creatures caled are

VII 201,14-15; Hathor protectsthe king hnt V


e--% imy-nwy - imY-r-e-x=

IV 374,8; npd Nfg

IV 59.9-10.

Also in the phrase s 3fspmnit n nwy 'a man of taking the mooring post at the floooT:T 'j


IV 374,7;


3 IV 213,14; -tr-, == VI 60,10(q.v.).

VIII 13,5 ; he seizes

71e king controls the flood in other ways : he has many boats hnt w

d-%. his strengthVHI 13,9; in procession king brings =qq Eby the

III 158a.

The difficulty of reading nwy is shown in exampleswhich play on the verb nn 'be inerf : he brings e-N . TbI ce- nn. ti r nw. f 1322,14 ; sim. VI 33,2-3 with allitemdon of n

In cosmogonical texts nwy appears be analogous to with the original flood and thus is Nun : ft reed is implantedWIF" 3r-VI 181,16 VI 141,14 IV 358,14-15 In libation . k n 'M-= m rn. nd Or-k'

rituals the two words are directly contrasted nd n.k :

" kn 2Z: 7DEir1*470,11 ; also'same phrase "Ir m rn.

and 4A-%A*` 1208,10-11. In

both of these the next to be evoked is kkw 'darkness! it looks as if nwy has become confused with so the Ogdoad god A whose name is gencrally translated 'emptiness!01 col. 561 though

he was not consistently named as a member of the Eight [Sethe Amun TaL I with references]. "

occurring at Edfu with his femininecounterpart







a- .6 -A

, -r-4 a0

11155.5 for ,

On the wholenwy continues meanthecurrentor actualflood or a bodyof waI asopposed the to to ter
historical and symbolic once only Nun waters. nwyt -13t canal in the 19LhLE nome 1335.16 - 336.1 ; thus

'oZIV 37,6-8; e--, e- == Z=

V 25,12-14. 0---' -r'%g 0. er--% 1340,6 f-%e_ 182,6-8*. '

nwyt-Stb canalin the Ilth UE nome: ltn -V 114,12-115,2. 2-1

also d3d3t n nwy. sm.

nwn', 'nnw Primeval'waters Wb Il 214 (18) to 215 (12) DG 211,2 '2Cr.226 b; CED 109 KH 124 N Oyll Nun is the Waterwhich coveredthe earthandexisted'atthe time of creation.From it camethe lotus, '

legend,the primevalmound,or in it floatedthe reed accordingto Edfu accordingto Hermopolitan body of water- inert, yet full of life tradition.It could be envisaged a vastdark,muddy,seething as force and in this respect Coptic NOYN 'Abyss, hell' embodies The the only its negativeaspects. Nun couldbepersonified oneof theOgdoad Hermopolitan traditionandhada female counterpart as of Naunet,[see Sethe, Amun Tf. I and end of this section for general commentsLA IV Nun .; col.534-35]. At Edfu nwn is particularly mentionedin Ogdoadrelated texts, lotus offerings and cosmogonical creationtexts. As Creator: Mut cameinto existence F-v in Horus wbn m Pv
77" =

1176,8; god rose from P"

196.3 156,10-11;

as,the divine wingeddisk 1552,2 ; Horuscamefrom VI 248,3.

lotus offering, Horus is a child pr m At the First Occasion As Life Giver:

cameinto existence sp-tpy 1498,12-13. at -who giveslife to the gods1471,11-12.

It is also in an epithetof Ptah (as a creatorgod) : Yms-'ntyw for Ptah and Sakhmet, sbtp rr-r withthe thing of his heart'1.498,8.

is a generalterm for flood waters,perhaps throughdeliberateconfusionwith nwy and this is nwn texts.In the Delta the inundationwould be especiallythe caseon the NaosexteriorLE geographical for on morelike a hugeflood extending miles in any directionwhich explainsthe emphasis the flood
here : Memphite canal Horus is 7ry--u-u4 ,

wr who-existedin the beginningIV 21.15 ; god

is hiddenin

7th LE nome,god travels 7-04r-111- goeswest IV 22,12; canalof who


IV 27,3 ; canal of 8th LE nome, he shows himself in the flood and leads gods from 27.15 ; 9Lh LE nome 'It is you who gave birth to 0-ii p0Ur =--F

IV 28,12 ; 12th LE nome canal IV 33.5.

from the river mouths' IV 31,8 ; 14th LE nome 'god travels

As water in general : he has slain his foes in jo 3=r- VIII 27,7

Horus nji n. k nwy rn rn. k n

Nwy (s ee under nwy for examples). Contrasted with Nut, the sky : Horus wls-h'w in if W S&v 167,10-11 ; HB pr m The god Nun

wis-b'w G,

r Nwt 169,16. AA 'r" 153 (27) (28)

1288,18 ;

-11- '2"-

in Behdet1491,12;


LitUrgische Lieder317 n.6]. Texts [Assmann,

-%vv0 AI

I&@-. S

from the Coffin He 11152,12. is attested



child Wb H 215(20-23)NK DG 262,8 1 // XrzXOY maiden

Khep ri, the child of

Cr.141b; CED 72; KH78 youth,

A The earliest example cited by Wb is in Sonnenlit. 11727 am -CTT7r.

[Hornung, Sonnenlit. II no.3921.The questionof whether to read nw or nn has been discussedoften but Fairman suggested that in Ptolemaic it was nn. particularly as it occurs in the name of

'-"" J' Heracleopolis

Originally the termwasprobablyreadnww or n1w JASAE43,1943 -

and p.249-50].Edeldecided wasthereading all examples nn shouldgo underWb H 272 (4) nn (in the [Edel, Orientalia37,1968 p.4174201.Fischernotedthat there is no clear nameof Heracleopolis) for but wordfor youthin earlierperiods, thereis a nameUUOJM evidence nn asan independent in Ist [BMQ 12,1938 pl-45 = RankePN 11299.32 IP] and the child doesnot appear the nameof JAOS81,1961 p.423-51. TawrI suggests on the' Herack, olis until Ptolemaictexts [Fischer, nn Lt.? 9 in Ptolemaic[GM 29,1978 135n.11. Coptic Heracleopolis writing andthewriting the p. of grounds >-, C-Xy 'suggests nnw though in Ptolemaic texts the way the word was uscd was fairly indiscriminate. (Wb II The origin of the word is alsouncertain:if readnw it may be derivedfrom nw 'to be weaW 217,13)or nwy 'to carefoe- andthis seems mostlikely with the later readingnn thusobscuringthe origins of the term. The termreadasnww by this time andit is usedquite frequentlyat Edfu of god children,My VI 274,4 i2 Horus My I of lady of Dendera 372, as Xps 1316.11 belovedof Lady of Yps 150,13 ; Horus is Jt

Per-wer IV 37,8 Harsomthus

; m3' the true sonwithout deception th'e'givingof the two lands1153.16-17 thusalso the king in at it libation textsis her child 1372,13. Childrenareprotected goddessesHathor by EA 'V'266,9"'; Renenet'rears a VIII 27.14 sim. IV 250.5 Wadjetin his nest her children in your temple' IV 197.1.It can be Ma IV 63,4 r1V rearedby rbty 1433,2 ; he seesHathoras V.X,

in general: Z*A-, dancingat the festival 1328.9',,lurrP dancingbeforeyou 188,10. children There is also a metaphorin the victory song in the Myth :.'weapons rain down into the river like



ITO'17'14a goose beside chicle 83,8-9. her VI 10* The term V* be

XF may a corrupt writing of nhn v Ir

and confusedwith




plural demonstrative Wb 11216 (2-17)

"these thingsetc.' (GG 110and 511,3).It occursoften nwy is usedas a substantive people''these forcein somecases. Gardinerindicatedthe demonstrative As at Edfu - Probablyusedwith emphatic the preceding noun they agreewith and nw alonecan havethe pronounsact as singularpronouns of neutersense 'this andthaf (GG p-86). At Edfa mnhts, A rC,, -A %4 VI 146,5-6; 'e,=\ this net thesefoes VI 121.3.Onceafter the noun

*9in 3st 'this cloth woven by Isis VI 248,16. irw bpr. sn and all thesethings happened on ..... VI 121,13JMyth

Neuter sense: iw gr narrative).


to shake, tremble Wb 11222 (8-13) Pyr.

nwr may derive from 3wr [Edel AG 130.41 becoming nwr and vocalised as 1wr [Roquet, Hom. Saun. I p.4481 attested from PTs and used of people and earth. Spelled at Edfu with the fish determinative deriving from the trembling of a fish once taken out of water. Phrase nwr. tw n m3M 'one shakesat seeing him' : he is a great god P,jN74' = 1128,4 ; 1119.7-8 e, -A 13,9 ; Horus ', '-' 1-' also ; he is b3-tkk =.., 414 Q.

n m3M IV , IV 71,8-9.

Otherstremblingat the king: r W31 IV 76,9 Jr. -

IV your name'. 55,10 ; prisoners -pltyw at uttering M nwy 'one tremblesat him in the water' IV 230,14-15

ibw n r r mtnw. f 'heartstrembleat being far from his paths'IV 235,18 ; :=.-N -*4 -q4
h3swt at seeing the small Ennead IV 266,3 V rkyw tremble at hearing the king's voice! IV

285,6. Negative: the king is given a heart which is unafraid1391,4.

e. --N heartsof maurauders tremble'IV Transitive(not Wb) : HB tr 1*4 h3tyw n 'w3y 'causes to




to drink , make drunk Wb 11224 (3-7) D.22 GR

The earliest attestation of the verb is Cairo Statue42231,11 (Late) I am drunk with wine. Ile derivation of nwo is however unclear. wine'or

kwi m Irp 7 ddnk'

'$J IjL Irp IV 19.6: HaLhor hr With following m: at festival,all menpraisestatues and dsrw V 163,13; Hathorsays
With direct object: bm. f Irt-kir

n.1 m your offerings VI 316.7.

VI 316A.

The verb is used much more at Denderaas might be expected.


Wb Il 224 (8-9) GR

is derived from the verb nwh andagain more common at Dendera: Hathor is nwh D 11 15,2, but it is also found at Edfu, Hathor gives the king drunkennessas much as your heart desires'I 462,1. r mr Ib. k


rope , cord

Wb H 223(6-13)Pyr. DG211 T
Cr.241a; CED117; KH134 NOYZ! ' NGZ4' hunting : the At Edfu nw is the rope or cord attachedto the harpoonused in hippopotamus
A- 0to e

falls 'in (tangledin) ^-% =;. hippopotamus your rope-VI 69,11; .'' e,,VI 74,3 ; made e--,. with yam (nwt tol

VI 69,10 that Foe nt m .0

is in' who

e- IV 213,9-10. More informationis given: lfedjhotcp' VI 83,13. -

alf-ad your rope is straight1116,10(possiblythe In praiseof Horus: his stridesare wide 'w4=TA: ropeof a boat).

nw. t

.: ropeor cord , yam -


Wb 11217 (3-6) MK The word refersto differenttypesof.yarn or thread[Janssen, p.436-8].At Edfu it occursrarely CP Hedjhotepmakesthe nwh ropewith -Ma'd hippo then drt-2 'q m has VI 83,13; whenthe harpoon beenthrowninto the

handplays out the rope VI 73,6 (this after JEA 29,1943 the second

has This thencanbe usedaloneas a rope p.15and p.336 n.31) ; parallelpassage Z--'Zf 1145,5-6. to or ascordstwistedor plaitedtogether makea thickerrope(nwh). a


templeroof , sky (15-16) Wb 11214

Nut is the personification of the sky who archesher body ov the earth who has stars covering her , ler and who swallows the sun in the evening and gives birth to it in the morning [see LA IV 535-5411. The term nwt could also be used as a general word for 'sky"'heaven', from the Late Period in though Nut can be used synonymously with pt from as early as CT 1133f. particular,

1129,11;a priest says,' I At Edfu nwt canrefer to the sky : theking is like the sundisk in ", r-W 0 1564,12 ; wp lwy (Mrhave opened the doors of open the doors of the sky 111106,13
'I give all food di "U ; r-VI nb qm3 Gb which Nut produces and Geb makes 171,10. jjf3w

nwt can be ambiguous : Horus is like Re resting in the womb of


IV 13,1.

A funher extension of nwt is to use the word to mean the roof of the temple : 'these columns of

'ff 6-3

wrt the greatroof V 6,10 .

V a vi

The sign of the goddess with arched body used to write the word for Nut is found thus 173,11 and also the woman with the nw pot on her head is used to write her name 294,6 ;r J V 195,16.

nwd. t

weakness Wb Il 225 (10) D. 18 later form of nw Wb 11217 (14) be weak

For the identification of nw and nwdt see Vogelsang Komm. Bauer p.98 = B. 107 ; also FCD 127 , and 134. Most often nwd t is the subject of dr 'remove. At Edfu : in a foundation ritual of pouring sand, the

-d ;Uking is said to be like Anubis who weighsout copper -4 -v- m sip 'and removesweakness j


from the building' HI 107,6 ; similar dr

(of foundations) 1131,16.


to squeezeout oil , cook oil

Wb 11226(8-9) D.18 GR by Originally nwdw wereoils or unguents or usedasmedicine in cults.Theywereproduced mixing in ingredients thenpressing resulting together the concoction a process and wascallednwd , in which Othermethods unguent orderthe extractunguents. of manufacture suchasboiling andcookingwere also referred to by this verb and it could havea wider use too. Ile Dyn.18 usesshow the 151 involved technique 4o implying is Urk.IV 347,7,but at Edfu the determinative usually the

ingredients were boiled or cooked In the laboratory : mrbt is accordingto . 4 boiled instructions11213,3 in making md, ingredients are at morningwith mr4t 11 227,10;a god for ibr for godsand goddesses 11195.15; ingredients '3t-nir are

11214.12 ingredients mixed exa, and for two dayswithout cease ctly ; are Jr+ 14 r. mtr I1218,2,. hckenuis -for HorusII2192: the king md for all the gods

A le".. in VI 100,12; he is the second Shesmu of Jr+ himself mrkt m. bnt tlwt-Nt VIII 7.9-10-,Shesmu myrrhis

VI 100,7 Horus is called mij m St.wrt 11217.8

in by Shesmu' the laboratory1-98,15.

Pi ntestinesof those who are disloyal to him IV 235,17-18.

With a different use : Horus



Wb 11226(10 - 11) GR in dyn. fragmentof text An earlierexample nwd asan epithetof the god Shesmu appears an 18Lh of "rhe SportingKing': D,1-2 line 5 list of gods at Abydos includes SYmw'-4 175,101. At Edfu the title is appliedto Shesmu
makes md 1135,10 Take ibr from HwiI %% 0 1 430,13-14'also zrp s

[Caminos,Lit. Frag p.36] ; also 9-2 -: I" [RT 37 75 col.27 Sed I= KRI I

Ypsm Iswy11220,1 ;



Lord of the laboratory 11163.12

Siniw 145,15-16* [c f., in general LA V col. 590-11.71c'


nwdty are thosepriestswho work in the laboratoryand makeunguents perfumefor usein the and temple cults : mjd is boiled by 11227,8; it is madeby the waab

of the temple11227,3; -rOP'2\-k -n iswy Il 194,7. ol MI T1\2"2.. Ibrahimreadsthe sign asnwdty and a title of the king , in a rdi '3t-njr offering 11 -*t213.17 and the following text Il 214,7 ; also the sameoffering VI 165,6 [Ibrahim,Kingshipp. 175,201 n.119and202 n.120; Daumas, Mammisisp.213 n].


unguent, ointment WbII226(1-5)OK (6-7) nwd.t

[Davies,. Ptahhetep H pl. 32 ; Martin,

The word occurs in OK titles such as imy-r

Hetcpka pl. 23,22 ; 24,27-29 01;7 *-; also Fischer, ZAS 105,1975 p.53 n.59-541. nwd , , may be some kind of costly oil for anointing and is also used in medicine (Wb Med.45 1). At Edfu the examples do not help to be any more specific e
ALf3 1

of the laboratory is 'provided

for the temple 1555,15 ; with its ingredients'Il 218,1 ; the god's land provides &-.-N :; 1j, .. _ Shesmu brought is V-4 on his hands1566,8 It is againconnected and with Shesmu a gate . inscriptionfrom Karnakshowsa bearer from Tunip bringingnwd andassociated Shesmu so it with JAOS99,1979 p.2711. Apart from may be originally a productof Syria, Palestine Asia [Redford, or the earlierusesnwd is usedmainly in latetempletextsandis not offeredin a cult ritual.


swaddling clothes Wb 11225 (12-14) Med and Wb Med. 451-2

nwdt is perhaps connected in origin with nwA 'cord'.

The word is usedin epithetsof the king : distinguished upon Ptolemyupon Shaydistinguishes xre- d 11128,12

111132,2 his swaddlings 'cr WV ; also 11115,2-3 11

Here nwdt seems parallel the useof mshnt 'birth bricle in similar expressions 91,6 (damaged). to Shai by [Quacgebeuer, p.115 with notes].The king is furtherreared Tayct upon
AA-'^ ; Otr


0 --P -Y

1124,6 - implying that shemadethem. while in the swaddlings'I 311,12(cf. MR

Hathor hasthe epithet: 'ruler of the uraci h. r-a-W

). 34,2 king 'I haveseizedhr nwd, I rule while at thebreast!


One offering text begins Onk

t; P"0r\6TakC

in oil of Eye lotus ' it is soaked

for the protection of the limbs. The king offers the cloth to lby (the child) who receives in return gives the praise and respectof men V 284,5-15. PLI34 shows the king offering and 6 to the god. and


to swim Wb 11236 (10-11) Pyr. DG 215,2 2- I)

Cr.222a; CED 106; KH 119 N66696

The mostusualmodeof swimmingin Egyptwasprobablythe front crawl stroke0V

765 - 7661.'

The term nbi is usedovera long periodof time andat Edfu it is usedas in the older texts(NK) of . 'swimming'in the sky : beetle jn the sun god tr pt 'everydayl 26.14;q 41 Horus If- , br bl3Lf every

(nb) of copper every day 1379,10 (pun on 'fashioned day 1238,17.At Edfu nb occursonly in this restricted use.


lord Wb 11227 (5) to 230 (14) Old DG 212,3 1 -92, I. f WES

Cr. 221a; CED 106; KH 119 NH6



NeicTowtot; ' has the implication of 'possessor 'ownee [c f. FCD 1281.It occursoftenit Edfu with many nb different second elements spellings: and IV 16,1.'-, In nb-pt: Pluml: I, lit3w-, V 22; V 5.2 'bw IV 331', 10. V 71.1

IV 14.13 ;6V8,6

-, --%C '

-1 nb also shows the tutelage'of a deky for temple, shrinesand towns as well as of qualities and'' for emotions, example strength joy. and ihe "--7 In namesof boats : 7th LE nome, the barqueis Hathoris ia LE Lord of Love V 125.2 2OLh nome 1331.17 *.the barqueof, Lord of terror V;


335 16 ; 18th LE nome . 17th UE nome "2-7 WA ,0--A

1335.5; IstLEnome-=PjC)jW


1342,6 ; 18thLTE -. nome, zp cl W

1343.11;nameof bark of Horus


V12,1; RhLlInome=&42

1331,7 [seeJones, Glossary 247-- 249]. p.


every, all (adjective) Wb 11234(3) to 236 (5) Old DG 213,3 X Cr.225b ; CED 108; KH 122 NM 'r NI SEN

(c nb is usedat Edfu oftenandasnotedby NVb f. alsoFCD 129). Spellings: 4RL passim, fi-2% IV 14,13, IV 13,2 IV 17.5.

In the phrasebt. nb-nfr passim.and in r'-nb passim.


rites pole usedat foundation Wb 11243(10) D.19, GR

from 19thdyn. foundation nb3t is first attested ritual at Abydos,thoughthe actualritual is much older (2nd dyn.) -. 11, Im' wherethe cord for laying out the basictempleplan was stretched

Thesepostswerecallednb3t andit aroundfour postsdriven into the groundby the king andSeshat. is formedfrom the root U 'to makea hole',for the pole makesa hole whenbeateninto the ground [Ward,B3 p.55-571.
At Edfu in pd-sYr, the text begins 'stretching the cord in the temple between 1131,2 ; theking says'l take -M "II 'M two posts, and its

Tq'q[r and I hold its' top' 11.31.4 ; '1 hold

top' VII 44,7-8 ; the king has his hands upon A-3`]) 1119,8 1. ; 1'-` qq D IV 9.11.

holding the cord IV 14,5 ; at Dendera

Ward suggestedthe ending

is a dual form reflecting the,dropping of the post vocalic weak

consonants thus R becomes y. Originally it may have been an m-prefix -mb3t which became n-b3t.


to fashion, work, make Wb 11241(8-29) D. 18


by nbi. cited by Wb derivesfrom the oldertermnbi which meansw melt (metal)(Wb 11236,6-9) blowingonto a furnace keepit hot. It occursfrom theOld Kingdomandnotetheexample BH U in to 4 as so the two entriesshouldbe amalgamated in FCD 129.It may be connected

etymologicallyto nbw 'gold', but Drenkhan notesthat in OK textsnbI is 'to melt metar in general, to not just gold and the determinative the manwith the blow pipe showsOut it means 'mele not of 'to forge, so that the nbw - nbi connection unlikely [Drenkhan, is Handwerkerp.42 n.79]. At Edfu theverb is usedas'to fashion'as indicated Wb. by In parallel with similar verbs : ms Ibmw 5PktJ sXmw1553,4. of gold 170.1.

Making cult apparatus mirrors Jk k-J made Sokaris1176.5*.collar nl by : Making weapons: harpoonblade motherIsis' VI 67,3.
Beer (a GR use also found at Philae): Tnmmt



by Ptah

dA ir--J madeof copperfrom his'? .....

she makes beer to quench thirsf IV 459

N?'4, J is brewedby Menket1151,8 1365.15 %-J-#Menket ! ; beer ; also ; 150,12. In general: barque + &-J 'gilded with gold IV 14,13; doorsof the temple A--J VII 7.5 ; red cloth

n.k nbty III

worked J-1-L-J by' .

I IV 13,3; also 217 : , IV 8.8 also with copper . Isis with her own hands 111311,14-15. To build': king 12,8.

n.f Vwt-nbw 1553,4 templeis

by excellentcraftsmen'IV

To create'[comparemsi] : minor godsin the Sokarischamber tel *kunderworld 1 166,12; Horus m3't m0

pt 1193.7 . Osiris

in your reign IV 76.7 ; Ptah

nbtyw gods 1137,10. In the'phrase,nb sw As.f 'who created himself (from NK Amonshym 2,3) synonymous with hpr : Horus Re-Horakhty Horus 'Awake nbi-hh flood d P%--J ! 139,3 -k-i Csw ds. f 1520.17-18 s ds. f V 55.9 :a song to

4Z I ds-f 1138,12 sw winged beetle ICA Vill 15,11.

to create millions : in hh offering Horus , 4--cjL

and Re creates gods 1433,16

the Nile

n. k hh mnh 1583,9. 0aW In other divine epithets : Ptah 41 L--J m 93' who fashioned in the beginning 1137,5 ; Sakhmet

141-i. -J

nb.s ims 'who madeher lord inside heeVI 265,14;cf. 1509,8




-a 6 In one text nbi has a slightly different meaning : 'strong courtiers Xntyw. qnw and drive away evil from the Great Place! VIII 147,8-9 - perhapsa more forceful meansof working, 4 slate 'beat' thus Nft or similar.


creator , builder Wb 11242 (1) GR

Nbi is cited from Edfu only and derived from the verb nbi. It is applied to Horus

his nbi, dt. f 'creatorwho fashioned body' 139,3 , possiblyof Ptah fashioned buildergods'?1137,10 Sandman-Holmberg, p.1861. [see Ptah


Ptahas the craftsman god is well known from the NK - at Abydoshe mouldsthe king on a wheel I from the beginning. Wb Zettelalsorecords Edfu : 'theking hadcreated A Edfu on a andhecreated at Ptah potterswheel,like him southof his wall' [Sandman-Holmberg, p.46481.


tide of priest Wb 11242(3) GR

+4Lj. b Examples from Edfu only : in procession 1539,7 are carriesthe hrp-n-Inpw standard bow standard 1543,13; Sopdustandard 1556,15.


reod Wb 11243(15) to 244 (1)

The nbit reedhasbeenidentifiedasArundodonax L. which growsup to 6 metres high andwasused

to make baskets, floats, in medicine, for roofing [LA V 286 with notes : Charpentier no.604 p. 380-1

Germer,Arznei p.367; Keimer,Gartenpflanzen is 11741. earliestattestation P.Ram III A 31 The .

"'T j


Qf and alsoEb.49,18ff.

At Edfu the-mostimportantreedis the nbi reedof the cosmogonical. - but whetherit is to be texts identifiedwith the nbit rcedproperor whetherit haspurelysymbolicfunction is unclear.At the time of creationwhen the earthwas coveredby the watersof Nun - the moundrose from it and on the IT' a waters_ rced wasseenfloating 4. VI 181,14; it was stuckinto the mound(.16 IT )

Db3 (IV 328,5 ; 358,15; VI 15,1 and especiallyVI and evidently Split (VI 177,8). It became


182,1-2 'the nameof the reed in the primeval water is db3 .11

Edfu) ind it for this reed represents

TIC falcon reachedthe reed (' the creator falcon who then proceeded raised up with the Creation.

1117.11 VI 183,3 it misedhim up VI 15.6).Micse texts are I% IV 358,16; VI 182,3 ; ,cL but relativelydifficult to understand thereedhereis clearlynbi andit is equated with WLst-kIr and D. it is theEdfu-centre creation thereedin thecosmogonical seeMOET pp-133,14-5, b3, [for texts of 21 andpassim]. Barucqcommented theending is neverwritten in the main textsand showsa A that certain unity betweenthe different version! the temple.'ne substantive nbA can be usedin a at A collective sense referring to a reedswampgrowingon the Primevalmound [A.Barur-q. BEFAO 64,1966 134n.c textsin general 125-167 VI 180-184]. p. p. = , The foe are driven awayfrom ;Y4JI In '11, bik VI 11.7 and other texts allude to the' IV

primeval events: the field of 13-43y with thelandsof the ancestors contains 338,14-15 ; %3. wsf has First flood IV 367.10; O-WLst has Irj of the

and thedb3 implantedinto it VI 224,10-11. Outsidethese and texts allusions thecosmogonical thewordis not usedat Edfu.


flame Wb 11244 (11-13) BD

Probably from the earlier term nbi 'flame' (Wb 11244,7-9 Pyr.) and also used with reference to th( royal uraeus. The two words may be etymologically connected with nb I 'to cast metar [Cannuyet ZAS 117,1990 p. 1101. F1ame: Hathor bums up the snake with 111138,14*,in Imt. bnt Ilorus emits

from the water of his eyesIV 36,7 ; Horusilluminesfaceswith, =, VI 248.3; the bectli C) 1<7T- DiUwt 'fiery of beamsIV 18,2; the fire of the diademhidesthe god. Re hideshimse with -r---' 'IP--VI is called 264,10; Horushideshis body with, --J-(of Tiery Flaine VI 265,3 his two eyes1304,8 -,Sakhni

509,15.At the endof a text aboutC 'you are a fiery flarne!IV 51,10.

uraei , 'shehastakenhis head


'"to gild

Pe qla rhaps more a speelaviscd at jib! 16jasWjoj no VAng"JrjU ma&withba IM um art 9 0


Io 'VI 188,5(c.f. AUEF the nameof the red crown from Pyr. 17997-27,. gilded with ', jrJ1
presumably beZausethe red coloUr is common to the flame and the crown) ; the king PZ: shmw in the temples VI 201,7-8 ; offering the crown of gold O. %J 'he has gilded ? your (Hathor)

headwith his be=s' 11117,17.


gold Wb 11237 (6) to 239 (13) Old DG 214 T-

Cr.221b; CED 106; KH 119 Noy6 Gold was mined in Coptos, Kush, the eastern desert areasand imported from Nubian mines. There were diffeknt kinds and it could be made into sheetsor leaves which were subsequently used to gild wooden or stone artifacts, or made into solid gold objects [Harris, Minerals p.32-37]. The symbolic use of gold is well known - the connection between the life giving rays of the sun and the colour of gold is particularly important at Edfu becauseof the solar nature of Horus. Also Hathor, the'Gold of the gods' is his companion here [in general seeLA 11725-731 , 740 - 751 for gold mines and Daumas , RHR 149,1956 p. 1- 17]. At Edfu the word is usually spelled lyj; note also V which representsa necklace or ornament made of gold

IV 15,1 ;V4,5. nbw is used as outlined by Wb, particularly in the decoration

of the temple, in making cult images and in making amulets. There are two offerings at Edfu of gold and Jonw Taience! hrp Lonw which are

presentedin C7vesselsand it is poured out before Hathor accompaniedby dancers.In return she gives the two halves united for the king V 373,6-16 and pl. 141 shows the king pouring out the substances into and overflowing from a vesel - an offering of blue and gold. The secondis les well preserved. Itf fR 14nw where both are compared to grain and Hathor gives rejoicing in the Great Place VIII

167,15 to 168,12 (no plate). This ritual -is alluded to in a rite sti Itn 'pouring out brilliants! which continues itf nbw Lon Vill 167-8 and is also mentioned at other temples : Mam. D 56,4

(Nectanebo) Itf

% 1%;? Lon it bdt to Hathor all people are in joy and mountains are under the Jbn to Hathor and Ihy which in his left hand

king's rule with pl. X ; Mam. D 169,16 - 170,4 king ///// bdt it

causesrejoicing , with pl, 68 where the king pours out one vessel and holds


S. 'Lnw ///// for Hathor Mam. E 89,3-12 Wh mnbit m /// 4L,, . 15;? who gives the Produce Of op 1 000 mountains , pl. 19 shows the king pouring out his vessel ; also Philae. east wall Outsidesanctuary, 3rd reg [Daumas, Marrunisis p213 n.5 to 214). Gutbub notes that the pouring out of shiny things of grain and emmer is intendedto makethe earthgleamand radiate happiness[Textes p.360 (y)]. I Ilie epithet of Hathor 'Golden One occursoften at Edfu (Wb 11239.3-6)and it is consistently spelled t'7 Godesses her train are called nbtyw which occurs very often at Dendera (Wb Il in . inscribed in it IV 6,8. am

n 242,8-9) and less so at Edfu : in the temple the imagesof 12; Wb readst

as nbw which is most likely to be be a misunderstandingof hieratic

I : ! among the mourners of Osiris 1201.8.


grain. golden corn Wb 11240 (7-9) GR

nbw is used very often at Dendera to refer to com, there being a play between the colour of grain, its life giving potential, gold and Hathor. Ile rituals mentioned above at Edfu and Dendera may be an-1

early indication of the Dendera use and the second later example in particular may well be this use of nbw. The term is rare at Edfu : an agricultural text mentions the creation of make beautiful your heart ? VI 204,7-8 ; text in the Mammisi in its form to In',

*. t !t Sty DA N 004 as$ -ft It%

ht. f where the king both digs up the two lands and is lord of the mountain thus controller of both V 25 11is wife, Cleopatra. says wp% Lon 1W 4;: bdt before your mother and gold and grain . so a0 00 Hathor causesweds to be planted Mam. 122.6-15 Plate 25a shows the king in the same pose as the . Edfu example and it may be a seed sowing ritual peculiar to the HaLhorcult. Ile king scatters gold and faience on the ground to symbolise seed sowing and its subsequentgrowth . consumption and maintenanceof life Dendera texts use the word far more widely. In the Osirian chapel at Dendera a text describes the preparation of the ingredients necessary for the manuacture of an image of Osiris and among the substancesused are it and bdt . The text says that, Shentaya transubs=dates grains of corn into gold7,suggestingthat grain changedinto gold mpresentsthe manufacture of the divine flesh of the god the pun is on the word nbw for grain and also for gold [Cauville . Les Mysttres dOsirisk Dcndera BSFE 112,1988 pp.25-26].



sin , impurity DG 214 nby 4 t-

Cr.222a; CED 106 N06C &rny that suggested the Coptic word NO86 may havehad its origins in the demoticterm ,

nby, notedby Moller, Pap.Rhind 30* no.194, and in a word found at Edfu :a text with alliteration of n go,to your city destroy NW)'-SF- the impuritiesof Nebedon their block 15432.


Two Lords. HorusandSeth Wb 11231(3-7) Pyr.

The Two Lords are mentioned Edfu : note the spelling at theTwo Lords).

125,18 (Edfu is the Horizon of

nbwy-r-nm. f evening Fairman ZAS 91 1964p.9-11 , Fairmanread the phraseas rl <tp> br nm.f 'Re restsuponhis lotus' (SteThe examplesshowsthe meaningof the phraseclearly :. the doors of the pylon are open in the CL 45 ft? VIII 58,14-15; the sunis old at night .a child in the morning, he morningand shut t 0 V-019 '-lDht! 1379,7-8; Khepri at morning Re at noon Atum'r"CoL is conceived IWW , , 00 4, J V 217,2-3; enterthe -the V 156,1 sim. IV 56,13-14; who enters West o Y- , CL < V 49.6 barque E! , Y-- at night 11151,7 Otherspellingsat Edfu L(k-(evening o . 00 '10111207.13 1188,5. ;

In one example the phrase seems to mean 'morning' or may perhaps be taken literally: 'he shows ? himself in the sky 41 L

every day upon his lotus flowee 144,4-5 (coll).

from Dendera. Otherexamples thephrase listedby Fairman are of


to protect Wb 11245(4-6) D.18 - PR

form, probablyof nbi 'work, gild with gold', for this process A reduplicated would coverandprotect


the material underneathit, so that to make the new senseof the word clear it was written twice and could not be confused with the root term. The verb is used from D. 18 and ocurs at Edfu : the king his father 184,17 nilty niwt the two halves for who protects

Most often it is ued as a substantiveand given as an epithet to gods - Horus . spwt IV 264.3 ; b3-tkk two sources and protects the'

Two Shrines with his wings VII 45,6 ; he is nilty ... nhy .- s3w -JJ-, v

G"*w there is no

limit to his rangeIV 230,2-3; the childrenof Horusare also the king is 'heir of Atum .... M7

of their fatherIV 83.14

the basof HeliopoisIV 142,18.


to bring forth Wb Il 245 (7) GR see bnbn

Wb cites : nt 1-n ^68J r nw.f 'the flood comesforth at his time! wherethe word seemsto read of as nbnb because the alliteration of n 1324,7 - but from the meaningit is most likely to be a
,a Tr A metathesised form of bnbn. MD I 46b , also cited , has similar alliteration : nt Cz cl r nw. f.

Otherexamples moreuncertain:king 11 SI -h- 4- , hapyfrom his cavern1485.5-6; he drives are

'CI77 'IC51 the wind M-ht spwt n. f h'py from his cavern 1486,11-12 ; butchers -A v lands VIII 109,2; the winged beetle 1.1 L' 0 pu IV 231.17 , they roam about the agricultural .


I Chrisfs lbom tree

Wb 11245(10-19)Pyr.
DG215.7 Cr.222b; CED107; KH120 My6c.

Zizyphusspina chrivi (Wild) has'afruit like an olive which is red whenripe and sweettasting It . is indigenous Egypt and archaeological finds of it havebeenmadefrom the prehistoricperiod.It to wasusedin medicalprescriptions thewodtoo hadmanyuses[Germcr.Arzneip.82-85; Keimcr, and Gartenpflanzen 1160-163]. At Edfu nbs is the sacred tree in certainnomes: Ist UE 1337,6 3rd UE I 338.2,,7LhUE 1339,8 1Ith UE 1340,6 ; Hebenu1342,1 *,17thUE 1342,7 ; Ist LE 1329.14 ; 2nd LE 1330,6,. 6th LE I '8th LE 133.2,6 9th-LE 13 32,11". 10thILE 1332,16 ; 15th LE 1333,18 ; 20th LE I 331,1 ; 3


335,12, and the word is usually spelled -j

It is also the sacred tree in a place in the Myth

17 He, OCFUTP VI 115,9. The 12thUE nomedescribes sacred as the tree 340,12 possiblya placename. ,
As the tree is sacred it is used to make the shaft of the harpoon of Horus 83,13 VI 90,6 ; IV 344,34.



In a description Min-Amun,who has'a plumeon his head,a flail in his hand.he holdshis of phallus "Y--'YtP'his divine limbs areof nbs ? VII 22,3. Wb suggests word is the wood, the

but Fairmanargued bns wasaword of uncertain that meaningandpossiblyshouldread'clothed with bns ' [ASAE 43,1943p.24 n.274].


lady NVb 11232 (4-16)Old DG 213,1

Like nb 'lord', nbt is usedoftenat Edfu with reference goddesses. is spelledmostoften 'c7 It to , without any indicationof feminineendingandalso with the spellings MY, IV 18A for example. IV 13,9


the Two Ladies , uraci Wb 11233 (7-20) Pyr.

nbty refersto Nekhbct,the vulture,andWadjet,thecobra,as theprotectiveuraeiput onto the crown his of the king to destroyhis enemies help to establish rule and maintainMaat. It is mostoften and 'made by the king usually to Horus. In return the king receivesthe united crowns of Upper and Lower . Egypt and the two halves,are.also united as one IV 115,6-116, ;V 43,10-44,8. Horus is written simply %=P The offering of nb ty is the subjectof a,ritual z: J

accompani,,d by Wcjcsct Horus and the uraeibreatheout fire againstthe enemies the king VII -. of 121.9- 1223 Once he i3 with Wadict and Harsomthus the king receivesPCand NekhenIII and . 14,17-15,9.The scenesshow the king wearing the Double crown and he raises up two baskets containing the vulture and cobra [P1.60Ist col. ; pl. 114 for example]. It is a kingship-regalia offering.


In the inscriptions nbty precedesthat part of the king#sname which is often written

IV 12.4

IV 346,8 and sometimes the nebty names of the king can be particularly apposite, in a meat , -P , his titles begin wr pbty shr 113kw-ibw IV 285,&7 . 7be term can also reiW offering directly to the king as a kind of euphemism : sw m nbty 149.10 ; Horus is nbty nb w3dty I' 114,1 (or perhaps this is one of his nebty names) ; the king is nbty 1228,2. In general the

Two Ladies are envisaged as being the actual goddessesattached top the royal crown or head

Harsomthus the adorns headof the king with nbty IV 54,6(asdiadem) theyappear the brow of : on Horusunitesnbty on the headof the king VI 188,2-3; the falcon IV 54,16-55.1 at thecoronation ; Wadjet saysto the king, 'You wear nbty unitedas one!VI 244,15*.Horushastaken tV the showhis kingship1435,3 ; the king seizes two landswith nbly 1 34J. Isis canbe called nbty 'I unite the w3dty on your head' 1149.7.They are associated with some" fish places: hry-ib qbwy IV 18,10; in the pchutext of the4LhLE nomeIforus catches andbirds a, as z7 nbty IV 25,2.

nbty-rhyt Two Ladies of the people %0

Wb Il 233 (17-19) Saite 1,9 The earliestattestation this title is for the God'sWife Nitocris-I of 4t [Wb BelcgTT 36 Abal .e

(Berenice andCleoptra1) (Troy, Queenship nbty i for 11 queens and thenin the titles of Ptolemaic of generalp.115 ff. , thesewomenP.5 , P.7 . GW.7 and titles D3/3 and BI/9 Two mistresses the rbyt-people]. (especially Dendera) maybe usedin In GR textsthe title is also6sedvery oftenfor Isis-Hathor at and It a. contrastto tiddyt [Goyon,Confirmationp.98 n.1451. may be translated s'Mistress of mankind'-' known (Opet11 126n.60] : at Edfu theyrefer to Hathor de Wit collectedmostof theexmples p. and
mostly 117.15 ;"n'b ty

IV 100,13 ; IV 347.15 ; 144,9 ; 1218,11 ;I VI 159,14 ;V 313.15 ;V3 1'6,17; 362.3 ; VII 126,9

572,13 ; VI 57,16 "KN`OL$ 560',10; 11 6

253,12 1292,6 add in also nbt'y .1 IsiS':n 6-ty

Otkrs': I Unt-13bt 'nbty

134,4 (anddclcteIII 188,16). V V 67A 1. 77,13 ; VII 116,12.

121,1 ; Mn-bit IV 138,9 ; the southem Meret IV

IV 99,14;nb ty
C= ,-

262,4; andWctejcsctHor in a uracus offering VII 2833 1.


nbty-t3wy Two ladies of the Two Lands ,

Wb Il 233,16
The only reference in Wb is at Edfu where Horus is Lr Qg LP 7 .z; VI 16,2.


uraci Wb Il 234 (1) GR

nbty 'uraci' is apparently the same word as nbty, Two Ladies' - but this word is determined by two serpents,so refers to the double cobra uracus (c f. w3dty) and the way it is spelled implies that it is to be connectedwith nbwty 'golden ones', goddesses associatedwith Hathor. `--7 k 11-%As uraei nbty carry out the usual functions of the diadem with Horus protecting his body 118,9 77 ,zc=; 22-Lrn s3.f 1368,14.

With the nbwty spelling : Horus takes the Double crown and crowns his head with IV 25,14 ; Isis unites V4. of god protect him V 6,9 &Rwith the head of the king (w3.dty offering) 1149.7


shine on his headV 139,14; in the temple

rejoice at their

description the walls are inscribed with nbwty images and the -I-

son IV 13,5 . Though spelled in a similar fashion to nbty 'two ladies'. it is a different term.


cow Wb 11240(11-14) GR

A word derivedfrom nbwt 'GoldenOne'asa designation Hathor.The nbwty cowsare thecows of in associated herand thusfeature milk offeringsin particular. with for Oneof the standards the NewYear procession Edfu is a cow called at 1557,7

nome, (and pl.38c) Horus brings placecalled Inbwt Valls', possibly in the LE Heroonopolite a , 4 body with their mille VI 47,1-2.The term is 'rejuvenating cows your which contains 7%*L Dendcra: 15; commonat ICU 4m III 182,1;D Vill 150,19and alsoat EsnaII no.191,24 '. "AV SevenSages said to be bom of W Thoth and the are cow creatrix(Maattext) 1295,17. -primeval
a- vi% D Il 141,8-142,1 Hathorherselfis '%?,rj ;

wrt D III

tp-rdwy Nun.

hereas a


The spelling''VR,

should probably be read as nbwt also and many examplesconfirm this. As it

stands sr or rs do not makes sense, there is no word for cow like eiLhcrof theseand it must be an ' Here ! in hieratic could be easily mistakenly transcribed as 'f"' erroneous sign. and . the two terms nb(%v)tand rnnwt confused.That -Pwhere Hathor is #,C=.

is read nbt is shown by an example at Edfu


bwt 'golden One, one of her usual tides 11!316,13. of Hathor VIII 104,18-105.1; they give their udders to V?L V 124,16 + Philae 111125,5; the bull mounts upon the nbwtyw Vwt-Hr 'women

At Edfu milk is provided from the kingf* *? 0,111124.16 back of +'Vwl

of Horus Bchdet 111184.15; at

of Hathorwith nA].

the cow as a determinative [Junker Abaton p. 13 2; also Daumas Nfammisi p. 189 ,

+ eerny [Ar. 0r. 20 629 ff. ] p. reads

as s3wy 'gold! and he notes that Wb regards--

as nbt

(op.cit. p.639-40 n.55 ). Fairman [BIFAO 43,1945 p. 1061follows Wb but suggeststhat the reading nbwt derives from the fact that -p- can be read s3wy which is 'gold' thus -fP' is also used to write nbwt. Brugsch [DHD p.7511favours rwnt'young woman'


beer Fairman ZAS 91 1964 p.7 after Wb 11243 (34) GR beer jug , .

Wb cites nbty with the meaning "beerjug'. but all examples show that it means 'bece : in a beer 1 151.12 ; Menket nb. s n. k -07 !a offering , Isis'-cm> -Cr II1 _1k N? l 150,12 ; sim. W IV 45,9 ; beer offering, I receive jugs full of %"%

to quench your thirst III 152491 ; these

fill your temple with' P vessels...

IV 105,12-13; sr-511,1,F to the mistressof the

2p dm,.*.

13 VII goddesses 93,12; 'Receive t+1 % III beeroffering VII 281,4-5; also the king ms . +. qq'v'of 4%'0%% h ' 45'ele VII 288,16; Menketis in his hands1241,10; pacifying Sametwith V 2243 1'*,Hathor is by Fairman'OP. CiL). In origin the term may be connected with nbwt 'GoldenOne and thus with Hathoras one of her beerdrinks . from Dendera Philaequoted V 382.1-2 ' (examples and


female goddc&ws


The goddesses associated or are with Hathor and may have been regardedas her priestesses Hathor is nbtd'-. chantresses. j 2 11140,15 in the temple ; +. "O'h )y I, 1pn 'these

for 6,4 of goddesses and dance the mistress the goddesses'V ; alsoNephthys'makes sing happywith beerVII 281,15-16;a grapeoffering lists N7N nLrwt

mwt'goldcn ones, goddesses women'who follow HathorV 301,17.Theyare includedamong and in the deitiesestablished the temple f'&, 541,5; with the spelling +, .1! psw in Mansion of Horus of the Horuses1

IV 378,13( see- rnnwt and the readingof also

The term is also the femaleequivalentof shmw 'images'of gods,for the walls of the templeare inscribedwith shmw! 5170-# IV 6,8; the shmw and 0V %1 10,5. protectthe two shrinerows VI


to band, to work Wb 11247 (1-2) D. 18 DG 215,8 Apis Ritual XI, 19; XII, 6'to wrap in' CED 107 NOYGT

is etymologically connected with nbd 'to plait, braid'of hair and when the verb is used with nbd doors 'banded' with strips of metal it refers to the effect of the metal applied to door, reference to , leaves looking as if it had been interwoven with the wood. It is used solely to describe wooden doors or flagstaffs. Koenigsberger comments on the metal banding of doors with the example of a door of Shalmaneser11from Balawat [Die Konstruktion der Agyptichen Tur. AF 2 p.23-24 and nA-51.
A, %^^"

At Edfu the verb is used of doors : the naos door leaves are of wood


m with copper

110,2 ; sim.

6 3)

IV 19,12- bandedwith copper.


Seth Wb 11247(6-8) BD FCD 130the Evil One

is usedfrom the Old Kingdomto indicate from an adjectivenbd (Wb 11247,4-5) which nbd derives (FCD 130).The OK examples 'destructive' seemto indicate bador, asFaulknertranslates, something J (Urk 1304,17). by is the moreaccurate theterm,for the word is determined of rendering that this thoughin the Inscriptionof Incni. P0A'ob -J '.-,\ r-nw is paralleledin the next line


by ,=* '"


Urk 170,16,usingdw 'evil'.

nbA is pcrsonified from the Coffin Texts where he acts like Apopis and attack3 the sun boat of Re has (CT VII 414c Sp.1099) and the deceased to be protected from him on the black road (CT VII Sp. 1169). The Book of the Dead follows this midition but here NbA is also the opponent Horus(BD of


B Af

Nav. II p.27 ) hsf ,




hr WsIr and the land rejoices. This

spelling with the


hair determinative is due to confusion with the similar sounding nbd

'plaited hair'. There probably is not an etymological connection, in that the nbil is someone%wiste& or'perverse! morally [c L Zandee, Death p208'cvil one; Kees, ZAS 57,1922 p. 106-7 in the phrase 3t-nbd 'danger'; Goyon inP. LouvreN 3279. p.30n. 6 ; OMRO51 p. 35 n.2wiLhrefercnces Vemus, Athribis p.239 n. o; Te Velde, Seth p.99 ; Kees. ZAS 59,1924 p.69-701. At Edfu the term refers to Seth and his followers and, as Blackman and Fairman commented it is . here and i be spelled simply with the hair sign &I. commonly used uses also]. For effective alliteration the noun is often the subject of npd IV12,10; IrL-& V169,13; IV235,3-, V94,16becauseofhiscrimes*. V1141,8; OtrL ' V11140,7; &tO 1203.8; VI73.8aiso-. rto &%V[MG pA21 n. 106 and for



VII 167.17 ^" AM

VII 269,5 ; k-mle VIII 35,12. Also : dn r 'rage ae

VII 308,6-7 ; '1 bring

npdAl before you' VII 308.10

J VI 11.11 or nd &X. .

crush 116 (12).

With other verbs : hsf V Egypt 1476,7 thenccropolis1186,2-3; IV 182,8 ; rwi &t

from Osiris 1178,14 -,Yn' n bd from the king 1180.7 *,from VI 68,3 n' &-t-SPV1287,16; tnm. nmt NL &%, from

from the temple IV 88,2; in Seth nome Horus sr (ki 0 fL in


by'strength VI 288,10. The foe is also tied up :bdb-&, in bonds Ilf 188,11 ; fie up 41. IV 88,3 ; bbd

bonds 111178,16 -,bring VII 310,1-2.

He is slainin a variety of ways: Mehit bums slaujhr place 1543,2 ;V 90,2 Verbs bbb b %, V r% A-Y

in the slaughter place 1314,7 they are in the VII 274,7 also. VII 265.15 ; ng3 IV 272,4 and ng3 with

IV 77,15 ; md's

a knife h-vtj VI 52,10

Vill 38,10;

Vill 37.8.


&L'JX fearsHorusVI 64,9 in 15P 1, is Various : ; a meatoffering ,a haunchof cut off VIII 1h 36,12 ; and thereare alsoreferences Nbd beingjudged,,, Horus'is one who j udges 0 to asone

hasno half (of the land) IV 189,6; 'your voice is true 6CVSP- is bbn-mdw IV 245,16; also who sdg3s erL 0 IV 52,5. 1162.3 ; 1177,8 *.1233,10; VII 148,17. are in the graspof

The plural form means generally'enemies'

sm3yw-nbjj is a commondesignation the 'Associates Seth': Ift, 2pof of

the butcher 1 555,8 ; gargoylescat the bones of sm3y &LO IV 111,12-, sm3 sm3y IV 236,1 ; king drives away sm3y 154,6-7; sm3y cK-L-y 200,1 ; slay sm3y nt

IV247,16; eattheliverof

sm3y-nb,jjV to the oasisVI and his

is on the altar VI 28,10; drive away sm3y tj ta dr dr% cL

VI 286,17-287,1. Also: drive away tfx 0

ba-IL VIII 147,12;a geni 'steals associates away In the expression 3bw-nbd : birds are3bw IM portionsof ' cL

fall andhis associates to the knife 1199.11. VII 82,7 ; c.f. VII 61,15-16. Also tit. nbd

1555.17; for the altars1565,14 as foesIV 285,3.


hostilepeople Wb 11247 NK (5)

LiLerally'badof character'[AEO * 'those badcharacter] synonym dw-qd andusedat Edfu 134 of of a [MG P. 11:6 42 V 283,15-16. I -troeI-I-j, tremblewith fear IV 266.3 ; jA"'2'cx Ca do not exist


to flood (water) , make wet Wb 11247 (13 - 15) CT also 248 (1) GR

A noun n p3 'wetness' is in use on Middle Kingdom'.coffins : 'there is no 'A13"

Y--wetness of

him of water' Kairo 28050 [Lacau, Sarc. Ant. NR I p. 102-1 ] and from this comes the verb which at

Edfu is usedof flood waters: the canalin the n.Neith nomebrings its flood water r ii-e- -3"-lands IV 25,7 ; the god of the Imentet. nome

-P.. -


%3mn r nw.s n rnpt ' waters the landsof Horusevery year I

fields of papyrusevery year' 1330.13; in the Sopdunome 13 ' e.

335,12 In both of the lattercases verb is usedparallelwith verbssuchas iwh andW. the . UnderWb 11248,thereis E.Pichl Il 108= IV 218,10which hasbeenincorrectlycopiedas



it should be IrT'13 And -1-0iTc--!

grain with the water in it (a vessel)* a who makes

libation text. so this entry can be deletedfrom Wb-


umbilical cord cL Wb 11247 (12) Cr

The falcon god Khenti-khem says, 'I am a soul who cats

V. his navd string' ETR -

LV 7= Spell 322 Cr IV 149a translation after FECr I p.251 nA] Faulkner notes the occurrence , . of the term in BD 391,7: lk"Land later the word becomesnpt (Wb H 247.1 'name for Apopis) o

in Mctt. I where it is namedbeside imyw. llt 'entrails'. Also in P.Br-Rh 29.22 23 Apopis is called .

pwy n Re -..

TL 13

m n R' (originally translated as 'viscera ' by Faulkner

in JEA 24 pA2] herethe idcritificationof Apopisas the umbilical cord of Re explainsthe serpent but form of Apopisandalsoindicates thecordwasthoughtto bea partof someone eitherdeadcc that into hostileand that by eatingit the threatwasremoved its powerabsorbed anotherperson.(In and as modemfolk practicethe cord waspreserved an amuletandwom aroundthe neck,W.Blackman, Fellahinof UpperEgypt p.64 andFig37 on p.79). At Edfu oneof the older textsmakes to reference the umbilicalcord of Horus: the prowt6on of the houses3 'ipn nt fir 'it is the protecLion this cord of Horus' [Jankohn Schutzp. 581. of

is The word is alsousedin a punand its meaning changed 'heare: the meatof the altar pacifics Ib to (heart),drivesragefrom t3ty (heart)and nbw snfr V happyyour heart!VI grain makes

203.7-8which maybea misunderstanding theold word for theumbilicalcord. of


goddess Wb 11248(4) GR

Wb notesthat this is the corn goddess, the spelling is suchthat it is not impossiblefor this to and irue. However,in ,two textsat Edfu : 'myrrh comesfrom ^a b



1372,7(sistraofferedto Hathor) npit heremay well be a plant 6tis more .

likely to bea myrrh producing LD tree,thangrain(alsoDendera IV 57b).




Wb 11249(4-6) Pyr. DG 216,4com goddess f Cr. 228a; CEDIIO; KH124 N&. TrPE; from' An n-prefix word with theroot pr 'to comeforth' in this casereferringto com which 'comes , the ground.The word canbe usedof theactualcom per se or the grain god Neperandthereis alsoa from the femalecounterpart Nepert.He specificallyrepresents newly grown corn andis attested the 6th D. as being associated with Osiris. He had a cult centrein the Fayum and is also the son of Renenutet thus shownas a child in GR texts [LA IV 454 : Broekhuis Ren-enwetet 96-98 and p. , Leibovitch,WES 12,1953p.73 - 1131. In agricultural texts at Edfu npr is often contrastedwith 'green' or vegetablecrops, perhaps that and comparingthe gold or yellow colour of the corn with the greenof vegetation emphasising
both are life giving colours : in a lotus text god sw3d smw sndm ATq in its place VI

247,17-18; Horus srwd


andcreates irnpw; VI 254,6 ; the inundationcreates


VI 254,2; youngwateris rich in npr-grain 1116,15; 1486,12; Horusis lord of makesplantsgrow

. A. #A





VI andruler of greenery 253,7 %

aq in driving the calves111169,10 C3 ... also .:

Tra ... VIII 8,16 included in a list E] VI 257,2

VIII 9,10 In slit offering texts 'Your fields bloom with ofcornsis Ej qq. *. INI

260,9 ; an '3bt offering 'fill your granaries with

libation text the king 4*1: " ,

im. f makes corn with water from him IV 218,10 (c f. D II with his water

160,11 ;D 1101,15-17 of Osiris) ; in the Osiris nome-, Osiris creates _Fqq IV 29,2 ; in a provisioning text a god lVs3 brings IV 44,14.

A variation on npr is npr-htyt which is used as if it were npr : field offering , Horus makes bloom VI 261,7 ; produce of an UE nome is a brings VI 211,5 ; Anubis

from him and fills up the granaries (he is god of this nome) VI which comes life in the land 1137.14 [see who makes

230,10. In a f3i-ibt offering, the king is called Q i3q Beinlich AK 7,1979 p. 16 and n.50]. ,S


flight of stairs Wb 11249(11-12) GR

is clearly usedfor a flight of stairsat Edfu, but does'not seemto occur anywhereelse.It is nprt


7 13 3 r. f t, Lparticularly used in the texts of the New Year processions: eastern stairway pr a6

e- TrIII ra-. -3 rpyt 85 1549,9-10 ; *tr is, -4=3.

85 1549,4 ; Ls Isy 13


m rpyt 90 1579,9-10 *,

western stairway /////irw rn rpyt 83 1513.11. Alfiot in theseexamples Lranslatcs'sa enti4e comprend x Figures'(Culte I p.383 top line for surface example] but rpyt is 'stairs' 'steps'and nprt is the whole stairway . as in 'a priest n'y r
. C3

for alliteration of n 'a priest goes upon the stairway'l 542,9. With the determinative C-3 nprt is further the stair room, for at the temple the stairways are enclosedlike corridors or passages. The', -word may be from the root pr 'come forLWfor the stairwaysallow one to come from the lower part of the temple out onto the roof.


bank edge of pool or well , Wb 11249 (7-10) MK

7he earliest attestation of nprt is in the Wadi Hammamatexpedition text of Ncb-tawy-Re when they found a well, 'full with water to its brirn!, of if the'well'was simply a pool in the

then ' to its' sides! or 'bank! may be more accurate RB 77.15.7to term is still used thus at ground Edfu : in'alliteration of n lie brings nfnf nmt ---> 'jjj. '***,"' 1581,11 ; also nwn nn. ti r '" N==P- CPO h-the canal flowing over your banks!

flood settles on your banks! 1103,9 (a libation text) . r"-,3 nt q3yt q3 IV 140,8-9 may refer to the

2 4"= lv: X In a stricter sense: the Ogdoad 'created all things the ancestors wn rn q3yt-q3 0 hr *"8" Llk primeval mound being stepped c!

VI nt r=--flow O'D** 247,11-12. Ilis

so that the image is of a primeval island with its sides

slightly steppedas it goes down to the water and also a bank of a well or pool may have this cffect of

Thereis thusa clearconnection theword nprt 'stairway'asfoundat Edfu - so that stepped sides. with
the word may alway have had this'6nderlying notion. 7be origin is still unclear and if pr Is the root

the meaning would not bechanged. Ir M %. Y. list of possessions Horusis 'mountains, nprt also appears elsewhere a minesand K=N, of 4.0 .: bowing the head'If 13 (7) ; Horus gives to the king IT IV 282.8 7be ksAl JLr =. very first and last of theseexamples to usenprt in a rathercontrivedway to fit ft pun and seem with little regard for its actual meaning.In the appropriatecontextsnprt may havecosmogonical landsnext to theriver wherecrops implicationsandasan agriculturalterm.nprt may refer to terraced




groin- morespecifically phallusor udder c f. Wb Il 249 (13-17) GR, Med

Wb refersto npb as thelower partsof both maleandfemalebodiesandthis is borneout by its' use. It is an n-prefix word with p 'rear,endbackas its root, it canbe dual or plural andtranslations it of have varied, especially when used in medical texts without a specific determinative.Lefebvre considered the evidence concludedthat it was 'groin' of either men or women[Tableau37 all and p.331.

At Edfuthetermis spelled asto avoid so confusion lettuce to :a offering Min , 'hegivesto theking
Tr 0

M C;


h. sm3 nfrw your phallus copulatingwith women' IV 271,2-3. r

For the cow, the groin is the areawhere the uddersare and so another specific term was createdin GR texts np 'udder' (Wb Il 249,15). This is often used in milk offering texts (and also at Dendera and Philac) : hdw comes from Take milk from -DI from the
-F a t-

of the cows IV 272.9 . this milk of Ir

of the cow 167,15

of the cow 1453,1 ; in the pehu of the Xois nome 'its milk drips


of its cows' IV 26,9 . In other temples the word can be specifically determined: JU


(Wb Il 249,16).

npy Guardiangenie tpt. sn -c4cPq


tramplenpi 1119.8.Goyon regardedthis as a graphic variant

designation of Apopis (np3 - see earlier) and it is possible that if he was seen as the umbilical of a Re he could simply be called this. Other examples : in slaying Apopis IF cord of D Nep is in the fire'VII version. tW M

-7 -TJ3 112,14 also same text ////// El krvv.,.. 11129,10perhaps a reduplicated -


nameof Khnurn EsnaV p.167n.g

Rarely the nameof Khnum can be replacedby j

Lord of Fear V 184,15in a mIL

offering ; andat Esnait is morefrequent- no.277,22; no.225,4; no310,28 ; no.383 A 2. ointment


npt (nbd)


In the foundation rituals, the king says 'I hold 13, c, ,

to dig the cartW111166,14 whac the .; '

to corrupdon someother term of term seems be a rareword for hoe[Ktmi 17p.86pid], or perhaps
Apparently a hapax.


to slaughter, to cut Wb 11250 (1-7) Pyr.

is in use from the PTs with a knife or sword as determinative and outside religious texts it is npd "' -% ti. Vuncommon. At Edfu it is used often in the pun (a) npd-Nbd or (b) Nbd npdtl : (a) 13


V 173,8

nbdw VII 148,11 VIII 35,12-,^""r 4t" 0,


&7 VII 269.5; VII 308, ;V VII 308,10. V 293.8:n frw (cattle) mwU*tl, a

94,16and (b) r A

A 5J3 VII 167,11 . ->. ;


Other allitcrations with n: ni3w

;N hs

VI 257,11.
Various : harpoon
'cr t r] 233,15 more appropriate: 413442" Inyw 1381,14 IV 211.12-13 in your reign VI 318,13.

IVcrocodiles grg

mg IV 590-10; Vtyw Sometimes

IL3kw.lbw IV 150.1
V 47.6,. a translation Fnbw V,,

old and young

we destroy

'cut up! seems LSWt. r I of your

Take the eye of Apopisz= 316,6 ;a hemsut Z-134MA IV 284,16-17.

being cut out IV 305.7 ;a4 n rkyw 'she cuts up the flesh

cut up his vertebrae'VII foes'lll 156,11 ; cattle

"7 A more extended meaning is indicated by :a god a.

nbd r Mst

'drives away Nebed from

Wctjesct ' IV 235,3. This idea of 'to cut' is a GR extensionof the verb and thoughthe verb could in be term,it is not attested scenes this natureandmayalwayshavehada of conceivably a butchering ritual or religious use.


that(bad) Wb 11252(1-2) Lit MK

(Wb 11257,9-14)and , like pfy it can be' nfy is derived from the plural dmonstrative pronoun , Iforce to indicatebad thingsor forceswithout actuallyhaving to namethem.With given an emphatic


Pokes 'the the plural there'thoughhasthe implicationof and'bad'bird in GR textsit means enemies The evil doing sinceMK texts., expression m-nfw 'wrongfully' (andsim.) occursfrom earlier texts (Admn-5,12)andwasusedin thesame way at Edfu [OMRO51 p.61 n.721. As enemy:' Hathorkills 1158,7.
'I drive away he who attacks you (iy r. k) rn `cL xn-nfy : VII 201,5-6 'Attack all .who come z--- *Z 'IV 150,16 ; sim

who plots againstyou IV 304,17; HorusprotectsOsiris from,

IV 269,16 ; mr ib. f hr sp

br hsf 'his heart is sad becauseof the bad things he must punish' III 361,9-IO[Culte I p. 188] thus , V sp-m-nfy bad deeds' r-nfy (perhaps in error) ;a gensays , 'I repel those who come :: - 'er nst with evil intent

towardsyour scat'VI 75,8 (afterJEA 29 p.14).


breath Wb 11250(15-18) NK

DG216,6 -11 ,


) 11.0

Cr.238b; CED 116; KH 133

The noun is derivedfrom a verb nf3 'to blow from the nose'(attestedfrom CT 1338) and is also lists). The root of all of thesenf from OK andMK sarcophagus to nfyt 'fan' (Wb 11250,10 related to meaning'breathof air' or 'wind,maybe onomatopoeic someextent. At Edfu nf 'breath'hasa widespread reflectingthe fact thatit wasstill in usein thecontemporary use it language whenappliedto the uracusgoddesses impliesit is their fiery breathfor Wadjetwd te I 7L-*-against foreign lands1310,5 ; Maat as the uraeus s wd. VII 91,17. As object of the verb wn the uraeussays,'I sanctify his ka with spells-A.,, -O I have at thosedisloyal to him

evil opened breathandI haveremoved things' IV 51,8. my birds, beasts, 'Breath'can also be a creativeforce: in the II th UE nome,Horusis 'onewho creates fish, reptiles -9

4f -, by the breathof his mouthV 114,10-11. E-




demonstrative pronoun, plural


Wb 11251 (9-14) GG 110

nf is usedcorrectly in the Myth, precedingits noun and perhapsas an emphatic derinitc - particularlY -'

in one text

4%Vill IaI

VI 115,3-9: VI 116,4-7 117,1; also in other texts with enemies; h ftyw VII 143,15-16 he says 'I see ; , v


'g.: VII 164.14 ; perhaps too. H" which you have put on the block! VII 320.5-6 ; sim. C- #0-tprevails over ewh-sp. f VII 143.2.

In offering texts the phrasenn nfy means'everyt: %ingwhich exists! [Ouo GUM p.421 : Horus made, . 4V 50.15 *,he is sovereign ir nn Tol"' At IV 17.1 r V 82,15 -. ir rrM V1150,3; heisovcrsecrof mi X ernl

VII 208,2 ; the king is master 38,6-7.

1179.16; also

14%'1.5 The demonstrativesare used in paraUclwith one another: lie has seen %% and rejoices he looks .



IV ; sees andis happy' 11,13 Horus

VII 162.16-168.1
which I have done for my father Osiris 1

Ennead rejoice at =,, In the Sokar Chamber, the =,, 215,11 ; generally nrr. wy 3 you' 1217,6-7.

ir. n.i n.k. How lovely are these things which I have done for


to take out , remove Wb Il 252 (4-6) Pyr. GNS 14 check

in nf' is a rare term attestcd Pyr.500and SinuheR 27'to remove'[GNS 141. At Edfu nr is used to describethe removalof heartsfrom enemies in the Myth IIOrUS : SaY3 ' k ' VI 72,1 rkyw. . -V b3ty n" .1


floodwater GR NVb 11252 (8-9)

form but the only stemnr referringto liquid is anotherGR word nf to nfnf seems be a reduplicated (Wb II 250, wherebeer is called v g) qAhatwhich floods (was ?) the limbs' . It may be

relatedto n fiv 'breath'in the sense it canbe damp(air) that


is usedat Dendera Edfu in particular: in the Nile procession, king brings Ov4"" the nfnf and i" nmt r nprt. k wiLhallfteration of n 1581,11; in an offering'he brings VI 35,1 . nfr. t



good, perfect Wb 11253(1) to 256 (15) Old DG 216,8 Vp;_ Noy4p

Cr.240a; CED116; KH133

nfr occurspassimat Edfu as an adjectiveverb and adjectiveand is usedin the samei; ay as in the ti;: It classicallanguage. is mostoften spelled orl but canhavevariations IIV 11,10; r+, IV 14,5; 411 IV 11,12

nfr is used in archaicphrasessuch as mnw pn nfr IV 14,3 ; iDt nbt nfrt IV 13,13; inr td nfr rwd 190,4; bw-nfr IV 47,6. in (Wb With following substantive phrases nfr-hr 'beautifulof appearance' 11255,5-9)describes divinities with humanfacesVunker,Onurisp.891and thus : Nephthys 1149,8 ; 116 (37 from p.15) ; Ptah
at his appearancesis

0 1101.13; Osiris

125 (186) ; in a list of Edfu deities Sokar , IV 56,6.

IV 3,8


t I V 6,8 ; Horus

(Wb 11255,4 from Pianchi line 33) - the women of Edfu are nfr-m33 beautiful to see!, also an epithet of Hathor at Dendera. nfr-snsw : describes the king at the performing of the ritual 278,3. In the form nfr. wy 'how beautiful' is... - the temple IV 9.7; tp

'beautiful of songs' V

mnw pn I

t'- ?, 10,3and 10 --a with the GreatAtef 1407,15 ; with following demonstrative Sol -P3hw pn 'how good are these. 1113,14-15. vessels' Adverbcanbe usedalone(passim)or preposition: with preceding r-nfr : dimensions the temple,its width-*? of, 111194.7 offerings are fat r-m n ; beautiful,white, hardstoneV 5,4. excellentis perfectIV 4,7 ;V3,3 ; the vizier judges % t IV 42,5 PL ; the templeis built-C=. . with



end , limit Wb 11262(11-16) MK

in The word is usedat Edfu in thephrase at nfryt r (discussed GG 179)down to!: thedisturbances Jdown to Year 19 of the king IV 8,2d--=3the building of the templecontinued


goodthings. beautifulthings Wb 11259(*20) 260 (17) Pyr to

A generalplural term to refer to 'good things'after Wb : clothes,in the ritual for clothing god, 'Receive El this contains your beautyI' 1122.16 preciousgoods,the treasury A IV 26.3 -.a nomeis broughtwith M fit -wI

102.16; in general,flood the two landswith IV 33J. As objectof verbs

m33 nfrw : Sopdct m33. s dw3-nfrw: wis. nfrw: 'b'-nfrw to, ' IV25,11. 1399,3 ; sim.


of their lord IV 19.7 ;V5,5 sim. ;V9.2 beautiesof god.

'boast of beauties': Nfin


illuminesthe GreatPlaceIV 331.7-,it is the!` which nfrwcanbethelightofthesungod VO'which that is moral virtues : sd13.1 tn nn character, n. good qualitiesof a person's are in rn; heartVI 5,7-8. Ptolemaictexts also spell nfrw not only as a plural but also as a dual using only two net-


This occursfrom MK textsonwards and particularlyafter verbsof seeing:I signs(Wb 11259,19). S 'D 1185,7. the two lands to rejoice hr dg3 cause 0


beautifulof places Edfu temple = f. GauthierDG III p.91 nfr-st Dendera c

In the templedescriptionthis phraseis usedof the temple,especiallyin its finishedstate: it is 0 IV 7.7




A text has,'Your greatwall is fashioned

wr. tI br-m-I. s and your festivals are many

(afterGutbub,Textesp.124). within in'VII 296,12-13


cloLhcs (1-3)MK Wb 11261

nfrw is a general term for 'beautiful things' but in certain contexts it can have more specific meaning, for example in cloth offering texts it seemsto have the meaning 'clothes'. At Edfu in cloth offerings : 'I clothe your body with tIt1 X 1127,13 ; and much more often at Dendera. t

The word seemsto be a late extension from nfrw but in the Abusir archives there is a term

"D ,JS,

which may be 'best quality, most beautiful cloth' or 'very fine cloth' and it is once used in the brw for the festival of Sokar [Frag.14A,l and seeArch. Abousir II p.364 n.c]. Wb citeM term prt. from the Kairo 28027 and they may or may not be connected with the nfrw in the title from TT 45 <1009> <1012> D. 19 hry-ir nfrw n Pr-Imn.

nfr I

phallus Wb 11261(8) NK

is used in this way from the NK , perhaps for religious reasons [Lefebvre. Tableau 45 p.40] or nfr A letter to Thoth associates the word with Thoth as a baboon 'with as a meaningful euphemism. [An. 1115,11but it can also designate the sexual attributes of a god [Vernus , phallus of carnelian' Hom. Saun. I p.473 n.3 ; JEA 36,1950 p.71,14]. In the Edfu texts the term is most clearly associated with Min : 'husband who impregnates women king of eternity, who frightens with r-1391,1-2 ; in a lettuce offering, he is

IV 271,4 (see BIFAO 43,1945 p. 121 n. 1].

be understoodas 'phallus', but Lwoother examplesnoted by Becauseor the determinative the word can Wb are not so clear-, Min is nfr-br ... and goddessesrejoice at seeing 'Harsomthus gives, what the earth creates,and what hapy begets In other texts - Amun tIt -4tw% '-[Gr. Oase 26,27]. 1398,10-1l.; also V1 19,110.



UpperEgypfiancrown Wb 11262(5) D. 18


Abubakr lists this only underothernames the White Crown [Kronenp331,it is'the beautiful . for WhitecrowW from D.18 [FCD 1321 maybea conti-action nfr-bdt. In anycasethe further of and used 'white!thingsand'beauty'is striking . At Edfu the spelling I may maskwritings association of 1. j in its placeupon the Red crown! VI but thereare full spellingstoo : 'I settle of nfrt , . t. 4 I shining 186,16; he gives uniting with theRedcrownVIII 83,2 ; you havereceived tj on your headVI 336.13-337.1; the king wLs



; he is UppcrEgyptianking of


in. 71.18-,Min causes king to appear the

41 1393.8 ; the king wears

393,8. Also usedat Dendem

The sign

throat , gullet
is the heart and windpipe of a bull or cow but the reason why it is nfr Is unknown IGG

F 351. In Ptolemaic texts it seemednatural to give the sign the meaning of 'throaC which it actually' representsand also to add a further variant to the large group of words already in existence for'throat'.

nfrt is the throat or gullet specificallyfor eating : Wdd gives the king t%l; 230,9 ; parallel to mrt 'god gives - eatingfood' VII 80,5-6; Horusthe child gives out eatingall things V 213,151 in hrp '3bt text god gives'your handsstretched to 65,13;Mehyt as the north wind

- 4- doing its work V


goesinto the throatof the sunfolk IX pl.30c line15.

The term may alsobe attested otherGR temples:Opet 1186.1thoughhereit is determined by-Mr at and translated as'womb'by do Wit [OpetIII p.1031;also Cauville [Osirisp32 n.21.


women, WbI1258(6-10) MK

In the Westcarpapyrus[5,3] thenfrwt arethe womenof thepalacewho row the boatof Snoferufoc A implying they were' his pleasure. text in Med.Habupl.75 lists thembctwcenPmt andirt, perhaps -At not yet marriedbut wereno longerchildren. Abydos<139>theyam associated the hnrt. ne with way the term is usedin NK and GR texts suggests that nfrwt have a primarily sexual function (thoughthis may not be true of all periods)[c f., E.Rciscr, Der konigliche flarim im alten Agyptcn und seineVerwaftung,Wien 1972p. 17 Madchen].7bus : Min sty Styt 1114 196,18-97,1.Also in the phrasery-nfrwt, 3TI m nfrf 1391,1 ; Ilorus t jI 31

the ba of Osiris ... -A


164,9. SeeWb Beleg.andused oftenin epithets procreator of gods.


cows (13-14)D.18 Wb 11261

n frwt 'women"cows' are essentially the same. term where n frwt is a general term for 'females'. The term comes from Or ultimately however and perhapsdescribestho'beautiful' appearance cows and of

perhapsin particular sacredcows [LA V 2581.At Edfu it is a generalterm for 'cows' : in a milk
offering, god gives I It 193tmany cows in the byre V 84.9 ; and also a general term for VII 148,17

cattle : at the slaughter of the sm3-bulls, Horus gives the enclosure containing in a meat offeringt '


npd. ti VI 257.10-11.


wine, beer Wb H 261 (6-7)GR

In a beer offering at Edfu, Hathor gives the mnw vesselfilled with


'to pacify your heart

everyday' 1462,13 The word derivesfrom nfrbebeautiful'and maybe a pun on nfrw'beaudes'of Hathoras suggested line 15 of the abovetext, 'I give by you by MenketandTenenmet' .
At Dcndera however nfrw is also used for 'wine' in wine offerings : nfr. wy beer, the king raises up It and also 5t , IIDits 1188,6;


of the Lady of the Menat,mixed for

before the'goddessDII 216.7. nfrw may then in general -

be alcoholic drinks [Wb Beleg - MD 1176 wine and ME -kal. Ins. 96 wine; add D VIII 93,3 sbtp

Wsrt m




bed bier , Wb 11266(2-5) Late. GR DG 218,3 1")'-)-3

a SM, 4 If Lord

in late texts such as P.Br. Rh 10,2-whereSokar Osiris is called nmit occurs

bier. This form of the bier with lion head,feet and tail would seemto be the type of bed of the as envisaged in a vignette in P.Rhind 11,2 sucha bed is labelled 373 [Mdllcr,

cited by Wb haveonly the P.Rhind p.30* but only in the demoticversion].Many of the examples


spelling period.

f r 5T including the Budapestwooden tablet Ls.

w'b <4 > Beleg from Late

At Edfu the word occursmost clearly in the phrasehry-nmit(J) where the dead gods of Edfu 'widen the place of row IV 84a-3 (that is Osiris) and thus writings such as : great spirits of III 347,13; noble, "* VIII

may be read with some confidence as ry-nmlt mummy, wide of place before r-q

VI 312,2 ; you make whole r-v

6,13-14. The earliest example of nmit comes from an Apis burial stela (Catalogue No. 14) 'give waterto there. In origin the term is most likely to be derived from from nm' 'to sleep!which can apply to the sleep of death (Wb Il 266,7-10). There is also an earlier term mnmt (Wb 1180,13-14 Pyr.) which may be the ultimate origin of both the verb and the later noun. ': Fa; lying upon his bcd'VIII in a eulogy to Horus 'you are Horus,,: A different nuance occurs =F'Q, 7,3. KRI 11370,2. The term is very common at Dendera from the Osiris texts


to bepartial, biased (1-2) MK Wb 11267


quality of thoseinvolved in makingjudgements it is the contradictionof nml is an undesirable Maat - imperfectionand imbalance, leaningto one side to the detrimentof the other [seeOtto, the GuM p.26 for examplesp.135-6].It is usedin wisdom texts from the MK onward. A verb nm' which occursin Urk 178,2 Faulknergivesas 'to questionT [FCD 133),a meaningwhich it seems is to retain in Lcbs. 2,3 [FaulknerJEA 42,1956 p.30 n. ul which suggests 'questioning' seenas that anaberration showingbiastowardanother or side. At Edfu the term occursmostoften in Maator Maat-related textsto explainqualitiesof god or the king: king o, * tY 4; is '5 free from bias IV 232,10; his abomination ;. in this land VII 254,16;he is Judgenpersonified S&-111 who is

as Seth V1191,4 ; Vw

not partial 143,11 ; he judges the Two Lands

in doing deedsof integrity

(spelling interestingfor nmit bier) 111128,10;Hathoris Lady Of Maat. free from VI 161'. ; Seeinggives the king 'the land free from *,.., 14 SA5 (or as a plural noun'those ol? s


who are biased)VIII 123,9.The Council of 30 who accompany king tm. sn the theyare not partial 1248,11.In the instructions written at variouspointsin the templefor thepriests they are advised 'Do not lie. do not poormananda greatman'111361,1. Jjr nds wr (be partial) discriminatebetweena


to sleep Wb 11266 (7-10) Amama

?9 The earliest attestation of the term significantly has the determinative

perhaps implying the

ultimate sleep of death [Amarna 136,21 though the context is of small animals going to sleep when the sun sets. It may have a much older origin. Wb records no examples at Edfu, but it does occur here : protective gods around Osiris 'abhor sleep (qd) and msd foes, 'I kill you T ; hate rese 1167,1 (given under nml be partial) ; the king says to r-Ijlks -94 W,,,::. you sleep (that is, you are dead or transitive 'I make you sleep) ZIt I

andyou do not stand'IV 235,7-8.


dwarf, Wb 11267 (4-5) MK

( 73' DG218,4


nmw is thought specifically to be the achondroplastic dwarf from a NK magical text description [Lange, P.Harris VIII lines 9-11 ; Gunn. RT 39,1921 p. 102 I nmiw 'big face, high is his back, short of Lhighs'.Dwarfs are rcprsentedin OK tombs in workshops and Seneb the dwarf had a tomb in the Giza necropolis [Junker Giza V]. They have magical and beneficent powers [in general, Dawson,, JEA 24,1938 p. 185-189 ; O.El-Aguizy, ASAE 71,1987 (Fs.Saleh) p.53 - 60]. At Edfu what may be this word occurs in the protection- spell : s3 D n Jn iry-bb n Nt 'it is the protection of

for that n that dwarf of fticnce at the neckof Neith' VI 149,8.Janku suggests this is an expression the moon and that Shu can be thought of as a dwarf (for the P.Harris text cited aboveis in fact to addressed Shu) [Schutzp.88 and alsoJ.Klascns,Magical StatueBaseline 9-10 'that greatdwarf who goes around the netherworldat twilight' is the moon , p.94 f. 9-10 for notes and additional examples].


A text for the offering of incense and libation to the Ogdoad has, 'the lotus comes forth. in which there was a beautiful child a blossom in which there was a dwarf whom Shu loved to we ....

m T.

1289,3 (Wb Il 267,6 female dwarf a is clear XI 319).


land in II th UE nome
Wb 11267 (10) GR

in the geographical texts dealing with the nome, the agricultural land is called all kinds of fields V 115,34 ;MIqI I" IVIS2,9-10; -Il
40 db

wit'h b. 1340.7

GI Dum. 11180 MD 161aalso. Dendera ;


youth(dhan) Wb 11268 (4-8) MK DG 219,6a legalterm CED 157 PMZ(-

: c.f. NMM-k? T' KH 525 In an orphaze

from 'orphan'which gaverise to a verb 'to be poor, we& and A word with a rangeof meanings, becominga legal term for a 'free person'(? and applicableto men and women(for summaryof ) and meanings appropriate references FCD 133). see In the Edfu textsnm seems be no morethana word for a malechild : in the OUit nome Horus to . is called esuckled the two sisters'IV 27,11; he is also called by IV

52,2 in Lhe purificadonof Oleking.


to be Poor

Wb 11268(11-16) D. 18 nm is'derivedfrom the earlieruseof nm 'orphan'with the mcaningto havenothing,be destitute '. thereis the transitiveform 'to depriveof (possessions)At Edfu it hasthe furthCf andasan extension application : my n.t--'nb mrt r=W W. 2& aa. 1159.4 = XI 270 lower line. Wb'

sugg6sm this'is'bc widowed'(deprived a husband) Lhus uniqueex=plc a of and




Wb Il 269 (14) MK (5) to wrapin bandagesritual , nms is both a word for 'cloth' and for the headcloth worn by the king from the Old Kingdom.MK coffins includethe nms in'the lists of headgear furtherspecifythat it is white, hasred horizontal and lines on it and canhavea bandof gold aroundthe forehead. Jdquiersuggests it wasa plaitedor that it that theodd form wasdue to the fact that it waswom to protecta wig underneath stripedcloth and [Frisesp.9-11]. It resembles khat headdress form 'D in the , but haslappetswhich comedown to

rest on the chest.The bag wig, in contrast,is not stripedor pleatedand the excessmaterialof the nms is bound at the back to form a queue [M.Eaton-Krauss,SAK 5,, 1977 p.22-23 ; form in representationsEvers, StaatausdemSteinp.7-17]. It is not clear if the term nms wasfirst a cloth beingthe at or the headdress'and Edfu nms tendsto be a generalword for cloth without necessarily head cloth. At Edfu the nms offeringfrom a NK ritual alsofoundat Abydosandin the Valley of the Kings [Wb Beleg ; Schiaperelli,Libro del fiinerati p.9 ff. ] is preserved sm1r rn : which is White

1429,12-430,6 . P1.34b Eye of Horuscomefrom Nekhbet,it clothesgodsand adornsyou (1-16rus) the king wearingthe White Crown and placing a roll of cloth on the shoulderof the god shows The NK ritual is a funcraryrite, thoughhereHorusgrantsthat the king haseldersand humblemen bowing to him. This generalfunction of the nms is echoedin two lists of rites which are alike performedin thd temple : god is sm'r m -dq IV andnid is presented 331,1 ; the priestscome 1347,7. ' 16 - to the UE king of

JP 'QU // along the couloir mysterieuxto sm'r b1wof the godswith The ritual ii-p6rformed for Herishef (of Heracleopolis):MiTjs

lands -for which theking receives atef of Re and%fytbeforethe living andHeracleopolis the the two P bit. f Xpsking as son of Hedjhotepand Tayet, HerishefholdsjjX Il 81,6-17 ; bnk 'C'* n 9fyt 111286,14 287,3 and the king in Heracleopolis The cloth gives protectionand causes -. holds up two bolts of cloth to the god (pl.40c and pl.77). The geographicaltext for this nome mentions'the beautiful feast of f3i notesit; alsoseeD IX 196]. is usedof the curtainsof the small pavilion in which the cult statue Horusis carried: it of nms also has4 curtainrails and is attached them1554,7-8(var. to 2* IV the Ist of peret'I 343,6 [Cauville,Essaip.125 on



to clothe
as apun on nms cloth : nms cloth40 nLrw ims; in

nms is usedatEdfu

j 1429.13 ; it is brought which gods are clothed

Ip it clothes you and adorns you 1429.14.


to dazzle. to illumine DHD Suppl.676 ; Husson Miroirs p.130rL2 An.Lex. 77.2116,Brugsch .

The verb mustderivefrom nms'to clothe orcovee, but in this casethe coveringis doneby rays of light and the effect is to illumine.While determinatives as such hint at the origins of the term: Isis, as Lady of Light help to explainthis. others 3ht b3t D 111193.4

rw'she'covcrs! faces'unpublished Dendera. [Husson, Miroirs Doc.56.6 p.1861. at The term is usedwidely at Dendera Edfu : Horusis and IV the face of the Westerners' 24,2 ; in a lotus text . Horus flarneVI 248.3 Dendera IH[athorrays shine Z! Mam.D 237.13; of Isis
A, Aj=

tr n Irnntyw lie illumines rw m nblLf with his

hrw m niry. f with his eyesVI 250,16. 19"-kq'. D IV 207,3 'YZM rw andillumine facesD 111144,6 ; MamD 151,12.

Philae: Isis

hrw Phill 14.5 Abb.27.


vase, vessel Wb 11269(7-8) Pyr.

for is attestedfrom OK lists-of offeringsand apparatus cults. it is a slim vesselwith a base nmst A from theshoulder. collar surrounds opening0, the whosesidesrise up steeplyandopenout widely It it is madeof different materials. is often mentioned with the d9rt so the two may havebeen,, and is white. In OK textsnmst held water. beerand in someway. If d9rt is red perhaps nmst similar Balcz suggested term wasconnected in libation rituals [du Buisson,Vases 131-1351. the pp. wasused 'headcloth'or evenas beingformedfrom an nm-prcrix on st, but the actualetymologyis with rims Balcz, MDAIK4,1933p. 219-2261. uncle-ar[H. The vesselwas usedin the daily cult ritual nd br m nmst 'Greetingwith the nemsetvessel'and i from lyrs (Pyr.1140), so that the rite is clearly from the vesselis attested purification with water In the daily ritual the rite is intended for purification and is often paralleled by very ancient.


purification with the d9rt vessel [c f. Moret, Rituel p. 171-1761.Often the ritual specifies four nemset vesselsare to be used (to correspondto the four points of the compass)and it is basically a funerary ritual which precedesthe Opening of the Mouth or meal [SchiaparcUi , funcrali 130-35 and p. 128-30 before the funcrary meal]. The texts at Edfu follow the earlier NK rites, for example Amenhotcp I Ritual XXVI l0ff : for ,
-44. -*, -

Horus nd r m Rs, "v

filled with water from Nun 1431,7-14


filled with b'py 11140,7-16 opposite11142,10-43,2; VII 202,11 - 203,11 ; with Hathor -- Harsomthus 10,177,2-


'r6U V13,10-14; F. 1 163,4-11; to

$J Amun.



J 10 ; to Horus and Sokar Osiris

11266,3-13 ; to

U 111246,10-16 ; to Osiris and Isis nd tr n it. f m 'U" ... ,

Ypst 1148,6-17. The aim of the

is to purify the limbs and body of the god, to make them rejoin and for the body and bones to ritual be kept together by restoring to the dried mummified flesh the lost fluids and water. In return the king, floods and he is purified and kept free from pestilence and dirt (that is, decay). The scenes receives usually show a vessel with a spout being offered (pl. 23b 3rd reg., plAOf 3rd reg.) ; a t pl. 17 3rd reg ; with variations -

(41--. poured out into a basin on a stand (pl. 33c Ist reg) ; >

the vessel is placed on a.stand and the whole is like an ankh sign 'life' (pl.44a 3rd r'eg.

pl. 145 door). Outside these texts the ritual is mentioned further :a list of daily rituals includes as one of the rites of the festival ir nd br There are two other forms of the rite four times with four nemsets of water' *S JF V 1352. nt mw 'going round
A. M.


IV 331.1 Z

pJ1r V3 tp sp-4 m ifdt to temple gods 1 163,14 - 164.15

also III for Horus and

336,3-7 where Horus pours water over the king to purify him (pl. 81) ; possibly Hathor 11247,10-19
.; =7.? j

the text later specifies that

"Ir Horus here is ,a, are used and _d

U on 11145,5-46,6In all cases king raisesup a tray with four spouted; vessels the %to .

XI it (bestexample 271) andit is directly comparable the dXrt rite. to

0 A further rite is sw'b m ifdt ',I nt raw to Horus 136,3-8 -, Horus and Hathor III

173.15 - 174,9 ;cf. IV 214,10-215,11

VII 52,13 - 53,6. Again either a tray with four

(pl. ) it is presented 92 Ist reg; pl.63 2ndreg. or in thefirst theking holds on vessels
because do not furtherspecifythe (pl.11 3rd reg).Thesetextsmay not be nemset they textshowever,


identityof the vessels.

Both offerings are about the purification of the god and the reuniting of his limbs, in return for which the king is cleansedfrom impurity. he receiveshigh Niles without end and protection and rejuvenation in general [Alliot, Culte 1109 n.31. In the temple description filled and carried by priests as they purify the houseof their lord are 13 1214,15; a text on the oustside of the Nile P6 s%of clectrurn 11231.15. 1' .1

IV 14.12 ; the Until of Osiris are reunified with

Chamber mentions the vesselsused for the water, including 40


to go , to walkthrough (4-21) Wb11270 Pyr. DG220,1

The nmtisused Edfu indicated Wb. by at verb as intransitive is in IV k there nohindrance yourpath' 50,10-11, n iw win hr w3t. 'yougoand It difficu! tym nhm1576,2. is striding freely without and out 0 1123,12 -A%OW 0 1125.18 ; . 4 JL Nwt V 62.14 /1 f ;. m3nwIV 27.3;. -c=-

sn wjL3. in htp -A With prepositions : hr r

ox-A k 1543,2 %,, -at-niwt.

(of nprt.k 1581,11 flood). Transitive: -A nwtV 8,1; -A Nwt r' nb 1115.3 1290a.

'to GR From texts, goovee:of sun, tread the over on what sungoes 1221.14 $,I what sun kingtakes tribute -A t the goes 1172,141150,13-14 ft wind,the the of over ; -.of kingis given the sees wind over goes what sun and Going dosomething priest-Ar to

1287,4-5 ; 160.1 1471.131472.10.1 ; : J-111 tr 1k3goes 1129,15-16 ; Iforus r m33falcon

IV fighting 78,17. free continuous The to immobility death of as movementopposed Lhe nmi V0 stresses and phrase in the god the across sky -A'# when andthisis what sun does hisbarque hesails (bracelet 11282 erin Hommages Daumas n. [Am 22 I Fr. offering) p. 9


, stride, course Wb 11271(1-18)Pyr.


nmtt is derived from the verb nmi (or vice versa) and is uczd at Edfu as in Wb.

AT The stepsof the godsor the king are protected: s3 gn ,,,

1571,11; s3 ""I

.4v. %-^

IV 57,11

irw m 'd -, vd3 'everyone of your stepsis safeand sound'111139,2.

nmtt can refer to the course of celestial bodies book called Qn contains a v course of the stars Il 31,4 ; the library

3yty q3.? '- 'knowing the courses of the sun and moon, lot

ruling the course of the stars' 111351,8. In phrases : nb-nmtt her barque VI 11V; 'free striding': Horus isX. VI 284,15 also. '*' 111294,8 ; Hathor too isc7 74 in

r-nmtt 'at (his) stride!, that is 'close by' or 'following in processions' according to WB. In fact the way it is used at Edfu 'at his stride! is best taken as 'at his post, station' : priests r rdwy-stsn Wbw <=; A~x- 1, '1 .A <--* -+the Ennead A '1=1, A. 1553,14 ; butcher5 1555,8 ;A priests ^0" and

IV 15,2

IV 20,2 ; HB puts everyone

-A la, - 11-0

VI 348,17 - 349,1

butchers W 18,8-9.

his stand at their posts on-- four sides VI 17.1 Ennead


'wide striding' [Otto, GuM p.34-5 goes back to OKI. In- the PTs it is a quality of the wsb. nmt divine king and in later texeit applies to him on earth going through his palace and over lands: king wsh -M,VI 58,4-5 ; dead kings - Ptolemy V IV 123,2 ;0


IV 279,7; of Thoth in the palace VI VIR 46.4.

a 262,5 ; and SeshatVI 299,4 ; of Hathor in her barque


wstn-nmtt prr-nmt J, pd-nmtt

[Otto, op.ciL p351 from the NK parallel to the above , q.v. wstn. 'swift of strides' : of a lion prr 1442,15-16 ; Horus as a lion pbrr

after foes VII 323,10 ; also VI 77,14 ; IV 57,17. 'wide striding': of Horus r-14 _A V-V 1424.13 ;A IV 45,5 ; IV 213.13 also;

1382,13-14. hh-nmt king 'swift footed', from NK 161,6. HB 111294,5, _A I122(15); the..



'cool of strides'(unflustercd)., qb. see qb-nmtt [Otto, op.cit. p. 79 and p.1561

nmt .

house slaughter Wb 11264(-19) Pyr.


DG 218,8 KH525 NMOyT

x (4)

block andby extension room or placehousing block or chopping Originally nmt is a slaughter the Al k' GG T 26 1.It derivesfrom nma knife. used [alsofor the sign it, as the sign shows j i, for choppingup [see nm knife GG 134 andT 35 alsoin tombof Gem-ni-ka H, AJEggebrecht. Munich 1973p.136]. Schlacht., At Edfu animalsarebroughtto nmt andkilled thereandtheir fleshdismemberedcattlego to : in the templeVII 319,13; flocks of the deserts to tj go slaysoxenon 227,6. Most often at Edfu howeverenemies broughtto nmt to meettheir end: Schold your foesin are 1498,3 ; snty is put into do evil to you Sts. 1113,17 the turtle is on : 1114,13 thosewho, ; : V 214,11; foes fall = C-3 - 1 c'S A in the templeVII 323,6 ;a butcher A; bcingpureand are cut up 11,

1565,16; for makingmd animalsenter<>

IV 235.16; plottersare =AC-3 A 530A ; foesare broughtto (Fj tied up VII 323,8.

Among thetempleoutbuildings, not insidethestonecomplex.therewould havebeena butchers but court containing a slaughterplace,hencethe C'3- determinativeand use of the preposition m, n. at showingit to be a place[examples othertemples:Vandier,Jumilhacp.149-150 711. Certaingodsare especially associated it: Mehyt is with is Sakhmetwho is r--v c-3 0% V, 85.16; but aboveall it

'one who is in chargeof the placeof slaying' 1185,9-10[c.f.

S.Hoenes,Sachmctp.2411and later texts refer to 'putting the foes on Dmt-n-Shmt : dI rn VII 213,16; VII 301,14; 316.13; IV 307,5; 312,6; VIII 19,2-3; 169.16and they are broughtto It 21 VII 312,7. LE In the pcha of thC9Lh nome.'caulearc led tol 29,5.I 'forthe IV god hereis U rd of slaughtee


to shout Wb 11265(16-17)MK Lit.

nmi is usedequally of the cries of animalsand people(SinuheB 24 and 141) but the origin of the word is unclear.It may also be attestedat Edfu : the text describingthe reactionof peopleat the


festival has, 'old onesleaping,wn w

youngonesleapingand shouting'IV 17,8.The

determinative has showsthatthemeaning been to extended include'dancing'.


offcrings Wb 11265(3) GR

Wb recordsthe term from Edfu : 'he brings13t-di with

'I give you the field with
,%-^o% , 'D --*-

'Mam. 60'also at Kom OmboFrom these texts it seemsto be produce . 49& ""o%

'Ombos 1120,542

of fields. In the parallel to the Mammisi geographical text, the area of 13t-di is brought with ?. C.


110,11without further clue as to its nature(the. parallel IV 177,1hasIsywcM ). Mis

text is not preserved Opet- the derivationof nmt is unclear. at


these Wb 11272(10) to 274 (4) Old

itsnn can be usedclassically[GG 110-2p.85-7 ; JunkerGrD 64 pA8 1, that is preceding aoun, but it is more commonafter its -noun: rmnw

'thesecolumnsof the hall V 6,10 ; nw

Do, 0,4 1 T

these bouquets protect your majesty ... VIII 173,6-8 ;1

this your harpoonVII

131,10-11 ; 3hw. k

'these your glories they are IV 57,5-6. ....

'this, these': 'he sees nn is usedas a substantive ;4,,,.


IV 11,13; in nn r 3w'aU of these!

r-3w 1110,8 ; ir

r-3w 'do all of thesethings' V 161,5-6 36,13; 'You areLord of All ' '--7410e9 Il JV 32,13

11 V 201,5-6; VI 105,3;

86A s'r. i 'all of this which I lift up to Your majesty'1494,1 ;,cc> e%-N r-3w -VII 70,15. nn may also be usedas a vocativeor to give emphasis, referring to the divine council sbmw '0 Lords, theselords of fear'? VIII 122,13. This useis not in the grammars.


likeness image , Wb 11274(9) GR

Wb cites threeexamples this term, all from Edfu and all referring to the king of 81,14; in the text next to it 9w 181,3 and also n

n Hr I

n Iqr (Thoth) 1377,17 . Ile


last two examples be collatedfrom photographs 245 and XII 327) so it is not a mistakeof (XI can Chassinat, it looksas if theworditself is a mistakefor snn. The first two textsareclosetogether but his havewritten themandrepeated error, theothershowsthata copyisthas so thesame scribecould by dropped s (assuggested Wb). the


darkness Wb H 274 (5 - 6) GR

Most of the Wb examples the word comefrom Edfu whereit is a usefulvarianton synonymous of to as words.It seems derivefrom the writing of Nwn 'the primevalOcean' nnt (et var.) so that nn in 7bere is also a of refers to the darkness the muddywatersof this ocean and to darkness general. 'settles'on the possibilty it could comefrom nn 'to be tired' et sim. so that the comingof darkness
the way it is spelled with whole earth and I rather ", T than or Sa suggeststhat this is a

more likely possiblity.

At Edfu the word is used consistently, for Horus makes light and drives away darkness : rwi IV 137,12 ; hrs Nephthys sw3 1574.8 : IV 258.9 (Maat text) ; HaLhor hrs 471


1232,17-18. In an oryx text, Bastet lights the land wn m 41 rt-

which was in darkness'IV 239.11 ; Nekhbet gives the king'what the right eye seesby day and the left eye by IIV' 1308,34 ;a geni drives away the powers who come IT 11 44 -r 1 167,2 '

Horus gives the.king the south the "Lent of the wind and north to


In more unusualuses: HaLhor giveslight to imnw

T 1474

ll 'what is hiddenin the darkness'

69,8 ; sim.Horus 1183,12 ; (1162,11 ; 1223,14 use kkw in the same phrase) ; Re with four facesdc--'P, U= * zrtr 11135,4.

nn - nnt

Godandgoddess darkness of Wb 11274 and(8) GR (7)

Wb cites one text which mentionsnn - nnt

comeinto being at the

beginningas the children of Tanen1 158,7-8.They may simply be a misunderstnading Nun and of Naunct,the watersof chaos,or they may be 'darkness' a primeval force and synonymous the to as . of Kk and Kkt"darkness' [c f. Sethe, Amun TLII , or the two aspects the creationmay be usual


incorporated into a blanket term for all primeval deities in general [Reymond ZAS 92 p. 126 nA]. .


food Wb Il 275 (1) NK

The Onomasticon 535 lists amongst A pastries

the offering texts at Edfu : in a Maat offering CM) vII

aD which may be the sameas a term from ,.

tn pw 'she is your food' (said to Lords of

Maat)VII 122,8-9. More doubtful is an '3bt offering which begins: q!"4T"' P"R,, sDwd m bt nbt Or The word a e. couldbe nn 'these' even nn = an altarof offeringsiV 97,8-9. or


-to'ubside be weary inert , ,

Wb Il 275 (2-8) MK FCD 134_inert

The verb nn is usually usedin wordplay on Nwn'flood',: nwn=Ib

at his time 11246,4-5

in alliteration of nnwn jo"%=J&1804 r, nprt. k IV,.103,9 ; Horus gives nwn-A,,, e. r , , j='. & tr. f VI 33,2-3 1324,4-5 nw. f VII 205,16-206,1(all libation texts) ; nwn. r sim. I 208,8 also. It applies to the flood in general : h'py
southem Ipy, iw. f '--Jb

at his time VI 195,2-3; the

'he comes subsiding' in an adverbial sense 1582,1. The

protection spells refer to the flood as Nn . s3

it is the protection of Nen in , 13 %N land who settles on the banks of all places where he likes' VI 149.3 ; s3 the who I-

settles on the banks of Egypt! VI 147.12 [after Jankuhn, Schutz p.56 and 81 with Kqmm]. Also in otherpuns: a food goddessNnt, 'settles in your city JI-Aq in your house, and she makes her,

place in your temple' IV 44,11-12.

In other contexts: 'to be weary' Horus throws the harpoonand pays out the rol , db'. k 'may your fingersnot be weary'IV 214,3. Transitive use", Horus gives Nt, the Redcrown down (be inert) ! IV 217,10; Hathor j I J*"jj\Prqyw.


k 'shecausesyour foes to lie

sbiw.k also VI 143J. As an alternativefor words I

for 'to kill', Wb citesDendera references this use.


flood water


Wb 11275 (14) GR Al T In a 'Seeing god' ritual, the king is his in the flood 126,9-10stressing priest

the flood waters.It is derivedfrom nwn or nn I)c inert!of flood water. purity andcontrolof



II An altar of Nectanebo hasa list of godsincluding

m-03t (no.8). Vernuscommented

Nnt recorded Edfu, but he suggested connectionwith a,. a that he did not think it wasa goddess at 11 Nny [Pyr 670] or Nnwty on an offering table of Amenemhet [AeIB I p. 152 king is serpent belovedof P.120-51. A list of provisionergodsat Edfu includes serpent the goddess 'greatof offerings she , Wt is an unknown town [Vernus, Athribis 125 n.g doc.140 .

in your city, she sits in your house.she makesher place in your temple IV 44,11-12. A settles ;4 "t &'* text has parallel 'greatof food with all goodthings- his enclosures for your house. ' are

she provides your granaries'11191,13-14 Theseexamplesmay comparewith an architrave of, . *; A , includinga women DC III from the temple Rameses; at Tell Hisnshows Amenhotep of offeringbcarers following 'py called des,who bringsfood (df3w) (Mlsi. Die Hohenpriester

Berlin, 1972Tf. XIII 11 Howeverall of the examples Sonnengoites, may be no morethan a writing .
of Renenutet, for in a dw3-nlr text this goddessis called I la'&Wsrt of Wetjesct Hor who ,

1287,9-10. makesfestivetheBeautifulPlace!


styrax Wb Il 276 (9-14) D.20 oft GR Wb Drog3O2 Cr.228a. CEDIIO: KH124 "64C-60 Ann "5;; 3b-Ib and

The Edfu texts spell nnib

mostoften ,a combinationof

[Lorct, RT 16,1894 p.148-152,; also ASAE 43,1943 p.121]. Loret identified nnib as the styrax' to tree - either Liquidambar orientale Mill. or Sryrar officianale L. . Its bark could be processed nnib may be a produceliquid styraxwhich is usedin recipesin the templeof Edfu. 7be substance 'V qq e.I'TEb. variantform of k% 852 q e- f J1,1,BI 10 wherethe former is usedin a ,

Iorcfs fumigationmaterialfor house clothes[CL Wb Drog 302-3,Genncr,Arznci p.177-8states and


Deutung von nnib als Slyrax officianale L. ist nicht zu belegen']. In P.Harris 15b - 14 ; 53a Uetk" pieces of the wood of this tree are sent to the Amun and Ptah temples, but their use is not

specified [Helck, Materiain V p.298]. From the studies of Lorct, whatever the exact nature of the substance,it was importzd from Syria or Asia. Further, Daumas notes the confusion over nnib as the product of Styrax off. L and the resin from Liquidambarprient. NEII. - but he does not suggestwhich is more likely and instead indicates that nn ib is parallel to bdw [RdE 27,1975 p. 1081.

At Edfu nnib is found mainly in the laboratorytexts : it is listed as one of the substances there 4 11192,2; 11195.15 bestmyrrh of also.Thereis a recipefor making of nnib plant'and therecipeincludes'7deben H the perhaps processed substance 220,16

*A4 11222,14 they usebestblack nnib H ; and 221,1 ;a new section ir-m-bt ir. n.f ht n -46- #6'" V 223,1-2.There is also a recipefor 'makingbest ti?ps of %6 11229,1 230,4.nnib is used VI 163,14-15 and VI 100,34. It is 11197,1-2

in making bknw, with special instructions for irw 17,%II 'MAU the spelling J-Q' VI 164.1; for makingmd, 3w is mixed with J6note : from the God's Land come 'ntyw and mentionedwith other substances is mixed with ti9ps in a recipe11194,6; Intyw tp n nnib 4

is usedto anoint11215.10

Eyesof Re. Horusand list of substances includesfor the laboratory3hm, 'ntyw tp a Tlorif Osiris 1 566,1 ; Sheshmumakes'ntyw rn dt. f --L- -%; rn sgt3. in its form 194,17. I landbrings b3t nt-4 nnib is specifiedas the produceof certainareas: Bnb of is called 11201,7-8 the land B d9 brings ; H 201,15;Intyw


Thereis also a connectionwith hdw [notedby Daumas cit.] : in a procession bearerbrings a op. a vesselof dw mixed with -IPtext VII 211,12.1 1566,6; the king is Lord of hAwandJ6-. ina%ms.'ntyw 1,1


independent pronoun Wb 11277seeni (Wb IV 197,7)

is a spelling of the Ist personsingular independent pronoun nnk Horus, =:, o


ink). The king saysto

s3.k 'I am your son' 1174,17.


heaven sky Naunct , ,


Wb 11213 (7-10)
tint is the sky, personified as a goddes Nut or spelled as Nnt. The word occurs often at Edfu and is used as a word for 'sky' in the same way as analogous terms such as pt, gbt . 71erc may be '6 here between the Hel Folitan goddessNwt, the sky who swallows the sun and then gives confusion

birth to it, and the Hermopoli=

Naunet, the female counterpart of Nun, the flood. Perhapsthe two

have becomesyncretisedcompletely here,so tliat the spelling of the word reflects the confusion of the two.

QrD-v(l) As sky : cross,traversenmU 1115,4 d3 nwt IV 33,5 ;

Cor Raise : tw3 V

*Aoowk% 0"111264,15

IV 93.9. - lwh
Ao.. 10 F-I ml


IV 94,14-15; sq3

111269.7. In parallel with Nun : On m nwn r . a r,,q Opendoorsof IV 16,7;

. %%**-

% 11147,9 ^V.. r-" ;!

1294,6. TV9.3 ; wbn rn A* IV 95.9-10-,JLr

er-V '60'

111106,13the stin showshimself in 4rD. ; -Iq6 V 7,9 ; illumme


VII 21,3 ;p sd m

0" '%*Ath, 0 IV 95,12; enter '0%o%

VII 3,6.

It expressesone of the boundariesof the perceived universe : the king rules the four comers of 1230,9 ; 19)"anr- rests on the horizon 1574.9-10 To IV 96.2 the gods give the' ,

king all the people

r. sn 'over whomNut is! 139.4 : the king bringslibation watersof Nun 1503,6.

which comefrom your mother

Usesareaspt but with added to extrasignificance opposition Nun. of The term canalsorefer to the vault of a tomb : the king drives the calves,to hide your tomb, and 00 dsr.ti and your vault is kept apart,no-oneknowsits doors'178.13 ; the of primevalancestors a ,,,, db(bnoo=Pb 00tl IA '3 the YO your secretvault, no-oneknowsit IV 4,8 ; of Horus ,. ar-E no A, -0

in the Placeof the Two Lords' 118 (38). The land sign herecould be a mistakefor the secretvault Naunefreferring)to theholy of holiesandevenif invertedsky sign [c f. MG 424 n.151'inaccessible ' the writing is the preferredlater speffingthis usemay be relatedto the 'underheaven of Pyr.1166 446 1691 (FCD 134) - during the night the sun passes through the lower heavenand this may explain the useof the termas 'tomb. -I.


to guard. tend


Wb 11278 (15-17) The earliestexampleof nr is from the mastaba Tep-em-ankh of wherea baboonbites the leg of a thief in the marketand the text with it says,

[Borchardt Denkm.AR 11 17 p.

pl.61 = Cairo 1556].Faulknertranslates verb as 'to protect!from Urk IV 268,16; 362,1which this fits the contextshere,and the verb is parallelwith s3w 'to guard'(alsoin BD Wb beleg).This use derivesfrom theolder nr 'herdsman' (Wb 11279)attested from PTsandusedof those watchman! who watchover herdsof cattle.At Edfu the verb itself is usedin this way: in a w-bVsw text, the king hr 'tendshis flocks ' 111168,18 Other examples have the more generalsense 'to ... .
k In Olwy. 1469,7-8 '; Lhe king is ruler of the

xq protect! : 'you cat with your mouth 4=.

Ennead :g!

nirw VIII 97,15.


herdsman Wb Il 279 (1-5) with (6) Pyr, MK, GR

The determinative 9t usedin early examples this word makesthe meaningclearand it maybe of Evidentlyit wastheprotectivequalifiesof thevulture connected ultimatelywith theword nr 'vulture!. which weremuchadmired(c.f. vultureusedto write mk) but it is not clearwhetherthe vultureor the Rhind p.39 ff. ] andthis is stiff the herdsman of camefirst. nr is usuallya herdsman cattle [Ghoneirn, caseat Edfu : the king 'Ib 1 with manyherds(driving the calves)111169,1 in an offering of 4 ; he U-4c-J herdsman 1143,4-5; of manycattleandprotectorof the peopleof the wholeearLW -6-'jtj q*9 .%jt, : of millions 1316,15 ; the msnty priest with the two 1543,6.

sameoffering', the king is plume standard calls god


to fear. to overawe Wb 11277(4-8) Pyr.

nr is used from PTs, perhapsconnectedwith nr 'vulture!. and is therefore an animal inspired emotion (c L fyt ). The verb is used transitively at Edfu : the king la"q= snityw 'he makes his

rebelsfear' 1286,1-2 -,also 337,8.

CA, Q.

bftyw. k- fear of the year makesyour foes frightened' VI



Wb 11277 (11) to 278 (11) Pyr.

in the PTs is used as a variant of snd or I't , and applies to both gods and the king [Cazemier, n rw JEOL 25 1977-78 p.79-8 1] Used at Edfu , as in Wb :I ,

after rdi : gods puts

-1=2ZJ fear of you in all who see you IV 55.10 ; king puts'jie Zj of the

goddessin the Fekhu 1559,8-9. 13-nrw : Horus wr-nrw AcJ in the heartsof the people of Edfu IV 53,6 1195.15 j 1393,5 ; Horusqc7,! j in the Ennead 1114.7. goes round hearts VI tr nr hrtyw. k 'fear

:a minor deity

nb. nrw : Minas a bull Various

fcar of him goes through the whole land V 146.12 -,'U I" of them is in your heart IV 562 *.pun

289,11 ; sceing sbmw A!j

of you makes your foes afraid'VI 337,8. The barque in thel8th LE nome is called 1335.5.


sanctuary Wb 11280 (2) Late, GR

The term derives from nri 'to protecf, so that nryt is the chamber which protects the cult image, the Pap. pl. 11,27 where the sacred snake god of a nome is temple sanctuary. Wb cites Geog. T_o*-f C73 and at Edru , 'the sun god goes to '3yt and settles in do Lq3

1579.10 (the lion sign

T -AW C-3 the reading nryt not Ytyt) -,in a festival text, 'Greetings to you rejoicing is in makes A you have united the two lands'll 14,21. A copy of this text exists elsewhere in the temple. but here

is used VI 270,10.

nrw. n. 13t Plant 4CV', 8ajV'Oe Ina rnpwt offering, amonga list of plantsis which growson Idb VI 250.3-4 and, qQ r'X it may be connected Wb 11280(1) part of the corn palnt. with .44=* -ex





vulture Wb 11277 (1-3)Pyr. DG 221.1 Cr.228b; CED 110; KH 125 Noype I OOYP

nrt is usedfrom PTsonwardin differenttypesof text andis not a purelyreligiousterm,for example [LA 11513-5vulturesin general],but it may embodythe morefearsome of aspects the bird giving rise to nri 'feae.The term appears spelledout at Edfu, especiallyin connection with vulture/uraeus goddesses: the king is a child of wrt mistress lady of Per-werIV 51,6 and IV 272,14; Hathorgives 'what .V in NekhenIV 226,13 '' rP by sees day

by and Mchenct. nighe IV 238,11[Husson. Miroirs;p.79 n.9 for note]. In s13-mrt text. four boxes

brought = 11 e-A JI& 'J V 183,7- as feathers a vulture -a metaphor the of stressing of cloth are , its of appearance. qualities theclothandperhaps -fearsome protective


returnof the year, time Wb Il 279 (11-13) NK DG205,5time Cr.219a; CED 105; KH 120time NC-I FCD 135

'Returnof the yeae is the precisemeaningof nri , it is not 'yeae [LEM 380, AEO 112*] and at Edfu the term is usedoften,both fully spelledout andwritten with the vulture sign be read 23-41: at the end Examples and werecollectedby Blackman Fairman[JEA 29,1943p. nrt, not rnpt.
___ (I 4'

of the 25 year retums IV 7,10 =


VII 6A ;

'your years 111

there is no knowing them' VI 282,5 ; the flood comes and does not miss the appointed time or any year-return' IV 195,15 bw and 100,000s of rnpwt VI 263,6;

the returns of heaven upon its supports VII 49,10-11 she gives millions of n pt'its returns are life, power, joy VI 189,9-10 -,cf. also IV 90,12; VII 4,3 ; '1 give of of gold' V 227,7. There are caseswhere -J could be read as rnpt [listed in JEA 29 p.24-51 and it seemsthat when a ':P scribe came to the word o, he did not always recognise it as nrt and understood from the context came to wrw as the falcon

the sentence that it was rnpt, as the two have complementary meanings. Thus -T of


be rnpt - but it is basedon an error of misunderstanding. Adverbial phrase n -n rt 'at every year return 'annually' [JEA 29. p.23 and examples p-24 2-251 canals of Egypt are brought to return again VI 194.13-195,2-.harvest is made to duive IV 193,15.

VI 37.1-2 and n.2 ; the flood comes Z'11%

e OT 0%% VI 103.5. nrt. nrt 'year by yoar' [JEA 29 p.25 4] :a festival is celebrated c=.-


to protect

Wb 11281(7-9) MK oft GR The root of the verb may be nht 'sycamore treewhich spreads its branches protect those, to out it. from PT andis clearlyolderthanthis verb. underneath nht is attested At Edfu nh is not as commonasanalogous terms(bw. s3) but is usedin a similar way, and is more
Tr AM4%,

frequentin GR texts than in earlierperiods:M wings

niwwt. k 1110,8 *.the falcon openshis: protect one-

Lim.r in his nobleshrine1266,1.2; the templewalls ri - mOO41

VI 6,6 - note the goddess ; the king ntf TrMiv det. the city of one who protectscities! Sekhmet 4445). of p. who is protected armof theyearVI 265.13[afterGermond,



Wb 11281(13-17) Late, GR nht is derivedfrom the verbnh andis usedfrom the lateperiod,thoughnht'sheitceand 'shield!are (NVb 11281).The nounis usedalone: 17-'44. 03 tp-s 'her protectionis aroundher head' earlier VIII 35,5. More usually it is preceded auxiliary Ir : the bodyguardof florus h. by raw. him 11132,10:Horus 'cm* '__0 , protect G1 19_ gods jjs. f 'protectshim (king) himself V 75,16 , guardian--'

AOU 23r>" 4e-

'w3y 'protecthim (Horus) from dangers'VIII 147.10.


to do awaywith Wb 11280(13) GR

Wb cites only : the king comesin joy


he has removed Lheangry ones his .

is praisedin pcacc'I 442,15'.The sense clearand nh fits the alliterationof n. Its origin is is majesty from' (rages); or nh 'be a lack of with transitivesense not certainhowever,eitherfrom nh 'to -Protect


'he causesa lack of rages'(Wb If 280,11-12).


guardian snakes Wb 11281(18) GR

Wb cites only one example: worshippinggod text for the four s3-t3 snakes Edfu, they are the of
fi3 %AA, %. MI

Ab ttl


guardians the head(?) of HB' 1293,17-18-,a similar text names guardian of the andLordsof fyt VII 269,3. The term is derivedfrom nh 'to protect'.

as serpents


magical books Wb 11282 (3) D.21 GR c f. also Wb Il 282 (4) Late,,

Books could be used for protection, so the term nht 'books' derives from nhI 'to protece. The earliest use of this term is in MuK vso. 5,8 where it is parallel to s3w nb and wil3w nb C71In!: 3

M3 and in all casesthe determinative c:! perhapsindicates written 'spells' of protection (Wb II

282,2). The Embalming Ritual has


Q r

'two books Protection is the name of one

and smn is the name of the other' Bals.Rit 8,12 , which were tied to the mummy for protection. A
text at Edfu refers to ir s3 m '-' 'make protection of the book of the Lords who decree

inscriptions' VIII 109,1, in protective texts on the pylon. nht representsthe long tradition of written, protective amulets.


to shake(?) Wb 11282 (5) GR Cr.241b; CED 112 to shake NOYZE and Cr.244b; CED 118 shake - loan word

Hebrew and

Ethiopian ngnulh shake. ,cf.

be an abbreviated form of the earlier word nhnh (Wb 11286,6'be shaken). It is used nh seems to

from MK texts: Hamm.Nr. 114,6'the whole

IrT 75" land

n snd 'shakesthrough fear'. As a

loan word nlinh may havegonefrom Egyptianto HebrewandEthiopian.At Edfu and Dendera the n is spelledph sp-sn and is usedto refer to a process, the manufacture unguents for ti9ps' : of word GI R 'shakeafter heatingin the fire 11221,6-7 'addtiYps to it *. and shake' (or E) %\

Also MD 147 1. shaketwice) 11229,10.



sycamore Wb 11282(6) to 283 (2) Pyr. DG 221,7 Jill .0

Cr.242b; CED 117; KH 134 140YZEs,NOYZI Ficus sycomorus L. is known from Egypt from prehistoric times. It is not only a leafy tree. providing shadefrom the sun, but it producesa nourishing fruit - the sycamorerig - which along with the leaves and sap are used in medicine [Germer, Arznei p. 113 ; Wb Drug 306 ; LA 11345 ; 268-9 LA VI 113-1141. At Edfu the geographical texts list the nomeswhere the nht was sacrcd : 4LhLE nome -A16


331,1 ; Wh LE


1331,17-332.1. Buhl comments that the nht was the most importanit

tree in the tree cult, for a protective goddesslived in it and at its basewas a pool of water IM-L Buhl WES 6,1947 p.80 - 97). The sycamore, in relation to Hathor, does not occur often at Edfu . but once, the Nebt cow 'gave' birth to the d3isw in the shelter of ra the southern sycamore' 1295.17 (Maat).

Otherwise the term is usedas a generalword fortroes': after the flood, the fields bear crops b3q CU trees conceive and give birth to her children' VIII 108.2 *.the land of 17th LE nome brings

'all its trees with fruit' IV 35.14 They can be incense bearing trees of p qc:; . , ra. J:, of the God's Land V1176,15-16; Wosret brings foreign lands : md offering, Horus gives to the workshop r5ij T, sycamore wood 11215,8. of the Valley of Myrrh 11195,3 ;a cauldron is set upon a fire of

gardens and 9]


loss lack . WbIT281*(1-4)MK D. 18 DG 263A ili Care, anxietY Cr. 149a; CED 75 *,KH 515



In, that nhw is identical to 3hw 'pai grier (Wb 1 12,4-6)and nhw has the clear su'ggests

meaning'loss'forn Literary and autobiographical texts.It is not commonat Edfu : MI offeringsof a nome, so .. I
4= %J-A L-1 '"

-jF, -qr

thereis no lack thcrein'IV24,8.



to protect
Wb 11285 (1-3) NK

The verb is probably related to nlip 'to care for' (Wb 11284,15-16 D. 19) and possibly also'to grieve J for' (Wb 11284,17) though at Edfu the determinative ac. , caring which is envisaged : Horus isNhp with her spells 1 133A . The noun nhp 'Protector(Wb Il 285,4) also occurs : Horus nhp Wd3t VI 65,3 (parallel to (parallel njity) VI G, 1Dj shows that it is active and forceful Behdet

Wd3t (Egypt) VI 65,3 ; Isis rij, fi,

US 00 A-A n mwt. f VII 310.11; Ptah is D 4T-8 nhy) ; Horus nj n

v ru 4.. X-i 325,9; Ptah againis 13,,. P " Ir

protectorof the sun disk of gold V 352,3.5 also

3 cr

[notedin ZAS 87 p.49 n. mm] greatgod in Edfu 1118,9 and

early morning , rise early

(5-8) verb D. 18 Wb 11284(9-12)morningPyr. 284, , in From Pyr.978 ri] 11: G is usedoften for 'early morning, perhaps distinctionto dw3 which is later, nhp is first light whenpeoplestartto wakeup andthe sunbeginsto rise. Ng= : the title of thefirst ritual of the day for Horus,evenbeforethe dw3-nJr rite, is dw3-R1M 13 11121,6 when the soulsof the cast sing to him 10th LE nome,the moon god shows , himself as an old man z-- 'Cil 00 IV 30,3 [Vernus,Athribis p.239 n.n] ; the sun is a child
13 IV 56,12 ; lusas rejuvenates the king like Khepri =MU0 0 1482,15 the doors of Wetjcset are opened rn 9715M ral 1503,12 ; Aturn is a child I= 61 ra a

1345.3 ;S opdu is 'protector of

the birth of the morning, whose rays illumine the Two lands' VII 162,.2-3 Rituals seem to begin at nlipw which is the period of time before d%v3. -U a Verb : M0L 11pri m dw3 Whepri rises early in the morning' 1574,2-3 TJ2'Q Cl nlrw r

dw3.f the godsrise early to praisehim eachday ' VI 2,1 ; guardians Osiris M of the land like Re 1200,17.
In a phrase : Akhu Z23""a dw3. k 1115,2 ; also rj"L3

13 01

to illumine

of the whole earth rise early becauseof him at morning VII 88,10. praises



to rise up , revive Wb Il 283 (9) to 284 (2) D. 19

7be verb nhp is derived from nhp'carly morningas the time when people and gods)rcvive and 'rise up' to begin their day, in use from NK texts. Intransitive In medical texts, the verb applies to blood vesselswhich pulsate (FCD 135) and an Wu IA, e

texts describes the bird pools of a nome r313 ,,,

m rsfw 'pulsating with birds and fisW IV

196,34. The verb can also be 'be erect!: Min eatslettuces;aA 'my 'my limbs are revivC4Tor 'his phallus
Fj a

-A is crcct` 182.13 ; also as a sexualmetaphor the flood F30'* j phallus of 4LaA. . 102,2; also copulates with the womb (field) andproduces millions of children'111

581,15.Still ratherambiguously in offering incense. 'your noseis refreshed the odour rAU"Cl : at h'-ib. k Il 42.13-14; ra a revived'or-w

1531,4alsocould be 'you are revived/ or your phallusis

Incense offeredto Ptolemy11 is could be a determinative. and Arstnoe, we cat OU s'h,. 1msn our mummiesare revived by them' IV 148.17(has to be n

your offering rzl 0

revive here). 'I

The sexual implications are reflected in the term rnnhp 'aphrodisiae and nbp has this nuance from OK texts (Wb 11284,34) 'to begat, to copulate' (c f. FCD 135 - BD 2242) where it is used of , bulls, with the explicit determinative
M 13

In a rnnhp offering at Edfu. Min is called 'lusty bull

may you mount and may your power be great' 1398.7. This meaning of the verb seems #to beget copulate! Cr. 243b ; CED It 7. ,
1,7 . .

to have become Copti C t4OYL&


1; to r ci oice

Wb 11285(7-18) Pyr. DO 221,11 c f. Cr.I 50a ; CED 76 ; KH 82 'to bellow' of lions The song at the triumph of Horus usesnhm'to describethe feelings of the singers,'women of ' Busiris Dcp r-j M ,I at'H'orus n.k we rejoice at you' VI 82,9-16; women of Pc and

'us VI 83,2-3.The determinative a womanplaying a tambourine of at Hor

is a musical form of rejoicing At the festival, peoplehn 'sing'and suggestsnhm . V



I 'rejoice!V 34,10; these goddesses

V of rejoicesingingfor the mistress goddesses' 6,4.

Thereis alsoa nounnhm 'gladness, rejoicing'notedby Gardiner[JEA 39,1953 p.20 n. zz line of,
A4 '

Horemhab Coronation text, 'great and small


seized upon gladnessl and occurring

1 1 01 R 'rejoicing the at Edfu : in festivals O: pervades city' IV 3,8 ; 'the temple with rejoicing' IV 17,5. In the abstractbw. nhm : roadsareinjoy M= 54.7.

it hasunited

k1jr-h3t. k and rejoicing is before youIV

in nhm is more frequentat Dcndera, which is calledhwt-nhm and Philae,whereit is associated particularwith Hathor.


awake , awaken Wb Il 287 (3-9) Pyr. DG222,2 Cr.245b; CED118; KH136 Nelce" NQ

The meaning of nlis is clear from its determinative and its early uses Wb does not record any the verb later than the 25th dynasty, but the verb is used at Edru, providing a link examples of between late texts and Coptic. 'to awake' : Re is F3'0 q fillone who awakens and joy comes into existence' 1503,34

'to watch over' with hr, later texts - P.Leiden T 32 V11.9[Stricker, OMRO 37,1956p.58] ;

Taharqa pl. 22,9


and m 'he watches over the protection

[Taharqa p. 53 n.59

btpw rq 4t!).' n3

hr 'they watch over their places'VI 273.5 (though this is parallel

jo ti tp -could be 'they are awake in/upon their places); the children of Horus st. sn also VII,..27,4.


Seth Vb11287(14-16)D.18oft GR

(TT The oldestcomparable exampleof this term is from the 18thdynastytomb of Amenernhet 82) '15*15; _is the Hippopotamus Tomb of form Sethwho is huntedby Horus [Gardiner-Davies, where


Amenernhetp29 and pl. I]. This may be related to a term used in the Amduat to mfer to a god in the' front of the sun barque.Sethcould be envisagedin the prow of the boat of Re in later texts and it may to his role here. In this case it may also be connected to nhs I)e awake [so Piankoff. Tomb' refer RamessesVI p.234] but Hornung noted that the spellings are diffc=t awake [Amduat 11p.22.49 and index for examples,always spelled for nbs 'SeW and nbs 'to be Ea , '*r"; 3 WbU

287.12-13]. If the sun boat god and hippopotamusnhs are connected than the equivalence between them may be much older, the hippo may come first, then the sun boat god. In Amduat a sceptre with a Seth head is ra thus Amduat Nr. 753 (text 178) in the 12Lhhour - where Seth and ,

nhs are already the same(Amduat 11p. 172 n.753 also Blok. Acta Or.6,1928 p2w n.3 for watching role of Seth ] [in general : Goyon , RdE 20,1968 p.91 n.24 ; te Velde Seth p. 150 n. 12 and p. 149 , Stricker OMRO 37 1956 p.58 VIII 9; Vernus; Athribis p.244 n. (a)). A much older term, is . ,

pr-nhs with a striking man determinative (CT VII 250p spell 1028) which Zandee trarislates 'House of Copulation' and connectswith Seth RAS 90,1963 p. 1541. I

In GR temples nhs is a word for Seth in animal form which is destroyed in some way 71c word . occurs often in the phrase wnp nhs rn st-wnp, which is done by Horus; and thus is an epithet Of him Z, ra ""L ,5-r3 '6 11 11,2-3 . MR 4L IV 18,11 IV 58.5 P AL IV

VI 152,5-6 50,15

IV 44,8 and variant, Horus enters st-,wnp r wnp IV 10.9.

the temple is st-wnp nt wnp *B'r;3 '*, , ,-

In the 10th LE nome shr

VI 40,3 ; in the Sokar Chamber, the guardians repel (stnm)

from I lwt-sr 1196,1; in the Myth, Isis speaks to the 'child fighting with tr ra zr 0 M-a VI 73,4-5 Pro-hes [so JEA 29.1943 p. 151; people hear the shrieks of as he is killed VI

79,10. ' by A seriesof scenes entitledwnp-nhs andmostof theserites areperformed ft king for Horus, are In andboth havewarrior epithets. particular,Horusis connected eitheras k1tr-kir with the harpoon, or Ud. wr andpl.90 showshim wiLhT emblemon his crown: ra commcnts Reymond JEA 51,1965p.1451 also Iv of ; , tr 516- V 296,7-17; !T &tr IV 374,16-375,13 , . IV234,7.235,4[sce IV 77,14-78.9

VII 167,15 168,11 ra P lw ; *44


VII 308,6-16 and once Opuris himself performs the slaughter r"J kinj'Wc-irs a

V 1297.12-17. The

''crown (or sim.) andI stabs thIenose or rear of the Seth animal with -aharpoon


o e'!

(pl. 107 Ist rcg) or like Onuris he wears the four plumes on his head (pl. 154 2nd reg. ; pl. 134

14th col. ). Both Horus and'the king have warrior epithets and describe the killing of Seth. In return king receives strength to do this and the rule of Egypt and destruction of foes. One text srn3 lip the .

with a similar scene,begins

block! 111188,5-6. m. nmt'is on the slaughter


to pray , ask Wb 11288 (11) to 289 (10) Lit. MK

nh is a wish or prayer for something to god. It therefore expressesa hope that cannot be fulfilled by human action but requires divine intervention. It is not a 'prayer' of adoration, that is dw3, but a prayer for the intercessionof god in the ordinary world. This is understood in the word but not always specified [ in general seeGebct in LA II col.452 - 459]. Used from MK Lit. [also GAS 361and at Edfu as listed in Wb. Jkj With noun obiec : gods and goddesseshr everyone lir for life ... e_ hddNvt pray for his light 115,6-7 people hr hr bm. k pray

snb nb pray for all health 1450,13 X0 _x f

1164,2 the Gate of Giving Maat is for

the Lord of Life! VIII 162,16-17 ; the sun rises for them I from him (for the sign BIFAO 43,1945 p. 129) IV 19.8. With suffix abjW : sunfolk hr

in. ' nb 'n -'praying for life from V A. m-IJ at their praying for life

111164,10 ; sun folk hrl; -k! 5 r' nb

m-'. f V

41,8 ?
With followine vcrb : all lands hr Without obica : 'men rn-Ow women , pray to see you IV 227,16. children h. bb ' 188,10. r

The word is used in dw3-njr and sn-t3 texts especially and the word is most often in parallel with i3w, sn-t3 and dw3.

fierce Wb 11290(5-14) Mcd. cf. N Lk dangerous (0) KH 526 become

Gardinersuggested meaning'contrary perversefor n3 [GAS 48 from causative]and it may the , havethe root h3 'back',with the n-prefix 'to the back' literally, that is perverse thusdangerous. and


for in the medical sense it is best The use in medical texts confirms that it is something abnormal hied. p.471-2) and nU is a term for translatedas 'uneven' (as opposedto m3"straight, smooth'Wb 'illness'. is usedas an adjective : of voice, Scth gives out At Edfu the word does not occur often alone and Att'"Ti-I VI 119,5 In the epithet nh3-drd 'fierce pupil (of eye)', Mehyt is a fearsomeroae -*'N'who cats to satiety' VII 160,2 ; Mchyt is red eyed and . eyeball against disloyal ones V 302,16.

wild of


fierce face - of Apopis and Seth NVb11290(15-18) BD

In funerary literature n3-tr is an epithet of demonswho inspire fear, for example Lhemessengers of Osiris [CT 111304f; c.f. CT VII 1090] and as one of his forty-two judges JBD 125, also Zandee, ' Death p. 109]. A further text implies n.22 ; sec also L 11364SchreckGesicht]. At Edfu nb3-r is always an epithet of Seth : in the Myth the explanation is that Seth uttered a' 1brw. nb3 and Re says, Vhat are the cries of -)tf 9- 1 ?'VI 119.6 s.In a wnp. nhs scene,', Horus hw ""*`% -IL-0 10 a* IV 78,9 ? 14 VI 67.5 also as a crocodile form 'Terrible Face IV 214,1 ; in serpent form 1 69A both in meat' , is an evil spirit [CT I 208a and FCET 144

[JEA 29, p. 101 ; in a hippopotamus text ng3 )9 'I3rb'orv'vl%. is slain with the harpoon VI 160,10 ; Horus bums

offerings-,in general


is subjugated the pchuof the 19thLE nomeIV 39.1 in

nh3-hr a0

floodwater (21) GR Wb 11290

1 I

*Jt. 0 "*E A In the Ilth LE nome , the canalcontains Dendcra, Dum. GI IV 117

2t 'flooding the rl'-lds' IV 30.8 '. COPY

hasan carlicrcxannpleofwhatmay, An carlicr textalso


be this term :*



of 12,1 The word may affirm the connection Lit. .

formsof Scth. the epithet00-hr with watcr animal

nh3h3 00



form of nD3: in theMyth, Sethuttersa terriblecry andtheplacewherehedoesthis A reduplicated is cafled .C. 2 rA 9 rW'j placc fearsome cries'VI 119.7. of


God Nchcb-ka Wb 11291 (7-13) and (14) to 292 (3).

The exact translation of nb is uncertain, as suggestedby the range in FCD 136 'harness, yoke, combine (k3 attributes), appoint, provide, requisition' [with references JEA 33, p.23 n.b ; RdE 10. p. 14 n.3 ; Ch.B. I p.35 n. 1]. It almost always is followed by U or k3w and its antonym is nbm 'take away' prompting the translationAo give, to loan' [LA IV col. 388]. , U. DAt Edfu rib is used With U: the king n bik 'you supply the ka of the falcon (md text) VI 102,3 ; Horus X U& m nirw 1549.14 ; Horus

and thesepeople on earth 1461,18 (13bt) ; Horus is

(rp iljt text) 111126,3.

The god Nchcbkau is attestedfrom the PTs and can be both favourable and dangerous[Zandee,Death 98-100]. He is often a protective serpentand like other serpentgods can be associatedwith fertility p. the idea of 'supply' the ka. with requirements fits this., Faulkner was and creation, and perhaps influenced by a noun nhbw 'yoke oxen' [FCD 136] in his translation 'combine attributes' [see seminal study of Shorter, JEA 21,1935 pAl-48 Up to MCLLStela, also LA, IV 388 to 390]. As a god of nutrition the most instructive representation of the god shows the nbb-k3w snake feeding the dead man who is revived, here he has the epithet nb-!df3w [Mysliwiec, Atum I p.97 from a mummy cartonnage]. The festival orNchcbkau is'listed atEdfu too: q=19A8-. month of Akhet V 35 1,1. R around wp. rnpt in the fourth


taxable people Wb 11293 (15) GR

Wb cites two referencesto this group of people : Horus gives the king bringing their their goods to your treasury 1132,1 ; sim.

of all lands Urk VIII 33f. This must

derive from the verb njib (NVb11293,3-7), which can be translated 'to requisition"to harness' and a


noun nbbw 'yoke oxen' (Wb 11293,14 MK) [FCD 136 for boLh) and are an apicultural worker of somekind.


neck Wb 11292 (9-16) Pyr. DG 223,7 -Z P,

Cr-243a; CED 117; KH 135 shoulders,neck N6-Z6F-, M7-S1 Tableau 23 p.231.'At' The term refers to the whole neck from medical and magical texts ULefebvre, Edfu : the third harpoon sticks in the neck of the VI 67,9 ; Isis bids Horus eat iwf 9\1.1' hippopotamus 1A 14L VI 66.10 ; 4:

bwt pw nt m%t 'flesh of the neck'-

the abomination of womenVI 66,13-67.1 UEA 29,1943 p. 10 n.f 1.

In a Pronaos describing columns text the there,metaphorically their heads firm andthereis never are 'SA of any weakness

111260,1 sim -2;



lotus bud

Wb 11294 (2-3)Pyr. 71c later form of this word is nbmt. nb refers to the flower bud of the lotus and is clearly the (Wb 11293,17). termcanalsobe usedof columnswith lotus The sameas nDbt the lotusbud sccptre (y) capitals[Arch.Abousir11435 At Edfu : the pehuof the 15Lh nomecontains LE ILA Ij of plants includes 1,1orl IV 34.7 (spt in parallel) a list

28,1-2; Osiris is greetedwiLh-111.1 -c in Nun VI with

213,16.Relatedto this may be oneof the sacred nome plantsof the Sebennytos in the 9nd trce 1333,8(listedseparately Wb 11294.5).


to fashion, create, build Wb 11295(1-5) D.21 GR ,

The verb nh derivesfrom the nounnDp 'the pottceswhccl' and represents. only the physical not .p 'but of methodor makingthingson a whecl, -is closely connected with the cosmogony Khnum,who, for I fashioned his potter'swheel.Tbc earliestreference np, the ascreatorgod, mankindon


from Admon.2,8, but from tombrepresentations expertshaveidentifiedeight typesof wheel.The dyn. the mostcommonis a but earliestfrom the Sthdynastyis usedto makevessels, from the 12Lh standwith a wide, flat surface tableon top of it. which is turnedby onehandwhile theothermoulds I L. the vessel[El-Bershch pl.25 ; for techniques technology VI 616-621]. and As a methodof creationnp is normallyassociated Horusat Edfu : br nbp.f IV 143 with X- Horus is WM 'who madethe gods'111 108,8; and is directly associated a with, Z Khnum -'he was first ",! nirw 1477,11 ; he r nbp 111116,5-6 'strongof arm ; divine living flesh 1477,7 ,I ff no 15M nirw 173,14 ; lie-

herds,flocks, birds, reptile, fish I

147,9 The Builder gods ]-kci the templeIV 7,6. . t9 d The ir-t3 snake (fashioned created creators potters)1137,10;

of building the

temple1328,5 alsoat Dendtra,Philae, Assoun[62,4] andearliestexample the verb from Wb is of Dyn.22. The verb is closelyassociated linm 'to builS, for both areconnected with with Khnumandboth are importantin the cosmogonical texts relating to the primevalconstruction the temple[in general of from which the templeevolved] MOET pp. 181 202 214 219 for the fashioning an enclosure of , , . T 1;'Aj Y VI 173.5also ; the wall of the temple nn r nfy IV 352,17 npw nn in k3-njim IV 331,9 - this sign is probably to be read as nop , but note that linm is once written Re IV 330,15- so the two verbsare closelycorinceted. declares that the great 'speedy construction' this nameis appliedto that wall sin and of T IV 353.17 VI 320,12; Seshat doesthis too sin 7:E-)
i If% gn.

!A E7 7 is sin enclosurewall VI 18,9-10 VI 168,13-14

sin-rilip). Thereare puns with nhp too: the first gods

pr pn R'

Dr nlip. f 'build this houseof Re uponhis wheel'VI 18,56. The power of k is given to the shebduVI 183,11and the templeis bw 11r. construction VI the placewith you fashioned 176,4.


p9tter'swheel Wb 11294(9-12) Lit. MK

on np occursin punswith nbp'to fashion'(1y., for generalcomments the potter'swheel) : nbp.f jy-11 (HB) IV 14,1; nhp.w pr pn n R' hr VI 18,6; in contrastto ]in m brIC!


T VI 173,3: 194113 VI 320b -,thc'hnmw godsare united y to build', god buildshis house upon "Y upon Shaiupon 111355,12In a uniquetext, Horusis one'who first created . VI

92,17[QuacgcbcuerShalp.841.In a brick makingtext, 'cverythingwhich comesforth lives upon , 1161,5. the contexts, buildergodsarenot shownat the wheei Thoughallusionis madeto the wheelin these theyappear. whenever


the creator

Wb 11295(7) GR
Wb cites : Wien Wrez. 130 as the only reference but at Edfu the tenn is applied, not t6

Horus or Khnum, but it is the name of the first of the scvcnILnmw/nbpw Builder gods : ]Aj'yo

"41 -49 VI 185,3 321,6: ;

111317,15 VI 327,11.

113 '2-"k finishesMescnas a work of eternity VI 173.11*. IV 353,11 Khnumhowevercanbe called

The seven constructor gods are called synonymously ILnm%,and no pw : v 173.5 here ; '9ki also 0-0 VD. nn ;






hp nn Or nfy IV 352.17. All of these godsare

shown as ram-headed,perhapsin fact, as aspectsof Khnum.


ball of dung

Wb 11294(13) D.19
npw is used in the phrase is,U-npwopcn the ball of dung'as a euphemism for the rising of the

sun (Assmann, Der KOnig als Sonnenpriestcr.Glackstadt, 1970 p.23-25). 7be oldest example of the IIi., 1r 'breaking the diung-ball opening the disk' with the phrase is CT VII 93i : sdt , parallel between np and itn. The term occurs from this time onward and often at Edfu , becauseOf

the solarnatureof Horus In the morning hymn wb3-nDpw is part of a repeated refrain: Horus 15,30; 16.45; 17,30; 18,45 IV 16,7 , m Nwt 114.15';

115,28 - and this is mademoreexplicit I 21b ; Re

Horus wb3 ntip n N%%, topens tha dung-ballin the womb of Nut! 1481,17; or as a beetle

'betweenthe thighsof Nut'141,7 ; or%041


in the mtem horizon1231.15;ZI 53,2 ; or wb3. n. f

in in the Eastand Khepri appears the vulva of Nut III

M-bnt St-wrt 111186,5-6. in in the womb of Nut and itn appears

ntpw is usedin parallel with other terms: Re N03 the easternhorizon 1304,6 ; Horuswb3S an epithetof Hor6i also ; Horus-rJ of the terraceis 'to seeitn. f C1 f

andhe showshimself in the morningIV 11,2. As 1579,5-6-,VIII 92,5

VI 253,11; wb3

in the sky 193,7-8.A damaged has: the stair to the roof text 't: ; lf-u7i/// disk as a ball' 1551,9 his .

it Assmarm not translate termbecause would not do justice to the Egyptianideasinherentin did the the phrase.The act of wb3-n4p occurseven beforethe sun rise - it is the actual birth of the sun beetleand so is like the ball of the dungbeetlebreakingopento allow the yo+eetle larvaeto 'be

born'. Technically%03-nlip is alsothe first act in fashioningvcssels a potter'swheel- the lump on -of mud or clay has to be brokenopenbeforeit can be workedand a vessel'created'or 'born'. No them in one image [seealso Alliot , Culte I English word coversthesetwo ideasand incorporates p.122 n.2].


pots for milk Fairman ZAS 91 1964 p.8-9 ,

UE One example is known:, the pehu of 12Lh. nome bringsIT 116.2 (in IV 183,13-14 b3w
A., ^'^ V

will 'filled k-with white milk! V

j Fainnan alsq postulat(that nbrq is a verb 'to extract miW Hr-Sh3t VII



IV 272,7-10 (= MD 11152,21, milk

nfq 'to suckic' milk). see-rq 'to drink milk'.

Mt-wrt CD V 150,9-20as transitive of last (causeto extract n


to take away , rescue, save Wb 11295 (12) to 297 (4) Pyr. DG 223,2 13 ) *--: -' NoyZM6, t4OZC-M"

Cr.243b; "CED118; KH135


is used at Edfu, as in Wb and often with the underlying sense of 'save, , with the aim of nrn keeping something whole and sourd. In the Sakhmct litany. she is called to : bwA sw srb-t sw- 'protect him, help him, preservehim !'(of the king) VI 2640 VI 265,4 also

4,7 --- aL-J bm. k b'w. k 199.6. in this text. Parallel with wd3 also: Ux sm-jJ3.1 and passim .1 With m-1: -11L u--Jwjj3V. 1& qn. s 1139.12; 4Q::P 1175.1 ; Osiris nb dw "1 MI-11 16.10

k 1209,15 ; Thoth 40--j*u' Hr m-1 Stb VI 135,7 ; Horus Dftyw. cL

the uracus

IV 52,3 -.Horusas Lord of Maat m -' from otherdangerous snakes

12) m 'w3y m-' Sth savesthe robbedone from Seth VIII 7.1.
With r: -



sbiw 1 37.4. r shr Pfy 1 188,6.

Isb and rmoves blindness IV 29,4.

With r+ infinitive : ,; ) ic2:

'To'remove': Horus openseyesand

f. ntm in many of its uses is perhapscomparable to the idea of Oco; crWTnP1c. Ouo. GuM p.371

and the spellingwith the lotussign is from ntrnt lotus.


night night VII 278,10 (quoted by Fairman . ZAS 91.1964

'Sun and moon shine by day and

p. 111and is connected with the the problematic phrase rl. nb tr nm. f. This word may be derived from the phrase or ntrn 'night! could be understood when written so that the phrase can be'

day at his night! ? the lotus being a prefemd writing as it gives a double entcndre. translated'every


be like resemble ,

Wb 11298(1-10)Pyr. oft GR
nhr is first aucsted in PTs ( 1693) and then not often until ft GR temple texts wh= variant on similar verbs such as twt-r. With direct obiect: msnty qn A sw nb Msn IV 58.1 ; tcmple'! '74 -A ns 41 it is like it provides a

the Horizon of Akhty IV 6,8 : the temple pt D_r b3. f 1 144,4. With r columns of the temple Ifyt. k <=o "k "4

rt ILr 'py. k 1108,8

1299,5 ; temple

hmt IV 14,10 ; ns -c=>

'*in' h3y 'seeing them is like papyrus swamps! V 6,1-2 ; 33 st r


enclosure wall Possiblycausative 108,10. In cosmogonicaltexts


sbt nV

VI 14,6.

r nsw j1r-nbt 'you are madeto be like king Horus Nakht! I

2, ' V1329,4; Seshat*114.1'c0: VI 329,8; Horussm bw-titf

VI 329,6, nis in Hr hf m ifdw VI 330,6.


- 1. also compare

nrrD andrDr Wb 11442(3) - MD11121v. MDIII73d ,

Wb 11299(1) Pyr. D.19GR

nr4r occurs as early as the PITs(Pyr. 799 ; 1720) . at Abydos (Sed 1) and at Edfu. It is always followed by ib and is an emotion of the heart, a reduplicated verb which may underline the intensity of the feeling. though a root nr or r with a lesser nuance is not indicated. All examples in Wb and most from Edfu use the verb in the same way: Pyr. 799-1 rJM 2 ib nirw m. hfw. k 'the

heartsof the godsrejoicenearyou' ; sim 1720; Abydosusesthe object m-hsf irt-Hr <35> Room D and this is followed by mostof the Edfu texts
presenting myrrh, of Horus and mLL cl '" I't m ID m-bsf cz> V2 your eye -I'll 40,12

m-bsf. Irt-R' 1389,3

; at the boiling of Eye

m-hsf. s 1555,15 V 68,8-9 ; putting myrrh on fire -r

; in a mIL offering to Ptah it- at what comes from

= 4=p tV. 8,4c=: X.

VII 59,16-17- to rejoice?

Only one text shows signs that the range of the verb was finally being extended : -m sty 'your heart rejoices with the smell of incense' VI 306,2-3. The determinative in PT "*


suggeststhat nhrhr may be related to verbs such as nh -showing

heart pounds, in later texts this is causedby the effect of incense [Sethe, a gesture of calling out'the Pyr. Komm. IV p.241.There is also a verb nhn from Pyr. 1233 and CT 1154 (FCD 137) 'to rejoice' be a root for nr4r. The reduplicated form of the verb suggeststhat it is a strongly felt which may emotion.


mcmity, Wb 11299(2) to 302 (9) Pyr.




Cr.57a; CED 36; KH 37 C-NEZsl nb is periodic time (day, years) and also the period of life after death. When personified rib is masculine. it is equated with Re, thus the day and morning sun in particular. It is the bcginnini. Akhet - the horizon connectedwith the ba with time as an unending number of cycles, it represents

the eternalcontinuation thefirst time [seealsoAt for comparison). of

A comparison of nD and At which is particularly emphasisedis that nbb is for nsw and At is for ad bit : the king is nsw w3o Tr ea IV 12.2; Ir IV2,8also: or 101 sim. M nsl jG1 I

IWN in Wctjesct Horus IV 14,3 ; Osiris gives EO


232,16; the king rests nsw Also: 101 11122,7.

m nsw dt m bit on the throneof Horus 1130.16-17 kinj is

hr. k jit m-bt. f (it is pre-etemity)1146,3; 1103,17


for Iva


r psty 1284,15. Usesof nhh are as listed in Wb q.v. also it-nhh [see LA 147-54 ; Zabkar, WES 24,1965 Zeit undEwigkeitpassim. : god of Edfu do not die or grow weary ] p.77-83 ; J.Assmann, ev da! tk * 1382,15 ; annalsare inscribed IV 279,11*.sim. JU31 IV 16,5- Horusgives to the',, king ptr I *I 1-: N m gr IV 137,13-14as pcrsoniricadons'. m hrw dg3 n


type of myrrh Wb 11291 (6) Mod., GR nt3s-'wy ?

listed by Wb Drog. 310A substance

i, rrAP. =. (H37) is groundwith mrbt and the Edfu texts %! 'listedas a type of 'n ty-w11'

mentiona term which may derivefrom this: 206,9 ; also

Il 206.15Ana muchlaterrdit-Intyw on the fire Horus holds, , to which seems be a form of nbs with a misunderstood correctly written lw' or

endingVIII 141,8- but it is clearlythe same word.



Ntsy is the word in EgyptianforNubian'and in later textsNs can standfor Nubia.It rcfcrs to the black peoplesouthof Egypt (Wb Il 303,3-8people, Wb 11303.12land in GR textsonly)lt is not


necessarily a 'bad' term, some Egyptians had the personal name P3-nbsy , perhaps because of Nubian ancestry (Ranke PN 1113 np. 13 ; 209 no. 4 and 5 for example) and indeed Nubians brought expensive and exotic tribute. They were a foreign race and as such theoretically hostile, and for this reason Seth can be called p-nbsy at Edfu : sm3-bftyw, the kingholds the rope and he has tied up 149,18 ; in the Myth Horus has slain C1 VI 86,11 ; Horus , 'R'IP 'Behold says to the hippopotamus: mk twm your are the Nubian in 1jnt-Dn-nfr VI 69,9 --"[JEA 29 p. 12 n.d]. I C, ja 'VII

nhd a

be strong

Wb 11303(16) GR
The term nLid derives from nlidt'Looth'(Wb Il 304,5-8) and refers to the hardnessof teeth or fangs: !k 1; a lion gargoyle has Iswt 'strong teeth' IV 111,11 and from this use it can be applied to 111127,9 =D-

other parts of the body , particularly the arms : the king


111137,8. Equally Horusas a harpooner: with his harpoon h pY as a bull VII 283,14; and Montu is 4 Urk

111137,11 -C4 ; veVIII 198i.

k tA lion gargoyle is : = t.

strong of body IV 286,14-15, extending the use of the verb.


type of myrrh Wb 11304 (3) and ndt (4) Mod.

The Ebers Papyrus has both the masculine and feminine form of this unknown drug, but the difference between them, if any, is obscure [Wb Drog. p. 311-2]. Ebbell rendered nd 'gum It is not related to ndt 'teeth' Germer reaffirms that this only occurs in Med. texts ammoniac' . . [Arznci p. 178-9, reiterated by Westendorf FsBerlin (1974) p.252 with an example from a Ptolemaic , medical text P.Bcrlin 10456 8.8 texts, in lists of types of myrrh is for your nose IV 250,12-13
with b drk

it is often mentionedat Edfu : in Yms.'ntyw m dt-f VI 251,8 ;

'0. "7C ak 9141 .

its fragance

VII 210,17also; ir-snir text, mn-wr is mixed

d, and its scentis for your noseVIII 102,4-5; putting myrrh on the fire, Horus sr . ,: 9 Nj '0 s and holdsnh. o:VIII 141,7-8(so it is not an error for walks in Wd ntt and he receives *&


this). Tbe components of the funcrary offering include food. drink. bdt and include meat V 230,14 ; in the laboratory substances '13 11193.5-6.


nbd is a fragrant type of myrrh from Wdntt and is burnt at funcrary offerings.


fangs teeth , Wb 11304(5-8) OK Apis Ritual XI, 12 ti -3 J-

Cr.249b*, CED119: KH137 nbdt is formed from an n-prefix addedon to bd'white [Edcl, AG 256 A p.391 and rcfers to te

teeth of men and animals - from the determinative %-- a tusk of an clephant. It is used after lb4w

it different typesof texts andiswt. Lcfebvresuggests is a word for'molars!but is usedthroughout [Ufebvre, Tableau20p.20]. Blackman Fairman it and suggested maybe 'eyeteeth'ortanine tcth' in view of the connectionwith the tusk (MG pA2 n.961 : in the morning hymn to wake Horus :Iswt. k m-'b 116 (7). arebadeawaken

nh .0

to establish f. Wb 11305(9) GR to approve the special possession land for someone of

Wb cites one example from LD IV 27,6 Z aaC. ---

X V. 1ae a-2;,; j

a granite stela bw. twl and an 11r nb

at Philac (Ptolemy VII) and translatedas 'protection' by Brugsch 111ungersnot 76 p. example from Edfu in a crook and flail offering : 'I give you qm3t bb-sd the crook and flail 'established'as Horus Lord of thellebSeX1480, be 'protect' or 'protection'. 0

ID-11 -heretooitcould


'flail Wb 11306(11-14) Pyr.

The earliestrepresentations the flail are from ft Narmerpalette(recto)andit maintains form this of througho6tEgyptian history. It is hold by the king in the left hand and the crook in his right. It consistsof a handleattached the top of which are threestrips of concs,cylindcrsor drop shaped to It including Min , but mainly with Andjety - Osiris . and pendants. is associated with variousgods


thus is attributed to deceasedpeople from MK coffin frises. The flail is also seen in the sigr419pS (GG A51) from the late MK. It could be a shepherd'swhisk, an emblem of birth, or a device for gathering ladanum [c. f. Fischer in LA 11516-517 GeiBell. In a later mythological cycle it was stolen by Baba from Heliopolis where it was kept as a relic [Cauville, Essai p.29 n.5 ; ZAS 90,1963 p.22-251.

At Edfu the flail is most often found in the ritual offering of crook and flail and the two are a Re complementary for thecrook represents (sun)andthe flail is Osiris (moon).They areoffered pair to Horus : s'r 382,18-383,13 ; tink JM 1434,5-12; di aaA 1 147,14-148,3 to Osiris OnklA I ; 1480,6-481,5- in

11284.7-13 to Khonsudi

kingship,tributeof foreignlandsandin connection die thesecases king receives with nbb, he is nLh Also 'rejuvenated' (like the moon)and receives manyheb-seds the symbolof kingly rejuvenation. impurity. OnceHorushimselfprebents A body Id andremoves the flail makesthe to the king

A iYd tree (this is parallel to a mks/irnyt-pr offering) 1290,9-18 Ysp who sits under the pl.29b.
The flail can also be offered alone : di aoA world 11281,9-18 ; once to Min nk 0*0 to Horus in the treasury , and the king rules the 1404,14-405,8.

In the offerings the king usually wears the Double Crown and offers the crook and flail either on a basket


(pl.3I b) or one held in eachhand(pl.35c , pl.22a). The king wearsalso the

White crown, the atef or hmhmty (pIA5b and 32a) - signs of kingship . Where the texts specify the flail is held in the right hand. It is a symbol of kingship and renewal. Spellings : 04b 1% and in puns with nhh'renew'; .W t3m hpt '3t 'rule ? the earth for a

11281,15. The, flai I appearsin descriptions of gods: Horus raised of form holding a0A great span' IV 5,3 ; when he triumphs over Seth he receives of the flail VI 152,6 ; f3i-' wjsA left VI 21,6, Min-Amun holds O"'D A F-e A he is also q=r VI 83,11 he is , in his right hand andl ruler in his

A1579,5. Osiris holds

in his right hand and his phallus in his left VI 22.2

1402,15. Min is always shown holding the the flail in his hand ,

his arm raised high into the air which seemsto have been the correct way to hold the flail. with

nh v

to protect


Wb 11304 (9-13) MK
In origin pcrhaps nb is an n-prefix on bw 'to proted also common at Edfu, especially in the phrase nb m3r rn-' wsr 'protect the weak from the strong': Horus V 263.3 I&%. VIII

: * 107,15;

VIII 163,1-2.
qlbqicJ imyw. b3t VII 45.8 ; nh 4a*'0'j4kJ

In puns with nby 'protectoe : Horus nDy wr vy goddesseswith his wings 111112,2. In other contexts : the king is made strong q4 -j the cult images VIII 133,2.


the Two Lands 1147,9 -,the temple br

nb is the action of the strong who bring help to those who are weak and one text explicitly says, 'Horus<zx> &-J of one burdenedwith troubles' VII 113,12 -so that as a correct course of action showing someonein trouble and a

it is connected with Maat. Urk IV 48,16 has the determinative

translation such as 'one who assists'might imply the underlying meaning [FCD 137 'succoue].


protector Wb 11304(14) to 304 (5) D.19oft.GR

is derived from the verb nh 'to protect'and it occursoften at Edfu as an cpithet of godsand nhy W qk-jalso 1139.16 Horus king. Most often it describes k-J of his fatherVII 156,7, Ar--j 155,15 Te-q -j 1370,1andcompare him' III of the onewho created qq j 4,17 ; Khonsuis of his father1272,9 Horusis nhy-nfr : Q) nfr 1311.10 W J 416, AeqqJ!; who judgesthis land VII 91.10; U'qfvQ n'fr prows his fatherVI 8,7 ; ---J wr nby imyw-'3'tVII45,8;

944 i ,

in tlwt. qn VII 308.13; he is Gqq 112,2sim. niwt VII 202,6 ; 111 WetjcsctHorus 1495,8 ; "'FqQ4jof mn of 6 of the Black

k-J of n iwt and spwt VIII 122,13-14 Amun-Padjeralso has this epithet 1147,8 goddesses 6 'of

qq 0ki

The godsVII 105,12-13. king

The Land1159,8. gods E'dfu of are


VI 311.5-6 theguardian odsprovide q ; g



VI Re s3 R' fourprotectors gurading on theIsleof Rage 332,7.

to lament, to complain Wb 11305(11-14)MK lamentation Wb 11305(15-16)D. 19and (17) MK- GR

nht %0


The underlying implication is that nb is the mourning of the dead [Speigelbcrg, ZAS 43,1906 p. 133'mouming, grier]. It is used in this way at Edfu.cspe-ciallyin the texts of the Sokar Chamber in parallel with 3y jkb h3w : Nephthys 0 e- "I 1214,10.

they lament for you 1201,12; Oc-U

of the heart 1210,8 ; Busiris 0

Further : Horus says to the king after brw. l is offered srwd. 1 XT 0 -5p-

m ib n sbiw. k 'I

make lamentation great in the heart of your foes' 1171.2.


Wb 11307(3-8) NK, GR

Two typesof lotusareknown in Egypt- the white andblue lotus.The White hasleaves with jagged The the of edges, budandleaves theflowerareroundandtheflower bowl shaped. Bluelotushasround flower. In Egypt both flowers grew throughoutthe leavesbut a tall long bud and a goblet shaped for countryandwerecelebrated their sweetsmell.The word for lotusis zen(et var.) andfrom theNK nbbt refersto the bud, thoughis written with the full lotus flower [Dittmar, Blumenp.47 ff. ]. It is that possiblethat s9n and nbbt were usedto differentiatelotus types, thus it has beensuggested nhbt is Nymphaea nelumbo L. [Food, Gift p.633ff. and LA III col. 1091-1096; Keimer, V Gartenpflanzen 11361. At Edfu it is likely that nbb wasnot a specificlotus but appliedto all kinds and it is the subjectof
an offering ritual nk nbb [Diumar, Blumen p.981. This is most often made to Horus : nk Ott V IV 392,12-393.3 V 50,17-51,13 ;V 149,15-150.10 ;V 342,4-10 VII 78.6-79,4

162,6-163,2; VII 321,5-16. WiLh'Hathor : t: t> V 245,7-17 111185,13-186,2 : with Harsomthus - Onk VI 338.13 - 340.4. In all these texts the offering is reiterated by,

VI 247,10 - 2458,9 ; 0-6 "C'r

king and the lotus is the first lotus which grew from Nun in the lake of fire at Wenct the (Hermopolis). Horus is the child who came from the lotus flower (often called nbbt-wrTJY: VII 79,2 ; VII 162,7-8 ;ooVV VII 321 or r-i a 150,8). Horus himself can be called 00 VI 248,2 and the king is identified with him. In returg Horus gives t

are the kin good thinzq - heran st-nellthe lowce. ofqummor (V 51.11) ind bird roolq and I-akes fult -,; of flowers , the flood is high (VI 248).


The lotus is also offered to Nerferturn as a lotus god : nk 0.1


1183,12-18 who gives 111273,7-13

-7 Y, the attributes of kingship ; Neferhotep, the b3. 'nb serpent of the lotus s'r OD and most appropriately to the Ogdoad nk 00 the Ogodoad : bnk IV 139,11-14 1,11 flowers 0 nk where Re is 9!: )

n p3wtyw tpyw 111312.2-9. or Re and'

t-2511' the Ogdoad are like apes praising him ,

in return for which the king receives fields with plants and

and Re is shown as a child sitting on a lotus V 84,12-86.13 and pl. 113. Here the

Imalgamated into the Hermopolitan lotus myth of creation the sun Heliopolitan sun god Re has bS-. A is the lotus child and as such gives an added dimension to the myth. For, instead of simply child rising from the lotus and creating, as the sun rises he also gives light, drives away darkness and establishesthe world order - so that the Ogdoadcan be comparedto the apeswho adore the rising sun. This imagery is also continued in phrasessuch as - Neferhoiep is b3-'nb in the 'ndt barque 111273 Harsomthus is b3-'nbL-00 in the'nilt barque VII 289,5. upon atef, blue crown - and he holds up

The king wears a variety of crowns - cap and bag wigs, the

in his hands either two lotuses - one in each hand (pl.24a ; 40j), or one single flower (PI.152'. 138). , rj ps s'r One text begins tink sXn n iff c!! n' Bdt 11 104,17 - 105,9 reflecting the fact that, while nLib is used more, s9n is not precluded altogether. The lotus IS described as being made of gold (perhaps like the sun - thus white or yellow in colour) or of real lapis lazuli V 149,15-16 VII 78,6-7. Other spellings: o IV 392,12-13 V 150,9. VIII 36,4 ;a plant came from Nun and the child

Elsewhere at Edfu, mentions are infrequent : lby rises from U0 ofrering 61* JD came at the beginning 194.1 ;00 An ;:)

from it 1289,3 ; Nefertum is

of Sakhmet 199,8 and he wears a lotus crown son -

(pl. 24a) [see also SchlOgl -Der Sonnengottauf der Blate pasim].


landtypc- frcshrield VbIl 308 (8-9) D.18

Ob verb nb meaning'to open up' and so is most Rely to be 'fresh land' 'virgin It land' in contrastto q3yt 'arableland'and tni 'old land' [Wilbour Il pp.28-29 and 178-91. iS not' necessarily the same as m3wt 'new land' however [Vernus, RdE 29,1977 p. 180 n.10]. In


administrative texts it can be more valuable than q3yt land and is flooded each year [Gasse,Donndes nouvelles pp. 185-61. In the temple texts however the term has a particular use - for it is the land upon which the temple is built. It is in this context 'new land' in the sensethat this is 'new' land suitable for the building site of a temple upon which nothing else has been built - it is the first land, the site of the creation : the .0r king pours out sand and db3. i 1_:! ID ) tp-sb I prepare the site to perfection Il 31,16 ; db3

rn nsw for the foundation of the Great Place 111107,2 both in foundation preparation texts. , Also at Dendera Wb notes the spellings c) t. , As this is similar to the word for 'lotus' it

has creative implications - the temple (a creation) rises (symbolically) from nbb.

nhb v

to assign decide , Wb 11307(10-15)D.18

The Sinai inscriptions use the term nbb to indicate the'opening up'of a new gallery or scam in the mines [Sinai Inscriptions 11index p.238] and this may be the underlying meaning of the term. From the 18th D. onward it is used with the meaning 'to stipulate, decide, prescribe' and as this latter translation suggests,once something is decided and written down it cannot be refuted [BonhZeme , BEFAO 78,1978 p.3621.Bonhme suggestedthat nhb was ann-prefix with bb'to make less' fop.cit v p.351-21.Uses at Edu follow Wb: Years and time J!: ) ''w n. k rnpwt trw in 4 163,12 sb rn pwt (Thoth) 127.4 L-1 V? I. VI 92,17,; b VIII 83.1-2; 17 VIII 148.4-5 n. k rnpwt nswt 1180.11

n. k nswt '3t VI 271,8 Thoth 06

VI 94J. gnwty : Thoth 0C

14 VI 337,13-14. Monuments: Horus Jt->: shrines1138,14; king and queen sbmw assigns

Various: Hathor ej ;; *1 to decorate her brother 1279,15 ; Hedjhotep assigns cloth

S WN assigns to dressthe one who begathim 1127,6. cloth With 4r : inscribes With ji: C=> p in spWt r rn. r with nameVI 57,7 k3-f A im. s IV 8,4.

assignnomesto the ka of the king 1167,8.


Others: Thoth the vizier . 4"k ky ejnt.

? n counsel 1116,4; Horuspurifies sources p3 prescribes

it f 'neverhad any other prescribed before him' 1162,8-9[MG 424 n. 117 *0o 'f it wasnot donebeforehim' 11264.14-15. nt.



titulary (1-6) Wb11308 NK DG225,3

I is used fromthetimeof Tuthmosisonward thefeminine A is theNK form Tle ending and nbbt inscribed The termrefers thetitularyof kings (once) to and queens. fides written symbolically are and BIFAO 78,1978 on the ird tree. It is the five names the protocolof the king [Bonheme. of p.350-3601. 11 At Edfu: LLsr. op. nbbt (fromRamessesstcla Abydos Bonheme cit p.3495) theking at 0 C,*N therehasbeenno other1428,6-7. b3t. n. nbbt 'first of titles' - cpithetof Horus:4 bity 1128,1. Ory. nhbt 'at the headof names' Harsiese : nt bItyw 1162,14-15*.Horus e I'% q4b-& nt nsw 12'91,13 nt

1108,19- showingthat heis the first of the linesof descenL


order, decision

Wb 11307 (16-17)D.18 The earliestexampleis Urk IV 835,9[FCD 138stipulation]andntb can be usedat Edfu with this sensc: king saysto the king , oM hr st.s m as the stipuladonof Iboth 152.12-13 ; Seshat

in this land1457.11(assynonym wd'decrce ordain? ). of .


nhb v

to dance Ipt 0 m IV 257.1.2- seems be' to

A brw-' text describes king as 'like Horu's o7 the 'to bepraised, a adored' the Iike andapparently hapax. or




(3-12)Pyr. Wb 11311 DG 226,3 , + p6

nhn refers to a small child and also older boys. nbn are described as 'weak in limbs' still at the W breast of their mother and with their finger to their mouth [LA. III col.4301.The term is used often at ,C Edfu with the same widely varying spellings. In milk offerings : protect 0272,13 siin. 167,16-17 ; raise 6 in his nest IV j PA& CT

on milk 1452,16 ; raise milk to

V 364,13. In a more general sense god is a child alrd) ruler of 0 -Er , 84,5-6.

of temples V

ICM3 In epithets of Horus (who as a child lived in the marshes of Khemmis safe from Seth) : he is in the Great Place V 229.4 ; in tautology rffi"' cow crossing the sky , her son is ja 16 138,2. A text describes the heavenly is the child of Apis and

c, child VI 21,3 ; Horus 13061

the ]Vr-sb3t cow VI 21.4. The sun is a child in the morning time' VIII 92,8 ; sim. au l3w ir V Opr nw. f 'old man who becomes a child at his the child who

lrlu VIII 135,15 ; in the IOLhLE nome, Re QD

IV the night beingconceived 29.8. spends


In general: at the festival,old and youngdance fect' IV 17,8.


-o irw m sntysn 'their infants on their zA m,


to be , become youngchild a Wb 11311(15-18) OK

is derived from the noun and usedat Edfu with the meaning'becomeyoung'. without an nbn J l3w 107 nhb ir bwnw an old man who becomes child, old man who a bpr : Horus auxiliary W becomes young'1 295J.


childhood Wb 11312(2-3) MK

The term is derived from the noun nbn : at Edfu it refers to the childhood of Horus, the king is the T, 'e't'r irn,%, of "ortv; qc by his mother VI 298,9. Ilet. inKhemmiq hidden


nhn v

enemy , opponent c f. Wb 11312 (10) D.21

The earliest cxample of this term is a Papyrus of Neskhons [Nlaspcro, Mem. Miss. 1. Momies Royales p.597.9 - 2,111 Amun is the bull who becomesyoung. '=-.




(Sethian) youths!. This must be the origin of the term at Edfu used to mean foes, perhaps away youth in a bad guise, showing weaknessand deriving from nbn'child':

in the Ifth LE nome Horus

protects his father drov

IV 30,12; net text, fish arc

VI 57.2. Alliot

91-4 [RdE5 p.861,, it translated word as'rebels! the suggested wasa versionof bnn.

nhh V

benewborn Wb ll 313(4-5)GR

is derivedfrom theolderword nbb'child'(Wb 11313.6-7 andis possiblyrelatedto thetoot Pyr) n4b by 'child' as a reduplicatedform 'very young'.The verb occursat Edfu and may be a deliberate, C offering,Osirisbecomes child 4D a antonymof nhb 'old': md ungent 115,2-3; incenseand libation, the king is bom of 1.1wrt 103,5;00 lc=& rebornevery year IV'

being a child after being old IV flail 1434.9 ; At

your body is rebornlike the moon,as a pun on n

V. like the moon1383.7(alsoof KhonsuUrk Vill 60h ; 67d).The term is specificallyrebirth after deathandtherebirthof themoon. Asa noun: the deadgodsof Edfu are Vil of the first Ennead 118,10.


bccome old Wb 11313(8-10) Cr old manWb 11313(11-12)

nbb is attestedfrom PTs a,

le P-606 554and in the plural it may refcr to the stars

732[Homung,LA 11632-2]. Edfu both verb andnounoccur often in expected At contextsand are differendated from nbb 'benewborn'by thedeterminative. Noun - as an cpithct of At6m in the West Vill 153,15-, 04 [seeMysliewicc Aturn 11 1991. p. ,
o4 oA

wr rnpw r nw.f 1153,10*,VIII 136,7sim becomes child VII 282.14; 1147,2 sim. ; 1295.1 ' a who


Of sun gods-Horus : he hasmanynamesoo4

who rendws himself at his time VI 2,2


and Lord of Life IV 237,17-,

also V 221.17 ; child in the morning 0e tj IV 223,9 ; *,t in the

in the evening 1137,18 ; child who becomes eo"' A

eveningV 216,10.Khonsu:




everyday at his time Vil I 11,10.

Muh (rare) : comparing the king to the inundation Go"'JJ Om.k m mitt. f Your majesty becomes old likewise IV 52,6.

nht W

bestrong, mighty

Wb 11314 (6) to 316 (6) Old DG 226,5 ) -: LLJOT

Cr.237a; CED 115

nDt occurs often at Edfu , with usesas in Wb. Be strong stiff of parts of the body : v-,. , , pwy 116,1 1JU nb t VI 22.2

againstfoesVIII 77,4. Of Might:


pty. k 167,17.
hh 1 148,1. 1114,10; ! -I-j C, IV55,4;: 3--j % 1122 (12).

In epithets : ]Vr. nbt nbt-bpV: Montu

1,100,2 ; Horus 1484,2 ; Min 1408,4 ; Khons 1263.9.



1298,3 and often in this sense.

in The verb canalso refer to a 'colouebeingstrong: of substances the laboratory,its colour .4

J o, ac-. 'pitch blaW it i s the pupil of the eye of Seth Il 206,14 ; sim. e: m W% I)right white' II


nht v

strength , might

Wb 11316(7) to 317 (3) Pyr.

nht is synonymous with qn , WX - Horus gives qn V k5c"-ej nIV7,3 '""0 "I

Of a f7od of Mon! u eiven to the.king 1135.12 - Oqifis drives awav Nebed bvT
I A'. a, =. '%



VI 288,9-10; as an epithet of Horus

4c-j u 110

1366,3 as a namefor Edfu wr. nbt I


358,16. The palace Horusis called of 0x C71from the mythological VI etymologies 113.3-4. 'VHl 13,9.

T Possibly'you haveseized flood the


'stmng one'= phallus 115-16 (35). The text editors translate II

In an epithct of Min : Ur -nbt DAn' m em -i-J

this as 'erect membee[Blackman and Fairman, MG p.405] wiLh a further example : Min sc-J I

56,8; also

1185,3 compare DreamPap.8.2 [op.ciL pA18 n.701. and

The word derivesfrom theuseof nbt to describe malemembcr 'strong'. for example becoming the in the Contendings HorusandSeth: LES 11.3Sethcaused member his of to become

stiff [see also Ed.Smith p.325) and note the adjective is applied to dt in a description of
Hor-Min-Amun 8) u-*VI 22.2. From this use nbt can be used metaphorically as a noun



to spit out
Wb 11318 (14-15) Pyr. Med. BD (also nX Wb 11351,8)

nIL and nX are both used from the Pyramid Texts and both in the Medical texts [c.f. Wb Med. [A79 and n. 11 There is a possible example at Edfu : men and gods existed before wombs and before, ' --

"'22Sbeing spatout in the beginning(m-Y3')' IV 267,4-5. -h

Isis gives to the king all fields bloomingand the beautifulland I-- ^*^Ol^ T= like that which -

is flooded?- perhaps derivedfrom nji'to spit ouf water7 11105,8-9.

nhn m

oneof theseven oils sacred

Wb 11319 (1-3) Pyr and318 (19) MK

[TawfikGM 30,1978 79] and njinm is listedwith theothersacred from theOld Kingdom p. oils occurs, rarcly'atEdfu: in a list of substances
md offering, Khnum receives 4


1388,14-15a clearcr -, writingin a

im. f and I unite with it ' (in word play) V 185,2.


Originally the nameof the substance was ny-11nm'that which belongsto the 11nmpoe [Tawfik III op.cit. andHassan,Excavations Gi'Za Tf. XLVII] . of

spittle Wb 11319 BD (4)

nhh is a reduplicated form of nh used from the BD onward: Seth is pacified with nhh of Aker BD 96 and 97,3 Totb.Nav. and in the hymn on Ptah Osiris Sokar statues,the deceasedis compared with 0 spittle which came from Atum [Raven, OMRO 59/60 p.277 and nj and text p.2781. (4 n R' it is the protection of that spittle of Re n Itm ds. f 1 192.4 [also in the

At Edfu : in the protection ritual s3

(parallel to W) VI 148,12-13 ;a guardian of Osiris is Athribis cryptogram see Vernus, Athribis p. 151 no.421.

It is alsocanalwaterin the 13th LE nome,whereAturn is god, the canalis broughtand *,. vr-, cm
"--0,4- comes from his flesh V21,1. 11t


tongue Wb Il 320 (8-17)Pyr. DG 263,8 j0',, 4 Z. x 2ICk.

Cr.144b; CED 24 ; KH 80

is the usual term for 'tongue' used from the earliest texts [Lefebvre, Tableau 20 p.20]. In the ns his dismemberment of the hippopotamus 4Zy tongue is given to the children of, the physical sense: at the harpoonersVI 89,12. The tongue is regarded as the organ which speaks the rituals and so the ritualist istnr-ns 'sweet of tongue': king reciting dw3-nJr IV 384,2 -, -xT 11136,10; Thoth

VI 180,15-181,1 [c f. Otto, GuM p.77]. The tongue also judges : Maat texts 0'95 -CT VIII 122,13 ; sim. V11322.2-4; HuandSiagive 'may your tongues judge every day' r' nb mo` judging in your heart IV 310,1

the judges hate snm-ns 'lying' of Morus : si3. n. k fit n wts

VI1255, l0; --0-S-VL". Q1.1521,6. An attribute m rn. k T)fv n Si3 'vou verceive things without raising

tonguein that_your of Sia' Il 15,4- -,Oq =-0. VI 271,34. name your 'T


In CpiLhCLS is 11 Khonsu 'it. n Unn 1273.17 ns-n-T3nn :

11682-3 [notedby Grapow

Bildlichep. 119; Urk VIII58b; Fairman Blackman, NlGpA28 -.Scthc.Drarn.Textep-54f.l. and .


to go . travcl Wb Il 321(1-3)Late, GR

Wb attests this ftom Buch v.Durchw. 34 jj


b3w r 'ryt and possibly connected with ,

this is a word ns 'of the sinking of the foot into the carth of the fidds! (Wb 11320.19 Wb . Med.479-80 verb usedto explain the appearance an illness ns%t). of

ns occursoften at Dendera Edfu : at seeing the king says =; A and ,--I god . J1 alliteration of n go to heaven r '3yt of the wingedbeetleIV 208.4 --A, -, -A

NVistVI 245.12

hm.k st-wrt 1 105.4. In

1543.6 (D Vil II 121.3) 'I r nst.k in a procession standards of .q

is r Mil 1557.1.If the sense 'go and entcethenns may be derived from

the ns usedof feet'entering' ground. the

ns = ns3

knife FCD 139

Faulkner gives a reference to CT I 123b where Shesmuhas P c4

tic suggestedthat

it may be a formative in n from s3w 'to cut ofr (nose or cars) (Wb 111419,12)[FECT I p.24 n.321 This w6rd is also used at Edfu : your focs fall A word in P. Leiden 1345,3.1 [Massart Uiden Mag-Pap.345 p.97n. 4]. Iat his knife VIII 116,6. is most likely to be a mistake for nspw 'wounds',


king of UpperEgypt Wb 11325(1) to 330 (4) Old DG 228

form n i-swt 'he belongsto the rced' which is the heraldicplant of Upper, niivt isa. nisb6-adjective Egypt andprobablya very ancientterm.The readingwI established Scthcafter earliermistaken by as ideas[ZAS 49,1911 p.15-341. The'terr'noc'c-urs may be morefrequent., often at Edfu and on balance


when it occurs alone than bity 'king of Lower Egypt` reflecting the Upper Egyptian bias of Edfu temple'and perhapsEgyptian texts as a whole. Spellings : often only written with an ideogram 4

4 1441 Afrl 4,3.1


IA; 539 I

. 9b


2 1,

The term read in-sw was also shownby Setheto be a writing of nsw [op.cit. p.23-251with an implied false etymology.The word was seenas being a form of In-sw 'one who brings ie a name associated Thoth as theonewho broughtbackthe eyeof Re [Pyr.58b]andthe word nswt was with S' forking' is found and identified with this epithet In-sw. The writing , and from the NK IT_qj., which is the Thoth ape bringing the ape [seealso Weill BEFAO45,1947 , p.117-8 who notes that wd3t is feminineso that the phrasein-sw, is.'one who brings himselt so of the etymologyis incorrect].Examples this spellingoccurat Edfu even landsand lord of the banksVIII 119,16 229,13also [BIFAO 43,1945 p.1221. Plural writings: VIII 78,2 IV 53,14. VIII of godsand goddesses 133,1 of the Two V

The word is used at Edfu as noted in Wb and usually applies to the king himself and is often in bit. It can also'apply to gods - particularly Horus and also Min -101 parallel with -9m' 1393.


king of U*r


Wb 11330(5) to 332 (7) Often used-at Edfu to describe king. Spellings: 10r passim the a-kl IV 17,1;V9,12; 1111.13 IV 10,10; 16,7; '1 ;9 passim IV V 3,3,,

The title can also apply to gods : Osiris 1 162,15; 118,11; Horus 197.1 1 158a ; IV 16,1and ) (from PTs. ; Atum 1295,1; Ptah1137,9[andseeLuft, Gotterweltp.78 ff. ]. often rule of theking. Whenusedas a'fiounit is a gift of the godsto showthecomplete


kingship Wb 11332 (13) to 333 (21) MK

In epithets : '3 -nsyw, -: >-

of Horus 1271,2 , 13

IV 26,9. Horus is nb


1426,9. A long periodof rule is given to the king by the gods 1146,9; it is established the, by 4%is IV 10,4.The kingshipcanbe associated R" 1, gods with certaingods:44 o's ju

idDoublecrownIV 6,10. o's wearingthe

nsyt queen Wb 11332 (8-11)NK


R' V 5.2.1

qq i-c i

Itm 1183,17-18; im. 1165.1

n Itm

At Edfu and Dendera nsyt is moreoftena title of goddesses as HaLhor Isis : Isis is such and Cleoptara - Troy, Queenship 197D3/101. t VII nlrw andbity nirm, 1101,11[for queen p. is also a word for the UpperEgyptianpart of the uraeus: the king receives4'N 1h, nsyt O-VIII 121.9(uracus p%sty offering). and.,


to rule as king Wb Il 334 (1-8) MK Lit, GR

nswi is derivedfrom the nounnsw andis usedoftenat Edfu. With object :I cause 44 1=0 m rsy you to rule in the south VI 316.7-8; 9m' bit. k mow 1564,4: variousobjects 1440,15.

J` rsy 1, Yn-n-pt I

501,14 Iml 1147,3 ; tJ'U 174,12 t3wy 44(


As object of rdi : di. 1 Also


m nsw m-'b bit. n.i m bit 1146,13-14.

.. 0

&--5j A Possible example of nsw-bity as a verb : Honm,, Lower Egypt VIII 148.11.

was the first to be king of Upperand

) 1, -

Wb 11324 (14-15) MK

In funcraryliteraturens is a flame from which the righteousare protected in which the badare and burned[Zandee, form of nsr and Deathp. 136with references). may beanabbrcviatcd erroneous or ns is usedwith the meaning hour for example), it is morelikely that but flame [in Amduat (821) zz12Lh


it derivesfrom ns 'Longue! [Cannuyer,, ZAS 117,1990p.1091.

At Edfu the term has a different use : when the Nile flood is brought'it removes want (g3y) and ^q '1582,6 - perhapsdrought or thirst ? in this casea quite unique use.


II th hourof theday

In the text for the hours of the day 'opening the door leaves of the sky gods Hu, Bastel, Thoth, . . S1 Aturn, Sia 'he makes his form as a beautiful woman, his face of gold, his body

j% lapis A-% of


'111227,8.13. scene The showsthe king holding the ropesof the barque

at theprow [pl.731.


5th hourof theday Wb 11334(17) GR

Wb suggests comparison with nsrt 'Fiery' which is the nameof the 5th hour from the Late Period a texts (Wb, II 336,7). The earlier term_ nsbyt occurson a mrbt for measuringastral bodies or constellations and it is spelled 197431.
At Edfu the fifth hour is called :jqq -a - when Re has a falcon face , Apopis has been

0- [ZAS,48,1910 p. 10 and TLI = Berlin Museum

slaughteredand the gods presentare Horus, Bastet, Isis, Thoth, Re-Behdcti 111219,12, 71 showsRe pl. in the disk, Horus and the king both have a spear in the Apopis snake. At Dendera this is the usual spelling of this hour, for foes are burnt at this time MD IV 78 : Thes 131 ; MD IV 57. and also see a Dum. Hist. Ins. 11 35b. nsbyt may derive from nsb 'to lick (Wb 11334) for it can refer, to the 'licking' of a flame (as in the English metaphor) and from CT IV 107a the 3bty eye 'devours' (licks) female dead a fiery gate in BD 146; and also the name of_aflame in the Book of Gates. all male and Vandee, Dcathp. 137J., .I-, i


knife Wb Il 319 (10) GR a by his knife! III

The ka called '3 is brought so that for the king 'your foes fall m

156,8; Wb alsocites two examples nsp Icnife!from MD IV 8.0, 78. and of


Ile term is connected with nspw 'wounds! (Wb 11319.9 and FCD 139) which occurs from the Coffin Texts, though the symbolism behind it maybe much older: Re iscafled VII 468g and Re is fired with his wounds , CT.

CT 11 154a (=BD 106.1). Further texts the wounds of Re pour

Thoth says, 'I drive away dirt from the Lord of All psg state:

that they live again' [Ur-au Sarc. 11p.29 NrA = Cairo 2809) ; also Apopis is hated .N knows out so has seen psg 11' 13: the four wounds pour cuf [Lacau Sarc. I p216 no. 18

after H.Kecs , ZAS 60,1925 p.8-9]. These would seemto be the wounds sustainedby Re' references in the fight against Apopis and the latter texts mentions four specific woundswhich seem to have healing properties. A further text in a hymn to Osiris alludes to these wounds but does not use the word nspw, 'I rqjoice with Thoth in his writing on the day of psg r q'o. f pouring out on his shouldee[Marictte . Abydos 1154/55 line 17/18 - KU VI 23.14 RamessesIV). At Edfu allusion to these wounds is also made : in a sun hymn 'the shining one is who fells his foes' III

35,8 [a copy is in P.Berfin 23026 describedby Kaiser - Agyptische Museum Berlin p. 123 Nr. 11131 3 13 S P'00b "E. ' -. "1 11110.17(duplicated in the the sun god shines papyrus of Sobck-Re 3.9 psd tp A"Zt Ktmi I. 1928 p. 148 all reference3 from Assmann, Liturgischelieder

MAS 19 p.122 no.6).


The life giving properties the wounds celebrated of are whereHorusin the Busirisnomeis Lord of slaughter A who lives by the wounds'IV 29,5 1, sim. in stayinga crocodile 11orus. Ni'l

IV 58,9-10-presumablyin this casethe woundsof his focs -he drinks their blood.lbere is woundof Re. In a breadtext the king saysto Thoth,'I establishyour also an allusioin'tothe shoulder 1 arm, I make your shoulderwell P'gs. q1t.k 477,16-17. In P.Leiden1344 vo. 1112 enemyof the sungod is 'onewho comesfrom nspw e. possiblyin the and P.Lcidcn 1343 + 345 rc. XXVII 'thy blood belongsto Re this your woundbelongsto Atum_ '! . ,I I makeyour shoulderpour out from wounds'I

here].Otto suggested [Massart,P.Leiden1343+ 345 p.96 and97 nA suggests nspw is emended that Ouo p.13 In 468f to 469a in Fs. for that nspw are metaphorical 'rays of the god' [from CT sp. hew to cue JFCD30 LEM406 with N origin the word maybe an n-prcfix on Isplo from CT VI 47b andSm. StatueBasep.79 n.1151. 8,18 after Assmann op-ciL; Klasens, dct.



to bum up , shrivel Wb 11335 (4-11)Pyr. CEDIIO; KH525 NOYPC.

A verbusedat Edfu to describe activityof fire breathing the and goddesses theuraci. Intransitive: Mchyt, greatflame shebumsin your time 1313,14; the sanddwellers 6L also Il 15,5.It also appliesto

they are burnt by your fiery breathVI 271,4 light - Nekhbetis ' With r: 3bty.f m :L With br : as last '* Transitive (GR) : Nsrt bddw 1298,10.

r wbd 'wsn his eyesare burning to scorchtheir limbs V 47.12 f 1114,23. bftyw. f IV 51,6 ; nsrt-wrt !& bftyw V 176,6-7.


flame (1-6) BD earlier Wb H 335(13-18)Pyr. Wb 11336 nsr

foes them completely. to nsrt flameis used destroy by burning 1k n 3DU the fire of his eye1410,14; he As flameof the god'seye: the sunilluminesby . P, fS, irty. f fire of his two eyes1411,5.Of Sakhmet m t3wy whose by 'IS. n punishes In 1509,7. puns VI flamefills thetwo lands 265,12 111293,13 ; , 51,6; wrt nsr bftyw V 176,6-7. 1509,10.
1313,17-18 ; also 1185,10.

JgL nsr bftyw.f IV

In epithets lion headed god serpent is q3 :a

As object of wd : Nephthys wd


flame goddess

Wb 11320(2-5) Pyr. identified.In theCoffin,Textsthereis already By theOR periodtheflameandthesnake were goddess Death burnsthe enemies Osiris [CT IV 260c and BD 17, Zandee, of a femalefire demonnsrt who [Derchain,III fire for the uracuswho breathes to destroy enemies It 1371. is an appropriate name p. in goddesses general Kab 1,1971 p.60 n.44 ; Erman,Hymnenan dasDiademp.291andof destructive [suchasTcfnut Sakhmet Junker,Onurisp.94 and 123]. , At Edfu, Sakhmetis Q-S 'cAc--awq6 and mistress fire 1315.1-2; Hathor of r hftyw


VII 143,34. In the dual:

&tqhcy 'ZOZJ

unite upon the king 1408,1-2.

At Denderaand Philae Hathor and Isis are frequently given this epithet. ,

iw nsrsr

Isle of Flame
c,f. Wb 11336 (8-10) Pyr.

The Isle of Flame appears mainly in funcrary literature from the Pyramid Texts onwards. It is connected with the creation and birth of the world, being either a place in the cast where the sun defeatshis foes and from where he then rises,or in the Hermopolitan cosmogony it is the place where the primeval god came out of Nun. At Edfu this Hcrmopolitan aspect is stressed, for in lotus offerings, the first lotus is said to have come from C=) V 84,14 EM tom'. VI 339.1 and

of ancestorsVI 247,11 ; the sun rose from

the lotus grows in 51,6.


VII 162.6-8; also Re sty m C=

Reymondsuggested originally the Islandof the the Two Flameswasa Ilcmopohtan tradition that Re andthe namereferredto the original islandat thebeginning. wasborn in it andemittedfire from his two eyes- hencethe doubleflame of the Isle [MOST p.70-71 *.Sethe,Amun pA9 *.also LA 11 258-91.

ns-tp-r3. f A gcnhssociated with the seventhharpoon in the Myth is drinks blood and bums (rkt) the bonesof the foe with flames VI 75.7.

who catsflesh.


seat, throne Wb 11321(6) to 323 (15) Pyr. DG 228.1 "'\ V, Ia

_'I I Cr.229a; CEDIIO-, KI1125 NHCe

-The original sign A is similar to the jar stand but it is in fact a type of scat. Tbc word is most

likely an n-prefix onto st and it is a 'seaf for a person. Ile word is vcry frequent at Edfu and is used as set out in Wb [Kuhlmann, Thron p.34-391.


It is essentiallythe 'throne'of the king : he is ruler r ZY IV 18,8; he rules as the heir of the father upon it 124,12 ; 1205,7 ; Horus is also upon U 673 1494,4. In the caseof gods, the determinative indicates is 1-3 that the 'throne'- not just a pieceof furniturebut is the whole temple,in DG this caseof Edfu, which is thethroneof HorusBehdet. nst-Ur is thusa namefor Edfu [Gauthier, 21& 'r : YX 1285,11 JA C-3 1111041: 165,16 1527.7 41 1155,10. C--3

A 193nst-Rl alsoa nameof Edfu reflectingthe solarnatureof Horus [Gauthier,DG 111104]: Yr-'3 I IV 14,5 IV 5,8 ; Ob 1358,16 ;0U C-3 , C-3 1504 (26) ; CL ZY is built by the king 1285,7 ; 'the king is uponthe U 7 of his majestysincetheprimeval time 1111,15, nst-nirw alsoEdfu [Gauthier,DG 1111031: ZI C-3

from the First Occasion'VIII 83a

V 5,6

IV 52.5

V 396,2;

IV 50,13; 0-73 e 0; VI 245,6. 1 rz-1:

" i"' c"73 e


allot n R' IV 330,2 in the official namelist ZYC1=

1504 (21). This term is also used more generally as an protector of his father IV

also Edfu

adjectival description :U 10,7.


22m'. of Hor-Akhty 119,4 ; ZYEP3 SMI c"-3

'throne of Geb' is a euphemism for the kingship, for Geb is the earth, so the throne of the

is the terrestrial rule of the king. Wb records the term from Pyr. 317 ; Urk IV 82 but it also earth king : he is content with IN cr': 3 occurs at Edfu - in a text giving the attributes of various gods to the VIII 23,8.


successor, heir , he who is upon the throne

Wb 11323(7-13)OK 'Z "-- Urk 131 as a son and heir The oldest example cited by Wb describesa priest as iw' pw =:-- ZY'l ,
of his father perforins rituals for him.

At Edfu the term is usedoften to describe king: as the heir of his Ptolemaicancestors the 1421,9 r-v ZY C-3 1527,15 M 1494,10 ; 'our heir on earth r-q ZY our Nvn

Horus saysto the king r--I 'c'-'-3 beforethe living' VI 318,2.As heir of the gods: successor Dr ZC-: 3V

is uponmy throneV 218,1; or godsin general- theking : , Zlr'-q my heirwho



Edfu is mphasisedby the fact that oneof the priestsis Ile importance theking asheir of godat of
: ,

specifically called



1541.11 and rv , Z37111

carries the h3py god standard 1556,12. Dnt IhAt IIr IIrw 1571,9.

There may be more than one also r-I

PjDV 396.9 ru-TiM Oneof the chantresses the templeis r'I'5.. ; of licr 0? 1337,11(alsoa name at used Dendera heiress ).

1359,14-15-, rm-"o'w


controller thethrone of (15)OK Wb 11323

from the 5th dynasty An Old Kingdomtitle attested onwardthoughpeoplewith the title wereburied between title in the Old to the that at Giza which leadVandersley,, suggest therewasno connection n Kingdom and the cult of Thoth 4 Hermopolis[CdE 43 Nr 86,1968 p.237 list). From the 6th in dynastyandespecially theMK the title is heldmainlyby peopleliving in the 15thUE nomeand it is hereditary[op.ciL p.240-11 brp-nst becomes in theNK andis morean honorific title of the rare . Hermopolitan Pctosirishasthis as an honorific rank lop.cit. p.236 and n-2 in clergy - for example 85; gcncmlHelck,Beamtendtelnp. LA11125"; Vandcrsleyn, CdE43. Nr$61968p. 234-2581. 13'41,12.

Ses Edfu in the geographical for 15thUE nomethe priest is wr-d1w ' jZv/// At text Thoth himself is Associated with this, but in the divine sphere, 144,2.

n RI n' kir VI CI-r73


plant Wb 11324(3-5) Med. GR

bccausc a recipcfrom the workshopat Edfu : in by Ebbell asAlkannatinctoria Tausch. Identified of making m root of gives a red colour is used11227,10: which

227,16 (the plant named by Ebbcll is in fact used to give the red colour for modcrn lipstick ZAS 64 1929 p. 51). In medical texts nstyw is also used to make an unguent JWb Drog 3161 and then it Edfu. Whether this is the same plant as nsty, the Upper Egyptian counterpart of the Lower occurs at Egyptian papyrus is not clear(for nsty plant of the south see Cauville, Osiris p.72 n.3 ; Caminos Li t.Frag. p. 121. Wb11324 (12) lists suggests w3d flower and the text Pyr. 702c as a papyrus

from the papyrus stalk' [c f. Scthe, Pyr. Komm. III is from nsyt 'green eye paint


p.286 and289]. At Edfu nsyt is a commonword for the UpperEgyptianplant and may be thusderivedfrom nsw 'king of UpperEgype- so that it is not relatedto the two termsbut is an artificial creationusedfor, symbolicpurposes he hasunited : 111115,8-9 give you ;I and w3d%

1149,10; the crown on his headwith and w3dw VIII 84,17 ; w3dw dmd MW"-. Mk III 1441 Y 111'38,2 sim. and he holdsw3dw 1383,6 ; unite w3d and N ;
snbw 11138,12. One text has the title srn3-rn-rnnb rn-'b NY Zk


IV 204,14

where the king is before Nekhbet and Wadjet. The scene shows the king being crowned by the two

). (p1.90 reg. lst goddesses

The use of the word at Edfu is clear, but nsyt in the ritual may not be the plant used in the recipes for unguents. It is also used at Philae (1858) Photo 516.


beings minor heavenly %% c,

Among the minor deitiespresent the rising of the sunand offering of Maat are at in 112,8 ; they are also mentioned an offering of the msktt (morning)sunboat Dr

IV 261,6.PI.47 (line 14) showsthemas threehumanheaded, mummiformfigures.

A text apportions genilto each of the months of Akhet and Peret. the fourth month of Akhet genii, ,e fV imyw bt St? 11.14 and for-the third month of Akhet introduced in general as are tile , -= U' Urn V 11,9 For Peret imyw ht w V 11,11 ; 2nd month . after Tboth V 12,1 ; 3rd month

after Ptah V 12,3. lbe text continues for


Shemu: 3rd month V 105,2.

=-% IIi

J7.; GebV 104, 4th month after


after Osiris


hippopotamus as Seth , Wb 11338(15) GR

d may be an abbreviation n9n 'rageegiven a hippopotamus determinative emphasising the and of Thereis alsoa verb Wto drive away'which is morelikely destructive the enraged animal. natureof


as the origin, so that the hippopotamus is 'one who is drivcn away' . In the Myth it occurs as the , pVI 87.7 - HB brings 18 A; VI 86.1 f 'to cut up! object of st and cuts up his flesh VI 87.1 texts : in. n. i 5Z2-7 f tbtb i%ir. VI 138.8. In slaying the hippopotamus m nmt he is on the block

IV 343,6; also VII 168.15 sim.

and cut up VII 149,2.The term is attestedat Edfu alone.


to driveaway, expel Wb Il 337 (12) to 338(3) OK

Faulknernotestheoccurrence theverbng in Urk 1100,8 cxper andthe undcrlyingimplication of of the verb seems be 'to put aparf 'to spliC.At Edfu the verb is mostoftcn usedin the pun n't nrn to 'drive away rage' : in pacifying Sakhmet the king , Hathor 111134,5. Also : Hathor-Q- dn sw ngn of 1 n1n IV 343.1. sistratext

w3d wr 'drives away the one who rages

Reflexive(because at him (king) to the GreatGreen'V 144.8. thereis no intransitiveform) : falcon 'M 2! r1inm nst.f'he removeshimself to unite with his throne' Vill 107.11.


grain Wb 11338 (6-9) Ute andGR

11 ng 'to drive away'is at the root of the noun. for nYcan be usedin the sense 'to winnow' (NVb of 337,11) Vandier suggested ng 'to winnow' wassynonymous that with b3t3 'to shake,to winnow' . Wgraindcrived from theverb [Nlan. p.205-7with examples). Vl andthat the substantive "*'* P The word is usedof 'grains'of corn : the Coptosnomeis broughtwith M4V 113.2."" I

From the late Periodtheword couldapply to grainsof otherthings,primarily sand(carlicstcxample sand- Ebcrs41,19 of building site with I== in the foundationccr=ony. 'pouringout sand,preparingthe 'its grain 13 r IN 102.2-3; in comparative phrases grainsof sand 11242.16

'cz: `,, &a is more numerous 00 11175,12; food and geese also 3 %S than sand' mci *e lc"%= " :2provisionsarc like sandof the shoreandbreadlike 'her childrenare more than r3o 582,17. of sand11254,9; also

IV 3.3 -,an offering bcarcr, 1466,5 -. CIO alsol



to inhale Wb 11339(1-8) MK, GR oft Cr.236a; CED 115; KH 131to blow, agitate NOyq7T

101 [FCD 1401 At Edfa the objectof nrp is . incense'breathed by the nostrils of the gods : 'ntyw Ac"=3 in' bnmmt. k 1110,10 usually,
e (34? jlnmty CM 314,14

Faulknertranslates as 'to pane from Peas. BI, n9p

the smell of incense Yl 312,10 nostrils of the gods 1559,13.


*"* 'CM 130


im. sn VI

cn=i ir

With suffix : 'c*='**'

receive incense -a

"d n snir 1494,10-11-, C= E.

smell of burnt incense1501,13 ;I

I smell its fragrance 1 475,4. _ With m: 1494,10-11 ; VI 314,14 ILnmmty.k rn ibt irt. R' 1 555,14-15.

Burning myrrh is smelled c=3



for a distance one schoenus 1383,18. of

f nXm-Nvd3-hw. sacred barque %0 Wb Il 339 (14) GR In the 9th UE nome, the sacred barque is named 338,13 [Jones, Glossary p.2491. 2S Z A-go-_J which sails to the quay I


Wb 11339 (19) to 340 (4) BD

From the Berlin amulet board,emongst the six most valuable stones, mined in Sinai, the eastern desertand Elephantine used to make amulets [Harris, Minerals p. 115-1161. , The word occurs at Edfu as a substance used to fill the eye 136,15-16=PhilAIp. 13t-n Lr iso, 105(15) iI mh vvjj3t rn
C33:1 J= I


In the workshop,among the precious stones used to make

n mY 11215,5

VI 165,16. '.


to rage, be angry Wb 11340(11-30)Pyr.

ni(h is an emotionconnected with Sethfor it is disturbingandpotentiallydestructive. Gods rage againstenemies: Horus p


foes VII 262,2-3 ; Harsiese r-u: Q CL 3 lf-i


mdyw.f VII 262,9; thethird harpoon Horus cm of 75,11-12; Mehyt is


disturbanmaInn) VI rages causes and ZJ raging

-. ragingof heart1313,15-16 Mcntyt -

'pacifyinghis heartafter I;;?, (panther)VI : of eyes1271,17.Also notethe spellingwith a panther 222,5-6meatoffering. line 19 rufn siorm. 'storm, rage!Wb 11341(1-16) Old; dcmoticin P.Vicnna31 cot. 11 ngn from it : 'your 71e king is protected is Connected Sethandwith the turbulence a storm. of with nfn bonesare safefrom
your limbs are safe I-

136,6 ; protectyour body from .0

Ac= 93 I-j there is '5 %% no rage 1171,15.

nirwt 1473.13

After wd : wd c= 1490,9.

her she(Hathor)puts rageagainstfoes1127,3 ; Isis wd IP--o-

r foes

dr : cm -SP- from Egyptin thenameof a geni 1198.11. by 3t-dn experienced goddesses: ' in 3t.f m '4*""*r-calm the sea ,
C=CC3 J%--j

1500.15; alsoby the sea theboatsof the harpooners .

VI 128,4. there

the n9n,is connected with darkness an offeringof cosmetics. eye is brought-A- r3a :
is no 'rage in it 184.6 ; make bright against I'M4 drive away j

the rage of the sky IV 34.4 gods " l of his lady 1500.13. q!

Hathor 115.17 ; with sistra sb 'CS*3 of 7=3 vj CD

Edfu is called 1w-n9n : Horus Merty is in c= dd Ngn 165,17 ; C=D cm n S'V

1575,11 ; Edfu is c= IMA"

VI 11.5 (Gauthier DG 1461. ,


ragingone= enemy f. Wb 11342(1-2)GR

In the singular this term seemsto refer to Seth as a hippopotamus,and reflects the rage of the animal into anger. In hippopotamus staying texts : sm3 when provoked rn lw-nln IV 214,6-7,


cm ",

IV 58,14

in abattoirUrk VIII 21d. In pacifying Sakhrnc

texts : Hathor nr 224,13-14.

r .. :2->--.. IV 3433 (or a noun); theking'comes against out " 1$,

? n%9t

C= C= burnt in the ire (bt) 111137.10 and your enemies

, Horus givesIntyw'. k rn


'angry fire'? (crocodile slaying text).


to tear , rend Wb Il 342 (13-16) GR

n9d is perhaps an n-prefix on the verb Vd 'to cut' or sim. [FCD 273 Ydi 'to take away, remove, pull']. It occurs in GR temples and thus at Edfu. The verb is often used with Ig3t, Int 'claws' and "'-Ij thus 'tear, renX best fits the translation: Horus 15-Z8 3, sbiw. with his claws 1575,3 ; sim. ajb.

VIII 106,1 'g3t 1270,13; Horus

4 1120(6)

andas an epithetof Khonsuas the falcon


'nt 1381,1.0. Also usedof goddesses Mehyt is Tm

'rending of eyes' (piercing ?)1 313,15-16 In alliteration of n: Edfu is iw. nYn n R' n . I Nk VI 11,6.
f; -

'21 a

A less violent but, equally destructive use of the verb is in a msw-plant offering, where the king 'r= '--0- 11 cut (pick) plants for you to brighten your face 194,2 (entered seperately in Wbjl 342,17



dust Wb H 344 (12-16) GR

The verb nqr 'to sieve' is well known from the Old Kingdom and the noun nqr is determined with a sieve sign, showing that the dust indicated here is very fine, like the dust of sieving or something reduced to dust by pounding. The term is always used as nqr-nbw 'gold dust' and is commonly used to describe sun light. At Edfu, as Horus is a solar god , it is connected with him with riwwn6 IV 16,7 -a m;?j -O=NCD W4 % 15? IV 18,2 he fills the earth


Vill 108,1 ;

0 *117 (15); rsw 61

0 1285,10;


R\i' II51,1. AtDcnderaand ., II

Philae it is Hathor/Isis who has this epithet.

from GR) clearly, later development a alsofunctionasa verb 'to sprinkle'(Wb 11344,17-18 nqr can the noun : the temple nmt r niwt. k (parallel to shkr rn drww ) 123,14 ; in alliteration of nm nbw sprinkled with gold 1 543,2.

to copulate,


Wb 11345 (3-10) Pyr. DG 229.8 CED 107noun NOCIK Depending contextnk 'canrangefrom 'rape, to casualillicit liasons,to regularmarital rcladons7 on [Eyre,JEA 70.1984 p.93 n.121. *W "%=b bull': Nlin, The term is usedat Edfu in the epithetk3-nk 'copulating Horus Lf official nameof 1120% '80) 115(24). Ir 4L to 1407,8 as an

is The verb is usedmetaphorically theflood 'copulating of with ' land : his hCart hot ,

: with his wife 1582,16-17 in the 19thLE nomethe canalDr -'M m, bmt. f he hascopulated IV makeyour field pregnant 37,8.

listed in somenomcsincludethis term - implying that the word could have The abominations
connotadons of improper conduct : 19th LE nome 'god hates lcm "E'* " -1 1336.1-2 (al S0

Tanis Fr.30) ;I st LE nomer-w Pap.


0r 111

dr. f 1330 (in the Scbcnnytosnome n IS

by sm3 1 3h. seeMontet,Mmi 11,1950p.104-51. replaced In a pacifying Sakhmet ritual , theking is welcomed as IV 312.4 .i .... =one who doesnot copulatewith


homosexual Wb 11347(8) BD alsoLA 111272

Wb cites its only cxamp' of nkk from BD 125.27in the NegativeConfession le b 'K:: havenot copulatcd (homosexual) prohibition"against'' with nkk'translatcd as'Buhlknabe! -a

This is repeated Edfu in the abomination god as of sexualintercourse. what is considered unnatural at LE in the 19Lh nome =b Tanis Fr.30). It is derivedfrom nk'and -VI 336,1-2(alsoPap. %;: Ro 'adulterer fornicatoe.againimplying incorrectbehaviour. as ,

also corresponds to Copac Noe I i(

in prohibitionsof this kind of behaviourin Ankh. 13,12; 19,1.


to wound. injure Wb11346(8-12)Pyr. (sccalsoFCD141) sblw. f 1378.15 ;S

nkn is usedat Edfu : with direct object - florus


to si3t.f who harmsone who seeks hurt him VI 73,1 (afterJEA 29 p.15 n.d).
The means to do this are specified : with claws VI 116,8 ; and the turtle Y-Irl Is


VI 127,12; with a knife

whose limbs are hurt IV 306.9.

The determinative

the suggests action is mostly associated with a knife but nkn takesthe

object 'foes'only from GR textssuggesting nkn hadbeento the vocabularyof similar termsfor'to destroy hurt'.The verb mayalsobe relatedto the synonymous term tkn andconfused ng3, for with , examplein a bull sacrifice othertexts,the word shouldbe ng3. ng3 VII 310,1 - by comparison with the samephrasein



Wb Il 346(3) and(4) NK
In texts nkpt are usually mentioned with iwfyt but their meaning is unce,Lain They are measured in msti units and may have been an originally foreign fruit, later grown in Egypt [Janssen, CP 4 3661 also in P.Harris 16a, ; 71b,4 p. Materi4n 64c,8 among lists of plants xg UZ [Helck,

V p.759L] Wb suggests this is a loan word and is a plant or fruit [see Burchardt, .

Fremdworte 11591 loan word]. At Edfu there is a plant, now written nkty which is used to make kyphi :2 deben are used and 5 kite of P.Harris kyphi recipe where AZ4- the
'r.; b

11211,5 (Wb II 348a). This is the sameas

is used - so these two plants are the same

8 [53a, and seeRdE 28,1976p.631.Charpentier registersthis as an imported Asian plant [p.420-1 no.659].


4U< 't. f 'turtle whose limbs are hurt' IV nkn

In a text for the slaying of the turtle

306,9. in is derivedfrom nqrn I)e sad'(Wb H 344,3and4-6). The verb dates usefrom thePyramid The word i literature. can be translated 'to suffer, be afflicted' as -It texts and throughoutreligious and medical [JEA -16,1930 p.211 and may be an epithet of the turtle as 'the afflicted' one referring to the legsof the animalandits apparent'stunteS growth [OMRO 51 p.100 179]. comparatively small



typeof cattle Wb 11349 (1-5) OK

long horns. In OK texts the word is usually writtcn ng , but from ng3 are a large type of cattle with MK it appearsas ng3. In representationsthey are often shown with W the both are used 'short horn, cattle! and

for meat and some for milk production. 7be ng3 are charactcriscd by slimmer and

longer legs with big horns which bcnd outwards.7tcy are shown in ficld and marsh sccncs and are usd also for treading in seed,thus are both useful work animals and valuable for their meat [Ghoneim Rhind p.72-6 ; in general Montet, Mmi 13,1954 ppA3-581. ng3 cattle are frcqucntly shown as tribute from the south, north and Libya and were probably already in Egypt when mankind settled there [Ghoneim op-cit. p.99-100). In his study of Egyptian hunting rituals, Otto suggested that the 9,1949 p. 173). term meant lassooed cattlc'who had beencapturedritually JJNF-S

At Edfu the ng3 bull is regarded oneof Lhe'bulls as which was sacrificedin the templeto represent
Seth as a wild bull. Ilis 612 n.9 Bonnet, Ral. was one of the most prestigious sacrifices (c f. Lloyd. Hom. Vcrmascrcn Il p.752] and in sceneno.23 of the Opening of the Mouth , particular to Upper

Egypt [Cauville, Osiris p. 123 n.3 ; Goyon, Rituels p. 121 10 The word is often used in alliteration of n and in word play: 'U 2; y--- ng. 0 rn nmt VI 141'. ng3. n. i IUZXX VII 310,1 temple, the king goes to lb 9 YG, ng. tI in nkn. t V11 316.11. At the consecration of the and sacrifices 1w3w and geese which then go into the '3bt 404D raise the arm over the bull of

" V;? *T

funerary meal in the temple IV 331.12 ; also '4j

Upper Egypt IV 242,18-243.1 - an Upper Egyptian bull is specifically named for this ceremony. 71c --; bulls are mentioned with iw3w elsewhere : 1w3w and gazelles3 /, -Mrn nmt on the chopping block 1497,16.

In a more unusualuse of the term, a text affirming the kingship describesRe Harakhty thus rdi. n.f sw he hasshownhimself to be a ng3-bull VI 338.5 In this casethe .

sacrificeof sucha bull mayberathera contradiction.


to kill , cut up Wb 11348(16-19)Pyr. GR

Wb cites Pyr.1544 as the earliest example*.ng3-n.1 n.k ng3 tw m ng3 I have killed for you


the one who killed you as a nega bull. The meaning seemsclear from this and the association with the ng3 bull is maintained at Edfu and in other GR temples suggesting that ng3-ng3 are

TFX Zr 1, Ng VII 310,1 ;I bring ng 1WAi with the knife VII 316,11 ; 41-611h complementary : Ai m nmt VI 141,10 [for this association Pyr. 504a and Komm. V p.497]. The verb can also have other objects : foe 4j nJ sw 'I have killed him in the Island of Fire' 11 15,7 4 113kw.ib 1401.15. With the 41 flays

alliteration of n, the king "Ut44 nb3-br IV 214,1 -.alsoF

object of 't limbs ,a translation 'to flay, cut' is more appropriate : the harpoon

his limbs VI 75,2 [after JEA 29 p. 14 'mangle']and in the protection ritual : his protection is that of JR46 Des n. f % when he has flayed the leg bone VI 301,10-11 and Philae <10> 3 ng3

blw. sn [after Ghattas, Schutz p.72 and n.3 p.73]. These and other GR texts use both the specialised and archaic ng-ng association and also an extension of the verb to be used with other objects, showing a continuation of the old use of the verb and a recognition that the verb can be used in other ways - if only as a variant.



,trzJ. VII 316,11 " 'to injure! (with a knife) : ng ng3.tI m 14-dix is usedat Edfu to accompany nkn ngnt possibly ng ng.t! m nmt hr 141,10. (either because his harm or by his knife ?) VI of


to breakopen
Wb 11348 (6-14) MK

is used as noted in Wb, perhaps from the same root as ng3 'to kill': ngi two sources so that the flood can pour out 1477,11-12 ; sim. zs ;,.!j Also ' u


I break open the

I done by Anukis 1115,7. 4 ah-j zy.

k 01 break up the land for you pouring out its produce! 11252.1-2 n.

also VI 226,12.
Mg I

Intransitive use : the flood breaksout of mountains NwnlF--J 11251,13.

n dw 1324,5 ; flood ,





NVb 11350 GR (1)

f IC. Attested from Edfu only : ZSr-)&. 14 Z114,013 icsl ?1 'my knife beats the

186,16-17and coll. from XI 294 - probably should be grgr .


to run over (of water)

Wb11350(3-8) D.18
the root of ngsgs is used with reference to the overflowing gsgs, treasury bursting with riches and granaries overflowing of the inundation. the royal

with grain. This is the usual use of ngsgs

also [Wb belcg Paheri 3 and Carninos, Tale of Woe p. 55 n. 61.

At Edfu ngsgs reverts to referring to water bverflowing: 163.15 (XI 271) : in a water purification bring a vessel ,1

water vesselsare c, * m m3'tyw overflowing

(termfor water)11265,7. with righteousness The form ngs is alsoattestcd, libation vesselis filled with freshwater 4c--a I, - u-tt.n.f tw 173,8 (XI 242 and Wb 11350.2GR). C]
C- as


noise of sistra

Wb 11350(9-12)Pyr. (BD 179,10.Taharqa ngg primarily refersto thescreech thefalcon(Pyr.1959)cc cackleof gecsc of pl.24,23and p.59 n.46) and thcrcforeis a bird sound. In GR tcxts howcvcrthe word rcfcrs to the finkling soundmay be comparedto the twittering or noise made by the sistra, whose sooLhing chirruping of birds : 'you rejoiceat ' 1372,9. Itis likely ngg became NOCNC6 their noise'1101.9 : your heartrejoicesat zya

in Coptic which means'to mock, rcproacW closer to the -

'harsh'natureof ngg (Cr252b ; KII 138)andstill far from thegentlesoundof the sistra.


flood Wb 11198(10-15) nA MK FCD 125'watce

nt is a further term for the flood, sometimesdifficult to distinguish in spelling from nwy for in exampleand certainlyanalogous meaning.It is usedoften at Edfu : he brings 13wr sw.f,


old at his time 1112,13 scareawayDry ;I

Seth) IV 214,6 ; do not fear imyw m %- water, in procession VI 33,11 ; ^-. -` ,,, --
. 7., -A


'he who is uponthe flood' (crocodileform of

with fresh

VI 79,10-11 ; he brings '=%%

r nw. f 1324.,

nt pt4 or pt4 nt 'to open the watee as a mode of creation [Finnestad, Image p.33 n.65 not 'to , create' as MOET p.20 or 'the one who made the waters' BEFAO 64,1966 p. 144 , Lord of fear VI 182,15 ; as protector 3==of A^%

VI 186,5. It is also the name of the canal 131 .

.... hpr

in the templeVI 186,6and it is replaced later tradition by Ptah in


% ,,

1117,8-9 Ptahis gloriousof imageof ;





redcrown Wb 11198(4-8)Pyr.

betweenthe Red crown and the goddess Neith. Sheis often shown nt showsthe closeconnection wearingthis crown andit is identifiedasbelongingto her andasbeingher.It waspossiblythecrown of Sais originally which cameto dominatethe whole Delta and was the symbol of Lower Egypt [Abubakr,Kronenp.47 - 59 abdp.56 and54]. The word is not frequentat Edfu but whenit occursit is mostoften associated with the White unitedwith TY IV 25,14; offererscome

'you seize4 Crown : in the canalof the 4th LE nome, 61 to the king rnbt jjr

the north carryinghis red crown IV 239,15;I give you the White crown


as king of Lower Egypt 1172,5. There is also one offering ritual for the Red crown : bnk is the name of her majesty' The king gives .

1Y, Take -,, tY wsrt , Ladyof Imeyt

to Wadjet who returns the two lands bowing to the king, and foreign lands under his sandals. Lower Egypt rejoices at (with unpublished pl. 168). nt also occurs in the place the Eye of Horus is said to come 1216,6. whence of the king as a sign of Lower Egyptian kingship VII 165,2-14


particleof the genitive(; n) PeeIV 10,8 IV 15,6

nt is the masculine femininegenitiveparticlewith the spellings: and 11 IV 19,10;T 1116,1. :: =) IT


Wb Il 304 (9-13) MK
In origin pcrhaps nb is an n-prerm on bw 'to proted also common at Edfu, especially in the phrase 'Protect the weak from the strong' : Horus nb m3r m-' -*N, sr

V 263,3



VIII 163,1-2.

In puns with nhy 'protectoe : Horus nDy wr goddesseswith his wings 111112,2. In other contexts : the king is made strong C= the cult images VIII 133,2.



VII 45,8 ; ny

the Two Lands Il 47,9; the temple hr

nb is the action of the strong who bring help to those who are weak and one text explicitly says, 'Horus<zz> ^%WA of one burdenedwith troubles! VII 113,12 -so that as a correct course of action q8Jk-J it is connectedwith Maat. Urk IV 48,16 has the determinative showing someonein trouble and a

translation such asone who assists'might imply the underlying meaning [FCD 137'succouel.

nby w


Wb 11304(14) to 304 (5) D.19oft.GR nhy is derived from the verb nh 'to protect'and it occursoften at Edfu as an epithetof gods and 4, qirJalso Il 39,16 Horus king. Most often it describes of his fatherVII 156,7, 155,15 ;0 e- -)--j 4,17 ; Khonsuis 4q,,j I -eq b, 1370,1andcompare ---j him' III of the one who created Or 1311.10

of his father 1272,9 . Horusis nhy-nfr



judges this land VII 91,10; ly'q'OQ3J who

his nfr protects fatherVI 8,7 ; qn in tlwt. qn VII 308,13 he is Oqq 112.2sim. m niwt VII 202,6; 111

g4A,, J nby imyw-t3tVII45,8; wr k--J of niwt andspwt VIII 122,13-14 Amun-Padjer hasthisepithet: O"-qquj also
1147,8, goddesses Land 1159,8.The godsof Edfu are

Horus1405,8 mnh of Wetjcsct 0

0 of the Black

The of godsVII 105,12-13. king


VI 311,5-6; the guardiang odsprovide


R' four protectorsguradingRe on the Isle of RageVI 332,7. s3

nb nht v

to lament, to compUn Wb 11305(11-14)MK lamentation Wb 11305(15-16)D.19 and (17) MK- GR


The underlying implication is that nb is the mourningof the dead [Speigelberg, ZAS 43,1906 in p.133'mouming, grieri. It is usedin this way at Edfu.espcciallyin the textsof the SokarChamber

parallel with 3y Jkb , h3w : NephLhys cc"

they lament for you 1201,12-, Ge-ty

of the heart1210,8 ;B usiris 09

is offered srwd. i 0 -! ipr-r

Further : Horus says to the king after rw-l

m ib n sbiw. k 'I

make lamentation great in the heart of your foes'll 71,2.


lotus Wb 11307(3-8) NK, GR

Two types of lotus are known in Egypt - the white and blue lotus. The White has leaves with jagged edges,the bud and leavesof the flower are round and the flower bowl shaped.The Blue lotus hasround leaves but a tall long bud and a goblet shaped flower. In Egypt both flowers grew throughout the country and were celebratedfor their sweet smell. The word for lotus is zen (et var.) and from the NK to the bud, though is written with the full lotus flower [Dittmar, Blumen p.47 ff. ]. It is nbbt refers possible that sn and nbbt were used to differentiate lotus types, thus it has been suggested that nhbt is Nymphaea V Gartenpflanzen11361. At Edfu it is likely that nbb was not a specific lotus but applied to all kinds and it is the subject of an offering ritual nk nhb [Dittmar, Blumen p.98]. This is most often made to Horus : nk 0 V IV 392,12-393,3 V 50,17-51,13 ;V 149,15-150.10 ;V 342.4-10 VII 78.6-79,4 L. [Food, Gift p.633ff. and nelumbo LA III col. 1091-1096; Keimer,

162,6-163,2: VII 321.5-16. With Hathor: 1--!:: ) V 245.7-17 ; 111185,13-186,2 ; with Harsomthus -nk d7

1; , VI 247,10 - 2458,9 eej

VI 338,13 - 340,4. In all these texts the offering is reiterated by

the king and the lotus is the first lotus which grew from Nun in the lake of fire at Wenct (Hermopolis). Horus is the child who came from the lotus flower (often called nhbt-wr VII 79,2 ; VII 162,7-8 VII 321 or r---v a0 92" V 150,8). Horus himself can be called VI 248,2 and the king is identified with him. In return Horus gives e Yt

the kinQ good thiner, - herin stnell the 19tusev, Rtimmor(V 51.11) and NO Pnolq and fiakesare C1111 of of flowers, the flood is high (VI 248).


(6-8) OK Wb 11356 Cr.55b*.CED34; KH35tospiton


'spif of which only the

-4 r*' Coptic term came from an Egyptian word '4%*eF. suggestedthe

form -

ee42-9- (Wb 11368.13 ) is attcstedL stressed requires Egyptian c; so that Pyr. The D-r

direct derivationfrom ntf 'to floof is probablynot justified . for it is written ntf from the NK , a thoughin GR textscanbe spelled "x'r- The root of all thesetermsis tf 'to spit out' with an .

it Overtime ntf couldbe spelled andwith this pronunciation is die origin of the Coptic ndf n-prefix. term. ntf is usedat Edfu asa varianton othertermsfor lo floo(f
3= NL-

Idbwy 1468.5 also

your high groundandislands11254.12; Harsomthus givcs the king . 'what the n D'py 'what the flood hasflooded' 1112.7.

Z "% havespatout (q') and 'a& x mountains -A


'flood of thelimbs- typeof beer Wb 111250 GR (9)

Wb citesonly onereference this term: Phill 1 54.13 (andn.6) = Philae<1545>Photo226 the for
"'^* '*-- II^ goddesssays, 'My heart is glad with ,4 .1. * 'watcr of ft limbs "I (in a becr offering) 4m**q '9*-& and drivs

An earlier text at Edfu confirms the existenceof this word : Ilathor drinks of away sadnesswith bcce IV 105,12-14.ntf-b'w seemsto be a word for locce.


indepcndant third person masculine, pronoun Wb 11356 (3-5) DG 187, 'Y1

Cr.Ilb; CED113; KI1129 NT04 GG p.564 and 114; JunkcrGrD p.42-3 and 55-56with possessive use. At Edfu : f '0- 1. his is the E C=I nameof Rc for cvcr VI 264,12.


nt second person masculine,indepcnde pronoun Wb 11357 (2-3) DG 187



Cr.Ilb; CED112; KH127


in ntk is usedoften at Edfu, especially the geographical offerings.The areaor canalis broughtby him with it and show his universality,this is the king and Horus is given an epithetto associate by alwayspreceded from IV 21-42; 171-194 V 105-12 and plus a noun/participle phrase, IV 31,2 IV 41,12.

13-28 with consistent for S? spellingsexcept , `C=a


because Wb 11355 (2-3)

GG 223also at Edfu : Horus Maat for Re!VI 240,13.


ir m3lt n RI 'because is is he who made it


to hit , strike Wb 11386(2) GR ndg

likely in the caseof the Borghoutssuggests nd is n9d 'tearup' (Wb 11342,13-16) that which seems only Wb reference VI 3133 ; dfd nt wbr jjfd 'tear up the eye!162,8-9 ; and also c= bl nt wbr

CD VI 134,3[notein JEA ti IV 149,1-5 .. T 59,1973 p.125 n.5]. The writing with that suggests the word is not to be split n9d, but reads by musthaveoccurred this time. Thereis alsoa term nd (Wb Il 357,1) nd andcompletemetathesis Champ.p.658 n.h] 'toL splash',referring to the crocodile [Weill, PapyrusMagique , Rec. meaning with the term nd. which may be connected


skin, hide Wb 11357 (4) Late, GR Wb 11356 (12) Md- -

which The later form ntt probably derives from ntnt used in medical texts, a term determined by Q-

head (WbMed 490, Lefebvre, Tableaup.13). From later texts and refers to the skin around the bites into Edfu ntt refersto the hide of the hippopotamus in the Myth , the harpoon : especiallyat

A^^-^ 'a"


incorrectdeterminative] clawsseizehold of VI 67,7 [JEA 29 p.10 n.k comments thq ; on

A. ^

VI 72.10 ; of the falcon Ch. e "


1114,23 as the objectof ndr in alliteration of n ,

311' 'scratch'. "6'" and

IV 287,9 ; the harpoon stabs

^ q

of foes 115,16 ; in a


fOreleg offering,the king captures foe andin the

stabs (nk) Q of the hippctll 167.9.

'Vlf-brings backhis hide 111127,9 Horus ;

.,. i

Meeks suggeststhat the term comesfrom a root 4nI as in nit Iiidc! made into a sack inside which a body is placed [BIFAO 77,1977p.88 with note).


rope , cord

Wb 11367 (9-11)Pyr. but nit is usedfrom PyramidTextsonward, at Edfu it is usedof theropeattached the harpoon to VVY therope1145.5-6:'Zrm*6 VI 73.6 ; the harpoonandam. the harpoonentersthe beast, with eN are in the handsof harpooners 113,1; VI 115,4 VI 121,5.It is listed VI ; amongthe equipment of the harpooner VI 215.5andtheyhaveprepared their ropeson the harpoon, readyfor use

C"c"n. VI 114,6-7; 115,5; sim. VI 122,6. The rope is alsousedto bind Sethoncehehasbeencaught: a collar at his throat
both his hands (or he his tied - namely both his hands ?) VI 120,1 khb qs rn on .

j.-J his rope

SeLh iF--

tied up in his rope VII 110,15-16 ; possibly - nYn m mistake for IV 58,13 ; the foe of the eye khb m


and slain in his Ur (if cg'is a in his ropc3 1175a ;I give focs
du dm


n ra ,,

tied up in a rope (or fled up and bound) 1292,11 ; that khb




to bind , tic Wb 11367 (2-8) OK

The verb nU is usuallyusedof the foe lied Upas prisoners " -. 1145,5 ulldc-'TOutSaAdals 340,15 -, nhsyw, 6 ropeand holdsit

AAAft-^ SU




COY IV 370.9 foreigners

n bryvvt

V 233.11 -.the king reccives'the

the I have tied it to the sand dwellers V 293.11 so qi rope

nbd IV 88,3-4. -1mc-j -1 .. f I%vy. nb he is bound by both hands V1 120,1 1

CS are

Intransitive : Seth is brought bring the antilope '

=b dCh

'm f he is bound in his ropes 111146.10 . The legs of the calv cL qj.


by the w3r rope as the king controls them 111168.11.Ile prisonersare bound


are with their legsbentbackso that their feetandforearms tied behindtheir back,animalshavetheir legstied together.

Other things can be bound however: nsyw plant the metaphorically, king lir *, Ck =, m-ntt 'bound': geese
d: k




is boundto the papyrus159,3

4"""""* bindstheir hearts(freezes heartsof foe) IV 235,12-13. 1111,6 ; thosedisloyal


", .j 1=1.10

in the placeof piercingand

are then slain 1299,1 ; possiblythe foe is broughtqs


.0 c& As a noun 'binding ': Horus saysof the desertflocks, 'I see =,

boundin bonds1292,1 ( ). ir. n.k nfyw tftyw I see ac-J 323,10-11(not

the binding which you havedoneof thosefoes VII 164,14; copiedin Wb).


feminine independeht pronoun,second person Wb Il 357 (7) D.18 DG 187 z /4 -3 Cr.llb; CED 112; KH 126 NTO

GrD 64]lessso at Edfu. [Junker Oftenat Dendera


spittle , outpouring Wb 11357(6) olderntnt Wb 11356(13)

In Totb.Nav.105,3 the deadman brings natron and resin, 'I purify


to or them' (so BarguetLdM p.140]. ntt seems be somethingunpleasant unclean transpirationwith impure and it comesfrom the body. The AbydosRitual tabl.14 has :P and ////wash

? (so Wb Beleg) and this is the most usualway for the word to be used: in the first away sweat chamberwest,HB a s13-mrt ritual, in ji'py iIJ 'D - n I--," a,!. Z. in in rn h'py shd ir 3bw 1 123,7-8;a text repeated VI 248,15 ; sim. iIj and drive away all

discussed : il ntt from you MD IV 34. Chassinat of collectedall examples this mainphraseand evil D'py n bm.k 1433,2-3 possibly 1 122,9 -sc-j e-*n bm.k (not clear in in Ipy 'sdcr6tion'p.189

text however) ; Moret p.188 Mut XXV, 5-6 Pi printed = fun. Il p.36 Pi =A. Schiaparelli,Libro ... in

are all examples from cloth offerings and are, ... u-tntt remainsuntranslated Chassinat]. by

with 13-mrt [Khoiak 11650-651 with connected


ntt also exists as a verb : the canal of the Ist LE nome -..



n. k mw m fnd. k 'he

exudes waterfrom your nosefor you'IV 21,14[de Wit, BIFAO 55,1955 p.112 spit out]. The word
can refer to liquid from the mouth :
A--b on

t;, ),

Mett. pp.61 of his lips MCM170[Sander-Hansen,



Wb Il 358 (1) to 360 (12) Pyr. DG 232,6 Cr.230b; CED111; KH127 NOYTC-' WOY-t a

The etymology of nir is unknown and written from the earliest texts with the flag sign

symbol of the presence of something sacred,the fluttering of the streamers of the flag in the wind, full spellings of nLr S1 signifying the divine presence.The word is written thus at Edfu, both in

for and the (closed)flag sign is usedasa determinative divine names. In older textsthe god sign 4 and this is also commonat Edfu as well as the can be written with a hawk on a standard in further development, wherethe falcon is written alonefor n1r. The sign thenembodies one sign 'goS,HorusBelidet, 'falcon!- especially significantat Edfu. Spellings With attribute adjectives: nlr. w' : HorusBehdct 1379.8 4A 14152 ; Jr
bpr mI@ I one god

V 8,10 ; in the theological statementin the,6th LE nome, 'You are

becametwo gods'IV 26,6. It is a phrasewhich generallyappliesto creators[Wb Beleg - Re who Atum, Aton, -Osiris]. njr-wr : Horus Behdct 1158,7 1268,17 1357,17.

is usually appliedto the king at Edfu in the namesof Ptolemies(in Greek= Euergacs, njr-mnb L0'p. 712a benefactor), in the nameof Ptolemy III [LA IV 11941, but p3 nir mnb can be
Iplied to other kings such as Ptolemy IV 1106,17. ap , 14 C9B fps: Also of god. : 1170,13; nlr. male god': Tanen is In namesof Ptolemies ol' father of the gods IV 2 1.11. and 9

of Punt 183.17 ; nLr-L314

Oc6t'F-OEPYE'TC(L'"'* IV is heir of Ptolemy

146,3 ; 127 (8)

1536.5 ; CleopatraI


537,6. OeOt ento6vetg Oeot &5e?, :A Oot ocOt 4rtXonCCrope; Oeot Olkogiyrope; 1176,6 146,3 1517,7 ALL 1176,7. 99 1475,12 1522,13. 1517,9 1536,5.

The epithetsrefer to any two Ptolemaic king andqueenand are usuallyfound in ancestral of royal rites. Plural forms cl cl passim
IV 21,12 IV 19,7 IV 53,9.1413,416. II I in the 6th LE nome, Horus is one god who becwnc two gods IV 26,6. 118,6

It I
V 9,2 IV 13,9 4" V%V V 5,2 8.3

n1r.wy occurs in the name of Edfu, where it may refer to Seth and Horus, (or Horus and Re or even

A1 the king and Horus) thusthe templeand town is 1316,18.

1558,2 (q.v.) andalso


n1r. '3

greatgod Wb Il 361 (1-7) Pyr.

The early designation godsnjr-'3 occursvery oftenat Edfu as an epithetof HorusBehdetalmost of IV 16,9 IV 12,5 eachtime his nameis written. Spellings , YJ he V 5,2. The sign of My is usedbecause is especially by' referredto as nlr. '3 [recognised Jdnker,ZAS 43,1906p.112;B IFAO 43,1943 p.1041. -

n1r. nfr

goodgod Wb 11361(10) to 362 (3) OK

n1r.nfr is frequentat the beginningof texts fl ! FL 111160,8. IV 5 I'l I; 'I


IV 55,4 andpassim


nir -t

Wb 11362 (4-14) Pyr. DG233,1 fY-Illr

Cr.230b ; CED III; 'I 'Z V Singular: ca

KH 127




e a-

1339.1 1312,13. IV 17,15; V 301,17 ef sit HI 3,12. 1160,7-

Dual: of thetwouraei
Plural: I 4, Lk Its &-

41 'C',

146,14; I

nirwt bmwt 'femalegoddesses':

Dr It iI 'I sV


to bedivine(adjective verb) Wb 11363(1) to 364(19) Pyr. DG235,1

n1ri occursoften atEdfu as an attribute,spefled 20,1.


191, IV 330,12 ;5


It is usedin epithets: 'pp n1ri IV 28,3 : 1345,10; bik n1ri IV 47.11 ; snd Irl 1299,1 - plants 11 also smw -c>- IV 36,11;mw n1ri divine semen 198,15. Verb: intransitive transitive n shm.k I am divine for your image1492,10. W 1162,10 often. and
41 A... jt*

which comesfrom Osiris (from NIK) I

'w. f 1170,2 ;


cloth Wb 11365 (14-15) and (16) Late, GR

Ina cloth buying scene in the tomb of Niancli-

chnum, a buyer says of a bolt of cloth.

translated by the editors of the tomb as 'nlrw-tuch' [Ni4hchnum p.85 n.a and fig 101.Junkcr lists from OK cloth lists 794 [Giza I p. 177 and also see Budge, Lady Mcux Collection pL7] and nir CP O. DeM 452 (Janssen, p.257 n.g].

occurs once in the Deir el Medina ostraca

These examples seem to be an early form of the later word n1ri for cloth, even if the function and actual identity of tz cloth are not the same. From late texts and especially in the Ptolemaic period nirl cloth was brought as an appropriate


offering to gods. Blackmansuggested it was a collective term for all the colouredcloths or that 26 wrappings usedin ceremony in the daily templecult [c f. Moret, Rituel p. 178ff ; JEA 32,1946 p.80 n.171 : irtyw offering, 7ake w1bt ... offering, 7ake 'I : =) -Y limbs with -0-d to clothe your limbs ' 131,4-5 ; idmi 'making pleasant

from the handsof Tayef 131,12 ; as a parallel to mntt C1 = -r 1 178,5 "rake ==W , 111140,13VII 306,8sim. ;I ; 1: 1376,5 ; cl 9"

to clothe your limbs '198,5 ; 'you are =1=1. Y adomsyour body 111140,16

in young again
md is for

is to envelopyour limbs 163.17 -,in the cl FY IV 331,1.It is madeby Tayet

consecration the temple , hnk mddb3 of 11163,15.


In puns :a womanofferer brings

brings 6,49doubly lslri. %P-%

twr. ti

-d great of secrecy1566,11 ;a man

divine cloth 1566,15; he adorns the cult image with

-1=: V )

andgreenandwhitecloth 1566,16-17. The term is usedin this generalway at Dendera also, and the lack of punning (that is n1ri is not often punned that with n1ri be divine) suggests it hasa neutralmeaning..


heart Wb 11365(5-7) Late, GR

As notedin Wb niri hasseveral distinctandpossiblyunconnected uses. &, Ur of the creatorgod : P.Br.Rh. 33 andat Edfu, as the heartof Re which created Thoth : Re/Horus who begatThoth (hb) from the thoughts of his heartI 289A ; Thoth is of

HorakhtyVII 322,7 [for Thoth as the heartof Re in generalseeGwyn Griffiths, JEA 44,1958 P.81, to and n.12]. The bengabird is also supposed havecomefrom Khent-labet 121,2. IV goddess In cosmogonical textsn1ri alsoplaysa role : the two separators comewhen unitesin peace of the brother of the

with the island of peaceVI 181.12 [after BIFAO 64,1966 p.130 and p.132 n.n (dsprit) divine
Alliot-Barucql ; when Tanen exists I Im "&, exists 1117,7 ; in it is the heart which

10. that the creates water1117,9- Reymond suggested this wasa divinity njr-ib who created primeval water [MOET p.1421. cl The Osirian relic of the 10th LE nomeis the heartof Osiris 1332,14 (also alludedto in


Dendera.Osiris texts - Vcmus, Athribis p265 n.6 ; Beinlich, Osirisreliquien p.255-56 implies the reading is ib with a divine determinative]. In two texts the word is less clear : in a cloth offering text, Khons says to the king dU n. k

k n hlvv. 1 125,13


censer Wb 11365 GR and(10) GR (4)

Wb cites two examples n1ri 'censee from MD 11123.0 V-JA andMD I 49,b-c of



raisedup r n1ri s'p.t to makeyour form divine'. The word also occursat Edfu : in an incenseand libation offering, 'I hold GoodYear,the king holds ffl*sa in my left handV 82.10-11(pl.113 3rd rcg.); censingthe VI 93,3 : andalsoD VIII 156,8.

is A word given as 'Becken'(basin)in Wb (WB 11365,10) most likely also this term : the king has `2' 3) in his hands, makingfestivehis house with produce Punt!1536,7.71e determinative of ld=Pf indicatingthat theobjectis madeof metal.



cl '0. A In the killing of a turtle : mds rn bdnw. k 'my knife is stuck in your foes' says Ilorus -= to the king IV 151,3. The term is perhapsderived, ultimately, from the metal implement used in the Opening of the mouth called nLr.ti [Otto, Mundoffnung II 1960 p. 17). .


natron Wb 11366(8-11)Pyr. Gr. vLTpov nitre

Natron is natural soda(sodiumcarbonate sodiumbicarbonate with someimpurities) with the and variety coming from Wadi Natrun and the southerntype from El Kab. It was usedin the northern Etymologicallyit may be connected snir form of pelletsfor purification [Harris, Nfinerals 1931. to p. 'incense'., Wb read as n1ri deriving from but in Pyr. 1368this sign is the determinative of

smn both of which are natron [GardinerSign list T9]. The GR spelling and also ,


from hieratic and its variantsis probablya misreading

and shouldbe readas bd or bsmn as

Chassinat does.Most of the Wb examples the term should then be relocated.If all of these of 1 spellingsareremovedthe actualexistence n1ri is lesssecure Pyr 27has %CC 5, where Ow of : I I be a mistakefor andLD 1125hasi3wul :: iff next to bd :o15 whereit obviouslyis . may , I not readbd , but could be Dsmn for example snir. Harris accepted Wb readingof to be or the nlry from arguments forwardby Steuer put who believedthis to havebeenoriginally snir . However in the alone is usually natron thus nlry whereasbd and Osmn require fuller writings ;I -1 PyramidTexts is nlry and when written with the complement or n the term I r readsas nlry

[Steuer,Wohlreichende Natronp22 ff ; Harris,Mineralsp.194].nlry is the generaltermfor.'natroif by which canbe furtherdefinedas nlry moXm' or bd Osmn[alsoaccepted LA IV col.358-9]., Medical texts record a word nlryt (Wb 11366,14)whose nature is unknown [Wb Drog 319].
However a similar term on a fragment of papyrus, read as nlryt, is used,to anoint the m. outh

[Caminos, Lit. Frag p.32 = pl. 10,3,4-51.This may be a by-product of nlry (used to purify the mouth) or a speciesof natroa, or simply an aberrantfeminine form of nLry [Harris, Nfinerals p. 1941. I is generally read bd by Fairman in his sign list slips (I VI 244,1 for example) and

originally as qs by Gardiner [GG T 19 and 20] , but there are examples of fully spelled n1ri cl purification rituals with pellets of Upper Egyptian natron : Horus says, 'I establish your house
amb 0, x

n1ril dt. k natronis great- it purifies your body' IV 216,8 ; Horus gives hsmn and Ci .0br niri lit. k VII 55,5-6.


to purify, be pure Wb 11366(12-13)Pyr.

nir is the transitive form of n1ri 'to be pure' (with natron and incense)and it is used from the PyramidTextsonwards. kk At Edfu,, this the verbpunson nir 'natron'and makes useof the verb seem ratherartificial andarchaic "'i incenseoffering, nir natronis in greatquantity ri c-=P. dt. k 'it purifies your Upper Egyptian body' IV 216,8 ; sametext - nir hr dt. k VII 55,6.


sacred wrifings


In a dw3-R' text, Apopis is destroyedT


what is in the divine writings 1 189,8a -1with


flowers Wb 11365(18-19)Med.GR

in is an unknownplant attested medicaltexts [Wb Drog 318] and then in GR temples- it is. nirw The planthowever. laterword maybe a GR re-inventionto suit the not clearif both refer to thesame natureof the temple texts. It is found at Dendera ) q2 oil parallel with mnbw gives

protectionMD IV 43. The medicaltext use,Ebers184Tinnehmemittel'medicine, a parallel of this I 'and in7hieradc text in H.23 hasinsteadqst.t (confusion thesecould easily be confusedof Moller 11). 11460 I

15 W is tied to the headof the king for in At Edfu the word appears an amulettext, where the considered plant to be synonymous protectionVI 299,7. Ghattas with thesnb plant [Schutzp.50 n.4].


beer Wb 11365(8) beerjug. (9) beerGR

The term n1ri occursthroughoutGR temples: Menqctmixes for you

heart happy IV 197.3 (parallel text has nbti 111150,1' also 2) -T

9 )- zr



'- -,to makeyour


MD IV 6; sweet

w ,-1 of Menqetis offeredMD III 18i 4% `14=0 4Philae<3338>Phot. 1272; Take...

is mixedexcellentlyOrnbos161.65 ; Receive



(bccr offaing) PhiM 154,10-11

Abb.27. The Wb references translated 'jug' mostlikely refer to ftixce itscif. as


eyes sacmd Wb 11366(1-6)Pyr.

In Iearlier texts nirt is mentionedin the'singular,being the eye of a god and perhapsa mark or symbolof his divinity. In the Royal Tombsthereis a minor deity in a funcrarypapyrus theform VI. [Blaclanan JEA 5 p.32 andpl.V1 andalso in the tombsof SedI andRamcsscs , who is depicted in


The dual form usually refers to the eyesof the sun god which give out light. Singular : the oryx was supposedto have stolen the eye of the sun god andwhen the animal is slain, the text asserts 4th LE nome is Harakhty fills wd3t sw3jj ... Apopis in a sqr-bm3 text, Take the eye is sacred (that is 'safe) IV, 238,15-16 ; the relic in the 1330,16 the term is synonymous with wd3t in filling the eye, -C VIII 136,6. The term can also refer to the eye of n Nik IV [though as Borghouts notes other 1305,7

'sacrecrwords, including wd3t can be used, JEA 59 1973 p. 128 n.4].

FjXal: the eyesof Horuswhich illumine the earthare VI 246,1 ; sim.


I "'

da %,

q=* 43tp

1'C=Ml. , '" 4T 1284,10;

V 8,3

C: =I.

V 154J ; and they drive away the

1112,9. In the 20th LE nome, god made millions and hundreds of thousands


I -c=- =-

'C2, <0>

IV 38,7.

As with other words for 'eye' nirty is also a term for the two serpent uraei : in an invocation to the '2'M' '1 -C=: 'MUand four uraei who face the four points of the compass,two are hailed as 'Ch %,, two are w3dty 312,13-14. the other

[Derchain, P.Salt 825 p. 846 with comparison to the four faces of Hathorl I


foundation Wb H 368 (2-4) GR

Two early forms of ndb are unfortunately vague as to its precise meaning : Deir Rifeh Tomb VII (Siutpl. 19,33) lists I "FL P //// Urk IV 85,7 in drw 0? :

'2' Y-- [Tuthmosis c=-v,,

I Tombos stela]. Faulkner suggests'area! or 'extent! [FCD 1431,but the Luxor temple texts provide the best comparison with the GR temple text examples : 'heavenis establishedon its four foundations

of Amun , the land hr

of Amun'KRI Il 627,6.

becomes singularin the ndb then hasthe'land uponWand this earlierplural word,(Wb 11361,10) GR phraset3-Dr-ndb J, meaning'the whole earth'.It occursoften at Edfu : tribute of -671 11"fOr b- I


Or b. v-- 14882 Horus "r V 143,4; 111139,9 V 42.1 ; provisionsof 0 br ; .1 Al ,T 1' 1 ?T S t>0 -qqzo el 13,17(spelling is the sole lord of 1433,13 ; he illumines 3- TJ *, ' 1556.1 confused with bi3t). Also in)fn-t3-br-ndb. f 'circuit of the whole lanif : I j t- ell 178,17 ; 'r "Z". 193,9 ; 1165,8 which is given to the king by the gods.


Used by itself ndb refers to the whole earth (Wb 11368,5-6GR) and it is a synonym of B in exactly TJ1 1552,2 ' VIII 152.16 analogous ways: the beams of Horus illumine 1294,10 parallel to 0; the lady of the flame illumines
r-C3 cm

1165,3- Horusrules ;


199,10 ; the god divides out provisions

in the wholeearth1476,11. ' godsandgoddesses. worshipping

implying (people) theearth: 'I give As a substantive of

T fear of you is in their hearts'I 398,13-14; tremblein dreadIV 92,9 ; the two lands . foreign .1 j kiss the earth1164,2-.god makesthe king to rule countriesbow down , mi of the wholeearth(parallelto UpperandLower Egypt) 1405,6. ndb may be somekind of markerfor thefurthest extentof territory(c.f. Heb Sedrun markercairns
Also : pehu of the 19th LE nome, ntk'-r-'*11? "%-I 19b. w'f'ns n. f nb3-tr or 'who

IV 38.1 ? reckons the eye of his mistress, she subduesfor him .--


wing C "0 who protectshis greatplaceV 321,13-14-,sim. V 319,16-17

^-%, W% R49

At Edfu : Horus the creatoris bq3



tj go

VI 182,7.10 and the Creatoris ,

also ndrn ndb lord of the Wing': 169,15-16.Both epithetsoccur together: bq3

111199,12-13 0 'Q VI 182,8; probablyIV 185,14and they refer to

the falcon or flying ba of th--First Occasion[JEA 48,1962 p.87 nA ; MOET 16 n.31.Someof the -dRER VI textsgive further information: the Sia falconappears wing extended 182,4 the ruler of the wing halts and looks at-the constellationsVI 182,7 ; in a title of Mr-Hr 176,13. Alliot and Barucqsuggested the word in fact shouldreaddbn andis written as ndb for a better that it of the term, making it neaterand more pleasing to the eye. They suggested was an writing 'to intrans'itiveverb comparable d bn [P)ramid textsand Wb V 437.4-111 go round in a circle' . to dbn canbe usedof the flight of a describes circling flight of a bird of prey in this instance. the which falcon so that ndb 'is a metathesised transitive form In one text, 1w bf C! I"II
^^", %, i %%%%

ty:;. a


suggestinga link betweendbn and ndb VI 14,14.7le translationof ndb would be 'one who flies/glides'(in a circle) [BIFAO 64 1966p. 135,140 and p. 135n.c - 136). Most recentlyFinncstad translates title as'Lord-hovering'[Imageof The World p.31 for example].Oncethe word ndb is the


usedas 'wing' (though alway with a single wing determinative) it enjoys a restricted use afterwards.


to hear Wb 11367 (19-23) GR

ndb 'to hear' is attested from GR times only and is used as a synonym of sdm 'to heae [Otto, GuM p.30,136 for examples]. Its -origin is unclear but there is a term in the Pyramid Texts ndb 'to sip' [FCD 143] or perhaps 'to drink in' which could later have been applied to the ears 'drinking' in , sound.

I*"'" lb hearing'praises'sm-* 10 nfrwIV9,5; The verb is transitive: usedof ....

TJ vd I 50o'l 14 ;T . ;

j:j, &, gko dw3w 1500,9-10; 'words', hearts




bknwIV15,4 ddw VI 10,6;

V. 1459,5 ; 'sound'

brw. f (of wind) VII 276,11 ; 'command! of

offering .0j

1121,12-,name1118,6.Most importantlyndb, spr 'hearpetitions': Horus

Od petitionsof thosewho haveandhavenot VIH 93,7. d3isw. i VI 5,7.

With particle m

g 'gm-snw listening to the two brothers With prepositionn: benubird - his earsare openDr VIII 107,14.


lord ndb 111199,12-13

ndm is usedat Edfu in the phrasendm ndb 'Lord of the wing/flying': ndb VI 182,8 , _j '*'F

AllioVDarucqread VI VI 185,14(probablyIV 169,15-16).

BEFAO64,1966 p.143 . but the 'thenDbn approached, 182,8as a mistakefor n1jr [translated Reymondrecognised term as 'new' the of of other clear examples ndm makethis unlikely. number in Edfu textsonly. Shetranslated Urd of thewing!asa divinenameof thecreatorfalcon andexisting Its etymologyis not certain , but it is usedwith hq3 ndb also and possiblyis a substitutefor nb 'lord' [MOET p.16 n.3 ; JEA 48,1962 p.87 n.1]. It is given to Horuswhenthe pay-landwascreated

by him [MOET p.179] at this time the crew of the Horus proclaim 'the nameof
If r our Lord is Horus' VI 176,12 jlr-3t
AC: 9'adl

also VI 181,2; Make

VI 185,1-2 - so it has a wider use and is not an error for ndr.

The origin of ndm is unclear but it may bear comparison with a term recorded in Wb ndm 'throne'


'655 srf br (NVbII 368,14GR) -two examples quoted: Ombos1196, are



hm. k 1542,9 (in a text alliterating n ). This example suggests a cormcction of

from nLIm 'to sit' (Wb 11381.13GR) so ndm may bc'one of the throne! that is'lor(f. this noun


to protect Wb Il 364 (4-14) DG 235,5

nd is in use from the Pyramid Texts and occurs at Edfu often in parallel with synonymous verbs
tr 7rdM


m3r' (with nh , ir. nhy) VII 113.11 ; Horus nhy ... mnfy ... 1159,7 ; with br - nir k'irj,,(1159,1 : Hathor

U. --j


protects the gods Il 39,16. In general : AcT4 40. he protects you 1159,34 ; 4T' V .0 With m-': *'0

*rj 4.. Y-tw my

V sns 1572.1.

J bm. k m-1 brtyw. k 11 74,6-7.

OP't. -aWith r: Hathor %- -

bftyw. f VII 157,8.


protector Wb 11374(15) to 375 (6) Pyr. nid Wb 11375(14) to 376 (11) MK nd-tY ,

of ndty is frequentat Edfu andderivedfrom the verbnd. The ndly form is a later development nd thoughboth areusedin Ptolemaic texts, ndty is by far the mostcommon. '' is nd spelledwithout King A 128,12 -,king as of the two sources nirw 1220,13. Lords of Mesen1527.13(PtolcmyI and Berenice). passim.and king IV 10.7 of his father

1480,16; of gods- Osiris YMA L; OeOL In the tide P

T In the title of Horus : nd US 'protectorof his fathee 1216,14. ndtYwith

17 to,

added: withmnt', Ilorus'T'r

t 1'

111194.8 king ; of the burdened

165,12-13 1 nb of gods goddesses and

VII gods 62.4. mnb of all

Of the king in general

or- CX % ,%

begathim IV 242.14 protectorwho protectsone who

of EgypdansVII 73,11-12. Horus AM basIV 235,13-14 T '" ; 91%% 10A of the sun folk VII 49,1-2 of


the city and protector of shrines IV 44,14 ; he stands as of all gods V 65,2 ; also note the spelling C-21

VI 151,5 who protects the flesh of Horus IV

TA." 91 11,7-8 [CdE 36 Nr. 71 p.83 n.2]. More unusually, the divine harpoon is adored as *% of the harpooner (Horus/king) VI 238,12. In the phrase nilty-it. f : Horus P #: am. US : Horus %% IV 30,12 ; Edfu IV 54,3 ; njit n

1187,13 %Lty br it. f ,



The plurals form is ndtyw 'protectors' an epkhlet gods : the greatgodsof Edfu are of VI who protectcitiesandnomes 3113.


to greetsomeone Wb Il 372 (8-23)Pyr.

r nd-br is formed from the verb nd 'to asleand h. 'face', literally, 'to ask the face' or 'ask about' implying that on meetingeachothertheyask aboutthe healthof eachother).The true form (perhaps formulausedfrom the PyramidTexts to GR of nd is written with theprothetici andis a stereotyped texts.It is a very formal greetingusedon meetinggodsandthe king [Griffiths, JEA 37,1951 p.36Q 'I saluteyour face'[GG 272; Caminos, II col.915-917; Grapow,Anrufe p.73 and 113ff. ]. LA At Edfu nil-br is usedin rituals suchas nd-br m nmst (q.v. nmst) 0"
T 16 01

'6 IV 33Ij ; also




11140,7. The postureof the king is to hold the nmst and

performed raisehis other handbeforehis face in a gestureof adoration.It is a rite of consecration everyday [Alliot, Culte 1109 0]. It canbe performed with othervessels 1524,1-2.As one of the first daily rites it is performedin the morning 32,3 ; it is synonymous with dw3 nir split: 5) Q '90'' m dsrt tp dw3 IV

of Re BelidetIV 56,10.The phrasecanbe

shegreetsyou with what comesfrom her 1468,9 (femaleoffering bearer).

40 Nun in In Othergodsapartfrom Horusare greeted :T your nameof Nun 1470,11-12. puns 'or ? -D m 6r *r 8111 'Greetingyou with greetingvessels four times every day' Il 231,16. is The phrase frequentlyusedbut is archaicanddoesnot continueinto demoticor Coptic,soperhaps of alwayshasa degree religiousformality.




NVb11373(1-10) OK

The term is derivedfrom nd-br 'the greeting', it seems sometokcn may given on greeting that and in it someone this formal way and the earliestusessuggest was primarily a gift madeto the de-ad (broughtfrom the towns/estates pr-dt see Beleg2 and5 esp. NVb ). of As an extensionof this ndt-br became gifts in generaland is usedthus at Edfu :a foreign land brings T U 0 "1 140,4; thegod'slandcontains IQ its gift 1135,6.


Wb 11373(11) D21

Wb recordsthe phraseon a Zcttel from Karnak<1166>: irt

n Imn whereit seemsthat'

nilt-br is a vessel perhaps usedfor purificationderivingfrom its usein the nd-br greetingritual. At Edfu the word is also usedin the Nile Chamber: nd r. k in V60"O', n hrt-hrw 'grccUng you' with the vesselthree times' 11231,16- hereperhaps type of nmst jar namedafter the ritual in' a whichit so oftenappeared.


NVb 11371(16-21)NK. GR fr U 0'" #sn msw.f the corpsesof

In an incense libation text: your majestygoesto him and

the dead1151,13- 'to makeofferings' [Alliot. Culte 11516; Gutbub Tcxtcs p.274 n.nJ. With the . prepositionn, as here,only two otherexamples recorded at Dendera wherethe phraseis parallelto it for w3-ibt . As Wb suggests could be a later replacement n1Jr. t 'grcct' but the parallel of th& w3h-iht suggests is not the casehere.

crush Wb 11369(11) to 370 (10) OK DG 231,1 N7 NOYT

Cr.229a; CED III ; KH 127tomill

In OK textsnd referredto thecrushingof grain to makeflour and in medicaltextsit is part of thethe

process of making medication. At Edfu the verb is used in recipe : ingredients for '3t-nlr OT Tr V

nqr m d'r 'grind up and sieve'11214,9.


-T In the phrase nd-br 'crush with ingredients or V 2. mw n itrw with water from the river' I ....

T nd-In' I 'crushfinely' I ingredients

nqr 11203,9; also 11226,8.

The verb is also usedas a means destruction enemies Wb recordsthis usefrom An. 119.9 of of . T7fbi limbs of foes Irf-' "t and at Edfu the verb is usedin alliterationof n the handsof 16 L nbd crushNebed116 (12). Horus


thirst Wb Il 377(5-6) MX cf. KH527 N&X to stifle, suffocate

in with thirst' [ONS 191andthe term occursoften at Edfu as nd3 is first attested Sinuhe'beparched somethingundesirablewhich is removed : in a libation text, the water Ibmthirst 11245,15-16 beer Ibm tY ; quenches A rX J IV 45,9 ; 'Drn with choicepieces

it because is often 'to extinguishfire! so that nd3 the foe 1555,17.The useof 'bm. is interesting of v" hereperhaps understood the burningsensation thirst. As objectof rwi : with beer; % be of as may Al'VI 283,13 ; Menket rwi-AJ'KzI rAOVVA

151,8; Maat as the throat rwi. s,,-1170,16. "o 0%~

IV 257,16 ; dr

.k The determinative the water sign is contraryto the meaning, eitherbecause 'bad!determinative a of

by Menket1142,3 rw-' drink I1

be inappropriate, to showthat thirst is primarily concerned with the lack of and desireforor would liquid.


subject, slaves Wb Il 369 (2-5) MK andWb H 377 (4) GR

Bakir derivedndyt fromdt , ultimately 'body' hence'personal' or'own' with an n-genitival prefix, It peoplewho belong thus'belongingto humanchattels'. describes captured countries and subjugated as chattelsto the king or temple - not individuals.The king howevercan assignthemto the god's It The templeandworkshops. neverhasa land determinative. termoccursasa title twice in the MK:

BM StelaI pl-51 two peopleare L-

4 - .


'belongsto the funerary but this last readingsuggests ,

Egypt. as estate! an origin anda closecomparison with dt from the OK [Bakir, Slaveryin Pharaonic


Supp.ASAE 18,1952 p. 37-41] Other studies suggest that people of an official group (mriit)


(b3 kw and '3 mw) are together ndt people - that is all of the people who are,* private group of people and usually a high office holder (OLZ 72 . 1977 p.256 under the authority of a specified official by Endesfelderof O.Berlev, Die wcrtatige Bevolkerung Agyptens in der Epoche des MR]. FCD review translatesas 'serf [p. 143] . The use at Edfu is consistent for Peopleof, mainly, foreign lands are given by the gods to the king to be (r) nly-ty : the lands of the Fenkhu c=is loyal, the Red Land -0 111118,13-15; Thoth subduesthem 'as serfs' : Iuntiu and Mentiu T also i's -17 1# 1144,16 1396,7 ; Egypt

1421,15-16 : the nomes of Horus united =1 1-2 1108,14. They are given m ndyw 1375.13 2

1370,5 ; lun6u and Asiatics IV 56.7 *.oasis dwellers

It 28,17-18 ; qm3tyw

IV 125,34 ; foreign lands are -2P1404,11 ; b3swt m

Your majesty IV 234.18 ; southern foreign lands of fit 1185,15 ; Iunflu rn 47 IV 124,18-125,1

1142,3 the oasesof Kenern and Djesdjcs are united as ,ItI also 111242,18-19.

They can be specified to become for-Ign. lands hr

of the palace It 61.7 *,1109.14 and possibly 'all' 4) his people;

-Se- n 'h. k 1148.3. The king is to provision

with the offerings brought in procession1582,13. The use in GR texts is clear and is derived directly from NK texts ILA 111235.6scrvice! ; Grimal. Pianchi n.524 references'sujets].


be hostiletowards Wb 11369(8) GR

Wb cites two examplesof ndy :a geni in the Myth says,I drink the blood of is hostile towardsyour city' VI 72,1 ; at Philac,'protectorwho protectscities against who 11 '

one 5qq

). (allitcrationof n)<1 592>Photo203 [PhiM I p.67 (11) and n.5 not 'serfs'but 'be hostile!

11 71cre maybe an earlierexamples:KRI Il 180,14.Ramcscs makesall landsasthoughthey do not exist -Oj -j 4-\ sp ... it (Kitchen note b suggests should read nds



canalnearMemphis Wb 11381(11)

In a libation text, Hathorgives

kk ati

-1: 1:

to the king 1486,1 -,the Dendera text (Durn GI 11116)

is for Memphisandthe formulais "rake waterwhich comesfrom the canal'butherethe word Jk , =r- is not the canalbut a word for water.It mustderivefrom ndm 'besweef andso is literally 'sweet waters'.


be sweet,pleasant Wb Il 378 (9) to 380 (19) Old DG 235.5 Y 'F . I NOYfM-

Cr.231b; CED 112; KH 128 Noyr&A6

is ultimately derived from ndm the carob tree whose fruit 4 tastes sweet, the term occurs at ndm Edfu as outlined in Wb and is consistently spelled Used as an adjective it describesa number of things praises bknw made to grow by for his ka 1204,4 ; Intyw sweet wind of Shu IV 49,4. with two pod signs. black wood sweet of scent 11207,5 kV 272,14 11210,1 ; also ;a field is

As substantive : ndm-sti is often used to describe incenses,this was the most desirable type mnwr '7 1474,15-16 ; 11230,9 ; Dkn 4, =O' 1421,10; spices, kk=c:? Zbp 1397.14. H201, I5-I6; II

219,7 ; ointment of Hathor it rld

sti V 272,17 ; all things of the workshop #ATP; I 131,6; VII 106,13 and Min

11227.9 Also

With parts of the body : lby is 41.3. With wy: dg3 sV2,6

sweet of lips who drives away the rage of his mother Il.

; ....ptr sV6,2. 1401,8 VI 114.1 ; citizens May your hearts be sweet gods 1112,3 ; of scent

As a verb : of hearts 'I cause of heaven VII 155,12-13


its scentis very sweet11206,7.

sweetness heart, joy .. of f. Wb 11380(123)to 381 (1) and379 (15-17)

iol 4

At Edfu as a noun 'its, beginning has life , middle health and end enters Wetjcsct c-q r ijoyfully IV 50,6.

IV 42,2 -, he


tree Ceratonia siliqua L. 'NVb11378 (2-7) OK'

The fruit of the tree was pulped (rbn) and usedto make sacredperfumes,the woM of the tree is black and it is probably the Bread of John tree which is indigenous to the east Mediterranean and Arabia it was cultivated from early times [Charpentier p.424-5 and no.667 with references]. Some of where the earliest stelae mention ndm drink [Helck, Bier p. 171showing its cultivation in Egypt and also that its sweet taste was more important than its smell [as Ebell argud ZAS 64,1929 p.51 ffl. The dried fruit is also eatenand hasa sweethoney-like taste [Germer, Arznei pA7ff]. The tree is mentioned at Edfu in the wosrkshop texts where prt-ndm are used in certain recipes k4 t40 liquid extracted from is also 11229,2 tntyw 9 hin Il 221,1 ; ti9ps -7 2/3 hin ,a WIP Il 229,5. An offerer from Punt brings hm and a black wood called whose pulp is rbn added 11219,6-7. It is not however namedas a sacredtree at Edfu .


beer Wb 11381(12) GR

mentioned medicaltextsasa in Attestedfrom the 3rd dynastyin a list with bnqt, ndm is frequ'ently Ide [Helck, Bier p.17 ff. p.771 At Edfu theking offers tqt beerma by for taking medicines medium . Menketand 1114,1 from the hands Tcnmemet of


ointment Wb If 381 (10) D.22 - GR

Wb cites two references of only : monument Osorkonat Karnak,the king is Lord of '-\


ku k nwd n to the god [RT 22,1900p.134] ; at Edfu in a md offering, Take ibr who gives md S)(mw1143,10. This latter examplemay simply be'sweetsmelling'referringto the ointmcntnamed determinative. This hereandeventhe Karnakexample with simply be 'sweetness' an appropriate may is entry in NVb therefore uncertain.



sweetoflife =Edfu Wb 11381(2) GR

'Sweetof Life' occursoften at Edfu as a namefor the temple [GauthierDG III p.I III : priestsgo through IV to the sanctuary 53,13; the king enters IV 55,6 4`3also1195,9 f t C3 - in purity VII 137,5-6 C3 , 1346,5 1579,11; Horusenters Cn7.3 IV kk

Horus Bchdct hnt 286,2


VII C"2-'3 31,9 *,god entershis shrinebnt

0 1554,3 ; Akhu hnt Am Horus C-3of
Ab C-3



ME-3 f

is the palace of HB VI 112,4 her arms to receive you your face rP .3 ,

the temple is

IV 330,3 ; god gives

4+ 07*3 is blue at seeingher V 31,3 ; foreignlandsare slain in IV 80.1 andas a pun' r'. kIJ 0 is seenin VI 58,15. It can also be the Mesenchamber(Room 16) : it is c"' :i 40 fLC973is its nameIV 13,6 [JEA 36 p.68 n.251. providedwith its offerings In other placesthe term refers to Elephantineand Dendera. must be a lococentric term for and whichevertemplein which it is used thusis not includedin the official namelist of the temple(V 396).


Sweetof Life. asa divine epithet Wb 11379(19) D.18

The epithetis usedof godsfrom the NK, but at Edfu it is Horus: the priest revealsthe faceof kil hnt Ndm-'nh V 87,4; Horusto appear 1351,8-9; H'orusis andcauses k1sl tg ' V158,15; V 261,10.

k -ff


to sit down , settle Wb11381(13)GR

texts.Its meaningis clear,both from the sense and ndm is usedoften at Edfu in the cosmogonical determinative, of and it seemsto be an abbreviation the earlier verb sndm 'to sie or an error for it (Wb IV 186-7). sndm may havebeenconsidered be an s-prefix. to word , thoughit wasnot, andthe inventedafoot ndm. In the texts : when the snakeis defeated text writers of this time deliberately , 4.6 besideit VI 328,15- Reymondreadthis word as sndrn and saw this as an the fighters

iOl 6

beside the overthrown as a sign of victory and taking over his ancient custom whereby one settled lands [MOET p.36 n. 1 and p. 195-6] ; the crew or bodyguard of the creator sm3t(Goyon, Gardiensp. 23)VII7,14; t1 4-T tk-& k(&0-, br

beside him in joy VI 17,9 ; Re says to men jgg -AI) im 4r sm3t VI 329,5.

'Sit beside me P VI 181,1 ; and Maa

The notion of ndm as an act of proclaiming ownership and rightful possession is implied by the translation'to install'[Goyon, Gardiensp.23,'p. 101andalso it may beconne6td with the wordndm 'Lord''owner' (q.v.), a nuance sharedby nb. 'Me verb ndm occurs at Dendera in similar fashion

beneficent heir -


sits uponhis annalsMD II l8b ;4jI

113t. m bpw.f your k


corpse settles on his realm MD IV 73 . The verb is also used in the pun :kk-,

F-ffn br

m. k 1542,9.


pleasure sexual Wb 11381(16-22)D.22 GR later form ndmm.t Wb 11381(15) Pyr.

The term is derivedfrom ndrn 'be sweet,sweetness' in to which seems be synonymous Egyptian The word ndmm-t from Pyr.1248seems be a thought(andour own) with feelingsof pleasure. to r-w form of ndm andits determinative gerninated indicates it refersto 'sexual'pleasure [FCD that

144 passion]. The text itself describes how Atum holds his phallus in his hand Ir. f

im. f 'andhe makes 'he by pleasure with it! or perhaps makes orgasm it' which would be the modem translationof the term [c f. Manniche,Acta Orientalia38,1977 p.13]. In underworldtexts Osiris k SXWqrs_@Q#` im-S 'no-one achcivesorgasm in if BD 175 ; complains to Aturn nn ir. tw
458,11 ; but in the Yaru fields, there is a wish imi iry. f ]. Zandee,Death'sexual desire! The later writing is a fully reduplicated form of ndm and occurs again as in theseearlier examplesas the oject of ir : in epithets of Horus wsn ir Il 28,2-3 ;kT kTT -1 1366,15 ; also 4k44 4T C-w CT V 209 n [c.f.


VI 334,2 ; in the 16th LE nome,' he is W wsn Ir t4k --w


IV- 34,11. As nb ndrn nLLm : ram

1164,10 ; Horus 1242,10 ;4

NIII 6,13. mr-ndmnllm : Min 1398,10; Horus A? Okkkc--w It can be usedaloneasan epithet: -aba of Osiris is; ; Ptahis

IV 217,9. amonghis children1164,7

[c. 175,7'procreatoe f. Cauville, Osiris p.44]. ; -VI


Theremay alsobe an example a verb at Philae<830>Phot.1393 of

'to copulate with'or the like (Wb 11381,23).



women(of Min)

dmt n,

seat Wb11368 (14) GR

Wb cites only one example:a coronation episode, parallel with h. is mr 111206,6. noun derived The is fromndm sndm'to sit. the protecting gods ,



to carve, to work with a tool Wb 11382(11-16)OK

Handwerker 121and 101] iandn ndr refersto the actionof usingan adze,'to smooth'[Drenkhan, p. makingfurnitureit is doneby the mdb carpenter. The verb also occursat Edfu, describingthe harpoonof Horus : in Pth is Ptahwho workedyour shaft'VI 83,12. m3wt. k it


to hold , seize Wb 11382(18) to 383 (26) Old FCD 145 , AM,

ndr occursmost often at Edfu in the phrasenAr ]Vr ndr r k-J

VI 61.13 85,11 ; ),:

VI 64,6 ; 239,5 sim.; VI 64,10 ; 79,11 74,3 ; 77,11 ; 74,11 ; 77,6 ,

; 80,10-11 ; 81,6 ; 83,9 ; 83,14 - translated by Fairman, 'Hold fast, Horus, hold fasewho suggested that it was a chorus shoutedout by-the onlookers and performers of the sacreddrama [JEA 29 p.6 n.g] Drioton rendered Mens bon, Horus, tiens bon' [CASAE 11 p.51 and all refer to the harpoon or rope in the god's hand. Gwyn Griffiths discussed the occurrences of this word and suggested it was a 'refrain' [JEA 61 1976 p. 1734]. The phrase is-used elsewhere to show this is the true import of the word nsiljdonotlctgoII1255,15-16; *2!F- : R; qT4n sfU IV 212,13. The form ndrrndris

odd,-but it may be a comparative'hold most tightly! ' The harpoon can be the direct object of the verb: u-ti 17*'a. VI 64,7 VI



VI 69,8 (thrustor seize- JEA 29 p.12 n.b) ; as object of imperative


harpoon in the head of the hippo VI 61.7 64,3. In a more hostile sense foes can be directly seized , n. k sw VI 66,12 ; VI 67.5 ; . ' : ! n n. k b3b VI 62,7 'O' i k n.

n. k sw VI 73,5 ; 87,4-5 ;

bftyw 'I seize for you foes ' 1145,4-5 ; AIg q: 'w3y

111287,11; harpooner

111290,12. It also applies to the prow of a ship : the iry-b3t prowsman

who holds firmly in his warship (he stands in the prow of the boat ready to throw and hold the

harpoonandrope)IV 374,7-9; VI 81,8-9; VIII 27,11 tlr ndr arecalled cm VHI 21L

; also Horusis calledon ndr -%Cj CZN-

*--J m 'h3t.k as scizerof your warshipVI 79.11. In this context the harpooners Inr n nbt lords of the grip, strongin strength'VI 79,2-3 *,also Urk

-j The verb also refers to holding in claws : claws ,13L 3. seizetheir hides VI 270,13 ; II a==, e7- 4-Ij 14,22-23;I sharpen claws =,, V 172,10 ; the harpoonseizes my - C=. bonesVI 73,6.

With followigg-m: foes are taken rnby'something: IV 246,6-7 .*Ao^ VI 143,4 ZJ

2z, claws of the falcon -.


VII 128,10

IV 234,16; 111278,10; by arms a

seizedby his arms 111276,16.

Parallel with similar verbs, iL


IV 218,5-6; mh


VI 77,7.

it in In theproccss throwingthe harpoon is described the list of consecutive actions of

sty. k 3W -4:: 'wy. k 'you throw and your arms hold tight (to the rope) IV 59.8. m swY holds onto the rope III

With rn before obiect : in driving calves, the king

lir m 4-

wy. i m tp. f VI 61.7

VI 74,4.

mt. k lm. f VI 77,1

271 --i Horus *"" 1. Various : in the protectionritual, nirw m bi m-. f he has seizedgods who r;.; I. Skr m ILI SeizeSokar flee ftom him, he hascaughtthemin their trapsVI 146,5 'P..

1; 7. -

CQ ; ; and his fingers 111319,10 '1 cause2Lir-q q; L

IV 2 14,3 in a myrrh offering, Horus


you to hold without your fingers weakening' 1q=W

uJ nt-1w.f m vvbn Otp lie holds to his customs in Vl-

rising and setting (he never varies) 1 135,7 ; perhaps incorrectly in a harpoon text dil ,

for ou are Horus the ruler of this land, ' says Horus to the king 11128,14 ; praise of

Horus in the Myth begins

-seize your vulture pendant VI 79,8


The verb ndr hasa wide rangeof use as Wb outlinesbut mostly with the underlyingnuance'to , hold tightly to something"tocleaveto'.


hunter Wb 11383(27) GR

in The Seizer thewarship(seeabove


grip Wb 11383(28) GR
.. < A

Harpooncrs cI, ia are

VI k--JLords the grip, strongin strength' 79,2-3; Urk VIII 21f. of


poorpeople Wb 11385 (10-13)OK

From nds meaning'small',the word refersto peoplein the sense havinglittle wealthor property of from earlierliteratureandis still in use (thatis few resources) low-rank.Theword is well attested and

at Edfu : Horus is praisedby wrw doorway is called 'place of wrw makesprovisionsfor wrw aswell as

greatand small IV 36,34 ; the southtemenos VRI 164,9; Horus greatand small to kiss the eartW 1116,10. With restricteduse.


small, little
Wb 11384(8) to 385 (4) Pyr. DG 235,10

njis was replacedby 'M from the NK, the term is usedoccasionallyai,d archaicallyat Edfu : of children (t'w) 1211,18 It is also often found they are small , they become youths . 1508,5-6 'SP' 12' 1139,2.

in the nameof Seshat small: the

In the phrase'pi-nds it refersto a low Nile flood which could result in famine [Vandier,Famine Decreeline 7. p.711:V 22,11; Canopus




Wb 11385 (9) The term is used at Edfu in a phrase attestedfrom the MK applied as an epithet to Horus in the Myth VI 74,9. strong child,


the human mouth -b

Writings - Direct: Phonetic change: Error :

BIFAO 43 1945 p.74 ,

preposition Wb 11386,6 ff. DG 236,2 Cr.50a; CED 31 EPO The usualwritings are NP4. The preposition r follows the classical usesbut Junker, GrD 191p.141ff.

hasan additionalnew usewhere,in non-verbalsentences with adverbialpredicate,it performsthe (for m of predicationseeGG -162,6).Drioton samefunction as the so-calledm,of equivalence , CASAE 40,1940 p.619-621]believedthatthis usemayhavebeenan inventionof the grammarians of theLatePeriod,but thatcloserexamination earliertextscouldyield olderexamples. of The constructionwith the rn of predication,which often replacesthe older expression using the In by independent usingther of predication. otherwords, pronoun,canin turn be replaced a sentence the construction noun m noun or noun im= is parallel to noun r noun or noun r= [Blackman,Fairman in JEA 31,1943 p.66 n.53]. Junker does not include this expressionin his textsbut in a comment the independent pronounin Egyptian[WZKM 22, the Dendera on of grammar he 1908p.175-91, showedthat the older construction - independent pronounplus noun- could be of by or usedsideby sidewith thenewstuctures be superseded them. At Edfu the construction with r is not rare noun r noun : p3wtyw, =, tlr-nbw noun r= D-4wty "#" dmd nir 7 Their kas are the primeval ones VII 266,6-7. q3 m srb Horus -Nebou is ruler of the serekh'I 158,5. s4tp Psdt I am Thoth who pacifies the Ennead1470 , 15 We are a total of sevengods 1 104,7.

'Z' You are the One with dappledplumage11122,12. s3b-%wt s3.k 7He is your son VII 172,17.


ljr. m3'ty im. k s3b-Xwt dappledplumage IV 232,7.

You are Horus Maaty, you are the One with

Also see 151,5 ; 362,14-15 ; 471,8 ; 1140,16-17 ; IV 256,12 13 ;V 139,1-2 ; VII 132.3 ; VII 111,11-12. The origin of this use of r, may lie in its use with Jtwt. q.v.

the usedto emphasise imperative. GG 337,3. Junker- GrD 164a p.121L

Writings 54,5.


IV 51,3

IV 52,1;



down to as far as (compoundpreposition). , Junker GrD p. 172 r mn rn]

At Edfu this preposition is used in the phrase r-mn-dt [cf. 'for ever' IV 52,14 for example.


at all
Wb 11453 (16-18) MK

GG 2053. At Edfu r-sy occursin negative to the meaning sentences whereit seems emphasise negative tm. + rdit sjjm. f "2: 1 41p VI 121 11 1575,18.

-4"#- 'q " -c=- 1 "---p %t " ind (verb) 111259,9.

IV 90,6. n. hm.n.f "E" W it Drioton discussed r-sy with a temporalmeaningand suggested meant'always'[ASAE 39,1939 confirm this by giving the negative equivalent'nevee. p.72 Q. The Edfu examples

mouth NVb 389 Pyr. Il

DG 239,2. 14-


Cr.288a; CED 134 PO

0 is the only word for 'mouth'[Lefebvre,Tableau20 p. 191and the sign is the front view of the lips [Lacau,Corps13p.61.The term is usedconventionally the godscomefrom -=-- the mouth : of HorusBehdotVI 92,2. 0 is often used to form compoundwords such as 3b-r3, 'q3-0, (q.v.). bnr-r3, Jjr st r3, spd-r3

door Wb 11390(10) DG 240,1 A Cr.289 a; CED 134 PO

The useof the word is derivedfrom 0 'mouth'which is the 'entrance! the body, thus0 canbe a to to physicall entrance a building., At Edfu it canrefer to the doorsof the temple the sanctuaries all the gods 'i' of 1,229,4 or of the IV, wt-3bt 1110,3; of

111 27,6.In thesecases

howeverthe word doesnot have a determinative may in fact represent more abstractidea the so 'entrance! ratherthan'dooe.


stomach, throat


WbMed. p.515-518

In medicaltextsr3-ib seems refer to the stomach so definesit as themouth (or entrance), to and of the hearf. Outsidemedicaltextsthe word is not commonandonly oneexampleoccursat Edfu : sts m 'Her place being in your stomach'111194,1 . The feminine suffix here refers to

Nlaat,who is equated ued more usuallyandin this text with the throat.Here then r34b is perhaps wts strict medical of accordingto its literal meaning'entrance the heart',thusthroatandgullet, rathe'r4m use'stomach'.


net Wb 1393,13 r3-j33t 'cloth'

At Edfu : the foe is netted in


IV 293,4 and in a similar example at Kom Ombo the


crocodile is -vv3rw


be'mouthof the Ombos I 62,Nr. 67 - Literally the word. seemsto

Iseparate 0 and l3dt, so that the ientence reads words'. net'and it may be that it is to be read as two 'the foe is netted in the mouth of the nee.Alternatively the whole compoundcould be a word for 'nee.


temple (6-8)OK Wb 11397

Originally r-pr was a false door as the 'door/e, itranceto the house(tomb)' and specifically as an
offering place. Later the term becamea synonym of PWt-njr 'temple' [Spencer.Temple p. 37ff. ] and Q Edfu : the temple is the sanctuaryof 'C-`3m occurs rarely at the temple of every god 1229.1.


mouthof a river Wb 11392(10)'watcr'S'dge%

Meeks seesthe word as being synonymous with'the term r3. U'py - an allusion to'the mythical This is' the Nile which springsfrom the cavem of Kher-aha[Donationsp. 108 n.2001. mouth of the casein textsreferringto the Elephantine nome particularly IV 172,11,

V 107,4. However the king is given 'the two lands established under you and the r3-mw ',E;S.21 of the gods under your authority ' VI 339,12, which may suggest that the word refers to the limits of the Nile - the southern caverns which are the source,and the northern Delta mouthwhich form the estuaries. In this way the phrase in VI 339,12 refers to the whole of Egypt given over to the control of the king.


mouthsof the Nile in the sea. Wb H 398 (2) 18thDyn.' FCD 146 EO II indexp.288 'river mouth'. ,IA

Sauncron translates word in CD 111544 as 'Nile mouths! this At Edfu Nun comesout of ',,. -=>- -Q e: 5;

[BIFAO 60,1960 16 n.21. IV 41,3 or

3 in IV 31,8 ; Atum wanders the 4. SA

Hepwy, Lord of the Pehus is brought, he provides food and mY nb n.i

everythingwhich theNile mouthsprovideIV 47,6 [BIFAO 45,1945 p.182] andthe queenhopesthat ' the god is'contentwith tribute f rom the r-h.3t (in a water fowl andpapyrusoffering text) 1374,18.



entranceof the cavern (to the underworld

sourceof the Nile. %E' C73 '

I ".

At Edfu in a cloth offering text there is a Lord of the

IV 122,6 - the text here is

mutilatedso his identity is uncertain but it is Osiris or Khnum. ,

r3. d3f

serpentequatedwith Apopis.

There are three referencesat Edfu to this serpentand all three involve the word in allitz-, ration or word play suggesting that it is an artificial creation designed to fit the needs of the text:, is burnt (d3 f) IV 149,6 also offering VIII 21 (15) ; rwM t7n.*tVI 179,16; is made into a burnt

m r-w3t. k 'I drive away the serpent from your path'

VI 200,12-13 The close associationof the serpent with fire may indicate a possible etymology. The . is a compound of 0 'mouth' with d3f 'fire, thus the, 'mouth of fire' or 'mouth which bums', word to the venom of the poisonous snake which 'bums' in" the body of anyone who is bitten by the refers snake [Goyon, Gardiens pp.87 n.31.

r. #

to the extent /limit of

(1-8) Wb 11394 DG 239,8 1

GG 178-, r-' beside: nearwith the variationr-r-1 'uncommon' JunkerGrD 239 , p.173'as far ; as'of placeandtime. derive from a word r! meaning'limif or it may be a compoundof the prepositionr and r-1 may ' literally 'at the handof or 'at the extremity of 'or even'beside.It is I hand so that it means noun , used: Of time Of place at the limit of eternity(dt) 1488,9 1113,16. to the extentof the raysof the sundisk IV 10,3 besidehim V 41,10. VI n sf at his limit of yesterday 1,16. 13w-mht V 145,7-9.

With a sufftx pronoun:a barque, sails in a temporalconstruction with suffix

stateof [Wb 394,11 - 395,5. DG 242,6 r-' prefix,

Cr.287a. CED 134 ; KH 159 ;


f A. state,condition], used to form compound nouns [see also Vycichl, DELC p. 170] r3-1-bt combat, war, fighting. Wb 11394 (12) MK

The compound r3-'-ht consists of the noun r-' 'state, condition'. The whole phrase literally means Istateof the sticV or 'war"combae [c f. Goyon, Gardiensp. 15 n.6]. At Edfu Horus is Lord of Merty is 'F -J = "-: I,DEr V 43,4-5 and Hathor the female counterpart V 90,7 ; Horus VI 215A 'things' of combat VI 17,2 and

111251,4; Horus is equipped with ships of eaponsofwarV1215,6-7; 10

it is also found in the name of a book in the 'library' which refers to a book of 'AU the writings of




handiwork, craftedproduct, actions NVb11396 (1-3) work, Wb 11395 (13-18) skill of hand MK

r-Ilwy is a combination of the nisbe-adjective form of the preposition r plus the noun "wy pair of hands, so meansliterally'pertaining to the handsand thus it indicates anything which is manufactured by the handsand is usedat Edfa as a generalterm for liandicrafts'. As a compound noun it can imply offerings made for or by a god.The r. "wy of the king are things he is responsible for : Ptolemy is upon 329,15; also

v--- his handiwork i. e. the throne in the temple IV

IV 331,5. The gods rejoice at the work of the king - the temple building : BB"

: Zj I

Il 34,1; they say 'How glorious is your work "T'


1109,2 ; then the king is,

I 328,1 The term also describes the building work of Ptah he built rewarded for his work----:: . Behdet as his work Jjv--:: of eternity 1126,15 . The temple is called 'Complete a work

for eternity'111 1,16 and after the disturbancesin Upper Egypt which stoppedwork in the temple for a

by described thephrase :: j of -cxwhile, the recommencement work'is in Edfu IV 8,6. -II

ivhm doing work again

as r-"wy also describes otherkind of 'work' or 'actions': Thoth purifies the Ennead his work "i't IV 52,5; VI 244,4 ;'Khnum gives all life as his work 1115,3.It is also used %%

'foodstuffs' : the gods and goddesseseat of 'T: 0- of the king 1519.14 ; Isis createsbeer vessels of ,

as her wbiri't

-j ez 1151,12;

Two Laridslive by the work "'T' the

of florus 1525.10;cachof'


the divine cows eats of their work

-'*- I 1532,4. This perhapsrefers to food which had to be

grown and made into manufacturedproducts hencethe implication of having been 'work of the hands' or'hand made'.



way. road Wb H 396 (6-11) MK type of road, Dyn. 19 neighbourhood

cf. KH169; Vycichl, DELCp. 179


of neighbourhood a city.

Gardiner discusldthis word particularlyin thephrase r-w3t= (with suffix pronoun). He decided m 'road'but wasa locationin relationto someone that it did not havea concrete meaning passing over it, so he translated theEnglish'way' as opposed 'road'to mark this nuance: by [PSBA 35,1913 p. to 266 ff. ]. The most common use of r-w3t at Effu is when 'evil is removedfrom the way' : 'I 480,16-17; 1555 4; 1557,14 or 'flames'are removedfrom `9' IV 19A.

in IV 51,10.In an Edfu festivaltext, all its-roads(or ways)enterheaven festival


battlefield Wb 11397(9) MK

At Edfu the king is Lord of the battlefield




HI 256,13; he is spd-hr upon 0 V 283,8.

V 265,5; andhis heartis steadyupon

The writings show the house determinative C"3

or even the foreign country sign which may be

in the transcription from hieratic or the scribe may have thought it referred to the pAwt Land an error the Nine Bows'. Wb only quotes examplesfrom Sinuhe but it clearly had a longer life. ' of

or r3-wd3t *place of combat, battle field or combat. battle r3-d3t Wb 11399,7 MK combat Goyon [Gardiens p. 49 n. 10 and 178 nA] argues the two terms are separatewords depending upon determinativCs.However in translation both r3-d3t and -wd3t can mean 'combaf their spelling and

is or depending contextandirrespective whetherthedetenninative C-3 i.. -J [also of on or'battlefield' iA, JEA.59 1973p.136 n.3]. The term . Sompound l3orghouts, consistingof 0 'state,way' andd3t


from the verb d3i meaning 'to extend the arm, oppose' [for range of meanings, some with hostile nuance see FCD p.318]. The earliest examples of r3-d3t suggest that it was originally an abstract "_7 A: 9- I 'combaf 'war' (Moller, Hatnub 26,6 "' concept )and by the Ptolemaic period it can have

'battlefield' implied by the determinative CO a more concrete meaning

The term is most often associated with the warlike activities of the king rather than gods : the king treads (hb) "'T"A 11-1 `3' ' C -73 V 151,14 the most certain example of the term meaning "battlefield' -

but other examples with the 'house'determinativecould be translated'battlefield' or battle : the king is qn. hnt-r3-IL3t

c73 V 169,9 ;V 296,16



0 LC. %% -3

VII 157,10 ;


V 90,11 ; he is made brave (sqn)

Qnt) r3-113t `, -'AThrF-JV-388,8 m VIII 27.12

143,11 ; he `'A CV .=

"" is given might hnt r3-jd3t: 4: =I-- !1k e C-3 VII 143,6; ----1 1- 1 r--73 W

A %, O-m. 63.5 ; Hathor makesthe king's heartfirm in <=: -c-3

kingcomeforthto With the arm 'i'Als.
e- '"

IV 371,5-6.The armiesof the


11133,2and they are alert bnt-c=--J-c-3 1119,8. the king is great of might hnt W A f-, #. --j %% 1193,16; an


amulet protects the king m

199,13 ; Horus Merty is Lord of combat and ruler of Ia -IFVII 190,2 ; warlike gods

1-J 111251,4-5 the Kfyt of the king is in . follow the king m-bt ---IV 74,14 3, -e'j

=,'A 72% lw-j VI 160,16.

waterfowl Wb 11393(1-6)Pyr. DG 241,1 q 2-

Cr.290a.; CED 135 PO At Edfu 0 fowl are decscribed fat (dd3 1111,14-15; 58,12-13; 496,6).they live in lake areas as they are netted(ibt 1306 , 16-17; 374,11; 476,6; 111 4 [herethey live in the 9.11r]) or in where (VI canals(IV 392.5-6)or in the qbQw marshareas 205,1).They are found in flocks (p) andoccur in association with anotherkind of bird calledd3tyw (IV 311,9-10). The birds live in Is-nests(I 565,10-11 IV 120,6) Theyarepresented offeringseitheraloneor with plants(w3dw) andin this ; as . dual offering the plants of the field parallel the geeseof the lakes (1306,12 ; 374,10; 476.4 ; VII 101,8).They areslaughtered butchers(mnNvy)(1464,13-14) or eventhe Ordof Peand Mesen by himself (VII 125,10-11) their 711ey placeduponan altar and (IV 3313 1). are and neckswere wrung


burnt so that their aromarises up in the smoketo the gods (1374,13 ; 476.6-7) amongwhom beneficiaries Re (158,12-13),Sakhmet(111301,6) theka of HorusBelidet(VII 101,9-10). are Ibe and Sbt, thefield goddess saidto be'Ruler of r3 fowl'. The birds are theneaten is from minor goddess the altar (1555,6).In additionmr4t - oil canbe madefrom fattened(Dpn) r3 fowl (1489 17 ; VI . 204,4)andthis wasprobablyusedfor purificationpurposes the latterreference as calls it mrh.t-w'b 'pure-oil'. in Theofferingof birdsandgeese general wassymbolicof thedestruction the enemies theking of of the (c. andoncethe fowl hadbeenburntandeaten foeswerebelievedto be utterly annhilated f. 1537, 11-12; 565,8).The r3 fowl offeringthushasa two-fold significance here: in connection with plants it stresses abundance agriculturalfertility for the king ; and it is connected and with the removalof hostileforces. Thoughin the Old Kingdomr3 may havereferredto a particularspecies waterbird or goose by of, , for Ptolemaic timesthe termis generic waterfowl andpossiblya collectiveterm so that wherew3dw The writings of the word are usuallyeither areplants(in general), r3 arewaterfowl (in general).

'19 or4

andit alwayshasthe plural strokesin the writing. In 1565,8 thereis the

-I!j to suggestingthat it is a generic terin.

spell, chapter, utterance.

Wb Il 391 (14) - 392 (1) Pyr.

The writings at Edfu are usually plural IfTs' IFI01, The derivation of the word from 0 .

'mouth' implies that above all r3w are spells which are spoken [c C LA VI 1332] : dd in the Myth: 'n-j Iz3r this spell VI 131.7 ; Xd 'recite' V 30,2 ; Yd.n. i st m tp say 1568,3 or Ifn

recite VI 128,34. For spells to have the maximum effectiveness they are often secret : sYt3 1567,19 ; 1568,5-6 and only those who know how to read can recite them, for example Thoth or the lector priest of the temple (the king) who carries them and reads them out from his writing tablet of gold and silver 1 5683. The functions of particular spells are further describedand qualified : there are spells of entering the palace 1 536,9-10 ; of protection mkw VI 299,9 ; of calming the sea and protecting the sun-barque mk-wi3 VI 128,3-8.


part (2-9) Wb 11392 DG 240,2 Iz-51

Cr.289b; CED134; KH160 PAform of the language. canrefer to partsof a whole: the area 0 The termis usedasin the classical of Egypt is dividedinto tp-mtr its parts preciselyIV 139,9; the eye of Horus is

4-Fo"o' its parts1389,4 (seealso irw). In the laboratory texts the term occurs ' providedwith frequentlyin fractionswhich arelistedin recipes of needed giving the quantities substances 11203,10 1/3 + 1115 n nn 'n=nn Ann gn 1/10+ 1/30+ 1/90 ; in otherrecipetexts 2/3 VI 167,5 .4 910* kite and44 01

is VI 1/20of a substance be heated 167,3;I kite and nn

dimensions roomsare given to ). :ZI/3 + 1/9 VI 164,3(andpassim. In the templedescriptions of

fractions of cubits :8 and

1/3 VII 13,2 ; -- -4Zl4*l 'f*""'

' VII 13,3 -. n

daysas fractionsof the month: 10 and 1/8 VII 17,2.In datesfractionsareusedto express
d=> life$ -C=: N-


of Shemu = 115+ 1/30 of the month =6+I

days =7 days IV 7,7 ;1m


gfd-b it 'first day of 'IV 8,4-5. of ...

cloth or binding

Wb Il 393 (11) GR
Wb quotes only one Dendera.example of 0 and while the word is rare its meaning seemscertain. Two examples at Edfu show that it is a type of cloth : 1--S 0 V 284,10 and the smell'of is offered and scented with lotus oil'

is likened to iswt reeds VII 190,1. It would appear then to have Hathor-Tayet is the Lady of lc:; CD IV

been a particular kind of scented cloth and further 104,11.

serpent WbI1393(7-10) NK -magical texts.

Goyon[Gardiens 8 n.5] notesthat this wasa generalnamefor the enemyserpent at which appeared p. suchas snakes the beginning[alsoMOET 19 n. 1] and the species namecoversApopianvenomous


sbty or sfth . At Edfu the snake is destroyed : Wer-Des orders that the r3-snake is burnt V VI 160,13 ; among serpentswho attack the falcon is ': ' IWv Horus the falcon and the hostile serpent -1 VI 328,9; in the battle between

tAr--. are trampled VI 329,1 and the whole fight is

described as part of the cosmogonical triumph of Horus (VI 328-330). The writings show a snake with knives through its coils which makes the hieroglyph of the snakepowerless.


? or k3-rb-ms (c.f. U rnw) 'Let us come A

I eat of his flesh and

The word is in a'Slaying the Hippo'text:

swallowhis gore I' IV 59,1 . It mayread U rb ms - literally 'bull who knowsof birth' and so be a beast. termfor the hippoasa kind of androgynous euphemistic



A text at Edfu mentions'choiceportionsof 'cT' qq 16 ' which are broughtas offerings111197,5. The determinative implies that this is somekind of animalandit may be a writing for rri 'pig'. but asLA V p.762-4 indicatesthe Coptic term PIP can also be usedof the hippo, so that herethis

may also be the case,showingan affinity in this usewith the Coptic (Wb 11438,7).A mentionof thepig asanexplicit offeringanimalwouldberare.



Wb 11399(10-12)MK DG 241,4 A3/ ryt is a generalterm for ink - eitherblack ink madefrom sootor red ink for rubricsmadefrom red 148].At Edu ochre [Harris, Nfineralsp.147-, ink is usedto write the names foes of

which would thenbe smashed, symbolicallydestroying foe VI 235,5.This thus the upontheir images use is from a text entitled 'Book of subduingthe pT and here the foes are cast onto a brazier to destroy them. The actual phraseusedhere is ryt w3d and this is takento be either 'greeninle or 'freshink'. The latteris morelikely asgreenink wasonly usedin vignettes [Harris op.cit. p.1481 and the alabaster execration figures usually have texts in black ink [G.Posener,Cinq Figurines Cairo 1987 p.12]. d'EnvOUtement,


Perhapssimilar to this,

qq '. 0

mineral of Punt and lapis lazuli are minerals of the divine ,

limbs in God's Lands VI 202,3-4. Elsewhere ry comes from Seth and is the blood of the enemy, so here maybe a red mineral or pigment [Aufr4e, RdE 34,1982-3 p. 15-161.


An.Lex. 77.2360 and RdE 29,9

This is most likely somekind of semi-preciousstone,a more precise meaning being unclear [Ibrris,

"i-F"Aq "NUnerals 116-117]. Edfu At p.

from Puntis usedto complete divine eyeVI 202.1. the


heaven Wb 11400 (3) GR

At Edfu the king holds up Geb holds up ---- q

uponthe throneof Hor-Akhty VII 276,16and the throneof

IV 14,9. ryt is related to the older word rwt portal or gateway (Wb

11407,13-15)with heavenor the sky being regardedas a gatewayby meansof which one has accessto the abodeof the gods. The determinative if not an error for pt r-q is usually read pjL'to stretch out, ,

spread'which describesthe goddessNut as the sky strectchingover the earth.


the sun = day Wb Il 401 (5-10) DG 242 f4 P1 PH"'

Cr. 387 b; CED 134 Gr. -pt-

At Edfu r' has standard uses and only the spelling Ptolemaic texts IV 225,11-12.


is an innovation but vcry common in

r' nb

everyday Wb 11402 (1-5)

At Edfu r' nb canbe writtcW%esignsof the sun and the moonor Re and lah (the moongod) andit A is usedto meaneverydaywhereas literally it reads'dayandnighf. Theetcrnalcycleof day night,day"


The phraseis used night is envisagedhenceour 'every day' 'always' for closer understanding. classically so it appears whereactionswhich happen the everyday takeplace: the sunsailsacross sky 1138 2; IV 57,7 ; Q- %, 1379,14 or walks across sky &' the the westIV 13,9 bird 0% stj 1115,3 the sunsetsin

IV 33,2 ; the ba of HorusBehdetis in heaven the dappled plumed as IV 15,6 %V IV 26,12;andgeese are 1470,15; and the king is

IV 15,3;offeringsare made,

slaughtered %a %CO

IV 47,2 ; the sunis born IV 29,8

Upper Egyptian king forever, ruler %aG, etemal cycle of sun and moon'every day'.

without end 1147,1 . In general it is the unending and

r'-nb-r-ribm. f

night, evening

H.W. Fainnanin ZAS 91 pp.9-11 Fairmanreadthe phraseas rl btp br nhm.f 'Re restsuponhis lotus' In the morningRe.appears .
upon the lotus as a new bom child and by the evening he returns to his lotus, to rest in it and thus

begin the nigtime processof regneration and rejuvenation.In this way the whole phrasemeans #evening'. for HoweverFairmanadmitsthereis no evidence readingthemoonsignasbtp . It is possiblethat this is a Ptolemaicpun writing and that the phrasereadsR' 'q br ntm. f. - the it reading'q derivingfrom F0 (moon).As the two signsof sunandmoongo fittingly together made a much less wieldy phrasethan writing 'q and provideda subtlepun. Unfortunatelythere are no to at examples all of the full writing and one might haveexpected find at leastone.New Kingdom showAmun Re uponthe lotus [AbydosIl pl. 10 or pl. 5 which showthe ram headed representations sun god with horns and full sun disk upon an open lotus flower - as barqueprow and stern]. As eveningdrew nearRe would enterthe lotus which thenclosedits petalsuponhim.Inside the flower in Re is rejuvenated reappears the morningas the youngchild sitting uponthe lotus.The reading and best of all stresses cyclic notion of the sun 'everyday upon his lotus!, the r' nb br nbm.f perhaps referringto that time of day whenthe sungodreturnsto restuponhis lotus andbe renewed. At Edfu : Mehenetis at rest CL0'q- ', -- 111207,12-13; pylon doorsam closedl; V9' it

VIII 5,14-15; god by whom womenconceive to HorusBehdct)1379,7-8 four Anubis godsguardOsiris !a (moon) is protected 161

(the text is an invocation

c5'-I 188 5-6 ; the fiery bull , V 49,6; the sun god is Atum by night Ir ICL0 Y-00


00 V 156,1 ; and the sun entersthe west 'E> ,, la 11151,7.

1I-I I-! ' V 217,2-3 ; and enters the evening barque'

of the phraseclearly as 'evcing' but in one exception it All of these examples point to the meaning is damagedbut it is a morning hym4n seemsto mean morning. The text 44,4_5 and it is possible this is here as a contrast, for at the beginning of the day the sun child sits lotus so that 'morning' is an equally feasible notion implied by r' nb Dr nbm. f. upon'the


Wb Il 403 (8) Pyr. DG 243,4

At Edfu : rw is an epithet of Khons-Thoth 24C bry--tp wdnt Il 198,1 ; -. t;; '

1263,9 ; in the rite of scattering myrrh VII 76,7 in a pun on the name of Re Horus is brn
j,-, I


andheir of the Two Landsof

a 1456,7. S;; -

Unlessthe moth sign is written, a lion by itself

be readm31 or nb rw is an old can .

in be onomatapocic origin referringto the roar of the lion [De Wit, Lion p.452-3 word and may
(1900) 126-71. Piehl, Sphinx 111


to leave, to drive away, dispel Wb Il 406 (2) - 407 (4) Pyr


DG 264,6 Cr. 135a; -CED69 )\0'fb*

IntransitIive : foes flee and field 1390,2 , ,, I--I

the middle oithe water VI 118a




: very often at Edfu 'to dispelenemies' Horus a- -'j

rkw. ibw :

rkw. ibw 1572,7; the

'Be VI

E-Joh... king -c'. '24 287-, 1;

driven away d -"I VII 111,4 ; other types of enemy

VH ra-snake 113,2; IV 52,7; VIII 147,9


VII 200,12-13. dw evil is dispelld 1203,10 : impurity - d3 IcR' ult strife D3d' Sj

IV, 257,15-16 ; mnt 4c 3=J 1170 16 a storV7 m V 42,11; famine Drt ej' 1582,6 -,anger

///Q e -A VII 128.3


The yariousspellingsseem reflectthemiddlevowel andit seems havebeenpronounced to to either 0 or,.. in Copticdepending upondialect.The Edfu examples rangefrom to

1-'I 1. The transitive is Middle Kingdomdevelopment use a of a word knownfrom thePyramid Texts.


straw Wb 11408(2) CT . Cr.306b; CED141-2; KH169 POOYC

A word rwiw'straw' is attested Amenemope in 5,14, wherea metaphor escribes d, 'like a something fire in offeringsof qq #"i7j An earlierform of this word comesfrom the Coffin Texts :a days arebewailedby Anubis CT VII 299v ; also CT

III 203g [Osing,Nom. II p.692-3n.7901 An ostracon recordsthat a sleepingmat is madefrom . O.Cairo 25677vs.2 [Janssen, p.1581. Edfu CP At is among

in the produceof the 17thUE nomeV 120,2(replaced IV 187,9by stpw plants).This indicatesa grain plant of somekind and mustbe relatedto the 'straw'of earlier texts, thoughis given a more appropriate meaning'grain'in this context.


distficts Wb 11408(4-11)D.20, GR

Wb notesthat this canbe confused with

imv islands. 1468,5; c e11264.4-5; ,

describes areawhich is floodedby the Nile: 'ec=r-oil an rww * lot 11148,16, -4=1-c' lot .

and the flood removes pestilence from

Ifiet : bI s., H 50,7; 'te-


Foreign lands carry resources from th*ir rww .

140,3.It canbe regionsof the earthin general


1161,6the areas ofthe ShiningQne

c 1.

5.1; or of Egyptian gods in general for example Hr-Qbhwy

; or

limits 1152.14 ; 1100,12-13. in riviv appears the phrase rww try-ib 'regionsin the middle'which is an error throughconfusion with iww hry-ib . Both phrases seemto meanthe samething however[Vernus,Athribis 336 n.5 Vercoutter,Monde Egeenp.150 ; Fairman,JEA 21 p.34 n.4.1.Gardineremended 125,2-3to iw VI


tiry-ib on the basis of Pap. Beatty I rt. 5-4 but there are so many referencs'to these 'regions in' Ch. the middle' or'central districts' that it is better not to emend and to accept that r%%-Nv bry-ib was a phrase in its own right. At Edfu the rN"v try-ib are designatedas separateand distinct from Upper and Lower Egypt : the' king is ruler of UE king of LE and sovereign of the central areas 'Os

e 16 harpoonersare in the C=> et b 1

the rvny try-ibw : 4=- " t Im ,

ry-ibw VI 125,2-3 Often the IV311-wr is mentioned followini' .

Il 43,4 ; 't!:e- ' > ei$

1459,6-."' iit c e_

of a canal 11275,

6-7. There are i3kwt in

11260,4 IV 25,8 and they are areas fragrantwith Ibn ;

'%*Ul'28,2. IV In suchcontextsr-vvwhry-ib is a generalterm for land which can be used for' cultivationandis worth possessing.

rivy or r. bmt

type of gold

Wb 11240-(5-6) readsdiisasnbwGR Harris, Minerals pp.39-40 J.Clre. ArchivOrientalni2O, 'l952pp. 629-641. , The word Harris reads as rwy is '14, 66,16 which is most likely to'be a confused reading of the ,


nbw 'gold', but rwy doesexist at Edfu and is written



the as

first two of which Mre readsr-hmt [alsoRdE 29,1977 9 following him reads p.

r-bmt]. Budge recordsr-hmt as a variety of gold or silver [ ED 1415 bcr. also BrugschDHD849). Mre (op.cit) establishes readingof 111419' rwy and notesthat it often occursin parallel' the o as with r-hmt. Thus rwy was two partsgold andonepart silver (which could alsobe known as s3wy)' V andr-hmt was I part gold andtwo partssilver - the termsbeingcomposed the fractionr. with the of it. appropriate numbcrof strokesunderneath Thereforerwy is gold and r-bmt is silver. Thesemay havebeentechnicaltermsorartificial waysof writing the usualwordsfor gold and silver ( nbw and
Dd ). Both then would refer to the purity of gold and the Edfu examples are not cxplicit cnough to--, confirm this meaning. At Dcndera however the two substances are clearly distinct but related rwy M. b r-bmt - CD 169,18 -, rwy r. hmt dmd. rn 'wy. i CD V 181,19. At Edfu are-'presented to the gods (note the Cifferm

numb& of

dl-tUdinz, fins

a v,., sscl of

il 2%9,11 and

areput in


beforethestairway Behdet 11290,1. amounts of Daumas notesthatr%vy comesfrom Wawat(MD 170,1) andKhent (MDI 71,1)both of which were gold bearing regions[OLA 6, pp.693and698]. 1


gateway Wb 11407 (13-14) OK c.f. also 'ryt

rwyt derives from the reading rw. t 'dooe (Wb 11404 .1-10) and Spencer traces the origin of this word from the false door of an OK tomb or pyramid temple. The dual form rwty appearsin the MK and this seemsto have been the main entrance to temples. By the,Ptolemaic period it had become a for the doors in a temple. As its use was for pagan architecture it did not survive into general word Coptic but is not found in demotic either [Temple p. 196 ff. ]. I

qV At Edfu this word refers to an entry door and it was important for such a door to be pure: W1 -, 1162,10; bas come and settle upon the before Mesen VIII 145.12 125,7 ; and b 119,9. C73 show that it is a large entrance door and the sign 11 is probably VIII 122,17 ; as does Horus upon the is inscribed with the names of gods H 31,8 ; also

V, The determinatives

it. depiction of a gateway as one approaches a complete


evening Wb 11409 (4-6) Pyr. DG251 1,11,-'-;, POYZG

- Cr. 310b-, CED143; KH171

The origins and meaning of rwh3 have been closely studied [Ward, SAK 5 1977 pp-284-288 Sauneron, MDAIK 16,1958 p.275] and in the context of the temple ritual, it is the time at one one of the offering ceremonies is performed rije- rP appearing (h') m rj e rTm .0

VI 346,10. The Myth describes Horus

the west of heaven (as the setting sun) VI 130,8-9. on


Wb Il 404 (12) - 405 (5) JunkerGrD228p. 166-7. 'ausserhalb! deMeulenaere, BIFA053,1953pp. 91-102 ;


De Meulenaereestablishedthat m-r%vty(with m-itrty) could replace the preposition 43 in the Late.,: Period, and that it meant 'around'. being translated on the Rosetta Stone by 7rept (Urk 11192.8 .' Daumas,Moyens p. 156).Tbe word explains the relationship betweenone object and another which is the same time outside and around that object. It is synonymous with other prepositions such as at rn-itrty . Literally it would mean 'af or'in the gate. m-h3 and f

Junker, notes a number of uses for this word at Dendera : 1) hinaus MD IV 20 'they look out. ; 2) aussenMD III 14b to proceedout; 3) davor , Dum. Baug: 14 - the Hall of the Ennead is I)efore!. von At Edfu m-rwt can be used in a number of ways - someanalogousto those at Dcndera as a preposition 'around' : the ambulatory is aroundT 5-6 ; the king is a wall of copper around great wall around ID 'L"? U the temple VI 12,5: =V VII 3,

Upper and Lower Egypt V 304,9 *,there is a the Hall'-,

the Great Place VI 6,5 ; describesthe columns around gt..

of Offerings VII 5,3. In descriptions of the temple the word seemsto indicatebeyond'. Thesetexts describe the temple.from the inner sanctum working towards the outside, so that they indicate a room next in line with this, preposition. In this context it can only be 'beyond' and is thus closer to its implied literal meaning 'at. the gate' that is 'outside. For specified parts of the -temple wsbt-tp ]Vwt-nir= t5 UP IV 6.3 ; St-Wrt T T? P-tr IV 13,12 klwt-mnbt -=1VP IV 5,6 ;

= t=-" I"-'- IV 13,3 ; a room VI 10.8-9 ; obelisks

Iff St-Wrt 1328 ; pylons

V 2.6

VII 19,8.

When used with reference to the pylons m-rwt can hardly be 'around'. Looking from the inside of the temple the pylons are at the farthest end of the temple complex and so are bcyond"outside' or even 'behind' all the chambers of the temple and the temple complex itself. This is the nuance which m. rwt conveys and even with examples like the ambulatory 'around' the temple. in effect the ambulatory is simply 'beyond', 'outside' the temple complex , that it is also 'around' is coincidental and if this characteristic of the ambulatory was to be emphasisedthe text could have used b3 (for

example VI 75,6 ; VII 182,2). There is an example too of 10 contrasted with m. rwt, where the enclosure wall is, 'The great beautiful monument 3 around his temple, m-rwt , outside of all the

works of the father of his fathers' VII 11,6-7. While 3 may have been supcrccdedin the Late period: by rn. I [de Mculenacre op-. ] the texts at Edfu were written in the classical language so that it rwt cit.


both expressions. uses

Use with n-wn : there exists nothing there is no other work n*16-beyond

beyond it IV 99,13 IV 266,6

it I 115 ; nn-wn there is no work, 'e,= IDbeyond

them 1395,4. Theseare literal translationsand could be rendered'except foe (Wb (14)'ausserhalb). The preposition is also used in a phrase with 'eyes' : Re rejoices at seeing Hathor and 'his eye is t m-rvs, at her coming' VII 26,14-27,1; the eyes of a goddess are =Vat your

coming Mam.47,15 ; sim.

I l04, l4; =tt-'T-*** 1130,12 ; II 29,12. According to -=tE-L:

Wb 11405 (5) this is a purely GR use of 'ausschaunden looking outwatching for' of eyes. An. Lex. 78.2378 records this use in DVIII 84,13 'leurs yeux. (dtant) autour de sa venue (I'entourant de leurs regards lorsqu'elle arrive). So it may, in combination with eye, indicate the idea of watching out for something.


preposition adverb- outside,out. , Wb 11405(6-12) JunkerGD 228p.167-8

Junkertranslates r-wrt as 'outside'and as an adverb'ouf. At Edfu its- usesseemto indicate'ouf moreoften especiallyif it is usedwith certainverbsof motion embodyingthe ideaof 'going ouf or 'driving ouf. As a preposition'outside,beyond': eldersbow Z':: M IV 28,6 ;a courtyard---- 9 shrine St-Wrt 1332,19 a brazier---,I a

the forecourtof the templeV 6,3 ;a court of columns the shrine1554. -his nomeVII 2 1,1.

t? I it; the living falcon appears 'C! r-a -=-- &**% 'around': spread wings-=,, Pf

ShrinesIV16,10; HBisawall 129,5..

Asa noun'outside' of something: As an adverb : after pr 'go out, comefrom'IV 616; doorsopenZEE IV 167,9; bt foes

1571,9 ; after wb3 openout from the gateof his temple

V 4,3 ; after rwi his house1205.

Also in a descriptionof the position of the throat : 04b- C. A

m tp b IV 130,10.


gateof giving Maat


DaumasBEFAO50 (1951) p. 149-152 = propylon of a temple SauneronBEFAO 54 p. 117-127 L. A. VI col.782 ,

The texts at Edfu explain the function of this gate : it is the place where people could obtain a hearing and be dealt with fairly (VHI 162-3). The Serapeurn apparently had such a gate and Sauneron its existence back to the Story of the Eloquent Peasant.As a t. -rm in temples it has more traces overtones and from personal documentsit seemsthat the giving of jastice at temple gates" religious a general practice. People may have felt that if normal avenuesof appeal were closed to them was the earsof the god were always open and they could expect to obtain Maat from him. At Edfu the texts on the temenosgate in particular show that it was the actual gate where petition to' the gods could be made : 'the noble door of rwt-di-m3T VIII 5,15; c-:3 -, C-3

VIII 162,16. Earlier texts show however that the principle was enshrined in the lay out of the temple from its beginnings f-63 1358,8. In temples the gate could have other functions, other

for exampleat Esna the rwt-di. m3't was the building wherethe 'uniting with the sun disk took' ZAS 102,1975 851 place'[Badawy, p.


foreigner Wb 11405 (17-18) MK.

At Edfu the protection of Mesen is brought about by the removal of

IV 131,16 - most"

likely a reference to Seth. Wb implies that in a temple context a rwty was someoneprofane who was not allowed to enter a temple on the grounds of impurity. The Edf example, especially with the diseasedeterminative , implies something impure which had to be removed. de Wit [CdE 29 Nr. 57' 1954 p. 39 n. 1251 mentions this example as an epithet of Seth - 1: 11trangce.There is a pun on the'*

c'). 195":, word where measuresare taken r rwi from his temple'IV 167,9.

m.rwt wt-njr. f 'to drive the strangerout


be hardfirm. Wb H 410 (13)-412(9) Pyr DG 243,9 '46 fl

epoyor 6

Cr.490a; CED 215 be glad be ready oypO'r' ,


At Edfu rwd follows the classical uses:

as a verb : Nekhbet is fmnly + + 1174,9- 10; 1135,11; W upon her sceptre VIII 164,17 ; knives are fixed in foes -*1371,16-17

116P, Il 43,15; bones are fixed in their places

asan adjective'strong"firm': of columnsholdingup heaven ;,IV 13,2of bones V e2% as an adjectiveverb :a door is strong . -h, VIII 169,1.


Most commonly it appearsin the phrase inr Dd nfr rwd 'beautiful, white, strong stone' IV 12,7 ;


rwd - lwy strongarms Wb H 411 (29-31) afterDyn. 18 At Edfu this is physicalstrength given by the godsto the king to help him againsthis foes as a j gift of Hathor '., --- 'V1 111146,15or in his building works ; --j As an epithet : Khnum bestowsit apppliedto Khnum himself Mam.17,15 buildergod. Oneof the godswho protectOsiris is called "VI 1198,16(WB 11413,27). 190,12.

-Jj 111 180,10;it can be an epithet -I 173 particularlyin his aspectas a -


sinew (of body)

Wb 11410(5-6) Pyr
with bones and together they are fixed in their proper places 1371,16-17.

Occurs at Edfu : "A, "

The determinative is unusual unless the phallus were regardedas a sinew or muscle (not in Lefebvre or Lacau)


a garment Wb 11410(10-12)NK andrdw Wb 11463(14)NK

Originally rwdw was a bowstringbut the term cameto be usedof an item of clothing which has. beenidentified as eithera sashor morelikely a long shawlor cloak,which is mentioned often in NK CP [Janssen, pp.284-6 66]. It may havesurvivedat Edfu in a'seeinggod text' where,,:* I-e ostraca 1 =


gannent (or cloth) hides the body of the king IV 55,8 , but c f. also 0 cloth.


pulp of fruit of thendm tree No. Charpentier 681p.430-1; Loret RT 15,1893p.15

Loret [op.cit p. 115] discusses role of rbnw in recipeswherendm gives rbnw or Ibnw which the is then put into a bag and squeezed give a liquid usedas an ingredientof oils usedto anoint the to He limbs of gods,for example. suggested it came from thecarobtree- which howeverproduces that a that suggested rbnw wasthe pulp of the fruit of the sweetratherthana fragrantliquid. Chassinat from Punt. The sap from this tree mw.n VLree kn-n-prt-n. dm [Khoiak p.405 ff. ]. At Edfu :: tj zy .
is used to make oil of the njim, tree VI 162,9, also c7v' 1 11221,3 *.tlu o

was then used in perfumery to make

for is one of the ingredients bestti-Xpsof nnib VI 167.1.The actual processof extraction is described to wheretherbnw i'sput into a bagandsqueezed giveout a liquid 11229,2.

rpy. t

queen Wb H 415 (1-10) Pyr DG 244,6

rpyt is a later form of r-p't and queensbearing this title at Edfu include Cleopatra I- the wife of PtOlenly V 13,9: 60 IV 123,34 and Berenice 0 IV 279,8 [Troy , Queenship

p. 1791.The title is a rank indicator and can be translated'noblewoman' for convenience [op.cit. p. 196



femalestatue Wb 11415(11-14)MK

At Edfu rpyt usually describesstatuesof goddesses These statuescan have protective qualities : '53"

' VI 22,1 with the hed of a goose. IV 295,14-15 and of Maat is

put at the throat of officials 1580,3 -a reference to the small amulets of h1aat as a seated woman worn by viziers; to show that they are men of Maat (c f. Grdseloff in ASAE 40,1940 pp. 185-2021.

Ie but lb word thenclearlyincludesnot only stonestatues smalleramulets femalegoddesses. of


In origin rpyt is related to the word for'noblewoman' from the Old Kingdom (Wb 11415,1-10) and as suggestedby Ward [SAK 5,1977, p.266-7] it may have meant'she of the palanquin' referring to , the female statuein the round toppedpalanquin usedin the cult of a goddess.


step,tread(of stairway)
cited in Wb 11415(1) under'female relief.

At points in the description of the temple the number of steps in a stairway are given.The word used is rpyt : 4--d' 2 to denote the steps

83 steps 1513,11;


90 steps1579,910


85 steps1549,10.

There is clearly a connection with rpyt female statue where steps are considered as 'goddesses'or 'female representations'


hereditary prince(ss) Wb 11415(15) - 416 (6) Pyr DG 245 r4 1Y_ )I *)t_ L

This rank-indicatoris appliedto divinitiesas well as men : Horusis the sonof Nut and heir of the,

" 29 God 'c=iu: Noble .

accompanies qj

1575,9 ; the king is the Oq3 Dn'

=P. 2j , IV 92,2-3

of the gods 1 166,1; in titles it

and nsw-bity

The feminine form (Wb 11416,7-9) applies to goddesses: Hathor is

-=w Li w.

dm 0


and Great One of her father Geb 1530 12. It is also a general title for the ancestressof the king : in a plant offering, the king is heir of VII 83,2 ; he is bom of Lady of

Egypt IV 56,1.
At Edfu then r-p't is used no more than an honorific epithet in religious texts to signify a person of

high standing.


weeping Wb 11417(11-13)MK

Derived from the verb rmi 'to weep' (Wb 11416- 417 10) and occursat Edfu in the appropriate .

Chamber, of where mourning a context theSokar goddess says,.




for I make


him weeping 1216,10.


fish Wb Il 416 (12-17) OK DG 246,4 1)/

Cr.294a ; CED 136 ; KH 163 P4M I At Edfu a list of living animals, includes men, gazelles-9 birds 'and-ts'. A. VII 234,9 here used as*a generic term for'fish' in general. In the Latopolitan nome fi is the abornination of the throat of the'

1338,3 -this is an alfusion to the well attested taboo on fish in the cult of Osiris.

Gamer-Wallert [Fischep.16-191 IS' notesthat rmw is a generalword for fish but the determinative not an identifiable type of fish. D'Arcy WentworthThompson [JEA 14 1928p.24] mentionsthat' I by rmw was the generalword for fish but its usewas supplanted 3bdw The Coptic P-krA is the Bold fish andin a passage Athenacus in (312a) thereis the word gpp(xgt; whoseroot seems'! to be rmw.


shoulder, arms
Wb H 418 (1-16) OK

The shoulder is the part of the arm usedby the Egyptians to carry heavy burdens.They envisagedthe' arms as going from the finger tips over the shouldersto the other ringer Ups - as hicroglyphs'such as and [Lefebvre, Tableau 30 p.28 ; Lacau Corps p.272 Q. Edfu texts record, show , bears the Eye of Re 1560,4 ; the foreleg is upon'thC"

things being carried on the rmn

Anubis (c.f. groups of four Anubis headedpriests carrying the barque of god from the shrine) of 1225 (pl. 25b). In a more general way rmn can refer to the arms: 'I open my IET and it also appears as the object of the verb b3b 'to bend' The sign used as determinative --I -A e-J to the falcon' IV 55,149 1134,6.

in the 'bcnf posture - thus either bent ifi` shows the arm ' ---A which

adoration for example or bent in carrying something.The sign can be confused with

"a birds I is I. and in hicratiCthere wa'probably little or'no differcnce'betwccnthe two [MOller, eg


Palaeographienotes the writing of the arms sign but not the bird's claw : II 100 4% , 101


to carry, bear (4-18)OK Wb 11419

Cr. 8a; CED6; KH486 be strong, possess -NMoNl

In barque or sacred processions, rmn is the verb used to describe the action of the 'bearers' the B3w-Nhn 'E -4 the falcon VI 94,10-11; the children of Horus lf off -J 1177,4 and

invocations are addressedto the bearerswho carry the barques Tribute is also carried IV 43,5;

1560,2-3 1235,18.

If 32,5; as is flood water -4

The verb can also have the English nuance'weae like the French 'porter' and German 'tragen': Thoth wears the sun disk 1134,16; the king --I' the Red Crown 111158,16.

rmn is parallel with wis which describesthe raising up of the White Crown then the ,: of the Red Crown - which implies rmn also has the nuance of 'raising' a crown upon the to make the breast festive 1184,6 -e-4 --I in this way can pacify the

head 1148,12 and 394,3. For other objects : an amulet is and the diadem is

le--4 for her lord 133,1 ; an amulet worn J ,,

raging of a goddess150,5. Geb is the supremebearer for he -1 the whole of Creation upon his back, in his role as Earth

god.The verb rmn 'to carry' implies strength and so it is no surprise to find the Coptic kMON has the extended meaning I)e strong'.


bearers Wb 11419(19) to 420 (9)

In the templermnw are thepriestswho carrythe divine barqueor the shrineof a god in the festival Certainpriestswouldbe appointed bearers so theword hasa humandeterminative processions. as and They may havehad to play a mythologicalrole in suchprocessions perhaps in thesecontexts. and wore Anubis masksor symbolisedthe souls of Pe and Nekhenwho ar&most often shownas the in bearers barques the scenes the templewalls. The Greekequivalentterm is ircc=00pot and of on is a lower orderof thepriesthood [Otto, PriesterundTempelI pp.94 ff. ].


In processions :


lic'=-5' --ttliof Bchdety 1134,15 ; -b 1. carry

1 0

the drty falcon 1571.6

.51-4; tof in a mythological context the Great temple of i1orus the Lord of the gods 1559.17 and is the,, --' Behdety VII 8,1.1nthe divine world the bearersof god were themselvesdivine so of 'E* '4 of the s3b-gwt VI 94,9 . n

the word is given a divine determinative

The king himself could be a bearer and in this respect he is like Shu who is carried like Sokar 111158,16[for this spelling ASAE 43,1943 229 no. 195c.] - the allusion in this scene is to Sokar who was carried in his processionin his Henu boat; in presenting a bouquet he is VII 8 1.1 Is-bt V 148,10 [Ibrahim, Kingship p. 1751. !4

The Greek equivalent for this class of priest was 'pastophores' and they were principally shrine carriers. 1rmn column Wb 11420 (10) GR

KH164; Vycichl, DELCp. 174 PAMWO1 partofadoor. cf. rmn derivesfrom the verbrmn 'to carry' with thecolumns'carryingor holdingup'the templeroof or moresymbolicallyheaven. At Edfu standin the wsht hall IV 13,3 V 6.9. As the determinatives

in vary it clearlyrefersto columns general a specifictype. not


vessels Wb 11420(15) rmnt alsoWb Mod p.528

' 5. !j is In medical texts => a vesselfor liquid medicines derivedfrom rmn 'halr (WBb 11 . 'halr a vesselcapacity At Edfu there is a versionperhapsof this 418,12-18)which is is perhaps . in a generalway : in a beeroffering, the king stretches his handsholding ,4 out word, used IV 106,2- thusfor beer .


typeof landor field NVb 11421(7) GR Cr.299b; CED139 P; -PM"" half an aroura. -


Ina descriptive text:


field grows3bt-grain VI 36.11and the godscreate9dy-land

Thedeterminative and I=="'r-f s%', VI 225,8-9. showsit to be somekind of landandit wasused to grow crops.r


mcn, manldnd Wb 11421(9) - 424 DG 247,5 Y PorAC

Cr. 294b; CED136

The Edfu textsnaturallyshowthe relationship between man and the godsand the usesof rml are At compatible with earlierclassical uses. the creationof the world the godscamefrom the mouthof the creatorand men camefrom his eyes -; 1128,4-5; -164 VI 2,2 VIII 93,9, .:,I VII 83,11; (wtt) 1185; or begotten a%I

reflectingthepun thatmen( rml) arethetears(rmw ) of god. Men are saidto be the childrenof the gods 1591.6;

1113,12 They are made(ir) by god, broughtinto being (sbpr) .

1371.3.The all powerfulgodsare hiddenfrom godsand men 'k'j?V 9,2

VII 28,13. He is 'Lord of terror among

I *. 2 1. and great of Majesty among gods' 1401,13.

and beasts' 1377,7 and rml men can be

'All living things' are denoted by the phrase 'gods listed with other types of. men: "All '6 111 is Isdes of the rbyt IV 50,4 he .


bnmmw 1129,10. While theking isRe of rmi

The phrase rml nb denoteseveryone (all Egyptians) The writing of rml with the vulture Coffin Texts (CT 176 1A


V; 102,5. is found at least as early as the

or vulture head-'I' -

A. # ) and may derive from the vulture reading mwt 'mothee so that

men were described as iry-mwt 'pertaining to mother', which became rml and the pun remained implicit in it. However in GR times it was also used to write 'yeae nrt and then by error rnpt.


name Wb 11425- 428 DG 249,1 4 ';j

Cr. 297 b; CED 138PNs


At Edfu the usual spelling of rn is

by this time U is synonymous with it. and

have adjectives attachedto it - wr IV 8,1 ; 503 ; 125,7 ;71,2 ; 1163,11 and 'Great name' is rn can often applied to the five fold titulary of the king. Gods were more potent if their nameswere unknown by gods and men so they were hidden - like Amun who hides his name IV 35,15 ; 1173,7 , or made secret and even the temple has
1163,11-12. all


C: 1


Gods are also 'multi-named' : Horus

IV 57.5 and i*% Ja


. 1514,19 and Icautiful of names! IIII V 7.8 to

Kings were also 'great '3 of name!

Walls of templeswere inscribedwith (br) names IV 44,11 ; cAP V8,7; JLPz-


IV 18,1 -

inscribedin copperto establishk3. sn 'their


VII names' V or written (sphr plusdirectobject)11132,7 IV 8.1. ;

Phrases for 'it is called' use rn as the indirect object of U 'to say' : Ndm. 'nh k3. wt =<=1'7*W

IV JiL Nedjem-ankh callsits name= it is calledNcdjem-ankh 13,7-. mn-wr one

nir-tpy ........ C=I


CO 12890

Se 1554,6 Alternatively the hrAw m rn= construction is ud .

IV 13,3.
in non-verbalsentences Mythe 19 - Ynd =1 giving namesof things : rn appears is 'Shened thename Shened (whichprotects)'. of 11 n 9ndt

Negationof the existence names denotes of non-existence peopleor things- particularlyof foesso of this is a further methodof destroying them _'=3 i. ' 'their names not cxist' I 498, do

In contrastif names spoken (dd) this bringsthethingstheydenoteinto existence Mythe Taf. 15 are the Lakeof Fighting is the nameof the Divine Lake. -

(his) (c. and' rn-rn 'asis (his)name, often whatever name' f. Wb 11426,24-28) at theendof sentence In emphasising name, the the aspect thesentence. thisway it mayactrather' of stressing important like a fifial quotation mark: IV 14,1;0 i3t n p3.Nwn 5jl VI 22,6.

inscribing Dr-rn-n 'with thename (Wb11427,7-8)afterverbs engraving, of of IV VI 102,10-11wallsht r-rnnh OCA c=p of name his majesty 8.1. with thegreat ; VW


be young,become youthful Wb 11432(11) - 434 (8) to rejuvenate Wb 11434(9 - 12) Late GR


Intransitive to be young: - young f.

thesungodRe-Aturnafterold age 148; limbs areliving andyou are ) 't ffi 1503,8 and 1453,1-2 ; the body is young S IV 45,15 ; 1574,11; j jo jf I 1240,14 ; godsof the inundationare youngat their time- Nun 1188,8;the southern Hapi'-=jr'fj0I 468A ; youngwater 1 3242

limbs are young 477,9;Osiris j

The watercalledmw-rnp mayrefer to eitherfreshwater,that is waterstraightfrom the source it or

imply rejuvenating water :a vessel contains A" may from the caverns IV 99,5; cooled with There is also rnp-mw (Wb11434(13)GR f 91 . .6 1567,11. IV 271,4; -




Rejuvenation and youth were not only associatedwith the sun, but also the the moon 'your majesty is young like the moon' 1298.9 - becauseof the waxing and waning of the moon ; Horus

is young temple)IV 40,6.

111294,7;when he standsbetweenthe Two Sisters(pylons of the in heaven

by The ideaof rejuvenation youngagain- couldbe expressed the construction whm,rnp : of Horus I youngagain' 1153,10; whrn f P. in the morning1503,8. Also di-whrn-rnp 'cause to be 1482,14.

1255 12 whereKhonsupromises to the king ; E4 this

From theLate Periodtheverb rnp couldbe usedtransitivelyandwith a reflexivepronounto denote rejuvenating oneself : the old man 186,5;Khonsthe child 2,2. Adjective Montu) ;I young child 1139,3 and it can also describeU I)ulr 398,13. This title can also apply to Osiris as the moon 1140,3(of Jt sw at his time 1502,13;Hapi fj"6 at his time I at his time VI

at his time VII I 11,10;Re , as an old man

IV 135,14 [Cauville,RdE 32,1980 P.48 n.131. is The cyclic aspect rejuvenation shownwhereHorusas an old manbecomes young of going througheternityII 38,li The sign of the side-lockof youth is usedto write rnp - throughassociation ideas. of J


youth , youngness

Wb 11434(9-12)Late, GR


like Re Occurs at Edfu inappropriate texts: moon text, 'I give appearance Moon'l 255,16 ; lotus text 1171,1 i-P 1183,17; life like Re


youth like the,

youth like the moon'


vigorously, lustily
Wb 11434(11-12)

An adverbialexpression Edfu to descriLe actionof throwinga harpoon=f the usedat

VI 61,7 [ JEA 29, p.5 n. (c)).


freshwater Wb 11434 (13)GR

Derivedfrom the verb,Wb hasonly two references this noun: in a staircase a to procession, priest
purifies the temple with Chamber, ffi


1540,8 ; in the nameof a god in the Sokar'


existsin the Two Pools1192,6.


priest Wb 11434 (18) GR

In the 3rd LE nome, this is the priest of the god



1330,11 -,MD IV 31 also.


ycar Wb 11429 ff. Pyr DG 250,2 4-I Y-powre IV 16,5; ff

Cr. 296b; CED137

lll IV 10,4; fff Years come in hundreds of thousands: -IaI,

IV 329,4 ; in tensof thousands V;& "I 317,14 ;

V? III -

VI 277.5and in millions %4L)) III

VI 319,15 Suchlargenumbers yearsimply etcrnity. of .

IV 83,10 ; rnade prosperous (sw3d) Vill 62,13. I

Following verbs -years can be seized ; or made numerous (s'K3) lot

The year can be carried as an offering IV 48,11.1


The king is Lord of years


f IV 26,9;

1458,2,andruler of his years IV 34,1;fIa


IV II, I. Yearscanalsobe specified:yearof Hapi Thereis difficulty over the reading

goodyearV 225,19.

The vulture sign appears be readrnpt or nrt to

it andas both havethe samemeaning is difficult to tell what the readingof the sign is. Sometimes rnpwt yearsarecontrasted with nrt yearsandin suchsituations vultureseems readnrt : your to the T years arethe yearsT of Horusin Re, your,, years are the yearsof Akhty' IV 90,12 yearsare the ) 411 of

J*A 'Her the r-JA yearsof heaven her uponits supports, yearsare

Hayty'VII 49,10-11. Fairman[JEA 29,1943p.23-25]established basicgroundrule for decidingif a the vulture was nrt or rnpt. If the vulturewaswithout the determinatives C, or 0 then it

indicated this this.Thedegree wouldreadrnpt. However wasnot a fixedrule anda number cases of of heremay showthat theEgyptians themselves no apparent differencein meaning saw real uncertainty between andrnpt and usedthe vulturesign interchangeably without eitheroneor the other and nrt it readingin mind - but simply because meant'year.


annually Wb Il 430 (9) GR H.W. Fairman JEA 29 (1943) p.23-25. ,

Ibis adverbial phrase was generally used to describe the Nile flood - when it came 'annually"every * 1112,11; VI 61,6-7 or 0- 1178,3 1468,6 ; 1477,12 ; -' yeae :f --'P , returns annually 1581 12; 1178,10 0 11261,7 ; VI 205,11-12.

It is also used of visits made annually - especially during festivals : in the 6-Day festivals, corpses are visited-=-J; YUI 382,12. VI 37,1-2 - keeping within the bounds of describing

The summer is made prosperous

and seasonal cyclic events.

- tp. rnpt-rnpt

annually c f. Wb 1130 (8) GR m-rnpt-rnpt


is used to describe the occurrence of annual cyclic events : the coming of the j T 11146,5; 19 %0% 111148,13; 'CLD3

inundation happens at'his time, annually :I


1 I 1,, 90,10;

'T I 11176,2;

VI 3,13-14-, JM I
$? fV


VII 59,9. Tbe

fV '9 ' 38,7-8 *.

inundation is brought, under its various names annuafly : , If the Great Hapi

27,4 ;1

VI 3.3 ; -CD IIT

C%' 363,8 Ile flood is broughtfrom IV the leg .

11264,4 JD 111170,4.5

the Nile and Nun are made high 'annually'

This annual cycle is seen to happen 'anew* each year (m3w) rejuvenation of the Nile: II T' 11255.7 T IV 195,14

IV 28,11-12 -or i

Other events occur annually : the coming of Sothis gods VI 962 ; or his lord is made beautiful

VI 64,5; offerings are made to thC V 129,9.

The adverb tp-rnpt can also be qualified by having n-3b after it'without cease or dt 'eternally'. to show the cycle is not only annualbut an eternal cycle too The writing of this adverb can have one or, . two year signs or it can have a sp-sn sign after one year sign. This does not seem to affect the meaning of the phrase and it is possible the extra sign or sp-sn arc there simply to emphasise the annual occurrenceof an event.

r-tr. f n rnpt

at his time of year 11123,9and Nun is

At Edfu this is mainly used of the Nile flood: Hapi comes led forth 11126,17 S0 415,3


good year

The Good Year Litany (VI 94,12-99,16) studied by Germond involves the pacification of Sakhmetat the beginning of each year. The Rnpt. Nfrt is a deity, an aspect of one of the main goddesses'like Sothis, Isis (? Hathor. At Edfu she is most important in the ritual of receiving the rejuvenated king at r the New Year. She originated as an element of the First Occasion but by GR times was the symbol of the renewed year.Together with Sakhmet, they maintain and rcncw the life cycle, protect the king, f ight negative forces, give life, prosperity, health and nourish the king [ P.Gcrmond Us Invocations , A la Bonne Annde au Temple Mfou, Aegypdaca Hclvctica 11 / 19861.

In the invocation to the Good Year, she is offered to and called upon to perform one of her beneficial functions. Each stanza therefore begins with the formula'O Good Year .... VI 92,16;


1, t VI 93,7; -

VI 93,15


- t

VI 93,6-7.


fresh plants Wb H 435 (2-8) Pyr DG 244 5r -cvLc (f)pTrcj

Cr. 298b; CED138

Charpentier No. 687 p.434-5. At Edfu rnpwt is a general term for (green) plants 'dripping with flowers and IV 3,6;


iw 114

IV 19,2.

It probably originates from the verb rnp 'be young' and Dittmar indicates that they were a symbol of regenerationand becauseof this were associatedwith similar plants such as lotus and papyrus. In fact be a collective term for lotus and papyrus [Blumen p.601. rnpwt may Refs. 172,5 ; 395,18 480,15 ; Il 66,12 ; 89,4 ; 177.5 ; IV 125,10 299,17 ;V 50.5 149,2

188,2 292,10 ; 340,13 VI 250,2 -,VII 82,11 ; 209,9 The rnpwt are given, in a ritual offering to Horus (12 times)[with Hathor once VH 209 and Seshat and NePhthys 1189 twice to Geb [ 172 -,IV-299 1, once to N1in [13951 , and once to Hathor [V

1881.In return gifts for the fertility of land are given such as flood water or plants and Mn guarantees the kingship . Horus appearsin his solar form whose light makes plants grow and regenerate- and this aspect seemsto be the most important underlying notion [Dittmar. Blumen p.95-96.103-1041.


to nurse, rear,bring up Pyr. Wb Il 436 (4-15)MK but Wb Il 436 (1) to embrace

At Edfu rnn is usedof the king (as Horus)who wasbroughtup by a goddess Isis : 1154,6-7; Anukis,
-c=w AAA", 46 4.4

12 qlm

Il 67,7 In the Sokar Chamber one of the guardians of Osiris is .

CtConcwho nurses limbs' 1193,8 the .



younganimals Wb Il 429 (1-5) OK

Someofferingsof meatportionsspecifythat it is the youngof gazelles antilopes and who areplaced


before the god:




n13w 1452.4'5'.

The scene the usualfour animalsbeingofferedand is no different from other hw--sp-4 -r shows 0
stpw offering texts (see rnnwt).


jubilations Wb 11435(11) MK with a verb rnn'to rejoice' Wb 11435 (9-10) MK and NK

rnn occurs rarely at Edfu

Hear my songs d3isw listen to my jubilations' ,


HB VI 5,7 though it may be a corruption of rY.


maidens Wb 11435 (18) DG 249,2 4 pooyr4EE. 111271,16-17 they arc the partncrs'int and IV232,16; iheramb3-sty
zi IV 102,6-7

Cr. 306b; CED142; KH169

At Edfu Min is saidto be the husband -rof =X- J;L -4: .m Ok intercourse sexual with : the king

IV 384,17; or the bull U-sty VII 116,2-3 and in general IV 270,9 , S %-% IV 270.15

IV 378,13-4.

rnnwt are mentionedin parallel with nfrwt women: so Amun Re in the form of Kamutef has intercourse(sm3) with . =2,. are reversed bnkstyw and ; the AiII andcopulates with (wsn) nrrwt IV 242.13 ; the verbs'; IV 298,2-3.They are mentioned also in a list of womcn bmwt-st 1211,11-12 'f6 Sn , dancefor the ka of the king VIII 136.3'

of Behdctarebeautifulto seeIV V.

Wb only hastwo examples:Gloss. Col. 4,11 (from NK) clearly implies the youngageof the girl's as it has togciher male 7k b and llr, [AEO g. 214* maidcn lad) *,in th

Canopus decree, Canopus 1, Berenice(the Queen)is mistress 3 of The origin of the word may be connected that with the verb rnn 'to nurse - but if it is postulated theseareyounggirls without childrenit is unlikely theycould be'nursceor even'wct-nurses'. may It be connected the with the term rnn which denotes youngof animalsand thusbe the younggirls of a palace'.perhaps thoseof child rearingageor at leastof sexualmaturitywho hadnot yet hadchildren.


It may alsobe connected with rnn jubliation'referring to the girls of the harim who alsoprovided musicanddancing entertainment. as It seems rnnwt is the ancestor Coptic POOyNC- which is 'younggirr or 'youngwoman' that of that it comesfrom rnn 'to raise', linking it closely with rnn and Osing [Nom. 12131 suggests 'nurse'.Daumasfurther suggested in templesthere were womencalled rnnwt who servedas that singers,especiallyin the Mammisi [ZAS 95,1968 p. 11 n. 721.Though the word is consistently spelledrnn. wt, asFairmanwrote to Daumas and as Coptic showsit was more likely pronounced , rw(n) which is closerto Coptic FOOYNC'virgin' [seealsoClre,Archiv Orientalni20,635-91.


cowsheifers. rnn -a typeof cattle (HarrisPap. andWb 11435(14) rnnA c.f. Wb 11435(13) masc.

femaleof the last., rnnwt 'women' and 'cows' are sameword, with the sameroot and when applied to cows may denote 'heifee. therefore " : 4". Y)fj, III of HathorVII 123,12-13 At Edfu : they are the -= : * XI

IV 272,9-10

VN! VII 124,4.It is possiblethat the Egyptiansreadthe sign they provide b nrw-milk + J: sometimes from hieraticand by thoughit is an error caused miscopyingthe sign as rnnshouldbe readnb(w)t (q.v.). The fact that rn nw t. is a generalterm for a young female animal capableof bearing young is in by an example theMyth : in timesof distress ' confirmed VI not conceive 61,12(Wb 11435,16).

do the femalehippopotami


nurseq.v. rrt


to nurse, tend Wb 11439(1-7) GR is the later form of rnn 'to nurse'and by Ptolemaictimes the two verbs are interchangeable. rr

in but Possiblythey wereonceseparate because andrr werepronounced the sameway theywere rnn


This is confirmed by a writing of the name of the goddessRnnt as easily confused. the Mansion of Weaving 1125 (184)(c f. Wb 11439,10). : It is used of the king who hasbeen 'nursed'by various goddesses Wadjet 111230,3;or Renenet IV 37,11; or the cow of Horus VI 98,17. 111214,9-10 I 68.2'; 'in

litany of the Good Year, the king calls out to the


twin gold vasesfor myrrh Wb 11440 (1) GR

At Edfu the king presents two spherical jars to the gods and at Dendera the offering is shown in 4nore developed form as two vessels joined together,and strings with heraldic plants were added at the ends to make a kind of collar. The Edfu vessels seem to be open at the top. 7be aim of this offering of gold and usually 'ntyw of the god!s land was to appeaseSakhmet so that she would return

her benefits[ F.Daumas,RdE 27 1975pp.102-1091. The rrm are ms presented in all cases Edfu aresaid to be madeof gold and at , "PRO

382.5 Other texts indicate the contents of the vessels : they are filled with 'ntyw of lotus '60 W . Il 293,8 111187,8 IV 345,17 (translated by Daumas op.cit. as'oliban) .

The offering was intendedto appease Sakhmetas the mging aspectof HaLhorand in fact as pointed out by Daumas - gold in the form of the Golden One (Hathor) is combined in one offering with incense which is Sakhmet - the goddess of the land of incense - so that together they form one appeased, / united goddess offering. At Edfu it is generally Hathor who receives the offering and in return gives the field of Sakhmet blooming with lotuses, the protection of Basta and the land of 11tht with its produce. Th= the main goddess(Hathor-Bastet-Sakhmet) Edfu are therefore united by this offering. at of aspects


.flee Wb 11440(14) GR

I this verb : of foes in the Myth Wb hasonly IoneIreferenceto I

they flee beforehim

in (HorusBehdet)VI 115,3.Fairmancomments the samepassage VI 114,5and 116,1that here on


AAis spellingfor rwi so it is posssible a that the rhn exampletoo is a mistake [JEA 21,1935 lu
p.29]. In hieratic Q may look like if carelessly written, leading to the effoneoUscopy



combatants,disputantsrivals Wb Il 441 (13-15) Pyr.

rhwy most often appears in the epithet of Thoth wp. rhwy IV 52,4; 1508,1; 133 3 17; 4Z

IV 50,12 to Vil

198,8-9. In this context it refers to Horus and Seth - the two disputants for the throne and kingdom of Osiris. Thoth was the god who was supposedto have judged between them (Pap.Ch. Beatty I ro.)[c. f. Derchain-Urtel, Tbotp. 1051.

rs .


The king in an offering says,'I havepiercedtheir bodies'referringto and Horas Behdetdrives, awaythe
. attestedelsewhereand theseexamplesseemquite clear.

IV 211,11;

V 56,6. The word doesnot seemto be


Two ladies Wb Il 441-(16) Pyr.

rpty are Isis and Nephthys perhapsin the sameway as rtwy refers to Horus and Seth. It appearsto be a term synonymous with snty 'two sisters'. The word is usually dual though plural instancesdo occur and should be read as dual.The reading was establishedby Fairman [ASAE 44,1944, p.263277] and a reason for the spelling with the two horn signs is given by an example at Edfu, where

the god in his barqueIV 261,8.7e two homs 't-L may havecomefrom confusionin raiseup , hicratic with 4. The word is attestedfrom the PyramidTexts onward,particularly in funerary

literature. rty is the sameword as rUty (Wb 11446,4)and though the original spelling is as in Pyr.220-=: --j-* Ptolemaicwrites this with the full spellingrbty or as-if,it were to be readrbty. so thata could be usedto write

In Upper Egyptian dialect the b hasweakened ((D to "KI The spellingswith the two horns -,

transcriptionof the may derive from an erroneous


hicratic formof -n

= rbt sowaswritten

! I--

11. or

In their role as rty Isis and Ncphthys are often associatedwith cloth making and using cloth for the the body of the king - so it could be confused with the word rty meaning launderers' protection of or itself be a term for weavers.El-Sayed [Sais p. 197 (d)] notes that in Egyptian funerals the women mourners ceremonially wash their mourning clothes some days after the funeral - connecting the notion of washing. mouming and cloth. The functions of the rty can be summarised (a) makers of cloth : the god is arrayedin work of their work lir 0V *"

1432 10-11: the king is arrayed in 411 190,12 ; shining apparel is the work of VII 260,10-12 %% 145,2.

pure work of


(b) nurses Horusor theking: JA of

(c) as protectors : guard the body body -=t ZZI

1433,2 X

131.11. IV 245,16-17; VI 156,5

IV 295,14-15; also c" 1384,8

145,4 ; and -=4 CD


Further the king is brought to the f; -" '0, J., IV 261,8 U ,, I 9

IV 27,11-12 'or he is raised up on their arms IV 285,16 - an allusion to Isis and Ncphthys 11 10 "V '19 194a 'll IV 279,2 and they stand

raising up the sun child. The king is a child of before 'the noble god child of women' ,


to know Wb Il 442 (7) ff. DG. 252,Lo.. -', 6 Cr.541a; CED233 9! j" C-(g

At Edfu rb often hasits moremagicalimplicationsstressing fact that knowledgeis poweras in the [from CT III 133c] the I know you, I know your narnes'formulae 1548,8-9

42,13. The opposite'not knowing'can be a position of weakness, it puts othersin possession for of ful. power k2owledgesecrets therefore not known : are IV 4 ult. andfor godswhoseimages 'A IV 41,12 ;

are not known, it ensures their safeexistenceand is a guarantee protection of

2 '3o 9" Iv god may not be known 1521,8 Ac III 11,10; 1163,2

1257.7. Also the location of a VI 118.6. It is dangerousnot to know the


"' -g names certaingods of

IV 110,3 .

The phrasen rh tnw 'thereis no knowingtheir number' is commonwhenappliedto offerings .0 (granaries) IV 44,5. (geese)111169,7; ".-t-5A. (r3 fowl) 1537,11;
misa Positive things are known : friends and trusted companions 32,6 what is in the hearts of men - '6::" , Isdes (Thoth) knows knowledge Thoth 11132,9; (crew) C 118

Il 42 6; a plan (shr) is known v IV 57,1; in the phrase rh-iht

'know things (rituals) -

2 $to 3 -'a,a !:

knows all things IV 187,11 ; the w'bw'l?

Q: a" P" VII 4,5 lq *. t

I(" 'a- 41111

V 6,3. The equalof god or the king is not known I



IV 17,10.


adverb warily I? ' literally 'knowingly'IV 59.1andcompare Kairo Wb Nr. 132 the .1

At Edfu: mencome (232) 'enter =


knowledge Wb 11445 (12-14)

A noun derived from rb 'to know' : Isdes knows the knowledge of Rb-sw (Thoth) 57,1.



One who knows himself= Thoth Wb 11445 (8-10) 19th Dyn. '

This epithet of Thoth [Boylan, Thoth p.991 is attestedat Edfu : Isdes is said to know the knowledge of cmD IV 57,1; in a Maat text the king comes to Thoth VIII 3,6 the king makes decreeslike A. VII 322.7 : the rk V 57.4-5

king is son of Isden the king is clever like

(Maat) VIII 82,10 ; he is excellent of plans like 72; q VI 169,1

IV 232,11 Rh.-sw himself knows things exactly (mtr) - 4--O"Ir (Maat) .

rhyt w

type of Egyptian people

Wb 11447(10) to 448 (2)


The rYt are thought to be the working fellahin of Ancient Egypt or cven according to some Lower Egyptians. Their counterpartsthe p't may be the original researchmay representthe original Upper Egyptians. At Edfa the rhyt can be mentioned with the p't : 'the p't do not go in, the rhyt do not go oufk vW tt ', IV 10,2 ; they included '! 1554 a-3; in the ritual of subduing the p't, the royt can also be a-. 6 -z A: IV 56,7 and both rejoiceat seeing god both speak to a god with bowed heads V 7,8 Hathor is the nbt ryt (q.v.) . ICU VI 269,1. VIII 154.4 .

When the creator god made heavenand the gods he then made earth and the

7be word is usually plural and is usedas a generalterm for Egyptian people, even if it still retained a memory of the original specific meaning. Ile determinative shows a bird, sometimes with hands outstretchedin worship and this appearsto be the primary role of the rhyt, to adore and worship god. The bird used to write the word is a lapwing or plover [LA III co1417- Kiebitz notes that it is not attested as a bird name but represents the Lower Egyptian subjects who have characteristically upstanding hair. Seealso AEO 198* ff. ; Mre, MDAIK 16,1958, p. 30 ff. )


number,total , amount Wb 11448 (12) to 449 (2)

At Edfu rbt is usually connected with the numbers of offerings which are brought specific .A number can follow rbt, joincd to it by a direct genitivc db'w nome offerings IV 27,11; offerings 4= offerings can precede At v : oryxes and antilopcs of millions (of offcrings)1450,12-13 Ab'w On' b3w IV 156,6-8. Specific in their numbers 1537.10-11; hundreds

and tens


all their amount1555,17-18. Its

t can mean'total' - for othermoregeneralthingssuchas the Ennead: the Enne = 10 ' ad rb 'in all their number',that is 'in their total' 1559,16- 560,1.

rht v

pchuin the 16thLE nome chu The nameis attested in fists from theNew Kingdom [Mm i 16.1962pp.1-201andthusat Edfu '::" x: ' a =L Y' Z:: " 1334,8 ; Z= -: haslotuscsin it IV 35.4-6*,V

in the geographical texts : tt 23,13-15.



to wake, watch Wb 11449 (8) to 451 (12) Pyr DG 253,5 '2.-1 k :EO. '

Cr.300b;CED 139 poeicg


At Edfu rs is used in the imperative, particularly in the formula to wake the god in the morning wake and rise I 1212.1 ; or Vake in peace 502 15; IT Wenn-nefer is urged to 0t 1213 4 '413 = -a-

Il 16,1 The ultimate awakening is from the sleep of death, so . m btp 1204,14 ; also in the title of the king

10 The

is abomination the Lord of Wakefulness sleep of



1200,17 Oncethe god is .

awakehe goesto : walk in thefields1140,17 ; or keeptheking safe1330,16. The, names of protective or guardian gods often incorporate rs :'. awake/watchf 1195,15;1 ul' 105, 1196,4 st . Iiia r. i My face is

tr rs canalsobe 'watch'and with the preposition 'watchover: the godswatchover the temple VI 76,9; or over his lord samemeaning-7 455 1194,2 The prepositionr may also be usedwith the .

the ruler of theTwo EyesE.Piehl 1195.

From the end of the NK and so at Edfu rs can be used transitively 'to watch over' : Isis

his majesty 1144,17.


watchman Wb 11451 (15-18) NK oft. GR

At Edfu rs appears with the attribute nfr : the king is R

(of Egypt) VI 68,3 ;


in the Lands and Banks VI 71,10 Ideally the Watchman has to be free from sleep -jr-T Northern Mesen VI 75,6. Horus is the of VI 68,3 .

IV 29,14 Places have their own watchmen . Watchman of his father, Osiris and Egypt

In the plural the rsw are the protective watchmen - usually of the temple or other sacredplaces + VI 76,9 lot 1125 (20 1) 1200,17; 915.1354 13.




Wb 11451 (13-14) Pyr. oft. GR in religious texts with Osiris from the NK onwards [Vcmus, rs-wA3 was particularly connected Athribis pp.426-7 ; Morenz, Religion p.248] and could also apply to Sokar. It seems to involve the mortuary aspectof both gods.The namemeanslie who wakes intact (whole)'referring to the dead god his generativefaculties and is, therefore a symbol of resurrection (Van do Walle, ZAS 98, regaining 1970 pp. 140-149 ; Cativille, Osiris p. 185 ; Haikal, Nesmin 1125 n. 11]. At Edfu, Horus is the watchman of rs-wd3 here clearly Osiris his father and he watches over him shining in Wetjeset IV 99,4 Gwyn-Griffiths [Origins of Osiris p.42 n. 124] notes that the epithet was used of the king with reference to his father Osiris, hence its appearanceat Edfu in connection with Osiris rather than Sokar. The title does not seemto have any geographicalprecision and is a general epithet concerned with the reborn state of the god. VI 312,17 VI 89.7 VI 120,13-14; appears


south Wb Il 452 (7) to 453 (8) Pyr. DG 254,2 t /. PHC 1297.2; 150,14 ; the barques in the festival I

Cr. 299b; CED139 hl= hnt r w, : the king rules the south 61 sail

south to the south IV 6,7.

rsy is also used for giving locations of places especially of buildings in the temple: doors open to IV 6,7 ; the Ilryt-ib t. is on %, I t. I VII 17,9-10. In giving the four cardinal points of the 1158,12 ; Ilorus triumphs in jnorthwest and cast

compass -4 comers are on the

mbt imntt i3btt VI 117,4. rsy also appears in composite compass points : his throne is beside it on its I tI IV 5,8 ; JjnW' ty t tn south west IV 5,5 IV 16,3. southern llcbcnu VII 13,4

The south can also be personified and greeted in processions Adiwiu VI 115,9. +, Vl 67,1; it s'pecifiesplaces: southern heaven r-v,,, and t1briw


rsy-1nb. f south of his wall - epithet of Ptah Wb]145216) '. The epithet locates Ptah in his temple which was south Memphis according to Herodotus (IL99) of [LA IV 11791.At Edfu comers of the temple goddessesare. named as his daughters: ve supervisesthe gods IV 7,6 and as Tanen he constructs the IV 14,6 1230,8 ! 7-e -0 4b 123,10. Two

Er Y. I-

VI 174(12-13).

rs-l3t At Edfu, Re rises and becomes IV 57,5. This would imply that it is an aspect of Re

early in the morning 'who watchesthe office'- of kingship or'who wakens the office! - of kingship.


Wb 11449 (4-6) MK

From the determinatives at Edfu, this is a general term for birds and fish caught in the marshes during fishing and fowling expeditions the catch is brought as an offering with all beasts IV 41,11 ; the sbt-marsh is said to have created'-z--. trap IV 25,2 ; nets are flooded with I 4E=".1:-r" specifi6d la11163,11 is caught in a

VII 81,34 The nature of the catch can be -' of k-t" a4'4%many mw fish VI 237,1-2

of mnt birds 1111,12 and

Note that in each casehere the determinative of rsf agreeswith the type of catch made. One example DW 121, -1?has a bird only determinative and as this has been,'strucle it may refer to a bird -

being 'struck' with a throw stick, as depicted in tomb scenes1499,4-5.

d (wt)

verb - to rejoice , noun- joy, gladness Verb Wb 11454(1-12)MK DG 256,2 k-2jFCr. 308b. ; CED 142 P,, (15) Dyn. 18 Noun Wb 11454(14)to-455

Asa verb d is often found atEdfu in the imperative: Ddw)V188,2; , wPAP -9; 1443,7.

(to the womenof

Most often it occurs adverbially with the preposition m precedingthe noun rY. wt - 'in joy' or


.joyfully' : offerings are received St-Wrt is 1-246 IV 17,4; t1r-rn33 is

'eat IV'9,3 -,and most'commonly places are in joy, c"3 IV 19,10 : or hearts are at the

processionof Sokar VI 140,8. Ile writing with the lion and threeYw featherscan be graphically combined to give a single, uited ideogram ES--C which is aesthetically pleasing. The lotus also commonly appears'in-the -

writing originally because the idea of the lotus whose scent makespeople and gods joyful ana from of this it came to have the phonetic value r. According to Wb the writing with the lotus comes from GR times.


serpent Wb 11457 (3) GR

Wb recordsonereference this sacred in to texts serpent the 13thUE nome. It is in the geographical atEdfu 1341,2.Perhaps to comparable this is a word in medicaltexts rqwt which

somekind of illness(Wb 11457,2). means



Wb Il 456 (13-20)MK At Edfu the king or Horusdefeats adversaries: king prevailsagainst his the Ile 113 ; Horussmites '44--'qq 1165,15; the ch=pl 'on he slays CIft as %! qQ. '4L'IV 36,7the two eyesof Horus can repel (wdb)


1309,18 ;


time Wb If 457 (4) to 458 (3) OK

At Edfu rk applies to 'royal time' on earth as opposed to 11tinfinite time, for example and a specific length of rk-time is usually indicated. The length of the kingship is the earth 1296,3 ; it is the of Geb 1297,6; or ItERD time span of the

0 of Re in heaven 1297,5-6 ; the years of rule of the king is the of the sun-disk 126,18 ; or an appointed time h3w is the IV

of heaven 1298,9. Most importantly chaos was repelled from the king's time : _11ac ' nd rg was 76,7; ' ag removed VI 161,9 VI 318,13 .


to bum up - transitive Wb 11458(9-14)Pyr. DG 256,4



Cr.293 a; CED 136 PCj At Edfu foesand enemies burnt by appropriate are goddesses Mehyt Nephthyswho bums bumshis foes '49i> r3-mouth 313,16; or even

14,1315 4.,The king her breath1313,17.19 and1=00 ,with also . VII 265,15 Inword play the r3-snake is burnt by fire from the . VI 160,13 The verb is alsousedof burning the bonesof the foe in a brazier . VI 75,9 In thesecases role of the fire is to utterly the .


destroy forcesof chaos,beingusedasa lethaltool by thegodsandtheir agents. 71is transitiveuseis a latedevelopment the intransitiveverb rkb which is alsousedat Edfu of a of greatflame burningin the heartof the king VI 160,5 . in her brazier111316.11.

The verb alsoexpresses nuance seta fire': Hathorw3h 'to the


to catch, subdue Wb H 460 (1-7) Pyr

rt is often used at Edfu with the meaning, 'to catch birds' (according to Wb 11460,7 a GR use) 0 fowl are 1565,3; 111192,18;the hero :the wild fowl 111193,2

hh-birds are captured from the whole of the Two Lands


rtb was also applied to enemies of the king and perhaps the use here implies that the hostile forces be regarded as numerous yet as ineffective as a flock of birds : Hathor *,;--7 were to 305,17. Also 'hearts' were subdued or captured, with a connection between the fluttering wings of birds as theyare captured in a net and the beating of a heart which can be likened to the fluttering of a bird: hearts VI 237,3; all hearts are subduedby the Two Ladies t: j all '-' the hearts of all lands '.2"q:-' subdues 1524 -VII 42,1-2; Horus bftyw IV

(for the king) VII 204,5-6 ; the b3tyw of rebels are

(the phrase 'all hearts"hearts of all lands' may be a way of saying everyone so it .9 (the Dm3tyw) IV

is not literally 'hearts'). Whole foreign countries can be subdued


79.1. One of the most common usesis for the subduing (or intimidating c f. el-Kordy. BIFAO 84,1984 123 n. 15) of the p't people, particularly in the ritual book - 'Book of Subduing the PT: p. *0 t' VI 235,4-5; 13'.*, I *, . 132,6; G o-rb'-% -., -*tV V 135,4 ; in the library t--T

351,8 [for

thesetexts seeDerchain. P.Salt 825 p. 164 ff. ] Me p't and rhyt can be subdued referencesoutside 0 but the referenceis not a book, simply a statementof fact 7---' together

IV loa.

As if to emphasisethe hunting nature of the verb it is often followed by 4 r. mw= 'on the water of someone'loyal to': 10,2 ; ib. sn tD *,-wild fowl '? = ,I I Mam.90 ; 42-2' *--) p't rbyt Dr mv.f IV

br mw-sn VI 237,10;

n. k p't rbyt tr mw. k VI 57,14., -,,

Derchain [op.ciL] interprets rib as 'intimidate, subdue'especially in the phrase rib p't or Ttb ib n p't 'intimidate men' or 'intimidate the hearts of men. used in parallel with 'put foreign countries under the feet of the king' (for pxample VI 235,4)., 1,,

Ddvaud [RT 39,1921 pp-20-21tries to show how in hieratic the sign for rib and the nose sign had become confused. rth was originally a term used in baking and meant'to bake'or'to knead'. with the sign -being a toot used in cooking - perhapsa rake for dragging brcad out of the oven In OK . Acgyptischc Grabrelief zu

reliefs there is an example of rib 0 /// n [Wicdemann-Portner, Karlsruhe p.30] and from the tomb of Rekhmire 0nq

rib [Mem. Miss. Franc. V fasc. 1-2 " -, 1'.

p. 102 ]. In this respectcompareLatin'subigcrc! which mcans'to destroy'and 'to knead'.

71c 'Book of rib pT of intimidating, reducing by fear men and putting Egypt. lands and foreigners of all foreign lands under the feet of the king describea ceremony of execration where 4 statuettesof prisoners are burnt [c f. G.Posener, CdE 27, p.2746]. The aim was to inspire fcar and destroy enemies by magical procedures [c f. Alliot RdE 5,66ff. and precedentsCT V 160a and CT VII 162 q]. Alliot WE 5,1946 p.61 n. 13 ] discussed the md3t nt rib p't formula for taking men (in a net)

VI 235,4 The sceneat Edfu clarifies the meaning for it shows marsh birds being captured in a net . an allegory for the capture and ultimate destruction of enemiesand foes . The sceneopposite it has the title idt nn nt w' 'this net of unravelling' VI 55.1 = XIII 492-3.


'name for theocean


Wb Il 460 (9) GR
At Edfu the word appearsin an offering procession: the seais presentedwith the things which are in


VI 206,10; similar 'he bringsto you

with what is in it Philae 1--,djqq=Urk V111141 This latter e.

< 1074>and god givestheking all landto the extentof

example suggests seato thenorthor eastof Egyptandgeneral a termfor a boundary. Macadam [Kawa I p.31 n.46 ] comments the Stelaof Tombos,TuthmosisI- Urk.IV 83 on J,. lot ejtas doesCauthier[DG IIIp. 1401rtow-qbw N lot unknownAfrican people. -an

De Morgan Cat. Mon. Il 130,which he compares with tracesfrom a broken squeeze a Stelaof of Taharqa Year 6 from the templeat Kawa
southernmostedgeof the Egyptian Empire. Helck [MDAIK 34,1978,70 col. 13 ] notes a word with no context in a MK text lfl k-AAZ

From the contextthis rt-qb is at the

(text before and after is broken) which he translateswithout comment -'in den Sperren der q3bt' (at the barrier of q3bt). The Shadow Clock text in the cenotaph of Sed I at Abydos has one of the divisions of time (or space)called 11,1933, pl. 82. I rd stairway :-I The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos

Wb 11462 (16) Pyr This is the GR form of the earlier word rwd (Wb 11409,9-15). At Edfu the New Year procession goes on the to the horizon 1562,15. If the word is written as da the staircasesign is on the west of

then it may be read as hnd. There are two main staircasesat Edfu W Mesen 1536,6 ; 'the 'c::: ' =: ,6

western stairway is opposite the east stairway 1548,3 - both of these o6 it ascends

texts are on the appropriate stairways; the function of steps is clearly set out

to heaven (that is the roof) 1548,9 rd refers to the stairway as a whole - not the individual steps. . These stairways are the stairs within the temple going up to the roof. I


to grow Wb 11462(20) to 463 (7) Pyr. DG 257,1it r4 $-


Cr.303b; CED 140 PWT' to plantsgrowingin the field rd refers 1458.7;andthe fields grow with good things

use 1234,10. At Edfu thereis alsothelatertransitive (Wb 11463 8-10BD).


plants Wb H 465 (8-10) DO 257,1 rt- growth Cr.304a, CED 140 pwr

Derived from the verb rd'to grow' and usually determinedwith a root tuber [Dittrnar, Blumen p.601: the Eye of Horus is filled with plants M5 1138,8 ; Odd 1466,6.

rd. wy

legs Wb Il 461 (1) to 462 (15) Pyr. DG 258,1 foot Cr. 302b; CED140 F6-T

is raised upon the f. 9 of Meskhcnet IV 37,11 or the child is complete upon the The divine child of Her Majesty 1168,1. As objects of verbs - legs can be stretched forward dwn 50,15 ; or stood upon Ih' VI 74,1. IV I

There is also a derived prepositional use meaningat' Originally it may have been r-rdwy but in . the writings it is abbreviated to rdivy. Literally it means then 'at the legs of "beside''at' : priests are at their places 1553,14; or stand at their places IV 19.5 ;a goddessdoes not stray to

U &-. 'from beside your ka' 1371,11-12; the four comers of Egypt are brought ka' Il 58,16. your


to give Wb 11464ff. DG 604,7 Cr. 392a; CED 178

The usesof rdi/di are not unusualand as in the classicaltextsall kinds of objectscan be given or


put. The spellingshowevervary, rangingfrom f. '42,8 ; f VI 9,2 7 1: IV 47.1; =-%: .

6--J 1113,13 to





This word occurs in GR temples: including Edfu :a text for destroying foreigners rwi , 1 r-*%n (alliteration of r)IV 370,15 ; rwi MD 11164;a similar text at Philae ', -j l? ", rL . rn bbt Phild I p.28,2 -. Wb 1140, cites a term from the MK text

of Dw3. ]Vty in Sallier 1110,5: the survivor who does good his condition is the same as;! 5Q `61 , CL t1 AA^A 'K-Helck [Dw3-ljty p. 140 n.b] emended this to ,yesterday' 0 9-. so it may not be asclearas it seems. -

rdi-m-bwt to eat offerings

Literally the phrase seemsto mean 'to put or bring in the temple' - implying either 'to store up' or 'to give to the (temples of) gods to eat, but a text about making offerings shows a different

interpretation =j :

andopeningthe throat111178,7 so that wt may be a metaphor -

for'mouth'- put in the mouth,(chew)andopenthe throat(to swallow).Similarly - the king sayshe

has received offerings and then 0

V 210.3-4 ; HorusBehdet :'EI X-0

the food

upon his table VI 257,6-7;the king / god andthosewith him C"--

VI 328,2. MD 11157

The word occursat Dendera whereit hasa moreexplicit determinative-,:: '

Junker[GrD compound verbsp.881hasthe phrase'toeae,that is (the offerings)are broughtto the templeand quotes: --fj ,! T j, 137 Durn Baug.2G; MD 11157 underthe spelling: 2i, -.

&[see alsoHJunker, WZKM 26,1912 pA6 n.11.The word then usuallyappliesto the eatingof


rdi. r. t3 to give birth to Wb 11467(22) Only a few examples foundat Edfu - it is a morecommonphrase Dendera Philae,asmight are at and A-j --= IV 27,5; be expected cropsareput on earthin the f ields => ..: alsoin an offering text concerned


being put in the earth A--J '- VI 226,8-9 with crops so it may have the sameconnotationsof seed


proclaima decree

.1 '. -'I - VI f

Edfu examplesare both concernedwith proclaiming a decreeof Re-Harakhty The 111= 1 "Wl 290,4 and '_=-jo 293,15-16.


to show oneself Wb V 268 (6-8)

At Edfu the phrase in oftenrefersto solardeitiesappearing the sky : so HorusBchdct &J Nut V 156,5; the wingeddisk 'J 'T v-the winged disk every day 144,4. 1 13 AJ'


Nut IV 9,3 andRe %". "! in L' ,

A-J t-0 ,*

in Nut IV 14,9 ; in the place

in the morning Nlam.E 14,18 and Horus


Wb 11469 (5) to (19) Pyr.

rdw was applied in the Pyramid texts to the exudationsof the decaying flesh of Osiris which are then offered to the deceasedas libations becausethey were believed to have revivifying and restorative powers (Pyr 2007 ; 2031 ; 1360 ; 788 ). In the Late Period the rdw of Osiris were kept in the Scrapeurnwhich existed in every nome. Ile Nile too was supposedto be the rdw which came from Osiris for it was this which was actuaUyused in libations to the dead. In the Ritual of Amun (XII. 7) , grains of incense became the exudations of a divinity - they issued from his flesh and fell to the The incense was seen as the crystallised drops of divine efflux and cnce a corpse had been ground. fumigated with thesegrains it would revive and have its moisture restored to it [A. M. Blackman, ZAS 50,1912, pp.69-74 ; Beinlich 'AusfluG' Osirisreliquien ppAO41 ; p2334 in the 17th and IM UE , nomes ; p.245 ff. in the 6th LE nome ; Pantalacci in GM 52,1981 pp.57-661 At Edfu rdw comes from the limbs (body) of a god: of a goddess -k'O' *': ""Vl 1332; foil VI 137,9; the flesh -k t, '-0 1341,5 It . 111 Vil

VIII 140,1-2 ; or a specific god Eke Qcb-scnw-cf 6

is used to fill the Eye of Horus

1138,8; and the Two Lands


48,15-16 serpent be concealed it in can .A 1144,7. The word is to be readrdw from examples suchas

IV 28,3.Wine is also called'04

The writing with 4 VII 48,15-16.

stemsfrom the fact that -h represents number5 which is readdiw and so dw > dw - which the becomes rdw if the weakr wereto fall away.In this case 0 bodily origin of the substance. is simply a determinative showinga


com,grain Wb 11469(20) GR Charpentier 699p. 440-1

Wb hasonly two references this word: a pun in a list of com includes'nDw com which lives and to which grows'VI 260,10; " .':: 4 Meeks records an earlier word '-c9Lex. 79.1805]andit mayberelated. is broughtinto existence MD III 75c.
which seemsto be a type of bread KRI 11809,8 [An.


the cnclosure


Writings - Direct: Error : BIFAO 43 1945 p.74 , C-3


to go down , to fall Wb 11472 (3) to 473 916) go down ; 473 (17) to 474 (17) to fall DG 266 -0 'Le

Cr. 637a; CED270; KH349

The verb h3i can mean 'to go down"to fall'and 'to attacle. the notion being that one 'fell' or 'came down' upon the enemy [cf. similar range for Hebrew IT 'go down' 'desccnX 'go down to rJ .

battle! Brown, Driver and Briggs, Hebrew Lexicon p.432b] all aspectsof the sameaction. At Edfu :a book of rituals king are ra A rO -A from heaven, north of Memphis VI 6,4 -. the enemies of the r0 to the ground 1294.12 - best

beneathhis harpoon 111187,2;he 1`71 -A rJ-A

taken as 'fall' in English. But of the winged disk, it All of these writings are M

goes down in the cvcning 135.6. so

the 3- and this seemsto be ncarcr the Coptic 2G without

that the spellings at Edfu may reflect that by Ptolemaic times it was pronounced Zf-

h3i (+r)

to embarkon (a ship) Wb 11472(10) OK

The phrase a specialised of h3i 'go down. with thepreposition it becomes is literally 'go down r use Glossaryp.217 go aboarda boatl. At Edfu to' and is the phraseusedof embarking ships[Jones, on the object of the phraseis usually dpt 'boat!: the king
- 13


111257.15 Horus ; .hot* IV 211.1


VIII 20,11;and the boat is uponthe Lake of Iforus

at the festival ra "I A<> wi3 '3 tp Itrw V 34.3-4

VI 64,7 As quaysfor boats .

would havebeendownat the water's Poat edge,to embarkon4, onewould litcrally haveto go downthe river bankto embark.


to throw, to attack.


Wb 11475(1-3) attackWb 11475 transitive GR throw a harpoon (4) use With a direct object the verb h3 usuallymeans'attack': r-J -A 70,8but it may be the word moreoftenwritten Ik at Edfu. q.v. D3 . VI 'he attackshim', VI

If the object of the verb is a harpoonthen it seems havethe nuanceof 'throw' GI-A to 67,7.

The meaning both of theseformsis derivedfrom h3i go down' - in attackonedescends goes of or downuponthe enemy; in the act of throwing useof h3i. harpoonis 'madeto go down fall' !n the transtivC. ,a 11 ,


to fear Wb H 471.(11-14) Pyr

In the Pyramid Texts h3-snd is a noun for 'fear, by the MK it appearsin formulae in offering texts, from the 22nd Dynasty it is a noun 'veneration' and by the GR period it is a verb 'to fear' = 'to venerate' (plus preposition n). In a hymn to Amon Re, h3-snd is used with other terms for 'to praise' f but the element of 'fear' is explicit: Q _* [c f. Barucq,Louage'reverential feae p. 1001. At Edfu : The hearts of men rO &I the Great of Magic' 1493 (18) ; h3-snd is manifest at f Year IV 11,9 and similar. G149-, the New 1293,11 where the for you the Lord of Fear (snd) P.Berlin 3049 XV, 8

appearances oAe god at festivals : women r-J V

rU a 2 IV 17,7 ; the Falcon of Gold is 'venerated!by the bas of Nekhen .

determinative implies a more active demonstrationof venerationor adoration, perhapsa ritual danceor form of prayer is involved. Lector priests recite offering formulae with this posture [Vandier, Manuel IV p. 108 and 111 no. 16] and Wb has other determinatives used to write h3-snd. The word seemsto actually mean -,fear comes down'that is the deity causesit to come upon mankindwhose responseis to worship or veneratethe god.


typeof bread

in Cauville [Osiris p.157 nA ] notesthat this Ptolemaicsubstantive, appears offering texts next to is milk and honey the determinative a loaf of bread the -k IV 153,6but it can alsohave

ra A 1493 sign as dt no. 18 ; CD IV 192 no.36 ;D VII 80 no.39 ; Philae , Bdnddite


32,9 r-a 4V'

An OK offering list [de Morgan, Daschour , Mar. -June'l 894 , p.39 fig. 80 - from . betweenhoney and water, so it may have much earlier precedents.

Mastaba27]has G-1 4123'


ceiling. heaven Wb 11476 (12-13) MK and Wb 11483(14) GR hy heaven, roof. DG 268,2 hi3t room, hall 266,1 h3t hall, 4-3A

The meaning of heaven and roof is one and the same thing at Effu Temple, for, symbolically the physical ceiling is also the heavenly roof. Heaven (sky): Re rests in Mr5whr, -AOIq' and unites with the diskI 554,10-11 ; Reis said to have '4 9 r-q

'heaven' 'r--'v IV 56,7; Wadjet is foremost in heaven created

IV 162.4;andHorus

Behdetas a Princewalks round

the Sky

A, 9 GI


r-, w

IV 252,4-6; the s3b-Xwt is the Lord of

r; l Am,

nr -i

IV 35,12; Lord of heaven and r--,

1415,1 ; 'Hoius Behdethas tides


within which associatehim with the h3yt sky - he is the Greatof Splendour 207,2-3;and he is Greatof Might in
Vill 93,9. In alliteration of h: htht h3yt Ceiling : Isdes inscribes or-N,

4..; o 11129,13 Mn 'r"%heavcn'l 543,18; an *

iff, `* -1 I" VI 103,9 -, r-j n r---v

1552,6 -.

with his images IV 19,13 ; all their ceilings are equipped with


q r,-,,

VII 12,3; .
of his ba I

The most common use of h3yt is as the place where the ba of a god is : pt is 25,19 t5j-'thd a solar god. 11'178,4; Prt is ru 'V r-, 3,. of his bd V 8,4; r-, q

VI 279,13; pt is

safe h3yt'of his ba VIII 93,10. This use may be connected with the deity Ba-Neb-Hayt,

The spellings of the word divide clearly into two groups, those which have a portico or porch determinative and those spelt with one or two heaven signs, the two types of spelling never mix. 71is may indicate two separatewords, the clear group with heaven signs, meaning 'sky heaven ceiling' , , 4% (hyt) and the group with portico determinatives meaning 'gateway ' 'portico' which is,$olumned

portico beforethepylon (h3yt). Accordingto de Wit [BEFAO55 p.1171 meaningof h3yt 'is 'ceiling'not'roor the so in Wb 11476 ,

he would emend'Dach'to 'Decke. ile collectedtogetherall the examples the word spelt with the of ra ru double heavensijns -including'th6 divine name b3. nb-hyt : r,--"q VII 147.3.


r-jn VII 162,12. r--,q r--q

Leclant [RdE 8,1953 p. I I] discerns 3 different meanings of h3yt : 1) sky ceiling 2) covered roof , 3) porch or door - Coptic ? Nr--'T -, block published by J.Yoyotte [CdE 28,1952 pp.28-381 .A

shows the door of the fourth pylon at Karnak with a wooden structure decoratedby precious metals.A block from the time of Tuthmosis W from the 3rd pylon at Karnak (published by Leclant in his article) shows the pylon door with a wooden h3yt which consists of a wooden papyriform column supporting a rooL These kind of structures may have been common place in Egyptian temples, even, in the Ptolemaic age and if they were particularly attached to pylons this would explain the name B3-nb hyt becausethe Ba Lord of the Hayt is the sun god and the temple pylons were his horizon. , This also expltins the apparentduality of the writing Me=

the two pylons are the two heavens.

Spencer noted that the term h3yt appearedin the OK title gmsw h3yt and referred to a portico or ceiling. This continued into the Late period by which time it referred to the columned porticoes built in temples, such as that at Philae built by Nectanebo I and in the GR period it was used of all structures of a similar design wherever they were within the temple complex. For example it denoted the roof chapel of Hathor at Dendera and buildings at Edfu, Kom Ombo and Esna [Spencer,Temple p. 155 ff. ]. The meaning of h3yt as a hall with columns is confirmed by an ostrakon which designatesthe long transversecolumned forehall of Theban Tomb 71 as h3yt [Hayes, Ostracap.38 no.63 ro. 6 ; 77.3 and no.66,2,6-71.


time , reign


Wb 11478 (1-13) OK DG 265,9 1Z6 Cr. 643a; CED271; KH350 ?H

h3w seemsto apply to the earthly reign of the king and as such is parallel to the use of rk to indicatethe divine reign of the gods: n ftt c- 0 1 of the king is the rk of Re in heaven 298,9;

raW... e- a

of the king is the

of Geb on earth1297,6. Promisesaboutconditionsin the IV 46,15; and most

king's reign include the wingeddisk being upon the Four Walls : C-- M (IM (isft) is driven awayfrom the kings reign c- 416 importantly chaos VI 161,1.

IV233,2; and



near, in the time of compound preposition Wb 11477(4-7) OK

GG 178. follows theclassical uses At Edfu this preposition R,. r"a7h Ut- 1150,8; T. 1) foes do not stand'nea?the king: -ra, r;3I- tV- V 283,15;evil is not on tt. pathof the king r,7enearhim -in them- thesundisk is in heaven ra e2) peopleor placesarenearplaces or are nearm3w-lands 1559,4 ; or do not e'xist IV 50,15. 1563,10-,fields

in king appears the GreatPlace GIA IV 32,10;theLowerEgyptian VI 276,5-6;this work is establishedin your'

ra R is IV 50,1; a sanctuary nearDep e_ T Temple VII 135,8. '

rae3) Temporal use: Tefnut bums the enemy a4) from : the living ba of Re comes r-JC-

the end of the year VIT 14,6-7.

PunEVIII110,1. ' --

5) in/on the body: shemakes place, MC. her =

your body IV 102,6.

In the writings of the preposition, m canbe omitted Wb notesthat this as a GR practice. the .


compound preposition - before , near Wb 11477(9-10) NK

A variation on m-h3w - but it does not have exactly the same uses hands are raised before a monument or temple -', G1Q- Vll40,6; 1-U? I 92A -r3c-A? 1134,6 and arms are bcntbeforc a god-n IV 257,13-14;

It is most often found in the phrase r-h3w. br the king : 'rcale. . '0'

C1 V11138,6 a. e; and amulets are presented VII 138,6 *,or calves are brought

VII 146,7 -,(Maat) your throat is

V 96,16-17

The uses of r-h3w are more restricted than m-h3w and have the implicadon of being "OdoreY something mther than'W 'ae something. I



Wb11479 (1-3)MK
Meeks, RE 26,1974 p.65 n.3


In an offering of a honeypot to the god Khnum,he says' I give you your phallusto increase your G1 c 111258,7 is Meeksbelievesthe h3w are the immediatefamily of wherethe meaning clear.

The someone that it comesfrom the same and root as hy 'husband' 'engenderee. word first appears , in the 6th Dynastyat Meir. In fact it maybe relatedto h3w 'near closeby', andrefer to thosewho , immediate family. areclose- relatives,


birds FCD 157 also Caminos Lit. Frag. p.9 ,

The word derives from the verb h3i 'to descend go down' -a reference to birds in flight and it is , often associatedin puns with h3yt 'heaven'. It is common at Edfu with a general use for 'birds' and does not seemto refer to a specific species.

The 'etymology'is playedon pun M ' 1n 73?: hyt 111193,11-12.

from heaven VH 124,11;or a different come-down

They come from the qb-marshes r-JV"

M -Y " IV 392,1;A

VI 237,2;and the borders

birds.Theyarebroughtasofferingsby the pbw of Egypt (drw) VII 81,14-15 theycanbe southern so Nhy V 26,14and M -A than locustsVH are said to be more numerous IV 47,2. They were

0 rl'011%1, 71,6. The goddessHeb-Sedtgives birth to bjiw birds and in captured netsnqqV'VI rO 153,6; rth

111142,17 and had their necks, ; wrungwYn VII 1,2

11194,3. Onceeatenthey 'go down' W the throat n tit nbd VII 82.2-3;and

Birds can also haveSethianpvertones: GIA I! " nt 3bwy nbd 'birds of the forms of foes' VII 82,7-8

In a ritual, four,birds are set free in the sky, to fly to the four comersof1theesrthas messengers the spreading newsof the king's coronation 1 rar0 4 P: 111193,5-6

Caminos has an example of what may be this word from a text of the end of the 18th Dynasty [op.cit. The Pleasuresof Fishing and Fowling pl. 142,4 , -,?, III The spelling at Edfu .

is constant though Fairman commented [ASAE 43,1943 p.270 XLIV] that VII 82,7 was probably to be read h3yw (rather than p3yw) becauseof the parallel in VII 82,2 which is clearly h3yw. -




Wb 11481(5) NK Meeks RdE 28,1976 pp.92-95 - dovecote implying that the birds kept in them -arepigeons or doves, Meeks indicates that this is a dovecote, Edfu seemto confirm this for they all have the determinative L-3 . There and the three examplesat is also --ris treatedas a phonetic sign mr rather than being an extra determinative which which

imply that theseplaces had both dry roosting places and water pools.7be birds from the h3mt might nA C3 =oc73 IV (h3yw)birds 11193,11; daily food rations are presentedas 15,7 , C-3 VII 286.1

These were places where birds could be reared for supply to the temple as offerings and may have beenpart of the temple out-buildings. I'z I


bracelets Wb 11482(10-11)

h3drt is the word used in Ptolemaic offering scenesfor bracelets,of which there are four examples in Late temples [discussedby H.Ibrahim Amer, 1:offrande spdcifique des bracelets h3d rt I Dendera et ra 41 J Edf6u, Hommages A F.Daumas, Montpellier, 1986 pp. 17-24]. One example exists at Edfu : A-. C;;. J the two bracelets 11282,2-11 (XII pl.429). 'Me h3drt are most likely to be a cloth giving

band with two clasps in the form of cords, often with blooming lotus terminals. It was decoratedwith red and blue beadsperhapsin gold settings.The braceletsact as protectors of the limbs (wrists green, at Edfu are paralleled with the eyes of Horus protecting the right and left sides of his and arms) and bodies, ensuring the complete rule of the universe in which the two heavenly lights travel. At Dcnderi' has a slightly different emphasisfor the offering pacifies Hathor or Isis and the king here is the ritual who made it (D 11215,7 ff. ; DIV 85,17 ff. ;D IV 268.9-18). the craftsman


joy, gladness Wb 11483 (1-13) MK

Noun joy is created Qpr) in places : St-R' Glqq 342,5-6 ; or given (di) 0 !b IQ f'O

IV 17,5; it can be made (ir)



4 Llq IV 342,13; given to the height of heaven

VI 103.3 ;

in joy - courts of the palace = rDqqJ-tb is in Mesen 1441,8 ; or places can be M-by


1204,14; and theEnnead Behdetis in joy of


Hathoris Lady of Joy"-7Mqq 1273,3(a phrase which occursvery oftenatDendera) The determinativeat Edfu is very often only the man with his hand to his mouth, to show an it emotion, but at Dendera canbe ' D 1170,6-7, or t,, DIII 59,5 implying a moreactive

expression joy. The lotuscanalsobe a determinative. of


joy Wb 11483 (12) end NK oft. GR


The word occurs in a NK Hymn to Ptah Mqqk'

Phot. 97 and at Dendera - Dum. Res. 51,20. At Edfu : the crew of Re is =

Berlin 3049,9,4 1, at Philae <1168> ois .x[P. ra i

"r when the 043


4M day 111341,8-9 and in the rite of Causing Sokar to Appear, places in Egypt are in comes every "& , VI 281,16 The literal meaning of hy-s3-t3 . 'joy protects the earth' may be a metaphor or

proverbial saying used in a religious context.


husband Wb 11475(10-12)Pyr. DG 267,1 5<1 II -')

Cr.636b; CED269; KH357 At Edfu hy is usedmainly of godssuchasHorusBelidetwho is the husband and as a result of their union 111133,17, Mn who is the G1 plants which produces girls (rwnt) 111271,17. of the field of young


Seth Wb 11475 and 483 (15-17) Late oft. GR ,

The Edfu examples of hy show the Seth animal as determinative with a knife or dagger in its back so 'killed' and made impotent. Wb notes that it refers to Seth as (16) a donkey (17) a that the sign was In each casethe determinative shows the kind of animal involved. gazelle. The word may have its origin in the term hiw 'braying ass' which is equated as early as the MK with Seth (CT spell 335) [Ward, WES 37 1978 p.23 ff. ] or even in the verb h3i 'to cause abortion' , as I


Seth himself was prematurelybom [Te Velde, Seth p.291. At Edfu. in a wnp-nhs ritual the M masters rZlqq 16f is defeated by HD IV 77,15; the valiant harpooner

Al IV 375,7 ; and Osiris is said to be on the back of rar that is attacking him 1

164 6. These texts show that despitethe likely origin of the term by had become a general word for Sethian creatures [in general for the donkey in mythology as a Sethian animal see LA 1127-30 RARG 172 and Hopfner, Tierkult 102-104].Goyon [Gardiens p. 180 [311 and n.51 reads but as by 'donkey"fallen'VII 274,6 and massacred, this sign may also read 'SetW. eav --


boundaryor territory Wb H 484 (9-10) GR DG 269,1 V, --) ilt-5

At Edfu the word is used to denotea type of land or boundary

of the southas far as

20V 4 the rays of the sun disk shine IV 16,3; r-J 28,17-29.1; inundation the risesup to the Mqq

of the south to the limits of the earth 11 in the southern 1295,17. sycamore

In the Donationtexts, written in the Persianperiod, the phrasen3 hynw is usedto introducea' detailed description thepositionof a particular 71is official legalphrase of pieceof property. contrasts with the 'literary' usesquotedabove.Examplesinclude : n3w M0
Is' Aq

=a* VII 248,3 ; n3w ra I

rsy VII 246J. The spellings are consistent [Meeks, Donations p.56 n.21 and Malinine'. .

RdE 7,116 n.7 -'limits of land'].


dwelling, house

Wb 11484(11-12)GR This is a separate word from hyn boundary'though they may havchada commonorigin, and thcre could be confusionover themeanings.The hyn is morethanan ordinaryhome,for it is the dwelling M qkoaC73 he first appeared the creation(Esna)Thes.62513 placeof a god: Khnumlived in at when a priest carrying a standardin procession goes to beautiful dwelling q4-; T ET1 C-3 r-Jqq -a C-3 F 1543,18 the tcmple is the

their EnneadIV 2,1 . This is reflectedtoo in the term of

pr-hyn [Gauthier,DG 11 109as a namefor Dcnderal. Howeversomeexamples ambiguous: are p. Mqq C3 n stwt nrr 'V 2,4 could be 'dwelling' or 'boundary''territory'.



intezjection Wb 11482 (16) OK

A reduplicated form of the interjection hy and in origin pronounced h3 It occurs at Edfu in the . q S6kar'Chamber, perhaps used for emphasis CIO r-a iP-. 1224,15. .M6


to bum

Wb 11485(4 - 6) CT c.f. KH 569'flame' ZHT (Osing,P.BM 10808p.76 and nn.587-8)

hwdcanbeaverb, 'toburn' anda noun 'flame,fire! andboth occurat Edfu in a pun: Me Lady of 6L 6 r14.2-a her foes ' IV 5 1,10. A further exampleof the the flame burns r-J with fire Me- transitiveverb occurswhere- theLeft Eye of Re bumsthings MIM IV 166,14.


to tread, trample Wb 11485(12) to 486 (6) MK 1-k1-41 c f. DG 299,2 bb humiliate humiliate Vil

cf. Coptic -Cr. 658b; CED274 ; KH353 below, short ZiBrz The verb is usedto describethe marchonto the battlefield : ptr 4 2:

J Jl G1 VI 91,6-,

J V 151,14 150,6or r-d3t and alsoof tramplingupon foes : Horus,like a lion tramples , I?. A the Two Lands,dispensing A 111127,14; Horustreads lawslike on wild animals or the This(hb = Thoth . word play) 1116,11-12. It is also usednegatively,especiallyin the phrasen-hb 'P ni bms 'one doesnot enterthe palace
without her knowing it' or Sim. The s usually refers to Hathor:

0.1 A II VI 338,9 1-*.;

ri & ;b VIII 121,8;ra o -A VII 85,10. %. \ R" A they cannot Evil doesnot r"a*-'O. penetrate A him [Germond, Sekhmet 511VI 266,6;ra 11 p. be sent againsthim VI 267,10 [op-cit. 671 and in a smn-%wtytext Z p. him - retreatVI 55,18. nevergo against
It also appears in phrases with irt/irty 'eye(s)' : ntk A IV 38,1 ; ntf VI 266,4

ra ei


In some uses of the verb there may be confusion with h3b 'to send. There is a word hb Wb Il 485


(10-11)'plough'and the meaning of the verb may come from the idea of trampling or treading on the fields during ploughing - with the result thatke ground is broken up. i-


This- Thoth Wb Il 487 (1-4) Med. DG 272,2 L-6 Z184)1" ZITT4

Cr.655b; CED274; KH354 Yota LSJ*99 p.817a Gr.

Three species of This were known black ibis, ibis comata in Egypt

: threskiornis


- white etymology

or sacred ibis , ibis of the word between hby


- plumed

ibis. The mythological

depends on Thoth as the messenger of Re and there may also be a close connection heart (Thoth the Donations is the heart of Re) (LA texts in the phrase hrt 111115-1211. hbw,

bb and ib and in

The word hby occurs at Edfu in the plural referring to land set aside at the temple a sacred falcon


to provide but also a

for the sacred animal

cults. This implies

that at Edfu

there was not only

sacred ibis - perhaps representing which VII often occurs ; ra j in parallel _j? '*"

the moon aspect of the solar Horus, or even acting as the benu bird with the falcon , [Meeks, rJ 10 Donations le "I p. 68-9) VII 236J. : lirt n00


VII 243,11-12


messengers speciesof demons -a

Wb Il 486 (11) GR type of god, sometimeswith lion headssent out to perform massacres. 'demons'sentout by the Blackmanand Fairman [JEA 29,21 n. 61note that theseare 'emissaries', hb their namederiving from the verb h3b 'to scnd'or perhaps 'to to perform their commands, gods 11 111 V 257.2 ; they are the rU 1301,9-10; of Wosret tread' : doing what shesaysevery day 1464,12-13; or they can be underthe control of the Lord of Pc and k "-4 IV 17,1; fittingly Thoth is Masterof Mescn .. the of Osiris 1180,4. IV 76,2 ; thereis a sh chapelfor

They belong to the samecategoryof minor gods such as b3tyw and Istyw who are also shown knive'sand alsorove aroundready to carry out slaughter.As they are underthe control of carrying


certain gods they remove things harmful to those gods [Valloggia, Recherche sur les "messagers"' wpwtyw dans les sources dgyptiennes profanes, 1976 Geneva-Paris p. 60 108.6 hbyw are E. Suys, Les Messagers des Dieux, Egyptian Religion IIA

emissaries of Thoth, as the ibis Oct. 1934 p. 123-1391.

At Edfu hbyw seem to be particularly associatedwith Mesen ral 33; 14-, ty they are near Mesen 1119,8and MJAJ

they watch over Mesen III

'. are described hmbmw deities : as of the 11133,14 ; 9,8. In their protective

Lord of Mesen.VI 14,9. In puns rtjlr kj , capacity,

hbyw htht hmhmty

watch over the watchmen (rs rsw ) and guard the sanctuary of Horus VI 76,9; -,

rcJ17 14 ', k,, -, 'I 7t, and in battle, Horus gives the protecting the limbs of the king VII 200.4; the

of the Lord of Pe and Mesen standready on the roads VI 17,1. They can however also be a source of harm and, disease,for in an offering of the wadjet eye -- --L-A"II
61.1 of, .944res

there are non her

shrine - declares Bastet D 111191,17 and a similar implication is found when giving incense and %bw-cakes - the limbs of the king are purified from impurity of 6=5 +III her diseaseon you V 281,13-14. Further the kt ', there is none of

are driven from the path of the king by ".

Jqq4 Horus 1308,18-3093 and also at Ombos Il no.705 left 2 M.


remove forcibly or with violence Wb 11488 (2) GR

An earlier verb hbhb in medical texts has an intransitive use meaning'to pass through'of pain and , transitively, it is a type of treatment'to remove pain' [Wb Med. II p.564]. In GR texts the verb has become a further word meaning to 'remove' enemies (or parts of them), the underlying meaning of removing something hostile or threatening: 'I remove GIJ maintaining nj k the hearts of enemies for your majesty' VI 178,7 ; you 'ra 161 foes MD IV 74 and

RJ QJ : Ij he has removed the attack Ombos149,51,1 but neither have the -determinative the moreexplicit. which makes Edfu example




prick, thrustof weapon Wb 11488(5) GR

in The only reference Wb is from Edfu which concerns soundmadeby a harpoon: brw the


4. ..

r3 6

m3wt. k 'the sound of the thrust of your (harpoon) shaff i. e. as it goes into the body of the foe ZwIFK' Cr. 656b.; CED 275'to crush noisily into'; KH355 -to pricle and

VI 61,12. The Coptic ZSOK

'thorn'seem to be descendants of this word and and anestor may be hbq 'to bruise breaV, , (Wb Med

which refers to the bruising of drugs in preparation and has a sharp object as determinative 564)

Fairman translated this sentence as 'clatter or thud of the harpoon' [JEA 29 p. 6 n. d I with the . H 488,3A), and this may well be Whf

word hbq originally meaning'to mash, beat up, triturate(Wb the phrase hrw-hbq W

is intended to suggest but it is'not what is literally said.


place of execution Wb H 486 (10) Late, GR

J In P.Br. 5,16 Seth is put in T-a. --zcJl the place of execution and the word is also used at' c73 -Rh. 7k Edfu : the place where the executioner emissariesrejoice is 1119.9 [Goyon, Gardiens p'

43,0 96 n.2 and TM 1 [1721,3-4 and [169] n.2]. Also Thoth orders foes to be dealt with in the ra c-3 - t MD IV 74.


a pbw-canal in the nome of the Black Bull (Athribis) &C IV 30,1; : IV 32,2; "O' 1332 17' .

In the geographical texts at Edfu : where nets were installed and - [Gauthier DG IV p.4 ].


has snyt- terraces (a type of rented land) V 19,4 ,! I



Wb 11488(7) to 489 (2) DG 274,1 12--D

Cr.693b.; CED 289 ; KH 381 Z&M

At Edfu the emphasis is put on establishing laws (sm n) G3 e 13 ri (Of Thoth) V 5.2; C3

ra cme 110,1; and the king is the lord of q--: El , is 1508,7 as befitting the kingshipritual at Edfu. 7 -

From the determinative 'law' is notan abstractidea but the book roll signs. -!! Cr ' *

imply that

they werewrittendownon papyrus leatherrolls andwerethusavailablefor consultation. or



a servantof Re who brings him food Wb Il 489 (10) GR

Wb has only the reference


who brings Xbtyw - cakes for the altar 1467,7. In a bread and 'VII 288,16 [Ibrahim, Kingship p. 1761 He does also appearin .

ra beer offering the king is C3 Ram.IV DII

'C'JI.Abut the text following his [Barns, P.Ramesseurn] name is not preserved. (3

The hpn. w - snake (Wb Il 4 89,9) who appearsin the Pyramid Texts '- Pyr.671 is read as imy-hpnw

Vl Jk

by Sethe [Komm. Pyr. index] - so it may not be connected to our



' to bum

Wb Il 489 (16) GR ''

Derived from an earlier term hm (Wb H 489,15) meaningbe warm hoe or similar: MuK Rs.2,3 ,

'XAx r3l+ e you warm(sm),areyou hot in thebush?'[Erman op.cit p.391.At Edfu theword is istraofferingto Sakhmet, says,'those whoaredisloyal she asa verb in asI used 'Pburn in'the fire' 1154,3.



to roar, rumble Wb Il 491 (2) vb. GR Wb H 490 (9-17) noun MK DG 275,7 L3 Jr4ZMs ZEM2C-tl roar, neigh.

Cr.682b; CED284; KH374

Many of the Edfu examples refer to the roar of a lion it is usually described as '3 'greae = loud: , ro rd &, II18,5; M2rJIbI270; lji r-wr the great of might is also '3 M%


39,15 In a pun :M .


the roar of the god assails(ht) the hmhmty - snake1

543,18.Wb (Wb Il 502,12)cites an exampleof a-ibrd hhm. from the Myth : Ahen Seth turned ra ra 17 f himself into a serpent1w. = 'and Re said,Te hasidined himself intc --e rura Q-, -

d?Vl 121,10.Wb took this to refer to'the hissing of a snake,but it is actually a miswriting of hmhm 'to r6ae (q.v.) , so this is 'roaringsnake'[for translation, JEA 21 p.32]. Tama! especially For a discussion this word with the meaning of whenusedEkewordssuchasYfyt , , or snd seeJ.Spiegel,WZKM 54,1957 p.191ff. -



type of crown Wb Il 491 (5) GR

The hmhm crown appearedin the reign of Amenhotep IV [Davies , Rock Tombs of Tell el Amarna 11pl. VIlI1 but was particularly representedin GR times. It consisted of three Atef crowns . usually, by sundisksor Horus falcons and all arrangedupon a pair of ram horns (Abubakr, Kronen surmounted pp.63-41. SF, M Y, 'tk At Edfu : the crown is brought to the king M to be Lord of the RE' 1408,5 ; who is also said,

VII 305,6-7 ; 1120 (56); at the offering of bpw 'crowns', the king



so that he becomes wr

Ol M

IV 87,13.17; also Horus4ives

a .. rl r-1. a '# you cause to be greatin terror'IV 301 - 302,3. andsays '''''" me
23 4C4 1124 Rc% Ibe epithet 3w-hmhm is applied to Horus of Edfu =2 ; IV 301; or to

a king,


ral-,, <bd Ptoierny -rjW, 1138,3 ivA. 1 Edfu


; Marn. 128 .

showtheking wearingthecrownandthe typesof offeringshe makesinclude : w

r stpw XI 237 , Maat XI 300, bow and arrow XI 267 , cloth XI 309, md ointment XI 3 10, Ile amuletXI 266 for example. crownis especially worn in the Tbroneof the Godschamber around The namederivesfrom the, the sanctuary is also commonin the Naos [Cauville,Essaip.1421. and nounhmhmroae and whenthe king wore ithc wasthe Roarcewho broughtterror to his foes.


serpentidentified with Apopis Wb 11491 (4) Late, GR

1-2 as a name for a demon -n2A This word for the Apopis snake appearsin the Amduat IV 25-26 e brallt' [Hornung Amduat 11 n. 108] and also in the P.Br. R 22,16 where a short list of, n: %%'Der includes MS! 4 r3,1a serpents V next to Apopis.

At Edfu hmhmty usuaUy_has serpent determinative of a snake with undulating body and knives, the either solely in the head or in the head and each undulation (from 2 to 3). 711caim was to render the S4 ra serpent hicroglyph powerless and 'dead. The word often appearsin puns : the roar of the r"O defeated by the priestly standard 1543.18; Hathor breathes her fire (hh) at== VII 201,8 ; and she is also responsible for burning (hwd) the r G1 rO 111138,14; Hathor


5-1 in heaven fr;,, -- '0,'% 11 defeats(ht) (h3w hyt) V 80,8and Hedj-Werdoesthis JYVV- VI . Cl 61 %% ra 106,17. hbyw emissaries The defeat(htht) the/-- r-- gn, 1119,8 and C- ra S94 (ZL where also ; &A/V% it is seenasa threatto Mesen11133,14. a cosmogonical. In text, Re andTanenwith their retinueare M U1 implying that the origin of the word was in the noun hmhm, 'roar' said to hear q
VI 17,12. .I. -I 0 ra

However hmhmty was also a general tenn for snakesfor Tboth declares that the

without knife determinatives, is received in the name of s343 who is a beneficial creator snake I VI 121,12.

TS,, ,

In origin the word may be associatedwith hmhm 'roar' and it is possible the Egyptians envisageda roaring serpent- reminiscent of the thundering nature of Seth. The baT aspectof the serpentis shown by its roaring VI 17.12 its connection with Seth/Apopis so that it is defeated and shown with , knives in it. Seth could be seenas a thunder god [Spiegel, WZKM 54 1957 p. 199ff.] and as in some examples the serpent is said to be h3w-hyt 'in heaven'. it may be a personification of thunder. In

this repect it is an Egyptian parallel for the dragon of Western mythology.

hms - hims

supplicate Wb11484(7)D. 18, GR

A verb used to denote people coming humbly to the king or a god usually bringing with them gifts , and tribute. It is most often used of the '3mw 130,16; rd 111145,6. Wb suggests that the verb is intransitive and transitive but the examples given seem to be misunderstood and hms would seemto be invaribly intransitive (Wb 11484,8). In the writing of the word -a stroke can appearbefore or after the M of the Urk. IV 18,3 writing rJqM sign , which is reminiscent M OA V 87,2; A 11190.3 ; or Egyptians ra

II 11.14; or bbs tyw in an adverbial expression ---

If this does really read hims then the Ptolemaic stroke must

be a rer1f ant of the 1. Further hms may be a compound verb containing W 'to go dowW and ms 'to present, offee which make 'go-offering', (i. e. as supplicants , humbly ) and Urk. IV 621,3 does have rA, (h P JN M Essentially it is an offering verb denoting the way things are carried to a god or .




box, chest


NVb11491 (9) to 492 (4) Pyr. KH376 ZHOf carriage box (fem.) of the bull contains the rituals VI 179.11 many are brought containing

for valuables : GI ty M1 hn boxes are safe containers in the Library texts boxes contain the Tolls of papyri and books and rolls =111347,11;

contain secretsand knowledge of the best B3w-R' 111351,7.

hn is also used metaphorically especially when referring to parts of the body. The heart is set firmly ' in the 91 U k:!: 1272,11 i. e. the chest; the imy-st. ' , in, rz 111189,14.Joy is put into: P1

hn by gods and as this is 3w-ib hn must be the chest or diaphragm of a person ro r the , IV 72,15 ; GIV A 9-: IV 257,7.

hn also refers to the womb : Re opens the ball of dung in the morning (a metaphor for the act of

born) in the hn of Nut 91 Uxia ^'j^ *o being ;

!hj ^~



r-. q

k!Si %0 113 1304,6 ; 1481,17,.,: 1162,4; M 17

I^- ^*.



1128 8-9. It is possiblethat the Egyptianssaw the ball of dung in which the ,

sun beetle lived as being in the the chest of Nut. but the fact that he was "Dom'in the morning young would imply that it corresponds to English 'womV. The whole torso of the body could have been,, designated hn without dividing it into distinct areaswith different names. However hn I)ox' usually describesthe rib-cage, which in effect is a container for the heart. The usual determinative = ,I

is a common kind of box used to hold manuscripts, cloth, incense (the domed lid of a box ?) and these may,have come into' I

but Edfu also uses u:SJ and natron,

use through confusion or difficulty of reading hieratic.


head Wb 11492(5) GR

from hn 'box, It in theGRperiod. derives for head hn is a general to common mosttemples word that beingseen a box,though textsnevermention thecontents wereof any the with the'head as hn-n-tp ra F29Q and the GR hn importance. Ed.Smith 4,1 P. text has the phrase
medical ,a , may be anabbreviation this use. of MAI At Edfu adomment placedon the is ,

the king IV 51,1 ; the vulture is on his head of


r-O 0 1498,2-3; r-0 ly and the uraeus is on 1

IV 52,10-, ra U JZ I

is said to be the Great

Placeof theNeretVultureIV 51,7.


to lean on Wb Il 494 (10) to 495 (12) MK

)g rd 15' At Edfu hn is used in the epithet Izle-I

the one who relies on her love V 336,6 c.f. DII -

99,7 'How joyful is the one who trusts in her name.


to rejoice in

Wb H 493 (15-23)Pyr At Edfu hnw-only seemsto occur as a noun and with auxiliary verb ir 'makejubilation' : the rekhyt of Pe and Nekhenmake -C IV 11,7 peoplemake g4! Vl 335.4 : Mk-f V for the

It snake111106.9. is alsousedthus: rD is in Abydos1401913.

ra if 'how joyful (it is) to seeher' V 2.6;


warriors Wb 11494 (2) MK lit.

Usuafly this word means'fainily'orassociates'[FCD


p. 1591,but Wb has has an example from Edfu




n 'h3 do not exist near the king 1145,12. Literally then these are
are trusted

'associatesof fighting' and the word derives from lin 'to trusVrely on' so the hn-n-'b3 , soldiers ( but in this case hostile ?).


assent,designate Wb 11494 (10) - 495 (12) DG 27611 vl; 04

in hnn is usedto indicatethe affirmativein oraclesandit appears this sense Edfu : the names at of Zj .4 A' to one of them VI 102,6; the gods priestsare being read out until the king assents M raIr, ra text) VI 96,5 the Good Year -0 and r to HB (in aS edia. motheris calleduponto = ,.::ril A ra designates Harsomthus for everything goodVI 95,1.



be happy. content Wb 11496 (6) to 497 (20) Pyr. 1-3 DG 277,6 1'-

Cr.704 a; CED 294; KH 387 Lppe " Zeps This verb most often occursat Edfu in the compound phrasehr-ib licart-contene:a goddessis content 358,9.

foe 1498,3;and HB r with a massacre the of N3. I

at hearingpaition-i IR


day Wb 11498- 500(24) Pyr DG 278.2 V" 4 Cr.730a: CED304; KH403 Z00y

The usesat Edfu follow the classical it In paradigms. orthography is not often spelledout . as t2c-' 0 1482,16,but more usually is written the headof a donkey.Ward [JNES28, . 1969 267-9] suggests hiw is the readingof this sign which implies that by PtolemaicLimes that , hrw waspronounced Coptic ZoOy like 11141,1. [Fairman, BIFAO 43 p.104n.2] For example:


to sink in water WB Il 500 (27) to 501 (4) MK

A word which is well attested in texts and is used in the Myth text at Edfu : 11orusis like OJ 4bes bird ra a= diving which catchesfish in the wateeVI 74,7 after JEA 29 p. 16. . =,. ela ,


flame Wb 11501(15) to 502 (8) DG 281,6 KH 571 (0) (Osing,P.BM 10808index p-2521 4or both of which''.,

The determinative lih showsthe meaningof the word beingeither of


representfires. Goddessesbum up hostile forces with their fire : Nsrt MM 4 313,17 ; Moyt n r3 Gal f- VIII 78,1; -01310.4; Nephthys rj nI

1315,13-14 Hathor in particular emits (wd) fire at enemies cc'il . q0, PCI VIII 78,4, and other goddessesdo this: G1 ra VI IV 52.11; VII Hathor

J] 312,16. A particular target of hh flame is the hmhmty-snake, due to alliteration rr.; Gi Ll 201,8. Horus also uses the gi zrJC strengthensher rraa of his nbit-fire to overcome Apopis VII 201,11

with bt-fire, against the king's foes 111197,7. of his mouth (BB) 111169,5;or it

The fire can come from the mouth as a fiery blast: rO M4

comes from the eye of a goddesssuch as Mehyt 1315,13-14 ; or from the'water of the Two Eyes of C01 Horus Behdee -P IV 36,7.

The fire of the mouth can also raise up heaven r2l -P- 1179,12 and this is further expanded where , rj Horus is one who makes wind by fire of his mouth (hh) and lifts up the sky Vil 134,13-14.
The flame is seen as the generator of wind which is in the sky and it is possible there is an intended pun here as Hh god of millions, holds 4r In the phrase Ls pt m, up the sky. rrJ ,3 n rM

up the sky by the breath of his mouth' 11314,11 the same word for fire is used to mean -'holding breath/wind - only the determinative shows the difference in nuance. Kurth [Die 11immel Stiltzen , p.37 n.9] translates hh as 'Gluthauch' -'scorching breath.


in the name of marsh land Wb 11501 (14) GR

The king brings to god

ra ru

and field of the ancestorswith its kkw plants III

102,4 - the only referencein Wb.


make rejoice Wb 11502 (13) GR c f. hnw ?

hhn is most likely to be a reduplicated version of hn 'to rejoice! At Edfu it is transitive however .

r-j ra

'May you makethe king rejoiceVI 95,1-2; and also'I makefor you VZFCA-



to voyage through, traverse Wb 11504 (1-3) GR or htht ?

At Edfu htt is used to mean crossing the sky or heaven The word for the latter is always hyt so deliberately chosen for alliterative purposes the word was ra ra A ra ru -A 1552,5-6;





VI 101j;

is Mam 4. The determinative usually

but at

r Philae <1607> Photo 208

has a wing - perhapsmore realistically. Ta

The verb canalsorefer to the traversing foreignlands: of



in Wb hasno earlierexamples it mayhaveoriginated the templetextsat Edfu. so


to shout,screaminake noise Wb IT 504 (7-12) Dyn. 18 7-8 verb: 9-11 noun *,12 lmyw-hit.

This word andtheword hit areclearlyrelatedandrefer to the noisemadeby apesat the rising of the QJM M S, In puns thereforehit apesrejoice hit at the comingforth of Re sun. r-,,, T 1115,17. V 85.9;apesmake


dancing apes ' Wb 11504 (4-6) Pyr seeabove


canal Wb 11503 (15) GR

m rz :, Ama%

in the Sma-Behdetnome it is brought with the main canal of rrin the 'Circumference the Rckhyt' V 24.5.

Tin. hmt-Sm3-r3 andis w


bread c f. Wb 11482(7) h3l.t type of cake(asoffering)

r-dp4aM is to amongotherbreadand cakeswhich are presented 504

, Ob

for them to cat because

derivedfrom h3tt. The theseconfections pure111117,14-15. word is a hapaxapparently unless are



jar for beer or wine Wb 11482 (8-9) h3ls

r,.;Iu 4M 3, The king presents a jar for wine or beer VII 288,1.

the determinative implying that here it is and offers nbty vessels-

hd ,


Wb Il 504 (14) to 505(9) MX

r'ta'Z-'" At Edfu the verb is usedof crushingenemies :rkyw 1283,3; VII 143,6-7 ; or -%---J .,
millions and tens of thousands (HB) M


VIII 37,11; or specifically the hmhmty-l VI 106,16-17 - 1; V 80,8;

snake , the verb chosen here to alliterate

the roar of the hmhmty is



, -j -

by thestandard carriedby a priest 1543,18.

htht / hdhd

form of hd - both havethe same Reduplicated uses at Edfu it is usedto alliterateh Qndgive extra G1 emphasisto the action hbyw .0 194 a c f. Wb 11503(13) htht hmhmty 1119,8 and 11133,14.

to dig' (a well) or 'go through'.


footstool, throne Wb Il 505 (17-19) Dyn. 18 DG 282

The original use of hdm was for a footstool but by the GR period it seemsto have meant 'throne': thekinguponhis r&=; 3=ft and ru = E.Mam 92 ; 77 The King or Horus Behdet can have . Pr in Behdet VIII M VI

rr; Z? the epithet '3-hdm : king -3-"% III in the temples 1140,8; HB 110,5; or it can be the great throne in Biaty 276,7 ; the king is '3

IV 10,11; or St-Wrt

JQ - -in Wtejeset-Hor 1 28,2.

Kuhlmann [Thron p. 15] suggeststhat hdm 'footstool' comes from the sameroot as Hebrew,0,111, [P.Haupt, AJSL 26,'1909-10 p.221. hdmw wag also a chest or box [6ernfJEA31, and in GR texts it was a block throne. I945p. 39n.l1



reed brush for writing Wb 11506 (3-6) Med. oft GR Charpentier726 p.452-3

At Edfu the hdn is usually found in the epithet of Thoth - Lord of the hda. This is the reed brush with which he wrote and the determinative can be scribe GI t:, W IV 57,2; the reed seenin depictions of Thoth as a EZ4 12V 98,6 VI 277,7;,K=1, CLM -. 23 1

VI 263,4. The plant was used medicinally [Wb Drog. p.331] and also in the int-rd ritual. Thoth was known as IlAny I'he of the reed brush' Wb 11506 (7) MD III 53r. -


twisted rope
Writings - Direct -

r's-A t-t-A

Phonefic Change: Effor : 0W

Fairman,BEFAO 43 1945p.75

back of the head Wb 1118(5) Pyr

At Edfu : an amulet embraces Vt

and Maat, in amuletic form, unites with (m)

*T 117 (29). This is a kind of useis alsofound in the Coffin Texts - CT 126 b. and DH 85,9 a---,9NW[MG p.423 n.1291. I M kKZ. ;'nec)e, alsom43 [Ufebvre,

The word may originally be from the sameroot as mk43

Tableaup. 12 10I. The Edfu examplesare clearly substantives, b3 plus tp 'head'.and the not to m-prefix seems havefallen awayby the time the textswere written. This could be due to scribal for in carelessness, Coptic Mkk7? showsthat in the word fornecle the m was clearly pronounced speech.


preposition - behind Wb 1118(12 ff. ) Pyr. DG 286.4 1

Cr.640a; CED270; KH349 Zr=

behind, back.

Junker[GrD 1991 outlinesthe mainusesof b3 andthesefor the mostpart apply alsoto Edfu. 03 is usedin a protectivesense impliesthatprotectionis all arounda personor thing : theprotection and of Nsrt is 9? the king IV 54,12;handsare around protecting1128,14.In the common za% IV 50,7 andIV

protectiveformulae'dominion, poweeand so on are 'around': the king

55,7 ; 56,3 ; 148,17. A numberof Englishwordscanbe usedto renderthis idea,'around;for, over, by behind',but it is bestdemonstrated the Giza statueof Khafre wherea falcon is behindthe headof in the king, its wings outstretched protectionaroundthe headof the king [Stevenson-Smith Art ,


p. I 10 for example]. The falcon is at one and the sametime 'behind' yetprotecting' the king. God and goddesses also shown behind the king , but they protect him at the sametime. are 'Behind' a person or thing his Mesen 'ik copper around 1243,11 or a wall can be 'around' something VI 75,14; 75,6 - again also implying protection. 17-M" VI 21,3 a wall of

Used with verbs it may have a slightly different nuance: imn 'M hide' t3 'from' %T pd-3 stretch around IV 18,11 .

With certain verbs of motion P3 can have a hostile sense'againse : those who come (H) It your house VI 68,13; enemies who attack (tkk) 'come forth' it expressesYrom': they came forth from the window of the falcon VI 76,1. With pr 2 the Lake of Life VI 244,7.

In origin it is from the sameroot as rnkb3/mb3/3 - back of the head.


compound preposition- from Wb 11110 (3-9)Ute Period

h3 is used of driving away evil or foes 'from' and at Edfu it is usually this compound preposition which is used in these contexts, the Dendera version b3 being'an abbreviated form [Junker, GrD p. 1511: the enemy is repelled -=; -- w his Majesty IV 16,7. the foe is driven away temple VI 75,14. r-O also retains the meaning 'behind: the pylons are eAzi, Adverbially it can be used after pr : -%k Il 35,4-5 1397,6. the

them VII 19,2. 1560,1 or b'y 'appear from-c> Sk


to illumine, light up (9) Wb 11114 to 15 (3) Dyn.18 c f. KH 351 Ze I" to appear

'to The word originatedin the 18thDynastywith the intransitivemeaning shine!,usedin connection with the sun.By the late andPtolemaicperiodsit hasa moregeneraltransitiveuse'to illumine' and this is commonat Edfu. b3y canbe usedof a god: Horus Behdet forms 125,6-7 andhe illumines

faceswhenhe appears the east(at morning) V 57J. The raysof light themselves illumine heaven in


VIII 146,1-2 the god H3y naturallyillumines the earth and El' R\ s Derived from thi verb is the noun h3t meaning'light': of My (8) (Wb 11115 GR use)1400,7.

Ik hk

VI 101J. VI 248,34

Thereare in additiona whole seriesof connected wordsfrom the original verb: IV3yWb 1115(4) 1521 ; Ostr.ZAS 38,1900,27 NK - the Light One and 43jtj Wb (12) - 1350,11.There sungod (5) is a feminineform of this oftenreferringto HathorWb 11115 b3j.t especiallyDendera (13) and t - Dendera applyingto Nekhbetor Buto and . Gr. Temp. Zeit I g. Thereare nounsfor 'light' - b3y (6) Theb. 1350,11; b3j.t (7) - Saite

onwards; 3t.t (8) 1400,7 also (11) can apply to the two uraei. All of thesewordscomefrom the sameroot b3y 'to illumine', itself apparently only fiorn the 18th influence theAmarnaperiod. Brugsch[DHD III p.9211con-nects in dynasty, this of perhaps u'rideithe' in turn with D3w'too much,abundance, excess' the determinative his exampleshowsthat it is and light. It is one of a 'family' of words with b3y 'go'*7101" and 3y 'overflow* all

by walking,'with water,or with light. q.v.' the ideaof 'to over-run' either embodying


to mourn

Wb 1117(1-4) Pyr Cr.709b ; KH 359 AlecBut the - is uncertain - if it is Z widowhood. then

b3y 'lameneandif

then = h3rt widow. Osiris VI 101,9and also1358,2-3; 222,12. 216,3; 211,13;*JJ 223,7.

With direct object: the Mourners(b3yty)49Mq

With indirect object introducedby n: 1209,4; Ik EI

Pyr) is simply a spellingof b3 'to mourn': thus Averb b3 listed as 'to seeleT by Wb (1117,12 A of this* [AEPT p.299] andalsoin the SokarChamber spellingreminiscent Pyf. 2111-2112 a r%, A ICU: 1222,16 [Junker,Stundenwachen461 the ), armsmost likely being a p. zxp -

the of mourning, with the armshangingdown.The determinatives, figure with upraisedarms pose of the womanbent over weeping, showthemeaning the word [for suchattitudesin tomb scenes and ,II T WerbrouckPleureuse Fig.97 and Fig.122 or Fig. 115 especially r- f.




Wb 1117(5) GR Only this one example inWb Chamber.

01 female mournerof Osiris 1210,2 in the Sokar, one

b3y. ti

Two Mourners Wb Il 7 (7) GR

These are Isis and Nephthys who mourn for Osiris their brother. It is common in the GR period and

q in lists naming Isis and Nephthys together it is a common epithet q3%

Osiris VI 160,4,1201,8.


03i. ti comes from the verb b3y 'to mourn' and

is also connected with the word b3A (Wb III,

7,8) Pyr. to Dyn IS -a bird which is the name of Isis while mourning Nephthys being called jdrt. , There is a word h3j. t (Wb 117,6) from Amduat IV 34 which Hornung [Amduat Il n2 16] translates , as 'Die Klagende!, without specifying any further. The noun then is probably not new to GR texts. but its application to both Isis and Nephthys seemsto be previously unaticsted. All of these words form part of the sameidea and the original verb b3y which seemsto give rise to the various nouns, may be onomatopoeic,deriving from the wailing noise made by the mourners of the dead. The GR b3j. tj is an invention to describe the two mourners par excellence and it was used at Denderaand Philae, having enteredinto temple vocabulariesgenerally. _:


come, go (34) GR Wb 11113

Wb notes two uses of 03y : (3) MD IV 60 'come from a place and (4) Urk VIII 257 b. - of the blows for someone wind which the wind 'goes/blows' for Ilorus 13chdct1486.11. El m bpt. f lie (1113) goes on his

in the texts there is a slight variation in use sewhere

course and enters Bakhet V 8,1. The verb is used here more conventionally to mean simply'go'., These may be related to bw 'to tread"if they are not actually writings of bw. The determinative

in 1 486,11 shows that there is some connection between bw and D3y even if only in the,, pronunciation. In this respect the whole family of words spelled as b3y may derive in origin ultimately from hw (q.v.).



overflow , over-run with water, flood. Wb IH 13 (5-8) GR verb (9) noun

At Edfu 03y is used transitively and intransitively.

Transitive to causeHapi to overflow :*N

Ik qq E1178,8-9;

IV 272,34 ;


t Qq" V 164,15 to causethe nw-flood to overflow ,


Intransitive : Hapi floods for the king at his appointed time (as a gift to the king) 1178,9 Aqq 1qq =11260,4-5; A. 193,12; VI VI 223,8-9; ,-V 310,7, Hathor is said to have the power to command Hapi to flood N-= TkqQ r-r 1485,17; %R jqlA VI 279,15.

1491,2 - Wb 11113(9) records that in Urk. 11138,11 the

Egyptianword is translated greek 6606m; by


3y is usedof the overflowingof theriver banksof theNile at the inundation. The Elapyflood first comesand then it D3y 'overflows'.The possibilitiesof alliterationof 4 are exploitedin the phrase 3y b'py. Tbe nount3yt [FCD 1611is attested earlierthan this verb and Wb 11113(10-11)refers to mud wherea ship sticksor to a placeat a well in the oasis- placeswhich havebeenfloodedwith water. (16-22)recordsa transitiveandintransitiveverb bWi 'to flood makeflood! from the MK Wb 11148 , but not recordedin the GR period.It maywell be that Dwi became b3y throughconfusionover the This reinforces derivationof the 3y family from original verbs the pronunciation the two words. of spelledas bwi.


to sail (12) MK = 3 c f. Wb 11112

'go The Wb references to the Peasant run are whereFaulknergivesthe meaning ashore, aground'as 8 nt usedin Peas4 B 1,158and Herdsman and II [FCD 161 ; also Jones,Glossaryp.2171.At Edfu its 3y haschanged meaningfor it is the verb which describes sailing on the PrimevalNun ocean: IV 27,3 ; sim. 111156,1-2;the Lotus Child jq4-'A, Nuninthem'ndt-boat - V

110,5.The absence baselinefor the boat determinatives of may be a scribal error, or if deliberate,


intended to show the boatsare not on true water but on the formless Nun.


wings stretch protecting out Wb 13 (2) GR

lk '3 Wb cites the f6flowing references: Behdet %C c "P the two sisters p! C::;:

to protect his mother Urk 1130.1 and at Edf6: E.Mam 26,16. The verb

before Osiris 1212 18 ; Sk

'to 03 derivesfrom the preposition ' around! meaning put (wings)around'. ,


room in a temple -a shrine or sanctuary. Wb 11116(3-5) GR

At Edfu D3yt is a general word for a room in the temple. An earlier word b3t'tomW (Wb 11112, 19-21) may be its origin in the sense that the ON 'tomb! is a dark interior place, as is a temple A Late Period word (Wb 11116,6)b3t is the hall where the deceasedwere embalmed, perhaps room. intermediary stage in the development of GR b3yt. It is possible that the original word b3t an derived from the verb b3i 'to mourn'. In a wider sensethe 3. t is a place of protection for Osiris [Goyon, Gardiens p.225 (4) -DH6,5-8]. In connection with a god : the whole temple is said to be the Behdetwalksin IkOC73 C3 of Re 1111,14; Horus provided

in life and power 1549.15 (cf. VI 262,17 where thel%Sis

with life and power); the Horuses come out of the 'Sq4n qq 073 falcon appearsoutside his ik gmDs horizon IV 19,7; the great god C3 of Horus IV 54,5

to seethe sun disk 1554,16; the q" n"q r3 like the

1554,4-5,. 1111 illumines his A

of His Majesty (Iforus) IV 51,6. In direct association with a Akhty VI 14.3 ; in the E-2 of 116r. q C73

his image IV 10,12 ; the god embraces description of the doors of the AAqC-73 of Hor-Akhty VI 14,3.

Lfb of I forus is in joy b'I IV 234,8-9 ; there is a

of the temple IV 8,6; the wall of the temple protects :-

The 3yt is then a place where a god can walk and unite with his image. it is inside and dark and can, refer to a single chamber that is the sanctuary but some contexts means the whole temple. These functions define the role of the temple, the term can be treated as a synonym for other words for, so the temple building.


As a generalterm for an abode: theking leaves palace k4q C-3 his



? doors
"" "F IV 5,11 and

In the temple description, there is a phrase 'the h3t of the gmt-corridor'* 0

VII 15,4 Because their contextand their determinatives Wit translates word as de the of . 'dooe[CdE36 1961Nr.71 p.68 andNr. 72 p.3071. Perhaps theywereinterior doorswith porticosit if to termfrom mayhavebeenpossible seethemassmallroomsandthuscreate technicalarchitectural a b3yt 'room' meaning 'sanctuary' ,


Great Chamber - Room 5 SeconJHypostyle Hall x Am has

At Edfu the description gives the specifications of the Second Hypostyle Hall

is 37 and 5/6 cubits by 25 5/6 cubits IV 6,4 ; less precise as to measurements- 37 by columns and 26 cubits but the , MY !Src-a, C=Xhas 12 columns VII 17,3. It was also known as the "Place of

Pleasure"and "Place of the Hearfs Desire".


the Two Lights - sun and moon Wb 11115(9) GR

Derived from h. 'to illumine' 3y

term occurs throughout GR temple texts :a gift to the king is the , 1128,2 * Il 52.7 or shine upon (h3y) 'al S V1149,11. There

everything that the Two lights see

'c' <1 -0, VI 248,34. Also the king could receive the years of Sk ah was a book of 'Knowing the movements of the The sky contains (hr) the 1k -CLa

111351,8kept in the library at Edfu.

V 6,10.


She who Shines Wb 11115(13) GR

As an epithet of Hathor this is much commoner at Dendera but it also appearsat Edfu : 111293,4 It may have been invented as a female counterpart to 113y. .


3. jt



Wb IR 15 (14-16) GR ? Wb Med. p.582 a kind of illness The GR texts continue to use an earlier medical term as a generalword for'impurides'and dangerous

things. At Edfu Amun Re promises thereis no that

T Zo i aroundthe Icing1144,2and the term-'

also occurs at Philae : <2479> 420 Tou make whole your eye from b3yt'and Dendera : MD IV 12 in a procession 43it is removed from before the diadem as she entersher shrine. ,


opponents VI 337.1-2.Ilere is alliteradonof D herein

Ile maceof the king destroysQint) his

the whole sentence it may be that the word hasbeenusedfor this purposeonly. The word is and derivedfrom h3yt andrepresents morephysicalform of the abstract b3'yt 'turmoil'. a


turmoil, upset Wb 11130(1-3) Pyr.

b3lyt is the kind of discord which upsetsMaat and so had to be dealt with accordingly. At Edfu the verbs used to remove b3yt often alliterate with it to increasetheir magical force. hnt VI 90,9; 111109,6-7; 41 VII 201,15 Z j (from the b3yt-sanctuary) TV 51.6; r (from hwt. nlr) VIT 291,16. IV 150,10.

bwi : the fi6rce lion bwi bnp : rwi :

' Ik qq IV 129,13; IV 141.1

q4.; %k =!

- IV 98,11-12; %kQQ

V 42,11. Aa-t,, M2-NJ-V 114.10 HB makesWetieset whole from%kr1ftqq VI 131,13

Various: Heaven is far from

t V 146,10 ; and the mdy are said to create

qq 1k

The word implies an imbalance of the establishedorder and the fact it is dealt with so strenuously, and has determinatives suas the 'bad'bird or the disease sign tJr may be from the same root as Wit 'disease'. show its undesirability. It


excess abundancemore (particularlyof food offerings) , Wb 11116 ff. Pyr. (7) F, DG 294.3 V 2


Cr.729a; CED 303 ; KH 402 profit 2ys

1 ZHOy

At Effu b3w is often followed by br (see Wb 11117 3-10) especially in the phrase b3w h-r mnw . 'abundance (of offerings) for the daily portion
__ III


(111101 4

IV 9,10;


*0 VI 108,4;


IV 15,5or t3w r nmt * :gL I

VI 114,2;


w3-r nmt. f 11 34,17-35,1. IV 48,12;or an altar VI 57.3.

The h3w can be placedupon an offering table (it):


VI 108,12-13 all baskets broughtas tributeas and are ,%,

The exact number of theseofferings is never specified and the term has a generaluse asabundance of

bread, beer,fruit, vegetables, beer,meatandsoon. m-D3w 'in excess (Wb 11117,11to 18,4) MK: in offering textswheregifts are piled up of e-"'in IV excess' 31,4. 1
m. h3w. r 'more than, in addition to'(Wb 11118,34 Dyn. 20 and Late): a nome gives its produce

in ', additionto its richesIV 31,4

VI 349,2.


naked Wb 11113(13-18) verb Pyr. 14 (1-3) one who is naked, noun.

Occurs rarely : Hedj-hotep the weaver god makes cloth to clothe




sorrow , sicknessof heart Wb HI 12 (14) GR

*731t-ALl' Derived from the verb 3i'to mourn'. At Edfa :a divine gift is drunkennessfree from

R, it 1459,17,also Hathorremovesf1? 1"-p-'tandreplaces with joy CD 11183,7-8 In suchcontexts \1],. . Wb quotesits TT exampleof t3w-ib as being agood one might translate'hangovee. erroneously attribute' in fact it is 'sorrow'. Wb Med. p.583 gives b3w as 'illness' from one examplein the 'hangovee. the medicaltextswhichdoesnot preclude meaning

h3w-mr 0

lower orders, the mass people of (10-11) Dyn.18 Wb 11118

At Edfu : 'everyheartmixeswith joy and the

likewise' IV 17,11wherethe term


the element to seems referto thebulk of people mayderivefrom 03wexcess'abundance!. second and beingmrpeople, fieldworkere (Wb 11106,11-20).

h3w. nbw

islands Aegean of or people theGreek people

Wb HI 11 (1-12)

I ,r.:7 OW At Edfu t3w-nbw are classedwith other foreign peoples: Iuntyw, Mentyw q=F 111 and the '41 .I 1 * C-,zu 9Y 11 VI 15,17 and from the Settyw, all bringing tribute VII 230,10-12 ; sim. -. z-,,

here determinative theyappear a subdued as people. There hasbeenmuch discussion over the actuallocationof the land of the IV3w-nbw. Vercoutter

[BEFAO46,1947 pp.137-1401 it suggested was a term for part of Asia equivalentto Phoenicia., Vandersleyn first suggested the etymologyof the word derivedthus 3w 'the onesaroundor that behind': nbwt 'baskets' =islands or basins'[Us GueffesdAmosis,p.168,154ff. ]. In the demoiic the Rosettastone,the text useswynn (line 32) and hieroglyphb3w-nbw (line 14) for versionof Rosetta Stone 321.The Edfu textsneverclarify the word simpli 'Greeks'[c f.Quirke andAndrews, p.
it in a conventional senseto denotecountries over which the king is lord. It may be that it only using ever really representedcountries at the extreme edge of the known world "ER-4f, IV 369.7

IV 172,12 AFIV 35,12;

Vi 195,1

_, 9fq'c==70,4, OoVI1230,1. 1466,2and

VI 199a

. 171VI 27.7;


beerandwine Wb 11118 (8-9) GR (7) Wb Drog. p.332

Faulknersuggests the term 3w-bt is a specialoffering [FCD p.1621 it would seem date to that and back to UrkJ 26,6 (c f. Wb 11118,5-6 'extra offerings'). At this early stageit seemsto be a with this name combinationof h3w 'excess'and bt 'things' hence surplusof things. A substance hada medicinalvalue Eb. 76,3 and Eb.198b= Eb. 593 =H 143- wherea drug is cookedwith beer b3w-ibt. By GR times howeverit had becomemore specificallyI)eee : in an offering of mnqt of C 0, -& 111150,11 in an offering list thereare11srw.vessels of 0 and vessels ty, containing 118,15. 1! The word appears quite frequentlyat are IV Both of thesecontainers beervessels. 06 -A


Dendera,as might be expected,and Wb (9) suggeststhat MD III 18i is wine, rather than beer. From a term for a 'special' surplus offering b3w-ht becamea specific word for alcoholic beverages j suchas wine or beer.Perhapsit was surplusbeer or wine which had gone sour and was then offered as a different type of beverage.


conceal hide , (6) Wb 11130 - 31 (3) MK DG 302,2 111-- to hide.


Cr, 695 a; CED 290 ; KH 382 ZCWT

At Edfu the verb is used of the Nile concealing his body in order to make altars festive :*

Il 25 1,10; and the king hides his belly at seeing the sacredplace (that is : he shows proper respect)




At Edfu the meaning of the word is made clear by the texts : cloth is offered to bandagecorpsesand then the king and queen visit 1 10 hidden (b3p) in e_ ,1 I -3 94-'a' Zia in Behdet of Re IV 123,5 ; corpses are

(&_-*WmIV 240.34 and Horus of Nebu is pre-eminent in -L-

IV 261.17

The earliest example of this word comes from the Coffin Texts 'who hides corruption'; where the is deceased greeted with this epithet, literally 'veiled (covered) from corruptioW [FECT 1183 n.7, CT A 111297and see also CT Il 93d; III 311c]. -. coffin from Sakkara published by Daressy [ASAE 17, 4*9" *Y aM V1. 'the body is in 1917, p.5 I has the word the necropolis, they being there with Osiris'. .: There was a place of this name at Athribis and it is twice mentioned at litanies of Osiris which list the places where the god was buried in each n6me : CD V 503 [c f. Vernus, Athribis p.436] The iwtyw are the parts of the body which putrefy [Gardiner, The Tomb of Amenernhet pl. 30C.p.43 n.61 and it seemsthat it was necessaryfor these to be concealed so that they might not contaminate fij,- -,, the body and bring dw evir. A sarcophagushas the line 'a -b
. 0,


11134 and Qam'ICD

04 ,&#I,- hide your putrefaction drive awayfor you everyevil efflux' Waspero,Sarcopagues 111 to

I=P. 4L


des poquespersaneet ptoldmaiqueI p. 148 and seeChassinat,Khoiak 1284 n. 2 ].


hiding place

(4) Wb 11131 GR
This is a hiding place (tomb) for the body of Osiris. A semi-mythological text at Edfu says that Apis 4 13C"-: ) -tr goes to to see his father Osiris VI 21,5,; c MD IV 64,67 and Philae <1486>

Phot.221. Gauthier discusses place b3pt in the Delta which was the centre for the Apis cult [DG IV a p.271. Compare also 03p.t as a namefor Dendera(Wb HI 31 , 5-6).


to catch fish Wb 11131(12) to 32 (2) Pyr. DG 305,2 net 36 ). Cr. 255 a; CED 121 fish basket trap oelme,

c f. Cr.676a to hook ZwlMI


In an offering text at Edfu the word is written fish) VI 56,13-14 context(i.e. a bird catches

which clearly showsthe meaningand the,'


wine producing region Wb 11132(6-7) NK

At Abu Simbel there is a list of lands whose people are brought as enemies One of these is . ' [Champ.Mon. 19,21. In GR texts b3mt is listed as a wine producing region : swnt and grow T06a Urk VIII 15f ; and Imt, swnt and Ik 1466,16.

b3mt ,,

path , road Wb 11132 GR (9)


This word hasonly beenattestedat Edfu so far : in a text accompanying of the processional one the standards, of the king is in joy and without discordVII 43,11-12;similarly

M_ jt- 4t,is floodedwith msb3 'joy' IV 54,7. It may be specifically a processional way along which. -: People Stood cheering throwingflowersastheking or a godpassed. and



be jolly


Wb HI 34 (18-20) MK DG 328A sweet

Cr.673a; CED 281; KH 369 ZXo6* S. ZXOX6 be sweet. take delight in The word is first attested in Siut pl. 18,10 from the early MK as b3g 'be glad!, it then existed through to the NK as bnrg. By GR times the n and r had amalgamatedto be pronounced more like 1, which survived into Coptic as


At Edfu there is only one example of the word * Sk .

0- -A5-womenare happyat the form of Hathor (mirror offering text) 174,8-9. It doesnot seem

that commonin templetexts but considering it doesexist in demoticand Coptic it may havebeen form - Wb 11135 (2-3) 3g3g which Thereis alsoa reduplicated language. in commoner the spoken may be related,if not identicalto Dnggq.v.


go astray Wb 11132(10-12) MK Dyn., 18 lkqOwith the meaning'to go astray, to stumble!

The word is attested from earlier texts, %kll.. [FCD 1631and it may be a writing of

'to seele [so Wb Drog P-5841or a reduplicated version of

3y 'to go"to overflow'. At Edfu in a text with alliteration of , this idea seemsto be strengthened where a god Vbw 1kr21kr14--'l. k bbbt br bnbt 11256,6. The verb seems to have the n.

meaning 'go ovee the ground and is used in a general way here as an alternative to other analogous' verbs in this particular text.


forepart Wb 11119 to 22(3) (2) DG 287,1 411 ZH, jHT= V11261,13. IV 13,8

Cr.640b; CED270; KH350

At Edfu this canbe usedof the forepartof an animalbroughtasa gift:

It canalsorefer to the forehead in this connection is the placefor the plumes it and for Maat 43 11. IV 331,2;for thentyt-uraeus

for the crown 1171,8 1236 .7; Il o- ; and


OR also appears in epithets : by-DR lofty of brow usually referring to the king , 313,15; V11132,8; Of 11169,18;0 IV 344,4

T. 9

The eleventh protective genii Wpt drives away anyone who attacks the king with his brow - b3t 1119,15; VI 178,12 ; VI 330,4 ; VIII 85,15. OR with the meaning "beginning',at Edfu often appearsin contrast to pbtenS and bry-ib 'middle! millions are for 10 s of 1000sfor the end and 1000sfor the middle of 41.0 , ,:, the ritual

206,4-6; VIII 10,3-6;andagainprovisions for are

for - -9 192,2-3; w- for -4 -


the supplies endVIII 18 11-14; k3w , A e V11113.In this case it rnay .,

IV 49,2; Ow for

refer to the beginning of a serviceor ritual.


before Wb M 22 (4-14)adverb preposition and JunkerGrD 214 p.157f. GG 178

has At Dendera compound thefollowinguses 1) placeIxfore 2)time 3)generalandalsoit has this : a useasan adverb 'in thebeginning'. is Edfu parallelsthe Dcnderauses: place-the uraeus general-a ka i'sbeforethe divine kas beginningIV 21,15. In phrases rn-b3t rn-wr : who distinguishes children -Ja the god 1114.6; king is crownedwith glory -A beforethe greatnameof every the faceof the king IV 25.11:,

IV 28,8 As an adverb- Nun creates, --'0 in the = .

beforethe greatnameof everygod VI 2630 and uponthe handsof 11ch HehetI

b3t-bmt 'beforethe shrine': the king Psd 2 a m. 56,16 ; king smnb sbrw A (m c`-% 111274.5.


before (1-13) Wb 11123 JunkerGrD 214 p.158 Cr. 641a 60 ti V 135.11 , GG 178

Can also be usedadverbially : mnty



before in front of , Wb 11123(16) to 24 (8)

Junker GrD 124 p. 158 GG 198 ; Cr.64 lb CED 270 , AL Person the sbmw are before him IV 50,5 the white crown of the king is Z, ZS

before him IV 10,13.

In the phrasebpr hr. b3t 'to existbefore': the beautifulplaceof the ba. cc 86 'tz Ptah ZY as the uniqueone1137A ; the beautifulmounds*lg. E


IV 11,14 IV 17.7 -S6 IV 9,7. ,g:.I

similarly with wn 'How muchmorebeautifulsheis thanthat which wasbefore

3t At Edfu 4

crown of Upper Egypt

= is this White Crown where it makes the enemies of the king fall VI 295,3 It 40. . f 14, - which destroys the king's could havebeena Ptolemaicwriting for bdt wereit not for enemies and then the text mentions the bdt crown so the two cannot be the same thing VI 337.1. * The sign may be rn so the crown was actually called m-D3t and the first writing quoted is an

abbreviation of the second. Both examplesare found in crowning scenesand the word comes in the speechof Nekhbet, the Upper Egyptian tutelary deity. It derives from Pt 'forehead or front' and it may be that in the double crown the white element was seenas being the front part and the red crown as the back part. A new word was thus invented for the White Crown imy-b3t (q.v.) which could be abbreviatedor, mispelled.


pilot, one at the prow of a boatWb 11119(17) MK

At Edfu this is an epithet of the king who is also VI 81,8-9; or the king is

in the war galley of Horus Behdet IV 212A of the harpooner - Horus Behdet VI 245,15-16 of the priests IV 555 ; in, and overseer h3l aP jf(2nd boat) V 31,13 all

when the king seesgod in the ritual he is the festival texts some of the barques have 4th boat V 32,8 and Sth boat V 32,10.15. Literally the terms means 'belonging to the prow

hence pilot who stands at the front of the boat

guiding it [Jones,Glossary p.64-5]. Ibrahim [Kingship, p. 140-1] suggestsit was a priestly title of the


king connectedwith the 'seeing god, ritual. It appearswith the titles imi-P and mr tmw-nLr.

wLs-b3t or Ls-b3t raisecountenance (8) Wb 11119

Raised of brow', meaning brave or bold: the king is a hero who carries a harpoon

VII 202.7. From examplesin the Wb this seemsto be an early expressionwhich was picked up again' in GR times. In fact this phraseis synonymouswith by-Pt and both have exactly the same uses.


Raised brow of Wb M 19(9) GR

Foundin epithets theking, especially a harpooner. oftenaccompanies It of as wordslike pr. ' liero' of qn 'brave'andmustmean'high browed'in the sense 'bold"valiane.Invariablyas by-b3t the king, TI MW Vil 132,8; Q1 VII 35a; (Horus VII 152,6; holds a harpoon: 1 11 1 Ti IV 344,4; 1271.17. VI 78,12; 1313,15; Behdet)


high of brow holds weapons V

A further synonym of by-b3t, with the same meaning and use

41,3. It would seem however that the scribes at Edfu are either consciously trying to rind different ways to expressthe sameconcept or that different scribes,educatedperhapsunder different traditions have different ways of expressingthoseideas.


barque Horusat Edfu - Prowof Horus? sacred of Wb 11122 GR (1)

festivalwhile Ilathor is in the,, in k13t-j1r is the barque which Horussailsduringthe sacred marriage in Glossary 251 ; LA 162 Barken.29 1.Horus'boat is represented E XII 324 and Nb-Mrt [Jones, p. in to can be accompanied textsby the phrase'3 mk 'greatof protection',which seems be either an epithetor anothernamefor the barque 41 V 394,12 Z4 V 397.1;

1337 12 (barquelist 1329-344)herethe actualnameof the barque , and -S 1359,8.


DU or 03t-iwf

meat portions

Wb 11124(16) NK, GR Though the word may derive from b3t 'first' and thus mean 'best cuts of meaf it seemsthat at Edfa it was thought the word derived from b3t'fronf, forepart and that it was taken to mean the forelegs or front parts of animals as cuts of meat. The meat signs following t3t may be seen as general determinatives or may be read W [Goyon, Gardiens p. 55 n.6]. At Edfu these b3t can be contrastedwith rear or rump portions of meat : mine are his yours its rump V 85,7; and 4V ICOL,

89,12, which strengthens the view that these are front are put upon the altar I VII 316,6-7 ; they are brought IV 128,4 Specifically they . 111197,2; and the

portions of meat, not 'choice cuts'. They are offered in the temple: 113,2; they are chopped up (Dnt) to living kas 111146,10;

V 166,11 ; or to every god

can be the b3t of iw3w and wndw which are completely roasted

foes VI 312,16. They are presentedtogether with stpw pieces from fat animals for the of brazier so that they can be roasted are eaten V 302,18. 14903; and in a w3h-iht offering scenethe


heart Wb 11126to 27 (19) Pyr. DG289,2 Cr.714 a; CED 298 ; KH 394 2 H"r ZrH ,

At Edfu the heartsof the sunfolk arespecified: we cause go roundfor him to IV 10,3;he hasmadewell


of the sun-folk

of the sun-folkIV 50,5.The heartis the placewhereterror of VI 338,2; YI 337,3

god is - especiallythe heartsof enemies 1211,4, but joy can also be there

176,2. Most of all then the D3ty is a place for IV 52J.

is emotions and fittingly HathoF the lady of Im %%

for b3ty is synonymous with ib andis usedat Edfu asan alternative heartwhena word differentto ib is required.Lefebvre[Tableau 34 1 suggested b3ty was the old technicalterm for the heart that howeverin Coptic only and ib was morevernacular, ? _KT survives,referringto the cardiac


muscle, and it seems ib was used metaphorically for the place of intelligence and sensibility [Piankoff, Le coeur dans les textes igyptiens, Paris, 1930, pp.7-131 - nothing of this distinction' comes through from the Edfu texts. Here b3ty is a word for Uarf. According to Wb Med. 140 ff. ib was the earlier of the two words and was later replacedby b3ty, thus it survived into Coptic. If this was the case in the spokenlanguagethere is no hint of this in the Edfu texts.


cloth , covering Wb 11135(15) GR

Cr.720 b. ; CED 299 ; KH 360 ZO(rc)-rrz 1 b3ty is the word usedof thecovering'of Nut, the sky goddess. is thusa metaphor It for'clouds. In this contextit occursquite frequently Edfu : at
0 cb 1556,1


Il 60.4

r't IM


1270.1-2 the detenninadvcs range

from thecloth



kindsof fringedshawls. variant A perhaps

'c%-j3 has i spelling 1 gift Sk

111196,12.onetext Nut actually In to givesher'covering' theking asa

jjqq T aredriven awayV 7,10;

As a further development 3ty canactuallybe'cloud': the a stormis far from the ft-

1551,9 and heaven bright and thereis no Sk is

A JAA in it 111207,3 [ cl alsoWb 11149.1-4 t 'rain' from MKI. tj , In a description the templeflagstaffstheyhave of of cloth arethe flagsor banners then. cip at the topsVIII 67.15.'T'hese piects

b3tyw Probably a late writing of Ibwty 'cultivatoe(Wb 1214.7.9 MK, NK). At Edfu it is definitely connected with fields and agriculturalproduce 481,4 ; it can be qualified by the adjectiveqnbmve': they know how to go round (rb plir)the field of the king presentall the plantsof the field I qn in the field 1384,17.Further VII 63,6

The as the determinative shows- of theking himself 1166,14. word thenclearly refersto an' Occupation a manconnected of with fields.



to fish with a trap Wb 11136(7) BD cC DG 270,1 pit

'7 0f4

c f. Cr. 718a'pif , CED 298 3d fish trap of wicker KH 359 , By Ptolemaic 'to timesit is verb meaning catch'in general: he hascaught Sk
iptw 11163,11; the brave god of the Dead use and the sign original meaning 'to fish'.

FIT his foesin

Seth VI 56,7-8. The word probably evolved from the Book is used as a pool of water determinative, a memory of the

god protecdve (14) YvlB 11136 GR

14 lqq
Osiris 1198,4,namedonly once.

wr nbt Pr sbr sbiw is the name of a protective god of



(4) WB 11137 GR sec'nb-imy



In a text in praise at the shining of Hathor

the wddyw praise you and 01

This word may who danceat sunrise. animalsleapup at your face!1115, 16 - they are the baboons GR) derive from hit'apes'or b3ty.ti (Wb 11136,1-2 Bes-formgodsand also by.t (Wb 11137,1GR) ,= ki tl in Bes-formgod. Both of the latteroccurat Dendera LD Text 11247 , also >


Wb 11142(1-3) Pyr.

This hasbeensuggested be a child between agesof 12 and 15 who,wore a sidelock of youth to the [Goyon,Confirmationp.94 n.96]. Ultimately this and 4' 'to rejoice',may derive from the sameroot but the scribesat Edfu took the opportunityto usethe two words in punsb134' 'childrenrejoice'; +PV 30,9 ; + 209,16 'f P -t . 17 ;+ t'j VII 90,2 ; Lp IV 11,9 ; -41 t ". v

'it VII 74,17 . Wb notesthat this word is older than nds and at Edfu the two are


1--J 1) brought into existence and the nds are given life 1211,19, treated as synonyms : ti are . As Also of nbn : the good god is father of and nurse of nb nw 11139,1. I '---ji I In an offering scenebread from the Xt scene -j jttP is given to a goddess111320,1and in the same

are 'g3 for a Dns-festivai 111319,12.

to rejoice Wb 11140 to 41 (2) Pyr. noun41 (3-10) (2) DG 293.4 if y1i,116

At Edfu ' follows the classical uses figuresin punsandword-playsto a greatextent.This kind and 1AJ of rejoicing is broughtaboutat the sightof a god : the town of Behdetrejoicesat seeingHB IV 54,8 ; pt and rhyt V 7.8.

The nameof a person placerejoicinginfluenced choiceof word for 'rejoice ultimatelyusedin the or T%1 , _J IV 6,9 111163.15 t1r. 11 h1w 'limbs' IV 4,6 text : the ; rw J_v J 41 IV 11.9. JV 0 IV 50,6; 13 'children' Adverbially rn-' 'rejoicing': Hor-Maa 'T-T 20J. The writings of the word are usual,but often the subjectof the verb is put before. and the stative! it form is thenwritten with what lookslike wy. It is possiblethis is a true pri-poscd subjectfollowed by b wy 'how joyful'. IV 17,4 : His greatplace TT IV


moon Wb 11141(13) LY "; j is Montu VI 24,2 and from the single reference in Wb, in an eye'offering, Hoius I ILIW who lights up the darkness139.5.

is the child of Isis and son of

T'his may be a writing of iwn--D" or at least an abbreviation of it or a writing of V0. .


flesh limbs body , , Wb HI 37 (5) 38 (30) 1DG 292,8' 11 11

i 115

-Cr. 65la; CED273; KH352


Originally P'w was a generalterm for flesh but it can refer to specific limbs or to the body as a
whole [Ufebvre, Tableau 31. The usual spelling at Edfu is

can which of course alsobe

read W 'portionsof meat' or even 't 'limbs', generAllythe context of the sentence makesthe clear. reading Fleshis anointed &Q-1LIl 212,17;clothed QAQ. 1430,16; it rejoices(hl) madeto flourish (sw3d) IV 10,1; it is protected IV 16,4 QL 4. cL 1115,12 and4J [is rejuvenated like IV 6,9 ; it is

The imageof Re is saidto havecomefrom his flesh Re VII 148,2.

Ile oneEgyptianword thenseems coverall theEnglishnuances. to

h'w. 'nb

limb of life = phallus

Wb IH 39 (8)

The phraseprobablyderivesfrom the fact that the phallusis the creativelimb. At Edfu - Horusis 1 -'0 I "'L -w Q1381,11.The described fierce with his 4. IV 71.7-8and also Q0as
meaning is clear and in these warrior contexts it may refer to going into battle fiercely with erect phallus in order to strike terror into the enemy.The word also occurs at Dendera- where Neferhotep is from the MD IV 40,7 and it is a relic of the god in the 7th UE nome [Beinlich, rN , 4. IS which is

Osirisreliquien p.2201. Sauneron Esna III No. 250,11 quotes the example , probably a writing of 4'w-'nb and in this context it is used for sexual union.

The meaning of the word seemsclear and it may be a metaphorical term to express the function of the phallus in a more poetic form. 4

Ulw-'nb %0

living embodiment son successor ?= , Wb 11139 Late, GR (7)

is 01w-Inboccursoften at Edfu andDendera a synonymfor'son. The earliestreference from the as time of Osorkon,who is sonof Re

a, of the sonof Isis LD 111256 3. of Isis V 56,1; of Osiris V

At Edfu the h'w-'nh is usually of a god 156,13;

of Atum V 234,19.It usually refers to the king and in one of his epithetshe is


Iq of HB and pre-eminent among the living: son' V1312,10; VI 175,14

0' f it IV 351.5 ;C 4L VIII 143,13.

VI 245,4

Later temples such as Dendcra and Philae use it in the sameway t -f 172,5; f &bk of Osiris.

of Harsomthus D H,

Philae 193 st pylon south west wing of the Lord of Writing D 111177,14; , ,I


limbs of god = Nile inundation Wb 11139 (5-6) Pyr.

At Edfu this 'bodyof god with thedeterminative3: -r- seems refer to the Nile flood. to
comes from the feet flooding for the ka of the king IV 43,8; 61 It =q Ca. comesfrom the fleshof EB 11254,12, also from the qrrty -source VI 2243. to-


same text 1567.12





The god here A Osiris with the Nile being regardedas his limbs which overflow Egypt in the form of cat. inundation, a connection made particularly explicit in the writing of D'pl as I=. the



Wb 11139 (15) NK
The word occurs in a tortoise killing, where -fJ +s made strong to smite the enemy 1174,13. It'

is is uncommon in any case so its appearancehere is quite surprising 111assan, St5cke p.46 nA5 gives an example from LES p.22 (Two Brothers) where Anubis takes his staff and sandals before setting out on a journey].


enemy WB 11142(10) GR

In a libation text, the canopic god Hapy, slays


of Osiris/kingwith his maceI

186,14(coll.) The word is otherwiseunattested, the sametext has a comparable but term tiq bbnt. i %kr "'I 186,18(XI 284). 9L




Wb 11142(1) to 43 (14) Pyr. DG 293,9 '> -L I ,I

4'p i is the Nile inundation 'pour personified a god which may havea root in someverb meaning as out'.The uses Edfu areusualandvery frequent at althoughsomeof the writingsrequirecomment: drawingof a Hapi offering figure, which canbe found in offering scenes an elaborate but is hereusedas a hieroglyph1113,10 -, 11 IV 52,5 anotherkind of offering figure

to according theWb foundfrom theend of theNK.

Q.q4. .. T-T

IV 26,3 is a common writing from the Late Period onward, in which the M

derive from Vw 'limbs' and give 4' and the *', is p from a verb pli to spit out! [Do Wit, ; , BIFAO55,1955 p. 116 n. 11 On a mythological level the Nile could be seen as the limbs of Osiris, 1112,7; 999 IV 34,2 The king as the .

which flood all parts of Egypt, cf

terrestrial controller of the flood is said to. be s3 Dlpi 'son of hapy' 1473,10 ; 11 180.17 or by comparing the renewal of the king at his Heb-sed with the renewal of the flood, the king himself ja the flood ('pi) 11165,16 [Van der Plas, Crue p. 1561.The emphasis of the word at Edfu is on the yearly recurrenceof the coming of Hapi and of its rejuvenating powers. 71be opposite of the high and good inundation is D'py-nds : in the canal of the I Sth LE nome , there is no
f. =, -U Q. 4.Q.

0. = 1ft


year of a small inundation V 22,11, paralleled in the Naos text by

rnpt b'py wd year of the flood of the jackal' IV 34,1-2. The inundation was also divided into two parts h'pi-mhw (Wb 11142,13)in the Delta am. 4ftA , . 9from 1320 7; Ta-lunu is brought to Horus Behdet 1465,18; SY Il 241,18. =; 'pi-rsy (Wb 11142,14) in the valley: &Q-4ftil 320,11 ;i '-'? I of Heb-Wer 1330,17.

Ipi-mbw northern Nile Gauthier, DG IV 17 Originally nomes IV and V of the Delta were one administrative unit called this was

divided into south and north parts as was its ww-agriculturat area. This area had the general name D'pi and to differentiate them they were called h'p. i. mhw and h1pi-rsy They lay along the . Canopic branch of the Nile. The northern part may correspond to modem Menouf es Sefli north of , Tanta. At Edfu in the geographical texts 1`1-3jI 't' the northern Hapi brings rsyw-plants used to, I _,. _


ward off foes IV 25,9

1 , 1=110. -1



southernNile Gauthier, DG IV 18

The southern part of the agricultural land of the 4th LE nome. In the Edfu geographical lists 1 .r-j brings msw-plants and wsm, IV 24,12 also 13 . 13.

't or V

bed - throne

Wb 11143 (15) NK CP 't is the NK word for a 'bed' madeof wood which superceded OK word 3tt [Janssen, the but 180-184 is uncertain K6pstein,Mobel p.18-91 at Edfu it wasusedto meanthe wherethereading ; 1 '2117 king is upon the with his king's throneor perhaps particularkind of royal couch1.the a belovedson 116,6and here)IV 99,5-6; the king is upon IV as sovereign domainsVII of

four supports Nut VII 130,5 ; the king is upon theM of of as sovereign the

asHorushimselfVII 278,1. The word alsooccursat Dendera,wherethe king is uponhis 111115 14-15. . b't determinative is madeof wood,andis possiblya chair,or, as in IV 99,5-6the lion bed From the 'bed determinative. itself, thoughthis is a general king of the whole land CD as


crime, wrongdoing

(16) to 44 (2) MK Wb 11143 08 -40 1j DG 294,2 derivesfrom the verb 13 (Wb 1240 and241) meaning'be guilty' and a noun'wrong' which b1d3 has had an b-prefix added to it. Originally 1113 seemsto mean 'to rob' but later. as in the [Goedicke,Ba p.112] it could mean'to do wrong,ora crime'andby the 18thand 19thLebensmilde dynasties,Redford arguesthat it has connotationsof 'anarchy'or 'criminal activity' perhapsof a ZAS 47,19 10p.80 01. political nature[Fs-Edel 339 n.8 ;cf. also Sethe, p. At Edfu the word mostoften appears the phrase m-b'd3: I do not give offerings in I Ij -2&


11179,1;foes come


1-j rapaciously and are repelled IV 268,13-14; 137 ; enemies are driven away Ax


IV 130,5;

IV 131,2 ;D

IV 287,9. Goyon

[Gardiensp.386 n. 8] translatesthis 'pour agir par violence. IT It is an undesirable element: the king purifies Behdet from protected from instructions to priests priests forbid GR temples. 1324,9 ; Atum sails in Manu without+ I -jFL1321,14 ; the temple is "SpVI 288,10 ; in

111361,8[translated'do not setup an obstacle!Fairman MSS] ; sim. MD I 16a 4 ; 11-&; Dum. TI 178,14. The spelling without, --J is common in '


food, provisions
Wb 11144(11-16) Pyr.

At Edfu the word usually has the bread sign 4=

0 or

following it which indicates that this

was the nature of the offering, as opposedto being general provisions. t& " IV 18,15; The word occurs often: Behdetwas flooded withemm, they could be the tribute of pbw

IV 4 1,11;of O'pi ca

IV 48,8 ; they could be broughtwith otherproducesuchas rsf

IV 41,11 ; and bw 1582,2. bw are often found in association Is with df3 II provisions': ad.. crm IV 65,12.14 and 't> (= VI 96,8 . ,

food offerings Oneof the fourteenkas is calledHu. a personification life-giving and sustaining of
when he comes he has J


upon his hands VIII 114.7.


utterance Wb 11144(7-10)

At Edfu bw is often determined by the bread,sign, perhaps becauseof genuine confusion with bw 'bread'or perhaps becauseof a deliberate pun on the nature of the two words: Thoth gives aRR, to theking VI 298,7 ; HB gives JC1):, VIII 164,3 ; and Horus gives M. 146,22. All three

examples also include tp-r3 'spells'. bw was magical utterance and things could be created or at least be brought into existence by it. There is a close link with bw 'food' and it may be that bw 'food' was the food or provisions, particularly bread, which came into existence on he recitation of the offering formulae in tombs and


Das SchOpferwortim Alten Agypten . Verburn false doors [ in generalJ.Zandee, on offering tables or fuction of words dedicated to Dr. H.W. Obbink. 'Leiden, Essayson some aspectsof the religious 1964, p.33ff Gardiner in PSBA 38,1916 pp.83-94]. ,


nasty , stagnant Wb 11150(6-16) verb, 51(1-5) noun Pyr, Ute DG 295,1 Cr.731a: CED 304; KH 403 be putrid, bad Zool( WbMed. 588-9

At Edfu :a stretch of water is said to be free from stagnantor bad water.

IV 24.10 so here it may refer to


to strike , beat Wb 11146L DG 2963 In it f5l thresh Zloy6'0 lloyl

Cr-732b; CED304; KH403 strike, cast

At Edfu bw is a verb mainlyusedfor dealingwith enemies hostileforces.Every kind of foe can and be affected by bw - IL3kw-ibw IV 58,5; bftyw -j 168,13-14. It can be usedof the action of weapons :! j 203,8. it With the determinativev. and the fact that it can be usedwith weapons must refer to fighting -J at leastoriginally, so that it would be strike or beat.Ile end result might be to slay the with clubs, the enemybut theverbdescribes actionnot theconsequences. +P The writing of bw and bwn could be confused: the king IV 237,12and Horus saysto the king, 'May you + the foreign landswith his might* +m 162,6; or harpoonZj with a club I aJ IV 25,17;sbiw -`, IV 27,6;, IV 30,9; bd nw V 187,2:and the lrw-3bw -N-j

: Sj IV 58,9; ---k IV 375,6; j V 169,13: '

the foreign lands with your might' IV

80,13-14. herehardly suggest the word in questionis 'make The bellicosesentiments that expressed due bw - perhaps to a scribemisunderstandinghicmdc a it mustbe an erroneous young'so writing of sign.These textsseemto be oppositeon the templewalls andmay havebeendirectly copied[Fc two


2g V pl.90 andFo 2d V P1.841which suggests oncethe text hadbeenmistakenlycopiedthen that , theothertext wouldrepeat error. the Otheruses: beata face -j 1557,12 ;'beatwith armsin mourning A 1217,6.


the Striker - divine or royal epithet Wb 11149(10-12) NK, GR

Of the king: 132,1

IV 377,12, Horus Behdet


67,5, the Lord of Mesen Di J41VII


As a seperate entity, the king is the friend of ]Vw Dendera : j r-1CD V 69,10-11 and Philae<749> Phot.151 as a god.

IV 74,9 and he is mentioned at

Literally the name means 'the striker' and in puns he 'strikes', ' hw, foes 132,1 ; VII 67,5.

V 187,1-2 ; VII


to dedicate Wb 11147 (2-3)

The phrasebw-1 literally seemsto mean'extendor point the arm' and at Edfu it is invariably followed by r stpw 'at the choice meatportions'.This is the formula used for presentingmeat 01LALk : j c=:,. t-- VII 2132; 'dedicate', example for V offerings hencethe translation j "c"Ia! wvC Z:!
52,12. After this introductory phrasethere can follow a list of animals - presumably those from which the m* was cut. An exception to this is %t bt nbt nfrt VI 153,12 - which implies

that the formula could be treatedas a generalintroductory phraseand used without specific offerings. I In scenesof the Dw-' the king is shown holding the in his in his right hand and /. sceptre left hand, usually in front of him is a heap of trussed and decapitated animals. It may be that the sceptre was used to 'strike' the animal and, as the rite was often supposedto be performed SP4 '4 times 452,4 2E-, killing or butchering ritual ( i lj O%tt%\$ It this may represent a symbolic 4, '7i 0 1"' "" M 4=- CL I

1498,18 ). The absenceof sp-4 may indicate that such spellings

were simply abbreviations of the longer ritual formula.


go, roam , rush , tread


Wb 11147(19) to 48 (5) MK oft. GR wi is still in use at Fdfu, though it is applied to the Nile flood : the Nile rushes lands 1322,4-5 - for this verb perhapsin the form h3y 'to overflow" seeabove. your onto


impurity ? Wb 11148(10-11) MK

[FCD 165). One of the earliest uses' Literally bw-t3 is %eatingthe earth', thus 'roaming the earLW is in Sinuhe 164 ; 198-9 where it may mean'poverty' or refer to a penalty inflicated on a wrongdei [GNS p.61].Wb records that from the NK in magical texts it isimpurity' [P.Leiden 347.6.7 1 and the example from Edfu seemsto indicate that it continued to have this meaning in religious texts. : Ile Mansion of Re is purified from 11251,10-11.7be choice of this word also fits in with so-

the alliteration hsmn Hwt-R' r hw-t3, to help the magical potency of the statement and the determinative shows the "bad'natureof the word.


treadthepath =idiom forinvadc? Wb 11147(23-24) GR

To tread on a path' implies freedom on that path and also grants accessto places so to tread on a path without permission at least may be trespassand at worst invasion. At Edfu, the whole phrase is treated like a compound verb and takes a direct object : '-RA of your enemies 1142,8; the 1242,4 ; similarly

foes are first felled on the chopping block then the king (you) Zi 'r'r"-


from DcndcraLandsam trodd In en of FekhertVI 251,16-17. two examples D 1118,2 and D IV 7,2

The idea of walking upon the roadsof a place or peoplethen seemsto Imply that one has total his he masteryover that placeor people.Oncethe king has subjugated enemies can go upon their pathsaslord.


to inscribe Wb 11148(15)

At Edfu : Seshat first created

11132.7. writing names


Goyon [Gardiens p. 8 n. 11suggestedthis was an archaic writing, marking a repetition of w sPhrw sp-3 VI 328,9; and translated it'consacrd par dcrit, trois fois'. This is following Reymond [MOET p.34 n.4 and 2251who gives w as meaning 'sanctify' (from IV 353,6 ; VI 17,14 and c.f. Wb 11147).; This may be under influence from bw-1 'consecratean offering', though bw to strike' may be the underlying nuance,as a sculptor would 'strike'a chisel to inscribe texts.


flow of Nile flood

(16-22),Pyr. Wb 11148 This ' may be the original form of b3y 'overflow', and is certainly derived from bwi 'to tread' (above) the spellings regularandaccording Wb this canbe traced but backto theOK so thatold to are
D3y may be a dialecfic variadon. I 3-=-,, flooding At Edfu wy is used as a verb: of rejuvenating water j4 . anew 1112,16;the Nile

for the ka of the king 11254,13;the Nile Zj also _Zj

it floods for you (king) greatly1264,7;

'to 160,11 Whenappliedto the sky or heaven verb canhavethe nuance rain': the All it rains in the morningIV 11,12;1 give you heaven when

like the sky

rainingVIII 90,9. As a noun : the IU IV of Hapy comesfrom the two sources 3,5; is brought-at

its propertime IV 286,16;mentions lotus in the the 1003-3--is broughtIV 27, *2.-. - -1, " 11

vl 301,7 ; in a geographical text .-, -, '. ?I

The words 3y 'overflow', h3y 'illumine' and this 4wy 'flow' all seem- be relatedif not actually to the sameword. This implies that by the NK at leastand certainlyin theGR period the sign 43 wasreadas w .


sceptre (13) Wb 11149 MK DG 296, L X 1)1-2,

At Edfu the king takesthe IV 292,13; the

(brp) of holdsit in his left hand158,12;the presentation and is usedfor destroying(tinp) the foe IV 292,14-15..

for, is The shape the sceptre very similar to the sbrn and hrp sceptres thesemayall be names of and


bw-' whereanimalswere struck,perhapsin it the sametype of weapon. wasusedin the ceremony 1 that Mquier [Frises 173-176 mentions it wasalso a namefor the W sceptreand ritual butchery. p. the that all of theseembodied actionof smashing head- it survivedinto Ptolemaictimeswhenit the wasusedto consecrate offerings.Not in Hassan.



WB IH 51 (11)GR
In the laboratory text

of hekcnoil is for the hair of the god H 201,8.This is

the only example known but it may be comparableto Inh-imy (q.v.). ,


belbecome young, makeyoung , noun-childhood, child. Wb HI 52 (2) to 53 (5) n., 54 (3-10)vb.; 54 (13-14)childhood fk1,: 5 1DG 296.4

Intransitive verb: the noseis 'young'with life giving air It I 111143,4 .'

1440,11;the body is young


Transitive verb: you have made your father Re young lIF 16,13 eo-A411 'child' : in the phrase IV 36,1; Re is 1-1I 536A .


15,15; he makes himself young, *,

Ir 0,

IV 12,3 7le child from the 3bt eye .

in the morning and Khepri at midday IV 56,12. ChildrW

rejoice and dance madeyoung


is Atum the old man who is IV 17.8; Ho'rus bwnw 1233,6-7*. 1147.2= 1295,5

The writings are aff consistent only the transitiveuseseems be a later extensionof the =6 to and is usedquitefreelyat Edfu. which II


youngcrocodile Wb 11153 GR (6)

The only reference in a text aboutthe slayingof crocodiles: the king says'I haveslain their old is crocodiles S'"r- IIt and their young crocodiles A:P- ' IV 211 13. The word is wn .

to indicatethespecies. determinative added meanin'young'ofan animalwith the



young girl Wb 11153(10) to 54 (1) Pyr..

in twnt is an epithetof goddesses the GR period suchas Hathor: 1364,34; as the Wdtree ir (L P'73^91 298 16 or Nephthys: 1101.13;I+. 1149,12and Isis [HussonMiroirs p.76 n-51;I . a join tI join the lady of Khemmis(Wadjet)IV 52,10


two uraci

(14) GR Wb 11153 his At Edfu : 'I havesurrounded headwith 3F&&IV 89,11implying that they are coiled

+cr '", VN. 1149,1; a -upon headband.I aroundthe headof the king or are two serpents UD VIII 135,15 IV 75a. The goddesses. word is thedual of hwnt referringto the uraeus ;D


pupils of the eyes Wb 11153(21 - 24) OR

Pyr 93a has the phrase bwnt nt irt which may be the forerunner for OR Dwnty [Lefebvre, Tableau 17]. Virtually the samephrase is echoedat Edfu: a wn%b fT'I 220,6 and 'I receive the is Horus VIII 104,8

pupil of the-left eye 160,16; Lord of -Ims.

[Husson,Miroirs Doc.16 n.3].


Mansion Wb III I ff. Pyr. DG 283,8 Cr. 651 ; CED 273 KH 352 Z43-

Writings at Edfu include: [2 and plural [M

Il 28 jI l- 12

1497,2 otherwise the usual writing is

IV 19,5 The word refers to the whole temple estate and complex , .

' Templep.211. the produces offeringsfor the templeandfunerarycult [Spencer, which


Mansionof the net


Gauthier DG IV 48 from the time of Pepi I This is the name of a Temple of Thoth in the 15th Upper Egyptian nome of Hermopolis. The name derives from the myth that it is the place where Horus captured Seth in a net'. Lefebvre [Le tombeau de Pctosiris I p. 174] consideredthat it was a sanctuaryor part of the great temple at Hermopolis At Edfu there is no deviation from this tradition in Ruler of 11aat E9 is the abode of Thoth VI 56,6 ; he is the

V 187,7 ; it is also the abode of Nehemet-awy who is the Great Ruler in' 91 is a building where the heart of Re was

IV 295,2. In the geographicaltext

as Thoth at Hermopolis, which plays on the words ib 'heart' and ibt 'nef 1341,12 venerated [c f. Montet, G6ographie111501.

]Vwt. ifd

Mansion of the Leg Gauthier DG IV 49 (seealso bwt-sbk)

This is another designation of ]Vwt-sbk [Room 221 and protecting the divine image there 125 1,1.

it is within Wetjeset-Hor


Mansion of Records VI

At Edfu this is always associatedwith Seshatin one aspect oranothcr: Seshat


09 12 A "sTil VII 45,2: Nephthys-Seshat VI 144,10: Seshat-Renenct

'%'-% -

in A-IV 303,17-18 It is mentioned parallelwith the pr. md3t and may be anothernamefor tlc . library. It alsoappears othertemples seems be part of any templenot a sanctuary in to specificto so 0-01 P2 'Mt'sl :l Marn. 18,6; D 111169,13; MD160. one place :6

tlwt. ibt

N1ansion thecow of Gauthier IV 51 DG

her (Ilathor)andpresents with FromtheEdfutexts:thekingcomes Timehet, ladyof theWest the to 04-11'--h&V91,12. is described Timehet in a bouquet as -she Thisis a wineproducing fistedamong areas suchasDsdsandKnrnt wineproducing other region M-0 [3 V?L LJ' VI 252,12-13 Vill 71.5.jlwt-ibt was texthas with 46 anda wineoffering -a for its wine(Gauthier citj. It wasthe op. theSeraPeum the3rd LowerEgyptian nomerenowned of


capital of the Imntt

nome and its exact location is unknown. It may also have been known as

t3-mw andmaybe in the Kom el Ilisn area[LA 11 394-51. p.


Mansion of the throne -name for Edfu temple

Gauthier IV 52 DG


Hwt-isbt is frequent at Edfu in texts referring to Edfu and the name of the temple.The throne in this mansion is presumably that of Horus Behdet. A pun at Edfu has theling or Horus on the'isbt-throne in the Mansion of the lbrone :

0qP. 1 VI 144,12; 12 OD 138,10 ;


J]4Pjr'-03' IV 10,7 Horus forms Behdet in 157,1-2Horus various rulesthere:Harsiese ; .

Fq -A J-

IV 330,2;Ur-hnbtt


VII 29,19.

1141 in in It'alsoappears thenames standards carried processions of


F -- IV 69.17 C-3 and

in V 42,11. of thegods Edfuis called Lordof theMansion theLeg, hidden One the of of

1 %%%% E14P. V 63,14.

Vwt-ltm. Mansion of Atum Gauthier DG IV 53 Gauthier cites different 11ansions Atum and the Edfu example does not make the location of its of

]Vwt-Itm clear: He is the'protection who is upon the roof of the

which Re kisses daily

[Ghattas, Schutz p. 84] VI 149,5-6 The word may be a reference to the main temple of Atum at . Heliopolis also called p r-ItM'(other places (1) Bucheum or temple of Atum at Hermonthis , Armant 4th UE nome'(2) Heliopolis (3) capital of the 8th nome of LE', Maskhutah). Pithom (pr-Itm) Tell el


Mansion of life

GauthierDG IV p.55 and Mafdetlives. At Edfu this traditioncontinues In the Pyramidtextstlwt-'nb is wherethegoddess Mafdet lives in LLd VI 147,8; VI 150,4-S. is also the homeof HorusBehdet -It

f TGI 138,16and hereit seems be the'living mansion'of the god of the templewherethe text to Cn-3 is inscribed.The namecanbe appliedto the templeof Edfu as a whole 0A+ IF 1192,18 and


LI 'a fa r-7

1198,8 At Dendera MD 126 it is a name for the temple of Dendcra. In origin it is . .

the home of Mafdet, a tradition carried on in the temple texts, by Ptolemaic times it had also become for the temple where the text was written [seeAILGardiner. JEA 24 p.89-90]. a general term

]Vwt-w At Edfu

Gauthier DG IV p.47 is 76-1 provided with bw-food VHl 146,1-2 possibly a writing for bwt-w 7 or it may

in owt-iwf [PetrieAthnbispl-XVII p.171 unidentiried an sanctuary theareaof Aftbis in UE..,. read


Mansion of Purity Gauthier DG IV 56-57

11c"3 X At Edfu the Uwt. w'b is associatedwith Hathor: Hathor as Maat

r---bl 6N-i




VI 315,5; or

I= c-3

1311,11-12; or as Sakhmet

VI 280,5; or even her son



221,34. The connection wiLhHathormakesit likcly that the Mansionof

Parity is theTempleof Hathorat Dendera IV pl.I. MD


Mansion of Weryt

Weryt is a generaltermfor a goddess theGreatLady. 7bcre is a fist of all the goddesses live who in hwt-wryt, including Wnt, NInbt, PsIt

p MiT

VI 243.8also

FK--t-9 A2JIVU


113,10-11. speeches the Iunmutefpriesthe often lists protectiveserpentgoddesses come In of who from here :


IM qq Z4.4914nd 111166,16; who drivesawayfoes from her son

0 = 'Ao bumsthosedisloyal to the king 111104.1-2 Mehenyt1159,17-18 alsoWenetin C-]: ; .,

]Vwt. (D)wnty

Nbnsion of Wenty

Gauthier IV 142 DG Blackmanand Fairmanreadthe term as t1wt-Dwnty. Dwnty being Ilorus upon a bull and it may, be connected with Hcbenu(nearmodemMinia) [JEA 29 p.30-3I]. In this caseit would be in the 16th nome of UE and presumablythis place was the main temple there. Gauthier explains it as the V 101 foes 16thUE nome- Ifebenu.At EdfuJ5 0 slaughtered religiousnameof the capital of the arebroughtto Dwenty in the mansionof Dwenty V 186,16.



Mansion of the Falcon Temple of Edfu and the town around it Gauthier DG IV p.65

at Edfu could read nir or bik - generally z-K is taken to be bik. Z'N& M OD 12 ]Vwt-bik at Edfu has a variety of spellings : IV 10,13 C"-3 qD 118.9 ;0 C"'-13: a

The writing


IV 5 1,11;

H 19 (36). The town determinative the writing seems show in to

a ULU IV 10,8

that it was a word for the whole town as well. The most usual orthography is IV 50,6 ; 119,13.

The word more often specifies that wt-b ik is the actual temple: the ambulatory goes around the temple VI 6,5; the temple embraces the king when he enters it IV 50.6; during the festival of Wejeset-Hor rejoicing is in the temple VIII 161,9-10; imyw Hwt-bik are the iL-nJrw 1568,11 HB sanctifies his image in the temple 11 19 (36); the foe is driven away from the temple by the IV 286,13 -,Khonsu too is protected in the temple VII 111,11. s3wy-protector gods


Mansionof the King of LowerEgypt Saisp.199ff. GauthierDG IV p.65-6 ; El Sayed,

in This term is first attested the Saiteperiod and it was a religious centreof the Delta connected mainly with Osiris but also other deitiessuchas Hathorand Neith. El- Sayedlocatesthe building inside the sacredenclosurebehind the Temple of Neith at Sais (5th nome-of LE) modem Sa:, Therewas also a bwt-bit at Letopolisin imitation of the-Saite el-Hagar. example.It may havebeen partof the deliberate mythologyof theTwo Landsof Egypt. in At Edfu different goddesses be pre-eminent it : Elathor can IV 283,7; Neith

To V 87,13,suggesting that Hathor and Neith could be assimilated. confirm this, hwt-bit occurs Both of theabove textscomefrom sistra, at offeringscenes. quitefrequently Dendera.


Mansionof theBenubird GauthierDG IV 66-67

Thereweredifferent wt-bnw throughout Egypt and the Edfu textsrefer to someof thesedifferent places.The Uwt-bnw par excellence wasat Heliopolis howeveras a templein the sanctuary Re, of


this connection with the sun god helps to relate Horus to the Mansion of the benu : HB is the and divine winged disk in Lord of the El C=-3 r= Lki and a lion in MOM EO 111193,7 ; the divine bnw-bird is

1307,11-12 ;

is also associatedwith Hathor VI 284,15 -

in the 7th nome of UE, Diospolis Parva, Hu 1342,10. , In the 18th UE nome the king possibly brings


the gods efflux (rdw-nLr) 1342.10 and Vandier [PJumilhac, p.40-43] carrying

that this was one of the oldest towns of the 18th UE nome and in the Ptolemaic period the notes

I*Iansionof the phoenixwasa cult placefor thedog god. He connects ]Vwt.bnw with Hardai, the ,
south of Hwt. nsw.

]Vwt-Bdty Mansionof Behdet - Efu GauthierDG IV p.68 A nameof the templeand town of Edfu : the ceremony w I-w3w3t occursin of includes by V andthe creationof a number sacred of places Re-Harakhty

VI 319,6.

Vwt. mnbt

NIansion of Cloth Gauthier DG IV 73

At Edfu this is the nameof a room consecrated Renenet a weavinggoddess Renenet in the is to as :
10. m with all its goods 1135,14

is beyond the ILfiw-n-Vtyt

with the nst-nirw

on the ,

I IV 5,6. It is inscribed according to the inventory of the nome and it is 8 cubits square. south west This is Room 21 which contains scenes of offering cloLh,'necklaces, incenses. The parallel text confirms the measurement'of the room F22 VII 14,2. Ile king is likened to Ifedj-hotep in C"73

G3,2e in a presenting cloth scene VII 99,13 ; the king is raised by Tayet and fashions the 10 C3 .0

it' king builds therld- C-3 for the noble winged disk and supphes for HB 1124,6, similarly the with producefrom Punt1124,10.

tlwt-msnbt Mansion Mesnakht - name Edfutemple for of This wasapparently designation the primitivetemplefirst built at Edfu according the to of the Cardiens 30n.4 p. of cOsmogonical of thetemple it wasa second solartemple Re[Goyon, texts and


MOET p. 40 n. 3]. In the cosmogonical texts Re comes to the newly created llwt-msnbt

r= A.... Mj :. -'14D

VI 8,6;

FMT.; 7, L
VI 324,5. M

VI 14,13; ,[]

u- 6-j O'ch a

'belongs to Re and the primeval gods IV VI 324,4 and created

169,13-14 also 111199,10-11; the name of the St-wrt is

r-n In the templedescription however L' M _J IV 5,12.

^-,^ C6 to seems be a namefor the Centralhall (11) E-2

The name may read - Mansion of bearing victory, or according to de Wit [CdE 71 p.571 'The Mansion in which the Powerful One was born'. It is noticeable that this name can be used in texts

11 M' is wherethe god mentioned a warrior andsolarasPect : oof HorusJLn-trt IV 2,1 also e"Vc AA w F ": 322,11 eJVI .


Mansionof Gold GauthierDG IV p.78-80

Originally the wt-nbw wasconnected with the Openingof the Mouth ceremony being the place , wherestatues thedeceased made hadtheirmouthsopened! wherethemummywaskept or of and were or madebeforeburial . At Dendera of theOsirianchapels theroof of thetemplewassupposed on one to hold the limbs of Osiris andwascalledthe hwt. nbw [Vandier,P.Jumilhacn.957). Theexamples from Edfu fit in with thegenerally funerarynatureof this chamber:Nephthys called is
Ternet in


who mournsfor her brother1188,14; the king brings-giftsto restoreOsiris in

IV 135,11 In libation texts the Meret of the north says "Welcome to the . , Q F-_1260,14-.NUnsionof gold I" Il 78,6; ininj



Hwt. nhh

Mansion of eternity

The pr-dt of the falcon and the


are complementary namesfor the temple of Edfu IV 2,1

Ff I --f

wasbuilt alongwith the secret places placeof the templeof Edfu IV 7.6 ;a list of sacred (in a speech Re-Harakhty) 319,8. VI of

includes which werecreated


Wnsion of god -temple Wb 1114 (11) ff. Pyr.


DG 285,2



Cr. 692a*, CED289;

Temple at passim Edfu andusuallyrefersto Ile cult centre a god [Spencer, pA2 ff.) whichoccurs of is Edfu templeitself. Amongthe writings the usualdesignation the R IV 11,12' IV 9,5; 122,12; IV 49,9; c-3 ,
Frltl IV 11,5; h-21i IV 11.8;


1113,8 or

rr. -I


IV 14,11;

IV 15,7.

]Vwt-nbt-nLrw name for the temple of Edfu , Mansion of the might of the gods Gauthier DG IV p.85 Brugsch DG p394 Tortress of the gocW , , In the list of namesof Edfu temple and

PT-. 7-9

Uwt-Ur-nbt and nst-nirw, between appears -,,

V 3962.


Mansionof Neith Gauthier IV p.88 DG

Sais p.184)and in purification Nameof the Templeof Neith at Saisandof Saisitself [EI-Sayed, with the chamber the king (priest),whereNeith is equated and dressing rituals it is the dressing of [Otto, Mund5ffnung11p.132 ; Goyon,Confirmationp.84 n.9 and S.Schott,RdE 19,1967, uraeus p.101-1031 At Edfu noble unguentof cloth of the cba is associated with the makingof perfumeor unguentVIII 7.10 ; mentions' 1376,6 ; cloth camefrom 1443,13; also mentions

I IL 1


164,1; []5

1177.15. a placewhereritual cloth wasmacle


Wnsion of Re - namefor thetempleandtown of Edfu GauthierDG IV p.105

Ile mythological explanationof the name jIwt-R'

is provided in the texts, because after the

t1wt-R' with the god Re calledon HorusBehdetto stopand this placebecame slaughter enemies of in it beingHorusBehdetRe Min 1 A, (9 MR VI 115,1; HorusBehdetrules the Two Landsfrom the Lij El by 10- accompanied the s3w.n. sn and the 1562.10.

10-11; Hathor commands king to visit the

Ennead godsIV 53,11; of

is saidto live in U-6 KI animal the sacred



Mansion of Horus of the Horus gods' - name for the Temple and town of Edfu Gauthier DG IV p. 113

The name of this temple occurs often at Edfu, with varying orthographies 13 :ER" 568,10-11; 0' V 396,2; V6


IV 17.5. Ile main difficulty is over the

the term. It may well be read Hwt-Hr nlrw-Mansion of Horus of the gods or falcon of reading of the gods . but in view of the preferencefor alliteration on the part of the scribes it is most probably Hrw which again could either begods' or even'falcons'. The occurrencesof the word at Edfu indicate

its useasa term for Edfu : Horusis master the godsin of awayfrom

If 1571,10;

the enemy is driven

IV 234,8;the greatgodsof Edfu go to Nut in

V62,14 ; the [2,

in opentheroadstoOM"OVII standards processions -WAIVII 107,17;the noblenbtyw goddesses in are QJ4: A'O" D'=Ael 562,13;the are greatin the 37,13. D

42,12-13;the wadjty snakes in are

%kfit 0 1541,6 ; the sbmw images -W . is protectedwith ]Vr. ]Vrw in it VII .I


Mansion of Horus Victorious - name of the temple of Horus at Edfu Gauthier DG IV p. 113

This is a mythological name for Edfu and it is related to other names such as Wr. nbt and
., ^-k


In the texts it is the abode of Horus .

IV 52,1;

IV 56,9andis, ac--j

REID in the list of official names the Templeof Edfu of


N 396,2 The nameof the priest in IV. 235,3 ;

IV K;; ---w9,


['g 5& n ba Z: is 03ty-' m-bt 1558,13 ; lVd-wr is the aggressive in

El 9ZIV 343.13 ; the Lord of Mesen is mighty in

the king is the harpooner in

371,9; the foe is driven from the

IV 374,17 ; HB is the champion in OA4K. VI 4b .65- 9. the name of the 1

V 169,11-12; in a description of the enclosure wall it goes round

templeof the Sia falcon is


VI 12,12 ; offeringsare broughtto'


by day

Q: N, jVII VI 349.14; the king is upon his thronein . and night VII 274,12.,

100,15; and also

rx; ii

dab M-

Hwt. hq3 1,Mansionof theRuler - namefor the templeandtown of Edfu


Gauthier IV p.115 DG The list of namesof Edfu includes 234,14; the king is uponhis throneasruler in V 396,2', the king defeatsthe foe in DI (a VII 37,18.

Mansion of Appearance namefor the temple of Horus at Edfu Gauthier DG IV P-118 At Edfu Hwt- b' is a name'for the temple of Horus especially when his kingly aspect is being It is also a term connectedwith the marnmisi, where it occurs quite often and it may be.," emphasised. the 'cella! of the mammisi at Edfu, Denderaand Philae [Daumas,Mammisi p.577]. In the actual temple however it seemssimply to refer to the temple : the beneficent genii of Edfu are the lords of provisions in CJ 'who watch over Mesen IV 98.6; w

of his majesty-VII



Mansionof the nurse

in Ibis was the capital of an extra nomecreated Ptolemaictimes in the Wadi Tumilat area.Ite
geographical text for it notes that : Horus is preeminent in serckh IV 40,3.
v--nllq I


as the s3b.lwi'upOn ft.


Mansionof theflame
in the 4 dock who subdues the Two Lands

In the Litany to Sakhmct, she is the Great At through fear of her VI 268,14



Mansionof the leg Giuthier DG IV p.124


This is Room 22 at Edfu sacredto the lunar deities,articularly Khonsuof Behdct Room23 [Dcrchain,La Lune p.44., its own annexe 249,2and it wasnext to the main sanctuary, with 12PAJY 63 is built 1381. The directionsfor it are provided: to the left of Mesen1251 col.2;,* n. on the left of the sanctuary Nekhbetis in it [j

IV 5,7also
1251,14 and ED A


2S't-Fi'IV 13.11; P,

rcrix VII 14,3.

c-31255.16but Khonsuis Lord of

-1135 Q

C-3 1474,8-9 also Mythologically Re built 1589,4.

VO31254,4 he hides his plans in ;

111 r67IR71 139.8.

is 'brighe - sbq

H P73M*Jr-3for the king 1248,16 and in puns the

The texts in Room 22 are to be found 1247 - 264 and they mention the word frequently. Other gods who appear in the Room include-: Hathor who embracesShu in 12 IE-3, Tefnut, Isis and Meret of

the north 1 252,9 . Once the room is called 'House of Me'skhent' 1 275,12, emphasising the connection of the leg and moon god Khonsu with fertility and birth [Derchain, op.cit. p.33 n.731. R A text about the Lycopolite nome mentions another H.wt-sbk but the rest of the text is destroyed 1341,6. It seemsthat there was a temple in this nome called Vwt-sbk and it may be the place where the Leg of Osiris was kept as a relic.


Mansion of the Prince Gauthier DG IV p. 127

Originally this wasthe nameof a Heliopolitansanctuary whereOsiris hada cult with Re [Cauville, to Sokar(18,Texts1203-225))consecrated Osiris Osirisp.9] but at Edfu it wasthesecond chapelof the pillar - 1wn 2/3 cubits square LE Thereis a description the room whereit opensinto Room 17 andis 6 of

VII 13,3,the paralleltext calls it the, wd3t- or annexe(of 17) IV 5,4-5 . EE F-ffl I 1203,7 ; calls him iwn - greatRe The god in the Mansionof the Princeis, 1wn : fEE foundedby the king for Osiris 1179,1.4 and Hathoris associated 333,11 with was
VI 284,15.


Mansion of the Cow of Horus

GauthierDG IV p.129 , Osiris in the 3rd nomeof LE - it may in fact be another This is the nameof the sanctuary, to sacred for the Vwt-i4t (nearmodemKom el-Hisn).At Edfu - Hathoris the NobleLady in name 44' boUquet text a presentation V 91,15.

Vwt-sbmw Mansionof the sistra GauthierDG IV p. 129-130 ; CED357


This is the religious name of the 7th nome of UE whose civil namewas Kenmet - Diospolis to the Greeks and Diospolis of the Romans, ZOY, I(J here was the t of the Copts, modem Hou. The sacredobject kept

which in the late period was confused with the sistra ULefebvre, Sphinx X1 I] 111 1, d% .I

p. 106-7].Ile modem name Hou seemsto derive from a late abbreviation of the name '

AEO H p.33*1c.f. RT [Spiegelberg, 35 p.38 n.9 ; alsoGardiner,

At Edfu, Horus is pre-eminent in V 194.4.






IV 66,16; Nefeihotcp is the Great God in


Mansion of valour - namefor a sanctuaryat Sebennytos Gauthier DG IV p. 135 - 136

A sanctuary of the 12th nome of LE (Sebcnnyite) probably in the town of lb-nLr Xr=Mt4OyT king brings Q

Samannoud.In the geographicaloffering texts in the cow and calf nome,'the O' CF-3 rd: which contains the divine image and the harpoon VI 40,8. AP offering

EM ; b SD in V 96,4. to Onuris, mentionsthe god of Dr (Ib-nir 7) uponhis standard


Name for the Temple of Edfu and its town IIansionof Valour -

This name occurs frequently at Edfu : Ptolemy upon his throne is pre-eminent in 141,13-14 ;A

[I VII 29,21; or Geb z,--i IV 55,14;or HorusBehdct


VII 308.13;Or
41El VII ("go)

the drty-falcon great of might 159,9. Horus slays the foe in


VII 150,9 ; or the king with a harpoon G M

0 IV 235.17 j A..!

VII 73.12 ; the city of Hor'us as a

harpooner called is rights in M

V 155,2; the king is a harpooner in

V 265,1 ; the Sia falcon

15! M" VI 13,1; Ptahprotectsthe sonof Re in , VI 332,4 : the -Xjr 0 A lYb'e'j VII 168,17; the king receives braveryin VIII 62,7 ; the ka rejoices, containingvalour of the god is bravein ID VIII 133,5; the of the hero Is the throneof Re IV

11 330.4. Also Sefkhet-Abwy VI 168,14and it may refer to the' the makespleasant chapelsin &. -j 91 innermost in IV 5,1-3 sanctuary onecase . As befitting the nameit usuallyrefersto godsin their warrior aspccts, foesare slain andepithets of 4 both readqn. war are usedsuchasheroor harpooner. signs Ile and



Mansionof Shooting arrow) (an

Gauthier [DG IV p. 1321notes that this is the name of a chapel consecrated to the goddess Satet consort of Khnum within the Edfu Temple. The list of names of the temple includes 99 -Q)

V 396,5 it is simply another way of showingthe warlike aspect thetemplegodsandmayrefer to of . shooting arrowsor throwingtheharpoon.

festival festivity , Wb 11157ff. Pyr. DG 298,2

Cr. 695 a; CED 289 ; KH 382 feast ZOTT At Edfu the word retainsits classicaluses.It is found in the namesof festivals : the festivalsof enteringheaven i11 1555,9-10;the greatfestivalof enteringhis houseIV 20,1;all the beautiful festivalsof appearance the king of V 6,1 ; 1289.8;359 15 ; 328,4- the templefestival.
IV 17,10 ; Mesen is in festival IV

'c7a In the phrase m-4b 'in festival': the sun folk are in festival .0 IV 17,3; the Ennead is in festival = 13" 19,4.

2t& 't7 IV 18,4; god enters heaven

ir-4b 'to celebrate festival' a

IV 149,2.

-b6 festive
Wb 11160(12-16) Pyr.

Plants are



IV 33,7 ; and the path of the king is festive


in exultation IV 54,7.

(Wb example 1373 an altar supplied with food is festive is incorrect). , ,


The Great Festival Wb 11157(21) MK .,

In the templedescription

to corresponds the 6 Day F6stivalon the 7th day of Shemu

Year 10 of PtolemyXII IV 7,8. This is probablyan epithetfor any major festival ratherthanbeing , a specificfestivalday.



Festival of lpet C) for Hathor V 223,15-16.

is 'nie festival of drtmkenness describedas


Festivalof Osiris
'R if Mesen is in festival IV 17.3.

In the temple description at


festival of sailing r Bbdt that he celebrates the

In a mortuary offering, Hathor gives to the king festival of sailing to Bchdct V 275,4.


The First Festival Wb 11157 (22) NK

The first example of this festival from the Wb is from a text of RamessesIII at Karnak which J mentions the -dcc-' W, 'IM3 'Place of the First Festival' [RT 13,1890, p. 173] but it is probably older,

than this. At Edfu the feast coincided with the wp. rnpt New Year festival. the heliacal rising of Sothis and thus the inundation, at the beginning of the month of Akhet :wI j V 397,2. Like

New Year festival Horus destroyed the enemy on 'I= T IV 95.2 and special offerings of md the AG ointment of thew7 were made 1546,1 ; VII 220,10-11. The festival is mentioned most frequently in the phrase St-Db-tpy (Wb 11157,23) and there may have been a cultroorn atEdfu with this nameA n 11 cD is described as being above the Chamber

of Mesen, facing south VII 14,4. This indicates that it was situated on the roof and it was where the rites of the festival were inscribed. Some of the rites performed there confirm that it was on the roof god is raised to the to seethe sun disk 1513,12-13; in the festivals of entering heaven the , J ZT-6 1565.15 ; Behdct appears in his bs-image

1555,9-10; or the altar of priests go uPP-31wD,


,K-=P J QQ and with Ilathor they unite with the sun-disk1347.1; whengod appcm in the C_-3,

all the rituals of the

c-73-. 1% tX7

are performedV 395.2; C'3 -0 11






Specificrites are mentioned : flathor embraces on RB too

1412,13;god goesto thJ5

to hide his image1558,3 ; or restscontentat seeingthe sundisk in -d'o"erm"a 1579.11-12. -o 1


The First festival at the beginning of the year covered the changeoverperiod of the year, that is it too place over the last day of the year (30th of Mesore) the 5 epagomenaldays, and the I st of Thoth, and the following four days. On the I st of Thoth the hnm-itn rite occurred on the temple roof and it probably occurred in a small chapel built especially for this purpose. In all the festival would then cover 11 days [Alliot, Culte I p.273-7].


Annual festivals seasonalfestivals ,

b-tp-trw is a general term for the annual, cyclic, seasonalfestivals celebrated in the temple. The Edfu referencesare vague : god comes out to unite with his ba at in his house on the New Years Day festival just like for the sun disk on the day of the New Year and all the .6b 46 VIII 93,2 ; god rests

1513,13; god unites with the likewise 1549,4 So it is a general .

term for all the annual temple festivals [Vernus, Athribis p. 209].


Jubilee festival Wb 11159ff. Pyr. DG 299 14 1114

The most important event of a king's reign was the bb-sd which symbolised his rejuvenation, renewal and his eternal kingship [LA V 782-7901. At Edf6 the king is granted millions of festivals millions of IV 16,5; IV 20,3; millions upon

IV 329,13 In his titulary he can be Lord of the JubileelO, IV 12,4; 1 305A . ifirs ZU IV 10,4 Heb-seds are celebrated - sd - %3ED 139,1 ; the annals contain millions of . 10 1498,16. IV 149,2 ; The sign used to write Heb-Sed is the dais with the two thrones of Upper and LOwer Egypt upon it, king would sit during the ceremony. Though the festival is commonly mentioned in where the

with the king, no actual information about the rituals at the festival are given. connection Two rites specifically feature the offering of the Heb-Sed to the king : inside the sanctuary, thus

connected with the kingship 'Receiving QB closely 11 IiEr the king receives

from his mothee130,4 -9. Here [PI.13a].

from Hathor,in infinite numbers.He wearsthe Doublecrown andthe I. 2K Also, Receiving from

to symbol for the festival is attached a palm rod andYn sign


their lords', in the Chapel of the Leg annexe1270,19 to 271,3. Here Horus gives the king millions of years of kingship upon the throne, in his capacity of Ir--7 10 Lord of Hcb-Seds (271,2). P1.28a, v:

shows two heb-sedsymbols in the handof Horus and two on the end of a palm rod he holds out to the' king, who wears the Double crown.

'festive' stone Wb M 62 (1)

bb is an inventedmetaphorical knownusuallyby othernames. is often parallel It termfor materials to mfk3t andwhere'turquoise'becamewordforjoy' a Ij in example the Edfu minerallist '117bb'festive'became term for the stone,for a

VI 202,4andat Dendera.


fire, smoke (12) Wb 11162 GR

Wb cites one referencefrom Edfu : snsn

smoke 1571,2, at the burning of offerings.

ILILnmmty. k 'your nose smells its'., 4ca .


catch of f ish and fowl

Wb 11162 (2-7) Pyr.

IV An Old Kingdom word still usedwith the samemeaning Edfu : IIB is one who nets 4R at I k'jij 1104 IV 25,2; Shesmu the Lord of is VI 77.3. Ile king is providedwith w food and '91555,5 1583,2which arecontained the flood. In the Prosopite "Great in nomc-C1,11sloo. of Catch'

is the nameof Suchos 1330,17 .


floodwater Wb 11163 (4-5) GR (1-5) Med. DG 300,4 a. /.+-

bb may be derivedfrom the samesourci as bnbn, bb [J. Baincs,Orientalia39 p. 389-404] 'Its . useat Edfu suggests it is a word for flood water or simply water freshenoughto be usedfor that offering purposes :Ijj == is broughtas an offering to destroyimpurity (tnt Yyt) 15 83,1;


z= coversthe Two Landsandflows over the Black andRedLandsIV 48,9; a libation text, a is filled with L- C" el V 82,10-11; Two Ladiesmakepure qbh - vessel IV 99,14 the
; the king is Lord of I trt

D 1121,8 ; the king brings

rushing to Ole fields I

In creation myths the tbbt is the name of the primeval waters from which the earth emerged on the First Occasion : HB Wy mound rise up while the I. makes the . V 'JTHVI 118,10-11; 1775 Djeba is the name which is in jjj aX X3 . 14 ; Wrt is the name of VI 181,12; still flow around V shd .8; recedes, the p'y land -

J emerges the crew of Horusreach and

I -IfhVI 184,12.


to kill


Wb 11163(8) GR

Wb cites two examples in a libation text, a guardiangod ]Vq3 : 1

b3'bty I slay foes

Cza-, i bn. f 1 186,18;a guardianat Dendera says .1 rn. rn bint MD IV' 79.2nd line. It is ;. n. ) temptingto seethis asno morethana metathesis bbn'to slay'and the alliterationof b at Dendera of it supportsthis. By the sametoken the alliteration of 4 at Edfu suggests is readbbn hereand the is metathesis complete.


kind of bread cf. Wb11163(13-16) Pyr - OK refs. bbnn-t--*

I OSM is presented V 250,6-8 and alsoli b. text includes 0

At Edfu in a list of bread offerings, (in a f3i-bt offering)

V 377,2. A list of general offerings in a btp-di-nsw

V 280,10-11. The Wb examples suggestthat the word survives into the late period texts at. Edfu Presumably it was a specific type of offering or ritual bread as indicated by he determinatives.


to clothe Wb 11164 to 65 (17) (3) DG 300,1

Cr. 660a; CED 276 ; KH 356 gannent ZBCW Cr.658 b; CED 276 to cover


disk covers t; 3 Y At Edfu the verbis oftenused metaphorical in ways: the greatwinged his wings11153,10-11; areclothedwith light gods with 1509,14.

the land

131.3 his fatherwith a 9-strand Hedj-hotep garment bbs retainsits basicuses clothes too: Ij le", 388.9 Ile tP 198,5 ; the nakedare clothed is usedto clothea body n1ri cloth sal . the clothes naked canvary : Hedi-hotep orthography 11's q Il 163,15

for bbs occursin the priestly title rmn-ry 4bs-bpr : who wasprobablyresponsible the' W clothing of the god in the daily ritual in the templein the 13thUE nome1340,17 - 341,1 . Thii 'L .6 "9 title occursfrom the 30th D. F-9 Petrie,AbydosI PL75and in demoticin P.BM 10792"

line 3 from Siut as the title of a propertyholder[A.F.Shore,in PyramidStudiesp.2031; also in the, 10thLE norne Ij IjPt; P.* 1332.15[Vemus,Athribis 2621 in ; the priestess the 20th UE nome p.

Ph 1340,1(Wb 11166,21 22). and

bbs. bht

to protect

Wb 1467 (5.10) Wb 11165 (17) GR The two elements hereseemto be'to coveeanda noun'fan'so literally it means'the fan combined (See. blit). Presumably fan would protecta person the covers'which in Egyptianidiom is 'to protece of underit from from theharmfuleffectsof thesun's raysandthis is the source the notion. At Edfu : the s3w.nsn the chapels aroundthe godsVI 10.11; Iforus,protectsXJ aroundthe sbmw of

him HB around? the onewho created V 171,12-13; protects

the temples(both of thesewith the following prepositionh3) V1171,15.Wb recordsexamplesfor this verb at Dendera also.


god'swife (1) Wb 11167 LateandGR

from the 'wife' hasbeenmuchdiscussed alsooccursin the divine sphere The word bst meaning and Hekanakhte 12 and n.1 for references] Myers and Fairman,JEA 17 p.227 Late period [James, ; p. 9 14 MOller, ZAS 53,1918p.95-61.It refers to bwyt the goddess ALhribis: P.Br-Rh. 25,23 of 6969and 6966 ; BM cartonnage 21 J jr, 166 (48). [Myers op.cit. pl.55 and 571*.and at Edfu



ritual service book Wb 11161(14) MK oft. GR

The ritual book is either nis :IJw 1557,16 ; 117 '-'*1 Ij VII 87,14-159-*

1540,5 or more usually 9d 44


VII 282,9-10; or even s9ni : *41=1,2kIV 57,2.

Those who read the service are well qualified to do so being the scribe of divine books and spells 1, 540,5 ; the chief lector priest 1555,3 ; Horus VII 282,9-10 or the king IV 57,2 as the Lord of Heden and Lord of the B3w-R'., The word may be derived from bb 'festival', an occasionwhen rituals were recited and so this became the name for the papyrus rolls containing the rites. The determinatives `k' indicate that it is not

an abstract term 'rituals' but something like a 'book', that is a leather or papyrus roll. Considering the antiquity of the title ljry-bt it is surprising bbt is not attested earlier. All rituals for festivals

would have beenwritten down so that the correct procedurecould be followed each time.


onewho carriestheritual book- lectorpriest Wb IH 395 (4-10)OK

M ,; Mpr

This retains its classical uses at Edfu : is great in his books VII 87,14;

is dressedin his adornments V 30.1-2



master of writings VI 87,9 also

VI 88,2.

This was a title held in theory'by the king in. temples but in practice a pfiest was appointed to the post. In the Ptolemaic period the equivalent title was hierogrammatus . To some extent the title ry-s;%O replaced that of lector priest, perhapsreflecting the inclination to the more mysterious and arcane aspectsof Egyptian ritual. Literally the title means 'one with the ritual boole and he was the man who could read out the words to therites, to ensure the correct procedures were followed. The post of chief lector was permanent, while that'of the ordinary lector was not and he played an important role in funerary as well as temple rituals [Blackman, Priest and Priesthood, ERE X, p.301 LA 1940-9431. He took part at Edfu in rituals such as'Crown of Justification' 'Adoring the god' VII 87A and probably worked from the Library 111141,16or I'll 399,9-10

[Ibrahim, Kingship p. 1891.In the New Year processiona priest reads out the rituals and though he is


a priest of Thoth and shown reading from a tablet a the text indicates he is not named as the hry-tbt, ' though he would be expectedto be this priest (1567,18 and 1557.15 ff. and pL38c).

plant Wb 11169 GR (18)

In the Myth texts,Horus a -Y .,

its , so- V.-



tlr he hideshis handsin the h. bush VI 219,1 (after,' p

FairmanMSS). In P.Vindob D.6257, IV.6apibeon is tobe cookedwith P2- '5' p, whichthe-' in editor of the text translated "goose' notesits medicinaluseis not attested Pharaonic texts as and [Reymond, MedicalBookp.86-7andp.2691. Reviewers thebook suggested might be a second. ' this of exampleof the plant namedat Edfu [CdE 53 Nr. 105,1978p.641.7je Edfu plant is usedin a pun; which castsauthenticityon the origin of the word --it may be an inventionto suit the text, though equallyit couldbean inventiveuseof a rarelyattested plantname.


the Apis bull Wb 11170 (14) Pyr DG 301,2 S - I

Cr. Xxt; j

Cr. 696a *CED 290 -,KH 381 ZkTTIC

Apis appears in the Horus name titulary of some of the Ptolemies at Edfu such as Ptolemy VI Nolemy IX Philometor Soter'and Ptolemy X Alexander for example, 11156.3 1 IV 12,4 *'Oak +U a 'I? - 11168,3

VI 21,4 At the bcginning of'a . 'VNf "the image Ptah 00' ith" Memphiteoffering text where of makessurethe altarsare stacked, A 15203. The bull is in the nameof a standard rried by the fry-43t priest *? L a offering's ca 1564,5.In the runningof the course/A O)gaaccompanies king 1150,1. the
I The name of Apis may be related to the verb p 'to run' as an expression of the power of the bll

The Apis bull is associatcwith the shit 'Cow'


the namemcnsone whenrunning . so who'runs'.


to run hasten traverse ,


Wb 11168 10) Pyr. (7-

in p follows the usesas stated Wb 'to run

1159,14; 1214,12 ; 11249,10-11 (8) with r- to a

1487,11.(9) traverse go througha place place: 1499,3 ; 1538,3-4 , b-A. 549,15; this land -11198,4(10) alliterativelyof b'pi the Nile: 11249,10-11-; 78,8



course, way
Wb 11168(11-15) NK. Late and GR - no t

As a noun meaning course.: the winged disk hurries through the land in 19 No. 22 ; it especially refers to the course of the sun JS \ ^A `A IV 27,2 -, 1113 = X running'15TF1 : Adverbial sails m-hpt: Hapi TA V, 47,1 1



also II

1433.5; and follows phr 'fast

his time V 199,6-7 Horus illumines It at

V J01 8,2 Horus


a "" .HB 11,178,3; A P110 T,

111117.5 and as the winged disk, onto the new lands I,

he goes round earth 32,1; Horus goes to,

111117,8;The Nile flood overflowsTA it' of the Shining One 132,2

In the ritual il Opt 'seizing the course'the king runs through the territory which he rules to establish his territorial claim and show that he is fit to rule it [graphically described by William Goldman in The Scorpion God]. This is a very ancient ritual connectedwith the Heb Sed festival and ivory plaques from the First Dynasty show the king wearing his Double Crown, holding the oar and set square or flail and running around caims which symbolically mark his terrestrial territory. At Edfu, the king runs before Horus 354,12-355,6 ij 161,440 1 102,4-103,6
VI 288,12-289,11


A 0

bnp qbOw IV A aA

by Hathor 'A accompanied

and her children

393,14-39.4,8 and once, perhaps in error, Hathor by herself

IV 138,13-139.9. As

expected the texts mention that the king seizes the.boundaries of his rule (hppwy) but the ritual is also limked with the Osirian myth and the avenging of Osiris by Horus, making the king play the role of Horus. For, he is said to 'explore mound and seek in the nomes' looking for the parts of the body of Osiris which he then reassembles.His run is a search for the gods limbs in all ft Egyptian

nomes - each part of-the body represents a nome - so that when they are put together - Osiris is

. 1146

resurrected Egypt is whole and ruled by Horus-the king. Two explicit texts makethis clear 111d beforeMeretof theSouth(with Horus) All wherethe king seizes course the Meret of the North (with Khonsu- in the Houseof the Leg)

A 1149,14-50,7 and

1260,10-17.17hey the are

house)upon which they are mournersof Osiris who live in the Houseof Gold (the reassembling (XI TennetandIunyetin a furtherritual ', shownstanding 306 andpl.40f). Thegoddesses named are 613A 1311,19-312,8.The examplewith Hathoralone may then actually refer to her expressly because is thegold'of thegodsandshealsocanbe identifiedwith Isis who reassembled she Osiris. A further dimensionoccurswherethe king is said to run with P, *,? x- 1150.1the 13 VR'- 161,10 Apis bull, andreceives Xfyt of A0 X= the who wasidentifiedwith Osiris andembalmed on the alabaster embalmingtables from a place called I.Iwt-nwb (Hatnub). Ile king is shown' runningandholdstwo of a groupof objectsin his hands theoar the set square, flail, the mckes' the : , bird in his left andoncehe hasfour staves by eachsurmounted a bird in his right handand a crested hand.77he four staves the four cardinalpointswith the birds which fly thereand the crested bird' are mustbeIto represent inundationOlpi which alsopunson the word Opt and hasconnections the with Most often theking wearstheRedcrown in theritual (XI 234 ; 306)but thereare the Apis andOsiris. ) someWhite Crownsperhaps a balance(pl. 144 lintel, 1522nd reg. and the Apis bull or calf is as shownrunningbesidehim (plAOf 3rd reg.p. 152).


'extreme limits
Wb 11169(11-14) GR

I I the rays of the-'

At Edfu bpty is used to show the "tent to which something reaches: WTTof sun 1556,2 ; he reaches the function as a noun 'outermost lands'

of the boundaries where the sun shines 1581,14-15. It can' T,: are given to the king with their tribute VIII 77,12; kiss the earth before the king IV IV 10,3 In .

come to the king with bowed headsIV 378,12; 92,9;

praise god for his ka 111207,9,10. Fear of god is put into

sceneof the king receiving his inheritance the of th king is'put at

are said to belong to him 111196,9and the name I-, -

If 21,12-13 ; Horus makes great the name of the king

238,18-19'. Lthe, ritual of running the course, the king seizes limits V 393j4'-16 -,and runs fast in IV *354,13.

the course to the


The two wd3ty - eyesof Horuscanseeas far as' 56?I


An origin pty may be the 'dual course',thaf is the course the sun and moon and standfor the -of limits of the earthto which theraysof sunandmoonpenetrate. extreme


diadems crowns , Wb HI 69 (16) GR

Frequent at Edfu and other GR temples pwt is derived from pt

the extent of the king's rule. 33, 1-2

11 ? At Edfu : Wadjet receives the diadems %Y VII 165,13; the king wears them f I -SO h;[-,

1426,14-15 and they are brought to increase fear of the king among his subjects VI 187.3; VtV! VI 304,12;

I f, 06/#VIII 84,8. Horus is Lord of the hpwt4rJid4


; IV 56,6, and he is ruler of the Dpwt 1426.17 r'Tij VIII124,4.

VII 305,6; or they simply


The diadems are offered in a ritual in the temple, and it is expressedin two forms. Firstly as ir-bpt Vearing diadem, where the king offers the crowns to Horus : 'r the 11'285,8-12 (paired with rdi-h' to Hathor) -, IT a1 32,19-33,9 ;I IV 87,11-88,4 after IV 301.9-302,5 ; VII


confusion with bpt 'course' ; IV 134.6-135,2 opposite IV 290,4-16 F, X 144,10-145,7 ;

VII 304,14-305,8. The diadem here is the Double Crown with the two plumes

and the whole mounted on a pair of ram horns which is shown being offered on a basket by attached the king ( XI 218 ; XII 349). This evidently is the crown of Horus and when the offering is performed for other gods it is their specific crown which the king offers : for Khonsu it is the moon disk and crescent with a uraeus inside it are offered ir ? 4! V 235,12-236,3 ; and for Onuris it is his four plumes which

V 192,7-16 (the king himself wears an atef crown pl. 132 1Ith col. and

pl. 119 3rd reg.). Once the king ties the crown to the head of HorUs before a group of gods is 1243,15-244,12 and once it is offered to 11ithor h.A lye who is described as bnwt

146,19-47,6 (XI 229). In all of these the offering is the confirmation of the legitimacy of his

rule for the king - the god receives the crown from the king and returns it to the head of the king which betokens that he is ruler of the Two Lands. Te second type of ritual is the smn pt 'establishing the diadem' here the king sits

on a throne dais with Wadjet and Nekhbet either side of him, and two groups of gods attend him


granting millions of years of rule over Egypt. 'Mey represent the whole spectrum of aspects of kingship - Harsiesis, Montu, Thoth, Atum, the two Seshatsand Hu and Sia XV 40,15-43.6 . pIAOh Iii, I ;n R' the m establishing lintel. A slightly different version has the king smn

Heretheking is shownbendingslightly 1435,6-436,6. in thefour (comers theearth) diademof Re of both his armsstetched in front of him beforeHorusas if he hasjust placed beforethe god with out (XII 350). the DoubleCrownon thegodshead for thecrownsof kingshipof Egypt bpwt wouldseem bea general From the determinatives to word The determinatives usedare the White and Red Crowns, than referringto one in particular. rather the two plumes, Atef crown,or the DoubleCrownwith plumesandhorns. the eithersingly or united, king Its offeringis the signthatthegodsaccept king to be their legitimateheir andthedesignated the of all Egypt. '' i"

derivationfrom pwt or tpty 'course, the extremelimits, here In origin it may be an elaborate to the limits of the kingspower,that is theTwo landsandall foreign countries,hencethe, referring At of determinatives. Denderathe determinativeis usually only the Double Crown multitude inventionto increase implying perhaps Two limits, UpperandLowerEgypt.It is a Ptolemaic the the of vocabulary wordsfor crown.


embrace,unitewith Wb 11171 (14-15) MK

At Edfu the verb 'to embraceis often usedof a god unit. with his image, when he 'joins' it he ing 'embraces'it, IV 10,12.A goddess the may embrace I" 13 king IV 50,6; or vice

Hekat IV 51,6.Nckhbctembraces diadcm, the king's head the versa, theking embraces on ,a C1Q 16); Geb a 9IV 52,11as doesWadjet IV 52,13 The king embraces A IV 55A ; or Khonsu 1272,8 7be verb implies protectionand closeness the king to of . thegods.

jfpt-ryt W

? necropolis 4d IV 160,18and also LOM

At Edfu Wadjet and Mehenet in Pe and Dcp dg3 m',

t'20 IV 316,13.Thereis alsoa word Sbn-rlyt which meansvirtually the samething and mustbe


mentioned the tpt-rbyt connected with this. It is possible that becauseof the goddesses

is a Lower

Egyptian counterpart of the sbn-rbyt As the latter is a necropolis at Edfu then the Lower Egyptian . example must be a necropolis in Lower Egypt of equivalent importance.


divine epithet

(5-8) NK c f. Wb 11169

F 11 13

theLord of the pw is brought , equippped. with provisionsand from the

he determinative seems bea ramheaded IV 47,5,perhaps to god associated Khnum, who lives at with the 'limits' of Egypt.


to dance Wb 11171(5-6) MK , GR

Dpg does occur at Edfu it is more common at Dendera as might be expectedfrom the general Though Both the young can dance in festivals, nature of the temple gods. old 0aT IV 17,8. Ibis dancing is done for the king UZ A -a 13 IV 11,10 and the

V 39,8. The varying posture of the

dance.At DenderaHathor is Lady determinativereflects the various dancestepsrather than one specific dance wz) "r- DII 15,4. Though hpg occurs at Beni Ham, where it would seem to indicate of the , leaping [BH II plA and pl. 13 two girls with feet tucked under their bodies jump into the gymnastic I C1 1, it is 'C Edfu when it appearsin -a-slightly more sedate not attested ahywhere else until aii , Dance p.341. form [Brunner-Traut, Tanz p.80 ; Gi-een,


to praise, to revere (9-10) 22ndDyn. GR Wb 11173

At Edfu - with n plus object: I revere your harpoons n your majesty 111210,9; in a dw3-nJr scene the king

VI 6 1,1; the hstyw gods revere I"%-% of god , his mouth

full of songs 1231,12, and this same passageoccurs at Dendera the praise MD 63 a. with direct object: Horus

though here Hathor receives

the Ow-offering of the king 111147,10.

The determinatives show the meaning of the word clearly. It is also found at Dendera but with what


seemsto be a variant spelling (Wb 11174,15)bfn


111102,3. From the Wb the earliest in a Hymn to Ptah. I?

I'L- !I IX, is a text of Ramesses Pap.Berlin 3049,16.3 example of the word

The Mendes stela uses the word in parallel with d w3, 'She adores the gods, she4Urk. H 33. goddesses'


cringing ?

(14-16) 19thDyn. Wb 11173 m-pf3w is an adverbialphrase usedto showthe condition of foreign peoplescoming before the ( king. It may occuras early as the Coffin texts,iw-m-bf3t *tocomeon the knees! FECr 135 n.21 CT I 180e)and this may give rise to the later m-4f3w. At Edfu, the north landsare given 6 the , king --f'-A (in reverence?1101,14. ) , j'.'


snake Wb 11172(14-20) Pyr. DG 303,3 Cr. 740b; CED306,, KH405 Zo4

This term is probablythe origin of the two previousentries.7le snakecrawlson the groundon its belly andthis is exactlythe typeof attitudein which the Egyptians would showthe peopleof foreign landscoming to the king, and in this position they would praiseand reverethe king. So the later rn-bf3w and Df canbe directly tracedto this word [cf. Wb Med 595 bfVto go snakily,wind, twist' the of afid 596 W. w describes appearance a vesselas 'Schllngelung]. At Edfu all threeappear " togetherin a pun. 7be kf3w serpents be beneficialandevenprotectiveminor deities:,L-can Y. in beautifuldivine serpents Wetejeset 269,34. Snakes also Apopian zvVII are are the its impurity is repulsed111106,9a hostilemotif.



hundreds thousands of Wb 11174 (2-14) Dyn I

Often usedat Edfu to show the numberof yearsof kingship: 041,1 IV 10,4; or the numberof 41 Sed-festivals allocatedto the king 1125,15.It usuallyoccursin parallelwith hh 'rnillion',


indicating that it too was regardedas a Idnd of infinite number. T'lle sign used to write the word, the tadpole, derives from the observation that when tadpoles first hatch out there seemto be an infinite number of them, so a tadpole sign was used to representhuge numbers. Sometimesthe tadpole clasps the Xn sign , to make tens of thousandsof eternities.


(2-3)GR Wb 11175

Wien 172[Bergmann, Ilier. Ins. VIII - X] which seems mean'to heae Wb citesan example to =117 At Edfu a verb ff haslessclearmeaning ocurstwice in a copiedcosmogonical. -. text and

Ll I



VI 182,17 translated 'car tu es celui qui ,

(toute)Ame divine'[BIFAO 64,1966 p.144]. exauce


to suck milk

Fairman,ZAS 91,1964, p.8-9. 9D Fairmandiscusses examples the king sucksmilk from the heifers Y- -Jr the : plus M III

125,5; '1 rejuvenateyour flesh with bdw milk, I give you selectcows in the byre, so that your I Xmajestymay drink 9z beforethis time. from their uddersVIII 105.9-10.It is unattested

c f. nDfk 'to suckle' . Wkw 'milk pots'.


to sit . settle Wb 11175(10-12) BD, NK - now also CT

At Edfu b fd is used when the subject is a bird or the text relates to flying : the benu bird settles upon the top of the tr-willow tree A 11110,15 IV 33,8. Horus comes from the I C9I 111187,14. 149,18; the

horizon (implying he is in falcon form) and settles on the willow tree In addition_it is used of the king or deities sitting on a throne: the


king as Horus 4L-

1.541,8-9; Horus and



the throneof eternity1538,16; upon their thronesin a chapel1120,5upon

1579,11.Also the godsof the nomes

is Thoughthis may imply the action of a bird settling upon something, determinative clearly a the I Y--. n a the man, stressing humanaction involved.The verb is first found in CT VI 268 , Spell 647 a-W the usein the Book of the DeadI SA , IV 10is of theba settling. and



to fly . go up

Wb 11175(6-9) Pyr. This is the same * value,but it hasexactlythe oppositemeaning. as apparently thelastword,in sound It is however connected birdsandaccording theWb is theearlierof thetwo words. to still with 3 122,6; BB At Edfu : 11prUtj-. '%; in heaven ,zo to Nut 1574,1 havedeterminatives All of theseexamples implyinga flying actionis involved An examplein the . jl-cc-5'to climV with feetdeterminative PyramidTexts751has to which seems havebeenadapted -A to involvetheideasof a birdflying up andsatling' somewhere, at a laterdatethetwo actionshfd so 'sit!andDfdgo upbecameseparate distinguished differcritactions their dctcrminadves. by and as 42jj heaven 129,18; the easternba W! W-


particle - but

Wb 11178 (16-17) Pyr.

GG 1253enclitic pallkle'indca

riot Junker, GrD. .

Rareat Edfu : usedwith a negativein the construction nbm sdm.f ' Ptahcreatedthe gods. -J but no-one him' 1137.4-5. created


transitive-drive back, repel Wbl]179(16-21)ofLGR intransitive- retreat (1-15)Pyr. Wb 11179

hm mostoften appears Edfu in the transitiveuse,usuallyto describe foesof the king or god the at by being driven away and repelled Often the choiceof this word in a text sccmsto be governed . alliteration. Transitive : foes 0, C-= IV 27.3; anger tP IV 51.9 JA' VI 284.5; the robber-

VJ. -cJ IV 295,4; he who comesagainstthe king To turn back the footstepsof someone nmt tf-A :

VI 178,12. 0& of bin. rn. f VII 308,10-11. IV 57.11;, IV 80.7

In a negativesense, to haveone'scoursereversed. Re sailingin the sky -4of not In alliteration : to drive away mty (r-h3) IV 374,16-17. IV263,8; (r-from)t1A= g- A,

V168,13;U16-11869, IV 234.8;

VI 75,14; qualitatively mty is driven away ,


A guardian deity at Edfu is cafled]VmyHe who drivesaway'[Goyon, Gardiens n.1, cf. Barguet 88 tf A. 9 RdE 22 (1970) 10 n.31 - VI 75,14


majesty, Wb 11191(1) to 92 (11) Pyr.

Drn is used classically at Edfu but some of the orthographies are different. Often the sign can incorporate an ideogram of the actual god to whose majesty reference is being made, so if it is the Nbjesty (of Horus Behdet) then the sign for bm could be god in question the sign will have the determined by the hieroglyph of the god Dm.i or --Drn ; 252 n.XIII - 11 --, 2t in it 74if '1111,15'. Similarly if Re is the

11132,10. Or the word hm , can be No. 51

IV 13,6; also ASAE43,209

Mam.82,4 - your (fem.) majesty.


-,. s servant

Wb 11187 (13-20)Pyr. DG 304,2 1T

Theseservants Edfu canbe subject at or peoples workersof thetempleandits lands thewingeddisk k protects ,Q-; tit given to the king IV 11,14; IVareat their work in the storehouse 15,6; foreign landsare VII, to be servants 73,17; in subduingforeign landsthereis a spell' the servants all landsof the AsiaticsVI of

for 'subjugatings%3w, w39w, h3kw. ibw and 235,6-7.


servant (in a temple) Wb 11188(2-6)

This more specialisedversion of the last word occurs at Edfu in an instiuction about behaviour in the temple, 'do not do evil things against term for temple staff 111361,7. e 'A7.11 e of this house', where it seems to be a general


- priest Wb 11188 (19) to 90 (7) OK


DG 305,1 Cr. 691b; CED288. KH280 ZONT" 'pagan priest

Ile Dm-nir is a class temple and specificdudes termsof service.At Edfu they can go priestwith of of with the it-nLrw into the shrines thegod 2U 11110.4-5; they areassociated with the templeas':

'fl 'il 'It111361 to -.they'pcrfonn purification WLst whereas it-nirw areattached the St-wrt the AN' IV 14,13: andgenerally performtheir duties(Irw) together the templewith nmst vesselstfl of with the it-nirw IV 11,8.Most often they follow the god or king f pjLr-zn-9ms. ,

r ;P VI 348,12-13; i's VI 192.10-11. Accordingto Meeks[OLA 6, p.645,n.1781 hierarchical the orderof priestswas: Vm-nLr, It-njr between rust two can,, w'b. At Edfu theredoesnot seem be sucha difference the to in alsobe usedof the king in certainritualspcrformed the temple,particularlypre-toiletepisodes of the rites [Ibrahim,Kingshipp.1791 Examples include:-II . can be attached a particulargod 11144.8 to overseer priests of 'tl' VII 202.15-, and the priest

n Spdt 11236.1-2. Above all . however. the,,,

is theking IV 55,5


Servant Horus of

A title borneby the king at Edfu in 'pre-toileerituals suchas sn-O, m33-nLr. dw3-nLr [Ibrahim. Kingshippp.179-1811It reflectsthecloseness theking to Horus andmaybe a titlewhich occurs of . in places where an aspectof Ilorus is the main god I[Vernus, Athribis 172 nd and 173 n. 1 compare'

'Edfu the tide m-llr wr w3lity which is Ilorus of Buto ; Reymond ASAE 55,1958 p.911. , examples IV 209,7 ; 210,13; 253.14;V 40,3 ; 49.12 ; 148,10; VI 34,16 ; 76.6 ; 91,2 ; 93.14 : 245.15 VII 59,2 ; 79,13 ; 81.1 ; 87.13; 193.3 with usualspellings ,


ka servant Wb 11190 (12.17) OK

The tm-U is the employee the funerarydomainwho is responsible the upkeep the cult of for of of the deceased.At Edfu it has a more 'ritual' aspect: the ba of HaLhoris Behedety Hathorare i and of the childrenof Re 111301.13. Do J4 1152,8.9


As a title of the king Drahim,

Kingship p. 181-2 ; Blackman, ERE X p.300-301 ; Sauneron , Les 'of his father like the son of Horus' 11131.1; he is the

pratres pp. 108-1101: the king is the LIJ

6 ;P 'good who brings drunkenness' Il 180,10.In this respectthe king maintains the servicesfor the dead king, Osiris, here fulfilling his role as Horus. The king also acted as the tL'9 priest for the bai of the gods,IV 83,9 and he is also said to be the rest VII 166,6. k and w'b

who brings the bas to

bm-gms servant of the falcon image At Edfu hm-gmhs was a title of the king in pre-toilet rituals such as sn. t3, m33-nir, dw3-nLr and had virtually the samefunctions as the bm-Vr. However he had responsibility for the live hawk t at Edfu, impersonating Shu [JEA 29, p. 17 n.e ; p.30 79] and it seemslikely the po, would actually , be filled and performed by a specially chosenpriest. His dudes included performing the rituals (ir-ibt) Nxz VI 153,2; hands to the god Spellings 388,4 VI 262,14 and he observed correct procedures such as,bending his IV 15,2. 56,7 IV 53,8 2 11160,3 ; IV 77,5 ; 208,3 ;

11164,11; VI 76.6 ; 153,2 262,14 VII 87,14 ; 193,3 ; 208,13 *,Mam 24,1 ;

9'9- 11285,10 IV 376,2. ; Ibrahim [Kingship p. 182-3] argued that this was in origin the Lower Egyptian equivalent of Hm-Hr

they were found in their dueplaceson the walls, westand east,, respectively IV 210,13. or and so ; togetherin the samescene VII 193,34 ; VH 87,13-14 VI 76,6. ,

m (16-17) Pyr. Wb 11180 DG 308A e-) 113 4


Jones 200 'steering oae. p.

Cr. 677b; CED283; KH566-ZrAM6 IntheMyth =9kt

VI 80,1 the determinative of the word is the distinctive rudder found at Edfu -

all the sacredbarquesillustrated on the temple walls have rudders withlalcon headtops. ,, A text has the name of the four celestial rudders - sbrn ///// (north); (east ; phr Arn t3wy (west) ; hnt bry-ib bwt7dsr i3bW ry-ib hWt 'bmw

(south) 1524,18 - 525,3.




ball (10-11) Dyn. 18- GR Wb 11193 listed p.139. BorghoutsJEA59.1973 p.114-150. spellings

by Dm3appears Edfu mainly in theRite of lEtting theball, which hasbeendiscussed Borghouts at by (op.cit.). The rite wasenacted theking beforea goddess, usuallyHathor,andtheking strucka ball it. the or a kind of bat in orderto hit it awayandthusremove debase 7be ball symbolised Eye of with Apopisandaltogether instances therite havebeenfoundat Dcir el Bahri,Luxor. Edfu j6dera, 19 of andPhilae. In the sqr. hm3 rite the Edfu examples spelledthus: are ti W .1IV 305,6; 149,4; VI 313,6.7; 162.5 111348.10IV'.

Mythologicallythe stick or bat camefrom theEye of Re andthe tW from the pupil of lie who is in his fire' 162,9-10;. protectionfor the king the Ua I cut off his headto be a says, i is said'to makethe eyeof wn rnrnty bright' IV 149,11;also as a is kicked(khb) IV 305.8; in a slayingthe oryx text . the king, II 7be Vil I 11.1'. tW with its plant dctcrminativcsmay

well be madeof someplant material, perhaps leaves a particularbushare wrappedup into a the of ball 0


salt WbII193(14)ff. 11arris.Minerals p. 189-90

Salt wxused for purification purposes,its main source was in the Wadi Natrum (see.sbt-tm3t). so in the mineral list 0.0 is scatteredin the temple to cleanse it VI 203.8.

bmW. W

craftsmen workers , ';Vb 11183 to 84 (8) (5) DG 303,5vcrbto manufacture Cr.673 b. -,CED 281; K11370

AtEdfuhmw arethe,

dtmjjbAtsl be, %x-, xv%,


their ta*s'

f T-k by


IV 18,9;


V 4,5. All work in the templewasdone


IV 8,9 and the men who worked on the door leaves are the tpy IV 12,8 tII Iley are associatedwith Thoth IV 42,7 and are describedas n-rb (knowledgeable ?) (the . t-j t*': king)tT-IV57,4; IIV 390.7 An return for their work they V1144,13; TTA=7 IV 331,3. receive food

crafts Wb 11184 - 21) OK (9 mt can embraceall kinds of crafts : Hedj-hotepclothes the gods with his buildings are the rIII -1 1 127,6 II

king as his reward1109 no.1; the templeis Ziff given to the 1329,13

27,8; a priest is wr


uterus (1-3) Wb 11176

The difficulty over this word Dmt 'woman' and bm t 'cattle!is that the signs ,


to write themmay alsobe readidt. Fairman[JEA 29 p.26 n.101readsomeinstances the sign and of the bi-valve shell . as hmt andotherscouldhavebeenidrt. The word 2, T 0` andits variantsis a LE

, 7tjs in 'cow"female animal'. Owing to the similar useof Q'. mt of writing 1% and , by Fairman is a writing oft-and with or without the flesh determinative could it given examples alsoreadbrut 'uterus'aswell as'cow'. inundatibn Examples:thepersonified land)andcreates with his 'vulva!(theinundated watercopulates %; Z7 1581,15;a paralleltext to the last againthe inundationcopulates with 14 children d, a. createhis children111102,2, that 14 so to

Bull 7are andQ---. variantsof eachother; the Engendering

in the semen '93, the uterus,to createthe egg VII 116,34; the bull who makesfertileig plants CL wombs1575,15; 298,34. Sk you flood the wombs (?) with semenfrom the phallusIV

597 Wb Med. p'. readsthe sign 11=7 as hmA 'uterus'but givesct feference the possiblereading to idA in AEO 11258* ff. HereGardinerconcludedthat therewas a preference reading for as

idA, but'the matterwasvery far from settle(f.It maybe in fact that theEgyptianswereflexible asto


how they read thesesignsand that by the GR period dernanded context

be read hmt md idt as could


cows Wb HI 76 (4-14) be read as bmwt or idrt but the meaning is clear: can also ,

Lusty bull copulating (sm3) with the cows

ViNt" 111134.1; Amun as a bull impregnates (Ls)

(nk) with 1575,14-15;Amun as a bull copulates as offeringsand

!, -', 'rn?

Lj V 85 11-12;Bulls arebrought

from the udders landstreams their milk EMam.139,17;the watered with

!01V311IV 26,8-9;the Sb3t cow bringsto the king bulls and 1419.6-7 ;a Of its COWS L c, , a Yri? the L andall their calvesIV 25,13;V 49,5-6; whenthe divine bull appears gift is madeof him Vil 204,7;VII 226,8. rejoice at seeing



(16) to 78 (15) Pyr. Wb 11176 DG. 306,2 41 f *2e::

Cr. 385 a; CE6 283 : KH 371 Omt can be clearly written : belliesof 12 worshipthe god to d them IV 11,9 W 42,9: during the New Year festival women' of Peand Dep VI 83,2 ; men,with no womenamong)

IV 267,5-a spellingrecallingthe last two words.71c parallel to L3w which occurs J

hereis usuallyOmt so this would seemto be the reading. k7 In certainotherinstances

,q=-o III

reads as'female': in theslaughter crocodiles 'I slay their females of

'IV 211,11- 212,1. I

mt is the word forwife, especially :I usedin the fid,.sof queens

the queenis often called snt-mt 'sisterwife 1140,10Arsinoe; 1421,7,; 412,9 ; 537,5 Cleopatra; 119,11Cleopatra hmt-biti the wife of the King of Lower Egypt, a tide of Cleopatraj tQ when sheintroduces

nomes LowerEgyptbeforethe godsIV 21,7. of hmt-nsw is4f wife of the king of UpperEgypt, a title of Cleopatra the whensheintroduces


nomeof UpperEgyptIV 43,4. mt-nsw wife of the king (Wb 11177 to 78,4) which is often the title of the queen: Arsinoe UIL Osiris 1311,7; Hathoris ; tt wrt of of & the winged disk 1526,15 . Ptolemaicqueenscontinuedto bear this traditional title dong with who [Troy, Queenship, 193C2/2]. goddesses weretheir divinecounterparts p. bmt-nir [Troy, Queenship 188 s god! wife - queen(Wb 11178,14-15) GR also of goddesses p. 12 I of PtolemyIV 1247 (lintel) ; Isis is b 'ex AM

132/251. This title continuedin useat Edfu but was applied more to goddesses with the political cl importanceof the title bmt-nir long sincehavingdiminished: IJ .tf I., Hathoris J. 150,7 236,10of Hathor,'g " of Re-Harakhty -L-7 . 111341,4


Wb 11185(1-2) Med. CED283,, KH373(notCr. ) ? MHP 'the crafts of the mouth'.

The term mwt-0

from mt 'crafts, skill' so this is literally originated ,

that is magical utterancesand spells. The word occurs at Edfu : 'I praise you, my mouth contains 1238,15-16; a goddesshas the best utterancesand good A) 1286,15; VI 235,8

the enemy attack VI 236,4. The Jim-Ur priest is described as one who knows U are said when and worships his lord VII 87,13 ; the king is 'One who is complete in spells the king is also, like Thoth the Tj 19 jt9l, * '141,15-16

one who reckons the spells VI 332,8.

It also seemsto be a word used to mean 'et cetera!in the closing formula of a recitation or spell I 'I give to you joy Id 11166,12;He shall not die becauseof thern VI 264 9.

Borghouts [OMRO 51 p.55 n.51] believed that hmwt-r3 was a blanket term to coverbad' spells so that they need not be explicitly statedand thus perhapsactually have some force: VI 265.11 ; 267,17 332,7-8. In the Pap.Leiden' 348 the phrase is determined with abad'sign so that in this case

it may be perfectly fair to treat it as 'evil utterances'.At Edfu however it does not appear witli this kind of determinative so it may retain a'good'sense. The hieroglyphic term may be connectedwith a term term bmr in demotic self-dedication texts [H.Thompson, JEA 26,1940 pp.68-78'1. - -

Wb 11180(12) GR lists a word Omt 'evil', harm with one example ,


I MD IV 79 In fact ; -V

" this mayreadhmwt. r3 andis an example thatword with hostilesense indicatedby Borghouts. of as -,


At Edfu the nearest this sense the to occursin a list of men,gods,ghosts, deadthencdd and this may be a variant of Vmw-r3 VI 301,1.


A curious word occurs in a text for rth p't : j1d mdw'hr TC- A'St ti n bftyw 4 sl rnsn,

r nbtsn m ry w3d 'say the word over the images of four foes, their names written on their chests in green ink VI 235,5. The meaning seemsclear, theseare execration figures, but the origin of the word is unclear. It maybe related to bmt 'craft, implying it is something 'made or 'fashioned' or it could refer to a 'vessel'type figure of a foreign foe and derive from 'vessel'.


variation mnowy'butchee of WbIH 96(1-2) GR

[JEA30,79 n.N 6 Thisis a variant formof mnhwy with thesame meaning , 1't' 1464,14; slaughter r3-geese

the t-tS--

liarethemasters theslaughter blockof Re1470.1; of pieces of

52.%* 11234, *, monstrous aretheseven butchers &7 by the genii offeringmeat chopped are up MT"". 1 Sakhmet 511,10. "'controUedbythegoddess


seat, throne Wb 11196 GR (5)

According to Kuhlman this is a loan word from the scmitic verbal root bmI 'to carry' so that it should really refer to the portable throne of the king Pbron p.58]. At Edfu bmr is used as a general variant forthrone: his the king is firmly established upon lt ft. X

/// in the throne room VI 338,11; as thesonofReheisupon C-3 of Horus .1 King of Lower Egypt the king appearsin the.Jc-": '1z1=5 of the Lord of the 0 the great VII 128,5; as U (who is HB) VII 42,16 ft Z A'" & ft if C_-a is a name of the whole temple where

Horus is united with Re VII 23,7; the choice of hmr is governed by the fact that it fits with the alliteration of the passagebmr-tlr of bn bwt-nir r b3'yt 111205,13 ; the king bums the opponents

A- 9- , it being firmly fixed under him like Re VI 292,13; an instruction to the king 'Sit , a Whe throne I'l 538,16 upon z! .


However,two scenes Edfu showa portablethroneand the text underthem designates at them as bmr. Both showa 'basket' platform upon which a simple box thronerestsand the king or HB sits uponthis, to be carriedby six Bas,3 of Pe and3 of Nekhen.E XIV pl.DLII = VI 93,9HB is upon his thronein MJ foes. KuhlmannotesthatMedinetHabuIV p1197 the earliestrepresentation this thronebut theactual is of word may not occur until the Templeof Taharqa Karnak [Taharqa 58 n. 35 1 wherethereare at p. tracesof a word which ends(01-11. and could well be a throne.The word continuesinto the, 19-and DLCVIII = VI 292,13the king is carriedon a throneblastinghis pl.

Ptolemaic period at the temples of Denderaand Philae(D 1180,3 ; 113,17 ; 179,11 Philae , 17). <111>Phot.

retreat (8) FCD 169c.f. Wb 11179 Pyr. refs. 41'At Edfu, foes are warnednot to treadin the Houseof Horus and they are ordered 55,18.The word is writtenin reverse imaginatively its and makes meaning clear. VI


to slay , to mutilate ? WbIII96(9-10) GR

ftj ---*-

As bms alliterateswith Hmty, a namefor Seth, is usedin association it with it: = VI 63,7 tq -*IV 343,8-9 VII 45,12


VI 62,5

VIII 26,15

VI 62,5. To 'slay the coward'thedb3 or rn'b3 harpoonweapons be used,and in orderto extend can the alliteration the hmt harpoonis used, VII 148,7; Z -;;: VII 159,4-5.Sometimes

AqA bm ty as a specificanimalcanbe slaughtered tortoise :a

tv IV-306,8or hippopotamus = . k VII 202,8 ", VII 168,15-16 Other foes canbe slain in this way : bryw . .'

In a text the king is compared Horus who presents testiclesof Sethto Hathor as a menat the to necklace . ms then may refer to the mutilation of Seth rather than his killing 0k; " 1\ 265,15-16; the king as sonof Hathor vii

cuts up ? the body of her foes137,3,- where -

the implication is that the term doesnot mean'to kill' , only 'to cut, mutilate!.



to sit
Wb 11196(13) to 98 (22) Pyr. DG 308,5 ,xb-; ->IcmCil'

Cr.679a; CED284; KH373

This word hasregularusesat Edfu, with not unusual spellings: tt 46,8 I' 'Sit with thosewho arein the shrines IV 49 , 5-6.

he sits uponyour altar IV

bms-m.wbl to cat offerings cC Wb 1349(7) Late-GR like At Edfu this phraseappears a fairly commonsynonymfor lo eaein paraUel as with phrases /A 102,13-14; bwwt Normally it it is usedof ibt offeringsbeingeatm rdi-m. . t 2o" ' &A 2w V 102,8; 3,2-3; V 15 225.3 VII 161,6-7; BB . &Tkillvll265,5-6. C=III 128,6; . ,q=W orbtpw offerings: -! -It&5'i1519,16-17;. ., v -- 1189,5-6 The ba 41 1 %AL 119,12-13. C= uponthe serekh eatswithout stopping %dw . 2,41 JbV&j 1117,9 in the mechanics eating- you openyour throatto of . T wV



food partner, Justas thereareU figuresandk3w food so Omswtmay haveastheir corresponding , msw. It seemsto be no earlier than Edfu, at the moment,and it is clearly a late invention to
U6 balance the k3-k3w pair. At Edfu the god is said to have made sufficient - *- %11 is Lord of k3w and numerousin Iand the winged beetle I VI 317.2-3. 11197,11,,

From the contexts of theseexamples bmsw are food or provisions and the first example is in the 14 kas text being one of the attributes of JIM ,


femininelife force, personified femaledeitiesparticularlyin birth scenes. as Wb 11195 (7-8) GR

bmswt are the femaleopposites the ka and in origin may havebeennaturegoddesses were who to i''" functions.Their name life created the command Ptahand exercised creatingandlife preserving at of for be derivedfrom the verb bms to sit' and theseare the royal midwivesresponsible "sitting may


waiting" for the divine royal baby to be born. The word is determined or written with the shield crossed by two arrows, the symbol of the goddess Neitland in some way early on Neith and the mswt becameassimilated [U. Schweizer, Ka p. 59 ff. ]. They are protective goddesses who personify the primeval mound which Neith as the goddess of the primeval flood created (sitting-settling goddess).Together with the male kas they bring food offerings. symbolising the fertility of the earth as midwives they grant the king good ittributes and decree his fae. In temple scenesof offering and bearers male kas alternate with female Dmswt figures who have the shield and crossed arrows upon

[LA H p.1117-11191. their heads In Edfu texts Ptahis saidto fashionkas and make Edfu cl LD IV 33e. , 11134,17 for Hemsutscenes at ,


temporary embalming booth

(10-13) LateandGR Wb 11194 by At Dendera thereis a room calledthe Dmgandat Edfu the word is determined rTN which can booth,which wasoriginally erected nearthe tomb,where and a represent chamber alsoa temporary D
the body could be embalmed before moving the short distance to the tomb for burial [Chassinat, Khoiak 481486]. bmg is used as an epithet of Osiris statue CGC 700 line 4 the governor of Tanis is priest of Osiris ZY [Montet, Mmi 7 p. 141] and the pr-hmg or hwt-om3g 1334,11 [Cauville J>, rj UrkVIII seems to

have been the name of a local abaton references]. The word maybe connected with a verb

Essai p.223 nA with ,

15,12-13 which seemsto

(Wb only protect 11194,9 thisexample). mean from At Edfu,in thepresentation a necklace king is equated lp-ib (Thoth)whocomes the with of
the booth in his role as This maybe a connection Thoth with the embalming rn 111175.9. of

( heartandin this contextWb records word bm3g 'scales! Wb 1119416). a the weigherof the


redstone (1) Wb 11195 c f. 99 (10) (12) and 174(21) Harris,Lex. p.118-120

Elephantine, desert theregionaround and A darkred stonefrom theEastern usedto makeamulets and beads possiblygarnetor sard.At Edfu it is usedto fill the eye VIII 137,4= Phill


1106 (8)


coppcr Wb 11199seeW Harris,Minerals pp.5"2 Cr. 678a; CED 203; KH 372 Zor54T, ZOMT

The word written

may possibly be read as b 13(q. v.) or bm ty "iron or 'coppee. While the

is still unresolved Copticwordfor copperis ZOtfNT which would seemto derive the problem from bmty andowing to thearchaic to preferences theEdfu texts. it would sccinpreferable read of

3 asbmty coppce .
7be metalis usedto decorate temple: the door leaves the templeare workedwith of the Asia VU 19.9-10 the flag polesare workedwith and &7 VII 19, a3a Of

the templedoor bolts ,

) VII 7,5 thedoor leaves of beaudful **& Vil 7,4.5 . areof are *** ,
Harris argued that V

I (a crucible) was to be read mlY . or the Re and refers to copper and copper

) was used as an ideogram for copper. a conventional sign rcprcscnting 17. ores . In the GR period from the hieratic perhaps.However using alliteration it can be shown that at Edfu 17 was confused

3).*.` IV 343.8-9; fl also'read hm'ty : oms.n. kimty m

238,15 - 239,1; msnty Ow timty mPl! =Vl 239.7.

n msnty w. n.f IImty VI


Wb 11180(8-11) MK. Late. GR Cr. 681a: CED284; KH566 ZLJMT

At Edfu bmty is a commondesignation Scth : he is drivcn away Om of -m from the templeof flous VI 68.13 , he is killed h. m3 t9lllso lk. 11; otirl harpmn'hw IF VI 239.7 he is struck by a w

VI 759'14 9-

tl 'T -'0 VI 63.i VI 62,5 -, is caughtup in a nct VI 67c. 7 1114.13; a

ItYl X-7 -7

r-P retreats(Dm) from the temples 1539,6; he can be shownas a tortoise hippopotarnus-"atMI 168,16;or in Seth-form tt

VI 239.1. Also - Ilorus tkn 4C-I


m w3y.f 560,13a phrase also usedas the narneof the 2nd lanceof the king VI 65,8.

From the writing of the word in origin it must be connected with Vmt 'woman'. yet the


determinative implies something male

Kadish consideredwhether it could refer to a eunuch

especially as in the myth of Horus he castrates Seth, having defeated him in the fight [G. Kadish, Eunuchs in Ancient Egypt, Studies for J.A. Wilson, 1969 p.55-62]. A defeated foe may even have been sexually violated by the victorious army as a form of humiliation [c f. P. Ch.Beatty 112,31 and this violent homosexual rape may be implied in the contemptuous term mty. The word bnity normally occurs in war-like texts and Wb 11180 (6) has a word 4m Ia forbidden unnatural act', written 1333,8 ; 330 j and Geog.Pap. pl. 11 Frag.26 which is determined here with a

fallen enemy and a phallus [c L P.Montet, Mini 11,1950 p. 85-116]. There is also a word in Coptic , Cr. 681 ? shame, disgrace (Isaiah 30.3,5 OVILCoS but not in a perverse way). At Edfu _1jM-r

the word is often qualified by the demonstrativepfy a term of disdain and contempt 'that Dnity'. Te Velde suggeststhat it meant 'homosexual'or 'effeminate one' as a derogatory term and this fits with, the nature of the determinatives and perhaps practice in battle - those who are vanquished are contemptuously treated [Seth, pA4 ;cL also Winter in Tempel und Kult p.70 and n.201.


marsh plant Wb 111100(1-4) Pyr. Wb Drog. p.351-2 ; Charpentier 762-763

In the Edfu texts

and mnbw are offered together V 3,6 -,Hekat is raised up on a V 24,11-12 Dittmar notes that this is .

1309,8; the path of the king is hidden in

found in plant or flower offering scenes in GR temples and only at Edfu does it occur in rarely papyrus offerings: it can be -connectedwith jwf V 295,10-11 and w3d VII 173,6 - so it is probably, -, a type of papyrus or. similar marsh plant. The tomb of Rekhmire has tnw and lotus plants as gifts of

the Delta (Urk. IV 1074,16)[Blumen 56,3A]. p.

n plants can be made into a bouquet (Wb 111100,7-8; Charpentier 765): the king goes with +IV' 'I before Horus IV 31,2 Jj9P-


plant capital columns 'holding u'p the sky 111264,11; same text and

At Edfu 3 column text compares god to a

J,*V T III 264,15.7his is a column derived from the word hn for a plant, indicating that the, variant


stone columns weretruly replicas vegetation. of


to grow Wb 111100(10) GR

Only one example : the lotus grows in the marshes 'Ir 443,17.

probably derived from

n 'a plant! Ii


protect 1 Wb 11110 (7-11) Pyr GR

Pn occurs often at Edfu particularly when it alliterates with other elementsof sentences. Protected things : b'w limbs' Places : hwt-nir tj 11r-IIrw temple 6L 8V 289,15 (here by the diadem goddess) VHI 63.3-4 M VII 106,16; IIV J11,4;, 98.11 ; -V

L 111202,15;

V 322,1 ; 43yt sanctuary 8rIV 235,3 , tlwt-bik

VI 14 2-3 (of Horakhty) I tr Mansion of the Falcon JLN

Horus of the Horuses

-!!!, V 319,17;
Xb v


11133,15 kir Wadjetprotecu Iforus ;


V 327,2 ; Unt-l3bt tj

VIII 147,10. ...

derivesfrom theobject, The ideaof protection by the sign 1 represented

Accordingto Wb this is .

a casketor box which would 'protecethingskept insideit. It is also interestingthat the tn plant is' thoughtto be henna, which is usedasa prophylactic.


to provision, to supply Wb 111101 -6) Pyr. (1

ne king

1- rills

milk vesselsV 125.5(but also q.v. n' 'to fill')


provide life with Wb111102 (5) -103

Thisphrasemeans 'equipped life = refreshedvital' : theking is with , oncethelimbsof theking arepurifiedhe is 305.9 VI 153,4: ka of theking is the

VII 315.4-5;. VI



Thephrase be treated a sdm.f sentence split up: can as and 1 tj,, beingpure 1470,16; also1115,21.

your ka is providedwith life

AlthoughWb putsthis phrase heading a verb On'to be fresh'andperhaps undera separate similar, of to wn' be young' it doesnot seem necessary.


to visit, walk in Wb 111103(6-19) NK, GR

At Edfu : the gods Epiphanes


the necropolis of'Behdet IV 123,5; the king is commanded

by Hathor '%V Tr-A Visit the Mansion of Re! ' (the s3w. n. sn accompany him and the Ennead) IV 53,10 ; HB his 3yt-room VI 262,17 -263,1; the priests carrying standards f14 -A visits er the fields (h nbw) 1321,13 .

the temple 1538,6; the Nile (hbbt)


canal which unites with the mouth

DG IV 33., Canaland pol of the nomeof Lower Egypt (Diospoliteinferior) (Sm3-Bhdt). At Edfu: '17th hasthe Wadj-Werupsidedown upon V 24,4 .

3:c the barquesailson the canalhere1334,12 the h3w-nbw IV 35.10

bringsthe r3w-3w. f which flood the fi-rbyt


pots, vessels Wb111106 (18-22)OK DG 313,3 -5; D W

At Edfuthese vessels in are whichare, used therituals iry-raw of Re fills thekin9' Ir 9 's

IV of thegod's relics/rite 9.9 the

IV 45.5; Slit gives the king his houseand all the tj Ir

in it IV 43,15. As holdersof specific relics of Osiris : in the Antaeopolitenome the containsthe finger of Osiris 1340,10;at Xois the The determinativesU, U

containthe rdw of Osiris 1331,11.

show that a vesselof-either kind is intendedthoughWb M 106

(18-22) recordsa word nwty 'a drinking cup'_which more speific,and Coptic hasthe general is term ZNAC4)y (Cr.692b; CED 289 KH 380) which derivesfrom Dnw 'pots' and has the more generalmeaning'things'. The word was usedof vessels, often madeof metal which were usedin


mortuary and temple rituals [du Buisson,Vasespp.65-68 with various shapes].


barqueof Sokar sacred Wb 111109(12-13) Pyr. ]ones, Glossaryp.252

From the earliest texts bnw is the portable barqueof Sokar . the high prow has a bull head (facing r forward) and an antilope head(facing backward) Horizontal crossstaysflank the front end which can. . be adorned with fish and a row of falcons. In the centre of the boat is a domed cabin. with a mummified ? falcon on it. Three steeringoars are at the stem. It is supportedon a mnj-sledge and from its runners 4,6 or 8 vertical strashold the barque [LA 111119-1120(KAK)I. From the O'K to''

Romantimesit wascaffiedby 16priests theSokarfestivalheldon the 26th to the 24Lh Akhet in of [Gaballa Kitchen,OrienWia38,1969,p.1-76). and At Edfu : Sokargoesaroundhis city in 81Y161 -qt_X VU31,16; Sokarisin 140,1- in theMaking Sokarappear ceremony

1182 no 38

it By extension canalsobe a word for Sokarhimself: the king is a child fashioned victory by7'. for k1lee IV 86,16; the king is the sonof *Lf in 11296,5; Ilenu appears Edfu as one who OkLF VI 141.5-6 the two appear shineslike gold together- the s-nLr chapelof and Sokar(Henu)in the Henuboat1177.3.


mistress . lady Wb 111107(12) - 109 (8) Pyr DG 313.5 X- t 1

T A femaletitle foundin epithets goddesses queens HaLhor is : of and

of alI the gods(passim) Ir AMwho proiets 0 d's of the Go' of the library I of the

115,5 ; Hekatis V -e14 andNb t of the Pr-Nsr IV 51.2 ; Isis as Sothisis her brotherIV 99,12-13 *,Tcfnut Po
I rz

0 of all the gods1561,15;Hathoris dCb

land 1555,15;Nckhbetis 365,8;Hathor

of Upperand Lower Egypt 164.6; Seshat

of the sistra1170,3;Hathoris

Ilathor 2 Of music 1234,15,

124"t plumedcrown 1244,4; ivith'following adjective : Onw. Wt - nameof a minor goddess in Khent-labet1307,1. Ior haveIV Signsof women,eithergoddesse's queens, often to so their heads, it Seems potsupon


be a symbol of ferninity and the nw may have a particular female use. -pot


conjunction and, preposition with Wb III 110(12) to III end. Pyr. DG 31215 .9

JunkerGrD. 200 preposition (1) together (4) (3) with (2) with someone to unite with someone (1) eingeschlossen 85 conjunction of connected words- (Two Landsandbanks)(2) in orderto emphasisecertainword. a TheEdfu textsfollow this pattern thewritingsat Edfu are and
I "--j

The writings with the -=, -

for example 9,12 seemto suggest in pronunciation VI that the'1,4 =-r. As the prepositionbr can also be used M w - C=; are simply

by wasbecomingobsolete replaced and

as a conjunction,it is often difficult to decidewhetherwritings suchas

in writings of r or bn' . It may be that the two hadbecome assimilated, speech any rate while in at writing an attemptwas madeto makea distinction.c f. Coptic 7-1 hn' is alsousedafter certainverbs: he takescounselfrom V from the utterances 19A. IV counselaboutit (Cr.644b)'witW .

(with) his heartIV 15.9 he takes


compound preposidon Wb 111112 (14) NK, GR CED 18; OsingJEA 64, p.187

JunkerGrD 235 (1) by near joined with (2) to at at the side (3) from , , . , , The Edfu textsfollow the Dendera pattern: the diademrests

the king IV 13,9;theyjoin

IV 17,10;unite c=-'=- 4 me I IV 53,8 Also spelled -=- )LIC ,-. S. them .

Caminosgives a possibleearly 18thDynastyexampleof r-bn' [Taleof Woe p.-2, pl. 16,21


to fill Wb 111112 (7-9) GR

Wb citesonli examples from Edfu andbendera,usuallyat Edfa it is followed by ihe preposition m


0 with' and a variety of vessels can be filled with different substances, so it is not specific.


Filled with water : ts vessels

I --j

Y,Otm Nun 178,3 ;I Tra = with ==

Mile water VU 205,10-11; ---1 VII

Nile water 13230 ; lLnm vesselfilled with 205,9. Filled with unguents : hbw vessels Wa

mw-rn p 1485,6 cl.

with tifP3 1381,15-16;

with tknw

566,6.1 Filled with other substances nmst arefilled : f 191.

i7 with'wy bm.nlr IV 14,12; mnw vessels



Ttv"l 71,17 nw ; vessels


with their contentsIV 45.5 ; filled with b'w-nir ,

The originsof the word areuncertain.on' is thesign f

thebulls headandtluuu, and it cameto

rcpresent'fill' perhaps ideathatin eatingthethroatis filled which led to bn' in generalmeaning the 'to fill'. bnI may be a variantwriting of On 'to provide = to rill' and the added dialectic variation. In P.Rhind 1111,9 demodcword mh -to rar is written as the may be due to Ut

in the hieratictext and this seems providea link between 'to rill, provide'and On' with the bn to

d4t sign also meaning'tofill'[Mollcr. P.RhindI p.24 * no.1581. Ile word also occursat Denderaandfrom herecomesthe only exampleof bn" throat!: njdm bnr CD 125 1-2 which may howeverbe a miswriting of bngg .


to drive away (foes) Wb 111113(3) BD, NK, GR

hnb according to the Wb islo drive back foe'and it occurs as early as the Book of the Dcad: IU'


BD 145e, it is thenauested at'Edfu:


drive back the foe from the bank

of HebenuVI 116,5; the king comesto HD to

his foes1361,8-9.


to sacrifice slay , Wb 111113(15) GR

Wb notesa word in GR templetexts bnb'to slay' offering animals(Wb 1111134) with a Dcndera, example:10 he slays enemiesin their skins MD IV 73,22and this may bc'the sameas *-J


bnbb 'to slay. The word occurs at Edfu, Dendera and Kom Ombo. and usually has a knife determinative and the object is either an oryx or antilope, making the meaning fairly clear :I oryx VII 323,14-15; VI 239,4; Horus 'Va you'VIII 105,16. is pre-eminent in klwt-isbt J inh in Hebenu VI 9,1; "" hnty the crocodile on his bank remove his head before

K. O. 11115; c.f. also OLJ

I 4. J VJ The word also appears in the name of a Horus : Horus (Edfu) VII 29,17.

15 bnbbWnostlikely derived from Vnb'drive away', having had the final radical duplicated and giving the whole word more force 'to slay'.


to measure

Wb 111113 from Bersheh 13,11 (10) H

The Bershch reference is from a description of the qualities of the vizier bnb ntt-iwtt 'He counts those who have and have not'. At Edfa h- , the king has come to measurethe Temple >c

and build the throne room 1454,5, so the meaning of 'to measure' or 'to inspect' would best fit the context here.


meadow, garden Wb 111112(16-17) D. 18 GR --

This seems to be a measured parcel of land which could be flooded and cultivated [c.f. Grenier, Hom. Sauneron I p.3891 : the 4Q,Tr the 1 17 IV 9,9; the king opens the bloom (wbg) for your majesty IV 126,4; god walks in for the gods of Upper Egypt 117,10 in the circuit of his

are filled with Ow food IV 242,10; the falcon promises to increase

VIII 107,15-16 and ML I VIII 146,5 implying it was land cultivated near to the city or within city its boundaries The land could be flooded 1 ! 5 J watered by the Nile 1582,1 and it was kept III . Amoist: there is no dryness in

1 11254,1. The donation texts give a reckoning of the list of , and best

of Egypt VII 247,10 the beautiful akhet-field is brought with the

17-, ', 1' for the hnls-meadows 1468,8; Shu evaluates (,, of the upper Egyptian gods 117,10. The vp) b word also occurs at Dendera I where the king is wr-onbt 11tcr D 1146,5-6 and Hathor is 13-Onbt


I iurj tD 11186,16.


crop from the bnbwt VU 300,7 and the determinative indicates this is akind

At Edfu a god is content with

of grain crop and as it is similar to bnbwt 'garden'it may be a particular crop which could be grown th=.


back) to drive away, cut up (beat

Possiblya writing of h. but the uses not quite the same in puns : the tinp, a benerlccnt nb, are 12r. k deity, troubleIV 98,11-12, theking says'I havetrG the I.Inp snake V 87,2. and 1 1(33" In othercontexts: trouble W 141,1:r'-(] TV 292,14-15 ; 'net- the rkyw-foes gods hr r-a drive awayyour spcUs/powers 61,1.2 :Ii IV rIV lp" r

3ytl nt h. k in alliterationIV 66.14(meatoffering), so thesecontainthe ideaof 'driving away' m. bad,andtheknife determinative givethe wordmorepotencyto actuaUy'dcstroy' something may what it comesinto contactwith.


to fish AW-j VI 56.8-9 (c f. Mocks, RdE 25,

At Edfu the verb is used of a net 'fishing' the Yn-wr-Occan

p.213 n.7 'to catch fish, drag a netl. The parallel text to this ex=ple uses the verb dbh which also , means'to fish'. The verb does not appear in Wb but c f. Urk VI 23.13 , given as'pervade of the name of Amun (Wb 111313.7). which in Wb is


guardiansnakeat Edfu Wb 111113(5) GR

"- W 13 At Edfu : the tr

drive away(np) troubleIV 98,1; 'vo Ennead of the

dri'c aw' ay v IV 98,12

(bnp) jImty- SethIV 284,5and they live in the Mansionof the Iforuses tw-w13

1.1343.7; in the Heracleopolitan the the king is a nomethe king increases offerings for the 6-I tr child of who drives away foes IV 237,8and similarly the king killing Nk ii the 1~jWj2'kMam.E 77', 'Iie t'P is also mentioned Dcndera:1... I&-protccts the body 18. at child of snake


the of the king MD IV 73. Goyon [BIFAO 75,1975 p.374 n.2 describes god textsUrk.VI 15(5), 83(11)asa helperof Re. contemporary The 4nb is clearly a beneficentsnakedeity, one of the 't'yw (IV 284,5


responsiblefor the

protectionof the king andtheremovalof his foes.It maybe confused with*DnP.


Sethian serpentdeity 1 '17 krt41 E3 'V 87,2. The serpent here has

At Edfu : the king says 'I have driven away (hnp)

hostile associations for the determinative is a dead or fallen snake and it is clearly something 14 le 144 P This seemsto be the only reference (but cCP. Br. Rh. 27,24 unwanted. be an invention by the Edfu scribesto provide an effective alliteration with bnp. ) and it may


to worship Wb 111114(2-3) D.22 iandGR

The word occurs twice in the Hymn to Ptah from P.Berlin 3049,14a-3 (with n) and 2,8 (with Dr Me spelled It also occurs at Edfu: 'praise (i3w) to your fac, Yto your majesty

1373,16. The meaning is clear and in origin may be a metathesisof bf(3)-n 'to revere!.

hnm. t

goddess beer of Wb 111114(5) GR

One reference Edfu :Ij at



1211,1 most likely in fact to be a mistakefor ,

tnmmt [so Junker, Stundenwachen 82]. p.


sun people Wb 111114(6-13) Pyr.., CED284 14MEY (AK)pl. =men

describe the people or priesthood of Heliopolis , it Though originally a word used to specifically Egyptian people (on the RossettaStone the phrase becamea general term for mankind -and early Atyum y is translated T 6t, Ev

)[see AEO I 98*ff. ] The uses at Edfu reflect all . , *"t A Pj *11 Asia bow down to IV73,15-16; these nuances : Heliopolis of the of, of


9R'# III 1169; for theking of Egypt.herea generalterin People in a list of the peopleof Egypt k2:

live in Egypt T3-mrl V 156a,

I the p't and rbyt VI 293,10;Hadw is at appcar with

AP--- +a VI 268,12andHomsis thegoodprotector headof the of&T=-11'S1 VH49,1-2. the $is see ffl26me Erom eyeof HB 1249a. perhaps opposed rmt from the', to the as Mythologically eyeof Re.


hoe, pick Wb 111114 (16) Pyr, GR

This is an ancient word forhoe! and refersespecially to the hoe used in foundation ceremonies.T'he texts describing the rituals about foundation ceremonies,breaking the earth and so on, may be some of the oldest known (c.f. the rituals on the 'Scorpion Macehead) and so the use of archaic words like Onn in the Ptolemaic texts concerning theserituals should not be surprising : the king says, I receive, my 1160,8 and the parallel text, 'I hold the j Nz VII 45,16. The

accompanying scenes (XII 371) shoW'thehoe

and it is used to break up the earth so that the

foundation site for the temple could be laid out. It would have been made of wood in practice [L)L 11 9241.


trouble , misfortune Wb 111115(7) Late and Wb 111130 (23) ea DG 314,5 I d-ZOOOLCA1446 Abydos

Cr. 693a; CED289; KH381

Wilson suggested that a phrase found in the Battle of Kadesh inscriptions Poem 1.5. read as Owny-r-Dreltimately

became the Coptic ZOWLE Yeae (J.A. Wilson, ZAS 68

(1932) p.561. Some of the earliest examples of the phrase come from the MK (P. Milligen 2.2-3 Adm. 12,41wherethey seem to refer to the first onslaught or a sudden attack in battle. At Luxor, in Ill' the Kadesh inscriptions the phrase was written I. II A-5 'ao-li and 111.4 '? 4- taken to

mean 'striking against'the face' and with the nuance of 'turmoil. m1lW. Myer thieves killed in the'mal6e'and the Bentresh Stela 125 has

A 13 B, 3 refers to

'panic'. The word is found at

Edfu in much the iame kind of contexts, although the spelling is hr-n-hr = On4 . It seemsto derive,


from the earlier phrasethough there is the possibility it is to be literally read'face-to-face'. In martial contexts: -Eg, be in' I rq Lower teffor and ypt the king is free fr6 "'L I'Ill YeaeIV 285,7; 'Do not let the King of Upper Tnm (Seih) is in mQ 00 IV


OtrQv 0 6"4, SF'- VI 131,3 78,1; and

occur in the same phrase' a winged beetle in writing

shaJIbe made on his breast when'he sees'the fray' VI 133,1. The appearance- the extra 7. in the' of latter writing is to help to make the word look symmetrical [ASAE 43,252 1.171 There is also be a verbal form of this noun : the temple is protected by containing the bnw-barque and the bd-foes are I 'Ucr in his slaughterhouse VII 31,16'. I%NrO 7--'F'DIII 134,1-2 and there is .

'U The word is found at Dendera too: the day of fear/turmoil so

also a demoiic form hnubet [Griffith-Thompson, Demotic Magical Pap. 17,*19=panic]

nksty i

hair womanwith braided = Hathor (15) GR Wb 111120

The meaning derivationfrom a word Dnsktybraid!,seem;clearbut therearea number further of and latederivatives. oftenappears Dendera whereit refersto Hathorandto theTwo Sisters Isis and It at . ,
Nephthys. At Edfu the main use of Onksty is as a general word forwomen' or perhaps dancers of this town V 351,10 I ddress when his' Wco'n is lord of th.e hea. I 6. dD 1199,5-6. I' is tae titl of goddesses: in ao, L4y '8; 'and Hathor is cL -' IV of darknessVI 268, &1 1548,16 ;I giVe

adore his ka IV 38,10; Hathor ismistress of Litany of Sakhmet, she is P--D the

311,16 The word is also used to refer to the uraeus(Wb 111121,2):I -to' .
o ty ou 0 4ck

shining on your brow (=uraei) 1424,2.


Wb 111169 (11-20). Wb Drog. 372 Pyr. DG 314,6 ?-i= Cr. 691a; CED228'; KH379

', l

bnqt is used at Edfu in the specific beer offering texts and is a commonly offered gift inmore'general

in offering rites,reflectingits importance theEgyptiandiet [LA 1789-7921.


Menkct 1151,6: 1 AtEdfu: beeris madeby Menket 1114,1; 1365,14; IV 261,10, orTenmetand from Npyt 1459,9-11.In return for the 241,8; 176,2 ; or Ilathor 1462,5 -,11180.13 or it comes . drunkenness, upon appeararFe beertheking receives suchgiftsasfieldswith theirproduce, offeringof in battle The ideaof victory in battlemay imply that the beer was to give the thronc and valour . Ibc Dutch courageandso enable righterto succeed. gift of dnmkennce-s be futhcr qualified by can a 71459,1If. free from n1n-lb 11180,9f. wd in ft last text the being free from h3w 'hangovee , king is theLord of Drunkenness receivesdnmkenness againdnmkennc&. who and in Beeris presented dsrw -vessels 1367,14 .I The connection between beerandfestivals emphasised is beermadeon the festival of lpet is where given IV 261,10; the beneficent genii of Edfu receivebeerso that they may rejoice and drink IV V 253,8; Hathoris offeredbeerwhensheis Ladyof harpPlayingandonewho exultsin drunkenness 389.7.
Spellings at Edfu generally have no n or t reflecting the pronunciation of the day :A tr tr a. A Cr.,


to offer Wb 11117(5 ff. ) Pyr. 4 DO 315.1 1--? Cr.691 a; CED 288 *.KH 379 ZU-Wic" appoint , consccrate1., 11,

At Edfa nk mostoften appears the form of an arm Oldingout a vesselas an offeringr-j andis in

one of the commonest words usedin offering formulae.All kinds of offerings can be madeusing it Drik, it doesnot appear be specific.Meeks[OLA 6. p.6251notesthat in a seculatsense means to 1" 1 'makea giff andit continues Copticwith thereUgious 'consccote'. into FuLher of orthographies sense hnk are : the table with three offering vesselsupon it
low ul


Z--J 41-

which is

interchangeable 13--J andwould seemto be a morecarefulwriting of the infinitive. with Typesof offeringsmadewith Dnk : wine 171.14 *.1272.16,flowersIV 49,1, md ointmentVII 76.4 lanx U. 138, the Wat 111291,16 greatonesand inferiors IV 36.3 ; roastme-at, moon-eye ;

foundationceremony is the importantoffering of the d=pitated goose1131.2 go ; cloth I there -289,14; grapes waterVII 122.9etC. in

il 77


offerings , gifts Wb 111118(9-15) Pyr.

Derived from the verb Pnk 'to offee, at Edfu a ritual formula is


VII 67,13; the king is

recei with his ved

IV 46,8; 13--1 areactuallyburntofferingsVI 55,12-13 The word. of I .

seemsto cover offerings in geneml and is not specific.

hnk +m

to crown

(2) Wb 111118 GR
Derived from hnk to offer, but in connection with an object 'head' followed by m it clearly means 'to crown' at Edfu. Wb has only Edfu references: the Double Crown' 1374,2; U-i Two Ladies 157 1,1; 'a--J ,itp. f m 4L IV Irv" tp. fmSbint 'crowning his head with

crowning his head with the Double Crown and VIII 122,18. Vandier [P.Jumilhac p.2081 lists this

further references:D 1107 ;H 79 192 ; 01340 (463). with synonymous phrasesand gives ,


bed(chamber) (10-11) GR - room in a temple Wb 111119

In theMK this is a word for a roomin a house palace alsothe word for a bed(Wb III 119,14 and or 120,2),derivedfrom the OK word bnki. t (Wb 111119,14-120,1) referringto somekind of blanketin [c. to be a 'bed'and then the actualbed-chamber f.Mpstein, M6bel which peopleslept which came P.9-101. here At Edfu bnkt appears s3-bnkt 'Protectingthe bed-chambee. it refers mostoften in the phrase and to the room containingthe bier of Osiris, wherethe deadgod wasreassembled revitalised. The is quitefrequentlyattested Edfu andanactualexample thecomplete ritual existsin Papyrus of at ritual BoulaqNo.7, Caire No. 58027[CG 1 p. 114ff. ]. The text concerns securityof Osiris, hour by the bed hour during the night on his funerary(renewal) andwasreadduring Khoiak in temples tomb and in The book is mentioned the Edfu library texts chapels. 146,2; s3 0-j 0 '0? VI 145,1; !F4,111347,13 also MIX VI

whereit is performedby the godsVI 151,3;

VII 13,6; in Room 25 there is s3 312,13-16.

*U---j CFJ of the king from sipy-sw at night time I



to rejoice Wb 111121(7-9) GR

q.v. , and the Edfu spellings suggest that it could be a J'V zzrr form of the latter. It is followed by Or: the powers and ubwtyw at them reduplicated Dngg may be connected with b3g = brg IV 13,5 and it is commonly used before the phrase n-m33= at seeing someone: everyone "4

A7 61 ZZS3 VII 63,15; 4-V 57.10-11; him ff -Z, 117 May your heartrejoiceat seeing -182,5 heartsof men and womenrejoicethrough love of the king zz A7 1185,7 Landsrejoicingat seeing beauty theking. the of ^'^ U

155,3; Isis gives the Two

If this is a furtherdevelopment frombnrg, thenther hasbeencompletely in pronunciation lost and the spelling may have becomeconfusedwith the similar sounding word Ongg ' throae. 71C )f determinatives indicatingrejoicingor exultation. by showtheemotionindicated theverb ngg oral cavity . gullet Wb 111121 (10-11) Dyn.18andLate Wb hasno GR templeexamples the word doesoccurat Edfu but 212,2-3; Re tastes foe in his & zr his is 4. is full of food IV your throat

VH 327.15and at Dcndcra

doesits workl) 1175,11. Lacautakesittobepalate of mouLW [Corps 146. c E LefebvreTableau 20'bucal cavityl. The earliest in 201^'W*^ references Wb aremagicaltexts- MuK III I land P. Apoph. 27,11; Mett. 42 andSander-Hansen33. p.


pool , lake Wb 111105 (1-5) Pyr. DG311,9 swampylake

Cr. 690; CED288; KH378 ZL4146 Gardinerdefinedbnt aspatches waterwherepapyrus harbouring of grewin abundance, wild animals' ' birds with the Coptic JuJWCin XeZww(- EI-Lahun bnt-NII-wr [JEA 29,p.401. and occurring 'swampylake ratherthancanal'[Wilbour 11 29-30). translating pp. I V? =At Edfu the word can meanlakes all of the wholeland VI 194,6-7; the lakcs'of Ejpt -zr ... -: x ' VII 259,8;Mocris (w3d-wr) and its', ka of the king are brought,worshippingthe %%

, '1179 1 -Ewe offeredVI 200A ; Nehabrings .1 t' 411

from the fields ? of the king VI 227,1-2.

These examplesmay well mean 'pools'but they are connectedwith bnt 'streamsof watee (q.v.) [c.f. I tz 8, ^ P.Br. Rh. 19,16 eggs in (Puiemre) ; P.Harris 37 ,aI Urk. IV 523,5 tribute is recovered from '3t]. VI 194,13-195.1 alsoll -17 tj to of Asia

papyrus of the',

More of a problem are the Eight Lakes of Egypt


are offeredVI 195, 3-4.The8 nt hereextendfrom the land of Libya in the westto the

watersin the eastandtheyarebroughtasofferingsin relationto the Nine Bows,which theywardoff from Egypt.The authorof the text could havebeenreferringto the variouslakes,suchas Mareods MenzalahprotectingEgypt on its northernfrontier [JEA 29, p.37 ff. ] . Gauthier [DG IV 321 and designates 8 bnt as the 8 neighbouring the regionsof Egypt or it could refer to 8 main waterways in the Delta. II..,

(9) Relatedto this may be a word cited by Wb 111105 bnw as a variant for phw : in the tomb of Puiemre,tribute is receivedfrom
#. ~

0 746

Asia Urk IV 523,5; at Edfu, a text lists of


what is includedin the templetexts,'festival , the nameof called'I 359,18which maybe a mistakefor pDw.

and what the templeis


streams water of Fairman On the Origin of Zi wM6 . JEA 54 , 1968 p236-8.

or m bnt -911256,10 ;

Uses of hnt -at Edfu : (a) the inundation comes tnt m trit 43m. hnt 1491,2 and oc! z= -*-l' 11259,14; 1:5 4-17oil

VIII 51,1 (corrupt) (b) the inundation is brought VII 69,15 and very common at


IV 272, I-3;, =1 1t9i

Dendera (op.cit., p.237 n. 12). , The reading of -Z_ , was uncertain but Fairman showed that Coptic Z#wPACwas the descendant of the earlier word. The writing with the hand however may also be readdrt and spt, respectively. 'hand and palm'. Zl4)MrEhowever, meanspalm of the hand so it would seemlogical that an ancestor 'palm'.Variant readings from the examples given by Fairman, especially A-roll, Dnt would also mean 'I"t 96 I Phild 170,2 may VII 69,15and result from an Egyptian scribe who himself didunderstand ,% ,

the text he was copying or writing and erroneouslywrote Apt not bnt. While this explains the -ir i .,, which is an artery of the heart,that is a conductorof variants,KH 561 recordsa word _Qovj


liquid, much like the'strearns!or #channels, given as the meaningsof bnt. which are

1 1, - -

In favour of a reading bnt is the fact that in the Ptolemaic sentences it alliteratesbetter with the other elementsof the sentence(in O'py m Ont) than SyPt of drt. Fairman noted the Coptic ZWO Cr.688b 'go around in shallowe and suggestedthat it derived

from fint, a noun meaning shallows, referring to the narrow channels or rivulets to which the Nile literally a hand-breadthacross.However if just before the inundation,channels perhaps was reduced I wN to go in shallows and ZIwP4-e palxnof the hand both derive frorn 4nt, then the change N to M is more difficult to explain. Sauneron[BEFAO 60 1960 pp. 16-17 I showed that at Esna cE? . could have a value h. but it has not been suggestedthat it can mean On and the n is clearly a consonant as the Coptic shows. Also the texts speak of the inundation being brought, pronounced m-bnt or measuredm-bnt and it would seemmore likely that this refers to the actual beginning of,; the flood of the river. With the rising water level the first noticeable effect would be the formation of rivulets and small streams of water coursing through- the dry fields as the water flooded over the land.lbese surely are the'streams!to which the texts refer.


foodservice riuW or Wb 111102 (16-17) GR

Wb hasonlY two references, Dcndera at

J. a=

MD 161 b and Philac < 1653>Photo -11, atthe

210.Thesemay be supplemented earlierEdfu examples:Wepwawet by performs00 festival of BehdetV 125,5and the text continues line 6in Laying out the Greatburnt Offering ; the king performs(1r) his performedat the last hour of the night VI 346.3and 5.

performing the ritual of A 5Lc. VII 282,10;taw is -

Dnw seems apply moreto the food offeringpart of a ritual ratherthanthe whoic ceremony to which it accompany [CaminosLEM p331. Sauneron texts that tnw offeringswere showedfrom the Esna. not madeat a particulartime and that if the word was followed by a MDAIK 16 p.215 nal. offeringritual [Sauncron, sign it indicateda libation

hnt 0

I sanctuary Wb HI 110(6) NK'4,


At Edfu the falcon extends his wings around the Two Shrine Rows, over the '14, There is one Wb example from Kairo Wb <277> the deceasedis m3'-brw in 1A
I '

IV 17,1

sanctuary, which may be related to this and note too Wb 111104 (4) a sanctuary of Neith is

I %Z= en, -called


to destroyi kill (12-13) Pyr,LateandGR Wb 111122

In the realm of magical destructionof the enemiesof the king and gods, hnt lends itself to 0 it alliteradon particularlywell because alliterates with manywordsforenemy' or 'impurity'. At Edfu the most usualphraseis nt nty Sethas a crocodile: v 11166,12; Also ]Vmty 1564,6-7;F-

L 6-142\ V 56,1-2; . 111137,7; IV 213,2; VIII 177,7. .4 J^- T IV 214,4-5 1. l IV 234,14 Seth can be the object of bnt : ; =%, or b3, y 121'" IV 51,6 ; VII 201,15-16. V 86,34 VI 90,9; C=9-

'impurities,trouble' zr4; nb VI 337,1-2; b" "

To continuethe alliteration the weaponusedin the destructionis also mentionedand this can be Dd-mace t ZY 1538,6; VI 337.1-2(above) or a harpoonOmt VII 312,3;

&VIII 19,13-14 An early useof hnt in the Coffin Texts(CT sp. 837)wasto sacrifice(andbutcher) an animalandit I -. k canretain something this nuance Edfu : c.f. of at 'I cut off (remove)his forepartbefore

you' 111146,10. By GR times, with the knife determinative it may actually imply that the action involved was a cutting or hacking up action, resulting in the death and removal of trouble or chaotic forces. It may be connectedwith the word Dnty 'horns'and so perhapsreflects the idea'stab'.

crocodile=Seth Wb 111121 -Late GR (14) DG 315,2 cc w)y: ) 1% bnt derivesfrom a verb foundin MK literary textsbnt 'be greedy'[Wb 11112112-13= Bauer2911 which was thoughtto be a trait of the rapacious crocodile,hencethe substantive a namefor the as in animal, particularly in its Sethianaspect. the Book of the DeadCh.145,27


r r3-w'bt

the crocodile and his crocodiles at the Place of Purity, maybe an allusion to,

Seth and his followers. At Edfu the crocodile is destroyed Ont 1564.6-7
V 56,1-2



111 137.7

tTr-c% -s!


& '%'%% IV 2132;



VIII 77.7 Ile .

determinative in theseexamplesmay suggestthat the normal method of killing the crocodile was by harpooning and that the harpoonssticking from the body or headof the animal render it impotent and powerless in its hieroglyphic form. In other texts 538,6; Ont is the object of the verb Onbb'= k s: tf bnt by the mace (0d) of the king 1,

as it sits upon the banks of the river VI 239.4

VII 173.9.In an appropriatetext the creatureis envisagedas a serpent.when destroying the

eyeof Apopis

tRrt, Pnt the is snake kiHedIV 305,10.


canalof the5thLowerEgyptian nome Gauthier, DG IV 32

In the 5th Lower Egyptiannome,northern Neith or Saitenome,the canalis called Pnt 1= containsgreatwaterswhich flood the field IV 25,6-7and similarly 'flood'. flooding fields V 16,9-10. v containsits igb'


hoffis Wb 111109 to 110(4) Pyr. (14)

Ile usesof tnty at Edfu are as found in the earlier text%: dcscribes the 99NI HB 1236,9; Ba-ankh-osiris is Lord of -N1, '--'1L"VI24,3 1243,17 ; VIO I

of the bull who is

May 164,10; the Double Crown rests upon the

8LJ', and are mentioned among the elements ofac' rown I "O"\N

33.2. Epithetsof thosewho wcar homed crownsinclude : ft-Onty Horus'sharpof homsVIII 79.4 ; spd-tnty q.v. 11168.7 and Toll


spanof time WbITI106(l. 10) OK

Dnty rcpresents conceptof the infinite limit of time and space. termsof time the lengthof the In a

'll 83

4g, 'oo t- tkingship is said never to perish (b m k) : 8L OL%4 1295,24 ; 6L OL 1103,17, -s

112,5 ; 40f'- 'N 46,3. It also refers to infinite time in the past: 'It is the Great Place of the majesty Horakhty from 8L ill : of 1L until today' 119,11. The meaning of nb4. 'e'ternity' , as being from JV

Similarly the St-Wrt is the throne of CL since until dt-eternity 111.317,14. VI 173,9 of the gods 1174,2 -,or

2,10 ; and the First Occasion was in

The number of years of the king upon his throne are the the timespan of eternity 1478,2; 'timespan of Re! V 'ql - 129 1,10 ;

163,14. The kingship is also dascribed as the' OL8L :, 1167,18 or of Horus . 1304,14 There is

'3?-'*4 of the S34311 76,11 It is seen as a boundary also the of time : the king will receive, . 06 nbb as Upper Egyptian King, dt as Lower Egyptian king and The spellings are consistent using the 1""k or inWetjeset-Hor1127,12.

signs. The road determinative explains. signs may

something with two sides or boundaries(metaphoric here for past and future). The --

representeyes ? There may be a semnaticlink with hnty'homs',, that is the distance between the tips of horns as a spatial span and temporal span. -


spatial distance Wb 111105(10-11)

At Edfu : smoke from the burnt offerings reaches the wings of a god "tend Ljt

to the distance of I schoenusIV 3,5

to a distance of one schoenusVI 15,1-2; myrhh is smelt


for a distance I schoenus 1383,18. of -A .c:3.


demons Wb 111122(14) Pyr, NK, GR

The earliest example of these demons occurs in Pyr 966 where the tnlyw are carvers of meat, in the Coffin Texts (SpA95 = VI 77a) they have knife determinatives and Faulkner [FECT 11136 ri.51;r

In translates themas'carvers'. NK funerarytextstheypunishApopisandaredepicted havingsnake as headsand carrying a rope and a knife in their handsfor the slaughterof animals.In the BD 145, 337.11; 146,351.14theyappear sla6jhtererswho threaten dead[Zandee, Deathp.204].P.Salt as the 825, VII 3 hasthe priest in the Houseof Life actingas Horusto kill the foes of Osiris and his fide -


hereis OnLtY. P.Lciden1347,10,8 days.Micy are usually hostile In bnlty O=tcn the epagomenal to enemies the king andthis is their role at Edfu : they90 Chopping badness up of text IV 264,2-3; Owl %% bb n.k VU 173.9. a lion

by ft sign of a butcherholding Ilere area numberof furtherexamples only whicharerepresented by However allitmtion Fairmanshowedthat th=' two knivesanda number readings possible. are of exampksas 0nityw wasa goodcasefor readingsomeof these 4 "%% Menhyt is mistress(hnwt) of IV 273,16. # of her majesty1464.12

I I [see: Y.Gourlay,Les seigneuis ks BaouvivantsI Chcdcnou Hommages Sauncron p-373ff. ' in et ; FairmanandBlackmanin JEA 29, plln. 6; 30,79; DemUn. P.Salt 825 p-67I.


s3 son Wb 111123 (2)

As Horuswas the sonof Isis andOsiristherefore sonpar excellence die the falcon sign. sometimes 1Ir cartbe reads3 'son'- It mayalsobe a pun on the falconsign madas s13: the vulture protects ,, W 3 her sonIV 58,8;and Isis nurses her sonwith her milk Phill 123.1; Hathoris the diademon 115.4;VIII 110,3 VII 22.7; V 100,12-13

the headof her son 7j lk I VII 10,6.


face Wb 111125 to 130(3) (6) DG 317.1 sD tO ZP42 01' and the

Cr.646b.; CED272; KH352

At Edfu br is usedconventionallyand the spcllingsshowlitdc variation 0 plural IV 269.4 ;q,

VII 26,13.It is often usedIn compound suchas rn-tft-br. phrases 43w-r. IV 43,2 ; m-b3t-tr ,

r-nfr, brw-nbw and as an adjunctto verbs;. by-br wnf-tr , m -b r: in the face of = before + suffix c-- 01 &-

11132,4; 01

beforethe face , cQk ; IV 16,9 3t-r IV 25,11*,unt-tr


IV 459 ; dl-tr pay attcn6on tum MYbet 10th'-

lit. giveface

IV 57,16 lr-r-r 'to tum the face, 17II

Of hriust 69,13. YOU VI ,,,;


With adjectives : nfr IV 50,4 ; IV 54,16; IV 56,4 or as nfr. Dr IV'56,6 = HB ; nbl-Dr fiery faced

`7 q
. do

IV 51.11 by. r as the nameof a god

ty 01

1482,6 ; rs.'hr 40- 01


57,16. Different typesof facescan be specified: br-n-bik falconfaced VI 25,1-2; k3-hr bull facedIV 13,8 ? IZ " VI 22,4 ; r. n-drty, CQ"

brw. 4

Fourfacesof Hathor

This is a commonepithetof Hathorwhich is usedat Edfu quite frequently'perhaps a resultof the as links between Edfu and6ndera. epithetshows universality thepowerof thegoddess I'lie the close of who has the ability to look to the four directionsof the earth [P.Derchain,Hathor Quadrifrons ]. passim. At Edfu : Hathorappears with thosefour faceswhich Re lovesto see WSW VI 262,7;sim.

380,2-3;the GreatNobleGoddess with the four faceswhich Re lovesto seeeveryday

as the n.2].

by) is HathorIV 73,1-2;in thephrase Hathorplir with 4 faces(goesround widVsurrounded Qq IQ 111119,9-11 Olq Hathor 111120,4 The facesof Hathorarebeautiful -QQ 1'306,44, tel 12 Q IV 280,6 [see Chassinat IV 280 beautiful 4 faces (emended)
sovereign with q %

The phrase is naturally more common at Dendera and the idea of Hathor Quadrifrons is made more Ich have four faces of Hathor on the capitals. by the columns )A; striking there


a human face Wb 111126(4) MK

At Edfu, Osiris is established a falconwith as

a humanfaceVI 21,5 andin an offering These VI 23,8-24,1.

broughtfrom the Wadi Natrunan unknowngod hasa humanface

two texts arein the same registerof textsaccompanying procession arecontemporary. a and The earliestattested is example a sarcophagus the MK, [ZAS 45 p.19 noA8] wherea bird with a of humanheadandoutstretched is described Neret with 01-*--a wings as humanface.In a secular

use : Urk.IV 666,15amonga list of booty (Annals of TuthmosisIII-Karnak) are threespearhafts

42,-2jI humanfacedterminals The phrase herehave with 1a1 -a 1 alsooccursat Dendera mummies : .


A. ~

lb MD 1149andAbaton26 (34) Horusthedivinefalconhas I.


qq v--J

Here- , theword p't is the word chosen mean I=aW raLherdmn rbyt or rmL. to


(13-18) 1SthDyn. Wb 111130

361 ? \I (B) someone. something _, ? Zg0l At Edfu: the d3d3t godslead tp-wr im4t 1491.3 ; Horusputs greatfear of the king c f. KH in '0'0'91 people131,6; Horusshines on (or faces?) 1293.1.

71e derivationis from kr facewhichis used a generic termfor people. as


everyface- everyone Wb 111130 (4-12) MK

hr-nb is usedas a variant term for people,particularlyof Egypt : the rhyt and


17" every IV 41.9; the Two Landsareilluminedwith the fire of ag odde a0 one adorea god ss nd, oil far sees away 1510,2; showshimself everyone is satisfied the time of the king 1448,4; whenHorus in everyone I-1 lives 11 792;Harsomthus the daily portionsfor makes 155.4

1526,18;everyone happyat seeing king Of *1 is everyone the =PP qr,


ellipsefor 4r-dd - saying GG 321 Wb 111132 (24) ,

This occursat Edfu in contextswherea direct speechis introducedinvolving the stative -. so it, 'iIMI sp sn ti precedesphrasessuch as 11.6and 13w. : He receives/takes your arm saying #welcome'l 105,4-5;Atum protectsthe king saying ? Jw m-41p come In peaceVII 26,6; the

40' l3w. tl saying 'praise youl.' IV 50,7; the guardians of Wctjcsct QI Ennead of Mesen .

saying'Praiseyou I' IV 69,12. _


preposidon -, Wb Ul 131ff., DG 319A


1187 -

Cr.643b; CED271


GG 165' , JunkerGrD 192. Followsthe classical useswith the spellings Also : to sail 0 11129,6-7; with (upon)a fair breeze at servants their tasksIV 15,6.

With following infinitive : the final clauseoften interchangeable r plus infinitive. found in with too constructions but lesscommonlyfor it showsan on going actionratherthanthe pseudo-verbal by B. actionoftenexpressed the stative(qualitative)Wb 111132 JunkerGrD 150refers completed for backto the classical grammars these,,uses.


over, against, confronting KH407 ZIZPA

Q10 At Edfu : St-wrt .....

CdE is Pronaos oppositeit VII 5,1 [De Wit'le depassde!, 36 --*-the the Pronaosis oppositeit , containing

Nr.72,1961 p.284-5] ; and also St-wrt ..... Q VI 10,8;one door ...... 0n columns them(that is eachother)V 4a . opposite

bbn anotheroppositeit VI 8,3; two doors

be usedconsistently doorsin walls so it may really mean'upon/inthe face The phraseseems to of Coptic ZQP4 of, cf. depend The examples uponknowingthe textsandlayout of the temple.


the moon

Wb HI 134(1) GR
Q=. Y. 1 Ga Urk Wb has one example from Thebes, in a group of gods giving praise to the moon

w113.6 that is the Full Moon (in the Wabet) 111207,14 and

VIII 56f At Edfu it occursas an alternativeword for the moon : it is describedas . Y, --, *)

comes and travels across

heaven (di-mrt) 111139,2.Literally the word means, 'One who is upon'the left'a reference to the moon as the Left Eye of Re.


in the middle Wb 111136-137 Pyr.

Preposition 'in the middle' [c f. Junker GrD 216 rn-r-ib in the middle (also an adverb)]. At Edfu 0 it is most often used of goddesseswho live 'in' a city for example, Hathor & Behdet IV 20,7


IV42,8 ; IV 53.9 or gods- Montu IV 54,1or Harsomthus IV54,4 passimor the Two Ladies in the .Q. IV (Re) IV 37a *.IV Placeof the two outpourings & 189 alsoof deides'in' a barque -, 32.7 andnotetoo, the eldestson'among! IV his childrcn/chicks 35,3. in her 1530.11

Also usedof a child'inhis mother: Hathorgivesloveof her sonwho is

tcentraI Compoundnoun phrases: rww-bry-ib'ee-olo'p'Q, areasH 11.7and lww-bry-lb fear is in 0 b91. %. '6-I 450a; the king is sovereign hej '12or 158b. c--. cmp in i, j .ec its sit 11 -II


noun - middle

Used in contrast with b3t and p. the beginning and end of something : in a procession of Nile bearers,Xbn-cakesand brpw-plants are provided for the offering good year without famine its bcginning is life, its Q'& of the W-Field IV 49,2; a

is health and its end i-t pleasantnessIV

42,2; VI 96,8 sim. ; in the pure 93bt offering there is k3w for the beginning, fpsw Ybn for the middle and 'qw for the end 192,3.



(15) GR Wb 111137 At Edfu: HB is Re in the morning.Khepriat 01 0 middayandAtum in the evening11280,12-13; Worshipping ka of Re in the morning,eveningand the middayV1 27.11.

7be word is simply an extension the compound try-lb 'middle' and the additionof the sun sign of rD 0 Zldeterminative in makesthe meaning clear.An early forerunner Urk.IV 19.11Psd shinesat 6,
0 in the middle of the day, by abbreviadng this and dropping the hrw it is clear how this word could i

evolve.The word alsooccursat Dendera offeringlibations,oneat 1b'8 the second and : at 41 third 2=6p 2* in the eveningMD 164 d; MD 163 e. It seems be a Ptolemaicinvention. to


a room in the templeat Edfu Wb 111138 (18)

This is theintermediate in front of the sanctuary hall by preceded a barque shrine(earliertimes)or the hall of offerings [Spencer,Temple p.85 ff. ]. At Edfu this is probably an abbreviatedform of the Wsbt-4ryt-ib = Rooml.I" and h'cre'andat Denderathe hall bctwecnthe liall of offcringe and the


sanctuary has this name. In the temple : as a gift the king is given
your majesty 1163,2 ; the elders of the king are inside the 15,3.

Q. &

c, 73

made sacred for

rejoicing because of him IV

Other rooms have this name - side rooms opening off the hypostyle hall and serving as corridors through to the ambulatory : the king has built 1 .6 of his noble father 11171,13-14 temple 11172,34 ; they build for him 192, ,

AM, C-3

of the winged disk 11171,8-9 is in his shrine on the south of his


in his temple 11172,10.

The wsbt-bry-ib occurs in other temples so it was a recognised part of the temple building as early as New Kingdom temples (Wb 111138,17-21).

try-ib dt. f literally : middle of his body. The victoriousbull with the faceof Horus as Lord of Attack 1554,15(cf. Wb III

138,22 part of thebody of Osiris, in P.Rhind 13,4 andMD IV 35 , 45-6 and 36,55-6).


Lord of Largess tide of Shubut appliedto HB at Edfa Wb 111139 (1-6)OK - Saite

The title refers to the official in the temple responsible for diverting the food offering,, he was in charge of meals and the bwt-di-nswt gifts given by the king. Usually in the divine sphere it was a title of Shu , also the 'overseer of the fields' or of Thoth responsible for the establishing of field , boundaries [Esna V p.23 and ZAS 95-p.56 n. 18]. In the-Late period there may have been some confusion betweeb bry-idb and hry. wdb [Gardiner, JEA 24 p.88 n.5]. At Edfu

HB is equated with Shu, who divides out the fields for Re VIII 51,10-11 ; king is son of VII 212,5 (wine offering)


immediately FCD 175 and GG 205,3

At Edfu : in a lion gargoyle text, you are destroyed when my name is heard you are dead at once , ? IV275,10. whenlamseen


Ori. mkt

h= Wb 111134(15) GR

'Me origin of this word may lie in the phrasetry-mkt, often applied to the heart'in the right place 11161.9) [Sethe, Pyr.Konun. 286 d) and occurs in texts such as Pap.Ch.BJV ro 6,12 ; ChS' (Wb VM vs. 10,5-6 ; Ch.B I C2,10 [Cf. Vemus, Athribis 301 n.(c) and Wrezinski, ZAS 45,1908 P-116, 'your heart rests in -04 0' 7! its placel. This mkt then seems to have become a synonym for

heart and with the heartdeterminativethe meaningwasmadeclear. t At Edfu : the king is given his -P exactly in its place V 57,7-8; praise to god

contains tp-r3w spells 1 231,13; it also occurs in other temples : Horus Khcntekhta i who preserves the Rightly placed F6 CD M 192.5 [Blackman - AAA 26,1939 p. 101 ; at Esna V p. 128 n. 1 *,Philae <93> Phot.15. seethe next word

No.284 5 r-%'Q, '*


bri-nmit. f one who is uponhis bier = Osiris Wb 11266(3) GR Wb hasreferences this title of Osiris at Dcndera("EF4.97 to A Osiris 4MD IV 70 ;I protect Yps Dend. Dum.G1 H 40 sbm.

and Dcnd<4515>) but it alsooccursat

Edfu: v-q 7 Y the king beforeDjefcn,who is noblein the norneof Igrt VI 3M2-3. ,. Howeverit hassimilar usesto bri-mkt and may be confused with it: the heartof the king rests uponhis bier 1272,11 . or in its right place? 1496,17;Khonsgivesthe heartof the king resting'

Ory. nst

heir onewho is uponthe throne= successor, Wb H 323 (7-13) OK

ry. nst at Edfu is usually as a designation the king who Is the successor heir of Horus of of and "-3 Behdctor of Horus the sonof Osiris : Horus U"-r. ly,, 1Z the heir IV 18,8 % is the heir Edfu is called the seatof of Osiris 1186,6-,

Iforus is the heir who is uponthe earthIV 54.11;the king

9% 290_3 BehdetyVI 297,15;the king is and greatof triumphof IIB 11 L%*of

213,13.Thereis a tri-nst priest in the ascending descending ft New Year Who and ptocesion of a was the king-designatein Certainfituals tIbmWim.MngsWip,p.1%5-61 Them was &ISO T"St-s


priestess also called the bnwt 1359,14 V 396,9


VII 33,15 andsheis a chantress Edfu : zs'-c'm at

ry. njrw

master thegods-divine epithet of 44At Edfu : Sia is V 5,3 ; the wingeddisk is

6,9 andHor-Akhty is -V

WSIC19 winged disk of gold V 8,5. 19 the

bryw-rnpt thoseabovetheyear- epagomenal days (3) Wb 111135 rnpt - Wb 11430 see Five dayswereaddedto the calendar makeup the 365 daysof the year.They first appear an to on offering list of Niuserrewheretheywerethe birthdaysof Osiris, Isis, Nephthys,Sethand Haroeris daysevery 4 years,established the'Canopus by In the Ptolemaicperiod therewere 6 epagomenal Decree. The dayswereput at theendof theyearbetween monthsof Yrnwand3t [LA- 11231-2 the

At Edfu they are definedas the days- which Nut gavebirth, that is they were the birthdaysof on Osiris,Isis, NephthysandSeth 1' 11232,7.

Pry-s3 Gb upon the back of Geb i. e. upon*the earth This phrase occurs often at Edfu as a possessionof the king : plants are y6urs'e-111 6 15,14 ;cf. the great god Gb upon earth (the king) IV 46.4. Gb II


masterof secrets- priestly epithet Wb IV 298 (22) to 299 (13)

DG 321,2

J, S P -x

Ibrahim suggests [Kingship,p.186-7]this is a title of the king in cloth offering scenes bouquet and 'I-r, 6685 especially presentations, when the king recitesthe contents the templelibrary : he is r-11 of 9q 347,10--, king standsin his form as the Fz III -the IV 122,11;Khonsuis the noble 3 K:: .91 in Behdet1112,4 7505'IV 356,12;a priest is ':Vfq =b1544 7; also -'C4 P R

' 1540,3. staircase a priestin the western procession



heir successor , Wb 111136 (1-5) MK (34) GR

Originally bry-0 referredto 'oneuponearth',specifically personleft behindafter the deathof a a As It was applied to the heir of a deadmanwho was usuallyhis son and successor. an relative. this in a moreliteral useit couldrefer,in a plural form, to the subjects followers of and extension of III 1) successor. king is the i2i x? of Hor-A" the Idng.At Edfu both of these uses appear the . A9b --12 Hch VI 270.4; '01= 1,2; Horus strongof armIV 370,12-13; of of , of HorusLord of EgyptVI 100,12. 2) subjects HB is 17"! AA : = beforeOwliving 1112,8. (old) KH 167'survivoe.

The word may survivein the Coptic pf-'t



Wb 111136 GR (4) At Edfu : the king is heir of Isdenand whenhe setsin the westby ft 7vd% "O's of the Princeof Maat 1167.16;worshippingRe I't InArun

1'22' beforethe living 135.1

nameof the 3rd serpent Re 1525,16;;-0, -!n- of the tcmpleat Wctjcsct1302.10. of sir vvThis word is derivedfrom thesnake a creature as whichcrawlsupontheearth.


compound preposition Wb 111139

DG 321,4 JunkcrGrD 231 br-d3d3. Spellingsat Edfu : we settle 57 "T is 4? IV the serekh 329,16; Re rises '? theirecdIV 33,8;the falcon

at dawn1370.14.


chief prince Wb IH 140(6-20)

At Edfu this usuallydescribes god or the king: 61-* a '4bofallthegodsV287, 0t I3; M

ft foreign landsIV 370,11;great M the nomesIV 28,9 and of

isThoLhV111148,3; 0.0


passim;Isdenis jz I


qq If I

II, chief of thecouncilof 30 1521.11and &t

VI 311,11 .


to rule


NVb 111141 (12) GR

This is derived from the noun and is quite common in the Edfu texts: Ptah makes the kingship great .00 h rw nb you rule everyone 185,2 ', the king rules the banks and he has seized the Two . 149,8; Horus says to the king QMZ;:

lands Q SD''=

you rule the Two Halves 18 13 S. -

It is also used at Dendera VIII 48,7 ; 67,15 and at Philae. cL Gr. Oasis Thoth 21 <1 11> and ,D Pyr. 505.

bry-tp idbw

chief of the banks (that is ruler of Egypt) 0

This occurs often as an epithet of Osiris, for example : Osiris is Icing of the Two Lands and VI 276,18.


to transport',

In an offering text : :2=

'you transportofferigsto the gods! 147 i, 3-4 -%a'. -htpw n nirw

(coll.,XII 351) - this seems be a verb meaningtransportby river and may derive from t ry_MW to
which is a term for a ship (Wb 111134,12-13). 'r --hr-n-hst! ' meatoffering 'Wb 111138(22-23) GR c f.'Wb 111160(1) The word occurs 489,16 also 'and often at Edfu : in a ritual the 0 is pui'upon the fire 1489,13-14; 1 cL ' VI 158,13-14'; the' to his Lord VII 128,6

V 302,13; 'May you cat of these

from evil VII 301,13-14; theling gives are pure an offering bearer brings

for the ration of the Idng VII 142,15; in a meat roasting text the x is cleansed

is upon the charcoal 158,12; Wbt-meat is purified and (twr. ti) IV 127,8-9; rituals VI 158,12-13. I cL is eaten,

the latter two examples are from meat offering


'ne meaning of this compound noun seemsclear, it refers to a cut of meat suitable for the meat by recipientsof the offering. A word bst (Wb M 160) offering ritual which could be roastedand eaten is a part of the arm and it is possible that br-n-bst is part of the foreleg of a butchered animaLlbe hr is more difficult to explain however [Cauville, Osiris p.89 n.2 gives a number of exmples but

doesnot comment its origins]. on

Ory-ib, '0

715 . IV 76,10. Mz determinatives show that this is a

At Edfu, 'adom his brow with

female deity and if she is associatedwith the king's brow then it is probably a name for theuraeus. Literally 'She who is in the palace'. Set.10 .


lack evil , Wb 111134 (2-6)MK

In origin brt-1 seemsto be a legal term for arrears[FCD 175 from the MKI or debt and later becomes moregenerally if a and usedwordfor moraldeficiency not badness evil. At Edfu it can haveboth the technicalnuance 'arrears' a moral implicationalso. As bck! in of and offerings : 'thereis no 'Y in her offerings' 1240.5 and also Osiris says'My limbs are

thereis no -1 sjoLof them'1150,2. complete. Morally : Horus the self created,the true child thereis no
removed from 'Qp - -JFL qc--: aia, o.


1152,17;Hor-Maa is far Ims there

1589.11.Also I run over the mounds

is no evil in it' 1102,15.In the latter sectionthe contrastof brt-' to 'true' may indicateit could be as the seen representing chaos, opposite MaaL of C

In thp.nrnisi it often refersto milk, 'thereis no brit-' of it' to ensurethat the nursinggoddess.. , hasa plentiful supplyof milk for her divine charge(ME 165.7.8; 71.8-9).

bryt. tp

uracus diadem , Wb 111141 (9-11) Dyn.18, GR

qwn This word first seemsto appear in the 18th Dyn. as an extra word for a diadem o cr-, HaL 114 1.5 136 1.6] and it was usedfrequentlyin the Ptolemaictexts to Chap. [Lacau-Chevrier, ,

enlarge the vocabulary for crowns. Literally'it means'She who is upon the head' and when provided with a cobra determinative clearly indicates the'cobra uraeus.It appearsthrough Ramessidetimes and up to the Ptolemaic era, particularly when associated HathoIr at Dendera. -with At Edfu ryt-tp is parcularly associatedwith the king: he is begotten of 0 JZ W 313.11; his 'Q' & rests upon him IV 13,9 or comes with him IV 18,3 or comes after him IV 20,2. The diadem 0 is identified with certain goddesses, Hathor cD . of the Lord of All 1170,5; " & is the great diadem of Re-Harakhty IV 203. or o: on the brow of Re I 112,11; she is the

diademon the headof her son115,4.Othergoddesses the Lady of Faget(Nekhbet)is'the < & : is IV of godsandgoddesses 52,9;Sakhmet Q. CD'bof her Lord Re who hideshim with her flame VI 264,10 Tefhut is the , VA. of her fatherwho fells the foes'Ofthe onewho created 1314,14. her

:'VI The diademis a symbolof kingship: Re wearsthe h-Llb 240,5;Montu givesthe kingshipof Re and -onearthbeforetle king Il 40,2

It canalsorefer'to the doubleuraeusas diadem the w3dty on the headof the king comeas one &lo"' his greatdiadembehindhim 1369,7. The diademis onceoffered to'Isis of Dendera hnk XD Isis to the goddess adoresthe 1r-t3 serpent. receives the and V 278,747. The king comes 07"1&and wearsit, shegivesthe

'the king Mehet, snaketo protecthim andto be worn on his head.The scene showsthe king wearing the DoubleCrown holding in for the goddess 133.As the determinative all cases pl. is

the single cobra, it seemsthat the h. ryt-tp is a single cobra crown not the double uraeus.

to fly up to
Wb 111146 Late GR,' (13) DG 327,2 Cr.665b; CED278; KH364' Zu-)X fly, go' br"to fly derivesfrom'the verb ri 'to be distant,faraway' and 'the ideasof 'fly' and I)e 6tant' are in termsof the fli . of birds. Mgh in the sky theyboth 'fly' andareat a greatdistance clearly related ght away. While sometimesin Egyptian it is difficult to tell if the word actually meansTy'. or 'be distant',the Coptic showsthat the distinctionclearly existedthen andpresumably was in useearlier


With following preposition r: Horus of the HOruses Ut-fl V 8,4; Horus Ut flies to the horizon of Hor-Akhty

* 4: flies to heaver!1574,2; HB flies to heaven VIII 153,12-13.

26 VL- flies heaven VII 131.7. to Without r: Horus enjoys himself in Punt and . S Ir-- flies in heaven,alone 1138,12. With preposition m: Re -Horakhty It is noticeable that in many of the above examplesor alliterates within the sentencesuggesting the reson for the use of this particular term.


be far away, distant Wb 111144- 145 plus r Pyr.

Intransitive : the temple roof is describedas being id stonn clouds are far from the sanctuary 111 e Z-1 551,19. do

removed , distant from strife IV 5,1

In the phraseh3swt hr. ti distantlands(a GR useacc.Wb) (#IV 329,16; '0' cZAV 4,8 ;04 . =W VII 1710; "2' '* C=1395,13; Q-

IV 234,18-235,1; ::r- 185,14. '' 11

The textsalso stress necessity something beingnot far away,thuswith negativeuse: it is his the of he sanctuary, is not far fromit 260,1; protectivedeities Re'&h the king it A -=III 1.14; an amuletis not far from your neck III

the arenot far from your majestyfor everV 217,12-13; Eye of

Maat who is not far from, is not far from the feet of her majesty1168,1;and especially IV 13,9; IV 15,3; VII'l 82,6; VI 317.17 VIII

81.2 ; Maat saysto the king am with you .I am not far from you .I

35,6.Dri is usedto stress attachment between thing andanother. the one


to remove , with reflexivepronoun (cause be distant) to (7-11)MK Wb 111146

With reflexive pronounusually in describingtir-kirw 11orus the Horuses 'he removeshimself of (makeshimself far away)': 4! -AV to heaven 8.7; "0' *t4lto

#theaven 11281.1-2;


heaven 246,2; of Horus VI Behdet: or

125,19-20.7te to thegods choice Or maypartly, of

bedueto alliteration partlyasa punon theetymology tj r, Horus'He whois distane "he,, of or and describes hawkin flight,whocansoarsohighin theskythatheis lostto, whois far away' the which sightandwasthought beflying in heaven thegods. to with 11.1


Transitive : Z. :!, ,

removethe form (irw) of someone your followers 1115A At - -' to a


(allit.) VI 287,5 you removetrouble from your sanctuary ffL from his foesVI 300,10;WN

Re makeshis seatdistant 0

makesdistantthe horizonwith Hor-Akhty VIII 93,10;Horus

:t hav'en Wetjeset 113,12-13. in VII


to threaten - Wb Ul 147(11) to frightensomeone

At Edfu a participleform of this verbis treated a substantive as wherea geni drinks the goreof -. A Vtrthosewho threaten your temple'VI 68,12-13

br. ti

beware of Wb 111145 (20) GG 313 Cr. 697b; CED291; KH384 NP cf. DG 322,5 takeheed

This is bri- 'be distant' plus the stative and at Edfu is used vetitively in instructionsto priests entering'thetemple m bewareof talcingin impurity VI 348,12-13

beware entering VI of while unclean 349,5.


W6 111146- 147 (9) Dyn. 18

Q'. '. In the Myth of Horus, 'See you are a fierce faced lion -ftready for battle! VI 74,9-10 but it could also be 'terrifying' from rfrighten someone(Wb 111147(13) Sin.262; Urk. IV 102; MD IV 30b).


birds literally 'thosewho areabove' , Wb 111146 typeof ediblebird' (14)

re-ii, At Edfu bryw often appears below' : Horuscreates with hrw 'thoseunderneath, the


7, Z511 71, V 52,8 ; HB madeer--, 'I, as his handiworkV 248,14;Horus this noble god made r., hrw ,
and plants 111133,3;Hathor is life for a-7i .a4, I and Jjrw D III -177,6; 1HBcreated everything

and made

zr his handiworkVII 75,14;sim.r--4 I,: e? as 267,16; Khonsuin Behdet prVII


VII 288,4; HB as Re-Horakhty`rw-"' e-let t

VII 238,7.

All of theseexamples are ambiguousand it is possible that here t ryw could be understood as 'gods'

beasts howevertwo textsmakeit clearthatbirds'areto be understoodin the II th UE Horuscreated : Zy 4!'4fish HB andreptileswith thebreathof his mouthVII 114,10-11; made and r*-%Vand =. Stl
2. -V,. as his handiwork VII 212,10. The use of bryw occurs most often in wine offering texts where the phrase with bryw and hrw is a conventional formula in such texts. 0, q Q-"Y The earliest use is P.Sallier IV Rs.4,7 which is an edible bird , though its derivation is . clear. It continuesto be usedat Dendera, chiefly in phrasesalready usedat Edfu and it appearsat Esna too, No. 394,26 where Saunerontranslates as'etres superieurset inferieurs!.


fear, dread terror , Wb 111147 to 148(12) MK (14)

Cr. 667a; CED 278; KH 568 Z6AI fear. Cr. 704b; CED 294; KH 363 ZPT6' fear. 4), 149,16 ; by Nephthys 1143.4 Ile king

At Edfu teffor of the king is put into bellies by gods : by Horus 1239,18 and terror of the king is throughout the foreign lands can have the epithet the temple is far from (hr. ti) 1164,8.1

Great in Terror in the Two Lands and foreign lands 1287.16. 4, 3.1589,2.

In puns,

People can also be in dread i-Val, of Wosrct = Hathor, 1


grape waterdrink and Wb 111134 (9-11) Med.GR Charpender p. 48-5 775

At Edfu the offering ceremony brw-' occursnine timesandit alsoappears Dendera Philae. and of at Spellingsat Edfu S%Ou IlI83, I2;. 'Q='SOII70, I2; 1462,I8;. '-_', 1eU

283,16.Derchain[CdE 26 Nr.53, p.53-41showsthat brw-' wasprepared the first victory of Horus at with the drink which made and it gives strengthand vigour. Ile colour of it, red, is associated Sakhmet drunkat theDestruction Mankind. of Grapesare the main ingredient,irr VI 112.1;V 33,7 ; VII 200,7and wny, VII 199,12; 283,17" werenot then in their ownjuice andwaterwasaddedto the mixture.The grapes They weresquashed


removed,but chewedwhile imbibing trw-' VI 133,8; VII 200,7 ; VII 284,4. It is also called , sweet,VII 199,14.It is the sameas min-grapejuice VI 133,8and hasan intoxicatingor soothing effect, making the breastfestive,VII 119,15-16 VII 283,17; 11187,12.Berriesof the 13t- plant ; VH couldbeadded 199,13. Therecipientin eightof theritesat Edfu is HorusBehdetandin oneRe of BehdetandHorakhtybut in all cases warlikeattributes therecipientarestressed so that it seems drink wassupposed the of the , in to improveperformance battleperhaps 'Dutchcourage'. as



The noun hryw may derive from br 'to frighte dand so mean 'those who are frightened! At Edfu they are treated contemptuously 'I swallow the blood of diadem destroys your (allit. ) VI 337,1; Horus slays. 55,4. 0 of your temple' VI 68,13; your (allit. ) VII 202.8. The

Medamoud also '0,' 49 word occurs at


(2-3) Royal Tombs, GR Wb 111150

in Originally brr seemsto havebeena word for small creatures general CT VI 396 o (small , J'fffi"and insects it became morespecializedlater on. In the Medical which infestrotting flesh? texts(Wb Med. 630) = Ebers62 it seems meana worm. to CZlot

At Edfu it can refer to snakes shows:a goddess the specificallyas the determinative rescues king from all IV 52,3 Howevera list of the produceof the earth has C=- "*4 . 4t, -CQM--wL .1
. r: =.

,,, here

fish thenhas 23.1 apparently VII 234,9-10andEsnaII no.184,17

moregeneraluse. ,a

hrr seems be a word describingthe generalclassof creatures to or which are not mammals birds, bestcovered theterm'creepy by Thereis a Coptic Theorigin of theword is unclear. perhaps crawlies'. ZAOCr. 669a; CED 279 which refersto a beetleor a worm andmayderivefrom brr (t). word

hrr. t

flower 111149(8-12) 18th Dyn. Med. -Wb DG 326,1 r zi-11


Cr.704a; CED294; KH388 rrt is usedof flowers with bloomsratherthansimply greenplants.The spellingsof the word at blooms Edfu showthata varietyof these as wereused offeringsin ft templeandno doubtto decorate it too. It is a generic term, not specific,including flowers such as chrysanthemums among the [Dittmar, Blumenp.56 connected the primevallotus] determinatives with
a RNE 19,6; IV

IV 3,6 V 51,7 ;vj,

0V IV 49,1, 1582,2.




Orrt is alsovery commonat Dendera-and occursfrom the 18thDynasty[c.f. RT 13,1890, p. 172]. At Edfu the templeis saidto be 'dripping'(dfdn with flowers and rnpwt IV 3,6 -,peoplecan be,' garlanded with flowersIV 19,6-,fieldsbloomwith flowers V 50,9 ,pastures sweetwith flowers are VI 246,5-6 andtpw-landis offeredwith its flowers V 51,7.Flowersareparticularlyassociated with the regionsof HorusIV 49,1 andI 582a . Ile word occursin plant offering textsbut thereis not a,, specificfink brrt offering, which mayreflectthe conservatism the texts,reluctantto invent new of offering types.


redness . also a verb'to make red! WbIII151(1-2) GR 'make red, be red of eyes'

This description of the eyes, usually of a god, signifies the rage and destructive power of a god. Tbe' verb is derived from brst 'carnelian' stone which can be red in colourAt Edfu, Horus Behdet in his warrior aspect has red eyes : mrty 0 131,8, . ---Wtoi 1165.17; '.

187,11-12; or wd3ty .:!,* VIT 74,1: ,C=N- lot a


lot-l' 5M V 53,6;

V 144.2-3;,

and lives on gore VIII 35,7; VII 35,7. The drty -falcon is IV 108,4; Mehyt the uraeus goddess

111179,5;Horus of Mesen

do P '' of face ?V 302,16 =b 00 The geni Nsrt-tp. r3. f says VI 75,7-8 as doesa further*geni ,

21.0 VII 102,14;Tefnut is . 00



I makered my eyes makered my pupils' , ,I 'I makered my eyd VI 119,3[JEA 29 36 (6)

n.29 ',Kemi 16,p.63 (5) ; Goyon, Gardiens 102(1) (2)]. p.

Drst is used asa synonymfor rage,which is regarded something andunsettlingandwhich has bad as by to be removedor driven away. This was generallyachieved the queenor a goddess playing the


the queen as she plays 'thesistrum says 'I destroy sistra :

(allit. )' 1570,13; 1 repel

from you VI 284,5 and Hathor in a sistra.and rattle offering drives away ngn-anger and removes O'n, VI 285,1 priest carrying a standardin a procession says, 'Come in peaceafter m- there is e .A Q --+t. no rage 4=. ej 1 . 1556,9.

The 'red' eyesof Horus consume foe (Pyr 901a)so at Edfu Horus has 'red/camelian the eyes'I 432,14and the sun when it is red, is nb h. 'lord of camelian/rage' 39,5 :V 27.1-2 [for the IV rst , synonym Aufr6re,RdE 34,1982-3p.12-13]. see


camelian stone Wb 111150(15) Harris, Minerals 120-121

Harris suggestedthat in GR times three varietiesof carnelian were recognisedbut the preferred variety was red.It was used to make wd3t-eyes and other protective amulets, beads , ornaments. It was not in theFilling of the Sound Eye', or in the New Year processionhowever and seemsto have had used a dual role, being seenas protective yet also as not quite beneficent. Whereas mfk3t-turquoise could sorrow and rage. represent'joy'brst represented

At Edfu : Horus comes as Lord of =. .11. IV 39,5 ;N brings sb and



-c: O

VIII 72,12

In the building texts bricks of gold and precious stones are placed at the four comers of the -73,1. temple and among the stones listed-is 1132,14. In the Laboratory precious stones are
A, --^

Q: mixed together 11215 , 4-5 including in one recipe Jv, 0` precious stones includes

and a presentation of divine

,--, Vj 165,15-16 This brst-m3' may be the red carnelian as

to which wereknown. opposed othervarieties Threekinds of carnelian differentiated Edfu aUcomingastribute of Kush : white carnelian are at Zaa,I (chalcedony), :; Drst-drr sard,which is darkerin colour and ordinary Drst (red, orange)VI 202,6 and Daumas[OLA 6, p.701 I notes that in treasurytexts h. rst is the produceof t3. lmnt (KL, i) e.g. D IV 167,9. s!


heaven Wb 111144 (8-17) Pyr.


A frequent word at Edfu partly becauseit can alliterate with appropriate words. Its spellings arc , A Q). O. M V IV 10,11; IV 3.4 1113,12 if; 115,2 consistent


IV 32,7.

Ort is theplaceto which thesmokeof burntofferingsrises: IV 3.4 : 1536,10-11 wherebaslive_ ; 1113,12 wherethe godssail 1115,4 IV 57.7 -,whereBB flies, 553,13 ; whereRe-Horakhty ; -, shines IV 10,11; from whereHB comes IV 14,2; wherethe falcon uniteswith the sundisk V 5.6 ; it is the placefor the moonalso 1253 ; it is troublefreeIV 4,9. trt can alsorefer to theroof of the temple which symbolicallyis synonymous with heaven. In the
. ..... t

the roof is

before you' 1564,12.


necropolis , tomb

Wb HI 143(13-19) MK Gauthier[DG IV 391notesthat this term refersto the first part of the desertgoing away from the cultivatedareasin which eachtown buriedtheir dead.It is literally 'the high place and meansthe tombin a favourable sense,asa placewhichensures survivalof thedead[Zandee,Deathp.1041. the rt can specificallyrefer to a cliff tomb,for examplethat of Khnumhotep Beni Hasan[Breasted, at
PSBA 23,1901 p.236-7]. AtEdfu : on the Sixth Day festival of the 3rd of Shemu a procession goes through k " 382,12; in the wt-bhsw ceremony, the calves are driven to hide every -: (Blackmanbigh F-4 Wd I 2 003 tomb) 1102,4; the dead gods of Edfu are called the rulers of . where excellent mummies are I-, .1 buried IV 85,8 ; dead gods, the children of Aturn are hidden in to the south west of Edfu 1173,12; Osiris is king in 1102,7.


high inundation Wb 111144 (24) GR

From the determinatives the word andthe generalcontentof the textsin which it occurs,Drt is a of flood of devastating is too high The word thenderivesfrom ry 'that which is.., proportionswhich . above,high' (c L 'high tomb!aboveand Drt' heaven).


At Edfu : the high flood is to be dispelledand drivenaway Festivalof Behdet'moorin


boatsin the

the flood'. perhaps thenameof the canalhereIV 19,3; in an as

epithetof the king who asMesentyis greatof might andvaliantover the flood IV 213,13;the king againhasmight,in the high flood , implying that he cancontrol the inundationV 56,5 Also Seth, . in asNbd is described bnt rt 'pFeeminent the flood' which fits well with his turbulent raging as . W natureVI 64,9. A- J= hrt also occurs at Dendera, =3 WD
VIII 152,2 and Vemus [Atluibis p.244 n. (c)] compares, it

Coptic, Z04CI P.. The deterrninative-AQwith shows that it is a phenorneffon which was regardedas bad for a high flood could causetremendousdamageto villages and field irrigation systems.

brty, -

eyes of Horus

Wb 111149 GR (2)
Orty is a rare word and is so far only attested from Edfu where it has added siginificance for the , temple god is Horus : the eyes of Ho*ruslight up the darknessfor. the king 0
4-Z=3. %% cal, 'm 4=>

<lt> .Cm>

0 rn mw it. f 1217,11 ; in an eye cosmetic offering, the c=.

of HB

light up what is in darkness 1425,16. T'heterm may be relatedto a Horusgod ZZ 111294,8.


million Wb 111152 - 153(24) Dyn I. (14) DG 328,7 Cr. 741 b; CED 306 many

14 -.


Spellingsat Edfu generallycontain the hh-figure with upraised arms 11317,14;


IV 16,5.The word is mostoften usedin relationto the king andkingshipwhere

he is grantedmillions of yearsas king, or millions of heb-seds 1'125,15 ; IV 16,5; IV 20,3 'IV' : , 329,13 Otherbenefitsare given to the king in quantifiesof millions suchas life, stability, power,: . VIII 110,2,,life NI 269,14-15. is also found in the following phrases hh-hr-00 III 317,14, It (Of years); D-r-hhw IV 49,1 millions uponmillions of offerings ; and hh-hh VI 270,8hekamakes millions.



Hch Wb HI 153 (25) MK

IVP is the personification infinity but he may be confused with Heh of Hermopolis. His name' of up He first appears in the thus raised . was written as a god sitting on the groundwith his twO'arms He MK andduringtheNK a yearsignwasput on his head. wasprobablya deity from the OK andhis he be task was to lift up the sky. He can sometimes identifiedwith Shuand also as an air -god was" V takes'on role of theair which is breathed of assimilated and the with Amun [1A 110821. therefore P. the massof air which holdsup thesky [Derchain, Salt825p.82-831.
At Edfu there is the important ritual hnk hh occurs 23 times (out of a total of 75 GR which V 47.14

temple examples) : it. is made to Horus 11273.3 288.7 (Treasury texts) ; III 145,81b

VII 198,13 he is accompanied Hathor by ,



1433,11; 11120.9 III and

43,3 on the samecolumn; IV 360,14; VII 134,4; VII 08,15 * VII 25,8; VIII 64,11; and Ihy Vl Hn -r V 95,16' 269,14 It is offeredto godsof the air andwind - Onuris-Shu 111247,17; e . th IV 143.12- Khonsu-Shu ; Shu 1262.4-8; Shu and Tefnut VII 128.15-, 'Onuris and Mehit VII 276,9 In a kingship text it is offeredto Re, Osiris, Isis, Horus and Hathor . f-/:

316,14. The offering of hh has two imprtant aspects it is the sign for millions, so in return the king receives millions of years, heb-seds and the rule of milions of people - this makes it an important kingship ritual is also that which holds up the sky that is the air and wind, so tht .

hemhemty crown (pl.27a , 115),the four plumecrown of Onuris (pl.60,76)and -IZt

the offering is a sign of both life - it causespeople to breathe - and of strength.71le king wears the 40CIR


it still hasplumes).He offers up a tray or basketwith a small ho imageuponit: note f-&I 'your true image One offering is slightly different - the king saysmn n.k bs.k beforeyour k, your ba in the wind o peningthe throatof the king! V 146,14(pl.119)Whichclearly' life giving role of the king. kthe I The ritual alsooccursat Dendera, OpctTempleat Karnak,the MamMisiandMbis,!but"' Esna,Philae, it doesnot occur before the GR period.The synbolof Heh is offered to a goddess who repres'eints' heaven theking or a god asthe carrier of the vault of heaven roleswhich arefilled by Hathorand, by Shu.In returntheking mayreceivean infinite numberof rcgnalyearsandjubilees.


As an amulet

is protective VI 151,7-8 though here the amulet is identified with -

* the god Heh himself [Jankuhn, Schutz p. 1251.


to seek, go

Wb 111151(3) to 152 (4) to seek Pyr. Wb 111152(5-7) to go DG 328 to seek V 393,6; sim. 'j IV

At Edfu bb is used in the sens'e seeking the relics of Osiris of 30,12; the king is the image of Horus beloved son who I

his fatherl 102,17; 'the king is a seeking the relics of

seeksthe flesh of his father in the nomes'll 78,3; Horus says, 'you walk the -Al VI 49,5.

desert to seek your perfectionl>%oJ" To go: bI

go in the Two Lands and Banks VI 288,15-16; a procession going to Your t6ple you go to the nomes (direct object) H 50,2. : the flood on the fields -A 9L

1538,16; In the phrase hh-'nh king gives to BB Rt


' for the one who created him 1324,10.


to tread on the tomb Wthe 'treading tomb'was performed by calves in an Osirian rite to

In the bwt-bbsw ceremony, the

kn fromtheenemies Osiris.In theceremony, treads thetombenttnce of conceal 2'13 king 'A' - c'-3 of theonewhobegathim IV him thetombof theonewhobegat 1102,34 ; the %A VII his Nfin A4 L-3of father 256,12-14 VI 242,6-8; of Behdet 155,14; %,. MCP3 7,14;14 q DLb for dead 86,8 VIII the M of OS'1nS'II . of gods Edfu1151,12; I 131,9-s" AV 131,8c.f. beperformed thepriests -A by Therite couldalso ul"-A not and 1: V 393,16-18. 'urpose theritul'was onlyto symbolically perhaps 2 TE-e practically of from hidetheentrance thetombshaftbut to ensure rightsof succession fatherto son, 'You the to VI In have a on of you yourcreator, tread histomlY 286,8-9. someversions theceremony, reunited for 98-112 floor TextsJEA35,1949pp. threshing wassubstituted thetomb[Blackman Fairman, and JEA 1]. andcomments 36,1950pp.76-8


be remote


is usually applied to places such as tombs or the underworld which are dark and'remote' b. underworld is 'dark and i. aa 'remote Amun 150, sim. itis %-%C


no-one knowing if

At Edfu a similar Y 0elk use appears : "Ibe secret rnsktt, your sacredNut, no-one knows its gates, it being dark and remote from the 113kw-ib' 178,13-14.

KO I No. 59 p.58; BD Chap.175 (Anfi) the underworld is dark and

inundation water Wb HI 152(13)GR This word is in fact attested earlyastheCoffin Texts(CT V 166h= Sp.1130e)wherea god says. as 'I am the Lord of in sailingheaven!. Edfu, 'Hapycomesquickly and At RIA-=

the flood waterin streams' 1555,5,theonly reference Wb. The term most likely derivesfrom in be remote'referTing the'remotesource theflood. to of

name a canal of Wb 111152 Gauthier IV 41 (7) DG This is the nameof the sacred lake connected with the town of N'rt , near HeracleopolisIsUgna (20th nomeof UE) In the Myth of Horus,the king brings .

all its canals to make

festivethe altarsVI 226,4. the king comesto HB in a geographical bringing ; procession VI 34,2.

etemity Wb 111154top. see nb4


An abbreviated writing of nbb (q.v.), andprobablycloserto the origin of nb in Ob 'millions'; for, both imply the sameconcept infinity (of time andspace). of Orthography, Edfu at IV 22,13 IV 54,15.

Uling your enemies 13LI III, 1145,11 which may be emended co

There is one example at Edfu:

to hryw , thoughit could be a writing of b tftyw'millions of foes'. v



make music

(11) Wb 111164 to 165(1)

At Edfu hs appearsrarely in epithets of Hathor which are wine offering texts 1234,15. 1273,3 -both of,

Hsw 0

singergods (3-11) OK'singee Wb 111165

On the


day of the temple, 3rd day of Shemu,joy is brought to the singers


they go around IV 14,8 . The writing with the harp sign indicates that singers might accompany themselveson the harp and that bsi singing was inseparablefrom harp or instrument playing.


to give favour . to praise 111156(7-22) noun -,154 (2) - 155 (25) verb' =Wb DG 329,1 24-CECIGI'

Cr.7l0a; CED297; KH3922-NC1G`

bs! is common at Edfu and used particularly to show the relationship between the gods and king HB 589,3. his son, the king IV 331,4; god -1 favours his beloved son, the king V 4,6; 1381,17 ;I

hsi-R' r/hr

give thanks for, praise Re for Wb 111155(3-5) GR

This phrasecan be'usedto designate of every decisionof the creatorabout the organisation the '2AS [Gardiens, divine places(R-eymond-, 92,1967 p. 120] Goyon 'a divine decree! cosmosand ,cC p.22 n.41. At Edfu, 'praiseto Re' is followed by r: IV 3,10 or tr IV 14,8andrarely by n

for (Wb ex.3). Ile prepositionis followed by something which Re is beingpraisedor thanked: his city IV 11,13; Nut IV 15,4.In texts whereit hasbeensaid to be a 'divine decree',it is simpler to Re treat it as Tavour/praiseof : d3is.f -nn bs-R' VI 17,1; -i-cL he praises


Re for it for the timespan of eternity IV 14,8 ;iI Tanen and Re join together VI 176,8 praise of Re VI 183,12. J *T1

b'y wrt VI 15,8; the primeval gods , 1.4

(at a divine decree) in praise of Re VI 173.9;

in a list of greetings ilLr dsdsw VI 177.9 ; Invoking the arm by

0S. 2

to go to a place

Wb 111159 (11) GR Wb cites only one exampleof this phrase it is from Edfu and 03yt tir I go to the

I sanctuary Horus!IV 54,5. Because alliterates well it seems of this so unlikely that shouldbe mad nmt or di .


palette Wb 111159 GR (1)

A rare word for the palette,only attested Edfu : the king raisesup at + UD 80,8 *, 1167,14 asa symbolof Maat. -

to lboth Il

dough fluid, paste , Wb 160 (6-16) OK At Edfu in a Nile offering bearer text 6 tr is associated with npr and 9bt grains IV 44,15

93t-tpnt is one who brings the bestfield with its'

RTvl and made .

k tr

and created

npr grain IV 29,1-2.0 could refer to breaddoughbecause the association of with com, but both it to of thesetextsappear containa pun on the word because canalsobe usedfor'efflux"mucus' (Wb Med. p.632) and the whole text of IV 44,14-15reads,lie brings to you the 7W. efflux,of the
I U.,

%_ QD o Similarly IV 29,2-3 body and npr///// of containsa pun, but it is not as pointed, god's

'You are one who made efflux'.

and createdn pr-grain from his water spatout from ? with his u


Wb 111159 (15-17)m-O MK.. with genifiveor suffix of a pcrson


At Edfu ru-O mostoften occursin the context,'no-onecanstandrn-O throughfear of a god or king' Ij IV 68,11;, c-IV 123,6;., Jq426 43,2; Ti, V -A IV 351,4;orTT-7, I VONII

'while marchingon the battlefield'1570,6. Also, 'no-oneactsrn-DO throughfearof 'A ////m-bs3 VII 204,13. 143,2; andin a damaged text, the youngmaidens

Wb suggests is a prepositional bsj this phrasederivedfrom the -verb 'to betakeoneself with the following genitiveor suffix of a personandimplying it is hostileor opposing action.It is usedfrom' the MK and is found after the verbs'to come!,'to rejoice, 'to standfast in battle!.The latter is first in Urk.IH 61,3 and'63,3(the dreamstelaof Tanatamun) the phrase: nn wn IbI AII in attested 0 'fee most likely derivesfrom the word 0 'be fierce', 'be frightening' and should be translated'throughfearof him'.


fierce of fwe IiI Wb 111161(1-6) - t

At Edfu ts3-r is an epithet of gods going to fight their enemies, for example Horus 58,14 Horus <z> 452,6 111179,5-6 V 53,6-7 V1 191,17 ; the king 145,11-12 ; JQD IV

111138,15; as he goes to battleo i

11,k]V IV 58,1;

350,17 and also goddessessuch as Mehyt 75,5.

0 10131' 1313,15orNekhbet the king is Q.I Tq5 note also m-s3

Though it can be followed by the prepositions m or r after the rebels' VII 29,21-22, as he chasesthem away.


' strong, powerful? Wb IH 161(9-14)

Fairman [BIFAO 43,1945 p.121 n. 1] noted that the precisemeaningof Ps3-XnIhad not been TbesignVRj wasonceread 'strong, powerful'seemed but determined whereit occurred acceptable. 3m it was usedwith reference Mn or Horus and connected to withwords meaningphallus,but as are found with the samecontexts. this readingbreaksdown when indisputablecasesof Ps3-%n' Msc. Greg. Blackman hehadearliertranslated termas 'to scare the awayfoe (with erectmember)' and p.418 n.70] . s


Followed by


: Min

115 (35)-,Min

A 1156,7; Min

Q13-1121185,3. [possible examples : King f-sp-o'- *!S'1242,10-11; Amun-ReKa-Mutef 4L ^ Followed by m-dt. f 1374,34; Min Ij the gmts 4"-?,, V

182,11; BB Lord of Sexual Pleasure. IV 242,131. ta. 11187.8-9 88.9 . , II

0196,18 [Possible examples: 1375,14-15; gmbs Vi-F-

VPMin raised of Arm and Lord of Maidens , Followed by m-bftyw : Two hands

V 241,5 ]. 16,11; gargoyle lion

IV 286,1 [Possible exarnples you vnu

182,8; the greatlion

HI 271,14;I give,

IV the against foesof your majesty' 383,131. d -, and %j--55* in battle1182,11-12 Nn is Lord of e9'f

Without following phrase:

4 Q5 _qW like him 270,5;May you be fierce ; r, arm. with the outstretched ' 1102,11-12. -:;.
Writings of the lion holding the bs vessel also occur in the following contexts but might not, necessarily read D04n' and could be pjjr 'to run', where the readings of the lion sign with the ts vessel and lion with the tp daggerhave beenconfused [see Montpellier. Valeurs do Signes F 3350&; F 391 F 337 138 1.11; Re of Behdct 1571,14-15; Horus

Followed by m b'w-'nh. f IA: PIV 71.7-8

Followed by m nfrw. f : NUn Sundries 375,9; the king `Vi? w 197,9 c.f. Vii& 401,

IV 271.4. of Nfin father of gods11270,1 with his arm upraised 1 m animals in the desert, III

in Dsds and Knmt 111132,15

in the desert 111188,16.

According to Wb, bs3 is first found as an epithct of the lion m3l-bs3znd later it is confused with



sacred cow Wb 111162 (1-3) Pyr.

The bs3t cow is mentionedfrom the PyramidTexts. Sheis the motherof Anubis,the sun god, the black bull Mnevis of Heliopolis and also of Apis. Shesucklesa white bull and is connected with Atfih In Ptolemiactexts she is associated Isis, partly due to the similarity in nameand she with .


provides milk to nurse the king. Her name most likely derives from h s3, so that she is 'the Wild One' -a wild marshcow, respectedfor her motherhood [LA 111170-1;Grenier, Anubis p.201.

At Edfu : the king is sonof

I J'4? t-

(milk offering) 168,1 ; milk of



providedfor off6rings121Ij ;a list of offeringsincludessweetmilk of 6y the falconis saidto be created Anubis,sonof

6 - -

1555,6 ;

IV 220,4;VII 285-6; the king is like and'bom of W'M

VII 285,6.


forearms (1) Wb 111160 BD , GR.

Dswt is not notedby Lefebvreor Lacau, but it doesseemto occurat Edfu : 116 (11)


between m3wty'full arms and hands'so the term would seem to refer to'forearms. In are mentioned they strike down rebels and repulse the foe from the shrine. Also a list of parts of animals this text which are eaten includes Toth. 172,29 meat cut. Iq 01 `4' VI 158,13-14 The earliest example cited by Wb is : Nav. .

followed by 'wy 'arms' but the term may be comparable to Dr-bst for a


to reckon , count Wb 111166(11) to 167 (15) Pyr. DG332,3 Iill bsb market market

Cr.713 a; CED 297; KH 569 ZGC-S

At Edfu the verb is very often connected with Thoth as the 'reckonerof lifetime! 91,4 ; 14 J 1 (Yj VI 277,3-4; jjP4r V 286,6and Renenet can be too

01V IV 44,5.

Thoth is alsothe reckonerof spells: of its slars, J.

hmt-r3-IV210,13, or 'reckonerof heaven,counter rX the bnbwt land of Egypt VII reckonerof

VI 25,1-2or

i47,10; Hathoras Seshat beside - 1 2592 Thoth is 4`2 "" counterof num rs of heb-seds I be is Ire 27,9 [Boylanp.193index]. Othergodscan 'reckon': Khonsuis reckoner the kingship 0 nswt 1522,8 ; the king is reckoner of of eternity JJO 1403,12. r ibt n bnbwt

In the Donation Texts sb is usedof countingup land areas


calculate the total of measuredfields VII 247,10 ; rh .VII 247,14.

sn nb List of all their calculations


reckonerof tribute Wb 111167 (16) Late and GR

At Edfu, the name of a god brought by Hathor to reckon up the kingship is GG Aa 2 suggeststhe



is a pustule or gland, and it determines, 'bodily growths or conditions as determinative in bsb 'reckon' from the 18th D.

especially of a morbid kind' . It replaces X (Deir el Bahri pl. 79).


esteem, respect

Wb IH 167(1) is In Wb the latestexample from the22ndDyn. but it is foundat Edfu : HB is IV decree respected 102,14. wilt. f 'whose

hsb 0

ground (a) 0 e%r3tA" 0-' (b) C3

ClUe studied three particular phraseswhich incorporated 0"

and (c)

seemto 'walWgo/violate ground'of someone the whosemeanings with the S is shownto mean'ground!'ploe. Piehl

sense I)e disloyal to' someone so the element of and

[PSBA 15,1893,33-36 ; followed by Fairmanin ASAE 44,1944 p.276-71 the established reading 93w for re- partly on the groundsthat it alliterateswith the other words in the abovethree C= , but it would seemthat the evidenceoverwhelminglysupportsthe readingbsb (as forto phrases, field which is drawnuponthe ground(Wb 111168,7) bsbw is a square wherethe sign reckon'above). r-3 a represents drawnout area.In the king's tombsareascalled C-3 bsbw are rectangular

in foundsYmwfigures,so that it is a drawnout, delimitedpieceof groundand. enclosures which arein the threeGR expressions could walk or stand,thusto leaveor, abovea placewherea trustedperson abandonthis areawould show disloyalty. In exampleswherehsbw is written (1483,12)C3,

is a square patchof land, not a phoneticp>b [JJ.Cltre, BIFAO 79.1979, p285 ff. ]. For the three phrases undertherelevant see verb.

, 1213

' Thereis a furtherexpression :S v9'

T' VI 203,3 in P.Ebers77,18 0: - n w3d and and also

91,6 b'c C3 n w3d. Here hsb seems be the nameof a mineral [Harris, Nfineralsp. 143-5and to Iversen,PaintsandPigments 17] which wasusedin paintingmagicalimages foesandwasgreen p. of in colour.BD Chapter133[Budge,BD 291,1-2]hasa parallelto theaboveexamples which spellsout IP "rJ 6ts thephrase andconfirmsthe readingof -(y i as Osb. i


I lth nome of Lower Egypt, Cabasitenome Gauthier DG IV 41-42,

hsb was the name of both and the nome and its capital, known to the Greeks as icacEcra. It is literally the nome of the hsb-bull and in texts can be replaced by Vdn = Horbeit The actual site of . DO has not been identified but it may be near Horbeit 4km to the yestin the region of Hebseh. At Edfu in geographical processions 71.332.18 brings 'and a massacreof

the foe , the obliterationof the nameof Mk , thereis no evil and his,namedoesnot exisf 1333,1; B 13 VI 40,4 brings foe' 'with its products,pr. rst and all the slaughtered IJt40,5; 4 IV 30,4 aw hereIn-Hap 'fires his d' rn harpoonand cuts off the headof the .5

crocodiles'; 'Isis the greatis in 117- andbringsall provisionsin his ity' VI 50,9. e)
The name of the nome is translated as 'Der geschlachtete Stiee[LA 11397] and this 'slaughtering

buU'(or slaughtered bull ?) fits well with the general warlike content of the geographical texts.



vineyard, orchard. garden Wb 111162(4-10) Pyr.

sp may be derived from bsb reckon and bsb 'patch of land land. At Edfu : 'the northern city is brought with all its

as a delimited and outlined area of

I V 35,14, the determinatives show j"3-

that it refers to alloted or measuredout areasand also land upon which plants could be grown is a vineyard from the eastern fields of Hor-Maa VI 225,6; the king is nb the sht goddess brings r tr. s n rnpt

VII 210.1 j3

great gardens IV 196,2 in a procession thb. f ht

the flood waters the garden at its time' 1338,15. This latter text is describing the

Coptite nome of Min and he is connectedabove all with thegarden! where his lettuces:grow.



natrw Wb IH 162 (11) to 163 (2) Pyr. DG 332,5 Cr.713a; CED298: KH393


The main sources of natron were the Wadi Natrun, from where it came through the main trading centre in the Oxyryhnchite nome, and also El-Kab. By the GR period Osmn was a general term for natron and may have included other unspecifiedsubstances when used in purification for example. In origin bsmn would have been pure natron, sodium chloride and sodium sulphate, being therefore

closelyrelatedto salt, bm3t [Harris,MineralsP-195-61 At Edfu. natronis usedfor purification: 'I chewnatron '' :# 1- 0
is brnt on the fire and I am purified'With t"-... ....

to purify the mouthVI 70,1*,,

which comes ErornEl-Kab I 209a. i I,%

The natural antisepticqualitiesof natronwereprized by the Egyptianshenceits extensiveusein


', templepurificationrituals.


to cleanse purify , ' Wb 111163(3-6) Pyr. oft GR'

Derived Erom the"same root as hsmn 'natron' which was used to purify or " ritually cleanse. At Edfu, ', Z= J lee* buildings werecleansed:

(hwwt) 111122 16-17;the Mansionof the Falcon is purified , the templeof Arsinoe1323,12;the flood so that they are safefor the king to IV

"from hann (hd) _,


the templefrom evil 1324,11.Roadsare purified

IV 70,15-16,the king himself is purified I -t! , 111174,6 his body walk upon =*-s or 004
52,7. Behdet is also purified -401321,13 and the ka of Osiris is cleansed too I t=M so,.


209,19. Often* bsmn alliterateswith the rest of the wordsin the sentence, doubt to increase magical, the no the potincy of thepurification.It wasalsousedat Dendcra throughout otherGR temples. and


mensuiiaUng woman Wb 111163 (10). Wb Med. p.635


smn 'pure! and bsmn 'menstruation' are complementary antonyms. In the geographical texts, the abomination of god in the 17th UE nome is 342,7 [Tanis Geog.Pap. pl. 10 frag 12/13' NE a woman who menstruatesin his town I

en. in the 10th LE nome also Ip A11011 and

1332,16 [see Vernus, Athribis p.263 n.g]. Montet compares this with the Hebrew rule for seven days of purification for menstruatingwomen when it was forbidden for such a woman to enter a tomb [Montet, Mmi XI 1950 p. 1034]. In thesetwo places there may have been a similar regulation. '


to eat, partake of

This word, thoughnot in theWb, occursfairly often at Edfu, asan alternative way of saying'to eae
It is followed by the indirect object introduced by the preposition m. '''e. 115 IP 5 * 60 (you Offerings are eaten: eat of them, they are pure) V 49,9-10; A1*2 PA %, * rn bt VII 145,12-13. 61,16-62,2 k! VII

Meat portionsare eaten nfyw are eaten

V 302,17-18 VI 158,14-15

1? VII 143,6. VII 107,5-6; VII 160,8-9

1 410-0 IV 257,15-17 drink with it Eatingwith the 'Cavity which transmitsfood: or -14 VII 90,14-15 In the phrase'eatingto the hearfs content! ib. k VII 70,14; In the wish 'Eat andrejoice I r 3b ib.k VII 151,9-10 'r A? t1=1? wnf-Dr.t VI 312,16-17. b3t'meaf VII 128,10-11, thoughit is possiblein r mr. k V 154,4-5 dr r

The verb canalsotakea direct object:

or the rarity of this use that in this examplethe m is to be understood has beenomitted view of throughcarelessness. 163,13)in M.E.-163,10 Wb also records a separate verb smn 'to drink! (Wb 111 to of that milk', it seems Dsmnhasthe meaning. ingest!'partake food or drink. The verb may derivefrom bsmnwbread`(a consumable) in the Coffin Texts thereis a cannibal and demoncalled earlieruses. JAbsmnt [FECT II p.38 n.33 1, which may indicate that hsmn 'to eat' has 0



a typeof bread

bsmnw may be related to the word in Wb 111163,12, from the PTs and MK. -which means 'mealtime! 'breakfast!(Pyr. 1112 Leiden V6). In the latter, a stela from the reign of

SenusertI found at Abydos [Schafer,ZAS 42,1905 p. 126] there is a reference to the owner of the . stela as 'beautiful in ktn bread. -I-

At Edfu it seemsto be a type of bread, not only becauseof the determinative, but also because in

it appears kindsof bread: '-offering texts with other

do and hundreds thousands of and 0=0

aim -'of 11455~

tens of thousandsof O-bread are before the god' VH 289,9-11; in an offering scene

is the gods and goddesses in the handsof the king' M 192,4; white bread is described as the

of the king (or god)VH 79,9-10. ,ai

This noun may be the ancestorof hsmn 'to ed. 0


to cut off Wb 111168,(14) to 169(2) Pyr.

At Edfu h. is used with the nuance 'to cut off for it is often followed by some part or limb of an sq enemy and usuaffy at Edfu it is Horus Behdet who performs this act: head tp :a VI 159,4 VI 86,12; -T A
k VI 120.6 and

IV 302,15:

head of asmn -goose

has the determinative"*'Sb- to make the meaning clear IV 331,11 ; limbs, h'w: JJk"P. Vil which _ jdV, "_ Id 263,6 ; back bone Ist VII 272,10; legs: ' 111188,11. with 'enemy' object : nbsyw 'IIV 342J.



ewer (1) Wb 111154 OK

The hst vesselwas usedin offering or purificationrites andcouldbe madeof gold, silver or bronze. It contained offeringsor altarsandwasthe type. vessel of purewater or evenperfumewhich asperged the mostcommonlyusedto makehbations.At Edfu in representations vessels be shownwith or can without spouts.There may have originally beena distinction betweenthe two types, the true W Other, originally having no spout [Kees, Opfertanzp.54 ff. ], but by GR times it had disappeared. Frisesp3O5 ff. be given to vesselswith this shape,See qbb, lnbt , dVrt (16quier, namescould ,


Balcz, MDAIK 5,1934 p.71]. The name for the vessel may derive from a verb hs 'to pour' [du B uisson, Vases pp'.114-5]. At Edfu electrum the PI' j is made of nnib 11245,15 and the king says, 'the st-vcsscl in my hand is of 11242,2-3.


to rule

(5-2 Wb 111170 1)Pyr.

c f. ZkK KH 361 be mighty '141 IV53,13; 1.6 VIII 118,11-,

Frequent at Edfu with spellings: 1,1482,7-,

V 5,1 Its use at Edfu follows the pattern as set out in Wb, for example : the world -7 . 99,10; 1494,16; an office I 4f 1178,17-18 ; millions of millions IVZ, 6 ; the serekh

IV 53,13.


ruler Wb 111170(23) to 172 f---j I` DG 333,1 GrAicVI 84a. A

Spellings at Edfu :I

1 A* 1113,13;

One of the guardian godsof Osiris is called IV 37 also(Wb 111174,9).

(incense libation text) 1186,18; MD and


kingship Wb HI 173 - 174(8) MK

The noun derived from the verb bq3 and also used often at Edfu 1101,1 ; Seshatgives I j9 (-' to the king 1297,17 ; Horus gives

is for the king (wine) of Horus 1482,7.


princess queen , Wb 111173 (3-19) MK oft. GR DG 333.

F4 -e
A"O 1225,10;IV 21.7.Usually in appliedto Ptolemaicqueens their titles

Spellingsat Edfu ,I


'King's wife, hq3t and lady of the Two Lands D2110]. Tbe title can alsobe appliedto goddessesHathor : 29,10;Hathor is ne uraeus called

IV 43,4 [Troy, Queenship 196 p.

d01 164A -,queenArsinoe 0

01 244,3

129,19;Hathorasruler of the Lower Egyptiancrown of Horus1104,12.


nome GauthierDO IV 43

The nameof the twelfth nomeof LowerEgypt,the HeliopolitannomewhosecapitalwasIwnw and could alsobe calledbq3-'nd andPr-R'. At Edfu in the geographical the procession king brings 1 IV 32,2

'with Vbw cakesfor the Six Day Festival' and he says,"fou arc Re .3 ,
V 20,13

great Lord in his disk who shines in heavenand gives light rays' ; also



ruler of the wing


At Edfu q3-ndb is an epithet of the winged disk [see ndb]


he protects the Great Place V 321,14. It also refers to the falcon : 1.04 when 185,14; jdd. VI -,EiOa 182.7 and in a hymn to Horus Behdet he is called 1,64

V1_'-"'Z when his ,Q%3

attributes a falconarestmsed VI 182,10. as


priest (12) Wb 111174 (not bq3t as here)

In the New Year procession priest is called -7,d a on onehand(pl.37b line 102).

1540,6 and he is showncarrying


crook Wb 111170 (24) MK

A symbol of authority carried by the king. In origin it may representthe crook of a herdsman, herdsman his people.At Edfu it is mentionedin lists of stressingthe aspectof the king as the of


royal regalia'and is offered by the king to the gods along with the flail. The offering can be made to Horus Lord of Mesen and Nekhebt, Horus Behdet and Wadjet, Osiris and Nut, Horus Behdet alone, Khons or Osiris alone In return for the offering the king is given the kingship of the Two lands, . lordship over east and west, foreign lands bringing their tribute and also the rulership of Re The be held in either hand by the kig, 'but Osiris gives the -7 of Re and flail of the moon 1 crook can 382,18 - 383,13; BB gives the A I of Re 1434.5-12 ; the crook is held in the right hand as

migh t be expected IV 119.7-120,2, yet in makes bright the crook sb3q 1383,4

is held in the left hand 1480,6-13. The king says he 1434,5-12.


serpent goddess Wb HI 175(9) GR

In the 17th hour of the night for Osiris the goddess' 216,12, most likelyderived, from bqr 'be hungry.



drinks blood and eats flesh of foes 1


be furnished. provided, Wb 111175(16) GR

tqq is a rare word, occuring once at Edfu, in a geographical procession the m3'-pehu comes with its, 14 'C 4;t birds provided and not lackine IV 32,1 (= Dum. GI IV 118).

magic Wb 111175- 176, personified 177 (1-5) DG 333,5

Cr. 661a *,CED 276; YH 361 ZI K

The etymological origin of OU is not agreed but because of the writing with the sign


with ideasof magicalpower giving might or" readp or pDty 'mighV,it may be concerned usually strength.It hasalsobeenarguedthat it is derivedfrom U with an -prefix,'implying that magical 435-439; Zauberp.875-880 with the U [Bonnet,ReaLMagie'p. powerwasin someway connected Te Velde, JEOL 21,1970 p.175-6; W.R.Dawson JEA 31,1947 p.185]. A pun at Edfu connects , (hwi) everythingto you which you will give him, fbi he hasbecome hwi and U 'May he dedicate 0


Heka! VI 153,12 [JEA 31,1945 p.59]. At Edfu : Aturn is describedas the Great of Magic magic 1?' VI 189,6. VH 152.8; VI 189,5; the two Uraei are the Great of t

The word Ok3w 'magic spells' derives from this: enemiesarc subduedby them ILI 7X4IV 305,17 ; Isis performs <P

magic VI 123,8 and 'Iboth protects by using rTrf-, VI 300,9.

VI 84,5 Usually spells are uttered 6d) .




Wb HI 177(10-12) Pyr. Cr. 662b; CED 277 ; KH 361 ZAKO (sing. )

At Edfu bk3w refersto both maleandfemalemagicians two similar phrases in

-lv-- Nz: p ,, -. %to

VI 235,8and





'All their maleand femalemagicians'My r

On'.sn Dmw.r3 ddw iisn jjmd m bftyw r KULE nb - t3wy N. VI 236,34. The title of the, text is' Book of subduing p't' andtheycomewith otherpeoples the king. Ile emphasis the the to of text is on repellingfoesandthosewith magical powersarebroughtto protecttheking.


priestess of Hathor in St-13bi Wb 111176(14) GR

The only Wb reference is q=" -rJ2 which is the name of the Yrn't priestess of Thoth = Isis VI



door-bolt (15) GR Wb 111180 Osing,IEA64, p.189 ZokXf4

Okn is the usualword for door bolt of which bronzeexamples survivein the form depictedby the hieroglyphicsign. At Edfu, part of the templedescriptionsaysthat the IV 8,8 andIV 13,3describes Z5 copper/bronze the Ib ,<::

bolts are of.

in the shrine.In a metaphor, king is the the

11155,12. the door of the GreatPlacewho turnsawayenemies of

in The lion form,of the bolt wasprobablya protectivemeasure the sameway that the waterspouts


have lion headsto dispel evil and chaos.The word is also usedat Dendera This type of bolt is found from the 26th Dynasty and a hole would be bored in the door post so that when the bolt was drawn forward the door leaf would not open. The hole in the wall containeda metal container with two rails on the base along which small rollers rest. The bronze bolt could thus run smoothly over the rollers. They were also called gn' and could be made of stone and wood. Examples of thesebolts come from Mit Rahineh (Berlin 37 765), Horbeit (48 887), see also BM 16038 [p.273 Guide] and two examples in the Cairo Museum without JE numbers [Koenigsberger, TUr, AF 2 of Varille, ASAE 53,1956 p.79-118]. bkn is a late word but may have developed from a wordAWS

q3nbt (Pyr.194).


unguent Wb 111180(5-7) Pyr. Wb Drog. 383-4 Cr.744b ; CED 307 ; 371 2_6eir4'v AG'N-

The identification of this unguent is not certain but it commonly occurs in Egyptian rituals from the Old Kingdom onwards and is one of the 'Seven Sacred oils'. At Edfu it is used in incense and oil offering rites, usually to anoint the body of a god : 06.66,6; "C-=; -D U5 -U 125 6 or di vi ne I imb s: "ZY-U W L3 1566.8; VI 314,6; '-- -tr!2 'tr eTr VI 315,1-2; 1421,10; -* '9 194,16. It is brewed

IV 114,7. The smell of hknw by Shesmu in his workshop

is sweet: 1421,10

1430,13; 194,16 and it is said to come from the VII 211,10, or it can come from Punt

God's Land 1565-6, where Hathor is mistress'of

1216,6.The oil can be smeltby the nose with other incenses IA&4q=ft Ve 1430,13 It is usedin the temple the gods -jx3 . e-

1555,14 and it pacifies 1419,10. The oil seems be in to

for liquid or at leastviscousform asit hasa jar of varyingshape its determinative ratherthangranules asfor myrrh or incense. The laboratorytextsat Edfu containrecipesfor makingbknw (an elevenday process) recipesin or It as which it is usedto makeother substances. is rarely presented an offering by itself, occurring &=P-4 hnk bkn for his noble father, the Yms-'ntyw offering, but also LL4 most often as part of his subtitled'Refreshing nosewith ', an offering which is given to Ptahand SekhmetII

36,15-16.It may be equated with md ointmentas VI 100,3ff. hasan ir md text andthe first speech



but I-Ibe textsdo not specifya purificationpurpose its sweet, is beforeyou

oil cosmetic to be put on the body to give it a, it may havebeenprimarilyusedasa that smell means 1-29 in an oil list ; LA IV 552-5 Ole fragrance[AlteninUller. SAK 4,1976 pp. pleasing of 1978p.77 ; Dflmichen, ZAS 17,1879 p.100 noteon preparation bknw]. GM 30 S.Tawfik,


to anoint

Wb HI 180(11) Med.
At Edfu hkn is often used in puns, 'to anoint hkn with Okn-oil' : VII 106,15 ; IV 114,7 315,1-2 and Okn-oil 4=4 VI

anoints the face of the god VI 100.3. It may be confused with Okn

'cause rejoice'. to


to praise , rejoice (with m) intransitive Wb M 178 (2) to 179 (3) Pyr. 1417,1 You have seized these gods and goddesses,

bkn is common at Edfu : rejoice in (m) Maat rejoice cr 1411,4; 1411,7


JJ with

T 1^&"'b '15* `: 223.11;

with the spell of entering the palace 1536.9-10; the Ennead

them (tribute of ]2sds) 1536,12. Followed by the preposition r7 ': 7 T' thesegods rejoice at you 1223,1.
qC; W A-

As an imperative to the goddessHeken-em-ankh

17 '127 q

IV 51.3

I? With direct object(transitive 'make glad) : the king '*9F-D makes glad, or praises the ka of god in . a lotus offering VI 247,17. As a noun (Wb 111179,6-19) E=- tr ! 97 in joy' IV 43,5; the king At Edfu 9 the queen says, 'the king brings the wrt-Dts %--m Vzo JJ -a in joy 1204,4 1111.17 following the, heaven the Great Place is in joy= ; raises verb ir "May you make joy for the kas of the dead It, r-1 gD

1289,8 ; in processions the lector,

priest reads out

L-- 'a and q=b

1163,10 in order to drive away evil ; when the

j`e-ftnd the heartof Hathoris happyat their sound1500,16. they give out sistraare shaken gives a specific A noun Olin 'dancefor,joy'is derivedfrom bkn 'to rejoice' and the determinative I'DIFrIll 175,12 '"-- 17 ! 111174,13 the dancing and -r meansof showingjoy. In two examples, ,


man implies this means'to dance!.


rejoicing in life Wb 111178(14) sun god (15) snake(16) Hathor (17) in titulary of a Ptolemy.

At Edfu, as a noun phrase : the child IV 4,1;

%=* -tr e-



m Ie f 1536.4 and nb.



tx--upon the throne of his father IV 12,3. C31'r YI ;l Ti IV 18,8.

As an epithet of the king as Sm3 -t3wy

Asa substantive: beforeyou 111139,14.

is yourswith health. joy YI. 189,11;1 and e~


As an epithetof Hathor: sheis the VV her IV 265,7 ; Hathoris

of her fatherAkhu, whoseheartrejoicesat seeing motherof the mothersof the first primevalonesIV 238,13 -u T T is commanded to

[Husson,Miroirs Doc. 7,12'celle qui jubile de vivre'l , 'Rejoice1'(Okn) IV 51,3. Uraeusgoddesses:

is beforeher fatherRe, (Wadjet)Il 59,18.

nb. hkn 0

Lord of Joy Wb 111179(18-19) BD, GR

An epithet of the king in a praising Re text king isHorus result of a particular offering. I 101a

": W

V 155,14; and in a wine offering text the fora god orjoy as a

Thetexts are here concemedwithjoy .


rAx of food

(13) Mo. GR , Wb 111180

I "I;:; * The P.Ebers lists among food A4=


(51,12 or 292) which is unknown (Wb Drog 383) but

it in from the determinative may be a cakeor bread.At Edfu,Mverythingcreated heaven earthis and broughtby the king to Horus Behdetincluding


as food at his time VI 29,1 . The

its joy. determinative againimpliesthis is somekind of bread,perhaps tasteinduced


com , cereals


Wb 111180(16) GR , Charpentierp.786 from Edfu : an 'Offering the Field' text which lists all kinds of grains 7be only referencesin Wb are Hathor, 'great kr-grain harvestedin the field' presented to Horus and 'granaries are filled with 'V1261,3.

VI 260,14 and; '


sail (noun)

(16) Wb 111182 MK DG 337,3 2.0"W' the sail

in Pz(4r make sail

Cr. 718 b; CED 299 ; KH 396 ZuJr

In the Myth of Horus, 'that beautiful shining sail is like Nut, the Great when she was pregnant with' the gods! VI 80,3 and the word FWI$efers to the sail of the war ship of Horus,'presumably a'sit' to which %t3w may

billowed when the wind filled it, sailing upstream.There is a word LWwind!,

be related as an O-prefix form. The earliest appearance bt3w is Ubensmade 133 [Jones,Glossary of p. 177 ff. ].


smoke Wb 111182(9-11) Pyr. DG 338,6 w r7 "91

I At Edfu ht3 is most often used of the smoke of burnt offerings and incense which rise up from the altars to the gods in heaven : the smoke of sly-nir incenserises to the nostrils . god of JP rY. 4

111130,14-16; during the temple foundation ceremony the smoke of Ihm and bd rises up -SPPIV 19,1 ; as myrrh is put onto the fire goes up to the nose of the king VIII 140,14 1'565,15.

j "'%a%" 4 enemies are burnt upon the altar and Horus.Behdet smells their smoke


grain WbII1182(3) BD, GR

be a general term for grainsof variouskinds., in At Edfu btyt appears the phrasenpr-btyt andmay "... :oIa. 9% V 229.3;but VI 204,10describes the It may be personified, the king is begottenof a aIT! of be a generalterm for produce the fields ; the flood makes to the fields andhereit seems of


fields greatwith
donor is Unty-D-b3t provisioning

VI 207.2-3 (both of these are in geographical processions where the and Unty) ; Horus. Behdet makes flourish ICYI qq in T3rrt too
13 :0

261.7-8 ; in a'

text, Rennet makes prosper

MD 11175 c.

is It is difficult to tell whethernpr andVtyt are separate commodities, whetherthe expression a or the stalksof grainplants,wherethe tyt represents longerstemandthe npr the phrasefor ears-and theyindicatethe wholestalk,or whetherthereis one typeof grain simply called ear,so that together npr-btyt. The examplecited from the BD is : Nav. Totb. 77,7

1a 44L.



The Grain %%

(Allen, BD p.66) implying two separate hasgrantedme that I control him who is at my head'. god wordsoriginally. .I. IIII



, -. 1.1 1

(4-16) Pyr. Wb 111181

GG sign list F-10-headand throatof a bull or cow. -

become Ile writing of the sign1has confused with the writing of a borer or batonsign , so that the I headandthroatof an animalhas to the end , which is actuallythe endof a batonor added simple borer.Accordingto Lefebvre[Tableau22] it refersto the insideof the neck andis connected with thirst andbreathing. At Edfu Otyt is a part of thebody : Horussayshe cuts the throat(s)of the enemies 235,16;the king offers beer which makesfestive the throat text, the vineyards purify your throat II a- IV

1459,10; in a wine giving *

':*on to the king , t* with what you love 1144,7;in a presen '1212,11. I 2L 1269,12 ,

he is told' Openyour mouth,openyour jaws, openyour throat wn Khonsuis known as the "jkoat of Amun' In a metaphorical sense,

Maaf text andMaat canherselfbe called"Iliroat' (see mrty for This is from a ? resenting 1168,2. qi 'V% ZI VII 90,12-14. throat so example) sheis referredto as the sacred


powerful of throat Wb 111181(14)

This is an epithet of gods especiallywhen they are also called 'Lord of. Maaf. Horus Behdetin particularbearsthis epithetat Edfu VII 195,3;VII 255,3 _ IV 157,15 1I Mam. 90,2; kff'sj Z

; occur possibly111128,16 Mam.16..7beseexamples


II. in Maat offering sceneswhich is appropriate as Maat is equated with the throat and so the Lord of Maat incorporatesher into his epithets,becoming'Mighty of Throat. 7be idea may be connectedwith the voice comes from the throat = MaaL m3'-brw as w


to rest , be at peace, be content , set (of sun) Wb 111188-192 DG 340,1 1

Cr-724 b; CED 301 ; 399 tw TTT

At Edfu the verb hasthe classical in uses outlinedin Wb andis consistent its spelling,either -Aa as
or -0--a 123 , with few variations. In addition it can be foHowed by the preposition bnl : Hathor is content with him A= 8,9. It was regarded as the opposite of wbn : Re -Qsets in the beUy of Nut IV 13,11. ,a

btp ,,

, Wb HI 196 (4) GR

jL -.= In an incense offering, the king is 'welcomeand enteErm-btp. censethe templern-Otp .. 13. . 2. ,
the incense is in peace before the Ennead' VI 136,12. Ilis pun name for incense is a hapax

[Alliot, Culte Il p.796 n. 1].


]Vtp-Nbwy The Two Lords are content, name for Edfu temple In the building text work was begun again in the'lfc: 3i

I "i IV 8,6, with reference to the

Edfu. (In the parallel text VII 7,3, the name is replacedby another name for Edfu t1wt -qn). " temple of The Two Lords depicted here as determinatives are Re and possibly Khonsu, so Nbwy refers to the two celestial gods, sun and moon, Re and Khonsu.

Opw-nlrw offerings Wb 111184 to 185(5-20) OK (4) DG 339,2 Thereareat leastII examples this kind of offering beingmadein the temple.They areofferedto of


Horusor Horusaccompanied Hathor,the Mnevisbull, Harsomthus Neferhotcp. termseems by The or to apply to a generaloffering of bread,fruit, produceof the fields, meatwhich ensures adequate the provisioning of the god's tablesand altars. In return the gods give an equally generalamountof produce,tribute and provisionsor more intangiblegifts connected with the kingship, suchas life, that stability, power or an assurance the nameof the king will live forever. The offering is not to the restricted a specificareaof thetemplebut occursthroughout building. The spellingof the term is consistent with the only variationsbeing of the breadsignCM or 0. 17112' 1487.10 The term can also be the object of different verbs suchas 13b: ;1 ,T 156,5 IV 312,8; fel'] V 193,14 V 230,12,sw'b 5' 1kI IV Og6 Ca 1

Gli3 486,16; '142D VII 68,15 1503,16 shpr : -9 CEM -a- i' , u t

6 1=#I VII 208,6,w3 h -!

0 '&5133

ScAm- 1491,15, srwit: 'I CCD a VIII 88,16.

11169,8, wdn :1

It would seem that this is the formulaic way of making a general offering to gods, the royal counterpart of it is the btp-di-nsw. It ocurs rarely in Old Kingdom offering lists and is more

common as a temple offering [c f. Barta, Opfer pp.86.126 and 149].

tp-di-nsw an offering which the king gives Wb 111186-7 DG339,3 Occdis'frequently at Edfu both within texts and -asthe tifle'of an offering ritual (at least 12 times). Originally the offering was a gift of mortuary food given by the king to the deceased[Barta, Opfer' pp.65-7]. In temples the offering supplies the basic needsof the king or god and is made by the king to a variety of gods such as Mn, Khons, dead deified kings (Ptolemy Philadelphus and Arsinoe) but at E4fu especially to Osiris and Horus (with or without Hathor). As the title of a ritual it may appear as the object of the verb ir 1165,12 1 016' dCD i

1189,3 ;

, 'a' 0V


4Ach, _a* VII 60,14or without a precedingverb: G

11175,11. In the former case the Phrase is treated'as a whole noun-phrase as the verb. In return for the

in the latter case as a complete verbal sentence with the di functioning

offering the gods give gifts associated with the kingship (inheritance of his father', rule on the throne'of Geb or food and provisions from the lands of the kings domain.


king standsbefore an altar piled high with all kinds of offerings - In the acuml offering scenesthe



offerings (6) Wb 111184 - 185(4) DG 339,1

into btpw is the general word for offerings.incorporated offering formulaesuchas btp-di-nsw and Vtpw-nLrw . It includesthebasicfoodstuffs bread,beerand meatand anythingelsethat could be in to considered necessity this life or thenextwhichwouldbring 'contentment! theconsumer. a AtEdfu the term is spelledconsistently '11921 variationsonly in the shapeof the loaf of,. with --abreadappearing. These offeringscanbebrought received:1494,10; 61,17; 518,14, andpeople; and altars are rich in offerings: 1450 . 12;459,13;518,1, they are divided out by the king , IV 27.15 andwereplaceduponaltarofferingslabsW 48,12.


Town and areanearHeliopolis Gauthier - DG IV 145

Dtpw is the name of the w-land of the 13th nome of LE, which was an independant area in Ptolemaic times consecratedto the goddessHathor and it was also the name of the main town of this nome. At Edfu in the geographical processions: the Nile floods - -2WV at the time of year (here Ptpw is the agricultural land) in the Heliopolitan nome 1333,14 d king brings -J& 13 b,it i the procession, the j3 No. 50 in

her grain IV 32,8; No. 51 in the procession with

01"D with grain and the field of Sakhmet.and the field of Serket.V 21,3. king brings mJ63 the


(6) Wb 111183 Pyr.

J6 btp is a four legged table upon which offerings were placed. At Edfu, the king provisions the,, 13

AR the 4 divine cows who are lry-tp for all the gods1472,6 with connected A*213' j6 j* tableis YoursbeforeRe VIII 88,17. 1524,11; Ii your altar and uponthe V of goddesses . hereinto Ptolemaictextsso that its functionin temples The term is attested from PTs and continues



it evenat this late date [Kopstein,MOM p.3I]. From the scenes seems may not havebeenobsolete to havebeena table for food ratherthan a standc.f. pls. 16-20; 30a , 34b , 35a at Edfu . Mquier [BIFAO 19,1919 Autel p.236-2491 that suggested it was a gene