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TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION YÜKSEL GÖKNEL OCTOBER 2012

TURKISH GRAMMAR UPDATED ACADEMIC EDITION YÜKSEL GÖKNEL OCTOBER 2012

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ENGLISH -TURKISH BILINGUAL GRAMMAR
ENGLISH -TURKISH BILINGUAL GRAMMAR

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11/29/2014

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Only the transitive verbs can be put into the passive voice In English, but in
Turkish, both transitive and intransitive verbs can be changed into the pas-
sive form. Therefore, the passive making allomorphs can be attached to all
kinds of verb roots, stems or frames. If the passive making allomorphs are
attached to transitive verbs, these verbs are put into the passive voice, but if
the intransitive ones are put into the passive form, only their forms are
changed; they are not put into the passive voice. For instance, if “Bu
hapishaneden kaç-ıl-maz” sentence is said, it can be literally written in Eng-
lish as "*This prison can’t be escaped", which means, “It is impossible to
escape from this prison”. In this book, such verbs are called “passive
shaped intransitive verbs”.

The passive making allomorphs are as follows:

1. The verbs ending with both vowels, and /L/ and /r/ phonemes are put
into the passive form by using [in, ın, ün, un, en, an] passive making
allomorphs such as “bekle-en”, “dene-en”, “baş-la-an”, “yakala-an”, “yürü-
ün”, “doku-un”, “oku-un”, “al-ın”, “çal-ın”, “gel-in”, “del-in”, “koru-un”.

2. The verbs ending with consonants take [il, ıl, ül, ul] passive making al-
lomorphs such as “çek-il”, seç-il”, “geç-il”, sür-ül”, “gör-ül”. When some of
these verbs take [in, ın, ün, un, en, an] allomorphs, they also become reflex-

TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012

200

ive verbs such as “cek-in”, “geç-in”, “sür-ün”, “gör-ün”, “besle-en”, “yala-
an”..

All the verb frames above can take [me, ma] or [mek, mak] allomorphs to be
used as infinitives:

başla-an-ma(k), topla-an-ma(k), besle-en-me(k), temizle-en-me(k), ekle-en-
me(k), yürü-ün-me(k), doku-un-ma(k) (weave), oku-un-ma(k), oyala-an-
ma(k), geç-il-me(k), geç-in-me(k), sür-ül-me(k), sür-ün-me(k), gör-ül-me(k),
gör-ün-me(k), bak-ıl-ma(k), bak-ın-ma(k), aç-ıl-ma(k), seç-il-me(k), yen-il-
me(k), ed-il-me(k), ed-in-me(k), tap-ıl-ma(k), tap-ın-ma(k), yap-ıl-ma(k), uy-
ul-ma(k), konuş-ul-ma(k), sür-ül-me(k), sür-ün-me(k).

The identical vowels above combine, and the single underlined consonants
detach from their syllablers and attach to the first vowels of the following
inflectional morphemes.

Consider the following:

Kendi-/s/i/y/-le alay et-il-me-/s/i/n/-den nefret et-er.
(ken*di*siy*le / a*lay / e*dil*me*sin*den / nef*ret / e*der ↷).
She hates being made fun of her.

In the sentence above, the /t/ is replaced by the voiced /d/; and the /s/ and
/n/ consonants are used as glides.

Kendi-/s/i-/n/e kaba davran-ıl-ma-/s/ı/n/-dan hoşlan-maz.
(ken*di*si*ne / ka*ba / dav*ra*nıl*ma*sın*dan / hoş*lan*maz ↷)
She dislikes being rudely treated.

Takım-ı-/n/ın yen-il-me-/s/i/n/-den nefret eder.
(ta*kı*mı*nın / ye*nil*me*sin*den / nef*ret / e*der ↷)
He hates his team being beaten.

Bütün kadın-lar kendi-ler-i-/n/e yumuşak davran-ıl-ma-/s/ı/n/-dan hoşlan-ır.
(bü*tün / ka*dın*lar ~ / ken*di*le*ri*ne / yu*mu*şak / dav*ra*nıl*ma*sın*dan /
hoş*la*nır ↷) All women like being tenderly treated.

Rahatsız et-il-mek iste-me-i.yor-um.
(ra*hat*sız / e*dil*mek / is*te*mi*yo*rum ↷)
I don’t want to be disturbed. (The /t/ changes into the voiced /d/ consonant.)

Herkes kendi-/s/i-/n/e eşit davran-ıl-ma-/s/ı-/n/ı iste-er.
(her*kes / ken*di*si*ne / e*şit / dav*ra*nıl*ma*sı*nı / is*ter ↷)
Everybody wants to be equally treated.

TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012

201

Bu cümle-ler dikkat-le oku-un-ma.lı-dır.
(bu / cüm*le*ler / dik*kat*le / o*kun*ma*lı*dır ↷)
These sentences should be carefully read.

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