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The Haber process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic.
b) Give three properties of ammonia Ammonia is a colourless gas Ammonia has a pungent odour Ammonia has a higher solubility in water
c) Give three uses of Ammonia in industry Pharmaceuticals Used in the manufacture of drugs such as sulfonamide which inhibit the growth and multiplication of bacteria that require p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) for the biosynthesis of folic acids, anti-malarials and vitamins such as the B vitamins nicotinamide (niacinamide) and thiamine.
Fertilser a) ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4 b) ammonium phosphate, (NH4)3PO4 c) ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 d) urea, (NH2)2CO,also used in the production of barbiturates (sedatives), is made by the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide Explosives Ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3
2 a) Name three sources of hydrocarbons Crude oil Biomass Coal
b) Complete the following table. Petroleum - Petroleum is hydrocarbon Natural Gas -Natural gas is hydrocarbon
Liquified Petroleum gas has longer chains of carbon, usually 3/4 Carbons (propane/butane, C3H8/C4H10) The colour of petroleum varies from black to light amber. It is hard to smell the differences between crudes Those in high sulphur content are called “sour”, “sweet” crudes contain little, no sulphur Waxy Sedimentary lock
-Natural gas is mainly Methane, one atom of carbon surrounded by Hydrogen, CH3. - Tasteless - Colourless - When mixed with the requisite volume of air and ignited, it burns with a clean, blue flame. -Lighter than air
Decaying of plant and animal matter
C) What is air pollution index? The Air Pollution Index (API) is a simple and generalized way to describe the air quality in mainland China, Hong Kong and Malaysia. It is calculated from several sets of air pollution data. 3 a) Explain the industrial production of ethanol? Ethanol is manufactured on a large scale by two main processes: i) ii) From sugars and starch by fermentation From petroleum fractions by hydration
Making ethanol by fermentation Yeast is added to sugar or starch and left in a warm place for several days in the absence of air. The fermentation process is anaerobic, which means it takes place in the absence of oxygen. Yeast releases biological enzymes, which break down the sugars and starch into glucose. In the fermentation process, the enzyme called zymase slowly decomposes the glucose to form ethanol and carbon dioxide. C6H12O6 (aq) Glucose 2CH3CH2OH(aq) + 2CO2 (g) Ethanol Carbon dioxide
Temperature : 18 – 20 0C Catalyst : Zymase from yeast Other condition :Absence of oxygen
When the concentration of ethanol formed reaches about 15%, yeast is killed off and the fermentation stops. Hence, it is impossible to produce pure ethanol by natural fermentation. The ethanol is then purified by fractional distillation
Making ethanol by hydration The second process is called catalytic hydration, the direct hydration of ethane. Ethene is obtained from the cracking of petroleum fractions. An addition reaction combines ethane with water to produce ethanol CH2 = CH2 (g) + H2O (g) Ethene Steam Temperature : 300 0C Pressure : 60 atm Catalyst : Phosphoric acid The ethanol produced is condensed to form a liquid and the unreacted ethane is recycle. CH3 – CH2OH (g) Ethanol
b) How the ethanol prepared in the laboratory? 1. 2. 3. About 20 g of glucose is dissolved in 150 cm3 of distilled water contained in a clean conical flask About 10 g of yeast is added to the mixture and the mixture is shaken well. The conical flask is closed with a stopper connected with a delivery tube. The other end of the delivery tube is dipped into lime water in a boiling tube as shown in Figure 2.17 (a) The apparatus is left in a warm place (about 35 oC) for about a week. From time to time, any change taking place are observed. After about a week, the contents of the conical flask are filtered. The filtrate is poured into a distillation flask. The apparatus for distillation as shown in Figure 2.17 (b) set up. The filtrate is heated in a water bath and the ethanol that boils over at 78 to 80 oC is collected. The colour and smell of the distillate collected is examined. Steps 1 to 9 are repeated using mashed pineapple and cooked potatoes consecutively to replace glucose.
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Discussion: 1. Zymase, the enzyme from yeast, slowly decomposes glucose in the absence of oxygen to form ethanol and carbon dioxide C6H12O6 (aq) 2CH3CH2OH (aq) + 2CO2 (g)
The carbon dioxide released turns lime water milky. 2. Fermentation occurs efficiently at a temperature of 35 oC when the activity of the enzyme is at its peak. 3. Water and ethanol are two miscible liquids with different boiling points. Hence, both liquids have to be separated by fractional distillation. 4a) Name four types of glass and give one advantages characteristics of each i. Soda-lime glass Resistance to high temperatures ii. Lead glass Has excellent electrical insulating properties iii. Borosilicate glass Has high resistance to temperature change and chemical corrosion iv. Aluminosilicate glass It has greater chemical durability and can withstand higher operating
b) What are the similarities in properties of glass and ceramics.
Glass can be called as a type of ceramic. Both glass and ceramics are brittle and break at the instance of a small force.
c) Explain the meaning of composite materials. Composite material can be defined as any combination of two or more different materials at the microscopic level. d) Why is reinforced concrete more suitable to be used in construction than concrete
Concrete is strong in compression, as the aggregate efficiently carries the compression load. However, it is weak in tension as the cement holding the aggregate in place can crack, allowing the structure to fail. Reinforced concrete solves these problems by adding either steel reinforcing bars, steel fibers, glass fiber, or plastic fiber to carry tensile loads. Reinforced concrete is concrete in which reinforcement bars ("rebars"), reinforcement grids, plates or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension. e) Give three ways in which composite materials fulfilled our need
Modern aviation, both military and civil, is a prime example. It would be much less efficient without composites. In fact, the demands made by that industry for materials that are both light and strong has been the main force driving the development of composites. It is common now to find wing and tail sections, propellers and rotor blades made from advanced composites, along with much of the internal structure and fittings. The airframes of some smaller aircraft are made entirely from composites, as are the wing, tail and body panels of large commercial aircraft. In thinking about planes, it is worth remembering that composites are less likely than metals (such as aluminium) to break up completely under stress. A small crack in a piece of metal can spread very rapidly with very serious consequences (especially in the case of aircraft). The fibres in a composite act to block the widening of any small crack and to share the stress around. The right composites also stand up well to heat and corrosion. This makes them ideal for use in products that are exposed to extreme environments such as boats, chemical-handling equipment and spacecraft. In general, composite materials are very durable. Another advantage of composite materials is that they provide design flexibility. Composites can be moulded into complex shapes – a great asset when producing something like a surfboard or a boat hull. The downside of composites is usually the cost. Although manufacturing processes are often more efficient when composites are used, the raw materials are expensive. Composites will never totally replace traditional materials like steel, but in many cases they are just what we need. And no doubt new uses will be found as the technology evolves. We haven’t yet seen all that composites can do.
5. Ammonium nitrate can be prepared as follow Nitric acid + Ammonia Ammonium nitrate + water
a. Name the reaction that occurs between nitric acid and ammonia Neutralisation b. Write the chemical equation for the reaction given above. NH3 (aq) + HNO3 (aq) NH4NO3 (aq)
c. Outline briefly how a sample of ammonium nitrate crystals can be obtained from the above reaction. 1. 25.0 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is pipette into a clean conical flask. No indicator is added. 2. V cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 nitric acid is added from the burette to the ammonia solution. 3. The mixture in the conical flask is transferred to an evaporating dish and heated until a saturated solution is formed. 4. The hot, saturated salt solution is left to cool for crystallisation to occur. 5. The crystals of ammonium nitrate formed are filtered, washed and dried between sheets of filter paper.
d. Give a diagram showing the set up of the apparatus used to prepare ammonium nitrate crystals.
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