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OLED Lighting Materials Markets 2011
Published November2011 © NanoMarkets, LC
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Entire contents copyright NanoMarkets, LC. The information contained in this report is based on the best information available to us, but accuracy and completeness cannot be guaranteed. NanoMarkets, LC and its author(s) shall not stand liable for possible errors of fact or judgment. The information in this report is for the exclusive use of representative purchasing companies and may be used only by personnel at the purchasing site per sales agreement terms. Reproduction in whole or in any part is prohibited, except with the express written permission of NanoMarkets, LC.
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Table of Contents
Executive Summary ............................................................................................................. 5 E.1 How Do OLED Lighting Materials Suppliers See the Next 18 Months ............................ 5
E.1.1 Overview of Key Materials Needs of the OLED Lighting Market ............................................................... 5 E.1.2 What Does the Emergence of the First OLED Lighting Products Mean to Materials Suppliers? .............. 7
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E.2 Changes In the OLED Lighting Materials Business Since 2010 ....................................... 7
E.2.1 Important Technical Developments in OLED Lighting Materials .............................................................. 7 E.2.2 Recent Changes in the OLED Materials Supply Structure ......................................................................... 8
E.3 Opportunities for OLED Lighting Materials Suppliers Considered by Fabrication Process ........................................................................................................................................ 9
E.3.1 Vacuum Evaporation: The Once and Future King? .................................................................................. 9 E.3.2 DuPont and the Future of Solution-Processed Small Molecules for Lighting Applications ...................... 9 E.3.3 Is There Still a Role for Polymers in the OLED Lighting Business? ........................................................... 10
E.4 Investment and Partnering Opportunities OLED Lighting Materials Space ................. 11 E.5 The Role of IP in the OLED Materials Space: Will UDC Maintain Its Dominance as a Materials Supplier? ........................................................................................................ 11 E.6 Geographical Considerations .................................................................................... 12
E.6.1 The Emergence of Chinese Firms in the OLED Lighting Materials Business ............................................ 12 E.6.2 The Future of Japanese OLED Lighting: OLED Materials Suppliers in the Worldwide OLED Lighting Market ............................................................................................................................................................. 13
E.7 Opportunities for the Manufacturing Equipment Business ........................................ 14 E.8 Summary of Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Materials ................................... 14
Chapter One: Introduction ................................................................................................ 17 1.1 Background to this Report ................................................................................... 17
1.1.1 OLED Lighting Manufacturing Capacity Shaping the Need for Materials ............................................... 17 1.1.2 OLED Lighting Materials: Risks and Uncertainties.................................................................................. 17 1.1.3 How Materials Firms Can Win the OLED Lighting Battle......................................................................... 19
1.2 Goal and Scope of This Report .................................................................................. 20 1.3 Methodology and Information Sources for This Report ............................................. 21 1.4 Plan of This Report ................................................................................................... 22
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Chapter Two: The Major (Actual and Potential) Users of OLED Lighting Materials .............. 23 2.1 AU Optronics (AUO, Taiwan): A Likely Market Entrant from Taiwan ......................... 23
2.1.1 Will AUO Use the Same Materials and Supplier for Its Lighting as for Its Displays? .............................. 23
2.2 GE (U.S.) and Its R2R OLED Lighting Production Line .................................................. 24
2.2.1 The GE/DuPont Alliance and Beyond ...................................................................................................... 24 2.2.2 What GE's OLED Lighting Says about the Solution Processing of Small Molecules—Or About R2R Encapsulation ................................................................................................................................................... 25
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2.3 Kaneka Corporation (Japan): How Will It Participate In the OLED Market and What Materials Is It Likely To Use? .......................................................................................... 26 2.4 Konica Minolta (Japan) ............................................................................................. 27
2.4.1 Likely Suppliers and Materials Used by KM ............................................................................................ 27
2.5 LG Chem (Korea) and Its Future in OLED Lighting....................................................... 28
2.5.1 Suppliers and materials used by LG ........................................................................................................ 28
2.6 Lumiotec (Japan): An Early Entrant with Established Connections ............................. 29
2.6.1 Suppliers and Materials Used by Lumiotec ............................................................................................. 29
2.7 Moser Baer Technologies (India/U.S.) ....................................................................... 30
2.7.1 Test Bed for UDC in the OLED Lighting Space ......................................................................................... 30
2.8 NEC Lighting (Japan) ................................................................................................. 31
2.8.1 Likely Materials Used By NEC Lighting .................................................................................................... 31
2.9 Osram (Germany): A Major Early Entrant in OLED Lighting ....................................... 31
2.9.1 Likely Materials Suppliers and Materials Used by Osram ....................................................................... 32
2.10 Panasonic Idemitsu Lighting (Japan)........................................................................ 33
2.10.1 The Role of Idemitsu Kosan .................................................................................................................. 33 2.10.2 Other Suppliers ..................................................................................................................................... 34
2.11 Philips (The Netherlands): An OLED Lighting Pioneer .............................................. 34
2.11.1 OLED Materials and Suppliers Currently Used ...................................................................................... 34 2.11.2 Evolution of OLED Lighting Materials Used at Philips ........................................................................... 35
2.12 Pioneer (Japan): The First Ever Supplier of OLEDs Gets Into the Lighting Business ... 36
2.12.1 The Role of Mitsubishi as a Materials Supplier ..................................................................................... 36 2.12.2 Other Suppliers ..................................................................................................................................... 36
2.13 Samsung (Korea): The Dominant Force in OLED Displays ........................................ 36
2.13.1 Impact of Samsung's Dominance in OLED Displays on Its Choice of Materials and Suppliers .............. 37
2.14 Visionox (China) ..................................................................................................... 37
2.14.1 Materials Suppliers for Visionox's OLED lighting products ................................................................... 37
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2.15 Other Potentially Important OLED Lighting Firms .................................................... 38
Chapter Three: Eight-Year Market Forecasts for OLED Lighting Materials ........................... 40 3.1 Forecasting Methodology and Assumptions About Material Content ........................ 40
3.1.1 Forecasts Based on Material Content ..................................................................................................... 40 3.1.2 Changes in Assumptions and Methodology Since the Last Report ......................................................... 41 3.1.3 Assumptions About the OLED Stack Structure........................................................................................ 43 3.1.4 Materials Pricing Assumptions ................................................................................................................ 43
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3.2 Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Shipments ..................................................... 46 3.3 Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Materials Demand for Each Layer By Material Type .............................................................................................................................. 48
3.3.1 Cathode Materials................................................................................................................................... 48 3.3.2 EML Materials ......................................................................................................................................... 50 3.3.3 ETL Materials ........................................................................................................................................... 53 3.3.4 HTL/EBL Materials ................................................................................................................................... 55 3.3.5 HIL Materials ........................................................................................................................................... 58 3.3.6 Anode Materials ...................................................................................................................................... 61 3.3.7 Encapsulation Materials – Dominated by Glass ...................................................................................... 62
3.4 Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Substrates..................................................... 64
3.4.1 Glass Substrates ...................................................................................................................................... 64 3.4.2 Plastic ...................................................................................................................................................... 65 3.4.3 Metal Foils As Substrates for OLED Lighting ........................................................................................... 67 3.4.4 Summary of Substrate Markets in OLED Lighting ................................................................................... 68
3.5 Summaries of Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Materials ................................ 69
3.5.1 Summaries of Forecasts for Functional Organic Materials in OLED Lighting by Layer ............................ 69 3.5.2 Breakout of Small-Molecule OLED Lighting Materials: Solution-Processing vs. Vapor-Deposition Materials and Small Molecule vs. Polymer ...................................................................................................... 73 3.5.3 Grand Total Summary of Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Materials by Layer ............................ 75
3.6 An Alternative Scenario: Materials Implications if OLED Lighting Achieves Minimal Penetration in the General Lighting Market and Is Relegated to Luxury Lighting ............. 76 Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Report ............................................................... 79 About the Author ........................................................................................................... 81
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List of Exhibits
Exhibit E-1: Grand Total Summary: Market Value of OLED Lighting Materials 2012-2018 ($ Millions) .. 15 Exhibit 3-1: Estimated Average Prices of Different Materials, 2012 - 2018 ($ per sq m) ........................ 44 Exhibit 3-2: OLED Shipments by Application, Material Type, and Panel Type and Application 2011-2018 ......................................................................................................................................................... 47 Exhibit 3-3: Cathode Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018.......................................................... 49 Exhibit 3-4: EML Quantity and Value in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 ............................. 51 Exhibit 3-5: ETL Quantity and Value in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 ............................... 54 Exhibit 3-6: HTL/EBL/HBL Quantity and Value in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 ............... 56 Exhibit 3-7: HIL Quantity and Value in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 ............................... 59 Exhibit 3-8: Anode Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018............................................................. 61 Exhibit 3-9: Encapsulation Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018................................................. 63 Exhibit 3-10: Glass Substrate Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 ............................................ 65 Exhibit 3-11: Plastic Substrate Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 .......................................... 66 Exhibit 3-12: Metal Foil Substrate Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018..................................... 67 Exhibit 3-13: Summary of Substrate Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 ................................. 68 Exhibit 3-14: Summary: Market Value of Selected Functional OLED Lighting Materials, Small Molecule (Vapor and Solution) and Polymer Combined, 2012-2018 ($ Millions) .......................................... 70 Exhibit 3-15: Summary: Market Value of Selected Functional OLED Lighting Materials for Small Molecule (Vapor and Solution) OLED panels 2012-2018 ($ Millions) ............................................. 71 Exhibit 3-16: Summary of Value of Selected Functional OLED Lighting Materials for Polymer OLED Panels 2012-2018 ($ Millions) ......................................................................................................... 72 Exhibit 3-17: Market Value of Functional OLED Lighting Materials in OLEDs by Material Type and by Fabrication Method – A Comparison of Small Molecule vs. Polymer and Vapor-Deposition vs. Solution-Processing 2012-2018 ($ Millions) .................................................................................... 74 Exhibit 3-18: Grand Total Summary: Market Value of OLED Lighting Materials by Layer 2012-2018 ......................................................................................................................................................... 75
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E.1 How Do OLED Lighting Materials Suppliers See the Next 18 Months
NanoMarkets projects that the OLED lighting materials market will reach $1.2 billion by 2015. We believe that such relatively large revenues are achievable because by then OLED lighting will have begun to shift from the current phase in which all OLED lighting is accounted for by designer kits or high-priced luminaires to a new phase in which higher volumes are achieved through lower prices and larger addressable markets.
E.1.1 Overview of Key Materials Needs of the OLED Lighting Market
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However, this shift will not occur unless serious advances in materials occur that enable lower costs and higher performance for OLED lighting. Progress in materials is critical to the future of OLED lighting and thus represents an opportunity for OLED materials makers, since OLED panel firms will be looking to the materials firms to enable their own long-term development strategies. The importance of reduced cost: At the moment, pricing for OLED materials sits uncomfortably between the kind of pricing one expects for materials sold largely into R&D environments and ones that apply in commercial specialty chemical markets. As things stand today the high price of OLED materials does not damage the OLED lighting industry too badly because price is a secondary factor in the marketing of designer kits and luxury luminaires. However, to move beyond this point new strategies will be essential for materials makers. Two possibilities are: A quasi-marginal cost pricing strategy in which materials makers price low with the idea of capturing large market share, achieving economies of scale and repaying development costs later in the product cycle rather than earlier. Taking this approach obviously involves a certain level of courage, especially with so much uncertainty about financial discount rates at present. Addressing costs indirectly. Beyond the early products mentioned above, OLED lighting will be cost-justified not in terms of initial costs alone (as is the case with today's lighting), but in terms of total costs. That means that materials firms can address cost issues by improving lifetimes and luminance, not just the absolute cost of the materials used in the fabrication of the lighting. The risks here are whether in the final analysis end users are going to buy into the total cost model for lighting purchases. This is far from clear at the present time. Several different materials in the
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OLED stack can affect lifetime, especially the emissive technology used and the quality of the encapsulation scheme. Although phosphorescent small molecules dominate the market today based on their superior efficiency performance, there is a major downside to their use—namely that their lifetime performance is generally inferior to fluorescent technologies. The importance of performance: As this example shows, from the perspective of the materials supplier, performance- and cost-related product marketing strategies can overlap. However, other opportunities for materials makers are more specifically related to performance: More efficient materials. This is a "no-brainer" in that many of the materials firms are specifically addressing efficacy with their white OLED materials. Much of the raison d'être for OLED lighting in the first place is enhanced efficiency and that is very largely a materials issue, related to the functional organic materials in the OLED stack (EMLs, etc.). Clearly, UDC has a distinct advantage here with its dominant IP position, but other firms can also capitalize on the shift to the all-phosphorescent, through strategic partnerships with UDC or through optimization of auxiliary functional organic materials (ETL, HIL, etc.) to work with the latest phosphorescent materials. Enabling larger OLED panels. Much of NanoMarkets' more optimistic forecasting for OLED lighting is predicated on the availability of fairly large OLED lighting panels; at least 30 cm x 30 cm. If they are not at least this large, then creating OLED lights for anything more demanding than mood lighting—office lighting, for example—would be hard to achieve. This is not just a materials issue, but organic layers and encapsulating materials/substrates must be up to creating large panels, and there may even be a role for silver inks to create bus bars and interconnects. In addition, more conductive transparent electrodes that reduce non-uniformity of emission/brightness and reduce resistive loss (heating) in larger-area panels would be a boon to creating larger panels. Flexibility. There is much talk, but not much action about flexible OLED lighting, and in the end flexible OLED lighting may turn out to be conformable rather than flexible. No one seems to think that flexible OLED lighting will appear until after 2015, but by definition flexibility is a materials issue and relies on the availability of Page | 6
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suitable substrates and on high performance/low-cost flexible encapsulation materials.
E.1.2 What Does the Emergence of the First OLED Lighting Products Mean to Materials Suppliers?
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The transition of OLED lighting from something that is little more than a science project to a real product in a real market obviously presents the usual challenges for materials suppliers. The important take-away here is that these challenges will increasingly be everyday ones for OLED lighting materials suppliers over the next five years or longer: Materials utilization by panel makers is moving from the laboratory setting to a production environment. This adds considerable costs for the materials supplier in the form of quality control and quality assurance. Material specifications are being negotiated and enforced, and this involves not only added costs associated with material testing, but also with significant administrative and document management activities. Supply agreements between OLED panel makers and materials suppliers give comfort to materials suppliers but also entail work on the business front. For example, formalization of sales and supply agreements mean that murky IP considerations can no longer be ignored by the materials suppliers, and they will now face some costs associated with legal issues, such as patent enforcement or defense, licensing, freedom to operate decisions, etc.
E.2 Changes in the OLED Lighting Materials Business Since 2010 E.2.1 Important Technical Developments in OLED Lighting Materials
Two key technical developments have occurred in the last year that are directly related to materials performance: All-phosphorescent white emitter sets are now available with decent lifetimes. The industry has generally accepted the idea that all-phosphorescent materials will be needed in order for OLED lighting to meet the efficiency targets that will enable OLEDs to compete with other efficient lighting technologies. Red and green phosphorescent emitters have been around for a while, but the industry has struggled to come up with long-life blue phosphorescent emitters. However, there have been breakthroughs in the past year with, for example, UDC unveiling a new
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light blue with more than 20,000 hours lifetime. Partly enabled by the availability of long-life blue emitters like those from UDC, the past year has also seen steady breakthroughs in OLED efficiencies. For example, efficiencies over 80 lm/W in the lab are routinely reported, and the efficiencies in some actual commercial/pilot products, such as in the latest Lumiblade product from Philips and Konica Minolta, are now specified at >40 lm/W. This is significant; note that OLED's main rivals, CFLs and LEDs, have efficiencies in the 40–60 lm/W and 20–70 lm/W ranges, respectively.
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E.2.2 Recent Changes in the OLED Materials Supply Structure
There are also some recent changes in the OLED materials supply structure worth noting: Most of the Japanese materials suppliers have expanded or extended their partnerships with OLED lighting panel makers in the region or in Europe. However, most also have existing development or licensing arrangements with UDC for phosphorescent OLED technology. UDC has expanded its collection of phosphorescent technology licensees in Japan and Korea, and it is hard to find a single OLED panel maker that is not already tied to UDC in some way. We think that in the end, the patent challenges that UDC has faced (or is facing) in the region will have little impact in the near- or medium-term for OLED lighting, and the ever-expanding list of UDC licensees is evidence of this. It is becoming increasingly clear that the emergence of Chinese materials firms will turn out to be a significant factor in the OLED lighting supply chain. Philips now has an apparently close relationship with Konica Minolta. At the panel level this highlights the fact that Konica Minolta is no longer working closely with GE, to which it was tied in the past. More importantly in the context of this report, this new relationship may shift the balance of power/future market shares in the OLED lighting materials market. Both the Konica Minolta Symfos lighting panels and the latest Philips Lumiblade panels are being made in a Philips facility using Konica Minolta materials technology (and also under license of phosphorescent emitter technology from UDC). Samsung expanded its reach into two key enabling OLED materials. Samsung
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effectively acquired the Vitex thin-film encapsulation technology, and has taken over much of Vitex's facilities and former personnel. In addition, Samsung made a significant investment in materials firm Novaled. These developments are probably more significant to the OLED display industry than to lighting at this time, but Samsung has announced plans to get into the lighting business, and it now has access to an even wider set of materials to support them.
E.3 Opportunities for OLED Lighting Materials Suppliers Considered by Fabrication Process E.3.1 Vacuum Evaporation: The Once and Future King?
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GE is planning to solution process its OLED lighting, but no other major firm is taking that approach. Moreover, despite all those hopes of a few years ago, no firm now seems interested in printing polymer OLED lighting in any meaningful way. We can thus only conclude that the vast majority of OLED lighting panels will be made with conventional vacuum deposition processes throughout the period covered by this report. As a result, for the most part, the opportunities for materials suppliers in the OLED space will be for materials that can be processed through standard evaporation equipment. One of the most important of these opportunities in this space will be to develop all-phosphorescent stacks—which most agree is necessary to achieve the efficiency targets that will allow OLED lighting to compete and grow. And this will necessitate better blue emitter materials. These have been produced in the lab—UDC has, for example, announced an allphosphorescent white emitter set that exceeds DOE performance targets, and Konica Minolta also has its own blue emitter—but few of these materials have yet been proven on a commercial scale.
E.3.2 DuPont and the Future of Solution-Processed Small Molecules for Lighting Applications
GE has invested in an R2R manufacturing process on plastic substrates, and has partnered with DuPont Displays for the key functional materials. However, GE has not met its own stated commercialization milestones. The exact source of GE's problems with scale-up and commercialization are unknown, but we believe one (or both) of two things is at fault: Problems with adequate environmental encapsulation barriers. This is a huge issue in R2R manufacturing on plastic substrates. At present, there are no fully reliable non-glass encapsulation barriers commercially available, especially not if they are also expected to be compatible with flexible, R2R manufacturing. Because
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solution processing may prove so critical to bringing down the cost of OLED lighting, better encapsulation may prove to be a leading enabler for the solution processed path for making OLED lighting panels. However, the best flexible encapsulation systems to date have also been quite expensive, so here is an opportunity for any firm that can build a low cost encapsulation system. The difficulties with working with low-concentration, solution-processable materials. We think these may have been underestimated. Although wet coating (and printing) has been around for a long time, it can be difficult to control, and things can go wrong very quickly. This difficulty is magnified in the coating/printing of electronic devices, especially when those devices rely on perfect, high resolution, uniform deposition of materials from solutions with very low active material concentrations. Making inks that work better with standard printing equipment is an opportunity that any graphics ink maker would understand; it is now shifting to the functional printing space.
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A number of firms could tap into this opportunity. DuPont both has the resources and a strong incentive to make solution processing work better from a materials perspective. GE's tardiness in getting its pilot plant underway prevents this plant from serving as a showplace for DuPont's materials. The other major firm that has the immediate opportunity to compete here is UDC, which has designed solution-processable small molecules, but does not really focus on this area. (It has licensed its technology to Showa Denko.)
E.3.3 Is There Still a Role for Polymers in the OLED Lighting Business?
NanoMarkets believes that polymer OLEDs might have a role for really large lighting panels at some time in the future, but given the lack of activity with polymers in lighting today, we think that it is fair to say that betting on a vibrant market for polymers in lighting is taking a huge risk: OLED stacks for polymer materials are usually considered less complex and have fewer layers than those required for efficient small-molecule devices. But in practice this fact seems to have not mattered much. In addition, there is a special reason why the lighting sector might want to stay away from polymers as a material: polymer devices have turned out to not be as efficient (yet?) as small-molecule devices. And efficiency is what has led governments around the world to subsidize new efficient lighting technologies.
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E.4 Investment and Partnering Opportunities OLED Lighting Materials Space
Even the most casual observer will note that most of the money going into OLED lighting today is coming from large electronics and lighting companies and we suspect that this will continue to be the case throughout the period we consider in this report. Activities in OLED lighting at every layer of the supply chain will, we believe, tend to be financed by the multinationals either through internal investment or through strategic investments; loans or equity. The biggest player in this regard is clearly Samsung, which is to OLEDs (almost) what IBM was once to computers. As an example of how Samsung has behaved in the past and may again behave in the future, we note Samsung's de facto takeover of the Vitex Barix technology and investment in Novaled. The former example also reminds us that the ultimate strategic investment is a complete takeover of a smaller materials company or its assets. It is very hard to get venture capital (VC) and angel financing these days and we do not expect this to change much soon, although it might by the end of the forecasting period. Angel investors and some of newer Web-based financial options for entrepreneurs may be quite well suited to the luminaire space, but the way forward for them in the materials space is not as clear. Nor is it clear for the VCs that continue to look for exceptional returns on their investments. Perhaps the VCs should be examining materials firms—such as those offering flexible encapsulation—that could start in the OLED lighting business and then sell their wares in many different markets. In the current economic climate there is clearly a need for creative financing in the OLED lighting business. We suspect that something more than "pure play" financing agreements will most often emerge; rather, arrangements are likely that combine money with partnerships, or which create partnerships in a way that is advantageous to materials suppliers in a manner that substitutes for financing. For example, smaller materials firms might make deals with larger specialty chemical firms on advantageous terms that would give them access to the distribution and logistics channels that small firms would have difficulty setting up on their own.
E.5 The Role of IP in the OLED Materials Space: Will UDC Maintain Its Dominance as a Materials Supplier?
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We think the answer, at least for the timeframe of this report, is decidedly "yes." UDC has an extensive network of licensees already in place for its phosphorescent technology, and as we have stressed throughout this report, phosphorescent technology is widely considered necessary for achieving the high efficiencies needed by the OLED lighting industry.
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UDC IP is particularly dominant in Asia, but it has a presence in Europe and the U.S. as well. Osram is the only major lighting company without a publicly acknowledged license to the UDC IP, but UDC may be working with this firm too. In the U.S., GE has also collaborated extensively—at least in development projects—with UDC, and UDC is involved in the Moser Baer pilot plant. There have, however, been some recent patent validity challenges to UDC's technology in Japan, Korea and Europe. The current uncertainty, with respect to the enforceability of UDC's IP portfolio may cause a bit of a shake up and allow some other materials suppliers to gain a foothold with customers in the region. Only some of the UDC IP is under attack currently, and UDC says it is not the key patents. Despite local patent invalidations and challenges, UDC has continued to sign both new and extended licensing agreements with key OLED lighting players. For example, both Pioneer and Panasonic Idemitsu licensed the UDC technology this year, and Samsung recently renewed its license of UDC technology, albeit reportedly without the requirement for Samsung to pay ongoing royalties on sales of Samsung smart phones. The Samsung agreement has more immediate relevance to the display market at this time, but according to UDC, Samsung will start using UDC green emitters and plans to commercialize products with UDC blue materials "as soon as they can be qualified." These developments send a very powerful message to the rest of the OLED market about the quality of UDC materials technology, and no one doubts that UDC will remain a firm to be feared in the OLED lighting materials market. However, there has been very recent news from legal proceedings in Europe that could change our assessment, at least somewhat. Recent legal proceedings in Germany ended with the European Patent Office upholding UDC's fundamental IP on PHOLED materials, but only for iridium-based materials (which are the only ones currently commercially available anyway). UDC is outwardly pleased with this development, but it does open the door for competitors to develop phosphorescent materials around non-iridium cores. If true, this development could be very significant, because it means that UDC's long-held stance that it controlled access to all phosphorescent OLED applications is now in serious question.
E.6 Geographical Considerations E.6.1 The Emergence of Chinese Firms in the OLED Lighting Materials Business
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The emergence of Chinese (and Taiwanese) firms as potential forces in the OLED lighting
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market is expected to be very advantageous to regional materials suppliers. In fact, there are several up-and-coming materials firms in the region. Firms like Aglaia Tech and Jilin Optical and Electronic Materials in mainland China and e-Ray Optoelectronic in Taiwan are now making a play to be key suppliers to the Asian OLED market. At this point, there is only one firm in China, Visionox, which has committed to producing OLED lighting in China, but we expect others to pop up over the next couple of years. At this point, Visionox is sourcing many of its materials in house, but it is also purchasing key functional materials from local Chinese materials suppliers. The Chinese materials firms currently have limited activities outside of the region, but we do not expect the situation to remain static. Going forward, the quality and reliability of their materials is expected to improve, and the emergence of a local market in which to sell their products only accelerates their growth and hastens their ability to expand globally. At least in the near term, we expect that the Chinese OLED lighting market will remain regional, which minimizes any issues with UDC IP and phosphorescent technologies in China. However, as the industry grows there, they will inevitably have to also find a way to deal with the issue of IP. We note that AUO in Taiwan is already a UDC licensee. The impact on Korean material firms: We also think that the establishment of a healthy Chinese OLED lighting industry will be good for domestic Korean materials firms. There are no known existing major partnerships in place yet, but we believe that Korean firms would have an easier time gaining a strong foothold in the Chinese market than, say, Japanese materials firms, given their closer sociopolitical and cultural ties.
E.6.2 The Future of Japanese OLED Lighting: OLED Materials Suppliers in the Worldwide OLED Lighting Market
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Other than Sumitomo (which, as previously noted, is not a current factor in the OLED lighting business given the dearth of firms employing polymeric materials), Japanese materials suppliers tend to be fairly low-key and are not a flashy bunch. However, there can be no doubt that several of the Japanese firms active in this space are major players on a global basis. In addition, the OLED lighting business has one of its centers of gravity in Japan. One key advantage that the Japanese suppliers have over other Asian (especially Chinese) suppliers, at least for the time being, is a reputation for creating materials with the highest purity required for the ultrathin layers used in OLED devices. In many cases, these companies can supply materials for all the major layers in the OLED materials stack. Despite recent
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invalidations of some UDC patents in Japan, the key Japanese material suppliers continue to form alliances, development partnerships, or full-blown licensing arrangements with UDC. Firms to watch in the Japanese OLED lighting materials sector include the following: Nippon Steel Chemical, which had an early lead in the OLED materials space built on its experience with heterocyclic aromatic compounds. It is still a leading supplier of Alq3, the material frequently used for both small-molecule EML (fluorescent) host and ETL materials. However, NSC's lead has been eroded by the move toward phosphorescent materials. Another firm to watch in this space is Idemitsu Kosan, which has an extensive patent portfolio for OLED materials. It also has many partners in the industry, including a joint venture with Panasonic Electric Works and partial ownership in LG's Global OLED Technology. The company is also developing small-molecule inks, and it recently announced plans to expand OLED materials production capacity in 2012. Page | 14
E.7 Opportunities for the Manufacturing Equipment Business
Although we have not discussed manufacturing equipment in detail in this report, this topic bears a brief mention here. Clearly, better utilization rates would help the OLED manufacturers to bring costs down. This is especially true in vacuum deposition processes, where utilization rates of the very expensive, key functional materials are currently as low as 20 percent. However, improvements are being made, and anything that the equipment manufacturers can do to continue this trend, through working directly with both materials suppliers and OLED panel manufacturers, can benefit the whole industry. In many cases, optimized equipment and deposition processes may need to be designed with particular materials in mind. The OLED lighting market is still young enough that there is room for different kinds of processing equipment to compete. No single equipment maker is currently entrenched (although Aixtron is partially so, at least for UDC's "organic vapor phase deposition" (OVPD) process), but the window of opportunity may be closing soon. The OLED lighting market is set to take off on the 2014–2015 timeframe, which means that a shift from pilot plants to largerscale production plants will be happening in the 2013–2014 timeframe.
E.8 Summary of Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Materials
NanoMarkets predicts that the OLED lighting materials market will reach a value of over $5.0 billion by 2018, as shown in Exhibit E-1.
NanoMarkets, LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen, VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259
84 362.13 69.07 111.67 293.76 12.41 2017 238.95 39.38 327.85 650.32 22.52 2.04 11.NanoMarkets www.63 37.57 213.49 2014 8.11 226.70 142.51 109.nanomarkets.86 122.79 2.63 954.61 40.95 389.06 806.32 64.61 6.81 339.06 1876.36 108.84 449.67 Page | 15 Market Value of Materials in OLED Lighting by Layer 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Substrates Encapsulation Anode HIL HTL/EBL/HBL ETL EML 2016 2017 2018 Cathode NanoMarkets.59 423.86 192.85 261.48 0.88 736.54 677.47 43.65 11.39 216.61 2016 82.66 51.27 420.71 729.66 295.06 3093. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.44 518.40 2013 1.44 5107.59 0.59 2018 647.86 242.52 1.14 173.51 307.75 376.75 2015 27.47 423.74 77. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .36 15.50 24.87 1200.73 12.net Exhibit E-1 Grand Total Summary: Market Value of OLED Lighting Materials 2012-2018 ($ Millions) Cathode EML ETL HTL/EBL/HBL HIL Anode Encapsulation Substrates TOTAL Market Value ($ Millions) © NanoMarkets 2011 2012 0.
Total Market Value of Materials in OLED Lighting Applications 2012-2018 ($ Millions)
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2012
© NanoMarkets 2011
Page | 16
NanoMarkets, LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen, VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259
For real. but NanoMarkets still expects this sector to grow dramatically over the coming decade. new. will it be in the form of smallmolecule materials or will polymer OLEDs finally make a play in lighting? 1. It also includes determining which materials will be required. these statements have been made over a period of years. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .nanomarkets. NanoMarkets believes that materials suppliers will play a big role in whether the OLED lighting industry booms or settles into a niche pattern. At the present time.1 OLED Lighting Manufacturing Capacity Shaping the Need for Materials Page | 17 The OLED lighting materials business will be shaped initially by the needs and preferences of those pioneer firms that are bringing the first OLED lighting panels to market. However. the manufacturing infrastructure for OLED lighting is still at an early phase of development. The challenge consists of determining how much capacity there is likely to be for OLED lighting over the coming decade. and where the capacity will be built. and it is hard to know how seriously to treat them. but they also perceive the high risk.1. there have also been statements of intent regarding both plans for expansion and the kinds of manufacturing facilities that they plan to deploy. sustained growth in OLED lighting.2 OLED Lighting Materials: Risks and Uncertainties Some of the OLED materials firms that we have talked with see exciting possibilities for their businesses in the OLED lighting market. From at least some of the OLED manufacturing companies. who will be providing that capacity. This uncertainty presents a real challenge to the materials firms hoping to supply the OLED lighting industry. or will solution processing take hold? If solution processing succeeds. 1. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Will the OLED manufacturers continue to largely run classic vapor deposition equipment. However.1 Background to this Report Development of OLED technology for lighting markets is not as mature as for displays. better materials and processes are needed to enable this growth. for materials suppliers and just about everyone else.NanoMarkets www. And because OLED lighting panels are likely to be (1) a mass market and (2) consist of panels a lot larger than the average OLED display.net Chapter One: Introduction 1. For now these materials firms are supplying relatively small amounts of OLED materials to these first OLED lighting manufacturing plants that may well emerge as the materials market leaders later in NanoMarkets. the market for OLED lighting materials should ultimately be a lot larger than those for materials in the display sector. much more risk is associated with the lighting sector. but it has moved past the laboratory stage to pilot plants.1. especially in this era of financial instability.
Solution processing of small molecules: This solution processing approach has the potential to deliver the advantages of solution processing to the OLED industry without forcing the industry to shift to an entirely new kind of material (i. in cooperation with DuPont. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . NanoMarkets believes that competition from Chinese companies in the OLED lighting materials space will be of growing intensity. polymers): However. Among the most important current issues that materials firms have to think about in the OLED lighting space are: The dominance of phosphorescent emitters from Universal Display Corporation (UDC) in important sectors of the OLED lighting market. is planning to use solutionprocessable small molecules to build OLED lighting panels. UDC holds an essential position with a dominant intellectual property (IP) portfolio focused on small-molecule phosphorescent emitter technologies. Most of the principal OLED materials firms are in the developed world but given the determination of the Chinese government to create more domestically sourced IP and given that OLEDs are a particular topic of its attention.e. This decision is under appeal. The situation of all of these areas is very fluid and in all of them changes could completely reshape the opportunity profile for OLED lighting materials suppliers. And even more importantly. the recent invalidation of a key UDC PHOLED patent in Japan may mean that the market will open up to other materials firms. at this time. UDC has been very successful in getting OLED lighting manufacturers to employ UDC technology. and its long term implications have yet to become apparent. The role of China: There are now several Chinese firms making OLED materials.NanoMarkets www. The increasingly important role of Chinese OLED materials suppliers. In the past. Page | 18 NanoMarkets.. and The continuing failure of polymer OLEDs in the OLED lighting market. the ability of other materials firms to gain a foothold in phosphorescent emissive technologies for OLED lighting has been hampered by UDC's dominance. and it not certain whom else DuPont—and any others developing solution-processable small molecules like UDC—can persuade to buy into the idea.nanomarkets.net the decade. The significance of solution-processable small-molecule OLED technologies. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. and there is at least one firm in mainland China—Visionox—producing OLED lighting panels. only GE. However. The dominance of UDC: At the moment. through partnerships and licensing deals.
As a result. Opportunities exist for materials firms that can shift their pricing structure more towards the latter. including the emissive technology used and the quality of the encapsulation scheme. Page | 19 Polymers in OLED lighting: Sumitomo Chemical. we think that it is fair to say that betting on a vibrant market for polymers in lighting is taking a big risk. At the moment. Initial costs for OLED lighting—as for other solid-state lighting—will be high and the only way that OLED lighting can be expected to prove in economically will be in terms of a total cost model. both of which are heavily materials-dependent challenges. with its ownership of CDT.3 How Materials Firms Can Win the OLED Lighting Battle For now the only serious commercial markets for OLED lighting are to be found in the luxury luminaire market and that is where the OLED lighting business will stay unless costs can be reduced. but given the lack of activity with polymers in lighting today. not a single OLED lighting manufacturer is actually using polymers today. in turn. All projections—including ours—that show OLED lighting reaching revenues in the billions of dollars assume major reductions in OLED lighting costs from where they are now. However. NanoMarkets.nanomarkets. GE is struggling to commercialize the solution-processed materials. depends heavily on lifetimes and also on luminance. controls the nexus of polymer OLED EML material IP. it is closely related to materials and it presents opportunities for the materials makers: Economies of scale that will come into being as the OLED business as a whole ramps up. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.net At the same time. Sumitomo remains a marginal player in the OLED lighting space. This is not an entirely materials-related issue. Several different materials in the OLED stack can affect lifetime. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . 1. It is not yet entirely clear what this will mean for the future prospects of solution processing in OLEDs. Nonetheless.NanoMarkets www. and the current status of the GE pilot line is uncertain. NanoMarkets believes that polymer OLEDs might have a role for really large lighting panels at some time in the future.1. but we think it is safe to say that solution processing—especially printing—has proven much harder to do than the industry initially expected. although Sumitomo and other proponents of polymer OLED technologies continue to push for polymers to gain entry into the market. pricing for OLED materials sits uncomfortably between the kind of pricing one expects for materials sold largely into R&D environments and ones that apply in commercial specialty chemical markets. This.
Assuming for the moment that OLED lighting is able to capture even just a few percent of the lighting market. some of the costs. as many people see it. which is where some observers of the OLED lighting scene. this should be seen as an opportunity for materials makers.nanomarkets. that is. 1.2 Goal and Scope of This Report The goal of this report is to analyze and forecast the prospects for OLED lighting materials in the coming eight years. Materials—both substrates and active organics—may have a role in taking OLED lighting to the next stage. commercial and technical requirements for OLED lighting are different than for OLED displays. This transition to flexibility is materials dependent and will rely on the availability of suitable substrates and. There are also materials issues that relate to the panel itself: At the present time. and the maturity—and prices—of available OLED materials remains a challenge to the market. for example.NanoMarkets www. the square footage of OLED lighting sold will be considerable and will easily outshine the amount of OLED material sold for displays. Page | 20 Thus. will be flexible—or at least conformable— lighting panels. too small to be competitive in the office lighting market. and this impacts the outlook and opportunities for materials in multiple ways. cost is not the only factor critical to the success in the OLED lighting space that the materials firms can impact and with which they can achieve a competitive edge. on high performance/low cost flexible encapsulation materials. most importantly. Much of the raison d'etre for OLED lighting in the first place is enhanced efficiency and that is very largely a materials issue. Although we show how OLED lighting could represent major potential for the materials and specialty chemical industry over the next decade. The stage after that. manufacturing. This makes it a market that OLED materials suppliers cannot afford to miss. we pay special attention to how the opportunities for OLED lighting materials will develop over the next 18 or so months. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. The materials used in OLED lights are similar in most respects to those used in OLED displays. It is for this reason that NanoMarkets believes that there is a need for a report specifically geared to the opportunities for materials stemming from the growth of OLED lighting. OLED panels are quite small. larger panels. However. However. NanoMarkets. the future of the OLED lighting market is heavily dependent on materials selection. especially since the potential volumes are so high. expect OLED lighting to get its big break. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .net Indeed.
LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. and other corporate literature to fill out what is going on in this sector. We also draw on extensive secondary research including an analysis of relevant applications markets within the OLED lighting space. Scope: The materials discussed include all the major materials used in the OLED stack as well as substrates and encapsulants. for example. 1. The forecasts are worldwide forecasts and we have not been geographically selective in the firms that we have covered in the report or interviewed in order to collect information.3 Methodology and Information Sources for This Report Page | 21 This report is based on NanoMarkets' ongoing research in the area of OLED lighting and on ongoing discussions with key players throughout the OLED community.NanoMarkets www. firms such as NEC and Samsung. The forecasts are developed from our forecasts of both OLED shipments and OLED lighting manufacturing capacity. Materials are discussed in the report from the perspective of the pioneer OLED lighting manufacturers—from the big three lighting companies Osram. Philips. Additional research for this report drew on the World Wide Web. In addition. The forecasting approach taken in this report is explained in more detail in Chapter Three. the report contains detailed forecasts of materials used for major OLED lighting categories. Lumiotec. Visionox. SEC filings. We also take a look at the likely requirements and suppliers from potential major manufacturers of OLED lighting. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . NanoMarkets.net NanoMarkets has been providing industry analysis of the OLED community for six years. and others.nanomarkets. However. trade press articles. we have discussed the special characteristics of regional markets and industry clusters in the OLED lighting space. and GE—to the smaller and nontraditional lighting firms making a play in OLED lighting manufacturing like Kaneka. commercial databases. and we utilize our insider's understanding of what the major OLED lighting firms are likely to need from their materials suppliers. It is also to identify and quantify the opportunities that are emerging in this space. The objective of this particular report is to examine the OLED lighting materials sector and analyze what we see as the new directions that OLED materials will be taking in the coming years for lighting. and is the leading supplier of analysis in the OLED lighting space. where this seemed appropriate. who have yet to make a full commitment to such products. in both revenues and volume terms. This report is entirely international in scope.
from the substrate and emissive layer to encapsulation technologies. We pay particular attention to those that already have real pilot lines in place for producing OLED lighting panels.NanoMarkets www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. we provide detailed forecasts of the OLED lighting materials sector with breakouts by layer functionality and by type of material. and the polymer approach to making OLEDs. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . we review the likely materials and key suppliers from the perspective of which materials that firm is using and which materials it plans to use in the future. Page | 22 NanoMarkets. In Chapter Three. Wherever possible. we also discuss the ways that materials suppliers are planning to serve the growing OLED lighting market. we analyze material usages from the perspective of the OLED lighting companies.4 Plan of This Report Chapter Two examines in depth the OLED lighting materials supply chain.net 1. Within each discussion of a particular firm. with consideration given in each layer to the dominant smallmolecule vapor-deposition approach. since their decisions will largely shape the rest of the market. solution-processable small molecules. In this chapter. The forecasts are organized primarily by layer functionality in the OLED materials stack.
2. as the business grows. first launched OLED lighting prototypes with 50 lm/W efficiency in 2010 through its subsidiary Wellypower Optronics. at least in the near term. will it continue to use the UDC technology? We think the answer.1 AU Optronics (AUO. and there is no compelling reason to immediately make changes to this material set in the early stages of lighting development. As with most OLED lighting manufacturers.nanomarkets. and we believe it is likely that it is using the same materials for OLED lighting panels—namely a combination of both phosphorescent (from UDC) and fluorescent emitters (probably from Sun Fine Chemicals. However. NanoMarkets. etc. along with auxiliary organic materials (ETL. HTL.). Taiwan): A Likely Market Entrant from Taiwan Page | 23 AUO. and AUO did not announce plans to show lighting at the 2011 FPD International conference in Japan in October. AUO has been using emissive materials supplied by UDC for its displays. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. R&D-focused Taiwanese company that received some additional investment in early 2011. they have good color rendering index (CRI) (>80) and a (relatively) warm correlated color temperature (CCT) of about 3000 K.NanoMarkets www. which is a fluorescent lighting and LED maker. It already has extensive experience with the UDC materials. is yes. built on glass.1 Will AUO Use the Same Materials and Supplier for Its Lighting as for Its Displays? Since at least 2006. But if AUO's lighting program is expanded. the large Taiwanese LCD and AMOLED maker. the lighting panels are being produced using a vacuum deposition process. Since the initial announcement of the OLED lighting program at AUO.net Chapter Two: The Major (Actual and Potential) Users of OLED Lighting Materials 2. no further news has been forthcoming. and as other regional suppliers are emerging.1. which is a very small. also from Sun Fine Chemicals. using standard getter/epoxy encapsulation. there is also a good chance that later-generation AUO products will be made with materials from alternative suppliers: Local suppliers: There is the possibility that AUO will source (at least some) materials from local Taiwanese suppliers. The panels are rigid. and currently on a lab or small pilot scale. such as e-Ray Optoelectronics.
like Aglaia Tech or Jilin Optical and Electronic Materials that could become important suppliers to the Taiwanese market. which is supplying the key materials. with efficiencies in the range of 50-60 lm/W.S. It has. Korean suppliers: In addition. for GE's pilot plant in upstate New York. these products are not on the market. in 2011. but to date all of these partners have sourced their OLED panels elsewhere.net Chinese suppliers: There are several up-and-coming Chinese manufacturers. but as of this writing. NanoMarkets. Despite political differences. or Sun Fine Chemicals. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. although the hope is that it will ultimately lead to lower price points and bigger market shares in the long run.2. cooperation between Taiwan and mainland China is encouraged and ubiquitous.NanoMarkets www.) and Its R2R OLED Lighting Production Line Page | 24 GE. but the company has recently struggled to meet its commercialization timelines.2 GE (U. It is the only big lighting company that set out from the beginning to use solution-processable materials deposited using R2R manufacturing. We note that it is possible that some printed polymeric materials have also been explored in the DOE-funded program. As noted above. it may also move toward one of the Korean manufacturers. GE has partnered with DuPont Displays." while the electrode layers are dry-coated using 100 percent solids inks. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . GE announced plans to introduce commercial OLED lighting products. Tokki. announced manufacturing partnerships with Konica Minolta. it was making steady progress. 2. like Samsung's Cheil Industries. 2. GE is behind on commercialization. For a while. HTL and HIL) are wet coated using a "unique material set to avoid wash off. and others. all four of the organic layers in the panels (ETL. through its GE Global Research division. EML. The DuPont Displays EML materials are smallmolecule phosphorescent inks. GE's approach precipitated some major upfront issues. given AUO's history of cooperation with Samsung. but it goals have also been far loftier than those of others. In the GE solution process.nanomarkets. For example. having achieved a reported 90-95 percent production yield in 2010. has been working on R2R OLED lighting panels since 2003. The partnership has received funding from the DOE for development of OLEDs with high luminous efficiency. Doosan.1 The GE/DuPont Alliance and Beyond On the materials side. including small-molecule phosphorescent inks. at one time or another.
solution-processable materials. At present. This difficulty is magnified in the coating/printing of electronic devices. is whether or not UDC and others that have entered the solution small-molecule business are serious about it or just doing it as a hedge against potential competition down the road.2. especially not if they are also expected to be compatible with flexible. Page | 25 NanoMarkets.NanoMarkets www. there are no reliable non-glass encapsulation barriers commercially available. With DOE funding. The fact that GE is the only OLED lighting manufacturer that has bet on solution processing. Electronic inks often have concentrations under a few percent. Encapsulation on R2R substrates: Encapsulation is a huge issue in R2R manufacturing on plastic substrates. especially when those devices rely on perfect. Although wet coating (and printing) has been around for a long time. The difficulty with solution processing: At first glance. there are other materials suppliers that have announced plans to make solution-processable small molecules—notably UDC.2 What GE's OLED Lighting Says about the Solution Processing of Small Molecules—Or About R2R Encapsulation The exact source of GE's problems with scale up and commercialization are unknown. The company reports that it has been able to achieve a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) on plastic of approximately 10-5 g/m2-day with good transparency and adhesion.net 2. however. On the other hand. but this first impression may deceive. which adds complexity to the curing process. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . and things can go wrong very quickly.nanomarkets. GE is developing its own encapsulation technology for flexible substrates in the form of its "Ultra High Barrier" technology based on an alternating inorganic oxide/polymeric multilayer dyad deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). it is a technology filled with artisanal "whatever works" philosophy. high resolution. but we believe one (or both) of two things is at fault: The difficulties with working with low-concentration. solution processing appears simpler than vacuum deposition processes. it is notoriously difficult to control. uniform deposition of materials from solutions with very low active material concentrations. coupled with the fact that GE's pilot line has struggled with its timeline is not good news for DuPont because it effectively limits the market for its small-molecule inks. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. or Problems with adequate environmental encapsulation barriers that is holding back lifetime performance. and it may indeed be the thing holding back the GE/DuPont line. R2R manufacturing. What is less clear.
From an encapsulation perspective. it will be especially important to see how well GE's pilot line performs. NanoMarkets is not in the business of analyzing the Japanese patent system. to at least 60 lm/W. but a failure could set back the industry yet again. Like most. As far as we are aware this hasn't happened yet. Its relatively low reported efficiencies of around 20 lm/W also indicate possible use of fluorescent rather than phosphorescent materials. on glass substrates. etc.NanoMarkets www.000 ($600) or less by 2020. but still too high in the long run to support sustained growth outside of niche applications. Kaneka has also said that it believes that the price of its OLED panels will be ¥200. since its success could very well establish patterns and standards for R2R deposition of multilayer barriers for the rest of the OLED industry. and given the connection to Kodak technology via Tohuku. Whether or not it will use the UDC technology will likely depend upon how the battle for phosphorescent IP in Japan shakes out.3 Kaneka Corporation (Japan): How Will It Participate In the OLED Market and What Materials Is It Likely To Use? Page | 26 Kaneka is a large Japanese chemical company that began working on OLED lighting in 2008. NanoMarkets. A successful pilot line launch will be a strong sign that R2R processes do make sense for making OLED lighting. probably mean that Kaneka is yet another firm that will be moving increasingly toward phosphorescent EMLs.—although we note that nearly all (non-polymer) materials suppliers in Japan are already collaborating at some level with UDC.000 ($2.net but this performance is at least one order of magnitude below what will be required for widespread commercialization of large format. this may be one of the few companies not using UDC PHOLED technology in its first products. However. but if the recent invalidation in Japan of UDC's patents holds up under appeal. Kaneka is using vacuum deposition of small molecules to manufacture its (quite small) panels. Seiko Epson. plans to improve efficiency over the next several years. but the company did acquire significant manufacturing capacity in 2010 with its purchase of OLED lighting manufacturer and former Kodak licensee Tohuku Device. long-life OLED panels.nanomarkets. and in 2010 announced that its OLED lighting panels—available in multiple colors—were ready to be shipped. These prices are in line with statements by other manufacturers in the early years. Idemitsu Kosan. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.400) per square meter in 2012 and ¥50. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . 2. then the OLED materials market may soon open up to alternative suppliers—Mitsubishi Chemicals.
In NanoMarkets' opinion. NanoMarkets. 2. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . GE. However.net 2. and has said that it plans to eventually mass-produce flexible lighting. The point here is that Konica Minolta's emitter technology is its own. and it also has its own production plans to market OLED lighting under the brand name Symfos. Konica Minolta uses green and red phosphorescent EMLs under license from UDC. Nonetheless. In the meantime. but this seems highly unlikely given the existing relationship. the uncertainty regarding the future of phosphorescent EML IP in Japan will have minimal affect on Konica Minolta's plans with Symfos. In fact. but at this time Philips is making Konica Minolta's products. Konica Minolta is already a UDC licensee. and it may be able to obtain freedom to operate under license agreement from UDC. it could choose to deny Konica Minolta a license.4. the Symfos panel and Philips' Lumiblade panel appear to be the same product. and with additional investment expected to be in "mass production" by 2014. Konica Minolta has active collaborations with UDC.000 hours lifetime (at 1000 cd/m2) were made available in October 2011. Regardless of whether or not the UDC patent invalidation remains. and the worst-case scenario is one in which it is at some point required to provide additional compensation to UDC for the blue EML. and should in fact make it easier for Konica Minolta to compete with the big three lighting companies. Like nearly the entire OLED lighting industry. If UDC's IP stands. Konica Minolta had announced plans for pilot production line to be built 2011.nanomarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. which the industry has long believed would be necessary to produce sellable panels with reasonable lifetimes. and Philips.1 Likely Suppliers and Materials Used by KM Page | 27 Symfos: Konica Minolta's Symfos brand is an all-phosphorescent OLED.NanoMarkets www.4 Konica Minolta (Japan) Konica Minolta has been very active in the development of OLED lighting in recent years. Konica Minolta is the first firm to commercialize an all-phosphorescent OLED stack. it uses its own in-house developed blue emitter along with a Konica Minolta-developed ETL. Sample kits (size 74 mm x 74 mm) with 45 lm/W efficiency and 8. Konica Minolta's own long-lifetime blue emitter gives it a substantial competitive edge in the OLED lighting marketplace. and given that denying Konica Minolta a license would only serve to reduce both UDCs revenues from its other emitter materials well as royalty revenues from sales of OLED panels.
Partnership with Philips: Konica Minolta also maintains a substantial relationship with Philips. and given Konica Minolta's demonstrated ability to develop its own materials. 2. formed a new company—LG Global OLED Technology—and is planning to start producing OLED panels sometime in early 2012. Relationship with GE: Finally.1 Suppliers and materials used by LG LG acquired the Kodak OLED business in 2009. then Konica Minolta might have built its first OLED lights at the GE pilot plant. it is our understanding is that LG Chem manufactured some recent OLED lighting products introduced by Acuity Brands. this relationship was entered into for the purpose of accelerating Konica Minolta's ability to pursue solution processing in its OLED lighting business. but the alliance was terminated in 2011. Konica Minolta had an alliance with GE on the development of flexible OLED lighting. LG Chem developed its own HIL and ETL materials. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. and as such is subject to the same IP considerations as the Symfos brand.nanomarkets. and although news has been sparse lately. with 45 lm/W. NanoMarkets. Our sense. was released in 2011 and is reported to use Konica Minolta technology.5 LG Chem (Korea) and Its Future in OLED Lighting Page | 28 LG Chem began its OLED lighting market entry in November 2009. However. what actually happened is that the first Konica Minolta products are being built in Philips' OLED lighting plant in Germany. Per Konica Minolta. which is it using in combination with green and red PHOLED materials under license from UDC. This product is most likely based on the UDC/ Konica Minolta emitters. We note that in 2010. is that if the relationship had been strong. 2. Idemitsu Kosan agreed to purchase one third of LG Global OLED.5.NanoMarkets www. however. In fact. we do not see many opportunities for many other materials firms to gain market share by selling to Konica Minolta. which may indicate an increasing role of Korea suppliers in the LG Chem OLED lighting pipeline. this development could be seen as either a setback for the concept of solution processing of OLEDs or a setback in the development of flexible panels—or both. Philips' Lumiblade Plus panel. For blue. as noted above. it has sourced a deep-blue fluorescent emitter from Sun Fine Chemical of Korea. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . Either way.net Given the relationship that Konica Minolta already has with UDC. according to the information obtained from Konica Minolta investor briefings. It is not clear whether the agreement was terminated because it had achieved the goal or because it was unhappy with progress on the project.
HTL. Doosan. However. Even if some UDC IP is invalidated in certain regions. NanoMarkets. Lumiotec is planning to ramp up to a "pilot mass-production line" in Yonezawa with the goal of beginning mass production by 2013.000 hours). probably from partner Mitsui. Sun Fine Chemical already has an agreement in place that transferred its phosphorescent emitter technologies to UDC. rather than phosphorescent. This structure is said to enable the simultaneous achievement of increased brightness (up to 3000 cd/m2) and longer operating life (up to 50.) to work specifically with UDC PHOLED materials. Lumiotec showed its first OLED product—Fenalene—in 2008.6. Sun Fine Chem and other Korean suppliers—Cheil. Toppan Printing. and Mitsui. One advantage that Lumiotec's panels have over others on the market today is they are at least twice as big as most others. 2. and that it would develop auxiliary organic materials (ETL. although we believe this would be a risky bet. Alternatively. the reality is that all of these OLED companies must function in a global economy. Lumiotec may be betting on the unraveling of UDC's IP dominance.1 Suppliers and Materials Used by Lumiotec The company employs a technology called multi-photon emission (MPE).net There was a challenge in the Korean courts of UDC's phosphorescent EML IP. etc. which if successful could pave the way for Idemitsu Kosan. around 11 lm/W. However. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .nanomarkets. The company is a joint venture between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. and were made with fluorescent emitters. Rohm Semiconductor. and Europe. and it started selling sample do-it-yourself OLED lighting kits in mid-February 2010. 2. The first Lumiotec panels had quite low efficiencies.6 Lumiotec (Japan): An Early Entrant with Established Connections Page | 29 Lumiotec was established in 2008 as a Japanese pure-play OLED lighting company. and the UDC patents—to date—have held up in many important markets for OLED products—namely in the U. which means that a relationship with UDC could be in the works.—to be more active in the OLED materials market. etc. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. This makes Lumiotec one of the very few OLED lighting manufacturers in production that is not using UDC PHOLED technology under a license. which uses several emission layers stacked vertically. Lumiotec has announced plans to transition to phosphorescent technologies in order to improve efficiency.S.NanoMarkets www. If Lumiotec can increase the efficiency—through the planned switch to phosphorescent materials—it would seem to have a real competitive advantage in hand.
The facility will eventually produce panels with a 150-mm x 150-mm form factor with luminance greater than 76 lm/W. Traditionally. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . This partnership also received funding from the DOE to carry out development. We also NanoMarkets.1 Test Bed for UDC in the OLED Lighting Space It is difficult to know how to gauge this partnership. luminaire manufacturers for incorporation into products to facilitate testing of design concepts and gauge customer acceptance.7. not a lighting manufacturer and we have no reason to suppose that UDC will get into the lighting business. improved flexible encapsulation technologies.nanomarkets. If this happens. then there may be an eventual shift toward solution processing—in the form of either small molecule or polymeric materials—and a toward R2R-on-plastic. and Improved substrate utilization.) Page | 30 UDC has a $20-million joint-project with India's Moser Baer Technologies (MBT) to build two OLED lighting production lines in a 9. Either way. Additional goals include the following: Faster manufacturing processes and substrate handling. and probably including UDC's recently developed light-blue phosphorescent EML that enables the production of an all-phosphorescent design. although the core deposition equipment will be shipped to the facility by November 2011. the long-term plans may be to produce flexible OLED lighting. UDC is an OLED materials supplier. which would necessitate availability of adequate flexible substrates and. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. using a UDC-developed process under license from UDC. including a 30-second cycle time by 2015. It is more likely that Moser Baer is simply getting into the OLED lighting business.400-square-foot clean room in Canandaigua.net We note that given the involvement of Toppan Printing in this company. 2.NanoMarkets www. which means phosphorescent EMLs.7 Moser Baer Technologies (India/U. This clearly benefits UDC as it adds to ever-expanding list of licensees and disciples of its proprietary PHOLED technology. something that Toppan has already demonstrated on the display side on a laboratory scale. 2. with the stated goal of providing OLED lighting panels to U. but we could be mistaken. which will go a long way towards meeting the DOE target of $20 per kilolumen. it seems clear that the material set of choice will be that of UDC. more importantly.S. and has enlisted UDC for technical assistance. Our understanding is that this facility will begin full operation in the spring of 2012. New York.S. The partnership is also intending to demonstrate a path towards meeting cost targets of $27 per kilolumen by 2013.
NanoMarkets www. Other regional suppliers of auxiliary organic materials like Hodogaya Chemical. the company has invested approximately €50 million in R&D on OLEDs and has a new OLED lighting pilot plant in Regensburg. given the need for all of these lighting companies to be able to (legally) sell its products in a global marketplace—including in regions where the UDC technology has not been invalidated. there is a good chance that UDC will push for incorporation of UDC's "single-layer" thin film encapsulation technology. We believe it is more likely. 2. These products are supposedly going to become commercially available in NEC's fiscal 2011 year. Germany. however. that UDC will remain a key player in the OLED materials market. although it is not clear what it is using for blue emission. that NEC is a recent enough entry into the OLED lighting marketplace that it is likely a good target for either adoption of the UDC all-phosphorescent technology or transition to alternative suppliers: Sun Fine Chemical's blue emitter and auxiliary organic materials are well-suited for use with the UDC technology that NEC is using. we believe that the current uncertainty in the Asian market with respect to the UDC IP portfolio may cause a bit of a shake up and allow other materials suppliers to gain a foothold at customers like NEC. including both OLEDs and LEDs. Idemitsu Kosan. using glass encapsulation strategies.8.nanomarkets. The heavy involvement of UDC means that the Moser Baer line can effectively serve as a "test bed" for all UDC materials developments. 2.net note that while the likely earliest products will be made on glass. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . Japan) and offer 60-lm/W efficiency.1 Likely Materials Used By NEC Lighting NEC is yet another licensee of the UDC PHOLED technology for red and green emission. which will further enable UDC to maintain its dominance in the industry. 2. in which it has made an NanoMarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.8 NEC Lighting (Japan) Page | 31 NEC Lighting plans to cease all manufacturing and sales of incandescent lamps by 2012 and instead will focus on efficient lighting products. however.9 Osram (Germany): A Major Early Entrant in OLED Lighting In the past five years. As with other Asian OLED lighting manufacturers. or even Korean suppliers like LG Chem or Cheil may also be used in conjunction with the NEC material stack. which ends in March 2012. NEC's OLED lighting prototypes were developed in cooperation with the Research Institute for Organic Electronic (RIOE. We believe.
which aims to spur development of 100-lm/W lighting systems. Osram claims to use PVD deposition of fluorescent small molecules to produce the Orbeos panels. despite recent patent disputes. it seems that although UDC has its technology very entrenched in the Asian market. and this has given them access to new OLED materials for improved performance on a variety of fronts. and Osram has reported that the functional materials used have already been tested in the pilot plant. NanoMarkets. since printing/solution processing is not mature enough for commercial production of OLED lighting panels in even moderate quantities.) In its Regensburg OLED manufacturing plant. of inkjet printed OLEDs. unlike so many others. So. 2.9. in cooperation with BASF. using BASF materials. An early licensee of CDT's polymer OLED technology. This development by Osram calls into question the assumption that phosphorescent emitter technologies—hence the involvement of UDC—is necessary to improve the performance of OLED lighting to a level that will enable sustained growth. with whom Osram has a broad cross-licensing partnership. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . vapor deposition approach. although we are not certain if phosphorescent materials are also used. Osram. It has also been involved in the development.nanomarkets. developed as part of the EU's TOPAS 2012 (Thousand lumen Organic Phosphorescent devices for Applications in lighting Systems) project. there may be other ways to achieve the performance targets.net initial investment of €20 million. the early entry of this company into the commercial OLED lighting space was done using a small molecule. at least not publicly.NanoMarkets www. (See the discussion of GE above. is a not a licensee of UDC. To achieve the very high reported efficiency. Despite the new plant. Instead. Osram-OS has been involved in OLED R&D since at least 2001. Partners in this project are BASF on the materials side and Philips. current suppliers are likely BASF and/or Merck. One of the important recent announcements from Osram is that it has achieved a prototype OLED with an efficiency of 87 lm/W. but it is likely also working closely with Novaled and other smaller European firms. Osram used a "pure thin-film" approach to fabrication. Instead. Osram has stated that the new pilot line will enable it to reduce manufacturing costs by 90 percent. as well as of DuPont's manufacturing technology for flexible OLEDs. Osram has said that it does not expect to have a high-volume OLED lighting product until 2016.1 Likely Materials Suppliers and Materials Used by Osram Page | 32 Osram has been heavily involved in various European (and American) lighting initiatives. However.
Because of its high-profile brand name. private homes and shops. Osram may need to transition. not just in Japan. but also throughout the world. To enable these plans." It also wants to eventually produce transparent OLEDs and flexible OLEDs to broaden the scope of the design possibilities even further. offices.10 Panasonic Idemitsu Lighting (Japan) Page | 33 Panasonic first showed its prototype OLED lighting panels—with efficiency of 40 lm/W and CRI of 95—at a trade show in 2009. The new JV. manufacture and sell OLED lighting panels. and now Panasonic Idemitsu is also using PHOLED emissive technology under license from UDC. 2. NanoMarkets expects Panasonic to have a major influence on the OLED market. through increased partnership with European firms working towards materials for solution processing and/or flexible displays. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. which is a substantial investment. we note that the original PEW OLED lighting project still also exists. etc. NanoMarkets.nanomarkets. which it says includes "architecture. and Orgalight. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . at least partially. Lomox. and is proceeding with OLED lighting commercialization. will use Idemitsu Kosan's OLED materials and will utilize PEW's design and manufacturing technologies. but also.1 The Role of Idemitsu Kosan PEW was already using UDC PHOLED technology at the time of the formation of Panasonic Idemitsu. hotels and catering.net Premium lighting and materials choices: Osram has said that the application it has in mind for its Orbeos panels is "premium" lighting. 2. or smaller start-ups like Polar OLED. to solution processing. These panels were made by subsidiary Panasonic Electric Works using UDC's PHOLED materials. like Merck/EMD and Novaled. Osram was actually an early licensee of CDT's polymer OLED technology (now belonging to Sumitomo). PEW together with materials firm Idemitsu Kosan announced a new joint venture to develop. through purchase of materials from Idemitsu Kosan. As noted above. The initial Panasonic Idemitsu company capital will be JP¥15 billion ($182 million). and announced plans to release commercial panels in 2011. However.10. which is called Panasonic Idemitsu OLED Lighting. more likely. However. This may happen through reinstating the relationship with DuPont Displays or.NanoMarkets www. as noted above. albeit on a slightly slower timescale than Panasonic Idemitsu. in March 2011. but it also has close partnerships with DuPont Displays and thus may also choose to explore solution-processable small-molecule approaches.
2 Other Suppliers Page | 34 The role of other organic material suppliers besides UDC and Idemitsu Kosan. will remain marginal.1 OLED Materials and Suppliers Currently Used Philips' Lumiblade products are produced today using either a mix of fluorescent and phosphorescent emitter materials. and it is likely that either or both Panasonic Idemitsu or/and PEW have also taken this "hybrid" approach to OLED fabrication. 2. Idemitsu Kosan already lists Sony and LG Display as customers for its materials. The one exception is that is the possibility that some alternative auxiliary materials—such as solution-processable HIL materials—may be purchased elsewhere given Panasonic's ability to use slot-die solution coating.net However. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.NanoMarkets www. which has opened the possibility for an increasing role from other suppliers.nanomarkets. Philips announced that it was investing €40 million to expand this facility. as in the most recently launched Lumiblade Plus. 2. we note that Idemitsu Kosan also has a history of working with UDC. Idemitsu Kosan. with the additional capacity coming on stream in 2012. It also recently announced expansion plans. the status of portions of the UDC IP are uncertain in Japan at this time. as in the first Lumiblade prototypes. 2. we understand that the refocusing of the Lumiblade product line on a narrower range of products has enabled the Aachen facility to gain some economics of scale advantages. We note that the Lumiblade Plus product was actually made by Philips using Konica Minolta technology.11 Philips (The Netherlands): An OLED Lighting Pioneer Philips built a production line for its OLED lighting in Aachen.11. NanoMarkets.10. to be completed in 2012. which means UDC is a key supplier here. may now be able to expand its reach beyond only the auxiliary organic materials into emissive materials as well. Panasonic is known to use a slit-coating process to manufacture the HIL layer. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . or an allphosphorescent mix. we believe. and it owns one-third of LG's Global OLED Technology company (created from the LG acquisition of the former Kodak OLED business). for example. In addition to providing materials to the JV with Panasonic. In addition. In May 2011. Germany. to add an undisclosed amount of capacity to its OLED materials production plant. we believe that UDC's technology permeates the businesses. Nevertheless. so here again.
which has also stated that it is working on flexible OLED panels for the future. it is possible that Philips will turn back to solution processing.net 2. Recall also that Konica Minolta is a UDC licensee. at least in the lab. at least to some extent.S. color-tunable OLED panels.11. The addition of flexibility to the specifications of Philips' OLED lines means that the there may be significant opportunities for flexible substrate and flexible encapsulation firms (either thin film or flexible glass). and we suspect it is an idea that has not been totally abandoned for future growth.NanoMarkets www. etc. when it announced that the latest product—the Lumiblade Plus—was made using Konica Minolta technology.nanomarkets. even as Philips moved to rigid. Philips also has plans to introduce transparent OLEDs. small-molecule designs for its first products. However. and Orgalight. the importance of design: Philips has also expanded its efforts to gain even more of the consumer (and pop cultural) mindshare by opening the "Creative Lab" workshop at its Aachen facility to help designers and engineers put together their products. today Philips uses vacuum processing to manufacture its OLED lighting products and prototypes. Philips' continued access to developments at EU materials firms working on materials for solution processing and/or flexible displays. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. which will help it to further broaden the scope of the design possibilities. and Asia. Novaled. we note the following as a guide to what materials firms may expect from Philips down the road: Philips has a broad cross-licensing agreement in place with Osram. eventually. Again. which was necessary to get the efficiencies where they need to be for commercialization of OLED lighting panels. Recall that Philips was an early adopter of polymer OLEDs. in order to enable flexibility. Thus. Philips has also made the transition from fluorescent to phosphorescent.2 Evolution of OLED Lighting Materials Used at Philips In the early days at Philips—going back to the display days—much of the activity centered on solution processing and polymer OLEDs. so this effectively means that UDC has nearly as strong a foothold in the European market as it has in the U. Page | 35 NanoMarkets. it effectively confirmed that the future for much of OLED lighting is in an all-phosphorescent stack. namely Merck/EMD. flexible OLEDs. As we noted with Osram. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . Polar OLED. and. Furthermore.
the company also showed lighting panels with 20. at least some of which were jointly developed with UDC. The panels. scale up of solution processing has proven more difficult than industry analysts initially predicted. 2. Laboratory results with the solution-processable materials of > 50 lm/W and 20.12. and Pioneer will manufacture and supply the OLED panels. based on the details of the partnership agreement. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . And although the enforceability of some of UDC's IP is currently in question—invalidation is under appeal in Japan and still in question in Korea—we are not convinced that this will have a major impact on the continuing dominance of UDC. NanoMarkets.net 2. The firms will use materials from Mitsubishi. The partnership builds on earlier work that the two companies completed together and the goal of the current project seems to be to use a printable HIL material and small molecule EMLs to create 14-cm X 14-cm OLEDs.12 Pioneer (Japan): The First Ever Supplier of OLEDs Gets Into the Lighting Business Pioneer entered the OLED lighting business in 2010 as part of an alliance with Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (MCC).2 Other Suppliers Here again we see evidence of the dominance. which are fully color-tunable and already available in sample quantities. like everyone else. However.nanomarkets. But its involvement with OLED lighting is at a much earlier phase of development.NanoMarkets www. Nevertheless. as we noted above in the GE/DuPont Displays discussion. at least not in the near term.1 The Role of Mitsubishi as a Materials Supplier Page | 36 As noted. 2. In the same year. Ultimately. of the UDC IP for production of OLED lighting. 2. a technology with which Mitsubishi is already involved.000 hour lifetime that it had developed in cooperation with the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) of Korea. the assumption here is that Mitsubishi is providing the materials and marketing expertise while Pioneer is producing the OLED lighting panels.12. the companies hope to produce the OLEDs using inkjet printing.000 hours lifetime were announced this year.13 Samsung (Korea): The Dominant Force in OLED Displays Samsung has long been a major player in the OLED display market and is the dominant player in the AMOLED market. using PHOLED IP under license from UDC. today the team uses vapor deposition techniques to manufacture OLEDs. especially in Asia. will be marketed through MCC's Verbatim network. under the trade name VELVE. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.
Visionox is also apparently already producing some flexible OLED lighting and transparent OLED lighting in sampling quantities.000 hours (at the 1. Samsung was already using Novaled materials in its AMOLED display devices. Based on the information provided so far. Samsung has also considered shutting down those lines.000 cd/m2 brightness). VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . this assumption is brought into question by the recently renewed Samsung license of UDC PHOLED technology.14 Visionox (China) Visionox. It also says that it has developed hybrid OLEDs with more than 40-lm/W efficiency (at the 1. Although Visionox is sourcing many of its NanoMarkets. although NanoMarkets notes that the Visionox panels have quite cool CCT (above 6000 K). and we assume that it will do the same in its nascent lighting business.NanoMarkets www. Samsung is a UDC licensee.nanomarkets. is building facilities for AMOLEDs. Visionox has developed fluorescent white OLEDs with a composite blue emitting structure. 2. currently using UDC's red and green PHOLED materials and announced intentions to start using blue PHOLED material(s) from UDC in the future.net Samsung has also said that at least some of its OLED lighting modules were built on existing PMOLED production lines.1 Impact of Samsung's Dominance in OLED Displays on Its Choice of Materials and Suppliers Page | 37 Samsung's expansion into OLED lighting is likely to be a boon to its existing suppliers—namely Cheil. which have a lifetime of more than 100. and is also gradually getting into the OLED lighting business. Samsung also recently made a major investment in German materials firm Novaled.14. According to press reports.1 Materials Suppliers for Visionox's OLED lighting products The emergence of Visionox as a potential force in the OLED lighting market has been very advantageous to Chinese materials suppliers. UDC and others. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. It should come as no great surprise that Samsung's choice of material set for its lighting program closely mirrors what it has done in displays.13. 2. Although the recent challenge to UDC's IP in the Korean patent courts may mean that other regional suppliers have a chance to gain additional market share by selling to Samsung. 2. which bodes quite well for the future of Novaled technologies. it is hard to be sure in what direction Samsung is headed. but says that it will not take a heavy investment to turn those lines into OLED lighting lines. a major supplier of passive matrix OLEDs.000-cd/m2 brightness) without the use of light out-coupling technology. especially with respect to the auxiliary (non-emitter) organic materials.
and e-Ray. it is also purchasing from local Chinese materials suppliers. which is expected to grow substantially over the next decade. and is instead using fluorescent emission technologies in its first prototypes. Taiwanese suppliers: Small firm e-Ray Optoelectronics has emerged as an important development partner for Visionox. It is also developing OLED lighting panels in its own right. Doosan. The status is unknown. and by other regional EU materials firms. NanoMarkets. the materials are likely supplied by UDC (although we are not sure if there is a licensing agreement in place).net materials in house. we expect that the Chinese OLED lighting market will remain regional. At least in the near term. Ji-Lin Optical. Instead. As with most OLED lighting manufacturers. to the best of our knowledge. which minimizes any issues with UDC IP and phosphorescent technologies in China. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. and Sun Fine Chemicals. the lighting panels are being produced using a vacuum deposition process. acquired a license from UDC for phosphorescent emitters. Borun Chemical. Otherwise. and currently only in a lab or small pilot scale. Visionox is not getting any key functional materials from any major materials firms outside of China.NanoMarkets www. Fraunhofer IPMS: The Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems Institute IPMS has a very visible role in the emerging European OLED lighting industry at the level of national/panEuropean projects. It has not.15 Other Potentially Important OLED Lighting Firms Page | 38 First-o-Lite (China): Has announced plans to build lighting plant and ship panels in 2012-2013. Visionox is working with the following: Chinese suppliers: There are several up-and-coming Chinese manufacturers. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .nanomarkets. We do think that there is a good chance for Korean suppliers to at some point supply materials to Visionox and other similar firms in China (like First-o-Lite). like Aglaia Tech or Jilin Optical and Electronic Materials that are making a play to be key suppliers to the Asian OLED materials market. but the firm is most likely using locally sourced materials from Chinese firms in the OLED materials business—Aglai Tech. Currently. 2. There are no existing major partnerships in place. Korean materials firms of note are: Cheil Industries. It has recently announced that it is sampling OLED lighting panels under the name TABOLA. A likely key material supplier is Novaled. but this development would allow Korean materials firms to gain a foothold in the Chinese market.
with 80 lm/W efficiency and 40. and the apparent plan is to manufacture OLED panels using a proprietary coating process. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. starting in 2015.000-hour lifetime. Page | 39 NanoMarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .nanomarkets. It has acquired a license from UDC for white PHOLED technologies. although we note that the timeframe for commercialization is far enough away that the plans could change in the meantime.NanoMarkets www. This makes Showa Denko one of only a few companies with expressed interest in solution processing.net Showa Denko (Japan): Showa Denko has publicly stated an intention to produce OLED lighting. at a low cost of ¥4 per lumen.
All major materials layers of the OLED device stack are included. As such. by type of technology or deposition method for the functional materials: Vapor deposition of small molecules Solution-processing of small molecules Polymer processes 3. The primary approach we have taken to forecasting in this report is to start with the anticipated volumes of production for OLED lighting panels. ETL.1. The goal is to indicate how we think business revenues will emerge for the materials under consideration. cathode.net Chapter Three: Eight-Year Market Forecasts for OLED Lighting Materials 3.e.1 Forecasts Based on Material Content The forecasts in this chapter cover the materials used in OLED lighting panels over the next eight years. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . HTL. EML. HBL and HIL layers). we have broken out materials used in production of OLED panels into eight classes: Cathode Emissive Layer (EML) Electron Transport Layer (ETL) Hole Transport Layer/ Electron (HTL/EBL/HBL) Hole Injection Layer (HIL) Anode Encapsulation Substrate Blocking Layer/Hole Blocking Layer We have further broken out the materials usage in each class of functional materials.nanomarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. etc. from the substrate through the active layers to the encapsulation barrier layers. For the purposes of this forecast. the forecasts for the quantity of materials in each layer (substrate. principally in the EML. wherever relevant and possible (i.NanoMarkets www.1 Forecasting Methodology and Assumptions About Material Content Page | 40 In general.) are based on NanoMarkets' NanoMarkets. EBL. the forecasting methodology used in this report is similar to the one employed in all NanoMarkets reports.
we use estimates of layer thickness in each class of materials (where relevant) to build the material demand required for the forecasted panel production quantities from the bottom-up. It has been over a year since NanoMarkets completed its previous comprehensive forecast of the OLED lighting material sector.1. In this report for the first time. We note that at this early stage of development. Reports from which OLED materials needs and OLED panel shipments have been taken are the following: Markets for OLED Materials – 2011 (published June 2011) OLED Lighting Materials Market Trends and Impact (published October 2010. not just because they are different materials. We note. 2012-2018. 3.2 Changes in Assumptions and Methodology Since the Last Report Page | 41 Differences from previous forecasts: This is the latest NanoMarkets report that specifically covers materials used in OLED lighting. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. Deriving materials sales forecasts: As noted. there are fairly large differences of opinion in this area and this injects some uncertainty into this space. we have separated the materials forecasts for small molecules into vapor deposition processes or solution-processing deposition processes. but also because they represent different manufacturing programs with their own set of drivers. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . To construct the materials forecasts. and because they are generally supplied by a different set of materials suppliers. the forecasts for OLED lighting device shipments by application are derived from other NanoMarkets reports. cost patterns could be significantly different from what ultimately appears. from published content on the Internet. challenges and issues. however. revised June 2011) A Capacity and Opportunity Analysis of OLED Lighting Manufacturing (published October 2011) OLED Lighting Global Market Forecasts (published May 2011) These current and previous application and materials forecasts are then used as the basis for quantifying OLED lighting material use over a seven-year period. We have also clearly separated the small-molecule forecasts from the polymeric materials forecasts.net OLED panel production forecasts. to interviews with representatives from key companies and associations involved in the OLED materials and applications markets. and it therefore NanoMarkets. to presentations delivered at industry conferences worldwide. OLED lighting is a special area of focus for NanoMarkets. our research process relied on a wide range of sources.NanoMarkets www. In developing the analysis of material usage.
especially in the functional organic materials layers (EML.net should not come as a surprise that this report contains different projections from our previous forecasts: With the OLED lighting market finally beginning to take off—real commercial products are available now. on total market value of each layer. However. big improvements in material utilization will. Page | 42 NanoMarkets. but it may temporarily reduce sales volumes for some materials. covers the same kinds of materials. Our best estimates for average materials costs have been adjusted based on recent discussions with industry representatives and on reviews of publicly available pricing information. and. although we expect that the yields are improving as equipment manufacturers and OLED panel makers are making steady improvements. This is. We anticipate that material usage may reach as high as 50 percent by 2016. Implications of production changes for forecasts: Note that our forecasts are highly dependent on the state of production technology and are sensitive to changes in assumptions about deposition rates. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . HTL/EBL/HBL. even if only on a very small scale—our forecast is somewhat less speculative than previous forecasts and more based on a review of what the various OLED lighting manufacturers are really doing.nanomarkets. as we have stressed throughout this report. help the entire OLED lighting value chain. in the long run. film thicknesses and materials utilization rates. at least initially. and HIL). for the most part. the forecast presented in this report adopts a very similar structure to that adopted in the previous NanoMarkets forecast of OLED materials for OLED lighting. This approach can result in 10 percent or less of the material being deposited on the device. have been refined to better reflect manufacturing realities. mainly). Thus. ETL. of course. good for the panel makers. reduced overall costs are necessary to bring OLED lighting in line with cost expectations and enable widespread adoption of OLED lighting as competitive alternative to other efficient lighting technologies (CFLs and LEDs. nearly all OLED lighting panels are produced via batch processes that rely on vapor deposition. Where possible.NanoMarkets www. this change had an effect on total quantity of materials used in each layer and hence. At present. That said.
for the various materials used in OLED lighting. for example. Page | 43 We have tried to anticipate such changes in our forecasts in the sense that the evidence is that we will move to a manufacturing environment in which there is some additional R2R processing in the OLED field and less and less waste. Most firms do not disclose information regarding yields. However. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . which adds an element of speculation to our forecasts. This is the kind of area where we would expect to see breakthroughs occur and such breakthroughs could have a considerable impact on the forecasts presented herein.3 Assumptions About the OLED Stack Structure The stack structure and therefore the rates of usage of different kinds of OLED materials used in each lighting application do not vary enormously. Our forecasts reflect this belief. We are skeptical that this level is currently sustainable." while others are sold in larger scale (especially to the display industry) but under confidentiality agreements between key suppliers and OLED manufacturers. 3. a realistic assessment of the industry today leads us to conclude that the vast majority of OLED lighting panels will be made by vapor deposition. on a per-square-meter basis. improved yields that bring down costs help the market in the long run.nanomarkets. but if it is. But again. However.1. 3.NanoMarkets www. Pricing information is also somewhat speculative for the following reasons: Some of the materials covered are still moving out of the "research phase. then it effectively lowers the material requirements per unit by more than a third. GE representatives have been quoted as saying that their prototype roll-to-roll production line improved from 65 percent yield in 2007 to about 90 to 95 percent yield in 2009. For clarity. each lighting application requires different kinds of lighting products—in particular they are often of different size— and this entails different volumes of materials used per panel unit. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. or layer thicknesses. batch-processes on glass for the timeframe of this report.1. For this reason we have chosen to calculate all materials usage on a per-square-meter basis rather than on a panelunit basis. deposition rates.4 Materials Pricing Assumptions Exhibit 3-1 presents the estimated average prices. NanoMarkets. we have also assumed for the purposes of forecasting that the vast majority of OLED lighting panels will be manufactured using a bottom-emitting approach. with a transparent anode.net Yields have a similar impact.
0 15.9 74.2 727.8 42. leading to high per-square-meter costs for OLED panel manufacturers.9 164.2 EML 585.3 13.4 8.8 205.5 393.3 14.0 139.3 32.0 27. especially in the early years of the forecast.7 13.6 Anode 12. With these points in mind.7 10. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.3 7.1 1158. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .8 9.6 234.0 67.4 TOTAL Average Materials Cost ($ per sq m) 1700.0 13.3 12.4 21.7 30.5 Encapsulation 13.5 13.nanomarkets.1 12.5 24.9 423. 2012 .8 2018 11.6 NanoMarkets. The reality is that relatively low demand." Where possible we have also used published data about corporate revenues for firms active in this space as a sanity check.2 17. often in the thousands of dollars per gram range. Exhibit 3-1 Estimated Average Prices of Different Materials.7 89. especially for those used in the functional organic stack.2 13.1 ETL 408. coupled with expensive development costs means that materials prices today for many of the core OLED materials are quite high.8 13.4 Substrates 34.net The extensive network of collaborations between various materials suppliers and OLED panel manufacturers adds to the difficulty in determining actual materials costs for some materials.2 © NanoMarkets 2011 Page | 44 2017 10.1 124.8 13.3 9.5 12.7 36.9 16.2 19.7 64.6 240.4 20.9 135.3 6.7 8.0 271.2018 ($ per sq m) 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Cathode 8.2 88.7 13.NanoMarkets www.7 221.6 31.4 HIL 329.2 131.9 13.6 HTL/EBL/HBL 307. we have attempted as best as possible to reflect in our forecasts what OLED firms are actually paying for their materials and not "catalog prices.
which could help lower prices even further. well-established materials that already have widespread application in other markets are expected to rise over time. At present. Intellectual property factors have a great impact of the cost of materials.nanomarkets. This may also attract competition among producers. As demand increases.800 1.000 800 600 400 200 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year 2016 2017 2018 Cathode EML ETL HTL/EBL/HBL HIL Anode Encapsulation Substrates Page | 45 © NanoMarkets 2011 The pricing forecasts for the various materials follow different trajectories.NanoMarkets www. In general. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . Intellectual property factors: Production costs of the materials used in OLEDs—especially for the organic materials—arise from a combination of synthesis and purification using processes that are well known and widely accessible. Both petroleum and ITO are used in OLED materials and costs for both are expected to rise over the timeframe of this report. Some key points to keep in mind are as follows: In general.net Estimated Average Prices for Materials Used in OLED Lighting by Layer 2012-2018 ($ per sq m) 1. production volumes will increase and manufacturers will realize economies of scale and faster recovery of initial development costs. recovery of ongoing and past R&D costs is a far more significant factor than the actual production of the materials. Other materials that we consider here are expected to show declining prices. and today NanoMarkets.400 1.600 1. especially in the inflationary environment that seems likely over the next few years.200 1. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. these are materials that have limited application—in many cases limited solely to OLED devices—and so are currently produced in limited quantities at relatively high prices.
How this will play out in the long run is difficult to predict. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. And this licensing involves any or all of the following: up front license fees. The trade secret approach: Other companies are increasingly choosing to use a trade-secret approach for protecting their intellectual property. expired patents as part of the package to get the newer information. Note that these prices can only be maintained so long as the intellectual property behind them is protected. Note that some companies have "tied up" their expiring or challenged patents with new ones. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . NanoMarkets. recent NanoMarkets reports on the OLED lighting sector. we note that we have reduced the contributions from polymeric materials in this report based on a review of the activities at actual OLED lighting manufacturers. However.2 Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Shipments Page | 46 Exhibit 3-2 summarizes NanoMarkets' forecasts for the average size of OLED lighting panels and. the total area of OLED panels produced. especially in the key trade secrets are associated with process. it is a matter of accounting policies and pricing strategies that may differ between suppliers. This strategy sometimes can work very well. high ongoing per-unit material costs with "embedded" licensing costs. but there have been recent challenges to phosphorescent OLED technology in Asia and Europe. A more in-depth analysis of the segments in this forecast can be found in other. 3.NanoMarkets www. competition may drive the price of these materials lower.net materials suppliers use technology licensing preferentially to materials sales (the volumes of which are still relatively small) to recover (most of) these costs. more importantly from the perspective of OLED materials markets. and royalty streams on sales of finished OLED panels. at present most of the key materials remain protected. purity. which may eventually have an impact on the market as a whole.nanomarkets. they have to pay a license fee for the old. and/or formulation rather than structure. if customers want access to the latest technology. If the IP becomes available to competitors.
73 0.78 0.9% 0.09 1.SM Solution Solution-processable Small Molecules % of Market .4% 0.5% 7.05 0. and Panel Type and Application 2011-2018 (OLED Panel Area.20 0.90 2015 0.02 0.32 97.07 1.29 89.1% 0.01 0.0% 0.01 0.net Exhibit 3-2 OLED Shipments by Application.07 0.0% 0.68 8.01 0.83 1.06 0.22 0.07 0.65 57.11 5.15 22.5% 0.3% 0.26 5.06 0.001 0. Millions sq m) 2012 By Application: General illumination: Average panel size (sq m) Total area (Millions sq m) Architectural and specialized industrial lighting: Average panel size (sq m) Total area (Millions sq m) Vehicular lighting: Average panel size (sq m) Total area (Millions sq m) Other: Average panel size (sq m) Total area (Millions sq m) TOTAL OLED Lighting Area (Millions sq m) By Panel Type: % of Market .0005 0.03 0.05 0.55 5.78 0.07 0.86 99.83 2.Rigid Rigid OLED Lighting % of Market .7% 0.00 0.2% 19.20 0.90 99.06 0.04 93.2% 50.4% 0.11 34.18 3.06 0.8% 0.29 2018 0.5% 0.89 5.1% 0.05 0.06 0. Material Type.SM Vapor Small Molecule .27 0.18 57.9% 2.29 97.2% 3.78 0.09 12.01 3.05 0.Polymer Polymeric Materials TOTAL Area (Millions sq m) © NanoMarkets 2011 0.85 2.0% 0.90 0.06 0.13 4.00 0.10 3.09 1.86 2016 0.1% 0.04 3.01 0.1% 55.1% 1.0% 2.NanoMarkets www.13 2.04 4.86 90.27 0.32 Page | 47 NanoMarkets.58 6.20 92.nanomarkets.07 0.6% 3.08 98.08 0.38 8.09 2.03 2.12 6.06 0.98 0.Flexible Flexible OLED Lighting TOTAL Area (Millions sq m) By Material Type: % of Market .9% 21.08 2017 0.06 0.41 4. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .42 0.08 0.90 91.0% 0.05 0.36 57.8% 0.08 1.01 0.04 0.04 100.1% 7.1% 0.001 3.28 5. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.9% 1.04 0.96 1.46 22.6% 1.14 0.12 8.08 3.0% 0.20 0.5% 0.32 88.10 4.32 22.Vapor Deposition % of Market .04 2013 0.60 4.67 2.83 4.2% 0.12 10.7% 0.08 90.20 100.05 0.8% 0.32 0.20 2014 0.
we present our total area and market value forecasts for cathode materials used in OLED lighting applications broken out by material type.3.1 Cathode Materials In Exhibit 3-3. 3. somewhat different and have been broken out in this analysis. by materials used in smallmolecule OLEDs and by those used in polymeric OLEDs. Cathode materials used in vapordeposition vs. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . As this Exhibit shows. as interest and activity in this area has sharply declined over the last two years. Note that NanoMarkets no longer includes OLED backlights in its forecasts for OLED lighting.NanoMarkets www. Our forecasts include an improvement NanoMarkets.e. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. i. Cathode materials used in polymer OLEDs are.net Total Area of OLED Lighting Panel Shipments By Material Type or Panel Type 2012-2018 (Millions sq m) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 © NanoMarkets 2011 Page | 48 Polymeric Materials Solution-Processed Small Molecules Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Rigid OLED Lighting Flexible OLED Lighting Year The data in this exhibit are the main drivers for the materials forecasts in this report and the basis for all the remaining forecasts in this chapter. the demand for OLED lighting materials will grow quickly as the OLED lighting market takes off. however. solution-processed small-molecule OLED designs do not differ significantly and are thus combined here.3 Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Materials Demand for Each Layer By Material Type 3. and is of substantial size by the 2015-2016 timeframe. Cathode materials are also widely used outside of the OLED industry and the overall market for these materials dwarfs their total in OLED lighting.nanomarkets.
05 26.3 611. Al.net in coverage that we attribute to less wastage and better yields achieved over time.67 2014 0.01 8.7 226.18 11. 3 Cathode materials include Ca. Al.19 8.73 Page | 49 0. Ba.73 Polymer OLEDs 0.nanomarkets.13 9.71 1 Cathode materials do not differ significantly between small molecule OLED panels fabricated using vapor deposition vs.8 0.70 10. For small-molecule designs.34 0.44 238.74 8.31 1.NanoMarkets www.54 647.3 0.7 12. Polymer devices often use MgAg (10:1).22 3.04 8. and Li/Al. 2 Cost of sputtering targets.27 2018 54. Polymer devices often use MgAg (10:1).07 0.97 TOTAL Market Value ($ Millions) 0.93 1.27 611.15 10.8 1. thin layers of metal are often well suited to bottom-emitting OLED stack designs due to their low work function. Ca/Al.07 0. © NanoMarkets 2011 NanoMarkets.001 8.38 10.75 82.2 3. However.52 2017 21.27 3.7 26.2 78.67 8. and Al/LiF are commonly used.14 11. Ba.73 9. Note that we have increased the average prices somewhat from recent OLED materials forecasts to account for higher-than-expected growth in commodity prices. For small molecule designs.01 0.3 35. Li/Al. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . Contributions from nonsputtered materials are insignificant. and Li/Al. Al.53 78. the average prices of sputtering targets used to make cathodes rise slightly over time to reflect the expectation of generally rising prices for commodity materials such as these over the forecast period.52 226.39 27. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.15 10.97 Summary of Cathode Value: Small Molecule OLEDs 0.4 0. Ca/Al.4 0.32 1. Mg.27 35. For cathode materials.22 0.31 2013 0.53 2016 7.04 9.05 2015 2.7 1. Exhibit 3-3 Cathode Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 2012 Small Molecule1 OLEDs: Cathode Area (Millions sq m) Cost of Cathode2 ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) Polymeric3 OLEDs: Cathode Area (Millions sq m) Cost of Cathode2 ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) 0.3 8.01 0. Ba.87 9.34 1. and Al/LiF with LiF are commonly used. Their reflectivity improves light output and thus device efficiency. Li/Al.93 12. solution processing and are thus combined here. average prices for cathodes have been adjusted to slightly higher values from previous reports to account for recent increases in commodity chemical pricing.
NanoMarkets. In particular. we anticipate that material utilization will improve in all fabrication types. at least currently. resulting in steady improvements in the coverage forecasts. even by OLED material standards. solution-processed small molecules.NanoMarkets www. and polymeric materials. i. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .net Area and Market Value of Cathodes in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year Small Molecule OLEDs © NanoMarkets 2011 Polymer OLEDs 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2016 2017 2018 Millions sq m Page | 50 $ Millions 3.e. Our forecasts indicate that EML materials are going to show gains in deposition efficiency and production yields. by vapor-deposited small molecules. The reason for doing this is that dopants and EML materials are too closely associated to be treated separately. we have included an average factor for dopants in the cost of the EML materials. EML materials are expensive.2 EML Materials Exhibit 3-4 presents our total quantity and market value forecasts for EML (emissive) materials in OLED lighting. Note that we have not broken out the cost of the dopants used in small-molecule EMLs. but we think this has more to do with market size than with intrinsically higher costs. in vapor-deposition processes we anticipate that deposition efficiency will reach approximately 50 percent by about 2016. Prices for all EMLs are expected to decrease significantly over the period. but this will still leave this area being one of the more expensive components of the OLED. than vapor-deposited small molecules. This is true at both the physical and commercial levels. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.3. broken out by material type.nanomarkets. For example. Polymer EMLs are more expensive. Instead.
9 21.2 1.07 216.8 73.1 12.9 1708 197.2 49.70 35.66 393.5 5.8 592.0 8.07 39 391.20 148 5.72 518.70 240.7 530 56.3 1298 145.4 0.30 1708 405.nanomarkets.57 883 132.30 376.77 58.0 23.48 149 1.20 77.86 131.21 2272 360.45 1298 245.18 32.77 149 0.50 2.9 345.5 121 12.56 109 14.56 40 43.56 986 145.0 32.3 2.15 1909 295.2 2033 241.92 135 18.48 677.84 12.49 23.64 308 43.18 106 128.7 NanoMarkets.96 39 156.26 275 29.35 112 0.96 1.32 111 0. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .71 729.62 530 63.00 121 12.32 0.41 49.41 105 353.36 585.5 883 96.1 18.30 146 55.56 8.56 0.NanoMarkets www.71 21.80 108 43.80 18.27 592 85.48 22.7 462.35 42.9 0.net Exhibit 3-4 EML Quantity and Value in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 2012 Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules: Average Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) Solution-Processable Small Molecules: Average Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) Polymeric Materials: Average Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) Summary of EML Value: Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Solution-Processed Small Molecules Polymeric Materials Market Value ($ Millions) Average Cost ($ per sq m) © NanoMarkets 2011 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Page | 51 40 10.59 30.1 592.8 275 28.5 462.72 146 160.07 147 18.50 110 4.76 12.60 2033 606.48 145 434.76 39 872.5 73.56 1451 219.4 628.6 203.07 5.4 628.2 35.38 64.0 42.49 39 2155.2 345.70 39 5193.4 58.5 203. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.
dependent upon choice of emitter.nanomarkets. In lighting applications. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. several different emitters are used (typically in finely spaced red.net Quantity of EML Materials in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 (Kg) 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Page | 52 Polymeric Materials Solution-Processed Small Molecules Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Market Value of EML Materials in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 © NanoMarkets 2011 Polymeric Materials Solution-Processed Small Molecules Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Year The emissive layer is at the core of the OLED functionality. green.NanoMarkets www. and blue sub-pixels or in simpler. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . and where different suppliers can create a competitive advantage. But color is not the only consideration. NanoMarkets. stacked OLED assemblies) in combination to achieve a high-quality white emission with as high a CRI as possible. tuning of color temperature is also important.
the ETL helps align the work function between adjacent layers and facilitate the transport of electrons toward the EML. phosphorescent emitters with Ir cores based on UDC's technology are particularly important in OLED lighting applications.3. and DCJT. as it is not generally used in polymer devices. polyfluorenes. FIrpic. Some of the fluorescent dopants commonly used for the EML layer in OLED devices include TBPe. and PBD. the most common choices include PPV. For this reason. only in small quantities. PYBM. the performance gains must be weighed against the added production costs associated with adding a deposition step and increasing device complexity.NanoMarkets www. Common ETL materials in small-molecule devices include Alq3. Pt and Ir. are frequently used for small-molecule phosphorescent dyes. Phosphorescent dyes include Ir(ppy)3.nanomarkets. Typical host materials include carbazoles and fluorenes.3 ETL Materials Page | 53 The ETL layer is only forecast for small molecules. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. not all stack designs include an ETL. in production settings. The materials tend to be expensive. ZnS. Znq2. Solution-processable small molecules based on analogs of the vapor-deposited compounds are now also on the market. 3. Zn(BOX)2. Inclusion of an ETL layer in the OLED stack can increase both luminance and device efficiency. TAZ. recall that at least three layers (RGB) are normally required for OLED lighting applications. Complexes of transitional metals. For polymer EML materials. However.net Traditionally. making this layer another one of the most expensive components in small-molecule devices. rubrene. in our forecasts we have assumed that only 70 percent of OLED lighting panels include one. EML layers are typically deposited in thin films about 15–30-nm thick. coumarin. Exhibit 3-5 shows our total quantity and market value forecasts for ETL materials used in small-molecule OLED lighting. usually in combination with dopants. although as noted previously. NanoMarkets. and other polyarylenes in layers about 10–300-nm thick. such as Re. Os. with UDC dominating much of the red and green emitter markets. the anthracene-based AlQ3 is used as the vapor-deposited host material in small-molecule devices. When present in an OLED stack. and Pt(II) porphyrins. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . coverage improves with gains in deposition efficiencies and increased device yields. Today. As with EML materials.
nanomarkets.0 1 Assumes that 70% of OLEDs use ETL layer.98 113 2.23 308 20.NanoMarkets www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.63 34 95.93 115 0.09 2272 155.77 308 20.83 35 26.72 142.07 164.14 8.12 327.0 398.91 449.35 1451 167.85 42.6 398.51 1909 129.53 2272 417.52 1909 277.56 1451 97.19 108 228.5 14.85 986 65.12 109 81.8 311.04 50.81 20.19 135 8.net Exhibit 3-5 ETL Quantity and Value in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 2012 Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules: Average Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used1 (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) Solution-Processable Small Molecules: Average Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used1 (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) Summary of ETL Value: Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Solution-Processed Small Molecules Market Value ($ Millions) 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Page | 54 35 6.0 234.5 8.3 418.72 112 8.84 8.7 30.0 418.0 25.63 0.83 0.86 88.46 986 90.58 592 42.35 3.93 30. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .2 138.62 33 3103.14 34 526.62 25.74 33 1294.22 592 38.3 Average Cost ($ per sq m) 408.19 423. © NanoMarkets 2011 Quantity of ETL Materials in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 (Kg) 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Solution-Processed Small Molecules Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules NanoMarkets.74 16.21 15.3 3.98 51.72 110 27.9 138.5 0.35 34 237.61 271.2 234.21 114 0.8 50.91 14.8 311.3 0.72 242.9 16.95 135 8.
or HBL layers. Sometimes. in solution-processed small molecule and polymer devices.net Market Value of ETL Materials in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 500 400 300 200 100 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Page | 55 Solution-Processed Small Molecules Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules 3. and/or HBL layers increases the complexity of the OLED stack. and so the two segments are similar in usage and cost. the use of an HTL layer may prevent adverse interactions between HIL and EML layers. In many cases.nanomarkets. NanoMarkets. so cost-benefit analyses are performed to determine whether or not these materials are used. EBL. and increases manufacturing costs. other layers in the OLED device can accomplish the functions performed by the HTL. and/or HBL layers. For the purposes of forecasting. Polymeric materials are generally different. In small-molecule devices. EBL. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. or between the solvents used to create those layers. resulting in higher operating efficiency and/or longer lifetime. though at lower costs. the extra cost is justified. adds production steps. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . Adding HTL. so they are not always included in the devices. so their costs (and layer thicknesses) are also different. EBL. and HBL materials for OLED lighting follows a trajectory similar to that of ETL materials. Exhibit 3-6 shows our forecasts for HTL/EBL/HBL materials used in OLED lighting.3. EBL.NanoMarkets www.4 HTL/EBL Materials The market for the HTL. the HTL/EBL/HBL materials are similar to those used for the EML layer. we have assumed that 50 percent of devices use HTL. For example.
76 76 46.4 324.0 1 Assumes that 50% of OLEDs have HTL.25 Page | 56 80 0.5 11. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .0 0.10 2.5 308.3 106.84 6.81 116 6.76 118 1.47 0. © NanoMarkets 2011 NanoMarkets.4 308.76 39.85 623 30. EBL.75 114 55.16 21.84 1374 129.14 39 77.81 111.47 106.02 339.00 292 10.86 11.12 0.60 324 15.86 362.50 38 2533.28 128 4.3 Average Cost ($ per sq m) 307.86 143 6.48 192.14 0.02 113 152.65 1808 214.18 935 36.16 119 0.38 2009 101.95 39 193.48 115 18.7 181.10 78 5.24 1038 51.95 15.76 11.07 2392 122.0 11.57 0.0 2.62 561 21.25 4.51 292 15.57 67.5 0.33 2153 323.06 2153 91.43 75 126.76 40.50 13.4 6.8 39.9 21.NanoMarkets www.15 8.27 6.85 935 69.86 561 33.84 77 15.16 120 0.2 324.57 78 1.7 18.nanomarkets.7 13.12 79 0.8 205.5 16.6 0.86 181.4 0.3 241.25 38 429.25 16.95 2.31 1808 74.15 38 1056.47 40 21.66 32.53 1374 55.75 261.84 1527 76.3 2. and/or HBL layers.3 4.net Exhibit 3-6 HTL/EBL/HBL Quantity and Value in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 2012 Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules: Average Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used1 (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) Solution-Processable Small Molecules: Average Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used1 (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) Polymeric Materials: Average Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used1 (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($/m2) Market Value ($ Millions) Summary of HTL/EBL/HBL Value: Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Solution-Processed Small Molecules Polymeric Materials Market Value ($ Millions) 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 40 5.16 11. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.2 8.1 241.43 18.22 128 6.1 124.
VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . HTL functions are often performed by the HIL. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. metal-pthalocyanines like CuPc. As noted.NanoMarkets www. and are designed to move holes efficiently to the EML.net Quantity of HTL/EBL/HBL Materials in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 (Kg) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Page | 57 Polymeric Materials Solution-Processed Small Molecules Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Market Value of HTL/EBL/HBL Materials in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 © NanoMarkets 2011 Polymeric Materials Solution-Processed Small Molecules Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Year HTL: HTL materials provide another opportunity to match work functions between layers. especially in solution-processed small molecule and polymer devices. m-TDATA. arylamines.nanomarkets. and sometimes the HTL is referred to as the "primer" or "buffer" layer. NanoMarkets. NPD. starburst amines. and NPB. Some of the materials used for such layers include: TPD.
HBLs are found more often in phosphorescent OLED device designs than in fluorescent stacks. the HIL material is thicker than it might otherwise need to be. the HBL blocks the holes preventing them from recombining with electrons outside the emissive layer and reducing device efficiency. Its functionality is therefore analogous to the EBL. thereby preventing non-emissive hole-electron recombination outside of the EML layer. Irppz has been used as EBLs to reduce or eliminate emissions from the HTL. so that the desired emissions occur from that region. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. In many devices.nanomarkets. HBL: On the other side of the EML. This approach eliminates the need for a separate EBL in the OLED stack design. we have assumed that 95 percent of all OLED devices employ an HIL layer. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .3. but generally at a lower cost. HIL. Note that some researchers have also doped HTL or HIL layers with EBL materials to add some electron-blocking features to those layers. though FIrpic has also been found to be effective in this role.net EBL: The EBL prevents electrons from overshooting the EML and reaching the HTL. The role of the EBL is thus to contain the migrating electrons within the EML. or anode.5 HIL Materials Page | 58 Our eight-year forecasts for quantity and value of HIL materials are presented in Exhibit 3-6.NanoMarkets www. For the purposes of forecasting. NanoMarkets. BCP and CBP are two commonly used HBL materials. 3. so that it can planarize the substrate and anode layers to prevent shorts with the EML materials. The HIL materials also track the ETL materials. One of the variables in this forecast is the quality of the substrate and anode layer. which simplifies the fabrication process.
78 146.net Exhibit 3-7 HIL Quantity and Value in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 2012 Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules: Average Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used1 (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) Solution-Processable Small Molecules: Average Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used1 (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) Polymeric Materials: Layer Thickness (nm) Quantity Used1 (kg) Cost ($/g) Cost ($/m2) Market Value ($ Millions) Summary of HIL Value: Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Solution-Processed Small Molecules Polymeric Materials Market Value ($ Millions) 50 12.4 0.20 12.15 2153 243.5 351.1 42.61 138 18.06 7.6 12.97 12.29 2017 49 2559.78 213.9 113.51 265 36.4 1.42 804 226.08 57 7.59 109 13.55 561 56. © NanoMarkets 2011 NanoMarkets.63 2015 49 464.9 192.34 2014 49 185.51 17.8 5.99 149.2 13.NanoMarkets www.7 332.33 0.34 1.33 111 0.3 52.5 1.20 12.88 7.91 295.29 23.6 12.51 36.97 611 137.7 258.72 35.63 74.59 41.94 147.2 192.73 105 335.17 61 7.87 42.nanomarkets.87 Page | 59 112 0.9 25.06 2013 50 51.0 351.43 147.06 144.73 21.8 41.07 1374 146.63 5.99 25.06 389.97 2016 49 1037.51 110 4.94 43.20 148.90 128 12.8 413.5 0.4 21.37 130 16.78 935 96.7 1 Assumes that 95% of OLEDs have HIL layers.6 332.43 122.1 3.06 0.65 135.99 415 74.20 1017 153.64 441 61.7 7.10 854 125. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .79 221.0 17.20 420.28 649 93.5 258.91 145.36 292 28.3 0.59 3.51 0.6 152.31 13.4 113.61 957 339.30 249 35.3 0.72 2018 48 6173.88 108 41.3 23.4 35.3 Average Cost ($ per sq m) 329. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.83 1808 198.31 107 122.3 5.
but a secondary—and often equally important—function is to planarize the anode layer. DNTPD. P3AT. polyaniline. including PEDOT:PSS. especially for solution-processable small molecule and polymer OLEDs.net Quantity of HIL Materials in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 (Kg) 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Page | 60 Polymeric Materials Solution-Processed Small Molecules Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Market Value of HIL Materials in OLED Lighting by Material Type 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Polymeric Materials Solution-Processed Small Molecules Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules The principal purpose of the HIL is to facilitate the injection of holes from the anode into the OLED stack. MoOx.NanoMarkets www. mTDATA. but increasingly in hybrid solution/vapor fabricated devices.nanomarkets. CuPc. (such as Plexcore HIL from Plextronics). LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. DuPont Displays also has a NanoMarkets. Many materials have been used for the HIL. Of these. and siloxane-based materials. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . Clevios brand PEDOT:PSS from Heraeus is one of the most commonly used materials.
2 Cost of sputtering targets. although at this point. © NanoMarkets 2011 Page | 61 NanoMarkets.67 806.net thiophene-based.nanomarkets. adjusted slightly upward to account for some contributions from alternative technologies like conductive polymers and transparent nanosilver. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.3. the price of which is expected to increase in the near. As a result.29 57. The non-ITO anode materials include principally alternative. Note that the transparent conductors used for the display industry have been a major topic in other recently published NanoMarkets reports: "Emerging Markets for Non-ITO Transparent Conducting Oxides" (September 2011). "Markets for Silver-Based Transparent Conductors" (September 2011). and "Transparent Conductor Markets 2011" (July 2011).88 1 Anode materials do not differ significantly between OLED panels fabricated in (small molecule or polymer) solution vs. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . and carbon nanotube-based transparent coatings. Anode materials include ITO. so the values have been combined in this analysis.6 Anode Materials Exhibit 3-8 shows our total area and market value forecasts for anode materials used in OLED lighting applications.term.0 13. ITO alternatives have a better chance of breaking into the OLED lighting market than perhaps in any other market. or between solution-processed and vapor-processed. cost.20 0. 3.32 Cost of Anode2 ($ per sq m) 12.NanoMarkets www. conductive polymer coatings (such as those based on PEDOT:PSS). Exhibit 3-8 Anode1 Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Anode Area (Millions sq m) 0. By far. OLED lighting is one of the most enthusiastic to stop using it. and nanomaterials including transparent nanosilver coatings. Note that anode materials do not differ significantly between small molecule and polymer.90 2. and both LG Chem and Nippon Steel Chemical have their own HIL materials. none of the alternatives can match the combination of performance.36 307.8 13.5 12. This is because it is at an early stage of development and has far fewer commitments to ITO than the LCD display sector.5 13.52 11. but also newer materials like transparent nanosilver-based coatings.86 8.08 22.48 2. other TCOs. vapor deposition processes.3 13. and are thus combined here.1 Market Value ($ Millions) 0. solution-processable HIL material on the market. lower-cost TCOs. Of all the sectors that currently use ITO. conductive polymers. OLED designs.to medium.8 14.73 37. and ease of deposition offered by ITO. the dominant material in OLED anodes is ITO.95 109. Some alternatives are available for ITO and are expected to see increased adoption over the forecast period.04 0.
For a more in-depth look at different OLED encapsulation strategies. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. for example. R2R processing. NanoMarkets predicts that cover glass technologies will continue to dominate for the forecast period of this report.net Area and Market Value of Anodes in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 1000 800 $ Millions 600 400 200 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year Market Value (left) © NanoMarkets 2011 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2016 2017 2018 Page | 62 Millions sq m Anode Area (right) 3.3.nanomarkets. that Samsung Mobile Displays will begin using thin-film encapsulation on some products within the next couple of years—and then move into the lighting industry. This will start out in the display industry—it is believed. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . eventually. Our forecasts for total area and market value of encapsulation materials in OLED lighting are summarized in Exhibit 3-9. these thin-film alternatives cost more than glass. higher throughput. Note that we have not separated encapsulation for solution-processed OLEDs from encapsulation for vapor-processed OLEDs. usually in combination with getter and epoxy although some new. and. one can argue that solution-processed NanoMarkets. In this case. There are extensive efforts underway to develop thin-film approaches to encapsulation. Today. so the values have been combined. with the assumption that thin-film strategies would enable lower production costs. At present. but we expect them to begin to make an impact on the market within the next several years. see NanoMarkets' recent report "Markets for OLED Encapsulation Materials – 2011" (October 2011). getter-less technologies are now available. Note that encapsulation strategies do not differ substantially between small molecule and polymer OLEDs. nearly all OLED lighting panels are encapsulated with cover glass.NanoMarkets www.7 Encapsulation Materials – Dominated by Glass Encapsulation of OLED devices with high-performance barriers is particularly important because the active materials are extremely water and oxygen sensitive.
since glass dominates encapsulation for the time period of this report.2 13. and cover glass encapsulation dominates.29 57.50 39. or that rigid lighting would favor glass encapsulation while flexible lighting would favor thin-film or flexible glass encapsulation.9 Market Value ($ Millions) 0.2 12.nanomarkets.86 8.7 13. so further breakouts at this time would be largely speculative. nearly all OLED lighting panels today are rigid and fabricated using vapor-deposition processes.20 0. which by definition require use of the more expensive thin-film or flexible glass encapsulation schemes.net OLEDs (whether small molecule or polymer) would favor non-glass encapsulation while conventional vapor-processed OLEDs might favor batch-process cover glass encapsulation.61 12. vapor deposition processes. 2 Cost of encapsulation includes a weighted average of cost associated with different rigid and flexible encapsulation technologies. but there is a slight increase in average encapsulation prices in 2016 due to the emergence of the first (semi-flexible) OLED lighting panels.63 1 Encapsulation materials do not currently differ significantly between OLED panels fabricated in solution vs. OLED panels are mostly rigid.13 108. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . Exhibit 3-9 Encapsulation1 Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Encapsulation Area (Millions sq m) 0. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. However. Average encapsulation prices are very much tied to the cost of glass.9 13.4 13.04 0. © NanoMarkets 2011 Page | 63 Area and Market Value of Encapsulation Materials in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 800 $ Millions 600 400 200 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year Market Value (left) © NanoMarkets 2011 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2016 2017 2018 Millions sq m Encapsulation Area (right) NanoMarkets. Average prices show a general downward trend.14 293.08 22.32 Cost of Encapsulation2 ($ per sq m) 13.7 13.90 2.47 736.NanoMarkets www. especially in the early years. The value is heavily skewed toward rigid encapsulation accomplished with cover glass.52 2.
4 Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Substrates Substrates usage is expected to be similar for both small molecule and polymer OLED lighting devices. plastic films and metal foils. the substrate will be purchased with some electrode material or materials already applied. partly because of the lack of suitable flexible barrier materials. We have therefore priced the substrates without any coatings or barrier protection. In this report. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .1 Glass Substrates Exhibit 3-10 shows our total area and market value forecasts for glass substrate materials used in OLED lighting. Flexibility. We concede that in many cases. which is not particularly achievable today. it is still expected to remain dominant throughout the forecast period. transparent.) Ease of handling and processability. (Few if any commercial OLED products are expected to exhibit flexibility for the next few years.4. and we have thus not separated out different functional materials sets or fabrication processes in our forecasts. It is readily available in thin sheets of high quality material. a substrate that has sufficient barrier properties reduces the need for additional (transparent) encapsulation layers in the OLED stack.nanomarkets. and there is no perfect substrate available at this point. thanks to the enormous and well-established LCD display industry. especially flatness. Optical clarity. The indestructible. It is also available with pre-deposited ITO NanoMarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. stable. however.net 3.NanoMarkets www. The substrate choice today is generally between three kinds of materials: glass. especially for bottom-emitting OLED devices. but would open up additional application opportunities for curved or conformable OLED panels in solid-state lighting. and while its share is forecast to decline over the period. Impermeability to air and water vapor. we have treated encapsulation and substrates as separate issues shaped by different factors. impermeable material that comes at a low cost simply does not yet exist. There are several key requirements for OLED substrates: Physical stability and glass transition temperature high enough to handle the temperatures used in OLED fabrication processes. inert. Glass is the undisputed leader at this time. so there is some uncertainty associated with this approach. since it would reduce the need for excessively thick planarization layers. Page | 64 This is a long list of demanding characteristics. 3.
LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Exhibit 3-10 Glass Substrate Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 OLED Panel Area (Millions sq m) Market Share (%) Glass Shipments (Millions sq m) Cost of Glass Substrate ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) © NanoMarkets 2011 2012 0.2 24.8% 6.32 71.55 26.20 93.87 2016 8. They are generally low cost. alternative lighting technologies (CFLs and LEDs). as with all OLED materials.18 32. Second. and they are held out as the substrate of choice for the future in which manufacturers envision R2R processing.58 21.2 Plastic Plastic films are enticing candidates for OLED substrates.nanomarkets.90 91.6% 0.NanoMarkets www. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . also provide substrates suitable for OLED lighting.50 Page | 65 Area and Market Value of Glass Substrates in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 1000 800 $ Millions 600 400 200 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year Market Value (left) © NanoMarkets 2011 50 40 30 20 10 0 2016 2017 2018 Millions sq m Area of Glass Substrate (right) 3.0 1.3 374.31 2013 0.net anode. First.4 5.1 784.0% 0.08 83.35 2018 57.90 2017 22. which will be important in OLED NanoMarkets.07 19.7% 41.86 89. lightweight.29 78.12 2015 2. They are also especially suitable for fabricating large area devices.8% 0.78 23. the display industry in general exerts continual downward pressure on display glass prices that will be felt in the OLED sector. durable.04 36. but other large glass firms.6 159.4.99 2014 0. notable the Japanese firms Asahi Glass Company and Nippon Electric Glass.2 66.2% 2. Corning is the major supplier.8% 17. Average costs for glass substrates are expected to decline over the forecast period.83 29.04 95. and capable of being made extremely thin. substrate costs in OLED manufacturing are expected to come down so that the industry can better compete with other emerging.
glass transition temperature. and most importantly.5% 0.03 8.net lighting applications.6% 0. Despite the deficiencies.005 8. Also note that the growth rate of plastic has been reduced in early years compared to previous NanoMarkets reports to reflect the longer time frame for commercialization of flexible OLEDs.4% 0.45 2016 8.0% 0.34 2017 22. and that they will exceed 10 percent of the market share for substrates by 2017. barrier properties) that must be addressed before they are likely to become a major part of OLED production.) Our forecasts for total area and market value of plastic substrates in OLED lighting are presented in Exhibit 311.32 19.2 0.16 9.29 2015 2.01 2013 0. although true flexibility is not expected to exceed about 5 percent market share.6 27.09 2018 57.3 6. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.29 12. plastic films are deficient in a number of areas compared to glass (transparency.8 106.68 9.0 1.04 2. (Plastic substrates can be used for either flexible or non-flexible OLED panels.NanoMarkets www.08 8.82 9. the barrier coat processes make them too expensive compared with glass.0% 10.8% 0.20 2. Note that average prices for plastic substrates are expected to rise annually with the cost of the commodity chemicals used to make them.64 Page | 66 NanoMarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .7% 2. NanoMarkets predicts that plastic films will eventually make an impact on the OLED lighting market.001 8. physical stability.nanomarkets. In most cases today.04 2014 0.90 3. But.7 0. Exhibit 3-11 Plastic Substrate Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 OLED Panel Area (Millions sq m) Market Share (%) Plastic Shipments (Millions sq m) Cost of Plastic Substrate ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) © NanoMarkets 2011 2012 0.88 9.5 0. but partial flexibility could reach nearly 30 percent if R2R processing takes off.86 5.
In general. principally excellent intrinsic barrier properties and compatibility with R2R processing.2% 0.63 10.81 2017 22. Since they are opaque at the thicknesses required for use as a substrate. Exhibit 3-12 Metal Foil Substrate Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 OLED Panel Area (Millions sq m) Market Share (%) Metal Shipments (Millions sq m) Cost of Metal Substrate ($ per sq m) Market Value ($ Millions) © NanoMarkets 2011 2012 0.001 9.0% 0.90 4.01 2013 0.62 2018 57.07 2014 0.7% 0.01 9.4% 5.NanoMarkets www. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .5% 1.5 1.7 0.nanomarkets.8% 0.90 11. Within that limitation.20 3. with aluminum foil also being used.4.55 2016 8.04 10.86 5.3 Metal Foils As Substrates for OLED Lighting Our total area and market value forecasts for metal foil substrates in OLED lighting are presented in Exhibit 3-12.32 9. stainless steel is the most popular metal substrate. their use has never become widespread.8 63.4 21.30 NanoMarkets.4 0. Although metal foils have been used as substrates for OLEDs for quite some time.net Area and Market Value of Plastic Substrates in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 120 100 $ Millions 80 60 40 20 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year Market Value (left) © NanoMarkets 2011 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2016 2017 2018 Millions sq m Page | 67 Area of Plastic Substrates (right) 3.08 7.36 11. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.1 0.04 3.7% 0.9 6. their usefulness is limited to top-emitting devices.43 2015 2.29 8.15 10. which reduces their impact in the OLED lighting market. they have a lot of advantage. so NanoMarkets predicts that their market share may approach as much as 10 percent by the end of the forecast period.
07 10.882 5.44 16.01 0.5 2015 2.04 1.29 0.55 69.45 1.90 24.81 173.364 57.01 1.31 0.35 27.07 6.87 1.62 423.55 0.87 24.99 0.90 6.042 0.11 31.06 19.NanoMarkets www.148 2.821 1.034 0.20 5.04 0.12 0.04 0. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.32 784.30 954.0 2018 41.85 27.161 0.7 NanoMarkets. Exhibit 3-13 Summary of Substrate Area and Value in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 2012 Substrate Area (Millions sq m) Glass Plastic Metal TOTAL Area Substrate (Millions sq m) Substrate Market Value ($ Millions) Glass Plastic Metal TOTAL Value Substrate ($ Millions) Average Substrate Cost ($ per sq m) © NanoMarkets 2011 0.50 106.06 21.682 0.83 0.005 0.007 0.6 2013 0.34 6.4 2016 6.625 8.18 0.32 34.4 2017 17.09 21. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .4 Summary of Substrate Markets in OLED Lighting In Exhibit 3-13 we present a summary of the total area and market value of substrates in OLED lighting broken out by substrate type.08 159.0 2014 0.43 24.78 0.86 66.64 63.net Area and Market Value of Metal Foil Substrates in OLED Lighting 2012-2018 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year Market Value (left) © NanoMarkets 2011 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2016 2017 2018 Millions sq m Page | 68 $ Millions Area of Meta Foil Substrates (right) 3.nanomarkets.897 22.58 2.29 374.4.001 0.001 0.
NanoMarkets www.net Summary: Area of Substrates in OLED Lighting by Substrate Type 2012-2018 (Millions sq m) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Page | 69 Metal Plastic Glass 2016 2017 2018 Summary: Market Value of Substrates in OLED Lighting by Substrate Type 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Metal Plastic Glass 2016 2017 2018 3. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . it is a widely held belief that R2R production will be necessary to reach the high-speed output required to maximize efficiencies so that OLED NanoMarkets.5.1 Summaries of Forecasts for Functional Organic Materials in OLED Lighting by Layer Although the vast majority of OLED panels today are made using vapor-deposition of functional materials in batch processes.5 Summaries of Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Materials 3.
Exhibit 3-14 Summary: Market Value of Selected Functional OLED Lighting Materials.85 261.84 362.02 Page | 70 NanoMarkets.63 1025. and anodes are excluded from these analyses.61 40.07 111. Note that these summaries include only the functional organic materials in the OLED stack. including inkjet and nozzle printing. Values for substrates. which can be deposited using the same print processes as polymer inks.66 295.41 2017 677.net lighting can be commercially competitive.66 51.47 43. Conventional wisdom was that small-molecule OLED materials had to be applied using vapor deposition processes.86 242.NanoMarkets www. Exhibit 3-14 is a summary of the functional OLED lighting materials by layer. this conventional wisdom has been shaken up by the arrival of solution-processable small-molecule inks.84 449. both vapordeposited and solution-processable small molecules as well as polymeric materials.76 2013 77. In this section.59 61. while polymer materials could be dissolved in solution to create printable inks or coating materials.85 2018 729.79 213. However.04 11.86 192.92 2016 518.57 213. Exhibit 3-15 is a summary of the small molecule functional OLED lighting materials by layer. It combines the values for both vapor-deposited and solution-processed small molecule organic materials. in Exhibits 3-14 through 3-16. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.51 1403. 2012-2018 ($ Millions) EML ETL HTL/EBL/HBL HIL TOTAL Market Value ($ Millions) © NanoMarkets 2011 2012 22.36 15.e.38 327. Exhibit 3-16 is a summary of the polymeric functional OLED lighting materials by layer. solution-processing is generally considered necessary to reach the full potential of R2R.65 593.06 1962.76 12.70 142. And although vapor-deposition may be compatible with some R2R processes. encapsulation.28 2015 376. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . It combines values for all material types and fabrication methods.27 420.nanomarkets. we summarize the market values for selected functional layers in the OLED stack in several ways.53 2014 216.95 389.81 339.59 423. i. Small Molecule (Vapor and Solution) and Polymer Combined.86 122.51 1830.
63 2014 208. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .84 340.09 205.05 119.81 321.07 109.22 578.NanoMarkets www.92 281.30 2018 671.97 2015 358.45 1742.85 249.39 60.04 11.36 2016 485.71 42.86 186.66 327.net Summary: Market Value of Selected Functional OLED Lighting Materials 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Combined values for small molecule (both vapor and solution) and polymer materials.85 209.86 1856.61 39.93 368. Page | 71 HIL HTL/EBL/HBL ETL EML 2016 2017 2018 Exhibit 3-15 Summary: Market Value of Selected Functional OLED Lighting Materials for Small Molecule (Vapor and Solution) OLED panels 2012-2018 ($ Millions) EML ETL HTL/EBL/HBL HIL TOTAL Market Value ($ Millions) © NanoMarkets 2011 2012 21.46 51.88 15.60 1345.63 142.60 12.42 394.13 449. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.91 2013 75.03 2017 628.11 423.85 993.24 NanoMarkets.56 242.nanomarkets.
02 21.30 6.20 0. HIL HTL/EBL EML 2016 2017 2018 NanoMarkets.55 2018 58.nanomarkets.NanoMarkets www.20 0.48 7. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.72 11.43 14.91 58.86 25. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .56 2016 32.20 105.06 88.31 2015 18.16 0.81 3.85 2013 2.75 13.48 18.38 2017 49.78 Summary: Market Value of Selected Polymer Functional OLED Lighting Materials 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Values for materials in polymer OLEDs only.76 0.78 32.71 21.89 2014 8.net Summary: Market Value of Selected Small Molecule OLED Lighting Functional Materials 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Combined values for vapor-deposited and solution processed small molecule materials.48 0.07 2. Page | 72 HIL HTL/EBL/HBL ETL EML 2016 2017 2018 Exhibit 3-16 Summary of Value of Selected Functional OLED Lighting Materials for Polymer OLED Panels 2012-2018 ($ Millions) EML HTL/EBL HIL TOTAL Market Value ($ Millions) © NanoMarkets 2011 2012 0.94 3.
including from both vapor deposition side and from solution-processable small molecules suitable for R2R. and absent some major breakthrough in the polymeric OLEDs. the materials (excluding substrates. In this section.net 3. there is not much doubt that currently the huge majority of OLED lighting panels are made with small molecules. the same functional materials are broken out by fabrication method. encapsulation. Finally. Vapor-Deposition Materials and Small Molecule vs. and between solution processing and vapordeposition. i. which has had the effect of negated the "simple structure" advantage previously attributed to polymer devices. First. In addition.NanoMarkets www.e. we use the data from the prior Exhibits in this Chapter to make comparisons between small molecules and polymers. and efforts to improve materials have resulted in some polymer devices being as complex as small-molecule devices. Page | 73 NanoMarkets. but a few proponents of solution-processing—GE and Showa Denko in particular—lead us to conclude that solutionprocessable small molecules will gain some market share over the forecast period. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. by either solution-processable (which includes both small molecule and polymer) or vapor deposited. Most of them are made in vapor-deposition processing. we think it is reasonable to assume that polymers will make only modest gains in the OLED lighting industry during the forecast period considered in this report. From the data. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .5.2 Breakout of Small-Molecule OLED Lighting Materials: Solution-Processing vs. polymer debate. Next the same materials are broken out by material type—either small molecule or polymeric. In Exhibit 3-17 we have broken out the small-molecule lighting materials into subcategories three different ways.nanomarkets. improvements in polymer processing in the OLED environment will have to contend with improvements coming from the small molecule side of the house. Polymer Regardless of what the future may hold for the small molecule vs. it is clear that small molecules heavily dominate the materials market for the time period of this forecast. Polymer performance still lags behind that of small-molecule devices. and electrodes) are broken out by both material type and fabrication method.
24 105.NanoMarkets www.55 3.08 4.30 88.40 132.55 1830.08 562. electrodes.31 593.56 1025.net Exhibit 3-17 Market Value of Functional OLED Lighting Materials in OLEDs by Material Type and by Fabrication Method – A Comparison of Small Molecule vs. encapsulation materials and substrates.31 593. and encapsulation.31 1830.56 1025.97 14.28 954.00 16.40 238. anodes.28 993.93 205.41 1 Excludes values for cathodes.85 1723.92 1345.97 14.93 0.41 1742.36 32.66 Solution-Processing (SM and Polymer) 1.83 8. Polymeric Materials Solution-Processed Small Molecules Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Year NanoMarkets.92 1273.78 1962. © NanoMarkets 2011 1632.76 209.11 1273.03 58.28 71.75 TOTAL Market Value ($ Millions) 61.98 0.02 60.53 562.76 88.89 213. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . Polymer and Vapor-Deposition vs.85 61.37 58.62 1962.00 954.85 61.84 105.54 109.38 1403.91 0.89 213.85 1723.66 71.85 1856.28 1025.76 205.45 31.54 198.nanomarkets.25 32.02 By Fabrication Method: Vapor-Deposition 59.78 1962.38 1403.53 578. SolutionProcessing1 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 2012 By Material Type and Fabrication Method: Vapor-Deposited Small Molecules Solution-Processed Small Molecules Polymeric Materials TOTAL Market Value ($ Millions) By Material Type: Small Molecules Polymeric Materials TOTAL Market Value ($ Millions) 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Page | 74 59.41 1632.11 39. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.55 1830.76 213.02 Summary: Market Value of Functional OLED Lighting Materials by Material Type 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 © NanoMarkets 2011 Excludes values of substrates.53 593.92 1403.81 129.63 3.
54 677.06 3093.95 389.59 423.84 449.07 111.51 307.14 173.39 216.57 213.70 142.06 806.net Summary: Market Value of Selected OLED Lighting Functional Materials by Material Type or Fabrication Method 2012-2018 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Solution-Processing (SM and Polymer) Excludes values of substrates.47 423.11 226.49 2014 8. broken out by layer.47 43.61 6.27 420.86 122.86 192.76 12.32 64.86 242.66 295.59 2018 647.63 37. electrodes. Polymeric Materials Small Molecules (Vapor and Solution) Vapor-Deposition Page | 75 3.67 293.79 2.44 5107.44 518.63 954.75 2015 27.59 0. and encapsulation.67 NanoMarkets.88 736.48 0.38 327.73 12.40 2013 1.41 2017 238.50 24.5. of the OLED lighting materials market.61 40.85 261.66 51.74 77.61 2016 82.NanoMarkets www.52 2.36 108.84 362.65 11.04 11.3 Grand Total Summary of Seven-Year Forecasts of OLED Lighting Materials by Layer In Exhibit 3-18 we present a summary of the total market value.71 729.51 109.95 39. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.75 376.36 15.32 22.85 650. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .nanomarkets.06 1876.87 1200.81 339.13 69. Exhibit 3-18 Grand Total Summary: Market Value of OLED Lighting Materials by Layer 2012-2018 ($ Millions) Cathode EML ETL HTL/EBL/HBL HIL Anode Encapsulation Substrates TOTAL Market Value ($ Millions) © NanoMarkets 2011 2012 0.52 1.
LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. But what if this does not happen? All of our forecasts have assumed that the OLED lighting industry will be able to reduce costs sufficiently while at the same time achieving the required performance (and panel size) targets to allow OLED lighting to compete meaningfully in the general illumination market. we have assumed that there will be significant growth in OLED lighting.NanoMarkets www. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .net Grand Total Summary: Market Value of Materials in OLED Lighting by Layer 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year © NanoMarkets 2011 Substrates Encapsulation Anode HIL HTL/EBL/HBL ETL EML Page | 76 2016 2017 2018 Cathode Total Market Value of Materials in OLED Lighting Applications 2012-2018 ($ Millions) 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2012 © NanoMarkets 2011 2013 2014 2015 Year 2016 2017 2018 3. NanoMarkets.6 An Alternative Scenario: Materials Implications if OLED Lighting Achieves Minimal Penetration in the General Lighting Market and Is Relegated to Luxury Lighting To construct the forecasts herein.
The OLED lighting market is of particular interest to materials suppliers Page | 77 NanoMarkets. and OLED lighting would continue to fetch premium prices.nanomarkets. While certainly there is a move toward "greener" lighting technologies. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . But there is a limit! For OLED lighting to make any claim at all to be a mass product it will have to be priced at a point where buying OLED lighting is a relatively easy decision for users to make. In fact. but perhaps even more negative than at first glance. or meets them only partly. and to LEDs. especially with respect to efficiency and lifetime. which are considerably more mature than OLEDs. OLED lighting is an early-stage technology compared to CFLs. is not something that consumers will do easily.net This assumption is based on the fact that in the past 18 months. Furthermore. If the OLED industry fails to meet the performance and cost goals. it will certainly also restrict the number of OLED lighting systems that can be sold and could turn OLED lighting into what is essentially a specialty lighting product. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. has improved considerably. Serious reductions in cost are still needed. it could experience increased demand if global economic growth drives up energy costs to a point where higher upfront OLED lighting installation costs are quickly offset by energy savings down the road. we expect that incandescent bulbs will be around a lot longer than many expect. Shifting to an expensive OLED "light bulb. obviously. the performance of OLED lighting. then it is hard to imagine that OLED lighting can seriously penetrate the general illumination market.NanoMarkets www. as noted above. It is common to see spikes in utilization of higher-cost. it could instead be relegated to uses in luxury lighting only. Because OLED lighting is positioned as a more efficient alternative to traditional lighting. negative. green technologies when consumers have more money to spend. which are already mainstream. If this is the case." even if the total cost of ownership declines. there is clearly a limit on what consumers will be willing to pay for them. Economically buoyant times may increase the willingness of consumers to spend more on alternative lighting technologies than they would in times of economic uncertainty. However. then the industry will be left to design and promote OLED lighting as an entirely novel product. Should OLED lighting fail to take off in the general illumination market in a meaningful way. The impact on materials suppliers: What does all this mean for materials suppliers? The impact on materials suppliers would be. But there can be little doubt OLED lighting technology still has a significant way to go before it reaches a performance level to support a serious business case for using it for widespread general illumination applications.
Page | 78 NanoMarkets. And this huge increase in total area directly equates to huge increases in materials demand. mobile phone displays or even OLED TVs. Lack of success in the general illumination market would then have the added negative impact of keeping materials prices in the display sector—where the material set is nearly the same— high as well.nanomarkets. say.net because the total area covered is so large compared to. and could hurt prospects for sustained growth there as well. without significant demand in OLED lighting. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .NanoMarkets www. In summary. the addressable market for materials suppliers would be greatly reduced. In this situation they would have difficulty in reducing materials prices to levels that will allow OLEDs to move much beyond niche status. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.
4′-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1. N.1′-biphenyl)-4.1′-biphenyl.4′-diamine.4′-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1.N′-Diphenyl-N.4′-diamine.6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-N.N′-diphenyl]-1. N.N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N.nanomarkets.4′-diamine.7-teuramethyljulolidyl-9enyl)-4H-pyran N.N′-diphenyl-N.C2')picolinate iridium(III) Hole Injection Layer Hole Transport Layer Tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium Fac-tris(1-phenylpyrazolato-N.N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine.1′-biphenyl. (also NPD) N.1′-biphenyl)-4. N.N′-Di-[(1-naphthyl)-N. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 . (also CBP) 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(1. (also DCBP) Correlated Color Temperature Compact Fluorescent Lamp/Light Color Rendering Index Copper(II) Phthalocyanine Chemical Vapor Deposition 4.7. N. (also NPB) Page | 79 NPD NanoMarkets.4-N. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.4′-diamine.1.4-N. Al(C9H6NO)3 Active Matrix Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode AU Optronics Bathocuproine 4.1′-biphenyl.N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1. MTDATA MoOx NPB Asahi Glass Company Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminium.net Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Report AGC Alq3 AM AMOLED AUO BCP CBP CCT CFL CRI CuPc CVD DCBP DCJT DNTPD DOE EBL EIL EML ETL FIrPic HIL HTL Ir(ppy)3 Irppz ITO LCD LED LiF Lm/W m-TDATA.1′-biphenyl)-4.N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N.N′-Dicarbazole-1.1′-biphenyl.N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1.N′-Dicarbazole-1.N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine.4′-diamine (United States) Department of Energy Electron Blocking Layer Electron Injection Layer Emissive Layer / Emissive Material Electron Transport Layer Bis(2-(4.1′-biphenyl)-4. 4.N′-bis-[4-(phenyl-m-tolyl-amino)-phenyl]biphenyl −4.N′-Di-[(1-naphthyl)-N.NanoMarkets www.C2) iridium(III) Indium Tin Oxide Liquid Crystal Display Light Emitting Diode Lithium Fluoride Lumens per Watt 4′′-Tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino)-triphenylamine Molybdenum Oxide N.N′-diphenyl]-1.N′-diphenyl-N. 4.
N′-diphenylbenzidine Universal Display Corporation Water Vapor Transmission Rate Bis[2-(2-benzoxazolyl)phenolato]zinc(II) Bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) zinc(II) Zinc Sulfide Page | 80 NanoMarkets.4-oxadiazole.N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N.4-triazole N.3.N′-diphenylbenzidine Tetra-tert-butylperylene Transparent conducting oxide N.N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N.NanoMarkets www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.2.4-oxadiazole Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(stryrene sulfonic acid) Phosphorescent Light Emitting Diode Passive Matrix Passive Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode PolyphenyleneVinylene Red-Green-Blue Securities and Exchange Commission 3-Phenyl-4-(1′-naphthyl)-5-phenyl-1.net OLED P3AT PBD PECVD PEDOT:PSS PHOLED PM PMOLED PPV RGB SEC TAZ TPD TBPe TCO TPD UDC WVTR Zn(BOX)2 Znq2 ZnS Organic Light Emitting Diode Poly(3-alkylthiophene) 2-Phenyl-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1.nanomarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .3. 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-phenyl1.
D. coatings and inks. and flexible inorganic electroluminescent (EL) devices.nanomarkets. She holds a Ph. Louis. Simpson is a Senior Analyst at NanoMarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. technical marketing.net About the Author Jill C. with hands-on experience in the scale up and production of inherently conductive polymers. Simpson' academic background is as a synthetic organic chemist. She has worked in sales and business development at a major global chemical and metals firm. as well as a bachelor's degree in chemistry and a minor in international relations from Cornell University. She has published research on inherently conductive polymers and on the synthesis of conformationally restricted hormone analogs for evaluation of active analog molecular modeling. Missouri. in various management roles at a start-up electronic materials and technology development firm. and. more recently. in Chemistry from Washington University in St. Simpson's background is in business development. Page | 81 NanoMarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-360-7259 .NanoMarkets www. and commercialization of novel products in electronic materials.
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