Fail • Hot .Cold
• Thinner – Fatter
• True – False • Big – Small • Buy .Sell
.Antonymy is a sense relation between two words or
predicates that share a negative relationship within the same filed of meaning.Definition
Ex: • Pass .
unintelligent wise .disapprove friendly .Morphological Characteristic
Binary antonyms continue – discontinue curable – incurable legal – illegal ripe – unripe punctual – unpunctual Grandable antonyms approve .unhappy intelligent .unfriendly happy .unwise
• • • • •
• • • • •
Binary antonymy (complementarity)
Relational Antonymy (converses)
Systems of multiple incompatibility
(predicates which come in pairs and between them exhaust all the relevant possibilities)
a) Are mutually exclusive: not alive is dead and not dead is alive. b) Can’t be used in a comparative or superlative sense:
* dead – more dead than alive – half-dead – very much
alive – alive * He is more single/more married than his brother.
c) Can’t be used in questions with how to ask about
degrees: * How single/How married is he?
.How difficult is the test?
(Opposite ends of a continuous scale of values) (a) Are gradable: hot – warm – lukewarm – cool – tepid – cold (b) Can be used in a comparative or superlative sense: wider is less narrow. more difficult is less easy.
(c) Can be used in questions with how to ask about
-short. Eg: How heavy is it? (not How light is it?) How tall are you? (not How short are you?) How deep is the canal? (not How shallow is the canal?)
. far—near • The unmarkedness of one member of any pair of antonyms enables it to occur in questions of degree. heavy--light.(Un)markedness
• Words that are in an antonymous relationship often do not have equal status with respect to markedness Eg: high--low. tall.
Blurred by language users.
The adjectives dead and alive form a pair of
binary antonyms. we see alive and dead as gradable antonyms. and more dead than alive. However.
. in some contexts.Binary # Gradable
. the expressions like half-dead.
• Whatever is alive is not dead and that whatever is dead is not alive. barely alive.
Ex: • If Jenny is thinner than Mary.Relational Antonyms
.Describes a relationship between two things (or people) or the same relationship when the two things (or people) are mentioned in the opposite order CONVERSES of each other.
. then Mary is fatter than
thinner. fatter is pairs of relational antonyms.
. Nouns: employer . professor – student.Relational antonyms belong to various word classes: a....more expensive.. over . Adjectives: thinner .. greater than .less efficiently.. lend .behind.under.. Verbs: buy .borrow. Prepositions: above . give ...
b..fatter.. . cheaper .after. before . Adverbs: more efficiently .employee... (Comparative) d.. (Comparative) e. own ..less than.. import export.sell.receive.below. faster more slowly.belong to. c..... in front of .
.. grandparent –
Mutually incompatible antonyms
(words or predicates that belong to a multiple member system in which all members together cover all the relevant areas)
Married .above Yes / No 2. Own .Exercises
Ex1: Are the following pairs of words binary antonyms? 1. Conceal .reveal Yes / No 4. Same . Love .less than Yes / No 5. Dead .different Yes / No 3.hate Yes / No 3.cheese Yes / No 2.tin Yes / No 4.unmarried Yes / No Ex2: Are the following pairs of words relational antonyms? 1. Greater than .alive Yes / No 5. Below . Chalk . Copper .belong to Yes / No
.illegal: __________________________________ Beautiful .export: _________________________________
Better (than) .cheap: ______________________________
Legal . G (gradable) or R (relational):
Import .worse (than): _________________________ Deciduous .ugly: ________________________________
Expensive . gradable or relational by writing B (binary).Exercises
Ex 3: State whether the following pairs of antonyms are binary.
Greater than . Married . Chalk .hate Yes / No 3. Conceal .reveal Yes / No 4.less than Yes / No 5.above Yes / No 2.tin Yes / No 4. Copper .alive Yes / No 5. Love .cheese Yes / No 2.Exercises
Ex1: Are the following pairs of words binary antonyms? 1. Dead . Same . Own . Below .unmarried Yes / No Ex2: Are the following pairs of words relational antonyms? 1.different Yes / No 3.belong to Yes / No
Ex 3: State whether the following pairs of antonyms are binary.worse (than): _________________________ Deciduous .cheap: ______________________________
Legal .export: _________________________________
Better (than) .awake: ________________________________
.illegal: __________________________________ Beautiful .evergreen:___________________________
Expensive .ugly: ________________________________
Asleep . G (gradable) or R (relational):
Import . gradable or relational by writing B (binary).
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