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30586903 Basic Environmental Engineering

30586903 Basic Environmental Engineering

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Published by Elisha Thompson

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Published by: Elisha Thompson on Nov 10, 2012
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As explained earlier the character of municipal solid waste is variable because of many
reasons. It depends mainly upon the monetary level, but also the size of the city, its
geographical conditions and the lifestyle. Simple conclusions cannot be drawn in each
case and thus the solution to the problem of solid waste management should be site
specific. The following table shows the research data from National Environmental
Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur. It is evident from the table that every

94

Basic Environmental Engineering

result is not but obvious and there are so many things that are to be explored before
reaching to a conclusion.

Table 4.3 Physical Characteristics of Municipal Solid Wastes in Indian Cities

Population

No. of

Paper%

Rubber,Glass%

Metals%

Total

Inert%

range in

cities

leather

compost

million

surveyed

and synt-

able

hetics%

matter%

0.1–0.5

12

2.91

0.78

0.56

0.33

44.57

43.59

0.5–1.0

15

2.95

0.73

0.35

0.32

40.04

48.38

1.0–2.0

9

4.71

0.71

0.46

0.49

38.95

44.73

2.0–5.0

3

3.18

0.48

0.48

0.59

56.67

49.07

> 5

4

6.43

0.28

0.94

0.8

30.84

53.90

Table 4.4 Chemicals Characteristics of Municipal Solid Wastes in Indian Cities

PopulationNo. of

Moisture%OrganicNitrogen

PhosphoroPotas-C/N

Calorific

range (incities

matter%as total

us as P2O5

sium

RatioValue

million)

surveyed

Nitrogen%%

as K2O

(on dry

%

weight
basis) in
kcal/Kg

0.1–0.5

12

25.81

37.09

0.71

0.63

0.83

30.941009.89

0.5–1.0

15

19.52

25.14

0.66

0.56

0.69

21.13900.61

1.0–2.0

9

26.98

26.89

0.64

0.82

0.72

23.68980.05

2.0–5.0

3

21.03

25.6

0.56

0.69

0.78

22.45907.18

> 5.0

4

38.72

39.07

0.56

0.52

0.52

30.11800.7

The observations of above tables may lead to useful conclusions by careful study.
In the physical characteristics the content of paper waste normally increases for increasing
population but the rubber etc., reduces as there are more chances of rubber recycling
industries in bigger cities. Similarly, as the rag pickers are more active in big cities they
pick up the light matter with more calorific value and thus the inert material is higher.
Mostly the thin plastic bags form a major portion of the waste because in recycling the
plastic has to be made firstly dirt free, means washing is a must. The thin sheets give
lesser plastic material in comparison to the effort made in washing. So the rag pickers
do not pick the thin plastic bags and that is why governments ban the thin plastic bags.
The proportion of fine earth reduces with increase in population as the condition of
roads improves in bigger cities.

The chemical characteristics indicate that as the inert matter increases with increase
in population its calorific value decreases.

95

Solid Waste Management

So there are many interrelated factors which make it difficult to predict the
composition and characteristics of the solid waste of any city, it is better to take sufficient
sample and analyze them for a long time before conceiving any treatment/disposal or
energy extraction project.

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