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Introduction to Research Methods Just close your eyes for a minute and utter the word research to yourself.

What kinds of images does this word conjure up for you? Do you visualize a lab with scientists at work with Bunsen Burners and test tubes, or an Einstein like character writing dissertation on some complex subject, or someone collecting data to study the impact of a newly introduced day-care system on the morale of employees? Most certainly, all these images do represent different aspects of research. Research is somewhat intimidating term for some, is simply the process of finding solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factors. Business research is an organized , systematic , data based , critical , objective , scientific enquiry or investigation into a specific problem undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solutions to it In essence , research provides the needed information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems. Managers in organizations constantly engage themselves in studying and analyzing issues and hence are involved in some form of research activity as they make decisions at the workplace. As is well known, sometimes managers make good decisions and the problem gets solved, sometimes they make poor decisions and the problem persists, and on occasions they make such colossal blunders that the organization gets stuck in the mire. The difference between making good decisions and committing blunders lies in how managers go about the decision-making process. In other words, good decision making fetches a yes answer to the following questions. Do managers identify where exactly the problem lies , Do they correctly recognize the relevant factors investigation, Do they know how to make use of information so collected and draw appropriate conclusions to make the right decision ,and finally , in the situation needing

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Do they how to implement the results of this process to solve the problem? This is what this reading material is all about.

This teaching material is organized under 13 chapters: Chapter-1 addresses the Nature & Scope Of Research; chapter -2 deals with structural elements of a Research Proposal; Definition & Setting Of Objectives; chapter -3 is concerned with discusses chapter -5 a critical review guideline of related Literature ; chapter -4 issues related to Problem Chapter -6 describes

explores various form of Research

Designs and the level of interventions by the researchers ;

pertinent issues related to Sampling designs and procedures; chapter -7 highlights different Qualitative Research Methods; chapter -8 deals with various methods used in Quantitative Research ; chapter -9 is concerned with Measurement In Business Research; chapter -10 describes skills used in Designing Data Collection Forms /Questionnaires; chapter -11 is dealing with the Data Preparation Process For Analysis; chapter -12 Data Analysis & Interpretation; and chapter -13 highlights the main issues incorporated in Report Generation & Presentation. Good Luck!!! (Dr. Getie A.)

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Chap-1 An overview of Business Research 1. Definition of Research 1.1 What Is Research? Research is an organized inquiry carried out to provide information for the solution of a problem. Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions. Research directed toward the solution of a problem; is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence; demands accurate observation and description; involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose; is characterized by carefully designed procedures, always applying rigorous analysis. requires expertise; is characterized by patient and unhurried activity; is carefully recorded and reported; sometimes requires courage; emphasizes the development of generalizations, principles, or theories that will be helpful in predicting future occurrences;

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Strives to be objective and logical, applying every possible test to validate the procedures employed, the data collected, and the conclusion reached. The purpose of scientific research is problem solving practical or theoretical nature. Seeking solutions to practical or theoretical problems involves: Describing phenomena/pictorial account of the phenomena Explaining phenomena/cause -and -effect relationships/ Predicting phenomena/predicting what will happen in the future/ Controlling phenomena/intervention packages Comparing phenomena/comparing 2 or more groups on a certain behavior or even within the same group Business Research is an organized, systematic, data based on critical, objective, scientific enquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solutions to it. In essence research provides the needed information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems. The basic differences between research methods and research methodology A method is a particular research technique or way to gather evidence about a phenomenon. Methods are the specific tools to gather data such as surveys, interviews, participant observations. Methodology describes the theory of how inquiry should proceed Methodology encompasses our entire approach to research how we design and implement research studies.
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Research methods are rules and procedures, and can be seen as tools or ways of proceeding to solve problems research methods play several roles, such as: logic or ways of reasoning to arrive at solutions; Rules for communication, i.e. to explain how the findings have been achieved; Rules of intersubjectivity, i.e. outsiders should be able to examine and evaluate research findings. The role and salient characteristics of marketing research may be described by the Acronym RESEARCH. R recognition of information needs E ffective decision making S ystematic and objective E xude or disseminate information A analysis of information R commendations for action C collection of information H helpful to managers. 1.2 Is research a means to an end or an end by it-Self?

Information is often required to solve a specific problem to minimize risk and uncertainty which makes research a means to end (applied research).Research can also be used to increase knowledge or understanding. This makes research an end in itself. ( Basic Research). 1.3 What are the basic Features of Scientific Research?

Scientific research is concerned with observed facts systematically classified, and includes trustworthy methods to discover truths. This method of inquiry is a very

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important aspect of science. Observation, hypothesis & verification are the three important components of scientific enquiry. 1.4 Working Assumption of Science In searching for causes, a researcher will adopt any one of these assumptions: Realism- the philosophy that perceived objects has an existence outside the mind. Rationality- a view that reasoning is the basis for solving problems. Regularity- a belief that phenomena exist in recurring patterns that conform to universal laws. Discoverability- the belief that is possible to find solution to questions posed. Determinism: the doctrine that all events happen because of preceding causes. 1.5 Characteristics of Scientific Methods Two general traits characterize the scientific method: Validity: is the characteristics used to describe research that measures what it claims to measure For example , to measure TVviewing audiences people meter mechanical device is put on TV sets to determine when they are turned on. Reliability: is the characteristic of a research methodology that allows it to be repeated again and again by any researcher always with the same results. Scientists working in their laboratories control all aspects of their experiments and report them in detail so that other scientists can attempt the same study and confirm the results. 1.6 Distinction between the Scientific and Non-Scientific Methods

The main differences between scientific and nonscientific methods include the following:

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Objectivity of the Researcher: researchers must base their judgment on facts, not on preconceived notions or intuitions. Accuracy of Measurement: the scientific method attempts to obtain the most accurate measurement possible. Continuing & exhaustive Nature of investigation: a scientific investigation considers all facts pertinent to the problem at hand. 1.7 Classification /Categories of Researches There are different categories of research: The Basis of Classification includes the following: goal of research 1. Basic research 2. Applied research Specific Objectives of Research 1. Descriptive 2. Explanatory 3. exploratory approaches of research 1. Qualitative research 2. Quantitative research Designs 1. Experimental 2. Quasi-experimental 3. Non-experimental the type of data used in research 1. Primary or field research 2. Secondary or desk research Fields of study. 1. natural science research, 2. social science research, 3. educational research, 4. behavioral science research,
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5. health science research, etc Basic vs. Applied Research Basic Research/Pure Research/Fundamental Research The investigation of problems to further and develop existing Knowledge. It is mainly concerned with generalization and formulations of theories. Gathering information and acquiring knowledge for knowledges sake is termed basic research. It aims to solve perplexing questions of a theoretical nature that have little direct impact on action, performance, or policy decisions. Leads to major scientific breakthroughs. The major aims of basic research include: Obtaining and using empirical data to formulate, expand, or evaluate theory; and Discovery of knowledge solely for the sake of knowledge. Basic research: Represents a rigorous and structured type of analysis; Employs careful sampling procedures in order to extend the findings beyond the group or situation; Basic research lays down the foundation for the applied research that follows; and Has little concern for the application of the findings or social usefulness of the findings Problem That Calls For Basic Research 1) Right from her days as a clerical employee in a bank , Belyou had observed

that her colleagues , though extremely knowledgeable about the nuances and intricacies of Banking , were exerting very little effort to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the bank in the area of customer relations and services.
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They took on the minimum amount of work load, availed of long tea and lunch breaks, and seamed not motivate d in their dealings with the customers or the management. That they were highly knowledgeable about banking policies and practices was clearly evident from their mutual discussions about these as they processed applications from customers . Belyou herself was very hardworking and enjoyed her work with customers. She always used to think what a huge waste it was for talented employees to goof off rather than contribute to GNP. When she left the bank and did her dissertation for her Ph.D. her topic of investigation was job involvement, or the ego investment of people, in their jobs. The conclusion of her investigation was that the single most important contributory factor to job involvement is the fit or match between the nature of the job and the personality predispositions of the people engaged in performing it. For example, challenging jobs allowed employees with high capabilities to get job involved, and people oriented employees got job-involved with service activities. Belyou then understood why the highly intelligent bank employees could not get job-involved with service activities. Belyou then understood why the highly intelligent bank employees could not get job-involved or find job satisfaction in the routine jobs that rarely called for the use of their abilities. Subsequently, when Belyou joined the internal research team of a Fortune 500 company, she applied this knowledge to solve problems of motivation, job satisfaction, job involvement, and the like, in the organization. The above is an instance of basic research, where knowledge was generated to understand a phenomenon of interest to the researcher. Most research and developments in various industries , as well as many professors in colleges and universities , do basic or fundamental research , so that more knowledge is generated in particular areas of interest to industries , organizations, and researchers. Though the objectives of engaging in basic research is primarily to equip oneself with additional knowledge of certain phenomena and problems that occur in several organizations many professors in colleges and universities , do basic or fundamental research , so that more knowledge is generated in particular areas of interest to

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industries , organizations , with a view to finding solutions , the knowledge generated from such research is often applied later for solving organizational problems. 2) An investigation on the causes of Global warming. 3) A general electric company engaged on generating knowledge on the different application of electrical energy under the Motto we bring good things to life. 4) How to improve the effectiveness of information systems ,integrate and the like.ate technology into the overall strategic objectives of an organization, assess the impact of logos, increase the productivity of employees in service industries , Monitor sexual harassment incidents at the work place , increase the effectiveness of small businesses , evaluate alternative inventory valuation methods , change the institutional structures of the financial and capital market .University professors engage in basic research in an effort to understand and generate more knowledge about the various aspects of business-which these findings later become useful for application in business situations. Applied Research Research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specific problems currently being experienced in the organisation.It has a practical problem solving emphasis, although the problem solving is not always generated by negative circumstances. Problem solving based as it is conducted to reveal answers to specific questions related to action, performance, or policy needs. It is undertaken to solve a specific problem. Attempts to solve specific management problems. Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. The goal of the applied scientist is to improve the human condition. It is undertaken to solve immediate practical problem and the goal of adding to the scientific knowledge is secondary. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for solving practical problems. Problem That Calls For Applied Research
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1) Oxford health plans Inc.

Saw trouble brewing. It was a company in distress

experiencing computer problems. Turnover among Oxfords programmers was, unusually high and processing of claims become a big nightmare. Clients started cancelling their policies , claims for bypass surgery and such were way up, and premiums paid out relative to clients medical expenses, on a percentage basis , was close to 85%. It is obvious that Oxford has a multitude of a scientific study that would look into them. Presumably, this would be a lengthy investigation that could then consider them, make the right decision, and thereby solve Oxfords problems. This problem illustrates the need for applied research and can be solved through investigation and good managerial decision making. 2) Xerox is insular and is not ready for the increasingly Competitative, high tech world. Xerox still relies on old fashioned and slow- selling analog copiers , for more than half its revenue and despite its double digit growth in digital products and services , its sales rose just 4 % .In this situation, Xerox also needs to look into the efficacy of the analog technology used in copiers and examine what should be done to increase efficiency and promote its sales. This problem illustrates the need for applied research and can be solved through investigation and good In sum , both applied and basic business research are scientific in nature , the main difference being that the former is undertaken specifically to solve a current business problem whereas the latter is primarily resorted to because of the importance of the subject to the researcher. A deeper understanding of the phenomenon would be useful for its own sake as well as for application later, as needed. It is also possible that some applied research could have a shorter time frame than some basic research. problems and an outside consultant- researcher would perhaps be able to design

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Descriptive, Explanatory, & Exploratory Research Descriptive research It sets out to describe and to interpret what is. It looks at individuals, groups, institutions, methods and materials in order to describe, compare, contrast, classify, analyze and interpret the entities and the events that constitute the various fields of inquiry. It aims to describe the state of affairs as it exists. the goal of descriptive research is to describe some aspect of a phenomenon, i.e., the status of a given phenomenon. Methods of Descriptive Research Surveys gathers data on a one-shot basis and hence is economical and efficient; represents a wide target population generates numerical data; provides descriptive, inferential and explanatory information; manipulates key factors and variables to derive frequencies; and presents material which is uncluttered by specific contextual factors. Surveys can be distinguished as cross-sectional and longitudinal. Correlation studies Correlational studies trace relationships among two or more variables in order to gain greater situational insight. E.g. Price and sales, advertising and sales, etc.

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The purpose of correlational studies is not to establish cause-effect relationship among variables but to determine whether the variables under study have some kind of association or not. Variables being studied may have positive or negative relationship or they may not have relationship at all. Observation studies Observation studies involve observing and recording of behavior or trait or attribute as it occurs in its natural settings. observation study has the following important features: The first and most fundamental principle is that of

noninterference. Second, observation study involves the observation and detection of invariants, or behavior patterns or other phenomena that exist in the real world. Third, observation study is particularly useful when we know little or nothing about a certain subject. Finally, observation study is basically descriptive. Although it can provide a somewhat detailed description of a phenomenon, it cannot tell us why the phenomenon occurred. Case studies Case studies emphasize detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. They are largely descriptive examinations, usually of a small number of sites Case studies can provide very engaging, rich explorations of a project or application as it develops in a real-world setting.

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Explanatory Research Explanatory research aims at establishing the cause and effect relationship between variables. The researcher goes beyond merely describing the characteristics, to analyze and explain why or how something is happening. Explanatory or analytical research aims to understand phenomena by discovering and measuring causal relations among them. Explanatory research builds on both exploratory and descriptive researches. It involves: Explaining things not just reporting. Why? Elaborating and enriching a theory's explanation. Determining which of several explanations is best. Determining the accuracy of the theory; test a theory's predictions or principle. Providing evidence to support or refute an explanation or prediction. Testing a theory's predictions or principles. Quantitative Vs. Qualitative Research Vs. Pluralistic Research Quantitative Research: Based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Applicable to phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Quantitative research is the systematic and scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships.

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The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses pertaining to natural phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research. Quantitative research involves surveys and experiments Quantitative approach typically concentrates on measuring or counting and involves collecting and analyzing numerical data and applying statistical tests. Qualitative Research: Concerned with qualitative phenomena. Is important in behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives, interests, personality and attitudes of human beings. Qualitative research is a type of empirical enquiry that entails purposive sampling for gathering data. It involves: in-depth interviews, group discussions, projective techniques, Observations without formal measurement. A case study, which is an in-depth examination of one person, is a form of qualitative research. Pluralistic Research: Defined as the combination of qualitative & quantitative research methods in order to gain the advantages of both. With pluralistic research , it is common to begin with exploratory qualitative techniques as, for example , in-depth interviews of selected dealers or a series of group discussion with customers in order to understand how they perceive your product and service as compared to those of competitors. The qualitative phase serves as the foundation for the quantitative phase of the research project because it provides the researcher with first-hand knowledge of
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the research problem. Armed with this knowledge, the researchers design and execution of the quantitative phase is invariably superior to what it might have been without the qualitative phase. With pluralistic research , the qualitative phase serves to frame the subsequent quantitative phase , and in some cases , a qualitative phase is applied after a Quantative study to help the researcher understand findings in the quantitative phase. Conceptual Vs. Empirical Research Conceptual Research: Related to some abstract idea or theory. Philosophers

thinkers generally use it to develop new concepts or to interpret existing ones. Empirical Research: Data based, coming up with conclusions that are capable of being verified, by observation or by experiment. The researcher should collect enough that to prove or disprove his hypothesis. Appropriate when proof that certain variable affect others variables in some way is sought. Evidence gathered through experiment or empirical studies provides the most powerful support possible for a given hypothesis. Induction and Deduction A researcher observes and faithfully records what is seen without any prejudice. Some of these statements of observations are established as true and serves as the basis for theories and laws. There are two ways of establishing what is true or false and to draw conclusions: Induction and Deduction. Induction Induction is based on empirical evidence, while deduction is based on logic. Through induction we draw general conclusion from our empirical observations. In this type of research the process goes from observations findings theory building, as findings are incorporated back into existing knowledge to improve theories. This type of research is often associated with qualitative type of research. This process goes from assumption to conclusions and is illustrated as follows:
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Assumption: psychiatrists have found that psychological problems in patents depend upon their experiences in childhood. Conclusions: All psychological problems are based on experiences in childhood. Deduction By deduction mean that we draw conclusion through logical reasonining. In this case, it need not be true in reality, but it is logical. The researcher in this type of research builds /deduces hypothesis from the existing knowledge which can be subjects to empirical scrutiny and this can be accepted or rejected. The researchers main job is not only to build hypothesis from existing knowledge but also to present them in operational terms, to show how information can be collected to test these hypothesis and the concepts used. The process of deduction goes as follows: Assumption: al materials expand when heated. Assumption: rail tracks are built of metal. Conclusion: Rail tracks will expand when heated. The above examples explain the difference between induction and deduction. The difference is that facts acquired through observations lead us theories and hypothesis, while with deduction we accept or reject these theories and hypothesis. This acceptance and the rejection then help us to explain or predict.

1.8

Internal Vs. External Researchers

There Two Groups Of Consultants/ Researchers: Internal and External. 1.8.1 Advantages and Disadvantage Internal Consultants / Researchers

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Some organization has their own consulting or research department, which might be called the management services Department.

I) Advantages of Internal Consultants /Researchers


There are at least four advantages in engaging an internal team to do the research project. The internal team would stand a better chance of being readily accepted by the employees in the subunit of the organization where research needs to be done. The team would require much less time to understand the structure, the philosophy and climate, and the functioning and work systems of the organization. They would be available for implementing their recommendations after the research findings are accepted. This is very important because any bugs in the implementation of the recommendation s could be removed with their help. The internal team might cost considerably less than an external team for the department enlisting help in problem solving , because they will need less time to understand the system due to their continuous involvement with various units.

II) Disadvantages of Internal Consultants


There are also certain disadvantages to engaging internal research teams for purposes of problem solving: In view of their long tenure as internal consultants, the internal team may quite possibly fall into a stereotyped way of looking at the organization and its problems. This would inhibit fresh ideas and perspectives that might be needed to correct the problem. There is scope for certain powerful coalitions in the organization to influence the internal team to conceal, distort, or misrepresent certain facts. In other words, certain vested interests could dominate, especially in securing a sizeable portion of the available scant resources.

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There is also a possibility that even the most highly qualified internal researcher teams are not perceived as experts by the staff and management, and hence their recommendations do not get the consideration and attention they deserve.

Certain organizational biases of the internal research team might in some instances make findings less objective and consequently less scientific.

1.8.2 Advantages & Disadvantages of External Consultants The disadvantages of an internal research teams turn out to be the advantages of the external teams, and the formers advantages work out to be the disadvantages of the latter. However, the specific advantages and disadvantages of the external teams may be highlighted.

I) Advantages Of External Consultants


The external team can draw a wealth of experience from having worked with different type of organizations that have had the same or similar types of problems. This wide range of experience would enable them to think both divergently and convergent rather than hurry to an instant solution on the basis of the apparent facts in the situation. They would be able to ponder over several alternative ways of looking at the problem because of their extensive problem solving experiences in various other organizational settings. The external teams , especially those from established research and consulting firms , might have more knowledge of current sophisticated problem-solving models through their periodic training programs, which the teams within the organization may not have access to. Because knowledge obsolescence is a real threat in the consulting area , external research institutions ensure that their members are current on the latest innovations through periodic organized training programmes.

II) Disadvantages Of External Consultants


The major disadvantages in hiring an external research team are as follows:
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The cost of hiring an external research team is usually high and is the main deterrent, unless the problems are very critical. In addition to the considerable time the external team takes to understand the organization to be researched, they seldom get a warm welcome, nor are readily accepted by employees. Departments and individuals likely to be affected by the research study may perceive the study team as a threat and resist them.

The external team also charges additional fees for their assistance in the implementation and evaluation phases.

The Research Process The research process includes a number of practical steps which may include the following. Define The Research Problem, Establish The Research Objectives, Develop Hypothesis And Research Questions, Identify Information Types And Sources Determine Research Design, Determine Sample Plan And Size Qualitative methods Quantitative methods Development of measurement scales Development of data collection designs (Questionnaire) Collecting Data Analyze Data Prepare and Present The Final Research Report

Although the list does strongly imply an orderly, step-by-step process, it is rare that a research project follows these steps in the exact order.

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Actually, research practices are more of an iterative process whereby a researcher, by discovering something in a given step, may move backward in the process and begin again at another step.

Finding some new information while collecting data, may cause the researcher to establish different research objectives. Any given research project may not involve each and every step shown above. The research problem could be resolved, by review of a secondary data, thereby eliminating the need to determine a sample plan or size. What is important for you to know is that, although almost every research project is different, there are enough commonalities among the various procedures and activities to enable us to specify the basic steps of the research process.

Review Questions 1. For what specific purposes as basic research Important? 2. When is applied research, as distinct from basic research, useful? 3. Why is it important to be adept in handling the manager-researcher relationship? 4. Explain, giving reasons, which is more important, applied or basic research. 5. Explain, giving reasons, which is more important, applied or basic research. 6. Give two specific scenarios where an external research team would be useful and two other sections when an internal research team will be deployed, with adequate explanations as to why each scenario is justified for an external or internal team. 7. Given the situation below a) discuss with reasons whether they fall into the category of applied or basic research, and b) for scenario 1, explain with reasons who will conduct the research. Scenario 1 To Acquire or Not To Acquire: That Is the Question

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Companies are very interested in acquiring other firms even when the latter operate in totally unrelated realms of business. For example, Gencore industries manufacturing asphalt plants for road construction acquired Ingersoll Rand in 1996, and later acquired yet another company engaged in the business of food processing. Such acquisitions are claimed to work miracles. However, given the volatility of the stock market and the slowing down of business, many companies are not sure whether such acquisitions involve too much risk. At the same time, they also wonder if they are missing out on a great business opportunity if they fail to take such risk. Some research is needed here! Scenario 2 Reasons for Absenteeism A university professor wanted to analyze in depth the reasons for absenteeism of employees in organizations. Fortunately, a company within 20 miles of the campus employed her as a consultant to study that very issue.

Scenario 3 Effects of Nasal Spray on Flu A research scientist surveys 1,000 employees in different organizational settings to study the efficacy of several types of nasal sprays in controlling the flu virus. He subsequently publishes his findings in a highly respected medical journal.

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Chap- 2 The Research Proposal

2.1 What is a research proposal? A research proposal is an activity that incorporates decisions made during early research-project planning phase of the study including management research questions hierarchy and exploration. A research proposal is a work plan, outline, prospectus, statement of intent, draft plan. A proposal is an individuals or a companys offer to produce a product or render a service to a potential buyer or sponsor. 2.2 Purpose of Research Proposal The purpose of a research proposal is to: Present the management question to be researched and its importance. Discuss the research efforts of others who have worked on related management questions. Suggest the data necessary for solving the management questions and how the data will be gathered, treated, and interpreted. 2.3 Types of Research Proposals Proposals can be internal or external.

I) Internal Proposals
Internal proposals are more succinct than external ones. An internal proposal is done for the corporation by staff specialist or by the research department of the firm. It is a memo from the researcher to management outlining the problem statement, study objectives, research design, and schedule enough to start an exploratory study.
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Privately and publically held firms are concerned with how to solve a particular problem, make a decision, or improve an aspect of their business. In the small scale proposal, the literature review and bibliography are consequently not stressed and can often be stated briefly in the research design.

For the smaller scale projects, descriptions are not required for facilities and special resources, nor is there a need for a glossary.

II) External proposals


An external proposal is either solicited or unsolicited. A solicited proposal is often in response to REP. The proposal is likely competing against others for a contract or grant. An unsolicited proposal has the advantage of not competing against others but the disadvantage of having to speculate on the ramification of a problem facing the firms management. The writer of the unsolicited proposal must decide to whom the document should be sent. The external summary of an external proposal may be included within about project management and the facilities and special resources. Complexity Level of a Proposal There are three general levels complexity. Type i) Management internal proposal external least.Most exploratory study exploratory contract research smallscale study smallscale contract research Large scale cochntract research Government Sponsored
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large-scale study

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ii) Student Proposals Structure of an Internal Proposal

Term Paper

Masters Thesis

Doctoral Thesis

The major components of an internal proposal include: 1. Title Page A title ought to be well studied and give a definite and concise indication of what is to come. The title of a research proposal should state your topic exactly in the smallest possible number of words. Put your name, the name of your department/faculty/college, the name of your advisor(s) and date of delivery under the title. First impressions are strong impressions: make your title an attention grabber. 2. Summary/Abstract The abstract is a one page brief summary of the thesis proposal. It needs to show a reasonably informed reader why a particular topic is important to address and how you will do it. Specify the question that your research will answer, establish why it is a significant question; show how you are going to answer the question. Do not put references, figures, or tables in the abstract. The abstract is a concise summary of the material presented in the proposal. Though it appears at the front of the proposal, it is written last. A well-prepared summary enables the reader to

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Identify the basic content of a document quickly and accurately, Determine its relevance to their interests, and Decide whether they need to read the document in its entirety. 3. Introduction/Background The introduction is the part of the proposal that provides readers with the background information for the research proposal. The introduction should address the following points: Sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand the context and significance of the question you are trying to address. Proper acknowledgement of the previous work on which you are building. Sufficient references The introduction should be focused on the research question(s). All cited work should be directly relevant to the goals of the research. Explain the scope of your work, what will and will not be included. A verbal "road map" or verbal "table of contents" guiding the reader to what lies ahead. 4. Statement of the problem Statement of the problem encapsulates the question you are trying to answer. Effective problem statements answer the question Why does this research need to be conducted.
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5.

Literature Review The literature review asks how similar and related questions have been answered before. A literature review can be organized as: Introduction: define the topic, together with your reason for selecting the topic. Body: this is where you discuss your sources. Conclusion: summarize the major contributions, evaluating the current position, and pointing out flaws in methodology, gaps in the research, contradictions, and areas for further study

6.

Objective/Aim Of The Study The objectives of a research delineate the ends or aim which the inquirer seeks to bring about as a result of completing the research undertaken. An objective may be thought of as either a solution to a problem or a step along the way toward achieving a solution; an end state to be achieved in relation to the problem. The objectives of a research project summarize what is to be achieved by the study. Objectives should be closely related to the statement of the problem. After statement of the primary objective, secondary objectives may be mentioned.

Objectives should be simple (not complex), specific (not vague),

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stated in advance (not after the research is done), and stated using action verbs that are Specific enough to be measured. Commonly, research objectives are classified into general objectives and specific objectives. 7. Hypotheses /Questions Hypotheses and questions are linked to the speculative proposition of the problem statement. the term hypotheses implies a derivation, within a hypothetic-deductive theoretical system, of a particular assertion or prediction. Hypotheses are tentative statements/solutions or explanations of the formulated problem The hypothesis is subject to test, i.e., to confirmation or rejection on empirical grounds. The term question implies an interrogative statement that can be answered by data. The formulation of objectives will help you to: Focus the study (narrowing it down to essentials); Avoid the collection of data which are not strictly necessary for understanding and solving the problem you have identified; and Organize the study in clearly defined parts or phases. 8. Research Methods, Materials And Procedures What belongs in the "methods" section of a research proposal?

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Information to allow the reader to assess the believability of your approach. Information needed by another researcher to replicate your experiment. Description of your materials, procedure, theory. Calculations, technique, procedure, equipment, and calibration plots. Limitations, assumptions, and range of validity. Description of your analytical methods, including reference to any specialized statistical software. Sampling design Sampling is the process of selecting a number of study units from a defined study population. Consider the following questions: What is the study population you are interested in from which we want to draw a sample? How many subjects do you need in your sample? How will these subjects be selected? The key reason for being concerned with sampling is that of validitythe extent to which the interpretations of the results of the study follow from the study itself and the extent to which results may be generalized to other situations with other people. Sampling is critical to external validitythe extent to which findings of a study can be generalized to people or situations other than those observed in the study.

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Another reason for being concerned with sampling is that of internal validitythe extent to which the outcomes of a study result from the variables that were manipulated, measured, or selected rather than from other variables not systematically treated. Representative ness and accuracy Probability Sampling Simple random sampling Systematic sampling Cluster sampling Stratified sampling Non probability Sampling Convenience sampling Referral sampling Judgment sampling Quota sampling 9. Work Plan Work plan is a schedule, chart or graph that summarizes the different components of a research proposal and how they will be implemented. In the work plan Different components/phases/stages of the study should be stated Description of activities in each phase Time required to accomplish the various aspects of the study should also be indicated
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THE GANTT CHART A GANTT chart is a planning tool that depicts graphically the order in which various tasks must be completed and the duration of each activity. The GANTT chart indicates: the tasks to be performed; who is responsible for each task; and the time each task is expected to take. 10. Budget And Funding Budget items need to be explicitly stated Cost for every budget item should be quantitatively shown

Their might be a need for budget justification of certain costs whose requirement is not obvious Direct costs: Personnel: Salaries and wages Consumable supplies: Equipments Travel Communications Publication Other direct costs Indirect costs Overhead costs for institutions or associations
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General administrative cost Operational and maintenance Depreciation and use allowance 11. References References may be made in the main text using index numbers in brackets (Vancouver style) or authors name (Harvard style). For a journal paper give: o the names of the authors, o the year of publication, o the title of the paper, o the title of the journal, o the volume number of the journal, o the first and last page numbers of the paper. For a book give: the author, the year of publication, the title, and the edition number if there is one, the name of the publisher, the page numbers for your reference. For an internet reference give: the author of the web page, the title of the item on the web page, the date the item was posted on the web page the date the item was accessed from the web page the complete and exact URL. 12. Appendices/Annexes Include in the appendices of your proposal any additional information you think might be helpful to a proposal reviewer. Example,
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Appendix includes: Questionnaire & other collection forms Dummy tables Biographical data on the principal investigator The consent form (if any) Major Structure of an External Proposal The major components of an external proposal include: 1. Title page A title ought to be well studied and give a definite and concise indication of what is to come. The title of a research proposal should state your topic exactly in the smallest possible number of words. 2. Executive Summary Allows a busy manager or sponsor to understand quickly the thrust of the proposal. It is essentially an informative abstract, giving executives the chance to grasp the essentials of the proposal without having to read the details. The goal of the summary is to secure a positive evaluation by the executive who will pass the proposal on to the staff for a full evaluation. It should include brief statements of the management dilemma and management question, the research objectives/research question(s), and the benefits of your approach. 3. If the proposal is unsolicited, a brief description of your qualifications is also appropriate. Problem Statement It should convince the sponsor to continue reading the proposal.

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It should capture the readers attention by stating the management dilemma, its background and consequences, and the question starts the research task.

4.

It should include any restrictions or areas of the management question that wont be addressed.

Research Objective Lays out exactly what is being planned by the proposed research. In a descriptive study, the objectives can be stated as the research question. The research questions can be further broken down into investigative questions. If the proposal is for a descriptive or causal study, then the objectives can be restated as a hypothesis. The objective naturally flows from the problem statement, giving the sponsor specific, concrete, achievable goals. The research questions or hypothesis, if appropriate should be set off from the flow of the text so they can be found easily. The basis for judging the remainder of the proposal and ultimately the final report.

5.

Literature Review Examines recent research studies, company data, or industry reports that acts as a basis for the proposed study. Discussion of literature should move from a comprehensive perspective to more specific studies that are associated with your problem. If the problem has a historical background, begin with the earliest references. Avoid the extraneous details of the literature, do a brief review of the information, not a comprehensive report. Always refer to the original source.

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If you find something of interest in a quotation, find the original publication and ensure you understand it. Avoid any errors of interpretation transcription. Emphasize the important results and conclusions of other studies, the relevant data and trends from previous research, and particular methods or design that could be duplicated or should be avoided.

Discuss how the literature applies to the study you are proposing, show the weaknesses or faults in the design , discussing how you would avoid similar problems.

If your proposal deals solely with secondary data, discuss the relevance of the data and the bias or lack of bias inherent in it.

It should explain the need for the proposed work to appraise the shortcomings and informational gaps in secondary data sources.

This analysis may go beyond scrutinizing the availability or conclusion of past studies secondary and their data , to examining the accuracy of sources , the credibility of these sources , and the

appropriateness of earlier studies. Close the literature review section by summarizing the important aspects of the literature and interpreting them in terms of your problem. 6. Refine the problem as necessary in light of your findings. Allows describing explicit benefits that will accrue from your study. The importance of doing the study now should be emphasized.

Importance / Benefits of The Study

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7.

If you find it difficult to write, then you will have probably not understood the problem adequately. Return to the analysis of the problem and ensure , through additional discussions with your research team , or By the reexamination of the literature, that you have captured the essence of the problem. It requires you to understand what is most troubling to your sponsor. It is more important to the unsolicited external proposal. The design module describes what you are going to do in technical terms. It should include so many subsections as needed to show the phases of the project. Provide information on your proposed design for tasks such as sample selection and size, data collection method, instrumentation, procedures, and ethical requirements.

Research Design

8.

When more than one way exists to approach the design discuss the methods you rejected and why your selected approach is superior.

Data Analysis With smaller projects, the proposed data analysis would be included within the research design section. For large scale contract research projects and doctoral thesis a separate brief section of data analysis is appropriate. Describe your proposed treatment and the theoretical basis for using the selected techniques. Assure the sponsor that you are following correct assumptions and using theoretically sound data analysis procedures. Use sample charts and dummy tables to make it easier to understand your data analysis. You should contact an expert to review the latest technique s available for your use.
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9.

If there is statistical or analytical expertise within your company, be prepared to hire a professional to help with this activity.

Nature & Form Of Results The sponsor should be able to go back to the problem statement and research objectives and discover that each of the goals of the study has been covered. One should also specify the types of data to be obtained and the interpretations that will be made in the analysis. If the data are to be turned over to the sponsor for proprietary reasons, make sure that this is reflected. Alternatively, if the report will go to more than one sponsor, that should be noted. It also contains the contractual agreement telling the sponsor exactly what types of information will be received. Statistical conclusions, applied findings, recommendations, action plans, models strategic plans, and so forth are forms of results.

10.

Qualification Of Researchers It should begin with the principal investigator. It is also customary to begin qualifications with the highest academic degree held. Experience in carrying out previous research is important, especially in the corporate market place, so a concise description of similar projects should be included. Relevant business and technical societies to which the researcher belongs can be included where the information is particularly relevant to the research project. The entire curriculum vitae of each researcher should not be included unless required by the RFP. Instead, refer to the relevant areas of experience and expertise that make the researchers the best selection task.

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11.

Complete curriculum vitae information is often placed in an appendix for review by interested sponsors.

Research Budget The budget should be presented in the form the sponsor requests. The budget should be no more than 1-2 pages. The budget statement in an internal research proposal is based on employee and over head costs. The budget presented by an external research organisation is not just the wages or salaries of their employees but the person hour price that the contracting firm charges. Salaries (research directors, research assistances, secretarial services), other costs such as travel per diem, office supplies, telephone expenses , rent, other equipments , publication and storage costs etc has estimated and presented in a presentable format. Additional information, back up details, quotes from vendors, and hourly time and payment calculations should be put into an appendix if required or kept in the researchers file for future reference. The detail presented may vary depending on both the sponsors requirements and the contracting research companys policy. The budget section of an external proposal states the total fee payable for the assignment.

12.

Research Schedule Your schedule should include the major phase of the project, their time tables, and the milestones that signify completion of a phase. Major phase may be: Exploratory interviews Final research proposal Questionnaire revision Field interviews
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13.

Editing & coding Data analysis , and Report generation

You can use Gant chart. Often projects will require facilities or resources that should be described in detail. A contract exploratory study may need specialized facilities for focus group sessions. Computer assisted telephone or other interviewing facilities may be required. Alternatively , your proposed data analysis may require sophisticated computer algorithms , and therefore, you need access to an adequate system . These requirements will vary from study to study. The proposal should carefully list the relevant facilities and resources that will be used.

Facilities & Special Resources

14.

Project Management This section shows the sponsor that the research team is organized in a way to do the project efficiently. A master plan is required for complex projects to show how the phase will be brought together. The plan includes: The research team s organization Management procedures and controls for executing the research plan. Examples of management and technical reports. Research team relationship with the sponsor. Financial and legal responsibility. Management competence

Tables and charts are most helpful in presenting the master plan.

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Sponsors must know that the director is an individual capable of leading the team and being a useful liaison to the sponsor. Procedures for information processing, record control and expense control are critical to large operations and should be shown as part of the management procedures.

The type and frequency of progress reports should be recorded so the sponsor can expect to be kept up-to-date and the researchers can expect to be left alone to do research.

The sponsors limits on control during the process should be delineated. Details such as printing facilities, clerical help, or informationprocessing capabilities that are to be provided by the sponsor are discussed.

Rights to the data, the result, and authority to speak for the researcher and for the sponsor are included. Payment frequency and timing are also covered in the master plan. Proof of financial responsibility and overall management competence are provided.

15.

Bibliography For all projects that require literature review, a bibliography is necessary. Use the bibliographic format required by the sponsor. A glossary of terms should be included whichever there are many words unique to the research topic and not understood by the general management community. This is a simple section consisting of terms and definitions. Also, define any acronyms that you use, even if they are defined within the text.

16.

Appendices Glossary

17.

Measurement Instrument
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For large projects, it is appropriate to include samples of the measurement instruments if they are available when you assemble the proposal.

This allows the sponsor to discuss particular changes in one or more of the instruments. If exploratory work precedes the selection of the measurement instruments, you will not use this appendix section.

Evaluating the Research Proposal Proposals are subjected to formal and informal reviews. The formal methods have some variations, but its essence is described as follows. Before the proposal is received, criteria are established and each is given weights or points. The proposal is evaluated with a check list or criterion in hand. Points are recorded for each category reflecting the sponsors assessment of how well the proposal meets the categorys established criteria. Several people, each of whom is assigned to a particular section, typically review long and complex proposals. After the review, the category scores are added to provide a cumulative total. The proposal with the highest of points will win the contract. The formal method is most likely to be used for competitive government, university, or public sector grants and also for large scale contracts. Small scale contracts are more prone to informal evaluation, the project needs, and thus the criteria, are well understood but not usually well documented. In contrast to the formal method, a system of points is not used and the criteria are not ranked.

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Beyond the required modules, there are factors that can quickly eliminate a proposal from consideration and factors that improve the sponsors reception of the proposal. The proposal must be neatly presented. Although a proposal produced on a work processor and bound with an expensive cover will not overcome design or analysis deficiencies. A poorly presented, unclear or disorganized proposal will not get serious attention from the reviewing sponsors. The proposals major topics should be easily found & logically organized The reviewer should be able to page through the proposal to any section of interest. The proposal also must meet specific guidelines set by the sponsoring company or agency. The proposal also must meet specific guidelines set by the sponsoring company or agency. Theses include budgetary restrictions and schedule deadlines. The technical writing style of the proposal. The problem statement must be easily understood. The research design should be clearly outlined and the methodology explained. The importance /benefits of the study must allow the sponsor to see why the research should be funded. The objectives and results sections should communicate exactly the goals and concrete results that will come from the study. Budget and schedule considerations must be kept in mind.

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A late proposal wont be evaluated. A schedule that doe not meet the expected deadlines will disqualify the proposal. A budget that is too high for the allocated funds will be rejected. Conversely, a low budget compared to competing proposal suggests that something is missing or there is something wrong with the researchers.

Factors to be considered in Choosing a Research Topics There are a number of factors you need to take into account when choosing the subject of your thesis. Interest and Relevance: you should choose a topic that interests and even possibly excites you, otherwise you will have trouble sustaining the motivation and commitment necessary to complete the project. It should also be of interest to some external audience as well. Durability: will the project last the length of the course? Organizations are capable of making very rapid changes in direction and policy. It may be that the topic you choose could become obsolete because of a change in organizational strategy, ownership or other strategy. Breadth of research questions: is there enough substance to your topic? Topic adequacy :check the assessment criteria used on your course , against which your work will be marked ,and ask yourself whether the topic you have in mind will enable you to do well against the criteria. Access: you may have an excellent topic in mind , but unless you can get access to the people who can answer your research questions, whether by questionnaire, interview or whatever , then the project will be a non-starter.

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Micro politics: whenever you research a business issue there is a danger that you may become a partisan in the management debates and politics that surround it.

Risk and security: bearing in mind the previous criterion, you can not avoid all risk. If you choose a topic that is totally safe it will probably be so bland that neither you nor anyone else will be interested in the outcomes.

Resources : literature make sure there is enough written about your topic , or about the general academic field in which it is located , for you to be able to do the critical literature review. IT, Software and Skills- your topic may require access to, and skill in , various software packages

Stages In The Process Of Choosing a Topic The following is a six stage process for you to follow when choosing a topic.

Identify Broad Topic And Academic Discipline(S) Determine The Scope Brainstorm Issues , Puzzles And Questions Map and Structure The Issues Conduct A Reconnaissance Frame Your Research Question(S)
Identify Broad Topic and Academic Discipline (S) The starting point is to decide your broad area of interest. It might be to give some examples:

Implementation of mission statements and strategy in multinational


companies;

The problems caused by a lack of cooperation between GPs and the


other health professionals in primary care;

Performance related pay and flexible benefits.

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Determine the Scope This is very often a practical matter of where you can get access. You need to decide whether you will be:

Studying one part of an organization; Making a comparison of several parts of an organization; Studying one organization; Making a comparison of two or more organization; Studying a secure.
Brainstorm Issues, Puzzles and Questions Now go into brain storming mode and list as many different issues, problems and questions that arise from the broad topic area as you possibly can. Do not evaluate them by saying, No, that is unimportant,. Just make the list as long as possible Map and Structure the Issues Now you have a pile of issues, they need structuring and organizing. Sort and cluster all your research issues and questions in a relevance tree or hierarchical diagram. The relevance tree provides a map of all the issues and questions you could research under broad areas of interest. Conduct a Reconnaissance Having arrived at a clear view about what your research topic is going to be, it is sensible to discuss it with others. Discuss it with tutors, colleagues and other managers to see whether they agree that the issue is important and coherent. You should also do an initial trowel of the literature, if you have not already done so, to see what work others have done on the issues that concern you. Frame Your Research Question(S) The final stage is to ensure that you are clear in what you are doing by framing your research questions in plain English. The suspicion is that if you can ask your research questions without using management jargon, then you are probably not clear what you are asking and you need to think about it some more.

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If you research

questions resembles this- I am addressing the issues relevant to

leveraging human resources competency to produce turnaround to world- class status and to diagonally integrate professional functionalities you probably do not know what you are talking about. Structures of a research Proposal You have, of course, freedom to structure your proposal as you please, but should you need guidance; the following structure covers most of the issues: Introduction The objectives and purpose of the project( what) A brief overall description of the projects context The strategic question that guides the project The objectives of the project.

The justification for the project (why?) The research question ( what?- again, but in more detail): Identify and A hypothesis is a speculation about an association between two or more variable .It is important discuss the research questions that you will answer in the project. If you are taking a realist research approach you might frame your research question as a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a speculation about an association between two or more variables. It is important that the hypothesis can be tested by research to see whether it can be disproved.

An overview of the appropriate literature. Mapping the main writers in the field and their arguments. Definition of key concepts and outlining of conceptual framework if necessary and possible. This is the how conceptually? Quadrant of the watsen Box.) Research design: o What methodological approach are you going to adopt?
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o Research methods samples, methods for analyzing research material. Practical and ethical issues Does the research raise any ethical concerns that need to be resolved? Are there any potential problems of research access? Are there any resources issues such as access to specialist databases or particular research software? Are there issues of commercial confidentially or intellectual property rights? A plan or time table: Consider drafting a Gantt chart that plots against a timeline when the major elements of the projects will be done. Critical Thinking Discussion Question 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define research proposal. Identify the purpose of research proposals Discuss types of research proposals. Discuss the structure of research proposal Discuss the formal and informal evaluation /review techniques.

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Chap- 3 Writing a Critical Literature Review Chapter objectives

After completing this chapter the student will be able to:

Search library and other information resources to find appropriate literatures for their dissertation Map out the literature and identify the key concepts, theories and arguments they are necessary for their project Make an overall assessment of the critical quality of a book or articles. Carry out a forensic critique of the core theories, concepts and arguments that they have drawn from the literature.

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Have an awareness of radical critical perspective and be able to make radical critiques of key themes and topics --- presented in the literature.

3.1 The Sources Since Literature review is critical component of the research process it has to be addressed properly.

The first task in doing a literature review is to find some literature the need a mixture of materials, but the precise combinations will vary from topic to topic. Try to find some material from most of the categories ---below. Students often ask: How many books and articles should I----my dissertation? It is impossible to give a number in answer, although it can be tempting to quote a very large number to scare them and to encourage them not to ask silly questions in future.

It all depends on what literature is available and how you use the ideas, material and theory it contains. It is possible to suggest that a list of references with less than 20 items is probably too short.

Books There are three sorts of management books as far as researchers are Concerned: a. Text books Are useful to help you orient yourself in a field of literature and as a source of references that can be followed up. They may be recognized from their characteristic use of learning device such as learning objectives, summaries, exercises and text books containing illustrative material. They should not be relied upon too heavily.
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b. Academic Monographs AM are often difficult to read, but they do alert the reader to development arising from recent research. These books should be used selectively. Are mostly written in an accessible style and have attractive jackets. When they are not based on the biographies or experiences of successful managers, they are often distillations of more academic work. They are mostly presented in a can do format, offering practical guidance for business success. Normally they have attention-grabbing titles that appear to offer solutions to all business problems. They can be useful materials, but they should not be used uncritically because Journals Journals fall into two main categories and you should use both. Academic journals contain articles that have been peer reviewed. This means that two or more expert referees approved the papers before they were accepted for publication. The general information or style pages, often on the inside of the front or back cover of journal, should say whether it is peer reviewed. Non-peer-reviewed journals are often professional or trade journals. The articles in these journals are commonly simpler and shorter than those in the peer-reviewed journals. They can be useful for identifying trends, fashions and current concerns within business, but many are derivative and of questionable quality. Nonpeer-reviewed journals should not be used exclusively. Managers doing MBAs and other Masters courses in management often look at the more academic papers in horror and declare, We are managers, they often oversimplify and contain uncorroborated assumptions. c. Airport Bookstall Books

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and we cannot be expected to cope with this hugely complex academic writing style. Well, I have some sympathy because many papers do appear to be written in a style designed to fool, impress or confuse. Nevertheless, there will be much pertinent and good material in such papers and you will need to make the effort to understand them. There are some journals, such as the Harvard Business Review, that are academically prestigious but are designedly accessible to managers as well as to academics. Journals will most likely be your main source for a research dissertation, probably being more important than books. This is because the most up-to-date research and debates will be found in journals. The World Wide Web The World Wide Web is a very useful source of material. The better search engines can be valuable in tracking down material. The Web has to be used with care, however, because it includes both highquality material and utter tosh. Distinguishing between the two is not always easy. The first few pages read very sensibly and then the web page slowly became an obsessive polemic in which semantic differentials were presented as diabolic devices that bureaucrats were using to remove the liberties of the individual. In the public sector, where much of the materials is in the form official publications and reports, the Web can be the most convenient means access to material. The Direct Gov. Government website http://www.direct.gov.uk/Homepage/fs/en is a good starting point.

Dissertations

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Business schools keep copies of past Masters dissertations produced by their students. Some are commercials confidential and cannot be suited without the authors permission.

Many students find a comforting to see others efforts, and it may be worth asking to some. Try to make sure that you are given ones that passed comfortably; otherwise you may gain a dangerously low impression of the standard you need to reach.

Searching For Literature Looking for literature these days if mostly an electronic activity of searching through a virtual library. Using a librarys on line catalogue of books and other materials makes searching for books a lot easier. It is possible to access the online catalogues of academic libraries across the country. NISS (National Information Services and Systems) provides a website of links to online library catalogues at http/www.niss.ac.hk/lis/opacs.html. the advantages of searching for journal articles and papers by using electronic library resources in that it takes much less time, you are more likely to find what you need and. If you are lucky, the papers may be available online and you can download them or print them off. You should spend some time becoming familiar with all the services that your university or institutional library ca provide by exploring both the physical library and the virtual library. You may need various user names and passwords to access the latter, and the library staff will be able to help you with these. Do not become so carried away with online searching that you forget about bibliographic serendipity, by which I mean wandering around the library shelves and current journal stands, flicking through books and reading the contents lists on the back pages of journals.

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It is surprising how often you chance upon useful material that you would otherwise have missed. Many academic libraries have joined a cooperative scheme so that students who live or work at a distance from their university can use libraries closer to them.

A website listing the universities in the scheme can be found at http://uklibraries plus.ac.uk/.

Electronic Resources There is a range of electronic resources that might be of help. These can be searched one at a time but, increasingly, electronic libraries provide metasearch facilities that allow many databases to e searched at the same time. If you want to do a search using advanced search facilities it is often best to search databases individually and not to use meta-search engines. Electronic Journals Most libraries will subscribe to journals that are published and or unavailable online. Check out which relevant publication are provided by you library.

Full-Text Databases These are databases that allow you to make searches for materials using key words. They are provide all the bibliographic details such as authors titles, journal titles, data of publication, volume, issue and page number. They will also include abstracts of papers and articles contents. In addition, in many but not all cases they give you access to an html or ---copy of the articles it self that you can read on screen, download, and print off or email to yourself. The full-text databases that you are mostly likely to use are listed below:

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Business Source Premier-a good all-round database Emerald-includes all the journals published by MCB Press. European Business ASAP- covers finance, acquisition and mergers new Technologies and products, HRM, marketing and management generally. Ingenta- a general database of papers from a number of publishers Universities have to buy licenses to give students access to databases which databases universities choose to buy licenses for will, of course, vary from institution to institution.

You need to explore your institutions list of electronic resources to see what is available to you.

Bibliographic Database These databases can be searched in the same way as full-text database and provide you with all the bibliographic information and with abstracts, but they do not provide full copies of the papers and articles. If you want them you will have to find the hard copy of the journal in the library, and if the library does not have a copy you will have to order the item on inter-library loan. Some databases you might want to use are listed below: Zetoc provides bibliographic information on journal held by the British Library PsycINFO- covers the field of psychology, but there are many articles that are relevant to management topics. Econlit covers the field of economics, and again there are many relevant references especially for people working on finance topics. If you are interested in management in health care and medicine, then Medline may be worth consulting. If you are working in the public sector especially in the social service, then ASSIA would be worth a look. Newspapers in Electronic Formats

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Newspapers are valuable source of up-to-date information on many management topics. A number of newspapers are available as searchable database in libraries. Newspapers, including the Financial Times, are also available as online editions on the World Wide Web.

Financial and Marketing Databases Strictly speaking these are primary resources rather than secondary materials and so would find their place in the results and analysis part of the dissertation rather than in the literature review. Nevertheless, here is a convenient place to mention them. FAME is the main financial database. It provides update financial information of 130,000 companies in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Mintel is one of the main marketing databases. These or other databases will be available at your university library.

Building Up Your List of References It might be worthwhile to check up on he Harvard system of referencing before you starts collecting material. Then you can be sure to record all the necessary bibliographic details as you identify the books the papers. This will safe you much time. As I have discovered to my cost, it can take hours, after you have finished writing the dissertation to track down the missing details (year of publication, page numbers for quotation of material you have cited but that you forgot to record properly. This is time you can ill afford when you are struggling to get the dissertation finished by the deadline. It is also worth considering whether you on going to use some specialist citation software to help you with building up your bibliography.

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Mapping and Describing the Literature In most cases the literature search identifies a lot of material probably more than can be sensibly dealt with in a Masters dissertation. So the next step in conducting a literature review is to map out and identify the key works and material in the literature. This exercise has two purposes It is necessary for you to show the person who marks your dissertation that you are aware of the breadth of literature relating to your topic. But it is also necessary, for your sanitary, as well as to meet the markers expectations show that you can priorities the literature and identify the key works theories Or concepts that will be of value in the conduct of your project. Describing the Literature Describing and mapping the literature relevant to your research project in a step-by-step process that moves from the general to the specific. It is an editing process. 1. Prepare a map showing the location of all the appropriate literatures The first step involves identifying the different fields of literature that may be appropriate to the study without, at this stage, looking at any of it in detail. By literature I mean a collection of books and papers that deal with the same issues and that respond to each other in the developing debates about a topic. It follows from this definition that there will be many literatures rather one solitary and unified literature. But it is up to you to draw the boundaries between them. This can be done by skimming through textbooks and following up the references they give, and by dipping into the journal literature via the abstracts in the bibliographic databases.
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Figure 1.1 shows a map of the literatures that I thought were relevant when I was planning some research into the fates and attitudes of the survivors of downsizing.

The main theme of the dissertation if shown in the middle of the map in bold font. There are a number of key researchers who have written research papers specifically on the subject. There is also a large literature, mostly in journals, that focuses on downsizing as a strategy and on its financial consequences for companies. This literature suggests that the demoralization of survivors may be a contributor factors the poor performance of organizations post-downsizing. This literature on redundancy concentrates on the managerial processes involved in chooses in people for redundancy. The organizational justice literature assesses such processes and evaluates them for fairness. As it is likely that peoples judgments about the fairness of redundancy processes will be a factor in their reactions to it, this literature is also relevant.

The literature on emotion in organization is not directly relevant to downsizing; but because downsizing is an emotional issue there may be some insights from the literature that will be helpful in the study.

Finally, in psychology there is a well-established literature on peoples reactions to trauma. It suggests a sequence of reaction beginning with disbelief, moving through shock and anger and culminating with readjustment. As being a survivor of down sizing may be as much a trauma as being a victim of it, this literature might provide some helpful frameworks.

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Downsizing Literature Literature on redundancy Literature on Survivors

Literature on emotion in organizations

Psychology of grieving Organizational

Figure 1.1 Mapping the Literature In the literature review it is important to identify the major literatures relevant to a project, without going into detail, and to explain why they might be significant. The important skill at this stage is to be able to condense or prcis large volumes of literature so that the essential views or arguments they contain can be presented in a small number of words. 2. Present an argument about which literatures you are going to concentrate on Normally the map of the literature will contain more fields than can be managed in the literature review. It is important to reduce it to two three. In the first step of the literature review, credit may be scored for showing an awareness of the broad scope of the literature, in this phase credit may gained by choosing the key literatures that will be helpful to the particular study being conducted. In the example of the survival of downsizing study, I chose the literature on survival and psychology of grieving and emotion in organization as the key ones for the study wished to do.
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The choice of literature will reflect the angle or perceptive you wish to take on a topic.

3. Provide an Overview of the Chosen Literature At the stage it is necessary to give a more detailed description of the literature chosen. When you come to write up this chapter the overview will provide the bulk of he material. It is important to think carefully about how you will structure it. The way not to structure an account of the literature is to work through a list of works one at a time. The citations are technically correct but padded out. Do we really need to have the title of the work or the magazine spelt out in the text? The writer telling us whether they enjoyed a work does not constitute a critique, although it may be a criticism. But most importantly there is no accounting given o the ideas, theories and materials there are presented in the works cited. Your account of the literature should be structured thematically. You should draw out of the works you are using the main themes, questions or issues that are discussed. These should become the sub-headings within the chapter. Under each sub-heading it is necessary to give an account of the relevant theories and the evidence provided in support of them. The discussion should be comparative, weight one writers views and evidence against those presented by others. Similarities and differences should be identified and their significance, if any, explained. Structuring Literature Thematically One way of thematically structuring an account of the literature is shown below:

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a. Identify The Main Camps, Waves, Schools, Ideological Stances Or Positions. There are always arguments and debates within a field of literature. It is necessary to describe the nature of these arguments. Identify the dominant or loudest voice in the debates.

b. Compare And Contrast Them Decide the depth of the disagreement between the parties and their arguments. Sometimes the differences are great and significant. On other occasions the difference are trivial to all except those involved in the argument. c. Evaluate Their Strengths And Weaknesses If the differences are significant, decide which side of the argument you believe to be stronger.

Literature reviews can often become detached from the project they are in support of. The discussion of theories and authors may develop its own momentum, and no links are made to the research questions that the dissertation is seeking to answer. The way to overcome this is to state the relevance of each piece of theory to the topic of the dissertation by using sentences similar to the following: Mintzbergs theory of structure in fives provides a means of analyzing the organizational changes that are the subject of this dissertation. this quotation mirrors the situation that has motivated the research project Hamel and Prahalads work identifies a number of factors that should be considered when researching

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An insight into employees responses to downsizing in my case study organizations can be gained from Broeckners work on --Socio-technical theory integrates the two key aspects of this study into

It is important to follow up these up statements with an account of their significance for your project. There is nothing more frustrating to the reader than to be informed that something is critical and then left without and explanation why.

If you cannot think of a way in which a piece of theory or literature aids your thinking and research into your topic, then it is likely you need not include it. A dissertation is not a place to display your encyclopedic knowledge of a topic, unless it is relevant to your theme. 4. Provide an argument to explain and justify the shortlist of theories, concepts, frameworks or techniques that you have chosen for use in you project By this stage a small part of the literature will have been identified that will be useful to the project. It may e down to a handful of concepts, theories and arguments. These will provide basic working materials for the project. At this stage the literature review merges into the process of developing a conceptual framework that will be considered in the next chapter. 5. Provide a critical account of the chosen concepts, theories or arguments This is a detailed review of particular theories designed to test their fitness of purpose for use in the project. One student was researching the introduction of team working at his place of work. This sentence could be found in his draft literature review chapter:

Dunphy and Bryant (1996), for example, identify three forms of team, each of which is most suited to the pursuit of a particular aspect of performance. Which simple, multi-skilled teams are thus most likely to impact most heavily on an

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organizations costs, self-managed teams will have their main effects on value, and self-led teams innovation. At face value it appears that this piece of theory might be very helpful in understanding the introduction of team working into a particular organization. It would allow question to be asked such as whether the organization had chosen the most appropriate form of team working for introduction. However, this sentence was all that was said; and it was inadequate. A more critical and extensive account needed to be given (assuming that the theory was going to be helpful) by answering some of the following questions:

How were the three types of teams defined? In particular, what is the difference between self-led and self-managed teams? At first glance these last two seem similar.

How does this threefold analysis of team types differ from other writers classifications? Is the claim that each type of team delivers a different strategic out come (cost reduction, value and innovation) based on sound research How well supported it is by other researcher and writers? Are these claims logically and consistently argued for in the work? How useful might this theory be to the students own projects?

The best literature reviews are those where themes and ideas are taken from the literature, evaluated, and then woven into a coherent argument about the subject matter of the dissertation. Note Taking Describing the content of the books and articles you find in your literature search means you will have to take notes.

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Unfortunately, simply using a highlighter pen on the book or article you are reading will not be sufficient. (It can actually be a problem in not taking if, as I have often seen, nearly all the sentences in a work are highlighted.)

Highlighting is very helpful stage in making notes but the passages highlighted need to be thought about and transferred into ones own notes using ones own words for learning to take place.

Note taking is process of editing or gutting a work to identify the key material and involves looking for the following things in the work: How does the work being annotated fit into the wider academic debate on the subject? What are the main findings, conclusions or arguments presented in the work? For each of the above: What arguments are presented to support the finding or conclusion? What evidence is presented? What authorities (i.e. well-established authors) are quoted as supporting the finding or conclusion? ` Are there any particular data, arguments and/or quotations that might be useful and should be note? Are there any books, articles, electronic resources cited in the list of references that might be worth chasing up? There are three main aspects of criticizing the literature I. Assessing the Quality of an Article or Book This first aspect of critiquing a book or article involves making an over judgment of its worth so as to be able to decide whether it deserves more detailed forensic critique. You need to decide whether the piece good quality and ought to be included in your literature review.

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This ---- be done by skim reading the piece and considering the following --- and questions.

The Provenance Some journals, and some publishers of academic books, have more ---than others. We have already seen that some journals are --- reviewed and others are not. In general, articles in peer-reviewed journal should be more reliable than those in non-peer-reviewed publications. This is not an infallible rule, however. References The next step is to turn to the back of the book or article and look at the list of references. This will give a rough and ready guide to how well the author (s) has used the literature. Are there many references? But bear in mind that too many can be much of a weakness as too few. Check the ratio of books to journal articles. Generally the higher the proportion of articles, the more up to date and embedded in the literature the piece will be. Are the journal references to well-established and regarded journals? Precision of the Writing
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It would be foolish to ignore a paper just because it was published by an unregarded journal. The status of the journal is just one piece of information you have to consider. If you wish you can further establish the credentials of journal by looking at one of the league tables of academic journals that are available. These league tables claim to rank academic journals according to their quality. The list published by Bristol Business School can be found on the World Wide Web http://www.uwe.ac/uk/bbs/research/jlists.shtm1#top.

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When you skim read the book or article consider the care that the authors take in expressing their argument. Are there many sweeping statements --many unsubstantiated assumptions? Statements such as corporate real-estate management is the critical factor in organizational success, especially if it comes near the beginning of a piece, is probably both sweeping and unsubstantiated; and does not suggest that great care is being taken in developing arguments.

Also consider whether the key concepts used in the work have been carefully defined. For example if someone is writing about virtual teams in organizations and claims that they can be of any size, indeed they can have an almost infinite number of members, and can be formed of anonymous participants, then the definition is so all-encompassing that the term virtual teams loses most of its value.

It becomes impossible to make any useful generalizations about such an amorphous concept. The more precise and careful writers are with their language, the better the quality of their work.

Description or Analysis A good piece of academic writing will have a mixture of description and analysis. Descriptive writing tells us what is but does not attempt to classify and organize the material; nor does it seek to draw any theoretical inferences from the maternal. A book or article that is purely descriptive is likely to be of lesser quality thane one which adds analysis to description. If a researcher has conducted many interviews we do not simply want to be told what the interviewees said, although of course that is of interest, we also want to be told what is significant and what is trivial in what they

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said. We also need to know what insights and generalizations might be drawn from their testimonies. This often requires that the findings are discussed in the light of the theories available in the literature. One should not be too prim abut this matter. Sometimes we use an article or a book not because of its analysis or theorizing but because it provides raw material, research findings that we can use to strengthen the analysis of our own research material. Quite often we will cite a book or article because of a single fact or insight it contains and we will ignore the bulk of its contents. Research Evidence Check whether the book or article contains research evidence that is used to support its arguments and contentions. It is perfectly proper, of course, to write a purely theoretical piece that is based on the literature. Indeed, C Wright Mills (1959:205) in the appendix on intellectual craftsmanship wrote: Now I do not like to do empirical work if I can possible avoid it there is no more virtue in empirical enquiry as such that reading as such. Nevertheless, research has to be conducted to resolve the matters of fact that the preliminary reading and reasoning have identified. In general terms a piece of work that includes some appropriate and wellconducted research will be more useful than a purely theoretical piece. Theoretical pieces often have one advantage to the business student, however, which is that they can provide a helpful resume and evaluation of the literature on a particular topic. A consideration of the preceding points should help you make a judgment about the value of a particular piece of academic writing.

II. Forensic Analysis/Critique

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The term forensic critique has been invented for this chapter one definition of forensic is pertaining to public debate. This is --- the evaluation of literature because evaluation is a contribution to a debate on arguments and theories that writers have placed in the domain. But forensic also has an emerging definition, based on the of forensic science, which means a minute, detailed and logical exaction of evidence. This definition is also relevant to doing a liter review. Once you have identified the key concepts, theories and ---that you will use in your research, t is important to put them ---scrutiny before relying n them.

So, in this section, forensic critique in the process of testing academic ideas to assess their usefulness. There are two ways of tacking a forensic critique. The first is to --- the key arguments in a piece of work and to evaluate the soundness the logic they utilize. The second is to scour the piece for examples weak argumentation. Both approaches will be considered in turn.

Soundness of Arguments Books and articles contain many things accounts, descriptions, summaries, instructions, and polemics and so on. The most important item however, is the arguments they contain. When a book or article is evaluated the main arguments it presents have to be dissected out from the bull of the text and a judgment made about their soundness and robustness. All arguments have three components. These can help you recognize when, in a text, an argument and not an assertion or an assumption is being presented:

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Premises these are assumptions or claims that something is true or are a fact. Most arguments are based on several premises, but they can be founded on one only.

Inference Words these are the indicators that the writer is about to draw a logical inference or conclusion from the premises presented. Examples are thus, therefore, because, implies, hence, it follows that, so, then and consequently.

Conclusions a conclusion is an arguable statement. It is either a statement about the relationship between the premises or it is an inference about the likely consequences given the circumstance and the premises.

It should be possible, using his threefold classification and by looking for the inference words, to identify and summaries the main arguments presented in a book or an article. It may even be possible to lay out the arguments as a series of flow charts. Judging the strength of an argument is a two-pronged activity: Assessing the truthfulness of the premises. In books and articles, the truthfulness, or validity, of a premise may be supported by research evidence. If this is so, then it is necessary to judge whether the research methods have been sensibly chosen and competently applied. Assessing the logical strength of the conclusions drawn from them. When considering the logical strength of an argument, it is likely that conclusions that are drawn deductively will be stronger than those drawn inductively. These terms need definition. Deduction is when a conclusion is drawn that necessarily follows in logic from the premises that are stated. So a deduction does not depend on observation or experience; it is simply a matter of logic. So, assuming the premises are true, the following is an example of a logically strong piece of deduction. Premise 1 the selection panel thought Jane was a better candidate for the job than John Premise 2- the selection panel thought John a better candidate for the job than Mark.
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Conclusion, by deduction Jane muse be a better candidate for the job than Mark.

If you are evaluating a piece of theoretical writing then many of the conclusions drawn will be based on such logic. The question to be asked is whether the logic is true. Deduction Deduction is a troublesome word. It has least two meanings. In the analysis of arguments it has the meaning given here; that is, arriving at a conclusion based on logic and not on experimentation or experience. It follows (an inference phrase) that there can be no doubt about a deduced conclusion. A deduction is certain as long as the premises are true and the world is rational. However, deduction is also defined as making a specific inference from a general law. This definition does not hold in the instance. In arguments, deduction can proceed from the general to the particular, from particular to particular (as in the example above) or from general to general (Hart, 1998:82). Induction Induction is when a conclusion is drawn from past experience or experimentation. The assumption is made that because things have always been so, then that is how they will be in the future. The strength of inductive arguments is often weaker than that of deductions, however, the more supporting evidence there is, the stronger the probability that the inference is true. Deductions are certainties but inductive conclusions are probabilities. The trick is to make sure that the balance of probabilities the favorable. Consider the following example:

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Premise 1 Companies that have the ISO 9000 certification have in the past Made better supply chain partners than those that have not Premise 2 Companies that have been selected using the selecting supply chain partner software prove to be better collaborative partners nine times out of ten.

Premise 3 In the past, small companies have made better supply chain partners than large ones. Premise 4 Skegmouth Logistics Co. has ISO 9000, has been accepted by the software and is a small company Conclusion, inferred by indications Skegmouth Logistics Co. likely makes a good supply chain partner.

When inductive arguments have been identified in a piece of writing judge balance of probabilities. 3.2 Evaluating Arguments

important to

assess whether the conclusion is based more on wishful thinking than on a carefully

Another way of judging the strength of arguments is to see whether the authors have made any of a number of well-known logical errors. What follows is a list of the most common flaws in argument, based largely on Thouless (1968) and Warburton (1996). 1. The Use Of Emotionally Toned Words The standards of modern examinations have woefully declined. They fail hopelessly to prepare students for work in modern organizations. They cripple a childs chances of later career success. Such arguments use a form of emotional blackmail. Who, after all, would wish to cripple a childs chances in life? The argument also rehashes a much used clich in management: that if things are not modern, they are bad.

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It is particularly tempting to use such arguments in the early years of a new millennium preparing ourselves for the challenges of the new millennium and so on.

2. Making A Statement In Which All Is Implied But Some Is True In a debate in some parts of Scotland during the early years of the past century, about whether to continue the prohibition of alcohol on Sundays, a poster proclaimed that people should vote against prohibition because any loss of liberty meant slavery (Thouless, 1968:24). This statement is only true if all liberty is lost. The loss of only some liberty (to drink a pint of beer on a Sunday) is not the same as slavery. 3. Proof By Selected Instances Where you think someone has chosen only those cases, from all those available to them, that make their point. 4. Challenging An Opponents Point By Extension Or Contradiction In an argument over the relative merits of markets and bureaucracies in delivering public services, a person who believes that there are some services that are best delivered by private sector organizations is drawn into extending their argument into, first that most services are best delivered so and, second, that all services are best delivered so. Extended positions are always vulnerable and can be easily demolished with a few well-chosen facts. 5. Proof By Inconsequent Argument You make a statement in support of a proposition that is not logically related to it but at first glance looks as if it might be. This can often be ensured by making the supporting statement a reference to a learned theory of which ones opponent will be afraid to confess his [sic] ignorance, or at any rate, making the supporting statement in a manner so obscure that ones opponent fears that it would show shameful ignorance if he confessed that he did not see the connection.
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Fairbairn and winch (1996:185) refer to this ploy as crafty conflation.

The following statement provides an example: Organizations that fail to modernize will not survive in the twenty- first century. The acceptance of flexible career patterns and of the loss of careers for like is consequence essential for organizational survival. This argument conflates the idea of modernization and the acceptance of career flexibility. It is not necessarily the case that the latter is necessary to achieve the former. It may or may not be; but the point is worth of discussion. 6. The argument that we should not make efforts against X, which is Admittedly evil, because there is a worse evil, Y, against which our efforts should be directed. In the debate about the extradition of General Pinochet from the United Kingdom in 1998, one of the arguments against extradition was that Pinochet was a lesser tyrant that the Chineses leadership and that he should not be tried for crimes against humanity if the Chinese leadership was not. A failure to deal with one wrong is no reason for not acting against another.

7. The recommendation of a position because it is a mean between two extremes There may be occasions when the mean is golden, but it rather depends the choice of the two extremes

8. The Use Of Logically Unsound Argument There are many forms of illogicality. Here is just one. The fact of an association between two things does not prove a causal or logical relationship. It may be that there is a statistical relationship between the number of quality stations in a work place (with their
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progress charts, quality awards and photos of successful quality circles) and high out put. But the association does not prove that one causes the other or, if it does, which way round the causal chain works. Do the workstations cause the staff to be more highly motivated or does the fact that people are successful them to treasure their quality stations? 9. Begging The Question One can prove that all swans are white by refusing to accept that black swans are truly swans. Failing To Distinguish Factual Statements From Opinion The nation of facts is a little difficult to accept if you are of a postmodern persuasion. Nevertheless, it should still be possible to separate those things that are generally accepted as if they were true, and for which some research evidence can be presented, and personal opinion. In management research this error occurs when people do not distinguish between what they have discovered about a problem and their beliefs about how it can be solved, as in my research shows that the implementation of staff empowerment will enable the organization to become a world-class business. 10. Tautology A tautology is saying the same thing twice. Stylistically in involved redundant words (Lloyds TSB Bank). By extension a tautological argument is one in which a thing is said twice but in such a way as to make it appear that a logical deduction is being made, as in the increased pace of change means that things are moving faster. 12. Inferring what should be form what the arguer thinks ought to be that something is right because it is commonly done or is useful and assuming

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The fact that lot s of organizations are doing 260-degree appraisals does not necessarily mean they are a good thing. Equality, the authors belief that a proposition will be of practical benefit does not mean that it is right or should be commended.

13. Changing the Meaning Of A Term During The Argument Thouless (1968:77) gives the following example. Crowds exhibit cruelty, unintelligence and irresponsibility. Democratic government is rule by the crowd. Therefore, democratic government is cruel, unintelligent and irresponsible. This argument involves a subtle change in the definition of the word crowd. 14. The Use of the Fact of Continuity between Two Things to Throw Doubt Real Difference Between Them. Using the practical difficult of determining where, precisely, in terms of number of staff or amount of turnover, to draw the distinction between large and small organizations to suggest that the distinction is not a useful one. On The

15. Disguising A Lack Of Clear Thought By The Extensive Use Of Jargon Too much use of business and professional jargon, or of obscure and lengthy words, raises suspicions that author is seeking to disguise their confusion and lack of clear thought.

16. The Appeal to Mere Authority This false type of argument is that a well-established writer in the field has said x and so it must be true. This should not be seen as a license not be cite authors in your dissertation.

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The error is when an author is cited --- lazy substitute for making a case or presenting an argument.

17. Argument by Imperfect Analogy The keen edge of intellect will be blunted by too frequent use. This --- be a tempting maxim for a hard-pressed MBA student. However, --- intellects are honed, not blunted, by use. foo frequent a resort to argument by analogy can lead to a hermetic paranoia in which everything seen as part of a vast and secret conspiracy. Read Umberto Ecos (1989) novel Foucaults Pendulum for an insight into the place such thinking can lead. (The reference is to Leon Foucault (1819-1868) and not to the Michel Foucaular who is discussed on p. 112; although Eco no doubt intended any confusion that might have arisen.) 18. AD Hominem Arguments Attacking he arguer and not the arguments. This is normally resorted to when a critic can find no weak points in an argument and so argues than the writer is a bad person and that for this reason their arguments should be discounted. In 2001 and 2002, for example, there was a correspondence in a literary journal about Foucault. The debate was started by. Tallis (2001) and continued by Hargreaves (2002) and Sennett (2001), among others. Foucault was accused of deliberately infecting his partners with AIDS. It was also alleged that he did not believe in objective truth. This led to an implication that the latter justified the former. In such debates, arguments about a persons theories and arguments become confused with arguments about the morality of the person. 19. The Use Of Persuaders Fairbairn and winch (1996:182) describe these as words and phrases that are put into an assertion illicitly to persuade the reader to accept what is said by other than rational means.

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For example, surely all accountants must realize that their job is one of the most important in the country or It is the exception that proves the rule.

There are some criticisms commonly made of books and articles that are not fair. One is death by a thousand snips. This is done by accumulating a large number of petty errors, an authors name misspelt here, a date wrong by one year there and so on.

The overall effect is to cast doubt on the authors arguments without actually challenging them. It is a form of ad bominem criticism because it is challenging the authors abilities rather than their arguments. Another unfair criticism is to claim that the themes the author has chosen to focus on are the wrong ones. This is tantamount to saying the author should have written a different book or article from the one they chose to write.

III. Radical Critique There is a managerialist mainstream in business, management and organizational studies that accepts the necessity of the capitalist system and concentrates on making it work effectively. The system, the mainstream writers would argue, is to the benefit of all and it is only necessary to focus on making small improvements. There is an alternative view that challenges the system itself. This critical perspective appears in several of the chapters in this guide. 3.3 The Critical Approach Alistair Mutch What do we mean by the word Critical? In one sense we would expect all academic work to be critical; that is, we should always be questioning our assumptions and approaches.
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This king of questioning has been discussed in the previous section. However, the word has tended to be appropriated by those who would use it in a broader sense. This sense is of challenging the basic assumptions on which our social world is organized. It is also, to a greater or lesser extent, used to indicate a need for radical change in these basic principles. The approach originally associated with this sense of the word is Marxism. (Indeed, one current approach, the Frankfurt School, attempted to appropriate not only the word critical but also the word theory. If you see the two together a Critical Theory you will know what is being attempted and you will see the difference that capitalization can make!) In this respect, Marxism can be seen a continuing the Enlightenment project.

This was the powerful intellectual traditional that emerged in the late eighteenth century. It stressed the importance of Reason and Science (they were found of capital letters too) over religion and traditional as ways of knowing the world.

To this faith in the power f ideas to reveal the truth about the world Marx added a radical political dimension. We have become much more skeptical about notion of truth, and more sophisticated currents in modern Marxism have dropped notions such as false consciousnesses (the idea that the only reason for the lack of radical change was people holding the wrong ideas.

However, Marxism has lost what was once a dominant position in the critical camp, wit other voices now being heard. One of the most important of these critical voices has bee that of feminism. Reacting both to material social changes and to the failure of Marxism to address these changes feminism has brought a new set of challenges, in this case to received gender roles.

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This has meant shifts to both the topics examined and the way in which they are examined. There are many currents with in feminism. Some strive for change--existing arrangements, arguing for the need to change organization release the talent of women (and make them better place for men).

An example of a writer in this tradition who has had influence within the mainstream is Rosabeth Moss Kanter. Others reject what they see as patriarchy and call for more fundamental change Pollert (1996) has a useful overview. One impact of feminist writing has been to emphasis the importance of identify in current critical writing.

Identify is central in the intellectual tradition of postmodernism. This spurns what it calls grand narratives such as Marxism (that is, in there terms, theories that purport to have all the answers).

Instead, it stresses the fragmentation of current life that is composed of a shifting kaleidoscope of fluid identities. An influential thinker has been the French social theorist Michel Foucault. His emphasis on power as a property of networks and relationships has been a strong influence on thinking in many areas, not least the field of management.

It has led to a focus on the micro-politics of local situations and to a divorce between critical analysis and prescriptions for change. This has led to charges (from more traditional critical theorists, such as Marxists) of academic self-indulgence and a loss of relevance.

For others, however, this is a realistic adjustment to the contemporary social world and a cause for celebration.

What is does seem to produce is complex and difficult language and a tendency to agonized introspection. (For an attempt to reconcile these

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forms of critical thinking by direct application to management, see Alvesson and Wilmott, 1996.)

Other social theorists try to steer something of a middle way. Some of these, such as Giddens (lots of work, but see 1990 for a short introduction) and Castells (2000) have important things to say about the nature of the world of work, even if sometimes their detail fails to convince.

Finally, the tradition known as Critical Realism (more appropriation! See p. 284) claims to be clearing the way for a more transparent use of concepts Reed (1997) and Savage et al (1992) provide some applications in the management field, although these are works in progress.

What does all this mean for management researchers? It means that there is a rich body of resources upon which to draw.

A little recognized aspect of management history is the way in which ideas that are now mainstream (in change management, for example) had their origins on the left (Cooke, 1999).

Alternatively, the challenging of basic assumptions can help, even if it ends up by confirming your belief in the soundness of those assumptions.

Some of these areas, notably feminism, have had more direct impact on the management field.

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It is helpful to be aware of he nuances that lie behind the use of this little word critical, as you will come across it all the time in the academic literature.

This simply reinforces the need for you to be skeptical and challenging in your use of such literature in a word, to be critical!

Developing a Radical Critique To summarize the above discussion: a radical critique is one that challenges assumptions and conventional ways of doing things. It normally does so from a moral stance based on perceptions of injustice; so for instance, a radical critique could be Marxist (Justice to the workers or feminist (justice to women) or green (justice to Gaia) or based on an anti globalization position that would incorporate all of the proceeding. This section looks at how a radical critique of a managerial theme might be constructed using a loose Marxist perspective. Remember, radical critique are not a necessary part of a literature review. The case of computerization of administrative and clerical work is used as an example to illustrate the process. Stage 1 Identify a Conventional Position Take a conventional and standard argument that is used in the --- and in public debate. Waddington (1977:16) created the acronym --- DUNG, which stands for the conventional with wisdom of the dominant group ---OK, it does not quite work as an acronym but it defines the concept well. A few year ago, for example, it was widely held that the increasing use of computers in the field of clerical and administrate work would make employees lives more interesting by removing the drudgery fro their work. Stage 2 - Problematise It
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Problematising the issue means revealing that the issue is more difficult than commonly thought and probably raises questions of values or ethics. Computerization may make work more interesting, but management does not want information technology for this reason alone. Management also wants to improve efficiency and profits and this means making staff redundant as computers do more and more of the work. This process causes that which was straightforward to appear morally ambiguous.

Stage 3 - Identify Contradictions and Negation Look for contradictions and negations within the process or issue being studied. A negation is a self-destructive feature of a process. Computers are meant to make life more interesting for staff by taking away the boring chores from their work. But computer software not only does sums and clerical chores- it can also make decisions by comparing particular situations against decosopmmaking guidelines. Computes can remove decision making form people and so make their work less interesting and less responsible. Computerization also disempowers staff by removing their discretion to amend procedures. Staffs have to work in the ways required by the software. By enabling management to monitor their work rates, staff are put under an intense scrutiny that prevents them from being flexible in their work methods and rates (i.e. if staff are working on computers, then it is easy for management to see how many transactions they have processed in a shift). So, in summary, computerization was meant to make employees lives more interesting and ends up making them less so. This is a form of dialectical analysis that is discussed further on p. 303.
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Stage 4 - Spot the Effects of False Consciousness (This Is an Optional Stage) False consciousness may be out of fashion (see p. 105) but it is often a useful element in a radical critique. False consciousness arises when the opposite of what people want is happening but they do not realize it. It is a Marxist concept to describe the tendency of the proletariat to fail to recognize the nature of its interest. More generally it is any form of ideology or self-imagery that is held to be inappropriate to the real or objective situation of an actor. So, for example, imagine you have interviewed a number of clerical staff whose work has been computerized. To your surprise they tell you that they feel the process has made their work more interesting because they have learnt new skills. They have learnt how to use the new software, but they remain oblivious to the fact that the software is insidiously removing responsibility, self-control and highercontrol and higher- level skills from their jobs. Stage 5 End with an Aporia Aporia means being in a state where everything is so complex and ambiguous that you are at a loss about what to do. The critique is ended with a view that something is wrong but that it is difficult to see what can be done about it, short of changing human nature and sensibility. Things, you argue, are so complicated that anyone who believes there can be a quick fix for the issue must be deluded. Here is a typical example taken from a paper that gives a critique of the idea of business ethics: The problem if find it impossible to address in the rest of the paper will be what options are left for a project like Business Ethics if the entire above are accepted. It would simply be inappropriate for me to tie up a paper like this at the end as if I really did have a medical solution to these problems.
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However, there is often a final claim that our increasing understanding of the complexity of things will enable humanity to become better, Parker ends his paper in such a way: Recognizing the paradoxes within Ethics and Business Ethics is one way to stop these words form having so much hold onus. Perhaps we can begin to develop ways of expressing our dreams and nightmares that do not fall back into the agon so easily. It may not be easy to see quite what this means (the use of the word agon makes it difficult it means the endless arguments between different and incomparable ways of viewing a topic), but as an ending it sounds --- in an ambiguous sort of a way.

Stage 6- Appropriate Reference and Citation Try to make references to Michel Foucault and/or Jurgen Habermas in the text. Surprisingly, references to Jeremy Bentham, the eighteenth- century utilitarian philosopher, and his notion of the panoptican, published 1791 but more accessible in Bozovic (1995), are also well received the panoptican was a design for a circular prison. The cells were to be around the circumference of the building and at the centre there was to be a watchtower. This design would allow a warder to observe all the prisoners with ease. An additional element in the design was a series of baffles and blinds. These meant that the warder could see the prisoners but the prisoner could not be sure whether they were being observed. The effect of the panoptican is the inmate would behave as if they were being observed even though they did not know whether they were. The risk that they could be under observation was sufficient, Benhtham argued modify their behavior.

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The idea of the panopticon was adopted by Foucault as a metaphor by the way that organization and institutions seek to control individuals works well as a trope for analyzing information technology in offices.

When an employee is working at a computer terminal that is networked to others in the organization, it is technically possible for the management to monitor the employees work.

The employee knows that they may be being monitored, but they can never be sure whether they are. The metaphor works even better with roadside speed cameras, which reduce average speeds because drivers do not know whether the box really does contain a camera.

So they proceed on the basic that it might. A panoptican therefore provides a very efficient method of social control.

The following citation of Foucault, citing Bentham, achieves a double whammy effect: The contemporary popularity of Foucaults version of the

panoptican seems to illustrate something rather profound (Parker 1998 31). The panoptican is discussed in Foucault (1991). The six stages of radical critique are simply a teaching aid. No one would follow such a mechanistic process in their writing. Nevertheless, these different aspects can be found in academic papers such as Parker (1998). If you have the time and inclination, you might want to locate the six stages in his article. Summary Do Identify and discuss key and landmark studies include as much up-to date material as possible. Get the details right
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Dont

Try to be reflective; Try to be reflexive examine your own bias and make it known; Critically evaluate the material and show your analysis; Use extracts , illustrations and examples to justify your arguments ; Be analytical, critical and evaluative in your review ; Make it interesting.

Omit classic works or Discuss core ideas without reference; Discuss outdated or rubbish stuff , or only old material; Use concepts to impress or without definition; Produce a list of items , even if annotated , a list is not a review; Accept anything at face value or believe everything that is written; Only produce a description of the content of what you have read; Drown in information. (based on Hart, 1998:219)

Exercise Reviewing Arguments Visit the library or a bibliographic database and choose an article that interest you from a peer-reviewed journal. Read the article and draft a critical review of it. Use the following questions (based on Hughes, 1992) as guideline: Identify The Main Arguments In The Paper What is the main point of the arguments? Identify the inference indicators, the words such as therefore that --- that a conclusion is being drawn from the evidence presented. Assess the context for the argument
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Identify The Premises From Which The Conclusions Are Drawn Locate the premises in the text Check The Acceptability of These Premises. Are they well supported by evidence? Are they well supported by citations from the literature? Are you convinced they are true?

Check The Logical Strength of The Conclusions Drawn From The Premises. Are the conclusions logically based on the premises? How strong are the conclusions? Could the premises support a counter-conclusion?

Look For Counter Arguments

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Chap -4 Problem Definition and Setting Objectives Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter the student shall be able: Define the Research Problem Establish the Research Objectives Identify type of Information Needed to Answer the Research Questions. Develop Hypothesis and Research Questions.

3.1 Introduction to Defining the Problem and Determining Research Objectives Before discussing the research problem is s pertinent to discuss the need for research and situations in which research may not be inappropriate. The Need for Research To establish the need for research, all organizations should monitor their surrounding environments on a continuous basis using a monitoring system. The primary objective of a monitoring system is to bring operating information to management. information allows management: To evaluate whether their current operating information results in meeting performance objectives. If proposed legislation industry interests, Whether changes in consumer values and lifestyles are occurring , or If new strategies are being implemented by competitors. has an impact on consumer spending or other Such

Note: Monitoring may be accomplished either formally or informally and in a variety of ways. A firm may have a sophisticated formal management information system (MIS).
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Another firm may have a more traditional control system that primarily relies on financial statements as feedback. A small business owner /manager may diligently observe the environments that affect his or her firm.

Situations in Which Research May Not Be Needed The four major situations where research may not be needed include the following: 1. Information Is Already Available If management knows its markets, competition, and the product/services, they may have the necessary information to make an informed decision without commissioning a research study. It is possible to have information on sales, costs, and profitability available by product, customer, region, salesperson, and so on, at the touch of a key. 2. There Is Insufficient Time For Research Occasionally, a problem is discovered that requires an immediate response on the part of management. When competitive pressure or customer shifts demand quick management actions, there may not be enough time to carry out a properly conducted research project. 3. Although research will be helpful, circumstances argue strongly against performing it. Resources Are Not Available Oftentimes resources are not available for research. If conducted in-house, research requires a commitment of personnel, facilities, and budget. If conducted by an outside firm, money as well as some personnel time is needed.

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If there is not enough money to devote to the research, management must simply make the decision that those resources are better spent elsewhere.

4.

Costs Outweigh The Value Of The Research Even when funds and other resources are available to conduct research, management must always weight the costs of conducting the research with the potential value of conducting the research. Some decisions have relatively little impact on company sales, profits, consumer loyalty, dealer goodwill, and so on, and, as a result, they simply do not justify the expenditure.

Once we are very clear about the above two steps, we will then shift to define the marketing problem. 3.2 Problem Definition After the interviews and the literature review, the researcher is in a position to narrow down the problem from its original broad base and define the issues of concern more clearly. It is critical that the focus of further research, or in other words, the problem, be unambiguously identified and defined. No amount of good research can find solutions to the situation, if the critical issues or the problem to be studied is not clearly pinpointed. A Problem does not necessarily mean that something is seriously wrong with a current situation that needs to be rectified immediately. A problem could simply indicate an interest in an issue where finding the right answers might help to improve an existing situation. Thus, it is fruitful to define a problem as any situation where a gap exists between the actual and the desired ideal seats. Basic researchers usually define their problems for investigation from this perspective. For instance, we would ideally like to see zero defects, low inventory of unsold goods, and high share quotation in the stock market, and so on. These problems could then very well become the foci of research. Thus, problem definitions could encompass both existing problems in a current setting, as well as the quest for idealistic states in organization.
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Problem definition or problem statements ,as it is also often referred to, is a clear , precise ,and succinct statement of the question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution. As mentioned earlier, problem definition could pertain to: Existing business problems where a manger looking for a solution, Situations that may not pose any current problems but which the

manager feels have scope for improvement , Areas where some conceptual clarity is needed for better theory building, or Situations in which a researcher is trying to answer a research question empirically because of interest in the topic. The first two fall within the realm of allied research, and the latter two under basic research. Defining the problem is critical to setting the direction for all subsequent phases of the research process. This is particularly true for custom designed research, as opposed to standardized / syndicated research. Standardized /syndicated research is generic research that is provided in identical fashion to all buyers by the research supplier. Custom- designed research is research that is fashioned to address a unique management problem confronting a client manager. Custom- designed research requires that the researcher fully understand the circumstances of the managers problem. It is common for the manager and the researcher to define the problem. If the problem is not defined correctly, satisfactory performance at the other stages in the research process will not remedy the situation. Broad problem areas that a manager could observe at the work place are as follows:

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Training programs are perhaps not as effective as anticipated. The sales volume of a product is not picking up. Minority group members in organisations are not advancing in their careers. The daily balancing of accounting ledgers is becoming a continuing concern. The newly installed information system is not being used by the managers for whom it was primarily designed. The introduction of flexible work hours has created more problems than a has solved in many companies. The anticipated results of a recent merger have not been forthcoming. Inventory control is not effective. The installation of an MIS keeps getting stalled. The management of a complex, multi-departmental team project is getting out of hand in the R & D department of a firm. The broad problem area would be narrowed down to specific issues for investigation after some preliminary data are gathered by the researcher. This may be through interviews and literature research. Examples of Well-Defined Problems

To what extent do the structure of the organisation and type of information


system installed account for the variance in the perceived effectiveness of managerial decision making?

To what extent has the new advertising campaign been successful in


creating the high-quality, customer centered corporate image that it was intended to produce?

How has the new packaging affected the sales of the product? Has the new advertising message resulted in enhanced recall? How do price and equality rate on consumers evaluation of products? Is the effect of participative budgeting on performance moderated by control
system?

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Does better automation lead to greater asset investment per Dollar of


output?

Does expansion of international operations result in an enhancement of the


firms image and value?

What are the effects of downsizing on the long-Range growth patterns of


companies?

Can cultural differences account for the differences in the nature of


hierarchical relationships between superiors and subordinates in Germany, India, Japan, Singapore, and the United States?

What are the components of quality of life? What are the specific factors to be considered in creating a data warehouse
for a manufacturing company?

What network systems are best suited for Smith Pharmaceuticals?


Differences between Managers & Researchers The fundamental differences between Mangers & researchers include the following: S/N Area Of Difference 1. Organisation Position 2. Responsibility 3. Training 4. Disposition Toward Knowledge 5. Orientation 6. Involvement 7. Use Of Research 8. Research Motivation Mangers Line To Make Profits General Making Questions Pragmatic Highly Political Involved Emotional Researchers Staff To Generate Information Decision Technique Application To Ask Question Scholarly , Detached Unemotional Nonpolitical ,

Wants Answers To Wants

To Make Symptoms To Find The Truth

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Disappear

Guidelines to Resolve Differences between Managers & Researchers Alreck and Settle have formulated six (6) questions that managers and Nine (9) questions that researchers should ask themselves to avoid potential misunderstandings as they discuss the problem and determine the objectives of the research involved. S/N 1) Questions For Managers Questions For Researchers are of the the capabilities research and being limitations considered? 2) What issues or questions prompted What is the history of the operations, management to consider undertaking policies, and procedures of the client? research? 3) What types of information could clarify What problems or issues appear to be or solve the problem? 4) the focus of the research, and what is uncertain or unknown about them? What decision, choices, or actions will What decisions, choices, actions are to be based on the research results of be based on the results of the findings? 5) proposed research? How much is the information worth; What is a preliminary assessment of what risks might be reduced or what worth of the research information to opportunities might gained? 6) the client? What is the time horizon and level of What are the time requirements for the resources available to perform the research and what resources can be research? 7) devoted to it? What degrees of cooperation and participation will be expected of the clients? 8) What ethical issues are associated

What is the background of the problem? What

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with the research? 9) How can I gain the clients confidence and trust in a professional and ethical manner?

Defining The Management and Research Problems Defining a problem involves: Specifying the symptoms Itemizing the possible causes of the symptoms, and Listing the reasonable alternative courses of action that the manager can undertake to solve the problem. There are two types problems with which a research must contend: a) The Management Problem and b) The Research Problem Management Problem A management problem is defined in one of the two ways: If the symptoms of the failure to achieve an objective are present , the manager must select a course of action to regain the objective, and If the symptoms of the likelihood of achieving an objective are present, the manager must decide on how best to seize the opportunity (opportunity identification). Poor problem definition can expose research to a range of undesirable consequences, including incorrect research design s and inappropriate or needlessly expensive and collection, assembly of incorrect or irrelevant data, and poor choice of the sample selection. It is critical that the management problem be defined accurately and fully.

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Once the management problem is fully defined, the researcher must wrestle with the research problem. Assement areas to define a research problem There are eight assessment areas that help the researcher properly define the Managent problem. 1. Assess The Background of The Company , Product , And Market The manager informs the researcher regarding the company history, its organizational structure, ownership situation, and overall mission. The researcher is also informed about performance history and any strategy changes. 2. Understand Resources It will certainly help to know the reasons the manager has requested research help. The researcher would know the managers objectives, which are tangible statements of a companys expectations. Gaining a feel for the managers specific objectives will help the researcher understand the gravity of the problem. By comparing recent sales, market share, or profitability level, for instance, with objectives, the researcher can compare how far the brand has strayed from acceptable performance. 3. Clarify The Symptoms of The Problem The manager & researcher must distinguish between symptoms, which are changes in the level of some key monitor that measures the achievement of an objective, and their causes. The DecisionMakers Circumstances , Objectives, And

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A symptom may also be a perceived change in the behaviour of some market factor that suggests adverse consequences or, perhaps, implies an emerging opportunity.

Formal monitors that are helpful in alerting managers to possible problems include: Productivity: unit of output produced from a given unit of inputs. Employees turnover: the percent of workforce leaving the organisation. Market share: the percent of total industry sales accounted for by the companys brand. Profit: the total profit generated by a brand. Complaints: the level of consumer complaints registered. Competitors: actions of the competitions such as price reduction, introduction of new products , style changes , expansion into new territories , etc;

Even if formal monitors are in place, they may not present sufficiently detailed or complete pictures of what has happened. This is sometimes referred to as the iceberg phenomenon, a situation in which you must look beneath the surface to see the complete picture.

The researcher may request a breakdown by sales territory, say, to see if market share has fallen in all areas. An astitute researcher will ask questions that sometimes tax the managers patience, but they are necessary to gain an understanding of all of the facts of the problem.

4. Pinpoint Suspected Causes of The Problem Problems do not arise out of the blue-there always is an underlying cause.
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For examples: Sales do not drop without buyers doing something different from what they have been doing in the past, Customer complaints do not increase has occurred and Retailers do not report returns unless there is a flaw in the product. Any factor that changed prior to or concurrent with the symptoms was a probable cause of the problem. unless some dissatisfaction

In other words, changes in market behavior do not occur randomly.

5. Specify Actions That May Alleviate The Problem Managers have at their disposal certain resources, and these resources constitute the solutions that may attempt to employ to resolve the decision problem at hand. Possible solution includes any actions that the manager thinks may resolve the problem. It is during this phase that the researcher brain storm possible solutions. Sometimes, this phase may be moderated by the researcher. At other times, the manager may independently generate several tactics that might resolve the problem once the probable cause is identified. 6. Speculate On Anticipated Consequences of These Actions Research on anticipated consequences of each action under consideration will help determine whether the solution is correct or not. To avoid resolving the problem incorrectly, the manger asks what if questions regarding possible consequences of each action being considered. These questions include:

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What will be the impact not only on the problem at hand, but throughout the program, if specific action is implemented?

What additional problem s will be created if a proposed solution to the current problem is implemented?

7. Identify The Managers Assumptions About The Consequences ; And As they define the problem, the manger and the researcher make certain assumptions, which are assertions that certain conditions exist or that certain reactions will take place if the considered actions are implemented. The managers assumptions be analyzed for accuracy. Assumptions beer researcher attention because they are the glue that holds the decision problem together. Given a symptom, the manager assumes that certain causes are at fault. She /he assume that, by taking corrective actions, the problem will be resolved and that the symptoms will disappear. If the manager is completely certain of all of these things , there is no need for research. If uncertainty prevails, and critical assumptions about which the manger is uncertain will ultimately factor in heavily when the researcher addresses the research problem. Research will help eliminate this uncertainty. At the same time, there may be disagreement on key assumptions within the managers company, and research is needed to determine which competing assumption is true.

8. Assess The Adequacy Of Information On Hand.

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As the manger attempts to formulate a decision problem, available information varies in both quantity and quality. The manager may have information that greatly reinforces his or her own belief s, or he or she may not have anything more than a gut feeling.

If the manger knows something with a high degree of certainty, it is of little value for the researcher to conduct research to reiterate that knowledge.

The researcher assesses the existing information state, which is the quantity and quality of evidence a manager possesses for each of his or her assumptions.

During this assessment, the researcher should ask questions about the current informations state and determine what the desired information state is.

Conceptually, the researcher seeks to identify information gaps, which are discrepancies between the current information level and the desired level of information at which the manger feels comfortable resolving the problem at hand.

Ultimately, information gaps are the basis for research objectives. Research objectives are specific bits of knowledge that need to be gathered and that serve to close information gaps. These objectives become the basis for the researchers work. In order to formulate the research objectives, the researcher considers all the current information surrounding the management problem.

1) Specify Constructs and Operational Definitions


A construct is a research term or concept that is somehow involved in the management problem that will be researched. Although managers and researchers share the language of constructs, the researcher translates the construct into an operational definition, which describes how a researcher measures the construct.

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Operational definition implies a specific question format that will be used in a survey to gather information about the construct at hand.

A Representative List of Constructs Often Investigated By Researchers. S/N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Constructs Brand awareness Recall, recognition of advertising Knowledge of product , feature Brand familiarity Comprehension of product benefits Attitude , feelings toward brand Intensions to purchase Past purchase or use Satisfaction Importance of some factor Demographics Disposal of product and knowledge Brand loyalty Operational Definitions Percent of respondents having heard of brand The number who remember seeing a specific ad What they can tell about the product Those who have seen the brand or tried it What respondents think the product does for them The number who feel positive, negative or , neutral The number that are planning to buy it The percent that bought it How they evaluate its performance What factors determined their purchase choice How old , what gender , and so on What they did with the box , wrapping , or product How many times bought the brand in the last six months.

Project Research

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Management Decision Problem (MDP): MDP is the problem confronting the decision maker. It asks what the decision maker needs to do. A Research Problem: A problem that entails determining what information is needed and how it can be obtained in the most feasible way. Other illustrative examples between management decision problems and the research problems include the following: S/N 1 Management Decision Problem Should a new product be introduced? Research Problem To determine consumer preference s and purchases intentions for the proposed new product? 2 Should the advertising campaign be changed? To determine the effectiveness of the current advertising campaign? 3 Should the price of the brand be increased? To determine the price

elasticity of demand and the impact on sales and profits of various levels of price changes.

Well-Defined Problems

To what extent do the structure of the organisation and type of information


system installed account for the variance in the perceived effectiveness of managerial decision making?

To what extent has the new advertising campaign been successful in creating the
high-quality, customer centered corporate image that it was intended to produce?

How has the new packaging affected the sales of the product?
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Has the new advertising message resulted in enhanced recall? How do price and equality rate on consumers evaluation of products? Is the effect of participative budgeting on performance moderated by control
system?

Does better automation lead to greater asset investment per Dollar of output? Does expansion of international operations result in an enhancement of the firms
image and value?

What are the effects of downsizing on the long-Range growth patterns of


companies?

Can cultural differences account for the differences in the nature of hierarchical
relationships between superiors and subordinates in Germany, India, Japan, Singapore, and the United States?

What are the components of quality of life? What are the specific factors to be considered in creating a data warehouse for a
manufacturing company?

What network systems are best suited for Smith Pharmaceuticals.


Process of Defining a Problem DM: we have seen a decline in the patronage of our store. R: How do you know that? DM: well, it is reflected in our sales and market share. R: Why do you think your patronage is declined? DM: I wish I knew. R: what about competition? DM: I suspect we are better than competition on some factors and worse on others. R: How do the customers view your stores?

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DM: I think most of them view it positively, although we may have a weak area of one or two. After a series of dialogues with the decision maker and other key managers analysis of secondary data and qualitative research, the problem was identified as follows. Management Decision Problem What should be done to improve the patronage of the Store? Marketing Research Problem Determine the relative strengths and weaknesses of the store vis--vis other major competitors with respect to factors that influence store patronage. Specifically, Research should provide information on the following questions: What criteria do households use when selecting department stores? How do households evaluate Tana department store and competing stores in terms of the choice criteria identified in question 1? Which stores are patronized when shopping for specific product categories? What is the market share of Tana and its competitors for specific product categories? What is the demographic and psychological profile of the customers of Tana? Does it differ from the profile of customers of competing stores? Can store patronage and preference be explained in terms of store evaluations and customer characteristics?

2) Specify Research Objectives


A good way of setting research objectives is to ask, what information is needed in order to solve the problem? A key aspect of the research objectives step is the specification of the specific types of information useful to the managers as they look for a solution to the management problem at hand.

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Research objectives address information gaps that must be closed in order for the manager to go about resolving the current problem. Generally, the researcher prepares an itemized listing of the information objectives agreed upon by the manger as essential for this purpose. Each research objectives must be precise, detailed, clear and operational. Research Questions & Development of Hypothesis Research Questions: are refined statements of the specific components of the problem. Hypothesis: an unproven statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to the researcher. Specific Research Questions: RQ1: what foods are considered to be comfort foods? H1: potato Chips are considered comfort foods. H2: Ice cream is considered comfort food. RQ2: when do people eat comfort foods? H3: people eat comfort foods when they are in a good mood. H4: people eat comfort foods when they are in a bad mood. RQ3: How do people become attached to comfort foods? H5: People are attached to comfort foods that are consistent with their personality. H6: People are attached to comfort foods because of past association. A General Procedure for Hypothesis Testing

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Null hypothesis is a statement in which no difference or effects are expected. If the null hypothesis is not rejected, no changes will be made. The null hypothesis is a proposition that states a definitive, exact relationship between two variables. It states that the population correlation between two variables is equal to zero or that the difference in the means of two groups in the populations is equal to zero or the difference in the means of two groups in the population is equal to zero( or some definite number). In general, the null statements are expressed as no (significant) relationship between two variables or no (significant) difference between two groups. Alternative Hypothesis: is a statement that some difference or effect is expected. Accepting the alternative hypothesis will lead to changes in opinions or actions. Directional and Non Directional Hypothesis Directional Hypothesis (DP) DH is refers to those hypothesis that deals with relationships between two variables or comparing two groups. In stating such hypothesis terms such as positive, negative, more than, less than, and the like are used. Non Directional Hypothesis (NDH) NDH are those that do no postulate a relationship or difference, but offer no indication of the direction of these relationships or differences. In other words, though it may be conjectured that there would be a significant relationship between two variables, we may not be able to say the relationship would be positive or negative. Parametric tests: hypothesis testing procedures that assume that the interest are measured on at least an interval scale. variables of

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Nonparametric test: hypothesis testing procedures that assume that the variables are measured on a nominal or ordinal scale. The following steps are involved in hypothesis testing:

Formulate the null hypothesis H0 and the alternative hypothesis HA. Select an appropriate statistical technique and the corresponding test
statistic.

Choose the level of sigiinificance, . Determine the sample size and collect the data .Calculate the value of the
test statistics.

Determine the probability associated with the test statistics under the null
hypothesis using the sampling distribution of the test statistics. Alternatively, determine the critical values associated with the test statistics that divide the rejection and non rejection regions.

Compare the probability associated with the test statistics with the level of
significance specified. Alternatively, determine whether the test statistics has fallen into the rejection or the non rejection region.

Make the statistical decision to reject or not to reject the null hypothesis. Express the statistical decision in terms of the marketing research problem.
Testable Statements If the pilots are given adequate training to handle midair crowded situations, air safety violations will be reduced. If employees are more healthy, then they will take sick leave less frequently.(DH) The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction of employees.(DH) There is a relationship between age and job satisfaction.(NDH) There is a difference between the work ethic values of American and Asian employees.(NDH)

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The greater the extent of gender stereotyping in organisations, the fewer will be the number of women at the top.(DH) Male managers have more access to critical information than women managers in the same ranks.(DH) There will be a significant positive correlation between access to information and chances for promotion to top level positions.(DH) The more the sex-role stereotyping, the less the access to critical information for women.(DH) Sex-role stereotyping and access to critical information will both significantly explain the variance in promotional opportunities for women to top-level positions.(NDH)

Schematic diagram of 6-10

Sex-role stereotyping Advancement of women to the top. Access to information Dependent Variable Independent variables Review Questions 1. How would you describe the research process? 2. Explain the preliminary data collection methods? 3. Why is important to gather information on the background of the organization?

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4. Should a researcher always obtain information on the structural aspects and job characteristics from those interviewed? Give reasons for your answer with examples. 5. How do you go about doing a literature survey in the area of business ethics? 6. What is the purpose of a literature survey? 7. What is appropriate citation important? What are the consequences of not giving credit to the source from which materials are extracted? 8. The problem definition stage is perhaps more critical in the research process than the problem solution stage . Discuss this statement. 9. Why should one get hung up on problem definition if one already knows the broad problem area to be studied? 10. List five differences between managers and researchers. 11. What constructs, who used them, and how are they envisioned by the researcher? 12. How does a symptom differ from a cause? How does a cause differ from a potential solution? 13. How do management problem and the research problem differ? 14. What are the major steps that have to be followed to define the research problem in clear and concise terms? 15. What is the problem statement in the following situation? Employee Loyalty Companies benefits through employee loyalty. Crude downsizing in organizations during the recession crushed the loyalty of millions. The economic benefits of loyalty embrace lower recruitment and training costs, higher productivity of workers, customer satisfaction, and the boost to morale of fresh recruits. In order that these benefits are not lost, some companies while downsizing try various gimmicks. Flex leave , for instance , is one . This helps employees receive 20% of their salary, plus employer provided benefits, while they take a 6 to 12 month sabbatical, with a call option on their services. Others try alternatives like more communications, hand holding, and the like.
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16. How do you define the problem in the following case? Accounting Gets Radical The GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) do an unacceptable job of accounting for the principle activities of the information age companies. Today, investors are in the dark because the accounting is irrelevant. The basic purpose of accounting is to provide useful information to help investors make rational investment, credit, and similar decisions, but todays most important assets and activities intellectual capital and work knowledge are totally ignored. Professor Robert A. Howell wants to reform the accounting system with the goal of making clear the measurement of how companies produce cash and create value.

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Chap - 5 The Research Design/The Research Methodology /The Research Approach

5.1 Definition of Research Design A research design is a framework for conducting the marketing research project. It specifies the details of the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure and /or solve marketing research problems. A Research Design is the detailed blueprint used to guide a research study toward its objectives. A research design is the specification of procedures for collecting and analyzing the data necessary to help identify or react to a problem or opportunity, such that the difference between the cost of obtaining various levels of accuracy and the expected value of the information associate d with each level of accuracy is maximized. Several aspects of this definition deserve emphasis: Research design requires the specification of procedures. These procedures involve decisions on what information to generate, the data collection method, the measurement approach, the object to be measured, and the way in which the data are to be analyzed.

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The data are to be collected to help identify or react to a problem or opportunity. All data collected should eventually relate to decisions faced by management. Obviously, the efficient collection of data relevant to a decision requires a clear definition of the problem /opportunity.

The information has value. Information acquires values as it helps improve decisions. The varying levels of accuracy of information can be generated in response to the same problem. Information accuracy is affected by the occurrence of a number of potential errors.

The goal of applied research design is not to generate the most accurate information possible. Rather, the objective is to generate the most valuable information in relation to the cost of generating the information.

5.2 Classification of Research Design Research Design Can Be Classified Into Two: Exploratory Research And Conclusive Research.

1) Exploratory research is one type of research design, which has as its primary objective the provision of insights into and comprehension of the problem situation confronting the researcher. Example: The manager of a multinational corporation is curious to know if the work ethic values of employees working in its subsidiary in London city will be different from that of pennathur a small city in northern Indies .there is very little information about London , and since there is considerable controversy about what work ethic alues mean to people in other cultures , the managers curiosity can be satisfied only by an exploratory study , interviewing the employees in the organization in Pennathur.Relgion, political , economic , and social conditions , upbringing , cultural values, and so on play a major role in how people view their work in different parts
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of the world. Here, since very little is known about work ethic values in Indias, an exploratory study will have to be undertaken. Exploratory studies can be done by interviewing individuals and through focus groups. Foe instance , if a company manufacturing cosmetics wants to obtain a thorough understanding of what it is that arouses emotive appeal for the product an induces people to buy cosmetics , several focus groups can be convened to discuss the related issues. This exploratory study will offer the needed preliminary information for a full-fledged study on the matter, later. Exploratory research could be used for any of the following purposes: 1) Gain background information. When very little is known about the problem or when the problem has not been clearly formulated, exploratory research may be used to gain much-needed background information. This is easily accomplished d in firms having information system in which a review of internal information tracked over time can provide useful insights into the background of the firm, brand, sales territories, and so on. Even for very experienced researchers it is rare that some exploratory research is not undertaken to gain current, relevant background information. 2) Formulate a problem or define a problem more precisely. Gain insights for developing an approach to the problem. By conducting exploratory research to define a question such as what is image? The researcher quickly learns that image is composed of several components-perceived convenience of location, friendliness of employees, and so on.

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For example, not only would exploratory research identify the components of bank image but it could also demonstrate how these components may be measured.

3) Clarify problems and Develop hypothesis. Isolate key variables and relationships for further examination Exploratory research is used to clarify and problems and hypothesis. For example, bank image reveals the issue of different groups of bank customers. Banks have three types of customers, commercial customers, and other banks for which services are performed for fees. Exploratory research can also be beneficial in the formulation of hypothesis, which are statements describing the speculated relationships among two or more variables. 4) Establish priorities for further research. Exploratory research can help a firm prioritize research topics in order of importance, especially when it is faced with conducting several research studies. A review of customer complaint letters may indicate which product or services are most in need of managements attention. 5) Identify alternative sources of action. Exploratory Research is most commonly unstructured, informal research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem. By unstructured we mean that exploratory research does not have a formalized set of objectives, sample plan, or questionnaire. Exploratory research is aimed at gaining additional information about a topic and generating possible hypothesis to test.

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Such research may consist of going to the library and reading published secondary data; of asking customers, sales persons, and prices; or simply observing everyday company practices.

Exploratory research is systematic, but it is very flexible in that it allows the researcher to investigate whatever sources he or she desires and to the extent he or she feels is necessary in order to gain a good feel for the problem at hand.

Methods of Conducting Exploratory Research A variety of methods are available to conduct exploratory research. These include: 1) Secondary Data Analysis Secondary data analysis refers to the process of searching for and interpreting existing information relevant to the research problem. Data that have been collected for some other purposes. Libraries and internet are full of secondary data, which includes information found in books, journals, magazines, special reports, bulletins, news letters, and so on. An analysis of secondary data is often the core of exploratory research.

2) Experience surveys Experience survey refers to gathering information from those thought to be knowledgeable on the issues relevant to the research problem. If the research problem deals with difficulties encountered when buying infant clothing, then surveys of mothers or fathers with infants may be in order. If the research problem deals with forecasting the demand for sulphuric acid over the next 2 years, researchers may begin by making a few calls to some experts on this issue. 3) Case Analysis Case analysis refers to a review of available information about a former situation (s) that has some similarities to the present research problem.
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There are few research problems that do not have some similarities to some situation in the past. Even when the research problem deals with a radically new product, there are often some similar past experiences that may be observed.

4) Focus groups and Focus groups are groups of people brought and guided by a moderator through an unstructured, spontaneous discussion for the purpose of gaining information relevant to the research problem. The moderator should ensure the discussion is focused on some general area of interest. 5) Projective techniques. Projective techniques seek to explore hidden consumer motives for buying goods and services by asking participants to project themselves into a situation and then to respond to specific questions regarding the situation. For example, sentence completion test may be used. 2) Conclusive Research. Research designed to assist the decision maker in determining, evaluating, and selecting the best course of action to take in a given situation. is typically more formal and structured than exploratory research. It is base don large, representative samples, and the data obtained are subjected to quantitative analysis. The findings from the research are considered to be conclusive in nature in that they are used as input into managerial decision-making. However, it should be noted that from the perspective of the philosophy of science, nothing can be proven and nothing is conclusive. Conclusive research can be either descriptive or causal and descriptive research can be either cross-sectional or longitudinal. 2.1 Descriptive Research
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A Descriptive Research is a type of conclusive research that has as its major objective the description of something-usually market characteristics or functions. Provides answers to questions such as who, what, where, when and how, as they are related to the research problem. Typically, answers to these questions, are found in secondary data or by conducting surveys. The decision makers often need answers to these basic questions before they can formulate effective business strategies: Who may be defined as the firms (competitors) customers? What may be defined as the products, brands, size, and so on that are being purchased? Where may be defined as the places the customers are buying these products? How may mean the questions such as why sales increase or decrease if we increase or decrease advertising or Why one ad garners attention than another r are questions that must be answered through causal research designs. For Example A bank manager wants to have a profile of the individuals who have loan payments outstanding for 6 months and more .It would include details of their average age, earnings, nature of occupations, full-time /part time employment status, and the like. This might help him to elicit further information or decide right away on the types of individuals who should be made ineligible for loans in the future. A CEO may be interested in having a description of organizations in her industry that follow the LIPO system. In this case, the report might include the age of the organizations, their locations, their locations, their production levels, assets, sales, inventory levels, suppliers, and profits. Such information might allow comparison later of the performance levels of specific types of companies.

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A marketing manager might want to develop a pricing, sales, distribution,and advertising strategy for her product. With this in mind, she might ask for information regarding the competitors, with respect to the following: The percentage of companies who have prices higher and lower than the industry norm, a profile of the terms of sale ,and the percentage where prices headquarters. The percentage of competitors hiring in-house staff to handle sales and those who use independent agents. Percentage of sales groups organized by product line , by accounts, and by region. The types of distribution channels used and the percentage of customers using each. Percentage of competitors spending more dollars on advertising /promotion than the firm and those spending less; a categorization of their target audience, and the types of media most frequently used. Percentage of those using the web (dot coms) to sell the product. Descriptive research is conducted for the following reasons: To describe the characteristics of relevant groups, such as consumers, salespeople, organizations, or market areas. For example we can develop a profile of the heavy users (frequent shoppers) of prestigious department stores. To estimate the percentage of units in a specified population exhibiting a certain behaviour. For example, we might be interested in estimating the percentage of heavy users of prestigious department stores who also patronize discount department stores. To determine the perceptions of product characteristics. For example, how do households perceive the various department stores in terms of salient factors of the choice criteria? are controlled regionally instead of from central

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To determine the degree to which marketing variables are associated. For example, to what extent is shopping at department stores related to eating out? To make specific predictions. For example, what will be the retail sales of wow international (a specific store) for fashion clothing (specific product category) in Bole area (specific region)?

Descriptive Research can be further classified into research.

cross-sectional and longitudinal

i) Cross-Sectional Designs: A type of research design involving the collection of information from any given sample of population elements only once. a) Single cross-sectional design A type of research design involving the collection of information from any given sample of population elements only once. In this type of design only one sample of respondents is drawn from the target population, and information is obtained from this sample only once. b) Multiple-cross-sectional design: A cross sectional design in which there are two or more samples of respondents, and information from each samples is obtained only once. Often, information from different samples is obtained at different times over long intervals. It allows comparisons at the aggregate level but not at the individual respondents level. Because a different sample is taken each time a survey is conducted, there is no way to compare the measures on individual respondents across surveys. For example cohort analysis. A cohort analysis: is a multiple cross-sectional design consisting of a series of surveys conducted at appropriate time intervals. The cohort refers to the group of respondents who experience the same event within the same time interval. Example birth or age cohort is a group of people who were born during the same time interval such as 1961 through 1970.

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The term cohort analysis refers to any study in which there are measures of some characteristics of one or more cohorts at two or more points in time. Cohort analysis is also used to predict changes in voter opinions during political campaigns. It is unlikely that any of the individuals studied at time one will also be in the sample at time two. For example, the age cohort of people between 8 and 19 years old was selected and their soft drink consumption was examined every 10 years for 30 years. In other words, every 10 years a different sample of respondents was drawn in this study from the population of those who were then between 8 and 19 years old. II) Longitudinal Design: A type of research design involving a fixed sample of population elements that is measured repeatedly on the same variables. The sample remains the same over time, thus providing a series of pictures which, when viewed together, portray a vivid illustration of the situation and the changes that are taking place over time. Longitudinal data are used for tracking markets. Market tracking studies are those that measure some variable(s) of interest like market share or unit sales overtime. For example, by having representative data on brand market shares, a business manager can track how his or her brand is doing relative to a competitive brands performance. A Panel: A sample of respondents who have agreed to provide information at specified intervals over an extended period. (Some times a panel is used interchangeably with longitudinal design).There are two types of panels: Traditional Panels Ask panel members the same questions on each panel measurement. They are also demographically matched to some larger entity, implying representativeness as well. Usually, firms are interested in using data from traditional panels because they can gain insights into changes in consumers purchases, attitudes, and so on. For example, data from traditional panels can show how members of the panels switched brands from one time period to the next.

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Studies examining how many consumers switched brands are known as brand-switching studies.

Omnibus Panels Vary questions from one panel measurement to the next. May be used for a variety of purposes, and the information collected by an omnibus panel varies from one panel measurement to the next. Essentially, the omnibus panels primary usefulness is that it represents a large group people, stores, or some other entity-that is agreeable to providing marketing research information. Omnibus panels are also demographically matched to some larger entity, implying representativeness as well. Relative advantages and disadvantages of longitudinal and cross-sectional design Evaluation Criteria Detecting change large amount of collection accuracy representative sampling response bias + + + Cross-Sectional Design data Longitudinal Design + +

Note: A + indicates a relative advantage over the other design, where as a indicates a relative disadvantage. 2.2 Causal Research

A type of research where the major objective is to obtain evidence regarding cause and effect (causal) relationships. Causality may be thought of as understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements in the form of if X, then Y. These, if -then statements become our way of manipulating variables of interest. For example, if the thermostat is lowered, then the air will get cooler.
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If I spend more on advertising, then sales will rise. Commercial managers are always trying to determine what will cause a change in consumer satisfaction, a gain in market share, or an increase in sales.

Our desire to understand our world in terms of causal, if-then statements is very difficult, if not impossible because there are formal conditions that must be in place before a researcher can attest to causality.

Example A causal study question: Does smoking cause cancer? A correlational study question: Are smoking and cancer related? OR Are smoking, drinking and chewing tobacco associated with cancer? If so, which of these contributes most to the variance in the dependent variable? Fears of an earthquake predicted recently in the new Madrid fault zone were instrumental or causal in an unprecedented number of house owners in the Midwest region taking out of the earth quake insurance policy. This example indicates a causal relationship between the earthquake predication and insurance. Increases in interest rates and property taxes, the recession, and the predicted earthquake considerably slowed down the business of real estate agents in the Midwest. This example indicates that several factors, including the predicted earthquake influenced not caused the slowdown of real estate agents business. This is a correlational study, which was not intended to establish a cause and effect relationship. Causal Research is Appropriate for the Following Purposes:

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To understand which variables is the cause (independent variables) and which variables are the effect (dependent variables) of a phenomenon.

To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted.

Formal Requirements of Causality 1) Co Variation It must be demonstrated that the causal variable occurs with the caused variable and that the two variables have an orderly relationship For example as prices goes down sales goes up. It must be demonstrated that the causal variables changed prior to or simultaneous with observed changes in the caused variable. For example, prices were lowered on Monday, and sales go up for Monday, and sales go up for Monday and all other days when prices were lower. 3) Systematic Elimination It must be demonstrated that all other possible causal variables are eliminated from candidacy. For example, if an advertising campaign began on the days we lowered prices, we could not eliminate the ad campaign as a cause of sales going up. 4) Experimental Design It must be demonstrated that a valid experiment has been conducted in order to state the variable is unequivocally causal. For example, a formal market test would be designed and conducted in order to determine the effect of a price reduction on sales. Relationships among Exploratory, Descriptive, and Causal Research
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2) Time Sequence

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A given marketing research project may involve more than one type of research design and serve several purposes. When combination of research design should be employed depends on the nature of the problem. General guidelines for choosing research designs include the following: 1. When little is known about the problem situation, it is desirable to begin with exploratory research. Exploratory research is appropriate when the problem needs to be defined more precisely , alternative courses of action identified , research questions or hypothesis developed , and key variables isolate d and classified as dependent or independent. 2. Exploratory research is the initial step in the overall research design framework. It should, in most instances, be followed by descriptive or causal research. For example, hypothesis developed via exploratory research should be statistically tested using descriptive or causal research. Exploratory research in the form of secondary data analysis and focus groups was conducted to identify the social causes that Ethiopian businesses should be concerned about. Then a descriptive cross-sectional survey was undertaken to quantify the relative salience of these causes. 3. It is not necessary to begin the survey research design with exploratory research. It depends upon the precision with which the problem has been defined and the researchers degree of certainty about the approach to the problem. A research design could well begin with descriptive or causal research. To illustrate, a consumer satisfaction survey is conducted annually need not begin with or include an exploratory phase each year. 4. Although exploratory research is generally the initial step, it need not be. Exploratory research may follow descriptive or causal research. For example, descriptive or causal research results in findings that are hard for mangers to interpret. Exploratory research may provide more insights to help understand these findings. Differences between Exploratory and Conclusive Research

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S/N 1)

Factors Objective

Exploratory to insights and

Causal provide to test specific hypothesis examine relationship is only is and Information needed is clearly defined. Research process formal structured. sample is large and representative Data analysis is quantitative. is and and

understanding 2) Characteristics Information needed defined loosely. Research process flexible unstructured. sample is small and analysis qualitative 3) 4) Findings/Results Outcomes Tentative Generally followed further exploratory conclusive research. A Comparison of Basic Research Design S/N 1) Factors Objective Exploratory discover insights ideas Descriptive and describe market or by non of representative . primary data is

conclusive findings used as input into decision making

Causal determine cause and

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characteristic s or functions 2) Characteristics Flexible Versatile often the front end of total research design Marked by the prior formation specific hypothesis. preplanned and structured design 3) Methods expert surveys pilot surveys secondary data(analyzed quantitatively) qualitative research secondary data (analyzed quantitatively) surveys panels observational and data Extent of Researcher Interference with the Study other of

effect relationships Manipulating of one or more independent variables. control other mediating variables experiments of

The extent of interference by the researcher with the normal flow of work at the workplace has a direct bearing on whether the study undertaken is causal or correlational. A correlational study is conducted in the natural environment of organization with minimum interference by the researcher with the normal flow of work .For example, if the researcher wants to study the factors influencing training effectiveness, all that individual has to do is is develop a theoretical framework ,collect the relevant data ,and analyze them to come up with findings. Though there is some disruption to the normal flow of work in the system as the researcher interviews employees and administers

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questionnaires at the workplace , the researcher s interference in the routine functioning of the system is minimal as compared to that caused during casual studies. There are three varying degrees of interference minimal, moderate, and excessive. Minimal Interference A hospital administrator wants to examine the relationship between the perceived emotional support in the system and the stresses experienced by the nursing staff. In other words, she wants to do a correlational study. Here the administrator /researcher will collect data from the nurses to indicate how much emotional support they get in the hospital and to what extent they experience stress. By correlating the two variables, the answer that is being sought can be found. In this case, beyond administering a questionnaire to the nurses, the researcher has not interfered with the normal activities in the hospital. In other words, researcher interference has been minimal. Moderate Interference The same researcher is now no longer content with finding the correlation, but wants to firmly establish a causal connection. That is , the researcher wants to demonstrate that if the nurses had emotional support , this indeed would cause them to experience less stresses. If this can be established, then the nurses stress can definitely be reduced by offering them emotional support. To test the causes and effect relationship , the researcher will measure the stress currently experienced by the nurses in three wards in the hospital ,and then deliberately manipulate the extent of emotional support given to the three groups of nurses in the three wards for perhaps a week ,and measure the amount of stress at the end of that period. For one group , the researcher will ensure that a number lab technians and doctors help and comfort the nurses when they face stressful events-for example , when they care for the patients suffering excruciating pain and distress in the ward. Under a similar setup, for a second group of nurses in another ward , the researcher might arrange for them only a moderate amount of emotional support and employing
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only the lab technians and excluding Doctors. The third ward might operate without any emotional support. If the experimenters theory is correct, then the reduction in the stress levels before and after the one-week period should be greatest for the nurses in the first ward, moderate for those in the second ward, and nil for the nurses the third ward. Excessive Interference The above researcher, after conducting the previous experiments, feels that the results may or may not be valid since other external factors might have influenced the stress levels experienced by the nurses. For example, during that particular experimental week, the nurses in one or more wards may not have experienced high levels of stress because there were no serious illnesses or deaths in the ward. Hence, the emotional support received might not be related to the level of stresses experienced. The researcher might now want to make sure that such extraneous factors as might affect the cause and effect relationship are controlled. so she might take three groups of medical students ,put them in different rooms, and confront all of them with the same stressful task. For example, she might ask them to describe in the minutest detail , the surgical procedures in performing surgery on a patient who has not responded to chemotherapy and keep bombarding them with more and more questions even as they respond. Although all are exposed to the same intensive questioning, one group might get help from a doctor who voluntary offers clarifications and help when students stumble. In the second group, a doctor might be nearby, but might offer clarifications and help only if the group seeks it. In the third group, there is no Doctor present and no help is available. Critical Thinking Discussion Questions 1. What are the basic research design issues? Describe them in some detail. 2. Why is it important to consider basic design issues before conducting the study and even as early as the time of formulating the research question?

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3. Is a field study out of the question if one is trying to establish cause-and effect relationships? 4. An exploratory study is just as useful as a predictive study, Discuss this statement. 5. Why is the unit of analysis an integral part of the research design? 6. Discuss the relationships among non contrived setting , the purpose of the study , type of investigation, researcher interference ,and time horizon of study. 7. Below are three scenarios. Indicate how the researcher should proceed in each case that is , determine the following, giving reasons: Scenario A Ms. Meron , the owner of a small business ( a womens dress Boutique ), has invited a consultant to tell her business is different from similar small businesses within a 60-mile radius with respect to use of the most modern computer technology , sales volume , profit margin, and staff training. Scenario B Mr. Yonas, the owner of several restaurants on the southern tip of Addis Ababa, is concerned about the wide differences in their profit margins. He would like to try some incentive plans for increasing the efficiency levels of those restaurants that lag behind. But before he actually does this, he would like to be assumed that the idea would work. He ask a researcher to help him on this issue. Scenario C A manager is intrigued why some people seem to derive joy from work and get energized by it, while others find it troublesome and frustrating. 8. A foreman thinks that the low efficiency of the machine tool operators is directly linked to the high level of fumes emitted in the workshop. He would like to prove this to his supervisor through a research study.
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Would this be a causal or a correlational study? Why? Is this an exploratory, descriptive, or hypothesis testing (analytical or predictive) study? Why? What kind of a study would this be: field of study, lab experiment, or field experiment? Why? What would be the unit of analysis? Why? Would this be a cross-sectional or a longitudinal study? Why? 9. How would you match research designs with various research objectives? 10. What types of research design answers the questions of who, what, where, when, and how? 11. What differences between and cross-sectional studies longitudinal studies? 12. In what situations would a traditional panel be more suitable that an omnibus panel? 13. Explain why studies of the if then variety are considered to be causal studies.

Chap -6 Sampling Design &Procedures

6.1 What Is Sampling? Sampling is the process of using a small or parts of a larger population to make conclusions about the whole population. Sampling is one of the components of research design. Sampling design involves several basic questions: Should a sample be taken? If so, what process should be followed? What kind of sample should be taken? How large it should be?
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What can be done to control and adjust for non response errors?

6.2 Basic Terminologies in Sampling 1. Population (Universe): The aggregate of all elements, sharing some common set of characteristics that comprises the universe for the purpose of marketing research problem. 2. Target population: the specific complete group relevant to the research group. 3. Population element: an individual member of a specific population. 4. Census: a complete enumeration of the elements of a population or study objects. 5. Sample: a subgroup of the elements of the population selected for participation in the study. 6. Sampling Frame: a representation of the elements of the target population. It consists of a list or set of directions for identifying the target population. 7. Representative Frame: a sample that reflects the population accurately so that it is a microcosm of the population. 8. Probability Sampling: a sampling procedure in which each element of the population has a fixed probabilistic chance of being selected for the sample. 9. Non-Probability Sampling: sampling techniques that do not use chance selection procedures, rather, they rely on the personal judgment of the researcher. 10. Sampling With Replacement: a sampling technique in which an element can be included in the sample more than once. 11. Sampling Without Replacement: a sampling technique in which an element cannot be included in the sample more than once. 12. Sampling Units: a single element or group of elements subject to selection in the sample. (PSU) 13. Primary Sampling Unit (PSU): sampling. a unit selected in the first stage of the

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14. Secondary Sampling Unit (SSU): a unit selected in the second stage of sampling. 15. Sample Size: The number of elements to be included in a study. 16. Sampling Error: the difference between a sample and the population from which it is selected, even though a probability sample has been selected. 17. Non-Sampling Error: differences between the population and the sample that arise either from deficiencies in the sampling approach, such as an adequate sampling frame or non-response, or from such problems. 18. Non Response: a source of non-sampling error that is particularly likely to happen when individuals are being sampled. It occurs whenever some members of the sample refuse to cooperate, can not be contacted, or for some reason can not supply the required data, because of mental incapacity. 5.3 Probability Sampling Vs. Non-Probability Sampling Sampling technique can be broadly classified into two broad categories: Probability and Non-probability sampling. 1) Probability Sampling Technique Probability sampling techniques vary in terms of sampling efficiency. Sampling efficiency is a concept that reflects a trade-off between sampling cost and precision. Precision refers to the level of uncertainty about the characteristics being measured. Precision is inversely related to sampling errors but positively related to cost. The greater the precision the greater the cost and most studies require a trade off. The researcher should strive for the most efficient sampling design, subject to the budget allocated. Probability sampling techniques includes the following: a) Simple Random Sampling(SRS) SRS is a probability sampling technique in which each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection. Every element
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is selected independently of every other element and the sample is drawn by a random procedure from a sampling frame. To draw a simple sample, the researcher first compiles a sampling frame in which each element is assigned a unique identification number. Probability of selection = sample size Population Size

There are different methods in simple random sampling: The blind Draw method: involves blindly choosing participants by their names of some other unique designation. The table of random numbers method: a more sophisticated application of simple random sampling is to use a table of random numbers which is a listing of numbers whose random order is assured. If you look at a table of random numbers, you will not be able to see any systematic sequence of numbers regardless of where in the table you begin and whether you go up, down, left right, or diagonally across the entries. Advantages of SRS It embodies the requirements necessary to obtain a probability sample and there for to derive unbiased estimates of the populations characteristics. It guarantees that every member of the population has a known and equal chance of being selected in to the sample; the resulting sample, no matter what the size, will be a valid representation of the population. Disadvantages of SRS To use either the blind draw or the table of random numbers approach, it is necessary to pre designate each population number.

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In the blind draw sample, each students name was written on a 3-by-5 card, Where as in the random numbers example, each student was a specific number. In essence, simple random sampling necessarily begins with a complete listing of the population, a current and complete listings are often difficult to obtain. It is also cumbersome to provide unique designation s for each population member. Numbering from 1 through an unknown total population size (N) is tedious and invites administrative errors. Using names is unsatisfactory due to duplicates. b) Systematic Sampling (SS): is a probabilistic sampling technique in which the sample is chosen by selecting a random starting point and then picking every point and then picking every ith elements in succession from the sampling frame. A SS involves selecting every nth unit after a random start. To use systematic sampling the researcher decides on a skip interval, which is calculated by dividing the number of names on the list by sample size. Skip interval ( I) = Population list size Sample size For example, there are 100,000 elements in the population and a sample of 1000 is desired. In this case, the sampling interval, I, is 100. Random number between 1 and 100 is selected. If, for example, this number is 23, the sample consists of elements 23,123, 233, 423, 523, and so on. Prerequisites of Systematic Sampling A prerequisite for applying systematic sampling is that the units in the population can be ordered in some way: Some examples are presented below: Records that are ordered in a file.
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Names that are ordered alphabetically in a telephone directory. Houses that are ordered along a road. Customers who walk one by one through an entrance, and so on. Advantages It has economic efficiency (can be applied with less difficulty.) The method is simple, but probably the most important advantage is that a frame is not always needed. The method can therefore be used, for instance, to interview a sample of persons passing by a corner during a particular day. The units in the sample will be spread evenly over the ordered population. (Sometimes this will increase precision.) It can be accomplished in a shorter time period than can simple random sampling. It has the potential to create a sample that is almost identical in quality to samples created from simple random sampling. Disadvantages The most important potential drawback is the danger of hidden periodicities, for example, that a deficiency in producing a specific product occurs at specific intervals. If one happens to get an unfortunate starting point the whole sample could consist of defective products. c) Stratified Sampling: is a probability sampling technique that uses a two-step

process to partition the population into sub populations, or strata. Elements are selected from each stratum by random procedures. The strata should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive in that every population elements should be omitted. Next, elements are selected from each stratum by random procedures, usually SRS. Technically, only SRS should be employed in selecting the elements from each stratum.
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In practice, sometimes systematic sampling and other probability sampling procedures are employed. Stratified sampling differs from quota sampling in that sample elements are selected probabilistically rather than based on convenience or judgment. A major objective of stratified sampling is to increase precisions without increasing cost. Stratified sampling can be further divided into two: I) Proportionate: In proportionate stratified sampling the size of the sample drawn from each stratum is proportionate to the relative size of that stadium in the total population. II) Disproportionate: in disproportionate stratified sampling , the size of the sample from each stratum is proportionate to the relative size of the stratum and to the standard deviation of the distribution of the characteristics of interest among all the elements in that stratum. The logic behind disproportionate sampling is simple. First, strata with relative larger sizes are more influential in determining the population mean, an d these strata should also exert a greater influence in delivering the sample elements. Consequently more elements will be drawn from strata of larger relative size. Second, to increase precision more elements should be drawn from strata with larger standard deviations and fewer elements should be drawn strata with smaller standard deviations. For example, large retail stores might be expected to have greater variation in the sales of some products as compared to small stores. Hence, the number of large stores in a sample may be disproportionately large.

Advantages
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Stratified random sampling can give higher precision with the same sample size, alternatively, the same precision with a smaller sample. Stratified sampling can also give separate results for each stratum. Stratified sampling can also simplifies data collection. Disadvantages A complete frame is needed. Depending on the allocation principle applied, additional information, such as knowledge of standard deviations and costs, may be needed for each stratum. d) Cluster Sampling: Is a probability sampling in which the population is divided into sub-groups, each of which represents the entire population. In cluster sampling, First, the target population is divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations called clusters. Then, a random sample of clusters is selected based on a probability sampling. For each selected cluster, either all the elements are included in the sample or a sample of elements is drawn probabilistically. There are three types of cluster sampling: One -stage sampling Two -stage sampling Multistage sampling A common form of cluster sampling is area sampling. Area sampling is a common form of cluster sampling in which the clusters consist of geographic area such as counties, housing tracts, blocks, or other area descriptions. In one stage area sampling, the researcher samples blocks and then all the households within the selected blocks are included in the sample. sampling technique such as simple random

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In the case of two or multi-stage are sampling, the researcher samples blocks, and then samples households within the selected blocks. Advantages The major advantage of cluster sampling is that we do not need a complete frame of the secondary sampling units. (We do not need a frame of the clusters, however.) Another important advantage in many kinds of cluster sampling such as area sampling is the geographical concentration of the units to be interviewed. Disadvantages If there is large variation between clusters in the variables to be examined the method may yield poor precision. e) Sequential Sampling: A probability sampling technique in which the population elements are sampled sequentially, data collection and analysis are done at each stage, and a decision is made as to whether additional elements should be sampled. Data collection and analysis are done at each stage, and decision is made as to whether additional population elements should be sampled. At each stage, this rule indicates whether sampling should be continued or whether enough information has been obtained. Sequential sampling has been used to determine preferences for two competing alternatives. Ate In one study, respondents were asked which of the two alternatives they preferred, and sampling was terminated when sufficient evidence was accumulated to validate a preference. It has also been used to establish the price differential between a standard models a deluxe model of a consumer durable. f) Double Sampling: A sampling technique in which certain population elements are sampled twice.

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In the first phase, a sample is selected and some information is collected from all the elements in the sample. In the second phase, a subsample is drawn from the original sample and additional information is obtained from the elements in the sub sample. The process may be extended to three or more phases, and the different phase may take place simultaneously or at different times. Double sampling can be useful when no sampling frame is readily available for selecting final sampling units but when the elements of the frame are known to be contained within a broader sampling frame. 2) Non-Probability Sampling Techniques The critical difference between probability and non-probability sampling methods is the mechanics used in the sample design. With non-probability sampling method, selection is not based on probability. In other words you cant calculate the probability of any one person in the population being selected into the sample. Still each non-probability sampling method strives to draw a representative sample. Non -Probability Sampling Methods The non probability sampling methods include the following: 1) Convenience Sampling: A non-probability sampling technique that attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements. The selection of sampling units is left primarily to the interviewer. Examples of convenience sampling includes: Use of students , church groups , and members of social organizations. Mall-intercept interviews without qualifying the respondents Department stores using charge accounts lists, Tear-out questionnaires included in a magazine, and People on the street interviews. Advantages
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Convenience sampling is the least expensive and the least time consuming of all sampling techniques. The sampling units are accessible, easy to measure, and cooperate.

Disadvantages Many potential sources of selection bias are present, including respondent self-selection. Convenience samples are not representative of any definable population. Hence , it is not theoretically meaningful to generalize to any population from a convenience sample, and convenience samples are not appropriate for marketing research projects involving population inferences. Convenience samples are not recommended for descriptive or causal research , but they can be used in exploratory research for generating ideas, insights, or hypothesis Convenience samples can used for focus groups, pretesting questionnaires, or pilot studies. Even in these cases, caution should be exercised in interpreting the results. Nevertheless, this technique is sometimes used even in large surveys. 2) Judgment Sampling: A form of convenience sampling in which the population elements are purposely selected based on the judgment of the researcher. The researcher uses his or her judgment or that of some other knowledgeable person to identify who will be in the sample. Subjectivity enters in here, and certain members of the population will have a smaller chance of selection than will others. The researcher exercising common examples of judgment sampling include :judgment or expertise , chooses the elements to be included in the sample , because he or she believes that they are representative of the population of interest or are otherwise appropriate. Test markets selected to determine the potential of a new product.

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Purchase engineers

selected in industrial marketing

research

because they are considered to be representative of the company Bellwether precincts selected in voting behaviour research, Department stores selected to test a new merchandising display system. 3) Referral Samples/Snowball Samples: Respondents are asked for the names or identities of other s like themselves who might qualify to take part in the survey. A non probability sampling technique in which an initial group of respondents is selected randomly. Subsequent respondents are selected based on the referrals or information provided by the initial respondents. This process may be carried out in waves by obtaining referrals from referrals. A major objective of snowball sampling is to estimate characteristics that are rare in the population. Examples include: Users of particular government or social services, such as food stamps, whose names cant be revealed; special census groups, such widowed males under 35; and members of a scattered minority population. Snowball sampling is used in industrial buyer seller research to identify buyer- seller pairs. Advantages It substantially increases the likelihood of locating the desired characteristics in the population. It also results in relatively low sampling variance and costs. 4) Quota Samples: A non-probability sampling technique that is a two-stage restricted judgmental sampling. The size of the quotas is determined by the researchers belief for the relative size of each class of respondent. The first stage consists of developing control categories or quotas of population elements. In the second stage, sample elements are selected based on convenience sampling. To develop these quotas, the researcher lists relevant control
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characteristics which may include sex, age and race, are identified on the basis of judgment. A field worker is provided with screening criteria that will classify the potential respondent into a particular quota cell. For example, a large bank, might stipulate that the final sample be one-half adult males and one-half adult females because in their understanding of their market, the customer profile is about 50-50, male and female. Often the quotas are assigned elements possessing so that the proportion of the sample the the control characteristics is the same as

proportion of population elements with these characteristics is the same as the proportion of population elements with these characteristics. In other words, the quotas ensure that the composition of the sample is the same as the composition of the population with respect to the characteristics of interest. In the second stage, sample elements are selected based on convenience or judgment. Once the quotas have been assigned, there is considerable freedom in selecting the elements to be included in the sample. The only requirement is that the elements selected fit the control characteristics. In certain situations, it is desirable either to under or oversample heavy users of a product so that their behaviour can be examined in detail. Although this type of sample is not representative, it may nevertheless be very relevant. Advantages QS Attempts to obtain representative samples at a relatively low cost. A quota system overcomes much of the non-representative ness danger inherent in convenience samples. It may guarantee that the researcher has sufficient sub-sample sizes for meaningful subgroup analysis. Under certain conditions, quota sampling obtain results close to those for conventional probably sampling. Strengths and Weaknesses of Basic Sampling Techniques S/N Technique Strengths Weaknesses
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I. 1

Probability Sampling Simple random sampling (SRS) Easily understood, Difficult to construct sampling precision, assurance frame , no of decrease expensive , lower result projectable

representativeness 2 Systematic sampling Can increase Can representativeness , representativeness easier to implement than SRS, sampling frame necessary 3 Stratified sampling Includes important subpopulations, precision all Difficult relevant stratification variables , not feasible to stratify on many variables , expensive 4 Cluster sampling Easy to implement Imprecise, difficult to cost effective II. 1 Non- probability sampling Convenience sampling Least expensive , Selection least consuming, convenient time sample recommended descriptive causal research 2 Judgment sampling Low cost, Does not allow
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not to select

compute interpret results. bias

and

, not for or

most representative , not

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convenient, not time generalization consuming 3 Quota sampling Sample controlled certain characteristics 4 Snow ball sampling Can estimate rare Time consuming characteristics. Choosing Probability versus Non - Probability sampling S/N Factors Conditions Favoring The Use of Probability Sampling 1 2 Nature of research Relative sampling 3 4 5 Versatility population Statistical considerations Operational considerations Favorable Unfavorable Unfavorable Favorable and in non the Heterogeneous (high) Conclusive Non-Probability Sampling Exploratory magnitude of Sampling errors are larger can subjective

be Selection bias , no for assurance of representativeness

Non-sampling errors are larger Homogeneous (low)

sampling errors

6.4 Procedures for Drawing Probability Sampling

I) Simple Random Sampling


1) Select a suitable sampling frame 2) Assign each element a number 1 to N (population size) 3) Generate n (sample size) different random numbers between 1 and N. This can be done using a microcomputer or mainframe software package or using a table of simple random numbers. Arbitrarily select a beginning numbers.

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Select the appropriate number of digits (For Example: if N=900, select three digits).Then proceed either up or down until n different numbers between 1 and N have been selected. Note: discard 0, duplicate numbers, and numbers greater than N. 4) The numbers generated denote the elements that should be included in the sample.

II) Systematic Sampling


Select a suitable sampling frame. Assign each element a number 1 to N( population size) Determine the sampling interval, I, i= N/n, if I is a fraction, round to the nearest integer. Select a random number, r, between 1 and I, as explained in simple random sampling. The elements with the following numbers will comprise the systematic random sample: r, r+1, r+2i, r+3i, +4i...r+ (n-1)i.

III) Stratified Sampling


Select a suitable sampling frame. Select the stratification variable (s) and the number of strata (H). Divide the entire population into H strata. Based on the classification variable, assign each element of the population to one of the H strata. In each stratum, the number the elements from 1 to Nh (the population size of stratum h ). Determine the sample size of each stratum, nh, based on proportionate or o Disproportionate .. In each stratum, select a sample random sample of size nh.

IV) Cluster Sampling


We describe the procedure for selecting a simple two-stage sample, because this represents the simpler case. Assign a number, from 1 to N, to each element in the population.
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Divide the population into C clusters, of which c will be included in the sample. Calculate the sampling interval, I, i= N/c. If it is a fraction, round to the nearest integer. Select a random number, r, between 1 and I, as explained in simple random sampling. Identify elements with the following numbers: r, r+1, r+2i, r+3i, .., r+(c-1) i. Select the cluster that contains the identified elements. Select sampling units within each selected cluster based on SRS or systematic sampling. The number of sampling units selected from each sample cluster is approximately that same and equal to n/c. If the proportion of a cluster exceeds the sampling interval, I, that cluster is selected with certainty. That cluster is removed from further consideration. Calculate the new population size, N*, number of clusters to be selected, C* (=c-1), and the new sampling interval, i*. Repeat this process until each of the remaining clusters has a population less than the relevant sampling interval. If b clusters have been selected with certainty, select the remaining c-b clusters according to steps 1 through 7 . The fraction of units to be sampled from each cluster selected with certainty is the overall sampling fraction =n/N. Thus, for clusters selected with certainty we would select ns =n/N (N1 +N2 + . . . + Nb) units. The units selected from clusters selected under two-stage sampling will therefore be n*= n-ns Developing a Sample Plan The various aspects of sampling are logically joined together and has a definite sequence or steps presented as follows: Step 1: Define the relevant population. Step 2: Obtain the listing of the population. Step 3: Design the sample plan (size, method).
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Step 4: Access the population Step 5: Draw the sample. Step 6: Validate The Sample. Step 7: Resample, If Necessary. Method of Determining the Sample Size The following methods include the following: 1) Arbitrary Approach: Uses a rule of thumb to determine the sample size. The researcher may determine, for instance, the sample size should be 5% of the population. Arbitrary sample size are simple and easy to apply, but they neither efficient not economical. 2) Conventional Approach: It follows some convention, number believed somehow to be the right sample size. The convention might be an average of the sample sizes of similar studies, it might be the largest sample size of previous surveys, or it might be equal to the sample size of a competitors survey. For instance, the researcher may take the conventional sample size of between 1000 and 1200 as determined by the industry. Use of a conventional sample size can result in a sample that may be too small or too large. 3) Cost Analysis It uses cost as a basis for sample size. In this case instead of the value of the information to be gained from survey being a primary consideration in the sample size, the sample size is determined by cost factors that ignore the value.
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4) Statistical Approach: Some advanced statistical techniques require certain minimum sample size in order to be reliable, or to safeguard the validity of the statistical results. Statistical analysis is used to analyze subgroups within a sample. 5) Confidence Internal Approach To create a valid sample, the confidence interval approach applies the concepts of: Variability Confidence interval Sampling distribution , and A standard error of a mean.

Variability: is the amount of dissimilarity in respondents answers to a particular question. Confidence interval: is a large whose end points define a certain percentage of the responses is a question: Standard Error: it indicates how far away from the true population value a typical sample result is expected to fall: There are two ways to compute a standard error: The standard error of the mean The slandered error of a percentage

Assume that is a driving survey a standard deviation of 3000 miles was found with a sample of 1000 drivers. Find the standard deviation error. SX= 3000 = 300 100

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This shows that the sample value is expected to fall 300 miles away from the true population value. Summary Sampling design decisions are important aspects of research design and include both the sampling plan to be used and the sample size that will be needed. Probability sampling plans lend themselves to Generalizablity and non-probability sampling designs, though not geralizable, and offer convenience and timely information. Some probability plans are more efficient than other. Though non-probability sampling plans have limitations in terms of Generalizablity, they are often the only designs available for certain types of investigation, as in the case of exploratory research, or where information is needed quickly, or is available with only certain special groups. The sample size is determined by the level of precision and confidence desired in estimating the population parameters, as well as the variability in the population itself. Cost considerations could also play a part. The Generalizablity of the findings from a study of the sample to the population is dependent on its representativeness-that is, the sophistication of the sampling design used, and the sample size. Sample data are used for both estimating population parameters and hypothesis testing. Sample Data Hypothesis Testing So far we have discussed sample data as a means of estimating the population parameters, but sample data can also be used to test hypotheses about population values rather than simply to estimate population values. The procedure for this testing incorporates the same information as interval estimation, but the goals behind the two methods are somewhat different. Referring to the earlier example of the average dollar value purchases of customers in a department store, instead of tying to estimate the average purchase value of the stores customers with a certain degree of accuracy, let us say that we now wish to determine whether or not customers expend the same average amount in purchases at Department Store A as in department Store B. from Chapter 5, we know that we would
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first set the null hypothesis, which would state that there would be no difference in the dollar values expended by customers hopping at the two different stores. This would be expressed as: Ho: A-B=0 The alternate hypothesis of differences would be stated non directionally (since we have no idea whether customers buy more at Store A or Store B) as: HA: A-B0 If we take a sample of 20 customers from each of the two stores and find that the mean dollar value purchases of customers in store A is 105 with a standard Figure 11.4 Illustration of the Trade-off between Precision and Confidence. (a) More Precision but Less Confidence. (b) More Confidence but Less Precision.

.50

.99

.005 .25
_

.005

.25 x (a)

(b)

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Deviation of 10, and the corresponding figures for Store B are 100 and 15, respectively, we see that: XA-XB= 105-100=5 Whereas our null hypothesis had postulated no difference (difference=0). Should we then conclude that our alternate hypothesis is to be accepted? We can not say! To determine this we must first find the probability or likelihood of the two group means having a difference of 5 in the context of the null hypothesis of a difference of 0. This can be done by converting the difference in the sample means to a t statistic and seeing what the probability is of finding a t of that value. The t distribution has known probabilities attached to it [see Table II (t-table) in the Appendix at the end of the book.]. Looking at the t distribution table, we find that with two samples of 20 each ([the degrees pf freedom become (m1 +n2)-s=38] for the t value to be significant at the .05 level, the critical value should be around 2.021 (see t table column 6 against u 40). We need to use the 2-tailde test since we do not know whether the difference between Store A and Store B will be positive or negative. For even a 90% probability, it should be at least 1.684 (see the number to the left of 2.021). The t statistic can be calculated for testing our hypothesis as follows: T= (_x1 x2) (1 2) Sx1 sx2 Sx1 sx2 =
2 n1s1

+ n2s22 (1/n1 +/n2) (n1+n2-2)

2 = (20*10 )

+ (20/152)

(1/20+1/20)

20+20-2
t= (XA XB)-(A-

B)

4.136

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We already know that XA-XB=5 (the difference in the means of the two stores) and A-B=0 (from our null hypothesis) Then, t=5-0=1.209 4.136 This t value of 1.209 is much below the value of 2.021 [for 40 degrees of freedom for a two population t-test, the closest to the actual 38 df ((20+20)-21) required for the conventional 95% probability, and even for the 90% probability, which requires a value of 1.684. We can thus say that the difference of 5 that we found between the two stores is not significantly different from 0. The conclusion, then, is that there is no significant difference between how much customers buy (dollars expended) at Department Store A and Department Store B. alternative. Sample data can thus be used not only for estimating the population parameters, but also for testing hypotheses about population value, population correlations, and so forth, as we will see more fully. We will thus accept the null hypothesis and reject the

DETERMINING THE SAMPLE SIZE Now that we are aware of the fact that the sample size is governed by the extent of precision and confidence desired, how do we determine the sample size required for our research? The procedure can be illustrated through as example. Suppose a manager wants to be 95% confident that the expected monthly withdrawals in a bank will be within a confidence interval of +$500. let us say that a study of a sample of clients indicates that the average withdrawals made by them have a standard deviation of $3,500. What would be the sample size needed in this case?

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We noted earlier the population mean can be estimated by using the formula: =XKx Since the confidence level needed here is 95%, the applicable K value is 1.96 (t-table). The interval estimate of $500 will have to encompass a dispersion of (1.96*standard error). That is, 500=1.96xSx Sx=500/1.96=255.10 We already know that sx= s
n

255.10= 3500
n

n=188 The sample size needed in the above was 188. Let us say that this bank has a total clientele of only185. This means we cannot sample 188 clients. We can in this case apply the correction formula and see what sample size would be needed to have the same level of precision and confidence given the fact that we have a total of only 185 clients. The correction formula is as follows: Sample Size Decision Model Krejcie and Morgan (1970) greatly simplified size decision by providing a table that ensures a good decision model. The interested researcher is advised to read Krejcie and Morgan (1970) as well as Cohen (1969) for decisions on sample size. The table below provides that generalized scientific guideline for sample size decisions.

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Table 6.3 Sample Size for a Given Population Size N 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 S 10 14 19 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 59 63 66 70 73 N 220 230 240 254 260 270 280 290 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 S 140 144 148 152 155 159 162 165 169 175 181 186 191 196 201 205 210 N 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3500 4000 4500 S 291 297 302 306 310 313 317 320 322 327 331 335 338 341 346 351 354

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95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210

76 80 86 92 97 103 1108 113 118 123 127 132 136

480 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 100 110

214 217 226 234 242 248 254 260 265 269 274 278 285

5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 15000 2000 30000 40000 50000 75000 100000

357 361 364 367 368 370 375 377 379 380 381 382 384

Importance of Sampling Design and Sample Size It is now possible to see how both sampling design and the sample size are important to establish the representativeness of the sample for generalize ability. If the appropriate sampling design is not used, a large sample size will not, in itself, allow the findings to be generalized to the population. Likewise, unless the sample size is adequate for the desired level of precision and confidence, no sampling design, however sophisticated, can be useful to the researcher in meeting the objectives of the study. Hence, sampling decisions should consider both the sampling design and the sample size. Too large a
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sample size, however (say, over 500) could also become a problem inasmuch as we would be prone to committing Type II errors. That is, we would accept the findings of our research, when in fact we should reject them. In other words, with too large a sample size, even weak relationships (say a correlation of .10 between two variables) might reach significance levels, and we would be inclined to believe that these significant relationships found in the sample are indeed true of the population, when in reality they may not be. research projects. Another point to consider, even with the appropriate sample size, is whether statistical significance is more relevant than practical significance. For instance, a correlation of .25 may be statistically significant, but since this explains only about 6% of the variance (.252), how meaningful is it in terms of practical utility? Roscoe (1975) proposes the following rules of thumb for determining sample size: 1. Sample sizes larger than 30 and less than 500 are appropriate for most research. 2. Where samples are to be broken into sub samples; (male/females, junior/seniors, etc), a minimum sample size of 30 for each category is necessary. 3. In multivariate research (including multiple regression analyses), the sample size should be several times (preferably 10 times or more) as large as the number of variables in the study. 4. For simple experimental research with tight experimental controls (matched pars, etc), successful research is possible with samples as small as 10 to 20 in size. Critical Discussion Questions 1. Identify the relevant population for the following research foci, and suggest the appropriate sampling design to investigate the issues, explaining why they are appropriate. Wherever necessary, identify the population frame as well. Thus, neither too large nor too small sample sizes help

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A gain manufacturing firm would like to know the types of guns possessed by various age groups in Washington DC A hospital administrator wants to find out if the single parents working in the hospital have a higher rate of absenteeism than parents who are not single. A researcher would like to assess the extent of pilferage in the materials storage warehouse of manufacturing firms on the east coast. The director of human resources wants to investigate the relationship between drug abuses and dysfunctional behaviour of blue-collar workers in a particular plant. 2. Explain why cluster sampling is a probability sampling? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of cluster sampling? 4. Describe a situation where you would consider the use of cluster sampling. 5. Explain what precision and confidence are and how they influence sample size. 6. Discuss what is meant by the statement: there is a trade-off between precision and confidence under certain conditions. 7. The use of a convenience sample used in organizational research is correct because all members share the same organizational stimuli and go through almost the same kinds of experience in their organizational life. Comment. 8. Use of a sample of 5,000 is not necessarily better than one of 500. How would you react to this statement? 9. Non probability sampling designs ought to be preferred to probability sampling designs in some cases. Explain with an example. 10. Because there seems to be a tradeoff between accuracy and confidence for any given sample size, accuracy should be always considered more important than precision. Explain with reasons why you would or would not agree?

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11. For situation presented below, indicate what would be the relevant population and the most appropriate sampling design. Make sure that you discuss the reasons for your answers. a. A medical inspector desires to estimate the overall average monthly

occupancy rates of the cancer wards in 80 different hospitals that re evenly located in the northwestern , southwestern, central, and southern suburbs of New York city. b. The director of university womens Professional advancement (UWPA),

appointed by the president of southern Illinois university at Carbondale to enhance the status of women on campus some 2 years ago, was listening to a speech made by the president of the womens caucus. It suddenly occurred to the director that it would be a great idea to get the option of members of this vocal group on how effective they perceived UWPA to be in enhancing the status of women on campus. She thought she could ask a few quick questions as the audience left the meeting room. What should the sampling design be to assess the tastes of this group? c. A magazine article suggested that consumers 35 to 44 will soon be the nations biggest spenders , so advertisers must learn how to appeal to this over-the thrill l crowed. If this suggestion appeals to an appeals to apparel manufacturer, what should be the sampling design be to assess the tastes of this group? d. A consultant had administered a questionnaire to some 285 employees using a simple random sampling procedure. As she locked at the responses, she suspected that two questions might not have been clear to the respondents. She would like to know if her suspicion is well-founded. 12. The Macarthur Co. produces special vacuum cleaners for concurrently cleaning

the inside of cars. About a thousand of these are produced every month with stamped serial number and stored serially in a stockroom. Once a month an inspector does a quality control check on 50 of these. When he certifies them as to
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quality, the units are selected from the stockroom for sale. The production and sales managers, however, are not satisfied with the quality control check since, quite often, many of the units sold are returned by customers because of various types of defects. What would be the most useful sampling plan to test the 50 units?

Chap - 7 Qualitative Research Methods Objective After completing this chapter, the student will be able to: Define Qualitative Research Examine The Rational Behind Undertaking Qualitatitive Research Classify Qualitative Research

7.1 Sources of Data There are two data sources: secondary sources and primary sources. a) Secondary Sources Secondary data are useful not only to find information to solve our research problem, but also to better understand and explain our research problem. In most research we need to begin with a literature review: either study on and around our topic of research. They include books, journal articles, and online data sources such as WebPages of firms, governments, semi-government organizations and catalogues. The first step is to locate these sources and then to evaluate the usefulness of the contents of each. Some research questions can be answered only through secondary data sources, further data collection is needed. where no

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Secondary data can help researchers in the following manner: Answering research questions problems; Helping in problem formulation and /or devising more concrete and focused research questions; Deciding about the appropriateness of a certain research method or even suggesting better research methods for a particular problem; Providing benchmarking measures and other findings that can be compared later on with the results of the study at hand. The following secondary sources can be important for our research: Internet sites and web pages of different companies and organizations www.info.com/companies. Central and local government studies and reports , state budgets , rules on international trade regarding imports and exports, and policies on foreign direct investment, chamber of commerce, national trade development bureaus and export promotion organizations. Studies and reports of institutions and departments such as universities , telecommunications departments , marketing and other research institutes , chambers of commerce and foreign missions such as embassies , trade centers and consulates. Census reports on demographics, income levels and consumption patterns. Academics as well as professional journals and newsletters relevant to the problem area. In many countries, different branch organizations publish journals on statistics regarding their own industry, market share, revenues and imports and exports. For example, local chambers of commerce, small business associations and association of retailers. Historical studies regarding the development of a particular discipline or problem area. For example there are a number of handbooks available on
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or solving some or all of the research

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different topics, such as a handbook

textbooks and other published on

international business or a handbook on qualitative research methods. Textbooks and other published materials directly or indirectly related to the problem area. Commercial research companies selling data, such as: AC Nielson (www.acnielson.com) and synovate (www.synovate.com). International trade websites, United Nations, international trade statistics and the world bank (www. Worldbank.org). And last but not least, thesiss & reports written by other students in our own university and in other schools and universities. Many schools keep an up-todate record of all the theses written in different disciplines. This is perhaps the most important secondary source at the earlier stages of our research process. They provide us with insight not only into our problem area, but also into the data sources mentioned above. Advantages of Secondary Data There are different advantages of secondary data that the researcher can obtain: It saves an enormous amount of time and money. The researcher needs only go to the library and locate and utilize the sources. This not only helps the researcher to better formulate and understand the research problem, but also broadens the base from which scientific conclusions can be drawn. In other words, the verification process is more rapid and the reliability of the information and conclusions greatly enhanced. In case you need to do a longitudinal study, secondary sources provide excellent historical data. The secondary data can also be helpful in segmentation and sampling of your target group. Secondary sources facilitate cross-cultural /international research, as it is easier to compare similar data from two or more countries. A number of international surveys, for example the World Bank and Euromonitor, provide comparable

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cross-country data that can be used as a sole data source or in combination with some primary data collection. They can suggest suitable methods or data to handle a particular research problem. Moreover, they provide a comparison instrument with which we can easily interpret and understand our primary data. Quite often some research questions can best be answered by combining information from secondary and primary data. In most research questions it is necessary to consult some secondary data sources as this saves time and facilitates better handling of our research questions. Guide lines to get started with a search for a secondary data Identify what you wish to know and what you already know about your topic

Develop a list of key terms and names

Search several of the general guides and directories for papers and or reports

Compile the literature you have found .rework your list of key words and authors if necessary

Check if you have the information you wished to get.


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Consult the various directory guides.

Identify authorities in the area and consult them.

Disadvantages of Secondary Data There are some serious drawbacks in working with secondary data. The data are collected for another study with different objectives and they may not completely fit our problem. it is therefore of the utmost importance to identify what we are studying , what we already know about the topic ,and what we want to have as further information on it. For example, when studying the export behaviour of smaller firms, we could use a number of studies undertaken in different countries and could compare the results with our findings. After a closer look, however, we might realize that smaller firms were defined differently. To determine the size (small, medium or large), different measurement units were used. Some studies defined size in terms of sales, some in terms of number of employees, some in terms of profit and some in terms of square meters of occupied space, as in the case of retailing firms. Even if two studies use the same measurement units, the terms of definition were often different. For example, in a study in Norway, firms with 200-499 employees were defined as medium sized, while in USA firms with fewer than 500 employees were defined as smaller firms. Using secondary data from commercial sources may be quite expensive. In this case you have to compare the cost of collecting primary data as compared with the price of purchasing the secondary data.
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It is the responsibility of the researcher to check the whether findings presented by another researcher are based on primary or secondary data.

Types of Secondary Data Several types of secondary data are available, form government reports to companys annual reports that are always more upbeat than the reality. In business research, while doing work for a company, a lot of information is available from internal sources, including information on customers, suppliers, employees, marketing plans and efforts and, sometimes, even on the competitors. The researcher cannot accept this information at its face value, although it is free and readily available. External sources include published books and journal articles, academic as well as professional and popular. b) Primary Data There are several ways of collecting primary data, particularly in surveys. The most important methods include: observation method , interview method through questionnaires , through schedules (population census, for example) other methods which include : Warranty Cards, Distribute Audits/Store Audits Pantry Audits, Consumer Panels(transitory or continuing consumer panel)

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Using Mechanical Devices(Eye camera, Pupilometric camera, psycho galvanometer),

Projective Techniques/ Indirect interviewing method) which includes word association test , sentence completion test , Story completion test, Verbal projection test, Pictorial techniques Thematic apperception test(T.A.T) Rozenzewig test Holtsman inkblot Test (HIT) Tomkins-picture arrangement test

Play technique Quizzes tests and examinations Sociometric

Depth Interviews, And Content Analysis

Selection of Appropriate Method of Data Collection There are various methods of data collection. As such the researcher must judiciously select the methods/ methods for his own study, keeping in view of the following factors: 1. Nature ,Scope And Object Of Enquiry :

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This constitutes the most important factor affecting the choice of a particular method .The method selected should be such that it suits the type of inquiry that is to be conducted by the researcher.

This factor is also important in deciding whether the data already available secondary data are to be used or the data not yet available primary data are to be collected.

2. Availability of Funds Availability of funds for the research project determines to a large extent the method to be used for the collection of the data. When funds at the disposal of the researcher are very limited, he will have to select a comparatively cheaper method which may not be as efficient and effective as some other costly methods. Finance, in fact, is a big constraint in practice and the researcher has to act within this limitation. 3. Time Factor Availability of time has also been taken into account in deciding a particular method of data collection. Some methods take relatively more time, whereas with others the data can be collected in a comparatively shorter duration. The time at the disposal of the researcher, thus, affect the selection of the method by which the data are to be collected. 4. Precision Required Precision required is yet another important factor to be considered at the time of selecting the method of collection of data. Definition of Qualitative Research

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Qualitative research: an unstructured exploratory research methodology based on small samples that provides insights and understanding of the problem setting. Qualitative techniques include the class of the observation methods techniques in which the researcher relies on his or her powers of observation rather communicating with a respondent in order to obtain information. Rational For Qualitative Research There are several reasons to use qualitative research. It is not always possible, or desirable to use fully structured or formal methods to obtain information from respondents. People may be unwilling or unable to answer certain questions. People are unwilling to give truthful answers to questions that invade their privacy , embarrass them, or have a negative impact on their ego or status. Examples of such sensitive questions include: their subconscious. The values, emotional drives, and motivations residing at the subconscious level are disguised from the outer world by rationalizations and other ego defense. For example, a person may have purchased an expensive sports car to overcome feelings of inferiority. However, if asked, Why did you purchase this sports car? he may say, I got a great deal, My old car was falling apart, or I need to impress my customers and clients.
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Have you recently purchased sanitary napkins? Drugs for nervous tensions? Pills for anxiety?

People may be unable to provide accurate answers to questions that tap

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In such cases, the desired information can be best obtained through qualitative research.

Major Classification of Qualitative Research Qualitative research procedure is classified into either direct or indirect techniques based on whether the true purpose of the research is known to the respondents. 1) Direct Approach (Non -Disguised) A Direct Approach is not disguised. The purpose of the research is disclosed to the respondents or is otherwise obvious to them from the questions asked. One type of qualitative research in which the purpose of the project are disclosed to the respondents or are obvious , given the nature of the interview. The direct approach includes focus groups and depth interviews. a) A Focus Group: Defined as an interview conducted by a trained moderator in a non structured and natural manner with a small group of respondents. The main purpose of focus groups is to gain insights by listening to a group of people from the appropriate target market talk about issues of interest to the researcher. The value of the technique lies in the unexpected findings often obtained from a free-flowing group discussion. They are so popular that many marketing research practioners consider this technique synonymous with qualitative research.

The key characteristics of a focus group may be described by acronym FOCUS GROUP. F ocused (on a particular topic). O outline prepared for discussion. C haracteristics of the moderator. U nstructured. S ize 8-12. G roup composition: homogeneous.

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R ecorded audiocassettes and videotapes. O bservation: one way mirror. U ndisguised. P hysical setting: relaxed. S everal sessions needed: 1-3 hours each.

Major Characteristics of Focus Groups S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 Characteristics Group size Group composition Physical setting Time duration Recording Moderator Description 8 to 12 Homogeneous, respondents prescreened Relaxed , informal atmosphere 1 to 3 hours Use Of Audiocassettes And Videotapes Observational, Interpersonal And Communication Skills of the Moderator. Key Qualifications of Focus Groups Moderators 1. Kindness with firmness: The moderator must combine a disciplined detachment with understanding empathy in order to generate the necessary interaction. 2. 3. 4. Permissiveness: The moderator must be permissive yet alert to signs that the groups cordially or purpose is disintegrating. Involvement: The moderator must encourage and stimulate intense personal involvement. Incomplete understanding: The moderator must encourage respondents to be more specific about generalized comments by exhibiting incomplete understanding. 5. 6. Encouragement: The moderator must encourage unresponsive members to participate. Flexibility: The moderator must be able to improve and alter the planned outline amid the distractions of the group process.
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7.

Sensitivity: The moderator must be sensitive enough to guide the group discussion at an intellectual as well as emotional level.

Procedures for Planning and Conducting Focus Groups Determine the objectives of the marketing research project & define the problem. Specify the objectives of qualitative. State the objectives /questions to be answered by focus groups. Write a screening questionnaire. Develop a moderators out line. Conduct the focus group interview. Review tapes & analyze the data. Summarize the findings and plan follow-up research and action. Other Variations in Focus Groups Other variations include the following: 1. Two-Way Focus Groups: This allows one target group to listen to and from a related group. In one application, physicians viewed a focus group of arthritis patients discussing the treatment they desired. A focus group of the physicians was then held to determine their reactions. 2. Dual Moderator Group: This is a focus group interview conducted by two moderators. One moderator is responsible for the smooth flow of the session, and the other ensures that specific issues are discussed. 3. Dueling Moderator group: There are two moderators, but they deliberately take opposite positions on how the issues to be discussed. This allows the researcher to explore both sides of the controversial issues. 4. Respondent Moderator Groups: In this type of focus groups, the moderator asks several participants to play the role of moderator temporarily to improve group dynamics.

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5.

Client Participant Groups: Client personnel are identified and made part of the discussion group. Their primary role is to offer clarifications that will make the group process more effective.

6.

Mini Groups:

These groups consist of a moderator and only 4 or 5

respondents. They are used when the issues of interest require more expensive probing than is possible in a standard group of 8 to 12. 7. Telesession Groups: Focus group sessions by phone using the conference call techniques. Advantages & Disadvantage of Focus Groups Advantages Focus groups offer several advantages over other data collection processes. 1. 2. 3. Synergism: putting a group of people together will produce a wider range of information, insight and ideas than will individual responses secured privately. Snowballing: a bandwagon effect often operates in a group interview, in that one persons comment triggers a chain reaction from the other participants. Stimulation: usually after a brief introductory period, the respondents want to express their ideas and expos e their feelings as the general level of excitement over the topic increase in the group. 4. Security: because the participants feelings are similar to those of other group members, they feel comfortable and are therefore willing to express their ideas and feelings. 5. Spontaneity: since participants are not required to answer specific questions, their responses can be spontaneous and unconventional and should therefore provide an accurate idea of their views. 6. 7. Serendipity: Ideas are most likely to arise out of the blue in a group than in an individual interview. Specialization: because a number of participants are involved simultaneously, use of a highly trained, but expensive, interviewer is justified.

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8.

Scientific scrutiny: The group interview allows close scrutiny of the data collection process, in that observers can witness the session and it can be recorded for later analysis.

9. 10.

Structure: The group interview allows for flexibility in the topics covered and the depth with which they are treated. Speed: since a number of individuals are being interviewed at the same time, data collection and analysis proceed relatively quickly.

Disadvantages 1. 2. Misuse: Focus groups can be misused and abused by considering the results as conclusive rather than exploratory. Misjudge: focus group results can be more easily misjudged than the results of other data collection techniques. Focus Groups are particularly susceptible to client and researcher bias. 3. Moderation: Focus groups are difficult to moderate. Moderators with all the desirable skills are rare. The quality of the results depends heavily on the skills of the moderator. 4. 5. Messy: the unstructured nature of the responses makes coding, analysis, and interpretation difficult. Focus groups data tend to be messy. Misrepresentation: Focus group results are not representative of the general population and are not projectable. Consequently, focus groups results should not be the sole basis for decision making. Application of Focus Groups Focus groups can be used to address substantive issues such as: Understanding consumers perceptions, preferences, and behaviour

concerning a product category. Obtaining impressions of new product concepts. Gathering new ideas about older products. Developing creative concepts and copy material for advertisement. Securing price impressions.
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Obtaining preliminary consumer reaction to specific marketing programs. The methodological applications of focus groups include: Defining a problem more precisely. Generating alternative courses of action. Developing an approach to a problem. Obtaining information helpful in structuring consumer questionnaires. Generating hypothesis that can be tested quantitatively. Interpreting previously obtained quantitative results. On Line Focus Group interviews As in the case of traditional focus groups, online focus group participation is by invitation only. The respondents are pre recruited, generally from an online list of people who have expressed an interest in participating. A screening questionnaire is administered online to qualify the respondents.Thos e who qualify are invited to participate in a focus group, they receive a time, a URL, a room name, and a password via e-mail. Before the focus group begins, participants receive information about the focus group that covers such things as how to express emotions when typing. Electronic emotion indicators are produced using keyboards characters and are standard in their use on the internet. For example : -) and :( are examples of smiling and sad faces. There are a wide range emotions to choose from, such as I am frowning, I am laughing to myself, I am embarrassed , I am mad now. I am responding passionately now. This is then followed by the response. When it is time for the group they move into a web-based chat room. They go to the focus group location(URL) and click on the Enter Focus Room Item To enter they must supply the room name, user name and pass word that was e-mailed to them earlier. In the chat room the moderator and the participants type to each other in real time.
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The general practice is for the moderator to always pose their questions in all capital letters and the respondents are asked to use upper and lower cases. Advantages of On Line Focus Groups People from all over the country or even the world can participate, and the client can observe the group from the convenience of the home or office. Geographical constraints are removed and time constraints are lessened. Unlike the traditional focus groups , you have the unique opportunity to contact group participants again at a later date , to revisit issues or introduce them to modifications in material presented in the original focus group The internet enables the researchers to reach segments that are usually hard to survey: doctors, lawyers, professionals,, working mothers, and others who lead busy lives and are traditional focus groups. Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups Only people that have and know how to use a computer can be surveyed online. Since the name of an individual is often private, actually verifying that a respondent is a member of a target group is difficult. The lack of general control over the respondents environment and their potential exposure to distracting external stimuli. Since online focus groups could potentially have respondents scattered all over the world, the researchers and moderator(s) have no idea what else the respondents may be doing while participating in the group. On Line versus Traditional Focus Groups S/N 1 Characteristics Group size Online Groups 4-6 8-12
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not interested in taking part

in

Focus Traditional, Focus Groups

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2 3 4 5 6

Group composition Time duration Physical setting Respondent identity Respondent attentiveness

Anywhere in the Drawn from the local are. world 1-1.5 hours Researcher little control Difficult to verify engage tasks 1-3 hours. has Under the control of the researcher. Can be easily verified. can be

Respondents can Attentiveness in other monitored. can be Recruited

Respondent recruiting

Easier, recruited

by traditional mail,

online, means

(telephone,

by e-mail, panel mail panel) or by traditional means. 8 9 Group dynamics Openness of the respondents Limited Synergistic , snowballing ( bandwagon) effect Respondents are Respondents are candid, more candid due except for sensitive topics. to lack of-faceto-face contact. 10 Nonverbal communication Body cannot observed, emotions expressed using symbols. 11 Use of physical stimuli Limited to those A that can variety of stimuli be (products, be used. Time consuming and advertising, by language Body language and be emotions observed.

displayed on the demonstrations, etc.) Can internet. 12 Transcripts Available

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immediately. 13 Observers with moderator communication Observer

expensive to obtain. can Observers can manually

communicate with send notes to the focus the moderator on group room. a split screen.

14

Unique moderator skills

Typing, computer Observational usage, familiarity with slang. chat room

15

Turnaround time

Can be set up Takes many days for setup and completed in and completion a few days.

16 17

Client travel costs Basic focus group costs

None. Much expensive.

Can be expensive. less More facility expensive rental, taping, due to and food,

video/audio

transcript preparation. b) Depth Interview Depth interview respondent is an unstructured , direct , personal interview by a highly skilled in which a single underlying

is probed

interviewer to uncover

motivations, beliefs, attitudes , and feelings on a topic. The main features of a depth interview may be summarized by the acronym DEPTH. D epth of coverage. E ach respondent individually interviewed P robe the respondent T alented interviewer required. H idden motives may be uncovered

Depth- Interviewing Techniques


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There are three depth interviewing techniques that have recently gained popularity are laddering, hidden issue questioning, and symbolic analysis. 1. Laddering: A technique for conducting depth interviews in which a line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics. Laddering provides a way to probe into consumers deep underlying psychological and emotional reasons that affect their purchasing decisions. When determining why a person buys a product, researchers want to know more than simply quality and low price. Laddering requires interviewers to be trained in specific probing techniques in order to develop a meaningful mental map of the consumers view of a target product. The ultimate goal is to combine mental maps of consumers who are similar, which will lead to the reasons why people purchase particular products. Probing is used to go beyond the initial responses interview participants give to questions. When asked why they prefer a product, responses are initially attributing related. Examples of these responses would include color, taste, price, size, and brand name. Each attribute, consequence, and value of the underlying motivators are found by climbing the ladder to the real reasons for purchasing products. The Following initial responses with questions leads to much more useful information for the marketer: Answer: I buy Maybelline cosmetics because it is good brand name at a reasonable price. Question: why are reasonably priced cosmetics so important to you? Answer: well, buying quality product that isnt high priced makes me feel good about myself because I am spending my money wisely. 2. 3. Hidden Issue Questioning: A type of depth interview that attempts to locate personal sore spots related to deeply felt personal concerns. Symbolic Analysis: A technique for conducting depth interview in which the symbolic meaning of objects is analyzed by comparing them with their opposites.
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Advantages of Depth Interviews Depth interviews can recover greater depth of insights than the focus groups. Depth interviews result in free exchange of information that may not be possible in focus groups because there is no social pressure to conform to group response. Disadvantages of Depth Interviews Skilled interviewers capable of conducting depth interviews are expensive and difficult to find. The lack of structure makes the results susceptible to the interviewers influence, and the quality and completeness of the results depend heavily on the interviewers skills. The data obtained are difficult to analyse and interpret, and the services of skilled psychologists are typically required for this purpose. Focus Groups versus Depth Interviews S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Characteristics Group synergy & dynamics Peer pressure & group dynamics Client involvement Generation of innovative ideas In-depth probing of individuals Uncovering hidden motives Discussion of sensitive topic Interviewing respondents who are competitors Interviewing respondents who are professionals Scheduling of respondents Amount of information Focus Groups + + + + Depth Interview + + + + + + + -

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12 13

Bias in Moderation and interpretation Cost per respondent

+ +

Application of depth Interviews Depth interviews can be effectively employed in special problem situations, such as those requiring: Detailed probing of the respondent ( automobile purchase) Discussion of confidential , sensitive , or embarrassing topics ?( personal finance, loose dentures) Situations where strong social norms exist and the respondent may be easily swayed by group response (attitude of college students toward sports. Detailed understanding shopping ) Interviews with professional people ( industrial marketing research) Interviews with competitors , who are unlikely to reveal the information in a group setting ( travel agents perceptions of airline package travel programs). Situations where the product consumption experience is sensory in nature, affecting mood states and emotions (perfumes, bath soap). 2) Indirect Approach (Disguised) Indirect Approach disguises the true purpose of the project. It is a type of qualitative research in which the purposes of the project are disguised from the respondents. A projective technique is an unstructured and indirect form of questioning encourages the respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings regarding the issues of concern. The main characteristics of projective techniques may be described by the acronym PROJECTIVE. P roject the underlying motivation, beliefs, and attitudes. R relationship association techniques.
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of complicated

behaviour

( department stores

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O vercome respondents unwillingness or inability to answer. J judgment required in interpretation of responses. E xpressive techniques. C onstruction completion techniques. T hematic: themes are elected. I ndirect. V ague situations are used as stimuli. E exploratory in nature

In projective techniques, respondents are asked to interpret the behaviour of others rather than describe their own behaviour. In interpreting the behaviour of others, respondents indirectly project their own motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings into the situations. Thus, respondents attitudes are uncovered by analyzing their responses to scenarios that are deliberately unstructured, vague and ambiguous. The more ambiguous the situation, the more respondents project their emotions , needs, motives, attitudes, and values, as demonstrated by work in clinical psychology on which projective techniques are based. As in Psychology, these techniques are classified as associations, completions, constructions, and expressive. The commonly used indirect techniques consisting of association techniques, completion techniques, construction techniques, and expressive techniques will be discussed. a) Association Techniques: A type of projective techniques in which in which the respondent is presented with a stimulus and asked to respond with the first thing that comes to mind. Word association is a projective technique in which respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time. After each word, they are asked to give the first word that comes to mind. The words of interest, called test words, are interspersed throughout the list, which also contains some neutral, or filler words to disguise the purpose of the study. For example, in the department store study, some of the test words might be: location, parking, shopping, quality, and price The subjects response to
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each word is recorded verbatim and responses are timed so that respondents who hesitate or reason out can be identified. The underlying reason assumption of these techniques is that association allows respondents to reveal their inner feelings about the topic of interest. Responses are analyzed by calculating: The frequency with which any word is given as a response ; The amount of time that elapses before a response is given ; and The number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable period of time. b) Completion Techniques: A projective technique that requires the respondent to complete an incomplete stimulus situation. Sentence completion is a projection technique in which respondents are presented with a number of incomplete sentence s and asked to complete them. Sentence the Completion. person In the context of the store at patronage sears study, is following incomplete A sentences may be used. who shops

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________. A person who receives a gift certificate good for saks Fifth Avenue would be JCPenny is most liked by _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _________________. When I think of shopping in a department store, I _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ ___________. Story Completion

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Projective techniques in which the respondents are provided with part of a story and required to give the conclusion in their own words. c) Construction Techniques: is a projective technique in which the respondent is required to construct a response in the form of a story, dialogue or description. Construction techniques are closely related to completion techniques. The two main construction techniques are : Picture Response: The roots of picture response techniques can be traced to the thematic Appreciation Test (TAT), which consists of a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events; which consists of a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events. In some of these pictures, the persons or objects are clearly depicted, while in others they are relatively vague. The respondent is asked to tell stories about these pictures. The respondents interpretation of the pictures gives indications of the individuals personality. For example, an individual may be characterized as impulsive, creative, unimaginative, and so on. The name Thematic Appreciation test is used because themes are elicited based on the subjects perceptual interpretation of pictures. Cartoon characters are shown in specific situations related to the problem. The respondents are asked to indicate the dialogue that one cartoon character might make in response to the comments of another r character. d) Expressive Techniques: Projective techniques in which the respondents is presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. The two main expressive techniques are role playing and third person technique. Role Playing: respondents are asked to assume the behaviour of someone else. Third Person Technique: A projective technique in which the respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person to the situation. Advantages of Projective Techniques
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Projective techniques have a major advantage over unstructured direct techniques focus groups and depth interviews. They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study. At times in direct questioning, the respondent may intestinally or unintentially misunderstand, misinterpret, or mislead the researcher. In these cases, projective techniques can increase the validity of responses by disguising the purpose. This is particularly true when the issue to be addressed is personal, sensitive, or subject to strong social Norms. Projective techniques are also helpful when underlying motivations, beliefs, and attitudes are operating at a subconscious level. Disadvantages Projective Techniques Projective techniques suffer from many of the disadvantages of unstructured direct techniques. These techniques generally require: Personal interviews with highly trained interviewers. Skilled interpreters are also required to analyze the responses. Hence, they tend to be expensive. Furthermore, there is a serious risk of interpretation bias. With the exception of word association, all techniques are open and, making the analysis and interpretation difficult and subjective. Some projective techniques such as role playing require respondents to engage in unusual behaviour. In such cases the researcher may assume that respondents who agree to participate are themselves unusual in some way. Therefore they may be not representative of the population of interest. Applications of Projective Techniques

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The effectiveness of these techniques is enhanced when the following guidelines are observed. Projective techniques should be used because the required information can not be accurately obtained by direct methods. Projective techniques should be used for exploratory research to gain initial insights and understanding. Given their complexity, projective techniques should not be used naively. As a result it is desirable to compare findings generate d by projective techniques with the findings of the other techniques that permit a more representative sample. A Comparison of Focus Groups, Depth Interviews, and Projective Techniques S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 Criteria Degree of structure Probing of Focus groups Relatively high Depth interviews Relatively medium individual Low Relatively medium Interpretation bias Relatively low Relatively medium Uncovering subconscious Low information Discovering information innovative High Medium Low Medium to high High Relatively high High Relatively high Medium Low to high respondents Moderator bias Projective techniques Relatively low

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Obtaining information

sensitive Low

Medium

High

Involve behaviour

unusual No

To extent

limited Yes

Overall usefulness

Highly useful

Useful

Somewhat useful

Observation Methods Observation is defined as the recording of behavioral patterns of people, objects and events in a systematic manner to obtain information about the phenomenon of interest. The observer does not question or communicate with the people being observed. Information may be recorded as the events occur or from records of past events. Conditions for the Use of Observation Certain conditions must be met before a researcher can successfully use observation as a research tool. These conditions are: 1. The Event Must Occur in a Short Time Interval: Short-time interval means that the event must begin and end within a reasonable short time span. Examples include a shopping trip in a supermarket, waiting in a teller line at a bank, or purchasing a clothing item. Some decision-making processes can take a long time, for example buying a home, and it will be unrealistic in terms of the time and money required to observe the entire process. Because of this factor, observational research is usually limited to scrutinizing activities and is therefore not

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2.

The Observed Behaviour Must Occur in a Public Setting: Public behaviour refers to behaviour that occurs in a setting the researcher can readily observe. Action such as cooking, playing with ones children, or private worshipping are not public activities and are therefore not suitable for observational studies such as those described here.

3.

When the possibility of faulty recall rules out collecting information by asking the person: Occurs when actions or activities are so repetitive or automatic that the respondent can not recall specifics about the behaviour under question.

Observation Methods The observational methods are divided into the following: 1. Structured Vs. Unstructured Observation: Structured observation where the researcher clearly defines the behaviors to be observed and the methods by which they will be measured. An example would be an auditor performing inventory analysis in a store. This reduces the potential for observer bias and enhances the reliability of the data. Structured observation is appropriate when the marketing research problem has been clearly defined and the information needed has been specified. In these circumstances the details of the phenomenon to be observed can be clearly identified. Structured observations are suitable for use in conclusive research. In unstructured observation, the observer monitors all aspects of the phenomenon that seem relevant to the problem at hand, for example, observing children playing with new toys. This form of observation is appropriate when the problem has to be yet formulated precisely and flexibility is needed in observation to identify key components of the problem and to develop hypothesis. In an unstructured observation, potential for observer bias is high. For this reason, the observation findings should be treated as hypothesis to be tested, rather than as conclusive findings. Thus, unstructured observation is most appropriate for exploratory research. 2. Disguised Vs. Undisguised Observation: In disguised observation, the respondent is unaware that they are being observed. Disguise enables respondents to behave naturally, since people tend to behave differently when they know they are
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being observed. Disguise may be accomplished by using one way mirrors, hidden cameras, or in conscipious mechanical devices. Observers may be disguised as shoppers or sales clerks or in other appropriate roles. In disguised observation, the respondents are aware that they are under observation. For example, they may be aware of the prescience of the observer. Researchers disagree on how much effect the prescience of an observer has on behaviour. One viewpoint is that the observer effect is minor and short-lived. The other position is that the observer can seriously bias the behaviour patterns. 3. Natural vs. Contrived Observation: Natural observation involves observing behaviour as it takes place in the environment. For example, one could observe the behaviour of respondents eating fast food at Burger King. The advantage of natural observation is that the observed phenomenon will more accurately reflect the phenomenon. The disadvantages are the cost of waiting for the phenomenon to occur and the difficulty of measuring the phenomenon in a natural setting. Contrived observation involves to observing the behaviour in an artificial environment. Observation Methods Classified by Mode of Administration Observation method may be classified by mode of administration as personal observation, mechanical observation, audit, content analysis, and trace analysis. 1. Personal Observation: an observational research strategy in which human observers record the phenomenon being observed as it occurs. The observer does not attempt to control or manipulate the phenomenon being observed. The observer merely records what takes place. For example, a researcher might record traffic counts and observe traffic flows in department store. This information could aid in designing store layout and determining location of the individual departments, shelf locations, and merchandise displays. Companies like Microsoft also make use of personal observation in learning about the software needs of users. 2. Mechanical Observation: An observational research strategy in which mechanical devices rather than human observers record the phenomenon being observed. These devices may or may not require the respondents direct participation. They
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are used for continuously recording ongoing behaviour for later analysis. Of the mechanical devices that do not require respondents direct participation, the ACNielsen audiometer is best known. The audiometer is attached to a television set to continuously record what channel the set is tuned to. Recently, people meters have been introduced. People meters attempt to measure not only the channels to which a set is tuned but also who are watching. Other common examples include turnstiles that record the number of people entering or leaving a building, and traffic counters placed across streets to determine the number of vehicles passing certain locations. On-site cameras still, motion pictures or video are increasingly used by retailers to assess package designs, counter space, floor displays, and traffic patterns. Technological advances such as the Universal Product Code (UPC) have made a major impact on mechanical observation. The UPC system, together with optical scanners, allows for mechanized information collection regarding consumer purchases by product category, brand, store type, price, and quantity. The internet can be very good source for observation and can provide valuable information. The observations can be made in a variety of ways. The time spent on the page can also be measured by advanced techniques of starting the timer when the person clicks on the next button. Further, various other links can be provided by the researcher on the web page, and it can be observed to see which links are accessed more often. The analysis market researcher with of the links from where the company site is being approached by the individuals will provide the important information regarding the consumers related interest , and an in-depth analysis of the link sites will provide information on advertising , competitors, consumers, and target market demographics and psychographics.
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In contrast to the internet, many mechanical observation devices do require active respondent involvement. These mechanical devices may be classified into five groups. a. Eye-Tracking Monitors: Eye-tracking equipment, such as coulometer eye cameras, or eye view minutes, records the gaze movements of the eye. These devices can be used to determine how a respondent reads an advertisement or views a TV commercial and for how long the respondent looks at various parts of the stimulus. Such information is directly relevant to assessing advertising effectiveness. b. Pupil Meters: The Pupillometer measures changes in the diameter of the pupils of the respondents eyes. Respondents are asked to look at a screen on which an advertisement or other stimulus is projected. Image brightness and distance from respondents eyes are held constant. Changes in pupil size are interpreted as changes in cognitive activity resulting from exposure to the stimulus. The underlying assumption is that increased pupil size reflects interest and positive attitudes toward the stimulus. c. Psycho Galvanometers: Psycho Galvanometer an instrument that measures a respondents galvanic skin response (GSR) Galvanic skin response changes in the electrical resistance of the skin. The respondent is fitted with small electrodes that monitor electrical resistance and is shown stimuli such as advertisements, packages, and slogans. The theory behind this device is that physiological changes such as increased perspiration accompany emotional reactions. Excitement leads to increased perspiration, which increases the electrical resistance of the skin. From the strength of the response, the researcher infers the respondents interest level and attitudes toward the stimuli. d. Voice Pitch Analyzers: Measures emotional reactions through changes in the respondents voice. Changes in the relative vibration frequency of the human voice that accompany emotional reaction are measured with audio-adapted computer equipment. e. Devices Measuring Response Latency: Is the time a respondent takes before answering a question. It is used as a measure of the relative preference for various
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alternatives. Response time is thought to be directly related to uncertainty. Therefore, the longer a respondent takes to choose between two alternatives, the closer the alternatives are in terms of preference. On the other hand, if the respondent makes a quick decision, one alternative is clearly preferred. With the increased popularity of computer-assisted data collection, response latency can be recording accurately and without the respondents awareness. 3. Audit: The researcher collects data by examining physical records or performing inventory analysis. Audits have two distinguishing features. First, data are collected personally by the researcher. Retail and wholesale audits conducted by marketing research suppliers were discussed in the context of syndicated data. In pantry audit, the researcher takes an inventory of brands, quantities, and package sizes in a consumers home, perhaps in the course of a personal interview. Pantry audits greatly reduce the problem of untruthfulness or other forms of response bias. However, obtaining permission to examine consumers pantries can be difficult, and the fieldwork is expensive. Furthermore, the brands in the pantry may not reflect the most preferred brands or the brands purchased most often. 4. Content Analysis: Content analysis: is an appropriate method when the phenomenon to be observed is communication, rather than behaviour or physical objects. It is defined as the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the manifest content of a communication. It includes observation as well as analysis. The unit of analysis may be words different types of words or types of words in the message, character - individuals or objects, themes- propositions, space and time measures length or duration of the message, or topics subject of the message. Analytical categories for classifying the units are developed and the communication is broken down according to prescribed rules. Marketing research applications involve observing and analyzing the content or message of advertisements, newspaper articles, television and radio programs, and the like. For example, the frequency of appearance of blacks, women, and members of other minority groups in mass media has been studied using content analysis. Suppose we wanted to examine how the portrayal of women in U.S magazine advertising has changed, positively or negatively, over 10- year period from 1996 to 2006. We consider select
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a sample of 100 magazines that were in circulation in 1996 as well as in 2006. We could select 10 advertisements featuring women for each of these magazines, from different issues of each magazine, for 1996 as well as 2006. This will give us a sample of 1,000 advertisements for each year. We could then develop positive as well as negative categories for classifying the advertisements based on

S/N 1 2 3

Criteria Degree structure Degree disguise Ability observe natural setting

Personal observation of Low of Medium to High in

Mechanical observation Low to high Low to high Low to high

Audit High Low High

Content analysis High High Medium

Trace analysis Medium High Low

4 5 6

Observation High bias Analysis bias General remarks Most Flexible High

Low Low medium Can intrusive

Low to Low

Medium Low

Medium Medium to Method of resort last

be Expensive Limited

communications

5.

Trace Analysis: An observation approach in which data collection is based on physical traces, or evidence, of past behaviour. These traces may be left intentionally or unintentionally by the respondents. Several other innovative applications of trace analysis have been made in marketing research. The selective erosion of tiles in a museum indexed by the replacement rate was used to determine the relative popularity of exhibits. The number of different fingerprints on a page the
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readership of various advertisements in a magazine. The position of the radio dials in cars brought in for service was used to estimate share of listening audience of various radio stations. Advertisers used the estimates to decide on which stations to advertise. The age and conditions of cars in a parking lot were used to assess the affluence of customers. The magazines people donated to charity were used to determine peoples favorite magazines. Internet visitors leave traces that can be analyzed to examine browsing and usage behaviour by using cookies. A Comparative Evaluation of Observations Methods Relative Advantages of Observations They permit measurement of actual behaviour rather than reports of intended or preferred behaviour. There is no reporting bias, and potential bias caused by the interviewer and the interviewing process is eliminated or reduced. Certain types of data can be collected only by observations. These include behaviour patterns that the respondent is unaware of or unable to communicate. For example, information on babies toy preferences is best obtained by observing babies at play. Since they are unable to express themselves adequately. Moreover, if the observed phenomenon occurs frequently or is of short duration, observational methods may be cheaper and faster than survey methods. Relative Disadvantages of Observations The observed behaviour may not be determined because little is known about the underlying motives, beliefs, attitudes, and preferences. For example, people observed buying a brand of cereal may or may not like it themselves. They may be purchasing that brand for someone else in the household. Selective perception-bias in the researchers perception can bias the data.
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Observation is often is time consuming and expensive, and it is difficult to observe certain forms of behaviour such as personal activities. In some case the use of observation methods may be unethical, as in monitoring the behaviour of people without their knowledge or consent. To recap, a limitation of observation is that motivations, attitudes, and other internal conditions can not be observed. Analysis of Qualitative Data Compared to quantitative research , where numbers and what they stand for are the unit of analysis , qualitative data analysis use swords as the units of analysis and is guided by fewer universal rules and standard procedures. The goal of the qualitative research is to decipher, examine, and interpret meaningful patterns or themes that emerge out of the data. The meaningfulness of patterns and themes is determined by the research question at hand. There are three general steps that should be followed when analyzing qualitative data: Data Reduction: In this step the researcher chooses which aspects of the data are emphasized, minimized, or set aside for the project at hand. Data Display: in this step the researcher develops visual interpretations of the data with the use of such tools as a diagram, chart or matrix. The display helps to illustrate patterns and interrelationships in the data. Conclusion Drawing and Verification: In this step, the researcher considers the meaning of analyzed data and assesses its implication for the research questions at hand. Review Questions 1. Define qualitative research methods 2. Identify and explain qualitative research Methods 3. Is qualitative method inferior as compared to Quantative method?
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Chap-8 Quantitative Research Methods

Chapter objective After completing this chapter the student will be able to: Define a survey method Discuss the benefits and demerits of survey methods Identify and examine various survey methods

7.1 Survey methods

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A structured questionnaire given to a sample of a population and designed to elicit specific information from respondents. Structured data collection is the use of a formal questionnaire that presents questions in a prearranged order. Fixed alternative questions are questions that require respondents to choose from a set of predetermined answers. Advantages of Surveys Compared to observation or other qualitative methods, survey methods allow the collection of significant amounts of data in an economical and efficient manner; and they typically allow for much larger sample sizes. There are five advantages of using survey methods: 1) Standardization: Questions are preset and organized in a particular arrangement on a questionnaire Survey methods ensure that all respondents are asked the same questions and are expose d to the same response options for each question. 2) Ease of administration Survey modes are easy for administration as the respondent may fill out the questionnaire unattended. The administration aspects of survey are much simpler than, for instance, conducting a focus group or utilizing depth interviews. 3) Ability to tap the unseen The four question of what, why, how, and who help uncover unseen data. For instance we can ask customers their motives a particular brand, their attitude toward a particular product or the company, etc. Much information is unobservable and requires direct questions. 4) Suitability to tabulation and statistical analysis
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The commercial researcher ultimately must interpret the patterns or uncommon themes sometimes hidden in the raw data he or she collects. Statistical analysis, both simple and complex, is the preferred means of achieving this goal , and large cross sectional surveys perfectly complement these procedures.

Increasingly, questionnaire design software includes the ability too perform simple statistical analysis , such as tabulations of the answers to each question, as well as the ability to create color graphs summarizing these tabulations.

5) Sensitivity To Subgroup Differences Surveys involve large numbers of respondents. It is relatively easy to divide the sample into demographic groups or other subgroups and then to compare them for market segmentation implications. In fact, the survey sample design may be drawn up to specifically include important subgroups as a means of looking at market segment differences. In any case, the large sample sizes that characterize surveys facilitate subgroup analysis and comparisons of various groups existing in the sample. 7.2 Types of Survey Methods / Data Collection Modes There are three major methods of collecting information from respondents: I) Person administered Surveys (PAS) A person administered surveys is one in which an interviewer reads questions to the respondent and records his or her answer. It was the primary administration method for many years. However, its popularity has fallen of as communications systems have developed and technology has advanced. Nevertheless, person-administered surveys are still used. Advantages

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Person administered surveys have four unique advantages: 1. Feed back Interviewers often must respond to direct questions from respondents during an interview. Sometimes respondents do not understand the instructions, or they may not hear the question clearly, or they might become distracted by some outside factor during the interview. A human interviewer may be allowed to adjust his or her questions according to verbal or nonverbal cues and provide clarifications whenever a need arise. 2. Rapport It is often helpful to have another human being present to develop some rapport with the respondent early on in the questioning process. Once a bridge of trust and understanding has been established, most respondents will become visibly more relaxed with the interview and will open up more to the various questions being posed. 3. Quality control An interview sometimes must select certain types of respondents based on sex, age, or some other distinguishing characteristics. Personal interviewer may be used to ensure respondents are selected correctly. Alternatively, some researchers feel that respondents are more likely to be truthful when they respond face to face. 4. Adaptability Personal interviewers can adapt to respondent differences. It is not unusual , for instance , to find an elderly person who must be initially helped step-by-step through the answering process in order to understand how to respond to question asking if the respondent strongly agrees, somewhat agrees, somewhat disagrees, or strongly disagrees Disadvantages of Personal Administered Surveys Person administered surveys have four unique disadvantages: Slower
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Prone to errors; and More expensive than interviewing on the telephone or mailing the questionnaire to respondents. Interviewing Techniques in Personal Administered Surveys 1) In-Home Interview Two important factors justify the use of in-home interviews. The researcher must believe that personal contact is essential to the success of the interview. The survey may incorporate a set of advertisements the researcher wants viewed. It might require the respondent to see and touch a product, the respondent may have to perform a complicated task such as sorting cards with brand names on them into piles, or it might be vital that the interviewer make visual confirmations of the respondents qualifying characteristics or nonverbal causes. The researcher must be convinced that the in-home environment is conducive to the questioning process. It is often believed that conducting an interview in the home greatly improves the quality of responses and facilitates the rapport between interviewer and interviewee. When a respondent is a secure, comfortable environment, the likelihood of distraction is reduce, and it is believed that respondents take more care in responding to various questions. 2) Mall-Intercept Interview The expense of in-home interviewer travel is high, even for local surveys, the mall-intercept interview is one in which the respondent is encountered and while he or she is visiting a shopping mall.

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Advantages Mall intercept interviewing has acquired a major role as a survey method due to its ease of implementation and low cost. The presences of an interviewer who can interact with the respondent. Disadvantages 1. Sample representativeness is an issue, for most malls draw from a relatively small area in close proximity to their location. Some people shop at malls more frequently than other and therefore have a greater chance of being interviewed. 2. Shortcomings of small intercept interviewing are that a shopping mall does not have a comfortable home environment that is conducive to rapport and close attention to details. The respondent may feel uncomfortable as they may be pressed for time or otherwise preoccupied by various distractions outside the researchers control. These factors may adversely affect the quality of the interview. 3) In-Office Interview Business research conducted typically in the business interviews to-business with or organizational market requires business

executive, purchasing agents, engineer, or other managers. Normally, in-office interviews take place in person while the respondent is in his or her office. In office personal interviews incur relatively high costs.

4) Telephone Interviews (Traditional Telephone Interview & Central Location Telephone Interview)
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Telephone interviewing is an attractive option. Advantages Telephone survey has the potential to yield a very high quality sample. If the researcher employs random dialing procedures and proper call-back measures, the telephone approach may produce a better sample than any other survey procedure. Telephone surveys have very quick turnaround times. Most telephone interview are of short duration anyway, but a good interviewer may complete several interviews per hour. Disadvantages The respondent cannot be shown anything. This shortcoming ordinarily eliminates else. The telephone interview does not permit the interviewer to make the various judgments and evaluations that can be made by the face-to- face interviewer. Questions on alcohol consumption, contraceptive methods, racial issues, or income tax reporting will probably generate more valid responses when asked in the relative anonymity of the telephone than when administered face-to-face. The researcher is more limited in the quantity and types of information he or she can obtain. Very long interviews are inappropriate for the telephone, as are questions with lengthy lists of response options that respondents will have difficulty remembering when they are read over the telephone. A last problem with telephone interviews is the growing use of answering machines and caller recognition devices being adopted by consumers.
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II)Computer Administered Surveys(CAS) Computer technology represents a viable option with respect to survey mode. Computer assisted surveys are in an evolutionary state, and they are spreading to other types. Basically, a computer administered survey is one in which computer technology plays an essential role in the interview work. Here, either the computer assists an interview, or it interacts directly with respondent. In the case of internet questionnaires, the computer acts as the medium by which potential respondents are approached, and it is the means by which respondents return their completed questionnaire. Advantages of Computer Administered Surveys (CAS) Computer Administered Surveys have five advantages: 1) Speed The compute administered approach is much faster than the human interview approach. The speed factor translates into cost savings, and there is a claim that internet surveys are about one-half the cost of mail or phone surveys. 2) Error-Free Interviews Properly programmed , the computer administered approach guarantees zero interviewer errors such as: Inadvertently skipping questions, Asking inappropriate questions based on previous responses, Misunderstanding how to pose questions, Recording the wrong answer, and The computer neither becomes fatigued nor cheats.

3) Use of Pictures , Videos, And Graphics


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Computer graphics can be integrated into questions as they are viewed on a computer screen. CD-ROM disk capabilities allow high quality video windows to appear so the respondent can see the product in use or can be shown a wide range of visual displays.

4) Real-Time Capture Of Data Respondents are interacting with the computer and not a human who is recording their answers on a questionnaire, the information is directly entered into a computers data storage system and can be accessed for tabulation or other analyses at completed in a matter of minutes. This feature is so beneficial that some interview companies have telephone interviewers directly linked to computer input when they conduct their interviews. 5) Reduction of Interview Evaluation Concern In Respondent Some people, when they are involved in responding to questions in a survey, become anxious about the possible reaction of the interviewer to their answers. This is known as interviewer evaluation apprehension. Questions about personal hygiene, political opinions , financial matters , and even age are considered to be personal by many people , and the presence of a human interviewer may deter them from answering , or they may give false answers that they believe the interviewer will accept. On the other hand, some respondents try to please the interviewer by saying what they think the interviewer wants to hear. In any case, some researchers believe that respondents will provide more truthful answers to potentially sensitive topics when interacting with a computer. Dis Advantages of Computer Administered Surveys (CAS) Computer Administered Surveys have five dis advantages:
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Although computers are relatively inexpensive at present, there are significant costs involved in computer design, programming, and set-up, which must be incurred with each survey.

These costs, including the time factor associated with them, often render computer administered delivery systems for surveys unattractive relative to other data collection options.

However, set up costs are falling rapidly with user friendly programs such as decisive survey.

Interviewing Techniques in Computer Assisted Surveys The most important computer assisted interview methods includes the following: 1) Computer assisted Telephone Interview ( CATI ) The most advanced companies have computerized the central location telephone interviewing process; such systems are called computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Although each system is unique, and new development occur almost daily; we can describe a typical situation. The interviewer reads the question to the respondent, enters the response code, and the computer moves on the next appropriate question. The human interviewer is just the voice of the computer.

Advantages Computer assisted telephone interviewing options are very attractive to business researchers because of : The Cost savings, quality control, and time savings over the paper-andpencil method. With computer prices falling and questionnaire design software becoming available, more companies are adopting the high-technology approach.

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The prospect of CATI is very good, and marketing researchers can be assured that when they consider telephone interviews in the future, the computer assisted option will be an attractive option available to them.

2) Fully computerized interview Some companies have developed fully computerized interviews, in which the survey is administered completely by a computer. In the research industry, this approach is known as CATS, completely automated telephone survey. CATS have been successfully employed for customer satisfaction studies, service quality monitoring, product/warranty registration, and even in-home product tests with consumers who have been given a prototype of a new product. III) Self-Administered Surveys (SAS) A self administered survey is one in which the respondent completes the survey on his or her own. It is different from other survey methods in that there is no agent human or computer administering the interview. So, the respondent reads the questions and responds directly on the questionnaire. Normally, the respondent goes at his or her own pace, and in most instances he or she selects the place and time to complete the interview. He or she also may decide when the questionnaire will be returned. As with other survey methods, those that are self administered have their advantages and disadvantages. Advantages of Self Administered Surveys (SAS) Self administered surveys have three important advantages: 1) Reduced Cost

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By eliminating the need for an interviewer or an interviewer or an interviewing device such as a computer program, there can be significant savings in cost.

2) Respondent control Respondents can control the pace at which they respond, so they may not feel rushed. Ideally, a respondent should be relaxed while responding and a selfadministered survey any effect this state. 3) No interviewer evaluation apprehension As we just noted, some respondents feel apprehensive when answering questions. The self-administered approach takes the administrator, whether human or computer, out of the picture, and respondents may feel more at ease.

Disadvantages of Self Administered Surveys (SAS) Self administration places control of the survey in the hands of the prospective respondent. Hence, this type of survey is subject to the possibilities that: Respondents may not complete the survey Respondents may answer questions erroneously, Respondents may not respond in a timely manner, or Respondents may refuse to return the survey at all.

The major reason for these drawbacks is that no opportunity exists to monitor or interact with the respondent during the course of the interview. Due to the absence of the interviewer, the burden of respondent understanding falls on the questionnaire itself. It must have very clear instructions, examples and reminders throughout. Interviewing Techniques in self-Assisted Surveys

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Self administered Survey includes: 1) Group Self-Administered Surveys Basically, a group self-administered survey entails administering a questionnaire to respondents in groups, rather than individually, for convenience or to gain certain economies. One way to be more economical is to have respondents self administer the questions. As you would suspect , it is handled in a group context primarily to reduce costs and to provide the ability to interview a large number of people in a short time. Variations for group self-administered surveys are limitless. Students can be administered surveys in their classes: church groups can be administered surveys during meetings; social clubs and organizations, company employees , movie theater patrons, and any other group can be administered surveys during meetings , work, or leisure time. 2) Drop-Off Surveys Another variation of the self administered survey is the drop-off survey , in which the survey representative approaches a prospective respondent, introduces the general purpose of the survey to the prospect , and leaves it with the respondent to fill out in his or her own . Essentially, the objective is to gain the prospective respondents cooperation. The respondent is told the questionnaire is self-explanatory, and it will be left with him or her to fill out leisure. Perhaps the representative will return to pick up the questionnaire at a certain time, or the respondent may be instructed to complete and return it by prepaid mail. 3) Mail Survey A mail survey is one in which the questions are mailed to prospective respondents who are asked to fill them out and return them to the researcher by mail. Part of its attractiveness stems from its self administered aspect. There are no interviewers to
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recruit, train, monitor, and compensate. Similarly, mailing lists are readily available from companies that specialize in this business, and it is possible to access very specific groups of target respondents. Besides, on a pre-mailed respondent basis, mail surveys are very inexpensive. In fact, they are almost always the least expensive survey method in this regard. But mail surveys incur all of the problems associated with not having an interviewer present. The mail survey is plagued by two major problems. Non-response-which refers to questionnaires that are not returned. Self-selection bias-which means that those who do respond are probably different from those who do not fill out the questionnaires and return it , and therefore that sample gained through this method is non-representative of the general population. Factors Determining the Choice of a Particular Survey Method When deciding on a survey data collection method, a researcher should take most of the following factors into consideration: 1) Researcher S Resources And Objective In the case of data collection, the driving objectives are translated into a single concern: the quality of information desired. Balanced this objective is two critical constraints namely: Regardless of its nature , every management decision has a deadline when it must be resolved , an this dead line directly impacts the amount of time allowed , or the time horizon, for a particular commercial research survey. In some instances, the deadline is distant, and the researcher is allowed the luxury of choosing his or her data collection methods. Frequently, however, the time period is compressed , and the researcher is forced into choosing a data collection method that

a) The Survey data collection time horizon

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may not be his or her first choice but is one that does a reasonable job within the permissible time horizon.. Some approaches , such as mail surveys , door-to-door , and personal interviews , require long time periods; whereas other , principally telephone studies and mall intercept surveys , typically take much less time. b) Survey data collection budget The commercial researcher frequently encounters in which the budget available for a study greatly influences the survey method used. In truth, the budget alone does not dictate the choice of a survey interviewing method; rather, the budget constraint in combination with other considerations influences the survey mode choice. c) Desired Quality Of Data Some researchers claim that quality, not quantity, of data is the main issues in deciding on which data collection method to use. For instance, you are aware that mail surveys suffer from low response and self-selection problems. Obviously, if the researcher desires a comprehensive sample and an extremely accurate sample, a mail survey is unlikely to achieve this objective because of non-response. Similarly, for sensitive topics, the face-to-face alternatives may create embarrassment for the respondent, who will then give socially desirable answers rather than the truth, thus compromising the results. The two aspects of data quality includes: i. Generalizablity Generalizablity is the confidence that the researcher has that the data collected from a particular method ensure respondents who accurately describe the population under study. Mall-intercept interviews have Generalizablity shortcomings because they are conducted only with
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mall shopper , whereas telephone interviews cover the population better shoppers. ii. Completeness Which is defined as the depth and breadth of information obtained from each person? Mail surveys can garner completeness, but they suffer on the Generalizablity criterion because of non response and self selection problem which eliminates certain types of potential respondents. 2) Respondent characteristics At least four characteristics of the targeted group must be considered in the choice of a data collection mode: and are therefore more generelizable if the survey is aimed at all types of

a) Incidence rate The incidence rate is the percentage of people in the general population that fits the qualifications of those people the researcher interviewed. Telephone interviewing offers an efficient device to screen the population and identify low-incidence prospective respondents. In fact, it is common to us telephone screening as a qualifying phase. The individuals who satisfy the criteria for participating in the survey are subsequently interviewed by whatever other method is most suitable. b) Willingness to participate Respondents willingness is a serious consideration in the survey. High refusal rates always alert the researcher representativeness of the results.
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Two types of unwillingness will be encountered in any survey. A generalized suspicion or desire for privacy in many people: they simply do not like to participate in surveys. Pertains to topic specific tendencies. That is, some people will not participate because the topic is something they do not want to discuss.

In any case, self-selection takes place. Willingness can be affected by the survey method. For example people find it more difficult to refuse a face-to-face request to participate than to decline a telephone request or a mailed questionnaire.

c) Diversity of respondents Nothing is more frustrating to an interviewer do so at that time. A prospective mail respondent puts the questionnaire in a drawer and then forgets about it , or a telephone interviewer encounters a respondent whose favorite television show is about to begin. As a general rule, personal contact should increase the ability of prospective respondents to participate because respondents will make time available more readily when approached in person. A mail survey, on the other hand, has no such social facilitator. With telephone surveys, lack of participation can be lessened through a rescheduling of the interview or a call-back policy for non respondents. than a prospective respondent qualified and willing to participate in the survey but unable to

3) Characteristics of Questions Asked By Researcher Because all interviews concern questions, it is necessary to look at: a) Complexity of tasks

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Some commercial research studies have fairly complicated preparation and administration procedures. Taste tests or TV ad tests fall into this category. Taste tests, for example, typically require food presentation done under controlled conditions so that the researcher can be certain that each person interviewed responded to the same stimulus.

In general, the more complex the tasks and preparation activities in the interview, the greater the need for personal administration.

b) Amount of Information Required Per Respondent The amount of information sought from each respondent varies greatly from study to study. Traditionally, phone surveys are short, whereas in-home personal interviews are long and other data collection modes fall in between. Strategies range from scheduling a series of interviews to combining different data collection methods, such as merging a telephone interview and a follow up mail survey. Monetary or other incentives have also been used to entice respondents to stay with the interview. If the researcher must collect a great deal of information from each respondent in one interview , then two option exist: To use a personal interviewer whose physical; prescience compels the respondent to complete the interview. To allow the respondent to complete the survey at his or her own pace and without interviewer prescence. Here, the mail survey or drop-off method would fit, probably augmented with sizeable incentives to reduce non response bias. c) Topic Sensitivity The sensitivity of the topic is rarely a consideration for the vast majority of commercial research studies.
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With the exception of a question on income level, which most studies include, the remaining questions on brands purchased, stores patronized, satisfaction with present products, or buying intentions, for example, are typically very low in sensitivity.

Occasionally, however, a researcher finds himself or herself working with topics that are inherently sensitive. Such topics include medication abuse, financial matters, blood donation, retail issues, and personal hygiene. Industry wisdom suggests that for sensitive issues , face-to face interviews are less appropriate than alternatives such as telephone interviews or computer-administered interviews in which the respondent will not feel ill at ease when divulging some personal habit or sensitive answer to a machine.

Review Questions 1. List the major advantages of survey research methods over qualitative methods and identify the major drawbacks of survey. 2. What are the advantages of person-administered surveys over computeradministered ones? 3. Indicate the difference between: (a) in-home interviews, (b) mall-intercept interviews, and (c) in-office interviews. What do they share in common? 4. Indicate the pros and cons of self-administered surveys. 5. How does a drop-off survey differ from a mail survey? 6. What are the three aspects of the researchers resources and objectives that have much influence in the determination of which survey mode will be used? How does each one affect he decision? 7. Differentiate incidence rate from diversity of respondents/ 8. Is a telephone interview inappropriate for a survey that has as one of its objectives a complete listing of all possible advertising media a person was exposed to in the last week? Why or why not?

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Chap - 9 Measurement in Research

Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter the student will be able to:

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Define measurement Explain the different types of scales Describe international diamensions of operational definition

8.1 Definition of Measurement in Research Measurement is the assignment of numbers or other symbols to objects according to certain prespecified rules. A measurement is a number that reflects some characteristics of an object Note that what we measure is not the object, but some characteristics of it. Thus, we do not measure consumers- only their perceptions, attitudes, preferences, or other relevant characteristics. In marketing research, numbers are usually assigned for one of two reasons. First, numbers permit statistical analysis of the resulting data. Second, numbers facilitate the communication of measurement rules and results. 8.2 Definition of Scaling Scaling: is the generation of a continuum upon which measured objects are located. To illustrate consider a scale from 1 to 100 for locating consumers according to the characteristics of

characteristics attitude toward department stores. Each respondents is assigned a number from 1 to 100 indicating the degree (un)favorableness, with 1 = extremely unfavorable, and 100 = extremely favorable. Measurement is the actual assignment of a number from 1 to 100 to each respondent. Scaling is the process of placing the respondents on a continuum with respect to their attitude toward department stores. In the opening example of most admired companies, the assignment of numbers to reflect the annual revenue was an example of measurement. The placement of individual companies on the annual revenue continuum was scaling. 8.2 Primary Scales of Measurement

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There are four primary scales of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. The four primary types of scales may be described by the Acronym FOUR. F figurative: Nominal O rdinal scale U unconstructed zero point: interval scale R atio scale The different comparative and non comparative scales may be represented by the acronym SCALES S semantic differential scale C nstant Sum scale A rranged in order: rank order scale L ikert scale E nagaged : paired comparison scale S taple scale The four scales briefly discussed here in under. 1) Nominal Scales: is defined as a scale whose numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects with a strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the objects. For example, the numbers assigned to the respondents in a study constitute a nominal scale is used for the purpose of identification, there is a strict one-to-one object and each object has only one number and the objects. Each number is assigned to only one object and each object has only one number assigned to it. Common examples include social security numbers and numbers assigned to football players.

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For example, In marketing research, nominal scales are used for identifying respondents, brands, attributes, stores, and other objects. When used for classifying purposes, the nominally scaled numbers serve as labels for classes or categories . For example, you might classify the control group 1 and the experimental group as group 2. The classes are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. The objects in each class are viewed as equivalent with respect to the characteristics represented by the nominal number. All objects in the same class have the same number and no two classes have the same number. The numbers in a nominal scale do not reflect the amount of the characteristics possessed by the objects.For example, a high school security number does not imply that the person is in some way superior to those with lower social security or vice versa. Sample Nominal Scaled Questions 1) Please indicate your gender. Male Female 2) Check all the brands you would consider purchasing. ____________ Sony ____________Jvc ____________Panasonic ___________Philips 2) Ordinal Scales : is defined as a ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which some characteristics is possessed. Thus, it is possible to determine whether an object has more or less of characteristics than some other object. The object ranked first has more of the characteristics as compared to the object ranked second, but whether the object ranked second is a close second or a poor second is knot known. Common examples of ordinal scale include quality rankings, ranking of teams in a tournament, socioeconomic class, and occupational status. In marketing research, ordinal scale is used to measure relative attitudes, opinions, perceptions, and preferences. Sample Ordinal Scaled Questions

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1. Please rank each brand in terms of your preference. Place a I by your first choice, a 2 by your second choice, and so on. ____________ Pepsi ___________ Seven Up ____________Coca Cola 2. For each pair of supermarkets, circle the one you would be more likely to patronize. Loyal Versus Hadya Bambis versus Tana 3. In your opinion , would you say the prices at Bambis are _____________higher than Hadya _____________about the same as she Hadya _______________Lower than Loyal 3. Interval Scales: is defined as a scale in which the numbers are used to rate objects such that numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal distances in the characteristics being measured. The difference between any two adjacent scale values is identical to the difference between any other two adjacent values of an interval scale. There is a constant or equal interval between scale values. The difference between 1 and 2 is the same as the difference between 2 and 3, which is a temperature scale. In marketing research, attitudinal data obtained from ratings scales are often treated as interval data. In the interval scale, the location of the zero point is not fixed. Both the zero point and the units of measurement are arbitrary. Hence, any positive linear transformation of the form y= a +bx preserve the properties of the scale. Here, x is thus the original scale value, y is the transformed scale value, b is a positive constant, and is any constant.

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Therefore, two interval scales that rate objects A, B, C,

and D as 1, 2, 3, and 4, or

as 22, 24, 26, and 28, are equivalent. Note that the latter scale can be derived from the former by using a=20 and b=2 in the transforming equation. Because the zero point is not fixed, it is not meaningful to take ratios of scale values. As can be seen, the ratio of D to B values changes from 2: 1 to become 7:6 when the scale is transformed. Yet ratios of differences between scale values are permissible. In this process, the constants a and b in the transforming equation drop out in the computations. The ratio of the difference between D and B to the difference between C and B is 2: 1 in both the scales. Sample Interval Scaled Questions 1. Please rate each brand in terms of its overall performance. Very poor Lacoste 1 Parker Sony 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 Very good

2. Indicate your degree of agreement with the following statements by encircling the appropriate number. Statement a. I always look for bargains b. I enjoy being outdoors c. I love to cook. Strongly Disagree 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 Strongly Agree 5 5 5

4. Ratio: is defined as the highest scale. It allows the researcher to identify or classify objects, rank order the objects, and compare intervals or differences. It is also meaningful to compute ratios of scale values. Not only is the difference between 2 and 5 the same as the difference between 14 and 17, but also 14 is seven times as large as

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two in an absolute sense. Common examples of ratio scales include height, weight, and money. In marketing, sales, costs, market share, and number of customers are variables measured on a ratio scale. Ratio scales allow only proportionate transformations of the form Y= bx, where b is a positive constant. One can not add arbitrary constant, as in the case of an interval scale. An example of this transformation is provided by the conversion of yards to feet (b=3).The comparison between the objects is identical whether made in yards or feet. All statistical techniques can be applied to ratio data. These include specialized statistics such as geometric Mean, harmonic mean, and coefficient of variation. Sample Ratio Scaled Questions 1. Please indicate your age.___________years. 2. Approximately how many times in the last week have you purchased anything over birr 5 in value at Tele Bar? 0 1 2 3 4 5 more (specify__________) 3. How much do you think a typical purchase of a birr 100, 000 term life insurance policy pays per year for that policy? Birr__________ 4. What is the probability that you will use a lawyers services when you are ready to make a will? _______________percent. 8.3 Comparative vs. Non Comparative Scaling Techniques 8.3.1 A Comparative Scaling Technique (CST) Comparative scale s is one of the two types of scaling techniques in which there is direct comparison of stimulus objects with one another. For example, respondents might be asked whether they prefer Coke or Pepsi. Comparative scale data must be interpreted in relative terms and have only ordinal or rank order properties.

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The major benefit of comparative scaling is that small differences between stimulus objects can be detected. As they compare the stimulus objects, respondents are forced to choose between them. The major disadvantages of comparative scaling include the ordinal nature of the data and the inability to generalize beyond the stimulus objects scaled. For example to compare RC cola to coke and Pepsi, the researcher would have to do a new study. The previous study comparing coke and Pepsi would not be of much use. These disadvantages are substantially overcome by non- comparative scaling techniques. Comparative scales can be divided into the following: 1) Paired Comparison: is defined as comparative scaling techniques in which a

respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criterion. The data obtained are ordinal in nature. Paired comparison scales are frequently used when the stimulus objects are physical products. Coca-Cola is reported to have conducted more than 190,000 paired comparison s before introducing New Coke. Comparative comparison scaling is the most widely used comparative scaling technique. The most common method of taste testing is paired comparison. The consumer is asked to sample two different products and select the one with the most appealing taste. Transitivity of preference: is defined as an assumption made in order to convert paired comparison data to rank order data. It implies that if brand A is preferred to brand B and brand B is preferred to brand C, then brand A is preferred to brand C. 2) Rank Order: Is defined as a comparative scaling technique in which respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion. For example, respondents may be asked to rank brands of toothpaste according to overall preference. These rankings are typically obtained by asking the respondents to assign a rank of 1 to the most preferred brand, 2 to the second most preferred brand, and so on, until a rank of n is assigned to the least preferred brand. Rank order scaling is commonly used to measure preference for brands as well as attributes. Rank order data are frequently obtained from

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respondents

in conjoint

analysis , because

rank order

scaling

forces

the

respondents to discriminate among the stimulus objects. Advantages It takes less time and process eliminates intransitive responses. If there are n stimulus objects, only (n-1) scaling decisions need be made in rank order scaling. However, in paired comparison scaling, [n (n-1)/2] decisions would be required. Most respondents easily understand the instructions for ranking. Disadvantages This technique produces only ordinal data. Preference for Toothpaste Brands Using Rank and Order Scaling Rank the various brands of toothpaste in order of preference. Begin by picking out the one brand that you like most and assign it a number 1. Then, find the second most preferred brand and assign it a number 2. Continue this procedure until you have ranked all the brands of toothpaste in order of preference. The least preferred brand should be assigned a rank of 10. No two brands should receive the same rank number. The criterion of preference is entirely up to you. There is no right or wrong answers. Just try to be consistent. S/N 1 2 3 4 5 Brand crest Colgate aim gleam sensodyne
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6 7 8 9 10

ultra brite Close up pepsiodent plus white stripe

3) Constant Sum Scaling: is defined as comparative scaling techniques in which respondents are required to allocate a constant sum of units such as points, dollars, chits, stickers, or chips among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion. Respondents may be asked to allocate 100 points to attributes of toilet soap in a way that reflects the importance they attach to each attribute. If an attribute is unimportant, the respondent assigns it zero points. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute, it receives twice as many points. The sum of all the points is 100. Hence, the name of the scale. The attributes are scaled by counting the points assigned to each one by all the respondents and dividing by the number of respondents. Importance of toilet soap attributes using a constant sum scale. Instructions Below are eight attributes of toilet soaps. Please allocate 100 points among the attributes so that your allocations reflect the relative importance you attach to each other. The more points an attribute receives, the more important that attribute is. If an attribute is not at all important, assign it zero points. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attributes, it should receive twice as many points.

S/N 1 2 3

Average Responses of Three Segments Attributes Mildness Lather Shrinkage Segment I 8 2 3 Segment II 2 4 9 Segment III 4 17 7
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4 5 6 7 8 sum

Price Fragrance Packaging Moisturizing Cleaning power .

53 9 7 5 13 100

17 0 5 3 60 100

9 19 9 20 15 100

Analysis : Segment I attaches overwhelming importance to price. Segment II considers basic cleaning power to be of a prime importance Segment III values lather, fragrance, moisturizing, and cleaning power.

Such information cannot be obtained from rank order data unless they are transformed into interval data. Note that the constant sum also has an absolute zero-10 points are twice as many as 5 points, and the difference between 5 and 2 points is the same as the difference between 57 and 54 points. For this reason, constant sum scale data are sometimes treated as metric. Although this may be appropriate in the limited context of this stimuli scaled, these results are not generelizable to other stimuli not included in the study. Hence strictly speaking, the constant sum should be considered an ordinal scale because of its comparative nature and the resulting lack of generizablity. Advantages It allows for fine discrimination among stimulus objects without requiring too much time. Disadvantages Respondents may allocate more or fewer units than those specified. For example a respondent may allocate 108 or 94 points. The researcher must modify such data in some way or eliminate this respondent from analysis. Rounding error, if too few units are used.

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The use of a large number of units may be too taxing on the respondent and cause confusion and fatigue.

4) Q-Sort and Other Procedures: is defined as a comparative scaling techniques that uses rank order procedure to sort objects based on similarity with respect to some criterion. This technique uses a rank order procedure in which objects are sorted into piles based on similarity with respect to some criterion. For example, respondents are given 100 attitude statements on individual cards and asked to place them into 11 piles , ranging from most highly agreed with to least highly agreed with. The number of objects to be sorted should not be less than 60 nor more than 140; 60 to 90 objects is a reasonable range. The number of objects to be placed in each pile is prespecified, often to result in a roughly normal distribution of objects over the whole set. For example , respondents may be asked to indicate whether they agree or disagree with each of a series of statements measuring attitude toward department stores. Then, they assign a number between 0 to 100 to each statement to indicate the intensity of their agreement or disagreement. Providing this type of number imposes a cognitive burden on the respondents. Finally, mention must be made of Guttmann scaling, or scalogram analysis, which is a procedure for determining, whether a set of objects can be ordered into an internally consistent, uni dimensional scale.

8.3.2 Non Comparative Scale (NCST) NCST - is defined as one of two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the other objects in the stimulus set. The resulting data are generally assumed to be interval or ratio scaled. For example, respondents may be asked to evaluate coke on a 1-to- 6 preference scale (1=not at all preferred, 6 =greatly preferred). Similar evaluations would be obtained for Pepsi and RC cola. Non Research Methods in Business Studies: A Practical Guide (PGS)Dr Getie A.

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comparative scales can be further classified as likert, semantic differential or staple scales. Non - comparative scaling is the most widely used technique in marketing research. Non comparative techniques consist of continuous and itemized rating scales. i) Continuous Rating Scale : is referred to as a graphic rating scale , this measurement scale has the respondents rate the object by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variables to the other. Thus, the respondents are not restricted to selecting form marks previously set by the researcher. The form of the continuous scale may vary considerably. For example, the line may be vertical or horizontal; scale points, in the form of numbers or brief descriptions, may be provided; and, if provided, the scale points may be few or many. Three version of a continuous rating scale are illustrated below. How would you rate Tana Department store? Version 1 Probably the WorstI..Probably the Best Version 2 Probably the WorstI..Probably the Best 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Version 3 Probably the WorstI......Probably the Best 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

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Once the respondent has provided the ratings, the researcher divides the line into as many categories as desired and assigns scores based on the categories into which the ratings fall. Advantages They are easy to construct.

Disadvantages Scoring is cumbersome and unreliable. Continuous scales provide little new information. Hence, their use in marketing research has been limited.

ii) Itemized Rating Scale (IRS): is a measurement scale having numbers and/ or brief descriptions associated with each category. The categories are ordered in terms of scale position and the respondents are required to select the specified category that best describes the object being rated. Itemized multi-item ratings scales. The most commonly used rating scales are the likert, semantic differential and staple scales, and then examine the major issues surrounding the use of these scales. 1) Likert Scale (LS): is a measurement scale with five response categories ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree , which requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements related to the stimulus objects. A likert scale can be used for evaluating attitudes towards Tana department store. Project Research Using Likert Scale Instructions Listed below are different opinions about Tana department stores. Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each by using the following scale:
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are widely used in

marketing research and form the basic components of more complex scales , such as

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1= strongly disagree 2= Disagree 3= neither agree nor disagree 4= agree 5= strongly agree Strongly Disagre S/N 1 Attributes Tana sells high quality merchandise 1 2 3 4 Tana has poor in-store service I like to shop at Tana Tana does not offer good different brands within a product category. 5 6 7 8 9 The credit policies at tana are 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 terrible. Tana is where Ethiopia shops. Tana. Tana sells a wide variety of 1 1 Merchandise. Tana charges fair prices. I do not like the advertising done by 1 1 1 mix 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 e Disagree Neither disagree Agre Strongly agree

agree nor e

Analysis To conduct the analysis, each statement is assigned a numerical score, ranging either from -2 to +2 or 1 to 5. The analysis can be conducted on an item-by-item basis (profile
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analysis), or a total (summated) score can be calculated for each respondent by summing across items. LS is also called the summated scale. Note that for a negative statement, an agreement reflects an unfavorable response, whereas for a positive statement, agreement represents a favorable response. Accordingly, a strongly agree response to a favorable statement and a strongly disagree response to an unfavorable statement would both receive scores of 5. In the scale shown above, if a higher score is to denote a more favorable attitude, the scoring of items 2, 4, 5, and 7 will be reversed. Thus, the respondent in the department store project example has an attitude score of 22. Each respondents total score for each store is calculated. A respondent will have the most favorable attitude toward the store with the highest score. Advantages It is easy to construct and administer. Respondents readily understand how to use the scale, making it suitable for mail, telephone, or personal interviews. Disadvantages It takes longer to complete than other itemized rating scales because respondents have to read each statement. 2) Semantic Differential (SD): is a 7 point rating scale with endpoints associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. In a typical application, respondents rate objects on a number of itemized, 7-point scales bounded at each end by one of two bipolar adjectives, such as cold and warm. Project Research on Semantic Differential Scale Instructions This part of the study measures what certain department stores mean to you by having you judge them on a series of descriptive scales bounded at each end by one of two bipolar adjectives.
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Please Mark (X) the blank that best indicates how accurately one or the other adjectives describes what the store means to you. Please be sure to mark every scale; do not omit any scale. Form Tana is: Powerful ____/_____/_____ /_____/__X___/_________/_______/ Weak Unreliable ____/_____/_____ /_____/__X___/_________/_______/ Reliable Modern ____/_____/_____ /_____/_____/_________/___X____/ Old-fashioned Cold ____/_____/_____ /_____/_____/_____X____/_______/ Warm Careful ____/__X__/_____ /_____/__ __/_________/_______/ Careless A semantic differential Scale for measuring self-concepts, person concepts, and product concepts. 1. Rugged /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ Delicate

2. Excitable /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ Calm 3. Uncomfortable /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ comfortable 4. Dominating /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ submissive 5. Thrifty /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ Indulgent 6. Pleasant /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ unpleasant 7. Contemporary /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ Non contemporary 8. Organized /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ Unorganized 9. Rational /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ Emotional 10. Youthful /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ Mature 11. Formal /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/Informal 12. Orthodox /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ liberal 13. Complex /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ simple 14. Colorless /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ colorful 15. Modest /___/____/____/____/_____/_____/_____/ Vain
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Analysis Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on a -3 to + 3 or a 1-to7 scale. The resulting data are commonly analyzed through profile analysis. In profile analysis, means or median values on each rating scale are calculated and compared by plotting or statistical analysis. This helps determine the overall differences and similarities among the objects. To assess differences across segments of respondents, the researcher can compare mean responses of different segments. Although the mean is most often used as a summary statistics, there is some controversy as to whether the data obtained should be treated as an interval scale. On the other hand, in cases when the researcher requires an overall comparison of objects, such as to determine store preference, the individual item scores are summed to arrive at a total score. Its versatility makes the semantic differential a popular rating scale in marketing research. It has been widely used in comparing brand, product, and company images. It has also been used to develop advertising and promotion strategies and in new product development studies. Several modifications of the basic scale have been proposed. 3) Staple Scales (SS): is a scale for measuring attitudes that consists of single adjectives in the middle of an even numbered range of values, from -5 to +, without a neutral point (Zero). This scale is usually presented vertically. Respondents are asked to indicate how accurately or inaccurately each term describes the object by selecting an appropriate numerical response category. The higher the number, the more accurately the term describes the object, as shown in the department store project. Several modifications of the basic scale have been proposed. Project Research on Staple Scale Instructions Please evaluate how accurately each word or phrase describes each of the department stores. Select a plus number for the phrases you think describe the store accurately. The more accurately you think the phrase describes the store, the larger the plus
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number you should choose. You should select a minus number for phrases you think do not describe it accurately. The less accurately you think the phrase describes the store, the larger the minus number you should choose. You can select any number, from + 5 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 for

phrases you think are very accurate, to 5 for phrases you think are very inaccurate.

High Quality -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5

Poor Service

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Non Comparative Itemized Rating Scale Decisions The researcher must be made six major decisions when constructing any of these scales. 1. The Number of Scales Categories to Use. Two conflicting considerations are involved in deciding the number of scales categories. On the other hand, most respondent can not handle more than a few categories. Traditional guidelines suggest that appropriate number of categories should be seven plus or minus two: between five and nine. Yes there is single optimal number of categories. Several factors should be taken into account in deciding on the number of categories. If the respondents are interested in the scaling task and are knowledgeable about the objects, a larger number of categories may be employed. On the other hand, if the respondents are not very knowledgeable or involved with the task, fewer categories should be used. Likewise, the nature of the objects is also relevant. Some objects do not lend themselves to fine discrimination, so a small number of categories is sufficient. Another important factor is the mode of data collection. If telephone interviews are involved, many categories may confuse the respondents. Likewise, space limitations may restrict the number of categories in mail questionnaires. How the data are to be analyzed and used should also influence the number of categories. In situations where several scale items are added together to produce a single score for each respondent, five categories are sufficient. The same is true if the researcher wishes to make broad generalizations or group comparisons. The same is true if the researcher wishes to make broad generalizations or group comparisons. 2. Balanced Versus Unbalanced Scale: Balanced scale is a scale with an equal number of favorable and unfavorable categories. Examples of balanced unbalanced scales are given below: Balanced and Unbalanced Scales Balanced Scale Musk For Men is : Extremely Good ______________ Unbalanced Scales Musk for men is : Extremely ________________
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and

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Good Very Good Good Bad Very Bad Extremely Bad ________________ ________________ _____________________ ___________________ Very Bad _____________________ ____________________ _____________________ Extremely Bad Very Good Good __________________ ________________

In general the scale should be balanced in order to obtain objective data. However, if the distribution of responses is likely to be skewed, either positively or negatively, an unbalanced scale with more categories in the direction of skewness may be appropriate. If an unbalanced scale is used, the nature and degree of unbalance in the scale should be taken into account in data analysis. 3. Odd or Even Number Categories: With an odd number of categories, the middle scale position is generally designated as neutral or impartial. The presence, position, and labeling of a neutral category can have a significant influence on the response. The likert scale is balanced rating scale in the scale should be taken into account in data analysis. The decision to use an odd or even number of categories depends on whether some of the respondents may be neutral on the response being measured. If, on the other hand , the researcher wants to force a response or believes that no neutral or indifferent responses exists , a rating scale with an even number of categories no neutral or indifferent response exists , a rating scale with an even number none forced. 4. Forced Versus Non Forced Choice: A forced scale is a rating scale that forces the respondents to express an opinion because no opinion or no knowledge option is not produced. In such a case, respondents without an opinion may mark the middle scale position. If a sufficient proportion of the respondents do not have opinions on the topic , marking the middle position will distort measures of central tendency
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of

categories should be used. A related issue is whether the scale should be forced or

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and variance. In institutions where the respondents are expected to have no opinions, as opposed to simply being reluctant to disclose it, the accuracy of data may be improved by a non-forced scale that includes a no opinion category. 5. The Nature and Degree of the Verbal Description: The nature and degree of verbal description associated with scale categories varies considerably and can have an effect on the responses. Scale categories may have verbal, numerical, or even pictorial descriptions. Furthermore, the researcher must decide whether to label every scale category, some scale categories, or only extreme scale categories. Surprisingly, providing a verbal description for each category may not improve the accuracy or reliability of the data. Yet an arrangement can be made for labeling all or many scale categories to reduce scale ambiguity. The category descriptions should be located as close to the response categories as possible. The strength of adjectives used to anchor the scale may influence the distribution of the responses. With strong anchors (1= completely disagree, 7 = completely agree), respondents are less likely to use the extreme scale categories. This results in less variable and more peaked response distributions. Weak anchors (1= generally disagree, 7= generally agree), in contrast, produce uniform or flat distributions. Procedures have been developed to assign values to category descriptors so as to result in balanced or equal interval scales. 6. The Physical Form of the Scale: A number of options are available with respect to scale form or configuration. Scales can be presented vertically or horizontally. Categories can be expressed by boxes, discrete lines, or units on a continuum and may or may not have numbers assigned to them. If numerical values are used, they may be positive, negative, or both. A variety of scale configurations may be employed to measure the gentleness of cheer detergent. Some examples include: Cheer detergent is : Rating Scales Configurations 1. Very harsh ___ _____ _____ _______ ______ 1 2 3 4 5 6 ____ _____ Very gentle 7
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2. Very harsh

Very gentle

3. Very good

Neither harsh Nor gentle

4. _________ ________ Very harsh Gentle nor gentle 5.


-3

____

_____ ___________

____________ ______________ Neither harsh Somewhat harsh Very gentle

_________ somewhat

Harish gentle

-2

-1

+1

+2

+3

Very Harish

Neither harsh nor gentle

Very gentle

The following table summarizes the six decisions in designing rating scales. Summary of itemized Rating scales Decisions 1 Number of categories although there is no single , optimal number traditional guidelines suggest that there should be
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between five and nine categories.

balanced versus unbalanced

In general, the scale should be balanced to obtain objective data.

odd or even number categories

If a neutral or indifferent scale response is response is possible from at least some of the respondents, an odd number of categories should be used.

forced versus nonforced

In situations where the respondents are expected to have opinion, the accuracy of data may be improved by a non-forced scale.

verbal description

An argument can be made for labeling all or many scale categories. The category descriptions should be located as close to the response categories as possible.

Physical form

A number of options should be tried and the best one selected.

The following table presents some commonly used scales. These scales as having five categories, the number of categories can be varied depending upon the judgment of the researcher. Some Commonly Used Scales in Marketing Construct Attitude Importance Scale Descriptors Very Bad Not At Bad Neither Bad Good Important Very Good Very Important Nor Good All Not Important Neutral Important

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Satisfaction

Very Dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Neither Dissatisfied Nor Satisfied

Satisfied

Very Satisfied

Purchase Intent Purchase Frequency

Definitely Will Probably Not Might Not Buy Never Buy Rarely Might Buy

Or Probably Will Definitely Will Not Buy Often Buy Very Often

Sometimes

Multi-Item Scale The development of multi-item scales requires considerable technical expertise. The figure is a paradigm for constructing multi-item scales. Development of a multi item scale

Develop a Theory

Generate An Initial Pool Of Items: Theory, Secondary Data, and Qualitative Research

Select A Reduced Set Of Items Based On Qualitative Judgment

Collect Data from a Large Pretest Sample

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Perform Statistical Analysis

Develop a Purified Scale

Collect More Data from A Different Sample

Evaluate Scale Reliability, Validity, and Generalizablity

Prepare the Final Scale The characteristics to be measured are frequently called a construct. Scale

development begins with an underlying theory of the construct being measured. A theory is necessary not only for constructing the scale but also for interpreting the resulting scores. The next step is to generate an initial pool of scale items. Typically, this is done based on theory, analysis of secondary data, and qualitative research. From this pool, a reduced set of potential scale items is generated by the judgment of the researcher and other knowledgeable individuals. Some qualitative criterion is adopted to aid their judgment. The reduced set of items is still too qualitative criterion is adopted to aid their judgment. The reduced set of items is large to constitute a scale. Thus, further reduction is achieved in a quantitative manner. Data are collected on the reduced set of potential scale items from a large pretest sample of respondents. The data are analyzed using techniques such as correlations, factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis. As a result of this statistical analysis, several more items are eliminated, resulting in a purified scale. The purified scale is evaluated for reliability
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and validity by collecting more data from a different sample. One the basis of these assessments, a final set of scale items is selected. Measuring technical sophistication with a technically sophisticated scale. The following multi-item scale measures the technical sophistication of a product line. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Technical Low Content Fast Changing Unsophisticated Commodity Unique Complex 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7

Engineering 1

Item 1, 3, 6, and 7 are reversed when scoring. This scale can be used in industrial marketing to measure the technical sophistication of a customers product line and suggest changes to improve technical quality. Critical Thinking Discussion Questions

1. Briefly describe the difference between attitude rating scales and ranking scales and indicate when the two are used. 2. Why is it important to establish the goodness of measures and how is this done? 3. Construct a semantic differential scale to assess the properties of a particular brand of coffee or tea. 4. Whenever possible, it is advisable to use instruments that have already been developed and repeatedly used in published studies, rather than develop our own instruments for our studies. Do you agree? Discuss the reasons for your answer. 5. A valid instrument is always reliable, but a reliable instrument may not always be valid . Comment on this statement.
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Chap - 10 Designing Data Collection Forms Chapter objectives: After completing this chapter the student will be able to: Define what a questionnaire is? Describe Objectives of Questionnaires Examine types of questionnaires Explore the questionnaire designing process

9.1 Definition of a Questionnaire A Questionnaire is a structured technique for data collection that consists of a series of questions, written or verbal, that a respondent answers. Typically, a questionnaire is only one element of a data collection package that might also include: Fieldwork procedures, such as instructions for selecting, approaching, and questioning respondents. Some reward, gift, or payment offered to respondents; and Communication aids, such as maps, pictures, advertisements, and products as in personal interviews and return envelops in mail surveys. 9.2 Objectives of Questionnaires Any questionnaires have three specific objectives: It must translate the information needed into a set of specific questions that the respondents can and will answer. Developing questions that respondents can and will answer yield the desired information is difficult. Two apparently similar ways of posing a question may yield different information.
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Hence, this objective is a challenge.

A questionnaire must uplift, motivate, and encourage the respondent to become involved in the interview, to cooperate, and to complete the interview. In designing a questionnaire, the researcher should strive to minimize respondent fatigue, boredom, incompleteness, and nonresponsive. A well-designed questionnaire can motivate the respondents and increase the response rate.

A questionnaire should minimize response error. A questionnaire can be a major source of response error. Minimizing this error is an important objective of questionnaire design.

9.3 Questionnaire Design Process Specify the information needed

Specify the type of interviewing method

Determine the content of individual question

Design the questions to overcome the respondents inability and unwillingness to answer

Decide on the question structure.

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Determine the question wording

Arrange the questions in proper order

Identify the form and layout

Reproduce the questionnaire.

Eliminating bugs by pretesting. 1. Specify Information Needed: The information needed becomes more and more clearly defined. It is helpful to review components of the problem and the approach, particularly the research questions, hypotheses and the information needed. To further ensure that the information obtained fully addresses all the components of the problem, the researcher should prepare a set of dummy tables. It is also important to have a clear idea of the target population. The characteristics of the respondent group have a great influence on questionnaire design. Questions that are appropriate for college students may not appropriate for housewives. Understanding is related to respondent socioeconomic characteristics. Furthermore, poor understanding is associated with a high incidence of uncertain or no-opinion responses. The more diversified the respondent group, the more difficult it is to design a single questionnaire that is appropriate for the entire group. 2. Type of Interviewing Method: An appreciation of how the type of interviewing method influences questionnaire design can be obtained by considering how the questionnaire is administered under each method. In personal interviews, respondents see the questionnaire and interact face to face with the interviewer. Thus, lengthy, complex, and varied questions can be asked. In telephone interviews,
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the respondents interact with the interviewer, but they do not see the telephone interviewers, the respondents interact with the interviewer, but they do not see the questionnaire. This limits the type of questions that can be asked to short and simple ones. Mail questionnaires are self-administered, so the questions must be simple and detailed instruction must be provided. In computer-assisted interviewing (CAPI and CATI), complex skip patterns and randomization of questions to eliminate order bias can be easily accommodated. Internet questionnaires share many of the characteristics of CAPI, but e-mail questionnaires have to be simpler. Questionnaires designed for personal and telephone interviews, should be written in a conversational style. 3. Individual Question Content: Once the information needed is specified and the type of interviewing method decided, the next step is to determine individual question content: what to include in individual questions. 4. Is the Question Necessary? Every question in a questionnaire should contribute to the information needed or serve some specific purpose. If there is no satisfactory use for the data resulting from a question, that question should be eliminated. In certain situations, however, questions may be asked that are not directly related to the information that is needed. It is useful to ask some neutral questions at the beginning of the questionnaire is sensitive or controversial. Sometimes filler questions are asked to disguise the purpose or sponsorship of the project. Rather than limiting the questions to the brand of interest, questions about competing brands may also be included to disguise the sponsorship. For example, a survey on personal computers sponsored by IBM may also include filler questions related to Dell and Apple. Questions unrelated to the immediate problem may sometimes be included to generate client support for the project. At times, certain questions may be duplicated for the purpose of assessing reliability or validity? 5. Are Several Questions Needed Instead of One? Once we have ascertained that a question is necessary, we must make sure that it is sufficient to get the desired information. Sometimes, several questions are needed to obtain the required information in an unambiguous manner. Do you think Coca-Cola is a tasty and
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refreshing soft drink? (Incorrect) A yes answer will presumably be clear, but what if the answer is no? Does this mean that the respondent thinks that CocaCola is not tasty, that it is not refreshing, or that it is neither tasty nor refreshing? Such a question is called double barreled questions, because two or more questions are combined into one. To obtain the required information, two distinct questions should be asked: Do you think Coca-Cola is a tasty soft drink? Do you think Coca-Cola is a refreshing soft drink? 6. Overcoming Inability to Answer: Researchers are not assuming that respondents can provide accurate or reasonable answers to all questions. The researcher should attempt to overcome the respondents inability to answer. Certain facts limit the respondents ability to provide the desired information. The respondents may not be informed, may not remember, or may be unable to articulate certain types of responses. 7. Is the respondent informed? Respondents are often asked about topics on which they are not informed. A husband may not be informed about the expenses for groceries and department store purchases, if it is the wife who makes these purchases, or vice versa. Research has shown that respondents will often answer questions even though they are uninformed. In situations, where not all respondents are likely to be informed about the topic of interest, filter questions that measure familiarity, product use, and past experience should be asked before questions, about the topics themselves. Filter questions enable the researcher to filter out respondents who are not adequately informed. 8. Can The Respondent Remember? Many things that we might expect everyone to know are remembered by only a few. Test this out on yourself. Can you answer the following? What is the brand name of the shirt you were wearing two weeks ago? What did you have for lunch a week ago? What were you doing a month ago at noon?

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How many gallons of soft drinks did you consume during that last 4 weeks?

These questions are incorrect because they exceed the ability of the respondents to remember. Evidence indicates that consumers are particularly poor at remembering quantities of products consumed. In situations, where factual data were available for comparison, it was found that consumer reports of product usage exceeded actual usage by 100 % or more. Thus , soft drink consumption may be obtained by asking:

How often do you consume soft drinks in a typical week? _____________less than once a week? _____________1 to 3 times per week _____________4 to 6 times per week ____________7 or more times per week.

The inability to remember leads to errors of omissions, telescoping, and creation. Omissions are the inability to recall an event that actually took place. Telescoping takes place when an individual telescopes or compresses time by remembering an event as occurring more recently than it actually occurred. For example, a respondent reports three tips to supermarket in the last two weeks when, in fact, one of these trips was made 18 days ago. Creation error takes place when a respondent remembers an event that did not actually occur. The ability to remember an event is influenced by: The event itself, The time elapsed since the event, and
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The presence or absence of events that would aid memory.

9. Can The Respondents Articulate? Respondents may be unable to articulate certain types of responses. For example, if asked to describe the atmosphere of the department store they would prefer to patronize, most respondents may be unable to phrase their answers. On the other hand, if the respondents are provided with alternative descriptions of store atmosphere, they will be able to indicate the one they like the best. If the respondents are unable to articulate their responses to a question, they are likely to ignore that question and may refuse to respond to the rest of the questionnaire. Thus, the respondents should be given aids such as pictures, maps, and descriptions to help them articulate their responses. 10. Overcoming Unwillingness to Answer Even if respondents are able to answer a particular question, they may be unwilling to do so , either because too much effort is required , the situation or context may not seem appropriate for disclosure , no legitimate purpose or need for the information requested is apparent , or the information requested is sensitive. Context: some questions may seem appropriate in certain contexts but not in others. For example, questions about personal hygiene habits. Legitimate purpose: respondents are also unwilling to divulge information that they do not see as serving a legitimate purpose. Why should firm marketing cereals want to know their age, income, and occupation? Sensitive information: respondents are unwilling to disclose, at least accurately, sensitive information because this may cause embarrassment or threaten the respondents prestige or self image. If pressed for the answer, respondents may give biased responses, especially during personal interviews.

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Sensitive topics include money, family life, political and religious beliefs, and involvement in accidents or crimes.

Increasing the Willingness of Respondents Respondents may be encouraged to provide information that they are unwilling to give by the following techniques: 1) Place sensitive topics at the end of the questionnaire. By then, initial mistrust has been overcome, rapport has been created, the legitimacy of the project has been established, and respondents are more willing to give information. 2) Preface the question with a statement that the behaviour of interest is common. For example, before requesting information on credit, say, recent studies show that most Americans are in debt. This technique, called the use of counter biasing statements. Choosing Questions Structures A question may be unstructured or structured. Unstructured questions (UQ) UQ are open ended questions that respondents answer in their own words. They are also referred to as free-response or free answer questions.

The following are some examples: What is your occupation? What do you think of people who patronize discount department stores? Who is your favorite political figure?

Structured Questions (SQ) SQ is questions that prespecifiy the set of response alternatives and the response format. A structured question could be multiple choices, dichotomous, or a scale.

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Multiple Choices In multiple choices questions, the researcher provides a choice of answers and respondents are asked to select one or more of the alternatives given. Do you intend to buy a new car within the next six months? ______ definitely will not buy. ________Probably will not buy. ______ Undecided ______ probably will buy. _______Definitely will buy. _______Other (please specify). Advantages Overcome the disadvantages of open-ended questions, because

interviewer bias is reduced and these questions are administered quickly. Also, coding and processing of data are much less costly and time consuming. In self-administered questionnaires, respondent cooperations is improved if the majority of the questions are structured. Disadvantages Considerable time is required to design effective multiple-choice questions. Exploratory research using open-ended questions may be required to determine the appropriate response alternatives. Even if an other (please specify)category is included, respondents the list of possible answers produces biased responses.

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There is also the potential for order bias. (Order or position bias is a respondents tendency to check an alternative merely because it occupies a certain position or is listed in a certain order.)

Dichotomous Questions (DQ) A DQ is a structured question with only two response alternatives, such as yes and no; agree or disagree, and so on. Often the two alternatives are supplemented by a neutral alternative, such as no opinion, dont know, both or none. Do you intend to buy a new car within the next six months? _______Yes _______No _______Dont Know

Scale (See Chapter on Measurement) Scale is the generation of a commitment upon which measured objects are located. Do you want to buy a new car with in the next six months? Definitely Wont Buy 1 Probably Wont Buy 2 3 Undecided Probably Will Definitely Will Buy 4 Buy 5

Choosing Questions Wording Question wording is the translation of the desired question content and structure into words that respondents can clearly and easily understand. To avoid these problems, we offer the following guidelines: 1) Define the issue, 2) Use ordinary words, 3) Avoid implicit assumptions,
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4) Avoid leading questions, 5) Avoid implicit alternatives, 6) Avoid implicit assumptions, 7) Avoid generalizations and estimates, and 8) Use positive and negative statements 1) Define the issue A question should clearly define the issue being addressed. For example: Which brand of shampoo do you use? .Incorrect. Which brand or brands of shampoo have you personally used at home during the last month? In case of more than one brand, please list all the brands that apply? Correct. 2) Use Ordinary Words Ordinary words should be used in a questionnaire and they should match the vocabulary level of respondents. When choosing words, keep in mind that the average in the USA has a high school level, not a college, education. For certain respondent groups, education level is even lower. Most respondents do not understand technical marketing words. For example, instead of asking: Do you think the distribution of soft drinks is adequate?.incorrect. Do you think soft drinks are readily available when you want to buy them?................correct. 3) Avoid Implicit Assumptions The words used in questionnaires should have a single meaning that is known to the respondents. A number of words that appear to be unambiguous have different meanings to different people.

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These includes usually, normally, frequently, often, regularly, occasionally, and sometimes.

Consider the following question: In a typical month, how often do you shop in department stores? ____________Never. ____________Occasionally. ____________ Sometimes. ____________ 3 or 4 times. ___________ More than 4 times.

In deciding on the choice of words, researchers should consult a dictionary and thesaurus and ask the following questions of each word used: Does it mean what we intended? Does it have any other meanings? If so, does the context make the intended meaning clear? Does the word have more than one pronunciation? Is there any word of similar pronunciation that might be confused with this word? Is a supplier word or phrase suggested?

4) Avoid Leading Questions A leading question that gives the respondent a clue as to what answer is desired or leads the respondent to answer in a certain way. Do you think that patriotic Ethiopians should buy imported automobiles when that would put Ethiopian labor out of work? ____________yes ___________No ___________ Dont Know.

This question would lead respondents to a No answer.


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A better question would be : Do you think Ethiopians should buy imported automobiles? ____________Yes ___________ No ___________ Dont Know.

Bias may also arise when respondents are given clues about the sponsor of the project. Respondents tend to respond favorably toward the sponsor.

The question, Is collegiate your favorite toothpaste? is likely to bias the responses in favor of a colligate.

A more unbiased way of obtaining this information would be to ask, What is your favorite toothpaste brand? .

Likewise, the mention of a prestigious or non prestigious name can bias the responses, as in, Do you agree with Ethiopian Dental association that colligate is effective in preventing cavities?

An unbiased question would be to ask, Is colligate effective in preventing cavities?

5) Avoid Implicit Alternatives Questions should not be worded so that the answer is dependent upon implicit assumptions about what will happen as consequences. Implicit assumptions are assumptions that are not stated in the questions, as in the following example.
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1) Do

you

like

to

fly

when

travelling

short

distances:.incorrect 2) Do you like to fly when traveling short distances, or would you rather drives?.........correct . In the first question, the alternative of driving is only implicit, but in the second question, it is explicit. The first question is likely to yield a greater preference for flying than the second question. 6) Avoid Implicit Assumptions Questions should not be worded so that the answer is dependent upon implicit assumptions about what will happen as a consequence. Implicit assumptions are assumptions that are not stated in the question, as in the following example. 1) Are you in favor of a balanced budget? ..incorrect. 2) Are you in favor of a balanced budget if it would result in an increase in the personal income tax? ..........correct. Implicit in question 1 are the consequences that will arise as a result of a balanced budget. There might be a cut in defense expenditures, increase in personal income tax, cut in social programs, and so on. Question 2 is a better way to word this question. Questions 1 s failure to make its assumptions explicit would result in overestimating the respondents support for a balanced budget. 7) Avoid Generalizations and Estimates Questions should be specific, not general. Moreover, questions should be worded so that the respondent does not have to make generalization or compute estimates. Suppose we were interested in households annual per capit expenditure on groceries. If we asked respondents:
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What is the annual per capit expenditure on groceries in your household?..incorrect. of obtaining the required information would be to ask the

A better way

respondents two simple questions: What is the monthly or weekly expenditure on groceries in your household? How many members can then perform the necessary calculations?.correct. 8) Dual statements : Positive and Negative Statements Many questions, particularly those measuring attitude and lifestyles, are worded as statements to which respondents indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement. Evidence indicates s that the response obtained is influenced by the directionality of the statements: whether they are stated positively or negatively. In these cases it is better to use dual statements, some of which are positive and the others negative. Two different questions could be prepared. One questionnaire would contain half negative and half positive statements in an interspersed way. The direction of these statements would be reversed in the other questionnaire. (See summated likert scale). Determining the Order of Questions Opening questions The opening questions can be crucial in gaining the confidence and cooperation of respondents. The opening questions should be interesting, simple, and nonthreatening.

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Questions that ask respondents for their options can be good opening questions, because most people like to express their opinions. Opening opinion question opens the door to cooperation. To begin with, Id like to know much do you like living in this (town/city)? Would you say you like it a lot, a little, or not too much? A lot _____________ A little ___________ Not too much ________ Dont Know ___________

9.4 Type of Information in a Questionnaire The type classification information obtained in a questionnaire may be classified as: 1. Basic information: relates directly to the research problem. 2. Classification information: consisting of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, is used to classify the respondents and understand the result. 3. Identification information: a type of information obtained in a questionnaire that includes name, address, e-mail address, and phone numbers. Difficult Questions Difficult questions or questions that are sensitive, embarrassing, complex, or dull should be placed late in the sequence. After rapport has been established and the respondents become involved, they are less likely to object to these questions. Thus, in the department store project, information about credit card and debt was asked at the end of the section on basic information. Likewise, income should be the last question in the classification section, and telephone number the final item in the identification section. Effect of Subsequent Questions

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Questions asked early in a sequence can influence the responses to subsequent questions. As a rule of thumb, general questions should precede specific questions. Thus, in the department store project, information about credit card debt was asked at the end of the section on basic information. Likewise, income should be the last question in the classification section, and telephone number the final item in the identification section.

Effect on Subsequent Questions Questions asked early in a sequence can influence the response to subsequent questions. As a rule of thumb, general questions should precede specific questions. This prevents specific questions from biasing responses to general questions. Consider the following sequence of questions: Q1: What considerations are important to you in selecting a store? Q2: in selecting a department store, how important is convenience of location? Note that the first question is general, whereas the second is specific. This is the correct sequence. If the questions were asked in the reverse order , respondents would be clued about convenience of location and would likely to give this response to the general question. Funnel approach is a synergy for ordering questions in a questionnaire in which the sequence starts with general questions that are followed by progressively specific questions in order to prevent specific questions from biasing general question. Pretesting
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Refers to the testing of the questionnaire on a small sample of respondents to identify and eliminate potential problems. Even the best questionnaire can be used in the field of survey without adequate pretesting. As a general rule, a questionnaire should not be used in the field survey without adequate pretesting. A pretest should be extensive. All aspects of the questionnaire should be twisted, including question content, wording, sequences, form and layout, question difficulty, and instructions.

The respondents in the pretest should be similar to those who will be included in the actual survey in terms of background characteristics, familiarity with the topic, and attitudes and behaviors of interest.

In other words, respondents for the pretest and for the actual survey should be drawn from the same populations. Pretests are best done by personal interviews, even if the actual survey is to be conducted by mail, telephone, or electronic means, because interviewers can observe respondents reactions and attitudes.

After the necessary changes have been made, another r pretest could be conducted by mail, telephone, or electronic means if those methods are to be used in the actual survey.

The latter pretests should reveal problems peculiar to the interviewing method. To the extent possible, a pretest should involve administering the questionnaire in an environment and context similar to that of the actual survey.

9.5 Questionnaire Design Check List Step 1: Specify the information needed.

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Ensure that the information obtained fully address all the components of the problem. Review components of the problem and the approach, particularly the research question, hypothesis, and the information needed.

Prepare a set of dummy tables. Have a clear idea of the target populations.

Step 2: specify the type of interviewing method. Review the type of interviewing determined based on considerations.

Step 3: Determine the content of individual questions. Is the question necessary? Are several questions needed instead one to obtain the required information in an unambiguous manner? Do not double barreled questions.

Step 4: design the questions to overcome the respondents inability and unwillingness to answer. Is the respondent informed? If respondents are not likely to be informed, filter questions that measure familiarity, product use, and past experience should be asked before questions about the topics themselves. Can the respondent remember? Avoid errors of omissions, telescoping, and creation. Questions that do not provide the respondent with cues can underestimate the actual occurrence of an event. Can the respondent articulate? Minimize the effort required of the respondents. Is the context in which the questions are asked appropriate? Make the request for information seem legitimate. If the information is sensitive. Place sensitive topics at the and of the questionnaire.
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Preface the question with a statement that the behaviour of interest is common. Ask the question using the 3rd person technique. Hide the question is a group of other questions that respondents are willing to answer. Provide response categories rather than asking for specific figures. Use randomized techniques, if appropriate.

Step 5: Decide on the Question Structure Open-ended questions are useful in exploratory research and as opening questions. Use structured questions wherever possible. In multiple choice questions, the response alternatives should include the set of all possible choices and should be manually exclusive. In a dicthomus question, if a substantial proportion of the respondents can be expected to be neutral, include a neutral alternative. Consider the use of the split ballot technique to reduce order bias in dichotomous and multiple-choice questions. If the response alternative is numerous, consider using more than one question to reduce the information processing demands on the respondents. Use positive and negative statements.

Step 7: Arrange The Question In Proper Order. The opening questions should be interesting, simple, and non- threatening. Qualifying questions should serve as the opening questions. Basic informations should be obtained first, followed by classifications, and, finally, identification information.

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Difficult, sensitive, or complex questions should be placed late in the sequences. General questions should precede the specific question. Questions should be asked in a logical order. Branching questions should be designed carefully to cover all possible contingencies. The question being branched should be place d as close as possible to the questions causing the branching , and the branching questions should be ordered so that the respondents can not anticipate what additional will be required.

Step 8: Identify the Form and Lay Out Divide a questionnaire into several parts. Question in each part should be precoded. The questionnaires themselves should be numbered serially.

Step 9: Reproduce The Questionnaire. The questionnaire should have a professional appearance. Booklet format should be used for long questionnaire. Each question should be reproduced on a single page or double -page spread. Vertical response columns should be used. Grids are useful when there are a number of related questions that use the same set of response categories. The tendency to crowed questions to make the questionnaires look shorter should be avoided. Directions or instructions for individual questions should be placed as close to the questions as possible. Step 10: Eliminate Bugs to Pretesting Pretesting should be done always.
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All aspects of the questionnaire should be tested, including question content, wording, sequence, form and layout, question difficulty and instructions.

The respondents in the pretest should be similar to those who will be included in the actual survey. Begin the pretest by using personal interviews. Pretest should also be conducted by mail or telephone if those methods are to be used in the actual survey. A variety of interviewers should be used for pretests. The pretest of interview sample size is small varying from 15 to 30 respondents for the initial testing. Use protocol analysis and debriefing to identify problems. After each significant revision of the questionnaire, another pretest should be conducted, using a different sample of respondents. The responses obtained from the pretest should be coded and analyzed.

Observational Forms Forms for recording observational data are easier to construct than the questionnaires. The researcher need not be concerned with the psychological impact of the questions and the way they are asked. The researcher need only develop a form that identifies the required information clearly , makes it easy for the field worker to record the information accurately , and simplifies the coding , entry, and analysis of data. Observational forms should specify the who, what, when, where, why, and way of behaviour to be observed. In the department store project, an observational form for the study of purchase would include space for all of the following information. Project Research Observations
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Who: purchases, browsers, males, females, parents with children, children alone. What: products /brands considered, product/brands purchased, size, price of package inspected, influence of children or other family members. When: day, hour, date of observation. Where: inside the store, checkout counter, or type of department within the store. Why: influence of price, brand name, package size, promotion, or family members on the purchase. Way: personal observer disguised as sales clerk, undisguised personal observer,

hidden camera, or obtrusive mechanical device. The form and layout as well as the reproduction of observational forms should follow the same guidelines discussed for questionnaires. A well designed form permits field workers to record individual observations, but not to summarize observations as that could lead to error. Finally, like questionnaires, observational forms also require adequate pretesting.

9.5Critical Thinking Discussion Questions

1. What is meant by question bias? Write two biased questions. 2. Explain the clients role during questionnaire development. 3. indicate the function of: a) screening question b) warm-ups c) transitions d) skip question and
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e) classification questions 4. Differentiate the funnel approach from the work approach to questionnaire design. 5. Using the quality of service provided by the library of the College as the topic of a survey, define and give examples of questions that: a) Are loaded b) Are leading c) Are double barreled, and d) Use assumed criteria

6. What is meant when questions: a) Overstate the condition, b) Require the respondent to guess a generalization c) Use a specific example to represent a general class, and d) Use a complex sentence. 7. Describe pre-coding and give examples of the pre-coding for a closed-ended question and scaled-response questions. 8. Why should the researcher expend so much effort on the cover letter or opening comments of a questionnaire? 9. Distinguish anonymity from confidentiality.

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Chap- 11

The Data Preparation Process

Chapter objectives: After completing this chapter, the student will be able to: Prepare a preliminary plan for data Analysis Develop a Questionnaire checking Edit the questionnaire for consistency Code unstructured and un-coded questionnaires Manipulate of scale values to ensure comparability with other scales or otherwise make the data suitable for analysis. Perform proper Data cleaning activities Select a data analysis strategy

10.1 Major Steps in Data Preparation The Data Preparation Process is shown in the figure: Preparing Preliminary Plan of Data Analysis

Questionnaire Checking

Editing

Coding

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Transcribing

Data Cleaning

Statistically Adjusting the Data

Selecting a Data Analysis Strategy Step 1: Questionnaire Checking Questionnaire checking involves a check of all questionnaires for completeness and interviewing quality. Often these checks are made while fieldwork is still underway. If the field work was contracted to a data collection agency, the researcher should make an independent check after it is over.

A questionnaire returned from the field may be unacceptable for several reasons. Parts of the questionnaire may be incomplete. The pattern of responses may indicate that the respondent did not understand or follow the instructions. For example, skip patterns may not have been followed. The responses show little variance. For example, a respondent has checked only 4s on a series of 7-point rating scales. The returned questionnaires are physically incomplete: one or more pages are missing. The questionnaire is received after the pre-established cutoff date.
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The questionnaires are answered by someone who does not qualify for participation. If quotas or cell groups sizes have been imposed, the acceptable questionnaires should be classified and counted accordingly. Any problems in meeting the sampling requirements should be identified and corrective are edited . action taken , such as conducting additional interviews in the under presented cells , before the data

Step 2: Editing: Editing is the review of the questionnaires with the objectives of increasing accuracy and precision. It consists of screening questionnaires to identify illegible, incomplete, inconsistent, or ambiguous responses. Responses may be illegible if they have been poorly recorded. This is particularly common in questionnaires with a large number of unstructured questions. The data must be legible if they are to be properly coded. Likewise questionnaires may be incomplete to varying degrees.

For example , a respondent reports an annual income of less than $20,000, yet indicates frequent shopping at prestigious departments stores such as Tana Department stores. Treatment of Unsatisfactory Responses Unsatisfactory responses are commonly handled by returning to the field to get better data, assigning missing values, or discarding unsatisfactory respondents. i) Returning To The Field: The questionnaires with unsatisfactory responses may be returned to the field, where the interviewers re contact the respondents. This approach is particularly attractive for business and industrial marketing surveys, where the sample sizes are small and the respondents are easily identifiable. However, the data obtained the second time may be different from those obtained during the original survey. These

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differences may be attributed to changes over time or differences in the mode of questionnaires administration (telephone vs. in-person interview). ii) Assigning Missing Values: If returning the questionnaires to the field is not feasible, the editor may assign missing values to unsatisfactory responses. This approach may be undesirable if: iii) The number of respondents with unsatisfactory responses is very small. The proportion of satisfactory responses respondents is small, or The variables with unsatisfactory responses are not the key variables. Discarding Unsatisfactory Respondents: In this approach, the respondents with unsatisfactory responses are simply discarded. This approach may have merit when The proportion of unsatisfactory respondents is small-less than 10%, The sample size is large. The unsatisfactory respondents do not differ from satisfactory respondents in obvious ways such as demographics, product usage characteristics, The proportion of unsatisfactory responses for each of these respondents is large, or , Responses on key variables are missing. However, unsatisfactory respondents may differ from satisfactory respondents in systematic ways, and the decision to designate a respondent as unsatisfactory may be subjective. Both these factors bias the results. If the researcher decides to discard unsatisfactory respondents, the procedure adopted to identify these respondents and their number should be reported. Step 3: Coding: assigning a code, usually a number, to each possible response to each question. The code includes an indication of the column position or field and data record it will occupy. For example, sex of respondents may be coded as 1 for Females
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and 2 for males. A field represents a single item of data, such as sex of the respondent. A record consists of related fields, such as sex, marital status, age, household size, occupation, and so forth. Often all the data for a respondent will be contained in a single record, although a number of records may be used for each respondent. If the questionnaire contains only structured questions or very few unstructured questions, it is precoded. This means that codes are assigned before fieldwork is conducted. If the questionnaire contains unstructured questions, codes are assigned after the questionnaires have been returned from the field -post coding. Pre-coding refers to assigning a code to every conceivable response before data collection. Coding questions: the respondent code and the record number should appear on each record in the data. However, the record code can be dispensed if there is only one record for each respondent. Coding of structured questions is relatively simple, because the response options are predetermined. The researcher assigns a code for each response to each question and specifies the appropriate record and columns in which the response codes are to appear. For example: Do you have a currently valid passport? 1. Yes 2. No (1/54) : For this question, a Yes response is coded 1 and a No response 2. The numbers in the parenthesis indicate that the code assigned will appear on the first record for this respondent in column 54. Because only one response is allowed and there are only two possible responses (1 or 2), a single column is sufficient. In general, a single column is sufficient to code a structured question with a single response if there are less than nine possible responses. The coding of unstructured or open-ended questions is more complex. Respondents verbatim responses are recorded on the questionnaire. Codes are then developed and assigned to these responses. Sometimes, based on previous projects or theoretical considerations, the researcher can develop the codes before beginning fieldwork.
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Usually this must wait until the completed questionnaires are received. Then, the researcher lists 50 to 100 responses to unstructured questions to identify the categories suitable for coding. Once codes are developed, the coders should be trained to assign the correct codes to the verbatim responses.

Guidelines suggested for coding unstructured questionnaires and questionnaires in general: Category codes should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. Categories are mutually exclusive, if each response fits into one and only one category code. Categories should not overlap. Categories are collectively exhaustive if every response fits into one of the assigned category codes. This can be achieved by adding an additional category code of other or none of the above. However, only a few 10% or less of the responses should fall into this category. The vast majority of the responses should be classified into meaningful categories. Codebook A code book contains coding instructions and necessary information about variables in the data set. A codebook guides the coders in their work and helps the researcher to properly identify and locate the variables. Even if the questionnaire has been precoded, it is helpful to prepare a formal codebook. A Codebook generally contains the following information: Column number , Record number,

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Variable number, Variable name , Question number, and Instructions for coding.

Step 4: Transcribing: Transcribing data involves transferring the coded data from the questionnaire or coding sheets onto the disks or magnetic tapes or directly into computers by keypunching. If the data have been collected via CATI or CAPI, this step is unnecessary because the data are entered directly into the computer as they are collected. Besides keypunching, the data can be transferred by using mark sense forms, optical scanning, or computerized sensory analysis. Step 5: Data Cleaning: Data cleaning includes consistency checks and treatment of missing responses. Although preliminary consistency, checks have been made during editing, the checks at this stage are more thorough and extensive, because they are made by computer. Consistency Checks: is a part of the data-cleaning process that identifies data that are out of range, logically inconsistent, or have extreme values. Data with values not defined by the coding scheme are inadmissible. For example a respondent reports both unfamiliarity with, and frequent usage of, same product. The necessary information respondent code, variable code , variable name, record number, column number, and inconsistent values can be printed to locate these responses and take corrective action. Finally extreme values should be closely examined. Not all extreme values result from errors, but they may point to problems with the data. For example, extreme values should be closely examined. Not all extreme values result from errors, but they may point to problems with the data.

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For example, an extremely low evaluation of a brand may be the result of the respondent indiscriminately circling 1s (on a 1 to -7 rating scale) on all attributes of this brand.

Step 6: Treatment of Missing Responses: Missing responses represent values of a variable that are unknown, either because respondents provided ambiguous answers or their answers were not properly recorded. Treatment of missing responses poses problems, particularly if the proportion of missing responses is more than 10%. The following options are available for the treatment of missing responses. Substitute a Neutral Value: a neutral value, typically the mean response to the variable, is substituted for the missing responses. Thus, the mean of the variable remains unchanged and other statistics, such as correlations, are not affected much. Although this approach has some merit, the logic of substituting a mean value say 2) is questionable. Substitute an Imputed Response: the respondents pattern of responses to other questions are used to impute or calculate a suitable response to the missing questions. The researcher attempts to infer from the available data the responses the individuals would have given if they had answered the questions. This can be done statistically by determining the relationship of the variable in question to other variables, based on the available data. For example, product usage could be related to household size for respondents who have provided data on both variables. The missing product usage response for a respondent could then be calculated, given that the respondents household size. However, this approach requires considerable effort and can introduce serious bias. Sophisticated statistical procedures have been developed to calculate imputed values for missing responses. ( 4 ) for respondents who, if they had answered, might have used either high ratings (6 or 7 ) or low ratings ( 1 or

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Step 7: Statistically Adjusting the Data: Procedures for statistically adjusting the data consist of Weighting, Variable Re Specification, and Scale Transformation. These adjustments are not always necessary but can enhance the quality of data analysis. i) Weighting: is a statistical adjustment to the data in which each case or respondent in the data base is assigned a weight to reflect its importance relative to other cases or respondents. The effect of weighting is to increase or decrease the number of cases in the sample that possess certain characteristics. Weighting is most widely used to make the sample data more representative of a target population on specific characteristics. For example, it may used to give greater importance to cases or respondents with higher quality data. Yet another use of weighting is to adjust the sample so that greater importance is attached to respondents with certain characteristics. If a study is conducted to determine what modifications should be made to an existing product, the researcher might want to attach greater weight to the opinions of heavy users of the product. This could be accomplished by assigning weights of 3.0 to heavy users, 2.0 to medium users and 1.0 to light users and nonusers. Weighting should be applied with caution because it destroys the selfweighting nature of the sample design. ii) Variable Respecification (VR) : VR involves the transformation of data to create

new variables or the modification of existing variables so that they are more consistent with the objectives of the study. The purpose of respecification is to create variables that are consistent with the objectives of the study.

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For example, suppose the original variable was product usage, with 10 response categories. These might be collapsed into 4 categories, heavy, medium, light, and nonuser. Or the researcher may create an index of information search (IIS), which is the sum of information customers seek from dealers, promotional materials, the internet, and other independent sources. i) An important respecification procedure involves the use of dummy variables for re specifying categorical variables. Dummy variables are also called binary, dichotomous, instrumental, qualitative variables. They are variables that may take on only two values as 0 or 1. The general rule is that to re specify categorical variables with K categories, k-1 dummy variables are needed. The reason for having K-1, rather than K, dummy variables is that only K-1 categories are independent. Given the sample data, information about the Kth category can be derived from information about the other K-1 categories. Consider sex, a variable is needed. Information on the number or percentage of males in the sample can be readily derived from the number or percentage of females. Scale Transformation (ST): ST is a manipulation of scale values to ensure comparability with other scales or otherwise make the data suitable for analysis. Frequently, different scales are employed for measuring different variables. For example, image variables may be measured on a 7-point semantic differential scale, attitude variables on a continuous rating scale, and lifestyles variables on a 5-ponit likert scale. Therefore, it would not be meaningful to make comparisons across the measurement scales for any respondent. To compare attitudinal scores with lifestyles or image scores, it would be necessary to transform the various scales.

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Even if the same scale is employed for all the variables, different respondents may use the scale differently. For example, some respondents consistently use the upper end of a rating scale, whereas, others consistently use the lower end. These differences can be corrected by appropriately transforming the data.

Step 8- Selecting a Data Analysis Strategy: The selection of a data analysis strategy should be based on the earlier steps of the marketing research process , known characteristics of the data , properties of statistical techniques , and the background and philosophy of the researcher. Data analysis is not an end in itself. Its purpose is to produce information that will help address the problem at hand. The selection of a data analysis strategy must begin with a consideration of the earlier steps in the process problem definition ( step I), development of an approach ( Step II), and research design ( step III). The preliminary plan of data analysis prepared as part of the research design should be used as a spring board. Changes may be necessary in light of additional information generated in subsequent stages of the research process. The next step is to consider the known characteristics of the data. The measurement scales used exert a strong influence on the choice of statistical techniques.

In addition, the research design may favor certain techniques. For example, analysis of variance is suited for analyzing experimental data from causal designs. >>> Selecting a Data Analysis Strategy >>>
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Earlier steps (I, II, and III) Of the marketing Research Process

Known Characteristics of the Data

Properties of statistical Techniques

Background and Philosophy of the researcher

Data Analysis

The insights into the data obtained during data preparation can be valuable for selecting a strategy for analysis. It is also important to take into account the properties of the statistical techniques, particularly their purpose and underlying assumptions.

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Some statistical techniques are appropriate for examining differences in variables, others for making predictions. The techniques also involve different assumptions, and some techniques can withstand violations of the underlying assumptions better than others. Finally, the researchers background and philosophy affect the choice of a data analysis strategy. The experienced, statistically trained researcher will employ a range of techniques, including advanced statistical methods. Researchers differ in their willingness to make assumptions about the variables and their underlying populations. Researchers who are conservative about making assumptions will limit their choice of techniques to distribution-free methods. In general, several techniques may be appropriate for analysis the data from a given project.

10.2 Computer Programs for Data Preparation SPSS Out- of- range values can be selected using the SELECT IF or PROCESS if value statements. These cases, with the identifying information (subject ID, record No; variable name, variable value), can then be printed using the PRINT or WRITE commands. As a further check, the LIST command can be used to display the values of variables for each case. SPSS data Entry simplifies the process of entering new data files. SAS The IF, IF-THEN, and IF-THEN/ELSE statements can be used to select cases with missing or out-of range values. The SELECT statement is useful for printing suspicious input lines. It facilitates data cleaning and checking for logical inconsistencies.

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The LOSTCARD statement can be used to identify missing records in the data. The PRINT and PRINTTO procedures can be used to identify cases and print variables values. In addition, the OUTPUT and PUT statements can be used to write the values of variables.

MINTAB EXCEL The IF statement can be used to make logical checks out-of-range values. The IF statements can be accessed under INSERT> FUNCTION >IF. There are control statements that permit the control of the order of commands in a macro. The IF commands allows implementation of different blocks of commands. This includes IF, ELSEIF, and ENDIF.

Chap-12 Data Analysis & Interpretation

Chapter objectives After successful completion of this chapter the student will be able to: Describe objectives of data analysis Examine descriptive statistics Examine inferential statistics Guidelines how to process data using SPSS
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12. 1 Basic Objectives of Data Analysis There are three objectives in data analysis: 1. so on. Suppose an item tapped on a 7-point scale has been improperly coded and /or entered as 8; this will be highlighted by the maximum values on the descriptive statistics and the error can be rectified. The mean, the range, the standard deviation, and the variance in the data will give the researcher a good idea of how the respondents have reacted to the items in the questionnaires and how good the items and measures are. If the response to each individual item can in a scale does not have a good spread or range and shows very little variability, then the researcher would suspect that the particular question was probably not properly worded and respondents did not quite understand the intent of the question. Biases, if any, could also be detected if the respondents have tended to respond similarly to all items-that is, stuck to only certain points on the scale. The maximum and minimum scores, mean, standard deviation, variance, and other statistics can be easily obtained, and these will indicate whether the responses range satisfactorily over the scale. Remember that if there is no variability in the data, then no variance can be explained. Researchers go to great lengths obtaining the central tendency, the range, the dispersion, and other statistics for every single item measuring the dependent and independent variables, especially when the measures for a concept are newly developed. It is always prudent to obtain: The frequency distributions for the demographic variables,
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Getting a Feel for the Data: The feel for the data will give preliminary ideas of

how good the scale are , how well the coding and entering of data have been done , and

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The mean, standard deviation, range, and variance dependent & independent variables , and

on the other

An inter correlation matrix of the variables, irrespective of whether or not the hypotheses are directly related to these analyses. These statistics give a feel for the data. In other words, examination of the measure of central tendency, and how clustered or dispersed the variables are, gives a good idea of how well the questions were framed for tapping the concept.

The correlation matrix will give an indication of closely related or unrelated the variables under investigation are. If the correlation between two variables happens to be high say, over .75 we would start to wonder whether they are really two different concepts, whether they are measuring the same concept.

2. Testing the Goodness of the Data: Testing the goodness of data can be accomplished by submitting the data for factor analysis, obtaining the Cronbachs alpha or the split-half reliability of the measures, and so on. Establishing the goodness of data lends credibility to all subsequent analysis and findings. Hence, getting a feel for the data becomes the necessary first step in all data analysis. Based on this initial feel further detailed analysis may be done to test the goodness of the data. The reliability and validity of the measures can now be tested. Reliability: the reliability of a measure is established by testing for both consistency and stability. Consistency indicates how well the items measuring a concept hang together as a set. Cronbachs alpha is a reliability coefficient that indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another. Cronbachs alpha is computed in terms of the average intercorrelations among the items measuring the concept. The closer cronbaches alpha is to 1, the higher the internal consistency reliability. Splithalf reliability coefficient reflects the correlations between two halves of a set of
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items, the coefficients obtained will vary depending on how the scale is split. Sometimes split-half reliability is obtained to test for consistency when more than one scale, diamensions, or factor, is assessed. The items across each of the diamensions or factors are split, based on some predetermined logic. In almost every case, Cronbachs alpha is an adequate test of internal consistency reliability. Validity: factorial validity can be established by submitting the data for factor analysis. Criterion related validity: can be established by testing for the power of the measure to differentiate individuals who are known to be different. Convergent-validity: can be established when there is high degree of correlation between two different sources responding to the same measure. For example: both supervisions and subordinates respond similarly to a perceived reward system measure administered to them. Discriminant validity: can be established when two distinctly different concepts are not correlated to each other as for example, courage and honesty; leadership and motivation; attitudes and behaviors. 3. Testing the Hypothesis Developed for The Research: Hypothesis testing is achieved by choosing the appropriate menus of the software programs, to test each of the hypotheses using the relevant statistical test. The results of these tests will determine whether or not the hypothesis is substantiated. Once the data are ready for analysis that is, out- of -range /missing responses, etc, are cleared up, and the goodness of the measures is established, the researcher is ready to test the hypothesis already developed for the study. 12.2 Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central Tendencies and Dispersion Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, the mean, and the standard deviation, which provide descriptive information of a set of data. Descriptive statistics involve transformation of raw data into a form that would provide information to describe a set of factors in a situation.

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This is done through ordering and manipulation of the raw data collected. Descriptive statistics are provided by frequencies, measures of central tendency, and dispersion. Frequencies: simply refers to the number of times various subcategories of a certain phenomenon occurs, from which the percentage and the cumulative percentage of their occurrence can be easily calculated. Example: An MNC president wants to know how many African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, whites, and others are on its payroll. A marketing manager wants to know many units of each brand of coffee are sold in a particular region during a given period A tax consultant desires to keep count of the number of times different sizes of firmssmall, medium and large are audited. In all the foregoing cases, it may be noted that we desire to obtain the frequencies on a nominally scaled variable. Measures of Central Tendency The Mean: the mean or average is a measure of central tendency that offers a general picture of the data without unnecessarily inundating one with each of the observations in the data set. Example: the production department might keep detailed records on how many units of a product are being produced each day. However, to estimate the raw materials inventory, all that the manager might want to know is how many units per month, on an average, the department has been producing over the past 6 months. The Median: is a set of observation would not lend itself to a meaningful representation through either the mean or the median, but can be signified by the most frequently occurring phenomenon.

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Example: in a department where there are 10 white women, 24 white men, 3 African American women, and 2 Asian women , the most frequently occurring group is the mode.the Whiteman. Measures of Dispersion Dispersion is the variability that exists between in a set of observation. Two sets of data might have the same mean, but the dispersions could be different. For example, if company A sold 30, 40, and 50 units of a product during the months of April, May, and June respectively, and the company B sold 10, 40, and 70 units during the same period, the average units sold per month by both companies is the same-40 units but the variability or the dispersion in the later company is larger. The three measurements of dispersion connected with the mean are the range, the variance, and the standard deviation, which are explained below. Range: refers to the extreme values in a set of observations. The range is between 30 and 50 for company A (a dispersion of 20 units), while the range is between 10 and 70 units (a dispersion of 60 units) for company B. Variance: the variance is calculated by subtracting the mean from each of the observations in the data set, taking the square of this difference, and dividing the total of these by the number of observations. In the above example, the variance for each of the two companies is: Variance for Company A= (30-40)2 + (40-40)2 + (50-40)2 = 66.67 3 Variance for Company B= (10-40)2 + (40-40)2 + (70-40)2 = 600 3 As we can see, the variance is much larger in company B than company A. It makes it more difficult for the manager of company B to estimate how much goods to stock than

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it is for the manager of company A. Thus, variance gives an indication of how dispersed the data in a data set are. Standard Deviation: another measure of dispersion for interval and ratio scaled data ,offers an index of the spread of a distribution or the variability in the data .It is very commonly used to measure of dispersion, and is simply the square root of the variance. In the case of the above two companies, the standard deviation for companies A & B would be 66.67 and 600 or 8.67 and 24.495, respectively. The mean and the standard deviation are the most common descriptive statistics. The standard deviation, in conjunction with the mean, is very useful tool because of the following statistical rules, in a normal distribution. Practically all observation falls within three slandered deviation of the average or the mean. More than 90% of the observation is within two standard deviations of the mean. More than half of the observation is within one standard deviation of the mean. Other Measures of Dispersion When the median is the measure of central tendency, percentiles, deciles, and quartiles become meaningful. Just as the median divides the total realm of observations into two equal halves, the quartile divides it into four equal parts, the decile into 10, and the percentile to 100 equal parts. The percentile is useful when huge masses of data, such as the GRE or GMAT scores, are handled. When the area of observations is divided into 100 equal parts, there are 99 percentile points. Any given score has a probability of .01 that it will fall in any of those points. If Johns score is in the 16th percentile, it indicates that 84% of those who took the exam scored better than he did, while 15% did worse.
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Often times we are interested in knowing where we stand in comparison to others-are we in the middle, in the upper 10 or 25% or in the lower 20 or 25%, or where? For instance, if in a company administered test, Mr Tesfaye scores 78 out of a total of 100 points , he would be unhappy if he were in the bottom 10% among his colleges-test takers , but he would be reasonably pleased if he were in the top 10%, despite the fact that his scores remains the same. His standing in relation to others can be determined by the central tendency median and the percentile he falls in Inter Quartile Range The measure of dispersion for the median, interquartile range consists of the middle 50% of the observations-observations excluding the bottom and top 25% quartiles. The interquartile range could be very useful when comparisons are made among several groups. For instance, telephone companies can compare long-distance charges of customers in several areas by taking samples of customer bills from each of the cities to be compared. By plotting the first and third quartiles and comparing the median and the spread, they can get a good idea of where billings tend to be highest, to what extent customers vary in the frequency of use of long distance calls, and so on. This is done by the box-and whisker plot for each area. 12.3 Inferential Statistics Inferential Statistics is statistics that help to establish relationships among variables and draw conclusion there from. We might be interested to know or infer from the data through analysis. The relationship between two variables for example between

advertisements and sales between advertisement and sales. Differences in a variable among different subgroups whether women or men buy more of a product. How several independent variables might explain the variance in a dependent variable how investments in the stock market are influenced by

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the level of unemployment , perceptions of the economy, disposable income and dividend expectations . Pearson Correlation Many times, however, we would be interested in inferential statistics. That is, we might be interested to know or infer from the data through analysis the relationship between two variables (e.g., between advertisement and sales), differences in a variable among different subgroups (e.g., whether women or men buy more of a product), how several independent variables might explain the variance in a dependent variable (e.g. how investments in the stock market are influenced by the level of unemployment, perception of the economy, disposable incomes, and dividend expectations).

(e.g., how investments in the stock market are influenced by the level of unemployment, perceptions of the economy, disposable incomes, and dividend expectations). We will now discuss some of these inferential statistics. Figure 12.1 Boxes and Whisker Plot a. Comparison of telephone bills in three cities. Los Angeles

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________________________ __________________________________________ X (1) 26 Q1 Q2 Q3 x(n) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

(a)

(b)

Correlations In a research project that includes several variables, beyond knowing the means and standard deviations of the dependent and independent variables, we would often like to know how one variable is related to another. That is, we would like to see the nature, direction, and significance of the bivariate relationships of the variables used in the study (that is, the relationship between any two variables among the variables tapped among the variables tapped in the study). A Pearson correlation matrix will provide this information, that is, it will indicate the direction, strength, and significance of the bivariate relationships of all the variables in the study. The correlation is derived by assessing the variations in one variable as another variable also varies. For the sake of simplicity, let us say awe have collected data on two variables-price and sales-for two different products. The volume of sales at every price level can be plotted for each product, as shown in the scatter diagrams if Figure M 2a and M 2b. Figure 12.2b indicates a discernible pattern of how the two factors vary simultaneously (the trend of the scatter is that of a downward straight line), whereas figure 12.2a does
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not. Looking at the scatter diagram in Figure 12.2b, it would seem there is a direct negative correlation between price and sales for this product. That is, as the price increases, the sale of the product drops consistently. Figure 12.2a suggests no interpretable pattern for the other product. A correlation Coefficient that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship can be computed by applying a formula that takes into consideration the two sets of figure-in this case, different sales volume at different prices. Figure 12.2 (a) Scatter diagram with no discernible patter. (b) Scatter diagram indicating a downward or negative slope.

Sales

Price (a)

Price (b)

Theoretically, there could be range between-1.0 and 1.0, we need to know if any correlation found range between two variables is significant or not (i.e. if it has occurred solely by chance or if there is a high probability of its actual existence). As we know, a significance of p=.05 is the generally accepted conventional level in social science research. This indicates that 95 times out of 100, we can be sure that there is a true or significant correlation between the two variables, and there is only a 5% chance that the relationship does not truly exist. If there is a correlation of .56(denoted as r=.56)
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between two variables A and B, with p<.01 then we know that there is a positive relationship between the two variables and the probability of this not being true is 1% or less. That is, over 99% of the time we would expect this correlation to exist. The correlation of .56 also indicates that the variables would explain the variance in one another (to the extent of 31.4% (.56). We would not know which variable causes which, but we would know that the two variables are associated with each other. examining the correlation between the Thus, a hypothesis that postulates a significant positive (or negative) relationship between two variables can be tested by two. A bivariate correlation analysis, which indicates the strength of relationship between the two variables, can be generated for variables measured on an interval or ration scale. Nonparametric tests are also available to assess the relationship between variables not measured on an interval or ratio scale. Spearmans rank correlation and Kendalls rank correlation are used to examine relationships between two ordinals Variables. Table 12.1: Contingency Table of Skin Color and Job Type Job Type Skin Color White None white Total White Collar 30 2 32 Blue Collar 5 18 23 Total 35 20 55

See Table 12.3 which shows the different types of statistical analyses that data can be subjected to, when the independent and the dependent variables are measured on different scales. Relationship between Two Nominal Variables: X2 Test

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We might sometimes want to know if there is a relationship between two nominal variables of whether they are independent of each other. As examples: 1. Is viewing television advertisement of a product (yes/no) related to buying that product by individuals (buy/dont buy)? 2. Is the type of job done by individuals (white-color jobs vs. blue-collar jobs) a function of the color of their skin (white vs. non white)? Such comparisons are possible by organizing data by groups or categories and seeing if there are any statistically significant relationships. For example, we might collect data from a sample of 55 individuals whose color of skin and nature of jobs, culled from a frequency count, might be illustrated as in Table 12.2 in a two-by-two contingency table. Just by looking at Table 12.2, a clear pattern seems to emerge that those who are White hold white- collar jobs. Only a few of the nonwhites hold white-collar jobs. Thus, there does seem to be a relationship between the color of the skin and the type of job handled; the two do not seem to be independent. This can be statistically confirmed by the chi-square (x2) test- a nonparametric test-which would indicate whether or not the observed pattern is due to chance. As we know, nonparametric tests are used when normality of distributions cannot be assumed as in nominal or ordinal data.

The x2 test compares the expected frequency (based on probability) and the observed frequency, and the x2 statistics is obtained by the formula: X2= (0i-E)2
Ei

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Where x2 is the chi-square statistic; 0i is the observed frequency of the ith cell; and Ei is the expected frequency. The x2 statistic with its level of significance can be obtained for any set of nominal data through computer analysis. Thus, in testing for differences in relationships among nominally scaled variables, the x2 (chi-square) statistic comes in handy. The null hypothesis would be set to state that there is no significant relationship between two variables (color of skin and nature of the job, in the above example), and the alternative hypothesis would be that there would be a significant relationship. The chi-square statistic is associated with the degrees of freedom (df), which denotes whether or not a significant relationship exists between two nominal variables. Degrees of freedom is 1 (one) less than the number of cells in the columns and rows. If there are four cells (two in a column and two in a row), then the degree of freedom would be ((21) x (-1)). X2 statistic can also be used for multiple levels of two nominal variables. For instance, one might be interested to know if four groups of employees-production. Sales, marketing, and R&D personnel-react to a policy in four different ways (i.e., with no interest at all, with mild interest, moderate interest, and intense interest). Here the X2 value for the test of independence will be generated by cross-tabulating the data in 16 cells-that is, classifying the data in terms of the four groups of employees and the four categories of interest. The degrees of freedom here will be 9 ((4-1) (4-1)). The x2 test of significance thus helps us to see whether or not two nominal variables are related. Besides the X2 test, other tests, such as the Fisher exact probability test and the Cochran Q test are used to determine the relationship between two nominally scaled variables. Significant Mean Differences between Two Groups: The-Test There are many instances when we would be interested to know whether two groups are different from each other on a particular interval-scaled or ratio-scaled variable of interest. For example,
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Would men or women press their case for the introduction of flextime at the workplace to the same extent, or would their needs be different?

Do MBAs perform better in organizational settings than business students with only a bachelors degree?

Do individuals in urban areas have a different investment pattern of their savings than those in semi-urban area?

Do CPAs perform better than non-CPAs in accounting tasks? To find answers to such questions, a t-test is done to see if there are any significant differences in the means for two groups in the variable of interest.

That is, a

nominal variable that is split into two subgroups (as for example, smokers

and nonsmokers, employees in the marketing department and those in the accounting department; younger and older employees) is tested to see if there is a significant mean difference between the two split groups on a dependent variable, which is measured on an interval or ratio scale (as for instance, extent of well-being; pay; or comprehension level). The t-test takes into consideration the means and standard deviations of the two groups on the variable and examines if the numerical difference in the means is significantly different from o (zero) as postulated in our null hypothesis. our null hypothesis When we compare the mean differences between two different groups on a variable, we do a t-test on two independent samples. We can also do a t-test to examine the differences in the same group before and after a treatment. For example, would a group of employees perform better after undergoing training than they did before? In this case, the formula for the t-test is adjusted to take into account correlation between the two scores, if any. In other word, the adjusted t-test for the matched sample or other type of dependent samples reflects the true mean differences. We examines if the numerical difference in the means is significantly different from 0(zero) as postulated in

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The Mann-Whitney U test is a nonparametric test for examining significant differences when the dependent variable is measured on an ordinal scale and the independent variable on a nominal scale. Significant Mean Differences: Among Multiple Groups: ANOVA Whereas the t-test would indicate whether or not there is a significant mean difference in a dependent variable between twp grips, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) helps to examine the significant mean differences among more than two groups on an interval or ratio-scaled dependent variable. For example, would there be a significant difference in the amount of sales by the following four groups of salespersons: Those who are sent to training schools, those who are given on-the-job training during field trips, those who have been tutored by sales manager, and those who have had none of the above? Or Would the rate of promotion be significantly different for those who have assigned mentors, choose their own mentors, and have no mentors in the organizational system? The results of ANOVA show whether or not the means of the various groups are significantly different from one another, as indicated by the F statistic. The F statistic shows whether two sample variances differ from each other or are from, the same population. The F distribution is a probability distribution of sample variances and the family of distributions changes with the changes in the sample size. Details of the F statistic may be seen in Table IV at the end of the book. When significant mean differences among the groups are indicated by the F statistic, there is no way of knowing from the ANOV results alone as to where they lie, that is, whether the significant difference is between Groups A and B, or between B and C, or A and C, and so on. It would therefore be unwise to use multiple t-tests, taking two groups at a time, because the greater the number of t-tests done, the lower the

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confidence we can place on results. For example, three t-tests done simultaneously decrease the confidence level from 95% to 86% (.95). However, several tests, such as Scheffes test, Duncan Multiple Range test, Tukeys test, and Student-Newman-Keuls test are available and can be used, as appropriate, to detect where exactly the mean differences lie. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance is the nonparametric test used when the dependent variable is on an ordinal scale, and the independent variable is nominally scaled. Tables 12.3 and 12.4 tests provide information on the statistical techniques and tests used, as well the different nonparametric tests. Table 12.3 Statistical Techniques and Classified According To Type, Number and Measurement Scale Of Variables Criterion Variables One Nominal Ordinal Interval Two or More Nominal Ordinal Interval

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Chi-square Test ce

Sign test

Analysis variance

of

Multiple discriminate analysis

for Median test Mann-Whitney U test Kruskal- Wallis

independen

Cohran Q test Nominal Fisher exact probability

one-way analysis variance of

Spearmans rank correlation One Ordinal Kendalls rank correlation Analysis of Interval variance

Analysis trend analysis

of

variance with

Regression analysis

Analysis of variance of

Multiple regression analysis Analysis variance of

Friedman two- Analysis way Two or More Ordinal Nominal analysis variance (factorial design) of variance

Variants

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Multiple discriminate analysis Interval

Multiple regression analysis

Multiple discrimi nate analysis

Canonical correlation

Adapted from R.L.Baker & R.E Schulz (Eds).Instructional product research. New York: Van Nostrand Co., 1972, p. 110. Multiple Regression Analysis Whereas the correlation coefficient r indicates the strength of relationship between two variables, it gives us no idea of how much of the variance in dependent or criterion variable will be explained when several independent variables are theorized to simultaneously influence it. For example, when the variance in a dependent variable X (say performance) is expected to be explained by four independent variables, A,B,C and D (say, pay, task difficulty, supervisory support, and organizational culture), it should be note that Not only are the four independent or predictor variables correlated to the dependent variable in varying degrees, but they might also be inter correlated (i.e., among themselves). For example, task difficulty is likely to be related to supervisory support, pay might be correlated to task difficulty, and all three task difficulties, supervisory support, and pay-might influence the organizational culture. When these variables are jointly regressed against the dependent variable in an effort to explain the variance in it, the individual correlation collapse into what is called a multiple r or multiple correlation. The square of multiple r, R-square or R2 as it is commonly know, is the amount of variance explained in the dependent variable by the predictors. Such analysis, where more than one predictor is jointly regressed against the criterion variable, is known as multiple regression analysis. When the R-square vale, the F statistic, and its significant level are known, we can interpret the results.

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For example, if the R2 is .63 with an F value of say, 25.56, and a significance level of p<.001, then we can say that 63% of the variance has been significantly explained by the set of predictors. There is less than.001% chance or this not holding true. Table 12.4: Use of Some Nonparametric Tests Test Chi-square variable Sample or two or more Independent samples Cochran Q With more than two related Samples measured on nominal Scale. Fisher exact when Probability measured on nominal scale. expected frequencies are small. Sign test With two related samples Measured on ordinal scale. Media test With one sample, to see if In a symmetric distribution, the mean and median will A good test for ranked data. with two independent sample More useful than x2 variables. Help when data fall into two natural categories. When Used With nominal data for one Test for Function independence of

randomly drawn measurement be are from a population with a specified median.

the same.

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Mann-Whitney U Tests tests.

With two independent samples on ordinal data.

Analogue of the two independent sample t-

Kruskal-Wallis One-way ANOVA

with more than two independent samples on an ordinal scale.

An alternative to one-way ANOVA where normality of distributions cannot

be assumed. Friedman two-way ANOVA with more than two related sample on ordinal data. A good alternative to two way ANOVA where normality cannot assumed. Kolmogorov-Smirnov With one sample or two independent samples measured on an ordinal scale. Is a more powerful test than X2 or Mann-Whitney U.

In sum, multiple regression analysis is done to Examine the simultaneous effects of several independent variables on a dependent variable that is interval scaled. In other word, multiple regression analysis aids in understanding how much of the variance in the dependent variable is explained by a set of predictors.

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If we want to know which among the set of predictors is the most important in explaining the variance, which the next, and so on, a stepwise multiple regression analysis can be done.

If we want to know whether a set of job-related variables (e.g., job challenge, job variety, and job stress) would significantly add to the variance explained in the dependent variable (say, job satisfaction), over and above that explained by a set of organizational factors (e.g., participation in decision making, communication, supervisory relationship), a hierarchical regression analysis van be done.

Multiple regressions are also done to trace the sequential antecedents that cause the dependent variable through what is known as path analysis.

As stated in an earlier chapter, this tracing of sequential antecedents is possible even in cross-sectional data.

Other Multivariate Tests and Analyses Multivariate analyses examine several variables and their relationship simultaneously, in contrast to bivariate analyses where one variable at a time is examined for generalization form the sample to the population. The multivariate techniques for generalization from the sample to the population. The multivariate techniques are now presented superficially to enable you to have some idea of their use. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVOA), discriminate analysis, canonical correlations; factor analysis, cluster analysis, and Multidimensional scaling.
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MANOVA is similar to ANOVA,with the difference that ANOVA tests the mean differences of more than two groups on one dependent variable, whereas MANOVA tests mean differences among groups across several dependent variables simultaneously, by using sums of squares and cross-product matrices. Just as multiple t-tests would bias the results (as explained earlier), multiple ANOVA tests, and using one dependent variable at a time, would also bias the results, since the dependent variables are likely to be interrelated. MANOVA circumvents this bias by simultaneously testing all the dependent variables, canceling out the effect of any inter correlations among them. In MANOVA tests, the independent variable is measured on a nominal scale and the dependent variables on an interval or ratio scale. The null hypothesis tested by MANOVA is: 1= 2= 3= n, The alternate hypothesis is: 1= 2= 3=. n.

Discriminant Analysis Helps to identify the independent variables that dis-criminate a nominally scaled dependent variable of interest-say those who are high on a variable from those who are low on it. The linear combination of independent variables indicates the discriminating function showing the large difference that exists in the two group means.

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In other words, the independent variables measured on an interval or ratio scale discriminate the groups of interest to the study.

Canonical Correlation Examines the relationship between two or more dependent variables and several independent variables; for example, the correlation between a set of job behaviors (such as engrossment in work, timely completion of work and number of absences) and their influence on a set of performance factors (such as quality of work, the output, and rate of rejects). The focus here is on delineating the job behavior profiles associated with performance that results in high-quality production. Other types of statistical analyses such as factor analysis, cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling help us to understand how the variables under study form a pattern or structure, in contrast to focusing on predicting the dependent variable or tracing relationships. Factor Analysis Helps to reduce a vast number of variables (for example, all the questions tapping several variables of interest in a questionnaire) to a meaningful, interpretable, and manageable set of factors. A principal-component analysis transforms all the variables into a set of composites variables that are not correlated to one another. Suppose we have measured in a questionnaire the four concepts of mental health, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and job involvement, with 7 questions tapping each. When we factor analyze theses 28 items, we should find four factors with the right variables loading of each factor, confirming that we have measured the concepts correctly. Cluster Analysis
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CA is used to classify objects or individual into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive groups with high homogeneity within clusters and low homogeneity between clusters.

In other words, cluster analysis helps to identify objects that are similar to one another, based on some specified criterion.

For instance, if our sample consists of a mix of respondents with different brand preferences for a product, cluster analysis will cluster individuals by their preferences for each of the different brands.

Multidimensional Scaling Groups objects in multidimensional space. Objects that are perceived by

respondents to be different are distanced, and the greater the perceptual differences, the greater the distance between the objects in the multidimensional space. In other words, multidimensional scaling provides a spatial portrayal of respondents perception of products, services, or other items of interest, and highlights the perceived similarities and differences. In sum, multivariate techniques such as MANOVA, Discriminant analysis, and canonical correlation help us to analyze the influence of independent variables on the dependent variable in different ways. Other multivariate techniques such as factor analysis, cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling offer meaningful insights into the data set by forming patterns of the data in one form or the other. It is advantageous that several univariate, bivariate, and multivariate techniques are available to analyze sample data, so we can generalize the results obtained from the sample to the population at large.

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It is, however, important to pay attention to what each hypothesis is, and use the correct statistical technique to test it, rather than apply advanced inappropriate techniques.

Analysis of Qualitative Data As we know, qualitative data can be obtained through many sources, prime among them being in- depth interviews, participant or non participant observations, films and videotapes, projective tests, case studies, and documents and archival data. Description of the matter under study is the main essence of qualitative research and a range of interpretive techniques can be used to decode, translate, decipher patterns, and discover the meaning of phenomena that occur. The data culled can be categorized and coded according to some meaningful classification scheme. Frequency counts can thereafter be taken, and X2 or other appropriate non parametric tests done. As an example, a manager might be concerned about the productivity at the workplace, especially since a diverse group of individuals work together. The researcher who assists the manager might want to know how people of different ethnic origins might perceive their White bosses. Would these individuals feel they are respected and treated well at the workplace, that they are not being stereotyped in different ways, and that the differences in ethnicity are valued rather than devalued? In addition, the researcher might want to know if they express any special needs based on their parenting status. For instance, women with infants and young children might like flextime or flexible workplace or part time jobs, which might improve their productivity. The researcher might talk to several employees about these issues, and make a note of the ethnic origin, parenthood status, and responses to a number of open ended questions. These interview data may be later tabulated and coded, and then entered in the computer for non parametric analysis. For example, if a Hispanic woman feels that communication with the boss is a problem for her, this could be coded as a communication concern.

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If an African American says that he is being discriminated against in the nature of the tasks assigned to him then it could be coded under discrimination/task, and so on, can then be submitted for cross tabulation and a X2 test. Table 12.5 illustrates a tabulation of the responses obtained from 25 employees to the open ended, unstructured interview, which posed the question: What is your reaction to the computerized production system recently introduced? Frequency counts can be obtained based on these tabulations and the applicable nonparametric tests used to interpret data. When information is gathered from such sources as newspapers, journal articles, and audio and videotapes, it can be classified, tabulated, and analyzed to understand phenomena, explain them, or foretell future trends. Naisbitts well known Forecast of the future (see Megatrends) could have been the result of engrossing himself in such an exercise. In analyzing qualitative information, the researcher engages in an in depth probe and subjectively interprets the data in an effort to account for much of the variation in the phenomenon of interest. Table 12.5: Tabulation of qualitative Data obtained from 25 interviewees Nature of Responses Favorable # Relieves physical @ Dont have to * Production will increase. worry personal responsibility for meeting targets @@ Mind is free to think about other things as about ** Just in time systems can be easily incorporated. + Less supervision needed. Physical Psychological Substantive

exhaustion # Will reduce muscular pains. ### Can sleep better at night.

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well.

Unfavorable $ Sedentary life not good fitness. = Muscles will for physical X Sooner or later there get layoffs. will

& will the heavy investment really pay off in the long run?

be ^ Maintenance costs can be very high.

flabby

Xx I am not sure % Too much time will be spent what I am now! Xxx Do I have to learn new things now? At my age will I be able to? on training mean time, production will suffer.

Respondents #6, 8, 15, 22 ## 8, 15, 19 ### 6, 8, 15, 19

Respondents @1, 11, 16, 17

Respondents * 4, 7, 10

@@ 3, 8, 9, 13, ** 7, 12, 18 16 $ 2, 20, 24 + 10, 12, 14, 5

X 1, 9, 21 Xx 2, 3, 22, 24 Xxx 9, 23

=9
Top Managers: 4, 7, 10

&10, 18, 25 ^4, 12, 18 % 7, 12, 14

Middle Managers: 12, 14, 18, 25

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Events, objects, persons, words, and syntax used in the various sources are frequently carefully analyzed for their content, from which several inferences are drawn and projections made for the future. Solutions for the rectification for some types of problems faced in organizations are also possible through content analysis of case studies, audio and videotape reviews, and such others. Content analysis involves the quantification of the qualitative information obtained through a systematic analysis of the relevant information, thus providing a means for submitting it to statistical analysis. For example, a content analysis of the feedback on the effectiveness of different types of carefully manipulated media advertisements on TV, radio, newspaper, and web sites can be examined as to its efficacy on recall and subsequent purchase of a product. It is also possible to convert the qualitative data into interval like data by developing some justifiable rational scheme, as per the following illustration. Illustrative Example: Let us suppose that five open ended questions are asked to understand how members feel about the organizational climate and we want to set up a numerical scale for the responses received for this variable. We may adopt the following categorization and coding scheme for the purpose. 1. if only one response is favorable, or if all responses are unfavorable, the variable might be categorized as the organizational climate is experienced to be very unsatisfactory, and assigned code1; 2. if two of the five responses are favorable, the answer might be categorized as the organizational climate is experienced as unsatisfactory and assigned code 2; 3. if three responses are favorable, the response might be categorized as the organizational climate is experienced as neither satisfactory nor unsatisfactory, and assigned code 3; 4. if four responses are favorable, the variable can be categorized as the organizational climate is experienced as satisfactory and coded as 4; and
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5. If all five responses are favorable, the response can be categorized as the experienced organizational climate is very satisfactory and the response coded as 5. These interval like data can then be submitted for different kinds of parametric statistical analysis, as warranted, to find answers to the issues relating to the research. In sum, while analyzing qualitative data, the notes transcribed are integrated and categorized under appropriate themes, the response categories then transformed into numbers, and subjected to appropriate data analysis. By using multiple methods such as interviewing, observing, and referring to information available with company, the researcher establishes convergent validity and a sense of reliability for the data. The Pearson correlation coefficients are appropriate for interval and ratio scaled variables, and the spearman rank or the Kendalls Tau coefficients are appropriate when variables are measured on an ordinal scale. Any Bivariate correlation can be obtained by clicking the relevant menu, identifying the variables, and seeking the appropriate parametric or nonparametric statistics. MANAGERIAL RELEVANCE Managers make decisions every day, some of which are routine and some very critical for the organization. The ability to understand the different types of analysis as well as the probabilities associated with each projected outcome helps managers to take calculated risks (or avoid them), based on their own natural inclinations as well as the gravity of the problem situation. If, for instance, the manager decides that significance level of 90 (or even .80) in the data analytic results is acceptable, then he or she is aware that the probability of making a wrong decision is 10% (or 20%). Such knowledge is extremely crucial for decision making on various matters of differing complexity and consequence. Knowledge of analysis such as multiple regression reminds the manager that multiple factors influence outcomes and attention has to be paid to all the critical variables indicated by the results of the analysis. The manager also gains a new appreciation of a scientific; data based information system that would lend itself to different types of analyses to solve problems in a sophisticated and

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reliable manner. More advanced multivariate analyses, when comprehended, offer managers valuable insights into developing strategies for organizational growth. Guidelines to Process Datas Using SPSSS Checking the Reliability of Measures: Cronbaches Alpha The closer the reliability coefficient gets to 1.0, the better. In general, reliabilities less than .60 are considered to be poor, those in the .70, range, acceptable, and those over .80 good. It is important to note that all negatively worded items in the questionnaires should first be reversed before the items are submitted for reliability test. Unless all the items measuring a variable are in the same direction, the reliabilities obtained will be incorrect. Reliability Analysis 1. From the menu, choose Analyse Scale Reliability analysis 2. Select the variables constituting the scale 3. Choose model alpha. Obtaining Descriptive Statistics: Frequency Distributions Frequency distribution was obtained for all the personal data or classification variables. Frequencies From the menus, choose Analyze
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Descriptive statistics Frequencies .. (Select the relevant variable) Choose needed: Statistics Charts. Format (for the order in which the results are to be displayed) The frequencies can also be visually displayed as bar charts, histograms, or pie charts by clicking on statistics in the menu then summarize, then Frequencies, and charts in the frequencies dialog box and then selecting the needed chart. Pearson Correlation Matrix From the menus, choose: Analyze Correlate Bivariate Option Select: Type of correlation coefficient: select relevant one. For example Pearson, Kendalls, Tau, Spearman. Test of sigiinificance two tailed, one tailed.

T-Test for Difference between Two Groups (Independent Sample Test)

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Choose Analyse Compare means Independent- samples t- test Select a single grouping variable and click Define groups to specify the two codes to be compared. Options (Specify confidence level required - .05, .01, etc.) Analysis over Variance (ANOVA) Choose Analyze Compare means One-way ANOVA (Select the dependent variables and one independent factor variable) For post hoc test to determine in which of the multiple groups the differences lie click on: Post hoc (Select from among the many tests such as Bobferoni, scheffe, Tukey, Duncan, as appropriate) Chi-Square Test Choose:

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Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs.. (Enter variables in the rows and columns boxes) Statistics .. Select Chi-Square Multiple Regression Analysis Choose Analyze Regression Linear (Enter dependent and independent variables) SUMMARY We examined the use of descriptive statistics like the mean, median, and mode as measures of central tendency and range, standard devastation, variance, and interquartile range as measures of dispersion. These descriptive statistics help managers to understand and describe the nature of the phenomena encountered in a situation, whether they relate to people, stocks, production, events, or any other feature of interest. We also saw the need for generating frequency distributions in the case of some nominal demographic data, like educational level and number of organizations in which individuals have worked. Organizations might also like frequency distributions for certain types of occurrences such as machine breakdowns due to different specific reasons, or types of accounting errors made, or the investment portfolio during a given period.

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While discussing inferential statistics, we examined: 1. how correlational analysis can be done to test the relationship between two variables, 2. how X2 tests can detect whether two nominal variables are dependent or independent, 3. how to trace significant differences between two groups on a dependent variable, using the t-test, 4. how to trace differences among several groups, using ANOVA, and 5. How to explain and predict the variance in the dependent variable when multiple independent variables are theorized to influence it, using multiple regression analysis. We noted the roles of the X2, t, and f statistic as tests of significance for different types of data analyses. We also briefly described the use of multivariate analysis such as MANOVA, Discriminant analysis, and canonical correlation. In addition, we saw that techniques such as factor analysis, cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling help to detect patterns in the collected data. We also examined how qualitative data are handled. A sophisticated categorization of the content under different heads for example, under male and female responses as to how household finance is handled, which members of the family usually buy the necessities and luxury items, and so on can open up a vista of ideas to financial institutions, retailers, service agencies, and others, to develop strategies. We also saw that development and adoption of a good and useful coding system using creative classification schemes can lead to valuable information that can foster further research. Having recapitulated some statistical terms and tests, and refreshed our memory of these here, discussions on how the data are actually analyzed will become clearer and more easily understood

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We observed the various statistical analysis and tests used to examine different hypothesis to answer the research question. We also learned how the computer results are interpreted .an important point to note is that data analysis should be based on testing hypothesis that have been already formulated. It would be incorrect to change our original hypothesis to suit the results of data analysis. It is however, acceptable to develop inductive hypothesis and later test them through further research. We also looked at some of the emerging software programs that help with questionnaire design and administration, data gathering and analysis. We examined descriptive statistics which consists of the mean, median, and the mode as measures of central tendency and the range, slandered deviation, variance, and interquartile range as measures of dispersion. These descriptive statistics help managers to understand and describe the nature of the phenomena encountered in a situation, whether they relate to people, stocks, production, events, or any other feature of interest. In inferential statistics, we examined: how exceptional analysis can be done to test the relationship between two variables; how X2 tests can detect whether two nominal variables are dependent or independent; how to trace significant differences between groups on a dependent variable, using the t-test; how to trace differences among the groups, using ANOVA, and how to explain and predict the variance in the dependent variable when multiple independent multiple regression analysis. Critical Thinking Discussion for Questions 1. What kinds of biases do you think could be minimized or avoided during the data analysis stage of research? 2. When we collect data on the effects of treatment in experimental designs, which statistical test would be most appropriate to test the treatment effects? 3. A tax collector wonders whether he should be more selective about the class of clients he serves so as to maximize his income. He usually deals with four
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categories of clients: the very rich, rich, upper class, and middle class. He has records of each and every client served, the taxes paid by them, and how much he has charged them. Since many particulars in respect of the clients varynumber of dependents , business deductibles etc irrespective of the category they belong to, he would like an appropriate analysis to be done to see which among the four categories of clientele be should choose to continue to serve in the future. What kind of analysis should be done in the above case and why? 4. Which measures of central tendency and dispersion are appropriate in the following cases, and why? a. The ages of individuals who are grouped as follows: Under 25 3 25-35120 36-55....80 Over 55 ..22

b. The performance ratings on a 100 point scale given by the head of the department to the top six performers: Top scorer 87% Second...82 Third81 Fourth76 Fifth.74 Sixth.68%

c. The weights of eight boxes of raw materials purchased: 275, 263, 298, 197, 275, 287, 263, and 243 pounds.
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5. What is the chi-square test? State a research hypothesis that would call for a X2 test. 6. If you want to know whether three groups of employees those who have served the organization from 4-6 years, 7 to 9 years, and 10 to 12 years are to be classified as different in the number of trips they have taken outside the city on business work, what statistical test would you use and why. 7. Explain in your own words what multiple regression analysis is. Give an organizational situation that statistical test would you use and why? 8. The vice president of Lucas International was perplexed by the rate of turnover in the company during the past 18 months or so. She suspected that tree possible factors contributed to this the lower salaries paid to staff compared to industry average, the location of the company, and the extent of bureaucracy that pervaded the system. She was not sure if there were any differences among the four categories of employees managers, clerical staff, machine operators, and secretarial staff in their intentions to quit in the next 6 months. It would be helpful to know how many of each category of staff are currently in the organization, and to have a profile of their ages, educational qualifications, and experience with the organization, she thought. Furthermore, she wanted to know which of the employees were more disgruntled the older or the younger. She put her assistant who had taken a course on research methods to work, to gather the necessary data and give her the needed information. Indicate the variables on which the assistant would gather data, and what kinds of analyses he will be submitting the data to, to submit a report to the VP. (It would help you to first list the information that the VP wants and then proceed with the exercise.)

9. What is the chi-square test? State a research hypothesis (not in the examples given in the book) that would call for a X2 test. 10. If you want to know whether three groups of employees those who have served the organization from 4 to 6 years, 7 to 9 years, and 10 to 12 years are to be classified

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as different in the number of trips they have taken outside of the city on business work, what statistical test would you use and why? 11. Explain in your own words what multiple regression analysis is. Give an organizational situation that would call for the use of multiple regression analysis.

Chap-13 Report Preparation and Presentation Objectives After completing this unit the student will be able to: Comprehend different report writing formats Prepare a research report keeping scientific standards. Examine guidelines for presentation.

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12.1

Standardized Reporting Formats

Researchers differ in the ways they prepare a research report. The personality, background, expertise, and responsibility of the researcher, along with the decision maker (DM) to whom the report is addressed, interact to give each report a unique character. Yet there are guidelines for formatting and writing reports and designing tables and graphs. The standardized reporting format has two major parts: Prefatory Parts /Preliminary Pages & Main Bodies / main text Prefatory Parts /Preliminary Pages In the preliminary pages the report should carry a title and date, followed by acknowledgements in the form of preface or foreword. Then, there should be a table of contents followed by list of tables and illustrations so that the decision maker or anybody interested in reading the report can easily locate the required information in the report. I) Title page II) Title fly page III) Letter of transmittal IV) Letter of authorization V) Table of contents VI) List of tables VII) List of graphs VIII) List of appendices IX) List of exhibits X) Executive summary Objectives Major findings Conclusions Recommendations

Report Parts / Main Body /Main Text


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The main text provides the complete outline of the research report along with all details. Title of the research study is repeated at the top of the first page of the main text and then follows the other details on pages numbered consecutively, beginning with the second page. Each main section of the report should begin on a new page. The main text of the report should have the following sections. XI) Introduction / Back Ground Of The Study Background to the problem/ study Statement of the problem Type of research design Information needs Data collection from secondary sources Data collection from primary sources Scaling techniques Questionnaire development and pretesting Sampling techniques Fieldwork This section constitutes the main body of the report wherein the results of the study are presented in clear and nontechnical terms with liberal use of all sorts of illustrations such as charts, diagrams and the like ones. XIV) Limitation and Caveats Sample size limitation Sample selection limitation Other limitations ( frame error, timing, analysis , etc ) XV) Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusion- detailed summary of the findings and the policy implications drawn from the results be explained. Recommendation

XII) Research Design/Research Methodology

XIII) Analysis of data presentation of finding:

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XVI) Bibliography /references various sources consulted be prepared and attached. XVII) Appendices Questionnaires and forms Technical appendices detailed explanation of a statistical tool such as conjoint analysis /Statistical output Other appendices as necessary such as a map of the area in which the survey took place 12.2 The Research Report Writing Process Organization
Gather materials and data

Consider over all Format

Make detailed Outline

Writing First Draft

Rewriting
Improve Readability

Correct Grammar and spelling

Evaluate appropriateness

Evaluate content
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Final Word Processing

Circulating Or Publishing

12.3 Research Presentation Materials for Oral Presentation Presentation outline Visuals Management or executive summary Copies of the final report What do the data really mean? What impact do they have? What do we need to do, given the information we now have? How can future studies of this nature be enhanced? What can make information such as this more useful? Prepare yourself by presentation Get to know your audience members and their interests before you make a presentation. Know your objectives. Ask yourself: why am I making the presentation? Develop a communication strategy of how to combine the interest of your audience with your own goal. Practice the communication concept. Use notes. Memorize the opening if you must. Just be yourself. Nobody expects you to be Jay Leno, Bob Hope or Billy Graham. Start by outlining the entire presentation in the form of four or five key topics on the screen. It helps your audience see where things fit together and where the presentation is going.
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Begin with your most dramatic and convincing point or quickly build up to a climax so that you receive the full attention of the audience from the start.

Think of your presentation as a service. Look at it from your audience members viewpoint s. continuously asks yourself: how does the presentation help the audience? The organization? My own operation? What is in it for all? Establish mutual benefits. Think of the plus-plus relationship in transactional analysis.

Keep it simple and easy to understand. Use short sentences: subject verb, object. Do not discuss too many points and details: the main mission of your presentation may get lost. Anticipate objections. Recognize them if you cannot fight them. Starting an objection calmly takes the emotion out of it. You also see how that you are aware of it.

End with a positive note. Summarize what the listeners might lose and what they will gain. Remember, a presentation is not sermon. It is sharing ideas with your audience ideas that may affect their jobs, their future. Dont talk down to your audience. Use we instead of I. Talk directly to your audience. Dont lose personal contact by looking out of the window or at your shoes. Look people straight in the eyes. Use charts and figures. Dont overload them. Keep them simple. A chart or figure should not say all there is to say. It can later be distributed. When you use charts or figures, talk to the audience, not to the chart or figure. Look at your watch. Finish your presentation on time.

Critical Thinking Questions for Discussion

1. Identify basic component f a research report?


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2. What is the difference in writing a company report and a thesis? 3. What are the most important issues to be considered while writing the final report for a research project? 4. Is writing for publication different from writing up the thesis? How? 5. How do you divide your time a 30- minute presentation? suggest how to divide your time Presenting Objectives And Research Questions Presenting How You Carried Out The Study Presenting Findings And Conclusions Questions And Answers Sessios

Chap-14 Code of Ethics of the American Marketing Association The American marketing association , in furtherance of its central objectives of the advancement of science in marketing and in recognition of its obligation to the public ,has established these principles of ethical practice of marketing research for the guidance of its members. In an increasingly complex society, marketing research is more and more dependent upon marketing information intelligently and systematically obtained. The consumer is the source of much of this information .Seeking the cooperation of the consumer in the development of information, marketing management must acknowledge its obligation to protect the public from misrepresentation and exploitation under the guise of research. Similarly the research practioners has an obligation to the discipline he practices and to those who provide support for his practice an obligation to adhere to basic and commonly accepted standards of scientific investigation as they apply to the domain of marketing research. It is the intent of this code to define ethical standards required of marketing research in satisfying this obligation. Adherence to this code will assure the user of marketing research that the research that the research that the research was done in accordance with acceptable ethical
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practices. Those engaged in research will find in this code an affirmation of sound and honest basic principles which have developed over the years as the profession has grown. The field interviewers who are the point of contact between the profession and the consumer will also find guidance in fulfilling their vitally important role. For Research Users, Practioners and Interviewers 1. No individual or organization will undertake any activity which is directly or indirectly represented to be marketing research , but which has as its real purpose the attempted sales of merchandise or services to some or all of the respondents interviewed in the course of the research. 2. it is a respondent has been led to believe , directly or indirectly , that he is participating in a marketing research survey and that his anonymity will be protected, his name shall not be made known to anyone outside the research organization or research purposes. department , or used for other than research

For Research Practioners 1. There will be no intentional or deliberate misrepresentations of research methods or results. An adequate description of methods employed will be made available upon request, be made available to buyers of research. 2. The identity of the survey sponsor and /or the ultimate client for whom a survey is being done will be held in confidence at all times, unless this identity is to be revealed as part of the research design. Research information shall be held in confidence by the research organization or department and not used for personal gain or made available to any outside party unless the client specifically authorizes such releases. 3. A research organization shall not undertake studies for competitive clients when such studies would jeopardize the confidential nature of client-agency relationships. For Users of Marketing Research
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1. A user of research shall not knowingly disseminates conclusions from a given research project or service that are inconsistent with or not warranted by the data. 2. To the extent that there is involved in a research project a unique design involving techniques, approaches or concepts not commonly available to research practioners , the prospective user of a research shall not solicit such a design from one practioners and deliver it to another fro execution without the approval of the design originator. For Field Interviewers 1. Research assignments and materials received, as well as information obtained from respondents, shall be held in confidence by the interviewer and revealed to no one except the research organization conducting the marketing study. 2. No information gained through a marketing research activity shall be used, directly or indirectly, for the personal gain or advantage of the interviewer. 3. Interviews shall be conducted in strict accordance with specifications and instructions received. 4. An interviewer shall not carry out two or more interviewing assignments simultaneously unless authorized by all contractors or employees concerned. 5. Members of the American marketing association will be expected to conduct themselves in accordance with provisions of this code in all of their marketing research activities. Code of Ethics The code of professional ethics and practice of the Marketing research association, INC. is subscribed to as follows 1. To maintain high standards of competence and integrity in marketing and survey research.

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2. To exercise all reasonable care and to observe the best standards of objectivity and accuracy in the development, collection, processing and reporting of marketing and survey research information.

3. To protect the anonymity of respondents and hold all informations concerning an individual respondent privileged ,such that this information is used only within the content of the particular study. 4. To thoroughly instruct and supervise all persons for whose work I am responsible in accordance with study specifications and general research techniques. 5. To observe the rights of ownership of all materials received from and /or developed for clients, and to keep in confidence all research techniques, data and other information considered confidential by their owners. 6. To make available to clients such details on the research methods and techniques of an assignment as may be reasonably required for proper interpretation of the data providing this reporting does not violate the confidence of respondents or clients. 7. To promote the trust of the public for marketing and survey research activities and to avoid any procedure which misrepresents the activities of a respondent, the rewards of cooperation or the uses of the data? 8. To refrain from referring to membership in this organization as proof of competence, since the organization does not so certify any person or organization. 9. To encourage the observance of the principles of this code among all the people engaged in marketing and survey research. Code of Ethics in Marketing Research Code of Ethics is a set of guidelines that states the standards and operating procedures for ethical practices by researchers.

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Rights and Obligations of the Respondent The obligation to be truthful Privacy Deceptions The right to be informed

Rights and Obligations of the Respondent The purpose of research is research Objectivity Avoid misrepresenting research Protect the rights to confidentiality of both subjects & clients Avoid dissemination of faulty conclusion Competitive research proposals.

Rights and Obligations of the client (sponsor) References Aeker, Kumar, Day, Marketing Research: 6th ed, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1999. Alley, Michael (2008) The Craft of Scientific Presentations: Critical steps to succeed and critical errors to avoid. New York, Springer Verlag,LLC. Alley, Michael (2008) The craft of scientific writing, 3rd Ed. New York, SpringerVerlag, LLC. Ethical behavior between buyer and seller An open relationship with research suppliers

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Bell J. (1993) Doing Your Research Project. A Guide for First-Time Researchers in Education and Social Science, Buckingham: Open University Press. See Part two: Selecting methods of data collection pp. 61-122 Berg, Bruce L. (1995). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Boyd, Westfall, Stasch, Marketing research: 7th ed, Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Homewood, Illinois, 1999. Burns & Bush, Marketing research: 2nd ed., Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey, 1998. De Marrais, K & Lapan, S.D. (eds.) (2004). Foundations for Research: Methods of Inquiry in Education & the Social Sciences. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Fisher R A (1959). Statistical Methods & Scientific Inference. New York: Hafner Publishing. Gates, Nandan, Barringer Marketing research essentials: 2nd ed, 1998.colin fisher and Etal (2007), Researching & Writing A Dissertation: A Guide Book For Business Students, Prentice Hall, 2nd ed. Gay, L.R.; Mills, G.E.; & Airasian, P. (2009). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications (9th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson. Jackson, Sherri (2007) Research Methods: A Modular Approach Cengage Learning. Krueger R (1994) Focus Groups. A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 2nd edition, Sage: London. Marczyk, G.; DeMatteo, D.; and Festinger, D. (2005). Essentials of Research Design and Methodology. New Jersey John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Mitchell, M.L. & Jolley, J.M. (2004). Research Design (5th ed.). Wadsworth: Thomson. Naresh K. Malhotra, Marketing Research: 2nd ed, 1999.

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Pervez G & Kjell G. ( 2005 ), Research Methods In Business Studies : A Practical Guide , prentice Hall , 3rd ed. Stewart, D. and Shamdasani, P. (1990) Focus Groups: Theory and Practice, Newbury Park: Sage Sudman, S. (1982) Asking Questions: A Practical Guide to Questionnaire Design, San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass. Tull Donald S. & Hawkins Del I., Marketing research Measurement and Method: 6th ed., McMillan Publishing Co, 1999. Tull, Albaum, Green, Research for Marketing Decision: 5th ed.

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