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HORACE & LONGINUS
Plato and Aristotle are succeeded by a number of Roman literary critics. There are some who expand upon Plato’s and Aristotle’s thought, such as Plotinus. There are others who strive to study other aspects of literature, such as Horace and Longinus, whose works concern aspects of literature not yet described by Plato and Aristotle.
: the neoclassical critics attempt to assess why the classical writers were so To successful. To Revive 2.NEOCLASSICISM There are four tenets of neoclassical To Imitate criticism: 1. 4. . Systematize 3. : the neoclassical critics have a desire to imitate the classical age and classical To Assess writers. : the neoclassical critics attempt to systematize the rules for writing 3 good poetry. : the neoclassical critics attempt to revive the glories of the ancient classical literature.
Horace Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) is more interested in how the poet may delight and instruct an intelligent reader than he is in defining what a poem is or what literature is. This is connected to his famous catchphrase “utile et dulce” which means that literature must be both enjoyable and useful. Horace’s Art of Poetry also contains a number of catchphrases that influence particularly the neo-classical movements of the seventeenth century in France and England. 4 .
This emphasis is echoed by neoclassical writers like Dryden and Pope 5 .Horace Horace’s version of imitation differs from that of Plato’s and Aristotle’s It recognizes the importance of copying nature But. it emphasizes imitation of the methods of the great classical writers.
by which he means the rightness of each part to the whole. 6 . His concept is also influential in the neoclassical movements.Horace Horace emphasizes decorum. His most influential work remains the Art of Poetry. which summarizes entirely his critical thoughts and influence many neoclassicist writers.
◦ He should follow the rules of ancient arts. ◦ He should use meters maintaining their appropriateness. ◦ He should be able to choose a proper subject.Horace: Artist as a Craftsman Horace was the classicist who established the classical sets of belief rules and orders. He wished that ◦ The writer should choose correct and right words. restraint and correct expression. 7 . ◦ He should make use of proper poetic diction.
meter and form that are right for his subject. whether noble. 8 . ◦ He must say at any given moment what needs to be said. exciting. erotic or joyous. and no more.Horace: The Rules of Decorum For Horace: ◦ A writer must choose a subject within his power and appropriate to his gifts. ◦ He must choose vocabulary.
coherence and decorum. It is the writer's business to refine and polish his text that the highest standards of propriety and artistry are maintained. he is insisting on a complementary relationship between learned artistry and genius. 9 . he does not utterly neglect the role of natural talent in art.Horace: The Rules of Decorum Horace warns against extravagant improbability and inappropriateness. Horace demands a craft man’s skill in an artist. However. Indeed the prevailing emphasis throughout is on the need for consistency. In fact.
It remained an influential document for the Neoclassical writers. He focuses on decorum in poetry: ◦ the rightness of each part to the whole. These ideas become laws for neo-classical 10 writers. ◦ There should be the harmony of each parts of poetry to the whole.Horace: Art for poetry His Art for poetry can also he read as a useful advice to the perspective writers. . words are like various colors that are put beautifully. He equates poetry with painting: ◦ In poetry.
◦ Everything should be matching so that it creates decorum and the sense of propriety.He outlines the following rules of decorum to be in good poetry so that the pragmatic effect of poetry (Teach and delight) can be achieved: Unity and simplicity of forms: Decorum: Elements of Good Poetry ◦ Simplicity refers to clarity that is everyone understands. ◦ Unity is the perfect combination of beginning. (Correctnes + Suitable) 11 . middle and ending.
◦ Such unnatural combination fails to teach and give the delight. he means that the trivial and serious matters should not be written in grand style.Elements of Good Poetry Form and content matched: ◦ The style should be proper. the treatment of serious matter should not be in trivial form. ◦ Poets and painters should not create monotony by showing dolphin in the forest and elephant in the sea. ◦ By proper. from and content should be matched. 12 . ◦ Therefore. ◦ And in the same way.
Elements of Good Poetry Appropriate use of words: ◦ The words come and go like the leaves of a tree. ◦ The words need to be used in proper places according to the nature of the words. ◦ Poets should use familiar words in quite different way. 13 . ◦ If characters want to speak words then it is okay but it should have its origin in Greek. ◦ Cliché should not be used and the language of common people should be magnified.
◦ Homer says it is appropriate to use hexameter in epic.Elements of Good Poetry Appropriateness of meter: ◦ Horace prefers Virgil's opinion that to follow Homer is to follow nature. iambic pentameter in tragedy and hexameter and iambic pentameter in elegy. 14 .
probable and consistent. that is which is not possible to the character must not be presented. there should not be any exaggeration.Elements of Good Poetry Consistency of characters: ◦ The characters should be consistent and life like. ◦ Character traits should be based on age. characters should be convincing. ◦ His views on characters are identical to Aristotle. 15 . ◦ Therefore.
Anachronistic (random): Mixture of all techniques.Elements of Good Poetry Style (Starting and ending): ◦ The writer can take one of the following techniques to present the content: Prolepsis (flash back): What happened before the action takes place. 16 . Analepsis (foreshadowing): What happens next to on going action.
17 . violence etc should not be shown on the stage. it is better to perform everything.Elements of Good Poetry Whatever the technique there is. they are likely to believe. Deus ex machina (God from the machine) is to be hidden. Therefore. actions should be physical than verbal because whatever people see. the end of poetry should teach and delight. But scenes of murder. To teach.
Longinus How does Longinus define the "sublime”? How is the "true sublime" differentiated from the “false sublime"? What according to him are the sources of the "sublime"? 18 .
thereby becoming " one echo of a great soul". ◦ It should not only be distinct and excellent in composition. ◦ Sublimity springs from a great and lofty soul.Definition of Sublime Longinus defines sublime as ◦ a kind of greatness and excellence in language raising the style of the ordinary language. scattering everything before it like a thunder bolt and at once displaying the power of plentitude. 19 . ◦ It should move the readers along with the effects of pleasure and persuasion. ◦ Such effects should be subtle. flashing at the right moment.
persuade and move the readers through lifting up their souls. ◦ Longinus believes that sublimity is achieved by a clever handling of Nature (innateness) and 20 Art.(learning) which is inborn genius and learned . ◦ Sublimity is thus the aesthetic improvement or refinement of the soul through the reconciliation of the (innate) poetic inspiration and (acquired/learned) rhetorical mastery of the writers.Definition of Sublime ◦ sublime is lofty and excellent poetic creation with power to please.
Power of forming great conceptions. Longinus mentions for the sublime. 1. The due formation and use of figures of speech 4. Vehement and inspired passion. 2. Dignified and elevated composition 21 . 3. are either innate or acquired ◦ Two innate sources are related to the author and three acquired sources are related to the poem.The Five sources of the Sublime ◦ The five sources. Noble diction 5.
◦ Lofty and natural expression is possible when there are noble and lofty thoughts. 22 . ◦ The great thoughts come from the imagination of a great creative genius and from a sound interpretation of the imitation of nature and of the great predecessors. ◦ It is the first essential source of sublime. Power of forming great conceptions: ◦ It is concerned with the grandeur of thought in writers.1.
it can move the readers with pleasure and persuasion. thought and lofty style. 23 . ◦ So. ◦ It should match with the grandeur of subject.2. ◦ The emotion should be strong and natural expressed in lofty and elevated language. Vehement and inspired passion: ◦ The second source of sublime is the genuine emotion.
The Use of Figures of Speech: The third source of sublime is the poetic use of language. They should be used genuinely and as per the demands of the contextual environment. Example ◦ The proper use of rhetorical question makes an immediate appeal to the emotions. ◦ It is a statement in question form that suggests its own answer. 24 . Such a use of figures should not be mechanical and forceful. The formation and use of figures help the elevated expression if they are properly used.3.
to him. 25 . So as to convey grandeur and beauty. Noble diction The fourth source of sublime is diction It includes choice and arrangement of words. giving breath in to dead things. Longinus says that the use of proper and striking words captivate (hold attention) the hearers. should be noble corresponding to the subject matter and emotion.4. The words.
The verbal order should be rhythmic and harmonious which helps pull off persuasion and pleasure. Such a composition appeals to the soul and enables the readers to participate in the emotions of the author.5. 26 . Dignified and elevated composition: The last source of sublime is the dignified and elevated arrangement of the diction for the grandeur of composition.
to heighten subjects that do not deserve such a treatment Fashionable expressions and fanciful images: especially 27 when sincerity is sidelined in favor of the obsession for . pseudo-tragic clap-trap (trivial and unbelievable talk) associated with melodrama Inflated and hyperbolic Language: that is used. the vices of the sublime emerge out of the lack of passion sincerely and inadequacy of communication caused by faulty techniques. ◦ To him. Longinus also deals with the factors of the false sublime or what is not sublime. ◦ The following factors are described to mention how they cause sublime to be false: Bathos or bombast: all that overwrought. inappropriately.The Factors of the False Sublime while discussing the sources of true sublime.