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Orifice Design

Orifice Design

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Appendix B.

Hand Calculation Method for Orifice Design

Abstract
This appendix explains how to perform the calculations for orifice plate design by hand. For manual look-up of the orifice coefficient, S (given beta) or the diameter ratio, beta (given S), the following eight figures are provided: Figure B-1 Figure B-2 Figure B-3 Figure B-4 Figure B-5 Figure B-6 Flange Taps - 6 Inch Pipe Size (6.056 in.); S vs. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Flange Taps; Pipe Size Corrections for S Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Radius Taps; S vs. Beta for Different R D Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Corner Taps; S vs. Beta for Different R D Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Pipe Taps; S vs. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) ASME Small Bore with Flange Taps; S vs. Beta for Different RD Values—1 in. to 1-1/2 in. Pipe Size (Based on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Application", 6th ed., 1971. Courtesy of ASME) ASME Small Bore with Corner Taps (.546 in.); S vs. Beta for Different RD Values—1/2 in. Schedule 80 Pipe Size (Based on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Application", 6th ed., 1971. Courtesy of ASME) Quadrant — Edge Data; S and Thickness Ratio vs. Beta

Figure B-7

Figure B-8

Orifice calculation sheets have been prepared for guidance through the orifice calculation steps. Calculation sheets filled in with appropriate examples are attached. The four orifice calculation sheets are as follows: • • • • LIQUID, square-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59B (Figure B-9) LIQUID, quadrant-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59C (Figure B-10) GAS, square-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59D (Figure B-11) VAPOR/STEAM, square-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59E (Figure B-12)

Note that in these calculation sheets, the term "sharp edge" is used instead of "square-edge." Results of the hand calculations agree closely with the computer program ORIFICE. The two types of calculations that can be performed are orifice sizing and orifice reranging, except for quadrant-edge.

Chevron Corporation

B-1

July 1999

BPH. Flow that creates a dp across the orifice taps equal to the maximum value of the dp transmitter range.0 Calculation Procedure 1.707 × (full-scale flow rate) For quadrant-edge./lb. LIQUID KINEMATIC VISCOSITY GAS AND VAPOR ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY 2.Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual B1. use steam tables Ideal sp. gr. for steam. Fill in the FLOW RATE input blocks. GPM.333 × (full-scale flow rate) --use centistokes use centipoise LIQUID SPECIFIC GRAVITY VAPOR/STEAM SPECIFIC GRAVITY --GAS SPECIFIC GRAVITY -- 1/3 FS: 3. which equals .ft. Fill in the ORIFICE DATA input blocks. gr. radius. UNITS: FULL SCALE: NORMAL: For liquid use BPD.W. dry air = Zb × Real sp. For square-edge and ASME small-bore this should be the mid-range dp value. is used = M.W. Fill in the STREAM PROPERTY input blocks. corner or pipe for square-edge Flange or corner only for ASME small-bore Flange for quadrant-edge Use 3 decimal places Entered for orifice re-ranging calculation July 1999 B-2 Chevron Corporation . For vapor use lbs/hour. gas/M.00) cu. TYPE OF ORIFICE PLATE ---TYPE OF TAPS ---PIPE INSIDE DIAMETER ORIFICE DIAMETER --Square-edge ASME small-bore Quadrant-edge Flange. TEMPERAURE PRESSURE ---degrees Fahrenheit for liquid and vapor/steam degrees Rankine = °F + 460 for gas PSIA for gas and vapor -Gb at 60 F (Gb for water = 1. equal to . or GPH. for gas use SCFH.

1 Atm Rarely used in refinery calculations (usually set = 1. Find d Fill in equations and solve for S.3/AGA-3. Use Reynold’s number column that is closest to value calculated in step 5.Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B -FULL SCALE DP --4. 6. Space is provided for values in equations.0) Look up in table or chart when used. See examples on sheets provided. Look up S in table. Calculate orifice size or dp range for square-edge or ASME small-bore orifice. Calculate Pipe Reynold’s Number. Chevron Corporation B-3 July 1999 . Y -- Fpv -- Zb -- 5. Gas expansion factor for mid-scale flow Y1 = correction based on upstream pressure Y2 = correction based on downstream pressure Look up in table or chart . Fill in the CORRECTIONS FACTORS. Interpolation is necessary.0) Look up in table or chart when used. Chapter 14. See examples on sheets provided. Given d. Use Table in Figure B-2 to correct for pipe size other than 6-inches (2-12 inches). Interpolation is necessary. 7. Given h. Calculation for quadrant-edge orifice size. Find h Calculate beta ratio. Fa -- Use 3 decimal places Entered for orifice sizing calculation Standard value = 100 inches of water Correction for thermal expansion of orifice meter at flowing temperature found in ASME MFC-3M Tables or API MPMS. Use Reynold’s number that is closest to value calculated in Step 5. Compressibility factor at 60°F.use mid-range differential pressure (dp) Supercompressibility correction factor Rarely used in refinery calculations (usually set = 1. Look up beta ratio in table.

Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Select a plate thickness. and calculate the differential pressure h.3 770. and repeat calculation. RD 0. if too small. RD max.0 0. The permissible range of Reynold’s numbers (at 1/3 full-scale flow) for a quadrant-edge orifice is a function of the beta ratio: beta ratio min.2 670.0 45000.4 630.0 28000. h should equal about 100 inches of water.0 0.0 17500.0 0.0 70000.5 450.0 See example on calculation sheet provided. make plate thinner.0 0.0 85000. If h is too large. look up values from Figure B-8. July 1999 B-4 Chevron Corporation .6 320. make plate thicker.

Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig.). Beta for Different RD Values ( Based on Data from ISO 5167) Chevron Corporation B-5 July 1999 .6 Inch Pipe Size (6.056 in. S vs. B-1 Flange Taps .

B-2 Flange Taps.Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. Pipe Size Corrections for S Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) July 1999 B-6 Chevron Corporation .

S vs.Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig. B-3 Radius Taps. Beta for Different RD Values ( Based on Data from ISO 5167) Chevron Corporation B-7 July 1999 .

Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. Beta for Different RD Values ( Based on Data from ISO 5167) July 1999 B-8 Chevron Corporation . S vs. B-4 Corner Taps.

B-5 Pipe Taps. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Chevron Corporation B-9 July 1999 .Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig. S vs.

to 1-1/2 in. Pipe Size ( Based on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Application". 1971.. Courtesy of ASME) July 1999 B-10 Chevron Corporation . 6th ed. Beta for Different RD Values—1 in. B-6 ASME Small Bore with Flange Taps.Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. S vs.

Courtesy of ASME) Chevron Corporation B-11 July 1999 . Beta for Different RD Values—1/2 in.).Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig.. S vs. B-7 ASME Small Bore with Corner Taps (. 1971. Schedule 80 Pipe Size (Based on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Application". 6th ed.546 in.

S and Thickness Ratio vs. Beta July 1999 B-12 Chevron Corporation . B-8 Quadrant — Edge Data.Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig.

Square-edge Orifice Chevron Corporation B-13 July 1999 .Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig. B-9 Orifice Calculation Sheet—Liquid.

Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. Quadrant-edge Orifice July 1999 B-14 Chevron Corporation . B-10 Orifice Calculation Sheet—Liquid.

Square-Edge Orifice Chevron Corporation B-15 July 1999 .Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig. B-11 Orifice Calculation Sheet—Gas.

B-12 Orifice Calculation Sheet—Vapor/Steam.Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. Square-Edge Orifice July 1999 B-16 Chevron Corporation .

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