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THE NATIONAL : GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE AUGUST, 1928 ze CONTENTS TWENTY-NINE ILLUSTRATIONS IN FULL COLOR Nature and Man in Ethiopia With 65 Iustrations WILFRED H. OSGOOD The Balearics, Island Sisters of the Mediterranean With 12 Titustrations ROY W. BAKER Spain’s Enchanted Isles 29 Amtochrames Lumiére GERVAIS COURTELLEMONT Archeology, the Mirror of the Ages With 19 Tilustrations ¢. LEONARD WOOLLEY A Woman's Winter on Spitsbergen With 20 Tiustrations MARTHA PHILLIPS GILSON PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL WASHINGTON, D.C. Wait for the NEV PEERLESS SicSb August Il CORPORATION - CLEVELAND, OHIO. Vor, LIV, No. 2 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC “MAGAZINE WASHINGTON Aveusr, 1928 NATURE AND MAN IN ETPHIOPIA* By Witrren H. Lanes we tne Fara Sheen) wns Tike News Anat Oscoon, PH. D. WO RSreoiry on apetrese With Photographs ty the Author and Aifeed M. Buitey, Member of the Expedition FRICA, once kimwn as the Dark Continent, still bas a few dark corners, hiit most of them are rela~ tively small and, with one riotable exeep- tion, no large area remains which is not under European. influence. ‘This is the ancient independent Empire of Ethiopia, which sits aloof om its elevated plateau, unconquered, little known, and almost un- sting, . Its autonomous position, however, is not for lack of imterest, since it is langer than the Republic of France, it hns a de- lightful and healthful climate, and its €co- nomic resources have lacge possibilities. It is rather because it his natural stentedic advantages of location and because it is inhabited by a wonderfully patriotic and warlike people, awho have defended it vanes. re not too: particular in our anal pia might be called the Tibet Tt has ne Dalai Lama and no ty OF Lhasa, with its monas- it it does have a nmmerns reli nus pediple, ancient and isolated, living in a mountain stronghold on the top of a continent. It isnot now exactly a closed territory uiclves as Abyssinians, petit has adopted th Ancient Ey pian sinetion. Raman geograyhe various parts nf cially tw. the District part of the Anjlo-Fusntie Suitan, ia. 6 the, Biblical Cosh, h Africa, and appl M whictt in the way that ‘Tibet is, but it has heen practically clused ior long periods in the past and foreign travel its borders has always been very limited:+ In order to enter it, one must ask permission of the Ethiopians (Abyssinians) themselves, rather than of some Euyopean power. With Afghanistan and Siam, it is one of the three absolie monarchies Teft iu the workd. PEOPLKD AY THE DAWN OY IrisToORY ‘The beginnings of Ethiopia go back to times of myth and legend. Unlike Eqvpe, with which some of its early history was dombtless connected, it has left nly scanty anil very imperfect records, ‘That ip was peopled from the north, perhaps. from an— cient Judes, with additions from Egypt and Arabia, is evident. The people, there- fore, are Hamitic and Semitic in origin. As ta when and how they arrived, there is much uncertainty. Apparently we may yo back ta tooa H.C. with some degree of safety; fmt even here we have no solid ground of fact and, since it is a matter speentation and inference anyway, there are thise who are willing to helieve in origins as remote as 3000 B,C, Among these are the Ethiopians themselves, whose pride of ancestry may perhaps be excused for being allowed to outweigh the acci- historical chrowicles. dheir most cherished traditions 4 See, also, “A Caratan Journey ‘Thro by Harry ¥, Havlan, inthe Na-