UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA SEMINAR KEJURUTERAAN AWAM (SEMKA) PROGRAM PERDANA SEMESTER II SESI 2010/2011

THE SECOND PENANG BRIDGE
PLANNING, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 20 February 2011
JAMBATAN KEDUA SDN BHD.

Presented by: Dato’ Prof. Ir. Dr. Ismail bin Mohamed Taib Managing Director, Jambatan Kedua Sdn Bhd

Topics Covered
 Introduction

 The Second Penang Bridge (Project):  Planning  Design  Construction

Ferry Service
Then… Now…

Began operations in 1920, making it the oldest ferry service in Malaysia. The iconic ferries ply between the Seberang Perai in mainland and Penang Island.

Today the ferry still continue its services which connects Sultan Abdul Halim ferry terminal in Butterworth to Raja Tun Uda ferry terminal at Weld Quay in George Town in Penang Island.

The First Penang Bridge 1985

The idea to build a bridge linking the island and mainland was mooted by the late Tun Abdul Razak, the second Prime Minister of Malaysia in 1960’s.
The construction was carried out during the premiership of YAB Tun Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad, the fourth Malaysian Prime Minister in 1982. The 13.5km (8.5km over water) bridge was officially opened to traffic on September 14, 1985.

The First Penang Bridge – widening initiatives 2009

Additional 4.8m wide lane each carriageway

• The bridge widening initiatives were undertaken to accommodate the increase in traffic volume which has reached its maximum capacity of 120,000 vehicles per day.
• The project which started in December 2005 was completed in August 2009.

The Second Penang Bridge 2013 – now under construction

The Second Penang Bridge (24km total length and 16.9km over water) when completed will be the longest in Southeast Asia connecting Batu Kawan on the mainland and Batu Maung on the island.

Project Alignment
Existing Penang Bridge

Legend:
Existing Penang Bridge North South Highway (PLUS) Package 1&2 Package 3 Marine Bridge Land Expressway

PENANG ISLAND (Batu Maung)
PULAU JEREJAK

8.4 km

NAVIGATIONAL SPAN
2+
3+

+0 13

. 00

0. 1+ 00 0. 00 0.
00 0.
4+ 00 0.

PULAU AMAN
6+ 00

5+ 00 0.

7+00

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9+000

0.

10+ 000

23

11

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.

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.

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19+00

14 +0 00 .

18+00

17+00

.

15+00 0.

16+00 0.

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0.

0.

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MAIN LAND (Batu Kawan)

Objectives of Second Penang Bridge

 Responding to National Objectives
 Considering the importance of road network in the State, the following objectives of the Second Penang Bridge Project is identified as follows:    To strengthen the transportation system corresponding to national objectives To support balanced economic development of the State To provide smooth and safe traffic service

PLANNING STAGE

Traffic Demand
  The traffic demand on the existing bridge has been increasing since its opening in 1985. Traffic projection without Second Crossing:  2000 – 97,200 vehicle per day  2010 – 140,400 vehicle per day  2020 – 163,400 vehicle per day

Due to a tremendous increase of motorcycle traffic utilising the bridge, it has brought about declining in the bridge’s level of service enforcing the motorist into intolerable traffic condition.
Both the ferry service and existing widened Penang Bridge will imminently not be able to cater for the traffic demand hence, a Second Crossing is needed to continuously support the economic development of the Penang State in addition to providing a smooth and safe driving facility.

Traffic Study at Existing Penang Bridge
Legends Veh/day
160,000
140,000 120,000 100,000
97,200 155,000 140,400 155,000

163,400

After widening

120,000

Maximum capacity at existing bridge Actual / Projected capacity x without Second Penang Bridge Projected capacity with Second Penang Bridge

116,500

103,800

80,000

2000

2010

2020

Year

Feasibility Study
 The feasibility study was carried out with the objectives :
 To investigate the technical and economic Feasibility of the alternative alignments

 

To prepare the necessary documents for loan facilities purposes To prepare an Implementation Programme (IP) as well as a report on Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment
To investigate the financial viability of tolling the proposed crossing

Alternative Alignments
Northern Route

Mid-Channel Route

Southern Route C

Feasibility Study

1.

Alternative Alignments:
Northern Route • Linking the Penang Outer Ring Road (PORR) at Bagan Jermal on the island with Butterworth Outer Ring Road (BORR) at Bagan Ajam on the mainland. • The total length of crossing is 9.2km. • Restricted by the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) aviation requirement. • Hence, only immersed tube tunnel can be considered for the main crossing. Mid-Channel Route • Linking Georgetown with the Butterworth-Kulim Expressway (BKS). • The total length is 8.3km long crossing which include the 2.4km long undersea tunnel. • Immersed tube tunnel is considered due to part of the straits is subjected to the movements of exceptionally high cargo vessels. Building a bridge structure will further constraint the waterway. Southern Route C • Linking Bayan Lepas Expressway at Batu Maung on the island with Batu Kawan on mainland and ended at North South Expressway at KM 154. • This alternative involves a 24km long crossing in which 16.9km crosses the Straits of Penang and 7.1km long connecting road.

2.

3.

Feasibility Study
 Conclusion
The alignment of Southern Route was finally chosen by YAB Tun Dr Mahathir Bin Mohamad, the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia. The decision was to promote socio-economics development in the south that would provide a balance across the Penang State.

Distribution of Contract Packages
Integrated Toll System

Package 3A: Conventional Contract

Package 1 : Main Navigation Span & Substructure & Foundation Works for Approach Spans. Package 2: Superstructure Works of Approach Spans.

Package 3B,3C,3D,3E, 3F & 3G : Conventional Contract

Design & Build
8

Project Organization Chart

ARUP JURURUNDING S/B

Project Implementation Plan
Description Mths JKSB was Incorporated. JKSB was appointed as the Concessionaire for the Second Penang Bridge Letter of Award for Package 1 Contract Letter of Award for Package 2 Contract Letter of Award for Package 3A Contract Letter of Award for Package 3C Contract Letter of Award for Package 3B Contract Overall Construction Period: Package 1 - Main Navigation Span & Substructure and Foundation Works for Approach Spans Contract Period Start Finish 9-July-08 5-Aug-08 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

60.0
52.0

-

20-Oct-08 4-Jun-09 5-May-10 5-May-10 14-Jun-10

8-Nov-08 8-Nov-13
8-Nov-08 8-Mar-13

Package 2 - Superstructure Works of Approach Spans
Package 3A - Batu Maung Interchange Package 3B - Batu Kawan Expressways Package 3C - Batu Kawan Trumpet Interchange Package 3D - Toll Plaza and Related Works Package 3E - Toll Collection System Package 3F - Traffic Control and Surveillance System Package 3G - M&E Works for Package 3A & 3C

51.1
24.0 31.0 28.0 14.0 12.0 12.0 24.0

8-Jun-09

8-Sep-13

19-May-10 18-May-12 28-Jun-10 27-Jan-13 19-May-10 18-Sep-12 1-Nov-11 31-Dec-12 9-Oct-12 9-Sep-12 9-Sep-11 8-Oct-13 8-Sep-13 8-Sep-13

18

DESIGN & BUILD CONCEPT

JKSB issue Letter of Offer (LOO) to Contractors including Employer’s Requirements (Need Statement) Contractors submit technical & financial proposal

Design & Build Contract Management

JKSB issue Letter of Acceptance (LA) Contractor submit design brief & work programme

Contractor submit the preliminary drawings Contractor submit detailed drawing & method statements
Construction stage

Employer‟s Requirements
 A key feature of design and build contracts is the document commonly known as the employer‟s requirements or need statements which is drawn up by the employer and provides the outline design.

The Employer‟s Requirements set out the project needs in terms of specification, function and performance of the project required and if applicable will also define planning and any other restrictions.

Design & Build Contract Documentation Details
Design & Build Contract Document

Condition of Contract

Technical Proposal

Drawings

Letter Acceptance Employer’s Requirements Contractor’s proposal Contract Sum Analysis (CSA) Form of Design Guarantee Form

Project Specifications

Contract Drawings Preliminary Construction As-Built

DESIGN & BUILD CONTRACT vs Conventional Contract

Due to time constraint to complete and to open the bridge for the traffic by end of 2013, a fast-track strategy was crucial.
 Design and Build contract is a combination of

all (running parallel), depending on the size, scope, and complexity. divided into 2 types:

 In Second Penang Bridge, the contracts are

 Design and Build Contract  Conventional Contract
12

DESIGN & BUILD CONTRACT vs Conventional Contract

Due to stringent Project timeframe , most of the major Project Scopes will be implemented on a Fast Track Basis
Nov 08 Oct 08

Sep 13

Nov 13

TIME

Design Completed
Construction Drawings Completed

Technical Proposal Design Procurement

Construction Drawings Construction
Commissioning Overlap between Design & Construction

Construction Completed

DESIGN & BUILD CONTRACT vs Conventional Contract

Design and Build Contract
 

Package 1 & 2 – RM3.75 billion or 83% of the Total Cost

Project

Package 1 – Main Navigation Span and Substructure and Foundation Works of Approach Span.
o
o o o o o

Contractor : China Harbour & Engineering Construction Ptd Ltd Date of Site Possession : 8 Nov 2008 Date of Completion : 8 March 2013 Completion Period : 52 Months Contract Amount : RM2.2 billion Work Progress : 63.81%
Contractor Date of Site Possession Date of Completion Completion Period Contract Amount Work Progress : UEM Builders Ltd : 8 Jun 2009 : 4 June 2013 : 48 Months : RM1.55 billion : 29.69%

Package 2 – Superstructure Works of Approach Span.
o o o o o o

14

DESIGN & BUILD CONTRACT vs Conventional Contract

 The Design & Build contract implemented in the

Second Penang Bridge Project, provides the following advantages:

 Singular Responsibility concept  Better Quality of product
 Time Saving for the project  Improved Risk Management

16

DESIGN & BUILD CONTRACT vs Conventional Contract
CONSESSIONAIRE / PROJECT MANAGER

Singular Responsibility Concept

JAMBATAN KEDUA Ptd. Ltd. Ptd. Ltd.

INDEPENDENT EIA CONSULTANT
ERE CONSULTING GROUP Ptd. Ltd.

INDEPENDENT CHECKING INDEPENDENT CHECK ENGINEER ENGINEER
ARUP Jururunding Ptd. Ltd.

Package 1, 2 & 3

Package 1 & 2

FISHERIES IMPACT ASSESSMENT CONSULTANT
FANLI MARINE AND CONSULTING Ptd. Ltd.

Package 1, 2 & 3

CONTRACTORS

PACKAGE 1 CHEC Construction (M) Ptd. Ltd.

PACKAGE 2 UEM Builders Ltd.

CONSULTANT (Designer) HPDI Consultants Co. Ltd

CONSULTANT
(DESIGN REVIEW & SUPERVISION)

EIA CONSULTANT
R-SYNC Tech. Resources Ptd. Ltd.

EIA CONSULTANT
DR. Nik & Associates Ptd. Ltd.

CONSULTANT (DESIGNER)

EIA CONSULTANT
YES Enviro Services Ptd. Ltd.

MMSB Consult Ptd. Ltd

RB Perunding Ptd. Ltd.

• The primary advantage of design and build contracts is that this form of arrangement leaves the employer with a single point of responsibility for any problems, whether design or construction.

27

DESIGN & BUILD CONTRACT vs Conventional Contract
Client, Independent Checking Engineer and Contractor - Roles and Responsibilities

Employer „s Requirement (ER) ER was introduced by JKSB to outline the scope of Design & Build (D&B) Contract for general, contractual & technical requirements and contractor shall comply with all the requirements within the stipulated time up to as well as defect liability period. Independent Checking Engineer (ICE) ICE is appointed by JKSB for the following scope of works to ensure the specific client’s requirements & high quality of work are delivered:  Review design input parameters adopted to confirm on fundamental design issue  Review & comment design brief & final design report  Prepare design check report & certification  Verify & endorse progress payment  Audit construction works Design & Build Contractors Contractors hold most of the responsibility for the design, construction and supervision of the project
28

DESIGN & BUILD CONTRACT vs Conventional Contract

Conventional Contract
Conventional Contract is adopted for Package 3 (Land Expressway Portion) with the value of RM 750 million.
The objectives are:
  

to give the opportunity to local/„Bumiputera‟ Contractor/Consultant to participate in such prestigious project to expose local Contractor/Consultant in executing mega project to encourage transfer of technology


to create job opportunities for local people
to spur economic development for the benefit of local businesses and trades
29

DESIGN STAGE

COMPARISON BETWEEN SECOND AND FIRST PENANG BRIDGE

First Penang Bridge Year built: Overall length : 1982 13.5 km

Second Penang Bridge Year built: Overall length :
Length over water: Type of bridge:

2008 24 km
16.9 km

Length over water: Type of bridge: - Main bridge

8.4 km Cable-stayed concrete girder bridge
Beam and slab deck bridge

- Main bridge

Cable-stayed bridge with beam and slab deck Box girder bridge

- Approach bridge

- Approach bridge

Main Navigation Span
Main Navigation Span Ship Protection Other spans Speed limit

107.5m + 225m + 107.5m
Man-made island 40m 80 km/h

Main Navigation Span Main Navigation Span Ship Protection
Other spans Speed limit

117.5m + 240m + 117.5m Steel Box Buffer System
55m 80 km/h

DESIGN COMPARISON BETWEEN SECOND AND FIRST PENANG BRIDGE

First Penang Bridge
No dedicated motorcycle lane

Second Penang Bridge 2-lane dual carriageway with dedicated 3m motorcycle lane Traffic Loading to UK BD 37/2001, 45 units HB unguided
Seismic design: 475 year event -Ground peak acceleration: 0.1773 g 2500 year event - no collapse -Ground peak acceleration: 0.3261 g

Traffic Loading to UK BS 153, 45 units HB guided along centreline of carriageway

Seismic design: 475 year event -Ground peak acceleration: 0.075 g 2500 year event - no collapse

Structural concrete design to CP110: 1972 No specific durability requirements Normal concrete

Structural concrete design to BS 5400: 2006
Durability requirements to latest Eurocodes High performance concrete: RCPT less than 800 Coulombs for 56 days

DESIGN COMPARISON BETWEEN SECOND AND FIRST PENANG BRIDGE

First Penang Bridge Estimated Concrete Strength: Spun pile : 50 N/mm2 Pile cap : 30 N/mm2 Pylon : 40 N/mm2 I-Beam : 40 N/mm2 Slab : 30 N/mm2

Second Penang Bridge Estimated Concrete Strength: Spun pile : 80 N/mm2 Pile cap : 40 N/mm2 Pylon : 50 N/mm2 Box girder : 55 N/mm2

Expansion joint at every 5 spans (200 m)
Degree of compaction for earth embankment: 95 % : 0.75m below formation level 90 % : remainder

Expansion joint at every 5 or 6 spans (275m or 330m) Degree of compaction for earth embankment: 100%

Settlement criteria for earth embankment: 367 mm in 5 years Pavement IRR Index: Not specified

Settlement criteria for earth embankment: 100 mm in 5 years Pavement IRR Index: 2m/km

Design Features
  

Length of Bridge Length of Expressway Lane Configuration

16.9km 7.1km Dual 2 lanes traffic + emergency lane + 1 motorcycle lane each direction.

Main Navigation Span

Cast in-situ Cable-Stayed Bridge P24 to P27 = 117.5m + 240m + 117.5m = 475m. Height Clearance: 30m Navigation Channel: 150m
P0 to P24 = 24 span x 55m = 1,320m. P27 to P292 = 265 span x 55m = 14,575m. Height Clearance : • Low Piers: 6m • High Piers: 6m to 21.6m Pre-cast Prestressed Segmental Box Girder = 8,092 nos.

Approach Span Substructure

•Superstructure

34

Project Packages
PENANG ISLAND (BATU MAUNG)
PULAU JEREJAK

BATU KAWAN EXPRESSWAYS

BATU KAWAN TRUMPET INTERCHANGE

P24-P27

BATU MAUNG INTERCHANGE

13

0 +0

0.

0.

MAIN NAVIGATIONAL SPAN
1+ 00 0.

P0

PACKAGE 3A

2+ 00 0.
.

3+ 0 00
4+ 00 0.

PACKAGE 3C
PULAU AMAN
5+ 0 00 .

6+ 00 0.

7+00 0 .

8+000 .

9+000 .

10+ 0 00 .

23

11 + 00 0.
1 2+ 00 0.

0 +0
0 00

22+

0.
.

21+

20+00

P292
17+00

000

19+00

14 + 00 0.

18+00

.

15+00 0.

PENANG SECOND CROSSING BRIDGE TOLL PLAZA

16+00 0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

PLUS TOLL PLAZA

MAIN LAND (BATU KAWAN)

Design Concept
Scope of D&B Packages
117.5m

Package 1 – Main Navigation Span

m NGVD

240m

m NGVD

117.5m

m NGVD

m NGVD

NGVD

m NGVD

m NGVD

m NGVD

m NGVD

P024

m NGVD
P025 P026

m NGVD

P027

Main Navigation Span
(Front Elevation)
36

Scope of Works for the Design and Build Contractor

Design Concept

Package 1 & 2 – Approach Spans

Scope of D&B Packages

14400 7300
29800

3000

Horizontal Split

PACKAGE 2 Superstructure PACKAGE 1 Substructure

m NGVD

Approach Span
(Cross Section)
37

Design Concept
MAIN NAVIGATION SPAN Foundation Bored piles – adopted for main and end piers at thick layer of dense sand and silty clayey below 45m of seabed level.

– Total 66 pts. of 2.0m and 2.2m dia Bored Piles with average length of 120m.

38

Design Concept
MAIN NAVIGATION SPANS Substructure
Steel Fender

Steel Fender vs Man-made Island (First Penang Bridge)
Man-made Island

i) Easy to construct, hence shorter construction period ii) Compact thus does not restrict the navigation passageway
iii) Low impact on the environment and existing hydrological condition due to its relatively small size

i) Difficult to construct & much longer construction period
ii) Restrict navigation passageway iii) Occupy larger water area restricting flow tidal

Design Concept
MAIN NAVIGATION SPANS
Substructure Total pilecap : 4 nos Pilecap size (P25 & P26): 48.1m x 17.5m x 6m Pilecap size (P24 & P27): 42.7m x 10.6m x 4m

Steel Fender System
The steel fender system was adopted due to its environmental friendliness, cost saving and shorter construction period.

Design Concept
MAIN NAVIGATION SPAN
Superstructure Cable Stayed Bridge

The cable stayed bridge design is adopted for its advantages in the aspects of performance, construction methodology, project duration and cost competitiveness.
The main navigation is a 3-span twin tower fan-type cable stayed bridge of continuous rigid beam and slab deck with span arrangement of 117.5m + 240m + 117.5m and to be erected by the balanced cantilever method.

Design Concept

SUPERSTRUCTURE FEATURES Type of Structure: prestressed concrete beam and slab deck


• •

Spans arrangement: 117.5m + 240m + 117.5m
Pylon type: H shape concrete tower Pylon size: Upper – 3.0m x 4.0m Lower – Gradually increase from top to bottom (5.0m x 6.0m)

• •
• • •

The pylon concrete grade: 50 N/mm² Main beam: table shape section (2 side web and 1 top flange)
Typical beam height : 2.8m Deck slab thickness : 28cm The main beam concrete grade: 55 N/mm²

Design Concept
APPROACH SPAN
Foundation
Prestressed Precast Concrete Spun Piles – designed where the overlaid deposit is thick – 40m length for each pile total 5166 pts of 1.0m dia Spun Piles with average penetration length of 55m – adopted at deep water area – Total 368 pts of 1.6m dia Steel Piles with average length of 80m – applied at the shallow water and thin deposit area – Total 80 pts of 1.5m dia Bored Piles

Tubular steel piles

Bored piles

Design Concept
APPROACH SPAN

Advantages of different types of foundation
a) Bored pile - easily adapted to the various load and soil requirements due to large variety in dia and construction techniques. - enable the immediate in-situ evaluation of drilled soil layers to revise foundation length due to changed soil conditions - Absence of vibration will not disturb adjacent piles b) Steel pile - have high load-carrying capacity for a given weight of pile, which can reduce driving costs - can be driven in very long lengths and cause little ground displacement - easy to splice

c) Spun pile - Faster, prefabricated allows longer length with less joint - Efficient mass to strength ratio - Piles can be withstand higher tension forces which make them suitable for cater wind load & earthquake problem
44

Design Concept
APPROACH SPAN Foundation
Prestressed precast concrete spun piles Out of total of 292 piers, 248 piers or 85% adopted prestressed precast concrete spun piles.

Advantages:

Suitable for the Project by dredging at the thick overlaid deposit area. Dredging is also carried out to allow for the transportation of materials and movement of marine traffic.

 
 

More competitive on cost compared to steel piles or bored piles. Available locally from pile manufacturers and Installers. Easy to install in marine environment.
Able to safely withstand ship impact forces via raking piles. Does not involve usage of expensive steel casing.

Fast construction. One piling machine can complete 1 pier in 5 days compared to bored piles area which takes about 6 months to complete one pier with 2 RCD drilling machines based on the same number of quantity.

45

Design Concept
APPROACH SPAN Substructure
• Pile caps, Columns and Crossheads are

designed as reinforced concrete structures
Spans

• Total no of Piers – 289 nos at Approach • The sections and shapes of the pile caps,

columns and crossheads are designed to enhance constructability, construction time and aesthetically pleasing.

46

Design Concept
APPROACH SPAN Superstructure Segmental Box Girders
•The precast segmental box girder is designed as a continuous single twin box of 14.08m width,

4.0m length and 3.20m depth structure with match cast joints, multiple shear keys and prestressing tendons.

• This type of box-girder was selected because of its size that does not require extensive casting

facilities, special heavy lifting equipment and storage as compared to a precast full-length box girder.

•The design of the segments is repetitive which allows the same formwork to be used •The depth is maintained constant to present aesthetically consistent soffit line. •Total 7 types of Segmental Box Girder are designed for each span.

47

Construction Stage

Construction Methods
Dredging Activities
PULAU PINANG
PULAU JEREJAK
BATU MAUNG TEMPORARY JETTY

PROPOSED BATU MAUNG DIRECTIONAL RAMPS PROPOSED NAVIGATIONAL SPAN
2+
3+
BUKIT TAMBUN TEMPORARY FABRICATION YARD

MAINLAND (BATU KAWAN)

LEGEND

Dredging works for 270m width Temporary Navigational Channel Total volume 11 million m³ of Dredged Materials

+0 13

. 00

0. 1+ 0 00 . 00 0.
00 0.
0.

PULAU AMAN PROPOSED PENANG SECOND CROSSING BRIDGE TOLL PLAZA
6+ 00

PROPOSED TRUMPET INTERCHANGE AT Km 154 NSE

4+ 00

5+ 0 00 .

7+00 0.

0.

8+000 .

9+000 .

BATU KAWAN TEMPORARY JTTY

PROPOSED PLUS TOLL PLAZA (EXIT)
21+

10+ 0 00.
0.

23

11 +0 0
00 . 1 2+ 0

+0 . 00
22+ 000

RSA
20+00
000

.

19+00

14 +0 00 .

18+00

17+00

.

15+00 0.

16+00 0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

MATERIAL STORAGE YARD

Construction Methods
Construction Sequence of Bored Piling

Building Platform

Casing Installation

Mixing of Bentonite Slurry

Steel Cage Inspection

Inspection of Drilled Hole

Drilling with Bentonite slurry lining

Installation of Steel Cage

Concrete of Bored Pile

50

Construction Methods
MAIN NAVIGATION SPANS Substructure Steel Fender
Fabrication : Factory – Dongguan Yin Ji Heavy Industry Con. Ltd Maximum dimension of Steel Fender (Main Pier P25 & P26) : 8.6m ×9.1m. Maximum dimension of Steel Fender (Transition pier P24 & P27): 8.6×9.1m.

Installation Sequence For Steel Fenders - Main Pier P25 & P26

Installation Sequence For Steel Fenders - Transition Pier P24 & P27

Construction Methods
Construction Sequence of Pilecaps

Construction Methods
Construction Sequence of Pilecaps – Cont‟d

Construction Methods
MAIN NAVIGATION SPANS

Superstructure

Slip Form System


Slip form is a self-climbing formwork that once set up as a desired-shaped wall to be built, it ascends continually to the height of the structure.
Slip form system is used for the construction of pylon and piers which are more than 8m height.


• • •

Each lift will be 4m ~ 5m height Working platform will be provided at the top of the formwork system Slip form system provides high speed of erection (works’ execution speed increases) and as a result, rapid completion of the project There is no need to dismantling or re-assembling.
54

Construction Methods
MAIN NAVIGATION SPANS
Superstructure

Reasons for the selection of cable stayed bridge

1. Allow for a slim section
2. Enable for long spans bridge

3. Better aspect in performance
4. Construction methodology 5. Project duration – faster 6. Cost optimization

55

Construction Methods
Deck Works Construction using Cantilever Method
Stage 1 – Construct piers and pylons

Stage 2 – Erect temporary falsework and cast first deck segment
Stage 3 – Remove temporary falsework, install cable, traveler form and cast the next deck segment.

Construction Methods
Deck Works Construction using Cantilever Method – Cont‟d

Stage 4 and onwards – The process is repeated until all the cables and decks are installed.

Construction Methods
Traveler form for deck

MAIN NAVIGATION SPANS
Super Structure
For deck works construction at
main navigation span, traveler

formworks system is used. This
method will start with stay cable erection followed by the casting and prestressing of segments in stages until it reaches the maximum free cantilever mode. Then the same procedures will be

repeated for the next segments.

58

Construction Methods
APPROACH SPAN
Pilecap Construction
 

Insitu construction is ruled out due to high cost and time requirements of cofferdam. Precast Concrete Shells are adopted for:

• Minimisation of temporary works (no cofferdams).

• Minimisation of insitu works
• Speed of construction • Better surface finishing works
      

Precast Concrete Shells are used as a formwork for second layer casting and permanently incorporated into the pile cap 6 pieces of Precast Concrete Shell are required for each pilecap. Total of 3,468 nos of Precast Concrete Shell will be used Casting and Curing are carried out in the Casting Yard Transported to temporary jetty and delivered to worksite by barge. Two casting yards have been establish for overall production Total 27 sets of precast mould are used which consist of 18 sets of 9m dia. and 9 sets of 10m dia.

Construction Methods
APPROACH SPAN
Substructure
Two stage construction of pilecap
• The pilecap is designed in accordance to method

construction sequence where 2 stages casting are allowed.

• The 1st layer is cast to act as a base for the installation

of precast concrete shell which is designed to act as permanent formwork for the 2nd layer pile cap construction. Both casting to be carried out during low tide condition

60

Construction Methods
APPROACH SPAN
Substructure
Steel formwork
 The bridge consists of 578 nos. of Piers i.e. P0(L/R) to P292 (L/R)  Piers are classified as Low (max height 6m) and High Piers (> 6m to

21.6m) from top of pile cap to top of crosshead - using self climbing formwork.
modules – installed, cast, removed and installed for the next layer. Process is repeated until crosshead level is reached.

 60 nos. of high piers constructed using layer of prefabricated steel Pier

 518 nos. of low piers to be constructed using one continuous set
 The crosshead forms are erected, fixed, cast and removed

installation of pre fabricated steel formwork from pier to crosshead.

61

Construction Methods
APPROACH SPAN
Superstructure

Casting of Segmental Box Girder (SBG)

Due to requirements of the project and launching speed, short line match-casting method is used for precasting of segmental box girder. Segments are being cast similar to cast of any structure via moulds to specific shapes and dimensions Main components of the segments are reinforcement bars and concrete. Segment cast is allowed to cure prior to opening of moulds section Similar process is being adopted for casting of next segment in the exception that frontal side of the next segment shall be cast against the previous cast segment. This term is match casting. The shear keys act as the interlocking shapes between the two segments.
WORK BATCHING SHOP PLANT OPERATION CENTRE LAB SEGMENT STORAGE AREA 1 & 2

• • • •

OFFICE

OPEN CASTING YARD 1 (7 BAYS)

OPEN CASTING YARD 2 (9 BAYS)

REBAR CUT SHOP

COVER CASTING YARD (7 BAYS)

SEGMENT STORAGE AREA 3 & 4

Total area= 50 Acres

567m

298m

Construction Methods
APPROACH SPAN
Superstructure
SBG Casting Requirements

Method of casting

– Short Line Match-Casting


Concrete volume
Steel Reinforcement

– 260,000 cu.m Gd 55/20
– 60,000 metric tonne


Weight of each SBG
Total SBG required

– 65 tonne to100 tonne
– 8,092 numbers


Total moulds
Daily output

– 21 moulds
– 14 nos/day (at peak)


Casting Cycle
Total casting duration

– 3 days/bay
– 28 months

63

Construction Methods
Methods of Segmental Box Girder Casting Shortline Casting (Match Cast)

Segmental Box Girders Match Casting

Perfect Match

SBG match casting concept applicable for every span.

Construction Methods
SBG Casting Sequence

Tying rebar to in the dedicated reinforcement jig.

Placement of reinforcement cage in the SBG mould using overhead crane.

Final inspection prior to concreting of SBG

SBG storage yard

Completed SBG transported to yard by Straddle Carrier

Concreting of SBG

Construction Methods
APPROACH SPAN
Launching of SBG using Span by Span Method Features and Advantages

  

Flexibility to use overhead or under-slung gantries
Fast rate of erection – due to use of external post tensioning Segment delivery is possible along completed deck to rear of gantry or at sea level Smaller crew size is required compared to balanced cantilever construction Good access provided within the gantry to all work fronts

Construction Methods
APPROACH SPAN
Launching Requirements
 Total Marine Bridge Span
 Total launching gantry  Total segments required  Plant storage capacity  Plant daily output

– 578 spans
– 4 nos. – 84 nos/wk – 750 nos – 12~14 nos/day

 Total launching output/gantry – 1.5 span/wk

Overall Planning  A dedicated jetty is also built near the precast factory to facilitate the delivery of SBG to the bridge via sea barges.
 There will be 4 barges carrying 5 numbers

of SBG on each barges for delivery to the 4 launching gantries.

 Each 55m span consists of 14 SBG which

are 1 type P1, 1 Type P2, 2 Type S1, 2 Type S2, 2 Type D1, 5 Type S3 and 1 Type S3A.

Construction Methods
Segment Transportation Procedure
Approaching, berthing and mooring at Jetty

Tug barge loaded with segment to the erection front

68

Construction Methods
Mooring Barges At The Erection Fronts Anchor Handling Tug Boat disengage from working barge

69

Construction Methods
Launching Sequence
Offloading of segment from Barge

Gluing and temporary stressing

70

Construction Methods
Launching Sequence – cont‟d
- Segments have been installed to form a full span - First stage Post Tensioning & Incremental Load Transfer to form simply supported span

- Release hanger bars and remove lifting beams after the span supported on the temporary support on pier - Launch Main Girder to next pier

APPRECIATING INCREASING IN ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION

72

Introduction
Sustainable development is an enduring balanced approach to economic activity, environmental responsibility and social progress.

73

Environmental Management Organization Chart

Design & Build

Conventional

Fisheries
Overview Fisheries Industry in Penang

There are 17 fishing villages on the island and 14 fishing landing point on the main land. In 2007, marine fisheries catch in Penang amounted to 37,774 tonnes worth RM 218.9 million.

The industry provides livelihood to nearly 3,193 fulltime fishermen.

75

Fisheries
Location of Fisheries Landing Points Location of Cage Culture Farms

Location of Cockle Farms

76

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Independent Consultant of Fisheries Impact Assessment (FIA)
 Fanli Marine & Consultancy Ptd. Ltd. (Fanli) is appointed by JKSB as

an Independent Consultant to monitor the Fisheries Impact Assessment (FIA) for this project. Fanli had earlier completed the base line study in 2007 for the Fisheries Department. To assess on the impact of construction activities on fishing, cockle farming To advise for such measures as necessary To propose the mitigation measures

 Fanli scope of works cover:
o o o

77

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Result of Water Quality in the fisheries landing point

Temperature (°C) levels at Study Area

Salinity (ppt) level at Study Area

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) levels at Study Area

Previous Study Current Study

• Generally, most parameters were recorded within suitable
range for marine environment and fisheries purposes
78

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction

Research by Lund University in Sweden has discovered that the Oresund Bridge connecting Denmark and Sweden have improved the Marine Environment in 10 years since it was built.

In the Second Penang Bridge, aquatic life such as algae and fishes are found around the driven piles.
They become food for fish like the Longfin Bannerfish (Heniochus acumiratus), Rock Grouper (Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus) and White Cheeked Monocle Bream (Scolopsis vosmeri) and the local “udang lipan” (Stomatopod Crustacean).

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Dredging activities at Package 1

The dredging activities have to be carried out due to shallow water conditions at certain portions of the bridge alignment which affect the barges movement for piling, pier and launching activities. The estimated amount of spoil to be dredged is 11,000,000 m3.

Location of dredge channel

Dredging Works

81

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
CROSS SECTION OF MAIN DREDGED CHANNEL
Viaducts

C L

Sea Water Level Sea Bed Level -3.0m ACD 1:5 -3.5m ACD 1:5 1:5 Barges Navigation
Channel (BNC)

60m 270m

170m
Main Dredged Channel (MDC)

40m

Note: National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) Admiralty Chart Datum (ACD) (+0.00 NGVD = +1.72m ACD)

82

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Package 1: EMA Consultant
R- Sync Technical Resources Ptd. Ltd is appointed as the EMA Consultant for the monitoring of dredging and offshore disposal Of spoils during construction phase.
 The Scope of works cover:
o
o

o
o

o
o

TSS mapping via satellite imagery Marine water quality monitoring at disposal site Marine water quality monitoring along transportation on route Composition of dredged materials Bathymetric survey at disposal site Final Environmental Audit Garmin GPS Receiver ( Model GPSMAP 76 CSx)
83

 Equipment used:
o

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Package 1 : Location of Water Quality Sampling by R-Sync Ptd Ltd

Water Quality sampling location at disposal route

Disposal Area
84

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Result of Water Quality Sampling by R-Sync Ptd Ltd

All sampling locations generally recorded a significant decrease in TSS level compared to the baseline level. This shows that the spoils disposal activities are being carried out in a proper manner.

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Package 1: Environmental Monitoring (EM) Consultant
Dr Nik & Associates Ptd Ltd is appointed to carry out the environmental monitoring which cover the following scope of work: • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) • Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

Total Suspended Solids (TSS) - Marine
86

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Package 1 : Location of Water Quality Sampling by Dr Nik & Associates Ptd Ltd

Activities Location : Batu Kawan

Water Quality Sampling stations
Activities Location : Batu Maung

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Water Quality : Comparison data between baseline and actual for total suspended solids (TSS)

Above baseline TSS level at station W18 may be caused by surface run-off originated from northern coastline.

88

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Package 2: EIA Consultant
YES Enviro Services Ptd Ltd is appointed to carry out the EIA monitoring and preparing the reports which cover the following scope of work:
     

Marine Water Quality during construction of load out jetty River Water Quality Air Quality Noise Level Discharge from Sedimentation Ponds Discharge from Septic Tank

89

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Location of sampling YES Enviro Services Ptd Ltd

At the load out jetty

Sampling location for dredging activity

At the casting yard

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Results of sampling YES Enviro Services Ptd Ltd

Generally, suspended solids and turbidity values were below the baseline conditions although the values showed fluctuations

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Independent EIA Auditor / Consultant
 To ensure the compliance to Department of Environmental

(DOE) requirements, ERE Consulting Group Ptd. Ltd. is appointed by JKSB as an Independent EIA Auditor/Consultant for the overall project.

 The scopes and objectives of the EIA Auditor are to:
o o
o

o

Check the implementation of environmental mitigation measures Review environmental monthly report Review methodology, sampling and testing Identify potential environmental issues and recommend the mitigation measures
92

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Best Management Practices At Site
PACKAGE 1
Piling Barge Good housekeeping on the barge

PACKAGE 2
Dredging Work Silt curtain was erected and maintained properly

PACKAGE 3A
Generator set was placed in containment area

PACKAGE 3B
Skid tanks and diesel drums was placed in containment area

Appreciating Increasing Environmental Concerns In Bridge Construction
Embodied Energy

Embodied energy is the total amount of energy required for the processes of extraction, processing, construction, and disposal of a material

 

The design of Segmental Box Girder is optimized by adopting higher reinforcement ratios and less concrete with a higher strength concrete High performance concrete with silica fume and pfa cement is used to give the durability required
Effective use of embodied energy; designs to be efficient and reduce waste

94

IDENTIFYING ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS AND COMPOSITES FOR BRIDGES

95

Identifying alternative Materials And Composites For Bridges
High Damping Rubber Bearing (HDRB)
• The Employer’s Requirement (ER) requires no

damage criteria for a 500 years return period. In addition to this, a requirement of ‘no collapse’ criteria for the most credible earthquake (2500 years return period) was also introduced. First Penang Bridge was design on a similar requirement.
spun piles at the approach bridge of Package 1 could only cater for the 500 years return period earthquake. No plastic hinge forms as required for ‘no collapse’ criteria of 2500 years return period.

HDRB – Layout

• Detail design checking by ICE indicated that

HDRB –Section

Identifying alternative Materials And Composites For Bridges
HDRB – Cont‟d

Considering the current progress of works, it was decided that a change of bridge bearing system shall be the best solution. The original Pot Bearing system has to be replaced with High Damping Rubber Bearing to provide an effective seismic isolation system. Elastomeric bearing have a low embodied energy per m² of the bridge deck.
HDRB Prototype testing - Shear Test for 240 mm displacement

97

Identifying alternative Materials And Composites For Bridges
HDRB – Cont‟d
 The design of the HDRB is by

Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre (TARRC) at Brickendonbury, United Kingdom, a laboratory of the Malaysian Rubber Board (MRB).

HDRB Prototype testing Compression test

98
98

Identifying alternative Materials And Composites For Bridges
HDRB – Cont‟d

HDRB provide a simple and economical isolation system. It possesses the low horizontal stiffness needed and are capable of safely withstanding the large horizontal displacements imposed during an earthquake. The bearing was design to meet two set of action as per below:
o
o

SLS non-seismic actions – conformance with BS5400 SLS non-seismic actions simultaneous with a 2500year return period seismic event – conformance with EN15129

99

ISSUES

Issues Affecting Marine Bridge Works
 Seismic Design Detailed Study Detailed study was carried out on the seismic design to ensure the structure could cater for earthquakes loading. Based on the outcome of the study, High Damping Rubber Bearing (HDRB) designed by Malaysian Rubber Board in conjunction with Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre (TARRC) in UK is adopted in lieu of the original pot bearing design.

 Ship Impact Load Assessment Further assessment was also carried out on the ship impact load criteria to ascertain that the bridge could withstand any accidental ship impact.  Additional Soil Investigations Soil investigations for design does not reflect the actual soil condition causing several incidents of broken pile heads, piles driven shorter than the design length and drilling bit broken inside the bored holes. Additional soil investigations was conducted to ascertain the profile and conditions of soil below seabed level.

Issues Affecting Marine Bridge Works
 Dredging works The area along the alignment of the bridge is shallow and need to be deepen to facilitate for the movement of working barges. It takes approximately 2 years to dredge the 10 million cubic meter of sludge. However, due to fast rate of siltation, maintenance dredging is being carried out to ensure the depth is sufficient for the movement of segmental box girder barges. Interfacing works Interfacing works between Package 1, 2 and 3 contractors require longer time to resolve due to matters related to design and technical issues at the interfacing packages. For example, Package 3 deck has to be redesigned (strengthened) to sustain the launching gantry load imposed by Package 2 works. Additional load tests on the driven piles Additional load tests were imposed to verify the quality of piles driven is to the highest standard and provide solid foundation to the bridge.

Note: The above issues have initially affected the completion of the marine bridge portion. However, it has now been resolved and the construction is moving forward for the completion in September 2013 with the commitment to achieve highest standard quality of works.

Issues Affecting Land Expressway Works
 Additional Materials Testing for Geotextiles Compliance tests carried out in PSB Lab in Singapore, indicate that the geotextile materials did not comply with the specifications and thus rejected. Further confirmatory test was carried out at TRI lab in Austin, Texas, USA which also demonstrates failure. Approval of other alternative suppliers shall be subjected to compliance of similar tests.  Additional Test of Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) To ensure ‘no settlement’ criteria is complied, buckling test for PVD was carried out at PSB Lab in Singapore and subsequently to National University of Singapore to show that the results complement the compliance test.

Load Test for Stone Column Compliance test that was carried out failed to comply with the specification criteria. Consultant was directed to review their design and ensure that no sliding failure during construction and no settlement after completion occurs.

Issues Affecting Land Expressway Works
 Additional Soil Investigations (SI) The number of boreholes done for the inadequate to determine the soil profile.

previous SI works is

Thus, the contractors are required to conduct additional soil investigation works to confirm the existing SI.  Other Non Compliance Issues Several materials were tested to the Project specification and were found to be non compliant. (e.g pipe culvert, sand and spun piles). JKSB have rejected the materials which do not meet the Project requirements as we are committed to produce the highest quality of works. Note: Since the activities at land expressway works are not critical, JKSB is confident and committed to ensure the Project is delivered with the highest standard of quality and meets the target completion of September 2013.

Conclusion
Despite its implementation in a fast track manner, the Penang Bridge Second Crossing is being constructed to the highest quality, considering health, safety, cost, sustainability and environmental conservation. The Second Penang Bridge when completed will be the longest bridge in Malaysia and South East Asia when it opens for traffic in 2013.

105

SITE PROGRESS PHOTOGRAPHS

Site Progress Photograph
Main Span at P25

Main Span at P26

Site Progress Photograph

P25/9 - World largest statnamic load test

Site Progress Photograph

Transferring fenders for P26 at southern channel

Site Progress Photograph

View of the Construction of Pilecaps at P218

Site Progress Photograph

View of the Completed Piers from P237

Site Progress Photograph

View of the Launching Girder at Pier 117

Site Progress Photograph

Launching Gantry Load Test
113

Site Progress Photograph

View of the Segmental Box Girder (SBG) Storage at Casting Yard with Production Line in Background

Site Progress Photograph

PVD installation at Ramp 4

Jack in spun pile works at Pier 2 of Ramp 3

Site Progress Photograph

PVD installation at CH18100

Stone Column installation at Ramp 3 of Cloverleaf Interchange

Stone Column load test

Site Progress Photograph

PVD installation at MSL 2 Stone Column installation at CH23325

Thank You For Your Kind Attention

* JKSB acknowledges the assistance of CHEC & UEMB for the preparation of this presentation.

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