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R.Senthil Kumar, A.P (SRG), Department of Textile Technology, KCT, Coimbatore. email@example.com
MECHANICAL FINISHING OF NONWOVENS
R.Senthil Kumar KCT
• The production of nonwoven fabrics is carried out either as a continuous process, or as a series of batch processes. • Correspondingly, fabric finishing is carried out either in tandem with web formation and consolidation or off-line as a separate operation. • They can be finished in exactly the same way as other textiles such as woven or knitted fabrics.
R.Senthil Kumar KCT
• Nonwovens may be given one or more of a variety of finishing processes to improve fabric performance or aesthetic properties. • Performance properties include functional characteristics such as moisture regain and transport, absorbency, or repellency; flame retardancy; electrical response; resistance; and frictional behavior.
• Aesthetic properties include various attributes such as appearance, surface texture, color, and odor.
R.Senthil Kumar KCT
Senthil Kumar KCT . R.Classification • Mechanical Finishing: • Chemical Finishing Mechanical Finishing: It involves altering the texture of fabric surfaces by physically reorienting or shaping fibers on or near the fabric surface.
Senthil Kumar KCT .Shrinkage • The compaction that accompanies shrinkage is useful in obtaining – Greater basis weight or GSM – Density – More bulk – Higher strength R.
Senthil Kumar KCT . • And is especially effective if fibers are prone to shrinkage. R. • Shrinkage by exposure to heat is suitable for a nonwoven fabric made predominantly of synthetic fibers .Shrinkage • Shrinkage occurs when the fibers are wet or dry depending on the type.
• They are usually perforated cylinder driers with a rotating over feed • Whereby the web is fed faster onto the roll than it is drawn off.Mechanism of Shrinkage • The web is fed through the heating zone on screen driers.Senthil Kumar KCT . • A second shrinkage is carried out if the web contains significant amounts of natural fibers R.
• This technique is used in the production of sculptured wall and floor coverings. • Needling together two types of webs where one shrinks and the other is shrink-proof results in the formation of decorative raised patterns when shrunk.Senthil Kumar KCT . • Some special synthetic fibers shrink both when they are wet and when heated.Mechanism of Shrinkage • The web is immersed in a tank of hot water to promote shrinkage and is dried without tension. R.
with an intermediate woven layer lying on a heated. chromium-plated and polished drying cylinder.Senthil Kumar KCT . invented by Sanford Cluett. is similar to the sanforising process first used in the paper industry in 1957. 1) consists of a continuous rubber belt.Wrenching • The Clupak process. • The machinery (fig. • It was later adopted to wet-laid nonwoven bonded fabrics. about 25 mm thick. R.
R.Senthil Kumar KCT .
• The web is fed moist. through the gap between the belt and the cylinder.Senthil Kumar KCT . R. The compacting is fixed by drying.Wrenching • The web is pressed against the cylinder at the first point of contact by a non-rotating clamping bar. which affects the web between it and the cylinder in the same way thus causing compacting and crimping of the fibers in the web longitudinally. • The rubber cloth is compacted lengthwise.
• Webs in which the fibers are oriented lengthwise give a more pronounced effect than cross-laid or random-laid webs.about 20% .but if the bonding agent is more than 50% such increases are unattainable.Wrenching • Hydrophilic fibers are more suitable than hydrophobic ones.Senthil Kumar KCT . • Polyolefin fibers are not suitable due to their lower moisture absorption and sensitivity to heat. R. • The degree of wrenching is increased if the moisture content is high .
R. • Elastomer bonding agents due to their elastic nature almost cancel the wrenching effect.Wrenching • Thermoplastic bonding agents assist wrenching but the web tends to adhere to the cylinder.Senthil Kumar KCT .
Creeping • Compaction of the web is so strong that the creeping effect is visible and the increase in extension and basis weight can easily be measured.Senthil Kumar KCT . • The surface per unit area is larger and the flexibility is improved even further than by the Clupak method. R.
R.Creeping • The apparatus for the Micrex process (fig. and two guide plates . the surface of which has screwshaped grooves in it.Senthil Kumar KCT . • Between these is fed the web and nearby is a scrapper-like compressing device inclined at an acute angle to the surface of the roller. 2) consists of a rotating conveyor roller.one fixed and one elastic -forming a knee lying against the cylinder.
R.Senthil Kumar KCT .
Creeping • The web is compacted in the first gap. • The process can be adjusted to produce a fine or coarse crepe.Senthil Kumar KCT . R. • Without significant impairment of the mechanical properties. • temperature is lower as compared to the Clupak method. • With production speeds of 150-200 m/min since the web is handled dry. then raises itself from the cylinder in the relaxation zone to be compacted by the scrapper again.
Senthil Kumar KCT . R. wet or dry-laid random structured webs. spunbonded and spunlaced products.Creeping • This method is suitable to creeping longitudinally oriented carded webs.
Glazing. Calendering & Pressing • These methods are used to improve the surface characteristics of the fabrics. R. • The most important features being smoothing and patterning. • The processes used are continuous and usually involve one or several pairs of rollers operating under pressure.Senthil Kumar KCT .
• The only time a rolling calender is used is when two steel rollers are paired to break the so-called 'blotches' in spunbonded fabrics.Senthil Kumar KCT . R. especially.Glazing • This method is not particularly important for nonwoven fabrics. • The smooth surface can be obtained usually by selecting an appropriate form of bonding and. • Calendering has not met with much success since it is often accompanied by undesirable compression. for drying a wetbonded web. with occasional exceptions.
R. • It is used in the compacting of the webs made of natural and synthetic fibers. • This type of calendaring can be considered to be both a bonding and finishing process.Calendering • The calendars are common in nonwoven finishing.Senthil Kumar KCT .
• This gives a smoother surface finish and also improves strength and luster.Senthil Kumar KCT . R.Pressing • The oldest form of improving the surface of nonwoven bonded fabrics is the pressing of wool felts. especially felts for collar linings.
Senthil Kumar KCT .Perforating • In this method the chemically bonded webs were perforated using hot needles. • They are strong and yet supple enough for use as building and insulation materials. R. • The Hungarian firm Temaforg uses a similar method to perforate webs made of synthetic fibers to produce nonwoven bonded fabrics. • This process not only punches holes but also reinforces as a result of cross-linking and condensation of the bonding agent.
Senthil Kumar .CHEMICAL FINISHING OF NONWOVEN R.
• Non-ionic detergents have good fibre compatibility and stability to variations in water supply. • Ionic charges help prevent re-deposition of contaminants onto the fabric. • The detergent creates a separating layer between the fibre and the contaminant. the contaminant held in a scouring emulsion is usually stabilised by the presence of alkali. Washing can have a softening effect as contaminants are removed and strain induced during fabric formation is relaxed. mechanical action and the addition of detergent are key factors influencing washing efficiency. which detaches from the fibre. • Temperature. processing time. R.Washing (scouring) • The fabric is treated in an aqueous media. The contaminant collects into a globule. Synthetic detergents have largely replaced natural soaps and non-ionics are widely used. coating the contaminant with detergent.Senthil Kumar . usually containing a detergent.
Washing (Scouring) R.Senthil Kumar .
• Washing is followed by rinsing. The fabric may pass around guide rollers and through a series of vats containing scouring and rinsing liquors. with attention to gradual dilution of the washing emulsion. to maintain emulsion stability. • Nonwoven fabrics composed of dope dyed fibre or bonded by hydroentanglement are normally sufficiently clean and may not require further wet processing. which mechanically separate the contaminants from the fabric.Senthil Kumar .Washing (scouring) • Removal of contaminants is also facilitated by mechanical action such as squeeze rollers. • The fabric is squeezed at intervals to promote a scouring and liquor interchange minimising transfer of liquor from the scouring to the rinsing baths. R. • Washing machines are normally open width and continuous. It is known that hydroentanglement is capable of removing a large proportion of the wax on cotton even at low specific energy inputs.
Pigments have little fibre substantivity (or solubility) and are applied along with a suitable binder resin. The bonding agent fixes the pigment to the fibre surfaces during drying and thermal curing.Senthil Kumar . fabric coloration is performed in open width to avoid the creasing that results in rope dyeing. • • Dope dyeing has the disadvantage that colour commitment is made at an early stage but excellent colour fastness can be achieved. principally: • In dope dyeing (producer coloration or melt dyeing) the dye or pigments are added to the molten polymer (spinning dope) prior to melt extrusion. For nonwoven materials. • R. Pigments are often applied by printing onto the nonwoven fabric along with a binder or added to the binder resin in chemical bonding processes.Coloration • Coloration is undertaken with either dyestuffs or pigments. Pigments must be finely ground and sufficiently well dispersed in the binder dispersion. Several coloration methods are available.
heavy or high-loft fabrics are dyed continuously. In general. Nonwoven fabrics composed of conventional fibres tend to dye to a deeper shade than woven or knitted fabrics of the same composition and have a greater accessible fibre surface area because of the high permeability and absence of twisted yarns and yarn intersections in the fabric structure. where both the binder and pigment are dispersed in the foam before application to the web.Senthil Kumar • • • • • . Lightweight nonwoven fabrics. are dyed on batch type machinery. which is economically unfavorable and increases the possibility of shade variation. which imparts additional dimensional stability and fabric surface integrity. for example. Dye flow directions and time influence dye levelness and must be adjusted to prevent the possibility of moiré effects. as batch dyeing systems such as beams allow small loads. combined bonding and coloration of nonwovens is possible. In chemical bonding installations. One advantage of dyeing on the beam is that at elevated temperatures there is a thermal stabilising effect. R.Coloration • Liquor flow in the beam (generally in-to-out and out-to-in flow directions are available) can lead to flattening of low density nonwovens. in foam bonding operations. if not lateral collapse of the nonwoven structure. however.
Printing • Nonwoven fabrics are printed for many applications. • Flat screen or rotary screen techniques offer wide colour and design range possibilities. particularly in the home furnishing area including wall and floor coverings as well as tablecloths.Senthil Kumar . R.
• With this type of finishing.Senthil Kumar . resulting in a bitumen add-on several times the web weight. adequate water repellence as in practical use water absorbed by a capillary action would lead to blistering and splitting of the bitumen layer on evaporation. • A prebonded web is fed through molten bitumen at 180–220C and passes between a pair of heated steel rollers with a set clearance. It is then scattered with coarse or fine grains of sand and cooled down.Finishing of nonwovens for roofing felts • Similarly high add-ons are used for finishing nonwovens for roofing felts. high tear strengths even at 200C are equally as important as are good flatness with high tensile loading and. simultaneously. R.
• This finish must be resistant to the monomeric styrenes contained in polyester resin systems. • To make it smooth. Certain PUR dispersions meet this requirement.Finishing of glass fibre nonwovens for glass fibre composites • Polyester moulded articles produced by laying up glass fibres by hand. R. boat hulls. have a rough.Senthil Kumar . e. it is covered with a glass nonwoven of approximately 30 g/m2 that has been reinforced with around 15% dry add-on of an aqueous dispersion.g. sometimes porous surface.
cationic fatty amine condensates or quaternary nitrogen compounds are used among others. which cannot be combined with most anionically emulsified dispersions in the binder bath. It is possible to combine them with the binder bath. but also for smoothing. due to their smoothness. adipic and sebacic acid esters can be used.Senthil Kumar . phthalic. For subsequent plasticization of binders. R. • For softening most fibres.Softening • Softening can refer to the fibre and/or the binder component of the nonwoven. but this has certain disadvantages. lead to precipitation or are at least influenced in their effectiveness. are used for their surface effect on nonwoven interlinings because they enhance the sewing property. phosphoric. • Especially effective is subsequent softening with silicone products which.
especially floor covering materials.Antistatic finishing • Antistatic finishes are very important for home textiles. for example.for example when laminating cut-pile carpets with needlepunched nonwovens for floor coverings R. as is the case with needle-punched nonwovens for floor coverings.Senthil Kumar . • As far as possible. • Permanent antistatic properties are achieved by treating with combination products made from epichlorohydrin and EOPEO chains or by inserting copper wires. wallpaper as well as upholstery and mattress covering fabrics. are added to the binder liquor or subsequently sprayed onto the right side. such as those based on phosphoric acid ester or polystyrene malic acid sodium. suitable products. for example. wall hangings.
R. finely dispersed silicon and aluminium hydrosols act as “invisible dirt” to protect the nonwoven from further soiling. This applies above all to nonwovens that are “durables". which initially form a kind of protective layer against the dirt. that will be washed several times during their use. Similarly.Senthil Kumar • • • • .Soil-repellent finishing • The distinction should be made here between “soil release” and actual “antisoil” finishing. but can be slightly washed off the fibres. Soil release finishes used are. film-forming. low-molecular and therefore slightly swelling polymers. • Soil release finishing refers to a nonwoven treatment intended to facilitate the removal of dirt from textiles. An antisoil or stain resistant effect is provided by fluorocarbon resin chemicals which usually also have an oil and water-repellent effect. Polytetrafluoroethylene dispersions are specialist finishes and are applied especially to high-temperature resistant staple fibre nonwovens for use in filtration to make them easier to clean. for example.
so-called extenders and require sufficiently high drying temperatures to develop their good and permanent properties. • Polysiloxane emulsions are used when.Water-repellent and oil-repellent finishing • The paraffin emulsions containing aluminium and zircon still used for the water repellent finishing of woven and knitted fabrics are of practically no importance for finishing nonwovens. dull hand. • The fluorocarbon resin emulsions already mentioned give a rather dry. water and oil-repellency in layers just nanometres thick R. Both product classes are often processed in conjunction with precondensates.Senthil Kumar . also offer excellent oil repellency and good protection against acids. but in addition to good water repellency. in addition to the water repellency. a softer and smoother hand is also required. • A new class of perfluorated alkyl triethyloxysilanes form a chemical bond with the fibre surface and provide soil.
Hygiene finishing • In the hygiene and hospital sector. antibacterial. antifungal or fungicide finishes are required. but also against blood R. camomile or beeswax for covering wounds and skin regeneration. diffusion effect). • Also commonly found are nonwoven finishes with collagen (naturin). tea-tree oil. sometimes in laminates with aluminium foil. aloe vera.Senthil Kumar . but care must be taken in their use that they do not have any negative effect on the human body (skin inflammation. laminates are also well known in the hospital sector in which micro porous membranes are adhered to nonwovens and other textile fabrics to ensure long-lasting protection against germs. witch-hazel. • In addition to the use of these chemicals and remedies.
R. • There are a range of nitrogen/phosphorous compounds – the simplest being.Flame resistant finishing • Although flame retardant properties are determined primarily by the fibres and binders used. additional effects can be achieved by supplementary finishing.Senthil Kumar . which is patent protected for flame proofing textiles offer an environmentally friendly alternative. diammonium hydrogen phosphate – which impart good flame resistance to cellulosic fibres. for example. • Other aqueous inorganic substances such as aluminium trihydrate often demonstrate good effects. Organic bromine and chlorine derivatives reduce the flammability of synthetic fibres. However they often have the disadvantage that the gases produced on thermal degradation are more harmful to people than the open flames. • Intumescent products such as intumescent mica and intumescent graphite.
Another advantage is that less is required in diapers and sanitary towels than cellulose. An even better effect.Absorbent and water absorbent finishing • Water absorbency.Senthil Kumar . hygiene and medical products. but can be significantly increased by adding specialist auxiliaries or by subsequent treatment. is determined primarily by the fibres and binders used. with an absorptive capacity a hundred or more times their own weight. R. which is important for towels. • A lot of experience is needed to fix these auxiliaries – when they are in powder form – sufficiently securely in the fluff core of a diaper as they make up 60–70% of the core or 15–20 g of a complete diaper with a total weight of around 50 g. is provided by absorbent fillers such as partially cross linked polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamide derivatives and modified cellulose derivatives in the form of fibres and powders. • Combining a nonwoven with cellulose wadding also has a hydrophilic effect.
Dust-bonding treatment • Dust-bonding finishes are important primarily in the technical nonwovens sector. If these mats become sufficiently soiled. • Nonwovens cleaning cloths are finished by the same principle for use as dusters. especially those made from microfibres. R. effects are obtained that are far superior to those of normal napped dusters. • An interesting end-use for such finishes are dust-bonding mats found everywhere in the entrances of public buildings. hygroscopics and paraffin emulsions as lustring agents in a full bath impregnation process.Senthil Kumar . they are washed or cleaned and refinished with the “dust catcher” for re-use. By combining antistatics. • The high dust-bonding property of nonwovens. An oil-containing finish on the mats binds dust that is stuck to the soles of shoes and holds it securely like a magnet.is achieved in an almost ideal manner by the labyrinthine structure of the fibres.
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