HUMAN BEHAVIOR and CRISIS MANAGEMENT By: Rico T. Musong, R.C.

Subject Code:Criminology 5Subject Course Title:Human Behavior and Crisis ManagementCourse Description: The course focuses on understanding abnormalbehavior in relation to crime and the adoption of strategies and tacticsin dealing with potential and actual crises. It includes the art of negotiation and the application of appropriate force during anemergency situation. INTRODUCTION: These subjects provide the study of behavior which areabnormal or might not be abnormal and when taken into accountmight be a crime in itself or the cause of the commission of thecrime. Criminologist and policeman are less concern of normalbehavior since it might not violet any legal code or disrupt thepeacefulness of the society. It is a variable from day to day and notwo persons are exactly alike.The application of behavioral science in law enforcement isindispensable since man is considered as the focal point in thestudy of the crime. The free will that is present in every man isdisrupted when the suffer mental deficiencies and their relation tocrime, criminal responsibility and its determinants; application of psychiatric and psychological techniques in negotiating forhostage/barricaded persons situation that is considered animportant matter in the study of this subject human behavior andcrisis management. OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR: – Aims to understand others – To determine how and why people behave the way theydo. – Is a complicated phenomenon influenced by many factors? – A collection of activities influenced by culture, attitude,emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis,persuasion and coercion. Definition of terms: Human Behavior - is refers to the manner, the way in which a human react to his environment. Criminal Behavior- is intentional behavior that violates a criminal code; intentional in that it did not occurs accidentally or under duress Deviant Behavior- a behavior that deviates from the norms and standards of the society. It is not criminal behavior but it has the tendency to become abnormal behavior, it will become criminals when it violates the provision of the criminal law. Criminal Psychiatry- a branch of psychiatry that deals with the evaluations, prevention and cure of criminal behavior. Criminal Sociology- a branch of sociology that studies about the criminal and to its relation to the social structure or organization of society as well the process on how the criminal learn the behavior, both criminal and non-criminal. Structural- studies crime as it relatives to the social structure or organization of the society. Processual- the process on how people become criminal. Criminal Psychology- a branch of psychology that deals with the study of behavior and mental processes of the criminal. The study of human behavior can be approached from several viewpoints, to wit: Neurological- emphasizes human actions in relation to events taking place inside the body, especially the brain and nervous system. Behavioral- focuses on those external activities of the organism that can be observed and measured. Cognitive- concerned with the way the brain processes and transforms information in various ways. Psychoanalytical- emphasizes unconscious motives stemming from repressed sexual and aggressive impulses in childhood. Humanistic- focuses on the subject’s experience, freedom of choice and motivation towards self-actualization Psychology of Human Adjustment: Most of mans behavior can be trace to his attempts to satisfy his needs. All of us have certain fundamental needs that we seek to satisfy. These needs create tensions in the human body. When we are able to satisfy our needs, the tension disappears, adjustment has been made. Adjustment- is defined as the satisfaction of a need. Three (3) Elements of the Adjustment Processes: a need which arises Purposive behavior- leading towards a goal- which satisfies the need Classifications of Human Behavior 1.Conscious - State of awareness of thoughts, feelings, perception and what is going on in the environment. Unconscious – 2.Overt - Open to public observation •Covert - Unseen objects such as thoughts, feelings or responses which are not easily seen. 3.Rational - Pertaining to reason, influenced or guided by reason rather than emotion. •Irrational – Illogical 4.Voluntary - Intentional •Involuntary – Doing something against your will, action made without intent or carried out despite an attempt to prevent them. 5.Simple – ex. What you see is what you get. •Complex - compound complicated behavior. ex. Drinking alcohol Two Classification of Behavior Normal Behavior Abnormal Behavior What is Normal Behavior? -Normal behavior (adaptive or Adjusted behavior) is the standard behavior, the totally accepted behavior because they follow the standard norm of the society. Characteristics of normal person are:

emotions at coping techniques Theories that explain motivation to Human Behavior The Needs According to Maslow: Human needs arise out of a person’s biological or psychological makeup. 2. sex. an alcoholic who drinks so heavily that he or she cannot keep a job or a paranoid individual who tries to assassinate national leaders. for security. but this criterion is not used by psychologists DESCRIPTION OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR 1.Efficient perception of reality Self-knowledge Ability to exercise voluntary control over his behavior Self-Esteem and Acceptance Productivity Ability to form affectionate relationship with others What is Abnormal Behavior? Abnormal behavior (Maladaptive/ Malajusted behavior) is a group of behaviors that are deviant from social expectation because they go against the norms or standard behavior of society. Theoretical approaches about the factors that cause. They can be biogenic needs.HUMANISTIC APPROACH – Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his/her future. These include the need for food. alter behavior. a person who is extremely intelligent would be classified as abnormal. learn. But those standards can change with time and vary from one society to another.Human lives are continuous process of change. for growth and achievement. personal distress may be the only symptoms. memory. and recognition from another human beings.Deviation from statistical norm .PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH – Is based on the belief that childhood experiences greatly influence the development of late personality traits and psychological problems. weight and intelligence. and use information. and mental process: 1. desires and motivations on thoughts and behavior. 3. A maladaptive (abnormal) person may be understood by the following criteria are used to determine whether a person’s behaviors behavior is abnormal or not: 1. 4. 5. store. Examples are a man who attempts suicide. but according to this definition. maintain . perceive. but a few are abnormally stupid. 6.BEHAVIORAL APPROACH – Studies how organism learn new behavior or modify existing ones. and how this information influences what we attend to.Human behavior is motivated motivation – driving force behind all action of an organism 2.Human behavior can be adaptive and maladaptive •Human are social beings •Any person depend upon each other for survival •People need interaction 4. hormones & nervous system interact with the environment to influence learning. 2.COGNITIVE APPROACH – Examines how we process. It also stresses the influence of unconscious fears. Note: None of these definitions provides a complete description of abnormal behavior. a large capacity for personal growth.Deviation from social norms . Hierarchy of needs theory It is human nature for people to seek to know more about themselves and to strive to develop their capacities to the fullest Most people are in a constant state of striving Very few people fully attain a state of self-actualization .the word abnormal means away from the norm. . remember believe and feel. They can also be psychogenic or sociogenic needs.Individual is a unique person.this third criterion is how the behavior affects the well-being of the individual and /or social group. because the individual’s behavior seems normal. air. avoidance of pain.Every person is different yet the same. 7. water. The legal definition of abnormality declares a person insane when he is not able to judge between right and wrong.Influenced by culture 3. In the type of abnormality called neurosis.BIOLOGICAL APPROACH – Focuses on how genes. According to A. such as: need for love and affection. depending on whether events in their environment reward of punish these behavior. rest.People play an integral part in creating their experience 5. 3. a considerable amount of intrinsic worth &enormous potential for self-fulfillment. which are the needs of the body which exist for the maintenance of health and protection of the body against physical injuries. motivation. personality.Maladaptiveness of behavior .H. Thus in defining abnormal we must consider more.Human behavior has multiple causes. there is hierarchy of needs ascending from the basic biological needs that became important only after the more basic needs have been satisfied.every vulture has certain standards for acceptable behavior. behavior that deviates from that standard is considered to be abnormal behavior. Maslow. many population facts are measured such as height.

a person’s core tendency is to maximize instinctual gratification while minimizing punishment and guilt. •concern with what is believe to be morally or basically right. •Freud’s theory describes a conflict between a person’s instinctual needs for gratification and the demands of society for socialization. sleep. he is bound to fail. guilt and anxiety. society and other individuals – starts from birth to 6 months – demanding. or libido and it operates on pleasure principles which can be understood as a demand to take care of needs immediately. shelter. respect. This theory proposes that conflicts among unconscious motivating factors affect behavior LEVEL OF AWARENESS – CONSCIOUS – aware of here and now. he began to conceptualize a theory of human behavior. water. undisciplined •EGO –is the one that relates to the world or reality to satisfy the demands of the ID. he used hypnosis to treat people with physical and emotional problem. 3. competence. •Conscience– punishes the person with guilt feelings when person – deviates from the demands of the superego. The ego operates by reality principle & uses problem solving based on how it judges reality. the innate need to develop one’s maximum potential and realize one’s abilities and qualities. The person needs to feel safe both in the physical environment and in relationship. •It functions only when the person is awake. and appreciation) 5. the individual strives for self-actualization. unrealistic. behavior. activity and temperature maintenance are crucial for survival. – PRECONSCIOUS / SUBCONSCIOUS •Contains the partially forgotten memories that can be recalled at will. – operates on conscious level – begins in the first 6 or 8 months of life and fairly well developed at age 2 or 3 years – serves to control and guide actions of an individual •SUPEREGO-is the one that rewards the moral behavior and punishes actions that are not acceptable by creating guilt. – UNCONSCIOUS– The largest part of the personality that is often compared to the hidden iceberg under the water that contains memory that is forgotten & cannot be brought back to consciousness at will ORGANIZATION OF THE MIND Three components of personality: •ID –represents psychological energy. Preconscious serves as the “watchman” by preventing unacceptable & anxiety producing memories from reaching the conscious awareness. The ID only knows that what it wants and what it wants right away regardless of the present circumstances. Recognition. It controls the demands of & mediates between the ID and the Superego according to the demands of the reality. •operates on both conscious and unconscious •functions on MORAL PRINCIPLE •develops around the age of 3-4 or 4-5 and fairly well developed at age 10 years Ego Ideal– rewards the person with feeling of well-being and pride when a person conforms to the demands of the superego. 2. From his work with these patients.PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS •Needs such as air. uncivilized. primitive.Hierarchy of Human Needs: 1. These two (2) basic instincts are not always socially acceptable. For Freud. The superego is our conscience. . Reason why Some People Fail to Reach their Goal: Unrealistic goal.SELF-ESTEEM NEEDS •The individual needs both self-esteem (ex. attaining a place in group. 4. rest. a residue of internalized values &moral training of early childhood. food. Early in his career. including force majeure PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (Sigmund Freud) •This theory explained that human behavior is motivated by an inner force called the human mind. – Addresses the relationship among inner experience. instinctual. Feelings of independence. These obstacles may lie in the individual himself. and self-respect) and esteem from others (ex. When people exhibit behavior that is nor acceptable. This theory was introduced by SIGMUND FREUD •SIGMUND FREUD(1856-1939) was an Austrian physician who worked as an neurologist. social roles & functioning.when a person’s level of aspiration is much higher than his level of achievement.LOVE AND BELONGING NEEDS • The third level needs includes giving and receiving affection. they often experience punishment. Harmful or antisocial goal Conflicting goal Environment difficulties.SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS • The need for safety has both physical and psychological aspects.SELF-ACTUALIZATION •When the need for self-esteem is satisfied. in contact with reality. – does not care about morals. Obstacles and difficulties sometimes stand in the way between the individual and his goal. Note: Human needs cannot always be satisfied. and maintaining the feeling of belonging. •Freud theorized that people have two (2) basic instincts –SEXUAL and AGGRESSION.

g.e.g. refining roles and relationships. He believed there was an interrelationship between such variables that impact the psychosocial development of an individual throughout life. •Anal...Substantive Victims are threatened toobtain concessions from athird party.6 –12 years – The child realizes that desires directed to the parent of opposite sex are not feasible. thecrisis negotiator has . transportation. Erikson expanded Freud’s theory to include cultural and social influences in addition to biologic processes. they are trivialand not related to thereason(s) the victim(s) arethreatened. perpetrator wants totalk to family member.e.food. each involving a character who finds himself in a difficult situation and has to choose between two conflicting values the subject is asked how the character ought to solve the problem and why the choice was the correct one Psychosexual theory (psychoanalytic) All behavior is motivated (it does not occur randomly) There are two basic motives: sexuality aggression FREUD’S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT •Oral -0-18 months – The infants pleasure is believed to center around gratification from using his mouth for sucking and satisfying hunger.NonSubstantive Demands are not made.dependent children become independent adults) but these transitions can be smooth or stressful depending upon the culture cultural continuity cultural discontinuity Cognitive Development Theory Cognition = how a person organizes and makes meaning out of experience "Knowing" is a product of continuous interaction between the person and the environment Moral development theory Kohlberg this theory is built upon Piaget's work in the field of cognitive development moral judgment represents a naturally developing cognitive process Piaget assumed that cognition (thought) and affect(feeling) develop on parallel tracks Moral Judgment Moral judgment is the "weighing" of claims of others against one's own claims Role taking ability is at the heart of moral judgment Kolhberg determined a person's stage of moral development by administering the Moral Judgment Interview Moral Judgment Interview Moral Judgment Interview consists of 3 hypothetical dilemmas. •Latent. •Genital.. As observed in the above discussion. Feeling and activities are focused on &expressed by the mouth and are orally dominated. drugs. money. liquor. analyzing the types of demands beingmade by the perpetrator is another way of understanding andclassifying a crisis incident. SOCIAL THEORY •The developmental theory of Erik Erikson (1963) was based on Freud’s work. questioning andself-stimulation or masturbation. In fact.- – concern with what is believe to be morally or basically wrong.perpetrator want to make astatement to the mediaregarding delusional beliefs. Table 4 DEMAND TYPOLOGIES GENERAL CATEGORY DESCRIPTIONInstrumental Demand characteristics bestdescribed as “objective”. Psychosocial theory human development is a product of the interaction between individualneeds and abilities and societal needs and demandsfocuses on stages of development and psychosocial crises.if they are. •Phallic -3 to 6 years – Increased curiosity re: the genitals. There are instrumental demands.Expressive Demand characteristics bestdescribed as “subjective”.substantive demands. analyzing the perpetrator’sdemand type is crucial. Basically.g.3 years – Begins w/ the attainment of neuromuscular control of the anal sphincter. – Toilet training is the crucial issue requiring delayed gratification in compromising between enjoyment of bowel function and limitations set by social expectations for the toddler. or.20 years *adult sexuality – Develops awareness of body & sexual part. and become occupied with socializing with peers.18 mos. the demandsmay be instrumental orexpressive. See Table 4. and nonsubstantive demands. . Biological theory(evolution) Assumes that the natural laws that apply to plant and animal life also apply to humans It emphasizes: the importance of biological forces in directing growth and the gradual modification of behavior as a product of biological adaptation to the environment Cultural theory(cultural expectations) Assumes that individual development is predominantly a product of cultural expectations Cultural determinism refers to the notion that culture shapes individual experience Biological factors are relatively unimportant There are some universal experiences across cultures (e. – Represents an emergence of sexual interest w/c cannot be expressed in an overt heterosexual relationship.12 . expressive demands.

Brain Damaged 2.includes monitoring of the progress of the incident. Performance.To minimize. Performancewhich is the actual execution or implementation of any of contingency plan when a crisis situation occurs despite the pro-active measures. Table 5 HOSTAGE TAKER TYPOLOGIES GENERAL CATEGORY POSSIBLE SUBTYPESEmotionally Disturbed 1. The 4P Crisis Management ModelFour stages: 1.not making a deal Crisis Management Techniques 1.3. . Family DisputesPolitical Extremists 1.Evaluate the situation.Prisoners Are people who take hostages because of dissatisfaction and discontent regardingtheir living conditions in prison. reasons? 4.foster the growth of relationships between negotiator and hostage-taker and between hostage-taker and hostages5. protectingitself.bargaining power only if the perpetrator hassubstantive demands.2. Preparationentails planning.Explore alternative. Van Zandt & Lanceley.making a deal6. or cushion the adverse effects of the crisis incident. 2.Formulate a plan of action. and.4. Apprehension of all perpetrators.designed to predict or prevent the probability of occurrence of crises at the same time prepares to handle them when they occur.Protect the innocent from harm. The performance of crisis management action for terrorist-based crises/management is done in three stages:1. Preventionthis stage involves the institution of passive and active security measures. securing the scene.Persons in Crisis Are people who take hostages during a period of prolonged frustration. Paranoid. b.2.Elderly/Senile 3.Initial action .Gather information. Reluctant Captors 2. rather than ideological. 1991). until the designated security and tacticalelements/unit augment its units as they arrive.To ensure a high probability of success in neutralizing the perpetrator(s). Predictionthis stage involves foretelling of the likelihood of crises occurring either natural or man-made through the continuous assessment of all possible threats and threatgroups as well as the analysis of developing or reported events and incidents.Finally.Psychotics Are mentally-ill people who take hostage during a period of psychiatric disturbance.Allow the passage of time so that the response force can avail of the following:a. Substantive demands may be eitherinstrumental or expressive.Various Types 5. Resolve without further incident. Anecdotal report suggests that one sign of imminent lethality is the determination that the perpetrator is notdemanding anything from a third party to release the hostage/victim(Fuselier. and3. of CrisisManagement Model.Eliminate Five Categories of hostage-Takers1.Deliberate Hostage TakersReligious Fanatics 40 Criminals 1. organizing.Political Terrorists Are ideologically-inspired individuals or groups of people who take hostages becauseof political and ideological beliefs.To ensure a smooth and speedy rehabilitation or return to normalcy.d. 3.2. Theory of Crisis Management 1. preventing the escape of the perpetrators. despair and problem.Allow the passage of time so that the perpetrators can be reasoned with throughnegotiation. prevention and preparation. 1996). one last way the crisis negotiator can classify thecrisis situation is based upon understanding hostage taker typology(Call. establishing perimeter security.c. Safety of all participants. 5.Various Types 4. Antisocial PersonalityDisorder/Trapped Criminal 2.Contain and negotiate. The Re-active Phase . SubstanceAbuser 7. evacuating innocent civilians. Phases of Crisis Management Crisis management is continuing activity that has two distinct phases:1 . See Table 5.Locate2.Antisocial PersonalityDisorder/KidnapperPrison Inmates Antisocial PersonalityDisorderCombination Objective of Crisis Management 1. Depressed.2. training and stock piling of equipments andsupplies needed for such crises/emergencies. Accomplish the task within the framework of current community standards.4.Schizophrenic 6.Common Criminals Are people who take hostages for personal. It encompasses the first3p’s of the 4p’s Crisis Management Model: prediction.4.Evaluate5. if possible.3. The Proactive Phase .This phase covers the last of the 4 P’s.as well as the remedy or solution of destabilizing factors and/or security flaws leading tosuch crisis/emergencies. 4.Evacuate4.41 The objectives in this stage are: 1.3.Isolate3.2.contain and Negotiate Negotiator Objectives and Tactics The primary objectives of a negotiator are: prolong the situationensure the safety of the hostageskeep things calm4.

What he will ask for willbe part of the negotiations.5.Soften the demands. The incident area shall be cordoned.Avoid negotiating face to face.Escape2.3.5.9.Law enforcers will have to discover the hostage-takers intentions.Do not introduce outsiders (non-law enforcement officers)into the negotiation process unless their presence is extremelynecessary in the solution of the crisis.13. Be as honest as possible.There must be demands by the hostage takers.In most cases time has been found to be an ally because of the following reasons:a.Negotiator4.Time reduces anxiety for as long as overt acts are committed.The field commander2.Section 9 of the rule outlines the procedures for hostagenegotiations:1.11.Avoid directing frequent attention to the victims when talking tothe hostage-taker.There has to be a threat of force on the part of the authorities. isolation of the scene. coordinates info) 3.The demands and needs of the hostage-taker must be determined. b. the hostage-taker may feel downrightuncomfortable. Crisis Management Team 1. There shall be only one ground commander in the area.6.7. Reasons Why Common Criminals take Hostages Criminals have three common demands:1.Do not make alternate suggestions not agreed upon in thenegotiations.Take time when negotiating. and denial of entry and exit tounauthorized persons.Tactical team 44 Negotiating Team.6.Secondary Negotiator (documents.7.4.Do not call them hostages.5.Never dismiss any request from the hostage-taker as trivial orunimportant.e.2. Proper coordination with all participating elements shall be done tounify effortsin solving the crisis. Any assault must be well-planned and assaulting teams alerted fordeployment incase the negotiation fails.4. in particular do not exchange a negotiator for ahostage.43 c.There has to be a need to live on the part of the hostage taker.d.Allow the hostagetaker to speak.4.Select the right time to make contact with the hostage-taker. Tertiary Negotiator (carries out task)4.Stabilize and contain the situation.12.With little persuasion.8.Do not allow any exchange of hostages unless extremelynecessary.Intelligence officer5.The negotiator must be seen by the hostage taker as a person who can hurt thehostage taker but who is willing to help him. RULE 22 OF THE POLICE Operating Procedures titled“Hostage situations” calls for the formation of a crisis managementtask group. An ambulance with medical crew and a fire truck shall be detailed atthe incidentarea. Stalling and taking may actually help.15.3.2. and provide they shall beproperly advised on the do’s and don’ts of hostage negotiations.A tactical Officer3.3. .The more time elapses.2.14.and be sincere.The negotiator must be able to deal with the hostage taker making the negotiation.The hostage-taker can be starved out and sleep will eventually catch up onhim.A reliable channel of communication has to exist between the hostage taker andthe negotiator.”10.Don’t offer the hostage-taker anything.Money3.4.Never set a deadline.An intelligence/recordercommunication officer Negotiating Team 1.Transportation Characteristics of Negotiable Incidents 1.7. Negotiators shall be designated and no one shall be allowed to talkto the suspectswithout clearance from the negotiating panel/ground commander. the more time the hostage-taker will have to think about his predicament. There shall be an organized Crisis Management Task Group in everyRegion/ Province/ Municipality trained and ready for deploymentanytime.Negotiations means to talk.3. avoid tricks.Both the location and the communications of the incident need to be contained toencourage negotiation.A traffic/patrol supervisor5. negotiates)2. try not to accept a deadline. 45 8.Mind Barriers in Dealing with Hostages-Takers 1.16.Primary Negotiator (communicates.Police Psychologist-Patrol team-Media team Negotiating Steps: RULES OF ENGAGEMENTThe PNP Rules of Engagement 1997 lists the following steps tobe taken during a hostage situation: 1.Law enforcement officers without proper training shall notbe allowed to participate in hostage negotiations.The hostages might even take advantage of such lapses and may attempt toescape on their own.Never say “No.2.There must be time to negotiate.6.Police Psychologist People Involved in the SituationInside: -hostage taker-hostage Outside: -Commander.