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Impact of Industries and Urbanization

Impact of Industries and Urbanization

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4.2.1 Rainfall

Atlantic equatorial westerlies, the southerly and easterly Indian Ocean air currents being the sources

from which Ethiopia receives rainfall, the country can generally be classified in to four regions of

rainfall, (Mesfin w/Miriam 1970). These are:-

►Southwest region which are wet most of the year

►West and central regions which receive summer rainfall

►Southeast region which receive spring and fall rainfall

►Red sea region which receive winter rainfall

Masters Thesis Impact of Industries and Urbanization on water Resource in Mojo
River Catchment

March, 2007

24

Monthly mean rainfall pattern of Mojo area

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Janfebmaraprmayjun

julaugsepoctnovdec

The study area is located within the main Ethiopian rift and mostly affected by the southerly and

easterly Indian Ocean air currents as a result the air currents supply rain with bimodal characteristics.

According to data obtained from meteorological services agency, precipitation data from 12 stations in

the area signify that there is high peak of rainfall from June to September, low from March to May and

dry from October to February.

Fig. 4.5 Monthly Mean Rainfall pattern of Mojo area.

4.2.1.1 Average Aerial Precipitation

Measurement of rainfall depth with a point observation may not be used as a representative value for

the area under study. In order to make these point measurements represent the catchment considered,

the values need to be averaged over the area. Accordingly the rainfall depth analysis over the

catchment is determined using three main methods for calculating average precipitation over the area.

Masters Thesis Impact of Industries and Urbanization on water Resource in Mojo
River Catchment

March, 2007

25

a) Arithmetic mean (average)

This method is very simple. It involves the addition of all the measured gauges and then averaging

them. This method can give good results in flat areas having uniform rain gauge distribution. The

calculation can be done according to the following formula:

Where:: average precipitation depth (mm)

P: precipitation depth at gauge i

n: total number of gauging stations

Mojo, Koka, Debrezeyet, Chefe Donsa, and Ejere are the stations within the catchment used to

compute the average rainfall using this method.

This method in our case is used due the fact that the stations are more or less distributed evenly and

the topography is flat. Using this method the average rainfall over the catchment is calculated to be

980.58mm.

b) Thiessen polygon method

This method considers random nature of topography and distribution of stations. As a result good

rainfall depth values are expected when the rain gauges are not evenly distributed over the area in both

flat and hilly terrains. The method assumes that the recorded rainfall in a gauge is representative for

the area half way to the adjacent gauges. The method involves the connection of the stations on the

map by lines and drawing the perpendicular bisector of the lines joining the adjacent stations. And the

observed precipitation (Pi) is weighed according to the area (ai) of the polygon associated with it.

Masters Thesis Impact of Industries and Urbanization on water Resource in Mojo
River Catchment

March, 2007

26

Five stations, three within and two out of the catchment are used. The table used to compute the

average rainfall depth using thiessen polygon is given below.

S.No

Station

Area of

influence(Km2

)

Mean

RF(mm)

Weighted

area%

Weighted

RF(mm)

1 Mojo

339

961

23

224.06

2

Chefe-

Donsa

501

1027

33

353.87

3 Koka

77

870

5

46.07

4 D/Z

553

934

37

321.83

5 Nazreth

36

950

24

23.52

Total

1506

100%

968.13

Table 4.5 Theissen polygon method to calculate the average rainfall depth over the Mojo river

catchment

As it is seen in the table, using thiessen polygon method of computation, the average annual rainfall

depth over the catchment is 968.13mm.

Masters Thesis Impact of Industries and Urbanization on water Resource in Mojo
River Catchment

March, 2007

27

Fig. 4.6 Thiessen polygon Map of the area

Masters Thesis Impact of Industries and Urbanization on water Resource in Mojo
River Catchment

March, 2007

28

c) Isohyetal method

Contours of equal precipitation (isohyets) are drawn for the area. The area between successive isohyets

is calculated and multiplied by the average rainfall on that area. The average rainfall is the average

value of the two adjacent isohyets. The average rainfall over the catchment is the total of all three

products. This method is considered to be the most accurate method as it works for all types of terrains

(flat or seep) and the stations do not necessarily be equally spaced. The method uses the following

formula to calculate the average rainfall depth and as the insignificant differences of the results above

gives value almost similar to the value computed using Theissen polygon method.

Pa = P12a12 + P23a23 + ……+ Pn-1.n.an-n. n

At

Where p12- rainfall depth between isohyets 1 and 2

a12- area enclosed by successive isohyets 1 and 2

At- total area.

Therefore, the average rainfall depth over the catchment is the mean value of the results obtained; i.e.

about 975mm

Masters Thesis Impact of Industries and Urbanization on water Resource in Mojo
River Catchment

March, 2007

29

950mm

1000mm

900 mm

490000

500000

510000

520000

530000

540000

940000

950000

960000

970000

980000

990000

1000000

1010000

Legend

Isohyte

Boundery

-

1: 50,000

Isohyetal Map of the area

Fig. 4.7 Isohyetal Map of the study area

Masters Thesis Impact of Industries and Urbanization on water Resource in Mojo
River Catchment

March, 2007

30

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