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M. Defining maturity of information processing based on electrophysiological manifestations: how it looks vs. Ph. I will conjecture that there are two major closely inter-dependent. ERP) change with age. In order to appreciate significance of these changes. function (using EEG/ERPs) and brain structure (MRIs) in the context of language delays. Differences in the rate and extent of brain maturation.g.D. In addition. and the contributing source componentry of electrophysiological brain activity (EEG. Ph. more efficient and more integrative. University of California. both structural and functional. The second type of change builds on the first one but in addition it offers novel. Finally. and offer several approaches that may assist in differentiating among the phenomena underlying maturational changes in scalp-recorded brain activity. Function and Behavior April A. The first type of change provides quantitative maturation of electrophysiological brain response and behavior (e. Asst. This permits integration of the existing processing mechanisms into the expanding hierarchical as well as parallel associative mentation. it is important to examine individual variation within groups at high risk for atypical language development as well as in the typically developing population.D. Analyses of the differences in the pattern and density of power spectra in resting EEG will also be shown for children with a family history of language-based learning disorders as compared with controls. well before verbal language is in place. Moreover. while some predominantly quantitative changes may masquerade as newly emerging phenomena.Converging Methodologies – Structure. specifically EEG/ERPs. a brief summary will be given of studies that demonstrate difficulties in discriminating rapidly successive sensory events for a subset of children early in infancy. Project Scientist. Preliminary data from converging paradigms. San Diego Magnitude.. In this presentation. while other EEG/ERP changes may index newly emergent information processing algorithms. Unfortunately for us. Thus. will be presented and the difficulties of analysis and comparison of data sets will be discussed. We are beginning to examine further relations among behavioral performance. the underlying processes must be understood and their relative contributions to the recorded brain activity differentiated. Center for Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Rutgers. oscillatory content. . Center for Research in Language.D. I will present sensory and lexical processing data demonstrating such dissociations. timing. Some of the recorded changes may index simply more (or less) of the same process. synaptic pruning = more accurate sensory encoding = smaller response amplitudes). certain persisting brain processes may not be equally identifiable in the activity recordings across different ages. The State University of New Jersey Surprisingly few studies have examined the intersection between brain and behavior over the first years of life. changes in the recorded brain activity do not map linearly onto the underlying brain processes. but also in important ways distinct types of processes underlying maturational changes. it will be shown that these differences in infant processing thresholds are predictive of later language outcome. are likely to have an effect on behavioral performance even within the normal range. Project in Cognitive and Neural Development. what it does Rita Ceponiene. ways of information processing.. Even fewer have done so in the context of a particular research question. structural MRIs and behavioral assessments of information processing. discuss implications of these findings to understanding of systems supporting language. Ongoing research in our laboratory provides evidence that the ability to perform fine-grained analyses in the tens of millisecond range during infancy appears to be one of the most powerful and significant predictors of subsequent language development and disorders. the need for developing converging assessment tools that can be applied reliably in individual infants at higher risk for developing a language disorder will be discussed. Benasich.
Ph. Translating the time scales of these two developmental processes into each other is difficult but not impossible. are particularly difficult when examined in the end-state as a number of factors may have lead to either the exacerbation or amelioration of the phenotype. Eggermont. however. and the effects of hereditary or induced neonatal deafness on these maturational processes. Insights on neurodevelopment from animal studies and APD Jos J. provide an efficient and powerful way in which to disentangle the causes of language disorders from its covariates. Differing effects of exposure to enriched acoustic environments in neonates and adults become understandable as well. Ph. Naseem Choudhury. I will present some general findings on the maturation of central auditory processing in the cat.D. Department of Psychology University of Calgary Animal central nervous system development and maturation proceeds always faster than its human equivalent. Infants with and without a family history of SLI were recruited at 6 months and are being followed to 8-years of age. With this as our primary aim. we present ERP data from one such longitudinal study. when designed with care. FH-= 25). I will try to fuse these findings with those from human studies.D. The data presented here is restricted to a sub-sample who have completed their 4 year visit (FH+ = 15. Our recent findings of evoked potential studies in children with dyslexia and language delay suggests that the temporal processing deficits that these children show in behavioral tests are not reflected in cortical auditory evoked potentials. The State University of New Jersey The challenges of understanding the development of basic brain mechanisms that may lead to the expression of complex learning and language disorders. enable researchers to address the question of which basic mechanisms may predict to later difficulties in language acquisition. Prospective longitudinal studies with preverbal infants. Studies begun in infancy. Early studies of language disorders have mainly focused on older children and adults who may have spent a lifetime developing strategies to cope with their disability.Analysis and Interpretation of Infant ERP and Behavioral Data: Findings from a 4Year Longitudinal Study. I will then discuss the role of bottom-up and top-down processing on auditory development and maturation that suggest an intricate dependence and could explain some of the puzzling findings such as the missing N100 in late implanted children. such as Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Center for Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Rutgers. However. For that purpose the effects of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss on spectral and temporal cortical processing in animals will be reviewed. there are strong indications that these children exhibit delayed auditory maturation. We explore age and risk related differences in ERP’s that may be associated with perturbations in auditory detection and/or discrimination processes and show how these differences are related to concurrent and predictive behavioral performance. . Department of Physiology and Biophysics.
Much of what is known about abnormal brain structure and function in this population comes from studies of adults. I will suggest that distributed and discrete methods may have different strengths and weaknesses and may be optimal for addressing different types of questions. and behavioral phenotypes. Issues in the application of source analysis to developmental data Gwen Alexandra Frishkoff. The talk will begin with a review of forward and inverse models. genetic imprinting. which are common to all source analysis methods. University of Pittsburgh Research Scientist. These include: choice of head model (representation of cortical geometry and tissue conductivity estimates). Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences.. neurocognitive. Ph. face. several issues are particularly important to consider in source analysis of child ERPs. WS is associated with relative proficiencies in language. biological) and random noise.The importance of building developmental trajectories: Electrophysiological studies of language processing in Williams syndrome.e. The present study examines developmental trajectories of brain activity linked to language processing in infants. young and middle aged adults with WS and from typically developing populations. Ph.D. These studies suggest that it is important to understand the developmental process in order to fully understand the neurocognitive phenotype of the disorder. and then consider differences between discrete or sparse (i. Learning Research and Development Center. However. More specifically.g. we can examine individual variability in genetic. variability in brain function due to factors such as IQ. equivalent dipole) and dense or distributed (e. sex. Manuela Friedrich.g. By characterizing variability in the WS electrophysiological phenotypes of abnormal language processing. Germany Williams Syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a microdeletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7. . Leipzig.. most informative). and behavioral profiles. NeuroInformatics Center. linear inverse) approaches. and identification and removal of systematic (e. Research Fellow. Examples will be drawn from analyses of simulated ERP data and from real data acquired from adults and children during lexical semantic processing tasks. While experts disagree about which approach is best (most accurate. this methodological approach allows us to examine the extent to which individuals with partial deletions of the WS area map onto the WS or typical distributions. children. University of Oregon This talk will review basic principles of ERP source localization and issues in the application of source analyses to development (children's ERP) data. selection of inverse model. and affective processing with deficits in spatial abilities as well as concomitant brain dysmorphology in dorsal relative to ventral stream areas.. developmental behavioral studies suggest that infants and children do not necessarily display the adult cognitive phenotype in WS. Beyond these general considerations.D.
. The onset latency of this response was later than in control groups (400-900ms after the camel) and had a different topography (anterior positivity and posterior negativity). I illustrate the use of PCA and ICA using examples from both adult data and data from school-aged children applying these analyses for both voltage maps and CSD-maps of averaged ERPs.Comparing adult and child ERP components indexing syntactic and morphosyntactic processing Arild Hestvik. adults and TD children both responded with a Left Anterior Negativity (starting 200ms after the offset of the verb).D. Academy Research Fellow. Analyzing multichannel child ERP data: comparing different approaches Paavo H. suggesting a lack of grammatical control of inflection. with well defined and more focused negative-positive maps on both sides of the Sylvian fissure. University of Jyväskylä. However. however. These analyses are. I walk to school”). Docent Department of Psychology. using spatial Principal Component Analysis. Traditional analyses with peak or area measures are sufficient and providing enough information for many purposes with EEGdata measured with a small number of electrodes. Ph. Ph. In the second study we violated filler-gap expectancies (as in *The zebra that the hippo kissed the camel on the nose ran far away). For the “short-distance” violations (as in “Yesterday. In the present study. for example application of PCA/ICA to controls and clinical samples in the same model. such as telling at what time windows or. Leppänen. SLI children did not exhibit a clear ERP response. CUNY Graduate Center In two studies conducted jointly by Richard Schwartz’s and Valerie Shafer’s labs at CUNY. This illustrates how PCA can be used to aid in observing atypical ERPs in atypical populations. at what scalp areas or hemisphere certain brain processes take place. Department of Linguistics and Cognitive Science. and for example in the case of a source in the auditory cortex. again both adults and TD children exhibited a similar early LAN response (about 115ms after the camel). One problem also faced by analysis techniques like these is the spreading of cortical currents due to volume conductance producing voltage maps covering large scalp areas. Current source density conversion of the voltage maps (CSD) provides more restricted maps. we examined ERPs to both “short-distance” (tense) and “long-distance” (filler-gap) dependency violations in adults.T. University of Delaware Speech and Hearing Sciences. These analyses allow one to obtain a limited number of temporal and/or spatial measures (components) which can be applied in further statistical analyses. Principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) analysis techniques have been developed and successfully used to summarize or encapsulate the multi-channel data both in time and spatial domains. at a gross level. The purpose was to determine whether children with SLI perceived ungrammaticality in the same domains where they make errors during production.D. less satisfying when using multi-channel recordings. TD children and SLI children (8-12 years range). We interpret this as showing that SLI children did detect the ungrammaticality but did so later in time (and possibly using a different strategy). I also discuss concerns and problems with different approaches. when we expect different brain activity organization in different groups. Finland High density event-related potential (ERP) data poses new challenges for analyses. The SLI children did not exhibit an eLAN. which provide rich spatial information not captured using peak or area measures for pre-selected electrode locations. we were able to uncover another sub-component of the overall ERP response which did contain a condition effect.
the most critical manifestation of auditory neurodevelopment is the presence or absence of specific landmark behaviors within a certain age range. such as behavioral detection performance. Ph. suggestions are made for key methodological issues to address. University of Texas at El Paso Typically. Chief Scientist. through to cortex and place these developmental changes in the context of physiological and behavioral maturation in the auditory system. it is important to take into account all aspects of the human maturational landscape. Finally. and second.D. but lacks the specificity of those other modalities chiefly due to its limited spatial resolution. Birth Defects Center. The main idea is to look at activity on a single trial basis while combining many electrodes to obtain sufficient signal-tonoise ratio. approaches for future clinically-directed research will be suggested.The paradox of interpreting longitudinal data in the context of dynamic systems Dennis Molfese. and physiological processes together in order to best understand the development of normal or disrupted development of auditory processing skills. Over the last few years we have developed a couple of algorithms to extract information from event related activity in EEG. CUNY Electro-encephalography (EEG) is a readily available tool to study human perception and cognition. . The talk will give examples on what the experimenter may expect from such an analysis. with relatively little consideration of the dynamic nature of the developing neural and cognitive systems involved at all levels. reaction time.D. costs less than MEG. Department of Biomedical Engineering. MRI. An overview of selected work from fMRI. Compumedics Neuroscan Adjunct Professor. The main benefit of single-trial analysis is to quantify variability across trials and relate this to external observables. and a model is presented hypothesizing neural organizational features that support emerging brain-cognitive relationships during early normal and abnormal development. Ultimately. to the maturation of physiological processes within that anatomical substrate. and electrophysiology reviews recent progress. Ph. the presence or absence of any auditory behavior is closely tied first. or stimulus attributes. The first objective of this presentation will be to describe normal auditory maturation starting with research on the auditory periphery and brainstem. Therefore. Single trial analysis of EEG Lucas Parra. City College of New York. histology. However. evoked potential measures of brain activity recorded from profoundly deaf children who use a cochlear implant. Much of the current speculation is based on extrapolations from adult populations and animal studies. The second objective of this presentation will be to examine the impact of deafness on maturation of the central auditory system based on electrophysiological. whenever possible. Ph. to understand the neurodevelopment of auditory processing. advances in histological and neural imaging approaches provide some exciting glimpses into this domain. It has good temporal resolution compared to fMRI or PET. However.D. to anatomical development. Neurodevelopment of auditory processing Curtis Ponton. anatomical. University of Louisville One major frontier in developmental neuroscience that has received relatively little direct attention is the link between structure-function relationships as they relate to emerging cognitive functions in the developing human from birth into the childhood years. it is critical that we try to relate behavioral.
Iowa City. Intracranial recordings from human auditory cortex revealed large amplitude increases in high gamma power similar to that seen in the monkey. Fishman1. The largest relative increases in power occurred at very high gamma bands (130210 Hz). Steinschneider1. it is uncertain whether they are optimal indices of auditory cortical organization. These increases persisted for a more prolonged period than increases in low frequencies. These findings highlight the value of examining high frequency EEG components in exploring the functional organization of auditory cortex. H. and were better correlated with the tonotopic organization than power increases in lower frequency bands. Thus. and M. Later increases in high gamma occurred in surrounding cortical areas. a central goal of this study was to compare the relative sensitivity and specificity of EEG responses within different frequency bands in primate A1 and to illustrate translational relevance of these responses for assessing human auditory cortical function. J. 2007). Presentation of best frequency tones increased EEG power across the range of frequencies examined (4290 Hz) in monkey A1. Kawasaki2. . Averaging procedures maximize phase-locked activity within lower frequency bands at the expense of non-phase-locked activity within higher frequency gamma bands (> 30 Hz). Howard2 Albert Einstein College of Medicine1.. Power increases at frequencies from 30-210 Hz were more reliable than power increases in lower frequency bands. NY University of Iowa College of Medicine2. Bronx. H. Supported by DC00657 and DC042890. Full details of the primate study are available (Steinschneider et al.Relevance of electroencephalographic (EEG) responses for assessing auditory cortical function in humans and monkeys M. Oya2.C. Cerebral Cortex. Arezzo1. suggesting that they may be a valuable tool for examining informational flow in auditory cortex. IA. While evoked potentials are capable of probing cortical physiology at high temporal resolution. Y.
DANSSL 2007 Poster Abstracts .
Valerie L. science. A clear PC was elicited to the deviant stimulus. This is potentially extremely problematic for electrophysiological research in children with developmental disorders as there is only limited normative data for many of the components of interest. which reflect the differential processing of attended and unattended stimuli. 1998). Sixteen children (5 females. Cz. F3. Data were collected from seven sites (Fz. and respond to infrequent targets of shorter duration or lower intensity. Karen Garrido-Nag. The task required that participants attend to one of two stimulus channels. Infants listened to 1000 vs. have been controversial. the composition of the comparison group can impact on the conclusions of a study. 2002. Miguel Ramos1.g. CUNY Graduate Center The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) is an event related potential attributed to the detection of a change in auditory input from an established sensory memory. mean age 10. 1992. . Martin Duff1. Experimenters have reported a negative as well as a positive component (PC) as the mismatch response to change in auditory stimuli for infants (Morr et al. and Alice Brandwein2 1 Cognitive Neuroscience. 1990. Others (e. 1200 Hz tones in an oddball paradigm.8 years (2. MMN has been reliably elicited to various auditory inputs (Naatanen. This poster presents the data from the two control groups.1 sd)) recruited from a middle school for gifted and talented students in math. Comparing the amplitude of the positivity for the first 100 versus the latter 100 trials showed a decline in positivity across the timecourse of the study. Ritter et al. were elicited from the typical control group in both conditions but only from the clinically referred controls when they were listening for duration targets.. CUNY Graduate Center and City College 2 Neuropsychology. Oz) with Oz as the reference. Kushnerenko E. Referred control groups are frequently used in clinical research as they are thought to better control for miscellaneous participant variables.Functional significance of the mismatch response in infants Hia Datta. Cheour et al. Comparison groups in studies of developmental disorders Hilary Gomes1.2. however. F4. The findings for infants. We examined the amplitude of the PC in infants from ages 4 to 8 months across the time course of an experiment. Nds. differentiated by frequency and location. The electroencephalogram was bandpass filtered between . We will discuss possible explanations for this decline with reference to the functional significance of the PC. Sophia Barrett1.05 and 100 Hz and digitized at 256 Hz. The data were then segmented and averaged to the standard and deviant stimuli with a prestimulus baseline of 75 milliseconds. CUNY Graduate Center and Queens College In a study of auditory selective attention in children with language impairments (LI). Aaltonen et al. 2003) suggest that the PC might be functionally comparable the P3a (an index of the orienting response) found in adults. 1995) in the adult population.6 sd)) referred for academic and/or behavioral difficulties in school but who failed to meet criteria for LI or AD/HD form the clinically referred group and 9 children (5 females. left and right mastoids. However. mean age 10. and technology form the typically developing group. we initially decided to recruit a comparison group of clinically referred children who did not meet criteria for LI.4 years (1. unexpected findings in our comparison group prompted us to recruit an additional group of typically developing children. Shafer Speech and Hearing Sciences. Clearly.
2. Heikki Lyytinen Department of Psychology. Using BOLD-fMRI. City Col. 5Dept Neurol. Parra4. in contrast to trained birds.. Finland Processing of two different rise times (10 and 130 ms) was investigated in paired tones with two different intervals between the tones in the pair (10 and 255 ms) in children with dyslexia and typically reading children. *S. University of Jyväskylä. L. which closes once the bird has learned to imitate a song. These findings support earlier behavioral findings of deficient rise time discrimination in children with dyslexia. Hämäläinen. 3Weill Med. of New York. In trained birds. Isolates show. The atypical rise time processing was seen already in N1 the exogenous response suggesting problems in onset detection mechanisms. of New York. Helekar5 1 Biol. NY. D. of Cornell. CUNY Grad Ctr.2. NY. Salgado-Commisariat5. In an equal probability paradigm with 1 – 5 second inter-stimulus intervals typically reading children showed smaller N1 response to a longer rise time compared to a shorter rise time in the second tone of the pair when the tones in the pair were close to each other. but less in isolates. We conclude that early vocal experience could shape auditory perception in songbirds as it does in human. Col. 2Speech and Hearing. Temporal principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify event-related potential (ERP) components and factor scores for the components of interest were chosen for further analyses. live-tutored. How song learning experience affects auditory responses in the adult zebra finch K. H.. activation of auditory areas showed sound selectivity. Imaging Ctr. Guttorm. New York. NY..Processing of rise time in paired tones by children with dyslexia Jarmo A. strong activation of premotor brain areas that are required for song learning. When the same stimuli were presented in a passive oddball paradigm. Our results suggest that the song system becomes less sensitive to sounds with song learning. Houston. children with RD had equally large N1 to both short and long rise times. T. Voss3. Leppänen.. City Col. and female control birds. In contrast. Maul1. Engineering. New York. TX Songbirds and humans are among the few species that exhibit vocal learning – modifying their vocalizations over development to match same-species sounds heard in their environment. C. Citigroup Biomed. Tomi K. New York. 4Biomed.K. Paavo H. New York.A. . we show that auditory responses to sounds and songs differ significantly in birds that were deprived of external auditory stimulation (isolates) and box tutored. Tcherniechovski1. Like humans. the children with RD showed larger response at the mismatch negativity (MMN)/N1 time window and smaller late discriminative negativity (LDN) response compared to control children in their responses to the rise time change when the tones in the pair were far apart. Dept. many songbirds also have a sensitive period for typical vocal development.U. whereas responses of auditory areas become more selective. NY. They also had larger N1 to the longer rise time than control children. These findings are corroborated by Local Field Potential recordings in the primary song system and auditory nuclei. and that BOLD fMRI is a suitable method to study auditory developmental learning in songbirds. Methodist Neurological Inst. O.
group. Valerie Shafer. and greater visual attention was expended on both tasks. This contrasts with the more traditional approach in which data analysis was essentially orthogonal to the modeling techniques. In particular. segments vs. averaging based. phonological processing deficits. School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences. University of Reading Neural events as measured from individual neurons up to large scale anatomical regions are seen to be electro-chemical oscillations. Nonlinear complex system approaches to data analysis provide both new analytic measures to apply to the signals we record as well as a new set of computational modeling approaches for characterizing and emulating cortical oscillations. retrieval of syllabic information was significantly later (50 ms). This suggests that phonological processing delays in the older group were due to stage-specific. were seen. P300 and VEPs revealed no significant latency delays between groups and on both tasks. Using data from a series of ERP paradigms that are aimed at discriminating between structural and semantic variables during real time sentence processing. not generalized. level. It provides an effective general approach to signal analysis for dense time series like those collected in EEG/ERP paradigms. group differences in P300 amplitude on the segment task. as compared to retrieval of segmental information. Additionally. Douglas Saddy and Peter beim Graben. Lastly. Obler. mainly of syllabic information. and VEPs (at 201-250 ms) on both tasks. syllables. within the older group. to improve retrieval. CUNY Graduate Center This study investigated in healthy younger and older adults: 1) the effects of age on the phonological retrieval process. However. and how they can reveal systematic processing variations that cannot be detected using the conventional techniques. and 2) the time-course of the phonological substages. The N200. and Hilary Gomes Speech and Hearing Sciences. P300 and Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) components were investigated using a Go/Nogo paradigm with implicit picture naming.Electrophysiological Evidence of Lexical Access Disruptions Yael Neumann. Implications of the study are that healthy older adults might benefit from practice with phonological tasks. we will demonstrate how symbolic encoding approaches can be used to augment and refine conventional. . results support the parallel view of processing for segmental and syllabic phonological substages. However it needs to be stressed that these are models of the physical observations. Models of cognitive events are also needed and indeed the interpretation of the relation between the physical systems and their interactions and cognitive phenomena cannot be approached without clear models on both sides. These findings further suggest that the phonological breakdown is greater at the syllabic. Symbolic Encoding is a complex systems tool that is effective in discriminating oscillatory behaviors. Finding the Forest and the Trees: Symbolic encoding treatments of language related ERP data. although in the older adults the data showed that syllabic access is affected more than segmental access. as compared to the younger. data analysis methods. An important advance for this approach is that the same tools are used for analytic and computational modeling analysis. Loraine K. than segmental. Results support the Transmission Deficit Hypothesis as N200 latencies on both phonological tasks were later (100 ms) in the older. These findings suggest that with age greater cognitive effort was needed to perform the segment task.
. These findings demonstrate that ERP components tied to highlevel language processing may differ in polarity and topography across child and adult populations. The ERP data for the child groups revealed a working memory effect that markedly differed from the adults: a sustained anterior positivity for object as compared with subject questions in the left and right anterior regions in TD children and in a small section of the right anterior region in SLI children. Mecklinger. and ultimately dyslexia. the role of auditory processing deficit in dyslexia has been debated for several decades. Annika Tanskanen. University of Jyväskylä. Using time window identified with temporal principal component analysis we found differences between dyslexic readers from the at-risk group and normal readers from the control group in their newborn ERP responses to pitch change. We sought to ascertain whether the pitch processing deficit can be seen already in newborns who later became dyslexics. These investigations have demonstrated that sentences with higher relative to lower working memory demands are associated with greater negativity over left frontal regions in adults (e. The results of our study strongly suggest that dyslexic readers are affected by atypical basic auditory processing that is already present at birth and connected to later reading outcome. 8 of whom had familial risk for dyslexia and later became dyslexic. Dyslexic readers and controls differed from each other in their responses to the deviant stimulus at the right fronto-central recording sites. We used the “working memory LAN” to examine the processing of subject and object wh-questions in children with typical development (TD). & Friederici. Kenneth Eklund. Mean voltages of multi-word ERPs for the adult group confirmed this expectation. Schriefers. whereas dyslexic readers failed to show any differentiation. CUNY Graduate Center Several studies support the use of the left anterior negativity (LAN) as an index of the storage of a syntactically displaced constituent in working memory. Hämäläinen. This very early nature of the deficit could indicate that basic auditory processing problems could underlie speech perception deficits. In contrast. Salminen. consistent with prior evidence. Jarmo A. Some studies have found only speech processing deficits in dyslexic readers. We hypothesized that the storage of syntactic information over the filler-gap distance would be demonstrated by a sustained left anterior negativity for object relative to subject questions.. and in adults with normal language. Child-Adult Differences in the Working Memory LAN Baila Tropper Speech and Hearing Sciences. Kazanina. Finland It has been widely accepted that problems in phonological processing are causally related to dyslexia. children with specific language impairment (SLI). Wong. and 23 who had no family history of dyslexia and who later acquired normal reading skills. Phillips. 2001).T. Even at birth normally reading controls showed clear differentiation of pitch in tones. Possible explanations for these differences will be discussed. Steinhauer. affecting in turn the phonological representations. Tomi K. We measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) to pitch change from 31 newborns. Heikki Lyytinen and Paavo H. & Ellis.g. 1998. Guttorm.ERPs reveal atypical pitch-change processing in newborns at-risk for dyslexia who later become dyslexic Hanne K. whilst several recent studies have found deficits for example in processing of pitch differences in tones. Leppänen Department of Psychology.
Burns. Nineteen 6-month-old infants listened to 250ms-long. Shafer1 1 Speech and Hearing Sciences. 1984). & selected sites ANOVA) of data analysis in current study. Yu1 & Valerie L. 1996). . Werker & McVee. Topographic surface potential voltage maps were made using BESA 5. and speech discrimination in bilingual versus monolingual infants develops differently (Bosch & Sebastian-Galles. Between group comparison from TANOVA obtained p-values that approach significance in the time range of 260-300msec.g. phonetically similar vowel contrasts (I vs. Sundra & Polka. 2004). 2002. Trehub & Henderson. “Traditional” ANOVA suggests that there are topographical differences at the mastoids. Discrimination and categorization of speech sounds are shaped by early language experience (Werker & Tees. E) presented in an oddball paradigm while event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected from 65 scalp sites.1 to assist selecting clusters of sites of interests for “traditional” ANOVA analyses.ERP Indices of Speech Processing in 6-month-old Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Topographic differences? Yan H. Global field power (GFP) was used to decide time range (160-360 msec) for topographic analysis of variance (TANOVA) and also time range for ANOVAs on selected sites. Strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed.. 1997. TANOVA. CUNY Graduate Center Studying speech sound processing abilities in infants can provide important information about the association between speech processing deficits and language impairment in young children (e. The purpose of current study is 1) to investigate whether bilingual exposure to Spanish and English affects processing of speech stimuli that are phonemic only in English at six months of age. with monolinguals slightly earlier. GFP peaks in the time range of 260-290msec for both monolingual and bilingual groups. 2) to investigate appropriateness of implementing three different methods (GFP.
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