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Published by commen
chemistry form 4
chemistry form 4

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Published by: commen on Jan 25, 2009
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Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4

• Manufacture of detergents • Manufacture of fertilizer • Manufacture of paint pigments • Manufacture of artificial fibres • As electrolyte in car batteries(lead-acid accumulation) • To remove metal oxides from metal(metallurgy)

Manufacture of Sulphuric acid

Sulphuric acid is manufactured through Contact Process. The raw materials used are sulphur, air and water. This process consists of three stages. 1. Production of sulphur dioxide gas. Molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide in the furnace. S + O2 SO2 2. Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide. Sulphur dioxide with excess oxygen is passed over a few plates of vanadium (V) oxide catalyst at 450ºC to produce sulphur trioxide. This process happened in the converter. 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 3. Production of sulphuric acid. In the absorber the sulphur trioxide is reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid(H2SO4) to produce oleum. The oleum(H2SO4) is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid in large quantities.

Environmental pollution by Sulphur Dioxide

Sulphur dioxide is the by-products of Contact Process. It also produces during volcanic eruptions and burning of fossil fuels (petroleum). Inhaling sulphur dioxide can cause respiratory problems such as coughing and bronchitis. Sulphur dioxide can cause acid rain. Acid rain occurs when pH of the rain is between 2.5 and 5.0. This is due to the reaction of sulphur dioxide with rainwater. Acid rain can • Corrode buildings and metal structures • Destroys trees in the forest • Cause the salt leached out of the top soil and plant die of malnutrition • Increase the acidity of the river and may kill aquatic living things

Ammonia, NH3 and Its Salts
• Manufacture nitrogenous fertilizers • As a raw material for the manufacture of nitric acid in the Ostwald process • Converted into nitric acid and used to make explosives, fibres, wood pulp, paints and varnishes • As a cleaning agent to remove grease

The properties of Ammonia
• •

• • •

Alkaline Colourless and pungent gas Less dense than air Very soluble in water Gives a white fume when reacted with hydrogen chloride gas, HCL

Ammonia is manufactured in industries through Haber Process. 1. A mixture consisting of one volume of nitrogen gas and three volumes of hydrogen gas is compressed to a pressure of 200 atmospheres at a temperature of about 450ºC. N2 + 3H2 2NH3 2. The mixture gas is then passed through layers of iron catalyst to speed up the rate of reaction. 3. Ammonia formed is then liquefied and separated to get a better yield. 4. The unreacted nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas are recycled and passed back into the reactor together to be reacted again. 5. The reaction to produce ammonia is reversible.

Manufacture of ammonia

Ammonium fertilizers
Ammonium fertilizers are one of the chemical fertilizers added to soil to replace the elements used up by plants. Ammonium fertilisers can be prepared from the reaction between ammonium and an acid.


Pure Metals
• Pure metals are weak and soft because of the arrangement of atoms in pure metals. • The orderly arrangement of atoms enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when external force is applied on them. This makes the metals ductile. • There are imperfections in the arrangement of metal atoms. Empty space exists in the structures of pure metals. When pressed, metal atoms may slide into new positions in these empty spaces. This makes metal malleable.

An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain composition in which the major component is a metal. Most pure metals are weak and soft because of it arrangement of atoms. • The aim of making alloys is to make them stronger, harder, resistant to corrosion, have a better furnish and lustre. • Example: bronze, brass, steel, stainless steel, duralumin and pewter. Alloy Composition Uses • 93% aluminium Duralumin In building of the body of • 3% copper aeroplane and bullet train • 3% magnesium • 1% manganese Brass 70% copper In the making of the musical 30% zinc instruments and kitchenware Stainless 74% iron In the making of surgical steel 8% carbon instruments 18% chromium

The factor why alloys are stronger than pure metals is because the presences of atoms of other metals that are of different sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal. This prevents the layers of atoms from sliding. Thus an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.

Synthetic Polymers
• Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds. Monomers are joined by a process called polymerisation. • Some polymers occur naturally such as starch, cellulose, wool, protein, silk and rubber. Synthetic polymers are man-made polymers. The monomers used are usually obtained from petroleum after going through the refining and cracking processes. • Examples of synthetic polymers are polythene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon and terylene. • Synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or decay. This means that they are difficult to dispose and may cause environment pollution such as flash flood. • The burning of polymers may release harmful and poisonous gases. • We should reuse, reduce and recycle synthetic polymers as much as possible. The use of biodegradable polymers should be encouraged. Synthetic polymer Monomer Uses Perspex Methylmethacrylate Safety glass, reflectors and lens Polypropene Propene Piping, bottle crate, carpets and ropes Polyvinyl chloride, Choloroethene Water pipes and PVC artificial leather

Glass and Ceramics
1. Fused glass 2. Soda-lime glass 3. Borosilicate glass 4. Lead crystal glass Fused glass – It is a highly heat resistant glass. It can be heated to an extremely high temperature and can be plunged into icy without cracking. It has great purity, optical transparency, high temperature and chemical durability, and resistance to thermal shock. Example: Laboratory glassware Soda-lime glass – It is made by heating sand with limestone or sodium carbonate. It can be melted at a relatively low temperature (cannot withstand high temperature) and is easy to be shaped and has a good chemical durability. It also has a high thermal expansion coefficient. It does not withstand heat. Example: mirror and electrical bulbs. Borosilicate glass – It has low thermal expansion coefficient. It is more resistant to chemical attacks than soda-lime glass because it contains less alkali. Example: Cookware and automobile headlight. Lead crystal glass – It is soft and easy to melt. It is more expensive than soda-lime glass. It is optically transparent. Example: Chandeliers.

Ceramics – It can withstand high temperature and do not melt easily. They are hard, brittle, chemically inert, do not corrode and have a very high melting point. They are good insulators of electricity and heat. Example: Tiles, cement, bricks and porcelain.

Composite materials
Material such as clay wood and metal are heavy, bulky or difficult to be shaped. Therefore continuous researches have been done in search of new raw materials.

Composite material - A structural material that is

formed by combining two or more different substances. Example: Reinforced concrete, superconductors, fibre optic, fibre glass and photochromic glass 1. Reinforced concrete – High tensile strength. It is used in construction of framework for highways, bridges and highrise building. 2. Superconductors – capable of conducting electricity without resistance when cooled. Example: Bullet trains in Japan and medical magnetic-imaging. 3. Fibre optic – able to transmit data, voice and images in a digital format for telecommunication. It used to replace copper wire in a long distance telephone lines. It is cheap, high transmission capacity and chemical stability.

4. Fibre glass - high tensile strength, can be easily coloured

and low in density. Example: Water and food storage containers, small boat, skies and helmet. 5. Photochromic glass – Darken when light intensity is high, becomes clear when light intensity is low. It is suitable for making optical lenses, car windshields and light intensity meters.



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