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Banana Jet_The Revolution of Jetfan Design

Banana Jet_The Revolution of Jetfan Design

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Published by: Tobin Don on Nov 11, 2012
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Banana Jet ®

The Revolution in Jet Fan Design

Banana
Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

® Jet

The Revolution in Jet Fan Design

Basic Jet fan principle

Air flow forced by:
shock impulse of the jet fan airstream

Relation of
thrust T (jet fans) and pressure Dp (axial fans)

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Basic laws of physics in tunnels
A short explanation:

zpiston c ζin ζfriction ζout

Dpwind

∆ptotal = (ζ in + ζ friction + ζ piston + ζ out ) ⋅ ∆pdyn + ∆pwind with ∆ pdyn = Ttotal , required , gros = ∆ptotal ⋅ Atunnel
Banana Jet ®

ρ
2

⋅c2 =

ρ Q 
⋅  2 A

2

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Losses by tunnel design – Wall effect Impulse loss - “Wall effect” (Kempf)
Distance of fan axis to one boundary

~9% losses

~13% losses

~15% losses

Z D Traditional Jet Traditional Jet

Traditional Jet

Z = 1 .5 D

Z = 1 .0 D

Z = 0 .7 D

Thrust, still air Thrust, incl. losses Losses

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Losses by tunnel design – Exit portal profil Impulse loss - Profile at portal Profile Types at Exit Portal Uniform
Picture Resistance Coefficient

z=1

Parabolic

z = 1.55 to 2.0

Asymmetric

z = 3.67

acc. to I.E. Idelchik - “Handbook of hydraulic resistance” Banana Jet ®
Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Increasing efficiency by reducing avoidable losses

Traditional Jet

Banana Jet ®

To reduce losses by different friction effects, guide vans are often used to direct the airstream towards the tunnel centre and away from the ceiling or walls. But guides vanes have at least negative impact on the generated sound level. There for Witt & Sohn considered bending the silencers at an angle of 5-10° The Banana Jet design was created!
Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Increasing thrust efficiency Technical
Increased thrust efficiency in the tunnel
Coanda Kempf

Traditional Jet
Backgroung velocity

Banana

Jet ®

by reduction of losses

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Banana Jet advantages regarding the wall effect Reduction due to „No“ wall effect (depending on type of installation)

≈ 1−
Loss of thrust, Traditional Jet Loss of thrust, Banana Jet ® Reduction of required thrust Banana Jet ®

1 K

 1 ≈ 1−   K 
15-25% ~0%

2

 1 ≈ 1−   K 
20-35% ~2-5%

3

5-15% ~0% - (5 - 15%)

- (15 - 25%)

- (18-30%)

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Background velocity - Effects on the jet impuls Impulse loss - Background velocity
Reduces gross outlet velocity (to increase average tunnel speed)

cBG

cout, g cBG cout, n

Gross outlet vel. cout, g

=
Net outlet vel. cout, n

Background vel. cBG

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Background velocity - Effects on the jet impuls
tunnel ceiling

Different profiles:
Traditional Jet Fan
Inhomogeneous air profile High velocity at wall/ ceiling
Traditional Jet

Banana Jet ® Fan
Homogeneous air profile Reduced velocity at wall/ ceiling (~80%)

road
0 20 40 60 80 100 air velocity [%]

tunnel ceiling

Banana Jet ® road
0 20 40 60 80 100 air velocity [%]

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Effects - Geometry Losses by tunnel (case-to-case)
Geometry e.g. curves, slope Obstacles close to the jet fan outlet
niches, traffic signs, etc.

Traditional Jet

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Effects - Geometry The Banana Jet ®:
NO losses by wall effect Reduced losses by obstacles

Banana Jet ®

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Effects- Portal Impulse loss - Profile at portal:
Short distance of last jet fan battery to exit portal (< 100m) due to cost savings for cables

tunnel ceiling portal Traditional Jet

tunnel ceiling portal Banana Jet ®

road

road

z = 1.08 to 1.25
Banana Jet ®
Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

z = 1.02 to 1.05

Why BJ gains higher efficiency - First summary

5 main effects(1) explain higher efficiency(2):
Flow/ friction losses due to
Coanda effect

No Impulse losses due to
Background velocity Wall effect (Kempf) Tunnel discharge profile at portal

(1)

no congestion, no piston, no chimney effect compared to Traditional Jet Fan

(2)

Influence of tunnel geometry

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Increasing efficiency – Saving money

Commercial aspect:
Higher efficiency of the TVS (Tunnel Ventilation System):

η

TVS

~

Σ Pel

c BG

Smaller fans or lower number of fans can be used Lower costs of investment, installation, operation, maintenance

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Reducing electrical consumption INPUT: Pel

Traditional Jet

INPUT: Pel, TJ > Pel, BJ

OUTPUT: cBG, TJ = cBG, BJ INPUT: Pel

Banana Jet ®

cBG

OUTPUT η= INPUT c BG η TVS ~ Pel

ηTVS, BJ > η TVS, TJ

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Test in Tunnels - Results Comparative tests in 3 tunnels

Uznaberg West Tunnel Switzerland

Krohnstieg Tunnel Germany

Collombey Tunnel Switzerland

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Test in Tunnels - Results

Test set-up: Banana Jet ® Fan :

Modified to Traditional Jet Fan:

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Test in Tunnels - Results

Test set-up: same quantity same size same performance

same INPUT

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Test in Tunnels - Results

Test procedure: Grid-measurement of air velocity 1)

1) acc.

to Log-Tchebycheff-Method
Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Banana Jet ®

Test in Tunnels - Results

Hypothesis:
„With same INPUT the Banana Jet ® fan

has higher effective thrust, i.e. produce higher tunnel air velocity, i.e. provides higher „OUTPUT“

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Test in Tunnels - Results Results of air velocity profiles (3D)

0.0

3.0

6.0

9.0

12.0

15.0

Ref. chart:

velocity [m/s]

Banana Jet ® Fan

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Test in Tunnels - Results Results of performance in tunnel Tunnel air velocity
cBG in m/s

Effective thrust
T in % of Traditional Jet Fan

Trad. Jet Uznaberg Banana Jet ® Trad. Jet Collombey Banana Jet ® Trad. Jet Krohnstieg Banana Jet ®
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 25 50 75 100 125 150

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Test in Tunnels - Results Reference: Bypass Schmerikon
Location Length Traffic Realized Tests Switzerland, Kanton St. Gallen 1 x 1318 m + 2 x 940 m bidirectional + unidirectional 2003 Banana effect proven by independent measurements
Realized with Banana Jet®
21 770 (80%) 16170 (80%) 26.1 548.1 (85%) 115 132

Design schedule Quantity of fans Thrust per fan Thrust, total Pelectric per fan Pelectric total Tunnel average velocity Total thrust tunnel
N N kW kW % % 21 966 (100%) 20286 (100%) 30.5 640.5 (100%) 100 100

Source: Witt & Sohn analysis

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Test in Tunnels - Results

Reference: Tunnel Aubing
Location Length Traffic Realized Tests Motorway ring (Munich) 2 x 1950 m unidirectional 2005 - 2006 Banana effect proven by independent measurements
Realized with Banana Jet®
48 (80%) 516 24768 (80%) 20.9 1003 (80%) 120 144

Design schedule Quantity of fans Thrust per fan Thrust, total P electric per fan P electric total Tunnel average velocity Total thrust tunnel
N N kW kW % % 60 (100%) 516 30960 (100%) 20.9 1254 (100%) 100 100

Source: Witt & Sohn analysis

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

CFD-Simulation Results – vector diagrams

6.T/B : Round tunnel profile, 1 Fan @ centre, size 1250

9.T/B : Square tunnel profile, 1 Fan @ centre, size 1250

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

CFD-Simulation Results – air velocity, empty tunnel 1.T/B : Square tunnel profile, 1 Fan @ centre, size 710: TJ BJ 4.T/B : Square tunnel profile, 2 Fans @ corner, size 710: TJ BJ 9.T/B : Square tunnel profile, 1 Fan @ corner, size 1250: TJ BJ
Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

CFD-Simulation Results – air velocity, traffic jam 1.T/B : Square tunnel profile, 1 Fan @ centre, size 710: TJ BJ 2.T/B : Square tunnel profile, 1 Fan @ corner, size 710: TJ BJ

Losses by cars: -2 .. -12% -6% (compared to empty tunnel)

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

CFD-Simulation
Prediction for Banana Jet®-advantage
y inar lim Pre
Configuration
2 m/s 45 % 41 % 38 % 35 % 33 % 27 % 19 % 15 % 3 m/s 47 % 43 % 41 % 38 % 35 % 29 % 21 % 18 % 4 m/s 50 % 45 % 44 % 40 % 37 % 32 % 23 % 21 % 5 m/s 52 % 47 % 47 % 43 % 39 % 34 % 25 % 24 % 6 m/s 55 % 50 % 50 % 45 % 42 % 37 % 28 % 27 % 7 m/s 57 % 52 % 53 % 48 % 45 % 39 % 31 % 30 % 8 m/s 60 % 55 % 56 % 50 % 48 % 42 % 34 % 33 %

Thrust improvement [%] 1 towards TJ at different tunnel air speeds [m/s]

1

tolerances: +/- 10% Bold Rest

Actual measurements of tested tunnel Results of CFD analysis Predicted values

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

CFD-Simulation

P
Configuration

ary imin rel
Reasons for Banana Jet®-advantage

Losses by the 3 sides of the niche reduced Losses by the 2 sides of the corner reduced Niche acts as BJ Coanda effect reduced BJ reduces interaction between both fans Less interaction of both fans Niche acts as BJ Coanda effect reduced

Air is not travelling down the side walls Mainly Coanda effect Coanda effect + less interaction of both fans

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Commercial benefits

Cost SAVINGS
Case A: Smaller size / same quantity of fans
Less CONSTRUCTION costs Less INVESTMENT costs Less RUNNING costs Smaller POWER SUPPLY PLANT

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Commercial benefits

Cost SAVINGS Case B: Less quantity/ same size of fans
Less CONSTRUCTION costs Less INVESTMENT costs Less RUNNING costs Smaller POWER SUPPLY PLANT Less INSTALLATION costs Less MAINTENANCE costs

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Benefits – General Contractor

Cost SAVINGS:
1. CONSTRUCTION:
Smaller cross section/ excavation No performance losses by Obstacles (e.g. traffic signs, lights) Use of niches

!

!

!

!

Standard Jet CAR HDV

BANANA Jet with niches CAR HDV

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Benefits – E&M Contractor
2. INVESTMENT:
Smaller size or reduced quantity (FANS and CABLES)

Sa

Ca Uznaberg n& Fa Collombey Fans f or 3 0 % gs ~ Krohnstieg vi n
(2)

in % of total costs

les Standard Jet b
~ 13 % ~ 15 % ~ 22 % ~ 34 % ~ 41 % ~ 25 %

Banana Jet ® ~ 10 % ~ 11 % ~14 % ~ 23 % ~ 29 % ~ 18 %

Uznaberg Collombey Krohnstieg

Cables (1)

(1)

E90-cable costs: 25 – 58 €/m (incl. installation) (2) discount rate: 10%

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Benefits – E&M Contractor
2. INVESTMENT:

sile rt e r s ho 0 % for to 4 ings ~ 15 Sav
w/o. silencers ~93 silencer‘s attenuation 2.0D: -12

Shorter/smaller SILENCER Same total SOUND level(*) Table: Sound pressure levels, 3m, 45° ff [dB(A)]: ,

e rs nc

increased level (battery) +5 (1) +4 (1) +5 (1)

with silencers

~86

~92

1.5D: -10

~86

~91

1.5D: -10

~86

(*):

with same total thrust (1): experienced values
Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Banana Jet ®

Benefits – Client
3. RUNNING costs:

Less unit power consumption or reduced quantity

u rR % in % of o costs s ftotal 30 in g av Uznaberg ~ S
Collombey Krohnstieg

ing nn

st s co
Standard Jet ~ 53 % ~ 44 % ~ 53 % Banana Jet ® ~ 38 % ~ 33 % ~ 35 %

(1) basis:

operation time: 1000h p.a. energy cost: € 0,1 kW/h

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Benefits – all parties
Total SAVINGS (investment + running)

a rs e 0 y st s of 2 t Co ngs ojec avi Pr S t al ~ 30 % To
Traditional Jet Traditional Jet Traditional Jet Banana Jet® Banana Jet® Banana Jet®

running costs cable costs investment costs

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Benefits – E&M Contractor 4. Installation (mounting): E.g. directly under ceiling
No wall effect (Kempf)

ceiling
Banana Jet ®

ceiling
Traditional Jet

Less space consumption Simple mounting structure Less quantity of fans (Case B)

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

Benefits – Environment
5. Environment: Pollution: 550g CO2 / kWh (1) (or higher) ~ 30 % CO2-reductio (in line with reduced power consumption) Fulfilment of latest UN-report, part 3 (climate crisis)

(1) based on 60% fossil, 30% nuclear, 10% renewable

(German Energy Mix/ Power Generation Standards)

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

References
6. References - worldwide: Country
Australia Austria Chile China France Germany Norway Portugal

Tunnels
4 1 3 2 4 13 9 1

Country
Russia Singapore Spain Sweden Swizerland U.A.E. UK Venezuela

Tunnels
1 1 5 1 8 1 1 1

Total Banana Jet ®
Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

56
15.03.2011

Banana Jet advantages - Summary

20-60% higher effective thrust with Banana Jets (same fan size) Easy selection Comfortable integration into tunnel concept Great benefits (cost savings) for all parties Helps to reduce CO2 Proven in over 50 tunnels WORLDWIDE

Banana Jet ® Patent No. 1050684

Banana Jet ®

Witt&Sohn AG Aug-11

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