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92892761 Armstrong s Handbook of Management and Leadership

92892761 Armstrong s Handbook of Management and Leadership

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Published by Andrews Dwomoh

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Published by: Andrews Dwomoh on Nov 17, 2012
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Leadership, as described in Chapter 1, is about getting people into action and ensuring that

they continue taking that action in order to complete the task. It is therefore very much about

motivation. This can be defined as the process of getting people to move in the direction the

leader wants them to go. The organization as a whole provides the context within which high

levels of motivation can be achieved, through reward systems and the provision of opportuni-

ties for growth and development. But managers still have a major part to play in deploying

their motivating skills to ensure that people give of their best. The aim is to get people to exert

the maximum amount of positive discretionary effort – they often have a choice about how

they carry out their work and the amount of care, innovation and productive behaviour they

display. Discretionary effort makes the difference between people just doing a job and people

doing a great job.

What is motivation?

A motive is a reason for doing something. Motivation is concerned with the factors that influ-

ence people to behave in certain ways. Motivating other people is about getting them to move

in the direction you want them to go in order to achieve a result. Motivation can be described

as goal-directed behaviour.

Motivation is initiated by the conscious or unconscious recognition of an unsatisfied need. A

goal is then established that it is believed will satisfy this need, and a decision is made on the

action that it is expected will achieve the goal. If the goal is achieved the need will be satisfied and

the behaviour is likely to be repeated the next time a similar need emerges. If the goal is not

achieved the same action is less likely to be repeated. This process is modelled in Figure 8.1.

Management Skills 89




Figure 8.1 The process of motivation

Ten ways of motivating people

1. Agree demanding but achievable goals.

2. Create expectations that certain behaviours and outputs will produce worthwhile rewards

when people succeed.

3. Provide feedback on performance.

4. Design jobs that enable people to feel a sense of accomplishment, to express and use their

abilities, and to exercise their own decision-making powers.

5. Make good use of the organization’s reward system to provide appropriate financial


6. Provide recognition and praise for work well done.

7. Communicate to your team and its members the link between performance and reward,

thus enhancing expectations.

8. Provide effective leadership.

9. Give people the guidance and training that will develop the knowledge and skills they

need to improve their performance and be rewarded accordingly.

10. Offer opportunities for learning and development that will enable them to advance their


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