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Tensile Properties of Fibres
R.Senthil Kumar, Department of Textile Technology, KCT, Coimbatore, email@example.com
• Significance of Mechanical Properties of Fibres • Factors determining the results of tensile experiments • Factors Influencing fibre strength • Tensile Properties of Fibers – Terms : Stress, Strain, Specific stress, Elongation%, Breaking Elongation, RKM, etc… • Load-Elongation Curve • Stress-Strain Curve – Yield point, Young Modulus • Work of Rupture and its measurement • Work Factor • Stress-Strain curves of various textile fibres and reasoning • CRL, CRE, CRT • Various factors influencing Stress-Strain Curve of fibres: 1.Effect of Temperature and moisture 2.Effect of Light 3.Effect of Chemical Environment
are probably their most important properties technically. • The properties of a textile structure such as a yarn or a fabric depend on a complex interrelation between fibre arrangement and fibre properties . the responses to applied forces and deformations. contributing both to the behaviour of fibres in processing and to the performance of the final product.Significance of Mechanical Properties of Fibres • The mechanical properties of textile fibres.
• Cotton fibre – 70 % crystalline – high strength.Factors Influencing Fibre Strength • Strength of cotton fibre is attributed to good alignment of long polymers. • Expressed in breaking strength. • Fibre strength denotes maximum tension the fibre able to sustain before breaks. • Next to fibre length and fineness. Hydrogen bonding – Number of weak places and its intensity . tenacity. etc… • Factors affecting strength: – Molecular structure – crystallinity.
the breaking load of a fibre will increase in proportion to its area of cross-section. have a direct effect on the results of tests. on the amount of moisture that it contains. For example. and on the temperature.Factors determining the results of tensile experiments • The material and its condition: The condition of the material depends on its previous history. of course. and its elongation will increase in proportion to its length. including the processes to which it has been subjected and the mechanical treatment that it has received. • The nature and timing of the test: The elongation of a textile fibre is not a single-valued function of the applied load. other things being equal. . for it depends on the length of time for which the load and any previous loads have been applied. • The arrangement and dimensions of the specimen: The dimensions of the specimen will.
Expressed in gms or lbs. Breaking load : The load at which the specimen breaks is called Breaking load .Terms related to Tensile properties • Load : The application of load by means of dead weight or by other means to a specimen in its axial direction causes a tension developed in the specimen. Expressed in gms or lbs. • • • Stress = force applied cross sectional area Specific stress: Unit expressed in dynes/cm2 If cross sectional area not known .
Extension = Elongation x 100 Initial length Breaking Extension: Extension of the specimen at the time of break • • . • Breaking length: Length of a specimen whose mass is equal to the breaking force. strain = Elongation Initial length Extension: strain as a percentage . a certain amount of stretching takes place.RKM.• Breaking Stress: Maximum stress developed in a specimen which is stretched to rupture. The commonly used unit of breaking length is RKM.Resistance Kilometer RKM means the kilometers of yarn for break RKM = Single yarn strength (gms) Fineness of yarn (tex) • Strain: When load is applied to a specimen.
Resistance Kilometer RKM means the kilometers of yarn for break RKM = Single yarn strength (gms) Fineness of yarn (tex) • Strain: When load is applied to a specimen.• Breaking Stress: Maximum stress developed in a specimen which is stretched to rupture. a certain amount of stretching takes place. Extension = Elongation x 100 Initial length Breaking Extension: Extension of the specimen at the time of break • • . The commonly used unit of breaking length is RKM. • Breaking length: Length of a specimen whose mass is equal to the breaking force. strain = Elongation Initial length Extension: strain as a percentage .RKM.
Load.Elongation Curve • When external force applied on material it is balanced by internal forces developed in the molecular structure of the material. the resultant curve is called load elongation curve. . • If load applied on specimen is plotted on Y axis and elongation is plotted on the X-axis.
Load Elongation Curve .
Stress –Strain curve .
• The stress at that point called yield stress and strain at that point called yield strain. • Young Modulus = stress = tan T (YM) strain Higher the YM more the specimen is inextensible. Area under the curve = 0. Yield Point: • The bending on yielding region is located by yield point. • Upto this stage the material follows Hook’s law and this region called Hookean region.Initial young modulus: • Stress-strain curve have linear relationship. work of rupture = g cm Denier per cm Work Factor: If throughout the test from zero load to breaking load. • Work of Rupture: Energy or work required to break the specimen.5 Breaking stress X Breaking strain . the ratio. stress-strain curve would be a straight line .
dependent on the difference from this ideal state: work factor = work of rupture / (breaking load × breaking elongation) • In the ideal state. the work factor.5. the load–elongation curve would be a straight line.5. If the load–elongation curve lies mainly above the straight line. . it will be less than 0. the work factor will be 0. if below.5.Work Factor • If the fibre obeyed Hooke’s law. the work factor will be more than 0. and the work of rupture would be given by: work of rupture = 1/2 (breaking load × breaking elongation) • It is convenient to define a quantity.
• Constant Rate of Loading: .
Constant rate of Elongation • m .
Constant rate of Traverse • Force (F) Acting on the specimen is directly proportional to the sine of the angle (θ) through which the pendulum moves from vertical position. • Simply F α Sin θ .
If we consider a fibre under a load F. sometimes called the toughness. increasing in length by an amount dl. the work of rupture. is defined as the energy needed to break the fibre. The units for this are joules. we have: work done = force × displacement = F· dl • Other things being equal.Work of rupture • For an individual fibre. . the work of rupture of a fibre will be proportional to its linear density (because of the effect on the load needed) and to its length (because of the effect on the elongation).
A pendulum is released from a given angle to the vertical and on its swing engages with one of the specimen jaws and breaks the specimen. This method is more rapid than a normal load–elongation test. but the variation of load with time will depend on the properties of the specimen and the conditions of the experiment. The energy necessary to break the specimen is lost by the pendulum. but it can also be measured directly by the ballistic test. with and without the specimen.Direct measurement of work of rupture • The work of rupture may be obtained from the load– elongation curve. and thus we have: work of rupture = loss of potential energy = M g x where M = mass of pendulum and x = difference in height of final positions of pendulum. .
Stress –Strain Curve of Various Fibres .
Stress-Strain Behaviour of Natural fibres • The stress–strain curve for cotton is slightly concave to the extension axis. and there is no obvious yield point. They constitute the strongest but least extensible of natural fibres. • The orientation value decreases as the spiral angle in the cotton fibre increases. show a greater tenacity. . • In general. a lower breaking extension and a lower work of rupture. in which the molecules are very nearly parallel to the fibre axis. • The bast fibres. a higher modulus. the finer cottons showed a higher tenacity and a higher initial modulus than the coarser cottons. The breaking extension ranged from 5 to 10% but was not related to fineness. Spiral angle of cotton fibres is constant within the range 20–23° and that the apparent differences are really due to the effect of convolutions.
which gives high strength and low extensibility. similar to the bast fibres. such as Tenasco. in general. followed by a nearly flat portion and a rise again as breakage approaches. Differences are due to the spinning method and the degree of stretch imposed. Rayons used for apparel are weaker and more extensible. • Acetate fibres are. • A highly stretched fibre. such as the formerly produced Durafil. often show a drop after the yield point. weaker and more extensible than viscose rayon fibres. • The curves vary widely for different types of rayon and different manufacturing methods. are intermediate in value. . The load–elongation curves of acetate fibres. has high molecular orientation. Tyre-cord rayons. measured at constant rate of elongation.Stress-Strain Behaviour of Regenerated fibres • The stress–strain curves of rayon and acetate fibres show an initial rapid rise with a marked yield point.
and to the shape of the curve. Regenerated protein fibres are weak and extensible and even weaker when wet. . which combine to give a work of rupture very much greater than that of the other fibres. is characterized by fairly high strength and breaking extension. like nylon.Stress-Strain Behaviour of Protein fibres • Silk. the work of rupture is not low despite the low strength. • Wool and other hair fibres are characterized by low strength but great extensibility. Owing to the high breaking extension.
. • Differences in the shape of the stress–strain curves of commercial polyamide and polyester fibres can be attributed to changes in the annealing and drawing processes during manufacture. • Although their breaking points lie close together.Stress-Strain Behaviour of Synthetic fibres • The general tendency in melt-spun synthetic fibres is moderate high strength to be combined with moderate high breaking extension. polyester fibres have a markedly higher initial modulus than nylon and polypropylene fibres. strength and stiffness increase and breaking extension decreases. though this is open to modification through the amount of drawing. which results in a tough fibre. • The tensile properties of synthetic fibres depend to a considerable extent on the molecular weight of the polymer and on the conditions of spinning and drawing. As the degree of orientation is increased by drawing. This has a practical effect on the handle of fabrics.
Prolonged exposure to high temperatures can lead to permanent degradation of fibres. • The tenacity and stiffness are lower at the higher temperature. but. the modulus becoming smaller and the breaking extension greater.Effect of moisture and temperature • All the fibres become more extensible at higher humidities. but the breaking extension is usually higher. whereas cotton and other natural cellulose fibres become stronger. the rest of the fibres become weaker. .
Effect of moisture and temperature .
. may cause more deterioration than the sunlight. smoke. on the fibre fineness. abrasion and sand carried in the wind. or to ultraviolet or infrared radiation. on whether any dyes. flexing. fungi. • In testing materials for light resistance. finishes or other agents are present on the fibre.Effect of light • When exposed to light. it must be remembered that other factors. • The degree of deterioration depends on the type of fibre. and on the type and intensity of the radiation. such as mildew. and the extent to which the fibres are protected by other neighbouring fibres. textile fibres may deteriorate and show a decrease in strength and breaking extension. industrial fumes. moulds.
Wool super contracts in a first stage in a cold lithium bromide solution and in a second stage in a stronger hot solution.Effect of chemical environment • The tensile properties of fibres may also change with the chemical environment. the properties of wool change remarkably in alcohol and in acid conditions. . For example.
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