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30586903 Basic Environmental Engineering

30586903 Basic Environmental Engineering

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Published by Elisha Thompson

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Published by: Elisha Thompson on Nov 10, 2012
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Let there be a well of radius r

w fully penetrating an unconfined aquifer of thickness
H below the water table (top surface of ground water) that is horizontal in the
beginning. As soon as the water is pumped out of the well the water level near the
tube-well goes down and this horizontal surface is converted into a conical curved
surface as shown below.

29

Water Pollution

case it would have been away from the surface pollution and rather it would have been
automatically purified due to the natural filtration process. So it is wise to conserve
rain water under the ground and use it only in a calculative, judicious manner.

Unfortunately in most of the areas in India the underground water is either going
deep and deep or has become so polluted to be useless for human consumption.
Actually we have to spent much more electricity if the water is to be lifted from a
greater depth. The horse power of the pump that is directly related to the electric
consumption (1H.P. = 0.746 kW) is based upon the discharge and head (depth of
water) as follows:-

Horse Power=Q H/75 x η

Where

Q=discharge in litres per second

H=head in meters
η=efficiency of the pump
So deeper is the water higher is the head and there is a larger requirement of the
HP of the pump. As 1 HP = 0.746 kW and when 1 kW motor runs for one hour it consumes
1 kWh. i.e. one unit of electricity, the consumption of electricity increases directly with
depth of water.

Now let us derive a mathematical expression for the estimation of discharge from
a tube-well. For this derivation let us consider a cylindrical soil mass around the well
(the wells are circular for the ease in construction and stability). Let the origin of the
cylindrical co-ordinates (r, θ and h) be at the center of the bottom of the well. Let P
be a point on the drawdown curve at a radial distance of r and at a height h above
the impermeable stratum. Water flows to the vertical sides of the tube well passing
through the point P. The area of flow A = 2Π rh

Darcy’s law gives the velocity of flow V = ki = kdh/dr

Where k is the co-efficient of permeability

And I is the hydraulic gradient

Discharge

Q=A. V

=2Π rhkdh/dr

or

h dh=Q/2Πkdr/r

Integrating between limits r = r

1 and h = h

1 to r = r

2 and h = h
2

2

1

h

h

hdh

=Q/ 2Πk

2

1

r

r

dr/r

or

(h

2

2

– h

1

2

)/2=Q/2Πk log

e(r

2/r

1)

So

Q= Πkh

h

rr

e

(

)

log(/)

2

2

1

2

2

1

31

Water Pollution

Integrating between limits r = r

1 and h = h

1 to r = r

2 and h = h
2

or

dh= Q

kb

drr

r

r

2

1

2

Π

/

z

or

Q=2

2

1

2

1

Πkbh

h

rr

e

(–)
log(/)

or

Q=272

2

1

1021

.

(–)
log(/)

kbh

h

rr
The above equation can also be written in terms of drawdowns s

1 and s
2

As

h

1=H – s
1

And

h

2=H –

s

2

or

Q=272

1

2

102

1

.

(–)
log(/)

kbss
rr

In terms of transmissibility T = bk

(Transmissibility T is equal to the discharge rate at which water is transmitted
through a unit width of an aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient )

The above equation becomes

Q=

1

2

1021

2.72T(s–s)

log(r/r)

Integrating equation between the limits r = r

w and h = h

w to r = R and h = H, here
R is the radius of influence that is the radius at which the cone of depression touches
the original water table. It ranges mostly between 150 to 500 m. It can be estimated
from Sichard’s formula as R = 3000 S

w √ k

Q=

w

e

w

2bkS

R

log

r

π



Where

S

w=drawdown in the well (m)

And k is the co-efficient of permeability.

Actually it is difficult to estimate the radius R accurately because the cone becomes
asymptotic (meeting at infinity) to the water table. An average value of R = 300 m
is generally assumed.

So

Q=2.

(–

)

log(/)

ΠbkHh
Rr

w

e

w

or

Q=

w

e

w

2bks

log(R/r)

Π

(As above)

32

Basic Environmental Engineering

or

Q=

w

e

w

2Ts

log(R/r)

Π

or

Q=

w

10

w

2.72Ts

log(R/r)

Like this knowing the T, co-efficient of transmissibility, s

w the drawdown at the tube-

well (can be measured) and assuming R = 300 m, measuring the radius r

w we can

estimate the discharge Q.

Sometimes the underground water may be tapped through the infiltration galleries
which are a sort of horizontal wells constructed at shallow depths along the banks of
a stream. Sometimes the underground water is also tapped at a local level by a very
wide open well known as Baori. Actually Baori is a stepped well in which one can step
down to the water level and fetch the water manually. These step wells were constructed
in old times at places where the underground water was not very deep.

This way the water below the ground may be used as a source of water supply.

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