A P I TITLE*VT-b

94

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0532824 833 W

GAS OF THE LIFT BOOK 6
CATIONAL TRAINING SERIES
THIRD EDITION, 1994

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

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A P I TITLE*VT-b

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0732290 0532825 77T

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API GAS LIFT MANUAL
Book 6 of the Vocational Training Series Third Edition, 1994

Issued by AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE Exploration & Production Department
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FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING TECHNICAL CONTENT OF THIS PUBLICATION CONTACT THE API EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT, 700 NORTH PEARL, SUITE 1840 (LB-382), DALLAS, TX 75201-2831 - (214) 953-1101. SEE BACK COVER FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING HOW TO OBTAIN ADDITIONAL COPIES OF THIS PUBLICATION.

Users of this publication should become familiar with its scope and content. This document is intended to supplement rather than replace individual engineering judgment.

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION

REG U.S. PATENT OFFICE

Copyright O 1994 American Petroleum Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

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API PUBLICATIONS NECESSARILY ADDRESS PROBLEMS OF A GENERAL NATURE. WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES, LOCAL, STATE AND FEDERAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS SHOULD BE REVIEWED. API IS NOT UNDERTAKING TO MEET DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS, MANUFACTURERS,ORSUPPLIERSTOWARNANDPROPERLYTRAINANDEQUIPTHEIR EMPLOYEES, AND OTHERS EXPOSED, CONCERNING HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS AND PRECAUTIONS, NOR UNDERTAKING THEIR OBLIGATIONS UNDER LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL LAWS. NOTHINGCONTAINED IN ANYAPIPUBLICATIONISTOBECONSTRUEDAS GRANTING ANY RIGHT, BY IMPLICATION OR OTHERWISE, FOR THE MANUFACTURE, SALE,OR USE OF ANY METHOD, APPARATUS, PRODUCT COVERED BY OR LETTERS PATENT. NEITHER SHOULD ANYTHING CONTAINED IN THE PUBLICATIONBECONSTRUEDASINSURINGANYONEAGAINSTLIABILITYFOR INFRINGEMENT OF LETTERS PATENT. GENERALLY, API PUBLICATIONS ARE REVIEWED AND REVISED, REAFFIRMED, OR WITHDRAWN AT LEAST EVERY FIVE YEARS. SOMETIMES A ONE-TIME EXTENSION OF UP TO TWO YEARS WILL BE ADDED TO THIS REVIEW CYCLE. THIS PUBLICATION WILL NO LONGER BE EFFECT FIVE YEARS AFTER ITS PUBLICAIN TION DATE AS AN OPERATIVE API PUBLICATION OR, WHERE AN EXTENSION HAS BEEN GRANTED, UPON REPUBLICATION. STATUS OF THE PUBLICATION CAN BE ASCERTAINEDFROMTHEAPIEXPLORATION & PRODUCTIONDEPARTMENT (214-953-1101). ACATALOG OF APIPUBLICATIONSANDMATERIALSISPUBLISHED ANNUALLY AND UPDATED QUARTERLY API. BY 1220 L N.W., ST., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20005.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

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In fact. how various types of gas lift equipment work. W. and trouble-shooting gas lift equipment. Blann. at the time of this writing. Bennett..A P IT I T L E * V T .. It is intended to familiarize operating personnel the useof gas lift as artificial lift system.`. Winkler. over 90% of the oil wells in the United States used some form of artificial lift. Exploration & Production Department. R. gas lift of this has certain advantages over the other systems in some instances and occupies a rather unique and important place as a lift mechanism. The first editionof this manual was issued in 1965. A second edition was issuedin 1984.. regulating. Production Associates H.`. Lead Reviewer J.`. R. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. of electric submersible pumping.6 94 m 0732290 0532827 542 m FOREWORD Artificial l i f t represents an increasingly important part of the oil business.````.. American Petroleum Institute. Because phenomenon. the choice of gas lift equipment.. Exxon Production Research Company Joe Clegg. Consultant.`. and editorial errata were published in 1986 and incorporated a 1988 reprint the manual.``. . The four basic types artificial lift used in the oil industry are: rod pumping.lift gas is the only one the artificial lift systems that does not some formof mechanical pump of use to physically force the fluid from one place to another. Pectin International John Martinez.```. and a gas lift system should designed. and gas lift. It was developed with assistance by volunteer technical reviewers including: J. hydraulic pumping. This manualis underthejurisdiction of theExecutiveCommitteeonTraining and Development. As the name implies. how be Information is also includedon monitoring. in of This third edition was developed asan editorial update for consistency with recentAPI gas lift standards.. adjusting..`. Consultant Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. with an It includes information on the basic principles of gas lift.-`-`..

`. Soft cover. spiral bound.`--- Book 3: Subsurface Salt Water Injection und Disposal. 1990 Generalaspects of corrosion.``. orifices. and dummy valves. Recommended Practice for Operation. these practices are intended to serve both repair shops and operators. 1983 (Reaffirmed 1988) This handbook describes the various surface and subsurface wireline tools and equipment used in the oil and gas industry. including those operations conducted offshore. uncluttered manner. Specification for Gas Lift Valves. Testing and Setting Gas Lift Valves This document applies to repair.. Maintenance. The designer is referredto the API “Gas Lift Manual” (Book 6 of the Vocational Training Series) and to the various API 1 1V recommended practices on gas lift.`.`. reverse flow valves. It explains and outlines the application of these tools in wireline operations. treating plants.6 94 D 0732290 OS32828 489 m Other publications in the API Vocational Training Series are: Book 1: Introduction to Oil and Gas Production. API Specs & RPs (Users should check the latest editions) Spec 1 1 VI. easy-to-understand style to help orient and train inexperienced oil and gas production personnel.. It isabasicmanual presented in a simple. 72 pages. Fourth Edition.. 8 ’ / 2 x 1 1 . The commonly used gas pressure operated bellows valve is also covered. The fourth edition represents a complete revision and updating of the previous edition. Spiral bound. Other valves.. 1983 (Reaffirmed 1988) Thispopularorientationmanualcontains81pagesandover 100 photographs and line drawings.. It is written as a simple. soft cover. RP 1 1V6. Design criteria and formulae are given for gathering systems. and businesses allied with the oil and gas industry. Soft cover. The assumption is that the made designer is familiar with and has available data on the various factors that affect a design.API T I T L E x V T . Economic considerations are presented. industry office personnel. 87 pages.````.andelectrochemical corrosion are thoroughly covered. and injection facilities. --`````. 6l/2 x IO. 67 pages. soft cover. Recommended Practice for Repair. It presents guidelines related to the repair and reuse of valves. Book 5: Wireline Operations and Procedures.-`-`. RP 1 1V7. Second Edition 1978 (Reaffirmed 1986) Ahandbookfortheplanning.andmaintenance of subsurface injection and disposal systems. 90 illustrations. spiral bound.```.. The book is also helpful to students. and Trouble-Shooting of Gas Lift Installations Coversrecommendedpracticeonkickoffandunloading. RP 1 1 V5. including bellows charged valves production in pressure (fluid) service should be repaired according to these guidelines. Second Edition. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. and setting gas lift valves and reverse flow (check) valves. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.sweetcorrosion. . Recommended Practice for Design Continuous Flow Gas Lift Installations Using of Injection Pressure Operated Valves Thisrecommendedpracticeisintended to setguidelinesforcontinuousflowgas lift installation designs using injection pressure operated valves. 6 ’ / 2 x 10.. Book 2: Corrosion of Oil and Gas Well Equipment. 1 S illustrations. Alternative equipment and methods are discussed and illustrated.operation.`. Reverse Flow Valves and Dummy Va1ves Covers specifications on gas lift valves. 6I/2 x 1 O .`.installation.adjustmentproceduresand trouble-shooting diagnostic tools and location of problem areas for gas lift operations. Methods of evaluation and control measures are described in detail Spiral bound.oxygencorrosion. The book includes a glossary and bibliography. testing. Second Edition. Orifices.

............................................. 1 i 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 6 6 6 6 8 8 9 11 12 12 12 12 13 17 17 19 21 21 22 22 CHAPTER 3 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................`.................. 23 Importance of Reliable Well Test Data................. 24 Papers Evaluating the Accuracy of Multiphase Flow Correlations...................................... Productivity Index (P....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL LIFT AND GAS LIFT BASIC PRINCIPLES OF OIL PRODUCTION....................................... WELL OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE PREDICTION ..............................................................................................................`--- .................................I..................................................................................... ............................................. INFLOW PERFORMANCE PREDICTION ............................... HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS ...................... Differential Valves ............................................................................. 26 Published General Type Correlations................................. Bellows Charged Valves .......................................................................................................................... Effect of Surface Operating Conditions ....... 26 GENERAL TYPE OF MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS .... ..................................................................................................................... --`````.................................................... 24 PUBLISHED VERTICAL............................................................`..................`..........................................................................................................MULTIPHASE FLOW PREDICTION INTRODUCTION . Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) Technique............................................................................................................................... 25 Two-Phase Homogeneous No-Slip Mixture Correlations............................................................................................................................................ PREDICTING THE EFFECTOF GAS LIFT .............``............................````............................................ ARTIFICIAL LIFT ...... Computer Programs for Well Performance Analysis............................................................................................................ Choosing an Artlflclal Lift System ........................................ Continuous Flow Gas Lift.. 27 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002............................................................... 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295............................................ Chronological Development ........... Intermittent Flow Gas Lift..... Factors That Affect Oil Production.... 25 SIMPLIFIED MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS BASED ON TOTAL ENERGY LOSS FACTORS OR NO-SLIP HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES ................ HISTORICAL REVIEW OF GAS LIFT DEVELOPMENT ........```....................................................................................... 23 Empirical Data .............-`-`.................................................................................. Example Problem........ 25 Baxendell and Thomas Correlation.............. Comparison of Conduit Size..............................................................) Technique .......................................................................... ...................................... CHAPTER 2 ........................ 25 Poettmann and Carpenter Correlation ................................ Types of Gas Lift .......... Types of Artificial Lift Systems ................................... Early Experiments .......... 23 Basis for Developing Multiphase Flow Correlations........................... 26 Typical Pressure Gradient Equation for Vertical Flow.................................................................... 23 Accuracy of Flowing Pressure at Depth Predictions .......................................................................... 23 Dimensionless Parameters ............................................... Choice of Gas Lift System ....................................................................WELL PERFORMANCE INTRODUCTION ............................................ THE PROCESS OF GAS LIFT ..........A P I TITLE+VT-6 94 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 2 9 315 TABLE OF CONTENTS API GAS LIFT MANUAL CHAPTER 1 .................................... Technical Development of Gas Lift Equipment............................................................................................................... Vogel’s Example Problem................................................................. 24 Ros-Gray and Duns-Ros Correlations .................... ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF GAS LIFT .................................................................................................... DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN GAS LIFT VALVE ....................... Vogel IPR Curve ............................................................................................................................................`..................`....................................................................... Use of Inflow Performance Relationship Curves (IPR) ..............................................

........................................................GAS LIFT VALVES INTRODUCTION .............................................................`.................1 61 62 62 63 63 63 63 64 65 67 69 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.............................................................................................````........................................................ Reciprocating Compression ...........................................`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002................................................................................ Dynamic Flow Test .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Test Rack Opening Pressure.......... Opening Forces ... 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..................................................................... Subsurface Applications...............`.................GAS APPLICATION AND GAS FACILITIES FOR GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION .................... TYPES OF GAS LIFT VALVES ........................................................ VALVE CHARACTERISTICS................. Piping and Distribution Systems ...... Gas Conditioning ................................ Basic Valve Designs ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 27 28 28 32 32 32 33 34 CHAPTER 4 ....................................................................... Temperature Correction ......... ............................................................................................................ Minimum Fluid Gradient Curve ...... Graphical Determination of Minimum Stabilized Production Rate............................... 35 35 39 39 39 39 41 41 45 49 49 49 50 52 54 54 57 57 58 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 6..................................`.................... Conditions Necessary to Assure Stable Multiphase Flow .............................................................................................................................................. Valves Used for Continuous Flow ........................................ Converting Rgoto Rg.........................-`-`.............................................................................................................................................. Valve Load Rate ............. Gas Injection in the Annulusor Tubing ......... Probe Test .................................................................................. Basic Components of Gas Lift Valves....... System Design Considerations......................................................................................................................................................... Displaying Gradient Curves to Prevent Crossover......................................................... APPLICATION TO OILFIELD SYSTEMS ............................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) DISPLAYS OF FLOWING PRESSURE AT DEPTH GRADIENT CURVES ........ Pressure Correction .... CHAPTER 6 ........................................................................................... Flow Through the Gas Lift Valve .................................`...................................................... Valves Used for Intermittent Lift ...................................................................................................................................................... Bellows Protection ................................................................ Effect of Tubing Sizeon Minimum Stabilized Flow Rate .................................................... Classification of Gas Lift Valves by Application .......................................................................................................... Centrifugal Compression............................................................................................................................................................................. Test Rack Settings........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Valve Spread ................................................................................................................................................................... Wireline Retrievable Valve and Mandrel ............................................................................................. Closing Force .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................``.............................................................................................................. STABILITY OF FLOW CONDITIONS AND SELECTION OF PRODUCTION CONDUIT SIZE ........................................................ BASIC FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS BEHAVIOR............................................................. CHAPTER 5 .................................................. Production Pressure Effect ......................................................................................................................... Gilbert’s Curves..... Gas Metering ..............................CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT DESIGN METHODS INTRODUCTION ........................................................... Mandrel and Valve Porting Combinations................................................................................................................................................. VALVE MECHANICS......................................................................................................... SURFACE GAS FACILITIES...........................................................................................................```..................................................... ............`.............. Closing Pressure .........

............................................................................................ Recommended Practices Prior to Unloading...............EXAMPLES OF PRESSURE RECORDER CHARTS FROM CONTINUOUS FLOW WELLS ................ Surface and Estimated Subsurface Temperature Readings................................................................................... Temperature Surveys in Tubing Flow Wells .. Precautions when Running Flowing Pressure and Temperature Surveys .........`...............................................................................................................................................................................................`--- ............ APPENDIX 7A ........................................................................................... INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................ Measurement of Gas Volumes ................................................................................................................. 102 OPERATING SEQUENCE................................................................................ 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295............................. DESIGNING GAS LIFT FOR OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS ................................................................................. Types of Design Problems ....... Recommended Gas Lift Installation Unloading Procedure ......... Optimizing Gas Lift Systems ................................................................................................................................................ CHAPTER 7 -ANALYSIS AND REGULATION OF CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION .............................................. Actual Conditions Different From Design Conditions.................................................................................. Flowing Pressure and Temperature Survey .................. CONTINUOUS FLOW UNLOADING SEQUENCE.................................................................................................................................`...............................................................```............................................................................................................................. Manual Controls .............`............................................................... Downhole Temperature for Design Purposes ........................................ Recording Surface Pressure in the Tubing and Casing ..................................................................................API T I T L E t V T ................... Subsurface Temperature Surveys in Casing Flow Wells ...................................................................... --`````............................................................................. DUAL GAS LIFT INSTALLATIONS...b 94 m 0732290 0532833 T73 W TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS .........................................................````.................... Subsurface Pressure Surveys.................... GETTING THE MOST OIL WITH THE AVAILABLE LIFT GAS .............................................`.................................-`-`..................................................................................................................... 103 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002............................................................................ VARIOUS WELLHEAD INSTALLATIONS FOR GAS INJECTION CONTROL ............................ Semi-Automatic Controls...... WELL INJECTION GAS PRESSURE FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW SYSTEMS ........................................................................................................................................................................... Testing Well for Oil and Gas Production ........................................................................... Automatic Optimization of Injection Gas Use.... ADVANTAGES OF CONTINUOUS FLOW OVER INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT ....... Example Graphical Design .......................................................................................``.......................... Analyzing the Operation of a Continuous Flow Well ................................................................................................................................................ Visual Observation of the Surface Installation................. DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS FLOW INSTALLATIONS.. 102 TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS............. Safety Factors in Gas Lift Design ........................................................................................................................... Computer Calculated Pressure Surveys ...........................................`.............................................................................. METHODS OF OBTAINING SURFACE DATA FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT WELLS .................................... METHODS OF OBTAINING SUBSURFACE DATA FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT ANALYSIS ......................... 69 70 72 72 72 77 79 81 82 83 83 84 84 84 85 85 85 85 86 86 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 93 95 96 CHAPTER 8 .... Fluid Level Determination by Acoustical Methods .................................................

............................................................................................................... Location of Time Cycle Controller ............................................................................................................................................................................. Wellhead Configuration ... Variations of Percent Load Method ..................................................................................................... Choke Control of the Injection Gas ............................................................ Installation Will Not Unload .....................................................`.................................................................................................... Flowline Size and Condition.............. Maximum Rate ......`.................................................................................. VARIATION IN TIME CYCLE AND CHOKE CONTROL OF INJECTION GAS ............ CONTROL OF THE INJECTION GAS ................................... DESIGN OF INTERMITTENT LIST INSTALLATIONS ................. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295......................................... ADJUSTMENT OF TIME CYCLE OPERATED CONTROLLER ................................... 103 103 104 105 105 105 108 109 109 109 110 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.. Application of Time Cycle Operated Controller with Choke the in Injection Gas Line .API TITLE*VT-b 94 m 0732290 0532832 90T TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCING RATE ................................................. Use of Plungers i n Intermittent Lift Systems............................................................................................................................................. Choke Control IMPORTANCE OF WELLHEAD TUBING BACK PRESSURE TO REGULATION OF INJECTION GAS........ UNLOADING AN INTERMITTENT INSTALLATION............................................................ Fallback ..`............................................................................................................................. The Time Cycle Controller ............... SUGGESTED REMEDIAL PROCEDURES ASSOCIATED WITH REGULATION OF INJECTION GAS ....................................................................... Emulsions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Separator Pressure ......... Surface Choke in Flowline ..............................................................................................................................................................PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTING....................... Application of Time Opening and Set Pressure Closing Controller ...........................................```.................................................................... Production Pressure Operated Gas Lift Valves ...................................................................````................................................``...... CHAMBERS ...................... Valve Will Not Close............................................................`--- CHAPTER 9 ............................................................................................................. Fallback Method ...................................................................................................................... APPENDIX 9A .. 112 112 112 113 113 113 113 114 114 114 115 115 115 116 116 116 116 117 117 117 117 117 117 117 117 118 118 118 120 Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002........... Procedure or Determining Cycle Frequency ............................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................................................ SELECTION OF CHOKE SIZE FOR CHOKE CONTROLOF INJECTION GAS .................. Design of a Gas Lift Chamber Installation ...................................................................................................................... Initial U-Tubing .................................................................................................. Percent Load Method ................................................... Application of A Combination Pressure Reducing Regulator and ........................................ Unloading with Choke Control of the Injection Gas ...................... Corrosion ............................................................-`-`......... Unloading Operations Using A Time Cycle Operated Controller .......................................................................................................................................................................... EXAMPLES OF INTERMITTENT GAS LIFT MALFUNCTIONS .....................................................`............................................................................................................. REGULATING AND ANALYZING INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT INSTALLATIONS INTRODUCTION .................. TROUBLE-SHOOTING .....`.................................................... Recommended Practices Prior to Unloading..............

................... TYPES OF PLUNGER LIFT .....................````....`..................................A P I TITLEaVT-b 74 m O732270 0532833 846 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) GLOSSARY ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................-`-`.................................................. 124 124 124 125 125 125 126 126 130 131 131 131 131 131 ........................................................ Standing Valve ......................................................................................... SELECTING THE PROPER EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................`.......................................... Retrievable Tubing (or Collar) Stop ......................................................``............................................................... APPLICATIONS ................................................................................`...... USE OF PLUNGERS IN GAS LIFT SYSTEM THE INTRODUCTION .......................... 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295......................................................................... --`````........................`.............................................. Master Valve .................................................................. 132 SYMBOLS .............................. Second Flow Outlet ................................................... SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................`--- CHAPTER 10 ........... Plungers ................................................................```.................. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002............................................................................................ Well Tubing .................................................................................................................. PROPER INSTALLATION PROCEDURES .................... 135 138 REFERENCES ........................................... Bumper Spring ..................................................................................................`............................. Lubricator ......................................................................................

as far as gas lift is concerned.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. The actual energy that causes a well to produce oil results from a reduction in pressure between the reservoir and the producing facilities on the surface. Fig.The production process in an oil well ARTIFICIAL LIFT In many wells the natural energy associated with oil will not produce a sufficient pressure differential between the reservoir and the wellbore to cause the to flow into the well production facilities at the surface. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. If an installation is adequately designed.``..6 94 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 3 4 782 m 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL LIFT AND GAS LIFT BASIC PRINCIPLES OF OIL PRODUCTION When oil is first found in the reservoir.`..`.. because of a decrease in reservoir pressure or an increase in wellbore and surface pressure. natural energy will not drive oil to the surface sufficient volume.. These are L@. it is under pressure from the natural forces that surround and trap it. 1-2. an opening is provided at a much lower pressure through which the reservoir fluids can escape.`. Primary among them. 1-1 illustrates this production processas it occurs in an oil well. then gas lift is often an ideal selection for artificial lift. *ELLHEAD 10 PROCESSING AND TREATING STILL LOWER PRESSURE / LOWEST PRESSURE PRESSUHF PRESSURE Factors That Affect Oil Production Fig.. No other system of artificial lift uses the natural energy stored in the reservoir as completely as gas lift.. --`````. The surface and subsurface equipment required for each system is shown in Fig. .. Sucker Rod Pumping. is the availability gas.````. eitheras dissolved gas in the produced oil. in The reservoir’s natural energy must then be supplemented by some form of artificial lift. If gas of is readily available. In other wells. If the pressuresin the reservoir and the wellbore are allowed to either equalize.`.```. no flow from the reservoir will take place and there will be no production from the well. wellscan be gas lifted overa wide range of producing conditions by regulating the injection gas volume at the surface. 1-1 . Types of Artificial Lift Systems There are four basic ways of producing an oil well by artificial lift. SubGas mersible Electric Pumping and Subsurface Hydraulic Pumping. If a hole (well) is drilled into the reservoir. The driving force which causes these fluids to move out of the reservoir and into the wellbore comes from the compression the fluids that are stored of in the reservoir. Choosing an Artificial Lift System The choice ofan artificial lift system in a given well depends upon a number of factors.`. or from an outside source.-`-`. Experience has shown that produced gas will support a gas lift systemif the daily gas rate from the reservoir is at least 10% of the total circulated gas rate.A P IT I T L E x V T ..

1-3(A).`.``.`. I - \ “CONTROL EQUIPMENT -GAS LIFT VALVE --`````.`. gas comes out of solution. This reduction in the fluid column weight produces the pressure differential between the wellbore and the reservoir that causes the well to flow.. .`--- PACKER STANDING VALVE IOPTIONALI HYDRAULIC PUMP PUNP GAS LIFT (COURTESY DRESSER-GUIEERSONJ Fig.h 2 Lift 9 4 W 0732290 0532835 b L 9 W Gas THE PROCESS OF GAS LIFT Gas lift is the form of artificial lift that most closely resembles the natural flow process. relatively high pressure gas is injected downhole into the fluid column. reduces the density of flowing fluid the and further reduces the weight of the fluid column above the formation.`.. 1-4A). This is shown in Fig. When a well produces water along with the oil and the amount of free gas in the column is thereby reduced.Artificial lift systems Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.A P IT I T L E x V T . a natural flow well. In as the fluid travels upward toward the surface.. The free gas. .`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 1-2 . These are called continuous flow and intermittent flow. Reduction of the fluid density and the column weight so that the pressure differential between reservoir and wellbore will be increased (Fig. the fluid column pressure is reduced.````. I-3(B). Types of Gas Lift There are two basic types of gas lift systems used in the oil industry. It can be considered an extension of the natural flow process... Continuous Flow Gas Lift In the continuous flow gas lift process..-`-`.```. and the free gas expands. This injected gas joins the formation gas to lift the fluid to the surface by one or more of the following processes: 1.. being lighter than the oil it displaces.. the same pressure differential between wellbore and reservoir can be maintained by supplementing the formation gas with injection gas as shown in Fig.

As its name implies.`. this system 3 . fluid is allowed to accumulate and build up i n the tubing at the in Fig. 1-5. can be produced by a form gas of lift called intermittent flow.. --`````.`... therebyincreasingthedifferentialbetweenthereservoirwellbore and the (Fig.````.`--- ..`. ' \d r 4 I (A) ' OIL & GAS FROM FORMATION OIL & GAS ' I FROM FORMATION F LUI D COLUMN WEIGHT REDUCED BY FORMATION GAS IN A NATURAL FLOW WELL FLUID COLUMN WEIGHT REDUCED BY FORMATION AND INJECTEDGAS: A GAS LIFT WELL (B) Fig...``.Reduction in fluid column weight by formation and injected gas Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Expansion of the injection gas so that pushes liquid it ahead of it which further reduces the column weight.In the intermittent flow system. 1-4C).6 99 m 0732290 0532836 555 m Lift Gas and Lift Introduction Artificial to 3 Intermittent Flow 2. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. produce at the rate at which fluid enters the wellbore A typical small continuous flow gas lift system is shown from the formation. Gas Lift If a well has a lowreservoirpressureoraverylow producingit rate.`.. Displacement of liquid slugs by large bubbles of gas produces intermittently or irregularly and is designed to acting as pistons (Fig.-`-`.`.API T I T L E x V T .. 1-3 .```. 1-4B).

Flexibility cannot be equaled by any other form of lift. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Gas lift is suitable for almost every type ofwell that requires artificial lift. Initial cost of downhole gas lift equipment is ally low. a large bubble ofhigh pressure gas is injected into the tubing very quickly underneath the column of liquid and the liquid column is pushed rapidly up the tubing to the surface. It can be used to artificially lift oil wells to depletion. to kick off wells that will flow naturally. to back flow water injection wells. Gas lift installations can be designed to lift from one to many thousands of barrels per day..`. Periodically.`.`. 3.A P I TITLEaVT-b 4 Lift 94 m 0732290 0532837 491 W Gas the rifle slug. Continuous flow gas lift will usually be more efficient and less expensive for wells that produce at higher rates where continuous flow can be maintained without excessiveof use injection gas. 4. Installations can be designed for lifting initially from near the surface and for lifting from near total depth at depletion.-`-`.. The producing rate can be controlled at the surface. intermittent flow gas lift is suited only to wells that produce at relatively low rates.Three effects of gas in a gas lift well Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.```. .. 1-4 . and to unload water from gas wells.. regardless of the ultimate producing rate. The advantages of gas be liftsummarized can as follows: usu- 1.. Sand in the produced fluid does not affect gas lift equipment in most installations.LIQUID Reduction of Fluid Density GAS (C) Displacement of Liquid Slugs by Gas Bubbles --`````. 2.`.`. ..````. The frequency of gas injection in intermittent lift is determinedby the amount of time required for a liquid slug to enter the tubing.``.`--- Expansion of Gas Fig... The length of the gas injection period will depend upon the time required to push one slug of liquid to the surface. This action is similar to firing a bullet from a rifle by the expansion of gas behind ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF GAS LIFT Choice of Gas Lift System Because of its cyclic nature. bottom of the well.

repaired maintained.`--- GAS/OI L SEPARATOR MANIFOLD INJECTION GAS M A N I F O L D (METERING & CONTROL) ØI Fig..```.. This and equipment can be driven by either gas or electricity. SURPLUS GAS T O SALES 2..`. 6. In some instances air.APTITLE*VT-6 I 94 m 0732270 0532838 328 m 5 Introduction to Artificial Lift and Gas Lift 5 .`.. Gas lift is not adversely affected by deviation of the wellbore. This limitation has been circumvented on some wells through theuse of gas-cap gasas a lifting sourceand the return of the gas to the cap through injection wells. The relatively few moving parts in a gas lift system give it a long service life when compared to other forms of artificial lift.``. Gas must be available. .A typical gas lift system Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 8.````.. 7. i 9. and nitrogen have been used but these are generally more expensive and more difficult work with to than locally produced natural gas. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR STATION --`````. 3. gas lift also has certain limitations which can be summarized as follows: l ... Wide well spacing may limit the use of a centrally located source of high pressure gas. exhaust gases..`..-`-`. The major item of equipment (the gas compressor) in a gas lift system is installed on the surface where it can be easily inspected. Operating costs are usually relatively low for gas lift systems. Corrosive gas lift gas can increase the cost of gas lift operations if i t is necessary to treat or dry the gas before use. 1-5 . Gas lift is ideally suited to supplement formation gas for the purpose artificially lifting wells of where moderate amounts of gas are presentn the produced fluid.`.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. On the other hand.

1864-1900:Thiseraconsistedoflifting by compressed air injected through the annulus or tubing.. FLOW LINE . 1-7 . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. of wirelineretrievablegaslift Chronological Development The following chronological development gas liftwas of given by Brown. However. cases.S. Brear in 1865 (Fig.```. 2.Brear Oil Ejector (May 23. 7.Early gas lift nomenclature 5.`.. the use of interIn addition. 1865) Fig. when low flowpreparation than does single well pumping systems.) 1.. The first practical application of 4. 1920-1929: Application air was lift in 1846 when an American named Cockford publicity the from Seminole Field Pennsylvania. the initial surface installation for gas lift mittent lift and chamberlift forms of gaslift can usuwill sometimes be more expensive than equivalent ally achieve pressure draw downs comparable to pumping installations.A P I TITLE*VT-b 9q m 0732290 0532839 2b4 m 5.1957:Introduction valves. oil The firstU.-`-`. 1929-1945: This era included the patenting of about 25.``.. significantly increase the initial cost.. Conversion of old wells to gas lift can require a higher as is usually the case. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 1-6 . Fig. etc.. in from wellslifted some 1-7).. of straight gas lift with wide in Oklahoma (See Carl Emanual Loscher (German mining engineer) applied compressed air as a means of lifting liquid in laboratory experiments in 1797.`.. continuous flow gas 4. provisions for circulating some level of casing integrity than would be required for of the compressed gas for gas lift will not.````. in most pumping systems. 6. In very low pressured reservoirs.`--- . --`````. Priorto1864:Somelaboratoryexperimentsperformed with possibly one or two practical applications. 1-6). Numerous patents were issued for foot-pieces.`. 1945 to present: Since the end of World War II. Several flooded mine shafts were unloaded. 6. ing bottomhole pressure is desired.000 different flow valves. Installation of a gas lift system including compreslift cannot achieve as great a pressure drawdown as sors usually requires a longer lead time and greater can some pumping systems. Canalizo and Robertson in a paper published in 1961.l br SUBMERGENCE W Fig. HISTORICAL REVIEW OF GAS LIFT DEVELOPMENT Early Experiments 3. (Manyof the sketches shownin this chapter are taken from this paper. Such famous fields as Spindle Top were produced by air lift. However. patent for gas lift called “oil ejector”was an issued to A. if the associated gas will be gathered and compressed.`. 1900-1920: Gulf Coast Areafor hire” “air boom. the reduced operatpumping systems. ing cost of the gas lift system will usually far out weigh any additional cost of the initial installation. Also. many additional companies have been formed with mostof them marketing some version of a pressure-operated valve.. Also in this era. the pressure-operated valve has practically replaced all other types of gas lift valves.`. More efficient rates of production as well as proration caused the development of the flow valve.

1-9) were placed up the string to allow gas to enter higher and thereby reduce the exup cessive kick-off pressures required for kicking around the bottom. 1-11 ..`--- AS Fig.. GAS " TUBING 2 Jet collars (Fig. 1-11) were next employed to providea means for closing off gas after a lower valve was uncovered. Kick-off valves (Fig.`..```. 1-8 . 1-9 .`.Early gas (air) lift without valves Fig.Kick-off valves Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.Jet collar \ Fig.. --`````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.-`-`.````. The earlykick-off valves were designed to operate ona 10-20 psi pressure differential until the development of the spring-loaded differential valve which operated at about100 psi differential. 1-10 and Fig. 1-8. The kick-off valve was a crude forerunner of the modern gas lift flow valve. Several types of early gas and air lift hookups are shown in Fig.Taylor kick-off valve I FLOW LINE %:\ O :I: N TURN TUBING TO CLOSE a+- . Straight gas injection which employed no valves and consisted primarily of U-tubing the gas around the bottom of the tubing.`.`. 1-10 .. ..`.A P I TITLE*VT-6 Lift Gas and 94 m 0732290 0532840 T8b m 7 Lift Introduction Artificial to TechnicalDevelopment o Gas Lift f Equipment The technical development of gas lift equipment can be grouped into stages which are described as follows: 3 .``. 1..-TU BI NG TUBING -=-":="" -" I " " FLAPPER TYPE SPRING Fig..

.Early types offzow valves --`````.`. . Little or no surface control was possible in a differential valve installation.. the closest thing tothepresentday gas lift flow valve was the differential valve (Fig. SEC. The differential valve opened when there was an increase in fluid pressure relative to injection gas pressure and closed when the gas pressure increased relative to the fluid.````.``..`... A-A ?-- il-" v (A) Mechanically controlled valves CASING (B) Bryan differential valve FLOW LINE TUBING DISK TYPE VELOCITY 4 + GAS IN FLOW LINE (C) Velocity controlled valves (D) Spring loaded differential valves Fig..`. 1-12 .`..```.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.API ITLESVT-6 T 8 94 m 0732290 0532843 912 Gas Lift m DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN GASLIFT VALVE Differential Valves Until 1940. This principle of operation meant that the differential valves had to be spaced close together in order to assure proper operation of the installation. 1-12) which was operated by the difference in pressure between the injection gas in the casing and the fluid in the tubing.-`-`.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..

. This valve was originally called the Specific Gravity Differential Vulve.`--- Stem 8 Seat . which 1.Specific gravity type differential valve Bellows Charged Valves In 1940.``.However. R..`. This meant that fewer of the bellows type gas pressure operated valves were required for each installation. is shown in Fig. King’s valve. 1944 is shown in Fig.. element. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The specific gravity differential valve employed the difference in specific gravity between a 16 foot column of kerosene and a 16 foot columnof well fluid for operating pressure. bellows charged gas lift valves.A P IT I T L E + V T .. allowed for the first The bellows in the King valve is protected from excessive time the gas lifting of low pressure wellswith a controlled well pressure by sealing the bellows chamber from the well change in the surface injection gas pressure. thereby allowing the spacing between valves to be much greater than the differential pressure operated valves. W. 1-13 .6 9 Lift Gas and Lift Introduction Artificial to 74 D 0732290 0532842 857 W One type of differential valve.`.`. Gas Charged Pressure Chamber Bellows 4 Fig.T h e principal of operation of the bellows valve was also far superior to the differential valve for most applications in that the bellows valve was closed by a decrease in gas pressure.`.````. whereas the differential type valve opened with a decrease in gas pressure. It was very successful in continuous flowwells and may still be operatingsuccessfullyinsomewells. This meant that it was no longer necessary to operate a valve from the surfaceby rotating or moving the t u b i n go rw i r e l i n ec o n n e c t e dt ot h es u r f a c e .. since the valve relied on the relatively high injection gas pressure for operation. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. which was very popular around 1940. 1-1 3. designed his valve..```. singlebellows protection. 1-14 . He recognized the need for complete is very similar to most present day unbalanced.King valve (First pressured bellows valve) OPERATING VALVE VALVES ABOVE OPERATING VALVE Fig. --`````. King introduced his bellows charged gas lift valve.. including an anti chatter mechanism. A drawing taken from King’s patent issued on King had good insight into valve construction when he January 18.-`-`..`.the valve’s length and excessive diameter limited its transportability and application.14. Since King’s fluids after full stem travel. Chatter is prevented by the valve was opened by an increase in injection gas pressure and closed by a decrease in pressure. the valve could be operated from the surface by changes in the injection gas pressure.

````.`.`.`. 1-14. POSITIVE STOP FOR STEM BELLOWS SECTION GAS INLETS STEM 8 SEAT INSERT REVERSE CHECK Fig.`.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Gas lift valves and mandrels are discussed in detail i n Chapter 5 of this manual.`. Similar construction is used by several manufacturers in their present gas lift valves.. Fig..-`-`. 1-15 .`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 1-15 is an illustration of a typical modern bellows charged gas lift valve..```.``. The success of the King valve is evidenced by the fact that the basic principles used in the design were quickly adopted by almost all valve manufacturers and are still used with little modification in today’s gas lift valves.. Note the similarity between this valve and the Kingvalveshown in Fig..Typical modern bellowscharged gas lift valve --`````. .A P I TITLE*VT-b 10 74 m 0732290 0532843 775 Gas m Lift small orifice.. The baffle design also supports the bellows..

. we can is designated as inflow performance and all flow up the produce no more fluid from the reservoir than we can to lift tubing and into the production facilities is designated outthe surface and vice versa..Inflow and Outflow Performance in a flowing well Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.6 94 m 0732290 0532844 621 m Well Performance 11 CHA 'TER 2 WELL PEF IFORMANCE INTRODUCTION tivity and fluid composition. extremely important that a well's inflow performance be A well's inflow performance is controlled by the characteristics of the reservoir such as reservoir pressure.. it is flow performance.`.````. Because of this fact.```. That is. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. well's outflow performance A Well performance is controlled by a large number of is a direct function of the size and type producing equipof factors that are often interrelated.A P I T I T L E t V T .-`-`. '"1 U 4 NFLOW PERFORMANCE " " " I ' I I I I " Fig. produc.`. 1.. As illusthese predictions. --`````... and wells can be designed based on which they call Inflow and Outflow performance.`..``. In any given well. Most students of fluid ment. outflow performance trated in Fig.`.carefully considered when sizing production equipment. Both inflow and outflow performance can be preflow now divide well performance into two basic categories dicted quite accurately.`. 2-1 . all flow in the reservoir up to the wellbore 2and inflow performance must be equal.`--- .

Equation 2. which is a straight ]ine IPR curve. gas is released in the reservoir and the resulting two-phase flow of gas and oil around the wellbore can cause a reduction in the well's productivity.8 (+) Equation 2..`. then using this information to calculate a P. BLPD/psi Liquid Production Rate..````.. psig = ql = P.``.1 pws P. Find: ofP.1 The P. the absolute permeability and porosity of the formation remain in the same and unaltered from the drainage radius to the wellbore radius.1 for the well.2 - Given: A wellthat produces 100 BLPD andhasan SSBHP of 1000 psig and a FBHP of 900 psig. .`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. = Pwf = The calculation of a well's P. This can be written as an equation using current engineering symbols as follows: J where: J = 91 Equation 2. The second requirement to assure validity of the Vogel IPR relationship is that the flow efficiency (FE) must be equal to unity (FE = 1. Using the same example.900 psig Equation 2. V. P. E. defines P..I. The bubble point pressure is the condition of temperature and pressure where free gas first comes out of solution in the oil. psig Flowing bottomhole pressure.Pf w - J = 1 BLPD/psi 100 BLPD 1000 psig . Productivity index.I. . Ideal implies no skin effect. Productivity Index (P. good experience has been obtained using the Vogel IPR in all two-phase flow conditions.`.. When the pressure in the formation drops below the bubble point pressure. BLPD Static bottomhole pressure. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Gilbert. Vogel developed an empirical technique for predicting well productivity's such under reduced conditions and he called his method of analysis Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) after the terminology used in an earlier paper written by W...=J) Technique One definition of Productivity Index and the one that is used in artificial lift..0 . the well (2)- 0.I.2 Solution: J = Pws ql .`.0.I. One way of expressing well productivity iswith the Productivity Index (P. as the number of barrels of liquid produced per day (BLPD) for each pound per square inch (psi) of reservoir pressure drawdown. Drawdown is defined as the difference in the stabilized static bottomhole pressure (SSBHP) and the flowing bottomhole pressure (FBHP).```.`. method.) 500 psig --`````. Vogel IPR Curve The Vogel IPR dimensionless curve (see Fig. However.' Vogel2 calculated IPR curves for wells producing from several fictitious solution gas drive reservoirs..I. if we draw the FBHP down to 500 psig from the Of 'Ooo Psig the produce at the lowing rate: J = q1 Note that the initial bubble point pressure (PB) has been substituted for the static bottomhole (Pws) pressure in the above equation to emphasize that the Vogel IPR curve only applies when Pwf= PS The change i n production with a change in the flowing bottomhole pressure above the initial bubble point reservoir pressure is defined by the productivity index equation..I. or rearranging the equation: 91 = (J) X (Pws . method assumes that all future production rate changes will be i n the same proportion to the pressure drawdown as was the test case. From these curves he was able to develop a reference IPR curve which not only could be used for most solution gas drive reservoirs in arriving at oil well productivity.. that is. This involves measuring a well's producing rate.Pf . is given in the following example. This may not always be true.I.=J) technique.Pwf) = 1 X 500 of Rate (ql) = 500 BLPD at FBHP (Pw. technique allows us to determine the well production if the pressure is drawn down further.-`-`.`. J. 2-2) is based onthe following equation: 90 (qohax = 1.I.12 Gas Lift INFLOW PERFORMANCE PREDICTION A well's inflow performance is usually expressed in terms of productivity which simply indicates the number of barrels of oil or liquid that a well is capable of producing at a given reservoir pressure. and flowing bottomhole pressure at that rate. Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) Technique The P. His work was based entirely upon results obtained from wells producing in solution gas drive reservoirs. but would give muchcould accurate projections more than be obtained using the P.O) where flow efficiency is defined as the ratio of the actual to the ideal productivity index. especially in a solution-gas drive reservoir producing below the bubble point pressure.

less than (qo)max. The incremental increase in production for the same incremental increaseinflowingbottomholepressuredrawdown becomes less at the lower flowing bottomhole pressure. and a significant flowing bottomhole drawdown below the initial bubble point pressure is required for the desired daily production rate.`.b 74 m 0732270 053284b 4 T 4 13 Well Performance 2. The maximum production rate. SPE 1476) Since this discussion is an introduction to the application of the widely-used Vogel IPR curve and not a detailed presentation on the concepts of well damage and inflow performance. Maximum production rate for 100 percent drawdown (Pwf= O psig) 2. the IPR curve will not berestricted to all oil production if free gas is present with liquid the phasethe at flowing bottomhole pressures in the wellbore. Flowing bottomhole pressure.`. From the Vogel IPR curve: Rate Ratio... 500 = 0. q.. = 2000psig ( p w s = PB) From the Vogel IPR curve: Pressure Ratio.`.f can be calculated for any value of q.0..90 From theVogel IPR curve: Rate Ratio. = PB and FE 1...90) = 146 BOPD max When the valve for (90) max is determined. q o ~ PRODUCING RATE AS A FRACTION OF MAXIHUH PRODUCING RATE MX. If a well produces free gas. Pressure Ratio = - Pr w . Daily production rate for a flowing bottomhole pressure equal to 500 psig (See Figures 2-4 and 2-5 for a graphical presentation of the Solution. Also.5 Vogel’s Example Problem The following data for illustrating IPR calculations were used in Vogel’s paper: Given: I . Pwf= 1500 psig Find: l ./(q. the value of q.) (90) max Fig..= 0. Also. P.= 0.. P.5 (0.``. Averagereservoirpressure. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..50 (90) max 114 162.70 = 0. is calculated using the given test q o and corresponding P. q o (90) q o = 162.) Solution: 1..-`-`. flowing the bottomhole pressure for a production rate of 114 BOPD for the above well can be calculated as follows: Rate Ratio = 90 . As an example. Gage pressures will be used in these calculations. more accurate production predictions can be expected using the Vogel IPR curve than using a straight line productivity index relationship for water-cut wells.40 P..25 2000 . WITH 100% DRAWDOWN. 2-2 .Vogel’s curve for inflow performance relationship (from Vogel’s papel.75 2000 = 0.= 0.. Pressure Ratio = pwf = P. Daily production rate = q o = 65 BOPD 3. the value of P. 2. --`````. Pwr= 0. (90) max.```.````. A worksheet for performing IPR calculations is given in Fig.1500 .r. for all values of Pwrcan be calculated.`--- The maximum daily production rate represents the maximum deliverability of the well if the bottomhole pressure could be decreased to atmospheric pressure (O psig) by turning the well upside down and producing through a frictionless conduit. the example calculations will be based on the assumptions that P... . 2-3.5 (2000) = 1000 psig Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`.API T I T L E * V T .`..

.:i. . I : ! I ....Worksheetfor performingI P R calculations Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 2-3 .```.60 II > 0.40 0. . x = (5) = from this curve 0... . = O & BFPD I Max.80 !.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.40 " :.`.WORK SHEET FOR NONDIMENSIONAL INFLOW PERFORMANCE CURVE WELL NO.80 1 .`. = PSkI .o0 I Plot BHP(7) versus BFPD(8) for IPR Curve between BHP = O & BHP = P & BFPD .. --`````.`..`.20 0.]. 0. ' I 0.60 0.. Rate (6) Fig....-`-`. FROM BHP SURVEY 1 .````.o0 GIVEN: ( 1) P ....20 '!:: 1 I O O j .. ~ BFPD I::. j (3) TEST RATE = ....i: 0. .``. I :.`--- .

.```..A P I TITLEWVT-6 94 m 0732290 532848 0 277 m 15 Well Performance IPR 2.``.````..-`-`. .Example problemsolution Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`...`.`.000 a r m 2 O Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````....`.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`--- FRACTION OF MAXIMUM PRODUCING RATE FRACTION OF MAXIMUM PRODUCING RATE FRACTION O F MAXIMUM PRODUCING RATE FRACTION O F M A X I M U M PRODUCING R A T E Fig. 2-4 .

--`````..`.4 A 6 5 BOPD ___- @ A = 146 BOPD = q o - 162 BOPD x 0.Continuation of example problem Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`--- .``.-`-`..`.FRACTION O F MAXIMUM RODUCING ATE RACTION P R F SINCE TEST RATE AT 1500 PSlG WAS 65 BOPD OF M A X I M U M R O D U C I N G A T E P R X = 162 BOPD = (qo) MAX (G) IPR FRACTION OF M A X I M U M P R O D U C I N G R A T E @ ” 0. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..````. 2-5 ..9 = 0.`...`..`.9 146 BOPD = q O Fig..```.

`. The points shown in Table 2-1 are now plotted on Cartesian Coordinate paper with flowing pressure at the formation depth being scaled along the vertical (Y) axis and the producing rate plotted along the horizontal (X) axis. can be used if they closely match the actual producing conditions. 230 psig 1500 psig @ Surf. Efforts to predict well outflow performance have been going on for many years and these efforts have culminated in much research and development work being done in the area of multiphase flow correlations. ~ Example Problem All of the correlations for predicting multiphase flow require extensive calculations and from a practical standpoint can only be done with a computer. wellhead back pressure. Such varied parameters as fluid characteristics.D. the flow correlations that have been developed work equally well in either system. Well data for the example problem follows: Casing Tubing Static BHP (Today) Flowing Wellhead Back Pressure Injection Gas Pressure Water Cuts (Assumed) Pressure Gradient Curves Tubing Setting Depth Formation Gas Oil Ratio Productivity Index Formation Depth Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API 7-inch O. water cut and Rgl. The suite of gradient curves should cover all ranges of flow rates that are possible for the particular conduit being considered. for many of the variables in two phase flow cause only a small change and can be generalized. and a similar reading. 2-6A. oil-water-gas..`--- . This may not be true. 2-6A. but the actual number will depend on the width of the producing range being considered.`. Using a suite of these gradient curves calculated for several different well rates. To begin the analysis it is assumed that for this well. has been noted on it.water-gas) or taking into account all of the fluid characteristics along with the conduit configuration and other factors affecting the flow. and pipe roughness all contribute significantly to outflow performance.. The gradient curves used in this example are not typical. The development and useof multiphase flow correlations for outflow performance predictions are discussed in Chapter 3 . Six to ten rates should be sufficient.. Note that the pressures shown in Table 2-1 are for both 100% oil and various water cuts. 1970 psig @ 5800 ft.````. surface pressure and other effects. An example of one such gradient curve is shown in Fig. and the maximum rates for 2’/8 inch tubing will be checked later.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 2-6B shows the gradient curves for the 4000 B/D fluid rate at 100% oil. the flowing bottomhole pressure Pwfcan be read at a given depth for a specific rate and gas to liquid ratio (Rg]).. Computer programs available from several sources make the calculation and plottingofsuchcurvesbothfastandinexpensive. --`````. The well under consideration is a high productivity well. Gradient curve readings are con-tinued in fashion points thisuntil sufficient are obtained to represent a full range of producing rates. 2-7 is a plot of these values and the resulting curves represent the minimum flowing pressure at the formation depth that will be required to overcome gravity. 800 CFA3 5.```. Fig. 0-25-50-75% EPR Correlation (Orkiszewski) Near 5800 ft. Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.-`-`.. The intersection of the depth line with the Rgl line for naturalflowconditions (800 R. conduit size. The pressure at this point has been read as 930 psig.D. A page of gradient curves calculated for this particular wellandrepresentingthe 3000 BOPDrateis shown in Fig.0 BFPD/psi Drawdown (Straight Line) 5800 ft.. and produce at the rates indicated. available in many textbooks.Fortunately. The following example demonstrates the use of these curves to predict outflow performance and well performance.. Fig. but were calculated for these specific conditions.`. friction.A P I TITLE*VT-b 74 m 0732270 0532850 925 m Well Performance 17 WELL OUTFLOW PERFORMANCEPREDICTION Well outflow performance depends upon many complex factors which are often as difficult to simulate as those for inflow performance.``. The rates should be fairly equally divided over the entire range to give somewhat equal distribution of points along the entire length of the curve. Generalized curves.. (outside diameter) 2’/~inch O. and the given reservoir conditions. The first step is toobtain or calculate a suite of vertical two-phase flowing pressure gradient curves for the conduitsizes to beexaminedbasedonproducing conditions to be expected. The flow correlations that have developed from this work attempt to predict the pressure at depth in a flowing vertical column of multiphase fluid (oil-gas.. in this case 940 psig. The pressure readings are now tabulated in the manner shown in Table 2-1. for100%oil) has been noted with an arrow.Separate curves must be used each well rate. fluid velocity. Fortunately these computer calculations have been plotted into generalized pressure gradient curves that are immediately available to the operator and engineer. well configuration.`. Since the producing characteristics of continuous flow gas lift wells are essentially the same as those for a naturally flowing well. In this case a line has been drawn representing the producing formation depth at 5800 ft. A separate suite of gradient curves is required for each water cut. generalized well gradient curves. maximum flow rates can probably best be obtained under annular flow conditions.

2-6 .``..000 6.000 10. psig 100% Oil (R.000 12.`.500 5. .```.````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.000 4.`.`..`.Gradient curves TABLE 2-1 TABULATION OF POINTS FROM GRADIENT CURVE FOR NATURAL FLOW 7" x 27/8" Annulus .500 4.Rglas Indicated FBHP @ 5800 ft.Natural Flow ..`.) TYPICAL GRADIENT CURVES FOR 4000 BID RATE (COURTESY EXXON PRODUCTION RESEARCH CO.000 2.[ = 200) 2190 2140 2100 2060 2020 2000 1960 1980 2000 2080 Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`--- I 1 4 I 1 I TYPICAL GRADIENT CURVES FOR 3000 B/D RATE (COURTESY EXXON PRODUCTION RESEARCH CO.I = 800) 990 940 930 935 940 960 970 1O00 1080 1180 1320 2240 25% Wtr (Rgl = 600) 1260 1180 1130 1110 1120 1120 1135 1160 1240 1320 1440 50% Wtr (Rgl = 400) 1655 1535 1465 1420 1390 1375 1370 1370 1440 1500 1600 75% Wtr (R..) Fig..000 8..000 3. BPD 2.500 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.18 Lift Gas Rate.-`-`.500 3...

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4. On the same sheet of graph paper, plot the well productivity line based on either the straight line productivity index or the IPR technique by beginning at a point representing the static bottomhole pressure (SBHP) on the vertical axis. This example uses the straight line P.I. method. An example using the IPR curves is given in Fig. 2-13. In this case, the point is 1970 psig at 5800 ft. Continue the plot of the productivity line by reducing the flowing bottomhole pressure by the amount of drawdown calculated for various rates. For example, at a rate of 5000 B/D and with a P.I. of 5.0 BFPD psi, the drawdown from the static pressure of 1970 psig is 1000 psig. Therefore, the point to be plotted for the extension of the productivity line is 1970 psig less 1000 psig or 970 psig and is plotted opposite the 5000 BFPD rate.
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the flowing pressure curves represent the maximum producing rate by natural flow which is possible under the given reservoir and well conditions if flow is up the 2l/8” x 7“ annulus. In this example, shown in Fig. 2-7, the maximum rate indicated is 5000 B/D at zero water cut and 4250 B/D at a 25% water cut. Note that the drawdown line does not intersect the 50% and 75% waters curves. This indicates that the natural flow is impossible regardless of rate where the water cut is 50% or more. Natural Flow then would cease on this well when it reaches a water cut somewhere between 25% and 50%.
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PREDICTING THE EFFECTOF GAS LIFT
The effectof injecting additional gas into a fluidcolumn from an outside source for gas lift purposes can be determined in the following manner. plotted for the maximum gas injection rate alongside the curve plotted for natural flow (800 Rgl) for the 100% oil case. A dotted line is also shown on Fig. 2-8 to indicate the 1200 Rgl curve which represents a plot of the flowing pressure for a case where injected gas is limited to 400 cubic feet per barrel (CF/B)(1200 - 800). 3. The maximum producing rates which are possible under various conditions are indicated the intersecby tion of the productivity line with the flowing pressure versus rate curves. In this case the maximum rate for unlimited gas lift is 5600 B/D, and for limited gas lift (400 CF/B injected gas) is 5450 B/D. These compare to a maximum natural flow rate under the same conditions of 5000 B/D. A comparison of maximum producing rates possible under both gas lift and natural flow conditions is shown in Table 2-3.

1. Using the same gradient curves and the same method as for natural flow, determine the flowing pressure at the formation depth for the total gas liquid ratio (formation gas + injected gas). If there is no limit on the amount of gas that can be injected, the Rgl which produces the minimum gradient line at each producing rate can be used. In the example problem, thatis a R,, of 3000 at the 3000 B/D rate. Since this minimum gradient will represent differentR,~values at different rates, the calculation of injection gas requirement will depend on the minimum gradient for the rate being considered. Table 2-2 shows a tabulation of the minimum downhole pressure readings at the various rates.
2. Plot the pressures versus rates tabulated in Table 2-2 on Cartesian Coordinate paper in the same manner as in the example for natural flow. Fig. 2-8 shows a curve

4. Using the above example, it is now possible to evaluate the benefits accruing to gas lift under the given conditions. Also, it is possible to determine the optimum gas injection rate by comparing the oil produced

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TABLE 2-2 TABULATION OF POINTS READ ON GRADIENT CURVES FOR GAS LIFT 7" x 27/8" Annulus Maximum Gas Lift R,, Values FBHP @ 5800 ft, psig

-

-

Rate, B/D

Oil

100% 690 680 680 700 720 750 810 870 1030 1180 1350

25% Wtr Wtr 740 740 750 760 790 860 890 950 1120 1280 1420

75% 50% Wtr

2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12.500

0 8O 8O 0 815 840 910 940 960 1040 1220 1360 1530

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Fig. 2-8 - Comparison of naturalflow with gas lift, 100% oil, no injection gas limit

Fig. 2-9 - Comparison of naturalflow with gas lift, 25% water, no injection gas limit

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(5450 B/D)under the limited gas injection rate of 2180 MCF/Day to the oil produced (5600 B/D) at a maximum gas injection rate of 4770 MCF/D. Plots of curves comparing gas lift and natural flow at 25%, 50% and 75% water cuts and with no injection gas limit are shown in Fig. 2-9, 2-10 and 2-11.
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Comparison of Conduit Size The effect of conduit size on maximum producing rate can be seen by comparing bottomhole flowing pressure versus rate curves prepared forthe various pipe sizesunder consideration. In the example problem, flow through 2'/~ inch tubing was considered as an alternative to annular flow. Fig. 2-12 shows a plot of the flowing pressure versus rate curves for various water cuts in 2 7 / ~ inch tubing. The maximum flow rate at each water cut is shown in the table on Fig. 2-12. The effect of changing static bottomhole pressures or formation productivity on producing rates can be determined by replotting the productivity line for the new productivity and with a new static pressure starting point. Effect of Surface Operating Conditions

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Fig. 2-10 - Comparison of naturalflow with gas lift,50% water, no injection gas limit

To calculate the effect of surface operating conditions, such as back pressure, on well production, curves should be prepared for avariety of possible surface operatingpressures and a comparison made of the producing rates under each condition. Such comparisons are useful in determining the production to be gained from reducing pressure losses in production facilities. They may also be used for determining the optimum design operating pressure at the wellhead.

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The great advantage of the computer programs is that they allow the generation of a large number of such curves comparing various producing parameters in a very short period of time. the balance point between inflow and Use of Inflow Performance Relationship Curves (IPR) outflow performance. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. the computer versions usually allow the user to input a wide variety of producing parameters and to study the effect of each of the parameters on well performance.``. 2-12 . 2-14.```.-`-`. 2-14 . YRTERCUT 90 f FWHP = YO0 PSIG SC IWJ CRS = 0.`.`--- le 500' H PI = 5. These programs are usually available as adjuncts to gas lift design programs but can be used as separate tools for well performance analysis. Computer Programs for Well Performance Analysis 2500 I I l " I l I 2-7/8' TUBING Computer programs are available that compare well inflow performance (productivity) with the vertical flow characteristics of the production installation to determine the maximum production rates that are possible under various producing conditions.`.. IPR curves can also be used for determining the point of intersection.````. 2'h -inch tubing YELL ORTA lU6ULRR FLOU 2 716 I N .AOO 12.. technique for predicting inflow performance. An example of such a plot is shown Although the example problem uses the straight line P. in effect.`.`.. PnEssunes I " " " " " " " " 4 I 100 I I 1 I I 1 Mo 300 400 500 600 700 Boo I PRODUCTION R A T E (BBL. This demonstrates the effect of injection gas pressure on producing rate and injection gas requirements. in Fig. 2-13 . 2-13./DAYI Fig..`.90 - cas INJ. . Many of the computer programs will also plot the information in a graphic form similar to that shown in Fig. Most of the computer programs follow very closely the manual technique discussed in this chapter..I.bOOI O0 G A S L I F T PERFORMANCE PRODUCING RATE (BFPD) Fig.Computer plotsof gas lift well performance Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.Natural flow..Curve number (1) is an IPR curve and curve number (2) indicates the calculatedpe$ormance characteristics of the outflow system Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.A P I TITLEaVT-h 94 9 0732290 0532855 407 22 Gas Lift m which is... However. NATURAL FLOW M A X FLOW RATES %H20 BFPD O 25 50 75 2500 2400 2100 500 L Fig.0 BFPD/PSI 3 2dOO 40b0 60b0 d o 0 l0.

Reynolds number is example of a dimensionless an parameter or group. The distribution of the liquid and thegasisbasedonthedailyproductionratewithno accumulation of liquid in the production conduit.````. For the purpose of this discussion. For example. definition of all terms is not A necessary for understanding the basic concepts. There is a continuing effort to develop new correlations and to improve those that exist. depending upon which is the production string. with a total energy loss factor or a no-slip homogeneous mixture and friction factor. There is no one multiphase flow correlation available today that is universally accepted by the petroleum industry for accurately predicting flowing pressure gradients in all sizes of production conduits for the ranges of gas and liquid rates encountered in oil field operation. Basis for Developing Multiphase Flow Correlations Several of the earlier multiphase flow correlationswere based on a total energy loss factor or a no-slip homogeneous mixture for high rate production. No-slip homogeneous flow implies that the gas and liquid have the same velocity. The total energy loss factor is analogous to a single-phase friction factor.. Production conduit is a general term which can mean tubing or tubing-casing annulus.`. Flowing pressure at depthsurveys with calibratedinstrumentsandaccurate stabilized production data measured during the surveys are Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. the pressure loss calculations for multiphase flow and singlephase flow are similar... These relationships represent measured data that have been organized in a manner that will permit calculation of the flowing pressures at depth or pressure loss through a flowline based on a production conduit size and the fluid rates and properties. --`````..D. Usually a correlation is identifiedby the investigator or investigators.. The value must be established empirically by actual measurements. Generally. Multiphase flow in a production conduit represents complex relationships between many variables and dimensionless groups. do not require the establishment of the flow regime or pattern.```. The variables are combined in such a manner that all units will cancel. Many of the important correlating parameters mustbe determined empirically because mathematical solutions do not exist. the density of the mixture can be calculated for any desired pressure without a complex gasslippage or liquid holdup correlation. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. the calculated pressure loss be in error and discontinuiwill ties in the slopeof the flowing pressure gradient curvesmay be apparent. multiphase flow implies the presence of free gas and a liquid which may be oil and or water. A typical multiphase flow correlation consists numerous of equations and curves defining the relationships between different independent dimensionless groups. whereas extrapolation refers to predicting values beyond the range of the measured data. therefore. but a discussion of the more unique terminology should aid the reader. A general computer program is developed based on these test data for 1'/4inch nominal tubing and extended to high rates through large tubing such as 4'h-inch O. Empirical Data The word empirical refers to measured data. Most wells are produced through a tubing string.`--- . interpolation of empirical data will present no problem but extrapolation can be quite dangerous. If the flow regime cannot be accurately determined.`. The flow regime for multiphase flow must be determined before the pressure loss can be calculated for the more general type of correlation.``.`. When there is no purely mathematical relationship that will accurately predict the value of a variable or parameter associated with multiphase flow. Each flow regimehas a different set equaof tions and correlating parameters for calculating a pressure loss. Dimensionless groups are commonly used in the analysis of experimental data because the number of measured or assumed values for variables can be greatly reduced by combining severalvariables into a single dimensionless group of variables.`.. Predictions beyond the range of a correlation may be totally in error. the investigator does all of the experimental work in l'/d-inch nominal tubing. These simplified methods for calculating multiphase flow pressure loss.. thus the group becomes independent of the unit system.-`-`. Selecting the best correlation for specific well production rates and conduit sizes is not always a simple matter. In other words. Dimensionless Parameters Most multiphase flow correlations involve numerous dimensionless groups or parameters.A P I TITLE*VT-6 94 m 0732290 0532856 343 m 23 Multiphase Flow Prediction CHAPTER 3 MULTIPHASE FLOW PREDICTION INTRODUCTION There are several words and terms in this chapter which may be new or confusing to the reader who is not familiar with multiphase flow studies. which may be called correlating parameters. Accuracy of Flowing Pressure at Depth Predictions Accurate flowing pressure at depth predictions in production conduits are essential to efficient continuous flow gas lift installation design and analysis. Interpolation means the determination of values between measured data..

. A practice of reducing the flow rate to run a survey is not uncommon when the wireline operator has difficulty lowering the subsurface pressure gage into the production conduit. Field personnel may report the average daily production rate as gas-liquid ratio for a well based on previous production test or an average daily rate for the last 30 days rather than obtaining accurate production test measurements during the survey.-`-`. essential to verify the applicability of a multiphase flow correlation. Lockhart and Martinelli”. Only the multiphase flow correlations that have received at leastlimited acceptance by the petroleum industry are mentioned in this chapter. 17* l x * thatreportedly evaluate the accuracy of several widely used correlations for vertical multiphase flow.`. Beta ratio is the ratio of the size of the borehole in the orifice plate to the internal diameter of the meter tube.````.. In other words. An operator should always double-check the field data before condemning a widely proven multiphase flow correlation. Duns and RosJ. The importance of selecting the recommended orifice beta ratios for accurate gas measurement cannot be overemphasized because the volumetric gas rate is one of the most important parameters for defining the flow pattern or regime. Generally. There have been many instances when a multiphase flow correlation or set of gradient curves has been rejected based on reportedly reliable well test data after the calculated flowing pressures at depth didnot approximate the measured pressures at depth.e. the area open to flow cannotbe restricted by PUBLISHED VERTICAL. Importance of Reliable Well Test Data Reliable well test data implies accurate gasmeasurement.. Eaton13.A significant portion of the data may be out of the recognized production rate or production conduit size ranges. Dukler. The number of detailed investigations of horizontal and inclined multiphase flow are less numerous in the literature.`. the flowing pressure at depth predictions based on computer calculations are generally more accurate than the “so called” field measurements. The proper equations for multiphase flow calculations depend upon a correct predictionof the flow regime forthe general type of multiphase flow correlations. The production conduit must be full open: i. A statistical error analysis is performed on the difference between the published measured pressure loss and the calculated pressure loss using computer programs written by these authors. Baxendelland Thomas4. The reported data base. and the beta ratio controls the differential pen reading for a given volumetric gas rate. Flowing pressure gradient curves and computer calculated flowing pressures at depth which are based on a proven multiphase flow correlation will assure consistent predictions in the stable flow range of the correlation.Johnson6. and Beggs and Brilll5. Themultiphase flow correlations this discussion arenot applicable in when an emulsion exists. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. The Beggs and Brill correlation for inclined flow may be used for vertical flow calculations by assigning a 90 degree angle of inclination. authors of these papers use published data from several sources. HagedornandBrown7.. application and possible limitations are not always available for all multiphase correlations. These vertical multiphase flow correlations are the Poettmann and Carpenter3. The conclusions from this type of error analysis can be misleading to the reader..```. Only published information can be used to describe the various multiphase flow correlations. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.Orkiszewski*. The morewidely applied correlations includeBakerlo.`. --`````.API TITLErVT-6 94 m 0732290 0532857 28T m 24 Gas Lift scale or paraffin deposition. Thesemay include flowing pressures at depth and production data from original publications for multiphase flow correlations being compared. Further investigation of the reported production test data may reveal the reason for the discrepancy. internal company improvements and modifications in multiphase flow correlations and computer programs are not public knowledge. There are required wellandtubularconditionsbeforeaccurateflowingpressure-at-depth predictionscan be anticipated. When the actual reported field data are inconsistent and not repeatable.``.andMoreland9..`. A differential reading in the upper two-thirds of the range of the element is essential for accurate gas measurement with an orifice meter. For accurate predictions the flow pattern should also be relatively stable without severe heading or surging. by noted the investigators.`--- Papers Evaluating the Accuracy of Multiphase Flow Correlations Therearetechnicalpapers I h .`. to be applicable to their multiphase flow correlations. the only way to properly evaluate a multiphase flow correlation or set of flowing pressure at depth gradient curves to compare reliablewell test is data with calculated pressures at depth or with pressures determined from published gradient curves. . Generally. et ali4. A multiphase flow data bank as a benchmark test for all multiphase flow correlations does notalwaysapply.. An example is the use of low production rate data to check the Baxendell and Thomas correlations. Flanigan12. HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS This discussion is not intended to replace a text book on multiphase flow..

-`-`.. The Duns and Ros paper is based on laboratory data only and is not the Ros-Gray correlation that was modified to eliminate discrepancies between calculated and accurately measured data from over600 actual stabilized well tests.. is being compared to other correlations when in fact the Duns and Ros Correlation is being compared. All low rate data would be on the Poettmann and Carpenter portion of the curve and not on the extension by Baxendell and Thomas.. which can be purchased from Shell Oil Company. therefore.. The calcuflowing pressures at depth in areas of high rate production on when the correlation is based on accurate stabilized flowinglated flowing pressures at depth for high rates based the extended total energy loss curve proved to be exceedingly well data from the same field or similar well production of the rates and conduit sizes.``. which was based on an extensive laboratory investigation by Ros2' was presented at a Joint AIChE-SPE Symposium and a revised version of the same paper was published in the Journal of Petroleum Technology".`.The initial paper.. SPE-AIME.`. The final version of the Ros paper was presented by Duns5. --`````.. The total energy loss factor curve was extended for daily mass rates which were significantly higher than the original Poettmann and Carpenter data. The original Poettmann and Carpenter lished in 1952. Another consideration is the manner in which a computer program is written and the correlations that are being used to calculate thefluid properties. to be more accurate 23 fields i n which the correlation was being used.. Since extension energy loss curve was based on well data from the same lation are simple and are reportedz2. anticipated. 3-1 . The conclusion remains that one particular multiphase flow correlation may prove to be more accurate than others for certain production conduit sizes and rates. a ranking of the available correlations in terms of general overall applicability is questionable. The number of variables which affect these Poettmann and Carpenter Correlation pressure predictions are reduced because the fluid properThe first widely accepted multiphase flow correlation ties and conduit sizes are the same for the correlation and was developed by Poettmann and Carpenter and was pubthe actual wells. . The energy balance equation combined a pseudo no-slip homogeneous mixture density gradient and the Fanning equation for single-phase flow where the friction factor was replaced by the total energy loss factor. First published in the JPT 1961) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. reasonable in many instances than the more complex general type of accuracy in flowing pressure at depth predictions could be correlations. The results from two computer programs based on the same multiphase flow correlation can be quite different.`. Ros-Gray and Duns-Ros Correlations Authors may infer that the Ros-Gray correlation..````.A P I TITLErVT-b Prediction Flow '74 m 0732270 0532858 116 m 25 Multiphase The Baxendell and Thomas correlation ishigh rate extena sion of the Poettmann and Carpenter total energyloss factor curve. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`--- Baxendell and Thomas Correlation Baxendell and Thomas modified the Poettmann and Carpenter correlation using measured data from high rate wells in Venezuela. SIMPLIFIED MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS BASED ON TOTAL ENERGY LOSS FACTORSOR MO-SLIP HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES A simplified multiphase flow correlation based on a total numbers for fully turbulent single-phase flow on a Moody diagram. flow than all prior publications combined. The calculations for this type corre-accurate for wells in Venezuela.`. Their correlation was based on a total single energy loss factor that accounts for all losses including liquid holdup from gas slippage and for friction and acceleration.```. 3-1. The work of Poettmann and Carpenter did total energy loss factor curve and the extension by Baxenmore to initiate additional research in vertical multiphase dell and Thomas is shown in Fig.Extension of the energy loss factor curve by Baxendell and Thomas4 (Copyright 1961. The energy loss factor for vertical and horizontal multiphase flow approached a near constant value at very high daily mass rates in a manner analogous to high Reynolds O I 2 S 4 & 6 7 4 ou x 10-4 O Fig. The authors assumed that the flattened portion of single energy loss factor curve or a simple homogeneous no-slip flow model should be considered for calculating the energy loss factor curve represents the truly turbulent conditions where little or no gas slippage occurs.

3-2 for vertical flow of gas-liquid mixtures illustrates the need for proper flow regime identification. GENERAL TYPE MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS A general type of multiphase flow correlation is reportedly applicable for all sizesof typical oil field production conduits and for the liquid and gas rates encountered oil in field operations. The importance of properly definedfluid property relationships for calculating flowing pressure gradients was demonstrated by Cornishz3. Liquid holdup represents the relationship between the volume occupied by the liquid and the total volume of the production conduit within the incremental pipe length under investigation.`. and an energy loss factor curve can be shifted to improve the accuracy of the calculated flowing pressures at depth. There may be more than one flow pattern existing between the lower end of the production conduit and the surface. The flow pattern schematic from Moreland9 in Fig. The pressure gradient equationfor at least one flow regime will include liquid holdup based on gas slippage.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. Liquid and gas viscosity's and surface tension are usually required input or are defaultvalues in the computer programs for the general types of multiphase flow correlations.6 94 m 0732290 0532859 052 m 26 Two-Phase Homogeneous No-Slip Mixture Correlations Several technical papers have been published that illustrate the application of two-phase homogeneous no-slip correlations for high rate wells.`. The advantages and accuracy of a simplified total single energy loss factor correlation or a two-phase homogeneous no-slip flow model based on actual measured data from high rate production wells should not be overlooked. Accurate pressures at depth predictions are claimed by the developers of most general correlations for even relatively high viscosity crude oil.. The density term includes a liquid holdup correction for gas slippage.````. Brown22 notes that a simplified correlation developed from multiphase flow data for an actual production conduit size may assure more accurate pressure loss calculations than the more complicated general type of correlation based on laboratory controlled multiphase flow data for conduit sizes which are Gas Lift generally smaller and shorter than the actual conduits. the basic typical pressure gradient equation for vertical multiphase flow consists of the following terms: Equation 3.Typical flow patterns for vertical of gasflow liquid mixtures9 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. The accelerationterm is often neglected in all flow regimes except where highfluid velocities exists such as ANNULAR MIST FROTH --`````. 3-2 .API T I T L E S V T .``. to define the proper equations for calculating the flowing pressure gradient in the incremental pipe length under investigation. The accuracy of the method for predicting liquid holdup is particularly important for the gas and liquid velocities associated with the lower production rates.. Total energy loss factors are easily calculated from flowing pressure surveys. .```. The general correlation requiresidentian fication of the flow regime..`. The flow regime may be single-phase or bubble flow at the higher pressures nearer the surface...`--- SLUG BUBBLE Typical Pressure Gradient Equation Vertical Flow for Although the exact final equations and correlating parameters vary between investigators..`.-`-`.1 Pressure .. or flow pattern.Density Friction Acceleration Gradient + Term Term Term Term SINGLE PHASE LlOUlO + Fig.

For example.````.]. phase flow are ideally depicted by Orkiszewski in Fig.`.-`-`. L I . depending uponthe conduit size and production rate. The first step after selecting the proper set of gradient curves is to convert the Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. i. a maximum R. or set.000 standard cubic feet of gas per stock tank barrel (scf/STB) would be displayed for a production rate only of 100 STB/day through 2’/rinch O. The ent flow regimes and use the Hagedorn and Brown correlapressure gradient in the transition area between Regions II tions for only the slug flow pattern.I of 1000 to 2000 scf/STB may be the maximum for a higher production rate of 2000 STB/day through the same conduit size. 3-3 -Rosflow region boundaries based on laboratory Fig. v ... (AI BUBBLEFLOW Gas Veloclty Number RN I\-.or lack of continuity. Orkiszewski. The original The flow regime.] only when the water cut is zero. whereas a R. --`````. Aziz./ FLOW SLUG-ANNULAR ANNULAR-MIST TRANSITION Fig. which is Region II on and III can be approximated by linear interpolation on the the Ros flow regime map in Fig.1 of 10. a production rate. RI SLUG FLOW \ .. a setof gradient curves will be displayed for a given conduit size.1) ranging from zero for single-phase liquid to a maximum practical R. : . . Published General Type Correlations The multiphase correlations developed by Ros. 3-4 -Ideal flow regimes or categories for multiphase flow as illustrated by OrkiszewskP (Copyright 1967 SPEdata’ AIME.Flowing pressure at depth curves will be drawn for gas-liquid ratios (R..e. The flow regime must be established percent of the cases studied..`. Apparently. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The accepted categoriesor flow regimes fortwoother investigators. are considered general.. mapgenerallyis paper by Hagedorn and Brown’ stated that it was unnecesdivided into at least three major regions which are defined sary to separate two-phase flow into the various flow patby the continuity... Hagedorn not did before the proper equations andcorrelationscanbe encounter the bubble flow regime during his experimental selected for the flowing pressure gradient calculations. Y . all oil production. The contribution of acceleration is reported to be very small in the other multiphase flow regimes. higher Rglvalues are associated with lower production rates and lower R. Many phases. 3-3. tubing.The Rgois equal to the R.``. a and water cut which may be zero.API TITLErVT-6 74 m 0732270 0532860 8 7 4 W 27 Multiphase Flow Prediction in the annular mist regime.`. . . 3-4.. et. 3-3 is thepublished Ros flow regime map based computer programs based on the Hagedorn and Brown on laboratory data. of curves should always be defined in terms of R.`--- Converting RgO Rg.D. this conclusion by Hagedorn can be found in the paper by where R is the ratioof the in-situ superficial velocity of the Orkiszewski which notes that slug flow occurred in 95 gas to liquid phases. The liquid phase is continuous in correlation include separate sets equations for the differof Region I.```. to This family.I values with higher production rates.. Fig. Generally. First published in the JPT June 1967) DISPLAYS OF FLOWING PRESSUREAT DEPTH GRADIENT CURVES Most displays of flowing pressure at depth gradient curves use the same parameters but may be plotted somewhat differently.I and not gas-oil ratio (Rgo). In general. or flow pattern. of the liquid and gas terns and develop correlations for each pattern. and gas is the continuous phase in Region III. The work because his tests were conducted in a shallow 1500Ros flow regime boundary equations have been used by foot well. An explanation for basis of the gasvelocity number (RN) value on the abscissa. .. al.`.

--`````.D. the flowing pressure gradient begins to increase rather than decrease. and accurate pressure determinations are difficult confusing at thelower and flowing pressures where the curves are crossing over one another.I increases.O . One set of Gilbert gradient curves for 600 barrels per day through 27/8-in~h O. An example of overlaying of gradient curves24 is illustrated in Fig. as defined by Gilbert for this daily production rate of 600 barrels through 2’/8-inch O..I. When the R. A higher flowing pressure at depth is predicted for R.```..I of 5000 scf/STB than for 2400 scf/STB based on these gradient curves..D.water cut). tubingz5 is shown in Fig. Gas lift installation designs and analyseshavebeenbasedongradient curve displays with a minimum fluid gradient curve without any reported significant error in predictions of flowing pressures at depth or injection gas requirements.I curves will be one and the same above the pointof tangency.`.`.I exceeds 2400 scf/STB.. tubing is shown in Fig. Note that the depth axis is shifted 5000 feet for the Rgl curves of 3000. The Gilbert flowing pressure-depth curves were the forerunners for the present method of displaying gradient curves. The optimum R.I curves and represents a flowing Fig. which is the formation R. 3-6. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.I below the point of gas injection and is the injection plus the formation R. As the R.I curves at low flowing pressures. Although flowing pressure gradient curves for several conduit sizes were published by Gilbert.`.D.. Gilbert’s curves were based on numerous flowing pressure surveys run in the VenturaField in California..I. The design calculations may lose some accuracyif gas lift operations should occur in the reversal portion of a high R.. The optimum curve represents minimum possible flowthe ing pressure at depth for a given conduit size and production rate.Gilbert’s flowing pressure gradient curves for 600 BPD through 27/g-inch O.2 Where: R. is 240 scf/STB.D.``.. curves increases which infers that these points of tangency occur at increasing chart depths. A set of typical flowing pressure gradient curves for 600 STB day through 23/s-inch O. psi total Rgoto total Rgl before determining a flowing pressure at depth. scf/STB These R. fraction Rgo = gas-oil ratio. This increase in flowing pressure gradient is referred to as a reversal in the slope of a gradient curve.I curve will result in the higher R.`. Gradient curves displayed with a minimum fluid gradient curve are easier to apply for certain design determinations..I curves crossing over the low R.mostefficientgasliftinstallations will operate with a total R.I = gas-liquid ratio.````..] curves to form a single curve. 3-7.D.`. The minimum fluid gradient curve and higher R.] curve. No multiphase flow correlation was offered for calculating these flowing pressures at depth.%PI TITLExVT-b 94 m 0732290 0532863 700 m 28 Gas Lift pressure gradient curve definedby the loci of tangency’s of the higher R. = oil cut (1 . the only full-page size curves presented the API in paper were for 27/~-inch O.I about the point of gas injection.] curves at low flowing pressures at depth.However. Gilbert’s Curves Gilbert1 published one the first sets flowing pressure of of at depth gradient curvesin 1954.] curves always represent total R. Rgl = fo (Rgo) Equation 3. 3-5. tubing.I below the range of a severe reversal in the flowing pressure gradient curve and the actual flowing wellhead pressure will exceed the lower pressures where a severe reversal would occur. tubing.`--- Minimum Fluid Gradient Curve Many published gradient curves are displayed with a minimum fluid gradient curve rather than shifting the origin of the depth scale to prevent overlaying crossing and over of R. 4000 and 5000 scf/STB. A reversal in the slope of a high R. scf/STB f. . 3-5 . Gradient pressure. tubing’ Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. The minimum fluid gradient curve ignores the reversals in the individual R. the flowing pressure at the depth tangency for of the higher R.-`-`.

`.`..65 150 O F 36.Vertical flowing pressure gradient curves without depth displacement to eliminate overlapping of the high R.``..D.0 O API 1 .A P I TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0532862 b 4 7 9 29 Multiphase Flow Prediction 8 16 PRESSURE 24 .`. I.I curves24 --`````.441 IN.````.`.-`-`.100 PSI 32 40 40 66 2- VERTICAL FLOWINQ PRESSURE GRADIENTS (ALL OIL) TUBING SIZE 2. 3-6 .. 1500 BLPD 4- PRODUCTION RATE Q A 8 SPECIFIC GRAVITY AVERAQE FLOWINQ TEMP.```...`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..`. ...O7 6- 8- 0- 2- 4- 6- 8- 'O - Fig. OIL GRAVITY WATER SPECIFIC QRAVITY 0.

D.-`-`.6 94 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 6 3 583 30 Gas Lift O 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 1 I 2 (ALL a u Tubing Size 2 i . n Producing Rate 600 Bblr/Day Oil A I Gravity P 35" APt Gs Specific Gravity a 0. 1..65 VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENTS 1 I 3 4 8 a Fig..`..`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..````.API T I T L E t V T .```.`--- .`.`. --`````.7 .``.`.Vertical flowing pressure gradient curves plotted withminimum fluid gradient curvez5 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002... 3...

-`-`... 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.`. 3-8 ...`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.``...```. reversal overlapping6 displaced on the depth scale to prevent gradient --`````.`..A P I TITLExVT-6 94 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532864 4 1 T 31 Multiphase Flow Prediction O 5 10 15 20 25 30 10 Fig.. .`.`.````.Vertical flowing pressure gradient curves based on the Shell Ros-Gray correlation with the higher curves Rg.

A correlation extended be can Production Rate beyond its range of validity without the user recognizing the limitations.100 STB/day Well 1.I curves as for a set of gradient curves with a minimum fluidgradientcurve..`. 2. The R.`.`. Information: Tubing Size = 2%-inch O.curve.```.32 Gas Lift from crossing over the preceding lower RE. predicted the from Fig. 3-9.D. A minimum pressure flowing bottomhole of 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 $3 - O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 011211431 5 1 Daily Production Rate . 3-9 . .`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 3-8.= 400 scf/STB Flowing Wellhead Pressure (Pwh) psig = 100 Fig..-`-`.`.````..`. Although smooth gradient curves may be pubA plot of flowing bottomhole pressure at 6000 feet versus lished for low liquidrates with low total gas-liquidratios.Flowing B H P versus daily production ratefor a constant gas-oil ratio --`````.``.. A set of Ros-Gray curvesh are shown in Fig.. 3. 4. 5.. Flowing pressures at depth are determined in the same manner for the displaced R. Displaying Gradient Curves to Prevent CrOSSOVer The most accurate displayof gradient curves will include the reversal in the flowing pressures at depth for the higher R.dailyproduction rate for a constant Rgl of 400 scf/STB actual flow conditions may be quite different than would be and a flowing wellhead pressure of 100 psig is shown in curves. Tubing Length = 6000 ft Water Cut (fo)= 0% (All Oil) Formation Rg...I curves. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. curve will be displaced sufficiently on thedepthscaletopreventthe nexthigher Rgl curve STABILITY OF FLOW CONDITIONS AND SELECTION PRODUCTION CONDUIT SIZE OF Multiphase correlations developed flow are based on Graphical Determination of Minimum Stabilized stabilized flowing well data.

`--- a con- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The in-situ gas velocity must exceed a minimum 500 STB day in this example to assure not slipping into the value that prevents excessive gas slippage and correspondingly high liquid holdup which causes a well to load unstable region.= 400 scf/STB (All Oil) Flowing Wellhead Pressure = 100 psig Fig. For this reason. 3-10 . The gas rate velocity increases as as a loading and unloading state of flow before all flow the production conduit size decreases for the same daily ceases and the well is classified as dead..`..`. Most wells will reach a severe surging condition that can best be described why stable flowing conditions can be established in smaller conduit sizes for low wells.-`-`. A cyclic heading or surging condition develops as the daily production falls below the liquid rate up and die.Flowing B H P versus daily production rate for three different tubing sizes of the sume length und stunt gus-oil ratio --`````. The unstable range should be volumetric gas rate requirement for a given production conavoided by producing at a daily rate that is safely above the duit size. The flowMultiphase Flow ing bottomhole pressure increases at lower and higher daily liquid production rates... the total gas-liquid ratio to sustain stable flow must for this minimum flowing bottomhole pressure. O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Daily Production Rate . Information: Tubing Length = 6000 feet Formation Rg. The unstable flow conditions exist An explanation for the conditions necessary to assure at daily liquid rates less than the rate for the minimum stable multiphase flow can be related to a minimum free flowing bottomhole pressure..`. a minimum gas velocthe flowing bottomhole pressure increases which in turn ity necessary to prevent excessive liquid holdup explains results in a further decrease in liquid rate.`. 2. 3. Also.. ...A P I TITLE*VT-b Prediction Flow YY m 0732290 0532866 292 m 33 Multiphase approximately 860 psig at 6000 feet occurs at a daily proConditions Necessary to Assure Stable duction rate slightly greater than 500 STB day.``. a compariprinciples defining a vertical or inclined multiphase flow son of injection gas-liquid ratios is not recommended for system and the intlow performance relationship defining the deliverabilityof a reservoir.`. As the liquid rate decreases. evaluating the gas lift operations in wells that have a wide range in daily production rate.````. Since there is this minimum gas rate requirement. The cyclic conditions are perpetuated and intensifiedby the fluid flow increase as the daily liquid production rate decreases for the same production conduit size.```.100 STB/day Well 1.

... If the daily production rate occurs in the unstable range of flow for a given tubing size.````. For example. The widely used multiphase flow correlations in these computer programs have been verified by actual field measurement to be reasonably accurate when reliable well data are used for input.In other words. 3-10. Effect of Tubing Size on Minimum Stabilized Flow Rate A well may flow with a 2’/s-inch O. . tubing in Fig.`. If 1 660inch O. the advent of multiphase flow correlations which are applicable to the conduit sizes and the daily production rates associated with gas lift operations has changed the design and analysis of continuous flow gaslift wellsfrom an art based on experience to a predictable science...``.`. The intake flowing bottomhole pressure versus daily production rate for three commonly used tubing sizes is illustrated in Fig. The majority of the gas lift manufacturers have computer programs available to design and analyze gas lift installations. --`````.. Improved multiphase flow correlations will be developed for deviated production conduits.`. Accurate gradient curves can be used to select the proper conduit sizefor a well based on the desired daily production rate.A P I TITLE*VT-b 34 94 m 0732290 Gas Lift O532867 L29 volumetric gas rate.-`-`. a lower flowing bottomhole pressure can be attained for the same daily production with a smaller conduit size.D. The number of wells having deviated production conduits will increase as new wells are drilled from offshore platforms. a tubing size can be too large for a low capacity well or too small for a large capacity well. These programs should be utilized by field production personnel for continuous gas lift installation design and analysis. Research in multiphase flow continues with increased emphasis i n gathering systems including flowlines and inclined flow..`. Many companies have their own in-house multiphase flow computer programs. 3-9.thepredictedflowing bottomhole pressure would decrease to approximately 1000 psig forthesamedaily production rate of 100 STB day.`.D. The calculations for inclined flow will be more complex by requiring profiles of production conduit lengthversus angle of deviation. In conclusion. the predicted flowing bottomhole pressure is approximately 1360 psig at 6000 feet 1 O0 for STB day through 2’/s-inch O.. tubing string and require artificial lift with a larger size tubing.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. (l’/a-inch nominal) tubing were run in the same well. CONCLUSIONS The ability to predict accurate multiphase flowing pressures at depthin a vertical production conduithas improved significantly since the work of Poettmann and Carpenter in 1952.D.```. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

This is stated in the following equation: " PI = TI P2 Equation 4. In the sealed container. Gas lift valves downhole will respond to injection gas pressure and production pressure in the wellbore as well as pressure and temperature inside the bellows of thegasliftvalve. However. The gas flow equation is adjusted for the flowing temperature of the gas and corrected to a standard temperature of 60°F..In each of these cases the gas behavior differs. Production conditions such as surface wellhead back pressure and surface temperature are usually estimated i n gas lift design and planning because actual measurements will not be available. The second type of application involves a sealed gas container. It is important to understand that a single component like nitrogen gas and a mixture of components such as natural gas will behave differently. In this application. dehydrators. before equation 4.`. In the first type of application the gas can expand. Temperature affects the gas in the closed container as well as in the open.compressed.1 Tz In gas lift calculations this equation could be used to determine the change that takes placein the nitrogen pressure in the bellows when a gas lift valve is set in a testrack at a temperature of 60°F and then is placed downhole at a much higher temperature. the temperature in degreesFahrenheit (F) is convertedtodegreesRankine (R). Injection gas for gas lift wells can be affected by various operating and producing conditions including gas supply and production system back pressure. degrees Rankine ("F plus 460). BASIC FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS BEHAVIOR The pressureof a liquid or gas system can be measured..e. These conditions must be accurately predicted. if atmospheric pressure is 15 psi. the temperatures are absolute.``. An example of this is the nitrogen which is contained in the bellows of a gas lift valve. through a pipeline to the well..`..andprocessedwith mechanical devices.````. A gas expands when heated. In all calculations throughout this chapter. meters. For example.```. expansive application.A P I TITLE*VT-6 Application Gas 9Y m 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 b 8 Ob5 m 35 and Gas Facilities Lift Gas for CHAPTER 4 GAS APPLICATION AND GAS FACILITIES FOR GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION Gas handling facilities such as gas compressors. where it expands and mixes with the produced liquids. Gas measurement requires a record of the flowing temperature of the'gas through an orifice meter. as a gas that contains even small quantities of hydrogen sulfide can be very corrosive to certain equipment and present a hazard to human life. and pipelines are the highest cost portions of the gas lift system. Natural gas used to produce liquids by gas lift is controlled. A pressure gage is the device thatis commonly used to measure the pressure of the liquid/gas mixture produced from the well as well as the pressure of the gas injected into the well. and then goes through a gas lift valve. and volume are related.. the effects of temperature must be reviewed. The indicator of heat change is the measured degree of temperature. The pressure is taken with a gage and is referred to as gage pressure. Therefore. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. This equipment usually requires more operating and maintenance effort than any other part of the gas lift facilities. In the calculations shown here. . 1000 psig converts to 1015 psia. Gage pressure plus atmospheric pressure (usually about 15 psi) is referred to as absolute pressure and designated psia. --`````. Operating practices involving gas are different from those for oil because of the increased pressure and compressibility of the mixtures involved. a temperature increase causes a pressure increase inside the bellows Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.measured. 150°F plus 460 is equal to 610" Rankine (absolute). Temperature increase after compression and the subsequent effect on flow through a pipeline or a gas lift valve are the most common examples of these phenomena. i. an understanding of gas fundamentals and operating practices is necessary to the successful operation of a gas lift system. gas goes from the compressor. Gas lift systems utilize gas pressure more than one type in of application.`. Also.. The difference between gage pressure and absolute pressure is very small at high pressures. temperature.In theUnited States it is measured in pounds per square inch and designated psig. At each link the gas expands and loses some of its pressure energy.1 can be applied. For example..`. or bellows. Thesealed container is a system in which pressure.`...`--- because the nitrogen cannot expand outside the bellows.-`-`.

butan So the Z factor is related to the particular gas vapor. Fig.`.992) x [(60"F) Equation 4.2 (1.. assume the gas specific gravity is 0..```. 2 gen and for natural gas mixtures denoted by some property Now apply equation 4.`.. temperaIf similar calculations are made with natural gas. T? = 60°F.2 1015 psia P1 VI Z II T - P2 V? Z? T? - Pz (0. These compressibility(deviation account factors factors)nonthe for behavior of ideal accuracy and improve the gas of calculationsforoilfieldsystems. The deviation or compressibility factor appears in the (Z) following equation: ~- FromFig.`. N2 is non-toxic 2 actual gas stream being considered.API TITLEUVT-b 36 '34 07322'30 0 5 3 2 8 b 9 T T 1 Gas Lift Deviation factors can be obtained for nitrogen from Fig. A compressibility factor (Z) is used to denote deviation from ideal conditions. In the example i n which and 4-3 are available for estimating the Z Factor. the gage pressure is 850 psig. The atmospheric pressure is approximately 15 psi.-`-`.81) x (520"R) conditions. ZI = 1. in order to improve the accuracy of the results. The Z factor remains. and Z factors.`. Charts assumed pressure is needed to estimate ZZ. 4-3. 4-1. This example does not take into account the deviation from ideal behavior. and deviation relationship.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..885) (610"R) x (0. These charts and tables are not valid if significant quantities of impurities are present the in psia 1015 P2 natural gas mixture.`. PI . temperature. (usually specific gravity). (use the above data). The user should be careful to Note: Nitrogen (N?) is used in the gas lift valve bellows ensure that the table or chart being used represents the because N behavior is well known. itis also a functionof gas specific gravity (gas specific gravityis based on composition). . ZI = 0.``.. Assume PZ are available that list deviation (Z) factors for nitro= 850 psia (835 psig). P I = 1015 psia (1000 psig) the type of gas must be identified because theZ factor for T I = 150°F methane is different from the factor for nitrogen. then Z = 0. Atcondition2. For bellows is considered a sealed container that changes very example. Deviation is a function of the pressure and temperature and..013) x [(150"F) + 460'1 + 460'1 Z2 P2 = 847 psia (Use this PZ to estimate another and repeat calculation) The volume (V) is now includedin the pressure. 4-1 and for sweet natural gases from Fig.7condition at little in size VI is equal to VZ and so volume is eliminated 1: from the equation. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.992 = Now apply equation 4. P2 isunknown.2.. At condition 1: --`````. therefore.`--- In this example.8 1.PZ ~or TI (1000 psig +psi) 15 (150°F T? or + 460) - P? + (600F - 460"F) (1015 psia) ( 6 1 O'R) P Z (520"R) then P? = 865 psia PI = TI 1015 psia (1000 psig 150°F + 15 psi) This is the absolute pressure with ideal behavior. The previous example is modified as follows: The gas is nitrogen.013 At condition 2: P? = unknown(butassume865psia) Tz = 2 2 60°F 0. for natural gases. and it is readily available. Special charts are needed for those (0. PZ = 7 9 2 p s i a ( u s e t h i s PZ to estimate another ZZ It becomes very apparent that the accuracyof the calcuand repeat) lation depends on having reliable information for pressure. 4-2 ture. which is Z also different from the factor for a natural gas mixture Z of From Fig. To apply the Z factor.````.885 many components. the valve bellows pressure in the test rack at 60°F is calculated SO that the valve can be set to have a bellows pressure of 1000 psig when it is operating downhole at 150°F. 4-2 and 4-3.

``.. 4-1 . PSlA Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002....`.````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.A P I TITLE*VT-6 Facilities Application GasGas and 94 m 0732290 0532870 713 m for Gas Lift 37 Fig. Bureau of Mines Monograph 10 Volume 2.```.`--- N PRESSURE... “Phase Relations of Gas-Condensate Fluids” Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.`.`.Compressibility factors for Nitrogen. .`.`...-`-`.

Z-Chart (100 .`.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.Z-Chart (300 ..`..````. 4-2 . --`````. 4-3 ...`....300 psi) Courtesy Exxon Production Research Company Fig.`.-`-`.```..`--- .A P I TITLEUVT-b 9 4 38 Lift m 0732290 0532873 b5T Gas m 1 PROBLEM EXAMPLE: GIVEN: Tavo 100°F = Fig.``.2000 psi) data from CNGA Bu1 T5-461 and Standing-Katz AIME Transactions 1942 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.

as previously mentioned. Conceivably the “gas” may be a liquid in the reservoir at high pressure and temperature and change to the gas phase inside the wellbore as it moves toward the surface... PM = Bellows Pressure (psîg) As an example. estimates of downhole gas pressure.-`-`. Pbv = (0. The valve mechanics equations.`. One correcting method is to use Table 4-1 by H .. and operate these surface facilities.```. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. As previously discussed. Millions of dollars are spent to design. Tables and charts provide the data needed for calculations. Most of the time. In all cases the fundamental methods described here are used to estimate gas behavioral changes. As mentioned previously. In order to more accurately describe gas behavior. Computers are often used. install. If a sample from the reservoir cannot be obtained. W.`. volume. nitrogen is used to lessen chances of error because it has well-knowncompressibility factors and is safe to handle..`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. temperature) relationship. the gas lift valve in the well will not beoperating at 60“. Often multiple gas samples are taken for chromatograph composition analyses and used for compressor sizing and design. or bellows.. downhole fluid pressure. These correlations make it possible to predict the amount of free gas that will be present in the system under any given condition of pressure and temperature. The reciprocating compressor is also dependent upon this gas composition but is not as sensitive to changes. Winkler and the following relationship: phv = C x Phdt T Equation 4.6 74 W 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 7 2 576 Gas Application and Gas Facilities for Gas Lift 39 APPLICATION TO OILFIELD SYSTEMS Gas behavior applications are important in the production of oil and gas because there are changes in temperature and pressure as the oil and gas move from reservoir to the surface. The pressure inside the bellows will vary as the temperature varies. estimating the gas passage through a gas lift valve and. a recombined separator liquid and gas sample is used. in the gas lift valve is used to provide a controlled closing pressure so that the gas lift --`````. Another area related to gas behavior occurs in the design and sizing of surface compressors and dehydration facilities. Temperature Correction The temperature correction is actually an adjustment from wellbore temperature to a test rack temperature of 60°F. good data on gas properties are necessary to accurately predict gas behavior within ranges in temperature and pressure.````. The wellbore temperature estimate is critical because the nitrogen pressure setting in the valve is dependent upon this temperature estimate.. Therefore.`. although some valves use a spring or nitrogen pressure plus a spring. In the shop the valve is placed in a special test rack fixture and the valve is set by calculating a test rack opening pressure and thenslowly bleeding the nitrogen from the bellows until the test rack opening pressure just barely opens the valve. This analysis provides the gas and liquid composition as well as other useful information on gas and oil properties such as gas specific gravity. in setting a bellows (dome) pressure in a gas lift valve. The closing force in the valve is provided by the nitrogen pressure in the bellows for most valves. for a downhole temperature at valve (from Table 4-1) @ Downhole Temperature(fromvalvemechanicscalculation) Subsurface Applications Techniques for estimating gas behavior may be applied to subsurface applications in computing injection gas pressure profiles. producing a data graph for estimates. and gas-oil ratio.848) x (820 psig) = 695 psig Pressure Correction The dome. It will be at some higher temperature and the downhole bellows pressure (Pbdt) at temperature must be converted to a bellows pressure (Ph”) at 60°F. Offset wells in the same reservoir can be a good source of information relating to crude oil and dissolved gas characteristics such as gas-liquid ratios and gas composition. ~~ . this nitrogen pressure within the bellows (approximately constant volume sealed dome) is dependent upon temperature.. calculate the dome pressure at 60°F in a test rack if Pmt = 820 psig at 140°F. valve operates much like a back pressure valve on a separator. Most manufacturers cool the gas lift valves to 60°F in a cooler and thus have a consistent and repeatable temperature at which to set the nitrogen pressure in the bellows: however.`. a reservoir fluid sample is analyzed in the laboratory for PVT (pressure.3 Where: P v = Bellows Pressure (psig) @ 60°F b CT = Temperature Correction Factor. equations are not used directly. These composition values are crucial for the design of centrifugal compressors because the internal wheel design is highly dependent upon gas specific gravity and the changes that occur in the gas as it goes from a low pressure to a high pressure.. Various correlations are available for estimating the changes in the properties of crude oils as the pressure and temperature of the production system change.`--- This calculation gives the bellows pressure setting at a laboratory (shop) standard condition.``. liquid gravity.A P I T I T L E a V T . and downhole temperature are used to calculate the bellows pressure needed for the closing force. Another possible error may result from poor behavior prediction of the bellows gas.

840 X P~v2/10000000 2.784 .931 ..A P I TITLErVT-6 40 94 m 0732290 0532873 Lift Y22 m TABLE 4-1 TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FACTORS FOR NITROGEN BASED ON 60°F P v = 1000 psig b Cl "F .````.755 .```.909 .820 .765 .703 . Winkler and P.985 .683 .`--- .903 .957 .768 .676 . OK.750 .808 . W.66 1 .970 .715 .79 1 .679 .801 .753 .701 .794 .910 .934 X Pbv/1000 .726 .839 .912 .847 .786 ..825 ..968 ..667 .686 .721 .963 .662 .658 .673 .848 Where: Cl = 1/[1.96 1 .705 .99 1 .654 .803 .69 1 26 1 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 27 1 272 27 3 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 28 1 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 29 1 292 293 294 295 296 297 29 8 299 0 3O .677 .697 .728 .652 .717 .688 .865 .777 .781 .678 .949 .739 .925 .81 1 .O + ("F-60) x MPb] And for P v less than 1238 psia b M = 3.054 X Pb~2/10000000 1.875 .804 .-`-`.775 .76 1 . Presented at SPE production operations symposium in Oklahoma City.885 . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.710 .779 .939 .866 .947 .920 .680 .772 .693 . --`````.868 .989 .743 .714 .887 .882 .670 .656 .943 .860 .922 .760 .747 .965 .929 .927 .719 .831 .955 .689 .759 .`. Eads.959 .664 .807 .706 .675 .788 .814 .267 + Based on SPE paper 18871 by H.9 16 .800 .733 .67 1 .68 1 .907 .692 .813 .724 .722 .657 .832 .905 .2.845 .890 .863 .996 .924 .822 .X26 .790 .668 .795 .817 .7 13 .745 .797 .764 .708 .85 1 .659 .769 ..899 .729 .870 .828 .871 .933 .736 .704 .776 .819 .94 1 .7 16 .873 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 .`.945 .889 .935 .730 .735 .805 .298 X Pbv/lOOO .987 .669 .855 . T.0.876 .773 .660 .787 .974 .836 .892 .65 1 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 I27 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 1O 0 .`.793 .878 .856 .749 .823 .663 .901 .861 .682 .763 .894 .982 .685 .842 .655 .976 .654 .a10 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 20 1 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 21 1 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 "F 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 Ct "F CI "F Cl "F 22 1 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 23 1 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 24 1 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 25 1 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 Cl "F C.998 .727 .798 .734 .672 .653 .`.732 .758 .953 .7 1 1 .``.937 .744 .840 .853 .695 .690 .26/1000 + and for P v greater than 1238 psia b M = 1.883 .7 12 .75 1 .780 .738 .9 18 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 . 1989 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.720 ..698 .694 .702 ..754 .898 .746 .837 .914 . March 13-14.816 .850 .74 1 . .880 .665 .674 .77 1 .993 .740 .700 .843 .972 .723 .95 1 .858 .980 .896 .666 .783 .`.696 .756 ..687 .978 .707 . Algorithm for more accurately predicting nitrogen-charged gas lift valve operation at high pressures and temperatures.767 .829 .834 .

4-4 . the problem is usually found in wells with small casing. the pipe resists the flow and friction develops between the gas and the pipe walls. the high pressure gas specific gravity will be from 0. this small clearance (approximately O. the design requirement becomes one of estimating the pressure at depth for the gas specific gravity used in the system. the friction caused by the gas flowing between the pipe body and the small casing and. there are cases in which gas pressure could decrease with depth.D.. collars used inside 2. the gas profile will increase with depth because the weight of the gas increases the pressure. such as Figures 4-5 and 4-6 give the increased pressures with depth. second. Bellows One of these cases occurs when gas is injected at volumetric flow rates high enough to cause friction loss.`. The effect of excessive friction loss on the gas lift valve is a downhole gas pressure that is different from the value used i n the design. In most cases.. the more serious problem of friction caused by gas flowing between the tubing coupling (collar) and the casing.. These high rate applications. Often.Setting test rack opening pressure Gas Injection in the Annulus or Tubing High pressure gas for injection into the well is usually supplied to the gas system from the gas compressor (or high pressure gas well) and the gas pressure and rate must be measured and recorded so that actual values are known rather than assumed. The effect of friction is particularly noticeable in miniaturized casing (for example.. In most systems compressing low pressure separator gas to injection pressure. Second.`--- In a typical well. However. That is..-`-`. casing).`. Another example of friction loss occurs at high annular (casing) fluid flow rates where gas is injected down the tubing and into the annulus at a high rate for lifting purposes. Tables or figures. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..4 Equation 4. This effect is observed and results compared.D.`.````. Gas pressure loss in miniaturized casing is made up of two components: first. Thus.441-inch I. such as in some Middle East wells. the exceptions are the cases just reviewed where significant friction losses actually result i n a pressure decrease (with depth) because the friction loss is greater than the weight-generated increase. The methods used to predict the pressure loss inside the small casing are only approximate because the non continuous outside diameter on the tubing is difficult to model.8.A P I TITLE*VT-6 94 0732290 0532874 369 41 Gas Application and Gas Facilities for Gas Lift Test Rack Settings This method of setting test rack opening pressure P. In the Gulf Coast area. Although the gas pressure usually increases with depth.```.`.. a pipe diameter equivalent to the tubing pipe body is used and the pressure profile is observed. 14-inch) causes a flow restriction and loss of pressure similar to a choke (sometimes called gas stacking). a case is run with the diameter equivalent to the collar outside diameter. ATMOSPHERE Pa Fig. Usually.7 to 0.`. can lead to a significant friction loss in the gas flowing down the tubing. Since the typical well has negligible friction due to use of large casing. . The pressure in the bellows acts downward (over the bellows area) and the test rack opening pressure acts upward (over the bellows area less the port area). The calculated test rack opening P. The wellhead gas pressure is required for design purposes. pressure is as follows: Equation 4.. allows air pressure to be applied to the valve seat as the drawing shows in Fig. 4-4. injection gas is put into the tubing-casing annulus of the gas lift well and the gas pressure increases with depth due to the weight (density) of the gas. These curves show the gas pressure profile with depth and each line represents a different surface gas pressure.. --`````. as the velocity of the gas increases inside the pipe. When the reservoir fluid has Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. One aspect of design is the change of gas pressure with depth.30-inch O. The gas pressure will'decrease as it passes through the adjustable choke upstream of the wellhead assembly. 1'/4-inch nominal tubing with 2.``. An estimate of the pressure loss due to the collars (stacking) can be made. the valve operation would be erratic or perhaps the valves would prematurely close because the pressure at the valve is lower due to the choking effect of the collars...5 The test rack opening calculation is based on the corrected bellows pressure at 60°F Pb and the valve data A b and A. the pipe body diameter is assumed to be uniform and the pressure (friction) loss with depth is calculated. First.

`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.A P I TITLE+VT-6 42 94 m 0732290 0532875 Gas Lift 2T5 m Pressure.````.```.-`-`.Gas pressure profile with O.`.``. PSlG 800 O 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1O00 2000 3000 4000 5 5000 tl e 6000 7000 8000 9000 10 O00 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 Fig. ~~ .. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.`...`..`. 4-5 .. 7 SG Gas --`````....

`--- 4000 5000 u .`...```. Q) G e 6000 n 7000 8000 9000 10 O00 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 Fig.. 4-6 .``.. PSlG 800 O 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400' 1500 1600 1700 1O00 2000 3000 --`````.````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.-`-`.API TITLE+VT-b '74 m 0732290 0532876 L31 m Gas Application and Gas Facilities for Gas Lift 43 Pressure.. ..Gas pressure profile with 0.`..`.`.8 SC Gas Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..

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Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

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significant C4 to c components, the gas specific gravity at 6 injection pressure will be approximately 0.8. Gas sampling at the injection gas meter and chromatograph analysis will give a reliable gas gravity. Figure 4-5 shows gas pressure versus depth for a specific gravity of 0.7 while Fig. 4.6 gives pressure versus depth for a specific gravity of 0.8. For other conditions, a gas gradient chart is shown in Fig. 4-7. The graph can be used to estimate the gas gradient (psi/ ft) for use i n a gas pressure at depth calculation. Start with the surface injection pressure (1000 psig), go to the gas specific gravity (0.8), and read the gas gradient (0.04 1 psi/ft). At a depth of 5000 ft., the gas pressure would be 1000 + (0.041 x 5000) or approximately 1205 psig. The user can read the figures at 0.7 and 0.8 gas specific gravity or use the chart to estimate pressure gradient. This pressure at depth is important to design and gas passage calculations.

Fig. 4-8t.4) - Gas flow capacities (0-9750 MCF/D) for known upstream pressure, downstream pressure, and fice size. Courtesy Camco

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

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Flow Through the Gas Lift Valve Gas passage through a gas lift valve is the common method for introducing gas into the fluid stream. If gas flow through the valve is restricted, the density of the fluid column (in continuous flow)will not be sufficiently reduced or the slug (in intermittent flow) will not be efficiently displaced. Thus this flow through the gas lift valve is a critical item. However, for thelow rate wells typical of some Gulf Coast locations, gas passage has not usually been a problem. For the high flow rate international oil fields, valve gas passage characteristics are important to successful operation of the well. Gas passage through a particular valve is difficult to predict. Some data, based static probe tests dynamic on and flow tests (mentioned in the section on gas lift valve mechanics), are available. However, this section will cover differential pressure: that is, the difference between the gas pressure at the location and the fluid pressure at the same location, and the flow capacity of the valve as a square-edged orifice. This orifice assumption is always not valid because the stem and the seat do not always have an open area equal to a square-edged orifice.

Orì-

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A P I TITLErVT-6 79
46

m 0732290 0532877 940
Gas Lift orifice. A square-edge orifice is the device used in positive chokes for controlling the production from flowing oil wells and gas wells. Accuracy diminishes when applied to gas lift valves. However, the flow equation is usually the best method readily available for estimating gas passage through a valve orifice (port). Charts such as shown in Fig. 4-8 (A) (B) and (C) have been prepared using the Thornhill-Craver equation. They give the gas flow capacity for a known (upstream) gas pressure, (downstream) fluid pressure, and port size (orifice). These charts typically are based on a fixed temperature(usually60°F) and gasgravity(usually0.65).Gas volumes must be corrected for other conditions. Variations i n gas gravity and higher temperatures in the well influence chart accuracy. If the gas temperature approaches fluid flow temperature, volume flow rates through the valve are less than the estimate obtained from the chart. Because of this, downhole gas rates are usually

Differential pressure is the difference between the gas pressure at the valve and the fluid pressure at the valve. A high differential pressure drives the gas into the fluid column. Conversely, at a very low differential pressure, sufficient gas cannot pass and enter into the fluid. Often a minimum of 50 psi is used as a difference between the operating gas pressure and the production. However, inability to accurately estimate the gas pressure at depth and the fluid pressure at depth can result in a differential less than 50 psi. Under such a condition, the well does not unload, or the point of gas injection doesnot transfer, to the next valve. High gas flow rates through a valve demand higher injection gas pressure and higher differential pressure. At an operating point, a minimum pressure differential of 100 to 200 psi should beusedbetweenthegas and thefluid columns for design purposes. Gas flow capacity is usuallyestimatedwiththe Thornhill-Craver equations for flow through a square-edge

GAS

THROUGHPUT IN

MCFD

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

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`--- .`. This restriction to gas flow may affect unloading operations and the well may not operate according to initial design. Efforts areunderway within the industry to correct this problem and one valve manufacturer has published empirically determined dynamic valve performance data for its continuous flow valves..```. the effective orifice (port) area never corresponds to a completely full-open square-edge orifice that is the basis for the Thornhill-Craver charts unless thevalve is full open. downstream pressure. Courtesy F: í? and ori- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. --`````. Fig.Gas flow capacities (0-20.````.000 MCF/D) for known upstream pressure.. GAS THROUGHPUT IN MCFD Fig. The small gas passage rate prevents aeration of the fluid column or prevents slug formation for intermittent lifting. The user of the charts should be aware that a gas lift valve probably does not have the exact gas passage characteristics indicated on the chart..`.`. As the valve goes from a full-open position to a closed position... provides informa4-9 tion for correcting thegas volume to other conditions of gas gravity and temperature. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295...`. The restriction to gas flow through a gas lift valve is caused by a port being only partially open..-`-`. A reduction in the gas pressure outside the bellows causes the stem to start to close in response to the nitrogen pressure force inside the bellows.``.A P I TITLE*VT-6 Application Gas 94 m 0732290 0532880 Gas Lift bb2 m 47 and Gas Facilities for corrected to the chart conditions before estimating the port size requirement from the chart. Focht fice size. 4-8(C) .`.

50 11 .`.-`-`.`.`. O R .Correction factor chart for gaspassage charts. .10 1...36 1...0) 300 2 80 200 240 290 zoo 1ao 1 60 140 120 1O0 60 60 40 .```. From Camco Gas Lift Manual Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. --`````.````.. i o 1.`--- = 1.0644 Where: G = Ga8 Gravity (Air T = Temperature..O6 1.`.16 1.o0 1.``. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.@O 36 1. 4-9 .20 1. CORRECTION FACTOR Fig.26 1.A P I TITLE*VT-6 48 94 W 0732270 0532BBL 5T9 Gas Lift BA818: Correction Factor = 0.30 1.`.. i 6 1..

Gas requirements now and for the future can be estimated. This gas source is good because the pressure is constant and the gas canbe compressed to a higher pressure. The second. 4. At a “freezing” (hydrate) conditionof 40°F and 1000 psia.Typicalsituationswherethisoccurs are: (1) separation at very low pressures where the gas stream going to compression has a high fraction of heavy hydrocarbons.`--- large number of individual lines. and liquid drop-out (condensation) accumulating in low spots in the line. methanol can be injected for a limited time until the gas temperature rises above the “freezing” point.. and lowest investment and operating expense resultwhen the entire system is planned properly. at 1000 psia and 120”F. Only a very rich gas composition causesliquidhydrocarboncondensation. Fig. dry gas such as that obtained from a gas processing (NGL) plant.. A modification to the main trunk line systemis the use of a distribution ring so that gas can flow to a local distribution header from either direction. Fig. the water content is 105 lb / million scf gas. A cooling facility remove hydrocarbons often removes to a significant amountof water vapor i n the gas.. using an estimate of lowest possible gas temperatures on cold winter nights. The advantage of a direct connection system is that any pipeline problem affectsonly one well. Hydrocarbon removal may not be necessary in all cases but water should always be removed for good system performance. compressors and meters. hydrate formation (frozen water and hydrocarbons). they are part of a gas lift system that includes the reservoir. effective use of gas.``. 4-10. dehydration. a dry gas without hydrocarbon liquid and water reduces operational problems such as corrosion. flowline size and tubing casing size can be selected. Dehydration must remove 96 lb / million scf for the gas to flow at 40°F without “freezing. ortrunk line. However. Gas Conditioning Water Vapor andthe heavier gashydrocarbons will condense i n a distribution system and cause either hydrates (freezing) or liquid slugging.`. Secondly. For example. (2) where cold environmental temperatures cool the gas and condense the heavy elements. If “freezing” occurs at the lower temperatures. hydrocarbon processing or sweetening might be required before transporting the gas to the wells.`. . It provides local distribution to each well and permits several compressor stations to be connected in parallel so that the loss of any one station does not shut down the entire system.” If the “freezing” temperature occurs infrequently. the At distribution header sends the flow to each well through a directly connected pipeline. fewer operating problems. such as gas well gas or separator gas. the acceptable amount of water is usually set by the operator. Methanol (and other liquids) depresses the “freezing” temperature. liquid slugs. Sometimes the heavy hydrocarbon components must be removed by local field processing. However.. can be used to cool the gas stream and condense the liquid hydrocarbons.`.. and hydrates. With such a system gas is made up from the other stations (provided that sufficient compression capacity exists) when one partof the system is down for any reason. the gas does not have to be “bone” dry. If a processingfacilityisunnecessary. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The gas distribution system can be one of two basic designs: (1) A direct connection from the compressor station to each well.````. if necessary. These methods can reduce the size of the requiredglycoldehydrationsystemillustrated in Fig. when sour gases are not present. Maximum production. If other sources must be used. treating facilities. then any one of a number of processes such as compression. major field studies should include a comparison of the economics of each method since the cost of pipe and installation varies with the location. Current computer technology provides methods to analyze systems so that the“best” values for separatorpressure. flowline. separators. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. However. Catalytic heaters may also be used at input chokes or other points where gas expands and cools below the “freezing” temperature.A P I TITLE*VT-b Application Gas 74 0732270 0532882 435 and Gas Facilities Lift Gas for m 49 SURFACE GAS FACILITIES System Design Considerations Gas lift wells are not the only component. injection line. This trunk line or ring method typically minimizesinvestment requirement for a large field area because the main trunk line is less expensive than a --`````. the take-off point. A refrigeration system. then gasdehydration with trimethylene glycol absorption is most commonly used to remove the water vapor from the gas stream..`. method is applicable to large land or offshore (remote wellhead platform) systems. ora compressionlexpansion cooling method. the water content is 9 lb / million scf. The lowest anticipated temperature can be used to predict hydrates with the Katz curves. investment for gas lift facilities depends on gas sourceand quality. Itis very useful for small systems that have limited number of wells and short a pipelines. and (2) A main trunk line with individual distribution headers to local wells. 4-1 1.. The money spent for computer technology is repaid by higher production rates.12. injection pressure.-`-`. and lower investment. If no sour gases are present. water removal (105 lb I million scf gas) can be estimated.```. A good source for gas lift gas is a constant pressure. Water in a gas lift system causes corrosion..`.

Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.7 sp. careful monitoring should be used to assure that such systems are functioning properly at all times. gravity does not “freeze” (this point is just below the hydrate formation condition for 0. gr. --`````. 0. gravity will “freeze” Fig. excessive compressor maintenance. The sweet gas returns to the system while the amine solutions are treated remove the C02 and H2S.API T I T L E * V T .`...``.7 sp. gas) 2.6 50 94 0732290 0532883 Gas Lift 371 m Gas with excessive carbon dioxide (COZ)or hydrogen sulfide (HzS) can cause operating problems such as corrosion.However. When proper inhibition systemsand metallurgy are used in the gas lift and well facilities. 70” F. extractsboth C02 and HzS (sour acid gas) with an amine absorption process. applied when gas cannot be used in the field. These impurities are also potential safety hazards.````. 4-10 . et al. the amine solutions are contacted by the gas flow stream the acid and gas constituents are extracted.`..```. Gas at 1000 psia.7 sp. 0... One typeof sweetening facility. fuel contamiand nation.In this system..`. Reciprocating Compression The reciprocating compressor isa very flexible machine in gas lift applications and has proven very popular over EXAMPLE: l .`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Gas at 1000 psia.-`-`. gas with H2S and or CO2 can be used provided a good glycol dehydration facility removesthewatervapor....`--- . Katz. 40” F.Hydrate-formation conditions for natural gas.`.

`--- . deg F 200 230 260 300 400 500 600 700 W a t e r content of natural gar in equilibrium with liquid water. 4'O°F has a water Content Of 9 Ib/million scf -70 -60 -50 -40-30 -20-10 O 1 20 3040 0 60 80 1 0 1 0 1 0 160 0 2 4 Temperoture. et al.. Katz. Gas at 1000 psia...Water content of natural gas in equilibrium with water...-`-`. Gas at 1000 psia. Handbook of Natural Gas Engine Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.A P I TITLE*VT-6 94 m 0732290 0532884 208 m Gas A d i c a t i o n and Gas Facilities for Gas Lift 1.```.. 4-11 . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. 120" F has a water Content Of 105 Ib/million scf 2.`. --`````.`..`. Fig ...````.`.``.

8.. These curves. Higher ratios tend to raise the discharge temperature in the compressor cylinder to a value that causes maintenance problems. These compressors can be skid-mounted installed on and location quickly then moved when service is terminated. along with a more detailed description for estimating compressor horsepower. Horsepower will depend on the pressure change from suction to discharge. Horsepower read from the curves is corrected using the temperature and deviation factors of the gas at actual flowing conditions. or offshore. Curves in Fig 4. The horsepower is read from the curves (given a compression ratio gas specific and gravity) as an uncorrected horsepower permillion cubic feet of gas compressed.`.can be used to estimate horsepower 13 requirements. Reciprocating compression is typically used where a low suction pressure must gas be compressed to a high discharge pressure and the volume flow rate is sufficiently low that a centrifugal machine would not apply. integral units (power and compressor cylinders on the same frame) are installed i n stations with numerous support utility systems. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. . and throughput Centrifugal Compression Centrifugal compressors are more popular where higher throughput volumes are required.`..-`-`. The reciprocating compressors attain their rate flexibility (and field desirability) by unloading cylinder ends or by adding clearance chambers (bottles).````. Their primary limitation is their low throughput gas volume.```.Courtesy of PETEX --`````.`.`. A centrifugal compressor is a high speed rotating machine driven by a turbine or an electric motor that also operates at high rotating speeds..52 Lift Gas rate. The high speed-skid mounted units typically have a separable compressor driven by a 1000 rpm engine of 1500 (or less) horsepower.. 4-12 . the compression ratioper stage should be between 2. The larger. The drivers for the compressors are usually gas engine units but may be electric motors if the proper voltagepower source is available. gas specific gravity. a centrifugal machine may better fit the application.. low speed. The estimating technique requires an overall compression ratio (discharge absolute pressure divided by suction absolute pressure) and a breakdown of this ratio into stages. The centrifugal compressor can take the gas from a low Fig.``. For high flow rates at international locations.0 and 3. are contained in the GPSA Engineering Data Book (see reference number 32. These 300 rpm units are available in sizes up to 3000 horsepower...Glycol Dehydration Unit..) the years in most Gulf Coast systems.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. Typically. Reciprocating compressors are capable of handling varying suction discharge pressures and changes in gas specific gravity or gas flow rate.

. --`````.. Suction Pressure = 55 psia (40 psig) 2. 4 .1 3 -Approximate Horsepower Required to Compress Gases. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Need additional HP for coolers/pumps) 5. Overall CR = 1250/55 = 22.`.`. GPSA-Engineering Data Book Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.7 4.`. Use 3 stage machine to keep discharge temperature lower and reducemaintenance problems.``. Brake HP/million CU. See GPSA for temperature and Z factor correction 6.````.. ft. Approximatepowerrequiredto compress gases Fig.`..A P I TITLEaVT-6 94 0732290 0532886 Facilities Application GasGas and 080 for Gas Lift m 53 EXAMPLE: l .-`-`...```..`--- . 195 = (This is gas compression only..`. Discharge Pressure = 1250 psia (1235 psig) 3.

temperature. gas is proportional to the differential pressure across the orifice plate. Where water is used for testing. tests with water are safer). Rate estimating examples in the GPSA book progas.A P I TITLExVT-6 54 94 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 8 7 7 TL Gas Lift ever. away from the compressors..``.`. orifice size. the greater the differential pressure across the sion ratio. Even with these precautions.the user must be very conscious of changes that might alter either specific the most commonly used devices for measuring gas. The need for later liquid removal may be avoided by not putting liquid into a gas system. Piping and Distribution System Piping. The system design should also include cooling and dehydration processes that would eliminate liquid condensation in the system. Thus. Manifold suction headers should minimize pressure losses to 1 psi. cooling.. all must be designed logically to minimize investment and yet provide good operating and maintenance qualities. temperature. Gas Metering an electric motor that also operates at high rotating speeds. For example. An adequate discharge delivery system.````.`. 4-15). Two readings from the square root chart are used instead of the actual gas pressure at the meter and the differential pressure across the orifice.. pressor wheels do not operate satisfactorily at conditions othermeanssuchasvortexsheddingmeters.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. The differential reading can be set and adjusted by an adjustable choke placed just downstream of the meter. Typically... during system testing (after construction) a nitrogen purge and nitrogen pressure test can be used rather than water (howThe typical method for recording the flow ratethrough an orifice is to use the chart recorder. because of their high rotating speed. Differential reading. .However. making this an easy method for estimating gas throughout and adjusting the choke. a Methanolflushcanbeusedtoremoveanywaterthat remains in thesystem. liquid removal taps should be located at convenient low elevation spots in the station or in the pipeline distribution system. temperature. The orifice can be used to measure gas because the flow rate of gravity. nor do they have the vibrations detrimental to offshore platform facilities. The suction discharge pulsation bottles for reciprocating compressors must be designed to dampen pressure pulses as well as withstand vibration (to prevent cracks due vibrato tion). assume the gas specific gravity drastically changes because meters. separation. Cp= Gas pressure reading for a square root chart C = Gas differential reading for a square root chart h 24 Hour Coefficient = A constant calculated for the meter tube. they do not have the massive frames of the reciprocating machines. The methods. or positive displacement meters can also be used. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. can develop a significant amount of horsepower and yet be a physically small package as compared to reciprocating compressors. and other factors areused to calculate the flow rate (Fig. The centrifugal machines.turbine significantly different than initial design.`. Another example is liquid hydrocarbons or water.6 Where. Gas distribution piping should also contain facilities for liquid removal. is required in order to feed gas to downstream coolers and separators prior to glycol dehydration. In addition. --`````. specific gravity..`. Fig.`. Frequent pigging may also be required to remove water standing in low spots.. pressure reading.```.-`-`. For example. orifice plate. both inlet separation and suction scrubbers are necessary. The flow rate is proportional to changes in the differential reading. pressure.. The centrifugal compressor can take the gas from a low suction pressure through a discharge pressure adequate for gas lift injection purposes if the throughput volume is adequate for the machine and if multiple compressor wheels with interstage cooling are used. temperature and gas specific gravity. centrifugal compressors. The machine may operate at a This discussion will be limited to the use of orifice meters with either chart recordersor flow computers since they are very low efficiency or perhaps not at all. or pressure of the gas. The higher the flow rate through a given Horsepower estimates are based on the overall compresorifice size. of gas flow stream alteration. Charts can be either square root chartsor standard charts but square root charts are most commonly used. Orifice meter measuring of gas lift gas is one of the easiest One critical point in centrifugal compression: the comand most inexpensivemeasurementmethods. and compression. 4-14 shows GPSA contained in the GPSA Engineering Data Book section on nomenclature used in these calculations. for making these initial estimates are vide this calculation information. One of the main requirements in gas handling facilities is to provide separationand scrubbing that prevents liquid carryover into a compressor. The square root chart equation is: Qg (thousand scf/d) = Cp x C x (24 Hour Coefficient) h Equation 4. The glycol system should contain heat exchanger cooling between the gas stream and the glycol as well as a method for easy access and maintenance of the glycol reboiler. specific gravity of the and orifice. dehydration.

liquid compressibility factor orifice thermal expansion factor.`.. a number obtained by dividing the actual volume of liquid passed through the meter during proving by the volume registered by the meter pressure. To correct the calculated basic orifice factor to the actual flowing Reynolds number = steam factor S Tb Tf Y = to mercury meters temperature base factor. c. Chapter 12. Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards.```. inches of mercury differential pressure measured across the orifice plate in inches of mercury at 60 "F differential reading on L-IO chart (see p.73 psia F. = = = = = K L M MF = = = Fb = Fg = P = Pf = P. See API. in. psia pressure reading on L-10 chart gas flow rate. to meter volumes to 'Orrect to standard pressure = supercompressibility factor required tocorrect for deviation from the ideal gas laws = d 1/Z = Reynolds number factor. = G. Section 2 correction factor for effect of pressure on steel gravity correction factor for orifice well tester to change from a gas specific gravity of 0. = h. in. pipe diameter (published) Of Orifice meter run. Applied only to mercury meters units conversion factor for pitot tubes pressure base factor applied to change the base pressure from 14. = expansion factor to compensate for the change in density as the fluid passes through an orifice YCR = critical flow constant Z = compressibility factor Fig.Appliedonly = Ftb P = C' = Ftf = CNT = CpI = F . Correction for the change in volume resulting from application of pressure. Fpb Rh R. GI = Gf = H = h. Proportional to the thermal coefficient which varies with density and temDerature correction factor for effect of temperature on steel orifice diameter. Ctl = = = dh.0 (air) to the specific gravity of the flowing gas gravity temperature factor for liquids gauge location factor manometer factor. Proportional to the liquid compressibility factor..`. . The square root of the differential pressure times the square root of the absolute static pressure ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume a numerical constant. usually in CU ft/hr or gal/hr maximum differential range.`. in. which depends upon both relative density and temperature. 3-42) differential pressure measured across the orifice plate in inches of water at 60 "F pressure extension.API ITLE*VT-6 T 9 4 W 0732290 0532888 9 5 3 W Intermittent Flow Gas Lift 55 a A = maximum transverse dimension of a straightening vane passage = cross sectional area of any passage within an assembled straightening vane ratio of the orifice diameter to the internal diameter of the meter run.`. Corrects for the metallic expansion or contraction of the orifice plate.e number of pulses or counts liquid pressure correction factor. Generally ignored between O" and 120 "F basic orifice factor specific gravity factor applied to change from a specific gravity of 1.GPSA Nomenclature used in gas metering --`````. F. F..pr = k = = c.. Fsl = steam factor. in. of water maximum pressure range of pressure spring..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. Fpm = pressure factor Fv p F.6 liquid temperature correction factor.-`-`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. "R = flowing temperature. dimensionless the product of multiplying all orifice correction factors volume indicated by th.. C U ftlday rate of flow. 4-14 .``. = = c. Pulses generated per unit volurne through a turbine or positive displacement meter length of straightening vane element meter factor.. L-10 charts meter factor.. orifice plate thickness. psia static pressure at either the upstream or downstream pressure tap. d = = D e E F F.. Q Qh Fgt Fwl = = = = = = = = = = = F. h. To change the temperature base from 60 "F to another desired base flowing temperature factor to change from the assumed flowing temperature of 60 "F to the actual flowing temperature temperature correction factor applied to displacement meter volumes to correct to standard temperature specific gravity at 60 "F specific gravity at flowing temperature pressure.`. orifice edge thickness. in.. psi square of supercompressibility absolute temperature of reference or base condition.````. mercury meter = sealfactorforliquid.

= 100 "F 5..75 (Gas SP. is sometimes used tocalculategasrate. the volume is tabu--`````.162 from Rh = 100 R p = 1000 7. Ftf = 0.M = 19.83 for Pt = 888 psig.1547 from Gf = 0.`. meter tube.-`-`. and specific gravity factors.7 2.`--- EXAMPLE GASRATE (Factors from GPSAl f' Io ? Lo r Q (thousand scf/d) = hu*Pu*24 Hour Coefficient 1. . more importantly. sCf/d) (See Figure 4-14 for GPSA Nomenclature usedthis in section) Fig.5.A P I TITLE*VT-b 56 94 0732290 0532889 8 9 T Gas Lift lated in cubic feet (or some multiple) much like a positive displacement counter. The device has dials that can be adjusted by the a electronicsspecialist to correspond to temperature.19.5 = 1200 (thous. M = 3. Q = 9.. The flow computer.5 8. meter tube = 2. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. an electronic device. a four-hour test.22 from orifice = 1.Itcandisplaythevalueas a cumulative amount or provide an instantaneous rate reading.000. orifice diameter..````. This feature is extremely useful for both short term as well as longterm analysis of the well because well testing accuracy is improved.`.Example problem square root (L-IO) chart.```.. FPV= 1... 4-15 .Fpv-Fb-Ftf*Fg. GR. or a seven-day period. This totalizer method measures the cubic feet of gas input into the well for any lapsed time.``.O98 from Z = 0. Fg = 1.024.9636 from T. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Gas Pressure at Meter (Pr) = 888 psig from Pg at Meter = (hu)2 Rp/l O0 .`.`..`. Fb = 210.6.14.067 4.5. be it six-hour test. Althoughthe flow computerdisplays the flowrateasa percent of full scale.) 6. 24 Hour Coeff = 0.. Tt = 1O0 "F 3.

opening the valve.Elements of a Pressure Regulator and a Gas Lift Valve VALVE MECHANICS Pressure is force per unit area.`.) If A = in.`. The regulated upstream pressure is a function of spring force and effective diaphragm or bellows area. A knowledge of pressure. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 5-1A). and area is required to understand the operation of most gas lift valves.1 . in. The diaphragm of the pressure regulator andthe bellows of the gas lift valve provide an area of influence for upstream pressure greater than the port area.``.-`-`. etc) to cause the desired valve action. the stem tip moves away from the seat. force. llVlS0 covers the manufacture of gas lift valves.. " + Equation 5. The force that results from this combination of upstream pressure and diaphragm or bellows area acts in a direction to overcome the force of the spring.... AndP = 10 psi F =PxA Then F = 10 x 3 = 30 Pounds --`````. 5-1B).`.`. asin the gas lift valve (Fig. forces the stem tip against the seat. stem tip. The commonoil field unit of pressure is pounds per square inch (psi)..`.A P I TITLEmVT-b 74 m 0732270 0532890 501 W 57 Gas Lift Valves CHAPTER 5 GAS LIFT VALVES INTRODUCTION The heart of anygas lift system is the gas lift valve..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. the force changes (not the one square inch of area).````. A spring in the regulator (Fig.```.. When this force of pressure times area exceeds the force of the spring. If a pressure and area are known (Fig. API Spec. Thepound is the force and one square inch is the unit area. Practically all gas lift valves use the effect of pressure acting on the area of a valve element (bellows. Force (Pounds) = Pressure (psi) x Area (sq. DIAPHRAGM / UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAM Pressure regulator (A) Gas lift valve (B) Fig. 5-1 . Gas lift valves are basically downhole pressure regulators. The functional elements of a pressure regulator and a gas lift valve are similar.. Both the pressureregulatorandthegas l i f t valveillustratedare controlling the upstream pressure.. As the value of psi changes. the total force (F) action on the entirearea is found by multiplying the pressure times the area (A). 5-2).

The arrangement of the components may vary. so the dome cannot be isolated. 5-3(B)... The piston in Fig. Convolutions (wrinkles) i n the bellows provide the flexibility required for movement. 5-3(A) has no seal. 5-3C) usually includes a bellows.. the piston has an O-ring seal. A bellows type seal is used in the majority of gas lift valves. In Fig.`.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..`. ~~~~ . The stem tip is larger than the port and is attached to the bellows by the stem.-`-`. The upper end of the bellows is welded to the valve.`. All of the illustrations in Fig.`.. and a port that is opened or closed by a stem tip. A metal bellows forms the seal in Fig. 1 t F Fig.`. 5-3(C). 5-2 . 5-3 .h P 58 94 0732290 0532871 448 Gas Lift n A Basic Components of Gas Lift Valves Most valve designs use the same basic components.```.Force Diagram DOME PISTON STEM TI P PORT No piston seal O-Ring piston seal Bellows piston seal (A) (B) (C) Fig..A T IIT L E x V T .Basic Gas Lift Valve Components --`````.``. The basic valve (Fig..````. Small leakage by the O-ring over long periods and friction of the O-ring cause this form of piston sealing to be impractical. 5-3 have the same basic components. The lower end of the bellows is welded to a solid plug. Fair isolation of the dome is obtained with the O-ring. a chamber (dome) formed by one end of the bellows and the wall and end of the valve. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..

= F. Two forces usually work together to overcome the closing force (Fc).`. The stem tip is forced into contact with the upper edge (seat) of the port. 5-5A) forms part of the bellows area (Ab).`--- When the stem tip is seated on the port. The total opening force is the sum of these two forces: F" = F n I + Foz Equation 5..Ap) = Pb Ab Divide each term byAb: -Ap2 P Equation 5. The opening force resulting from pressure PI applied through the side opening is: Fol = PI (Ab .8 + P2Ap = Pb& Solving for PI (injection pressure required to balance opening and closing forces prior to opening an injection pressure operated valve under operating conditions.. This occurs when the opening force is slightly greater than the closing force. = Area of the bellows. 5-5A): PI (Ab .11 Is the pressure in contact with the valve bellows... Pressure (PI) applied through the side opening and pressure (PZ) applied through the valve port are the pressure sources to produce the two opening forces. therefore.: Ab - Schematic (B) Fig. Total opening force.API TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 9 2 3 8 4 Gas Lift Valves m 59 Closing Force Many gas lift valves (Fig.) is acted upon by pressure (Pz) applied through the port.) in contact with the seat (Fig. = Pressure inside the dome space sealed by the The area of the stem tip in contact with the seat (A.Closing Force Diagrams - /Ab) . This pressure acts on the area of the bellows and creates a force (Fb) that is applied to the stem. 5-4) have gas pressure (Pb) trapped in the dome..Ap) Equation 5. The opening force contributed by this combination is: FAp= P2 0 2 Equation 5.Ap) Equation 5. F. Is the area of the portion the stem tip sealed by the seat.```.4 bellows and valve housing. Fig.9 . /Ab) Equation 5. .A. Opening force resulting from PI acting on the bellows area less the port area (Ab .3 AbF.) Divide both sides by 1 . the force holding the stem tip against the seat is: --`````. 5-4 . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. When the dome pressure (Pb) and bellows area (Ab) are known.. 5 . The stem tip and seat portion of the port are finely matched (often lapped) to form a seal. PI does not act on the entire bellows area (Ab).).6 F = PI (Ab .2 = Closing force.`.. F. the opening force and the closing force are equal.. (Obtained from manufacturer's specs. Pb A b = Pb Equation 5.`.P2 Pb (Ap 1 .Ap). is isolated from PI by the stem tip and seat. PI (Ab .5 ) starts to open when the stem tip moves out of contact with the valve seat.(A.``. The area acted onby pressure PI is the bellows area minus the area of the stem tip isolated by the seat (Ab-A. just before opening (Fo= R).-`-`.`. The area of the stem tip (A. Is the pressure in contact with that portion of the stem tip sealed by the seat (port).7 Equation 5.`.````.Ap) o + P2Ap Just before the valve port opens.5 Equation 5.A. Opening force resulting form PZ acting on the stem tip area in contact with the seat (port).Ratio of port area to bellows area. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Opening Forces A valve (Fig.

The Production Pressure Effect (PPE) represents the amount that the opening pressure (PI) is reduced as a result of the assistance of PZ. made by the same manufacturer. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.`.AP) over which the valve opening pressure (PI) acts...`. This is the case as the valve closes.6 94 60 0732290 0532893 Gas Lift 210 Probe Test A probe test of gas lift valve will establish the load rate of the valve. A decrease in PI or P2 will load the stem tip harder against the seat and cause a tighter stem tip to seat seal. . Production Pressure Effect Pictorial (A) Schematic (B) Fig. Pressure is incrementally applied above and below the stem tip in contact with the full bellows area. Slight increases in PI or P2 normally cause only slight additional valve opening.`.``. The gas lift design requirements dictate the type valve (hard or soft) required. and PZacting on the stem tip area that is sealed by the seat. A probe test is used to obtain the load rate of a particular valve design. as well as between valves of different styles. inches of stem travel per psi of opening pressure (inchedpsi). Valve Load Rate PPE (sometimes referred to as tubing effect) is obtained by multiplying production pressure (Pz) by the area over which it is applied (Ap) and dividing the force obtained by the area (Ab .API T I T L E t V T . The reciprocal of the load rate.Ap). and bellows yielding. These two conditions can vary between manufacturers.. 5-6 .Closing Pressure Diagrams Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Actually the valve stem tip is still on seat and only slight leakage by the stem tip and seat maybe observed.. excessive friction. the valve (Fig. One definition of load rate is the measure of the amount of opening pressure required for each inch of valve stem travel (psihnch).. “soft” valve A will have greater opening or closing stem travel changes with respect to the same increase or decrease in PI or P2.. The valve probe test consists of attaching a depth type micrometer to a valve i n a fashion that will allow the measurement of the stem tip displacement from the valve seatwhilepressure is applied. The compressibility of the nitrogen charge in the dome and the spring rate of the bellows (load increase per unit travel).````.. The result obtained is the amount the valve opening pressure (PI) is reduced in psi.`. An increase in PI or PZ will move the stem tip proportionately further from the seat and allow more gas passage. prevents rapid full opening of most valves. A “stiff’ valve has slight changes in opening and closing stem travel with respect to an increase or decrease in PI or PZ. PI would have to be somewhat greater.`--- Pictorial Schematic Fig. In addition..Opening Force Diagrams As discussed earlier.-`-`. A displacement measurement is taken at each pressure increment. Without P2 to assist opening.`. it establishes the maximum stem tip travel (to mechanical stops) and discloses stacking of the convolutions. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. is another form of load rate presentation. The pressure (PI) determined by this equation is the balance pressure. The amount the valve opens with increases of PI or P2 depends upon the volume of the dome and the stiffness of the bellows.```. 5-5 . 5-5A) is opened by the forces of PI acting on the area of the bellows less the area of the port (Ab .

on Stem = 0.. Valve spread controls the minimum amount of gas injected into the tubing during each cycle in an intermittent gas lift installation..Ad&) is called the Production Pressure Effect Factor (PPEF). Ball O. The minimum closing pressure is equal to the dome pressure (Pb) only at a time when the production.`.`. at a production pressure equal to the injection gas pressure of 535 and 550 psig.77 sq.`.`--- .````.``.3 Mscf/Day/psi'ApPf Fig.625 inches Port I.`. Fig. PPEF P E = P2 P 1O0 Closing Pressure The closing pressure of the valve (Fig. 5-7 represents data that were plotted from a typical dynamic flow test of an unbalanced single-element bellowscharged gas lift valve.`.-`-`. the pressure in the annulus must bleed down from the opening pressure to the closing Gas Lift Valve Specifications: Effective Bellows Area = 0. Even if surface injection gas is stopped after the operating valve is opened.D. 5-7 . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.12 If the PPEF reported as a decimal. = 0. It is obtained by subtracting the closing pressure from the opening pressure. Valve specifications and performance test conditions are included in Fig..15 Equation 5. The second point of no flow is at a production pressure 218 and 294 psig..14 The ratio (1 . Some texts refer to this ratio as Tubing Effect Factor (TEF). --`````.. in.. but the lack of an injection pressure to production pressure differential prevents gas flow. VALVE CHARACTERISTICS Dynamic Flow Test A dynamic flow consists of flowing gas through a gas test lift valve and measuring the gas passage at different pressure conditions. This of is the production closing pressure of the valve. Equation 5. 5-6) will be equal to the injection gas opening pressure (Pl) if the production pressure remains constant. The curve shows that gas flows at each of two no distinct production pressure values for each injection pressure..13 Equation 5. Injection gas volumetric throughput is plotted against flowing production pressures using a constant injection pressure of 535 psig and 550 psig.16 Equation 5..D.100 p s i g Valve Spread Spread is the difference between opening and closing pressure of an injection pressure operated gas lift valve when its primary opening and closing action is controlled by changes in injection gas pressure. Information obtained from the dynamic flow test and the probe test for a particular valve are used together to predict gas passage and valve action at conditions other than test conditions.41 inches Angle of Tapered Seat = 45" Performance Tests: Constant Injection Gas Pressure= 535 and 550 psig Test Rack Closing Pressure = 485 psig Slope of ThrottlingRange = 9. injection and dome pressure are equal. One. if reported as a percentage. 5-7.Gas lift valve dynamic flow test (Courtesy Teledyne Merla) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. At this point the valve is open. is PPE= Pz PPEF And. 2 3 4 5 6 Flowing P r o d u c t i o n Pressure .Equation 5.```.

Mechanical stops. a bellows charged valve is submerged in water maintained at 60°F prior to adjusting the opening pressure to the required value. These fluctuating pressures can result in valve chatter.A P I T I T L E w V T . Reinforce bellows with support rings.. Chapter 4. (See Temperature Corrections.Ad&) b + P2 (Ad&) Equation 5.) The bellows in a gas lift valve extends and or compresses to provide movement of the stem tip to open or close the valve. the valve spread should be set so that the amount of gas injected is less than the minimum required to move the slug to the surface.(Ad&) Equation 5.```.P v @ 60°F 1 .`--- used as a reference for adjusting the valve in the test rack. 5-8 . Although any reasonable temperature could be P t = PI (1 .19 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. chatter will usually cause damage to the ball and seat. Before obtaining the test rack opening pressure.17 Note: In this equation. Limit bellows travel. --`````. Some of the techniques incorporated are as follows: 1. 4. In an intermittent lift well. Chapter 4.````.`. The opening pressure (PI) of a particular valve in the well.) The opening pressure (PI) equation with P v @ 60°F and b the pressure P2 of O psig applied over the seat area at test rack conditions (Pvo)becomes: P"" b .6 94 62 0732290 0532895 093 9 Gas Lift pressure of the valve..(AdAb) Equation 5. It is common for the bellows to be exposed to external pressures significantly higher than normal operating pressure.`. Gas inside the fixed volume dome of a pressure charged valve will increase in pressure when heated and will decrease in pressure when cooled.Test ruck 2.18 The dome pressure (Pbt) in this case is at the temperature of the valve in the well. Hydraulic stop using a confined liquid.theamount of gas injected into the tubing can be increased by injecting gas into the annulus at the surface while the valve is open.-`-`. the amount of gas injected during bleed-down may be more than is required for efficient operation.`..PZ(&/Ab) b 1 . the dome pressure (Pb. The pressure change that occurs as a result of heating or cooling the fixed column of gas can be calculated. Test Rack Opening Pressure PI = P1 . is defined by the gas lift design. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. This equation can be rearranged to determine the valve charge (dome) pressure (PbI) required to obtain the specified opening pressure (PI). The design also specifies the production pressure and the temperature at the valve when it opens. If not controlled. Depending upon the spread of the valve and the volume of the annulus. (P.`.) must be corrected to the test rack temperature of 60°F (Pb1 @ 60°F). a. Isolate bellows to prevent exposure to excessive pressure differentials.PRESSURE SOURCE. under operating conditions. and can rapidly result in fatigue failure of the bellows. Chatter can alter the bellows' physical characteristics. Fig.. b. resulting in changes of the valve's opening and closing pressures.and Table 4-1. Bellows Protection ..``. The opening pressure (PI) of the valve has been defined as follows: When a gas lift valve opens.. Hydraulically reform bellows convolutions at higher than normal external pressure. Hydraulic dampening (dash pot) is a common means of preventing chatter.. 5-8) to an opening pressure that will give the desired opening pressure in the well.and Table 4-1. the generalized expression (Pb") for the pressure inside the dome has been replaced with the bellows charge pressure (Pbt) at well temperature.`. all gas lift valves incorporate some form of bellows protection. Valves must be adjusted in a shop test rack (Fig. . pressure in the vicinity of the control elements (bellows and port) can fluctuate due to the dynamics of flow. A spring loaded valve does not require cooling before setting the test rack opening pressure.. (See Temperature Corrections. Chatter is a sustained high opening and closing cycle rate. The design of a gas lift system establishes the desired opening and closing pressure of a valve. At somesubsequenttime. 3. To prevent damage to the bellows during period of over pressure.) It is not practical to set a valve to the required opening pressure at the temperature the valve will be operating in the well. most of this work is done at 60*E In practice.

The valve is physically positioned between the two pressure sources. the receptacle (mandrel) can control how the two pressure sources are ported to the valve. 5-9 A&B).The injection pressure (PZ)acts on the area of the port (Ap). 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.) must be followed.(Ap/Ab) Equation 5. 5-10 A&B).) for a production pressure (fluid) operated valve are the same as thosefor an injection pressure operated valve. the valve is called an injection pressureoperated valve (Fig. When the injected lift gas is in contact with the bellows (largest area of influence). a valve is exposed to two pressure sources that control its operation. Both of the pressures are trying to open the valve. 5-9 A&B) has been determined to be: Pl = Production up the annulus Production up the tubing (A) (B) Fig.(Ap /Ab) Equation 5.API TITLE*VT-b 94 0732290 0532896 T 2 T Gas Lift Valves 63 TYPES OF GAS LIFT VALVES Classification of Gas Lift Valves by Application In the well.````.```.`.`. the valve is referred to as a production pressure (fluid) operated valve (Fig. closing pressure. A production pressure operated valve (Fig. The injectedgas volume is controlled at the surface.`.. Valves Used for Continuous Flow A valve used for continuous flow shouldmeter or throttle the gas throughput. When the produced fluid is in contact with the bellows.`--- Intermittent lift usually requires a large volume of gas for a short period of time...Injection pressure operated valves --`````. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.``. The opening pressure for the production pressure ated valve is: Oper- Pl = Pbt . a valve used for intermittent lift should fully open during injection and snap closed. The convention of applying P I to the largest area of influence (Ab ... As seen in the illustrations.Production pressure operated valves Pbt .`. 5-9 . 5-10 A&B) has the production pressure (PI) acting on the largest area of influence (Ab . .P2(Ap /Ab) 1 ..17 The opening pressure (PI) equation is the same for both cases.-`-`. 5-10 .AP)and (PZ)to the smallest areaof influence (A.. One is located in the tubing and the other in the casing.17 Injection pressure (PI) acts on the largest area of influence (Ab . The valve may be identical in either case. The opening pressure for the injection pressure operated valve (Fig. Valves Used for Intermittent Lift Production up (A) the tubing Production up the (B) annulus Fig.Ap). etc.AP)and production pressure (P2) acts on the area of the port (Ap). It is necessary to insure that the action of the two pressure sources on the valve elements is properly represented.`. All calculations (opening pressure.P2 (Ap /Ab) 1 .. Unlike valves used in continuous flow.

09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 3.Ap) b This valve (Fig. Pilot Valves: A pilot valve (Fig.`.22 P* Pressure valve Fig.. The control section is an unbalanced gas lift valve. 5-12) has the following force balance. /Ab) Equation 5..`--- Spring valve valve Fig. the test rack opening pressure may be calculated: PP S P”.20 The equation may be rearranged solve tofor PS.````.Unbalanced spring Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. 5-11) uses a nitrogen charged dome as the only loading element to cause closure. --`````. + Ap P2 Equation 5. 5-11 . 5-12) does not contain a charge. Casing 2. For the purpose of calculations. Unbalanced Spring Valve: The dome of this valve (Fig.2 1 The calculations are the same for an injection pressure operated valve. represents the dome charge in the tester as well as at the operating depth. . A fixed orifice is not normally used. and is denoted PS. For this reason. Since effect temperature is negligible.Ap /Ab) Equation 5. cause the spring valve to function like a variable orifice. Springs are most commonly applied within a valve in a fashion that causesa closing force. so long as the pressures are properly identified with respect to the area elements they are acting on. Typical high spring rates (force increase per unit stem travel).-`-`. Unbalanced Pressure Charged Valve: An unbalanced spring valve withno dome pressure (Fig. This pressure is referred to as Spring Pressure Effect. = (1 . All earlier discussion was directed this to valve. If this spring force (Fc) in pounds is divided by the area of the bellows (Ab) in square inches.. 5-12 ..A P I TITLE*VT-b 64 94 m 0732290 0532897 966 m Gas Lift Basic Valve Designs l. This characteristic provides an infinite series of areas for gas passage.`. A pressure of this magnitude placed in the bellows would provide the same valve closing force as the spring.. P.`.Ap /Ab) + P2 (A. Psp = PI (1 ..```.`.Unbalanced pressure charged valve This equation is the same for the production pressure operated and the injection pressure operated valve.`. Pspis used as a fictitious replacement of dome (bellows) charge pressure.``. 5. a value for pressure (psi) is obtained.. based upon the desired conditions at valve depth and for particular valve specifications. After Psp is determined. Test rack pressure contacts the bellows in both cases and the area of the stem tip in contact with the seat is a atmospheric pressure in each case. just as the valve starts to open: Psp A = PI (Ab .13) offers the advantageof a large port combined with close control overvalve spread. temperature effects are negligible and are normally not considered when setting the valve’s opening pressure..

. 5-14A illustrates a well equipped with sidepocket mandrels.`.. the main valve closes. When the control valve opens. Wireline Retrievable Valve and Mandrel These valve mandrels are commonly called Retrievable or Sidepocket Mandrels. Fig.(Fig. Wireline methods are being used to run and pull valves.``. . CONTROL VALVE PISTON BLEED PORT MAIN VALVE Pilot valve Fig. When the control valve closes. Fig. a kickover tool of some type is used.A P I TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0532898 AT2 Gas Lift Valves 65 Unlike conventional valves and mandrels (Fig. 5-14A).`. There are many types special application valves. of The principles of operation most special valves are similar to those of the more widely used types valves of discussed in the foregoing..5-15B). The valve is reached by wiresure operated valve. tubing can still be run. 5-13 . In addition to standard weight bar and wireline jars. of too numerous to include in this manual. the main valve (large port) opens: and when the control line run through the inside of the tubing (Fig.````. Other Types of Valves: New types of valves are constantly being developed to keep pace with the general evolution of gas lift technology.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.Wireline tool strings and retrievable mandrels --`````. 5-14B illustrates a typical wireline tool string used to run or pull valves in retrievable mandrels.. 5-15B and 5-15C).`. Tools that are normally run through the a spring returns the main valveto a closed position.`. Retrieval in the name comes from the wireline retrievability of the valve. A valve closes. In most cases. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.Pilot valve 4. flowing through Gas valve receiver (Pocket) forms a part of the mandrel and is offset from the main bore of the tubing and mandrel the small portof the control section acts the piston of on the main valve to open it...`. no through tubing restriction results. It should also be noted that almost all types of valves are available in both retrievable or non-retrievable form and with various types of check valves.-`-`. Fig... the and tubing pressure act the control section the same on in 5 valve is installed within the interior portion of the sidewaythatthey do on an unbalanced injection prespocket mandrel (Fig.```. 5-14 . -16).

5-16 .Details of wireline retrievable valve Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. jarring up or down with wireline techniques will pull or install the sidepocket (retrievable) valve. READY TO ENTER THE MANDREL SIDEPOCKET. I I SIDEPOCKET (VALVE RECEIVER) PORT TO TUBING Fig. stem. A shoulder or undercut in the pocket maybeused for this purpose (Fig.API T I T L E t V T . the kickover tool will “kick” (or swing) the valve or tool into the offset portion of the mandrel in line with the mandrel pocket (Fig. . In addition to containing seal bores and porting. many sidepocket mandrels have aids that are designed to facilitate locating the mandrel with wireline toolsand aligning the valve carried by the tools with the mandrel pocket. controls any communication between the tubing bore and the annulus.````..`.h 94 66 0732290 0532899 739 W Gas Lift The kickover tool has means of attaching apulling tool a for retrieving valves or a running tool with a valve connected to it (Fig.-`-`. A controlled shoulder within the mandrel can also engagethe wireline tools toaid in locating the mandrel.At this time. An orienting sleeve (Fig... After the mandrel has been located and the valve or tool aligned. Sidepocket mandrels (Fig. The packing bores are smooth and closely controlled dimensionally. 5-15C and 5-17A).. Fig.. a pocket must have a facility to accommodate and engage the valve latch. Kickover tools also help locate the mandrel and align the valve or pullingtool with the mandrel pocket (Fig. with its packing. This stop will properly position the tools in a vertical position above the mandrel pocket. In addition to the pocket. Between the two smooth packing bores is located one of the ports that will allow a path for communicating between the tubing and the annulus. 5-17C shows a stop for this purpose located in the mandrel.``. The pocket will normally have two distinct bores to accommodate the valve packing. 5-17A) to allow installing a valve in the mandrel. Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. and seat. 5-1 7 . 5-17B). 5-15) must have a receiver (pocket) for the gas lift valve.Details of conventional valve . 5-17C) within the mandrel is often used to cause forced alignment. kickover tool and valve (Valve readyto be installed intomandrel sidepocket) Courtesy Camco. THE UPWARD FORCE APPLIED TO THE FINGER AGAINST THIS SURFACE CAUSES THE KICKOVER TOOL TOROTATE INTO ALIGNMENT THE WITH FINGER SLOT.`--- LATCH PORTS SIDEPOCKEl VALVE PACKING (VALVE TO POCKET SEAL) .`. VALVE LATCH SIDEPOCKET MANDREL (A) GAS LIFT VALVE VERTICALLY AND RADIALLY ALIGNED AND KICKED OVER.`.. - K I C K O F TOOL STOP SHOULDER POSITIONS KICKOVERTOOL AND VALVE VERTICALLY WITH RESPECT TO THE MANDREL SIDEPOCKET FINGER SLOT HELICALSURFACE IS ENGAGED BY THE LOCATING FINGER OF THE KICKOVER TOOL. rR 1 VALVE MOUNTED OUTSIDE THE MANDREL (TUBING MUST BE PULLED TO HAVE ACCESS TO THE VALVE) CONVENTIONAL GAS LIFT VALVE REVERSE FLOW CHECK THREAD FOR INSTALLING VALVE CHECK AND TO MANDRE’ (C) Fig. Inc.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The bottom (and sometimes the top) of the pocket provides a second port that communicates with the tubing (see Fig.Sidepocket mandrel. The gaslift valve. LATCH LATCH RETAINING SHOULDER PACKING (VALVE TO POCKET SEAL) PORTS TO ANNULUS t =“ l Fig.```. 5-17A). 5-15 ..`. 5-15C).`.

09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Actually.. Mandrel and Valve Porting combinat ion^^^ It is often inefficient or impractical to use one combination of mandrel and valve porting to satisfy all gas lift installation design requirements. 5-18A) used in conventional mandrels.Retrievable and conventional gas lift valves. 5-19 . 5-18 . This restricts the seat size available in these valves.`--- REVERSE FLOW CHECK Twobasicgasliftmandrelsincludetypelinwhichthesideofthepocketisin communication with theannulus and the bottom of the pocket is incommunication with the tubing.and the bottom of the pocket is in communication with the tubing. The type 1 or standard mandrel has the holes in the pocket drilled from the outside or casing side..6 94 W 0732290 0532900 280 W Gas Lift Valves 67 Valves (Fig. The valve must also have seals that act between the valve and mandrel pocket to prevent leakage between the tubing and casing annulus in either direction.. Also. The four configurations of gas lift valves are shown in Fig. Types 2 and3arefluidoperated. 5-20 . Of these basic types of valves. The other two are not as familiar. (After Focht.`..```. a retrievable valve must have some means (latch) to lock it into position within the mandrel pocket.Configurations of gas lifr valves (After Focht. type 2 and type 4 have crossover seats. World O l January 1981) Fig. 5-20. January 1981) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Type 1 is a well-known conventional injection pressure operated valve.`..".````. Courtesy Cameo.. and type 2 in which the communication configuration is reversed. Inc.. and Type 2 is a production pressureoperatedvalve. Many of the parts are identical.". the only difference between Types 1 and 2 and Types 3 and 4 is that the check valve has been turned upside down in the latter two. Conventional gas lift valve (A) Retrievable gas lift valve (B) Fig..``. and the bottom of the pocket isin communication with the outside or casing (annulus) side.-`-`. PACKING (SEAL) PACKING (SEAL) --`````. . 5-19 shows the two mandrel types.Basic gas lift mandrel types i.`. Fig. types 1 and 4 are pressure operated. There are two basic configuration of mandrels and four configurations of gas lift valves.API T I T L E * V T .`.`. llow "01". R. 5-18B) used in retrievable mandrels have the same basic components as the valves (Fig. In addition to the basic parts. Type 2 has the holes in the pocket drilled from the inside or tubing side. Fig. World Oil.Notethatthecheckvalvesintypes3and4operatein the opposite direction from types 1 and 2.

In Fig. Configuration Gis probably better for this purpose.. annular flow. fluid operated. They follows: &valve 1 .```.Combinations of valve types and mandrel types (After Focht. annular flow. andwithotherportingconbeen used. dard type of completion. Pressure operated..````. G-valve 3.`.. mandrel 1. --`````. more than two packlationsareundesirablefor highproductionratebecauseingsectionsin onepocket. pressure operated. fluid operated. eight configurations are available. annular flow. as are pressure operated. mandrel 2.b P 68 94 0732290 0532903 117 Gas Lift There are eight possible configurations using the four occur.`.. annular flow. ..productionpressure-operatedinstalMandrels with more than one pocket.A T IIT L E * V T .Normally.. fluid operated. The crossover seat restricts the port size available to valve types and two mandrel types (see Fig. a problem with configuration B may tinually being considered. pressure operated. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. F-valve 2. and H-valve 4. mandrel 1. Gas Gas m d l A . mandrel 1. B C D o - T .i nfor the one-inch valve and tos/l6-inch for the 1'h-inch ~h 5-21. 5-21 .Newcombinationsareconthey tend to causeheading or sluggingtypeproduction.`..`.-`-`.mandrel 1 .`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. mandrel 2.. Configurations A and B are recognized asthe stanvalve. 3 / l ~ . fluid operated. tubing flow.H By combining the four valve types with the two types of mandrels. I Fig. E 3 P a D 3 IIF . tubing flow. B-valve 2. C-valve3.E-valve 1 mandrel 2. For tubing flow they are usually preferred. mandrel 2.`.``. 5-21). tubing flow. D-valve4.. World O l January 1981) i.. tubing flow.figurationshave When they are used.

D.``.-inch to 4-inches. Annular flow is the injection of gas down the tubing string and the production of fluids through the tubingcasing annular space.D. it is generally intended that only one valve be open during injection. The examples used in this chapter will be tubing flow. . This is shown graphically in Fig.. Any time the well is placed back on production. ( B ) Intermittent gas lift performance TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS less accurate than that through tubing. Design of continuous flow gas lift installations using injection pressure operated valves is covered in API RP 11V652. 6-1 .000 B/D have been reported through the annulus of 3Ih-inch O. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295... 6-2. If injection is through valves. A continuous flow installation through tubing without a packer or standing valve is classified as an open installation. A varying injection gas line pressure will also cause the fluid level to rise and fall. The prediction of annular flow gradients is probably a little Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.````. tubing inside 103/4-inchO. casing to 3Vz-inch O. but well conditions may be such that running a packer is undesirable.. Flow up the tubing string covers a range of sizes from ’/.. valves are generally needed to establish the point of gas injection and this point may be through a valve or orifice somewhere above total depth. Various water-flood operations and water-drive reservoirs place emphasis on high producing rates requiring large tubing sizes. The best continuous flow gas lift is accomplished by injecting gas at the bottom of the tubing.`.-`-`.`.. Total fluid producing rates in excess of 50.. The principles of tubing and annular flow gas lift ‘are the same. or larger. the flow may be classified as tubing or annular flow. Slim-hole completions place great emphasis on continuous flow in small pipe. some fluid is pushed through any gas lift valve beneath the fluid Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Gas is injected at some point in the flow pattern causing an increase in gas-liquid ratio above that point. This often results in “heading” or “slugging” of the produced fluids instead of a smooth continuous flow. Both types are shown schematically in Fig. the fluids must be unloaded from the annular space. Also. however. Continuous flow gas lift may be utilized in numerous types of installations as well as numerous combinations of tubing and casing sizes.. For maximum benefit the gas should be injected as deeply as possible.(A) Continuous gas lift performance.`. This means that the gas lift valves will be subjected to cutting by liquid flow until the well has unloaded to its working fluid level. Continuous flow gas lift design will be discussed in this chapter. This type of installation is seldom recommended.D. 6-1.. Typical sizes range from 1-inch tubing inside 2’/%-inch O.D. Each time the fluid level is lowered..`. In general. Intermittent lift design will be discussed in a later chapter.```.`.`--- L L L f INJECTED _ I INJECTED QAI r Fig. casing. the tubing should be large enough to handle the downward gas flow without excessive pressure drop. Because of pressure limitations.Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods 69 CHAPTER 6 CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT DESIGN METHODS INTRODUCTION Gas lift is a process of lifting fluids from a well by the continuous injection of relatively high pressure gas to reduce the flow gradient (continuous flow) or by the injection of gas underneath an accumulated liquid slug in a relatively short period of time to move the slug to the surface (intermittent lift). tubing inside large casing. This increased gas-liquid ratio results in a reduced flowing gradient. and larger. Continuous flow gas lift is essentially a continuation of natural flow. This type of installation has certain disadvantages.

Fundamentals of gas lift design --`````. No pressure drawdown across the formation occurs during U-tubing operations because the tubing pressure at In Fig. 6-3(C) all valves are open. fluid from the casing is transferred into the uncovered. Injection gas is entering total depth exceeds the static bottomhole pressure. there is no re-entry of fluids into the annulus.````. therefore.Withthe PRESSURE .. the fluids do not rise in the annular space and. This type of installation is recommended for most continuous flow wells. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. A semi-closed installation is one in which a packer is run but no standing valve is used. the well will stabilize much quicker when placed back on operation.. Until the top valve in Fig.. Therefore. Once the fluid has been unloaded from the annular space. and injection gas is entering the tubing through tubing through open valves and U-tubed by injection gas this valve. 6-3(A) is uncovered.``. Unloading continues from the top valve which remains open until the second valve is uncovered. 6-3(B) all valves are open.```.A P I TITLEtVT-b 70 9 4 M 0732290 0532903 T 9 T 1 Gas Lift m level. When a semi-closed installation is inoperative. this valve may become fluid-cut.. Another possibility is that some of the actual production may rise and come through the gas lift valves beneath the operating valve because of less friction in the large annular space.-`-`. pressure being exerted on the top of the liquid column in the casing. Eventually..`. CONTINUOUS FLOW UNLOADING SEQUENCE Continuous flow unloading of a tubing-flow installation dueto the pressureexerted by theliquidcolumn in the tubing.`. . The top valve is is illustrated in Fig.`.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Reverse check valves on the gas lift valves prevent fluids from entering the casing-tubing annular space and are recommended for all continuous flow installations. This isthetubingthroughthetopandsecondvalves. PSI 1 I I I 1OOO2000 - I ! 3000 - t W U 4000- f \ 5000- 6000 - Fig.`.`.. 6-2 . Experience has shown that gas lift valves located beneath the operating valve will generally be fluid-cut when an open installation is pulled. In Fig. 6-3.a stabilized level is maintained...

. (B) Fluld In tublng bemg aerated to surface by injection gas through top valve as fluid in annulus is transferred Into tubing through lower valves. The second and third valves are uncovered. Fig.```. Before the top valve will close. In Fig. (D) Fluid In tubing being aerated to surface by injection gasthrough second valve as fluid in annulus is transferred into tubing through third and bottom valves (E) Injection gas enteringtubing through second and third valves immediatelyafterthird valve isuncovered. The bottom valve is below the fluid level in the casing. . The flowing tubing pressure at the depth of the top valve is decreased by injecting a high volume of gas through the top valve to uncover the second valve. Therefore.`. and injection gas is entering the tubing through both valves. and injection gas enters the tubing through the second valve. In Fig. 6-3(D) the top valve is closed and all other valves are open. bottom valve cannot be uncovered..`. the tubing pressure is less than the casing pressure at valve depth. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. 6-3(F) the top and second valves are closed. Injection gas is entering the tubing through the third valve. (C) Injection gas entering tublng throughtopandsecondvalvelmmed- lately after second valve uncovered.`. (F) Produclngrateequalscapacltyof tubing from third valve for available injection pressure. The second valve must remain open until the third valve is uncovered..API ITLEaVT-6 T 9 4 W 0732290 0532904 926 71 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods fluid level in the casing below the depth of the second valve. The third and bottom valves are not uncovered... In Fig. The producing capacity of the installation is reached with the available injection-gas pressure before the bottom valve is uncovered.Continuous unloading sequence Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. The flow of injection gas through the second valve has lowered the flowing tubing pressure at the depth of the second valve..`--- (A) Fluid from casing bring transferred into tublng through all valves and u-tubed by injection gas pressure to surface. 6-3 . the casing pressure must decrease slightly. and the valve must be capable of passing this gas volume. This allows the injection gas to enter the tubing through the third valve.``. Injection gas is entering the tubing through the second valve.. 6-3(E) the top valve is closed and all other valves are open. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.````.`.-`-`. and the third and bottom valves are open. This high injection gas-liquid ratiois required for only ashort time..

Productivity index or inflow performance relationship Bottomhole temperature TABLE 6-1 CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT DESIGN CONDITIONS Production Desired -q Maximum Well Depth .qi 500 MCF/D 0. the well fluids that flow up the tubing.. In this case.Pg 1200 psig Types of Design Problems Gas Injection Rate . 10.O5 Water Gravity .```. Specific gravity of the water Flowing wellhead tubing pressure 9.Tr 190°F (spacing and pressure setting) and run with the tubing in an Fig.. Tubing and casing size 2. 65% the point of injection.`. 3.. 14. Also. 6-5. 13. A second case.`. 6 .. it is assumed that well information is exact.`.-`-`. It is assumed that gradient curves or a computer program for calculating gradient data is available to the designer. as much of the following information as possible should be obtained: 1. 300 CF/B the casing and tubing to conduct the injection gas down to Water Cut . Static bottomhole pressure 12. If gas lift valves are installed. Available Gas Pressure . there are three distinct types of design Bottom Hole problems. the gas lift designer must determine if on the conditions of Table 6-1. they are Gravity Oil 35" API placed on the tubing string to let gas from the annulus join 1. --`````.D. . a safety factor will be discussed later.000' 15. the case. This will illustrate gas lift design principles.. Type of reservoir with expected depletion performBHP Static . The mandrel spacing 6-4. By far the most important information needed in gas lift design is the well's producing characteristics.`.4 (Gross It is common practice to use the annular space between Fluid) Formation R. the design is made without any safety factor.SG. 3. Depth-pressure gradient data is essential to the design.J BLPD/psi 0.465 psitft Static Fluid Gradient* .````. 8. can be used with the only limitations being that Size Tubing in. The third type of problem Gas lift design is best illustrated graphically. This will be followed by those cases where less than complete knowledge of the well parameters is known.P.SGg 0.``. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 6-9 Flowing Temperature . such as annular flow and parallel tubing SizeCasing 5 ' / 2 in. an optimum design can be readily made. and the means for including. Volume of injection gas available 11.F. OD strings.. Flowing wellhead temperature Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..P h w 1O 0 psig which the gas and well fluids flow up and out of the well. Figures is setting valves in existing mandrels. 4. encountered primarily in offshore operations.A P I TITLE*VT-6 72 94 m 0732290 0532905 8 6 2 Gas Lift m DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS FLOW INSTALLATIONS To design a continuous flow installation.`--- 5..`. A step-by-step explanation valves are needed in all the existing mandrels and then follows: determine the set pressures for the valves. Depth to the center of the perforated interval API gravity of the oil Formation gas-oil ratio Specific gravity of the injection and formation gas The initial design will be for the first type of problem and will consider the case where complete knowledge of the well productivity is known. this is seldom. In gas lift design.Twh existing well. In the following design. flows prior to the need to install gas lift valves. Other arrangements Gas Gravity . if ever. is where wireline mandrels are spaced in Type Reservoir Waterdrive the tubing string for later installation of gas lift valves. Mandrel spacing is frequently done when only limited knowledge of Example Graphical Design the well's productivity is known.g.65 of equipment. The need of. OD there must be a passageway for gas to travel downward to Surface Wellhead the point of injection and there must be a conduit through Pressure . and 6-6 show a graphical solution for design based is fixed. This *Static Fluid Gradient is the gradient of the fluid expected may include a considerable period of time in which the well in the tubing and annulus at the time unloading starts. Assume continuous flow gas lift design is needed for the conditions listed in Table 6-1. First is the case where valves are to be designed Temperature .600 psig ance Productivity Index . Desired daily producing rate (oil and water) 7. Injection gas pressure available at well 1o.. Unfortunately. If exact and complete knowledge of the well is known.

This cuts the depth scale at about 2250 feet and represents the fluid level at shut-in conditions with no surface pressure. 6-4. It should be emphasized that this is not a gradient curve. This point is valid only for the specified conditions of tubing size. 3. Starting at 1200 psig. 6-4 and shows an intersection between the two curves at approximately 8200 feet... If a system pressure of 1600 psig is selected.`. Assuming no pressure drop has been taken for safety factor.. For the given well. This has been done in Fig.4 x 2100 = 840 BAI). It is only necessary that adequate pressure be available to inject at the desired point..``. The gas system pressure is not necessary for developing an equilibrium curve. The line resulting from connecting these points is called an equilibrium curve. If the above procedure is repeated for various rates. Therefore. This represents the maximum gas pressure available at any depth. the formation gasliquid ratio gradient line will exist from total depth --`````. A static fluid gradient line (0.Above the point of gas injection a total gas-liquid ratio of approximately 1350 scf/stb will exist. 800 psi gas could be injected at about 6000 feet and a production rate of 450 barrels per day would result. This is not always the case and the fluid level might stand higher in the well than indicated here. This has been done in Fig. some gas pressure greater than this amount would have to be available in order to inject.````. Draw a line 'representing total depth of the well.`. it would not be possible to inject gas at 10. the tubing gas-liquid ratio would require over 2. a series of points can be plotted on the depth pressure curve representing injection points for different production rates. This line. if drawn all the way to O pressure. Therefore. This assumes that the formation will freely take fluid when the pressure is higher in the casing than in the formation. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. gas could be injected at the bottom of the tubing string and a production rate of approximately 700 barrels per day would result.`. Plot the static bottomhole pressure (3600 psi) versus total depth (10.-`-`. At 400 barrels per day total liquid production and a productivity index of 0. a gradient curve can be drawn starting at O depth and 100 psig for this higher gas-liquid ratio. and 1600 psig in Fig. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.000 feet.465 psi/ft. 2. 6-5 for production increments of 100 barrels per day total fluid. For the conditions described.`--- to the point of injection and the higher ratio gradient line above that point. The available gas pressure from the gas gradient line is slightly over 1400 psig and with such a pressure it would be possible to inject a limited amount of gas at this point because of the lack of pressure differential at 8200 feet.4. In order to inject gas at the bottom of the well. a gradient curve may be drawn for 600 barrels per day. The gas pressure at total depth will be 1500 psig. A point can be located at total depth and 2600 psig. 6-5. For example. 100.. the well would produce 840 barrels per day. when gas lift is selected as an artificial lift method in a field. the pressure increases with depth due to the static gas column. Assuming 500 MCFA) is injected at 10. it would be possible to make a maximum of 600 barrels per day from this well by gas lifting. . A gradient curve starting at that point can be drawn upward as represented in Fig. which will be discussed later. Gas would have to be injected at some higher point in the tubing string. The pressure point is about 1375 psig.```. Since a wellhead pressure of 100 psig has been specified. gas injection rate. The pressure in the column at the point of injection would be about 700 psig. As shown in Fig. Assume a producing rate of 400 barrels per day total fluid. The well would produce the specified 400 barrels per day. This gradient line intersects the previously drawn gradient line at approximately 5200 feet. 4.) is drawn from the static bottomhole pressure point at total depth. A point on the equilibrium curve represents a stabilized condition of gas injection for a specific set of conditions. the well will require a drawdown of 1000 psi below the static bottomhole pressure of 3600 psig. well productivity and other reservoir conditions. the pressure in the tubing must be something less than 1500 psig. (Drawdown = 3600 . Production = 0.. The 1200 psig system gives a production rate of about 600 barrels per day.000 feet. Three different gas system pressures are shown at 800. This represents a continuing series of possible injection points for different production rates. It would be of no benefit for this well to have a system pressure greater than 1600 psig.`.000 feet). a pressure of over 1300 psig would be available at that point and could easily inject into the tubing. Therefore. An available gas injection pressure line is drawn.. On a convenient scale make a depth versus pressure chart.. 6-4. a system pressure must be selected. would cut the depth curve somewhere between 3000 and 4000 feet. The point is at 5200 feet and 700 psig. This consists of the formation gas plus the 500 MCF per day being injected. At 1500 psig bottomhole pressure. This represents approximately a 100 gas-liquid ratio.A P I TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0532qOb 7 T q 73 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods 1. Consider the point on the curve for 400 barrels per day. if gas is injected at the rate of 500 MCF per day at 5200 feet. the pressure will increase approximately 30 psi per thousand feet of depth.000 psig flowing pressure at the bottom of the tubing. An equilibrium curve can be very useful in studying gas lift. wellhead back pressure. Following the same procedure. The formation has a water cut of 65 percent and a gas-oil ratio of 300 cubic feet per barrel.1500 = 2100 psi.

For a field study it would be necessary to select a typical well productivity and also beneficial to have anticipated maximum and minimum productivity wells to examine. will result in a production rate of about 700 barrels per day. Further increases in the amount of gas injected would result in no increase in production and actually would start to cause loss of production.`. A rate of 500 MCF per day was arbitrarily selected in this case.API TITLEtVT-6 74 94 m 0732290 0532907 635 m Gas Lift 5.``. A horizontal flow model can be introduced which would cause the tubing pressure to vary with flow rate. a constant wellhead pressure of 100 psig has been assumed. it results in lightening the column but every cubic foot of gas causes an incremental increase in friction. The equilibrium curve concepts lends itself particularly well to modeling on the computer. As greater and greater amounts of gas are injected. changing the tubing to 27/s-inch O.D. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..`--- assume that if some gas injected does some good then more gas would do more good. As gas is injected.-`-`. This is realistic if a very short flowline existssuchasanoffshoreplatformwerethe production facilities may be located within 25 or 50 feet of the wellhead.`. For example. The greater the tubing pressure... will result in a production rate of about 750 barrels per day. if the well productivity of Table 6-1 is assumed and the 1200 psi gas system is used. This demonstratesaveryimportant point in gas lift design. PSI G7 Fig. where a large number of parameters can be investigated rapidly.. This would not be a realistic assumption for a flowline several thousand feet long. Other parameters may also be studied with the equilibrium curve. Many operators simply --`````. Further increasing the tubing size to 3lh-inch O..`. the less production that will be obtained for a given set of conditions. ..Graphical solution for design based on conditions of Table 6-1 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. In the example shown in Table 6-1.. Another parameter to consider is the amount of gas to be injected.`. This would affect the equilibrium curve and the resulting production that could be obtained from the well. This could be the total available gas or it might be that more gas is available. In the example shown. Other factors that could be evaluated would include tubing size.````.D. a point is reached where the increase in friction equals or exceeds the reduction in pressure due to the reduced density in the column.`. an increase in injection gas to 750 MCF per day would result in an increase of 35 barrels per day liquid production to a total of 635 barrels per day. Design considerations in- PRESSURE. Still another factor that could be investigated with the equilibrium curve is the effect of tubinghead pressure..```. particularly if the flowline is small in comparison to tubing size. 6-4 . A further increase in the amount of gas to 1000 MCF per day would increase production only an additional 5 barrels per day.

. the fluid level i n theannuluswillbe --`````. 6-5 .A P I TITLExVT-6 94 m 0732290 0532908 571 m 75 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods clude determining what size tubulars to place in the well and the volumes and pressures needed from the gas injection system.`. Secondly. The valve spacing could have been continued in Fig.`. If the static fluid level in the well is deeper than the calculated location of the first valve. 6. An efficient and properly working system cannot be installed unless both are done.``.465 psi per foot the maximum point of gas injection willbewherethese lines intersect.````.```. If a straight line is drawn from O depth and tubinghead pressure with a slope equal to the assumed liquid gradient of . Two considerations control valve spacing. If injection pressure is put on the casing annulus. This is shown graphically to be at 2530 feet. the first valve could be placed approximately 230 feet deeper. The gas column pressure is shown graphically by the available gas pressure line. 6-4 has been redrawn in Fig.... However. The same criteria of U-tubing from the first valve to the second valve also exists.-`-`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. the first valve could be placed at the static fluid level.`..PSI 1600 2000 800 1200 2400 200c 400C W u . This would entail some risk if the formation will not freely take fluid when the tubing and casing annulus are loaded. The gradient curve above and below the point of gas injection for 600 barrels per day as shown in Fig. These considerations are equally or more important than design of spacing and valve setting.`. 6-6 to demonstrate valve spacing design.`--- depressed due to the difference in casing and tubing pressure at the surface. I I b n w 600C 800C 10. 7.Graphical solution for design based on conditions of Table 6-I (Continued) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. . it must be possible to displace liquid from the annulus to the tubing down to the desired operating depth with the available gas pressure. The location of the first valve is simply an exercise in U-tubing. The PRESSURE O TP 100 PSI 0 1 4oo .. 6-4 but the multiplicity of lines would tend to create a degree of confusion. surface casing and tubing pressure are no longer applicable. it must be possible to open any valve under producing conditions without opening the valve above it in the string... First.`. If the well can be unloaded into a pit against atmospheric pressure.ooc Fig.

09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. From the equilibrium curve in Fig. The closing force (spring or dome pressure) to be set on each valve is determined using casing and tubing For example. The equilibrium curve theoretically could be used in spacing the valves working downhole. This could 8. suppose pressures from Table 6-2.available casing pressure... PSI 1200 1600 2400 2000 200c W W SOOC LL o & W I - I ' 600C 800C 10. 6-6 .```..A P IT I T L E x V T . O 400 800 PRESSURE. it is common practice to use the higher pressure resulting from a gradient line expected from the anticipated production rate of 600 barrels a day. This is about 420 psi. when the well started to produce at the expected 600 barrel per day rate.````..Graphical solution for design based on conditions of Table 6-1 (continued) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.``. Subsequent valves are designed in the same manner as valves 1 and 2. .`--- cause valve interference. The pressure in the tubing will be reduced to about 280 psi.. The pressure in the tubing will depend on how much the pressure is drawn down in the tubing due to the injection of gas from the casing. 6-5. However. As pointed out later. The higher pressure used for spacing represents some degree of safety factor.`.-`-`.`.L 76 94 W 0732290 0532909 408 W Gas Lift casing pressure available is still the gas gradient line.`.`..`. Valves are spaced closer together at depth increases because the minimum tubing pressure gets nearer the . Fig. 6-6 shows the location of these valves resulting in a design of 7 valves with the bottom valve located at 8250 feet. one or two more valves at some minimum spacing may be added... it would appear that if gas is injected at 2500 feet a production rate of a little less than 200 barrels per day will result. However. It is common practice to carry the spacing design down to the point where predicted tubing and casing pressure differential is 50 psi.ooc ~ Fig. a higher pressure would exist opposite the top valve than the pressure used in setting these valves. --`````.

However. Some pseudo flowing wellhead pressure higher than the expected wellhead pressure is selected. the purpose of being able to selectively open the valves from the bottom up would be achieved. if all dome pressure were set exactly as designed. the point at which a minimum 50 psi differential between casing pressure available and tubing pressure occurs at a shallower depth in the well.90+715~0...-`-`. and is referred to as “Variable --`````.2 (1200 . All gas lift companies put some safety factor in their recommended design but do it by different means. As can be seen from the design.`. The first element of danger i n the design is the gas pressure used.. This. The Variable Gradient design is essentially the same thing. It must be possible to displace liquid from the casing into the tubing down to the desired operating depth with the available gas pressure. (The 20 psi drop is an arbitrary amount selected here. of course.A P I TITLE*VT-b 94 m 0732290 05329LO L2T m 77 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods conventional valves were selected without a spring and with a valve stem area that is 10 percent of bellows area. Also. Psig 2530 4500 5900 6900 7500 7900 8250 1275 1335 1375 1405 1425 1435 1445 420 715 950 1120 1240 1320 1390 1190 1273 1333 1377 1407 1424 1440 Safety Factors in Gas Lift Design As stated previously. 6-7.100) = 320 psi. Spacing design in the example should be capable of achieving the first consideration. This was originally introduced under the name Optiflow design. then some lower pressure should be used to allow for minor losses and control of injection rate. they generally do not label it as safety factor. In this case the bottom valve would be located at 7800 feet where a tubing pressure of approximately 1270 psig and casing pressure of 1320 psig would exist. then each valve could be opened with approximately 20 psi less casing pressure than would be required to open the valve immediately above it. The spacing is carried out graphically in the same manner as before. The following discussion contains various ways of adding safety factor.. However. . The valve pressure would be set in the shop so that it would have 1273 psi at the operating temperature at 4500 feet. In the example. 6-7.. and it must be possible to open any valve under producing conditions without opening the valve above it in the string. Thus the valve string would be (Assuming valve port area = 10 percent bellows area): TABLE 6-2 TABULATION OF PRESSURE WITH DEPTH Depth Casing Press. Projecting a gradient line from this point back to the producing depth at a gas liquid ratio of 100 results in an estimated producing bottomhole pressure of 2180 psig and a production rate of 570 barrels per day.`. If this is maximum. In this case using the same amount of gas but injecting at 450 ft.`. it is almost a certainty that it would not work if installed in a well. Thus the disadvantage of this method is that less production will be obtained from the well when there is not sufficient gas pressure to inject all the way to the bottom of the hole. and if the well production was exactly as expected with the gradient anticipated. tubing and casing pressures would cause all valves to open simultaneously.) Thus the first valve is located in exactly the same manner as previously since maximum casing pressure will be available to open this valve.`.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Then valve 2 would have a calculated domepressureof 1273psig(1334~0. However. Therefore the spacing of the valves below the top valve is slightly closer together. In Fig. One means of including safety factor in the design is illustrated in Fig.. the operating pressure required to open the second valve will be dropped 20 psi below that required for the first valve. Generally the pseudo wellhead pressure selected will be the expected flowing wellhead pressure plus 20 percent of the difference between tubing and casing pressure.. Thus. 6-8. All gas lift companies have charts for making the proper conversion. 6-4. this would be 100 + 0. the available differential pressure for U-tubing at each valve is reduced because of the drop in casing pressure deeper in the well. shallower in the hole results in a production loss of 30 barrels per day. However.``. The available pressure is listed at 1200 psi and this was used. feet Psig Tubing Press.. the example design is redone using a drop in casing pressure of 20 psi at each valve. There are two main considerations in gas lift valve design. 1150 psig or less should have been used as working casing pressure if 1200 psig is absolute maximum available.`. The pressure decrease will depend on field conditions but should never be less than 50 psi.10= 1273). if the expected tubing gradient exists in the well. This method introduces a safety factor by reducing the casing pressure required to open eachvalvesuccessively down thehole. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. This can be done by drawing an available gas pressure line parallel to the existing line at the reduced pressure. would be a very undesirable condition and some safety factor must be included i n order to prevent this from occurring. the example design has been made completely without safety factor except as described under item 7. Because of this. Thus the spacing of the valves below the top valve is reduced because of the drop in casing pressure deeper in the well. A straight line is drawn from this surface pressure to the tubing pressure at the point of anticipated gas injection.```. A different means of including safety factors is illustrated in Fig. This becomes a pseudo flowing production pressure line. Therefore. Psig Dome Press. This illustrates the desirability of always injecting gas at the maximum depth possible.````. The point of gas injection is determined as previously discussed and shown in Fig.

10 valves are required to space to the same depth that was obtained with 7 valves using no safety factor. If full allow- PRESSURE.`.``. This provides sufficient safety factor for valves which have a high degree of production pressure effect. However. this does not introduce a sufficient safety factor to allow for a working design.```.. 6-7 . and requires closer spacing of valves. when the well is producing from the anticipated depth of injection.`. In this case.````. The Variable Gradient design can be used with production pressure operated valves. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. full casing pressure is available at the depth of injection and the anticipated 600 barrels per day should be produced from the well. PSI O 1600 O 12000 400 1200 800 2400 I I 2000 F W ~4oo(l I’ k L W o 6008 800C qpg: 6760’ 7800’ Fig. These production pressures are used both in spacing the valves below the first valve and in setting the dome pressures in the valve. The amount of safety factor which should be used in any given design will depend on field conditions.-`-`.. below this point instead of designing on the basis of expected flowing production pressure with the anticipated gradient.`--- Gradient” design. that is.Example design using casing drop of 20 psi Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 3’ \ 10.. the method used is dependent upon the type of valve sèlected.. Thus.. This becomes the minimum pressure needed for U-tubing down the next valve.. in the type of valve commonly used where the production pressure effect is 10 percent or less. However.`. The first valve is located in exactly the same manner as previously discussed. The dome pressure will be set so that the valve will not open without the minimum pseudo production pressure. However.`. However. this valve will be open but all valves above it will have less production pressure than that required to open the valve.000 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. the pseudo production pressure line is used. The limitation to this method of design is that the safety factor is .`. two methods of introducing safety factor for opening the valves are available. using the expected wellhead pressure and anticipated injection gas pressure.. With normal injection-pressure-operated valves it is necessary to use the method of dropping the injection gas pressure.A P I TITLE*VT-b 78 9V W 0732290 0532911 066 W Gas Lift placed on the production pressure..

.. it is generally assumed that the temperature in the bellows is equal to the well fluid temperature. This temperature is readily available in most fields and usually consists of a straight line gradient between bottomhole temperature and ground temperature a few feet below the surface.`.`..```. then the design engineer has little excuse for lowering the safety factor and risking an unworkable design. Fig..-`-`.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..`. PSI I W W LL P W t I ' 1 . --`````. if considerable added production is available.``.`--- . Downhole Temperature for Design Purposes The downhole temperature to beusedin setting the valves depends upon the type valve used. If a conventional mandrelisusedwith the gas lift valve mounted i n the casing-tubing annulus and not in the flow stream of the tubing.Variable gradient design Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 6-8 . the temperature correction is not required.A P I TITLE+VT-6 94 m 0732290 0532932 TT2 79 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods able can be made or gas can be injected from bottom with a design employing substantial safety factor. If a type valve is used which mounts inside the tubing and is exposed to the flowing well fluids. Where nitrogen charged bellows are used. Saving one valve in a string design is commendable if minimum risk is involved but is not in the same league with a sizable increase in production or a larger decrease in gas usage..````.Fig.. On the other hand. If a valve is selected which depends upon a spring to provide the closing force. Once the flowing temperature at the surface is determined it is frequently assumed that a straight line temperature gradient will exist between surface PRESSURE. it is generally assumed that earth temperature will exist in the valve dome.`. the temperature at the operating condition must be corrected. 6-9 is a chart by Kirkpatrick for determining the flowing temperature gradient. then having to pull an unworkable string occasionally may be well worthwhile depending on the cost of tripping the tubing.`.

. and tubing sizes Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..A P I T I T L E x V T ... 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.-`-`.`--- .`..`.Flowing temperature gradient for different flow rates.6 94 80 0732290 0532933 Gas Lift 939 03 . O 1 1 l I I I 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 I L 1 2 3 4 5 a 7 a o 10 11 1 2 13 16 4 te 17 10 l o 20 TOTAL FLUID FLOW RATE .``. I I 1 I I 0.`. geothermal gradients. 6-9 .`.2 01 . --`````.`...````..100 BBLWDAY Fig.```.

--`````...000 '0. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API . A more realistic temperature profile is illustrated in Fig. This cooling rate will increase as the temperature differential between the well fluids and the earth increases.`--- Actual Conditions Different From Design Conditions The previous design discussion has assumed exact knowledge of the well productivity. In actual cases. a different condition would exist.*F 200 40 1 160 160 80 120 2000 - FLOWING GRADIENT FROMFIG. 1 10. that is.&PI TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0532714 875 81 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Desien Methods and bottomhole temperature.8 instead of . If the well is designed for this higher productivity. the well would produce about 360 barrels per day. on the other hand..`. As the well fluids move up the tubing. it would make something over 400 barrels a day operating near bottom. the productivity turned out to be greater than expected. Fig.```..`. the system will readily unload down to the bottom valve.`.`.2 instead of . for the assumed case. a production rate of close to 800 barrels per day will result. if the well is valved to bottom... this seldom happens. they will be warmer than the surrounding earth temperatures and will be cooled by the earth.2"/100 FT. 6-11.. This points up the benefit of valving somewhat lower than expected need. This will cause the dome pressure to be higher than anticipated and will give additional force to keep the valve closed when operating at a lower point. Assume that the productivity is double what was predicted.4 BLPD/psi.``. In this case. a PI of . If.. that is. 6-10. 6-10 .`. the productivity turned out to be only half what was assumed. Because of the lower productivity.4 BLPD/psi. the straight line temperature gradient will provide some additional safety factor since the temperature of all valves above the operating valve is probably somewhat higher than was assumed in setting it. 6-10 also shows the straight line assumption that is used in most design calculations.7"/100 FT. but these require a knowledge of heat transfer coefficients that is usually beyond what is available.000 8o Fig. a PI of . 6-9 0. the well will make substantially less production than expected. 6-11 shows the effect on an actual productivity greater or less than that which was used in making the gas lift design. operating off the bottom valve. In actuality. In this case.PROFILE IF STRAIGHTLINE IS USED 4000 4000 L I E I ACTUAL IS CURVED (ESTIMATE NOT CALCULATED) n W c X O 6000 - - GRADIENT EARTH 1. with gas being TEMPERATURE O 0- .-`-`. These higher temperatures may not occur if operating at the lower flow rates. The equilibrium curve for this condition is plotted also on Fig. ttW W ASSUMEDTEMP. Fig. This is slightly in error as the well fluids will leave bottom at earth temperature. Various programs for elaborate heat calculations have been published. For a given flow rate this will usually increase to some fixed differential and then continue at that differential until the well fluids reach the surface or verynear the surface. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.````.Straight line and actual temperature profiles Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. If.

Various techniques have been developed over the O TP 100 P81 O ~~ PRESURE .. it is common practice to install gas lift mandrels in the tubing string at the time the well is completed even though a considerable period of flowing production is anticipated. assumed productivity profiles --`````.. on the development of multiwell platforms it may be necessary to do the design spacing of the mandrels with only minimum productivity information. Also. Under-predicting productivity. the problem of working down from one valve to the next may still prevent this benefit. on the other hand. DESIGNING GAS LIFTFOR OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS In marine operations.``.6 82 94 Gas Lift 0732290 0532935 703 injected at about 6800 feet. ..-`-`. 6-11 . The four bottom valves will be of no benefit unless the productivity later declines and the well works down to one of these valves. Although there is a valve at 6900 feet. However. The well will not be able to unload below the valve at 5900 feet and this will result in a production rate of just over 700 barrels per day.`.000Fig. results in less production.```..Actual vs. The penalty for over-predicting the productivity is that more valves will be placed in the hole than would have otherwise been used.. This points up the need to always over-predict rather than under-predict the well productivity if exact data are not available.`.`. where the pulling of tubing can be very expensive. Sometimes the mistake of underestimating productivity might be overcome by injecting gas in higher quantities than anticipated. injected gas will not reach this depth with the existing spacing design.````.API T I T L E + V T .`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. spacing would be closer together in the string. That is..`..PSI 1600 2000 400 000 1200 200c k W W L I 4ooa S t W n eooa \ /U00 B/D 1sooa PI BID = 0.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. the efficiency of the system is reduced due toinjecting higher in the hole.8 10. Also..

In continuous gas lift.``. In most dual systems. the well productivity must be estimated when a gas lift design is made. Although dual gas lift is one of the best methods of dual artificial lift. Dual completions became fairly widespread during the 1960s primarily because of very restrictive allowables.`. the slugs are usually relatively small in size and production rate to the separator and other surface facilities is fairly constant. dual gas lift was one of the more common methods selected. 4.. In trying to adjust to the different productivities. This results in one or both zones producing at less than optimum rate. If the well is making some sand along with the liquid production. In some cases. the shut in period in which flow is not occurring will allow the sand to fall back around any equipment in the hole and can be a serious problem... continuous gas lift is advantageous. Continuous gas lift produces at a relatively constant rate.````. As mentioned earlier. efficient dual gas lift has proved to be a fairly rare occurrence.. It is necessary to place an upper limit on what might be expected from the well.`. These are: 1. it is very difficult to maintain a constant system pressure with these periodic surges of gas. in many older fields in the Gulf of Mexico. Then the next valve must be spaced from the actual location of the first valve even though this might be substantially higher than the maximum depth that the first valve could have been placed. This can be done in intermittent lift although control of the intermittent lift cycle works better in most cases if a time cycle controller is used at the surface and gas is injected into the well periodically. If the gas lift supply gas system is relatively small. both tubing strings take gas from the same common gas source.. Then as valves are placed progressively deeper in the well a gradient from valve to valve is assumed based on lower productivity. The valve is placed in the first mandrel that is at that depth or higher in the hole. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Continuous gas lift has certain advantages over intermittent lift. In the absence of restrictive allowables. All gas used in the lifting process must be supplied. mandrels are in place that were designed with expected system pressure substantially lower than actually exists at this time. Intermittent gas lift wastes any formation gas energy because the gas is allowed to rise through accumulating liquid head during the build up period and moves on up the tubing. Usually this upper limit is assumed and then a design is developed which could handle wells of less productivity as efficiently as possible. Some range of well productivity must be assumed. An alternate sometimes used is to space on an assumed productivity until some minimum mandrel spacing is reached.`. ADVANTAGES OF CONTINUOUS FLOW OVERINTERMITENT FLOW GAS LIFT The technology for predicting continuous flow gradients has developed greatly over the last 20 to 30 years. Dual gas lift (the producing of two zones from the same wellbore by gas lift without commingling the well fluids in the wellbore) will be discussed briefly. For example. the designer determines the maximum depth of the first valve.`.. the annulus. Although gas lift is in the slug flow regime. as usually occurs. it is usually very inefficient. the productivity is not as estimated. The most common design procedure is to use valves of significantly different operating characteristics .`. The ability to predict intermittent flow such as occurs in intermittent gas lift is less highly developed. However. the gas is injected at a relatively constant rate. The variation in flow rate from the formation is not as great but some variation occurs and this can be detrimental if a sand problem exists. Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002... If.injection pressure-operated in one string and production pressure operated in the other. it is possible to skip mandrels and place the valves at the next lowest mandrel. When artificial lift became necessary.-`-`. The injected gas is added to the formation gas to arrive at the total optimum ratio needed above the point of injection. To set valves in existing man- 83 drels. of fluid being produced into the surface equipment at a very high rate. This is not the case with intermittent lift.`--- 2. The process continues downhole in this manner: from the previous valve location determine the maximum depth that the next valve could be spaced and then pick the next higher mandrel above that depth.```.API TITLE*VT-b 94 m 0732290 0532’9Lb 648 m Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods years i n an effort to satisfactorily solve this problem. A generally accepted method of doing this is to design the first two or three valves using this highest assumed productivity or production rate. ~~ . Continuous gas lift fully utilizes the formation gas. The production rate varies widely with a slug DUAL GAS LIFT INSTALLATIONS different casing pressure. 3. the system will frequently allow extra gas to go in one tubing string while starving the other side. Mandrels are then placed at this minimum (usually 200 to 500 feet) spacing for several additional valves or to packer depth. most operators have concluded that single zone completions are preferable to duals when artificial lift is required. the design will selfadjust by operating from a different valve or at a slightly Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. Where sand is being produced.

From the schematics in Fig. Recommended Gas Lift Installation Unloading Procedure Care in unloading a gas lift well is extremely important since more gas lift valves are damaged at this time than at any other time during the lift of the well. it is obvious that the terms casing pressure or tubing pressure are ambiguous and may mean gas pressure or produced fluid pressure. These principles are generally applicable to production rates ranging from 100 barrels per day to over 50. it should be blown clean of scale. 7-1. some type circulating valve of TVWAL T FLOW aOIIWAT*: TVWAL 2. welding slag. (An adjustable choke should be left on the wellhead connection to the flowline only if the well is expected to flow naturally after it is “kicked off’ with gas lift..````.. Separator capacity. This precaution prevents plugging of surface controls.. If the injection gas line is new.-`-`. It is important to check the pop-off safety release valve for the gas gathering system if this is the first gas lift installation in the system.`.. Slowly control the lift gas into the well so that it takes r Fig. A 1.``.. otherwise the fluid could cut the polished bore in the mandrel where the valve will seal. and all valves between the wellhead and the tank battery should be checked. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Abrasive materialsin the well fluids can damage the gas lift valve seats and/or may result in valve malfunction during unloading operation.`. For clarity. Operation.`.. maintenance and trouble-shooting of gas lift installations are covered in API RP llV55’. Increase the lift gas rate into the well so that it takes about 8-10 minutes for 100 psi increase in the well gas pressure. The gas lift design will have been based on a certain daily volume of gas injected into the well. reverse circulation should not be used since circulation will occur through the valves. As previously mentioned.000 barrels per day. etc. If mud or dirty fluid must be circulated out. They are applied by circulating lift gas down the annulus for tubing flow production or down the tubing for casing flow production. several things should be done prior to unloadingthe well by gas lift.`.```. Recommended Practices Prior to Unloading After a continuous flow design is completed and the equipment is installed in the well. Remove or open the flowline choke depending on the well’s expected reaction to gas lift. but with gas lift. 5 . Hence.. stock tank liquid level.`--- . valves areinjection gas presIf sure operated. 7-1 .. Continue this rate of injection until the absolute well gas pressure is about 400 psi.A P I TITLE*VT-h 84 94 0732290 0532937 584 Gas Lift CHAPTER 7 ANALYSIS AND REGULATION OF CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION Continuous flow gas lift makes up the vast majority (90 percent) of all wells that are artificially lifted by gas lift. Injection gas pressure will be used to identify the lift gas pressure at the well. Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. The following procedure avoids excessive pressure differential across the valves and is recommended for initial unloading. should be placed in the mandrel and retrieved after the circulation is completed.. this chapter will use production pressure to identify the pressure of the produced fluids. 8-10 minutes for a50 psi increase in well gas pressure. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. 6.`. 1 .) 4. Install a two pen pressure recorder to record the well gas pressure and production pressure at the surface. Preventing excessive pressure differentials across gas lift valves reduces the chance for equipment failure due to sand cutting and liquid cutting. 3.Casing and tubingflow installations I I L C-. the continuous flow principles are virtually the same as those at work in a naturally flowing well. Bleed the production pressure down to flowline pressure. At this time adjust the rate to be only ‘/2 to of the designed gas injection rate. If a well is loaded with mud it should be circulated clean of mud down to the perforations prior to running gas lift valves. and the entrance of debris into the well casing. before being connected to the well. the volume of gas circulated to the well is controlled. the total gas-liquid ratio is controlled. Continue this rate until gas passes into the tubing through the top valve.

the well having been switched to a test separator.````. Temperature surveys 3.. This instrument will record on a chart any change in the wellhead pressure of the tubing or casing during the operational period of the chart. instances one or more of the following methods of obtaining data will used: be Surface Data 1.) The periods of natural flow and gas injection would be clearly indicated by both the production and well gas pressure. 8. if the installation were properly analyzed. Measurement of surface temperature 4. adjust the gas rate to the full designed rate for the well.. Fluid level determination by acoustical methods 4. or a broken flowline. There are several methods which may be used for obtainIn most ingproper a analysis of agasliftinstallation. Increased flowing production pressure would indicate an increase in separator back pressure. *Charts 7A1 through 7A14. A hole in the tubing.. an increasehas been made in the volume of injection gas. In many instances the operator is content to leave the well alone as long as he thinks it is making all the fluids the well is capable of producing. This is accomplished by the use of an orifice meter or orifice flow computer which should be located near the injection gas control to the well..Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift 85 7. Visual observation of the surface installation 5. or sediment in the flowlines. thereby decreasing production. Testing the well for oil. Computer calculated pressures in the well METHODS OF OBTAINING SURFACE DATA FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT WELLS Recording Surface Pressure inTubing and Casing the Two-pen pressure recorders are relatively inexpensive instruments usingtwo pressure elements of the proper pressure range to record the surface tubing casing pressures and of the well. it is necessary to analyze the installation. Some of the important factors to be noted from the recordings* of tubing and casing pressures are: 1 . It is also a common tendency for the field operator to increase injection gas rates in an attempt to produce more oil from the well.``. The meter run should be elevated to prevent condensation from collecting. 7. Excessive gas usage may be indicated. Decreased production pressure could indicate a drop in supply gas pressureor volume. For example. 5. Analyzing the Operation of A Continuous Flow Well In order to properly evaluate the efficiency of operation of the continuous flow well. Excessive injected gas volume may actually increase the flowing pressure gradient.`.`. another well has been added to the flow system. readjustment the of injection gas control. (Production pressure control is a means of injecting gas into the well at a predetermined drop in production pressure. Other interpretations might be given if the exact trouble is not known. Measurement of Gas Volumes Measurement of injection gas volumes is necessary in order to determine the efficiencyof the gas lift operations. water and gas production Subsurface Data 1. illustrate some of these conditions. After 12-18 hours at the reduced injection rate. The changing from one operating valve to another may be detected. Other companies equip 2. A continuous flow well on production pressure control would have the periods of gas injection and the periods of natural flow recorded. if the maximum wellhead pressure is 700 psig. Appendix 7A. The actual problems encountered are those in the chart given interpretations. or that the well has started to flow naturally. 4.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. the recorder should have 1. utilizing the gas lift valves to purge the tubingof a liquid loading condition.`. or a bad gas lift valve will be indicated.-`-`. Pressuresurveys 2. fluctuating system gas pressure.. Decreased production may be indicated.```. Recording surface pressure in the tubing and casing 2.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. It could also indicate that a choke has been installed in the flowline. Some companies favor a permanent meter connected to the meter run. --`````. 3 . The sanding up or water loading of a well will be indicated. Quite often. an improvement could be made in the injection gas-oil ratio. paraffin deposition. injection gas freezing. Measurement of lift gas circulated to the well 3. The maximum pressure rangeof the recorder should be '/4 to '/3 higher than the maximum operating pressure of the well.000 psig maximum range elements. Thiswill permit sufficient sensitivity in the instrument to indicate any small pressure change on the chart..`. ... 6.

Continuous flow semi-closed installation The static pressure element on the meter is useful in determining any pressure fluctuation in the gas system that may be detrimental to the efficient operationof the gas lift. The orifice meter consists of a static pressure element indicating the line pressure from the orifice plate.``.```. Fig.. Maintaining high separator back pressure. SYSTEMGASPRESSUREATWELL: 610 PSlG Fig.. Periodic injection gas measurement is required in most states and will give a reliable evaluation of the efficiency of the gas lift operations. Inefficient gas injection may be corrected by changing the rate of gas injection and carefully measuring the total fluid production against the injected gas volume for each change...Continuous flow equipment problem tubing for flow well Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. thus providing a means of determining the most efficient gas oil ratio.-`-`.. Most gas lift valve manufacturers have charts for temperature and gas weight corrections.`--- Visual Observation of the Surface Installation Visual observation of a gas lift installation may sometimes uncover conditions that are detrimental to the overall efficiency of the installation. These charts may be used to determine the surface operating pressure of each valve.`.800 PSlG (PI1 2 1.900 ft. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The producing fluid temperature has raised the pressure of the valve (at 1. long or improperly designed flowlines. 7-3 illustrates a continuous flow well that is not producing at its capacity because the producing fluid temperature has raised the pressure of the operating valve to near system pressure.5 PRODUCTIVITY INDEX TUBING S I Z E i 2-718-11 E U E : !72 F BOTTOM-HOLE TEMPERATURE 105 F PRESENT FLOWING SURFACE TEMPERATURE. 2040 m FLOWING 6.PRESS. the meter run with quick connectors to facilitate the use of a portable meter.A P I TITLESVT-b 86 94 m 0732290 0532919 357 Gas Lift most efficient rate. Equipment problems like this can sometimes be eliminated by using spring adjusted valves that are not affected by temperature. Fig.H. Surface temperature readings the producedfluid at the of wellhead may sometimes aid in analyzing the trouble in a gas lift well. knowing the temperature at each valve might also disclose that the temperature effect on the valves is preventing the well from producing at its Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. restrictions in the wellhead.200 B I D STATIC BOTTOM-HOLE PRESSURE : 2. and too many sharp-angled bends may be the cause of excessive back pressure as indicated by the production TUBING CASING BDO TEMPERATURE l05'F I 6ooo 200 400 PSIG Surface and Estimated Subsurface Temperature Readings PRESSURE 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1 6 0 0 leo0 2& 2xK) 2000 DESIRED - 41.`. Where it has been difficult to determine the cause of inefficient operation..`.`. 7-2. The depth location of each valve may then be located on the chart and the temperature at each valve may be estimated from the temperature curve.) to the point that the differential pressure across the valve will not permit reducing the flowing fluid gradient to a pressure that would permit gas entrance through the valve at 2. paraffin or sediment in the flowlines. and a differential pressure element indicating the pressure drop across the orifice plate.````.350 ft.. Direct reading gas flow computers are available for instantaneous measurement of gas. 7-3 . 7-2 . Orifice meters are installed at thetest separators tomeasure the total gas outof the well under test. If a straight line relationship is assumed. . The difference the in injection gas input and the total gas output will represent the formation gas. it is a simple matter to plot a graph of the temperature gradient when the bottomhole temperature and flowing surface temperature are known.`. 2510 FLOWING TOTAL FLUID TOTAL F L U I D PRESENT PRODUCTION: 465 B/D D E S I R E D PRODUCTION i 1.. This is schematically illustrated in Fig.

This condition of multi-point injection is very inefficient..A P IT I T L E * V T . and improper surface control for the type of gas lift valve in the well should be examined where inefficient operation is indicated. A flowing pressure survey will locate the point of gas injection. PSlG Fig. Therefore. fluctuating system gas pressure.buttheinformationnecessarytoimprovethe installation will not be obtained. This well was Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. or multipoint injection.-`-`. It was noted that the fluid level i n the casing lacked only a few feet of uncovering the next valve with the available line pressure. the well was performing satisfactorily. By accurately testing the well at the time the flowing bottomhole pressure is being taken.and the static gradientof the well fluids.`. The information obtained might indicate that respacing the valves would appreciably improve the production of the well. the spacing was satisfactory for 1’12 to 2 years. an insufficient differential between system gas pressure and wellhead operating pressure. this example. A very common error in gas lift design is failure to space the valves close enough together.``.It is a common fallacy to wait until trouble develops before making apressure survey. the static fluid level. This can be very inaccurate in many wells because of the fluctuations in the amount of water in the flow stream. and the flowing bottomhole pressure. and producing from a very active water drive reservoir. Fig. 7-4 shows a well making 1.h 94 m 0732290 0532920 07’7 m 87 Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift wellhead pressure.Valve spacing from flowing pressure survey Fig.`.`--- O 1000 I T C o s i n g Pressure Flowing . The possibility of wet gas freezing at points of restriction. Testing Well for Oil andGasProduction Accurate gauging for oiland water production is neces- sary for the proper analysis of the operation of a gas lift well.```.but rather a need for the repair of valves 2 and 3.600 B/D by respacing the lower valve so that it would operate 60 ft. The flowing pressure gradient indicated that too much gas was being injected. the productivity index (PI) of the well maybe established. The survey might locate the source of trouble. --`````. Since the well had a PI of 10 BLPD/psi. It will also determine the flowing gradient below and above the pointof gas injection. On wells with high PI’S. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 7-6 shows a well in which it seems that too many gas lift valves were used for the installation. This information is essential to determine efficient the point of gas injection for the well conditions METHODS OF OBTAINING SUBSURFACE DATA FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT ANALYSIS Subsurface Pressure Surveys Subsurface pressure surveys offer a good means of properlyanalyzing gas liftinstallations..`. leaks in the tubing. Knowing the specific gravity of the oil and water is also important if the installation requires redesign.. From all surface indications. 7-4 . a pressure is survey should be run while the well supposedly performing satisfactorily. The pressuresurvey did not indicate a need for valve respacing.`.nearer the surface. valve failures.. Fig. By checking the static fluid level.````. it is recommended that valves be spaced close together near the estimated point of gas injection.`. Also valves 6 and 7 could be grouped closer to the point of injection. 7-5 shows a well in which three gas lift valves were admitting gas.\ c I1 Tubing = 2 ’. the production rate was increased to 1. however.Fluid R a t i o = 400/1 2000 k W 3000 4000 k! r k ”” Casing Fluid Level 5000 n 6000 7000 8000 9000 I O I I I I l I I 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 PRESSURE.000 bbl of oil and water per day (90 percent water). This was high in comparison with neighboring wells operating under similar conditions. or greater. It was. the valves In were equipped with fixed orifices and no increase of gas volume could be made through the valves. since efficiency i n continuous flow is the result of injecting the proper volume of gas at the deepest point for the available pressure. A measurement of the injection gas-liquid ratio showed it to be 800: 1. Since the bottomhole pressure was showing very little drop with time... immediately evident from the flowing pressure survey that by respacing the valves there would be an increase i n fluid production. A staticsurvey will determine the static bottomhole pressure (or formation pressure). .it was possible to relocatevalves 1 and 2 from the surface so that two valves could be positioned below the point of injection. Fluid = 1000 B b l s / O o y Input G o s ... In many field installations only oil production is measured and a shakeout is taken to determine the percentage of water.

D..`--- A pressure survey of acasing flow gas liftwell can be used to determine the point of injection.`.A P I TITLESVT-6 88 94 0732290 0532921 T05 D Gas Lift designed for either continuous flow or intermittent flow gas lift. PRESSURE IN 100 PSlG O TUBING = 2" FLUID = 700 BBLS. l . A check on the valve installation showed that there was no gas lift valve close to the 2. = 5540' Flowing BHP 1770 p i g -. This would result in lowering the point of gas injection and utilizing the lower valves in the installation.. Fig.``..8OO:l Production 700 bblfluid per day Oil production = 120 B/ D Fig. just below the bottom of the tubing. depth. Nine stops were made at 500 ft. 7-8 shows the pressure survey of a casing flow well. This was a well. ._ _ I - W k! I I - WELL DATA: 2-IN. and near the bottom four stops were made at 250 ft. The first stop was at 4. with the bottom open-ended. into the well.. l .`.Flowing pressure survey for valve repair W I A 2500 z I t - 3000 3500 " V.`. however. OD tubing in 5% in.. I 0500 I I I . ~ PRESSURE PSlG - - 8 IO 1 2 1 4 I6 1 20 8 Iniection Gor Prrssurr Well Data: 2% in.FLOWING B. 7-5 . Fig. 7-7 . fourvalves would be enough to take care of the well. 1 1 1 . The gas liquid ratio very effiwas cient at 90 CU..070 ft. l .`.H. . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.I 2000 I \ I VALVF DLP-Ta 2400 3000 ""1 -2. The gage was lowered into the well through the tubing. The well was Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..000 ft. intervals.000 bbl of fluid per day at the time the pressure surveywas made. in which the water percentage was expected to increase considerably. of gas per barrel of fluid. ft. 2850 3300 4000 MULTI -POINT 5000 GAS INJECTION 2 4 6 m@ o &o lobo tim &.070 ft. I . r . The well was producing 4.I*e t 1935' a W 4000 O r 4500 Casing Pressure Flowing 5500 5000 1000 2000 3000 Casing Fluid Level 1 = T.. 5000 o 6000 7000 - 8000 90001 O I I I I 1 I 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 PRESSURE. intervals. Under the present operating conditions. of which 97 percent was salt water.. r .PRESS.. l l . TUBINGIN 5-112-1N.Flowing pressure survey to locate tubing leak . The tubing leak is plainly indicated by the break in the flowing gradient at 2.Flowing pressure survey for valve spacing --`````. l l . The tubing was 2-in. casing Gas-liquid ratio. I . 7-6 . EUE and extended 4. P S l G Fig. / DAY INPUT GAS-FLUID RATIO = 800.````.935 ft.```. I I .-`-`. 1 . The normal point of gas injection is through the valve operating at 2..`.. 7-7 shows how a flowing pressure survey was used to locate a tubing leak. CASING INJECTIONGAS-LIOUIDRATIO = 550:l PRODUCINGWELLHEADTUBINGPRESSURE = 110 P S I G SURFACEINJECTIONCASINGPRESSURE = 640 PSlG PRODUCTION = 6 4 0 B 8 L FLUI0 PER DAY OIL PRODUCTION = 5 B / D 4000 Fig.000 ft. l .

Once a fit is accomplished.Flowing pressure survey of casingflow gas lift well Subsurface Temperature Surveys in Casing Flow Wells A temperature survey can also be made inside the tubing of a casing flow installation to determine the point of gas injection. which might result in its damage or loss. trouble-shooting.`. This will also locate valve leaks. below each valve in order to correctly locate the point of gas injection. Since the higher fluid velocities occur near the surface. company engineers or consultants). This was still not the maximum rate for the well andno attempt was made to reach it. 600C 800( 966c 2000 PRESSURE PSlG 3945 FLOWING 6.`--- Precautions When Running Flowing Pressure and Temperature Surveys Some precautions should be exercised when running flowing pressure surveys in continuous flow wells.P CASING 90.``. and at one time produced over 7.`. It is interesting to note the comparison of the test rack opening pressure of the valve to the opening pressures at operating temperature. 7-8 ..I N TUBING IN 5-112-IN INPUT GAS-FLUID RATIO i PRODUCTION i 4 0 0 0 BBL WITER PROOU(T1CN.‘ A P I TITLE*VT-6 94 m 0732290 0532922 941 m 89 Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift producing its depth allowable of 120 bbl of oil per day under these conditions. The usual first objection to this concept is “those computer programs don’t match the well pressureswhereIcomefrom. The well should be closed in at this time.000 ft.. improving well performance. with the addition of a master valve above the flowingwing valve. the benefits are readily available at a very small cost per run. . A definite change in both the producing fluid gradient and the temperature gradient can be noted at the point of gas injection at 4. It is also necessary to provide a weighted section to the pressure gage in order to prevent the flow stream from lifting the instrument.”Butthe computer calculated results can be made to fit “the well pressures where you come from” with a cooperative effort between the field personnel and the technical groups that are involved (Le. The important section (below and above the point of gas injection) will have been surveyed successfully. it was capable of producing a great deal more. It is recommended that the well be prepared prior to the survey by placing the lubricator for the pressure gage in place..````. and finally to the surface operating pressure.000 ft. Computer Calculated Pressure Surveys Pressure surveys that are computer calculated from flow correlations can be the best means of analyzing the performance of continuous flow gas lift wells. and updating PI data. The results of a computer calculated pressure survey can be used for redesigning. These data are necessary for the design of a gas lift installation. They also may be useful later for locating the depth of the operating valve. --`````.000 bbl per day while it was being regulated.... The well then must be returned to stabilized flow and the survey can be started up the hole.1 F L U I DP E R PERCENT WELL DATA: 2 . In somehigh volume wells with small tubing.`.. it may be necessary to shut the well in and run the gage to bottom as Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.```.`. 7-9 shows a survey of flowing pressure and temperature in a gas lift well. The temperature survey should be run to the bottom of the well in order to establish a reliable temperature gradient..`. Stops should then be made approximately 10 ft. O -CASING PRESSURE ‘ ~ T U B I N GPRESSURE VALVE DEPTH 2ooc 4O 0 C OF TUBING . fast as practicable.. The prudent operator will make use of computer calculated pressure surveys as often as possible. caution should be taken when a lightening of the wireline load will indicate that the fluid velocities are trying to pick up the gage. 91 DAY’ Fig. below the point of gas injection to establish the flowing gradient in that region of flow. the temperature gage will record the temperature change. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. and the gage safely retrieved. Temperature Surveys in Tubing Flow Wells Temperature plays an important part in the operating of a pressure-charged valve. However. It is recommended that a stop be made every 500 to 1. As the expanding gas will cool the outside of the tubing directly above the operating valve.4000 FT. They will decrease the number of wireline pressure surveys that are required with their attendant problems and expense. For this reason it is necessary to have accurate bottomhole temperature and surface temperature data under both static and flowing conditions.H. Fig.-`-`. It is important to produce the well until a stabilized flow condition has been established before making the gage run. A flowing temperature survey can be valuable in locating tubing leaks as well as locating the operating gas lift valve.

The following procedure is suggested to assure that enough useful information will be obtained from the survey to allow you to make good decisions. One or two stops between mandrel stations.-`-`.. PRESS... a.`--- ...`.`. ~~ --`````. Make the following stops recording the time and depth reading at each stop. with the temperature instrument being at the bottom. 1500 2OOO 165O TEMPERATURE F . TUBING = 2" 2 4 "y O 262 I I GAS-FLUID RATIO = 200. Flowing Pressure and Temperature Survey The flowing pressure and temperature survey has long been one of the primary ways of determining the operating valve and formation pressure drawdown. í o 0 990 1150 I100 '0 3. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.````.I VALVE OPEN ING AT VALVE TEST DEPTH WRFPCE DEPTH PRESS. 1 0 0 4.PFESS. At the surface..`. 2.``. 7-9 .. Fig.. 7-10 .API TITLE8VT-6 90 CASING PRESS. 6ooo 500 1000 PRESSURE PSIC.`. Use enough sinker bars to assure that the instruments will move forcefully down the hole and not be pushed up the hole by the flowing fluid.```.`. Run a pressure and temperature instrument in combination. 94 m 0732290 0532923 Gas Lift 888 m SURFACE TEMP. b. 1. Run survey under stabilized flowing conditions.Temperature andflowing pressure survey gas of lift well I 2 3 4 Fig.Typical acoustic survey of gas lift well Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.

as the formation fluid entered the well.. Fluid Level Determination by Acoustical Methods One of the most common and economical methods of locating the fluid level in the annulus of a tubing flow continuous flow gas lift well is through the use of acoustical well-sounding devices. The operation of acoustical equipment. clock Interpretation of the survey data is best evaluated by plotting the results on a pressure depth diagram. The choking may be accomplished by the use of an insert or adjustable type choke or metering valve. indicating a false “point of balance. should be done by experienced personnel. before a person can correctly interpret the sound impulses. stops if using a 6 hr. with no packer.`. 3 min. and interpretation of the charts produced. At perforations. The rebound reflects a duplicate of the first recording but to a diminished degree. 7-1 1 illustrates a wellhead installation using only a choke as a gas control. such as the collars and gas lift valves. e. CHOKE Fig... From bottom mandrel to perforations as required. i n a well containing a packer. Fig. by using a gas heater ahead of the choke. 7-10 shows a typical acoustic survey of a gas lift well. Timed duration of stops.```. tubing flow well downstream of choke control). . The fluid level in a closed or semiclosed installation will represent the deepest point to which the well has been unloaded but may not represent the point of operation at the present time. As the gas lift valves are larger and offer more reflective sound surface than the collars. the pressure in the annulus at the fluid level would be equal to the pressure in the tubing (this is often referred to as the “point of balance”). This can be used i n most cases where the system pressure is reasonably stable.``. 5 . thus acting as a heat transfer unit. Four stops around each mandrel as follows: Stop 1 . In an open installation --`````. 7-11 . Fig. The fluid level in the casing is clearly shown by the large zig-zag indicating the point of rebound. It may be that the well originally unloaded to a lower valve..5‘ above Stop 4 . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. and a certain amount of art and experience.`--- VARIOUS WELLHEAD INSTALLATIONS FOR GAS INJECTION CONTROL This latter method will permit the hot flowline fluidsto pass over the gas line. and tubing all holding perfectly.Choke-regulator control.” Periodic sounding should be taken under satisfactory operating conditions so that they can be used in comparison with future soundings.`. a greater impulse is recorded on the chart. check valves.. Fig. On the same diagram indicate the depth of the valve stations.. stops if using a 3 hr. the acoustical device would show the well unloaded to the lower valve. and the operating valve would be directly above.25‘ below d. This can be rectified using a dehydraby tor in the gas system. The sound impulses decrease with depth but clearly show all the protruding surfaces on the tubing string. and. the formation gas supplemented the injection gas.25‘ above Stop 3 .. 7-12 .`. many cases choking may cause In freezing problems.`.`.-`-`. permitting the opening of an upper valve.Choke control. 7-9 shows the plotting of a typical pressure and temperature survey and easily identifies the operating valve or the depth of injection. It takes practice.5 0 above Stop 2 .````. or by building a heat exchanger around the choke.A P I TITLE+VT-h 94 0732290 0 5 3 2 9 2 4 714 91 Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift c. With the packer. clock.tubing flow well CAUTION: THIS SYSTEM WILL WORK ONLY WHEN THE REGULATOR CAN BE SET HIGER THAN OPERATING INJECTION GAS PRESSURE (gas pressure in casing Fig. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. However.. 5 min.

This is generally used on wells that have a tendency to flow.`. itwill be assumed that a two-pen pressure recorded for recording both casing and tubing pressures is on the well and that a meter run for measuring lift gas is at each well. GETTING THE MOST OIL WITH THE AVAILABLE GASLIFT The efficientdistribution of circulatedgas to each well on gas lift is of primary concern to operating personnel. Controls Manual These controls are least efficient because the they require manual changes in adjustment when any system parameter changes. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. The automatic control method offers the greatest --`````. . 7-13 illustrates a production pressure control installation. but progress with this method is moving slowly. This approach led to higher pressure systems of 1440 psig (ANSI Series 600) and higher.``. The choke is installed in the gas line downstream from the regulator. The regulator is set to operate at a pressure higher than the injection gas pressure in the casing downstream of the choke control. This led operators in many fields to select an injection gas system of less than 1000 psig.Production pressure control of the injection gas. PRESS. ELEMENT Fig. and because their durationof efficiency is only as long as all systems parameters are constant. 7-14. of lift..`--- promiseforefficiency. the approach to design and selection of the injection gas pressure is more sophisticated. 7-13 .`. Therefore. The methods generally used are manual and semi-automatic control. Gas lift valves are easily adaptable to 1400 psi well gas pressures and several vendors have valves for 2000 psi and higher gas systems. these pressures are considered low for gas lift purposes. Also.````.. It is related specifically to the highest expected flowing bottomhole pressure in the field. Fig. and intermittent lift which will be discussed in the following chapters. The detailsof this componentwill be discussed as related to the method of control exercised by operating personnel. Tying the gas lift system design to reservoir performance allows efficient production at higher flowing bottomhole pressures as high as 2300 psi. A few companies have implemented automatic controls.`.. Some of the deeper oil fields are planned for reservoir pressure maintenance before the field is completely drilled.. Manual controls are detailed in Fig.`.. Today. 7-12 shows a wellhead installation that is recommended for most types of continuous flow gas lift valves where there is a fluctuating gas system pressure. it is the component of the system that the operator uses to make a system efficient.`. So. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..-`-`. The combination of the two permits a constant gas volume to be injected into the well. the methods that are most commonly used today will be discussed first. The pressure element on the gas control valve is set to inject gas when the production pressure drops below its normal flowing pressure. It is recommended that a choke be used with the gas control valve to prevent surging of the well gas pressure. It is this component of the gas lift system with which the operator has direct and daily contact. The principles given here apply to both continuous flow discussed in this chapter.. In all cases. tubing flow well WELL INJECTION GAS PRESSURE FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW SYSTEMS For many years it was a general rule that continuous flow gas lift needed a well injection gas pressure of 100 psi/lOOO ft.A P I TITLExVT-6 92 qV m 0732290 0532925 650 Gas Lift W Fig.```.

A P I TITLE*VT-b 9Y 0732290 0532qE‘b 597 93 Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift A gas injection choke is commonly used for continuous flow and sometimes for intermittent lift.. Each time a well is tested the following data are available: BOPD .`. Optimizing Gas Lift Systems The gas controls discussed previously have been improved to the point that they remain efficient until a defined loss in injection gas pressure (P. Basically.Manually adjustable or positive choke pressure reducing regulator / Choke Fig. the semi-automatic controls preserve efficient gas control as long as the injection gas pressure (Pg) remains constant or increases. c Fig.. 1.barrels of water/day TGAS . but there is still no protection against an excessive decline in P. Establish Priority System Toaccomplishthis.. 7-14 . .. if operating personnel can reduce or eliminate the occurrence of a degrading P.) is reached. If P. The best basisfor a priority system is the circulated gas-oil ratio (or the injected gas-oil ratio. SCF/D (ig) FGAS . The well that has the lowest IGOR has top priority for circulated gas.lift gas circulated to the well.`. Efficiency is maintained with a limited (and defined) decline in P. standard cubic feet per day (SCF/D) IGAS .Pressure reducing regulator and choke --`````.-`-`. 7-15).barrels of oil/day (qo) BWPD . calculate IGOR (Rgoi=ig/qo). SCF/D After the test. decreases. For this purpose the following definition is acceptable: A gas lift system is optimized when the maximum possible barrels of oil are produced with the available circulated gas volume. Semi-Automatic Controls The manual surface controls may be improved by installing a pressure reducing regulator between the control and the high pressure gas source (Fig. IGOR) for eachwell in the system.. r high pressure gas source Meter run 7 L Choke Pcf 1 ‘I . the choke will reduce the volume of gas circulated and the volume of produced fluid will be reduced.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. The gas rate to the well is a functionof Pg2.. Chokes in intermittent lift wells are usually used only when pilot or production operated valves are employed.. increases. 7-15 .. inefficiency is introduced because the choke will pass more gas than needed. Every effort should be made to circulate the required gas tothis well as long as any gas is available.`.`. This provides a constant upstream pressure to each and eliminates the inefficiencies caused by increases in upstream pressure.```.total gas from test separator. and P r remain fixed after the adjustment is made. Therefore.formation gas produced. This controlcomponent may be used for continuous flow and some intermittent lift wells (if the intermitting valves will operate properly with choke control and have correct operating speed) and is a significant improvement over the “choke only” installation when injection gas system pressure varies. Pcrstays constant becauseit is partially controlled by the gas lift valves.````. The choke controls the rate of circulated gas to the well and does a good job C only as long as P.``. the operatingpersonnelmust establish a priority system defining which wells get circulated gas when there is a shortage of circulated gas volume.. But if P.`. An increase in Pgwill not be harmful. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. then another improvement in system efficiency is accomplished.

A P I TITLEtVT-b
94

94

m

0732290 0532927 423

m

Gas Lift By calculating an IGOR for each well from its latest test, the operator completes the priority list. The highest IGOR’s are now defined and theyshould be the first wells to lose circulated gas when the gas volume is reduced due to a loss in injection gas line pressure.

TABLE 7-2 MANUAL ACTION TO OPTIMIZE USE OF CIRCULATED LIFT GAS
Status of H.P. SBN Action

2. Implementing Priority System

Keeping the priority list up-to-date is a necessary part of the system. It is unlikely that a particular well moves from the lowest to the highest IGOR; but positions on the priority list will change as well conditions change. The status of the high pressure gas source can be recognized by the pressure. Table 7-1 illustrates logical conclusions.

Reduce or stop circulated gas to wells with highest IGOR’s until status returns to AN. Then restart gas to wells in ascending priority numbers until status returns to N. Stop circulated gas to wells with highest IGOR’s until status returns to N.

DBN

TABLE 7-1 STATUS OF HIGH PRESSURE GAS SOURCE
Pressure of H.P. Gas Source Normal
--`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Logical Status of High Symbol Pressure Gas N All is well - circulated gas volume equals available gas volume Action More gas volume available than is being circulated to the wells SBN More gas volume is being circulated than is available, but all wells are producing More gas volume is being circulated than is available and some wells are not producing

Low pressure shut-in valves should be installed on the selected wells with high IGOR’s (20 to 30 percent of the wells) in order to semi-automatically optimize the circulated lift gas. Half of the selected wells should be equipped with low pressure shut-in valves that automatically reopen when the system pressure recovers. The otherhalf should be equipped with low pressure shut-in valves requiring manual reset to reopen.

TABLE 7-3 SEMI-AUTOMATIC ACTION TO OPTIMIZE USE OF CIRCULATED LIFT GAS
Status N All wells taking gas as adjusted by operating personnel Gas is stopped to high IGOR wells w/auto reopen. No gas will go to them until status recovers above SBN. These wells will then automatically start taking gas again. Gas has already been stopped to well w/auto reopen pilots. Gas will now be stopped to wells w/manual reset pilots. If this action allows status to recover above SBN. the wells w/auto reopen pilots will again get circulated gas. Operating personnel must personally reset the other wells before circulating gas will be restarted to them.

Above Normal

AN

Slightly Below Normal Drastically Below Normal

SBN

DBN

DBN

The symbols of Table 7-1 will be used to indicate the status of the higher pressure gas source. From the priority list select 20 to 30 percent of the wells that have the highest IGOR’s. With the above parameters defined, a priority system can be implemented manually or automatically, as described in Table 7-2 and Table 7-3.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift

95
in the most efficient manner auto-

Automatic Optimization of Injection Gas Use
Manual and semi-automatic optimization plans are keyed to trigger action only on a loss of pressure in the high pressure gas sources. Their inherent weakness is that they rely completely on the operating personnel to recognize changes in the well’s characteristics or malfunctions in the subsurface equipment. With today’s technology, microprocessors and computers may be used to monitor the well’s performance, evaluate the status of downhole equipment, measure the volume of high pressure gas available

and distribute lift gas matically.

A few companies have already used parts of this technology. An even fewer number have plans to implement completely automatic optimization systems. But automatic gas lift systems can be an economic field proven reality. Until then, operating personnel must do the best they can with manualandsemi-automaticsurfacegascontrols,and optimization plans, to get the most oil with the available lift gas.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

--`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A P I TITLE*VT-b

9q W 0732290 0532929

2Tb W

APPENDIX 7A EXAMPLES OF PRESSURE RECORDER CHARTS FROM CONTINUOUS FLOW WELLS

Operation: Continuousflow, casing choke control, tubingflow Type ofwell: High productivity, high bottomholepressure Trouble: None Recommendation: Leave well alone Type of gas lip valves: Injection pressure-operated Remarks: Good continuous flow operation. Well a high working fluidlevel. has Note the low back pressure effect. Well producing2,100 bbl offluid per day - 95 percent water - f r o m water drive reservoir, through 2% in. tubing. Chart 7-Al

Operation: Continuous flow, casing pressure control withregulator, tubing flow Type of well: High productivity, high bottomhole pressure Trouble: Inadequate production Recommendation: Reduce back pressure Type ofgas lijit valves: Pressure operated Remarks: Excessive back pressure may be due one or more of the following: to 1. Choke inflow line 2. Restriction inflow line (paraffin, snnd, etc.) 3. Flow line too small or too long 4. Separator pressure too high 5. Too many sharp bends inflow line 6. Highly emulsifiedfluid 7. Excessive input gas Chart 7-A2
--`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

continuous injection.. on This an the the next morning the casing pressure had increased to 490 psig due to temperature effect.`.`.A t I0:OO a. tubing flow Type of well: High productivity.. was due to upper valve becoming operating valve.`.. t 2:45p.casing choke control. high bottomhole pressure Trouble: None Recommendations: Leave well alone Type of gas l$t vulves: Injection pressure-operated Remarks: Thewell had been shut in overnight.Examples of Pressure Recorder Charts from Continuous Flow Wells 97 Operation: Intermittent injection vs..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.````. the casingpressure increased to 48Opsig and a “kick” A can be noted the tubingpressure.`. tubing flow Type ofwell: Borderline production rate Trouble: Inadequate production Recommendations: A n intermittent and continuous flow productioncomparison Type ofgas lqt valves: Pressure operated Remarks: Compare intermittent to continuous flow to determine most efficient production rate Chart 7-A3 Operation: Continuous flow..`.``.. The turned casing pressure was at 46Opsig at the beginning 10:15 a.. Chart 7-A4 --`````.m..```. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. .m.m. and thegas had beenon shortly beforethe chart was changed.-`-`. There was agradualpressure rise to 468psig due at tofluid temperature increase affecting valve.

well isflowing Recommendations: h a v e well alone Type of gas lìjt valves: Pressure operated Remarks: Well is flowing.-`-`..``.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..`... nogas is being injected Chart 7-A6 --`````..````.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. or the well might be placed on intermittent injection Type of gas l f t valves: Pressure operated Chart 7-AS Operation: Continuousflow... high bottomhole pressure Trouble: Choke ongas linefroze Recommendations: A gas heater might be installed ahead of the choke. . tubingflow Type of well: Highproductivity.```. high bottomhole pressure Trouble: None.`.A P I TITLE+VT-b 98 94 m 0732290 0532933 954 m Gas Lift Operation: Continuous flow.`. tubing flow Type of well: Highproductivity. casing choke control.`.. a jacket might welded around the choke or be to permit the hot flowline fluids to pass over it.

``.`..`. tubing control.A P IT I T L E + V T .````. tubing flow Type of well: High productivity.. tubing flow Type of well: High productivity.-`-`.`.. high bottomholepressure Trouble: Well was closed in to repairflowline Recommendation: None Type of gas lyt valves: Pressure operated Remarks: When the master valve was opened the tubing pressure was 250 psig.casing choke control. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. A s the gas cleared through the gas lift valve the tubing f pressure increased to a maximum o 345 psig..`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002... It can be noted by therise in casing pressure opposite the drop in tubing pressure Chart 7-A8 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. high bottomholepressure Trouble: Well is flowing. Chart 7-A7 Operation: Continuous flow.. .`. but loads up with water periodically Recommendation: Operating satisfactorily Remarks: The tubing control element is set to inject gas into the well when the pressure decreases to 160 psig.```.`.b 94 m 0732290 0532932 8 9 0 m 99 Example of Pressures Recorder Charts from Continuous Flow Wells Operation: Continuous flow. Flow immediately started but the pressure declined to 210 psig at the peak of U-tube. thenfell off andfinally stabilized at 285 psig..

```..`.-`-`. casing choke control. or test against same high back pressure for accurate flow test Remarks: It would be impossible to have an accurate production test on the well under the above conditions Chart 7-A9 Operation: Continuous flow. casing choke control. It is better to cut the daily production and produce the well constantly. tubing flow Type of well: High productivity.````.. high bottomhole pressure Trouble: Well is closed in Recommendations: Check to see why it is closed in Type of gas lijìt valves: Pressure operated Remarks: On checking. and had been closed in.. tubing flow Type of well: Highproductivity...``. This can hurt some oil wells. Chart 7-AIO Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.Operation: Continuousflow. high bottomhole pressure Trouble: Well is being tested in test separator Recommendation: Remove high normal back pressure.`....`--- . --`````.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.`. it was noted that the well hadproduced its monthly allowable.

”which could caused by erratic valve operation to be or afluctuating system pressure.casing choke control. Chart 7-Al2 . When thegas wasfirst turn line of on..-`-`.```. high bottomhole pressure Trouble: Not serious.Unloading continuous flow well --`````. Well has a tendency “head.`. The wellfinally stabilized on the 4thvalve. When the liquid as volume displaced in the annulus stabilized thegas volume of the to rate injection gas.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295...`.`.. tubing flow Type of well: High productivity. Chart 7-Al I A choke was used on thegas to control thegas volume into the casing-tubing annulus.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.Example of Pressures Recorder Charts from Continuous Flow Wells 101 Operation: Continuous flow. an immediate surge offluid returned from the tubing the well was completely full salt water.``.````..`..A surge in tubingpressure i noted as each valve is was s uncovered. ... the tubing pressure remained at 50 psig until the top valve uncovered and gas entered the tubing. well is “heading” Recommendation: Check to see if system gas pressure fluctuates Type ofgas lift valves: Pressure operated Remarks: Reasonably good operation.

(1) The gas should be injected rapidly. it will just bubble up through the liquid without lifting any liquid to the surface.. the cyclic high instantaneous injection gas demand rate from the injection line is hard on the injection gas system. Wells with high productivity indices (PI) and low bottomhole pressure or wells with low PI’S requiring low flowing bottomhole pressures are most suited to this type of lift. should be used whenever possible. although such a rate couldprobably havebeenliftedmoreefficiently with continuous flow. When a well demands gas.. and reduce the amount of gas required to lift the liquid slug to the surface. the slug has moved down the flowline to the separator. therefore.. Ideally. (3) The back pressure atthe surface should be as low as possible to minimize fallback. the bubble As expands. the flowline shouldbelarge in diameter and short in length. 200 to 300 BLPD in 27/~“ tubing and 300 to 400 in 3‘/2’’ tubing. Minimum liquid rate usually occurs at “ about 100 to 150 BLPD in 2 3 / ~tubing. Gas measurement is also very difficult because of the cyclic flow. With time cycle control. Usually intermittent lift is conducted in 2 3 / ~tubing. OPERATING SEQUENCE The operating sequence or cycle after unloading of an intermittent lift installation using gas pressure operated valves is shown in Fig. long flowlines are very detrimental to intermittent lift installationsbecause they cause high wellhead pressures.. In (A). If not. the volumetric capacity of the injection system should be large so it can act as an accumulator to help smooth out the flow surges. In such a case. the “tail gas” behind the slug has bled off. large-ported valves that tend to “snap” open rather than throttle open are recommended for the operating valve. When the minimum rate is reached.. the intermitter or controller on the gas line at the surface opens and injects into the tubinggas casing annulus.``. the liquid slug has reached the surface at which time the operating valve should close.```. This way the lowest possible flowing bottomhole pressure can be achieved.`. intermittent lifthas successfully lifted wells at rates excess of 500 barrels of in liquid per day (blpd). ( 2 ) The operating valve should be the bottom valve and should be located just above the packer. formation liquids accumulate and rise in the tubing. Gas is injected very rapidly into the liquid column creating a gas bubble. The intermitter or controller has already closed. This creates problems at the compression station since compressors are not well suited to a “flow-no-flow” set of conditions. However.. 8-l .````. In (D). .`.At a predetermined time (B). and formation liquids are again accumulating in the tubing. Intermittent lift should achieve lower average flowing bottomhole pressures than can be obtained with continuous flow in wells producing at low flow rates and at low flowing bottomhole pressures. Whileit is normally in associated with low volume producers. Because of this problem. This increases the pressure in the annugas lus until this pressure and the liquid pressure in the tubing are sufficient to open the operating valve. however. there may be a broad range of lower production rateswhere the two types of gas lift are about equal. This problem can sometimes be reduced by decreasing the maximum injection gas cycle frequency in high PI wells. minimum liquid rates for each conduit size that be lifted efficientlywith can continuous flow. then intermittent lift should be considered. Intermittent lift is a displacement process..`. therewould be little justification for change unless there were other contributing factors. it pushes the liquid above it to the surface. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.API TITLExVT-6 102 94 m 0732290 0532935 5TT m Gas Lift CHAPTER 8 INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION Continuous flow gas lift normally is more efficient than intermittent flow gas lift and. the pressure in the injection system is pulled down.High pressure gas is injected into the liquid column on a cyclicor intermittent basis creating a gas bubble which expands pushing the liquid above it to the surface a slug.`. Several things are apparent from this explanation. the restof the All valves remain closed because the gas pressure alone is not sufficient to open the valves.`. Consequently. Small diameter. --`````. maximize the initial starting slug. All gas lift valves are closed. Intermittent gas lift with the more commonly used gas pressure operated valves requires periods of high instantaneous gas injection rates separated by periods of no gas injection. There are.. Usually intermittent lift wells require more attention than continuous flow wells to keep them producing at the maximum efficient rate.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. In (C).-`-`. there are “ ” many successful installations using 2 7 / ~and 3’/2“ tubing. however.

. however. (3) injection gas pressure. An open installation has neither a packer nor a standing valve.`. The sand can collect on top of the standing valve making it difficult if not impossible to pull.``. An open installation without a packer is not recommended for intermittent lift.`. This time will vary from Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. it can cause problems if the well produces sand. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.`..`. 8-1 .. 8-1 show a closed installation. (6) gas breakthrough and fall back..Intermittent lift cycle of operation f o r conventional closed intermittent installation TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS mended. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.I API TITLErVT-b94 Gas Flow m 0732290 0532736 436 m 103 Lift Intermittent Volve Closed Valve Closed Volve Closed Volve Closed Valve Closed V o l v e Closed Opereling Volve Open Opcroting Volve Open The illustrations in Fig. A semi-closed installation has a packer but not a standing valve.. (2) depth of lift. open the operating valve. lift the slug to the surface. (4) wellhead back pressure. A closed installation uses a packer and a standing valve below the bottom gas lift valve.. (7) bottomhole pressure build-up characteristics. FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCING RATE Maximum Rate The maximum rate at which an intermittent lift well can be produced is limited by the maximum number of times the well can be cycled in a 24-hour period.-`-`. Experience has shown it takes about 3 minutes per 1000 feet of lift to inject the gas. ( 5 ) gas passing ability of the gas lift valve. and bleed off the tail gas..````. The closed installation is recommended for intermittent lift.```..`--- [A) Immediotcly Before Gar Injection [C) Injection Cos Entering Tubing Through Volve After Controller Closed [D) After Gor Injection Fig.`. . The other two types of installations (open and semiclosed) will allow the high pressure gas to act on the formation thereby decreasing the efficiency of the lift. and (8) other unusual well conditions such as emulsions. Since pressure acts downward as well as upward the standing valve prevents the high pressure gas from forcing liquids back into the formation on each cycle. Astanding valve is normally recom- The primary factors affecting the maximum producing rate in intermittent lift are (1) tubing size.

`. to rise up through the liquidwithout providing much lifting action. first through a to the tee wing valve.. A minimum slug velocity of 1000 feet perminute is recommended to minimize gas break-through. gas will enter slowly and tend flowline back to the ground as shown in Fig. 8-2. For example.PRODUCED SLUG Fig. Also. snap-acting gas lift valves are the starting slug per 1000 feet of lift.. Some of this liquid wets the walls of the tubing and runs back down.1 I OPERATINGVALVE \ I *. Fallback can be defined as the difference between the starting slug and the produced slug. the gas has a tendencyto bubble up through the liquid allowing some of the liquid to drop back down. and fallback Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. large-ported. .`.-`-`. --`````.```. the flow could be out the top of the tree and then through a sweeping pipe bend to bring the open rather than snap open. The flow pattern 1. the fallback on a properly bubble and to accelerate the liquid slug up the tubing.. OPERATING VALVE AJST AFTER CLOSING FALLBACK = STARTMG SLUG . adjusted intermittent lift well will be about 5 to 7 percent of Consequently. Gas should enter the tubing quicklyto form the gas For estimating purposes.`. STARTING LIQUID SLUG AND FALLBACK TO SEPARATOR TO SEPARATOR INJECTION GAS INJECTION GAS L STARTING SLUG PRODUCED SLUG t - FALLBACK '' ".. 2. Velocity of the Slug installation to installationbut the time of 3 minutes per 1000 feet of lift is a good rule to use for estimating maximum production rate and minimum cycle time.`.A P I TITLE*VT-b 104 94 m 0732290 0532937 372 m Gas Lift recommended for the operating valve for intermittentflow gas lift. 8-3.Illustrations of starting slug.. Development of the Gas Bubble through the Christmas tree should be streamlined as much If the operating valve has a small port or tends to throttle as possible.`--- . then through another 90" ell or choke tee.`...``.then Gas break-through and fallback are affected by three through at least one more and probably two or more 90" things. produced slug. slug allowing more liquid to fall back. the upward ells before reaching the flowline. The slower the slug moves up the tubing. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 8-2 . the development of the gas bubble.. the longer the gas has to break through the liquid.````.the gas alone does sweep all of the not liquid out of the tubing from the operating valve the surto face. The usual flow path through the Christmas tree into the flowline is rather tortuous. Some liquid always falls back. Fallback In intermittent lift.. All this slows down the velocity of the liquid slug. This is shown in Fig. Restrictions at the Wellhead The third factor affecting fallback is restrictions at the wellhead. and restrictions at the wellhead. 3.

465 psi/ft. However. liquid fallback.API TITLE*VT-b qq 07322qO 0532938 2 0 7 m 105 Intermittent Flow Gas Lift Use of Plungers in Intermittent Lift Systems Fig. the plunger falls back to the bumper spring to start another trip. for themost efficient operation. fallback fluid transfer from the casing to the tubing and feed-in after drawdown is achieved. If an upper valve opens.04 psi per foot of depth is the minimum that should be used for unloading. the installation must be designed so that none of the upper valves will open while operating from the bottom valve. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. a fallback gradient method and a percent load method.``. The plunger acts as an interface or piston between the gas and the liquid. at the instance the valve opens. Most of them fall into two basic categories.`. Gulf Coast which is approximately the temperature that would be measured about 50 feet below the ground level. Because of the normally low. This method normally uses the same surface closingpressure for all valves except the Operating valve which usually has a lower surface closing pressure. see the use of plungers in gas lift operations in Chapter 10. The surface closing pressure of the unloading valves normally should be 100 psi less than the system gas pressure.3 . irregular producing ratesin intermittent lift wells. Therefore. and liquid feed-in to predict the minimum tubing pressure obtainable. In such a system. A tubing stop and bumper spring are installed just above the bottom or operating valve.65 gravity) Surface tubing pressure = 65 psig Static bottomhole pressure = 775 psig Bottomhole temperature = 150°F Producing rate = 100 BLPD Kill fluid gradient = 0. The spacing factor accounts for the increase presin sure with depth of the gas in the tubing above the liquid level. Also for intermittent lift design purposes. specially designed plungers for wells with sidepocket mandrels are available.. (valve closing pressure) of the valve can be calculated. 8 . the P.D. DESIGN OF INTERMITTENT LIFT INSTALLATIONS There are many methods of designing intermittent lift installations. the temperature gradient for design purposes is assumed to be geothermal.Streamlined wellhead for intermittent installation Fallback can be reduced to an absolute minimum by using a plunger with the installation. The intermittent lift spacing factor (unloading gradient) is determined from Fig.. It also wipes the liquid from the tubing wall reducing the amount left to fall back.. This average gradient or intermittent spacing factor (SF) is dependent on the tubing size and anticipated production rate.`. the plunger would be inoperative if one of the upper valves turned out to be the operating valve.. Thus knowing the gas pressure at the valve.S.```.. O. Fallback Method The fallback gradient method uses an average gradient of the tail gas. surface temperatures vary by region. --`````. Casing size = 5'h-in. After each slug surfaces. Some conventional plunger equipment should not be used with wireline or side pocket mandrels.selecting the surface closing pressure 100 psi less than the surface injection pressure will be on the safe side and account for fluctuations in gas pressure. However. the tubing pressure can be calculated when the valve opens. is 50 to 90 psi less than the gas pressure at the valve depending on the valve characteristics..D. Generally 0. Tubing size = Z3/8-in. and the correct temperature for the region should be used. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. . In 1963 White et al36 determined that the tubing pressure at the operating valve should be 59 percent of the gas pressure at the operating valve. For additional information on plungers...-`-`.````. the surface temperature usually is assumed to be 74°F in the U.`. 8-4. The commonly used value is 60 percent... minimizing gas break-through. This will show that the P.`--- Example Design Using Fallback Method: The following well data illustrates the fallback design: method Depth = 5000 feet System gas pressure = 700 psig (0. After the gas pressure and the production (tubing) pressure at the valve are known. O.`. This figure was developed from many flowing pressure surveys on many intermittent lift wells. Therefore. it may blow the plunger back down preventing proper operation of the installation.

04 psi/ft from the wellhead of the well 9.`..`. of graph paper with depth.`. O.``. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 'M in./& = 0.04 psi/ft).```. Explanation of Graphical Solution Fallback Using Method: A graphicalsolution is theeasiest way to solve the problem. 8-4.).).. Extend this gradient of 0. 7. Preparesheet a 5.`. 8-5.````. pressure and temperature scales as shown in Fig. 150°F at 5000 ft. of the well 6. The following is a step-by-step procedure. seat. This is a function of the anticipated production rate. Plot the wellhead pressure (65 psig) at zero depth (surface). 4. N2 charged.`.-`-`.799 pressure (65 psig) at the surface to the bottom of the well (265 psig at 5000 ft. ' 2. tubing size.Intermittent lift spacing factor --`````. and draw a straight line between the two points.A. (In this example it is 0.. 8. 8-4 ..D. 1 . 1. Plot the surface gas injection pressure.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. Determine the appropriate spacing factor (unloading gradient) for the particular well from Fig. Fig. Extend the pressure to the bottom accounting for the gas column weight (610 psig at 5000 ft. This line and the one plotted in step 6 are almost parallel.. Use pressure 50 psi less than system pressure (650 psig). . Plot 700 at the surface. A.)./& = 0. Subtract 100 psi from the surface injection pressure and plot this as the surface closing pressure of the unloading valves (550 psig).A P I TITLE*VT-b 106 94 m 0732290 Gas Lift 0532939 145 / Gas lift valve = l'/*-in. 3.201. Extend this pressure to the bottom accounting for the gas column weight (720 psig at 5000 ft. but not quite... etc.

Determine the temperature at each valve depth. For this example it is 0. = 0. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..465 psi/ft.465 psi/ft gradient linefrom the wellhead pressure (65 psig) to intersect the gas pressure at depth line plotted in step 6 ..884 0. line to locate the depth of the second valve (2300 ft.465 psi/ft gradient line to intersect the P. .Continuethisprocedureto total depth. 8-5 . "668 578 688 600 600 c. From the intersection of the horizontal line and the spacing factor line.. 15. This intersection is the depth of the top valve (1 300 ft. Extend a 0.``. These are the PVC's of each valve. The final item is to calculate the set pressures of the valves. PRESSURE - O 4 2 100 PSI0 6 80 8 70 120 110 90 TEMPERATURE 'F 100 130 150 - 140 C..Fig..... 16.`. Read the pressures at the intersections of the horizontal lines and the P.038 0. 0.```. draw a 0. 14.`. The set pressure of a nitrogen charged valve is calculated by the following equation: Equation 8.2 P./& = Valve opening pressure in tester = Valve closing pressure = Temperature correction factor = Manufacturers specification for the valve..````.). the equation is: P..841 pvo 665 655 650 07 107 121 136 148 646 640 Uee 616 PSlG Fig. line. CT 1 .`.8-5 shows the depths for the remaining valves.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Determine the static gradient of the kill fluid.API TITLErVT-6 94 m 0732290 0532940 967 m Intermittent Flow Gas Lift 10.A. 107 17.008 0.`.`. = Where: PC V I . P..Drawahorizontal line to theleft to the spacing factor line plotted in step 4.Example of graphical solution using fallback method --`````. 13.)...Ap/Ab Equation 8. 12.-`-`.841 Depth 1300 2300 3200 4100 4800 PVC Temp.860 0. 11.1 If the valve is spring loaded.

8-6. method follows: 8..).`... At the bottom of the well. As mentioned earlier.839 720 716 710 706 706 700 676 401 406 411 416 421 426 432 6(10 677 686 673 702 716 710 614 622 630 637 646 867 661 91 100 110 120 120 139 149 Use 670 PSKi Fig.92 1 0..0.936 0. List the results as shown in Fig. 19.6 x 20 = 432 psig at 5000 valve should be approximately 60 percent of the gas presft. 5 . At the surface plot 60 percent of th.e injection gas pressure (0.`. Percent Load Method The other general method is commonly called the percent load method.API TITLE*VT-6 108 94 m 0732290 0532743 B T 3 m Lift 2.87 1 0.).465 psi/ft gradient line from the wellhead lift.. This is calledflagging the bottom valve and is done so that it can be detected on a 2-pen pressure chart. Prepare the graph paper as shown in Fig. Plot the surface gas injection pressure (650 psig).Graphical solution using the percent load method Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.Plotwellheadpressure (surface). 18.100 PSlG TEMPERATURE .903 0. Decrease the set pressure of bottom valve 25 to 30 the psi.-`-`.. 1.`--- .````.`. plot 60 percent of the gas determined that the production pressure at the operating pressure at the bottom (0. Extend this pressure to the bottom of the well accounting for the gas column weight (720 psig at 5000 ft.856 0. pressure (65 psig) at the surface tothe gas pressureat Explanation of graphical solution using percent load depth line to locate the top valve (1300 ft.. Depth 1300 1000 2600 3100 3700 4360 4060 "" P P Ç pvo . the White et al paper 6. 8-5.```.`. Also consider using a large ported pilot valve on bottom. . Extend a 0.).`.. Draw a horizontal lineto the left to intersect theper(Use the same well data given for fallback design. This then becomes the basisof this method.) cent load line. sure at the valve at the instant the valve opens for efficient 7.886 0. PRESSURE O --`````.6 x 650 = 390 psig at surface). 8-6 .``.O F 1 401 PSlG I - W k!2 O O 408 PSlG : I 41 1 PSlG 2 t3 W n 416 PSI0 421 PSlG 4 428 PSlG S 432 PSI0 Pbt P9 Temp. ( 6 5 psig) at zero depth 3. 4.

Liquids enter through the standing valve and fill the tubing and annulus. 11. the spacing between the valves will be 250 psi divided by 0.4 equations are: Equation 8. psig = Gas pressure. Production Pressure Operated Lift Gas Valves + Pp /Ab) (Ap P. the reservoir pressure of such wells will not support a long column of liquid. 10. Decrease the set pressure of the bottom valve 25 to 30 psig to be able to detect it on a two-pen pressure chart. psig C T PP S = Temperature correction factor = Spring pressure effect. another Still procedure is a combination of the fallback and percent methods. This modification uses 40 percent of the gas pressure at the surface and 60 percent of the gas pressure at the bottom of the well. From this intersection draw a 0. The chamber valve then opens and injects gas into the annulus below the top packer. spacing between valves decreases with depth and fewer valves are required. = Equation8.``.. The gas pressure above the liquid increases and closes thebleed valve.. to the bottom of the well.465 psi/ft or 540feet. lift Normally.5 Equation 8.A /Ab) + Pp(Ap/Ab) g p P"" = ( P d (cf) /Ab)(Ap 1For a spring loaded valve the Psp = P (1 -Ap g /Ab) P". the liquid in the annulus is pushed down through the perforated sub just above the bottom packer and up the tubing..3 Pbt = P (1 .. psig = Production pressure at valve depth = Valve manufacturers specification = Valve manufacturers specification = Valve opening pressure in tester at 60"F. when production pressure operated gas lift valves are used i n intermittent lift installations. At a predetermined time..```. Then the 60 percent load method is used from there to the bottom of the well.`. The bleed valve is open to vent the gas in the annulus above the liquid tothe tubing to prevent gas locking the annular portion of the chamber. 13.`--- Notice that the spacing between valves increases with depth and seven valves are required whereas the fallback method required five valves. Determine the temperature ateach valve depth. . S 1/Ab) . Spacing of the valves is determined by the point of balance between the differential pressure between the gas pressure and the production pressure on one hand and pressure caused by the static gradient on the load fluid on the other. assuming a load fluid with a staticgradient of 0. Where: Pbt P P pd p 1 -Ap/Ab AP /Ab P". load Valves are spaced from the surface usingthe fallback method until drawdown is achieved. At this time Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.````. Continue the procedure Fig. Fig. The valves are set to open when the production pressure is within 150 psi to 300psi of the gas pressure at the same depth. Consequently. Variations of Percent Method Load Many variations of the percent load method have been devised to reduce the number of valves required.60 percent method. 8-7 shows an insert or"bottle" chamber. At each valve depth read the gas Pressures (pg) on the gas Pressure at depth line and the Production PresSures (PP) on thePercentloadlineateachvalve depth. the time cycle controlat the surface opens injecting gas into the tubing-casing annulus. The set pressure for nitrogen charged valves is calculated by the equations: ~~~~~i~~ 8.. The gas then follows the liquid into thetubing forcing the liquid to the surface.`.A P I TITLE+VT-6 94 m 0732290 0532942 Intermittent Flow Gas Lift 73T m 109 9.465 psi/ft gradient line to intersect the gas pressure at depth line to locate the depth of the second valve (1900 ft. CHAMBERS Chambers are a special type of intermittent lift installation. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. there is no control device on the injection gas line other than a choke and full line pressure is used.6 --`````. 12..465 psi/ft and a 250psi differential between production pressure and gas pressure. The standing valve prevents the liquids from being forced back into the formation. = Pressure in bellows at tempera- ture at valve depth.`. Fig. 8-6 shows the depths of the remaining valves. For example. Usually this system is used in wells that have good PI'S but very low bottomhole pressures. psig 14.`.`..-`-`.). In this method. Probably the most commonly used procedure is called the 40 .(Ap The foregoing examples of intermittent lift design are intended for use with injection pressure operated gas lift valves. 8-8 shows the more common two-packer chamber. This close spacing resultsin using more valves in an installation than would be required with injection pressure operated valves. Production pressure operated gas lift valves have also been used in many intermittent gas installations. As the gas pressure continues to increase.

H y d = 0..-`-`.10 Rct Where: Rct + - v..`.. the installation is a standard intermittent lift installation. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.0 Vt H Equation 8. Some chamber valves have the bleed feature built into them eliminating the need for a separate bleed valve. the chamber length and the set pressure of the chamber valve. 8-7 . UNLOADING GAS BOTTOM UNLOADING GAS L I F T VALVES BOTTOMUNLOADING GAS LIFT VALVE HANGER NIPPLE FOR DIP TUBE OPERATINGCHAMBER GAS LIFT VALVE OPERATING CHAMBER GAS LIFT VALVE Standing valve modified f a r STANDINGVALVE (0) Fig. hole in a collar. The bleed valve can be either a differential gas valve lift or set at50 to 100 psi a ‘kin.9 The chamber length (CL) is determined by: CL = Rct + 1.8 = 0. Above the chamber. The bottom unloading valve must be only one joint of tubing above the chamber valve otherwise the installation may not work.60 (PP)- Pwh If the chamber is too long. Two items must be calculated for a chamber.Insert chamber installation Fig. 8-8 .7 Equation 8.`--- Gas Lift The height (H) of the liquid column in the tubing is the hydrostatic pressure (Hfl) divided by the static gradient of the well fluids (gs).Ratio of Annular Volume to Tubing Volume Volume of Annulus Volume of Tubing Equation 8. Equation 8..`.. It is always better to have a chamber that is too short than to have one that is too long.Two-Packer chamber installation Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Equation 8. the bleed valve opens and liquid again enters through the standing valve.`.`..`. H = Hyd/gs the chamber valve closes.. P w h i..```.11 Design of A Gas Lift Chamber Installation The length of the chamber is based on equating the wellhead pressure ( P w h ) plus the hydrostatic head (Hyd) of the liquid in the tubing above the chamber just as the chamber empties to 60 percent of the gas pressure (Pg) at the chamber valve. it will be difficult if not impossible to U-tube the liquid out the chamber into the of tubing.API TITLEbVT-b 9 4 m 0732290 0532943 b7b W 110 --`````. .````. the tail gas bleeds off.``.60 (PB) Hyd ..

API T I T L E x V T .. There is no liquid head above the chamber valve.) Where: P.. then it will not be necessary to pull the well to change them. = PS.. vent valve and standing valve are wireline retrievable. The equations for calculating the set pressure of nitrogen charged valve are: For a spring loaded valve: PS..``.`.-`-`.`.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. ( 1 ..`. (Ap/&) Where: Equation 8.```.&/Ab) + P..````.`.+ P.`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.6 9 4 0732290 0532944 502 m 111 Intermittent Flow Gas Lift Usually the chamber valve is a pilot operated valve. The standing valve should have a hold-down to prevent it from being blown out of its seating nipple by the high differential across it immediately after the slug surfaces.. .6 1 .5 P". = P w h (approx. Equation 8. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The only production pressure available to assist the injection gas pressure in opening the chamber valve is the wellhead pressure.`.(AdAt.) If the chamber valve.

It also assists the operator in determining the proper adjustment of the injection gas volume to the well.`. depending upon its construcREVERSE ACTING tion. In addition..A P I TITLE+VT-b 94 m 0732290 0532945 449 m CHAPTER 9 PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTING.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. ~ Slug velocity is agood indication of the overall operation and proper adjustment of the injection gas volume.`. pushing back timing clips. The controlof the injection gas for intermittent instalan lation can be divided into two main categories. --`````. can appreciably affect the daily producing rate and gas requirements. a pressure reducing regulator. It is flexible since the cycle frequency can be easily changed to meet various desired producing rates (Fig. They improve accuracy for adjusting the duration and frequency of the injection gas cycle. etc. etc. time cycle and choke control. 4-hour..`. 9-1) on the injection gas lineat desired set intervals is probably still the most widely used type of surface control. This chapter describes different equipment applications and techniques for injection gas control. viz. wellhead chokes.. liquid crystal displays.. REGULATING AND ANALYZING INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT INSTALLATIONS INTRODUCTION The differencebetween efficient and inefficient operation of an intermittent flow gas lift installation depends largely uponthemeans employed to control the injection gas volume to the well. Recording of the casing and tubing pressures is recommended during unloading and for a daily reCO gas the -#rdof lift operation. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. However. Correct regulation of the injection gas volume per cycle. Pressure recorded and orifice meter charts from numerous intermittent installations are illustrated in this chapter. cycle frequency. Thenumber of gas injection cycles day is varied per by adding or eliminating timing pins. and there is less chance of a controllernot closing due to clock stoppage.. Increasing the injection gas volume does not always increase the daily production ratefrom an intermittent installation./min. but these refinements are necessary for some installations to assure the most efficient operation. Completely automatic time cycle controls containing microprocessors. CONTROL OF THE INJECTION GAS The TimeCycle Controller Time cycle control of the injection gas is applicable for most intermittent installationsand is recommended particularly for extremely high capacity and very low capacity wells. The time cycle control with high pressure cutoff.. The cycle frequency may also be changed by using PRESSURE OPENING MOTOR VALVE different clocks such as 2-hour. and other conditions suchas paraffin. and ADJUSTMENT FOR long life batteries are now available for controlling the injection gas cycle. Thetime cycle pilot usually consists of a timing wheel that is clock driven. These electronic timers are replacing many clock driven pilots.Time cycle controller for intermittent gas lift duration of gas injection is changed by certain adjustments installation in the time cycle control. choke control.. on a timing wheel. the old mechanical time cycle pilot which automatically actuates a motor valve (Fig. rotation.``. etc. For most installations this velocity should be 800 to 1200 ft.```. The time cycle operated controller is the most widely used means of injection gas control for intermittent lift installations. to assure maximum liquid recovery per cycle...`. ..-`-`.. procedures are offered to assure unloading an intermittent installation without damage to the gas lift equipment.````. and other piecesof equipment areonly variations of the two categories. The Fig.`. 9-1 . 9-1).

When the controller is at the tank battery. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..``. problems such as freezing. it is likely that the damage to these valves occurred during unloading. Assuming that the gas lift valves and annular capacity will permit this type of operation. A lengthy period of time is required for any appreciable volume of liquid to pass through a small choke with the pressure differentials encountered in most gas lift systems.```. no gas is needed to lift the well. When installations will operate with choke controlof injection gas. a dehydrationunit should be considered. liquids in the injection gas line. the high pressure system loses pressure and one or more wells may not receive a sufficient volume of injection gas for that cycle. Choke Controlof the InjectionGas For choke control of an intermittent installation. Regulating and Analyzing Intermittent Flow Lift Installations In small rotative gas lift systems. The accuracy of the quartz movement in an electronic timer allows precise staggering of the injection cycles for several wells. Other suggestions for alleviating freezing are. For very low producing rates. If gas lift valve seats leak in an intermittent instaltinuous flow wells. In such a system. Central timers with several timing wheels operated by a common drive shaft have been used in some fields to stagger the period of gas injection. The central timer has a timing wheel for each intermittent installation the indiand vidual motor valve on the injection gas line is opened and closed by a solenoid valve which is actuated by its corresponding timing wheel. the choke size becomes too small for practical application.. In some cases large ported single element valves have been successfully used. Choke control is ideally suited forsmall rotative systems because the injection gas demand rate is constant. Electronic timers can eliminate the need for a central timer.````. Therefore. installation of a heater or locating the chokes near the compressor.`.`. This lation.This slows the rate of increase in casing pressureand may result in a lower overall lift efficiency..high-rate injection gas removal from the system is eliminated.API T I T L E * V T . Straight choke control of the injection gas is not recommended for very low productivity or extremely high capacity intermittent installations. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. time cycle control is undesirable becauseof the high instantaneous injection gas volume required from the high pressure system.`--- 113 are used..`. the required injection gasis delivered intothe casing through a small choke or metering valve in the injection gas line. but the effect of liquid in the injection gas can be just as serious. The problem of freezing is apparent. if several controllers open simultaneously. The injection cycle frequency is varied by changing the choke size. The numerous limitations of choke control account for the predominance of time cycle control.. choke control limitsthe maximum slug size and cycle frequency.`.. Choke control requires a minimum of attention by field personnel since there is no timing device to wind or check.. Smaller injection gas lines can be used and the surface equipment is less expensive than that required for time cycle control. --`````. Location of Time Cycle Controller For more intermittent installations. Such a system may require pilot operated gas lift valves in the wells. and for very high producing rates. Pilot operated gas valves are lift the best type of gas pressure operated valves for choke control. or near the same time. If the injection gas is wet. Accurate measurement of the injection gasis no problem because of the constant demand of the wells. the valves must have the desired spread and operating characteristics needed for choke controlbased on the casing and tubing size. If gas pressure operated valves UNLOADING AN INTERMITTENT INSTALLATION The intermitting cycle is described in Chapter 8. These installations may have injection gas or production pressure operated valves.`. both casing and injection line to the well must be filled in order to increase the casing pressure. The injection gas line cannot be included as part of the high pressure storage unless the controller is at the well.-`-`. section supplements the operationsdiscussed in that chapter by outlining procedures and considerations which are Recommended Practices Prior to Unloading important to the operators in order that damage to equipThe recommended practices prior to unloading intermitment may be eliminated and efficient unloading operations tent lift wells are the same as given in Chapter 7 for conassured.6 9Y m 0732290 0532946 385 m Procedure for Adjusting. and partially or completely bypassing the after-cooler.and well deliverability will hamper or prevent choke control. Increasing the choke size increases the cycle frequency. the controller should be located at the well rather than at the tank battery to assure the most efficient operations.. . Between these periods of gas injection. the gas supplied to the well is shut off during thistime.

````. The type of gas lift valve and the ratio of casing annulus capacity to tubing capacity must be suited for this type of operation. The casing pressure should be increased gradually to maintain a low jluid velocity through the open gas lijì valves. adjust the gas rate the to well so that it is a function of the design or expected production rate from the well. Since no reservoir fluid feed-in is possible during the U-tubing. Cycle frequency should be basedon the expected or desired production from the well. After witnessing the initial U-tubing the operator may adjust the timer to continue the unloading operation. a pressure differential that is approximately equal to this line pressure will occur across each valve in the installation. adjust the gas to the full amount expected to be used for lifting the well’s production. l .000 standard cubic feet per day. These guidelines are for unloading only. 20 second injection every 4 a or 5 minutes can be used until the top valve is subjected to gas and the first gas bubble enters the production tubing. Each lift cycle should deliver from oneto two barrels of fluid per inch of tubing diameter. No bottomhole pressure drawdown occurs during U-tubing operations because tubing presthe sure at total depth exceeds the static bottomhole pressure due to the pressure exerted by the liquid column in the tubing. This.duringtheunloadingoperations it is best not to exceed two or three cycles per hour for the first 12 to 24 hours. Maintain this choke setting until the top valve is uncovered to gas.. --`````. Therefore.. This second rate should be continued until the top valve is exposed to gas allowing the gas in the casing to flow into the tubing and upward into the flowline. If the installation has a standing valve. After the top valve is uncovered.. particularlyif the port sizeof the top valve is large. No excessive pressure differential across the valves will occur during initial U-tubing when the casing pressure is increased slowly. Use the same guidelines asfor a time cycle controller.000 or 100..``.API T I T L E * V T .. the valve will be closed. set the injected lift gas rate to be * h of the 150. Then increase the choke size so that the casing pressure increases 100 psi in 8-10 minutes.000 standard cubic feet per day. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.6 114 94 0732290 0532947 211 Gas Lift m Initial U-Tubing Until the top valve is uncovered. After 12-18 hours of reduced gas volume is circulated to the well. Once the absolute casing pressure has reached a value 400 psi the of injection rate can be increased cause a 100 increase in to psi casing pressure in the same 8-10 minutetime interval. Set the choke so that the casing pressure increase be about will 50 psi in about 8-10 minutes and continue at this rate until the casing pressure is about 400 psia. The first injection gas head immediately after the top valve is uncovered can overload the surface facilities in some instances. After the top valve is uncovered.```. Unloading with Choke Control the Injection Gas of Not all intermittent installations can be unloaded or operated with choke control of the injection gas.`. for 100 barrels per day from 6. 2. It should be adjusted for frequent but short duration of gas injection to permit a gradual increase in casing pressure. will be more than enough gas while the well is operating from the upper valves. in 2-inch tubing 12 cycles per day should produce from 24 to48 barrels of fluid perday. The well should be checked for improved adjustments the following day. In other words. of course. For example.`--- . one could expect to use 150. This may not work the well down to the bottom valve but it will unload safely and without damage to the gas lift valves.. For example.-`-`.`.`. For example. injection gas pressure exerted on top of the liquid column in the casing causes fluid from the casing to U-tube into the tubing through open gas lift valves.`. The chokesize selected should be considerably smallerthan the port size of the gas lift valve to permit the injection pressure in the casing to decrease the valve closing presto sure after a valve has opened. However. If full line pressure is exertedon top of the fluid column in the casing.. More accurately stated the time cycle controller should be set to inject gas at a rate which will cause a50 psi increase in casing pressure in an 8-10 minute time interval. Itmay be advisable to restrict injection gas into the the flowline during the first head. they are starting points.`. Some installations are designed with upper gas lift valves having a smaller port than the lower valves to reduce the gas heads from the upper valves. These important facts about protecting the lift valves gas and the surface facilities are reasons enough to conclude that this step should be done manually and should be personally observed by the operator. Unloading Operations Using a time Cycle Operated Controller The time cycle operated controller on the injection gas line should not be adjusted to remain open during initial U-tubing. this operation should not be hurried.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. this condition cannot recur because the top valve will always open before a high pressure differential can exist across the valves below the fluid level. Injection time should be adjusted to stop when the liquid slug clears the wellhead and the gas bubble first reaches the wellhead. Use this relationship to determine the cycle frequency for a particular well.000 ft. Damage to the valve seats can result from the high fluid velocity through the valves. but will be about right as the well unloads to the bottom valve.

/bbl per 1. whereas the increasein Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. SELECTION OF CHOKE SIZE FOR CHOKE CONTROL OF INJECTION GAS gas pressure operated gas lift valve suited for choke control is opened by both injection gas pressure and production pressure... If this ratio is excessive as a result of valve spread. the time cycle operated controller should be adjusted for minimum injection gas requirement for the desired production.the injection gas and production pressure begin to increase.800 1. per cycle) represented the least amount of Rgli. Minutes CycleslDay Duration Total of Gas Daily Injection.000 2. proving again that more gas circulated to a well does not always produce more fluid.300 A cyclefrequency of 48 cycles per day (30 min. then increase the duration of gas injection by 5 to 10 seconds for fluctuations in injection gas line pressure. The injection gas volume per cycle is reduced because of decreased valve spread and more liquid is recovered per cycle. 94 m 0732290 0532948 L58 D 115 Regulating and Analyzing Intermittent Lift Flow Installations ADJUSTMENT OF TIME CYCLE OPERATED CONTROLLER After an installation is unloaded. excessive injection is used gas each cycle. If the line pressure varies significantly. This establishes the proper injection gas cycle frequency. Finally. per cycle) resulted in the maximum producing rate.```.`. Cu FUBbl 72 48 36 24 20 30 40 60 56 56 63 85 175 186 174 170 3.``. These two things work together to yield a lower injected gas liquid ratip (Rgli).). . Then the injection gas cycle frequency and duration of gas injection should be checked periodically for most wells to assure continued efficient operation.-`-`. Decreasing the injection gas cycle frequency increases the time fluid can accumulate above the operative valve in mostintermittentinstallations..000 ft.`.`. Procedure for Determining Cycle Frequency The following procedure is recommended for determining the proper cycle frequency duration of gas injection and immediately after the installation is unloaded and anytime during the life of the well.. Step 1 Adjust the controller for a duration of gas injection which will assure more injection gas volume than is normally required per cycle (approximately 500 C U ft.`. Gas Injections. for 72 cpd and 36 cpd. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.````. yet there was a loss of only 1 BPD with the 36 cpd setting. The following tabulation (Table 9-1) gives data obtained from an intermittent installation and illustrates the effectof cycle frequency and duration of gas injection on operating efficiency. Step 2 Reduce the number of injection gas cycles per dayuntil the well will no longer produce the desired rate of liquid production. the controller is adjusted to inject amplegas volume with minimum line pressure.. The rate at which the gas pressure increases is dependent upon the choke size in the injection gas line. the 48 cpd used only 409 mcf/d for 186 BPD while the 72 cpd used 525 mcf/d for only 175 BPD. Step 3 Reset the controller for the number of injection gas The initial surface choke size selection for controlling the injection gas is calculated to pass thelift gas needed for the designed production rate.`.`--- TABLE 9-1 DATA FROM AN INTERMITTENT INSTALLATION Duration of Injection Gas Cycle Time Between Frequency. surface control of the injection gas must also be changed to maintain a minimum injected gas liquid ratio (R. a change in cycle frequency should be considered prior to redesigning an installation. When the line pressure is above theminimum pressure.. A cycle frequency of 24 cycles per day (60 min. Production Seconds B/D Approximate Average Injection Rg1i.. A time cycle operated controlleron the injection gas line can be adjustedasoutlined. After an operating valve closes and the slug surfaces. cycles per day immediately before the previous setting in Step 2.)¡). Adjusting the controller to stay open until the slug reaches the surface will result in more gas being injected into the casing than is actually needed. increasing the injection gas pressure will decrease the production pressure required to open the valve.A P I TITLExVT-6 Procedure for Adjusting. The final selection of the surface choke or opening through a metering valve is determined by trial and error until the desired operation is attained.. If the producing rate from a well changes. There was considerable difference in the injection R. The increased slug length at the instant the valve opens results in increased tubing pressure at valve depth.providedthelinepressure remains relatively constant. Note the big difference i n Rgl. Step 4 Reduce the duration of gas injection per cycle untilthe production rate decreases.. of lift).200 1. thus lowering the opening pressure of the operating valve. Since an injection Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.

The gas pressure is allowed to vary with the choke size rather than attempting to maintain a fixed gas pressure for production control.`...`. in turn. casing pressure causes the gas lift to open only after a valve predetermined tubing pressure has been reached in the tubing. Choke controlof the injection gasis all that is needed for most production pressure operated valve installations. the well has a longer VARIATION IN TIME CYCLE AND CHOKE CONTROL INJECTION GAS OF Application of Time Opening and Set Pressure Closing Controller When the injection gas line pressure varies significantly. The pressure reducing regulator controls the maximum casing pressure between injection gas cycles. increases the production pressure atvalve depth and reduces the gas pressure required to open the valve.```. Time Cycle Controller B.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. The two-pen pressure chart in Fig. The injection gas cycle frequency controlled by is the timing mechanism. This combination also extends the advantagesof choke controlto wells with very low production rates.. Choke and Pressure Regulator D. 1.A P I TITLEmVT-b 116 production pressure at valve depth deliverability and tubing size. . The production pressure will not reach a value that will result in the lower gas pressure needed for minimum injection gas requirement... 9-2 . a choke may be installed in the injection gas line to increase the durationof gas injection.is recomin mended. The pipe is adjusted for a long duration gas injection and the conof troller remains open until the maximum desired casing pressure is reached regardless of time required for this increase... 9-2 illustrates typically good intermitting operation from four commonly used surface gas control systems. Choke and Time Cycle Controller Fig." Application o Time Cycle Operated Controller f With A Choke in the Injection Gas Line When the injection gas line pressure greatly exceeds the operating casing pressure for an intermittent installation.`.. Application of A Combination Pressure Reducing Regulator and Choke Control This type of control is ideally suited for low capacity wells which would require an extremely small choke to obtain the minimum injection gas requirement. 9. A small choke increases the possibility of freezing and will plug easily. a much larger choke than that needed for straight choke control can be used and the starting slug length can be controlled by the set regulator pressure in most installations. a pilot. 94 m 0732290 0532949 094 m Gas Lift is a function of well time in which to deliver fluid into the tubing which. The controlled maximum SURFACE GAS CONTROL SYSTEMS A.``. which opens the controller on time and closes it after a predetermined increase casing pressure. With a pressure reducing regulator. By decreasing the choke size.`.Two-pen pressure chart Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. the valve will is open at a higher gas pressure than that required for adequate injection gas storage in the casing.`--- If the injection line choke size too large. Choke Control C. --`````. The volume of injection gasused per cycle is governed by the casing pressure control.````.-`-`.

`. --`````.. paraffin deposition. It is desirable to have wellhead and flowline conditions that result in the maximum tubing pressure being a true indication of the slug size.. Wellhead Configuration The wellhead should be streamlined to prevent excessive injection gas break-through from a decreasing slug velocity. rocking the well will open an upper valve and permit resumption of the unloading operation. near the wellhead should be eliminated. tees. The size and condition of the flowline affects this time. for Regulating 94 m 0732270 0532750 8Ob m 117 and Analyzing Intermittent Lift Flow Installations IMPORTANCE OF WELLHEAD TUBING BACK PRESSURE TO REGULATION OF INJECTION GAS The maximum wellhead tubing pressure associated with the surfacing of a liquid slug is an indication of the slug length and/or restriction in the flowline such as a wellhead choke. it isrecommended that an installation be serviced as soon as possible to prevent a waste of injection gas and loss in production.A P I TITLErVT-b ProcedureAdjusting.. etc. and (2) a prolonged period of time required for the wellhead tubing pressure to decrease to separator pressure after a slug has surfaced.`. Rocking a gas lift installation is accomplishedby applying injection gas pressure to the top of the fluid column in the Valve Will Not Close A continuous high rate of decrease in casing pressure below the surface closing pressure of the operating valve may indicate that this valve is stuck open. the maximum injection gas cycle frequency and producing capacity of a high capacity well are limited. All unnecessary ells. This allows the slug to leave the vertical conduit and accumulate in the horizontal conduit.`.. important minimum separator pressure becomes. The flowline must be kept clean of paraffin and other deposits to prevent excessive back pressure.`. the slugvelocity will be reduced and excessive gas break-through will occur. The two surface conditions associatedwith wellhead tubing pressure that are detrimental to intermittent lift operation are: (1) An excessive increase in tubing pressure before the entire liquid slug can enter the flowline.```. A flowline should be as large or larger than the tubing. If more than one well intermits simultaneously. the choke should be located as far from the well as possible. Installation Will Not Unload When unloading operations cease before reaching the operating depth. When this occurs Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.``. If the trouble cannot be corrected by surface control. High separator pressure reduces the starting slug length and production per cycle.````. 8-3..`--- .. Surface Choke in Flowline If an intermittent installation must be choked to reduce the rate of gas entry into a low pressure system.. or (2) To increase the tubing pressure at valve depth to lower the valve opening pressure. A common flowline for several wells is not recommended in most instances. etc.-`-`. A streamlined wellhead is illustrated in Fig.`. excessive back pressure will result. Information indicating the trouble may often be obtained from recordings of the surface tubingand casing pressure.. preferably near the tank battery. bends.. Separator Pressure Separator pressure should be maintained as low as possible. Flowline Size and Condition The time required for the wellhead tubing pressure to decrease to separator pressure after a slug surfaces is a primary factor in the maximum producing rate from some installations. Maximum wellhead tubing pressure should occur following the surfacing of a slug. tubing with line pressure in the casing. In production pressure operated installations. rocking an installation is recommended. A small wellhead tubing choke will significantly reduce the liquid slug recovery per cycle increase the injectiongas and requirement. If the tubing pressure reaches a maximum before most of the slug enters the flowline. Rocking is recommended for two reasons: (1) To force fluid from thetubing and casing into the formation to uncover the top valve in a well without a standing valve. Chapter 8. themore SUGGESTED REMEDIAL PROCEDURES ASSOCIATED WITH REGULATION OF INJECTION GAS There are several remedial procedures recommended before resorting to pulling the tubing. In some wells the production has been more than doubled by removing paraffin from the flowline. If the time required for the tubing pressure to decrease after a slug has surfaced is excessive. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The lower the flowing bottomhole pressure.

the scfkycle and the R.. As mentioned. and gas lift is no exception. otherwise the heavy elements of the chemicals may plug the gas lift valves and injection chokes. A low pressure gas meter is needed at the separation point to measure the volume of gas liberated from the produced fluids. The number of cycledday and the barreldcycle 3. oil.s 5 . A two-pen pressure recorder will illustrate the cycle frequency and pressure changes at the well.`. and the operator should be prepared to shut the tubing wing valve at the first sign of this trouble.`. As the products of corrosion are removed from the system. he may move the gage up the hole one or two valves. large-ported valves.. can cause temporary operational problems. Salt can plug the bleed port in a pilot valve resulting in the main valve remaining open after the pilot section closes.-`-`. Corrosion Corrosion inhibition can be effectively applied to gas lift systems. The point of gas injection into the tubing (depth of the operating valve) 8.`. the wireline specialist should be cautioned to watch for the loss of weight on the wireline.. . The amount of gas injected intothe well per day. Addition of a corrosion mitigation program Emulsions will result in a clean up of the “dirty” system and a continued protection of the system.``. however. The chemical may be introduced just downstream of the compressors to protect the gas distribution lines to each well and to protect the subsurface casing tubing. The tubing is opened as fast as possible. Variations of casing pressure and tubing pressure during the cycle 7.. pilot operated valves. The injection period/cycle 4.then isolate deviations from this example determine possible causes and for the particular malfunctions observed. In many cases. This action creates a high pressure differential across the valve seat and will generally remove any trash holding the valve open.the clean up. The static bottomhole pressure and flowing bottomhole pressure 9.. TROUBLE-SHOOTING The basic principle in trouble-shooting is to know what to expect when a system is functioning correctly. Many times an emulsion can be eliminated or the severity reduced by adding chemical to the injection gas. gas) 2.A P I TITLExVT-6 118 74 0732270 0532951 742 Gas Lift the tubing should be shut in and the casing pressure increased to a point well above the opening pressurethe of valve. Ways of lifting an emulsion include the use of a plunger. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The pressure gradient of the produced fluids --`````. The volume of fluid being produced from the well Items 1 through 6 can be determined with a 24-hour production test from the well. and/or time cycle operated controller with a maximum pressure control. A high pressure meter run at the well is required to measure the volume of lift gas used.````. equipment. The procedure is repeated several times or until the casing pressure decreases to the valve closing pressure.. An emulsion is difficult tolift and requires more injection gas than would be requiredif it did not exist.`. care should be taken to ensure that the chemical carrier is not of the type that will be dissolved in the gas. to a depth just below the bottom valve.`. they will tend to plug the gas lift valves and make the valves perform erratically. If a system is operated with corrosive gaswithout protection for an extended period of time. A flowing pressure survey is the only positive way of determining the operating level and the formation pressure drawdown. preferably to atmosphere to prevent overloading surface facilities. The volume of fluid produced is measured at the tank battery or a metering station. It and is most effective when applied to new systems. If either corrosion inhibition or emulsion breaking chemicals are injected directly intothe gas.```. If the operator is reasonably certain that the well is not lifting from the bottom valve.. It is important that the normal cycle frequency and injection period be used during this survey to obtain representative data. The preferred procedure for makingan operating pressure survey is to run the pressure gage (bomb) during the feed-in period. 1. The lift gas system line pressure 6 .`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. observation of a system in action requiresthe assistance of recording instruments. The gage should be left below the bottom valve through three complete gas lift cycles. products of corrosion Many times salt deposits can be removed by batching or will accumulate in the gas distribution linesand subsurface pumping fresh water into the casing. The well may be operated through several cycles with the gage in this position. The following basic information should be obtained when the installation is operating properlyso that it may be compared with later information when trouble occurs.. per day (water. This indicates that the gage is being blown up the tubing. and the wellhead tubing pressure is permitted to decrease to separator or atmospheric pressure. The first phase. these problems are temporaryand must be weathered to cleanup the system.

If investigation indicates that a gas lift valve is failing to close tightly. inspect and rerun C. in addition to opening the valve wide.A tion to locating the well that is having trouble. Plugged formation SUDDEN DROP IN Check tubing below operating valve B. D.Repeatthisproceduretwice.`. the two-pen pressure recorded at the well becomes a most important instrument.. load very heavy Increase cycle frequency VELOCITY LESS B. Pluggedpartially fouled Look valves. develops a high pressure differential across the valve when the tubing is bled down rapidly. Valve stuck open BETWEEN CASING B. Valve plugged Exchange for valves which are not affected C.`. the two-pen recorder is the first instrument that the operator uses to determine what is wrong. TABLE 9-2 POSSIBLE CAUSES AND CURES OF SOME COMMON MALFUNCTIONS OF GAS LIFT SYSTEMS CURE CAUSE MALFUNCTION Rock the well.. HEAD High separator Reset pressure back pressure valve or add gas accumulator tanks Loop flow line or replace it with C. or lower the test rack affecting valves opening pressure of bellows charged valves. Tubing leak AND TUBING D.000 C. Operating valve changed to OPERATING higher valve in installation PRESSURES production Pull well INCREASE B. . A detergent in fresh water is particularly successfulin areas where iron sulfide deposits arecommon and fresh water will wash salt deposits from valves. flow line forclosed PRESSURE AT paraffin.``. Standing valve stuck open Normal) --`````. These conditions favor the passage of trash. Interpretation of the bottomhole pressure record should determine the value of items 7 through 9. Of a in the gas lift 'ystem The first sign generally occurs when the production Operator that the fluid production is below normal. with the tubing OPen. A leak from the tubing would indicate a leaking tubing coupling or hole in the tubing since the gas lift valves have back checks. Plugged tubing PRODUCTION C. checks... bleed all the pressure off the tubing and casing.API TITLE*VT-6 ProcedureAdjusting. Then.```. The pressure depthdiagram will illustratethelocationof the operating valve. Well using too much gas Clean out well A.`.In these forms. Valve partially plugged Flush with fresh water or solvent FEET MINUTE PER D. This step allowsthe to go On seat. Shutoff the injection gasand wait until the casing pressure stabilizes before increasing the casing pressureagain.... increase the casing Pressure the gas lift valve opens. so that it tends to break Or crush trash that may be between the valve and seat. flush the valve COMMUNICATION A. Table 9-2 lists some common malfunctions of gas lift systems and suggestspossiblecauses and possiblecures. If thisprocedure is not successful. Temperature rise in well by temperature. Low injection pressure line Increase pressure or space closer valves THAN 1. Lower valves plugged Wash or pull (Valve Open and Readjust injection gas controls D. and the flowing The operating cycles and build up curve should be plotted on a pressure time diagram. the operator may lower the gage to the bottom of the tubing and shut thewell in for a pressure build up curve. the producing gradients that exist above and below bottomhole the operating valve. sand accumulations WELL B. At this point.. the data are much easier to analyze. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Each well in the system must be checked to determine which well is not producing properly.`. Too much or too little gas Close Near Pull and clean E. This fluid should be produced through the valves in a normal manner so that it tends to wash the valves and carry out trash that was i n the valves. check to determine the cause of a malfunction is to apply pressure on the tubing with no pressure on the casing.Packer leaking Xeset packer Pull.````.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Flow line too small larger line Adjust injection control equipment D. for Regulating 94 m 0732290 0532952 689 m 119 and Analyzing Intermittent Lift Flow Installations After completing the operating portion of the pressure survey. Too small valve port Exchange for large valves ported HIGH BACK A.-`-`. The informationobtainedfrom a pressure survey is best evaluated by plotting the results on a graph. This procedure. If this technique fails after two tries. the following procedure is recommended: Raise the pressure in the casing and tubing to the opening pressure of the gas lift valve so that it is wide open. it may be advisable to inject fluid down the casing to clean a leaking valve.`. Circulating sleeve open Close it Adjust injection gas for maximum A. Small heads Reduce fluid frequency cycle FLUID SLUG Fluid A. then reducethe tubing pressure rapidly. Tubing partially plugged Run paraffin knife or clean with solvent E. In addi.

.`.````..``.`.Thecharts were hand drawn so thatreference.`..`.API ITLE*VT-6 T 94 W 0732290 0532953 515 W APPENDIX 9=A TWO-PEN RECORDER CHARTS SHOWING EXAMPLES OF INTERMITTENT GAS LIFT MALFUNCTIONS Appendix 9-A contains eleven two-pen recorder charts In each of the charts.`... These may be used by the operator in spottingproblemsbeforetheyencountered.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. As other malfunctions are occur in an intermittent gas lift operation.. --`````.representativechartscanbeaddedforfuture become toosevere. the outer trace represents a recording that illustratemost ofthecommon problemsthat may ofthecasingpressureandtheinnertracerepresentsa recording of the tubing pressure. .```.-`-`..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. examples of malfunctions could be exaggerated for clarity.

9-A3 --`````. MDENCE OF EXCESSRlE FLUID LOAD W E N GAS LIFT VALVE WENS EARLY. C S G PRES SURE DECLINE I RATHER SLOW. C : CYCLE REDUCETO NORMAL. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.-`-`.````. A : WELL LOADING UP.. THIS CONDITION IS MDENCEO ON THE CASING PRESSURE BY A CHANGE I N THE PRESSURE DEWNE RATE AFTER A GAS LIFT VALVECLOSES. TOO MUCH W I M D E N T I NTUBING S KICK.MAYCAUSEMORE THAN ONE W LIFT VALVETO OPEN.`--- Fig. 9-A4 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. B : INCREASED CYCLEFREQUENCY YIELDSTALL THIN TUBING KICKS ANOMORE PRODUCTION. S TO HELP STABILIZEGAS SYSTEM PRESSURE. AS THIS CONTINUES.. 9-A2 A : INJECTION RATETOOHIGH. AN I B : TOO MUCH G S TUBING KICKS ARE TOO HIGH AND TOO THICK.`. WHEN INCREASES. REDUCE INJECTION FREQUENCYFORBETTEROPERATION. TOO MUCH GAS I USED. FREQUENCY TOO FAST.. 9-Al Fig.```. A DECLINE IN PRODUCEDFLUID I EXPERIENCED. S Fig.PROBLEM IS SHOWN BY SHORTER AND WlDER TUBING KICKS UNTIL THE LOWERVALVEBECOMESSUBMERGEDAND OPERATION CONTINUES ON AN UPPER VALVE.. GAS LIFT VALVE I NOTLOADED SO W E S S NOT OPEN UNTIL SECOND INJECTION.`.`.`. THE PRESSURE HAS DECLINEDAFTER TIMER WAS ADJUSTED SO THAT NOW 2 INJECTIONSARE REQUIRE0 PER CYCLE.`. Fig.ERRATIC GAS SYSTEM PRESSURE. S B: WELL UNLOADING. TUBING KICKS ARELOW AND THICK. A : CYCLE FREQUENCY TOO LONG.. THE MULTIPLE "POINTS" ON THE TUBING PRESSURE ALSO MDENCE THIS MmwnON... TUBING PRESSURE WES NOTHAVE TIME TO GAS SYSTEM PRESSURE TIMER IS THEN OPENED FOR LONGER INJECTION. USE CHOKE ANO TIMER INJECTIONFREQUENCVTOO F M .``. THIS ILLUSTRATES HOW THE FLUID LOAD DECREASES FROM A MAXIMUM WHEN A W LIFT VALVE OPERATES THE FIRST TIME TO A MINIMUM WHEN THE VALVES OPERATE THE LAST TIME JUST BEFORE TRANS FERRING TO THE N m LWYER VALVE A. .

ABOUT THE SAME EFFECT AS CHOKE. 9-AS Fig. GOODOPERATION I MAINTAINED.`.ELES VATED PRESSURE.`. OPERATING PRESSURE A B W T THE SAME AS ABOVE.`.. Fig. A : LEAK HIGH IN TUBING.. THEN LEAK I SUCH THAT THE CASING PRESSURE SOMETIMES FAILS TO OPEN THE S GAS LIFT VALVE. TUBING PRES SURE CHANGES ARE GRADUAL BECAUSE RESTRICTIONI DISTANT FROM WELL S HEAD.`.`--- A : LEAK IN SURFACE INTERMITTER.A P I TITLE+VT-6 9 4 122 m 0732290 532955 98 0 3 Gas Lift A : CHOKEDWELL. RESTRICTION OF CHOKE CAUSES SLUG VELOCITY TO BE SLOW AND PRESSURE REDUCTION PERIODTO BE LONG. S B : SMALL LEAK IN TUBING STRING. B E M E N EACH CYCLE.. TUBING KICKS ARE DECLINESSLOWLYAFTERTHE VERY GOOD. FIRSTSIGNOFLEAK I EVIDENCED WHEN CASING PRESSURE CONTINUES TO S S DECREASE AFTER GAS LIFT VALVE CLOSES. ALSO.```.. MFFERENCE SHOWS WHEN GAS TO CASING IS SHUT MF. AT FIRST. WHEN THE LEAK EXCEEDSTHECYCLEGAS REQUIREMENT. (FLUID SEAL OVER THE VALVE). U R G E LEAK I N TUBINGSTRING. 9-A6 Fig. I T SHOWS AS A SMALL LEAK. 9-A7 Fig. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.``. TUBING PRESSURE I S TOO HIGH. B : FLOW LINE RESTRICTION. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. THEN CASING PRESSURE DECLINES TOA VALLE WELL ABOYE THE TUBING PRESSURE... 9-A8 Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.THE CASING PRESSURE DECLINES WELLBELOW THE NORMAL RANGE AND A SAW TOOTH PATTERN I TRACED.-`-`.THE CASING PRESSURE GAS LIFT VALVECLOSES.. LEAK ISSMALL SINCE TUBING KICKS ARE NORMAL.`.WHEN GAS TO C A S I N G I SHUT OFF CASING DECLINES TO A VALUE NEAR THE TUBING PRESSURE.. B : LEAK LOW IN TUBING.````. THE TUBINGPRESSUREREACHESASTEADY. .

`. TO A MlSlY SPRAY. BUT Fig. THE USING PRESSURE STAYS ABOVE VALVE CLOSING PRESSURE AND TUBING PRESSURES STABILIZE.CASINGPRESSURE OPERATING SPREADIS TOO SMALL..`.`--- ..API T I T L E x V T . ONLY GAS IS OBTAJNED FROM FLUID. O. 9-AIO A : NOTENOUGH W.```. BUT TUBING PRESSURE REFLECTS INJECTION CYCLES.````.`. TUBING PRESSUREHASROUNDED. VERY SIMILAR TO SITUATION A. --`````.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 9-A9 Fig. Fig. VERY L l l l l E FLUID IS PRODUCED." B: NOTENOUGH FLUID.. FALL BACK IS EXCESSIVE W) FLUID RECOVERY IS SMALL. 9-A I I Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.-`-`.`.SLUGGISHKICKS.6 9 4 Two-Pen Recorder Showing Charts Examples 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532956 2 2 4 W of Intermittent Cas Lift Malfunctions 123 GAS LINE PRESSUREBECOMESTOO LOW.. TO SMALL SLUGS. A : PLUGGED VALVE... CASING PRESSURE FAILS TO GET HIGH ENOUGH. THEN. CASINGPRESSURE OPERATING SPRWD IS NR TUBING PRESSURE IS ROUNDEDAND SLUGGISH.. B : PLUGGED TUBING. AS CONDITION GETSWORSE. TUBING KICKS CHANGE FROM GOOD SLUGS.``. VERY SLOW DECLINE OF CASING PRESSURE I AN INDICATOR S OFTHISPROBLEM.THE TUBING PRESSUREKICKSAREROUNDED AND MISTY BECAUSE OF EXCESSIVE FALL BACK..

4. the friction of the emulsion prevents establishment of the required lifting velocity.. scale.`. 3.`. A plunger lift system can help eliminate this problem. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.A P I TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0532957 Lb0 CHAPTER 1O THE USE OF PLUNGERS IN GAS LIFT SYSTEMS --`````. Plunger application allows much greater utilization of the energy being provided and less fallback. In such wells. providing a solid and sealing interface between the lifting gas and the produced liquid. provides for the most efficient form of intermittent gas lift production available. The function of plunger lift equipment is to provide for more efficient utilization of lifting gas energy i n any well that is or can be produced in a cyclic manner similar to intermittent gas lift.. To unload accumulated liquid in a gas well. 1. a high gas- 2. by minimizing liquid fallback and eliminating possible gas penetration through the center of the liquid slug.. the gas pressure must be greater than these loads. ..-`-`.. To clean the tubing in both gas lift and natural flow wells producing paraffin.````. To allow intermittent gas lift with surface restrictions. Plunger lift incorporates a piston that normally travels the entire length of the tubing string. APPLICATIONS Numerous applications for exist plunger installations in both gas lift and natural flow wells. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. This interface changes the flow pattern during a lifting cycle from the familiar bullet shape of gas penetration of the liquid slug to a pattern whereby gas flow is possible only between the plunger’s outside diameter and the tubing walls. The slow velocity allows gas to channel 7. Intermittent Gas Lift With a Packer This type of application is one where insufficient gas in available from the formation and all gas is provided by a supplemental source involving an outside source of energy. To improve efficiency in gas lift wells with severe emulsion problems. but the well must be shut i n periodically to allow the plunger to operate. To maintain production by cycling in liquid ratio well.he quantity of gas that bypasses the plunger during a cycle flows up through the annular space and acts as a sweep to minimize liquid fallback. The use of plunger equipment. This chapter is primarily concerned with the use of plungers in intermittent gas lift applications.`--- INTRODUCTION To lift the plunger and the liquid load above the plunger.```. Normal production does not have to be cyclic.`.. To reduce fallback in a well being produced by intermittent gas lift. thus a corresponding decrease in bottomhole pressure and an increase in liquid production.``. TYPES OF PLUNGER LIFT Three possible types of downhole installations are: Normally the well’s bottomhole pressure is so low that the liquid fill-in from the formation is not sufficient to prevent gas break-through of the liquid column during an intermittent lift cycle.`. small T. 6. 5 . through liquid the column lose and lift efficiency.. For deep intermittent gas lift with low injection gas pressure.`. and other deposits. The most common uses are: I .

Equipment Required: @ Full bore master valve @ Flow valve @ Lubricator @ Time cycle control valve @ Secondflowoutlet @ Flow valve Standard Operation: 1. 10-5 shows a typical tubing stop. partially closing off upper outlet. No storage period or external source of gas is possible. Gas lift valve closes.. 2. However. 5. Atypical surface installation This is not a gas lift installation. many systems using supplementary gas are now being installed. 10-1.-`-`. Installations of this type are by far the most widely used. Plunger at bottom of well.`. 7. another application of plungers. Plunger arrives in lubricator.. This type of installation requires that all gas must come directly from the formation during the lifting cycle: and necessitates that the formation Rglf be greatly i n excess of that required for conventional plunger lift since the gas required per cycle must be produced during the cycle. Well being gas lifted on packer. the equipment is explained under the following headings. All flow through tubing. 3.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. \ TO SALES I Fig. 6.. Although the standing valve is shown --`````. 3. .`. a wireline set stop can be used for positioning the standing valve or bumper spring. Conventional Plunger Lift Without a Packer or With Communication Between Casing and Tubing Just Above the Packer. Gas flow through time cycle intermitter opens the gas lift valve down hole.`.``..A P I TITLESVT-6 94 Use The 0732290 0532958 O T 7 125 of Plungers in Gas Systems Lift Type Well: Insufficient gas from formation. They are normally applied where the well supplies all of the energy. and 10-4 show possible variations in downhole installations where gas lift is used in conjunction with the plunger.`.. Plunger Lift with a Packer (No Communication Between Casing and Tubing) Since this text is concerned with gas lift application of plungers. Fig.. 10-1 . thereby creating the differential necessary to lift the liquid plunger to and the surface.. Gas and liquid delivered through upper outlet. SELECTING THE PROPER EQUIPMENT Having determined that a well can be produced with a plunger and having determined what flow pattern will be used.Typical well installation for gas lift 2. Plunger falls to bottom and cycle recommences. I Retrievable Tubing (or Collar) Stop When the well’s tubing is not equipped with a seating nipple. Using these figures as a base starting at thebottom of and the well. further discussion of plunger application without additional gas will be omitted. 4.. 10-3. the proper equipment must be chosen. but does represent for gas lift using a plunger is shown in Fig. Standing Valve A standing valve prevents liquid in the tubing from falling back and contributes to an increase in efficiency of a plunger installation. Figs. Tail gas is rapidly dissipated through lower outlet.`.````. 10-2.```.

andstopset together will set up a vibration that rapidly causes a failure of the standing valve ball and seat. Plungers There are five operating characteristics to be considered when choosing the type of plunger to be used in a well. These are listed below: .```.. the standing valve prevents the high pressure lift gas from forcing the liquid below the standing valve back into the formation. 2. an individual stop should be used to set the standing valve independently of the bumper spring..`--- in Fig..b 126 94 W 0732290 0532959 T33 Gas Lift m l . gas lift and plunger lift Fig.. 5. Bumper Spring The bumper spring. 10-2. Resistance to sticking in the tubing. 10-3 . 10-6. 10-3 and 10-4. However. 5.. 2.``. 2.. Fig. it is often omitted from such installations. 6. gas lift and plunger lift Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Sub-surface plunger Bumper Spring Retrievable Standing Valve Retrievable Tubing Stop* Gas Lift Valve 'If seating nipple is installed in well.Downhole equipment variations. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. It should be noted that if the plunger can fall to bottom dry.standingvalve.`.API T I T L E * V T . shown in Fig. It prevents excessive shock on the plunger when falling to the bottom. particularly if the well does not have liquid above the tubing stop.`.. is an essential part of a plunger installation. tubing stop may be eliminated Sub-surface plunger Bottom Bumper Spring Standing Valve Packer Unloading Conventional Gas Lift Valves Operating Gas Lift Valve Lubricator and Bumper Spring 8. High shock and wear resistance.`.````. Time Cycle Controller 1. 4.`. --`````. Equipment Required Equlpment Required 1.Downhole equipment variations.-`-`. the standing valve should always be run in installations such as those shownin Figs. In these types of installations. 10-2 . 4. 3.. 3. Plunger Catcher 9.`. 7. Experiencehas shown that aplunger falling dryonabumperspring.

8.`. . Retrievable Tubing Stop Retrievable Duplex Standing Valve Gas Lift Valves Producing Gas Lift Valve Packer Seating Nipple Seating Nipple Retrievable Gas Lift Valve in Center Mount Mandrel Fig. 10-8.. Ability to provide a good seal against the tubing during upward travel.`. 10-9.`.. 10-5 . 5 .`. 6.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.-`-`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. Sub-surface plunger 2. 10-6 . 4.``.Downhole equipment variations. 5. 10-7. 7. The ability to fall rapidly through gas and liquid.. 10.APTITLEaVT-6 I 94 m 0732290 0532960 755 m 127 The Use of Plungers in Systems Gas Lift 3. 10-4 .```.Typical tubing stop Equipment Required 1.. gas lift and plunger lift Fig.````. Bumper Spring 3.Typical bumper spring --`````. and 10-10 show threedifferent plunger types. Figs.. Fig. 4... 9. High degree of repeatability of valve operation..

`. second or third choice) according to their relative effectiveness in fulfilling the five operating characteristics listed previously.API T I T L E m V T .6 94 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 9 6 3 691 m 128 Gas Lift of Essentially..`.Wobble washer type plunger with integral valve rod Fig. 2.`. Table 10-1 lists the six plunger types and classifies them either 1.Typical plunger with integral valve rod Fig. 10-9 . and no valve at all).````. 10-8 .```. ~ ~~ ~ ...Brush type plunger without integral valve rod --`````.``.. 10-7 . Fig. there are six variations plungers available and the choice depends on the operating requirements of a well. or 3 (first.`..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. There are two types of seals (expanding blade and turbulent) and three typesof valving systems (valve without integral rod.-`-`.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295... valve with integral rod..

) (A) Shows seals in expanded position ( B } Shows seals in retracted position --`````.-`-`.````. 10-10 .Expanding blade plunger with retractable seal (Photos courtesy Ferguson-BeauregardInc.``..`..`..`.```.`..`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002....A P I TITLE+VT-b 94 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532762 5 2 8 129 The Use of Plungers in Gas Lift Systems Fig. .

.```...... without valve - 1 --`````.660 1..D......250 1. Check to determine the correct gage size..................375 2..````.. (5) DUAL FLOW OUTLET ...... ft 2 2 2 2 2 ~~ 1....`...D..... length. in.....`.... (3) FLOW B O D Y . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. 1 - wobble-washer......875 1'I4 1'12 2'/M 231~ 2718 1.. .. etc...630 1. wobble-washer.312 TABLE 10-1 PLUNGER CLASSIFICATIONS Operating Characteristics Type of Plunger I NOTE: There are possible variations in gage requirements between equipment manufacturers...............-`-`.... (4A) (4B) Fig..... ~ (1) Expanding blade seal without integral valve rod 2 2 (2) Expanding blade seal with integral valve rod (3) Expanding blade seal without valve (4) Turbulent seal..... can prevent initial operations..`.. (4) CATCHER ASSEMBLY .. nominal O.... .. 10-11 .................. without integral valve rod (valve actuating rod is part of lubricator) ( 5 ) Turbulent seal..900 2..... ./ Minimum gages A \ O.900 2... Bent or crushed tubes will prevent satisfactory installation and paraffin...`.... etc.. etc......... (1) BUMPER SPRING.... .`..``.... .... i2j STRIKER PAD .... with integral valve rod 2 1 ( 6 ) Turbulent seal. etc.................`--- CAP .. scale.Typical lubricator parts Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..i ..Well Tubing The well's tubing must be gauged before running any subsurface equipment. . in....063 2.... TABLE 10-2 GAGES FOR VARIOUS TUBING SIZES Tubing size..... wobble-washer.. Table 10-2 gives the gages recommended for various tubing sizes..500 1...

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. --`````. In some instances of very low bottomhole pressure.`. and commence operation. Excessive well deviation. lift 4.. assuming the well is set on a packer and will not be pulled.. The catcher assembly (5) holds the plunger in the lubricator for easy removal. the cap ( l ) .`.`--- In the lubricator shown. Set retrievable stop just above the bottom gas valve.. but not greater than. so the stop should be run independently) 5 Run retrievable bumper spring and latch to the pre- 1.and an oversize valve can possibly prevent the plunger from reaching the lubricator because of excessive gasbypassing around the plunger. 2.API TITLEWVT-b 74 m 0732290 O532764 3 T 0 m The Use of Plungers in Gas Lift Systems 131 Master Valve The master valve of a well must have afull bore equal to. the valve is opened. where installed. Remove wireline lubricator. (Note: proper jarring action to set the stop may not be possible through the bumper spring. With an integral rod plunger.-`-`. and 4. 1. Fig. Run plunger to bottom on a wireline to ensure free travel 3. 1. 2. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Where a plunger without an integral valve rod is used. . A separate of the flow outunit let of an existing tree can be used. (Note: stop this and standing valve are optional) 7. a second flow outlet is provided. so that it can activate a plunger arrival system or be retrieved for service. the flowing wellhead pressure is excessive after aslug surfaces. a paraffin deposition problem exists. is the Listed below are the sequential operations involved in running a plunger installation. install tor. The injection gas pressure is low relative to the required depth of lift. Set retrievable stopand standing valve just above the bottom of the tubing. 3. a plunger should be considered for an intermittent gas lift installation when: 3.. There are also well conditions that prohibit the use of a plunger.. a method should be provided to restrict the flow. PROPER INSTALLATION PROCEDURES The next part of a successful plunger installation installation of the equipment.the tubing size. 10-11 shows the various parts of a typical dual flow outlet lubricator. Some of these conditions are listed here. The plunger must reach the lubricator to allow removal for service and. using the existing flow If outlet. The cap (1) contains a spring to resist the force of the rising plunger. Restricted areas in the tubing. Gage viously set stop 6.`. 5 .. Lubricator A lubricator is an integral part of any plunger installation. Excessive areas in the tubing.```.````. In addition. Check master valve for proper size 2. and striker pad (3) are removed as a unit for access to the plunger for examination and repair.. Second Flow Outlet Where the chosen flow pattern of a well requires.. An undersize valve will not allow plunger passage. the striker pad contains a rod for activation of the plunger valve. High rate intermittent gas lift operations. bumper spring (2).`. This restriction may be necessary to allow the plunger to lift past the second flow outlet. plunger lubrica- SUMMARY A plunger will increase theefficiency of most intermittent gas lift installations by preventing gas from breaking through the liquid slug. Restrictions in surface wellhead and Christmas tree valves.`. to activate a plunger arrival system. The striker pad (3) is the initial contact of the plunger with the lubricator.``. plungers will allow greater pressure drawdown and thereby increase production from the intermittent lift well by allowing the liftingof smaller slugs on each cycle.

The volume chamberinsidethebellows lift valve.Thespace between tubing and casing.`. of agas Drawdown -The difference in pressure (psi) between the static (shut-in) bottomhole pressure and the flowing bottomhole pressure at a constant rate fluid production. BOPD . Chamber Lift .. -CCasing Flow . Cooler . Continuous Flow Gas Lift .Gas lift operation in which gas is injected continuously into the liquid column.`. BLPD .A refrigerated water bath used to cool pressure 60°F when setting them. Bottomhole Pressure (BHP) . end of the tubing string for the accumulation of formation liquids between cycles.. Reservoir fluids and‘the injected gas are produced from the wellhead at the surface without interruption. of Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.Specific gravity of crude oil as measured by system recommended by API.The responsive element of a gas lift valve.A term applied to the control valves.and chokes assembled at the top of a well to control the flow of oil and gas. Also used to designate the fluid pressure at the level of gas injection. Christmas Tree . Dome . It performsthesamefunctionasthediaphragmoperated valve.`--- -BBack Pressure -The pressure existing within the producing string at the surface in a gas lift well.Barrels of Oil Per dayBWPD . It provides an area for pressure to act onand to move the valve stem. . It isused most often in fluid operated valves.D Dead Well .A water filledpressurechamber used to apply external pressureto gas lift valves to flex the bellows during the pressure setting operation.`. source API .Barrels of total liquid per day. pressure gages. AnnularFlow ..A well that will not flow by itself. the pressure against which the operating valve injects gas.. charged gas valves to lift Cross-over Seat -A special seat for gas lift valvewhich a directs the pressure applied at the nose the gas lift valve of to the bellows and the-pressure applied to the-holes in the side of the valve to the under side of the seat. --`````. within the well casing.````. usually opposite the producing n. Annulus ..American PetroleumInstitute.) Casing Pressure -The pressure.Pressureatsomegiven depth i n the well. The purpose is to restrict the flow and control the rate of production.``.Barrels of water per day. API Gravity. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..(Same as annular flow.. Choke -A type of orifice installed in a line in whichfluid is flowing.-`-`. Artificial Lift -The application of energy from an outside to lift reservoir fluids fromproducing a well.`.A special type of intermittent gas lift which uses the tubing-casing annulus or a “bottle” on the.A P I TITLE*VT-b 132 9L1 m 0732290 5329b5 37 0 2 Gas Lift W GLOSSARY -AAger .`. measured at the surface. Bellows ..Formationfluidsareproduced upa through the tubing-casing annulus and recovered at the surface. .```. Dill Coreor Schrader Core Valve -Valve in the top of the gaslift valve used in chargingthebellows with nitrogen.

. Formation (F Gas) Gas -Gas which is produced from the oil reservoir with the produced liquids.`.`.The wireline tool which guides the fluids and wireline gas lift valve into the mandrel pocket when installing the valve or guides the pulling tools onto the valve when recovering the valve.``.. Kick a Well Off . --`````.. Flowing Bottomhole Pressure (FBHP) .Change in pressure or temperature per unit in depth. ing rate for a particular well. as in intermittent operation.A mixture of oil and water that requires treatment before the oil and water will separate.) The number of standard cubic feet of gas produced with a stock tank barrel of liquid changeand water).````. -KKick-off Pressure -The gas injection pressure available for unloading fluids from a gas lift down to the operatwell ing valve depth. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. .The Pressure existing at the depth of the production formation in a well at a constant rate of fluid production.Gas lift operation i n which gas is predetermined intervals of time and also control the durainjected periodically into the liquid column.The number of standard cubic feet of gas produced with a stock tank barrel of oil.The surfacepipe through which the oil travels from the well to storage. Intermitter (Time Cycle Controller) .`--- -H“Head” . by manipulation of the injection gas pressure and the producing pressure. Gradient .. Gas-Liquid Ratio(GLR = RE. IPR (Inflow Performance Relationship) .API TITLE*VT-6 9 4 W 0732270 O532766 L73 -EEmulsion . with reservoir tion of the operating or injection period. (oil Gas-oil Ratio (GOR = Rgo). -GGas Lift -A method of artificial lift in which the energy of compressed gas is used directly to lift fluids to the surface. Gas Lift Valve -A pressure regulator mounted on or in the tubing string so that.```. Kick-Over Tool .Unload and place a well on gas lift. Fluid or Production Operated Valve -A gas lift valve that utilizes the pressure in the production conduit as its primary operating medium. Geothermal Gradient -The naturally occurring increase of temperature with depth in undisturbed ground.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.-`-`.`. Normally given in OFF/100Ft.fluids and injected gas being produced from the wellhead at ship of flowing bottomhole pressure to gross liquid producthe surface for an interval following each injection period.. valve will either be the open or closed to provide a controllable communication between the tubing and casing for gas passage. -FFlowline .The relation.A surface control which may be adjusted and set to operate a motor valve at Intermittent Flow ..The volume of reservoir fluids produced at the surface following a short period of gas injection..

. Mscf (MCF) . to provide the closing force forthe valve. Static Bottomhole Pressure . Mscf/B(MCFIB) .```.A gas lift valve that utilizes injection gas pressure as itsprimary operating medium. -PProductivity Index (PI=J) -The ratioof fluid production rate. The temperatures may be measured and recorded at either a self-contained unit run on a solid wireline or a unit run on an electric wireline with an instantaneous recording at the surface.One thousand standard feet cubic of gas. reservoir fluids will rise when the producing conduit is open Water is the standard for liquids and air is the standard for to atmospheric pressure. to thedifference between static and flowing bottomhole pressures (drawdown). Master Valve .Stock tank barrel.`.`. water or total Spring LoadedValve -A gas lift valve which uses a spring liquid as measured in the stock tank. . Pressure Survey-An operation tomeasure and record the pressures at various depths in the well bore with the well Pocket .Alargevalve used to shut in a well.The gas lift valve receiver inside a wireline either producing or shut-in. Load Fluid(KillFluid) .) produced. atmospheric pressure prior to pumping them elsewhere.Tubing inside Mandrel . " Macaroni String .(See wireline tubing. Pressure Operated Valve . etc. gages. transmitted.. in pounds per square inch.. ured and recorded by either a self-contained unit run on a solid wireline or a unit run on an electric wireline with an Pressure Charged Valve -A gas valve which usesa gas lift instantaneous recording at the surface..`. gases.Liquidusedtofillthe well before pulling the tubing.An operation to measure and record the temperature at various depths in the well bore with the well either producing or shut-in. or consumed in a given period of time (scf . This term is commonly used to express the volume of gas or tubing retrievable.An emergency tank or shallow pond to hold salt water. charge inside the responsive element to provide the closing -SSpecific Gravity ...API TITLErVT-6 134 Lift 94 Gas 0732290 0532967 DDT m -LLatch .. force for thevalve. in barrels per day.-`-`. so that nitrogen gas pressure may be --`````.Standard cubic feet per stock tank barrel. prior to disposal.````.Thousands of cubic feet per barrel.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. The volume of oil. Temperature Survey .`. STB . The pressures may be meas(retrievable) mandrel.The pressure at formation depth in a well after the well is shut-in and the pressures Stock Tank .The ratio of the weight of a substance Static Fluid Level -The depth below the surface to which to the weight of an equal volume of a standard substance. valving etc. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.The locking device for a wireline gas lift to valve lock the valve in the mandrel..standard cubic foot of gas). -0Operating Pressure-The gas injection pressure available to maintain the desired rateof fluid production in a gas lift well under settled continuous or intermittent operation.``. Pit . Thegas is usuallynitrogen. -TTail Plug -The plug in the endof a gas lift valve which is the final seal on the dome..The responsive element is usually a bellows. scf/STB .. Test Rack (Tester) -An arrangement of gas lift receivers.A tank for holding the produced liquids at have been stabilized.

This was the first method of mounting gas lift valves. consequently the name of conventional gas lift valve.. A tubing pup joint with a lug for mounting a conventional or tubing retrievable gas lift valve. C T Temperature correction factor for gas. Depth of operative valve or gas injection. Total number of gas lift valves. Dv n D. Measured depth of deviated wells. pounds force. in. A gas lift valve mounted on a tubing retrievable mandrel.. SYMBOLS Total effective area of Bellows. tional or standard mandrel. Minimum spacing of gas lift valves or mandrels. ck C d Choke or Port diameterof the Gas Lift Valve. -WWellhead . on pounds force. ' / d h inches. pounds force. Gradient of oil. Gradient. F/100 Ft. ft.`. Wireline (Retrievable) Valve . Distance between valves. Closing force ongas lift valve.`. Deg. Correction factor for gas passage through a choke.. Area of Valve Seat or Port-Ball seat contact area. psi/ft.The process of determining and correcting a problem with a gas lift well. Ratio of Gas Lift Valve Port to Bellows area: From Mfg. sq.. Tubing Retrievable Mandrel -Commonly called conven- Tubing Retrievable Gas Lift Valve . Reference depthof well: Normally measured midpoint of perfs. Depth on nth valve..`. ft. Depth of gas injection. Pressure Drop in Inj. The mandrel becomes an integral part of the tubing string. ft. ft. psi/ft. Opening force dueto pressure on the bellows. BLPD/PSI. Deg.-`-`. of gas injec--`````.. Water Cut fraction of total produced liquid.`. Gradient of produced water. Productivity Index (J=PI). Wireline (Retrievable) Mandrel -A tubular member with an internal receiver for a wireline (retrievable) gas lift valve..``.Commonly called a conventional gas lift valve.`--- Flowing gradient below point of gas injection.. F.7 A P I TITLEaVT-b 94 m 0732290 0532968 Glossary T46 m 1 applied to the bellows of a gaslift valve and simultaneously measured to determine the pressure required to open the gas lift valve. psi/ft.The stack of valves and fittings at the surface on top of a well. nitrogen Total opening force on valve. Flowing production temperature gradient. psi/ft. The mandrel is an integral part of the tubing string.. pounds force. Data.````. Gas pressure to deter interference.A gas lift valve mounted inside the tubing that can be installed and recovered by solid wireline operations without disturbing the tubing. Depth of top valve. ft. Tubing Flow . Opening force due to pressure valve stem. Gas gradient of injection gas.Formation fluids are produced up through and recovered from the tubing at the surface.```. ft. Static Temperature gradient. ft. Flowing gradient above point tion. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. sq. in.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. . psi/ft. psi/ft. It is necessary to pull the tubing to recover the valves. on top of perfs. ft. psi/ft. Oil cut fraction of total produced liquid. psi. Troubleshooting . Discharge coefficientfor gas flow through an orifice. Static gradient of load fluid. F/100 ft.

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Pressure applied under the bellows a gas of lift valve, psig. Pressure applied under the stem of a gas lift valve, psig. Bubble point pressureof the produced oil, psig. Pressure of bellows at temperature of nth valve, psig. Bellows pressure at 60 deg. F., psig. Injection gas pressure downstreamof surface choke, psig Effective opening pressure due to production pressure, psig. Max available pressureof injection gas at surface, psig. Injection gas pressure downstream of restriction at surface, psig Max pressure of injection gas at D,, psig. Operating gas injection pressure at valve number 1, psig. Operating gas injection pressure at nth valve, psig. Surface operating gas injection pressure to open valve 1, psig. Surface operating gas injection pressure to open nth valve, psig. Max kickoff gas injection pressure at surface, psig. Max flowing pressure at valve 1 while lifting deeper, psig. Max flowing pressure at nth valve while lifting deeper, psig. Min flowing pressure at valve 1 while unloading, psig. Min flowing pressure at nth valve while unloading, psig. Flowing production pressure at valve 1, psig. Flowing production pressure at nth valve, psig. Production pressure effect, psig. Production pressure effect factor - Mfg. data - (Previously TEF)

Pressure at standard conditions, psig. Pressure of oil & gas separator, psig. Pressure safety factor to ensure valve is uncovered, psig. Spring pressure effect on valve, psig. Max unloading pressure at nth valve when uncovered, psig. Valve closing pressure of valve 1 at depth, psig. Valve closing pressure of nth valve at depth, psig. Surface closing pressure of valve 1, psig. Surface closing pressure nth valve, psig. of Test rack set opening pressure for valve 1, psig. Test rack set opening pressure for nth valve, psig. Flowing bottomhole pressure at D,, psig. Flowing pressure at the wellhead, psig. Static bottomhole formation or reservoir pressure, psig. Max production rate below the bubble point, BLPD. Gas production ratefromformation, d. Injection gas rate, Mscf/d. Total gas rate measured (formation tion), Mscf/d. Total liquid rate, BLPD Maximum liquid rate of well, BLPD. Total oil production rate, BOPD. Production rate at the bubble point, BLPD. Total water production rate, BWPD Ratio of gas to liquid, scf/bbl. Ratio of formation gas to liquid, scf/bbl. Ratio of injected gas to liquid, scf/bbl. Ratio of gas to oil, scf/bbl. Ratio of gas injected to oil, scf/bbl. Specific gravity of produced gas. Specific gravity of injected gas. Specific gravity of oil. Mscf

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

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+ injec-

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94 M 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 5 3 2 9 7 0 0
Glossary

bT4

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SG ,
T, TB T,

Specific gravity

of produced water.

T,, T"(") Th w Z

Temperature at standard conditions, deg. F. Temperature at valve I depth, deg. F. Temperature at nth valve, deg. F. Flowing temperature at wellhead, deg. F. Gas compression factor at average pressure and temperature.

Average gas injection temperature, deg. ETt Formation temperature, deg. F. Surface temperature of injection gas, deg. F. Static earth surface temperature, deg. F.

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REFERENCES
1. Gilbert, W.E.: Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Perform-

ance, Drilling and Production Practice, 126 (1954), American Petroleum Institute, Production Department. 2. Vogel, J.V.: Inflow Performance Relationships for Solution Gas Drive Wells, SPE 1476, a paper presented at the 41st Annual Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Dallas, Texas, October 2-5, 1966, and later published in Transactions, SPE of AIME, Vol. 243 (1968).
3. Poettmann, F. H. and Carpenter, P.G.: The Multiphase Flow of Gas, Oil and Water Through Vertical Flow Strings, Drilling and Production Practice, 257 (1952), American Petroleum Institute, Production Department.

12. Flanigan, O.: Effect of Uphill Flow on Pressure Drop in Design of Two-Phase Gathering Systems, Oil and Gas Journal, Vol. 56. 132 (March 10, 1958).

13. Eaton, BenA. et al: The Prediction of Flow Patterns, Liquid Holdup and Pressure Losses Occurring During Continuous Two-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipelines, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 3 15-328 (June 1967), Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. 14. Dukler, A.E., et al: Frictional Pressure Drop in TwoPhase Flow: B. An Approach Through Similarity Analysis, Vol. 10,44-51(January1964),AIChE Journal. 15. Beggs, H.D. and Brill, J.P.: An Experimental Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes, 607 (May 1973), Journal of Petroleum Technology, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. 16. Espanol, J.H. Holmes, C.S. and Brown, K.E.: A Comparison of Existing Multiphase Flow Methods for the Calculation of Pressure Drop in Vertical Wells. Paper No. SPE 2553, 44th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE, Denver, Colorado (September 28 - October 1, 1969).

4. Baxendell, P.D. and Thomas, R.: The Calculation of Pressure Gradients in High-Rate Flowing Wells, Journal of PetroleumTechnology,1023-1028(1961), Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.
5. Duns, H. Jr. and Ros, N.C.J.: Vertical Flow of Gas and Liquid Mixtures from Boreholes, Proceedings, Sixth World Petroleum Congress, Frankfurt, Germany, Section II, Paper 22-PG (June 19-26, 1963).

6. Johnson, A. J.: Vertical Two-Phase Flow Pressure Traverses, Letter from Shell Development Company Outlining Terms, Conditions and Description of Computer Program Mk 1X-R for Sale to Industry (December 5, 1963).
7. Hagedorn, A.R. and Brown, K.E.: The Effect of LiquidViscosity on Two-Phase Flow,Journal of PetroleumTechnology,203-210(February1964), Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.

1 . Vohra, I.R., Robinson, J.R. and Brill, J.P.: Evalua7 tion of Three New Methods for Predicting Pressure Losses in Vertical Oil Well Tubing, 829-832 (August 1974), Journal of Petroleum Technology, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.
18. Lawson, D.J. and Brill, J.P.: A Statistical Evaluation of Methods Used to Predict Pressure Losses for Multi-phase Flow in Vertical Oil Well Tubing, 903914 (August 1974), Journal of Petroleum Technology, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. 19. Gregory, G.A., Fogarasi, M. and Aziz, K.: Analysis of Vertical Two-Phase Flow Calculations: Crude Oil-Gas Flow in Well Tubing, 86-92 (January - March 1980), Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology. 20. Ros, N.C.J.: Simultaneous Flow of Gas and Liquid as Encountered in Oil Wells, Joint AIChE-SPE Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma (September 25-28, 1960). 21. Ros, N.C.J.: Simultaneous Flow of Gas and Liquid as Encountered inWell Tubing, 1037 (October 1961), Journal of Petroleum Technology, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. 22. Brown, E.J.P.: Practical Aspects of Predicting Errors in Two-Phase Pressure-Loss Calculations, 5 15522 (April 1975), Journal of Petroleum Technology, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.

8. Orkiszewski, J.: Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops in Vertical Pipe, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 829 (June 1967), Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. 9. Moreland, E.E.: Report - Study of Tubing Pressure in Vertical and Deviated Wells Part 6: Moreland Mobil - Shell - Method, Mobil R&D Lab Memorandum 1976. 10. Baker, Ovid: Design of Pipelines for the Simultaneous Flow of Oil and Gas, Oil and Gas Journal, Vol. 53, 185-195 (1954). 11. Lockhart, R.W. and Martinelli, R.C.: Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Two-Phase Two Component Flow in Pipe Lines, Chemical Engineering Progr., Vol 45, 39 (1949).

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P. 48. 124-140. F. and Smith S. TTU. Martinez. J. Guiberson Oil Tools.. O’Connell.C. 43. 26. Vol. 25. 261 (1980) PennWell Books. Oklahoma. Doolittle.```..D. D. 46. 34. 41.`. Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. Clegg.`.Ventura Ave. Recommended Practice for Repair.. Jacobson L.. 32. Viking Shop (1973).6 9 4 0732290 0532972 4 7 7 m 139 References 23.: Production Optimization in the Provincia Field.. J. 3 1. Blann. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Journal of Petroleum Technology (April 1982) 696-702. J.. R. International Text Book Company. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc... Section 5 . 28. Brown. A. Inc.: High Rate Artificial Lift.. Journal of Petroleum Technology (August 1984).: Flowing Well and Gas Lift Systems. and Faber.L. Artificial Lift-Gas Lift Engineering. A. Montgomery. Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. White.`. Journal of Petroleum Technology (March 1988) 277-82. SPE PE (Feb. API Spec 11V1.: Paper. W.D. Supervisory System for Gas Lift Control..T. 2nd Edition (1964). 1974) 502-12. Winkler. (1974).D. 38. L. Wall.. API D&P Practices 1965. D.763-764. Katz. R. J. 3A. Blann. Journal of Petroleum Technology. 52.W.A. Capps.. DeMoss.L. 5 150. Vol. 47. J.: Optimizing Gas Lift Systems. Camco..API T I T L E x V T .. B. Phase Relations of Gas Condensate Fluids. 37.: Thermodynamics for Engineers. & Gaul. B. et al: Gas Lift Theory and Practice.E. L. Cornish. FOS. Inc.1981.R. Reverse How Valves and Dummy Valves. F.``. 53. J. API Recommended Practice l l V 7 (RP llV7). C. (1962). Tulsa. 825-831 (July 1976). Journal of Petroleum Technology (March 1963). G. E.: Handbook for Gas Measurement in the Field. Recommended Practice for Design of Continuous Flow Gas Lift Installations using injection Pressure Operated Valves. 29.E.11 (1962). Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA). 39. et al: Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering (1959).: An analytical Concept of the Static and Dynamic Parameters of Intermittent Gas Lift. Dufresne. Maintenance and Trouble-shooting of Gas Lift Installations. T. TX.: 12th Annual Southwest Petroleum Short Course.Bureau of Mines Monograph # 10. 40. PetroleumExtension Service (PETEX).. October 5-7. Ed. 36. S. Focht. Vol. Engineering Data Book.T.: The Vertical Multiphase Flow of Oil and Gas at High Rates. Englewood Cliffs. Plant Processing of Natural Gas..-`-`. Brown. SPE 10377. Specifications and Valve Performance Data.P. Brown. p.`. 1989) 9-14..````.G. Field.`. R. and Milburn.W. B. Teledyne Geotech. Pressure Gradient Curves. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. SPE Paper No. H. Winkler. and Tiemann. J. et al: The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods. 49. Neely. Colombia. --`````.V.W. SPE Paper No. K. 35.: Camco Gas Lift Manual. Teledyne Merla. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 1965. 105-107 (January 1981). 30. 1982.H. 27. T. API Recommended Practice 11V6 (RP 11V6).: Improving Gas Lift Performance in a Large North African Oil Field.: World Oil. Recommended Practice for Operation. 33.E.A. and Williams. Exxon Production Research (1 978). Redden. 50.. J. Jesse S. Clegg. H.. 1982.W. F. 2. ThomasC.E. and Stacha..S.: Determining the Most Profitable Gas Injection Pressure for Gas Lift Installation. 8408. . F. Testing and Setting Gas Lift Valves. J. 24. Specification for Gas Lift Valves...: Petroleum Production Handbook. J. Davis. API Recommended Practice 11V5 (RP 1 1 V5).`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Neely. Prentice-Hall. (1972). Paper No. 44. K.W..Effect of Back Pressure on Intermittent Gas Lift. 801-41H.B. 45.B.. R. SPEJ (Oct. San Antonio.: Gas Lift Increases High Volume Production From Claymore Field. Appendix C 163 (1967). J.. Sherman. R. Blann.. 1974. Berry. Orifices. Blann.. 5 l .. 1979. Frick. and Vogel. presented at 198 1 and Wilson.. R.D. P. J.D.: A Field Test and Analytical Study of Intermittent Gas Lift.: Plunger Lift Performance Criteria with Operating Experience . 42..R. New Jersey. Gipson.

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