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Insufficient Through-Weld Figure 9.cdr Defect Class: Shape Defects Defect Class: Cracks and Cavities Figure 9.9. This standard does not classify existing welding defects according to their origin but only to their appearance. in the unaffected base metal undercut.3 .2 lack of fusion between passes lack of fusion between weld passes or weld beads root lack of fusion lack of fusion in the area of weld root flank lack of fusion lack of fusion between weld and base metal insufficient through weld insufficiently welded cross section insufficiently welded root one or two longitudinal edges of the groove are unfused br-er-09-03.1 to 9.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er09-01. mainly evenly distributed pores start defects nest of pores locally repeated pores weld is too wide excessive seam width line of pores pores arranged in a line burn through through-going hole in or at the edge of the seam worm hole elongated gas inclusion in weld direction © ISF 2002 br-er09-02. continuous unfused longitudinal seam edge longitudinal crack in the HAZ in the unaffected base metal in weld metal in fusion zone undercut open end crater end crater with reduction of weld cross section transverse crack in weld metal in the HAZ in the unaffected base metal in weld metal in the HAZ globular gas inclusion nominal star shaped crack weld reinforcement pore too small throat thickness nominal porosity surface defects at a start point many.4 give a rough survey about the classification of welding defects to DIN 8524.1 Figure 9. Welding Defects 108 Figures 9.cdr © ISF 2002 Defect Class: Lack of Fusion.
too high welding speed.cdr the influence of welding parameters on the development of lack of fusion. Figure 9. Lack of fusion is defined stringer type inclusions slag line different shapes and directions as unfused area between weld metal and base material or previously welded layer. With present tension. This happens when irregular slag inclusions single slag inclusions the base metal or the previous layer are not completely or insufficiently pore nest locally enriched molten. Due to the . Figure 9.9. arc characteristic lines of MAG welding are shown using CO2 Defect Class: Solid Inclusions Figure 9.cdr feed speed (thus also Welding Defects melting rate) as shown in the middle part of the figure. a definite melting of flanks cannot be ensured.e. The development of the most important welding defects is explained in the following paragraphs. In the upper part. As it can be changed within certain limits.6 explains © ISF 2002 br-er-09-04. If the heat input is too low. the welding current is fixed by the wire © ISF 2002 external weld defects internal weld defects hot cracks cold cracks cavities with weld metal spatters and start points undercuts seam shape defects lacks of fusion slag inclusions mechanical pore formation solidification cracks remelt cracks hydrogen cracks hardening cracks lamellar cracks precipitation cracks metallurgical pore formation crater formation br-er-09-05. i. but a working range is created (lower part of the figure).5. Welding Defects 109 A distinction of arising defects by their origin is shown in Figure 9.4 welding joint defects welding defects due to manufacture welding defects due to material and mixed gas. melting rate and welding speed do not limit each other. The welding voltage depends on welding current and is selected according to the joint type.5 Melting rate (resulting from selected welding parameters) and welding speed define the heat input.
the torch orientation is of great importance.7 shows the influence of torch position on the development of weak fusion. This effect prevents a melting of the base metal. and flanks are not entirely molten. it must be ensured that the plate is com- .. To avoid weak fusion between layers. When welding an I-groove in two layers. Compared with a neutral position. The arc is not directed into the base metal.2 ing ra ng e Welding speed wo rk false correct lacks of fusion due to preflow 90° br-er09-06.e. welding direction Welding voltage CO2 mixed gas Welding current positive torch angle torch axes neutral negative torch angle torch axes Welding current correct correct Wire feed Melting rate lack of fusion due to too low performance false false approx..cdr © ISF 2002 Influence of Welding Parameters on Formation of Lack of Fusion Influence of Torch Position on Formation of Lack of Fusion Figure 9.7 Figure 9. Welding Defects 110 poor power. Thus lack of fusion may occur in such areas. With a false torch orientation. i. but onto the weld pool.6 Figure 9. too low welding speed. as it provides a reliable melting and a proper fusion of the layers. A negative inclination leads to narrower beads. With too high heat input. lack of fusion is the result. The third figure illustrates the influence of torch orientation during welding of a fillet weld. the perpendicular flank is insufficiently molten. 45° 1. the weld pool gets too large and starts to flow away in the area in front of the arc. the seam gets wider with a positive inclination together with a slight reduction of penetration depth. a lack of fusion occurs. The upper part of the figure explains the terms neutral.cdr Melting rate © ISF 2002 br-er09-07. The second part of the figure shows the torch orientation transverse to welding direction with multi-pass welding.9. positive and negative torch angle.
Figure 9.9 lists causes of a mechanical pore formation as well as possibilities to avoid them. A torch orientation should be chosen in such a way that a solidification of the melt pool takes place in 12 o'clock position. This orientation depends on parameters like and shape. There are two possible mechanisms to develop cavities in the weld metal: the mechanical and the metallurgical pore formation. melting 9 Uhr 3 6 6 6 br-er09-08. Both may cause lack of fusion. Welding Defects 111 pletely fused. Figure 9.9 . workpiece thickness.8 rate.cdr © ISF 2002 Influence of Torch Position on Formation of Lacks of Fusion diameter groove Figure 9. pores in the weld metal due to their globular shape are less critical. the upper fi1 2 gure shows the desired torch orientation for usual welding speeds. and welding speed. A false torch orientation may lead to lack of fusion between the layers.8 shows the influence of the torch orientation during MSG welding of a rotating workpiece. In contrast to faulty fusion.e. The lower figure illustrates variations of torch orientation on seam formation.9. they must occur isolated and keep a minimum distance from each other. Secondly. i. as shown in the lower figure. As 12 1 2 9 Uhr 3 9 Uhr 12 1 2 3 12 an example. To over-weld a cavity (lack Figure 9. provided that their size does not exceed a certain value. the weld pool does not flow in front or behind of the arc.
insufficient gas flow at start and at completion of welding too large gas nozzle distance excentric wire stick-out false gas nozzle shape false gas nozzle position (with decentralised gas supply) turbulences through: to high shielding gas flow spatters on gas nozzle or contact tube irregular arc reduce gas flow clean gas nozzle and contact tube eliminate wire feed disturbances. The welding heat during welding causes a strong expansion of the gasses contained in the cavity and consequently a development of a gas bubble in the liquid weld metal. tighten leaks in gas line.12 Growth and Brake Away of Gas Cavities at the Phase Border photograph of a pore which developed in this way. fans etc.pressure regulator Pressure of bottles or lines must meet the required supply pressure of the pressure regulator thermal current . If the solidification is carried out so fast that this gas bubble b) high crystallisation speed a) low crystallisation speed cannot raise to the surface br-er-09-12. doors.possibly increased by chimmney effects with one-sided welding too high weld pool temperature too high work piece temperature injection effects water carbonmonoxide leaking torch (with water-cooled types) remelting of seggregation zones remelting of rust or scale br-er09-11.9. Figure 9.10 shows a X-ray Figure 9. remove slag of previously welded layers weld on backing or with root forming gas reduce weld pool size reduce preheat or interpass temperature reduce torch inclination. dry wire feed hose after ingress of water reduce penetration by decreasing arc power or increasing welding speed clean welding area before welding protect welding point from draught suitable gas pre. if wire electrode splutters.) of a previous layer can be regarded as a typical case of a mechanical pore formation.if possible correct settings search and eliminate leaks correct combination capillary .cdr © ISF 2002 of the weld pool. ensure good current transition in contact tube. correct earth connection. as well as a surface and a transverse sec- . overlaps etc. increase voltage. center contact tube select proper gas nozzle shape for joint type position gas nozzel behind torch .cdr © ISF 2002 Metallurgical Pore Formation Figure 9. the pore will be caught in the weld metal. avoid visible gas nozzle slots search and eliminate leaks. Welding Defects 112 gas/gas developing material air -nitrogen -hydrogen causes avoidance too low shielding gas flow through: too low setting leaking lines too small capillary bore hole too low supply pressure for pressure regulator insufficient gas shield through: open windows.11 of fusion. gaps.and post-flow time reduce distance straighten wire electrode.10 Figure 9.
the bubbles have enough time to raise to the surface of the weld pool. As a result. With a slow growth of the crystallisation front. Oxygen is Figure 9. Figure 9.13 shows a X-ray photograph. lower part of the figure. The evenly distributed pores across the seam and the accumulation of pores in the upper part of the seam (transverse section) are typical.12 upper part.14 shows the Figure 9. This pore formation shows its typical pore position at the edge of the joint and at the fusion line of the top layer. a higher solidification speed may lead to a case where gas bubbles are passed by the crystallisation front and are trapped as pores in the weld metal. Figure 9.9. solved gasses are driven out of the crystal and are enriched as a gas bubble ahead of the solidification front. However. Reason of this pore formation is the considerably increased solubility of the molten metal compared with the solid state. Figure 9.14 .11 summarises causes of and measures to avoid a metallurgical pore formation. the transition of liquid to solid condition causes a leapwise reduction of gas solubility of the steel.13 ways of ingress of gasses into the weld pool as an example during MAG welding. Pores will not be developed. During solidification. a surface and a transverse section of a seam with metallurgical pores. Figure 9. Welding Defects 113 tion. A pore formation is mainly caused by hydrogen and nitrogen.
are cracks not only classified by their appearance. In contrast to part 1 and 2 of this standard. Figure 9. Welding Defects 114 bonded in a harmless way when using universal electrodes which are alloyed with Si and Mn. but also by their development.15 .15 classifies cracks to DIN 8524. Figure 9. part 3.9.
the concentration of the melt exceeds the maximum equilibrium concentration (C5).16 A model of remelting development and solidification cracks is shown in Figure 9. 102 0010 area of hot crack formation 0011 area of solidification crack formation 0012 area of remelting crack formation 0020 area of cold crack formation 0021 area of brittle crack formation 0022 area of shrinking crack formation br-er-09-16. under the provision that a complete concentration balance takes place in the melt ahead of the solidification front. but no diffusion takes place in the crystalline solid. When a melt of a composition tension tension TmA C5 TmB A C0 C’5 B CB C0 cools down. Welding Defects Figure 0010 TS 0011 0012 0021 800 0020 400 MS 0022 0023 0024 0025 103 Time 0027 115 9. Figure 9.17. the rest a tension tension tension of molten metal is enriched with alloy elements b in accordance with the liquidus line.cdr 0023 area of hydrogen crack formation 0024 area of hardening crack formation 0025 area of tearing crack formation 0026 area of ageing crack formation 0027 area of precipitation crack formation 0028 area of lamella crack formation © ISF 2002 Crack Formation During Steel Welding Figure 9.cdr tension segregation in base metal aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa melt © ISF 2002 Development of Remelting and Solidification Cracks As a result. forming at the end of solidification a very much enriched crystalline solid. In the course of the ongoing solidification. a crystalline solid is formed when the liquidus line is reached. whose melting . As defined in the beginning. Principally there is a distinction 0026 0028 104 105 106 s 107 0 1 10 between the group 0010 (hot cracks) and 0020 (cold cracks). thus the crystals are enriched with alloy elements much slower than in a case of the binary system (lower line).17 br-er09-17. The upT per part illustrates solidification conditions in a simple case of a binary system. Its concentration can be taken from the solidus line.9. no diffusion of alloy elements in the already solidified crystal takes place.16 allocates during the 1600 °C 1200 Temperature cracks according to their appearance welding heat cycle.
and the rest of the material remains solid (black areas). b: preferred bead shape b >1 t c: non-preferred bead shape indicated by the black areas. the melt between the crystalline solids at the t end of solidification has a considerably solidus a: non-preferred bead shape b <1 t br-er-09-18. the liquid areas are not yet able to transfer forces and open up.18 welded joint). but it is sufficient to understand the mechanism of hot crack formation. Welding Defects 116 point is considerably lower when compared with the firstly developed crystalline solid. This model of segregation development is very much simplified. then these zones will melt during welding. The lower part of the figure shows the development of remelting cracks. If the joint is exposed to tensile stress during solidification. Such concentration differences between first and last solidified crystals are called segregations. A hot cracking tendency of a steel is above all promoted by sulphur and phosphorus. If the base material to be welded contains already some segregations whose melting point is lower than that of the rest of the base metal. rests of liquid may be trapped by dendrites. The middle part of the figure shows the formation of solidification cracks. because these elements form with iron very Figure 9. Due to the segreb b gation effects described above. If tensile stresses exist (shrinking stress of the © ISF 2002 Crystallisation of Various Bead Geometries Figure 9. then these areas open up (see above) and cracks occur.9.19 .cdr t decreased As temperature.
As shown in Figure 9.20 case of flat beads as shown in the middle part of br-er09-21. also the geometry of the groove is important for hot crack tendency.21 Figure 9. Welding Defects 117 low melting phases (eutectic point Fe-S at 988° and these elements segregate intensely. entrapping the remaining melt in the bead centre. In C) addition.18. hot crack tendency increases with increasing melt interval.9. With narrow. of hot shrinking cracks may develop.22 .cdr © ISF 2002 Macrosection of a SA-Weld Figure 9. In the Figure 9. deep grooves a crystallisation takes place of all sides of the bead. With the occurrence stresses.
As explained in previous chapters. the resulting welding microstructure depends on both.cdr transverse cracks in weld metal © ISF 2002 Cold Cracks in the Heat Affected Zone and Weld Metal . Figure 9.9. Figure 9.2 mm 5 mm Figure 9.19.22 classifies cold cracks depending on their position in the weld metal area.18. Such a classification does not provide an explanation for the origin of the cracks. Welding Defects 118 the figure. hot cracking is not possible.cdr © ISF 2002 Causes of Cold Crack Formation Figure 9.20 shows an example of a remelting crack which started to develop in a segregation zone of the base metal and spread up to the bead centre. structure (hardness) hydrogen stresses The section shown in Figure 9. An unsatisfactory structure composition promotes very much the formation of cold cracks (hardening by martensite).23 shows a summary of the three main causes of cold crack formation and their main influences. The example of a hot crack in the middle of a SA weld is shown in Figure 9. chemical composition (C-equivalent) welding consumables humidity on welding edges residual stresses (yield stress of steels and joints) cooling rate (t8/5) cooling rate (t8/1) additional stresses (production conditions) 5 mm section plane br-er09-23. This crack developed due to the unsuitable groove geometry. the remaining melt solidifies at the surface of the bead.21 is similar to case c in Figure 9. The case in figure c shows no advantage.24 br-er09-24. One can clearly see that an existing crack develops through the following layers during over-welding.23 0. Figure 9. The melt cannot be trapped. the composition of base crack in heat affected zone etching: HNO3 5 mm and filler materials and of the cooling speed of the joint. because a remelting crack may occur in the centre (segregation zone) of the first layer during welding the second layer.
2 0.Typ 1. Welding Defects 1.4 0.27 0.21 50 % 0.22 35 % 0.0 % Water content of coating 20 °C / 70 % RH 3.9 0.16 0. A measC ure is t8/1 because only below 100° a hydrogen effusion stops. a spontaneous occurrence is typical of hydrogen rectly cracking.12 1.17 0.43 on the groove edges.1 0 30 40 50 60 Relative humidity 70 % 80 © ISF 2002 basic electrode 1 year storage time at 18 .6 0.17 ceptibility is a higher hydrogen content. welding Such but Water content of coating cracks do not appear diafter hours or even days after cooling. 4.4 0.cdr 0 1 Storage time 10 Tage 100 © ISF 2002 A crack initiation is effected by stresses.2 70 % 0. Figure 9.5 stored and rebaked Water Content of Coating After Storage and Rebaking Figure 9.8 0.0 % 0. The hydrogen content is very much influenced by the condition of the welding filler material (humidity of electrodes or flux.Ni .2 % 1.5 0.4 0.39 0.18 0.0 Water content of coating 119 Another cause for increased cold crack sus- 18 °C 1.35 0. The cooling speed is also important because it determines the remaining time for hydrogen effusion out of the bead.7 0.74 AWS A5.Mo .0 0.8 0.0 0 br-er09-25. However.0 2.0 1.3 0. br-er-09-26.26 .cdr 1. The weld metal hydrogen content depends on humidity of the electrode coating (manual metal arc welding) and of flux (submerged arc welding).25 ate a crack.9.24 shows typical cold cracks in a workpiece. An increased hydrogen content in the weld metal leads to an increased cold crack tendency.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Storage time 6 7 days 0.83 90 % RH basic stick electrode Mn . respectively how much hydrogen remains in the weld. Mechanisms of hydrogen cracking were not completely understood until today. Or a crack occurs only when superimpose of residual stresses on outer stress. lubricating grease on welding wire etc. Depending on material condition and the two already mentioned influencing factors.) and by humidity 9 0.20 °C 0. even residual stresses in the workpiece may actu- Water Pick-up of Electrode Coatings Figure 9.6 0.28 0.46 0.
The water content of the coating of this electrode type advances to a maximum value with time.cdr 100 200 300 Cooling time between 800 and 1000°C measure. Reason is that hydrogen can still effuse all the way down to room temperature. The longer the steel takes to cool. the more time is available for hydrogen to effuse out of the weld metal even in higher quantities. The upper picture shows that during storage of an electrode type the water content of the coating depends on air humidity. The lower picture shows that this behaviour does not apply to all electrode types. but basically a very different behaviour in connection with storage can be noticed. The upper curve shows the water content of the coating of electrodes which were stored at constant air humidity before Influence of Preheat Temperature on Cooling Speed and Hydrogen Content Figure 9. Figure 9. Humidity values after rebaking are plotted in the lower curve. such constant storage conditions are not to be found.26 shows the effects of this 400 s 500 © ISF 2002 0 br-er-09-27. but diffusion speed increases sharply with temperature. The values of a high hygroscopic cellulose-coated electrode are considerably worse than of a basic-coated one.27 rebaking. The characteristics of 25 welding electrodes stored under identical conditions are plotted here. 60 ml 100g 20 50 Diffusible hydrogen content in weld metal preheat temperature in °C 80 100 In practice. Welding Defects 120 Figure 9.25 shows that the moisture pick-up of an electrode coating greatly depends on ambient conditions and on the type of electrode.9. .27 shows the influence of cooling speed and also the preheat temperature on hydrogen content of the weld metal. this is the rea- 40 cellulose coated stick electrode 30 son why electrodes are backed before welding to limit the water content of 20 basic coated stick electrode 10 the coating. It can clearly be seen that a behaviour as shown in the upper picture applies only to some electrode types. It can be seen that even electrodes stored under very damp conditions can be rebaked to reach acceptable values of water content in the coating. however both show the same tendency: increased cooling speed leads to a raise of diffusible hydrogen content in weld metal. Figure 9.
cracks develop only caused by the internal residual stress condition.2 Diffusible Hydrogen of Weld Metal to DIN 32522 Figure 9. Figure 9.e.) 5 7 10 15 means of sound emission measurement.cdr © ISF 2002 Assessment of Diffusible Hydrogen During Manual Metal Arc Welding drogen is carried out. However. This crack type occurs typically during stressing a plate across its thickness (perpen- . after completed cooling a multitude of developing sounds can be registered. It is remarkable that the intensity of late occurring pulses is especially high. a classification of weld metal to DIN 32522 into groups depending on hy- br-er-09-28. A solid-borne sound microphone is fixed to a component which measures the sound pulses generated by crack development. Figure 9.cdr © ISF 2002 H2-Bestimmung nach DIN 8572. Figure 9.30 represents the result of such a measurement of a welded component. i.32 shows that most cracks occur relatively short after welding.28 A cold crack development can be followed-up by Abbreviation HP 5 HP 7 HP 10 HP 15 Hydrogen content ml/100 g deposited weld metal (max. At first this is due to the cooling process.31 shows a characteristic occurrence of lamellar cracks (also called lamellar tearing). Figure 9. Based on this assessment. The intensity of the pulses provides a qualitative br-er-09-29.28 shows an assessment of the quantity of diffusible Designation high medium low very low Hydrogen content ml/100 g deposited weld metal >15 £ 15 and > 10 £ 10 and > 5 £5 in ISO 2560 classified as Hcontrolled electrodes hydrogen in weld metal according to DIN 8529. Welding Defects 121 The table in Figure 9.29. Figure 9. The observation is carried out without applying an external tension.9.29 assessment of the crack size. This behaviour is typical for hydrogen induced crack formation.
Zones enriched and depleted of alloy elements are now close together. The two lower pictures show the cause of that crack formation. the individual structure bands may support each other and a mean strength is provided. a formation of segregation cannot be avoided due to the casting process.31. The upper picture shows joint types which are very much at risk to formation of such cracks. In practice.30 stretched in the rolling direction. These concentration differences influence the transformation behaviour of the individual zones. During steel production. this formation can be hardly avoided.31 . This is caused by a different mechanical behaviour of different microstructures. such segregations are Figure 9. During cooling.9. Welding Defects 122 dicular to rolling direction). With following production steps. is called structure banding. thus the strength of the workpiece is that of the weaker microstructure Figure 9. When stressing lengthwise and transverse to rolling direction. Such support cannot be obtained perpendicular to rolling direction. This effect which can be well recognised in Figure 9. zones with enriched alloy elements develop a different microstructure than depleted zones. Banding in plates is the reason for worst mechanical properties perpendicular to rolling direction.
Undercladding Cracks Figure 9.33 .32 illustrates why such t-joints are particularly joint shape. They occur in the coarse grain zone close to fusion line. This can cause lamellar tearing. Figure 9.7 mm 12 8 shrinkage value 0. carbides are dissolved in an area close to the fusion line. During welding such steels. Nb.4 mm carbide developers are not completely re-precipitated. As this type of cracks occurs often during post weld heat treatment of cladded materials. Precipitation cracks occur mainly during stress relief heat treatment of welded components. V). A welded construction which greatly impedes shrinking of this the joint. plane may of generate br-er-09-32. Consequently.6 mm vulnerable.9. the shrinkage value 1. is it also called undercladding crack. Dur- coarse grain zone 1 base metal: ASTM 508 Cl (22NiMoCr3-7) ing br-er09-33. a lamellar crack propagates through weaker microstructure areas.32 Shrinkage Values of T-Joints With Various Joint Shapes above the tensile strength.cdr © ISF 2002 the following cooling.cdr 100 3 6r 50° 50° 2 © ISF 2002 stresses perpendicular to magnitude Figure 9.33. Figure 9. these welds show to some extent a con12 100 siderable shrinking. Especially susceptible are steels which concrack formation in these areas of the coarse grain zone weld bead 2 3 4 tain alloy elements with a precipitation hardening effect (carbide developer like Ti. Depending on shrinkage value 0. Welding Defects 123 areas. and partly a jump into the next band takes place.
9. a re-precipitation of carbides takes place (see hot ageing. chapter 8). causing the cracks shown in Figure 9. which have a considerably lower deformation stress limit compared with strengthened areas. With this re-precipitation. Plastic deformations during stress relieving are carried out almost only in these areas.33. Welding Defects 124 If a component in such a condition is stress relief heat treated. . precipitation-free zones may develop along grain boundaries.